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Sample records for climate-related variables suggest

  1. Climate related diseases. Current regional variability and projections to the year 2100

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Błażejczyk Krzysztof

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The health of individuals and societies depends on different factors including atmospheric conditions which influence humans in direct and indirect ways. The paper presents regional variability of some climate related diseases (CRD in Poland: salmonellosis intoxications, Lyme boreliosis, skin cancers (morbidity and mortality, influenza, overcooling deaths, as well as respiratory and circulatory mortality. The research consisted of two stages: 1 statistical modelling basing on past data and 2 projections of CRD for three SRES scenarios of climate change (A1B, A2, B1 to the year 2100. Several simple and multiply regression models were found for the relationships between climate variables and CRD. The models were applied to project future levels of CRD. At the end of 21st century we must expect increase in: circulatory mortality, Lyme boreliosis infections and skin cancer morbidity and mortality. There is also projected decrease in: respiratory mortality, overcooling deaths and influenza infections.

  2. Sampling intraspecific variability in leaf functional traits: Practical suggestions to maximize collected information.

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    Petruzzellis, Francesco; Palandrani, Chiara; Savi, Tadeja; Alberti, Roberto; Nardini, Andrea; Bacaro, Giovanni

    2017-12-01

    The choice of the best sampling strategy to capture mean values of functional traits for a species/population, while maintaining information about traits' variability and minimizing the sampling size and effort, is an open issue in functional trait ecology. Intraspecific variability (ITV) of functional traits strongly influences sampling size and effort. However, while adequate information is available about intraspecific variability between individuals (ITV BI ) and among populations (ITV POP ), relatively few studies have analyzed intraspecific variability within individuals (ITV WI ). Here, we provide an analysis of ITV WI of two foliar traits, namely specific leaf area (SLA) and osmotic potential (π), in a population of Quercus ilex L. We assessed the baseline ITV WI level of variation between the two traits and provided the minimum and optimal sampling size in order to take into account ITV WI , comparing sampling optimization outputs with those previously proposed in the literature. Different factors accounted for different amount of variance of the two traits. SLA variance was mostly spread within individuals (43.4% of the total variance), while π variance was mainly spread between individuals (43.2%). Strategies that did not account for all the canopy strata produced mean values not representative of the sampled population. The minimum size to adequately capture the studied functional traits corresponded to 5 leaves taken randomly from 5 individuals, while the most accurate and feasible sampling size was 4 leaves taken randomly from 10 individuals. We demonstrate that the spatial structure of the canopy could significantly affect traits variability. Moreover, different strategies for different traits could be implemented during sampling surveys. We partially confirm sampling sizes previously proposed in the recent literature and encourage future analysis involving different traits.

  3. Dissociated control as a signature of typological variability in high hypnotic suggestibility.

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    Terhune, Devin Blair; Cardeña, Etzel; Lindgren, Magnus

    2011-09-01

    This study tested the prediction that dissociative tendencies modulate the impact of a hypnotic induction on cognitive control in different subtypes of highly suggestible individuals. Low suggestible (LS), low dissociative highly suggestible (LDHS), and high dissociative highly suggestible (HDHS) participants completed the Stroop color-naming task in control and hypnosis conditions. The magnitude of conflict adaptation (faster response times on incongruent trials preceded by an incongruent trial than those preceded by a congruent trial) was used as a measure of cognitive control. LS and LDHS participants displayed marginally superior up-regulation of cognitive control following a hypnotic induction, whereas HDHS participants' performance declined. These findings indicate that dissociative tendencies modulate the influence of a hypnotic induction on cognitive control in high hypnotic suggestibility and suggest that HS individuals are comprised of distinct subtypes with dissimilar cognitive profiles. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Unexpected Genome Variability at Multiple Loci Suggests Cacao Swollen Shoot Virus Comprises Multiple, Divergent Molecular Variants.

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    Cacao swollen shoot virus (CSSV) [Badnavirus, Caulimoviridae] causes swollen shoot disease of Theobroma cacao L. in West Africa. Since ~2000, various diagnostic tests have failed to detect CSSV in ~50-70% of symptomatic cacao plants, suggesting the possible emergence of new, previously uncharacteriz...

  5. Farmer Health and Adaptive Capacity in the Face of Climate Change and Variability. Part 1: Health as a Contributor to Adaptive Capacity and as an Outcome from Pressures Coping with Climate Related Adversities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Parkinson

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the role farmers’ health plays as an element of adaptive capacity. The study examines which of twenty aspects of adaptation may be related to overall health outcomes, controlling for demographic and on-farm-factors in health problems. The analysis is based on 3,993 farmers’ responses to a national survey of climate risk and adaptation. Hierarchical linear regression modelling was used examine the extent to which, in a multivariate analysis, the use of adaptive practices was predictively associated with self-assessed health, taking into account the farmer’s rating of whether their health was a barrier to undertaking farm work. We present two models, one excluding pre-existing health (model 1 and one including pre-existing health (model 2. The first model accounted for 21% of the variance. In this model better health was most strongly predicted by an absence of on-farm risk, greater financial viability, greater debt pressures, younger age and a desire to continue farming. Social capital (trust and reciprocity was moderately associated with health as was the intention to adopt more sustainable practices. The second model (including the farmers’ health as a barrier to undertaking farm work accounted for 43% of the variance. Better health outcomes were most strongly explained, in order of magnitude, by the absence of pre-existing health problems, greater access to social support, greater financial viability, greater debt pressures, a desire to continue farming and the condition of on-farm resources. Model 2 was a more parsimonious model (only nine predictors, compared with 15 in model 1, and explained twice as much variance in health outcomes. These results suggest that (i pre-existing health problems are a very important factor to consider when designing adaptation programs and policies and (ii these problems may mediate or modify the relationship between adaptation and health.

  6. Lack of Critical Slowing Down Suggests that Financial Meltdowns Are Not Critical Transitions, yet Rising Variability Could Signal Systemic Risk

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    Hoarau, Quentin

    2016-01-01

    Complex systems inspired analysis suggests a hypothesis that financial meltdowns are abrupt critical transitions that occur when the system reaches a tipping point. Theoretical and empirical studies on climatic and ecological dynamical systems have shown that approach to tipping points is preceded by a generic phenomenon called critical slowing down, i.e. an increasingly slow response of the system to perturbations. Therefore, it has been suggested that critical slowing down may be used as an early warning signal of imminent critical transitions. Whether financial markets exhibit critical slowing down prior to meltdowns remains unclear. Here, our analysis reveals that three major US (Dow Jones Index, S&P 500 and NASDAQ) and two European markets (DAX and FTSE) did not exhibit critical slowing down prior to major financial crashes over the last century. However, all markets showed strong trends of rising variability, quantified by time series variance and spectral function at low frequencies, prior to crashes. These results suggest that financial crashes are not critical transitions that occur in the vicinity of a tipping point. Using a simple model, we argue that financial crashes are likely to be stochastic transitions which can occur even when the system is far away from the tipping point. Specifically, we show that a gradually increasing strength of stochastic perturbations may have caused to abrupt transitions in the financial markets. Broadly, our results highlight the importance of stochastically driven abrupt transitions in real world scenarios. Our study offers rising variability as a precursor of financial meltdowns albeit with a limitation that they may signal false alarms. PMID:26761792

  7. National and Local Vulnerability to Climate-Related Disasters in Latin America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubin, Olivier; Rossing, Tine

    2012-01-01

    are main determinants of natural disaster mortality in Latin America. Locally, the region's poor are particularly susceptible to climate-related natural hazards. As a result of their limited access to capital, adaptation based on social assets constitutes an effective coping strategy. Evidence from Bolivia......The Latin American region is particularly prone to climate-related natural hazards. However, this article argues that natural hazards are only partly to blame for the region's vulnerability to natural disasters with quantitative evidence suggesting instead that income per capita and inequality...... and Belize illustrates the importance of social assets in protecting the most vulnerable against natural disasters....

  8. Economic development and declining vulnerability to climate-related disasters in China

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    Wu, Jidong; Han, Guoyi; Zhou, Hongjian; Li, Ning

    2018-03-01

    Exposure and vulnerability are the main contributing factors of growing impact from climate-related disasters globally. Understanding the spatiotemporal dynamic patterns of vulnerability is important for designing effective disaster risk mitigation and adaptation measures. At national scale, most cross-country studies have suggested that economic vulnerability to disasters decreases as income increases, especially for developing countries. Research covering sub-national climate-related natural disasters is indispensable to obtaining a comprehensive understanding of the effect of regional economic growth on vulnerability reduction. Taking China as a case, this subnational scale study shows that economic development is correlated with the significant reduction in human fatalities but increase in direct economic losses (DELs) from climate-related disasters since 1949. The long-term trend in climate-related disaster vulnerability, reflected by mortality (1978-2015) and DELs (1990-2015) as a share of the total population and Gross Domestic Product, has seen significant decline among all economic regions in China. While notable differences remain among its West, Central and East economic regions, the temporal vulnerability change has been converging. The study further demonstrated that economic development level is correlated with human and economic vulnerability to climate-related disasters, and this vulnerability decreased with the increase of per-capita income. This study suggested that economic development can have nuanced effects on overall human and economic vulnerability to climate-related disasters. We argue that climate change science needs to acknowledge and examine the different pathways of vulnerability effects related to economic development.

  9. Intraspecific niche models for ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) suggest potential variability in population-level response to climate change

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    Maguire, Kaitlin C.; Shinneman, Douglas; Potter, Kevin M.; Hipkins, Valerie D.

    2018-01-01

    Unique responses to climate change can occur across intraspecific levels, resulting in individualistic adaptation or movement patterns among populations within a given species. Thus, the need to model potential responses among genetically distinct populations within a species is increasingly recognized. However, predictive models of future distributions are regularly fit at the species level, often because intraspecific variation is unknown or is identified only within limited sample locations. In this study, we considered the role of intraspecific variation to shape the geographic distribution of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), an ecologically and economically important tree species in North America. Morphological and genetic variation across the distribution of ponderosa pine suggest the need to model intraspecific populations: the two varieties (var. ponderosa and var. scopulorum) and several haplotype groups within each variety have been shown to occupy unique climatic niches, suggesting populations have distinct evolutionary lineages adapted to different environmental conditions. We utilized a recently-available, geographically-widespread dataset of intraspecific variation (haplotypes) for ponderosa pine and a recently-devised lineage distance modeling approach to derive additional, likely intraspecific occurrence locations. We confirmed the relative uniqueness of each haplotype-climate relationship using a niche-overlap analysis, and developed ecological niche models (ENMs) to project the distribution for two varieties and eight haplotypes under future climate forecasts. Future projections of haplotype niche distributions generally revealed greater potential range loss than predicted for the varieties. This difference may reflect intraspecific responses of distinct evolutionary lineages. However, directional trends are generally consistent across intraspecific levels, and include a loss of distributional area and an upward shift in elevation. Our results

  10. Intraspecific niche models for ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) suggest potential variability in population-level response to climate change.

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    Maguire, Kaitlin C; Shinneman, Douglas J; Potter, Kevin M; Hipkins, Valerie D

    2018-03-14

    Unique responses to climate change can occur across intraspecific levels, resulting in individualistic adaptation or movement patterns among populations within a given species. Thus, the need to model potential responses among genetically distinct populations within a species is increasingly recognized. However, predictive models of future distributions are regularly fit at the species level, often because intraspecific variation is unknown or is identified only within limited sample locations. In this study, we considered the role of intraspecific variation to shape the geographic distribution of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), an ecologically and economically important tree species in North America. Morphological and genetic variation across the distribution of ponderosa pine suggest the need to model intraspecific populations: the two varieties (var. ponderosa and var. scopulorum) and several haplotype groups within each variety have been shown to occupy unique climatic niches, suggesting populations have distinct evolutionary lineages adapted to different environmental conditions. We utilized a recently-available, geographically-widespread dataset of intraspecific variation (haplotypes) for ponderosa pine and a recently-devised lineage distance modeling approach to derive additional, likely intraspecific occurrence locations. We confirmed the relative uniqueness of each haplotype-climate relationship using a niche-overlap analysis, and developed ecological niche models (ENMs) to project the distribution for two varieties and eight haplotypes under future climate forecasts. Future projections of haplotype niche distributions generally revealed greater potential range loss than predicted for the varieties. This difference may reflect intraspecific responses of distinct evolutionary lineages. However, directional trends are generally consistent across intraspecific levels, and include a loss of distributional area and an upward shift in elevation. Our results

  11. Attribution of extreme weather and climate-related events.

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    Stott, Peter A; Christidis, Nikolaos; Otto, Friederike E L; Sun, Ying; Vanderlinden, Jean-Paul; van Oldenborgh, Geert Jan; Vautard, Robert; von Storch, Hans; Walton, Peter; Yiou, Pascal; Zwiers, Francis W

    2016-01-01

    Extreme weather and climate-related events occur in a particular place, by definition, infrequently. It is therefore challenging to detect systematic changes in their occurrence given the relative shortness of observational records. However, there is a clear interest from outside the climate science community in the extent to which recent damaging extreme events can be linked to human-induced climate change or natural climate variability. Event attribution studies seek to determine to what extent anthropogenic climate change has altered the probability or magnitude of particular events. They have shown clear evidence for human influence having increased the probability of many extremely warm seasonal temperatures and reduced the probability of extremely cold seasonal temperatures in many parts of the world. The evidence for human influence on the probability of extreme precipitation events, droughts, and storms is more mixed. Although the science of event attribution has developed rapidly in recent years, geographical coverage of events remains patchy and based on the interests and capabilities of individual research groups. The development of operational event attribution would allow a more timely and methodical production of attribution assessments than currently obtained on an ad hoc basis. For event attribution assessments to be most useful, remaining scientific uncertainties need to be robustly assessed and the results clearly communicated. This requires the continuing development of methodologies to assess the reliability of event attribution results and further work to understand the potential utility of event attribution for stakeholder groups and decision makers. WIREs Clim Change 2016, 7:23-41. doi: 10.1002/wcc.380 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  12. Expert assessment of the resilience of drinking water and sanitation systems to climate-related hazards.

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    Luh, Jeanne; Royster, Sarah; Sebastian, Daniel; Ojomo, Edema; Bartram, Jamie

    2017-08-15

    We conducted an expert assessment to obtain expert opinions on the relative global resilience of ten drinking water and five sanitation technologies to the following six climate-related hazards: drought, decreased inter-annual precipitation, flood, superstorm flood, wind damage, and saline intrusion. Resilience scores ranged from 1.7 to 9.9 out of a maximum resilience of 10, with high scores corresponding to high resilience. We find that for some climate-related hazards, such as drought, technologies demonstrated a large range in resilience, indicating that the choice of water and sanitation technologies is important for areas prone to drought. On the other hand, the range of resilience scores for superstorm flooding was much smaller, particularly for sanitation technologies, suggesting that the choice of technology is less of a determinant of functionality for superstorm flooding as compared to other climate-related hazards. For drinking water technologies, only treated piped utility-managed systems that use surface water had resilience scores >6.0 for all hazards, while protected dug wells were found to be one of the least resilient technologies, consistently scoring <5.0 for all hazards except wind damage. In general, sanitation technologies were found to have low to medium resilience, suggesting that sanitation systems need to be adapted to ensure functionality during and after climate-related hazards. The results of the study can be used to help communities decide which technologies are best suited for the climate-related challenges they face and help in future adaptation planning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Regional monitoring of environmental physics climate related anomalies

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    El-Askary, Hesham

    2004-11-01

    Scientific communities have been working in creating and enhancing scientific research programs in which in situ and satellite data as well as remote sensing (RS) technologies are being applied to regional environmental issues. These issues include the effects of climate change on regional flooding, droughts and the impact of human activities as they relate to feedbacks on the global climate. More specifically, one needs to evaluate the potential impact of climatological variability on social, economic, and human activities. In addition, the study of their effects on agriculture, forests, local natural ecosystems and water climate-related resources, is most important. Finally, dust storms and other natural events such as droughts can have great local impacts. Approximately half of the dust in today's atmosphere may be the result of changes to the environment caused by human activities, including agriculture, overgrazing, and deforestation. Climate variability may lead to the occurrence of some severe environmental phenomena like dust storms, hurricanes, tornadoes, floods and droughts. Under normal conditions we can detect different dust effects associated with the movement of storms as well as different rain patterns that do not affect much of the surrounding environment either at regional or global scales. On the other hand, under abnormal climatological conditions, high anomalies of precipitation might occur due to the presence of hurricanes or other events, leading to severe flooding events. In this dissertation, we apply time series analysis techniques to remote sensing and in situ data to detect precipitation and dust storm anomalies and study their behavior on regional scales. The first application is the detection and monitoring of dust storms events over parts of the Middle East and Asia. Dust storms cause health and economic hazards. In this thesis dust storms development is examined based on using remote sensing. It utilizes a combination of optical

  14. Evidence of at least two evolutionary lineages in Melipona subnitida (Apidae, Meliponini) suggested by mtDNA variability and geometric morphometrics of forewings

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    Bonatti, Vanessa; Simões, Zilá Luz Paulino; Franco, Fernando Faria; Francoy, Tiago Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    Melipona subnitida, a tropical stingless bee, is an endemic species of the Brazilian northeast and exhibits great potential for honey and pollen production in addition to its role as one of the main pollinators of the Caatinga biome. To understand the genetic structure and better assist in the conservation of this species, we characterized the population variability of M. subnitida using geometric morphometrics of the forewing and cytochrome c oxidase I gene fragment sequencing. We collected workers from six localities in the northernmost distribution. Both methodologies indicated that the variability among the sampled populations is related both to the environment in which samples were collected and the geographical distance between the sampling sites, indicating that differentiation among the populations is due to the existence of at least evolutionary lineages. Molecular clock data suggest that this differentiation may have begun in the middle Pleistocene, approximately 396 kya. The conservation of all evolutionary lineages is important since they can present differential resistance to environmental changes, as resistance to drought and diseases.

  15. Rolling circle amplification-based analysis of Sri Lankan cassava mosaic virus isolates from Tamil Nadu, India, suggests a low level of genetic variability.

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    Kushawaha, Akhilesh Kumar; Rabindran, Ramalingam; Dasgupta, Indranil

    2018-03-01

    Cassava mosaic disease is a widespread disease of cassava in south Asia and the African continent. In India, CMD is known to be caused by two single-stranded DNA viruses (geminiviruses), Indian cassava mosaic virus (ICMV) and Sri Lankan cassava mosdaic virus (SLCMV). Previously, the diversity of ICMV and SLCMV in India has been studied using PCR, a sequence-dependent method. To have a more in-depth study of the variability of the above viruses and to detect any novel geminiviruses associated with CMD, sequence-independent amplification using rolling circle amplification (RCA)-based methods were used. CMD affected cassava plants were sampled across eighty locations in nine districts of the southern Indian state of Tamil Nadu. Twelve complete sequence of coat protein genes of the resident geminiviruses, comprising 256 amino acid residues were generated from the above samples, which indicated changes at only six positions. RCA followed by RFLP of the 80 samples indicated that most samples (47) contained only SLCMV, followed by 8, which were infected jointly with ICMV and SLCMV. In 11 samples, the pattern did not match the expected patterns from either of the two viruses and hence, were variants. Sequence analysis of an average of 700 nucleotides from 31 RCA-generated fragments of the variants indicated identities of 97-99% with the sequence of a previously reported infectious clone of SLCMV. The evidence suggests low levels of genetic variability in the begomoviruses infecting cassava, mainly in the form of scattered single nucleotide changes.

  16. Impairment of different protein domains causes variable clinical presentation within Pitt-Hopkins syndrome and suggests intragenic molecular syndromology of TCF4.

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    Bedeschi, Maria Francesca; Marangi, Giuseppe; Calvello, Maria Rosaria; Ricciardi, Stefania; Leone, Francesca Pia Chiara; Baccarin, Marco; Guerneri, Silvana; Orteschi, Daniela; Murdolo, Marina; Lattante, Serena; Frangella, Silvia; Keena, Beth; Harr, Margaret H; Zackai, Elaine; Zollino, Marcella

    2017-11-01

    Pitt-Hopkins syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by severe intellectual disability and a distinctive facial gestalt. It is caused by haploinsufficiency of the TCF4 gene. The TCF4 protein has different functional domains, with the NLS (nuclear localization signal) domain coded by exons 7-8 and the bHLH (basic Helix-Loop-Helix) domain coded by exon 18. Several alternatively spliced TCF4 variants have been described, allowing for translation of variable protein isoforms. Typical PTHS patients have impairment of at least the bHLH domain. To which extent impairment of the remaining domains contributes to the final phenotype is not clear. There is recent evidence that certain loss-of-function variants disrupting TCF4 are associated with mild ID, but not with typical PTHS. We describe a frameshift-causing partial gene deletion encompassing exons 4-6 of TCF4 in an adult patient with mild ID and nonspecific facial dysmorphisms but without the typical features of PTHS, and a c.520C > T nonsense variant within exon 8 in a child presenting with a severe phenotype largely mimicking PTHS, but lacking the typical facial dysmorphism. Investigation on mRNA, along with literature review, led us to suggest a preliminary phenotypic map of loss-of-function variants affecting TCF4. An intragenic phenotypic map of loss-of-function variants in TCF4 is suggested here for the first time: variants within exons 1-4 and exons 4-6 give rise to a recurrent phenotype with mild ID not in the spectrum of Pitt-Hopkins syndrome (biallelic preservation of both the NLS and bHLH domains); variants within exons 7-8 cause a severe phenotype resembling PTHS but in absence of the typical facial dysmorphism (impairment limited to the NLS domain); variants within exons 9-19 cause typical Pitt-Hopkins syndrome (impairment of at least the bHLH domain). Understanding the TCF4 molecular syndromology can allow for proper nosology in the current era of whole genomic investigations. Copyright

  17. Hypnosis, suggestion, and suggestibility: an integrative model.

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    Lynn, Steven Jay; Laurence, Jean-Roch; Kirsch, Irving

    2015-01-01

    This article elucidates an integrative model of hypnosis that integrates social, cultural, cognitive, and neurophysiological variables at play both in and out of hypnosis and considers their dynamic interaction as determinants of the multifaceted experience of hypnosis. The roles of these variables are examined in the induction and suggestion stages of hypnosis, including how they are related to the experience of involuntariness, one of the hallmarks of hypnosis. It is suggested that studies of the modification of hypnotic suggestibility; cognitive flexibility; response sets and expectancies; the default-mode network; and the search for the neurophysiological correlates of hypnosis, more broadly, in conjunction with research on social psychological variables, hold much promise to further understanding of hypnosis.

  18. The health impacts of climate-related migration.

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    Schwerdtle, Patricia; Bowen, Kathryn; McMichael, Celia

    2017-12-11

    Changes in climate, in conjunction with other drivers of mobility, shape human migration. While there is an increasing focus on the adaptive potential of migration, the health impacts of climate-related migration, including planned relocation and forced displacement, have not been thoroughly examined. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change stated that migration is currently, and will increasingly be, influenced by environmental degradation and climate change, and that it needs to be addressed in a focused and coordinated manner. This paper examines the links between climate change, migration, and health, considering diverse migration responses, including immobility, forced displacement and planned migration, as well as the associated health risks and opportunities in different contexts. Using case studies, the paper illustrates strategies to reduce the health risks associated with climate change-related migration. While there is an increasing body of research examining the climate change-migration nexus, a dual approach is now required. This approach must include debate and further research regarding the health consequences and responses associated with climate migration as well as immediate strengthening of health systems to make them both climate resilient and migrant inclusive.

  19. System's flips in climate-related energy (CRE) systems

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    Ramos, Maria-Helena; Creutin, Jean-Dominique; Engeland, Kolbjørn; François, Baptiste; Renard, Benjamin

    2014-05-01

    Several modern environmental questions invite to explore the complex relationships between natural phenomena and human behaviour at a range of space and time scales. This usually involves a number of cause-effect (causal) relationships, linking actions and events. In lay terms, 'effect' can be defined as 'what happened' and 'cause', 'why something happened.' In a changing world or merely moving from one scale to another, shifts in perspective are expected, bringing some phenomena into the foreground and putting others to the background. Systems can thus flip from one set of causal structures to another in response to environmental perturbations and human innovations or behaviors, for instance, as space-time signatures are modified. The identification of these flips helps in better understanding and predicting how societies and stakeholders react to a shift in perspective. In this study, our motivation is to investigate possible consequences of the shift to a low carbon economy in terms of socio-technico systems' flips. The focus is on the regional production of Climate-Related Energy (CRE) (hydro-, wind- and solar-power). We search for information on historic shifts that may help defining the forcing conditions of abrupt changes and extreme situations. We identify and present a series of examples in which we try to distinguish the various tipping points, thresholds, breakpoints and regime shifts that are characteristic of complex systems in the CRE production domain. We expect that with these examples our comprehension of the question will be enriched, providing us the elements needed to better validate modeling attempts, to predict and manage flips of complex CRE production systems. The work presented is part of the FP7 project COMPLEX (Knowledge based climate mitigation systems for a low carbon economy; http://www.complex.ac.uk/).

  20. Increasing organic C and N fluxes from a northern Boreal river basin - monitoring and modelling suggest climate related controls

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    Lepistö, A.; Futter, M.; Kortelainen, P.

    2012-04-01

    Increasing trends in total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations in lakes and streams across northern Europe and North America have been reported. Various hypotheses including enhanced decomposition of organic soils, changes in hydrology and flow paths, decreased acid deposition and land use changes have been put forward to explain the widespread occurrence of this phenomenon. Both observational and modelling studies are needed to identify the most important drivers and relevant processes controlling observed trends in TOC concentrations. Typically, TOC concentrations in Finnish rivers and lakes are high. The Simojoki river basin (3160 km2) is located in the northern Boreal zone of Finland and experiences low, declining sulphate deposition and limited other human impacts. Forest harvest, land drainage and ditch maintenance are the main land management activities in the catchment. Long-term changes (30-40 years) and seasonal trends of total organic nitrogen (TON) and carbon (TOC) concentrations and fluxes in the Simojoki river system were studied. Concentrations of TOC and TON increased particularly during high flows. TOC concentrations are slowly but continuously increasing, fluctuating between droughts and wet periods. The highest concentrations were detected in 1998-2000 during a period of very high flows, after the drought period 1994-1997. Trends in concentrations of TOC and TON in Simojoki were not linked to declines in sulphate deposition but were more related to trends in climate and hydrology. The autumn season is particularly sensitive to climate change impacts. The INCA-C model was applied to simulate TOC dynamics in the catchment. Model results showed that climate change driven patterns in runoff and soil moisture and soil temperature were more important than temporal patterns of sulphate deposition and land management in controlling surface water TOC concentrations. The possible factors behind changes of TOC and TON concentrations and increasing fluxes to the coastal areas are discussed.

  1. Climate-Related Local Extinctions Are Already Widespread among Plant and Animal Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J Wiens

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Current climate change may be a major threat to global biodiversity, but the extent of species loss will depend on the details of how species respond to changing climates. For example, if most species can undergo rapid change in their climatic niches, then extinctions may be limited. Numerous studies have now documented shifts in the geographic ranges of species that were inferred to be related to climate change, especially shifts towards higher mean elevations and latitudes. Many of these studies contain valuable data on extinctions of local populations that have not yet been thoroughly explored. Specifically, overall range shifts can include range contractions at the "warm edges" of species' ranges (i.e., lower latitudes and elevations, contractions which occur through local extinctions. Here, data on climate-related range shifts were used to test the frequency of local extinctions related to recent climate change. The results show that climate-related local extinctions have already occurred in hundreds of species, including 47% of the 976 species surveyed. This frequency of local extinctions was broadly similar across climatic zones, clades, and habitats but was significantly higher in tropical species than in temperate species (55% versus 39%, in animals than in plants (50% versus 39%, and in freshwater habitats relative to terrestrial and marine habitats (74% versus 46% versus 51%. Overall, these results suggest that local extinctions related to climate change are already widespread, even though levels of climate change so far are modest relative to those predicted in the next 100 years. These extinctions will presumably become much more prevalent as global warming increases further by roughly 2-fold to 5-fold over the coming decades.

  2. Amino acid composition of the bushcricket spermatophore and the function of courtship feeding: Variable composition suggests a dynamic role of the nuptial gift.

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    Jarrige, Alicia; Body, Mélanie; Giron, David; Greenfield, Michael D; Goubault, Marlène

    2015-11-01

    Nuptial gifts are packages of non-gametic material transferred by males to females at mating. These gifts are common in bushcrickets, where males produce a complex spermatophore consisting in a sperm-containing ampulla and an edible sperm-free spermatophylax. Two non-mutually exclusive hypotheses have been suggested to explain the function of the spermatophylax: the paternal investment hypothesis proposes that it represents a male nutritional investment in offspring; the mating effort hypothesis proposes that the spermatophylax maximizes the male's sperm transfer. Because gift production may represent significant energy expenditure, males are expected to adjust their investment relative to the perceived quality of the female. In this study, we first examined the free amino acid composition and protein-bound amino acid composition of the nuptial gift in the bushcricket, Ephippiger diurnus (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae). Second, we investigated whether this composition was altered according to female age and body weight. Our study represents the first investigation of both free and protein-bound amino acid fractions of a bushcricket spermatophylax. We found that composition of the nuptial gift varied both qualitatively and quantitatively with respect to traits of the receiving female: older females received larger amounts of protein-bound amino acids (both essential and non-essential), less water and less free glycine. This result suggests that gift composition is highly labile in E. diurnus, and we propose that gift allocation might represent a form of cryptic male mate choice, allowing males to maximize their chances of paternity according to the risk of sperm competition that is associated with mate quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Hydropower plans in eastern and southern Africa increase risk of concurrent climate-related electricity supply disruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Declan; Dalin, Carole; Landman, Willem A.; Osborn, Timothy J.

    2017-12-01

    Hydropower comprises a significant and rapidly expanding proportion of electricity production in eastern and southern Africa. In both regions, hydropower is exposed to high levels of climate variability and regional climate linkages are strong, yet an understanding of spatial interdependences is lacking. Here we consider river basin configuration and define regions of coherent rainfall variability using cluster analysis to illustrate exposure to the risk of hydropower supply disruption of current (2015) and planned (2030) hydropower sites. Assuming completion of the dams planned, hydropower will become increasingly concentrated in the Nile (from 62% to 82% of total regional capacity) and Zambezi (from 73% to 85%) basins. By 2030, 70% and 59% of total hydropower capacity will be located in one cluster of rainfall variability in eastern and southern Africa, respectively, increasing the risk of concurrent climate-related electricity supply disruption in each region. Linking of nascent regional electricity sharing mechanisms could mitigate intraregional risk, although these mechanisms face considerable political and infrastructural challenges.

  4. Space-time dependence between energy sources and climate related energy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeland, Kolbjorn; Borga, Marco; Creutin, Jean-Dominique; Ramos, Maria-Helena; Tøfte, Lena; Warland, Geir

    2014-05-01

    The European Renewable Energy Directive adopted in 2009 focuses on achieving a 20% share of renewable energy in the EU overall energy mix by 2020. A major part of renewable energy production is related to climate, called "climate related energy" (CRE) production. CRE production systems (wind, solar, and hydropower) are characterized by a large degree of intermittency and variability on both short and long time scales due to the natural variability of climate variables. The main strategies to handle the variability of CRE production include energy-storage, -transport, -diversity and -information (smart grids). The three first strategies aim to smooth out the intermittency and variability of CRE production in time and space whereas the last strategy aims to provide a more optimal interaction between energy production and demand, i.e. to smooth out the residual load (the difference between demand and production). In order to increase the CRE share in the electricity system, it is essential to understand the space-time co-variability between the weather variables and CRE production under both current and future climates. This study presents a review of the literature that searches to tackle these problems. It reveals that the majority of studies deals with either a single CRE source or with the combination of two CREs, mostly wind and solar. This may be due to the fact that the most advanced countries in terms of wind equipment have also very little hydropower potential (Denmark, Ireland or UK, for instance). Hydropower is characterized by both a large storage capacity and flexibility in electricity production, and has therefore a large potential for both balancing and storing energy from wind- and solar-power. Several studies look at how to better connect regions with large share of hydropower (e.g., Scandinavia and the Alps) to regions with high shares of wind- and solar-power (e.g., green battery North-Sea net). Considering time scales, various studies consider wind

  5. Climate related trends and meteorological conditions in European Arctic region - Porsanger fjord, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieszyńska, Agata; Stramska, Małgorzata

    2017-04-01

    Climate change has significant effect on the Arctic environment, where global trends are amplified. In this study, we have focused on the Porsanger fjord, located in European Arctic in the coastal region of the Barents Sea. We have analyzed climate related trends and meteorological condititions in the area of interest. Meteorological data included wind speed and direction, air temperature (AT) and precipitation from Era-Interim reanalysis (1986-2015) and local observations (1996-2015) from Lakselv (L, fjord's head area) and Honningsvaag (H - fjord's exit area). Our results confirm that this region is undergoing climate change related warming, which is indicated by rising air temperatures. Based on long-term reanalysis data, estimated trends for air temperature (AT) in Porsanger fjord are: 0.0536 °C year-1 at fjord's exit and 0.0428 °C year-1 at fjord's head. The results show that climate change does not seem to have a significant effect on long-term changes of wind speed and precipitation in the Porsanger fjord. Statistical analysis underlined significant spatial variability of meteorological conditions inside the fjord. For example, there are large differences in the annual cycle of AT with monthly mean January and July values of -8.4 and 12.6 °C in L and -2.5 and 10.1 °C in H. Dominant wind directions in Lakselv are S and SSE, while in Honningsvaag S and SSW directions prevail. Strong wind events (above 12 m s-1) are more frequent in H than in L. Annual cycle is characterized by stronger winds in winter and seasonality of wind direction. Precipitation for a given location can change by about 50% between years and varies spatially. Synoptic scale and within day variability are extremely intense in the area of interest. Air temperature and wind speed and direction can change dramatically in hours. In addition, regular patterns of the daily cycle of AT have different intensity in L and H. It is interesting to note that in spring/summer season, the daily cycle of

  6. Surgical Care Required for Populations Affected by Climate-related Natural Disasters: A Global Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eugenia E; Stewart, Barclay; Zha, Yuanting A; Groen, Thomas A; Burkle, Frederick M; Kushner, Adam L

    2016-08-10

    Climate extremes will increase the frequency and severity of natural disasters worldwide.  Climate-related natural disasters were anticipated to affect 375 million people in 2015, more than 50% greater than the yearly average in the previous decade. To inform surgical assistance preparedness, we estimated the number of surgical procedures needed.   The numbers of people affected by climate-related disasters from 2004 to 2014 were obtained from the Centre for Research of the Epidemiology of Disasters database. Using 5,000 procedures per 100,000 persons as the minimum, baseline estimates were calculated. A linear regression of the number of surgical procedures performed annually and the estimated number of surgical procedures required for climate-related natural disasters was performed. Approximately 140 million people were affected by climate-related natural disasters annually requiring 7.0 million surgical procedures. The greatest need for surgical care was in the People's Republic of China, India, and the Philippines. Linear regression demonstrated a poor relationship between national surgical capacity and estimated need for surgical care resulting from natural disaster, but countries with the least surgical capacity will have the greatest need for surgical care for persons affected by climate-related natural disasters. As climate extremes increase the frequency and severity of natural disasters, millions will need surgical care beyond baseline needs. Countries with insufficient surgical capacity will have the most need for surgical care for persons affected by climate-related natural disasters. Estimates of surgical are particularly important for countries least equipped to meet surgical care demands given critical human and physical resource deficiencies.

  7. Climate and climate-related issues for the safety assessment SR-Can

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naeslund, Jens-Ove

    2006-11-01

    The purpose of this report is to document current scientific knowledge of the climate-related conditions and processes relevant to the long-term safety of a KBS-3 repository to a level required for an adequate treatment in the safety assessment SR-Can. The report also includes a concise background description of the climate system. The report includes three main chapters: A description of the climate system (Chapter 2); Identification and discussion of climate-related issues (Chapter 3); and, A description of the evolution of climate-related conditions for the safety assessment (Chapter 4). Chapter 2 includes an overview of present knowledge of the Earth climate system and the climate conditions that can be expected to occur in Sweden on a 100,000 year time perspective. Based on this, climate-related issues relevant for the long-term safety of a KBS-3 repository are identified. These are documented in Chapter 3 'Climate-related issues' to a level required for an adequate treatment in the safety assessment. Finally, in Chapter 4, 'Evolution of climate-related conditions for the safety assessment' an evolution for a 120,000 year period is presented, including discussions of identified climate-related issues of importance for repository safety. The documentation is from a scientific point of view not exhaustive, since such a treatment is neither necessary for the purposes of the safety assessment nor possible within the scope of a safety assessment. As further described in the SR-Can Main Report and in the Features Events and Processes report, the content of the present report has been audited by comparison with FEP databases compiled in other assessment projects. This report follows as far as possible the template for documentation of processes regarded as internal to the repository system. However, the term processes is not used in this report, instead the term issue has been used. Each issue includes a set of processes together resulting in the behaviour of a

  8. Climate and climate-related issues for the safety assessment SR-Can

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naeslund, Jens-Ove (comp.)

    2006-11-15

    The purpose of this report is to document current scientific knowledge of the climate-related conditions and processes relevant to the long-term safety of a KBS-3 repository to a level required for an adequate treatment in the safety assessment SR-Can. The report also includes a concise background description of the climate system. The report includes three main chapters: A description of the climate system (Chapter 2); Identification and discussion of climate-related issues (Chapter 3); and, A description of the evolution of climate-related conditions for the safety assessment (Chapter 4). Chapter 2 includes an overview of present knowledge of the Earth climate system and the climate conditions that can be expected to occur in Sweden on a 100,000 year time perspective. Based on this, climate-related issues relevant for the long-term safety of a KBS-3 repository are identified. These are documented in Chapter 3 'Climate-related issues' to a level required for an adequate treatment in the safety assessment. Finally, in Chapter 4, 'Evolution of climate-related conditions for the safety assessment' an evolution for a 120,000 year period is presented, including discussions of identified climate-related issues of importance for repository safety. The documentation is from a scientific point of view not exhaustive, since such a treatment is neither necessary for the purposes of the safety assessment nor possible within the scope of a safety assessment. As further described in the SR-Can Main Report and in the Features Events and Processes report, the content of the present report has been audited by comparison with FEP databases compiled in other assessment projects. This report follows as far as possible the template for documentation of processes regarded as internal to the repository system. However, the term processes is not used in this report, instead the term issue has been used. Each issue includes a set of processes together resulting in the

  9. Modelling the changing cumulative vulnerability to climate-related hazards for river basin management using a GIS-based multicriteria decision approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Hung-Chih; Wu, Ju-Yu; Hung, Chih-Hsuan

    2017-04-01

    1. Background Asia-Pacific region is one of the most vulnerable areas of the world to climate-related hazards and extremes due to rapid urbanization and over-development in hazard-prone areas. It is thus increasingly recognized that the management of land use and reduction of hazard risk are inextricably linked. This is especially critical from the perspective of integrated river basin management. A range of studies has targeted existing vulnerability assessments. However, limited attention has been paid to the cumulative effects of multiple vulnerable factors and their dynamics faced by local communities. This study proposes a novel methodology to access the changing cumulative vulnerability to climate-related hazards, and to examine the relationship between the attraction factors relevant to the general process of urbanization and vulnerability variability with a focus on a river basin management unit. 2. Methods and data The methods applied in this study include three steps. First, using Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's (IPCC) approach, a Cumulative Vulnerability Assessment Framework (CVAF) is built with a goal to characterize and compare the vulnerability to climate-related hazards within river basin regions based on a composition of multiple indicators. We organize these indicator metrics into three categories: (1) hazard exposure; (2) socioeconomic sensitivity, and (3) adaptive capacity. Second, the CVAF is applied by combining a geographical information system (GIS)-based spatial statistics technique with a multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) to assess and map the changing cumulative vulnerability, comparing conditions in 1996 and 2006 in Danshui River Basin, Taiwan. Third, to examine the affecting factors of vulnerability changing, we develop a Vulnerability Changing Model (VCM) using four attraction factors to reflect how the process of urban developments leads to vulnerability changing. The factors are transport networks, land uses

  10. Complementarity among climate related energy sources: Sensitivity study to climate characteristics across Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francois, Baptiste; Hingray, Benoit; Creutin, Jean-Dominique; Raynaud, Damien; Borga, Marco; Vautard, Robert

    2015-04-01

    Climate related energy sources like solar-power, wind-power and hydro-power are important contributors to the transitions to a low-carbon economy. Past studies, mainly based on solar and wind powers, showed that the power from such energy sources fluctuates in time and space following their driving climatic variables. However, when combining different energy sources together, their intermittent feature is smoothed, resulting to lower time variability of the produced power and to lower storage capacity required for balancing. In this study, we consider solar, wind and hydro energy sources in a 100% renewable Europe using a set of 12 regions following two climate transects, the first one going from the Northern regions (Norway, Finland) to the Southern ones (Greece, Andalucía, Tunisia) and the second one going from the oceanic climate (West of France, Galicia) to the continental one (Romania, Belorussia). For each of those regions, we combine wind and solar irradiance data from the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (Vautard et al., 2014), temperature data from the European Climate Assessment & Dataset (Haylock et al., 2008) and runoff from the Global Runoff Data Center (GRDC, 1999) for estimating solar-power, wind-power, run-of-the-river hydro-power and the electricity demand over a time period of 30 years. The use of this set of 12 regions across Europe allows integrating knowledge about time and space variability for each different energy sources. We then assess the optimal share of each energy sources, aiming to decrease the time variability of the regional energy balance at different time scales as well as the energy storage required for balancing within each region. We also evaluate how energy transport among regions contributes for smoothing out both the energy balance and the storage requirement. The strengths of this study are i) to handle with run-of-the-river hydro power in addition to wind and solar energy sources and ii) to carry out this analysis

  11. Climate and climate-related issues for the safety assessment SR-Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-12-15

    The purpose of this report is to document current scientific knowledge on climate and climate-related conditions, relevant to the long-term safety of a KBS-3 repository, to a level required for an adequate treatment in the safety assessment SR-Site. The report also presents a number of dedicated studies on climate and selected climate-related processes of relevance for the assessment of long term repository safety. Based on this information, the report presents a number of possible future climate developments for Forsmark, the site selected for building a repository for spent nuclear fuel in Sweden (Figure 1-1). The presented climate developments are used as basis for the selection and analysis of SR-Site safety assessment scenarios in the SR-Site main report /SKB 2011/. The present report is based on research conducted and published by SKB as well as on research reported in the general scientific literature

  12. Climate and climate-related issues for the safety assessment SR-Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to document current scientific knowledge on climate and climate-related conditions, relevant to the long-term safety of a KBS-3 repository, to a level required for an adequate treatment in the safety assessment SR-Site. The report also presents a number of dedicated studies on climate and selected climate-related processes of relevance for the assessment of long term repository safety. Based on this information, the report presents a number of possible future climate developments for Forsmark, the site selected for building a repository for spent nuclear fuel in Sweden (Figure 1-1). The presented climate developments are used as basis for the selection and analysis of SR-Site safety assessment scenarios in the SR-Site main report /SKB 2011/. The present report is based on research conducted and published by SKB as well as on research reported in the general scientific literature

  13. Armed-conflict risks enhanced by climate-related disasters in ethnically fractionalized countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleussner, Carl-Friedrich; Donges, Jonathan F; Donner, Reik V; Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim

    2016-08-16

    Social and political tensions keep on fueling armed conflicts around the world. Although each conflict is the result of an individual context-specific mixture of interconnected factors, ethnicity appears to play a prominent and almost ubiquitous role in many of them. This overall state of affairs is likely to be exacerbated by anthropogenic climate change and in particular climate-related natural disasters. Ethnic divides might serve as predetermined conflict lines in case of rapidly emerging societal tensions arising from disruptive events like natural disasters. Here, we hypothesize that climate-related disaster occurrence enhances armed-conflict outbreak risk in ethnically fractionalized countries. Using event coincidence analysis, we test this hypothesis based on data on armed-conflict outbreaks and climate-related natural disasters for the period 1980-2010. Globally, we find a coincidence rate of 9% regarding armed-conflict outbreak and disaster occurrence such as heat waves or droughts. Our analysis also reveals that, during the period in question, about 23% of conflict outbreaks in ethnically highly fractionalized countries robustly coincide with climatic calamities. Although we do not report evidence that climate-related disasters act as direct triggers of armed conflicts, the disruptive nature of these events seems to play out in ethnically fractionalized societies in a particularly tragic way. This observation has important implications for future security policies as several of the world's most conflict-prone regions, including North and Central Africa as well as Central Asia, are both exceptionally vulnerable to anthropogenic climate change and characterized by deep ethnic divides.

  14. Open to Suggestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Reading, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Offers (1) suggestions for improving college students' study skills; (2) a system for keeping track of parent, teacher, and community contacts; (3) suggestions for motivating students using tic tac toe; (4) suggestions for using etymology to improve word retention; (5) a word search grid; and (6) suggestions for using postcards in remedial reading…

  15. A discussion on assessing climate-related hazards and uncertainties considering scenarios of climate-change: Examples and applications to some African areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Aristizabal, Alexander; Bucchignani, Edoardo; Marzocchi, Warner; Uhinga, Guido

    2013-04-01

    Extreme meteorological phenomena such as heavy precipitation, extreme temperature, or strong winds, may have considerable impacts on the economy, infrastructure, health, as well as may represent a non-negligible threat for human life. A changing climate may lead to changes in the frequency, intensity, spatial extent, duration, and timing of weather and climate extremes, and can result in unprecedented extreme events. Climatological parameters, that are reference variables for the assessment of climate-related hazards, can be generally obtained from data catalogues; nevertheless, it is often the case that the time window of the observations, if available at all, is too short for a correct analysis of the most extreme and less frequent events. For this reason there is a growing interest on the use of 'synthetic' data derived from climatological models which in addition, allow the possibility to perform climate projections considering different plausible emission/concentration scenarios in the modelling. Within this context, the scenario-based climate projections can be useful to assess possible temporal variations on climatological parameters (and hence in climate-related hazards) under climate change conditions. Here we discuss the characterization of some climate-related hazards based on the analysis of climatological parameters, debating relevant issues in the use of both observed and synthetic data, the consideration of climate-change scenarios, and the quantification and communication of uncertainties. In particular, to account for possible non-stationary conditions in the analysis of extremes under climate-change conditions, we have adopted a practical covariate approach recently used in different hydrological and meteorological applications, and used a Bayesian framework for the parameter estimation and uncertainty propagation.

  16. Suicidality and interrogative suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard-Boone, Lea; Range, Lillian M

    2005-01-01

    All people are subject to memory suggestibility, but suicidal individuals may be especially so. The link between suicidality and suggestibility is unclear given mixed findings and methodological weaknesses of past research. To test the link between suicidality and interrogative suggestibility, 149 undergraduates answered questions about suicidal thoughts and reasons for living, and participated in a direct suggestibility procedure. As expected, suggestibility correlated with suicidality but accounted for little overall variance (4%). Mental health professionals might be able to take advantage of client suggestibility by directly telling suicidal persons to refrain from suicidal thoughts or actions.

  17. Estimating least-developed countries’ vulnerability to climate-related extreme events over the next 50 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patt, Anthony G.; Tadross, Mark; Nussbaumer, Patrick; Asante, Kwabena; Metzger, Marc; Rafael, Jose; Goujon, Anne; Brundrit, Geoff

    2010-01-01

    When will least developed countries be most vulnerable to climate change, given the influence of projected socio-economic development? The question is important, not least because current levels of international assistance to support adaptation lag more than an order of magnitude below what analysts estimate to be needed, and scaling up support could take many years. In this paper, we examine this question using an empirically derived model of human losses to climate-related extreme events, as an indicator of vulnerability and the need for adaptation assistance. We develop a set of 50-year scenarios for these losses in one country, Mozambique, using high-resolution climate projections, and then extend the results to a sample of 23 least-developed countries. Our approach takes into account both potential changes in countries’ exposure to climatic extreme events, and socio-economic development trends that influence countries’ own adaptive capacities. Our results suggest that the effects of socio-economic development trends may begin to offset rising climate exposure in the second quarter of the century, and that it is in the period between now and then that vulnerability will rise most quickly. This implies an urgency to the need for international assistance to finance adaptation. PMID:20080585

  18. Estimating least-developed countries' vulnerability to climate-related extreme events over the next 50 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patt, Anthony G; Tadross, Mark; Nussbaumer, Patrick; Asante, Kwabena; Metzger, Marc; Rafael, Jose; Goujon, Anne; Brundrit, Geoff

    2010-01-26

    When will least developed countries be most vulnerable to climate change, given the influence of projected socio-economic development? The question is important, not least because current levels of international assistance to support adaptation lag more than an order of magnitude below what analysts estimate to be needed, and scaling up support could take many years. In this paper, we examine this question using an empirically derived model of human losses to climate-related extreme events, as an indicator of vulnerability and the need for adaptation assistance. We develop a set of 50-year scenarios for these losses in one country, Mozambique, using high-resolution climate projections, and then extend the results to a sample of 23 least-developed countries. Our approach takes into account both potential changes in countries' exposure to climatic extreme events, and socio-economic development trends that influence countries' own adaptive capacities. Our results suggest that the effects of socio-economic development trends may begin to offset rising climate exposure in the second quarter of the century, and that it is in the period between now and then that vulnerability will rise most quickly. This implies an urgency to the need for international assistance to finance adaptation.

  19. An index-based method to assess risks of climate-related hazards in coastal zones: The case of Tetouan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satta, Alessio; Snoussi, Maria; Puddu, Manuela; Flayou, Latifa; Hout, Radouane

    2016-06-01

    . The CRI-LS provides a set of maps that allow identifying areas within the coastal hazard zone with relative higher risk from climate-related hazards. The method can be used to support coastal planning and management process in selecting the most suitable adaptation measures.

  20. Easier surveillance of climate-related health vulnerabilities through a Web-based spatial OLAP application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gosselin Pierre

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Climate change has a significant impact on population health. Population vulnerabilities depend on several determinants of different types, including biological, psychological, environmental, social and economic ones. Surveillance of climate-related health vulnerabilities must take into account these different factors, their interdependence, as well as their inherent spatial and temporal aspects on several scales, for informed analyses. Currently used technology includes commercial off-the-shelf Geographic Information Systems (GIS and Database Management Systems with spatial extensions. It has been widely recognized that such OLTP (On-Line Transaction Processing systems were not designed to support complex, multi-temporal and multi-scale analysis as required above. On-Line Analytical Processing (OLAP is central to the field known as BI (Business Intelligence, a key field for such decision-support systems. In the last few years, we have seen a few projects that combine OLAP and GIS to improve spatio-temporal analysis and geographic knowledge discovery. This has given rise to SOLAP (Spatial OLAP and a new research area. This paper presents how SOLAP and climate-related health vulnerability data were investigated and combined to facilitate surveillance. Results Based on recent spatial decision-support technologies, this paper presents a spatio-temporal web-based application that goes beyond GIS applications with regard to speed, ease of use, and interactive analysis capabilities. It supports the multi-scale exploration and analysis of integrated socio-economic, health and environmental geospatial data over several periods. This project was meant to validate the potential of recent technologies to contribute to a better understanding of the interactions between public health and climate change, and to facilitate future decision-making by public health agencies and municipalities in Canada and elsewhere. The project also aimed at

  1. Easier surveillance of climate-related health vulnerabilities through a Web-based spatial OLAP application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, Eveline; Gosselin, Pierre; Badard, Thierry; Bédard, Yvan

    2009-04-03

    Climate change has a significant impact on population health. Population vulnerabilities depend on several determinants of different types, including biological, psychological, environmental, social and economic ones. Surveillance of climate-related health vulnerabilities must take into account these different factors, their interdependence, as well as their inherent spatial and temporal aspects on several scales, for informed analyses. Currently used technology includes commercial off-the-shelf Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Database Management Systems with spatial extensions. It has been widely recognized that such OLTP (On-Line Transaction Processing) systems were not designed to support complex, multi-temporal and multi-scale analysis as required above. On-Line Analytical Processing (OLAP) is central to the field known as BI (Business Intelligence), a key field for such decision-support systems. In the last few years, we have seen a few projects that combine OLAP and GIS to improve spatio-temporal analysis and geographic knowledge discovery. This has given rise to SOLAP (Spatial OLAP) and a new research area. This paper presents how SOLAP and climate-related health vulnerability data were investigated and combined to facilitate surveillance. Based on recent spatial decision-support technologies, this paper presents a spatio-temporal web-based application that goes beyond GIS applications with regard to speed, ease of use, and interactive analysis capabilities. It supports the multi-scale exploration and analysis of integrated socio-economic, health and environmental geospatial data over several periods. This project was meant to validate the potential of recent technologies to contribute to a better understanding of the interactions between public health and climate change, and to facilitate future decision-making by public health agencies and municipalities in Canada and elsewhere. The project also aimed at integrating an initial collection of geo

  2. Climate related projections on future water resources and human adaptation in the Great Ruaha River Basin in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liwenga, Emma; Pauline, Noah; Tumbo, Madaka

    - Temperatures will likely increase by 1-2 degrees by the middle of the century and 3-4 degrees by the end of the century. - A likely overall increase in precipitation and larger seasonal variation might lead to water related stress during a prolonged dry season and flood risks during the wet...... season. - The overall climate related effect on water resources is a status quo. - Increased rainy season rainfall offers opportunities for rain fed agriculture and water storage for hydro-power and irrigation. - Local governments are already effectively dealing with these climate related impacts...

  3. Suggestive Objects at Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratner, Helene Gad

    2009-01-01

    In Western secular societies, spiritual life is no longer limited to classical religious institutions but can also be found at workplace organizations. While spirituality is conventionally understood as a subjective and internal process, this paper proposes the concept of ‘suggestive objects......’, constructed by combining insights from Gabriel Tarde's sociology with Bruno Latour's actor-network theory, to theorize the material dimension of organizational spirituality. The sacred in organizations arises not from the internalization of collective values but through the establishment of material...... scaffolding. This has deep implications for our understanding of the sacred, including a better appreciation of the way that suggestive objects make the sacred durable, the way they organize it....

  4. An integrated method for assessing climate-related risks and adaptation alternatives in urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Andersson-Sköld

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The urban environment is a complex structure with interlinked social, ecological and technical structures. Global warming is expected to have a broad variety of impacts, which will add to the complexity. Climate changes will force adaptation, to reduce climate-related risks. Adaptation measures can address one aspect at the time, or aim for a holistic approach to avoid maladaptation. This paper presents a systematic, integrated approach for assessing alternatives for reducing the risks of heat waves, flooding and air pollution in urban settings, with the aim of reducing the risk of maladaptation. The study includes strategies covering different spatial scales, and both the current climate situation and the climate predicted under climate change scenarios. The adaptation strategies investigated included increasing vegetation; selecting density, height and colour of buildings; and retreat or resist (defend against sea-level rise. Their effectiveness was assessed with regard to not only flooding, heat stress and air quality but also with regard to resource use, emissions to air (incl. GHG, soil and water, and people’s perceptions and vulnerability. The effectiveness of the strategies were ranked on a common scale (from −3 to 3 in an integrated assessment. Integrated assessments are recommended, as they help identify the most sustainable solutions, but to reduce the risk of maladaptation they require experts from a variety of disciplines. The most generally applicable recommendation, derived from the integrated assessment here, taking into account both expertise from different municipal departments, literature surveys, life cycle assessments and publics perceptions, is to increase the urban greenery, as it contributes to several positive aspects such as heat stress mitigation, air quality improvement, effective storm-water and flood-risk management, and it has several positive social impacts. The most favourable alternative was compact, mid

  5. US forest response to projected climate-related stress: a tolerance perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liénard, Jean; Harrison, John; Strigul, Nikolay

    2016-08-01

    Although it is widely recognized that climate change will require a major spatial reorganization of forests, our ability to predict exactly how and where forest characteristics and distributions will change has been rather limited. Current efforts to predict future distribution of forested ecosystems as a function of climate include species distribution models (for fine-scale predictions) and potential vegetation climate envelope models (for coarse-grained, large-scale predictions). Here, we develop and apply an intermediate approach wherein we use stand-level tolerances of environmental stressors to understand forest distributions and vulnerabilities to anticipated climate change. In contrast to other existing models, this approach can be applied at a continental scale while maintaining a direct link to ecologically relevant, climate-related stressors. We first demonstrate that shade, drought, and waterlogging tolerances of forest stands are strongly correlated with climate and edaphic conditions in the conterminous United States. This discovery allows the development of a tolerance distribution model (TDM), a novel quantitative tool to assess landscape level impacts of climate change. We then focus on evaluating the implications of the drought TDM. Using an ensemble of 17 climate change models to drive this TDM, we estimate that 18% of US ecosystems are vulnerable to drought-related stress over the coming century. Vulnerable areas include mostly the Midwest United States and Northeast United States, as well as high-elevation areas of the Rocky Mountains. We also infer stress incurred by shifting climate should create an opening for the establishment of forest types not currently seen in the conterminous United States. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Variability Bugs:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melo, Jean

    . Although many researchers suggest that preprocessor-based variability amplifies maintenance problems, there is little to no hard evidence on how actually variability affects programs and programmers. Specifically, how does variability affect programmers during maintenance tasks (bug finding in particular......)? How much harder is it to debug a program as variability increases? How do developers debug programs with variability? In what ways does variability affect bugs? In this Ph.D. thesis, I set off to address such issues through different perspectives using empirical research (based on controlled...... experiments) in order to understand quantitatively and qualitatively the impact of variability on programmers at bug finding and on buggy programs. From the program (and bug) perspective, the results show that variability is ubiquitous. There appears to be no specific nature of variability bugs that could...

  7. Informing climate-related decisions in complex river basins: A comparative assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulwarty, R. S.; Bark, R. H.; Maia, R.; Udall, B.

    2010-12-01

    Integrated water resources management provides an important governance framework to achieve climate-related adaptation measures across socio-economic, environmental and administrative systems. Adaptation includes technical changes that improve water use efficiency, early warning, demand management (e.g. through metering and pricing), and institutional changes that improve the tradability of water rights. Supply-side strategies generally involve increases in storage capacity, abstraction from watercourses, and water transfers. Incentives for improving water-use efficiency, hold considerable promise for water savings and the reallocation of water to highly valued uses. However, conflicts exist between processes and goals of water management and governance. These militate against the effectiveness of using scientific information to meet short-term needs in the context of reducing longer-term vulnerabilities such as for “increasing water supply while meeting environmental needs.” A complete analysis of the effects of climate change on human water uses would consider cross-sector interactions, including the impacts of transfers of the use of water from one sector to another. In this presentation we will review the challenges and lessons provided in water resources management in the context of a changing climate. Lessons are drawn from watersheds around the world including the Colorado, Columbia, Murray-Darling, Guadiana and others. We explore how watershed managers and researchers are attempting to address the risks associated with climatic change and potential surprises. In spite of numerous climate impacts studies the management of the cumulative impacts of extremes (droughts, floods etc.) remains reactive and crisis-driven. Most recommendations stay within the applied sciences realm of technological interventions and supply driven approaches. Clearly more is needed to inform an integrated watershed management approaches in which adaptive management functions as

  8. Climate-related Indicators and Data Provenance: Evaluating Coupled Boundary Objects for Science, Innovation, and Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, A.; Young, A.; Brody, C.; Gerst, M.; Kenney, M. A.; Lamoureux, A.; Rice, A.; Wolfinger, F.

    2015-12-01

    Boundary object theory focuses on the role of artifacts, such as indicator images, in translation and communication across the boundaries of social groups. We use this framework for understanding how data can communicate across contexts to answer the question: Can coupling climate-related indicators with data provenance support scientific innovation and science translation? To address this question we conducted a study to understand the features and capabilities necessary for indicators and data provenance for scientific uses, using the recently online-released U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) Indicators and Global Change Information System (GCIS) as linked boundary objects. We conducted semi-structured interviews with professional researchers in which we asked the researchers to explore and describe what they observed that was useful or frustrating for a subset of the USGCRP Indicators, related GCIS content, and other similar indicator and metadata websites. Participants found these sites' navigation and the labeling and description of their assets frustrating and confusing, but were able to clearly articulate the metadata and provenance information they needed to both understand and trust the indicators. In addition to identifying desired features that are likely to be specific to this audience (e.g., references or citations for indicators), scientists wanted clear, easier-to-access provenance information of the type usually recommended for documenting research data. Notably, they felt the information would be best presented in a fashion accessible to a broader audience, as those with more technical expertise should be able to infer additional contextual details given the provenance information that they had identified as key. Such results are useful for the improvement of indicator systems, such as the prototype released by USGCRP. We note in particular that the consistency of responses across the multi-disciplinary sample, which included scholars in

  9. Climate variability and change in Ethiopia : exploring impacts and adaptation options for cereal production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kassie, B.T.

    2014-01-01

    Key words: Climate change, Adaptation, Crop modelling, Uncertainty, Maize (Zea mays), Central Rift Valley.

    Smallholder farmers in Ethiopia have been facing severe climate related hazards, in particular highly variable rainfall and severe droughts that negativelyaffect their

  10. Planning for Production of Freshwater Fish Fry in a Variable Climate in Northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppanunchai, Anuwat; Apirumanekul, Chusit; Lebel, Louis

    2015-10-01

    Provision of adequate numbers of quality fish fry is often a key constraint on aquaculture development. The management of climate-related risks in hatchery and nursery management operations has not received much attention, but is likely to be a key element of successful adaptation to climate change in the aquaculture sector. This study explored the sensitivities and vulnerability of freshwater fish fry production in 15 government hatcheries across Northern Thailand to climate variability and evaluated the robustness of the proposed adaptation measures. This study found that hatcheries have to consider several factors when planning production, including: taking into account farmer demand; production capacity of the hatchery; availability of water resources; local climate and other area factors; and, individual species requirements. Nile tilapia is the most commonly cultured species of freshwater fish. Most fry production is done in the wet season, as cold spells and drought conditions disrupt hatchery production and reduce fish farm demand in the dry season. In the wet season, some hatcheries are impacted by floods. Using a set of scenarios to capture major uncertainties and variability in climate, this study suggests a couple of strategies that should help make hatchery operations more climate change resilient, in particular: improving hatchery operations and management to deal better with risks under current climate variability; improving monitoring and information systems so that emerging climate-related risks are known sooner and understood better; and, research and development on alternative species, breeding programs, improving water management and other features of hatchery operations.

  11. Climate-related differences in the dominance of submerged macrophytes in shallow lakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kosten, S.; Kamarainen, A.; Jeppesen, E.; Nes, van E.H.; Peeters, E.T.H.M.; Lacerot, G.; Scheffer, M.

    2009-01-01

    It has been suggested that shallow lakes in warm climates have a higher probability of being turbid, rather than macrophyte dominated, compared with lakes in cooler climates, but little field evidence exists to evaluate this hypothesis. We analyzed data from 782 lake years in different climate zones

  12. Impacts, Perceptions and Management of Climate-Related Risks to Cage Aquaculture in the Reservoirs of Northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebel, Louis; Lebel, Phimphakan; Lebel, Boripat

    2016-12-01

    Weather is suspected to influence fish growth and survival, and be a factor in mass mortality events in cage aquaculture in reservoirs. The purpose of this study was to identify the important climate-related risks faced by cage aquaculture farms; evaluate how these risks were currently being managed; and explore how farmers might adapt to the effects of climate change. Fish farmers were interviewed across the northern region of Thailand to get information on impacts, perceptions and practices. Drought or low water levels, heat waves, cold spells and periods with dense cloud cover, each caused significant financial losses. Perceptions of climate-related risks were consistent with experienced impacts. Risks are primarily managed in the short-term with techniques like aeration and reducing feed. In the mid-term farmers adjust stocking calendars, take financial measures and seek new information. Farmers also emphasize the importance of maintaining good relations with other stakeholders and reservoir management. Larger farms placed greater importance on risk management than small farms, even though types and levels of risk perceived were very similar. Most fish farms were managed by men alone, or men and women working together. Gender differences in risk perception were not detected, but women judged a few risk management practices as more important than men. Fish farmers perceived that climate is changing, but their perceptions were not strongly associated with recently having suffered impacts from extreme weather. The findings of this study provide important inputs to improving risk management under current and future climate.

  13. Assessment of perception and adaptation to climate-related glacier changes in the arid Rivers Basin in northwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guofeng, Zhu; Dahe, Qin; Jiawen, Ren; Feng, Liang; Huali, Tong

    2017-06-01

    In many mountainous areas of the world, glaciers serve as a source of fresh water that is of critical importance and contributes to the sustainability of agriculture and other socio-economic activities. An enhanced understanding of socio-economic consequences of the climate-related glacier changes is essential to the identification of vulnerable entities and the development of well-targeted environmental adaptation policies. A questionnaire and interviews of farmers in the Heihe River Basin were used to analyze their perception of cryospheric changes, attitudes towards mitigation of cryospheric changes, and the ways in which they perceived their responsibility. Preferred responses and interventions for cryospheric change and views on responsible parties were also collected and evaluated. Our investigation revealed that most rural residents were concerned about glacier changes and believed they would bring harm to present society, individuals, and families, as well as to future generations. The respondents' perceptions were mainly influenced by the mass media. Most respondents tended to favor adaptation measures implemented by the government and other policy-making departments. An integrated approach will be needed to deal with the challenges to tackling climate-related glacier change.

  14. Types of suggestibility: Relationships among compliance, indirect, and direct suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polczyk, Romuald; Pasek, Tomasz

    2006-10-01

    It is commonly believed that direct suggestibility, referring to overt influence, and indirect suggestibility, in which the intention to influence is hidden, correlate poorly. This study demonstrates that they are substantially related, provided that they tap similar areas of influence. Test results from 103 students, 55 women and 48 men, were entered into regression analyses. Indirect suggestibility, as measured by the Sensory Suggestibility Scale for Groups, and compliance, measured by the Gudjonsson Compliance Scale, were predictors of direct suggestibility, assessed with the Barber Suggestibility Scale. Spectral analyses showed that indirect suggestibility is more related to difficult tasks on the BSS, but compliance is more related to easy tasks on this scale.

  15. Climate-related variation in plant peak biomass and growth phenology across Pacific Northwest tidal marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffington, Kevin J.; Dugger, Bruce D.; Thorne, Karen M.

    2018-01-01

    The interannual variability of tidal marsh plant phenology is largely unknown and may have important ecological consequences. Marsh plants are critical to the biogeomorphic feedback processes that build estuarine soils, maintain marsh elevation relative to sea level, and sequester carbon. We calculated Tasseled Cap Greenness, a metric of plant biomass, using remotely sensed data available in the Landsat archive to assess how recent climate variation has affected biomass production and plant phenology across three maritime tidal marshes in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. First, we used clipped vegetation plots at one of our sites to confirm that tasseled cap greenness provided a useful measure of aboveground biomass (r2 = 0.72). We then used multiple measures of biomass each growing season over 20–25 years per study site and developed models to test how peak biomass and the date of peak biomass varied with 94 climate and sea-level metrics using generalized linear models and Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) model selection. Peak biomass was positively related to total annual precipitation, while the best predictor for date of peak biomass was average growing season temperature, with the peak 7.2 days earlier per degree C. Our study provides insight into how plants in maritime tidal marshes respond to interannual climate variation and demonstrates the utility of time-series remote sensing data to assess ecological responses to climate stressors.

  16. Climate-related variation in plant peak biomass and growth phenology across Pacific Northwest tidal marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffington, Kevin J.; Dugger, Bruce D.; Thorne, Karen M.

    2018-03-01

    The interannual variability of tidal marsh plant phenology is largely unknown and may have important ecological consequences. Marsh plants are critical to the biogeomorphic feedback processes that build estuarine soils, maintain marsh elevation relative to sea level, and sequester carbon. We calculated Tasseled Cap Greenness, a metric of plant biomass, using remotely sensed data available in the Landsat archive to assess how recent climate variation has affected biomass production and plant phenology across three maritime tidal marshes in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. First, we used clipped vegetation plots at one of our sites to confirm that tasseled cap greenness provided a useful measure of aboveground biomass (r2 = 0.72). We then used multiple measures of biomass each growing season over 20-25 years per study site and developed models to test how peak biomass and the date of peak biomass varied with 94 climate and sea-level metrics using generalized linear models and Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) model selection. Peak biomass was positively related to total annual precipitation, while the best predictor for date of peak biomass was average growing season temperature, with the peak 7.2 days earlier per degree C. Our study provides insight into how plants in maritime tidal marshes respond to interannual climate variation and demonstrates the utility of time-series remote sensing data to assess ecological responses to climate stressors.

  17. Suggestibility and suggestive modulation of the Stroop effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Irving

    2011-06-01

    Although the induction of a hypnotic state does not seem necessary for suggestive modulation of the Stroop effect, this important phenomenon has seemed to be dependent on the subject's level of hypnotic suggestibility. Raz and Campbell's (2011) study indicates that suggestion can modulate the Stroop effect substantially in very low suggestible subjects, as well as in those who are highly suggestible. This finding casts doubt on the presumed mechanism by which suggestive modulation is brought about. Research aimed at uncovering the means by which low suggestible individuals are able to modulate the Stroop effect would be welcome, as would assessment of this effect in moderately suggestible people. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Organization, availability and possibility of analysis of disaster data of climate related origin and its impacts on health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Diego Ricardo; Barcellos, Christovam; Barros, Heglaucio da Silva; Magalhães, Monica de Avelar Figueiredo Mafra; Matos, Vanderlei Pascoal de; Pedroso, Marcel de Moraes

    2014-09-01

    The occurrence of disasters is often related to unforeseeable able natural processes. However, the analysis of major databases may highlight seasonal and long-term trends, as well as some spatial patterns where risks are concentrated. In this paper the process of acquiring and organizing climate-related disaster data collected by civil protection institutions and made available by the Brazilian Climate and Health Observatory is described. Preliminary analyses show the concentration of disasters caused by heavy rainfall events along the Brazilian coastline especially during the summer. Droughts have longer duration and extent, affecting large areas of the south and northeast regions of the country. These data can be used to analyze and monitor the impact of extreme climatic events on health, as well as identify the vulnerability and climate deteminants.

  19. Optimal portfolio design to reduce climate-related conservation uncertainty in the Prairie Pothole Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Amy W; Mallory, Mindy L

    2012-04-24

    Climate change is likely to alter the spatial distributions of species and habitat types but the nature of such change is uncertain. Thus, climate change makes it difficult to implement standard conservation planning paradigms. Previous work has suggested some approaches to cope with such uncertainty but has not harnessed all of the benefits of risk diversification. We adapt Modern Portfolio Theory (MPT) to optimal spatial targeting of conservation activity, using wetland habitat conservation in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) as an example. This approach finds the allocations of conservation activity among subregions of the planning area that maximize the expected conservation returns for a given level of uncertainty or minimize uncertainty for a given expected level of returns. We find that using MPT instead of simple diversification in the PPR can achieve a value of the conservation objective per dollar spent that is 15% higher for the same level of risk. MPT-based portfolios can also have 21% less uncertainty over benefits or 6% greater expected benefits than the current portfolio of PPR conservation. Total benefits from conservation investment are higher if returns are defined in terms of benefit-cost ratios rather than benefits alone. MPT-guided diversification can work to reduce the climate-change-induced uncertainty of future ecosystem-service benefits from many land policy and investment initiatives, especially when outcomes are negatively correlated between subregions of a planning area.

  20. How school climate relates to chronic absence: A multi-level latent profile analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eck, Kathryn; Johnson, Stacy R; Bettencourt, Amie; Johnson, Sarah Lindstrom

    2017-04-01

    Chronic absence is a significant problem in schools. School climate may play an important role in influencing chronic absence rates among schools, yet little research has evaluated how school climate constructs relate to chronic absence. Using multilevel latent profile analysis, we evaluated how profiles of student perceptions of school climate at both the student and school level differentiated school-level rates of chronic absence. Participants included 25,776 middle and high school students from 106 schools who completed a district administered school climate survey. Students attended schools in a large urban school district where 89% of 6th through 12th grade students were African-American and 61% were eligible for the federally subsidized school meals program. Three student-level profiles of perceptions of school climate emerged that corresponded to "positive," "moderate," and "negative" climate. Two predominant patterns regarding the distribution of these profiles within schools emerged that corresponded to the two school-level profiles of "marginal climate" and "climate challenged" schools. Students reporting "moderate" and "negative" climate in their schools were more likely to attend schools with higher chronic absence rates than students reporting that their school had "positive" climate. Likewise, "climate challenged" schools had significantly higher chronic absence rates than "marginal climate" schools. These results suggest that school climate shares an important relation with chronic absence among adolescent students attending urban schools. Implications for prevention and intervention programs are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. What do decision makers learn from public forums on climate-related hazards and resilience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, N.; Farooque, M.; Sittenfeld, D.

    2017-12-01

    Public engagement around climate resilience efforts can foster learning for both public audiences and decision makers. On the one hand, public audiences learn about environmental hazards and strategies to increase community resilience through effective public engagement. On the other, decision makers and scientists learn about community members' values and priorities and their relation to environmental hazards and resilience strategies. Evidence from other public engagement efforts involving decision makers suggests that decision maker involvement results in reflection by officials on their own values, capacities, and roles. However, few public engagement exercises evaluate impacts on decision makers. As part of the Science Center Public Forums project, which aims to conduct public forums in eight cities across the country on resiliency to drought, heat, extreme precipitation, and sea level rise, we sought to 1) build partnerships with local decision makers and scientists around public forums and 2) explore how decision makers and scientists interacted with the planning and undertaking of those public forums. We held workshops with decision makers and scientists to inform forum content and identify local resilience issues. We will conduct interviews with local decision makers regarding their involvement in forum planning, their reflections and takeaways from the forum itself, and their perspectives on the value of public engagement for policy making. We will present our model of engagement with decision makers, initial findings from interviews, and lessons learned from connecting decision makers and scientists to public engagement efforts.

  2. Optimal portfolio design to reduce climate-related conservation uncertainty in the Prairie Pothole Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Amy W.; Mallory, Mindy L.

    2012-01-01

    Climate change is likely to alter the spatial distributions of species and habitat types but the nature of such change is uncertain. Thus, climate change makes it difficult to implement standard conservation planning paradigms. Previous work has suggested some approaches to cope with such uncertainty but has not harnessed all of the benefits of risk diversification. We adapt Modern Portfolio Theory (MPT) to optimal spatial targeting of conservation activity, using wetland habitat conservation in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) as an example. This approach finds the allocations of conservation activity among subregions of the planning area that maximize the expected conservation returns for a given level of uncertainty or minimize uncertainty for a given expected level of returns. We find that using MPT instead of simple diversification in the PPR can achieve a value of the conservation objective per dollar spent that is 15% higher for the same level of risk. MPT-based portfolios can also have 21% less uncertainty over benefits or 6% greater expected benefits than the current portfolio of PPR conservation. Total benefits from conservation investment are higher if returns are defined in terms of benefit–cost ratios rather than benefits alone. MPT-guided diversification can work to reduce the climate-change–induced uncertainty of future ecosystem-service benefits from many land policy and investment initiatives, especially when outcomes are negatively correlated between subregions of a planning area. PMID:22451914

  3. Climate Variability and Sugarcane Yield in Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenland, David

    2005-11-01

    This paper seeks to understand the role that climate variability has on annual yield of sugarcane in Louisiana. Unique features of sugarcane growth in Louisiana and nonclimatic, yield-influencing factors make this goal an interesting and challenging one. Several methods of seeking and establishing the relations between yield and climate variables are employed. First, yield climate relations were investigated at a single research station where crop variety and growing conditions could be held constant and yield relations could be established between a predominant older crop variety and a newer one. Interviews with crop experts and a literature survey were used to identify potential climatic factors that control yield. A statistical analysis was performed using statewide yield data from the American Sugar Cane League from 1963 to 2002 and a climate database. Yield values for later years were adjusted downward to form an adjusted yield dataset. The climate database was principally constructed from daily and monthly values of maximum and minimum temperature and daily and monthly total precipitation for six cooperative weather-reporting stations representative of the area of sugarcane production. The influence of 74 different, though not independent, climate-related variables on sugarcane yield was investigated. The fact that a climate signal exists is demonstrated by comparing mean values of the climate variables corresponding to the upper and lower third of adjusted yield values. Most of these mean-value differences show an intuitively plausible difference between the high- and low-yield years. The difference between means of the climate variables for years corresponding to the upper and lower third of annual yield values for 13 of the variables is statistically significant at or above the 90% level. A correlation matrix was used to identify the variables that had the largest influence on annual yield. Four variables [called here critical climatic variables (CCV

  4. Health and climate related ecosystem services provided by street trees in the urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmond, Jennifer A; Tadaki, Marc; Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Arbuthnott, Katherine; Coutts, Andrew; Demuzere, Matthias; Dirks, Kim N; Heaviside, Clare; Lim, Shanon; Macintyre, Helen; McInnes, Rachel N; Wheeler, Benedict W

    2016-03-08

    Urban tree planting initiatives are being actively promoted as a planning tool to enable urban areas to adapt to and mitigate against climate change, enhance urban sustainability and improve human health and well-being. However, opportunities for creating new areas of green space within cities are often limited and tree planting initiatives may be constrained to kerbside locations. At this scale, the net impact of trees on human health and the local environment is less clear, and generalised approaches for evaluating their impact are not well developed.In this review, we use an urban ecosystems services framework to evaluate the direct, and locally-generated, ecosystems services and disservices provided by street trees. We focus our review on the services of major importance to human health and well-being which include 'climate regulation', 'air quality regulation' and 'aesthetics and cultural services'. These are themes that are commonly used to justify new street tree or street tree retention initiatives. We argue that current scientific understanding of the impact of street trees on human health and the urban environment has been limited by predominantly regional-scale reductionist approaches which consider vegetation generally and/or single out individual services or impacts without considering the wider synergistic impacts of street trees on urban ecosystems. This can lead planners and policymakers towards decision making based on single parameter optimisation strategies which may be problematic when a single intervention offers different outcomes and has multiple effects and potential trade-offs in different places.We suggest that a holistic approach is required to evaluate the services and disservices provided by street trees at different scales. We provide information to guide decision makers and planners in their attempts to evaluate the value of vegetation in their local setting. We show that by ensuring that the specific aim of the intervention, the

  5. The Leicester AATSR Global Analyser (LAGA) - Giving Young Students the Opportunity to Examine Space Observations of Global Climate-Related Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn-Jones, David; Good, Simon; Corlett, Gary

    A pc-based analysis package has been developed, for the dual purposes of, firstly, providing ‘quick-look' capability to research workers inspecting long time-series of global satellite datasets of Sea-surface Temperature (SST); and, secondly, providing an introduction for students, either undergraduates, or advanced high-school students to the characteristics of commonly used analysis techniques for large geophysical data-sets from satellites. Students can also gain insight into the behaviour of some basic climate-related large-scale or global processes. The package gives students immediate access to up to 16 years of continuous global SST data, mainly from the Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer, currently flying on ESA's Envisat satellite. The data are available and are presented in the form of monthly averages and spatial averaged to half-degree or one-sixth degree longitude-latitude grids. There are simple button-operated facilities for defining and calculating box-averages; producing time-series of such averages; defining and displaying transects and their evolution over time; and the examination anomalous behaviour by displaying the difference between observed values and values derived from climatological means. By using these facilities a student rapidly gains familiarity with such processes as annual variability, the El Nĩo effect, as well as major current systems n such as the Gulf Stream and other climatically important phenomena. In fact, the student is given immediate insights into the basic methods of examining geophysical data in a research context, without needing to acquire special analysis skills are go trough lengthy data retrieval and preparation procedures which are more generally required, as precursors to serious investigation, in the research laboratory. This software package, called the Leicester AAATSR Global Analyser (LAGA), is written in a well-known and widely used analysis language and the package can be run by using software

  6. Deepening Sleep by Hypnotic Suggestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordi, Maren J.; Schlarb, Angelika A.; Rasch, Björn

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Slow wave sleep (SWS) plays a critical role in body restoration and promotes brain plasticity; however, it markedly declines across the lifespan. Despite its importance, effective tools to increase SWS are rare. Here we tested whether a hypnotic suggestion to “sleep deeper” extends the amount of SWS. Design: Within-subject, placebo-controlled crossover design. Setting: Sleep laboratory at the University of Zurich, Switzerland. Participants: Seventy healthy females 23.27 ± 3.17 y. Intervention: Participants listened to an auditory text with hypnotic suggestions or a control tape before napping for 90 min while high-density electroencephalography was recorded. Measurements and Results: After participants listened to the hypnotic suggestion to “sleep deeper” subsequent SWS was increased by 81% and time spent awake was reduced by 67% (with the amount of SWS or wake in the control condition set to 100%). Other sleep stages remained unaffected. Additionally, slow wave activity was significantly enhanced after hypnotic suggestions. During the hypnotic tape, parietal theta power increases predicted the hypnosis-induced extension of SWS. Additional experiments confirmed that the beneficial effect of hypnotic suggestions on SWS was specific to the hypnotic suggestion and did not occur in low suggestible participants. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of hypnotic suggestions to specifically increase the amount and duration of slow wave sleep (SWS) in a midday nap using objective measures of sleep in young, healthy, suggestible females. Hypnotic suggestions might be a successful tool with a lower risk of adverse side effects than pharmacological treatments to extend SWS also in clinical and elderly populations. Citation: Cordi MJ, Schlarb AA, Rasch B. Deepening sleep by hypnotic suggestion. SLEEP 2014;37(6):1143-1152. PMID:24882909

  7. Responding to hypnotic and nonhypnotic suggestions: performance standards, imaginative suggestibility, and response expectancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Eric C; Lynn, Steven Jay

    2011-07-01

    This study examined the relative impact of hypnotic inductions and several other variables on hypnotic and nonhypnotic responsiveness to imaginative suggestions. The authors examined how imaginative suggestibility, response expectancies, motivation to respond to suggestions, and hypnotist-induced performance standards affected participants' responses to both hypnotic and nonhypnotic suggestions and their suggestion-related experiences. Suggestions were administered to 5 groups of participants using a test-retest design: (a) stringent performance standards; (b) lenient performance standards; (c) hypnosis test-retest; (d) no-hypnosis test-retest; and (e) no-hypnosis/hypnosis control. The authors found no support for the influence of a hypnotic induction or performance standards on responding to suggestions but found considerable support for the role of imaginative suggestibility and response expectancies in predicting responses to both hypnotic and nonhypnotic suggestions.

  8. Representational constraints on children's suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceci, Stephen J; Papierno, Paul B; Kulkofsky, Sarah

    2007-06-01

    In a multistage experiment, twelve 4- and 9-year-old children participated in a triad rating task. Their ratings were mapped with multidimensional scaling, from which euclidean distances were computed to operationalize semantic distance between items in target pairs. These children and age-mates then participated in an experiment that employed these target pairs in a story, which was followed by a misinformation manipulation. Analyses linked individual and developmental differences in suggestibility to children's representations of the target items. Semantic proximity was a strong predictor of differences in suggestibility: The closer a suggested distractor was to the original item's representation, the greater was the distractor's suggestive influence. The triad participants' semantic proximity subsequently served as the basis for correctly predicting memory performance in the larger group. Semantic proximity enabled a priori counterintuitive predictions of reverse age-related trends to be confirmed whenever the distance between representations of items in a target pair was greater for younger than for older children.

  9. Impacts of climate variability and change on beekeeping productivity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated impacts of climate variability and change on Beekeeping productivity in Sunya, Kijungu and Olgira villages in Kiteto District in Manyara region in Tanzania. Specific objectives of the study were to identify the contribution of honey bees to community livelihoods, to identify climate related factors which ...

  10. Classification of hadith into positive suggestion, negative suggestion, and information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraby, Said Al; Riviera Rachmawati Jasin, Eliza; Kusumaningrum, Andina; Adiwijaya

    2018-03-01

    As one of the Muslim life guidelines, based on the meaning of its sentence(s), a hadith can be viewed as a suggestion for doing something, or a suggestion for not doing something, or just information without any suggestion. In this paper, we tried to classify the Bahasa translation of hadith into the three categories using machine learning approach. We tried stemming and stopword removal in preprocessing, and TF-IDF of unigram, bigram, and trigram as the extracted features. As the classifier, we compared between SVM and Neural Network. Since the categories are new, so in order to compare the results of the previous pipelines, we created a baseline classifier using simple rule-based string matching technique. The rule-based algorithm conditions on the occurrence of words such as “janganlah, sholatlah, and so on” to determine the category. The baseline method achieved F1-Score of 0.69, while the best F1-Score from the machine learning approach was 0.88, and it was produced by SVM model with the linear kernel.

  11. Towards improved public awareness for climate related disaster risk reduction in South Africa: A Participatory Development Communication perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tigere Chagutah

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Southern Africa has frequently been struck by damaging climate hazards which increasingly continue to threaten sustainable development efforts. Ominously, climate models predict that the incidence of major ‘wet’ events, such as floods and cyclones will increase in frequency against the background of a changing climate. Unfortunately, local mechanisms for communicating and raising public awareness of the consequent risks and appropriate risk reduction options remain weak. At the core of policy responses to the threat posed by climate related hazards, the South African government has adopted a disaster risk reduction approach to disaster management. This article details how, among many other measures to limit the adverse impacts of natural hazards, South Africa’s National Disaster Management Framework calls for the implementation of effective public awareness activities to increase the knowledge among communities of the risks they face and what risk-minimising actions they can take. Emphasis is laid on the importance of information provision and knowledge building among at-risk communities. Citing established theories and strategies, the author proposes a participatory development communication approach through Development Support Communication strategies for the provision of disaster risk reduction public awareness activities by government and other disaster risk reduction role-players in South Africa. By way of a review of completed studies and literature, the article provides guidance on the planning and execution of successful public communication campaigns and also discusses the constraints of communication campaigns as an intervention for comprehensive disaster risk reduction.

  12. Precipitation trends over the Korean peninsula: typhoon-induced changes and a typology for characterizing climate-related risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong-Suk; Jain, Shaleen

    2011-01-01

    Typhoons originating in the west Pacific are major contributors to climate-related risk over the Korean peninsula. The current perspective regarding improved characterization of climatic risk and the projected increases in the intensity, frequency, duration, and power dissipation of typhoons during the 21st century in the western North Pacific region motivated a reappraisal of historical trends in precipitation. In this study, trends in the magnitude and frequency of seasonal precipitation in the five major river basins in Korea are analyzed on the basis of a separation analysis, with recognition of moisture sources (typhoon and non-typhoon). Over the 1966-2007 period, typhoons accounted for 21-26% of seasonal precipitation, with the largest values in the Nakdong River Basin. Typhoon-related precipitation events have increased significantly over portions of Han, Nakdong, and Geum River Basins. Alongside broad patterns toward increases in the magnitude and frequency of precipitation, distinct patterns of trends in the upper and lower quartiles (corresponding to changes in extreme events) are evident. A trend typology-spatially resolved characterization of the combination of shifts in the upper and lower tails of the precipitation distribution-shows that a number of sub-basins have undergone significant changes in one or both of the tails of the precipitation distribution. This broader characterization of trends illuminates the relative role of causal climatic factors and an identification of 'hot spots' likely to experience high exposure to typhoon-related climatic extremes in the future.

  13. Climate-related environmental variation in a visual signalling device: the male and female dewlap in Anolis sagrei lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driessens, T; Baeckens, S; Balzarolo, M; Vanhooydonck, B; Huyghe, K; Van Damme, R

    2017-10-01

    Animals communicate using a variety of signals that differ dramatically among and within species. The astonishing dewlap diversity in anoles has attracted considerable attention in this respect. Yet, the evolutionary processes behind it remain elusive and have mostly been explored for males only. Here, we considered Anolis sagrei males and females to study signal divergence among populations. First, we assessed the degree of variation in dewlap design (size, pattern and colour) and displays by comparing 17 populations distributed across the Caribbean. Second, we assessed whether the observed dewlap diversity is associated with variation in climate-related environmental conditions. Results showed that populations differed in all dewlap characteristics, with the exception of display rate in females. We further found that males and females occurring in 'xeric' environments had a higher proportion of solid dewlaps with higher UV reflectance. In addition, lizards inhabiting 'mesic' environments had primarily marginal dewlaps showing high reflectance in red. For dewlap display, a correlation with environment was only observed in males. Our study provides evidence for a strong relationship between signal design and prevailing environmental conditions, which may result from differential selection on signal efficacy. Moreover, our study highlights the importance of including females when studying dewlaps in an evolutionary context. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  14. Interrogative suggestibility in opiate users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, A; Edelmann, R J; Davis, P E

    1996-09-01

    The present study investigated interrogative suggestibility in opiate users. A group of patients undergoing a methadone detoxification programme in an in-patient drug treatment unit (Detox group, n = 21), and a group of residents who had come off drugs and were no longer suffering from withdrawal syndrome (Rehab group, n = 19) were compared on interrogative suggestibility and various other psychological factors. Significant differences were found between the two groups, with the Detox group having more physical and psychological problems, and a higher total suggestibility score in comparison with the Rehab group. These findings are discussed in relation to the context of police interrogations and the reliability of confessions made by suspects and witnesses dependent on opiates.

  15. Exploring Historical Coffee and Climate Relations in Southern Guatemala: An Integration of Tree Ring Analysis and Remote Sensing Data =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, Diego

    This dissertation makes use of a physical geography perspective to examine the relationship between agriculture and climate in Guatemala using dendrochronology. I examined the potential of high-resolution climate proxy data from dendrochronology to help fill in the gaps of past climate information to better understand the natural and anthropogenic variability of precipitation which, in turn, can inform Guatemala's agriculture sector. This research has demonstrated successful cross-dating and climate sensitivity of Abies guatemalensis in the Pacific slope of Guatemala. Based on this, I have produced a 124-year record of mean precipitation from June-July-August. The mean precipitation from June-July-August at this site seems to receive an important influence from the sea surface temperature (SST) in the Pacific Ocean in the form of El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in the region 3.4. The analysis on the frequency of the precipitation records suggests that single year droughts dominate the record yet, periods of 9 years below-average rainfall can persist. Likewise, single year pluvial events also dominate the evaluated period. The long-term reconstruction of precipitation allowed to describe past relationships between coffee plantations and pests. For instance, the frequency analysis suggests that 4 or more consecutive periods of above-average precipitation are associated with several coffee pests and subsequently great economical losses due to crop failures, including the last coffee leaf rust crisis. This study also presents a streamflow reconstruction of the Upper Samala River watershed using a tree ring-width chronology derived from the Guatemalan fir (Abies guatemalensis) to reconstruct mean August-September-October streamflow volumes for the period 1889-2013. Our analysis shows that strong statistical correlations are present between tree-ring width measurements and monthly natural streamflow series. The mean August-September-October streamflow variability is

  16. The Cerg-C: A Specialisation Certificate in Geological and Climate Related Risk of the University of Geneva, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonadonna, C.; Consuegra, D.; Duvernay, B.; Fäh, D.; Frischknecht, C.; Gregg, C.; Jaboyedoff, M.; Lateltin, O.; Menoni, S.; Franco, R.; Rosi, M.

    2014-12-01

    The essence of our work at CERG-C (www.unige.ch/hazards) is to train participants, coming from around the world and with various academic and professional backgrounds, to incorporate risk science related to natural hazards into everyday life in an attempt to reduce losses in disasters. Principle components include training participants to assess risk, from hazard to vulnerability, and communicate effectively with government agencies, media, public and private sectors before, during and after natural disasters. Nine weeks of training involve 5 weeks of lectures in Geneva (in English), 2 weeks of field immersion and 2 weeks of exams. Participant experience culminates in completion of an independent research memoir carried out over an additional 6 months. The course is divided into five modules: the risk management module, which includes humanities and social sciences and brings together a multi-disciplinary team of experts to provide participants with tools they can use to assess hazard, vulnerability and risk and provide solutions to risk management issues in their own countries; and four thematic risk modules, i.e., volcanic risk, seismic risk, landslide risk, and flood and climate related risk. As part of the volcanic risk module we also carry out a role-play exercise at the elementary school in Vulcano Island, Italy in collaboration with the Italian Civil Protection with the double goal of sensitizing the CERG-C participants on the importance of training hazard and risk at an early stage in people's life as well as to raise awareness in the local population on topics such as the evaluation of volcanic hazards and risk, management of a volcanic crisis, and the importance of the collaboration between citizens and official institutions, such as the Civil Protection. The CERG-C has been training international graduate students and practitioners since 1988 on a yearly basis. To date, 350 participants have been trained from 80 countries, representing a great

  17. Is high hypnotic suggestibility necessary for successful hypnotic pain intervention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milling, Leonard S

    2008-04-01

    Hypnotic suggestibility is a trait-like, individual difference variable reflecting the general tendency to respond to hypnosis and hypnotic suggestions. Research with standardized measures of hypnotic suggestibility has demonstrated that there are substantial individual differences in this variable. Higher suggestibility has been found to be associated with greater relief from hypnotic pain interventions. Although individuals in the high suggestibility range show the strongest response to hypnotic analgesia, people of medium suggestibility, who represent approximately one third of the population, also have been found to obtain significant relief from hypnosis. Thus, high hypnotic suggestibility is not necessary for successful hypnotic pain intervention. However, the available evidence does not support the efficacy of hypnotic pain interventions for people who fall in the low hypnotic suggestibility range. However, some studies suggest that these individuals may benefit from imaginative analgesia suggestions, or suggestions for pain reduction that are delivered while the person is not in hypnosis.

  18. Quantitative histological models suggest endothermy in plesiosaurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinna V. Fleischle

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Plesiosaurs are marine reptiles that arose in the Late Triassic and survived to the Late Cretaceous. They have a unique and uniform bauplan and are known for their very long neck and hydrofoil-like flippers. Plesiosaurs are among the most successful vertebrate clades in Earth’s history. Based on bone mass decrease and cosmopolitan distribution, both of which affect lifestyle, indications of parental care, and oxygen isotope analyses, evidence for endothermy in plesiosaurs has accumulated. Recent bone histological investigations also provide evidence of fast growth and elevated metabolic rates. However, quantitative estimations of metabolic rates and bone growth rates in plesiosaurs have not been attempted before. Methods Phylogenetic eigenvector maps is a method for estimating trait values from a predictor variable while taking into account phylogenetic relationships. As predictor variable, this study employs vascular density, measured in bone histological sections of fossil eosauropterygians and extant comparative taxa. We quantified vascular density as primary osteon density, thus, the proportion of vascular area (including lamellar infillings of primary osteons to total bone area. Our response variables are bone growth rate (expressed as local bone apposition rate and resting metabolic rate (RMR. Results Our models reveal bone growth rates and RMRs for plesiosaurs that are in the range of birds, suggesting that plesiosaurs were endotherm. Even for basal eosauropterygians we estimate values in the range of mammals or higher. Discussion Our models are influenced by the availability of comparative data, which are lacking for large marine amniotes, potentially skewing our results. However, our statistically robust inference of fast growth and fast metabolism is in accordance with other evidence for plesiosaurian endothermy. Endothermy may explain the success of plesiosaurs consisting in their survival of the end-Triassic extinction

  19. Local Public Libraries Serve Important Functions as Meeting Places, but Demographic Variables Appear Significant, Suggesting a Need for Extensive Further Research. A Review of: Aabø, S., Audunson, R., & Vårheim, A. (2010. How do public libraries function as meeting places? Library & Information Science Research, 32(1, 16-26. doi: 10.1016/j.lisr.2009.07.008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Laval Hunsucker

    2012-03-01

    joint-activities” types of meetings is also considerably more common among those with a non-Norwegian cultural/linguistic background. Frequency of library use in general was not related to participation in either of these two types of meetings at the library, but it was related to library use for the more low-intensive meeting types (chance meetings and encounters, library as rendezvous point for joint activities elsewhere, as well as to what the investigators term using the library as a “metameeting place,” i.e., a place for finding “information about other arenas and activities” in the local community.Conclusion – The local public library seems to serve, for many of its patrons, an important function as venue for meetings of various kinds. In general, using it for meeting purposes appears to be something that appeals more to younger than to older adults, more to those in the lower than to those in the higher income categories, and more to those with an immigrant than to those with an indigenous background. The perhaps even less expected finding that use of the library for a relatively intensive, instrumental kind of meeting activity correlates significantly with a lower level of education would particularly suggest a need for further research. Noteworthy, as well, is the apparent fact that those who make use of the local public library as a venue for relatively intensive meeting activity, whether physical or virtual, tend to come to the library expressly for that purpose, and visit the library less often for other reasons than do other library users. The urban districts in which respondents resided were in fact not internally homogeneous enough, nor socio-economically distinct enough from one another, to yield correlations of practical evidentiary value.It was the researchers’ working assumption that their three independent variables of community engagement – i.e., level of participation in local activities, degree of involvement in community improvement activities, and

  20. Improving preparedness of farmers to Climate Variability: A case study of Vidarbha region of Maharashtra, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, D.; Parthasarathy, D.; Dave, P.

    2016-12-01

    A key objective of the ongoing research is to understand the risk and vulnerability of agriculture and farming communities with respect to multiple climate change attributes, particularly monsoon variability and hydrology such as ground water availability. Climate Variability has always been a feature affecting Indian agriculture but the nature and characteristics of this variability is not well understood. Indian monsoon patterns are highly variable and most of the studies focus on larger domain such as Central India or Western coast (Ghosh et al., 2009) but district level analysis is missing i.e. the linkage between agriculture and climate variables at finer scale has not been investigated comprehensively. For example, Eastern Vidarbha region in Maharashtra is considered as one of the most agriculturally sensitive region in India, where every year a large number of farmers commit suicide. The main reasons for large number of suicides are climate related stressors such as droughts, hail storms, and monsoon variability aggravated with poor socio-economic conditions. Present study has tried to explore the areas in Vidarbha region of Maharashtra where famers and crop productivity, specifically cotton, sorghum, is highly vulnerable to monsoon variability, hydrological and socio-economic variables which are further modelled to determine the maximal contributing factor towards crops and farmers' vulnerability. After analysis using primary and secondary data, it will aid in decision making regarding field operations such as time of sowing, harvesting and irrigation requirements by optimizing the cropping pattern with climatic, hydrological and socio-economic variables. It also suggests the adaptation strategies to farmers regarding different types of cropping and water harvesting practices, optimized dates and timings for harvesting, sowing, water and nutrient requirements of particular crops according to the specific region. Primarily along with secondary analysis

  1. Geospatial Analysis of Climate-Related Changes in North American Arctic Ecosystems and Implications for Terrestrial Flora and Fauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirazodi, S.; Griffin, R.

    2016-12-01

    Climate change induces range shifts among many terrestrial species in Arctic regions. At best, warming often forces poleward migration if a stable environment is to be maintained. At worst, marginal ecosystems may disappear entirely without a contiguous shift allowing migratory escape to similar environs. These changing migration patterns and poleward range expansion push species into higher latitudes where ecosystems are less stable and more sensitive to change. This project focuses on ecosystem geography and interspecies relationships and interactions by analyzing seasonality and changes over time in variables including the following: temperature, precipitation, vegetation, physical boundaries, population demographics, permafrost, sea ice, and food and water availability. Publicly available data from remote sensing platforms are used throughout, and processed with both commercially available and open sourced GIS tools. This analysis describes observed range changes for selected North American species, and attempts to provide insight into the causes and effects of these phenomena. As the responses to climate change are complex and varied, the goal is to produce the aforementioned results in an easily understood set of geospatial representations to better support decision making regarding conservation prioritization and enable adaptive responses and mitigation strategies.

  2. Climate-related environmental stress in intertidal grazers: scaling-up biochemical responses to assemblage-level processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Maggi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Organisms are facing increasing levels of environmental stress under climate change that may severely affect the functioning of biological systems at different levels of organization. Growing evidence suggests that reduction in body size is a universal response of organisms to global warming. However, a clear understanding of whether extreme climate events will impose selection directly on phenotypic plastic responses and how these responses affect ecological interactions has remained elusive. Methods We experimentally investigated the effects of extreme desiccation events on antioxidant defense mechanisms of a rocky intertidal gastropod (Patella ulyssiponensis, and evaluated how these effects scaled-up at the population and assemblage levels. Results With increasing levels of desiccation stress, limpets showed significant lower levels of total glutathione, tended to grow less and had reduced per capita interaction strength on their resources. Discussion Results suggested that phenotypic plasticity (i.e., reduction in adults’ body size allowed buffering biochemical responses to stress to scale-up at the assemblage level. Unveiling the linkages among different levels of biological organization is key to develop indicators that can anticipate large-scale ecological impacts of climate change.

  3. Climate-related changes of soil characteristics affect bacterial community composition and function of high altitude and latitude lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rofner, Carina; Peter, Hannes; Catalán, Núria; Drewes, Fabian; Sommaruga, Ruben; Pérez, María Teresa

    2017-06-01

    Lakes at high altitude and latitude are typically unproductive ecosystems where external factors outweigh the relative importance of in-lake processes, making them ideal sentinels of climate change. Climate change is inducing upward vegetation shifts at high altitude and latitude regions that translate into changes in the pools of soil organic matter. Upon mobilization, this allochthonous organic matter may rapidly alter the composition and function of lake bacterial communities. Here, we experimentally simulate this potential climate-change effect by exposing bacterioplankton of two lakes located above the treeline, one in the Alps and one in the subarctic region, to soil organic matter from below and above the treeline. Changes in bacterial community composition, diversity and function were followed for 72 h. In the subarctic lake, soil organic matter from below the treeline reduced bulk and taxon-specific phosphorus uptake, indicating that bacterial phosphorus limitation was alleviated compared to organic matter from above the treeline. These effects were less pronounced in the alpine lake, suggesting that soil properties (phosphorus and dissolved organic carbon availability) and water temperature further shaped the magnitude of response. The rapid bacterial succession observed in both lakes indicates that certain taxa directly benefited from soil sources. Accordingly, the substrate uptake profiles of initially rare bacteria (copiotrophs) indicated that they are one of the main actors cycling soil-derived carbon and phosphorus. Our work suggests that climate-induced changes in soil characteristics affect bacterioplankton community structure and function, and in turn, the cycling of carbon and phosphorus in high altitude and latitude aquatic ecosystems. © 2016 The Authors. Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. The response of Arctic vegetation to the summer climate: relation between shrub cover, NDVI, surface albedo and temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blok, Daan; Heijmans, Monique M P D; Berendse, Frank [Nature Conservation and Plant Ecology Group, Wageningen University, PO Box 47, 6700 AA, Wageningen (Netherlands); Schaepman-Strub, Gabriela [Institute of Evolutionary Biology and Environmental Studies, University of Zuerich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057 Zuerich (Switzerland); Bartholomeus, Harm [Centre for Geo-Information, Wageningen University, PO Box 47, 6700 AA, Wageningen (Netherlands); Maximov, Trofim C, E-mail: daan.blok@wur.nl [Biological Problems of the Cryolithozone, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Division, 41, Lenin Prospekt, Yakutsk, The Republic of Sakha, Yakutia 677980 (Russian Federation)

    2011-07-15

    Recently observed Arctic greening trends from normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data suggest that shrub growth is increasing in response to increasing summer temperature. An increase in shrub cover is expected to decrease summer albedo and thus positively feed back to climate warming. However, it is unknown how albedo and NDVI are affected by shrub cover and inter-annual variations in the summer climate. Here, we examine the relationship between deciduous shrub fractional cover, NDVI and albedo using field data collected at a tundra site in NE Siberia. Field data showed that NDVI increased and albedo decreased with increasing deciduous shrub cover. We then selected four Arctic tundra study areas and compiled annual growing season maximum NDVI and minimum albedo maps from MODIS satellite data (2000-10) and related these satellite products to tundra vegetation types (shrub, graminoid, barren and wetland tundra) and regional summer temperature. We observed that maximum NDVI was greatest in shrub tundra and that inter-annual variation was negatively related to summer minimum albedo but showed no consistent relationship with summer temperature. Shrub tundra showed higher albedo than wetland and barren tundra in all four study areas. These results suggest that a northwards shift of shrub tundra might not lead to a decrease in summer minimum albedo during the snow-free season when replacing wetland tundra. A fully integrative study is however needed to link results from satellite data with in situ observations across the Arctic to test the effect of increasing shrub cover on summer albedo in different tundra vegetation types.

  5. The response of Arctic vegetation to the summer climate: relation between shrub cover, NDVI, surface albedo and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blok, Daan; Heijmans, Monique M P D; Berendse, Frank; Schaepman-Strub, Gabriela; Bartholomeus, Harm; Maximov, Trofim C

    2011-01-01

    Recently observed Arctic greening trends from normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data suggest that shrub growth is increasing in response to increasing summer temperature. An increase in shrub cover is expected to decrease summer albedo and thus positively feed back to climate warming. However, it is unknown how albedo and NDVI are affected by shrub cover and inter-annual variations in the summer climate. Here, we examine the relationship between deciduous shrub fractional cover, NDVI and albedo using field data collected at a tundra site in NE Siberia. Field data showed that NDVI increased and albedo decreased with increasing deciduous shrub cover. We then selected four Arctic tundra study areas and compiled annual growing season maximum NDVI and minimum albedo maps from MODIS satellite data (2000-10) and related these satellite products to tundra vegetation types (shrub, graminoid, barren and wetland tundra) and regional summer temperature. We observed that maximum NDVI was greatest in shrub tundra and that inter-annual variation was negatively related to summer minimum albedo but showed no consistent relationship with summer temperature. Shrub tundra showed higher albedo than wetland and barren tundra in all four study areas. These results suggest that a northwards shift of shrub tundra might not lead to a decrease in summer minimum albedo during the snow-free season when replacing wetland tundra. A fully integrative study is however needed to link results from satellite data with in situ observations across the Arctic to test the effect of increasing shrub cover on summer albedo in different tundra vegetation types.

  6. Placebo-suggestion modulates conflict resolution in the Stroop Task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro A Magalhães De Saldanha da Gama

    Full Text Available Here, we ask whether placebo-suggestion (without any form of hypnotic induction can modulate the resolution of cognitive conflict. Naïve participants performed a Stroop Task while wearing an EEG cap described as a "brain wave" machine. In Experiment 1, participants were made to believe that the EEG cap would either enhance or decrease their color perception and performance on the Stroop task. In Experiment 2, participants were explicitly asked to imagine that their color perception and performance would be enhanced or decreased (non-hypnotic imaginative suggestion. We observed effects of placebo-suggestion on Stroop interference on accuracy: interference was decreased with positive suggestion and increased with negative suggestion compared to baseline. Intra-individual variability was also increased under negative suggestion compared to baseline. Compliance with the instruction to imagine a modulation of performance, on the other hand, did not influence accuracy and only had a negative impact on response latencies and on intra-individual variability, especially in the congruent condition of the Stroop Task. Taken together, these results demonstrate that expectations induced by a placebo-suggestion can modulate our ability to resolve cognitive conflict, either facilitating or impairing response accuracy depending on the suggestion's contents. Our results also demonstrate a dissociation between placebo-suggestion and non-hypnotic imaginative suggestion.

  7. Structural and functional correlates of hypnotic depth and suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGeown, William Jonathan; Mazzoni, Giuliana; Vannucci, Manila; Venneri, Annalena

    2015-02-28

    This study explores whether self-reported depth of hypnosis and hypnotic suggestibility are associated with individual differences in neuroanatomy and/or levels of functional connectivity. Twenty-nine people varying in suggestibility were recruited and underwent structural, and after a hypnotic induction, functional magnetic resonance imaging at rest. We used voxel-based morphometry to assess the correlation of grey matter (GM) and white matter (WM) against the independent variables: depth of hypnosis, level of relaxation and hypnotic suggestibility. Functional networks identified with independent components analysis were regressed with the independent variables. Hypnotic depth ratings were positively correlated with GM volume in the frontal cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Hypnotic suggestibility was positively correlated with GM volume in the left temporal-occipital cortex. Relaxation ratings did not correlate significantly with GM volume and none of the independent variables correlated with regional WM volume measures. Self-reported deeper levels of hypnosis were associated with less connectivity within the anterior default mode network. Taken together, the results suggest that the greater GM volume in the medial frontal cortex and ACC, and lower connectivity in the DMN during hypnosis facilitate experiences of greater hypnotic depth. The patterns of results suggest that hypnotic depth and hypnotic suggestibility should not be considered synonyms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Palaeolimnological evidence of vulnerability of Lake Neusiedl (Austria) toward climate related changes since the last "vanished-lake" stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolotti, Monica; Milan, Manuela; Boscaini, Adriano; Soja, Gerhard; Herzig, Alois

    2013-04-01

    The palaeolimnological reconstruction of secular evolution of Euroepan Lakes with key socio-economical relevance respect to large (climate change) and local scale (land use, tourism) environmental changes, represents one of the objectives of the project EuLakes (European Lakes Under Environmental Stressors, Supporting lake governance to mitigate the impact of climate change, Reg. N. 2CE243P3), launched in 2010 within the Central European Inititiative. The project consortium comprises lakes of different morphology and prevalent human uses, including the meso-eutrophic Lake Neusiedl, the largest Austrian lake (total area 315 km2), and the westernmost shallow (mean depth 1.2 m) steppe lake of the Euro-Asiatic continent. The volume of Lake Neusiedl can potentially change over the years, in relation with changing balance between atmospheric precipitation and lake water evapotranspiration. Changing water budget, together with high lake salinity and turbidity, have important implications over the lake ecosystem. This contribution illustrates results of the multi-proxi palaeolimnological reconstruction of ecologial changes occurred in Lake Neusiedl during the last ca. 140 years, i.e. since the end of the last "vanished-lake" stage (1865-1871). Geochemical and biological proxies anticipate the increase in lake productivity of ca. 10 years (1950s) respect to what reported in the literature. Diatom species composition indicate a biological lake recovery in the late 1980s, and suggest a second increment in lake productivity since the late 1990s, possibly in relation with the progressive increase in the nitrogen input from agriculture. Abundance of diatoms typical of brackish waters indicated no significant long-term change in lake salinity, while variations in species toleranting dessiccation confirm the vulnerability of Lake Neusiedl toward climate-driven changes in the lake water balance. This fragility is aggravated by the the semi-arid climate conditions of the catchemnt

  9. Pulsating variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The study of stellar pulsations is a major route to the understanding of stellar structure and evolution. At the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) the following stellar pulsation studies were undertaken: rapidly oscillating Ap stars; solar-like oscillations in stars; 8-Scuti type variability in a classical Am star; Beta Cephei variables; a pulsating white dwarf and its companion; RR Lyrae variables and galactic Cepheids. 4 figs

  10. Suggestibility and negative priming: two replication studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Daniel; Brown, Richard J

    2002-07-01

    Research suggests that inhibiting the effect of irrelevant stimuli on subsequent thought and action (cognitive inhibition) may be an important component of suggestibility. Two small correlation studies were conducted to address the relationship between different aspects of suggestibility and individual differences in cognitive inhibition, operationalized as the degree of negative priming generated by to-be-ignored stimuli in a semantic categorization task. The first study found significant positive correlations between negative priming, hypnotic suggestibility, and creative imagination; a significant negative correlation was obtained between negative priming and interrogative suggestibility, demonstrating the discriminant validity of the study results. The second study replicated the correlation between negative priming and hypnotic suggestibility, using a different suggestibility measurement procedure that assessed subjective experience and hypnotic involuntariness as well as objective responses to suggestions. These studies support the notion that the ability to engage in cognitive inhibition may be an important component of hypnotic responsivity and maybe of other forms of suggestibility.

  11. Climate variables explain neutral and adaptive variation within salmonid metapopulations: The importance of replication in landscape genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Brian K.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Wade, Alisa A.; Kovach, Ryan; Whited, Diane C.; Narum, Shawn R.; Matala, Andrew P.; Ackerman, Michael W.; Garner, B. A.; Kimball, John S; Stanford, Jack A.; Luikart, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how environmental variation influences population genetic structure is important for conservation management because it can reveal how human stressors influence population connectivity, genetic diversity and persistence. We used riverscape genetics modelling to assess whether climatic and habitat variables were related to neutral and adaptive patterns of genetic differentiation (population-specific and pairwise FST) within five metapopulations (79 populations, 4583 individuals) of steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the Columbia River Basin, USA. Using 151 putatively neutral and 29 candidate adaptive SNP loci, we found that climate-related variables (winter precipitation, summer maximum temperature, winter highest 5% flow events and summer mean flow) best explained neutral and adaptive patterns of genetic differentiation within metapopulations, suggesting that climatic variation likely influences both demography (neutral variation) and local adaptation (adaptive variation). However, we did not observe consistent relationships between climate variables and FST across all metapopulations, underscoring the need for replication when extrapolating results from one scale to another (e.g. basin-wide to the metapopulation scale). Sensitivity analysis (leave-one-population-out) revealed consistent relationships between climate variables and FST within three metapopulations; however, these patterns were not consistent in two metapopulations likely due to small sample sizes (N = 10). These results provide correlative evidence that climatic variation has shaped the genetic structure of steelhead populations and highlight the need for replication and sensitivity analyses in land and riverscape genetics.

  12. Suggestibility and Expectancy in a Counseling Analogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Theodore J.; Parker, Clyde A.

    1971-01-01

    The data indicated that (a) subjectively experienced suggestibility was more closely related to attitude change than was objective suggestibility, and (b) the generalized expectancy treatments were ineffective in influencing different criterion scores. (Author)

  13. Cognitive Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Robert S.

    2007-01-01

    Children's thinking is highly variable at every level of analysis, from neural and associative levels to the level of strategies, theories, and other aspects of high-level cognition. This variability exists within people as well as between them; individual children often rely on different strategies or representations on closely related problems…

  14. Evidentiality and Suggestibility: A New Research Venue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Cagla; Ceci, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    Recent research suggests that acquisition of mental-state language may influence conceptual development. We examine this possibility by investigating the conceptual links between evidentiality in language and suggestibility. Young children are disproportionately suggestible and tend to change their reports or memories when questioned. The authors…

  15. The Effects of Suggestibility on Relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickard, Henry C.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Selected undergraduates (N=32) on the basis of Creative Imagination Scale scores and randomly assigned high and low suggestibility subjects to progressive relaxation (PR) and suggestions of relaxation (SR) training modes. Results revealed a significant pre-post relaxation effect, and main efffects for both suggestibility and training mode. (NRB)

  16. Reinventing suggestion systems for continuous improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuring, R.W.; Luijten, Harald

    2001-01-01

    This article reports an experiment to increase the effectiveness of a suggestion system by deliberately applying principles of the kaizen and performance management. Design rules for suggestion systems are derived from these theories. The suggestion system that resulted differs from traditional

  17. The influence of suggestibility on memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, Serge; Collins, Thérèse; Gounden, Yannick; Roediger, Henry L

    2011-06-01

    We provide a translation of Binet and Henri's pioneering 1894 paper on the influence of suggestibility on memory. Alfred Binet (1857-1911) is famous as the author who created the IQ test that bears his name, but he is almost unknown as the psychological investigator who generated numerous original experiments and fascinating results in the study of memory. His experiments published in 1894 manipulated suggestibility in several ways to determine effects on remembering. Three particular modes of suggestion were employed to induce false recognitions: (1) indirect suggestion by a preconceived idea; (2) direct suggestion; and (3) collective suggestion. In the commentary we suggest that Binet and Henri's (1894) paper written over 115 years ago is still highly relevant even today. In particular, Binet's legacy lives on in modern research on misinformation effects in memory, in studies of conformity, and in experiments on the social contagion of memory. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The relationships between suggestibility, influenceability, and relaxability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polczyk, Romuald; Frey, Olga; Szpitalak, Malwina

    2013-01-01

    This research explores the relationships between relaxability and various aspects of suggestibility and influenceability. The Jacobson Progressive Muscle Relaxation procedure was used to induce relaxation. Tests of direct suggestibility, relating to the susceptibility of overt suggestions, and indirect suggestibility, referring to indirect hidden influence, as well as self-description questionnaires on suggestibility and the tendency to comply were used. Thayer's Activation-Deactivation Adjective Check List, measuring various kinds of activation and used as a pre- and posttest, determined the efficacy of the relaxation procedure. Indirect, direct, and self-measured suggestibility proved to be positively related to the ability to relax, measured by Thayer's subscales relating to emotions. Compliance was not related to relaxability. The results are discussed in terms of the aspects of relaxation training connected with suggestibility.

  19. Adapting to Climate Variability and Change: Experiences from Cereal-Based Farming in the Central Rift and Kobo Valleys, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kassie, B.T.; Hengsdijk, H.; Rötter, R.; Kahiluoto, H.; Asseng, S.; Ittersum, van M.K.

    2013-01-01

    Small-holder farmers in Ethiopia are facing several climate related hazards, in particular highly variable rainfall with severe droughts which can have devastating effects on their livelihoods. Projected changes in climate are expected to aggravate the existing challenges. This study examines farmer

  20. Effects of stereotypes and suggestion on memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shechory, Mally; Nachson, Israel; Glicksohn, Joseph

    2010-02-01

    In this study, the interactive effect of stereotype and suggestion on accuracy of memory was examined by presenting 645 participants (native Israelis and immigrants from the former Soviet Union and Ethiopia) with three versions of a story about a worker who is waiting in a manager's office for a meeting. All versions were identical except for the worker's name, which implied a Russian or an Ethiopian immigrant or a person of no ethnic origin. Each participant was presented with one version of the story. After an hour delay, the participants' memories were tested via two questionnaires that differed in terms of level of suggestion. Data analyses show that (a) when a suggestion matched the participant's stereotypical perception, the suggestion was incorporated into memory but (b) when the suggestion contradicted the stereotype, it did not influence memory. The conclusion was that recall is influenced by stereotypes but can be enhanced by compatible suggestions.

  1. Behavioural Decision Making and Suggestional Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Molz, Günter

    2001-01-01

    Common features between the domains of behavioural decision making and suggestional processes are discussed. These features are allocated in two aspects. First, behavioural decision making and suggestional processes are traditionally considered to provoke inadequate human behaviour. In this article arguments are put forward against this interpretation: Actions induced by non-rational decisions and / or by suggestional processes often have adaptive functions. Second, two common themat...

  2. Interrogative suggestibility in patients with conversion disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foong, J; Lucas, P A; Ron, M A

    1997-09-01

    We tested the hypothesis that increased interrogative suggestibility may contribute to the shaping and maintaining of conversions symptoms. Interrogative suggestibility was measured in 12 patients with conversion disorder and 10 control patients with confirmed neurological disease matched for age, premorbid intelligence, and as closely as possible in terms of their neurological symptoms to the patients with conversion disorder. Our observations do not support the contention that individual differences in interrogative suggestibility are of importance in the etiology of conversion disorders.

  3. Personality Styles and Suggestibility: A Differential Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Pires, Rute; Silva, Danilo R.; Ferreira, Ana Sousa

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses the relationship between personality styles measured with the Portuguese adaptation of the Millon Index of Personality Styles Revised – MIPS-R and interrogative suggestibility assessed by the Portuguese adaptation of the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale – GSS1. Hypotheses predicted individual differences in suggestibility and that these differences correspond to differences in individuals’ personality styles. The study was conducted with a sample of 258 individuals (M age ...

  4. Interrogative suggestibility and perceptual motor performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudjonsson, G H

    1984-04-01

    This study investigates the relationship between interrogative suggestibility, as measured by the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale, and Arrow-Dot scores. The tendency of subjects (25 men and 25 women, mean age 30.2 yr.) to alter their answers once interpersonal pressure had been applied correlated significantly with poor Arrow-Dot Ego functioning.

  5. Maltreated Children's Memory: Accuracy, Suggestibility, and Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, Mitchell L.; Goodman, Gail S.; Qin, Jianjian; Davis, Suzanne; Crayton, John

    2007-01-01

    Memory, suggestibility, stress arousal, and trauma-related psychopathology were examined in 328 3- to 16-year-olds involved in forensic investigations of abuse and neglect. Children's memory and suggestibility were assessed for a medical examination and venipuncture. Being older and scoring higher in cognitive functioning were related to fewer…

  6. Rapidly variable relatvistic absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, M.; Pinto, C.; Fabian, A.; Lohfink, A.; Buisson, D.; Alston, W.; Jiang, J.

    2017-10-01

    I will present results from the 1.5Ms XMM-Newton observing campaign on the most X-ray variable AGN, IRAS 13224-3809. We find a series of nine absorption lines with a velocity of 0.24c from an ultra-fast outflow. For the first time, we are able to see extremely rapid variability of the UFO features, and can link this to the X-ray variability from the inner accretion disk. We find a clear flux dependence of the outflow features, suggesting that the wind is ionized by increasing X-ray emission.

  7. LSD enhances suggestibility in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carhart-Harris, R L; Kaelen, M; Whalley, M G; Bolstridge, M; Feilding, A; Nutt, D J

    2015-02-01

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) has a history of use as a psychotherapeutic aid in the treatment of mood disorders and addiction, and it was also explored as an enhancer of mind control. The present study sought to test the effect of LSD on suggestibility in a modern research study. Ten healthy volunteers were administered with intravenous (i.v.) LSD (40-80 μg) in a within-subject placebo-controlled design. Suggestibility and cued mental imagery were assessed using the Creative Imagination Scale (CIS) and a mental imagery test (MIT). CIS and MIT items were split into two versions (A and B), balanced for 'efficacy' (i.e. A ≈ B) and counterbalanced across conditions (i.e. 50 % completed version 'A' under LSD). The MIT and CIS were issued 110 and 140 min, respectively, post-infusion, corresponding with the peak drug effects. Volunteers gave significantly higher ratings for the CIS (p = 0.018), but not the MIT (p = 0.11), after LSD than placebo. The magnitude of suggestibility enhancement under LSD was positively correlated with trait conscientiousness measured at baseline (p = 0.0005). These results imply that the influence of suggestion is enhanced by LSD. Enhanced suggestibility under LSD may have implications for its use as an adjunct to psychotherapy, where suggestibility plays a major role. That cued imagery was unaffected by LSD implies that suggestions must be of a sufficient duration and level of detail to be enhanced by the drug. The results also imply that individuals with high trait conscientiousness are especially sensitive to the suggestibility-enhancing effects of LSD.

  8. Complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, Stephen D

    1999-01-01

    The most important topics in the theory and application of complex variables receive a thorough, coherent treatment in this introductory text. Intended for undergraduates or graduate students in science, mathematics, and engineering, this volume features hundreds of solved examples, exercises, and applications designed to foster a complete understanding of complex variables as well as an appreciation of their mathematical beauty and elegance. Prerequisites are minimal; a three-semester course in calculus will suffice to prepare students for discussions of these topics: the complex plane, basic

  9. Factor structure of suggestibility revisited: new evidence for direct and indirect suggestibility

    OpenAIRE

    Romuald Polczyk

    2016-01-01

    Background Yielding to suggestions can be viewed as a relatively stable individual trait, called suggestibility. It has been long proposed that there are two kinds of suggestible influence, and two kinds of suggestibility corresponding to them: direct and indirect. Direct suggestion involves overt unhidden influence, while indirect suggestion concerns influence that is hidden, and the participant does not know that the suggestibility is being measured. So far however, empirical evidence ...

  10. Variably hungry caterpillars: predictive models and foliar chemistry suggest how to eat a rainforest

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Segar, Simon Tristram; Volf, Martin; Isua, B.; Sisol, M.; Redmond, Conor; Rosati, M. E.; Gewa, B.; Molem, K.; Dahl, Chris; Holloway, J. D.; Basset, Yves; Miller, S. E.; Weiblen, G. D.; Salminen, J.-P.; Novotný, Vojtěch

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 284, č. 1866 (2017), č. článku 20171803. ISSN 0962-8452 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-23862S; GA ČR GA15-24571S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 669609 - Diversity6continents Grant - others:European Social Fund(CZ) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/30.0006 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : biodiversity * food webs * Geometridae Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 4.940, year: 2016 http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/royprsb/284/1866/20171803.full.pdf

  11. Examining Basin-Scale Water and Climate Relations across the Pampa del Tamarugal, Atacama Desert through Spatial Analysis of Hydrogen, Carbon and Oxygen Isotopes in Tree Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, E. J.; Dodd, J. P.; Rivera, M. A.

    2016-12-01

    Arid regions are extremely sensitive to variations hydroclimate. However, our understanding of past hydroclimate variations in these regions is often limited by a paucity of spatially resolved proxy data. The Atacama Desert of northern Chile is one of the driest regions on Earth, and hydroclimatic processes in the Atacama Desert may be a useful proxy for understanding the implications of expanding global aridity. In order to assess the ability of tree-ring isotope studies to record changes in hydrology and terrestrial climate in the Atacama Desert, oxygen (δ18O), carbon (δ13C) and hydrogen (δ2H) isotope values in tree rings of Prosopis tamarugo are analyzed for the modern period (1954-2014) when anthropogenic change to regional groundwater levels have been most notable. Samples of wood cellulose were collected throughout the Pampa del Tamarugal basin from 14 individuals and used to create an interpolated surface of isotope variations. The isotope data were then compared to groundwater depth from well monitoring data provided by the Dirección de General de Agua of Chile. There is a significant correlation between groundwater level and isotope values with best agreement occurring during the past two decades for δ18O (r = 0.58), δ13C (r = 0.55), and δ2H (r = 0.66) values. This spatial correlation analysis reveals that tree ring a-cellulose isotope values are a suitable proxy for reconstructing groundwater depth in the Pampa del Tamarugal Basin. A stepwise multiregression analysis between δ18O values of cellulose and several other environmental variables including groundwater level, relative humidity, and temperature suggest that groundwater depth is the dominate control of variation in the modern δ18O tree ring record. The response of tree cellulose to the hydroclimate in this region suggests that tree ring isotope variations may be used to reconstruct past hydroclimate conditions in arid regions throughout the globe.

  12. Measuring Children's Suggestibility in Forensic Interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpini, Laura; Melis, Manuela; Petralia, Stefania; Rosenberg, Melina D

    2016-01-01

    According to the scientific literature, childrens' cognitive development is not complete until adolescence. Therefore, the problems inherent in children serving as witnesses are crucial. In preschool-aged children, false memories may be identified because of misinformation and insight bias. Additionally, they are susceptible of suggestions. The aim of this study was to verify the levels of suggestibility in children between three and 5 years of age. Ninety-two children were examined (44 male, 48 female; M = 4.5 years, SD = 9.62). We used the correlation coefficient (Pearson's r) and the averages variance by SPSS statistical program. The results concluded that: younger children are almost always more susceptible to suggestibility. The dimension of immediate recall was negatively correlates with that of total suggestibility (r = -0.357 p suggestibility, because older children shift their answers more often (r = 0.394 p < 0.001). Younger children change their answers more times (r = -0.395 p < 0.001). © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  13. Impulsivity, self-control, and hypnotic suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, V U; Stelzel, C; Krutiak, H; Prunkl, C E; Steimke, R; Paschke, L M; Kathmann, N; Walter, H

    2013-06-01

    Hypnotic responding might be due to attenuated frontal lobe functioning after the hypnotic induction. Little is known about whether personality traits linked with frontal functioning are associated with responsiveness to hypnotic suggestions. We assessed whether hypnotic suggestibility is related to the traits of self-control and impulsivity in 154 participants who completed the Brief Self-Control Scale, the Self-Regulation Scale, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11), and the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility (HGSHS:A). BIS-11 non-planning impulsivity correlated positively with HGSHS:A (Bonferroni-corrected). Furthermore, in the best model emerging from a stepwise multiple regression, both non-planning impulsivity and self-control positively predicted hypnotic suggestibility, and there was an interaction of BIS-11 motor impulsivity with gender. For men only, motor impulsivity tended to predict hypnotic suggestibility. Hypnotic suggestibility is associated with personality traits linked with frontal functioning, and hypnotic responding in men and women might differ. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Variable stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feast, M.W.; Wenzel, W.; Fernie, J.D.; Percy, J.R.; Smak, J.; Gascoigne, S.C.B.; Grindley, J.E.; Lovell, B.; Sawyer Hogg, H.B.; Baker, N.; Fitch, W.S.; Rosino, L.; Gursky, H.

    1976-01-01

    A critical review of variable stars is presented. A fairly complete summary of major developments and discoveries during the period 1973-1975 is given. The broad developments and new trends are outlined. Essential problems for future research are identified. (B.R.H. )

  15. Overview of the SBS 2016 Suggestion Track

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koolen, Marijn; Bogers, Toine; Jaap, Kamps

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the SBS 2016 Suggestion Track is to evaluate approaches for supporting users in searching collections of books who express their information needs both in a query and through example books. The track investigates the complex nature of relevance in book search and the role of traditional...... and user-generated book metadata in retrieval. We consolidated last year’s investigation into the nature of book suggestions from the LibraryThing forums and how they compare to book relevance judgements. Participants were encouraged to incorporate rich user profiles of both topic creators and other...

  16. Leadership Theories--Managing Practices, Challenges, Suggestions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Cheryl

    2009-01-01

    A shortage of community college executives due to the number of retirements occurring among current leaders is predicted. An examination of three leadership theories--servant-leadership, business leadership and transformational leadership--suggests techniques for potential community college leaders. Servant-leaders focus on the needs of their…

  17. Seven Salutary Suggestions for Counselor Stamina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Cynthia J.

    2004-01-01

    Counselor stamina is deemed essential in the midst of a consistently challenging, complex, and changing mental health care environment. Rather than perpetuating conversations about "burnout" and "burnout prevention," this article provides a salutary or health-promoting perspective. Seven suggestions for counselor stamina are presented and…

  18. Interrogative Suggestibility in an Adolescent Forensic Occupation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, G.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Sixty-five juvenile offenders in residential care completed the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale, and their scores were matched for IQ and memory with those of 60 adult offenders. The juveniles gave in significantly more to interrogative pressure through negative feedback but were no more yielding to leading questions than adults. (JPS)

  19. Evidence Suggesting Absence of Mitochondrial DNA Methylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mechta, Mie; Ingerslev, Lars R; Fabre, Odile

    2017-01-01

    , 16S, ND5 and CYTB, suggesting that mtDNA supercoiled structure blocks the access to bisulfite conversion. Here, we identified an artifact of mtDNA bisulfite sequencing that can lead to an overestimation of mtDNA methylation levels. Our study supports that cytosine methylation is virtually absent...

  20. Didactic Experiments Suggest Enhanced Learning Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pals Svendsen, Lisbet

    2011-01-01

    and presenting material in the language studied, just as they were encouraged to systematically use evaluation processes to enhance learning outcomes. Eventually, increased grade point averages suggested that the experiment was successful. The article also mentions subsequent revisions to the original format...

  1. Do astrophysical measurements suggest massive neutrinos?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.; Fazal-e-Aleem; Rashid, H.

    1996-01-01

    We discuss the solar neutrino puzzle and suggest modification in the standard solar model. It has been observed that the discrepancy between experimental measurements and theoretically produced values can be removed by considering neutrinos to process non-zero mass. (author)

  2. The role of tag suggestions in folksonomies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bollen, D.G.F.M.; Halpin, H.

    2009-01-01

    Most tagging systems support the user in the tag selection process by providing tag suggestions, or recommendations, based on a popularity measurement of tags other users provided when tagging the same resource. The majority of theories and mathematical models of tagging found in the literature

  3. Cable Television Report and Suggested Ordinance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    League of California Cities, Sacramento.

    Guidelines and suggested ordinances for cable television regulation by local governments are comprehensively discussed in this report. The emphasis is placed on franchising the cable operator. Seventeen legal aspects of franchising are reviewed, and an exemplary ordinance is presented. In addition, current statistics about cable franchising in…

  4. Suggestions for Structuring a Research Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, James D.; Reiser, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers often experience difficulty as they attempt to prepare journal articles that describe their work. The purpose of this article is to provide researchers in the field of education with a series of suggestions as to how to clearly structure each section of a research manuscript that they intend to submit for publication in a scholarly…

  5. Family Living: Suggestions for Effective Parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Lilian G.; And Others

    Suggestions for effective parenting of preschool children are provided in 33 brief articles on children's feelings concerning self-esteem; fear; adopted children; the birth of a sibling; death; depression; and coping with stress, trauma, and divorce. Children's behavior is discussed in articles on toddlers' eating habits, punishment and…

  6. Overview of the SBS 2016 Suggestion Track

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koolen, Marijn; Bogers, Toine; Jaap, Kamps

    2016-01-01

    and user-generated book metadata in retrieval. We consolidated last year’s investigation into the nature of book suggestions from the LibraryThing forums and how they compare to book relevance judgements. Participants were encouraged to incorporate rich user profiles of both topic creators and other...

  7. Accounting: Suggested Content for Postsecondary Tax Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Patricia H.; Morgan, Samuel D.

    1978-01-01

    Surveys of community college graduates and of certified public accountants were made to determine employment relevance of the accounting curriculum. The article suggests topics from the study data which should be included in taxation courses, e.g., income tax accounting, corporate taxation accounting, and tax law. (MF)

  8. Differential hippocampal gene expression is associated with climate-related natural variation in memory and the hippocampus in food-caching chickadees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pravosudov, V V; Roth, T C; Forister, M L; Ladage, L D; Kramer, R; Schilkey, F; van der Linden, A M

    2013-01-01

    There is significant and often heritable variation in cognition and its underlying neural mechanisms, yet specific genetic contributions to such variation are not well characterized. Black-capped chickadees present a good model to investigate the genetic basis of cognition because they exhibit tremendous climate-related variation in memory, hippocampal morphology and neurogenesis rates throughout the North American continent, and these cognitive traits appear to have a heritable basis. We examined the hippocampal transcriptome profiles of laboratory-reared chickadees from the two most divergent populations to test whether differential gene expression in the hippocampus is associated with population differences in spatial memory, hippocampal morphology and adult hippocampal neurogenesis rates. Using high-resolution mRNA sequencing coupled to a de novo transcriptome assembly, we generated 23 295 consensus sequences, which predicted 16 206 protein sequences with 13 982 showing high similarity to known protein sequences or conserved hypothetical proteins in other species. Of these, we identified differential expression in nearly 380 genes, with 47 genes specifically linked to neurogenesis, apoptosis, synaptic function, and learning and memory processes. Many of the other differentially expressed genes, however, may be associated with other functions. Our study presents the first avian hippocampal transcriptome, and it is the first study identifying differential gene expression associated with natural variation in cognition and the hippocampus. Our results provide additional support to the hypothesis that population differences in memory, hippocampal morphology and neurogenesis in chickadees have likely resulted from natural selection that appears to act on memory and its underlying neural mechanisms. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Suggestion of a conventional Islamic calendar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G. Rashed

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a complexity of the problem concerning the first sighting of the new lunar crescent, which is attributed to various astronomical, astrophysical and geographical factors. Therefore, Astronomers adopted various criteria for the new crescent visibility. Muslims around the world differ in the beginning of the Hijric months. In fact the differences are not due to different methodology of astronomical calculations, which in turn the variations of the calendar at different countries gives. Farewell Hajj of Prophet Mohamed was on Friday, the ninth of Thul'hejja of the tenth year of immigration (Biography of the Prophet Mohamed. Therefor; the beginning of the month of Thul'hejja 10 A.H is on Thursday. Our suggested calendar takes Farewell Hajj of the Prophet Mohammad to be the base of this calendar. The advantage of our suggested calendar far away from any criteria; where the adoption of criteria for the new crescent visibility is often misleading.

  10. Suggestion of a conventional Islamic calendar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashed, M. G.; Moklof, M. G.

    2017-12-01

    There is a complexity of the problem concerning the first sighting of the new lunar crescent, which is attributed to various astronomical, astrophysical and geographical factors. Therefore, Astronomers adopted various criteria for the new crescent visibility. Muslims around the world differ in the beginning of the Hijric months. In fact the differences are not due to different methodology of astronomical calculations, which in turn the variations of the calendar at different countries gives. Farewell Hajj of Prophet Mohamed was on Friday, the ninth of Thul'hejja of the tenth year of immigration (Biography of the Prophet Mohamed). Therefor; the beginning of the month of Thul'hejja 10 A.H is on Thursday. Our suggested calendar takes Farewell Hajj of the Prophet Mohammad to be the base of this calendar. The advantage of our suggested calendar far away from any criteria; where the adoption of criteria for the new crescent visibility is often misleading.

  11. Hypnotic suggestibility, cognitive inhibition, and dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dienes, Zoltán; Brown, Elizabeth; Hutton, Sam; Kirsch, Irving; Mazzoni, Giuliana; Wright, Daniel B

    2009-12-01

    We examined two potential correlates of hypnotic suggestibility: dissociation and cognitive inhibition. Dissociation is the foundation of two of the major theories of hypnosis and other theories commonly postulate that hypnotic responding is a result of attentional abilities (including inhibition). Participants were administered the Waterloo-Stanford Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form C. Under the guise of an unrelated study, 180 of these participants also completed: a version of the Dissociative Experiences Scale that is normally distributed in non-clinical populations; a latent inhibition task, a spatial negative priming task, and a memory task designed to measure negative priming. The data ruled out even moderate correlations between hypnotic suggestibility and all the measures of dissociation and cognitive inhibition overall, though they also indicated gender differences. The results are a challenge for existing theories of hypnosis.

  12. [Suggestions to improve dentist-endodontist collaboration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabalegui, B; Zabalegui, I; Flores, L

    1989-01-01

    Referrals from the general dentist to the endodontist are in some occasions complicated with lack of proper communication among dentist-patient-specialist, resulting in the loss of confidence or even the patient. Suggestions to improve this communication are discussed, which will provide the patient a higher confidence in the indicated endodontic treatment and a better dental service. It will also enhance the prestige of the general dentists' and specialists' practice.

  13. Application for Suggesting Restaurants Using Clustering Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia Alexandra IANCU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to present an application whose purpose is to make suggestions of restaurants to users. The application uses as input the descriptions of restaurants, reviews, user reviews available on the specialized Internet sites and blogs. In the application there are used processing techniques of natural language implemented using parsers, clustering algorithms and techniques for data collection from the Internet through web crawlers.

  14. Women's role in adapting to climate change and variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal-Escobar, Y.; Quintero-Angel, M.; García-Vargas, M.

    2008-04-01

    Given that women are engaged in more climate-related change activities than what is recognized and valued in the community, this article highlights their important role in the adaptation and search for safer communities, which leads them to understand better the causes and consequences of changes in climatic conditions. It is concluded that women have important knowledge and skills for orienting the adaptation processes, a product of their roles in society (productive, reproductive and community); and the importance of gender equity in these processes is recognized. The relationship among climate change, climate variability and the accomplishment of the Millennium Development Goals is considered.

  15. Individual Movement Variability Magnitudes Are Explained by Cortical Neural Variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haar, Shlomi; Donchin, Opher; Dinstein, Ilan

    2017-09-13

    Humans exhibit considerable motor variability even across trivial reaching movements. This variability can be separated into specific kinematic components such as extent and direction that are thought to be governed by distinct neural processes. Here, we report that individual subjects (males and females) exhibit different magnitudes of kinematic variability, which are consistent (within individual) across movements to different targets and regardless of which arm (right or left) was used to perform the movements. Simultaneous fMRI recordings revealed that the same subjects also exhibited different magnitudes of fMRI variability across movements in a variety of motor system areas. These fMRI variability magnitudes were also consistent across movements to different targets when performed with either arm. Cortical fMRI variability in the posterior-parietal cortex of individual subjects explained their movement-extent variability. This relationship was apparent only in posterior-parietal cortex and not in other motor system areas, thereby suggesting that individuals with more variable movement preparation exhibit larger kinematic variability. We therefore propose that neural and kinematic variability are reliable and interrelated individual characteristics that may predispose individual subjects to exhibit distinct motor capabilities. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Neural activity and movement kinematics are remarkably variable. Although intertrial variability is rarely studied, here, we demonstrate that individual human subjects exhibit distinct magnitudes of neural and kinematic variability that are reproducible across movements to different targets and when performing these movements with either arm. Furthermore, when examining the relationship between cortical variability and movement variability, we find that cortical fMRI variability in parietal cortex of individual subjects explained their movement extent variability. This enabled us to explain why some subjects

  16. Factor structure of suggestibility revisited: new evidence for direct and indirect suggestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romuald Polczyk

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Yielding to suggestions can be viewed as a relatively stable individual trait, called suggestibility. It has been long proposed that there are two kinds of suggestible influence, and two kinds of suggestibility corresponding to them: direct and indirect. Direct suggestion involves overt unhidden influence, while indirect suggestion concerns influence that is hidden, and the participant does not know that the suggestibility is being measured. So far however, empirical evidence for the existence of the two factors has been scarce. In the present study, more sophisticated and reliable tools for measuring suggestibility were applied than in the previous research, in the hope that better measurement would reveal the factor structure of suggestibility. Two tests of direct suggestibility were used: the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A, measuring hypnotic susceptibility, and the Barber Suggestibility Scale, measuring non-hypnotic direct imaginative suggestibility. Three tests served to measure indirect suggestibility: the Sensory Suggestibility Scale, measuring indirect suggestibility relating to perception; the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale, measuring the tendency to yield to suggestive questions and changing answers after negative feedback; and the Emotional Dialogs Tests, measuring the tendency to perceive nonexistent aggression. Participants and procedure In sum, 115 participants were tested, 69 women, 49 men, mean age 22.20 years, SD = 2.20. Participants were tested in two sessions, lasting for a total of four hours. Results Confirmatory factor analyses confirmed the existence of two uncorrelated factors of suggestibility: direct and indirect. Conclusions Suggestibility may indeed involve two factors, direct and indirect, and failure to discover them in previous research may be due to methodological problems.

  17. New dynamic system suggested for earth expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzpatrick, J [Asuncion Nacional Univ. (Paraguay). Inst. de Ciencias

    1972-01-01

    It is here suggested that there may have been much more radioactive materials in the deep interior of the earth than bitherto supposed. Trapped heat being generated in the interior would provide a mechanism for earth expansion. An assumption of heat generation in the deep interior of the earth of the order of 0,5 X 10-13 calories per second, per cubic centimeter, would provide sufficient thermal expansion to account for approximately 0.1 mm. change in the radius of the earth per year.

  18. Do experiments suggest a hierarchy problem?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vissani, F.

    1997-09-01

    The hierarchy problem of the scalar sector of the standard model is reformulated, emphasizing the role of experimental facts that may suggest the existence of a new physics large mass scale, for instance indications of the instability of the matter, or indications in favor of massive neutrinos. In the see-saw model for the neutrino masses a hierarchy problem arises if the mass of the right-handed neutrinos is larger than approximatively 10 7 GeV: this problem, and its possible solutions, are discussed. (author)

  19. The effect of posthypnotic suggestion, hypnotic suggestibility, and goal intentions on adherence to medical instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Claudia; Mazzoni, Giuliana; Kirsch, Irving; Meo, Maria; Santandrea, Maura

    2008-04-01

    The effects of implementation intentions and posthypnotic suggestion were investigated in 2 studies. In Experiment 1, participants with high levels of hypnotic suggestibility were instructed to take placebo pills as part of an investigation of how to best enhance compliance with medical instruction. In Experiment 2, participants with high, medium, and low levels of hypnotic suggestibility were asked to run in place, take their pulse rate before, and send an e-mail report to the experimenter each day. Experiment 1 revealed enhanced adherence as a function of both implementation intentions and posthypnotic suggestion. Experiment 2 failed to find any significant main effects but found a significant interaction between suggestibility and the effects of posthypnotic suggestion. Posthypnotic suggestion enhanced adherence among high suggestible participants but lowered it among low suggestibles.

  20. Complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Flanigan, Francis J

    2010-01-01

    A caution to mathematics professors: Complex Variables does not follow conventional outlines of course material. One reviewer noting its originality wrote: ""A standard text is often preferred [to a superior text like this] because the professor knows the order of topics and the problems, and doesn't really have to pay attention to the text. He can go to class without preparation."" Not so here-Dr. Flanigan treats this most important field of contemporary mathematics in a most unusual way. While all the material for an advanced undergraduate or first-year graduate course is covered, discussion

  1. FEM effective suggestion of guitar construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Dániel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Modal analysis of the whole guitar construction was performed. The results of eigenfrequencies were obtained. Stress in strings affects not only static loading of material, but also shift of eigenfrequencies. From obtained natural frequencies for solved spectrum such frequencies were used which coincides with assumed ribs new positions of ribs were suggested. Other ribs which do not carry out the mechanical function were removed. Also static reaction was evaluated and new position of ribs was adjusted. For final model new eigenfrequencies were computed and compared with previous ones. Significant changes were revealed in low frequencies (bellow 400 Hz where fewer amounts of natural shapes were obtained. Approximately 50% were lost by adding of ribs. For chosen frequencies of equal temperament the harmonic analysis was performed. The analysis proved ability of oscillation for frequencies far of natural frequencies. The final model satisfies the requirement of minimization of static stress in material due to strings and allows very effective oscillation of top the guitar resonance board. In comparison with literature good agreement in amplitude size of front board and amount of modes in appropriate frequencies were achieved. Suggested model even offers higher amount of natural shapes in comparison with literature, namely in high frequencies. From additional comparison of eigenfrequencies and natural shapes the influence of ribs position on natural shapes was approved.

  2. Dinosaur peptides suggest mechanisms of protein survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Antonio, James D; Schweitzer, Mary H; Jensen, Shane T; Kalluri, Raghu; Buckley, Michael; Orgel, Joseph P R O

    2011-01-01

    Eleven collagen peptide sequences recovered from chemical extracts of dinosaur bones were mapped onto molecular models of the vertebrate collagen fibril derived from extant taxa. The dinosaur peptides localized to fibril regions protected by the close packing of collagen molecules, and contained few acidic amino acids. Four peptides mapped to collagen regions crucial for cell-collagen interactions and tissue development. Dinosaur peptides were not represented in more exposed parts of the collagen fibril or regions mediating intermolecular cross-linking. Thus functionally significant regions of collagen fibrils that are physically shielded within the fibril may be preferentially preserved in fossils. These results show empirically that structure-function relationships at the molecular level could contribute to selective preservation in fossilized vertebrate remains across geological time, suggest a 'preservation motif', and bolster current concepts linking collagen structure to biological function. This non-random distribution supports the hypothesis that the peptides are produced by the extinct organisms and suggests a chemical mechanism for survival.

  3. Dinosaur Peptides Suggest Mechanisms of Protein Survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Antonio, James D.; Schweitzer, Mary H.; Jensen, Shane T.; Kalluri, Raghu; Buckley, Michael; Orgel, Joseph P.R.O. (Harvard-Med); (IIT); (NCSU); (UPENN); (Manchester); (Orthovita)

    2011-09-16

    Eleven collagen peptide sequences recovered from chemical extracts of dinosaur bones were mapped onto molecular models of the vertebrate collagen fibril derived from extant taxa. The dinosaur peptides localized to fibril regions protected by the close packing of collagen molecules, and contained few acidic amino acids. Four peptides mapped to collagen regions crucial for cell-collagen interactions and tissue development. Dinosaur peptides were not represented in more exposed parts of the collagen fibril or regions mediating intermolecular cross-linking. Thus functionally significant regions of collagen fibrils that are physically shielded within the fibril may be preferentially preserved in fossils. These results show empirically that structure-function relationships at the molecular level could contribute to selective preservation in fossilized vertebrate remains across geological time, suggest a 'preservation motif', and bolster current concepts linking collagen structure to biological function. This non-random distribution supports the hypothesis that the peptides are produced by the extinct organisms and suggests a chemical mechanism for survival.

  4. Chest magnetic resonance imaging: a protocol suggestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Hochhegger

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the recent years, with the development of ultrafast sequences, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI has been established as a valuable diagnostic modality in body imaging. Because of improvements in speed and image quality, MRI is now ready for routine clinical use also in the study of pulmonary diseases. The main advantage of MRI of the lungs is its unique combination of morphological and functional assessment in a single imaging session. In this article, the authors review most technical aspects and suggest a protocol for performing chest MRI. The authors also describe the three major clinical indications for MRI of the lungs: staging of lung tumors; evaluation of pulmonary vascular diseases; and investigation of pulmonary abnormalities in patients who should not be exposed to radiation.

  5. Ultrasonographic findings of early abortion: suggested predictors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, Soon Ae; Ahn, Myoung Ock; Cha, Kwang Yul; Lee, Young Doo

    1992-01-01

    To investigate predictable ultrasonographic findings of early abortion. To investigate objective rules for the screening of abortion. Ultrasonographic examination of 111 early pregnancies between the sixth and ninth week in women who had regular 28 day menstrual cycles was performed. Ultrasonographic measurements of the gestational sac, crown rump length and fetal heart rate were performed using a linear array real time transducer with doppler ultrasonogram. All measurements of 17 early abortions were compared to those of 94 normal pregnancies. Most of early aborted pregnancies were classified correctly by discriminant analysis with G-SAC and CRL (G-SAC=0.5 CRL + 15, sensitivity 76.5%, specificity 96.8%). With the addition of FHR, 94.1% of early abortions could be predicted. In conclusion, ultrasonographic findings of early intrauterine growth retardation, small gestational sac and bradycardia can be predictable signs suggestive of poor prognosis of early pregnancies

  6. Elastic wave scattering methods: assessments and suggestions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubernatis, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    The author was asked by the meeting organizers to review and assess the developments over the past ten or so years in elastic wave scattering methods and to suggest areas of future research opportunities. He highlights the developments, focusing on what he feels were distinct steps forward in our theoretical understanding of how elastic waves interact with flaws. For references and illustrative figures, he decided to use as his principal source the proceedings of the various annual Reviews of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE). These meetings have been the main forum not only for presenting results of theoretical research but also for demonstrating the relevance of the theoretical research for the design and interpretation of experiment. In his opinion a quantitative NDE is possible only if this relevance exists, and his major objective is to discuss and illustrate the degree to which relevance has developed

  7. Maxillectomy defects: a suggested classification scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinmoladun, V I; Dosumu, O O; Olusanya, A A; Ikusika, O F

    2013-06-01

    The term "maxillectomy" has been used to describe a variety of surgical procedures for a spectrum of diseases involving a diverse anatomical site. Hence, classifications of maxillectomy defects have often made communication difficult. This article highlights this problem, emphasises the need for a uniform system of classification and suggests a classification system which is simple and comprehensive. Articles related to this subject, especially those with specified classifications of maxillary surgical defects were sourced from the internet through Google, Scopus and PubMed using the search terms maxillectomy defects classification. A manual search through available literature was also done. The review of the materials revealed many classifications and modifications of classifications from the descriptive, reconstructive and prosthodontic perspectives. No globally acceptable classification exists among practitioners involved in the management of diseases in the mid-facial region. There were over 14 classifications of maxillary defects found in the English literature. Attempts made to address the inadequacies of previous classifications have tended to result in cumbersome and relatively complex classifications. A single classification that is based on both surgical and prosthetic considerations is most desirable and is hereby proposed.

  8. Suggestion on Information Sharing for AP implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Hye Won; Kim, Min Su; Koh, Byung Marn [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Under the Additional Protocol, States should provide the IAEA with expanded declarations of activities related to the nuclear fuel cycle and other nuclear activities, and with expanded access to the relevant information and sites to allow the IAEA to verify the completeness of these declarations. The AP to the Safeguards Agreement (the Additional Protocol) was signed on June 21{sup st}, 1999 and entered into force on February 19{sup th}, 2004. ROK submitted initial declarations in August 2004. Since then, ROK has been submitting annual updated reports of initial declaration on every May 15{sup th}. To achieve successful implementation, it is necessary to collect the information for each individual article in Article 2 of the AP and verify the declared information provided by facility operators. Therefore, the cooperation among the ministries and offices concerned is a prerequisite for successful implementation of AP. Unfortunately, the formal procedure for inter-organizational information sharing and cooperation is not established. This paper will briefly outline the AP declarations and suggest the information sharing among the ministries, offices and organizations for effective and efficient implementation of AP. The State authority has responsibility for AP implementation and it should verify correctness and completeness of the information declared by facility operators before submitting the declarations. The close cooperation and information sharing among the ministries, offices and organizations are indispensable to effective and efficient implementation of AP.

  9. [Evidence that suggest the reality of reincarnation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, Ernesto

    2015-06-01

    Worldwide, children can be found who reported that they have memories of a previous life. More than 2,500 cases have been studied and their specifications have been published and preserved in the archives of the Division of Perceptual Studies at the University of Virginia (United States). Many of those children come from countries where the majority of the inhabitants believe in reincarnation, but others come from countries with different cultures and religions that reject it. In many cases, the revelations of the children have been verified and have corresponded to a particular individual, already dead. A good number of these children have marks and birth defects corresponding to wounds on the body of his previous personality. Many have behaviors related to their claims to their former life: phobias, philias, and attachments. Others seem to recognize people and places of his supposed previous life, and some of their assertions have been made under controlled conditions. The hypothesis of reincarnation is controversial. We can never say that it does not occur, or will obtain conclusive evidence that it happens. The cases that have been described so far, isolated or combined, do not provide irrefutable proof of reincarnation, but they supply evidence that suggest its reality.

  10. Consumer hypnotic-like suggestibility: possible mechanism in compulsive purchasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prete, M Irene; Guido, Gianluigi; Pichierri, Marco

    2013-08-01

    The authors hypothesize a concept, Consumer Hypnotic-Like Suggestibility (CHLS), defined as an altered state of consciousness, as a state causing a tendency to respond positively to messages aimed at inducing consumers to make unplanned purchases. This study aims to investigate the associations of CHLS with interpersonal variables and compulsive purchasing--a frequent and uncontrollable preoccupation with buying or impulses to buy. A study was conducted on a sample of 232 subjects (n = 111 men; M age = 41 yr.), through the administration of a questionnaire, which measured: CHLS, compulsive purchasing, consumer susceptibility to interpersonal influence (the necessity to enhance one's image in the opinion of others through the consumption of products), and consumer atmospherics, i.e., environmental stimuli known to influence purchasing decisions. Modeling and mediation analyses suggested that internal and external drivers--Consumer Susceptibility to Interpersonal Influence and atmospherics--are positively related to CHLS which affects compulsive purchasing.

  11. Employee suggestion programs: the rewards of involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, J M; McKendall, M

    1993-09-01

    Successful ESPs are the products of a great deal of effort by managers, administrators, teams, individuals, and reviewers, who are all striving to achieve the goals of increased profitability and enhanced employee involvement. A review of the literature indicates that there are several prescriptions that will increase the likelihood of a successful ESP (see the box). Today's American business prophets sound ceaseless calls to arms in the name of "world class performance," "global competitiveness," "total quality management," and a variety of other buzz terms. A burgeoning industry has evolved that promises, through speeches, teleconferences, seminars, and consulting contracts, to teach American organizations how to achieve excellence. In the face of a sputtering economy and unrelenting competitive pressure, today's managers must translate these laudatory ideals into hands-on reality without sacrificing the firm's profit margin to experimentation. If any idea can help an organization achieve improvement through a workable program, then that idea and that program deserve real consideration. An ESP represents an opportunity to tap the intelligence and resourcefulness of an organization's employees, and by doing so, reap significant cost savings. Those companies and managers that have an ESP program uniformly list economic advantages first when describing the benefits of their employee suggestion programs. But there is another deeper and longer term benefit inherent in an ESP. These programs allow employees to become involved in their organization; they drive deaccession to lower levels, they give employees more responsibility, they foster creative approaches to work, and they encourage creativity in pursuit of company goals.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Suggestions for an updated fusion power program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, J.F.

    1976-02-01

    This document contains suggestions for a revised CTR Program strategy which should allow us to achieve equivalent goals while operating within the above constraints. The revised program is designed around three major facilities. The first is an upgrading of the present TFTR facility which will provide a demonstration of the generation of tens of megawatts electric equivalent originally envisioned for the 1985 EPR. The second device is the TTAP which will allow the integration and optimization of the plasma physics results obtained from the next generation of plasma physics experiments. The improvement in tokamak reactor operation resulting from this optimization of fusion plasma performance will enable an EPR to be designed which will produce several hundred megawatts of electric power by 1990. This will move the fusion program much closer to its goal of commercial fusion power by the turn of the century. In addition to this function the TTAP will serve as a prototype of the 1990 EPR system, thus making more certain the successful operation of this device. The third element of this revised program is an intense radiation damage facility which will provide the radiation damage information necessary for the EPR and subsequent fusion reactor facilities. The sum total of experience gained from reacting plasma experiments on TFTR, reactor grade plasma optimization and technological prototyping on TTAP, and end of life radiation damage results from the intense neutron facility will solve all of the presently foreseen problems associated with a tokamak fusion power reactor except those associated with the external nuclear systems. These external system problems such as tritium breeding and optimal power recovery can be developed in parallel on the 1990 EPR

  13. The role of suggestibility in determinations of Miranda abilities: a study of the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Richard; Harrison, Kimberly S; Rogstad, Jill E; LaFortune, Kathryn A; Hazelwood, Lisa L

    2010-02-01

    Traditionally, high levels of suggestibility have been widely assumed to be linked with diminished Miranda abilities, especially in relationship to the voluntariness of waivers. The current investigation examined suggestibility on the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scales in a multisite study of pretrial defendants. One important finding was the inapplicability of British norms to American jurisdictions. Moreover, suggestibility appeared unrelated to Miranda comprehension, reasoning, and detainees' perceptions of police coercion. In testing rival hypotheses, defendants with high compliance had significantly lower Miranda comprehension and ability to reason about exercising Miranda rights than their counterparts with low compliance. Implications of these findings to forensic practice are examined.

  14. Pulsating red variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitelock, P.A.

    1990-01-01

    The observational characteristics of pulsating red variables are reviewed with particular emphasis on the Miras. These variables represent the last stage in the evolution of stars on the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB). A large fraction of the IRAS sources in the Bulge are Mira variables and a subset of these are also OH/IR sources. Their periods range up to 720 days, though most are between 360 and 560 days. At a given period those stars with the highest pulsation amplitudes have the highest mass-loss rates; this is interpreted as evidence for a causal connection between mass-loss and pulsation. It is suggested that once an AGB star has become a Mira it will evolve with increasing pulsation amplitude and mass-loss, but with very little change of luminosity or logarithmic period. 26 refs

  15. Are Dysphoric Individuals More Suggestible or Less Suggestible Than Nondysphoric Individuals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacFarland, Wendy L.; Morris, Steven J.

    1998-01-01

    Dysphoric individuals are shown to be susceptible to interrogative suggestion, whether in the form of leading questions or interrogative pressure. The association of a clinically relevant condition of dysphoria (depression) with relatively high levels of suggestibility was investigated in a college student population (N=139). Applicability to…

  16. Suggestibility under Pressure: Theory of Mind, Executive Function, and Suggestibility in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpinski, Aryn C.; Scullin, Matthew H.

    2009-01-01

    Eighty preschoolers, ages 3 to 5 years old, completed a 4-phase study in which they experienced a live event and received a pressured, suggestive interview about the event a week later. Children were also administered batteries of theory of mind and executive function tasks, as well as the Video Suggestibility Scale for Children (VSSC), which…

  17. Testing increases suggestibility for narrative-based misinformation but reduces suggestibility for question-based misinformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPaglia, Jessica A; Chan, Jason C K

    2013-01-01

    A number of recent studies have found that recalling details of an event following its occurrence can increase people's suggestibility to later presented misinformation. However, several other studies have reported the opposite result, whereby earlier retrieval can reduce subsequent eyewitness suggestibility. In the present study, we investigated whether differences in the way misinformation is presented can modulate the effects of testing on suggestibility. Participants watched a video of a robbery and some were questioned about the event immediately afterwards. Later, participants were exposed to misinformation in a narrative (Experiment 1) or in questions (Experiment 2). Consistent with previous studies, we found that testing increased suggestibility when misinformation was presented via a narrative. Remarkably, when misinformation was presented in questions, testing decreased suggestibility. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Variable collimator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richey, J.B.; McBride, T.R.; Covic, J.

    1979-01-01

    This invention describes an automatic variable collimator which controls the width and thickness of X-ray beams in X-ray diagnostic medical equipment, and which is particularly adapted for use with computerized axial tomographic scanners. A two-part collimator is provided which shapes an X-ray beam both prior to its entering an object subject to radiographic analysis and after the attenuated beam has passed through the object. Interposed between a source of radiation and the object subject to radiographic analysis is a first or source collimator. The source collimator causes the X-ray beam emitted by the source of radiation to be split into a plurality of generally rectangular shaped beams. Disposed within the source collimator is a movable aperture plate which may be used to selectively vary the thickness of the plurality of generally rectangular shaped beams transmitted through the source collimator. A second or receiver collimator is interposed between the object subject to radiographic analysis and a series of radiation detectors. The receiver collimator is disposed to receive the attenuated X-ray beams passing through the object subject to radiographic analysis. Located within the receiver collimator are a plurality of movable aperture plates adapted to be displaced relative to a plurality of fixed aperture plates for the purpose of varying the width and thickness of the attenuated X-ray beams transmitted through the object subject to radiographic analysis. The movable aperture plates of the source and receiver collimators are automatically controlled by circuitry which is provided to allow remote operation of the movable aperture plates

  19. Are You Suggesting That's My Hand? The Relation Between Hypnotic Suggestibility and the Rubber Hand Illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, E; Guilmette, D N; Longo, M R; Moore, J W; Oakley, D A; Halligan, P W; Mehta, M A; Deeley, Q

    2015-01-01

    Hypnotic suggestibility (HS) is the ability to respond automatically to suggestions and to experience alterations in perception and behavior. Hypnotically suggestible participants are also better able to focus and sustain their attention on an experimental stimulus. The present study explores the relation between HS and susceptibility to the rubber hand illusion (RHI). Based on previous research with visual illusions, it was predicted that higher HS would lead to a stronger RHI. Two behavioral output measures of the RHI, an implicit (proprioceptive drift) and an explicit (RHI questionnaire) measure, were correlated against HS scores. Hypnotic suggestibility correlated positively with the implicit RHI measure contributing to 30% of the variation. However, there was no relation between HS and the explicit RHI questionnaire measure, or with compliance control items. High hypnotic suggestibility may facilitate, via attentional mechanisms, the multisensory integration of visuoproprioceptive inputs that leads to greater perceptual mislocalization of a participant's hand. These results may provide insight into the multisensory brain mechanisms involved in our sense of embodiment.

  20. Wheat yield vulnerability: relation to rainfall and suggestions for adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Tafoughalti

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Wheat production is of paramount importance in the region of Meknes, which is mainly produced under rainfed conditions. It is the dominant cereal, the greater proportion being the soft type. During the past few decades, rainfall flaws have caused a number of cases of droughts. These flaws have seriously affecting wheat production. The main objective of this study is the assessment of rainfall variability at monthly, seasonal and annual scales and to determine their impact on wheat yields. To reduce this impact we suggested some mechanisms of adaptation. We used monthly rainfall records for three decades and wheat yields records of fifteen years. Rainfall variability is assessed utilizing the precipitation concentration index and the variation coefficient. The association between wheat yields and cumulative rainfall amounts of different scales was calculated based on a regression model to evaluate the impact of rainfall on wheat yields. Data analysis shown moderate seasonal and irregular annual rainfall distribution. Yields fluctuated from 210 to 4500 Kg/ha with 52% of coefficient of variation. The correlation results shows that soft wheat and hard wheat are strongly correlated with the period of January to March than with the whole growing-season. While they are adversely correlated with the mid-spring. This investigation concluded that synchronizing appropriate adaptation with the period of January to March was crucial to achieving success yield of wheat.

  1. A United States forensic sample for the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frumkin, I Bruce; Lally, Stephen J; Sexton, James E

    2012-01-01

    The Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scales (GSS) is a valuable test to use as part of a comprehensive assessment of psychological and interrogative factors relevant to a defendant's vulnerability to giving a false or involuntary confession. One limitation of the test is that the manual only provides information for samples from Iceland and Great Britain. This report describes the results of 334 individuals in the United States, who were administered the tests as part of an evaluation to assess confession-related issues in a forensic context (i.e., capacity to waive Miranda rights or vulnerability in providing a false or involuntary confession). This forensic sample includes both juveniles and adults. Results are consistent with Gudjonsson's British and Icelandic samples, in which the Yield 1 score is more affected by intellectual and cognitive variables, but Shift and, to a lesser extent, Yield 2 scores are more related to emotional and personality characteristics. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Children's Memory for Their Mother's Murder: Accuracy, Suggestibility, and Resistance to Suggestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, Kelly; Narr, Rachel; Goodman, Gail S; Ruiz, Sandra; Mendoza, Macaria

    2013-01-31

    From its inception, child eyewitness memory research has been guided by dramatic legal cases that turn on the testimony of children. Decades of scientific research reveal that, under many conditions, children can provide veracious accounts of traumatic experiences. Scientific studies also document factors that lead children to make false statements. In this paper we describe a legal case in which children testified about their mother's murder. We discuss factors that may have influenced the accuracy of the children's eyewitness memory. Children's suggestibility and resistance to suggestion are illustrated. Expert testimony, based on scientific research, can aid the trier of fact when children provide crucial evidence in criminal investigations and courtroom trials about tragic events.

  3. On Complex Random Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwer Khurshid

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE In this paper, it is shown that a complex multivariate random variable  is a complex multivariate normal random variable of dimensionality if and only if all nondegenerate complex linear combinations of  have a complex univariate normal distribution. The characteristic function of  has been derived, and simpler forms of some theorems have been given using this characterization theorem without assuming that the variance-covariance matrix of the vector  is Hermitian positive definite. Marginal distributions of  have been given. In addition, a complex multivariate t-distribution has been defined and the density derived. A characterization of the complex multivariate t-distribution is given. A few possible uses of this distribution have been suggested.

  4. Climate variability and impacts on east African livestock herders: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Climate variability and impacts on east African livestock herders: the Maasai of ... and vulnerability to climate variability and climate change is assessed, using data ... Model results suggest that the ecosystem is quite resilient and suggests that ...

  5. An effective suggestion method for keyword search of databases

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Hai; Chen, Zonghai; Liu, Chengfei; Huang, He; Zhang, Xiangliang

    2016-01-01

    This paper solves the problem of providing high-quality suggestions for user keyword queries over databases. With the assumption that the returned suggestions are independent, existing query suggestion methods over databases score candidate

  6. Variable importance in latent variable regression models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kvalheim, O.M.; Arneberg, R.; Bleie, O.; Rajalahti, T.; Smilde, A.K.; Westerhuis, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    The quality and practical usefulness of a regression model are a function of both interpretability and prediction performance. This work presents some new graphical tools for improved interpretation of latent variable regression models that can also assist in improved algorithms for variable

  7. On the Effects of Suggested Prices in Gasoline Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.P. Faber (Riemer); M.C.W. Janssen (Maarten)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis article analyzes the role of suggested prices in the Dutch retail market for gasoline. Suggested prices are announced by large oil companies with the suggestion that retailers follow them. There are at least two competing rationales for the existence of suggested prices: they may

  8. The Effect of Memory Trace Strength on Suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezdek, Kathy; Roe, Chantal

    1995-01-01

    Examined the conditions under which children's memory is resistant to suggestibility versus vulnerable to suggestibility. Results suggest that children have more accurate memory for an event that occurred to them frequently, and that they are less vulnerable to suggestive influences such as biased interviewing procedures than they would be for an…

  9. Decomposing global crop yield variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ari, Tamara; Makowski, David

    2014-11-01

    Recent food crises have highlighted the need to better understand the between-year variability of agricultural production. Although increasing future production seems necessary, the globalization of commodity markets suggests that the food system would also benefit from enhanced supplies stability through a reduction in the year-to-year variability. Here, we develop an analytical expression decomposing global crop yield interannual variability into three informative components that quantify how evenly are croplands distributed in the world, the proportion of cultivated areas allocated to regions of above or below average variability and the covariation between yields in distinct world regions. This decomposition is used to identify drivers of interannual yield variations for four major crops (i.e., maize, rice, soybean and wheat) over the period 1961-2012. We show that maize production is fairly spread but marked by one prominent region with high levels of crop yield interannual variability (which encompasses the North American corn belt in the USA, and Canada). In contrast, global rice yields have a small variability because, although spatially concentrated, much of the production is located in regions of below-average variability (i.e., South, Eastern and South Eastern Asia). Because of these contrasted land use allocations, an even cultivated land distribution across regions would reduce global maize yield variance, but increase the variance of global yield rice. Intermediate results are obtained for soybean and wheat for which croplands are mainly located in regions with close-to-average variability. At the scale of large world regions, we find that covariances of regional yields have a negligible contribution to global yield variance. The proposed decomposition could be applied at any spatial and time scales, including the yearly time step. By addressing global crop production stability (or lack thereof) our results contribute to the understanding of a key

  10. Quantitative modeling of clinical, cellular, and extracellular matrix variables suggest prognostic indicators in cancer: a model in neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadeo, Irene; Piqueras, Marta; Montaner, David; Villamón, Eva; Berbegall, Ana P; Cañete, Adela; Navarro, Samuel; Noguera, Rosa

    2014-02-01

    Risk classification and treatment stratification for cancer patients is restricted by our incomplete picture of the complex and unknown interactions between the patient's organism and tumor tissues (transformed cells supported by tumor stroma). Moreover, all clinical factors and laboratory studies used to indicate treatment effectiveness and outcomes are by their nature a simplification of the biological system of cancer, and cannot yet incorporate all possible prognostic indicators. A multiparametric analysis on 184 tumor cylinders was performed. To highlight the benefit of integrating digitized medical imaging into this field, we present the results of computational studies carried out on quantitative measurements, taken from stromal and cancer cells and various extracellular matrix fibers interpenetrated by glycosaminoglycans, and eight current approaches to risk stratification systems in patients with primary and nonprimary neuroblastoma. New tumor tissue indicators from both fields, the cellular and the extracellular elements, emerge as reliable prognostic markers for risk stratification and could be used as molecular targets of specific therapies. The key to dealing with personalized therapy lies in the mathematical modeling. The use of bioinformatics in patient-tumor-microenvironment data management allows a predictive model in neuroblastoma.

  11. Suggestibility and signal detection performance in hallucination-prone students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alganami, Fatimah; Varese, Filippo; Wagstaff, Graham F; Bentall, Richard P

    2017-03-01

    Auditory hallucinations are associated with signal detection biases. We examine the extent to which suggestions influence performance on a signal detection task (SDT) in highly hallucination-prone and low hallucination-prone students. We also explore the relationship between trait suggestibility, dissociation and hallucination proneness. In two experiments, students completed on-line measures of hallucination proneness (the revised Launay-Slade Hallucination Scale; LSHS-R), trait suggestibility (Inventory of Suggestibility) and dissociation (Dissociative Experiences Scale-II). Students in the upper and lower tertiles of the LSHS-R performed an auditory SDT. Prior to the task, suggestions were made pertaining to the number of expected targets (Experiment 1, N = 60: high vs. low suggestions; Experiment 2, N = 62, no suggestion vs. high suggestion vs. no voice suggestion). Correlational and regression analyses indicated that trait suggestibility and dissociation predicted hallucination proneness. Highly hallucination-prone students showed a higher SDT bias in both studies. In Experiment 1, both bias scores were significantly affected by suggestions to the same degree. In Experiment 2, highly hallucination-prone students were more reactive to the high suggestion condition than the controls. Suggestions may affect source-monitoring judgments, and this effect may be greater in those who have a predisposition towards hallucinatory experiences.

  12. Disorganized Cortical Patches Suggest Prenatal Origin of Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2014 Disorganized cortical patches suggest prenatal origin of autism NIH-funded study shows disrupted cell layering process ... study suggests that brain irregularities in children with autism can be traced back to prenatal development. “While ...

  13. Correlates of the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale in delinquent adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muris, Peter; Meesters, Cor; Merckelbach, Harald

    2004-02-01

    Correlations between scores on the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale and a number of relevant personality characteristics, i.e., intelligence, memory, social inadequacy, social desirability, and fantasy proneness, were examined in a sample of 71 delinquent boys. Analysis showed that intelligence and memory were negatively related to suggestibility scores. That is, lower memory and intelligence were associated with higher suggestibility. No significant correlations were found between suggestibility and other personality characteristics.

  14. A Consumer-Driven Approach To Increase Suggestive Selling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohn, Don; Austin, John; Sanford, Alison

    2003-01-01

    Discussion of the effectiveness of behavioral interventions in improving suggestive selling behavior of sales staff focuses on a study that examined the efficacy of a consumer-driven approach to improve suggestive selling behavior of three employees of a fast food franchise. Reports that consumer-driven intervention increased suggestive selling…

  15. Clarification of the Memory Artefact in the Assessment of Suggestibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willner, P.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: The Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale (GSS) assesses suggestibility by asking respondents to recall a short story, followed by exposure to leading questions and pressure to change their responses. Suggestibility, as assessed by the GSS, appears to be elevated in people with intellectual disabilities (ID). This has been shown to reflect to some…

  16. Amplification factor variable amplifier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akitsugu, Oshita; Nauta, Bram

    2007-01-01

    PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide an amplification factor variable amplifier capable of achieving temperature compensation of an amplification factor over a wide variable amplification factor range. ; SOLUTION: A Gilbert type amplification factor variable amplifier 11 amplifies an input signal and

  17. Amplification factor variable amplifier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akitsugu, Oshita; Nauta, Bram

    2010-01-01

    PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide an amplification factor variable amplifier capable of achieving temperature compensation of an amplification factor over a wide variable amplification factor range. ;SOLUTION: A Gilbert type amplification factor variable amplifier 11 amplifies an input signal and can

  18. Exchange rate variability, market activity and heterogeneity

    OpenAIRE

    Rime, Dagfinn; Sucarrat, Genaro

    2007-01-01

    We study the role played by geographic and bank-size heterogeneity in the relation between exchange rate variability and market activity. We find some support for the hypothesis that increases in short-term global interbank market activity, which can be interpreted as due to variation in information arrival, increase variability. However, our results do not suggest that local short-term activity increases variability. With respect to long-term market activity, which can be interpreted as a me...

  19. Effect of Climate Variability on Crop Income in Central Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arega Shumetie Ademe

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethiopian agriculture is a vulnerable sector from effects of climate variability. This study identified how strong is the effect of climate variability on smallholders’ crop income in Central highlands and Arssi grain plough farming systems of the country. The unbalanced panel data (1994-2014 of the study collected for eight rounds analysed through fixed effect regression. The model result shows that successive increment of crop season rainfall keeping the temperature constant has negative and significant effect on households’ crop income in the study area. The crop income responds similarly for temperature increment if the rainfall remains constant. Given this, simultaneous increment of the two climate related inputs has positive and significant effect on crop income. Other variables like flood, frost, storm, and rainfall inconsistency in the onset and cessation time affected households’ crop income negatively and significantly. Similarly, draught power and human labour, which are critical inputs in the crop production of Ethiopian smallholders, have positive and significant effect on crop income as to the model result. Thus, this study recommended that there should be supplementing the rainfall through irrigation, check dam and other activities to have consistent water supply for the crop production that enable smallholders to collect better income. Additionally, negative effect of temperature increment should be curved through adopting long lasting strategies like afforestation.

  20. Variable mechanical ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontela, Paula Caitano; Prestes, Renata Bernardy; Forgiarini, Luiz Alberto; Friedman, Gilberto

    2017-01-01

    To review the literature on the use of variable mechanical ventilation and the main outcomes of this technique. Search, selection, and analysis of all original articles on variable ventilation, without restriction on the period of publication and language, available in the electronic databases LILACS, MEDLINE®, and PubMed, by searching the terms "variable ventilation" OR "noisy ventilation" OR "biologically variable ventilation". A total of 36 studies were selected. Of these, 24 were original studies, including 21 experimental studies and three clinical studies. Several experimental studies reported the beneficial effects of distinct variable ventilation strategies on lung function using different models of lung injury and healthy lungs. Variable ventilation seems to be a viable strategy for improving gas exchange and respiratory mechanics and preventing lung injury associated with mechanical ventilation. However, further clinical studies are necessary to assess the potential of variable ventilation strategies for the clinical improvement of patients undergoing mechanical ventilation.

  1. An effective suggestion method for keyword search of databases

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Hai

    2016-09-09

    This paper solves the problem of providing high-quality suggestions for user keyword queries over databases. With the assumption that the returned suggestions are independent, existing query suggestion methods over databases score candidate suggestions individually and return the top-k best of them. However, the top-k suggestions have high redundancy with respect to the topics. To provide informative suggestions, the returned k suggestions are expected to be diverse, i.e., maximizing the relevance to the user query and the diversity with respect to topics that the user might be interested in simultaneously. In this paper, an objective function considering both factors is defined for evaluating a suggestion set. We show that maximizing the objective function is a submodular function maximization problem subject to n matroid constraints, which is an NP-hard problem. An greedy approximate algorithm with an approximation ratio O((Formula presented.)) is also proposed. Experimental results show that our suggestion outperforms other methods on providing relevant and diverse suggestions. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York

  2. Entropy as a collective variable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrinello, Michele

    Sampling complex free energy surfaces that exhibit long lived metastable states separated by kinetic bottlenecks is one of the most pressing issues in the atomistic simulations of matter. Not surprisingly many solutions to this problem have been suggested. Many of them are based on the identification of appropriate collective variables that span the manifold of the slow varying modes of the system. While much effort has been put in devising and even constructing on the fly appropriate collective variables there is still a cogent need of introducing simple, generic, physically transparent, and yet effective collective variables. Motivated by the physical observation that in many case transitions between one metastable state and another result from a trade off between enthalpy and entropy we introduce appropriate collective variables that are able to represent in a simple way these two physical properties. We use these variables in the context of the recently introduced variationally enhanced sampling and apply it them with success to the simulation of crystallization from the liquid and to conformational transitions in protein. Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, ETH Zurich, and Facolta' di Informatica, Istituto di Scienze Computazionali, Universita' della Svizzera Italiana, Via G. Buffi 13, 6900 Lugano, Switzerland.

  3. Validity of a Test of Children's Suggestibility for Predicting Responses to Two Interview Situations Differing in Their Degree of Suggestiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnila, Katarina; Mahlberg, Nina; Santtila, Pekka; Sandnabba, Kenneth; Niemi, Pekka

    2003-01-01

    Examined the relative contributions of internal and external sources of variation in children's suggestibility in interrogative situations. Found that internal sources of individual differences in suggestibility measured on a suggestibility test did influence children's answers during an interview, but that external sources or interview styles had…

  4. Metacognition of agency is reduced in high hypnotic suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terhune, Devin B; Hedman, Love R A

    2017-11-01

    A disruption in the sense of agency is the primary phenomenological feature of response to hypnotic suggestions but its cognitive basis remains elusive. Here we tested the proposal that distorted volition during response to suggestions arises from poor metacognition pertaining to the sources of one's control. Highly suggestible and control participants completed a motor task in which performance was reduced through surreptitious manipulations of cursor lag and stimuli speed. Highly suggestible participants did not differ from controls in performance or metacognition of performance, but their sense of agency was less sensitive to cursor lag manipulations, suggesting reduced awareness that their control was being manipulated. These results indicate that highly suggestible individuals have aberrant metacognition of agency and may be a valuable population for studying distortions in the sense of agency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Mitarbeiteranreizsysteme und Innovationserfolg (Employee suggestion schemes and innovation success)

    OpenAIRE

    Czarnitzki, Dirk; Kraft, Kornelius

    2008-01-01

    "We discuss the determinants of a successful implementation of an employee suggestion scheme and other measures to stimulate innovation success. Subsequently the effects of the employee suggestion schemes are investigated empirically. We analyse the realisation of cost reductions and alternatively sales expansion due to quality improvements. It turns out that employee suggestion schemes have a positive effect on cost efficiency and sales growth. Delegation of decision authority reduces produc...

  6. Clarification of the memory artefact in the assessment of suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willner, P

    2008-04-01

    The Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale (GSS) assesses suggestibility by asking respondents to recall a short story, followed by exposure to leading questions and pressure to change their responses. Suggestibility, as assessed by the GSS, appears to be elevated in people with intellectual disabilities (ID). This has been shown to reflect to some extent the fact that people with ID have poor recall of the story; however, there are discrepancies in this relationship. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether a closer match between memory and suggestibility would be found using a measure of recognition memory rather than free recall. Three modifications to the procedure were presented to users of a learning disabilities day service. In all three experiments, a measure of forced-choice recognition memory was built into the suggestibility test. In experiments 1 and 2, the GSS was presented using either divided presentation (splitting the story into two halves, with memory and suggestibility tests after each half) or multiple presentation (the story was presented three times before presentation of the memory and suggestibility tests). Participants were tested twice, once with the standard version of the test and once with one of the modified versions. In experiment 3, an alternative suggestibility scale (ASS3) was created, based on real events in a learning disabilities day service. The ASS3 was presented to one group of participants who had been present at the events, and a second group who attended a different day service, to whom the events were unfamiliar. As observed previously, suggestibility was not closely related to free recall performance: recall was increased equally by all three manipulations, but they produced, respectively, no effect, a modest effect and a large effect on suggestibility. However, the effects on suggestibility were closely related to performance on the forced-choice recognition memory task: divided presentation of the GSS2 had no

  7. A parallel form of the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudjonsson, G H

    1987-09-01

    The purpose of this study is twofold: (1) to present a parallel form of the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale (GSS, Form 1); (2) to study test-retest reliabilities of interrogative suggestibility. Three groups of subjects were administered the two suggestibility scales in a counterbalanced order. Group 1 (28 normal subjects) and Group 2 (32 'forensic' patients) completed both scales within the same testing session, whereas Group 3 (30 'forensic' patients) completed the two scales between one week and eight months apart. All the correlations were highly significant, giving support for high 'temporal consistency' of interrogative suggestibility.

  8. Treating ADHD With Suggestion: Neurofeedback and Placebo Therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, Robert T; Veissière, Samuel; Olson, Jay A; Raz, Amir

    2018-06-01

    We propose that clinicians can use suggestion to help treat conditions such as ADHD. We use EEG neurofeedback as a case study, alongside evidence from a recent pilot experiment utilizing a sham MRI scanner to highlight the therapeutic potential of suggestion-based treatments. The medical literature demonstrates that many practitioners already prescribe treatments that hardly outperform placebo comparators. Moreover, the sham MRI experiment showed that, even with full disclosure of the procedure, suggestion alone can reduce the symptomatology of ADHD. Non-deceptive suggestion-based treatments, especially those drawing on accessories from neuroscience, may offer a safe complement and potential alternative to current standard of care for individuals with ADHD.

  9. Dissociative tendencies and individual differences in high hypnotic suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terhune, Devin Blair; Cardeña, Etzel; Lindgren, Magnus

    2011-03-01

    Inconsistencies in the relationship between dissociation and hypnosis may result from heterogeneity among highly suggestible individuals, in particular the existence of distinct highly suggestible subtypes that are of relevance to models of psychopathology and the consequences of trauma. This study contrasted highly suggestible subtypes high or low in dissociation on measures of hypnotic responding, cognitive functioning, and psychopathology. Twenty-one low suggestible (LS), 19 low dissociative highly suggestible (LDHS), and 11 high dissociative highly suggestible (HDHS) participants were administered hypnotic suggestibility scales and completed measures of free recall, working memory capacity, imagery, fantasy-proneness, psychopathology, and exposure to stressful life events. HDHS participants were more responsive to positive and negative hallucination suggestions and experienced greater involuntariness during hypnotic responding. They also exhibited impaired working memory capacity, elevated pathological fantasy and dissociative symptomatology, and a greater incidence of exposure to stressful life events. In contrast, LDHS participants displayed superior object visual imagery. These results provide further evidence for two highly suggestible subtypes: a dissociative subtype characterised by deficits in executive functioning and a predisposition to psychopathology, and a subtype that exhibits superior imagery and no observable deficits in functioning.

  10. The relationship between suggestibility and anxiety among suspects detained at police stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudjonsson, G H; Rutter, S C; Clare, I C

    1995-07-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between anxiety, as measured by the State-Trait Inventory (Spielberger, 1983) and interrogative suggestibility, as measured by the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale (GSS 2, Gudjonsson, 1987). One hundred and sixty-one suspects detained at two English police stations for questioning were assessed prior to being interviewed by the police. Unexpectedly, trait anxiety correlated more consistently with suggestibility than did state anxiety. The correlations were consistently higher among the Caucasian than the Afro-Caribbean subjects and the Afro-Caribbean subjects were significantly more suggestible than the Caucasian subjects even after their GSS 2 memory and IQ scores had been controlled for. The main practical implications of the findings are that interrogative suggestibility cannot be easily evaluated from the person's self-reported anxiety and the situation in which people are assessed may influence the relationship between these psychological variables.

  11. Interrogative suggestibility: its relationship with assertiveness, social-evaluative anxiety, state anxiety and method of coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudjonsson, G H

    1988-05-01

    This paper attempts to investigate empirically in 30 subjects some of the theoretical components related to individual differences that are thought by Gudjonsson & Clark (1986) to mediate interrogative suggestibility as measured by the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale (GSS; Gudjonsson, 1984a). The variables studied were: assertiveness, social-evaluative anxiety, state anxiety and the coping methods subjects are able to generate and implement during interrogation. Low assertiveness and high evaluative anxiety were found to correlate moderately with suggestibility, but no significant correlations emerged for 'social avoidance and distress'. State anxiety correlated significantly with suggestibility, particularly after negative feedback had been administered. Coping methods (active-cognitive/behavioural vs. avoidance) significantly predicted suggestibility scores. The findings give strong support to the theoretical model of Gudjonsson & Clark.

  12. Hypnotic suggestibility predicts the magnitude of the imaginative word blindness suggestion effect in a non-hypnotic context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parris, Benjamin A; Dienes, Zoltan

    2013-09-01

    The present study investigated how the magnitude the word blindness suggestion effect on Stroop interference depended on hypnotic suggestibility when given as an imaginative suggestion (i.e. not post-hypnotic suggestion) and under conditions in which hypnosis was not mentioned. Hypnotic suggestibility is shown to be a significant predictor of the magnitude of the imaginative word blindness suggestion effect under these conditions. This is therefore the first study to show a linear relationship between the imaginative word blindness suggestion effect and hypnotic suggestibility across the whole hypnotizability spectrum. The results replicate previous findings showing that highs respond to the word blindness suggestion to a greater extent than lows but extend previous work by showing that the advantage for those higher on the hypnotizability spectrum occurs even in a non-hypnotic context. Negative attitudes about hypnosis may not explain the failure to observe similar effects of the word blindness suggestion in less hypnotizable individuals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Critical Success Factors of Suggestions Systems. | Marx | IFE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A literature study approach is followed to establish which factors contribute to the success and failure of various suggestion systems. It was found ... The value of the paper firstly, shows the importance of creativity and innovation within the organisation's own culture and the framework of a formal suggestion system. Secondly ...

  14. Manufacturer Suggested Retail Prices, Loss Aversion and Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fabrizi, Simona; Lippert, Steffen; Puppe, Clemens; Rosenkranz, S.

    2016-01-01

    We study a model of vertical relations with imperfect retail competition in which a fraction of the consumers display reference-dependent demand with respect to the manufacturer’s suggested retail price. We demonstrate that in equilibrium the suggestion will either be undercut or complied with by

  15. Enhancing business intelligence by means of suggestive reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qazi, Atika; Raj, Ram Gopal; Tahir, Muhammad; Cambria, Erik; Syed, Karim Bux Shah

    2014-01-01

    Appropriate identification and classification of online reviews to satisfy the needs of current and potential users pose a critical challenge for the business environment. This paper focuses on a specific kind of reviews: the suggestive type. Suggestions have a significant influence on both consumers' choices and designers' understanding and, hence, they are key for tasks such as brand positioning and social media marketing. The proposed approach consists of three main steps: (1) classify comparative and suggestive sentences; (2) categorize suggestive sentences into different types, either explicit or implicit locutions; (3) perform sentiment analysis on the classified reviews. A range of supervised machine learning approaches and feature sets are evaluated to tackle the problem of suggestive opinion mining. Experimental results for all three tasks are obtained on a dataset of mobile phone reviews and demonstrate that extending a bag-of-words representation with suggestive and comparative patterns is ideal for distinguishing suggestive sentences. In particular, it is observed that classifying suggestive sentences into implicit and explicit locutions works best when using a mixed sequential rule feature representation. Sentiment analysis achieves maximum performance when employing additional preprocessing in the form of negation handling and target masking, combined with sentiment lexicons.

  16. Confidence Judgments in Children's and Adults' Event Recall and Suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roebers, Claudia M.

    2002-01-01

    Three studies investigated the role of 8- and 10-year-olds' and adults' metacognitive monitoring and control processes for unbiased event recall tasks and suggestibility. Findings suggested strong tendencies to overestimate confidence regardless of age and question format. Children did not lack principal metacognitive competencies when questions…

  17. Theory-of-Mind Development Influences Suggestibility and Source Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright-Paul, Alexandra; Jarrold, Christopher; Wright, Daniel B.

    2008-01-01

    According to the mental-state reasoning model of suggestibility, 2 components of theory of mind mediate reductions in suggestibility across the preschool years. The authors examined whether theory-of-mind performance may be legitimately separated into 2 components and explored the memory processes underlying the associations between theory of mind…

  18. The Effects of Repeated Experience on Children's Suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Martine B.; Roberts, Kim P.; Ceci, Stephen J.; Hembrooke, Helene

    1999-01-01

    Examined effect of suggestive questions on 3- to 5-year-olds' and 6- to 8-year-olds' recall of the final occurrence of repeated event. Found that relative to reports of children experiencing single occurrence, reports about fixed items of repeated events were less contaminated by false suggestions. Children's age and delay of interview were…

  19. Enhancement of suggestibility and imaginative ability with nitrous oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalley, M G; Brooks, G B

    2009-05-01

    Imaginative suggestibility, a trait closely related to hypnotic suggestibility, is modifiable under some circumstances. Nitrous oxide (laughing gas) is commonly used for sedation in dentistry and is reported to be more effective when combined with appropriate suggestions. The aim of this study was to determine whether nitrous oxide inhalation alters imaginative suggestibility and imagery vividness. Thirty participants were tested twice in a within-subjects design, once during inhalation of 25% nitrous oxide and once during inhalation of air plus oxygen. Before the study, participants' expectancies regarding the effects of nitrous oxide were assessed. Participants were blinded to drug administration. During each session, participants were verbally administered detailed measures of imagination and suggestibility: the Sheehan-Betts Quality of Mental Imagery scale and the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale Form C, minus the hypnotic induction. Imaginative suggestibility and imaginative ability (imagery vividness) were both elevated in the nitrous oxide condition. This effect was unrelated to participants' expectations regarding the effects of the drug. Nitrous oxide increased imaginative suggestibility and imaginative ability. Possible explanations of these findings are discussed with respect to the effects of N-methyl-d-aspartate antagonists and to other pharmacological effects upon suggestibility and imagination.

  20. Effects of Counselor Facilitative Level on Client Suggestibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Harry B.; Rowe, Wayne

    1977-01-01

    University students (N=48) were individually tested for suggestibility in one of three conditions. Results indicated subjects of higher rated experimenters would demonstrate more suggestibility than subjects of lower rated experimenters. Results did not indicate that subject interaction with lower rated experimenters would elicit less…

  1. A Temporal Discriminability Account of Children's Eyewitness Suggestibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright-Paul, Alexandra; Jarrold, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Children's suggestibility is typically measured using a three-stage "event-misinformation-test" procedure. We examined whether suggestibility is influenced by the time delays imposed between these stages, and in particular whether the temporal discriminability of sources (event and misinformation) predicts performance. In a novel approach, the…

  2. Enhancing Business Intelligence by Means of Suggestive Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qazi, Atika

    2014-01-01

    Appropriate identification and classification of online reviews to satisfy the needs of current and potential users pose a critical challenge for the business environment. This paper focuses on a specific kind of reviews: the suggestive type. Suggestions have a significant influence on both consumers' choices and designers' understanding and, hence, they are key for tasks such as brand positioning and social media marketing. The proposed approach consists of three main steps: (1) classify comparative and suggestive sentences; (2) categorize suggestive sentences into different types, either explicit or implicit locutions; (3) perform sentiment analysis on the classified reviews. A range of supervised machine learning approaches and feature sets are evaluated to tackle the problem of suggestive opinion mining. Experimental results for all three tasks are obtained on a dataset of mobile phone reviews and demonstrate that extending a bag-of-words representation with suggestive and comparative patterns is ideal for distinguishing suggestive sentences. In particular, it is observed that classifying suggestive sentences into implicit and explicit locutions works best when using a mixed sequential rule feature representation. Sentiment analysis achieves maximum performance when employing additional preprocessing in the form of negation handling and target masking, combined with sentiment lexicons. PMID:25054188

  3. Faecal analysis suggests generalist diets in three species of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The overlap in other arthropod taxa ingested was low across species and seasons, suggesting an opportunistic component to their foraging behaviour. We distinguished plant matter in faecal samples of all species in all seasons, reflecting either voluntary or accidental ingestion. The results of this study suggest that the ...

  4. Enhancing Business Intelligence by Means of Suggestive Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atika Qazi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate identification and classification of online reviews to satisfy the needs of current and potential users pose a critical challenge for the business environment. This paper focuses on a specific kind of reviews: the suggestive type. Suggestions have a significant influence on both consumers’ choices and designers’ understanding and, hence, they are key for tasks such as brand positioning and social media marketing. The proposed approach consists of three main steps: (1 classify comparative and suggestive sentences; (2 categorize suggestive sentences into different types, either explicit or implicit locutions; (3 perform sentiment analysis on the classified reviews. A range of supervised machine learning approaches and feature sets are evaluated to tackle the problem of suggestive opinion mining. Experimental results for all three tasks are obtained on a dataset of mobile phone reviews and demonstrate that extending a bag-of-words representation with suggestive and comparative patterns is ideal for distinguishing suggestive sentences. In particular, it is observed that classifying suggestive sentences into implicit and explicit locutions works best when using a mixed sequential rule feature representation. Sentiment analysis achieves maximum performance when employing additional preprocessing in the form of negation handling and target masking, combined with sentiment lexicons.

  5. Simple suggestions for including vertical physics in oil spill models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Asaro, Eric; University of Washington, Seatle, WA

    2001-01-01

    Current models of oil spills include no vertical physics. They neglect the effect of vertical water motions on the transport and concentration of floating oil. Some simple ways to introduce vertical physics are suggested here. The major suggestion is to routinely measure the density stratification of the upper ocean during oil spills in order to develop a database on the effect of stratification. (Author)

  6. Using suggestion to model different types of automatic writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, E; Mehta, M A; Oakley, D A; Guilmette, D N; Gabay, A; Halligan, P W; Deeley, Q

    2014-05-01

    Our sense of self includes awareness of our thoughts and movements, and our control over them. This feeling can be altered or lost in neuropsychiatric disorders as well as in phenomena such as "automatic writing" whereby writing is attributed to an external source. Here, we employed suggestion in highly hypnotically suggestible participants to model various experiences of automatic writing during a sentence completion task. Results showed that the induction of hypnosis, without additional suggestion, was associated with a small but significant reduction of control, ownership, and awareness for writing. Targeted suggestions produced a double dissociation between thought and movement components of writing, for both feelings of control and ownership, and additionally, reduced awareness of writing. Overall, suggestion produced selective alterations in the control, ownership, and awareness of thought and motor components of writing, thus enabling key aspects of automatic writing, observed across different clinical and cultural settings, to be modelled. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. The impact of hypnotic suggestibility in clinical care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Guy H; Schnur, Julie B; David, Daniel

    2011-07-01

    Hypnotic suggestibility has been described as a powerful predictor of outcomes associated with hypnotic interventions. However, there have been no systematic approaches to quantifying this effect across the literature. This meta-analysis evaluates the magnitude of the effect of hypnotic suggestibility on hypnotic outcomes in clinical settings. PsycINFO and PubMed were searched from their inception through July 2009. Thirty-four effects from 10 studies and 283 participants are reported. Results revealed a statistically significant overall effect size in the small to medium range (r = .24; 95% Confidence Interval = -0.28 to 0.75), indicating that greater hypnotic suggestibility led to greater effects of hypnosis interventions. Hypnotic suggestibility accounted for 6% of the variance in outcomes. Smaller sample size studies, use of the SHCS, and pediatric samples tended to result in larger effect sizes. The authors question the usefulness of assessing hypnotic suggestibility in clinical contexts.

  8. Cataclysmic Variable Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellier, Coel

    2001-01-01

    Cataclysmic variable stars are the most variable stars in the night sky, fluctuating in brightness continually on timescales from seconds to hours to weeks to years. The changes can be recorded using amateur telescopes, yet are also the subject of intensive study by professional astronomers. That study has led to an understanding of cataclysmic variables as binary stars, orbiting so closely that material transfers from one star to the other. The resulting process of accretion is one of the most important in astrophysics. This book presents the first account of cataclysmic variables at an introductory level. Assuming no previous knowledge of the field, it explains the basic principles underlying the variability, while providing an extensive compilation of cataclysmic variable light curves. Aimed at amateur astronomers, undergraduates, and researchers, the main text is accessible to those with no mathematical background, while supplementary boxes present technical details and equations.

  9. Understanding Brown Dwarf Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Surveys of brown dwarf variability continue to find that roughly half of all brown dwarfs are variable. While variability is observed amongst all types of brown dwarfs, amplitudes are typically greatest for L-T transition objects. In my talk I will discuss the possible physical mechanisms that are responsible for the observed variability. I will particularly focus on comparing and contrasting the effects of changes in atmospheric thermal profile and cloud opacity. The two different mechanisms will produce different variability signatures and I will discuss the extent to which the current datasets constrain both mechanisms. By combining constraints from studies of variability with existing spectral and photometric datasets we can begin to construct and test self-consistent models of brown dwarf atmospheres. These models not only aid in the interpretation of existing objects but also inform studies of directly imaged giant planets.

  10. Cataclysmic variables, Hubble-Sandage variables and eta Carinae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bath, G.T.

    1980-01-01

    The Hubble-Sandage variables are the most luminous stars in external galaxies. They were first investigated by Hubble and Sandage (1953) for use as distance indicators. Their main characteristics are high luminosity, blue colour indices, and irregular variability. Spectroscopically they show hydrogen and helium in emission with occasionally weaker FeII and [FeII], and no Balmer jump (Humphreys 1975, 1978). In this respect they closely resemble cataclysmic variables, particularly dwarf novae. In the quiescent state dwarf novae show broad H and HeI, together with a strong UV continuum. In contrast to the spectroscopic similarities, the luminosities could hardly differ more. Rather than being the brightest stars known, quiescent dwarf novae are as faint or fainter than the sun. It is suggested that the close correspondence between the spectral appearance of the two classes combined with the difference in luminosity is well accounted for by a model of Hubble-Sandage variables in which the same physical processes are occurring, but on a larger scale. (Auth.)

  11. The nebular variables

    CERN Document Server

    Glasby, John S

    1974-01-01

    The Nebular Variables focuses on the nebular variables and their characteristics. Discussions are organized by type of nebular variable, namely, RW Aurigae stars, T Orionis stars, T Tauri stars, and peculiar nebular objects. Topics range from light variations of the stars to their spectroscopic and physical characteristics, spatial distribution, interaction with nebulosity, and evolutionary features. This volume is divided into four sections and consists of 25 chapters, the first of which provides general information on nebular variables, including their stellar associations and their classifi

  12. Ultrasonic variables affecting inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lautzenheiser, C.E.; Whiting, A.R.; McElroy, J.T.

    1977-01-01

    There are many variables which affect the detection of the effects and reproducibility of results when utilizing ultrasonic techniques. The most important variable is the procedure, as this document specifies, to a great extent, the controls that are exercised over the other variables. The most important variable is personnel with regards to training, qualification, integrity, data recording, and data analysis. Although the data is very limited, these data indicate that, if the procedure is carefully controlled, reliability of defect detection and reproducibility of results are both approximately 90 percent for reliability of detection, this applies to relatively small defects as reliability increases substantially as defect size increases above the recording limit. (author)

  13. Age and interviewer behavior as predictors of interrogative suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukala, Karolina; Polczyk, Romuald

    2014-05-01

    The main objective was to explore the influence of interviewer behavior-abrupt versus friendly-and the age of participants on interrogative suggestibility. The study involved 42 young adults and 50 elderly participants. The Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale 2 was used. Data analysis involved a 2-factor between-subjects design (interviewer behavior × age) and mediation analysis. The scores of elderly participants were significantly lower than younger adults on memory indices and significantly higher on some suggestibility indexes. Some suggestibility indices in the abrupt experimental condition were higher than those in the friendly experimental condition. Elderly participants who were interviewed under the abrupt condition were more likely to change their answers after receiving negative feedback than younger adults. Memory quality was a mediator of the relationship between age and the tendency to yield to suggestive questions. Self-appraisal of memory was a mediator between both age and interviewer behavior and the tendency to change answers after negative feedback. Mechanisms of the relationship between age, interviewer behavior, and suggestibility are discussed on the basis of the mediational analyses. The findings suggest that a friendly manner should be adopted when interrogating witnesses.

  14. Structural and functional cerebral correlates of hypnotic suggestibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexa Huber

    Full Text Available Little is known about the neural bases of hypnotic suggestibility, a cognitive trait referring to the tendency to respond to hypnotic suggestions. In the present magnetic resonance imaging study, we performed regression analyses to assess hypnotic suggestibility-related differences in local gray matter volume, using voxel-based morphometry, and in waking resting state functional connectivity of 10 resting state networks, in 37 healthy women. Hypnotic suggestibility was positively correlated with gray matter volume in portions of the left superior and medial frontal gyri, roughly overlapping with the supplementary and pre-supplementary motor area, and negatively correlated with gray matter volume in the left superior temporal gyrus and insula. In the functional connectivity analysis, hypnotic suggestibility was positively correlated with functional connectivity between medial posterior areas, including bilateral posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus, and both the lateral visual network and the left fronto-parietal network; a positive correlation was also found with functional connectivity between the executive-control network and a right postcentral/parietal area. In contrast, hypnotic suggestibility was negatively correlated with functional connectivity between the right fronto-parietal network and the right lateral thalamus. These findings demonstrate for the first time a correlation between hypnotic suggestibility, the structural features of specific cortical regions, and the functional connectivity during the normal resting state of brain structures involved in imagery and self-monitoring activity.

  15. Structural and functional cerebral correlates of hypnotic suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Alexa; Lui, Fausta; Duzzi, Davide; Pagnoni, Giuseppe; Porro, Carlo Adolfo

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the neural bases of hypnotic suggestibility, a cognitive trait referring to the tendency to respond to hypnotic suggestions. In the present magnetic resonance imaging study, we performed regression analyses to assess hypnotic suggestibility-related differences in local gray matter volume, using voxel-based morphometry, and in waking resting state functional connectivity of 10 resting state networks, in 37 healthy women. Hypnotic suggestibility was positively correlated with gray matter volume in portions of the left superior and medial frontal gyri, roughly overlapping with the supplementary and pre-supplementary motor area, and negatively correlated with gray matter volume in the left superior temporal gyrus and insula. In the functional connectivity analysis, hypnotic suggestibility was positively correlated with functional connectivity between medial posterior areas, including bilateral posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus, and both the lateral visual network and the left fronto-parietal network; a positive correlation was also found with functional connectivity between the executive-control network and a right postcentral/parietal area. In contrast, hypnotic suggestibility was negatively correlated with functional connectivity between the right fronto-parietal network and the right lateral thalamus. These findings demonstrate for the first time a correlation between hypnotic suggestibility, the structural features of specific cortical regions, and the functional connectivity during the normal resting state of brain structures involved in imagery and self-monitoring activity.

  16. Spatial structure of monthly rainfall measurements average over 25 years and trends of the hourly variability of a current rainy day in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nduwayezu, Emmanuel; Kanevski, Mikhail; Jaboyedoff, Michel

    2013-04-01

    Climate plays a vital role in a wide range of socio-economic activities of most nations particularly of developing countries. Climate (rainfall) plays a central role in agriculture which is the main stay of the Rwandan economy and community livelihood and activities. The majority of the Rwandan population (81,1% in 2010) relies on rain fed agriculture for their livelihoods, and the impacts of variability in climate patterns are already being felt. Climate-related events like heavy rainfall or too little rainfall are becoming more frequent and are impacting on human wellbeing.The torrential rainfall that occurs every year in Rwanda could disturb the circulation for many days, damages houses, infrastructures and causes heavy economic losses and deaths. Four rainfall seasons have been identified, corresponding to the four thermal Earth ones in the south hemisphere: the normal season (summer), the rainy season (autumn), the dry season (winter) and the normo-rainy season (spring). Globally, the spatial rainfall decreasing from West to East, especially in October (spring) and February (summer) suggests an «Atlantic monsoon influence» while the homogeneous spatial rainfall distribution suggests an «Inter-tropical front» mechanism. What is the hourly variability in this mountainous area? Is there any correlation with the identified zones of the monthly average series (from 1965 to 1990 established by the Rwandan meteorological services)? Where could we have hazards with several consecutive rainy days (using forecasted datas from the Norwegian Meteorological Institute)? Spatio-temporal analysis allows for identifying and explaining large-scale anomalies which are useful for understanding hydrological characteristics and subsequently predicting these hydrological events. The objective of our current research (Rainfall variability) is to proceed to an evaluation of the potential rainfall risk by applying advanced geospatial modelling tools in Rwanda: geostatistical

  17. Mechanisms of eyewitness suggestibility: tests of the explanatory role hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindal, Eric J; Chrobak, Quin M; Zaragoza, Maria S; Weihing, Caitlin A

    2017-10-01

    In a recent paper, Chrobak and Zaragoza (Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 142(3), 827-844, 2013) proposed the explanatory role hypothesis, which posits that the likelihood of developing false memories for post-event suggestions is a function of the explanatory function the suggestion serves. In support of this hypothesis, they provided evidence that participant-witnesses were especially likely to develop false memories for their forced fabrications when their fabrications helped to explain outcomes they had witnessed. In three experiments, we test the generality of the explanatory role hypothesis as a mechanism of eyewitness suggestibility by assessing whether this hypothesis can predict suggestibility errors in (a) situations where the post-event suggestions are provided by the experimenter (as opposed to fabricated by the participant), and (b) across a variety of memory measures and measures of recollective experience. In support of the explanatory role hypothesis, participants were more likely to subsequently freely report (E1) and recollect the suggestions as part of the witnessed event (E2, source test) when the post-event suggestion helped to provide a causal explanation for a witnessed outcome than when it did not serve this explanatory role. Participants were also less likely to recollect the suggestions as part of the witnessed event (on measures of subjective experience) when their explanatory strength had been reduced by the presence of an alternative explanation that could explain the same outcome (E3, source test + warning). Collectively, the results provide strong evidence that the search for explanatory coherence influences people's tendency to misremember witnessing events that were only suggested to them.

  18. Change in IgHV Mutational Status of CLL Suggests Origin From Multiple Clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Afaf; Gocke, Christopher D; Gladstone, Douglas E

    2017-02-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization and immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy-chain variable-region (IgHV) mutational status are used to predict outcome in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Although DNA aberrations change over time, IgHV sequences and mutational status are considered stable. In a retrospective review, 409 CLL patients, between 2008 and 2015, had IgHV analysis: 56 patients had multiple analyses performed. Seven patients' IgHV results changed: 2 from unmutated to mutated and 5 from mutated to unmutated IgHV sequence. Three concurrently changed their variable heavy-chain sequence. Secondary to allelic exclusion, 2 of the new variable heavy chains produced were biologically nonplausible. The existence of these new nonplausible heavy-chain variable regions suggests either the CLL cancer stem-cell maintains the ability to rearrange a previously silenced IgH allele or more likely that the cancer stem-cell produced at least 2 subclones, suggesting that the CLL cancer stem cell exists before the process of allelic exclusion occurs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. High-resolution grids of hourly meteorological variables for Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krähenmann, S.; Walter, A.; Brienen, S.; Imbery, F.; Matzarakis, A.

    2018-02-01

    We present a 1-km2 gridded German dataset of hourly surface climate variables covering the period 1995 to 2012. The dataset comprises 12 variables including temperature, dew point, cloud cover, wind speed and direction, global and direct shortwave radiation, down- and up-welling longwave radiation, sea level pressure, relative humidity and vapour pressure. This dataset was constructed statistically from station data, satellite observations and model data. It is outstanding in terms of spatial and temporal resolution and in the number of climate variables. For each variable, we employed the most suitable gridding method and combined the best of several information sources, including station records, satellite-derived data and data from a regional climate model. A module to estimate urban heat island intensity was integrated for air and dew point temperature. Owing to the low density of available synop stations, the gridded dataset does not capture all variations that may occur at a resolution of 1 km2. This applies to areas of complex terrain (all the variables), and in particular to wind speed and the radiation parameters. To achieve maximum precision, we used all observational information when it was available. This, however, leads to inhomogeneities in station network density and affects the long-term consistency of the dataset. A first climate analysis for Germany was conducted. The Rhine River Valley, for example, exhibited more than 100 summer days in 2003, whereas in 1996, the number was low everywhere in Germany. The dataset is useful for applications in various climate-related studies, hazard management and for solar or wind energy applications and it is available via doi: 10.5676/DWD_CDC/TRY_Basis_v001.

  20. Lifelong learning in aviation and medicine; Comments and suggestions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boshuizen, Els

    2011-01-01

    Boshuizen, H. P. A. (2010, 25-27 August). Lifelong learning in aviation and medicine; Comments and suggestions. Discussion at the 5th EARLI-SIG14 Learning and Professional Development, Munich, Germany.

  1. Belief in the paranormal and suggestion in the seance room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Richard; Greening, Emma; Smith, Matthew

    2003-08-01

    In Experiment 1, participants took part in a fake seance. An actor suggested that a table was levitating when, in fact, it remained stationary. After the seance, approximately one third of participants incorrectly reported that the table had moved. Results also showed a significant relationship between the reported movement of the table and belief in the paranormal, with a greater percentage of believers than disbelievers, reporting that the table had moved. Experiment 2 varied whether the suggestion was consistent, or inconsistent, with participants' belief in the paranormal. Results again showed that believers were more susceptible to suggestion than disbelievers, but only when the suggestion was consistent with their belief in the paranormal. Approximately one fifth of participants believed that the fake seances contained genuine paranormal phenomena.

  2. Neurogenesis suggests independent evolution of opercula in serpulid polychaetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkmann, Nora; Wanninger, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The internal phylogenetic relationships of Annelida, one of the key lophotrochozoan lineages, are still heavily debated. Recent molecular analyses suggest that morphologically distinct groups, such as the polychaetes, are paraphyletic assemblages, thus questioning the homology...

  3. Suggested benchmarks for shape optimization for minimum stress concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pauli

    2008-01-01

    Shape optimization for minimum stress concentration is vital, important, and difficult. New formulations and numerical procedures imply the need for good benchmarks. The available analytical shape solutions rely on assumptions that are seldom satisfied, so here, we suggest alternative benchmarks...

  4. Baby Teeth Link Autism and Heavy Metals, NIH Study Suggests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Release Thursday, June 1, 2017 Baby teeth link autism and heavy metals, NIH study suggests Cross-section ... Sinai Health System Baby teeth from children with autism contain more toxic lead and less of the ...

  5. Using Neurolinguistic Programming: Some Suggestions for the Remedial Teacher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Grace M.

    1986-01-01

    The use of neurolinguistic programming techniques is suggested as a means of enhancing rapport with students. Mirroring, digital mirroring, analog mirroring, metaphors, knowing persons, and how these aid in presenting content are each discussed. (MNS)

  6. Regulating professional behavior: codes of ethics or law? Suggested criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libman, Liron A

    2013-09-01

    This paper suggests considering a few parameters when making policy decisions as to the proper "tool" to regulate professional behavior: law or professional ethics. This is done on the background of understanding the place of codes of professional ethics between "pure" ethics and law. Suggested criteria are then illustrated using a few examples. Further discourse may reveal additional factors to support a more rational process of decision-making in this field.

  7. Bullous pemphigoid antigen localization suggests an intracellular association with hemidesmosomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westgate, G E; Weaver, A C; Couchman, J R

    1985-01-01

    immunofluorescent staining for BPA is linear at the basement membrane zone (BMZ) of skin and many other epithelial tissues. At higher magnification however, we observed a punctate staining pattern for BPA which was regular in appearance and suggested localization of BPA to discrete structures at the BMZ. Subsequent...... intracellularly both in vivo and in vitro. We suggest that BPA is not normally a lamina lucida component, but that it may form part of a linkage between the cytoskeleton and the basement membrane....

  8. Dissociation, personality, suggestibility, alexithymia, and problems with emotional regulation: A correlational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángeles Serrano

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper explores the relationship between psychological and somatic dissociation and different personality and emotional variables, including suggestibility, alexithymia, and emotional regulation and dysregulation. The results with a sample of 355 partipants of a normal population reveal that there is a positive relationship between both types of dissociation, suggestibility and emotional dysregulation. Likewise, there were different patterns of personality associated both to psychological and somatic dissociation. Correlations found in this study put forward the importance to take into account both types of dissociactive symptoms, psychological and somatic ones.

  9. Variable volume combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostebee, Heath Michael; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Keener, Christopher Paul

    2017-01-17

    The present application provides a variable volume combustor for use with a gas turbine engine. The variable volume combustor may include a liner, a number of micro-mixer fuel nozzles positioned within the liner, and a linear actuator so as to maneuver the micro-mixer fuel nozzles axially along the liner.

  10. Collective variables and dissipation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balian, R.

    1984-09-01

    This is an introduction to some basic concepts of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics. We emphasize in particular the relevant entropy relative to a given set of collective variables, the meaning of the projection method in the Liouville space, its use to establish the generalized transport equations for these variables, and the interpretation of dissipation in the framework of information theory

  11. Variability: A Pernicious Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noddings, Nel

    1992-01-01

    The hypothesis of greater male variability in test results is discussed in its historical context, and reasons feminists have objected to the hypothesis are considered. The hypothesis acquires political importance if it is considered that variability results from biological, rather than cultural, differences. (SLD)

  12. Reinforcing Saccadic Amplitude Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paeye, Celine; Madelain, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    Saccadic endpoint variability is often viewed as the outcome of neural noise occurring during sensorimotor processing. However, part of this variability might result from operant learning. We tested this hypothesis by reinforcing dispersions of saccadic amplitude distributions, while maintaining constant their medians. In a first experiment we…

  13. POVMs and hidden variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stairs, Allen

    2007-01-01

    Recent results by Paul Busch and Adan Cabello claim to show that by appealing to POVMs, non-contextual hidden variables can be ruled out in two dimensions. While the results of Busch and Cabello are mathematically correct, interpretive problems render them problematic as no hidden variable proofs

  14. Interdependence Among Organizational Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, M. C.

    1975-01-01

    The interrelationship between a set of organizational variables was investigated at 14 work organizations within a company. The variables were production, quality, costs, job satisfaction of operatives, job satisfaction of supervisors, work anxiety, accidents, absence, labor turnover, and industrial unrest. (Author)

  15. Evaluation of the improvement suggestion system in a nuclear facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnaval, Joao Paulo Rodrigues; Moraes, Geice Almeida

    2017-01-01

    This work evaluated methods for processing improvement suggestions of a nuclear factory, with the intention to verify those which best fits to the company purposes. Two methods for processing improvement suggestions were applied in the studied organization. The first one was guided to the processing suggestions by specific independent sectors of the company and the second one was conducted to the processing of suggestions by a multidisciplinary team. It has been concluded that a multidisciplinary team focused on research and development would be the best option to the implementation of improvement suggestions and technological innovation on this facility, instead of multi sector processing which revealed to be excessive bureaucratic before the expected goals. This study can be used by nuclear facilities to optimize an existing system of improvements analysis or even guide them for the implantation of a new one. It is more significant for the companies certified on ISO and OHSAS standards for the quality management, environmental and safety and occupational health systems which requires that the continuous improvement must exist and to be demonstrated. But it is also relevant for nuclear plants aiming to implement an Integrated Management System certified on ISO Standards. (author)

  16. Hypnosis, hypnotic suggestibility, memory, and involvement in films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Reed; Lynn, Steven Jay; Condon, Liam

    2015-05-01

    Our research extends studies that have examined the relation between hypnotic suggestibility and experiential involvement and the role of an hypnotic induction in enhancing experiential involvement (e.g., absorption) in engaging tasks. Researchers have reported increased involvement in reading (Baum & Lynn, 1981) and music-listening (Snodgrass & Lynn, 1989) tasks during hypnosis. We predicted a similar effect for film viewing: greater experiential involvement in an emotional (The Champ) versus a non-emotional (Scenes of Toronto) film. We tested 121 participants who completed measures of absorption and trait dissociation and the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility and then viewed the two films after either an hypnotic induction or a non-hypnotic task (i.e., anagrams). Experiential involvement varied as a function of hypnotic suggestibility and film clip. Highly suggestible participants reported more state depersonalization than less suggestible participants, and depersonalization was associated with negative affect; however, we observed no significant correlation between hypnotic suggestibility and trait dissociation. Although hypnosis had no effect on memory commission or omission errors, contrary to the hypothesis that hypnosis facilitates absorption in emotionally engaging tasks, the emotional film was associated with more commission and omission errors compared with the non-emotional film. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of the improvement suggestion system in a nuclear facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnaval, Joao Paulo Rodrigues; Moraes, Geice Almeida, E-mail: joaocarnaval@inb.gov.br, E-mail: geice@inb.gov.br [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil S.A (INB), Resende, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    This work evaluated methods for processing improvement suggestions of a nuclear factory, with the intention to verify those which best fits to the company purposes. Two methods for processing improvement suggestions were applied in the studied organization. The first one was guided to the processing suggestions by specific independent sectors of the company and the second one was conducted to the processing of suggestions by a multidisciplinary team. It has been concluded that a multidisciplinary team focused on research and development would be the best option to the implementation of improvement suggestions and technological innovation on this facility, instead of multi sector processing which revealed to be excessive bureaucratic before the expected goals. This study can be used by nuclear facilities to optimize an existing system of improvements analysis or even guide them for the implantation of a new one. It is more significant for the companies certified on ISO and OHSAS standards for the quality management, environmental and safety and occupational health systems which requires that the continuous improvement must exist and to be demonstrated. But it is also relevant for nuclear plants aiming to implement an Integrated Management System certified on ISO Standards. (author)

  18. Evaluation of patients with symptoms suggestive of chronic polyneuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, L; Smith, T; Havsager, A M

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic yield and to describe the spectrum of diagnosis encountered by evaluation of patients with symptoms suggestive of chronic polyneuropathy. METHODS: We prospectively evaluated 198 patients referred to a department of neurology...... with symptoms suggestive of polyneuropathy. The evaluation included nerve conduction studies with near-nerve technique, quantitative examination of temperature sensation, blood tests, chest x-rays, and skin biopsies as well as diagnostic tests for differential diagnoses. RESULTS: Polyneuropathy was found in 147......%), drugs (5%), connective tissue disease (3%), and a number of less frequent conditions. A previously undiagnosed condition was found in 30% of the patients with polyneuropathy. CONCLUSION: Evaluation of patients with symptoms suggestive of polyneuropathy reveals a high fraction of patients with previously...

  19. Career Path Suggestion using String Matching and Decision Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagpal, Akshay; P. Panda, Supriya

    2015-05-01

    High school and college graduates seemingly are often battling for the courses they should major in order to achieve their target career. In this paper, we worked on suggesting a career path to a graduate to reach his/her dream career given the current educational status. Firstly, we collected the career data of professionals and academicians from various career fields and compiled the data set by using the necessary information from the data. Further, this was used as the basis to suggest the most appropriate career path for the person given his/her current educational status. Decision trees and string matching algorithms were employed to suggest the appropriate career path for a person. Finally, an analysis of the result has been done directing to further improvements in the model.

  20. Exposure to suggestion and creation of false auditory memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, B; Nelson, E

    2000-02-01

    The experiment investigated the possibility of creating false auditory memory through exposure to suggestion. Research by Loftus and others has indicated that, through suggestion, false memories can be created. Participants viewed a short film and were given a 9-item questionnaire. Eight questions were used as filler while one question asked respondents to recall a phrase one character had said. Although the character actually said nothing, 23 of 30 respondents recalled having heard him speak and specifically recalled his words. This statistically significant result shows that auditory memories can also be created.

  1. Persistent Web References – Best Practices and New Suggestions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zierau, Eld; Nyvang, Caroline; Kromann, Thomas Hvid

    In this paper, we suggest adjustments to best practices for persistent web referencing; adjustments that aim at preservation and long time accessibility of web referenced resources in general, but with focus on web references in web archives. Web referencing is highly relevant and crucial...... refer to archive URLs which depends on the web archives access implementations. A major part of the suggested adjustments is a new web reference standard for archived web references (called wPID), which is a supplement to the current practices. The purpose of the standard is to support general, global...

  2. Suggested guidelines for gas emission monitoring at danish landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Landfill gas is produced on waste disposal sites receiving organic waste resulting in emission of methane. Regulation requires that the landfill gas is managed in order to reduce emissions, but very few suggestions exist to how the landfill gas management activities are monitored, what requirements...... to the ability of the landfill gas management to reduce the emission should be set up, and how criteria are developed for when the monitoring activities can be terminated. Monitoring procedures are suggested centred on a robust method for measuring the total methane emission from the site, and quantitative...

  3. Children's suggestibility research: Things to know before interviewing a child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Courtney Hritz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Children's testimony is often the only evidence of alleged abuse. Thus, the importance of conducting forensic interviews that are free from bias and misleading information is immense, as these could lead to false reports. In the current paper, we review unexpected findings in children's suggestibility that illustrate the difficulty in distinguishing between false and accurate reports. We explore situations in which a younger person's memory account may be more accurate than that of an adult, when a single suggestive interview may be as detrimental as multiple interviews, and when children can make inaccurate reports spontaneously. We conclude with recommendations for interviewers to decrease false reporting by both children and adults.

  4. Animal Rights: Selected Resources and Suggestions for Further Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidoff, Donald J.

    1989-01-01

    Presents an annotated list of selected resources intended to serve as a guide to the growing amount of material on animal rights. Suggestions to aid in additional research include subject headings used to find books, indexes used to locate periodical articles, sources for locating organizations, and a selected list of animal rights organizations.…

  5. False Memories for Suggestions: The Impact of Conceptual Elaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaragoza, Maria S.; Mitchell, Karen J.; Payment, Kristie; Drivdahl, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Relatively little attention has been paid to the potential role that reflecting on the meaning and implications of suggested events (i.e., conceptual elaboration) might play in promoting the creation of false memories. Two experiments assessed whether encouraging repeated conceptual elaboration, would, like perceptual elaboration, increase false…

  6. Editor's Note Responding to suggestions from the research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    Responding to suggestions from the research fellowship of the Institute of African Studies for a re-branding of the. Research Review, which began publication in the early 1960s soon after the establishment of the Institute, the old title has now been replaced with a new title — Contemporary Journal of African Studies. This is ...

  7. Small Business Management. Part I, A Suggested Course Outline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Continuing Education Curriculum Development.

    In this curriculum guide on small business management, lessons (including specific course content and teaching suggestions) are developed around general traits and practices conducive to success in small businesses, loans and other sources of capital, budgeting and planning, recordkeeping, marketing and selling, advertising and sales promotion,…

  8. Some suggestions based on the instrumentation installation experience at RAPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghunath, M.R.; Singh, S.; Jain, V.K.

    1977-01-01

    Suggestions regarding installation of reactor instrumentation have been made based on the instrumentation installation experience at the Rajasthan Atomic Power Plant. It has been mentioned that the instrumentation installation work has to proceed simultaneously with that of the heavy equipment and piping errection work, to meet the commissioning target dates. (S.K.K.)

  9. Male-limited evolution suggests no extant intralocus sexual conflict ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Male-limited evolution suggests no extant intralocus sexual conflict over the sexually dimorphic cuticular hydrocarbons of Drosophila melanogaster ... Spain; Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Mohali, Knowledge City, Sector 81, SAS Nagar, Manauli PO 140 306, India; Department of Biology and Centre for ...

  10. A Privacy-by-Design Contextual Suggestion System for Tourism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Efraimidis, Pavlos; Drosatos, George; Arampatzis, Avi; Stamatelatos, Giorgos; Athanasiadis, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    We focus on personal data generated by the sensors and through the everyday usage of smart devices and take advantage of these data to build a non-invasive contextual suggestion system for tourism. The system, which we call Pythia, exploits the computational capabilities of modern smart devices to

  11. SALES PROMOTION, A SUGGESTED ADULT DISTRIBUTIVE EDUCATION COURSE OUTLINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    RUBIN, ALAN J.; AND OTHERS

    THIS SUGGESTED OUTLINE FOR A BASIC COURSE IN SALES PROMOTION IS DESIGNED FOR NOT LESS THAN FIVE 2-HOUR SESSIONS ON (1) ASPECTS OF SALES PROMOTION, (2) SALES PROMOTION TECHNIQUES, (3) NEWSPAPER ADVERTISING, (4) WINDOW AND INTERIOR DISPLAY PRINCIPLES, AND (5) SELECTED PROMOTIONAL MEDIA AND DEVICES. POSSIBLE TEACHERS INCLUDE A SALES PROMOTION…

  12. RETAIL ORGANIZATION, A SUGGESTED ADULT DISTRIBUTIVE EDUCATION COURSE OUTLINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MAURO, RALPH N.; AND OTHERS

    THIS SUGGESTED OUTLINE FOR A COURSE ON RETAIL ORGANIZATION IS PLANNED FOR FIVE 2-HOUR SESSIONS ON (1) EVOLUTION OF RETAIL ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE, (2) ORGANIZATION, INCLUDING CONCEPTS, PRINCIPLES, AND PRACTICES, (3) TYPICAL RETAIL ORGANIZATION PATTERNS, (4) ORGANIZATIONAL AND FUNCTIONAL ANAYSIS, INCLUDING MERCHANDISING, SALES PROMOTION, AND…

  13. Suggestions for Improving Ugandan Higher Education to Produce ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Every country invests in formal education to develop and empower its citizens with the capacity needed to practically work and transform their surrounding environmental resources into productive employment after graduation. The high and growing rate of graduate unemployment in Uganda suggests however, that most of ...

  14. An Instructional Method Suggestion: Conveying Stories through Origami (Storigami)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguz, Aysegul

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate how to convey stories through origami and suggest its use in education with the help of pre-service elementary teachers' opinions. The participants of the study were 103 elementary teacher candidates from a state university in the 2014-2015 academic year. In this qualitative study, the data were collected…

  15. Omission, Suggestion, Completion : Film and the Imagination of the Spectator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanich, Julian

    2018-01-01

    This article counters the widespread assumption that film is exclusively a medium of showing, presentation or appearing by emphasizing the importance of the viewer’s act of imagination. At the center of attention is the aesthetic principle of omission, suggestion, and completion in film – in other

  16. Suggestions for Working with Fat Children in the Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewy, Michael I.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses prejudice toward fat children and its effect on their lives; critiques prevailing efforts to control children's eating habits and weight. Suggestions and resource materials to enhance students' self-esteem and good health through self-acceptance and embracing the diversity of body types are presented. (EMK)

  17. Young Children's Understanding of Conflicting Mental Representation Predicts Suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch-Ross, Melissa K.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Examined the relation between developmental suggestibility effects and preschoolers' emerging ability to reason about conflicting mental representations. Subjects were 42 three- to five-year-olds. Found in the children significant initial encoding and ability to retrieve event details. Also found an integration between children's theory of mind…

  18. The Strategic Regulation of Children's Memory Performance and Suggestibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roebers, C.M.; Schneider, W.

    2005-01-01

    We report two empirical studies that investigated previously reported benefits of a high accuracy motivation, and thus a high threshold, for children's and adults' event recall and for their ability to resist false suggestions. In the studies, 6-, 7-, and 8-year-olds, as well as adults, were shown a brief video about an event and were later asked…

  19. Effects of Discrete Emotions on Young Children's Suggestibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Linda J.; Burgess, Stewart L.; Laney, Cara

    2008-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the effects of sadness, anger, and happiness on 4- to 6-year-old children's memory and suggestibility concerning story events. In Experiment 1, children were presented with 3 interactive stories on a video monitor. The stories included protagonists who wanted to give the child a prize. After each story, the child…

  20. How Interviewers' Nonverbal Behaviors Can Affect Children's Perceptions and Suggestibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almerigogna, Jehanne; Ost, James; Akehurst, Lucy; Fluck, Mike

    2008-01-01

    We conducted two studies to examine how interviewers' nonverbal behaviors affect children's perceptions and suggestibility. In the first study, 42 8- to 10-year-olds watched video clips showing an interviewer displaying combinations of supportive and nonsupportive nonverbal behaviors and were asked to rate the interviewer on six attributes (e.g.,…

  1. Where to Look First for Suggestibility in Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcombe, Peter A.; Siegal, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Investigated preschool children's suggestibility following exposure to biased information. Children heard a story followed the next day by either biased, unbiased, or no information. Found that children were able to identify the original story details six days later when the questions were phrased in an explicit manner that referred to the time of…

  2. The Effects of Prior Knowledge on Children's Memory and Suggestibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elischberger, Holger B.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, 5- and 6-year-olds were read a story and asked to recall its details. Two independent factors-prestory knowledge and poststory suggestions-were crossed to examine the effects on children's story recall. The results indicated that prestory social knowledge about the story protagonist as well as academic knowledge relating to the…

  3. Explicit grammar teaching in EAL classrooms: Suggestions from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development of the subject English Additional Language (EAL) to serve as a strong support subject in explicitly teaching learners the grammar of English is suggested as an interim solution to the effects of the non-implementation of the 1997 South African Language in Education Policy. To identify specific grammatical ...

  4. Suggestions for the Classical Shelves of a School Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colebourn, R., Comp.; Cleeve, Marigold, Comp.

    This bibliography is suggested for use by students and teachers of Latin, Greek and ancient civilizations. Entries are compiled under the headings of: (1) bibliographies and journals including booklists, periodicals, and books for teachers; (2) reference works in literature, mythology, history and antiquities, and language; (3) texts and…

  5. Studies and Suggestions on English Vocabulary Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shigao

    2012-01-01

    To improve vocabulary learning and teaching in ELT settings, two questionnaires are designed and directed to more than 100 students and teachers in one of China's key universities. The findings suggest that an enhanced awareness of cultural difference, metaphorical competence, and learners' autonomy in vocabulary acquisition will effectively…

  6. De-Problematizing 'GMOs': Suggestions for Communicating about Genetic Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blancke, Stefaan; Grunewald, Wim; De Jaeger, Geert

    2017-03-01

    The public debates concerning genetic engineering (GE) involve many non-scientific issues. The ensuing complexity is one reason why biotechnologists are reluctant to become involved. By sharing our personal experiences in science communication and suggesting ways to de-problematize GE, we aim to inspire our colleagues to engage with the public. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Hotel Employees' Japanese Language Experiences: Implications and Suggestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makita-Discekici, Yasuko

    1998-01-01

    Analyzes the Japanese language learning experiences of 13 hotel employees in Guam. Results of the study present implications and suggestions for a Japanese language program for the hotel industry. The project began as a result of hotel employees frustrations when they were unable to communicate effectively with their Japanese guests. (Auth/JL)

  8. Barriers to Policy Change and a Suggested Path for Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Yijia

    2013-01-01

    China's one-child policy has been an unprecedented policy experiment in human history. Despite its significant achievements, the policy has induced equally significant potential problems. As problems of the one-child policy have been widely noticed and suggestions for adjustments are available, the leadership transition of China in 2012 and 2013…

  9. Coping with loneliness: what do older adults suggest?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenmakers, E.; van Tilburg, T.; Fokkema, C.M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: A limited amount of information is available on how older adults cope with loneliness. Two ways of coping are distinguished here, i.e., active coping by improving relationships and regulative coping by lowering expectations about relationships. We explore how often older adults suggest

  10. A birth-death process suggested by a chain sequence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenin, R.B.; Parthasarathy, P.R.

    2000-01-01

    We consider a birth-death process whose birth and death rates are suggested by a chain sequence. We use an elegant transformation to find the transition probabilities in a simple closed form. We also find an explicit expression for time-dependent mean. We find parallel results in discrete time.

  11. Tuck in Your Shirt, You Squid: Suggestions in ESL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Janet; Carrell, Patricia L.

    1988-01-01

    An English discourse completion questionnaire consisting of 60 situations designed to elicit suggestions in English was administered to 28 native speakers of Chinese or Malay and to 12 native speakers of American English. Non-native speakers of English were more direct in their responses. Native and non-native speakers significantly differed in…

  12. Overview of the TREC 2014 Contextual Suggestion Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    into Washington on the metro to see the National Mall . The primary goal of this track is to develop evaluation methodologies for such systems. This...activities, restaurant, shopping , and nightlife). The number of venues in the top 50 suggestions from each category is determined by this probability

  13. Considerations about ISO 14001, and suggestions for the next revision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Tine Herreborg

    2006-01-01

    . The standard is a process standard that leaves room for interpretation at company level as well as among lead auditors from certifying bodies. A case study is presented and shows lack of life cycle thinking in product development. The paper suggests changes of ISO 14001:2004 in order to include a clear product...

  14. Two suggestions to improve the utilization of ISABELLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorndike, A.

    1976-01-01

    Two suggestions are outlined which are aimed at improving the efficiency of work in experimental areas by improving the information available to experimenters. The ideas relate to: (1) communications between the experimental hall and the data acquisition room; and (2) beam information via computer

  15. Eternity Variables to Simulate Specifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, WH; Boiten, EA; Moller, B

    2002-01-01

    Simulation of specifications is introduced as a unification and generalization of refinement mappings, history variables, forward simulations, prophecy variables, and backward simulations. Eternity variables are introduced as a more powerful alternative for prophecy variables and backward

  16. Variable Attitude Test Stand

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Variable Attitude Test Stand designed and built for testing of the V-22 tilt rotor aircraft propulsion system, is used to evaluate the effect of aircraft flight...

  17. Several complex variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, M.J.

    1976-01-01

    Topics discussed include the elementary of holomorphic functions of several complex variables; the Weierstrass preparation theorem; meromorphic functions, holomorphic line bundles and divisors; elliptic operators on compact manifolds; hermitian connections; the Hodge decomposition theorem. ( author)

  18. Variable-Rate Premiums

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation — These interest rates are used to value vested benefits for variable rate premium purposes as described in PBGC's regulation on Premium Rates (29 CFR Part 4006) and...

  19. Variable Pricing Feasibility Assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    ...) and Willard Bishop Consulting (Barrington, IL) to evaluate the practicality of using a variable pricing system within DeCA to maintain an average of 30 percent customer savings and lower appropriated fund costs...

  20. Evolution of variable stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, S.A.

    1986-08-01

    Throughout the domain of the H R diagram lie groupings of stars whose luminosity varies with time. These variable stars can be classified based on their observed properties into distinct types such as β Cephei stars, δ Cephei stars, and Miras, as well as many other categories. The underlying mechanism for the variability is generally felt to be due to four different causes: geometric effects, rotation, eruptive processes, and pulsation. In this review the focus will be on pulsation variables and how the theory of stellar evolution can be used to explain how the various regions of variability on the H R diagram are populated. To this end a generalized discussion of the evolutionary behavior of a massive star, an intermediate mass star, and a low mass star will be presented. 19 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  1. Calculus of one variable

    CERN Document Server

    Grossman, Stanley I

    1986-01-01

    Calculus of One Variable, Second Edition presents the essential topics in the study of the techniques and theorems of calculus.The book provides a comprehensive introduction to calculus. It contains examples, exercises, the history and development of calculus, and various applications. Some of the topics discussed in the text include the concept of limits, one-variable theory, the derivatives of all six trigonometric functions, exponential and logarithmic functions, and infinite series.This textbook is intended for use by college students.

  2. Software Testing Requires Variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak

    2003-01-01

    Software variability is the ability of a software system or artefact to be changed, customized or configured for use in a particular context. Variability in software systems is important from a number of perspectives. Some perspectives rightly receive much attention due to their direct economic...... impact in software production. As is also apparent from the call for papers these perspectives focus on qualities such as reuse, adaptability, and maintainability....

  3. Suspended graphene variable capacitor

    OpenAIRE

    AbdelGhany, M.; Mahvash, F.; Mukhopadhyay, M.; Favron, A.; Martel, R.; Siaj, M.; Szkopek, T.

    2016-01-01

    The tuning of electrical circuit resonance with a variable capacitor, or varactor, finds wide application with the most important being wireless telecommunication. We demonstrate an electromechanical graphene varactor, a variable capacitor wherein the capacitance is tuned by voltage controlled deflection of a dense array of suspended graphene membranes. The low flexural rigidity of graphene monolayers is exploited to achieve low actuation voltage in an ultra-thin structure. Large arrays compr...

  4. Communicating about nuclear events: Some suggestions to improve INES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kermisch, Céline; Labeau, Pierre-Etienne

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides a critical analysis of the International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale (INES) and its use, both from an epistemic and an ethical perspective. As very few papers have been dedicated to this subject, our critical analysis is mainly based on the INES 2009 User's Manual and on technical information issued by different nuclear agencies. Our critical analysis leads to suggest several elements, which could contribute to the improvement of the INES scale and thereby to a better communication about nuclear events. First, we show that multiple criteria are used to assign an INES rating, which could lead to an insufficient differentiation between events. In order to avoid this issue, we suggest to clarify the criteria that are used to assess the level of the event. Then, we show that level 7 of the INES scale is ill-defined as it does not allow to properly take differences in severity between disasters into account. In this regard, we recommend to use an open scale instead. Moreover, we highlight the fact that INES is able to take into account neither events with long-term evolution nor events involving multiple initiators. In this respect, we suggest providing additional guidelines and reflecting about the data on which to rely, in order to assess an INES level. Furthermore, we reflect on who should be rating a nuclear event and we recommend that, for severe events, an independent and plural agency should be in charge. Finally, we show why INES appears to be insufficient for a global communication, and we suggest to complement the INES rating with additional information in parallel. -- Highlights: •We provide a critical analysis of the INES scale and suggestions to improve it. •The rating criteria should be clarified to allow differentiation between events. •An open scale should be used to differentiate between level-7 accidents. •Additional guidelines should be provided for complex and evolving events. •We provide suggestions to satisfy

  5. Variability of ethane on Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostiuk, Theodor; Espenak, Fred; Mumma, Michael J.; Deming, Drake; Zipoy, David

    1987-01-01

    Varying stratospheric temperature profiles and C2H6 altitude distributions furnish contexts for the evaluation of ethane abundances and distributions in the Jupiter stratosphere. Substantial ethane line emission and retrieved mole fraction variability is noted near the footprint of Io's flux tube, as well as within the auroral regions. It is suggested that this and other observed phenomena are due to the modification of local stratospheric chemistry by higher-order effects, which are in turn speculated to be due to the precipitation of charged particles along magnetic field lines.

  6. Suggestions for the Improvement of Environmental Radiation Monitoring in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shadrack, A. K.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental radiation monitoring in Kenya was started in 1990 following the 1979 Three Mile Island and the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear power plants accidents. The main purpose was to measure the radioactivity of foodstuffs imported from oversees and to carry out environmental radiation monitoring of soil, rock, water and air sample to check for contamination. Through environmental radiation monitoring, the Food and Environmental Monitoring Section (FEM) of the Kenya Radiation Protection Board (RPB) works to protect the public and environment from hazards associated with ionizing radiation. The purpose of this paper was to highlight suggestions for the improvement of environmental radiation monitoring in Kenya with respect to protecting the public and the environment against undue radiation risk by ensuring that potential exposures are kept As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA). The suggestions for improvement will serve as a guideline for the strengthening of environmental radiation monitoring program in Kenya

  7. Communicating uncertainty: lessons learned and suggestions for climate change assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patt, A.; Dessai, S.

    2005-01-01

    Assessments of climate change face the task of making information about uncertainty accessible and useful to decision-makers. The literature in behavior economics provides many examples of how people make decisions under conditions of uncertainty relying on inappropriate heuristics, leading to inconsistent and counterproductive choices. Modern risk communication practices recommend a number of methods to overcome these hurdles, which have been recommended for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assessment reports. This paper evaluates the success of the most recent IPCC approach to uncertainty communication, based on a controlled survey of climate change experts. Evaluating the results from the survey, and from a similar survey recently conducted among university students, the paper suggests that the most recent IPCC approach leaves open the possibility for biased and inconsistent responses to the information. The paper concludes by suggesting ways to improve the approach for future IPCC assessment reports. (authors)

  8. DIPNECH: when to suggest this diagnosis on CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chassagnon, G.; Favelle, O.; Marchand-Adam, S.; De Muret, A.; Revel, M.P.

    2015-01-01

    Diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia (DIPNECH) is an under-recognized disease characterized by proliferation of neuroendocrine cells in the bronchial wall. It is considered a pre-invasive lesion for lung carcinoid tumours and is found in 5.4% of patients undergoing surgical resection for lung carcinoid tumours. Other manifestations of DIPNECH include bronchial obstruction and formation of tumorlets. DIPNECH preferentially affects middle-aged women. Patients are either asymptomatic or present with long-standing dyspnoea due to obstructive syndrome that can be mistaken for asthma. At CT, mosaic attenuation with multiple small nodules is very suggestive of DIPNECH. The aim of this review is to describe DIPNECH-related CT features and correlate them with histology, in order to help radiologists suggest this diagnosis and distinguish DIPNECH from other causes of mosaic perfusion

  9. Prostitution advertisements suggest association of transvestism and masochism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chivers, M; Blanchard, R

    1996-01-01

    Previous research and clinical observation have suggested that the sexual interest of many transvestites include involvement in sadomasochistic sexual acts. Through data gathered via prostitution advertisements in print media, we tested the hypothesis that prostitutes welcoming cross-dressing client would be primarily those describing themselves as dominant. The specialty of the prostitute was recorded by coding the advertisements for the presence or absence of the features of dominance, submissiveness, acceptance of cross-dressing clients, and whether the prostitute was a biological male presenting as a woman or quasi-woman. The findings showed that 20% of prostitutes describing themselves as dominant welcomed cross-dressing clients, whereas none of the other subgroups of prostitutes mentioned cross-dressing clients in their advertisements. These findings reinforce other lines of indirect evidence suggesting that, in heterosexual men, the presence of masochism increases the likelihood of transvestism, and vice versa.

  10. Inoculating against eyewitness suggestibility via interpolated verbatim vs. gist testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pansky, Ainat; Tenenboim, Einat

    2011-01-01

    In real-life situations, eyewitnesses often have control over the level of generality in which they choose to report event information. In the present study, we adopted an early-intervention approach to investigate to what extent eyewitness memory may be inoculated against suggestibility, following two different levels of interpolated reporting: verbatim and gist. After viewing a target event, participants responded to interpolated questions that required reporting of target details at either the verbatim or the gist level. After 48 hr, both groups of participants were misled about half of the target details and were finally tested for verbatim memory of all the details. The findings were consistent with our predictions: Whereas verbatim testing was successful in completely inoculating against suggestibility, gist testing did not reduce it whatsoever. These findings are particularly interesting in light of the comparable testing effects found for these two modes of interpolated testing.

  11. Climate related natural hazards management in the vulnerable regions of Uzbekistan - experiences in the frame of projects Climate Risk Management in Uzbekistan (CRM-Uz) and Water in Central Asia (CAWa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkushkin, Alexander; Gafurov, Abror; Agaltseva, Natalya; Pak, Alexander; Mannig, Birgit; Paeth, Heiko; Vorogushyn, Sergiy; Unger-Shayesteh, Katy

    2014-05-01

    Increased frequency of natural hazards under conditions of observed climate change in Uzbekistan has become challenging concern and shows the need to develop more effective climate risk mechanisms towards improving the security of society and sustainable development. In the framework of presented study, the importance of drought monitoring and methodologies for early warning for such purposes in Uzbekistan are demonstrated. For the conditions of Uzbekistan, droughts are most dangerous climate related natural phenomenon. Therefore, the CRM-Uz Project on Climate Risk Management was established with focus on reducing climate risks, strengthening adaptive capacity for stimulating the development of early warning mechanisms, as well as to build up the basis for long-term investments. This serves to increase resilience to climate impacts in the country. In the frame of the CRM-Uz Project, Drought Early Warning System (DEWS), has been developed and implemented in one of the southern provinces of Uzbekistan (Kashkadarya). The main task of DEWS is to provide population with information on the possibility of upcoming drought season in advance. DEWS is used for the assessment, monitoring, prevention, early warning and decision making in this region. Such early warning system provides the required information to undertake appropriate measures against drought and to mitigate its adverse effects to society. It is clear that during years with expected drought the hydrological forecasts become much more important. Complex mathematical model which simulates of run-off formation as a basis of DEWS provides the seasonal hydrological forecasts that are used to inform all concerned sectors, especially the agricultural sector on water availability during the vegetation period. In the frame of cooperation with German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ) within the CAWa Project, the DEWS was extended through implementation of MODSNOW - the operational tool for snow cover monitoring at

  12. Suggested instructions for the completion of delivery commitment schedules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vance, S.A.

    1992-01-01

    This presentation discusses the Delivery Commitment Schedule form contained in Appendix C of the Standard Contract for Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and/or High-Level Radioactive Waste (the Standard Contract). In particular, the presentation describes some preliminary suggested instructions for completing the form in a manner that may aid the US Department of Energy (DOE) in the development of the Federal Waste Management System (FWMS)

  13. Suggestions on the Development of Safety Culture Assessment Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Young Sung; Choi, Kwang Sik; Kim, Woong Sik

    2006-01-01

    Several efforts have been made to assess safety culture of organization that operates nuclear power plants in Korea. The MOST and KINS played a major role to develop assessment methods and KHNP applied them to its NPPs. This paper explains the two methods developed by KINS briefly and presents the insights obtained from the two different applications. It concludes with some suggestions for safety culture assessment based on the insights

  14. Oncologic prevention and suggested working standards in primary health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinović Dejan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available On the ground of the available data, this paper presents the problem of malignant diseases in Central Serbia, and most common carcinogens. Division of carcinogens, cancerogenesis and natural history of disease, early detection of cancer and palliative management are explained. The role and capacities of primary health care doctors in treatment of patients with suspect malignant disease are presented. Authors are suggesting standards for medical tasks and contemporary principles in approach to patients with malignant diseases in everyday practice.

  15. Genetic theory – a suggested cupping therapy mechanism of action

    OpenAIRE

    Shaban , Tamer; Ravalia , Munir

    2017-01-01

    The Cupping Therapy mechanism of action is not clear. Cupping may increase local blood circulation, and may have an immunomodulation effect. Local and systemic effects of Cupping Therapy were reported. Genetic expression is a physiological process that regulates body functions. Genetic modulation is a reported acupuncture effect. In this article, the authors suggest genetic modulation theory as one of the possible mechanisms of action of cupping therapy.

  16. Suggestions on Strengthening Greening Construction of Ecological Residential Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Peng

    2013-01-01

    Greening construction is an important part of the construction of ecological residential areas, but there exist some misunderstandings in greening construction of ecological residential districts at present. Based on the description of functions of green space in ecological residential areas, the summarization of principles of greening design, and the discussion of questions in greening construction of ecological residential districts, some suggestions as well as specific measures for strengt...

  17. Analysis of existing risk assessments, and list of suggestions

    CERN Document Server

    Heimsch, Laura

    2016-01-01

    The scope of this project was to analyse risk assessments made at CERN and extracting some crucial information about the different methodologies used, profiles of people who make the risk assessments, and gathering information of whether the risk matrix was used and if the acceptable level of risk was defined. Second step of the project was to trigger discussion inside HSE about risk assessment by suggesting a risk matrix and a risk assessment template.

  18. Transit pipelines suggest a tendency to produce conflict and disagreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, P.

    2009-01-01

    Any reading to the history of transit pipeline suggests a tendency to produce conflict and disagreement, often resulting to the cessation of throughput, sometimes for a short period and sometimes for longer. That bad political relation between neighbours have certain a role, but very important is the economic nature of the transit terms, tariff and off take terms. What might be done to improve this record in the future and make transit pipeline less vulnerable and troublesome? [it

  19. Recommendations and Suggestions of the IRRS Mission in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novosel, N.

    2016-01-01

    According to the Act on Radiological and Nuclear Safety, Director General of the State Office for Radiological and Nuclear Safety (SORNS) is obliged to conduct self-assessment of the national legislative framework and of the competent authorities and to provide for international audit of important segments of the national legislative framework and competent authorities with the purpose of continuous improvement of radiological and nuclear safety. SORNS as a state administration body competent for activities pertaining to radiological and nuclear safety, submitted in April 2013 the request to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to conduct an Integrated Regulatory Review Service (IRRS) mission. SORNS conducted a self-assessment in preparation for the mission and prepared a preliminary action plan. The results of SORNS self-assessment and supporting documentation were provided to the IRRS review team as advance reference material for the mission. IRRS mission took place in Zagreb from 7 to 17 Jun 2015. The IRRS team carried out the review in the following areas: responsibilities and functions of the government; the global nuclear safety regime; responsibilities and functions of the regulatory body; the management system of the regulatory body; the activities of the regulatory body including authorization, review and assessment, inspection and enforcement processes; development and content of regulations and guides; emergency preparedness and response; occupational radiation protection, patient protection, public and environmental exposure control, waste management and decommissioning. The IRRS team identified a number of recommendations and suggestions where improvements in the area of radiological and nuclear safety are necessary or desirable. Those recommendations and suggestions were translated and approved by the Government in the form of the Governmental conclusion. This conclusion presents the action plan for the SORNS and other governmental bodies and

  20. Marketing Suggestions for Home Original Chicken, Hefei China

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Ran

    2014-01-01

    The research “Marketing Suggestions for Home Original Chicken, Hefei China” was commissioned by Home Original Chicken Co. Ltd, which is the biggest Chinese fast-food restaurant chain in Anhui Province. The theory needed in the research was marketing mix strategies. Marketing mix consists of product, price, place and promotion. The marketing strategies contain product decisions (including individual products decisions, product line decisions, product mix decisions), price decisions (contai...

  1. Collider shot setup for Run 2 observations and suggestions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annala, J.; Joshel, B.

    1996-01-01

    This note is intended to provoke discussion on Collider Run II shot setup. We hope this is a start of activities that will converge on a functional description of what is needed for shot setups in Collider Run II. We will draw on observations of the present shot setup to raise questions and make suggestions for the next Collider run. It is assumed that the reader has some familiarity with the Collider operational issues. Shot setup is defined to be the time between the end of a store and the time the Main Control Room declares colliding beams. This is the time between Tevatron clock events SCE and SCB. This definition does not consider the time experiments use to turn on their detectors. This analysis was suggested by David Finley. The operational scenarios for Run II will require higher levels of reliability and speed for shot setup. See Appendix I and II. For example, we estimate that a loss of 3 pb -1 /week (with 8 hour stores) will occur if shot setups take 90 minutes instead of 30 minutes. In other words: If you do 12 shots for one week and accept an added delay of one minute in each shot, you will loose more than 60 nb -1 for that week alone (based on a normal shot setup of 30 minutes). These demands should lead us to be much more pedantic about all the factors that affect shot setups. Shot setup will be viewed as a distinct process that is composed of several inter- dependent 'components': procedures, hardware, controls, and sociology. These components don't directly align with the different Accelerator Division departments, but are topical groupings of the needed accelerator functions. Defining these components, and categorizing our suggestions within them, are part of the goal of this document. Of course, some suggestions span several of these components

  2. Suggestions for English Culture Teaching in High School

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Hongjuan

    2016-01-01

    With the implementation of the new High School English Curriculum Standards, more and more people have realized the importance of English culture teaching. To realize the goals of English teaching, teachers should cultivate students' culture awareness and develop their intercultural communicative competence. But in the actual teaching, culture teaching did not get real implementation. So the author puts forwards some suggestions for English culture teaching in high school.

  3. Exploration of Opinion-aware Approach to Contextual Suggestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    effectiveness of the proposed method. 1 Introduction TREC 1014 Contextual Suggestion Track gives researchers the chance to test their methods on providing...each category. Information including the name, average rating, address, business hour, all ratings and the associated text reviews of the candidate...Annals of Statistics , 29:1189–1232, 2000. 5. K. Ganesan, C. Zhai, and J. Han. Opinosis: a graph-based approach to abstractive summarization of highly

  4. Epistemological Suggestions in „Entropy Low and Economic Process”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Dinga

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper is aimed to derive, on criticism basis (following, especially, the critic rationalism, as method, epistemological suggestions from the crucial work of Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen, “The Entropy Law and the Economic Process”, in order to these suggestions or challenges constitute going points for further logical assessments or polemical debates. By this way, four basic epistemological suggestions are identified: a inconsistency between the analytical description of the economic process and its evolutionist nature (that implies qualitative changes; b logical and epistemological bases for the possibility of a theoretical economic science (i.e. of a theory of the economic science; c impact of the qualitative changes of the economic process on the non-linearity of the economic models for prognosis; d logics, based on the entropy law, to pass off the rationality of optimality and to enter the rationality of sustainability. Each of these suggestions (explicit or implicit mentioned in the evocated work plays as rational, for the authors, to formulate epistemological assessments, critics or proposals for solutions aimed at to pass over the arisen epistemological or methodological problems. The authors believe that the entropic paradigm proposed by Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen for the economic epistemology and methodology is one of the most interesting, from the philosophic and logic points of view, having abundant resources to open a re-conceptualization of the logical bases of the economic science, to rethink the theoreticity of the sciences that study fields where evolutive processes are going, and to think, with more maturity, to the way in which the human rationality could answer the challenges the entropy law arises.

  5. Epistemological Suggestions in „Entropy Low and Economic Process”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Dinga

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper is aimed to derive, on criticism basis (following, especially, the critic rationalism, as method, epistemological suggestions from the crucial work of Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen, “The Entropy Law and the Economic Process”, in order to these suggestions or challenges constitute going points for further logical assessments or polemical debates. By this way, four basic epistemological suggestions are identified: a inconsistency between the analytical description of the economic process and its evolutionist nature (that implies qualitative changes; b logical and epistemological bases for the possibility of a theoretical economic science (i.e. of a theory of the economic science; c impact of the qualitative changes of the economic process on the non-linearity of the economic models for prognosis; d logics, based on the entropy law, to pass off the rationality of optimality and to enter the rationality of sustainability. Each of these suggestions (explicit or implicit mentioned in the evocated work plays as rational, for the authors, to formulate epistemological assessments, critics or proposals for solutions aimed at to pass over the arisen epistemological or methodological problems. The authors believe that the entropic paradigm proposed by Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen for the economic epistemology and methodology is one of the most interesting, from the philosophic and logic points of view, having abundant resources to open a re-conceptualization of the logical bases of the economic science, to rethink the theoreticity of the sciences that study fields where evolutive processes are going, and to think, with more maturity, to the way in which the human rationality could answer the challenges the entropy law arises.

  6. Women's Suggestions for Improving Midwifery Care in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baas, Carien I; Erwich, Jan Jaap H M; Wiegers, Therese A; de Cock, T Paul; Hutton, Eileen K

    2015-12-01

    The experience of the care a woman receives during pregnancy and childbirth has an immediate and long-lasting effect on her well being. The involvement of patients and clients in health care has increased over the last decades. The Dutch maternity care system offers an excellent opportunity to explore and involve women's suggestions for the improvement of midwifery care in the current maternity care model. This qualitative study is part of the "DELIVER" study. Clients were recruited from 20 midwifery practices. Purposive sampling was used to select the practices. The clients received up to three questionnaires, in which they could respond to the question; "Do you have any suggestions on how your midwife could improve his/her provision of care?" The answers were analyzed with a qualitative thematic content analysis, using the software program MAXQDA. Altogether, 3,499 answers were provided. One overarching concept emerged: clients' desire for individualized care. Within this concept, suggestions could be clustered around 1) provider characteristics: interpersonal skills, communication, and competence, and 2) service characteristics: content and quantity of care, guidance and support, continuity of care provider, continuity of care, information, and coordination of care. Informed by the suggestions of women, care to women and their families could be improved by the following: 1) more continuity of the care provider during the prenatal, natal, and postnatal periods, 2) more information and information specifically tailored for the person, 3) client-centered communication, and 4) a personal approach with 5) enough time spent per client. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Pedunculated Pulmonary Artery Sarcoma Suggested by Transthoracic Echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaobing; Ren, Weidong; Yang, Jun

    2016-04-01

    Pulmonary artery sarcoma (PAS) is an extremely rare malignancy. It is usually found after it grows large enough to occupy almost the entire lumen of the pulmonary artery and causes serious clinical symptoms. Thus, it is usually difficult to distinguish PAS from pulmonary thromboembolism based on imaging examinations. Few case reports had shown the attachment of PAS to pulmonary artery, a key characteristic for diagnosis, and differential diagnosis of PAS. In this case, we found a PAS, which did not cause local obstruction and some tumor emboli, which obstructed the branches of the pulmonary arteries and caused pulmonary hypertension and clinical symptoms. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) revealed a part of the tumor attached to the intima of the main pulmonary artery with a peduncle and had obvious mobility, which was suggestive of PAS and differentiated it from the pulmonary thromboembolism. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of a pedunculated PAS suggested by TTE. Combined with pulmonary artery computed tomography angiography, the diagnosis of PAS is strongly suggested before the operation. This case indicates that TTE could reveal the attachment and mobility of PAS in the main pulmonary and may provide useful information for the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of PAS, especially a pedunculated PAS. © 2015, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. [Tarantism in Spain in the eighteen century: latrodectism and suggestion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral-Corral, I; Corral-Corral, C

    2016-10-16

    Tarantism is the disease caused by the bite of the tarantula, in which the music tarantella triggers an involuntary dance. It is known in Italy since the sixteenth century. To analyze the tarantism reported in Spain at the end of the eighteenth century, with special attention to its neurological aspects, and to propose its medical and psychopathological explanation. An epidemic of people affected by the tarantula bite occurred in Spain in 1782. Spanish doctors described appropriately the clinical effects, identical to those produced by the bite of the spider black widow (Latrodectus tredecimguttatus), which was at that time identified as a tarantula. The cases reported by Francisco Xavier Cid cured with the involuntary dance triggered by the tarantella, as was described in Italy since the sixteenth century. Our interpretation is that this curative effect of dance in Spain was induced by suggestion. In Spanish patients there were no behavioral disturbances, periodic recurrences or collective involvement as those reported by Italian authors, which suggest an hysterical phenomenon, probably a continuation of the dancing mania of the Middle Age. Tarantism reported in Spain in the eighteenth century includes two different phenomena: the systemic symptoms produced by the tarantula bite, which is actually latrodectism, and the curative effect of the tarantella, explained by suggestion. The psychiatric disturbances, with a hysterical nature, falsely associated to the tarantula bite, observed in Italy, were not present among the Spanish cases of tarantism in the eighteenth century.

  9. A Privacy-by-Design Contextual Suggestion System for Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlos S. Efraimidis

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We focus on personal data generated by the sensors and through the everyday usage of smart devices and take advantage of these data to build a non-invasive contextual suggestion system for tourism. The system, which we call Pythia, exploits the computational capabilities of modern smart devices to offer high quality personalized POI (point of interest recommendations. To protect user privacy, we apply a privacy by design approach within all of the steps of creating Pythia. The outcome is a system that comprises important architectural and operational innovations. The system is designed to process sensitive personal data, such as location traces, browsing history and web searches (query logs, to automatically infer user preferences and build corresponding POI-based user profiles. These profiles are then used by a contextual suggestion engine to anticipate user choices and make POI recommendations for tourists. Privacy leaks are minimized by implementing an important part of the system functionality at the user side, either as a mobile app or as a client-side web application, and by taking additional precautions, like data generalization, wherever necessary. As a proof of concept, we present a prototype that implements the aforementioned mechanisms on the Android platform accompanied with certain web applications. Even though the current prototype focuses only on location data, the results from the evaluation of the contextual suggestion algorithms and the user experience feedback from volunteers who used the prototype are very positive.

  10. Perinatal pathology: practice suggestions for limited-resource settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Drucilla J

    2013-06-01

    The practice of perinatal pathology in much of the world suffers, as do all subspecialties of anatomic pathology, from inadequate resources (equipment, consumables, and both professional and technical personnel), from lack of education (not only of the pathologist but also of the clinicians responsible for sending the specimens, and the technicians processing the specimens), and from lack of appropriate government sector support. Perinatal pathology has significant public health-related utility and should be championing its service by providing maternal and fetal/infant mortality and morbidity data to governmental health ministries. It is with this pathologic data that informed decisions can be made on health-related courses of action and allocation of resources. These perinatal pathology data are needed to develop appropriate public health initiatives, specifically toward achieving the Millennium Developmental Goals as the best way to effectively decrease infant and maternal deaths and to determine causes of perinatal mortality and morbidity. The following overview will focus on the utility of perinatal pathology specifically as related to its public health function and will suggest methods to improve its service in resource-poor settings. This article is offered not as a critique of the current practice that most pathologists find themselves working in globally, but to provide suggestions for improving perinatal pathology services, which could be implemented with the limited available resources and manpower most pathology departments currently have. In addition, we offer suggestions for graded improvements ("ramping up") over time.

  11. Examining the role of interrogative suggestibility in Miranda rights comprehension in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLachlan, Kaitlyn; Roesch, Ronald; Douglas, Kevin S

    2011-06-01

    This study aimed to further clarify the association between interrogative suggestibility and Miranda rights comprehension in adolescents; in particular, we examined whether intellectual ability (IQ) serves as a mediator of this relationship. Participants completed Grisso's Miranda Instruments, the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, and the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale. Many youth demonstrated poor comprehension of their rights, particularly younger and less intellectually capable adolescents. Both yield and shift components of interrogative suggestibility were inversely related to rights comprehension; however, IQ fully mediated these relationships. Neither demographic variables (gender, ethnicity, socio-economic status after controlling for IQ, and English as a second language (ESL) status) nor previous police experience were significantly associated with rights comprehension in the present sample. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  12. Quantitative analysis of TALE-DNA interactions suggests polarity effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meckler, Joshua F; Bhakta, Mital S; Kim, Moon-Soo; Ovadia, Robert; Habrian, Chris H; Zykovich, Artem; Yu, Abigail; Lockwood, Sarah H; Morbitzer, Robert; Elsäesser, Janett; Lahaye, Thomas; Segal, David J; Baldwin, Enoch P

    2013-04-01

    Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) have revolutionized the field of genome engineering. We present here a systematic assessment of TALE DNA recognition, using quantitative electrophoretic mobility shift assays and reporter gene activation assays. Within TALE proteins, tandem 34-amino acid repeats recognize one base pair each and direct sequence-specific DNA binding through repeat variable di-residues (RVDs). We found that RVD choice can affect affinity by four orders of magnitude, with the relative RVD contribution in the order NG > HD ≈ NN > NI > NK. The NN repeat preferred the base G over A, whereas the NK repeat bound G with 10(3)-fold lower affinity. We compared AvrBs3, a naturally occurring TALE that recognizes its target using some atypical RVD-base combinations, with a designed TALE that precisely matches 'standard' RVDs with the target bases. This comparison revealed unexpected differences in sensitivity to substitutions of the invariant 5'-T. Another surprising observation was that base mismatches at the 5' end of the target site had more disruptive effects on affinity than those at the 3' end, particularly in designed TALEs. These results provide evidence that TALE-DNA recognition exhibits a hitherto un-described polarity effect, in which the N-terminal repeats contribute more to affinity than C-terminal ones.

  13. Gait variability: methods, modeling and meaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hausdorff Jeffrey M

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The study of gait variability, the stride-to-stride fluctuations in walking, offers a complementary way of quantifying locomotion and its changes with aging and disease as well as a means of monitoring the effects of therapeutic interventions and rehabilitation. Previous work has suggested that measures of gait variability may be more closely related to falls, a serious consequence of many gait disorders, than are measures based on the mean values of other walking parameters. The Current JNER series presents nine reports on the results of recent investigations into gait variability. One novel method for collecting unconstrained, ambulatory data is reviewed, and a primer on analysis methods is presented along with a heuristic approach to summarizing variability measures. In addition, the first studies of gait variability in animal models of neurodegenerative disease are described, as is a mathematical model of human walking that characterizes certain complex (multifractal features of the motor control's pattern generator. Another investigation demonstrates that, whereas both healthy older controls and patients with a higher-level gait disorder walk more slowly in reduced lighting, only the latter's stride variability increases. Studies of the effects of dual tasks suggest that the regulation of the stride-to-stride fluctuations in stride width and stride time may be influenced by attention loading and may require cognitive input. Finally, a report of gait variability in over 500 subjects, probably the largest study of this kind, suggests how step width variability may relate to fall risk. Together, these studies provide new insights into the factors that regulate the stride-to-stride fluctuations in walking and pave the way for expanded research into the control of gait and the practical application of measures of gait variability in the clinical setting.

  14. New variables for classical and quantum gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashtekar, Abhay

    1986-01-01

    A Hamiltonian formulation of general relativity based on certain spinorial variables is introduced. These variables simplify the constraints of general relativity considerably and enable one to imbed the constraint surface in the phase space of Einstein's theory into that of Yang-Mills theory. The imbedding suggests new ways of attacking a number of problems in both classical and quantum gravity. Some illustrative applications are discussed.

  15. Hardness variability in commercial technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Winokur, P.S.; Meisenheimer, T.L.; Sexton, F.W.; Roeske, S.B.; Knoll, M.G.

    1994-01-01

    The radiation hardness of commercial Floating Gate 256K E 2 PROMs from a single diffusion lot was observed to vary between 5 to 25 krad(Si) when irradiated at a low dose rate of 64 mrad(Si)/s. Additional variations in E 2 PROM hardness were found to depend on bias condition and failure mode (i.e., inability to read or write the memory), as well as the foundry at which the part was manufactured. This variability is related to system requirements, and it is shown that hardness level and variability affect the allowable mode of operation for E 2 PROMs in space applications. The radiation hardness of commercial 1-Mbit CMOS SRAMs from Micron, Hitachi, and Sony irradiated at 147 rad(Si)/s was approximately 12, 13, and 19 krad(Si), respectively. These failure levels appear to be related to increases in leakage current during irradiation. Hardness of SRAMs from each manufacturer varied by less than 20%, but differences between manufacturers are significant. The Qualified Manufacturer's List approach to radiation hardness assurance is suggested as a way to reduce variability and to improve the hardness level of commercial technologies

  16. Clinical variables in radiotracer biodistributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lentle, B.C.; Scott, J.R.; Schmidt, R.P.; Noujaim, A.A.

    1981-01-01

    Radionuclide dosimetry must, by its nature, define tissue irradiation in terms of mean exposure in a population of a statistically acceptable size. In the daily practice of clinical nuclear medicine there are, however, quite large variations in the biodistribution of tracers and thus in resulting radiation doses. Age is a variable, particularly in respect of bone-seeking tracers. Sex imposes variations in radiation dose on account of the differing anatomical configurations of the gonads. Breast uptake and excretion of certain tracers in women are additional variables. Activity and occupation are occasional variables. Numerous iatrogenic causes of altered radiotracer biodistributions have been described. Cancer chemotherapy is a particularly potent cause of changed biodistributions while even a trivial matter such as preparing the skin with an iodine containing antiseptic may cause displacement of technetium from its compounds. In the blocking of thyroid uptake of radioiodines, there is good precedent for the manipulation of regional tissue dosimetry. It is possible to go beyond the mere cataloguing of these effects to look creatively at the subject of comparative tissue biodistributions and hence comparative dosimetry. Effects such as the clinical observation of the interference by cis-platinum with the usual biodistribution of radio-gallium suggest that such compounds can be used as probes each to lead to a better understanding of the mechanism of action of the other

  17. Antarctic lakes suggest millennial reorganizations of Southern Hemisphere atmospheric and oceanic circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Brenda L; Denton, George H; Fountain, Andrew G; Hendy, Chris H; Henderson, Gideon M

    2010-12-14

    The phasing of millennial-scale oscillations in Antarctica relative to those elsewhere in the world is important for discriminating among models for abrupt climate change, particularly those involving the Southern Ocean. However, records of millennial-scale variability from Antarctica dating to the last glacial maximum are rare and rely heavily on data from widely spaced ice cores, some of which show little variability through that time. Here, we present new data from closed-basin lakes in the Dry Valleys region of East Antarctica that show high-magnitude, high-frequency oscillations in surface level during the late Pleistocene synchronous with climate fluctuations elsewhere in the Southern Hemisphere. These data suggest a coherent Southern Hemisphere pattern of climate change on millennial time scales, at least in the Pacific sector, and indicate that any hypothesis concerning the origin of these events must account for synchronous changes in both high and temperate latitudes.

  18. Making academic research more relevant: A few suggestions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abinash Panda

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Academic research in the domain of management scholarship, though steeped in scientific and methodological rigour, is generally found to be of little relevance to practice. The authors of this paper have revisited the rigour-relevance debate in light of recent developments and with special reference to the management research scenario in India. The central thesis of the argument is that the gulf between rigour and relevance needs to be bridged to make academic research more relevant to business organizations and practitioners. They have offered some suggestions to enhance the relevance of academic research to practice.

  19. Accomplishments and future suggestions of 2012 seoul nuclear security summit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae San [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    The second Seoul Nuclear Security Summit was held in Seoul, March 26{approx}27, 2012. It was a very big political event for nuclear security. National and International organization leaders had a time to discuss in depth issues about nuclear security; nuclear terrorism, illicit trafficking of nuclear /radiological materials, sabotages for nuclear facilities, etc. Why did many national leaders still take part in the second nuclear security summit compared to Washington summit and what is the importance of nuclear security? This paper will be the answer from those questions and handle the background, outcomes and future tasks of nuclear security summit. And suggestions for the next summits were considered in the conclusion part.

  20. A suggestion for multidisciplinarity: the fluorescence phenomenon observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Roberto Pimentel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Multidisciplinary approaches involving daily phenomena are valuable teaching tools to stimulate reflections in order to comprehend that scientific knowledge is developed in a collective process, as well as to understand the importance that scientific research cannot be done in a unique area of knowledge for the full understanding of any phenomenon. We suggest the fluorescence phenomenon observation in some materials, objects and living organisms so that students realize the interaction between Physics, Chemistry and Biology, generally regarded as not correlated disciplines.

  1. Partnership-Based Health Care: Suggestions for Effective Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teddie M Potter

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Societal transformation often starts with one visionary and a compelling idea. However, if there are no followers, the idea quickly becomes marginalized. It “takes a village” to build a movement, and the more system layers that can be addressed, the more likely the transformation will take hold. This article describes the framework for creating the necessary changes for partnership-based health care. It also makes suggestions for ensuring successful application of partnership-based systems change. This article is for all readers seeking to apply partnership principles in their own fields of influence.

  2. Credit risk identification and suggestions of electricity market

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chuan; Wang, Haichao; Chen, Zhongyuan; Hao, Yuxing; Jiang, Hailong; Qian, Hanhan; Wang, Meibao

    2018-03-01

    The power industry has a long history of credit problems, and the power industry has credit problems such as power users defaulting on electricity bills before the new electricity reform. With the reform of the power system, the credit problems in the power industry will be more complicated. How to effectively avoid the risk factors existing in the course of market operation and how to safeguard the fairness and standardization of market operation is an urgent problem to be solved. This paper first describes the credit risk in power market, and analyzes the components of credit risk identification in power market, puts forward suggestions on power market risk management.

  3. Concerning the mass of the suggested sixth satellite of Uranus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steigmann, G.A.

    1979-01-01

    Comparison of the strength of resonances arising from the known satellites of Uranus in the vicinity of the α and γ rings, with the strengths of probable resonances at the β and delta rings, suggest that the β and delta rings might be associated with an undiscovered satellite of mass approximately 0.4 mass of Miranda. This satellite is predicted to be a 17 to 18 mag object moving in a near-circular orbit, of low inclination to the plane of the rings, at a distance of 105 221 km from Uranus. (author)

  4. Accomplishments and future suggestions of 2012 seoul nuclear security summit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae San

    2012-01-01

    The second Seoul Nuclear Security Summit was held in Seoul, March 26∼27, 2012. It was a very big political event for nuclear security. National and International organization leaders had a time to discuss in depth issues about nuclear security; nuclear terrorism, illicit trafficking of nuclear /radiological materials, sabotages for nuclear facilities, etc. Why did many national leaders still take part in the second nuclear security summit compared to Washington summit and what is the importance of nuclear security? This paper will be the answer from those questions and handle the background, outcomes and future tasks of nuclear security summit. And suggestions for the next summits were considered in the conclusion part

  5. Solid-State Lighting 2017 Suggested Research Topics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2017-09-29

    A 2017 update to the Solid-State Lighting R&D Plan that is divided into two documents. The first document describes a list of suggested SSL priority research topics and the second document provides context and background, including information drawn from technical, market, and economic studies. Widely referenced by industry and government both here and abroad, these documents reflect SSL stakeholder inputs on key R&D topics that will improve efficacy, reduce cost, remove barriers to adoption, and add value for LED and OLED lighting solutions over the next three to five years, and discuss those applications that drive and prioritize the specific R&D.

  6. A new dynamic system suggested for earth expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzpatrick, J.

    1972-01-01

    It is here suggested that there may have been much more radioactive materials in the deep interior of the earth than bitherto supposed. Trapped heat being generated in the interior would provide a mechanism for earth expansion. An assumption of heat generation in the deep interior of the earth of the order of 0,5 X 10-13 calories per second, per cubic centimeter, would provide sufficient thermal expansion to account for approximately 0.1 mm. change in the radius of the earth per year

  7. Suggestions on technical guide of implantation of radioactive seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhongmin; Huang Gang; Lv Zhongwei; Liu Jianjun; Chen Kemin; Chen Yongde

    2009-01-01

    Implantation of radioactive seeds is an effective therapeutic option for the treatment of malignant tumors. With the development of imaging technique and the use of treatment planning system (TPS) it has been more and more employed in clinical settings. The technique has been widely practiced in various malignant tumors, such as prostate cancer, lung caner, pancreatic cancer, hepatocarcinoma, etc. In order to standardize the clinical application of this technology, the authors propose some suggestions concerning the management of radioactive seeds, the indications and contraindications as well as the method of operation as a technical guidance. (authors)

  8. Suggestions on technical guide of implantation of radioactive seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhongmin, Wang; Gang, Huang; Zhongwei, Lv; Jianjun, Liu [Department of Radiology, Luwan Branch of Ruijin Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiaotong Univ., Shanghai (China); Kemin, Chen; Yongde, Chen

    2009-09-15

    Implantation of radioactive seeds is an effective therapeutic option for the treatment of malignant tumors. With the development of imaging technique and the use of treatment planning system (TPS) it has been more and more employed in clinical settings. The technique has been widely practiced in various malignant tumors, such as prostate cancer, lung caner, pancreatic cancer, hepatocarcinoma, etc. In order to standardize the clinical application of this technology, the authors propose some suggestions concerning the management of radioactive seeds, the indications and contraindications as well as the method of operation as a technical guidance. (authors)

  9. Variable selection by lasso-type methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohail Chand

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Variable selection is an important property of shrinkage methods. The adaptive lasso is an oracle procedure and can do consistent variable selection. In this paper, we provide an explanation that how use of adaptive weights make it possible for the adaptive lasso to satisfy the necessary and almost sufcient condition for consistent variable selection. We suggest a novel algorithm and give an important result that for the adaptive lasso if predictors are normalised after the introduction of adaptive weights, it makes the adaptive lasso performance identical to the lasso.

  10. Suggested PAZ Size of Pressurized Light Water Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sang Hyun; Jeong, Seung Young [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    In this study, preliminary calculation results to suggest PAZ size are presented. PSA methodology and RASCAL code were used to calculate PAZ size. Suggested radius of PAZ from the preliminary calculation results is between 0.8 and 4.8 km. These results were calculated with simple assumptions and only considered technical aspect, such as fission product release characteristics and radioactive material dispersion in environment. The actual boundaries of PAZ need to be defined by site specific information, such as local landmarks and population distribution. The results in this study can be used as base information to stakeholders and decision makers who are response in arrangement of emergency preparedness. The goals of the protective actions during nuclear accident are to prevent the occurrence of severe deterministic effects and keep the dose below the level at which protective actions and other response actions are justified to reduce the risk of stochastic effects. To meet these goals, off-site emergency zones for taking urgent protective action have to be identified in advance, i.e. during emergency preparedness phase. Especially Precautionary Action Zone (PAZ) is defined by the international requirement as the area within which arrangements should be made to implement precautionary urgent protective actions before or shortly after a major release with the aim of preventing or reducing the occurrence of severe deterministic effect. However, PAZ is not introduced in domestic emergency preparedness system.

  11. Educating Providers in Return-to-Play Suggested Guidelines Postconcussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bires, Angela Macci; Leonard, Amanda L; Thurber, Brandon

    As the awareness of concussions increases, it is imperative to be able to evaluate, diagnose, and treat concussed individuals properly to prevent further complications or death. The primary purpose of this study was to compare a provider's current awareness and comfort level as it relates to the return-to-play guidelines for concussions. A secondary aim was to evaluate current protocols that are in use and determine whether they coincide with the suggested guidelines. An educational intervention was implemented to assess the knowledge and confidence of health care providers. The study design was a quantitative, convenient sample, pretest/posttest questionnaire. The questionnaire was administered to participants who were nurse practitioners prior to an educational PowerPoint presentation. At 8 weeks, the posttest was administered. Approximately 19% of individuals were not aware of a graded return-to-play protocols. The findings suggest that the educational intervention increased their confidence levels in making a diagnosis of a concussion, in assessing danger signs, and in understanding when to refer to a specialist. Additional supporting evidence from this study indicates that the educational intervention allowed the participants to achieve a greater comfort level in finding appropriate resources for them and their patients.

  12. Five suggestions for future medical education in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Eunbae B; Meng, Kwang Ho

    2014-09-01

    This study is to investigate the historical characteristics of medical education and healthcare environment in Korea and to suggest the desirable direction for future medical education. We draw a consensus through the literature analysis and several debates from the eight experts of medical education. There are several historical characteristics of medical education: medical education as vocational education and training, as a higher education, rapid growth of new medical schools, change to the medical education system, curriculum development, reinforcement of medical humanities, improvement of teaching and evaluation methods, validation of the national health personnel licensing examination, accreditation system for quality assurance, and establishment of specialized medical education division. The changes of health care environment in medical education are development of medical technologies, changes in the structures of the population and diseases, growth of information and communication technology, consumer-centered society, and increased intervention by the third party stakeholder. We propose five suggestions to be made to improve future medical education. They are plan for outcome and competency-based medical education, connection between the undergraduate and graduate medical education, reinforcement of continuous quality improvement of medical education, reorganization of the medical education system and construction of leadership of "academic medicine."

  13. Children Undergoing Radiotherapy: Swedish Parents’ Experiences and Suggestions for Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullaney, Tara; Nilsson, Kristina; Wickart-Johansson, Gun; Svärd, Anna-Maja; Nyholm, Tufve; Lindh, Jack; Lindh, Viveca

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 300 children, from 0 to 18 years old, are diagnosed with cancer in Sweden every year. Of these children, 80–90 of them undergo radiotherapy treatment for their cancer. Although radiotherapy is an encounter with advanced technology, few studies have investigated the child’s and the parent’s view of the procedure. As part of an ongoing multicenter study aimed to improve patient preparation and the care environment in pediatric radiotherapy, this article reports the findings from interviews with parents at baseline. The aim of the present study was twofold: to describe parents’ experience when their child undergoes radiotherapy treatment, and to report parents’ suggestions for improvements during radiotherapy for their children. Sixteen mothers and sixteen fathers of children between 2–16 years old with various cancer diagnoses were interviewed. Data were analyzed using content analysis. The findings showed that cancer and treatment turns people’s lives upside down, affecting the entire family. Further, the parents experience the child’s suffering and must cope with intense feelings. Radiotherapy treatment includes preparation by skilled and empathetic staff. The parents gradually find that they can deal with the process; and lastly, parents have suggestions for improvements during the radiotherapy treatment. An overarching theme emerged: that despair gradually turns to a sense of security, with a sustained focus on and close interaction with the child. In conclusion, an extreme burden was experienced around the start of radiotherapy, though parents gradually coped with the process. PMID:26509449

  14. Eyewitness recall and suggestibility in individuals with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, D; Henry, L

    2016-12-01

    Many criminal justice professionals perceive the eyewitness skills of individuals with intellectual disabilities to be weaker than those of typically developing (TD) individuals. Down syndrome (DS) is one of the most common genetic causes of intellectual disabilities, yet there is no research addressing eyewitness skills in this population. This study examined the eyewitness recall and suggestibility of young people with DS. Young people with DS and mental age-matched TD children viewed a video of a non-violent petty crime and were subsequently asked to freely recall the event before being asked general and specific questions incorporating both misleading and non-leading prompts. Compared with mental age-matched TD individuals, young people with DS produced as much information, were just as accurate and were no more suggestible. The eyewitness memory skills of young people with DS are comparable to those of mental age-matched TD children. The implications of these findings for the forensic context and eyewitness memory are discussed. © 2016 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. On Suggestibility and Placebo: A Follow-Up Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifshitz, Michael; Sheiner, Eli O; Olson, Jay A; Thériault, Rémi; Raz, Amir

    2017-04-01

    Identifying what makes some people respond well to placebos remains a major challenge. Here, we attempt to replicate an earlier study in which we found a relationship between hypnotic suggestibility and subjective ratings of relaxation following the ingestion of a placebo sedative (Sheiner, Lifshitz, & Raz, 2016). To assess the reliability of this effect, we tested 34 participants using a similar design. Participants ingested a placebo capsule in one of two conditions: (1) relaxation, wherein we described the capsule as a herbal sedative, or (2) control, wherein we described the capsule as inert. To index placebo response, we collected measures of blood pressure and heart rate, as well as self-report ratings of relaxation and drowsiness. Despite using a similar experimental design as in our earlier study, we were unable to replicate the correlation between hypnotic suggestibility and placebo response. Furthermore, whereas in our former experiment we observed a change in subjective ratings of relaxation but no change in physiological measures, here we found that heart rate dropped in the relaxation condition while subjective ratings remained unchanged. Even within a consistent context of relaxation, therefore, our present results indicate that placebos may induce effects that are fickle, tenuous, and unreliable. Although we had low statistical power, our findings tentatively accord with the notion that placebo response likely involves a complex, multifaceted interaction between traits, expectancies, and contexts.

  16. Mitochondrial introgression suggests extensive ancestral hybridization events among Saccharomyces species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peris, David; Arias, Armando; Orlić, Sandi; Belloch, Carmela; Pérez-Través, Laura; Querol, Amparo; Barrio, Eladio

    2017-03-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) in eukaryotic plastids and mitochondrial genomes is common, and plays an important role in organism evolution. In yeasts, recent mitochondrial HGT has been suggested between S. cerevisiae and S. paradoxus. However, few strains have been explored given the lack of accurate mitochondrial genome annotations. Mitochondrial genome sequences are important to understand how frequent these introgressions occur, and their role in cytonuclear incompatibilities and fitness. Indeed, most of the Bateson-Dobzhansky-Muller genetic incompatibilities described in yeasts are driven by cytonuclear incompatibilities. We herein explored the mitochondrial inheritance of several worldwide distributed wild Saccharomyces species and their hybrids isolated from different sources and geographic origins. We demonstrated the existence of several recombination points in mitochondrial region COX2-ORF1, likely mediated by either the activity of the protein encoded by the ORF1 (F-SceIII) gene, a free-standing homing endonuclease, or mostly facilitated by A+T tandem repeats and regions of integration of GC clusters. These introgressions were shown to occur among strains of the same species and among strains of different species, which suggests a complex model of Saccharomyces evolution that involves several ancestral hybridization events in wild environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Landform elevation suggests ecohydrologic footprints in subsurface geomorphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, A. C.; Watts, D.; Kaplan, D. A.; Mclaughlin, D. L.; Heffernan, J. B.; Martin, J. B.; Murray, A.; Osborne, T.; Cohen, M. J.; Kobziar, L. N.

    2012-12-01

    Many landscapes exhibit patterns in their arrangement of biota, or in their surface geomorphology as a result of biotic activity. Examples occur around the globe and include northern peatlands, Sahelian savannas, and shallow marine reefs. Such self-organized patterning is strongly suggestive of coupled, reciprocal feedbacks (i.e. locally positive, and distally negative) among biota and their environment. Much research on patterned landscapes has concerned emergent biogeomorphologic surfaces such as those found in peatlands, or the influence of biota on soil formation or transport. Our research concerns ecohydrologic feedbacks hypothesized to produce patterned occurrence of depressions in a subtropical limestone karst landscape. Our findings show strong evidence of self-organized patterning, in the form of overdispersed dissolution basins. Distributions of randomized bedrock elevation measurements on the landscape are bimodal, with means clustered about either higher- or lower-elevation modes. Measurements on the thin mantle of soil overlying this landscape, however, display reduced bimodality and mode separation. These observations indicate abiotic processes in diametric opposition to the biogenic forces which may be responsible for generating landscape pattern. Correlograms show higher spatial autocorrelation among soil measurements compared to bedrock measurements, and measurements of soil-layer thickness show high negative correlation with bedrock elevation. Our results are consistent with predictions of direct ecohydrologic feedbacks that would produce patterned "footprints" directly on bedrock, and of abiotic processes operating to obfuscate this pattern. The study suggests new steps to identify biogeochemical mechanisms for landscape patterning: an "ecological drill" by which plant communities modify geology.

  18. Respiratory variability preceding and following sighs: a resetter hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlemincx, Elke; Van Diest, Ilse; Lehrer, Paul M; Aubert, André E; Van den Bergh, Omer

    2010-04-01

    Respiratory behavior is characterized by complex variability with structured and random components. Assuming that both a lack of variability and too much randomness represent suboptimal breathing regulation, we hypothesized that sighing acts as a resetter inducing structured variability. Spontaneous breathing was measured in healthy persons (N=42) during a 20min period of quiet sitting using the LifeShirt(®) System. Four blocks of 10 breaths with a 50% window overlap were determined before and after spontaneous sighs. Total respiratory variability of minute ventilation was measured using the coefficient of variation and structured (correlated) variability was quantified using autocorrelation. Towards a sigh, total variability gradually increased without concomittant changes in correlated variability, suggesting that randomness increased. After a sigh, correlated variability increased. No changes in variability were found in comparable epochs without intermediate sighs. We conclude that a sigh resets structured respiratory variability, enhancing information processing in the respiratory system. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Learning from biomedical linked data to suggest valid pharmacogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalleau, Kevin; Marzougui, Yassine; Da Silva, Sébastien; Ringot, Patrice; Ndiaye, Ndeye Coumba; Coulet, Adrien

    2017-04-20

    A standard task in pharmacogenomics research is identifying genes that may be involved in drug response variability, i.e., pharmacogenes. Because genomic experiments tended to generate many false positives, computational approaches based on the use of background knowledge have been proposed. Until now, only molecular networks or the biomedical literature were used, whereas many other resources are available. We propose here to consume a diverse and larger set of resources using linked data related either to genes, drugs or diseases. One of the advantages of linked data is that they are built on a standard framework that facilitates the joint use of various sources, and thus facilitates considering features of various origins. We propose a selection and linkage of data sources relevant to pharmacogenomics, including for example DisGeNET and Clinvar. We use machine learning to identify and prioritize pharmacogenes that are the most probably valid, considering the selected linked data. This identification relies on the classification of gene-drug pairs as either pharmacogenomically associated or not and was experimented with two machine learning methods -random forest and graph kernel-, which results are compared in this article. We assembled a set of linked data relative to pharmacogenomics, of 2,610,793 triples, coming from six distinct resources. Learning from these data, random forest enables identifying valid pharmacogenes with a F-measure of 0.73, on a 10 folds cross-validation, whereas graph kernel achieves a F-measure of 0.81. A list of top candidates proposed by both approaches is provided and their obtention is discussed.

  20. Suggestibility, expectancy, trance state effects, and hypnotic depth: II. Assessment via the PCI-HAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekala, Ronald J; Kumar, V K; Maurer, Ronald; Elliott-Carter, Nancy; Moon, Edward; Mullen, Karen

    2010-04-01

    This study sought to determine if self-reported hypnotic depth (srHD) could be predicted from the variables of the Phenomenology of Consciousness Inventory - Hypnotic Assessment Procedure (PCI-HAP) (Pekala, 1995a, 1995b; Pekala & Kumar, 2007; Pekala et al., 2010), assessing several of the processes theorized by researchers to be associated with hypnotism: trance (altered state effects), suggestibility, and expectancy. One hundred and eighty participants completed the PCI-HAP. Using regression analyses, srHD scores were predicted from the PCI-HAP pre-hypnotic and post-hypnotic assessment items, and several other variables. The results suggested that the srHD scores were found to be a function of imagoic suggestibility, expectancy (both estimated hypnotic depth and expected therapeutic efficacy), and trance state and eye catalepsy effects; effects that appear to be additive and not (statistically) interactive. The results support the theorizing of many investigators concerning the involvement of the aforementioned component processes with this particular aspect of hypnotism, the self-reported hypnotic depth score.

  1. Variable stator radial turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogo, C.; Hajek, T.; Chen, A. G.

    1984-01-01

    A radial turbine stage with a variable area nozzle was investigated. A high work capacity turbine design with a known high performance base was modified to accept a fixed vane stagger angle moveable sidewall nozzle. The nozzle area was varied by moving the forward and rearward sidewalls. Diffusing and accelerating rotor inlet ramps were evaluated in combinations with hub and shroud rotor exit rings. Performance of contoured sidewalls and the location of the sidewall split line with respect to the rotor inlet was compared to the baseline. Performance and rotor exit survey data are presented for 31 different geometries. Detail survey data at the nozzle exit are given in contour plot format for five configurations. A data base is provided for a variable geometry concept that is a viable alternative to the more common pivoted vane variable geometry radial turbine.

  2. Pleistocene Indian Monsoon Rainfall Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yirgaw, D. G.; Hathorne, E. C.; Giosan, L.; Collett, T. S.; Sijingeo, A. V.; Nath, B. N.; Frank, M.

    2014-12-01

    The past variability of the Indian Monsoon is mostly known from records of wind strength over the Arabian Sea. Here we investigate proxies for fresh water input and runoff in a region of strong monsoon precipitation that is a major moisture source for the east Asian Monsoon. A sediment core obtained by the IODP vessel JOIDES Resolution and a gravity core from the Alcock Seamount complex in the Andaman Sea are used to examine the past monsoon variability on the Indian sub-continent and directly over the ocean. The current dataset covers the last glacial and deglacial but will eventually provide a Pleistocene record. We utilise the ecological habitats of G. sacculifer and N. dutertrei to investigate the freshwater-induced stratification with paired Mg/Ca and δ18O analyses to estimate seawater δ18O (δ18Osw). During the last 60 kyrs, Ba/Ca ratios and δ18Osw values generally agree well between the two cores and suggest the weakest surface runoff and monsoon during the LGM and strongest monsoon during the Holocene. The difference in δ18O between the species, interpreted as a proxy for upper ocean stratification, implies stratification developed around 37 ka and remained relatively constant during the LGM, deglacial and Holocene. To investigate monsoon variability for intervals in the past, single shell Mg/Ca and δ18O analyses have been conducted. Mg/Ca ratios from individual shells of N. dutertrei suggest relatively small changes in temperature. However, individual N. dutertrei δ18O differ greatly between the mid-Holocene and samples from the LGM and a nearby core top. The mid-Holocene individuals have a greater range and large skew towards negative values indicating greater fresh water influence.

  3. Internal variables in thermoelasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Berezovski, Arkadi

    2017-01-01

    This book describes an effective method for modeling advanced materials like polymers, composite materials and biomaterials, which are, as a rule, inhomogeneous. The thermoelastic theory with internal variables presented here provides a general framework for predicting a material’s reaction to external loading. The basic physical principles provide the primary theoretical information, including the evolution equations of the internal variables. The cornerstones of this framework are the material representation of continuum mechanics, a weak nonlocality, a non-zero extra entropy flux, and a consecutive employment of the dissipation inequality. Examples of thermoelastic phenomena are provided, accompanied by detailed procedures demonstrating how to simulate them.

  4. Resiliencia y variables sociodemograficas

    OpenAIRE

    Calero Martinez, Edgar David

    2015-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se aborda la definición de una de las variables dentro de lo que se denomina Capital psicológico positivo, la Resiliencia, sus principales características y algunas de las variables socio demográficas que en el estudio pretenden ver el nivel de relación existente entre cada una de ellas (indirecta o directamente) en el proceso resiliente de una persona para posteriores discusiones y su implicación dentro de la gestión empresarial y sus direcciones futuras.

  5. Autolysis: a plausible finding suggestive of long ESD procedure time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Jong Jin; Chun, Hoon Jai; Keum, Bora; Seo, Yeon Seok; Kim, Yong Sik; Jeen, Yoon Tae; Lee, Hong Sik; Um, Soon Ho; Kim, Chang Duck; Ryu, Ho Sang; Chae, Yang-Seok

    2012-04-01

    Autolysis is the enzymatic digestion of cells by the action of its own enzymes, and it mostly occurs in dying or dead cells. It has previously been suggested that prolonged procedure time could lead to autolytic changes from the periphery of the endoscopic submucosal dissection specimens. Recently, the authors have experienced a case of autolysis; due to the presence of ulcer, fibrosis, and frequent bleeding from the cut surface, it took 6 hours to complete the resection. More than halfway through the resection; bluish purple discoloration of the part of the dissected flap where the dissection was initiated was noticed. Histologic examination of this site showed diffuse distortion of epithelial lining and cellular architectures along with loss of cell components, compatible with autolysis. Because autolysis could theoretically pose a potential problem regarding the evaluation of resection margin, endoscopists and pathologists should communicate with each other for a reliable pathologic decision.

  6. Friend suggestion in social network based on user log

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaviya, R.; Vanitha, M.; Sumaiya Thaseen, I.; Mangaiyarkarasi, R.

    2017-11-01

    Simple friend recommendation algorithms such as similarity, popularity and social aspects is the basic requirement to be explored to methodically form high-performance social friend recommendation. Suggestion of friends is followed. No tags of character were followed. In the proposed system, we use an algorithm for network correlation-based social friend recommendation (NC-based SFR).It includes user activities like where one lives and works. A new friend recommendation method, based on network correlation, by considering the effect of different social roles. To model the correlation between different networks, we develop a method that aligns these networks through important feature selection. We consider by preserving the network structure for a more better recommendations so that it significantly improves the accuracy for better friend-recommendation.

  7. Genomic analysis suggests higher susceptibility of children to air pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Leeuwen, Danitsja M; Pedersen, Marie; Hendriksen, Peter J M

    2008-01-01

    modulated gene expressions. In addition, gene expressions in both children and adults were investigated for associations with micronuclei frequencies. Both analysis approaches returned considerably more genes or gene groups and pathways that significantly differed between children from both regions than......Differences in biological responses to exposure to hazardous airborne substances between children and adults have been reported, suggesting children to be more susceptible. Aim of this study was to improve our understanding of differences in susceptibility in cancer risk associated with air...... pollution by comparing genome-wide gene expression profiles in peripheral blood of children and their parents. Gene expression analysis was performed in blood from children and parents living in two different regions in the Czech Republic with different levels of air pollution. Data were analyzed by two...

  8. A review of cyberbullying and suggestions for online psychological therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mairéad Foody

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Investigations of cyberbullying are beginning to emerge in the scientific literature because of their implications for child and adolescent development. In particular, cyberbullying victimisation has been associated with similar negative consequences to traditional or face-to-face bullying such as lower academic achievement, anxiety, and sometimes even suicide. Research has also started to emerge investigating the impact of such incidences on the life of adults. The literature in this area has been steadily growing over the last decade and this review highlights the current situation in terms of relevant features and the psychological impact on victims. The selection process consisted of a comprehensive search that was conducted in January 2015 in the following databases: PsychInfo, ERIC, Web of Science and Medline. A total of 19 papers were included. We conclude with suggestions for online psychological treatment for victims and bullies as a means of coping with the distress caused from cyberbullying experiences.

  9. Sexual health and older adults: suggestions for social science research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchliff, Sharron

    2016-11-01

    The body of evidence on older adults' sexual health is beginning to grow. However, it remains an under-researched area particularly within the social sciences. This viewpoint outlines four considerations for those who carry out social science research in this area: 1. defining the age category "older adults"; 2. being clear about the types of sex under research; 3. capturing a range of diverse voices; and 4. considering the use of qualitative research methods to explore the topic in depth. These suggestions are aimed at helping researchers to avoid some of the pitfalls of research in this area, as well as improving the evidence base in order to advance recognition of the issues and drive change in service provision. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Crisis Phones - Suicide Prevention Versus Suggestion/Contagion Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stack, Steven

    2015-01-01

    There has been no systematic work on the short- or long-term impact of the installation of crisis phones on suicides from bridges. The present study addresses this issue. Data refer to 219 suicides from 1954 through 2013 on the Skyway Bridge in St. Petersburg, Florida. Six crisis phones with signs were installed in July 1999. In the first decade after installation, the phones were used by 27 suicidal persons and credited with preventing 26 or 2.6 suicides a year. However, the net suicide count increased from 48 in the 13 years before installation of phones to 106 the following 13 years or by 4.5 additional suicides/year (t =3.512, p < .001). Although the phones prevented some suicides, there was a net increase after installation. The findings are interpreted with reference to suggestion/contagion effects including the emergence of a controversial bridge suicide blog.

  11. School satisfaction and social relations: Swedish schoolchildren's improvement suggestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Louise; Haraldsson, Katarina; Hagquist, Curt

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to explore schoolchildren's views on how to increase school satisfaction and improve social relations among peers at school. Improvement suggestions were collected from school children aged 10-12 years with the help of a feedback model developed for the purpose. Qualitative content analysis was used. Two categories emerged from the analysis: 'psychosocial climate', which included the subcategories 'adults' roles and responsibilities' and 'classmates' norms and values'; 'influence', which included the subcategories 'changes in the physical environment' and 'flexible learning'. The categories are seen as important to increase school satisfaction and improve social relations among peers at school. Examining children's opinions is requested and promoted by the UN convention on the Rights of the Child. The findings contribute to the field by showing how school satisfaction and social relations might be improved, if the child perspective is considered in the planning of health promotion activities in school.

  12. Selective mutism: an update and suggestions for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Samantha; Beidel, Deborah C

    2011-08-01

    Speculation continues regarding the accurate classification of selective mutism and potential etiologic factors. Current research has shed some light on several factors that may predispose some children to this disorder, but conclusions are difficult to draw due to reliance on subjective measures, few comparison groups, and/or limited theoretical grounding. This article provides an update on recent efforts to elucidate the etiologic pathways of selective mutism and on the current debate regarding its strong overlap with anxiety disorders, most notably social phobia. An additional attempt is made to examine findings based on a developmental perspective that accounts for multiple pathways, context, and the developmental stage of the child. Emotion regulation theory is offered as a potential factor in why some children may be more vulnerable to the etiologic factors described. Suggestions for future research are offered based on this integration of information.

  13. Police practices and perceptions regarding juvenile interrogation and interrogative suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Jessica R; Reppucci, N Dickon

    2007-01-01

    Recent media coverage has highlighted cases in which young suspects were wrongly convicted because they provided interrogation-induced false confessions. Although youth may be more highly suggestible and easily influenced by authority than adults, police are trained to use the same psychologically coercive and deceptive tactics with youth as with adults. This investigation is the first standard documentation of the reported interrogation practices of law enforcement and police beliefs about the reliability of these techniques and their knowledge of child development. Participants were 332 law enforcement officers who completed surveys about interrogation procedures and developmental issues pertaining to youth. Results indicated that, while police acknowledge some developmental differences between youth and adults, there were indications that (1) how police perceive youth in general and how they perceive and treat them in the interrogation context may be contradictory and (2) their general view is that youth can be dealt with in the same manner as adults. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Study suggests Arctic sea ice loss not irreversible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2011-10-01

    The Arctic has been losing sea ice as Earth's climate warms, and some studies have suggested that the Arctic could reach a tipping point, beyond which ice would not recover even if global temperatures cooled down again. However, a new study by Armour et al. that uses a state-of-the-art atmosphere-ocean global climate model found no evidence of such irreversibility. In their simulations, the researchers increased atmospheric carbon dioxide levels until Arctic sea ice disappeared year-round and then watched what happened as global temperatures were then decreased. They found that sea ice steadily recovered as global temperatures dropped. An implication of this result is that future sea ice loss will occur only as long as global temperatures continue to rise. (Geophysical Research Letters, doi:10.1029/2011GL048739, 2011)

  15. MOOCs for Teacher Professional Development: Reflections and Suggested Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Kumar Misra

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Teacher Professional Development (TPD has become a major policy priority within education systems worldwide. But keeping teachers professionally up-to-date and providing them professional development opportunities on continuing basis is a big challenge. Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs can be a cost and resource effective means to complement the traditional methods of professional development of teachers. This optimism is based on the assumption that use of MOOCs will facilitate mass training of teachers as per their convenience and ease. The other assumption is that being MOOCs-based training, it will be easy to adapt it to different cultures and languages. Considering these assumptions, this concept paper which is based on reviews of different reports, documents and research papers - discusses the challenges of TPD, reflects upon promises of using MOOCs for TPD; details initiatives and experiences of using MOOCs for TPD; and suggests actions for promoting the use of MOOCs for TPD.

  16. Membrane proteomics of phagosomes suggests a connection to autophagy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shui, Wenqing; Sheu, Leslie; Liu, Jun; Smart, Brian; Petzold, Christopher J.; Hsieh, Tsung-yen; Pitcher, Austin; Keasling*, Jay D.; Bertozzi*, Carolyn R.

    2008-11-25

    Phagocytosis is the central process by which macrophage cellsinternalize and eliminate infectious microbes as well as apoptoticcells. During maturation, phagosomes containing engulfed particlesfuse with various endosomal compartments through theaction of regulatory molecules on the phagosomal membrane. Inthis study, we performed a proteomic analysis of the membranefraction from latex bead-containing (LBC) phagosomes isolatedfrom macrophages. The profile, which comprised 546 proteins,suggests diverse functions of the phagosome and potential connectionsto secretory processes, toll-like receptor signaling, andautophagy. Many identified proteins were not previously knownto reside in the phagosome. We characterized several proteins inLBC phagosomes that change in abundance on induction of autophagy,a process that has been previously implicated in the hostdefense against microbial pathogens. These observations suggestcrosstalk between autophagy and phagocytosis that may be relevantto the innate immune response of macrophages.

  17. Molecular spectroscopic study for suggested mechanism of chrome tanned leather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashy, Elshahat H. A.; Osman, Osama; Mahmoud, Abdel Aziz; Ibrahim, Medhat

    2012-03-01

    Collagen represents the structural protein of the extracellular matrix, which gives strength of hides and/or skin under tanning process. Chrome tan is the most important tanning agent all over the world. The methods for production of leather evolved over several centuries as art and engineering with little understanding of the underlying science. The present work is devoted to suggest the most probable mechanistic action of chrome tan on hide proteins. First the affect of Cr upon hide protein is indicated by the studied mechanical properties. Then the spectroscopic characterization of the hide protein as well as chrome tanned leather was carried out with Horizontal Attenuated Total Reflection (HATR) FT-IR. The obtained results indicate how the chromium can attached with the active sites of collagen. Molecular modeling confirms that chromium can react with amino as well as carboxylate groups. Four schemes were obtained to describe the possible interactions of chrome tan with hide proteins.

  18. Ethnobiology of snappers (Lutjanidae: target species and suggestions for management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clauzet Mariana

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, we sought to investigate the biology (diet and reproduction and ethnobiology (fishers knowledge and fishing spots used to catch snappers of five species of snappers (Lutjanidae, including Lutjanus analis, Lutjanus synagris, Lutjanus vivanus, Ocyurus chrysurus, and Romboplites saliens at five sites along the northeast (Riacho Doce, Maceió in Alagoas State, and Porto do Sauípe, Entre Rios at Bahia State and the southeast (SE Brazilian coast (Paraty and Rio de Janeiro cities at Rio de Janeiro State, and Bertioga, at São Paulo State.. We collected 288 snappers and interviewed 86 fishermen. The stomach contents of each fish were examined and macroscopic gonad analysis was performed. Snappers are very important for the fisheries of NE Brazil, and our results indicated that some populations, such as mutton snapper (L. analis and lane snapper (L. synagris, are being caught when they are too young, at early juvenile stages. Local knowledge has been shown to be a powerful tool for determining appropriate policies regarding management of target species, and artisanal fishermen can be included in management processes. Other suggestions for managing the fisheries are discussed, including proposals that could provide motivation for artisanal fishermen to participate in programs to conserve resources, such as co-management approaches that utilize local knowledge, the establishment of fishing seasons, and compensation of fishermen, through 'payment for environmental services'. These suggestions may enhance the participation of local artisanal fishermen in moving to a more realistic and less top-down management approach of the fish population.

  19. An hypnotic suggestion: review of hypnosis for clinical emergency care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iserson, Kenneth V

    2014-04-01

    Hypnosis has been used in medicine for nearly 250 years. Yet, emergency clinicians rarely use it in emergency departments or prehospital settings. This review describes hypnosis, its historical use in medicine, several neurophysiologic studies of the procedure, its uses and potential uses in emergency care, and a simple technique for inducing hypnosis. It also discusses reasons why the technique has not been widely adopted, and suggests methods of increasing its use in emergency care, including some potential research areas. A limited number of clinical studies and case reports suggest that hypnosis may be effective in a wide variety of conditions applicable to emergency medical care. These include providing analgesia for existing pain (e.g., fractures, burns, and lacerations), providing analgesia and sedation for painful procedures (e.g., needle sticks, laceration repair, and fracture and joint reductions), reducing acute anxiety, increasing children's cooperation for procedures, facilitating the diagnosis and treatment of acute psychiatric conditions, and providing analgesia and anxiolysis for obstetric/gynecologic problems. Although it is safe, fast, and cost-effective, emergency clinicians rarely use hypnosis. This is due, in part, to the myths surrounding hypnosis and its association with alternative-complementary medicine. Genuine barriers to its increased clinical use include a lack of assured effectiveness and a lack of training and training requirements. Based on the results of further research, hypnosis could become a powerful and safe nonpharmacologic addition to the emergency clinician's armamentarium, with the potential to enhance patient care in emergency medicine, prehospital care, and remote medical settings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Ethnobiology of snappers (Lutjanidae): target species and suggestions for management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begossi, Alpina; Salivonchyk, Svetlana V; Araujo, Luciana G; Andreoli, Tainá B; Clauzet, Mariana; Martinelli, Claudia M; Ferreira, Allan G I; Oliveira, Luiz E C; Silvano, Renato A M

    2011-03-16

    In this study, we sought to investigate the biology (diet and reproduction) and ethnobiology (fishers knowledge and fishing spots used to catch snappers) of five species of snappers (Lutjanidae), including Lutjanus analis, Lutjanus synagris, Lutjanus vivanus, Ocyurus chrysurus, and Romboplites saliens at five sites along the northeast (Riacho Doce, Maceió in Alagoas State, and Porto do Sauípe, Entre Rios at Bahia State) and the southeast (SE) Brazilian coast (Paraty and Rio de Janeiro cities at Rio de Janeiro State, and Bertioga, at São Paulo State.).We collected 288 snappers and interviewed 86 fishermen. The stomach contents of each fish were examined and macroscopic gonad analysis was performed. Snappers are very important for the fisheries of NE Brazil, and our results indicated that some populations, such as mutton snapper (L. analis) and lane snapper (L. synagris), are being caught when they are too young, at early juvenile stages.Local knowledge has been shown to be a powerful tool for determining appropriate policies regarding management of target species, and artisanal fishermen can be included in management processes. Other suggestions for managing the fisheries are discussed, including proposals that could provide motivation for artisanal fishermen to participate in programs to conserve resources, such as co-management approaches that utilize local knowledge, the establishment of fishing seasons, and compensation of fishermen, through 'payment for environmental services'. These suggestions may enhance the participation of local artisanal fishermen in moving to a more realistic and less top-down management approach of the fish population.

  1. The WFCAM multiwavelength Variable Star Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira Lopes, C. E.; Dékány, I.; Catelan, M.; Cross, N. J. G.; Angeloni, R.; Leão, I. C.; De Medeiros, J. R.

    2015-01-01

    34 are probably new field RR Lyrae, and 3 are likely Cepheids. We also identify 32 highly reddened variable objects close to previously known dark nebulae, suggesting that these are embedded young stellar objects. We publish our results and all light curve data as the WFCAM Variable Star Catalog. Tables 4-6 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/573/A100

  2. Biological Sampling Variability Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amidan, Brett G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hutchison, Janine R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-11-08

    There are many sources of variability that exist in the sample collection and analysis process. This paper addresses many, but not all, sources of variability. The main focus of this paper was to better understand and estimate variability due to differences between samplers. Variability between days was also studied, as well as random variability within each sampler. Experiments were performed using multiple surface materials (ceramic and stainless steel), multiple contaminant concentrations (10 spores and 100 spores), and with and without the presence of interfering material. All testing was done with sponge sticks using 10-inch by 10-inch coupons. Bacillus atrophaeus was used as the BA surrogate. Spores were deposited using wet deposition. Grime was coated on the coupons which were planned to include the interfering material (Section 3.3). Samples were prepared and analyzed at PNNL using CDC protocol (Section 3.4) and then cultured and counted. Five samplers were trained so that samples were taken using the same protocol. Each sampler randomly sampled eight coupons each day, four coupons with 10 spores deposited and four coupons with 100 spores deposited. Each day consisted of one material being tested. The clean samples (no interfering materials) were run first, followed by the dirty samples (coated with interfering material). There was a significant difference in recovery efficiency between the coupons with 10 spores deposited (mean of 48.9%) and those with 100 spores deposited (mean of 59.8%). There was no general significant difference between the clean and dirty (containing interfering material) coupons or between the two surface materials; however, there was a significant interaction between concentration amount and presence of interfering material. The recovery efficiency was close to the same for coupons with 10 spores deposited, but for the coupons with 100 spores deposited, the recovery efficiency for the dirty samples was significantly larger (65

  3. Primary graft dysfunction; possible evaluation by high resolution computed tomography, and suggestions for a scoring system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belmaati, Esther; Jensen, Claus; Kofoed, Klaus F

    2009-01-01

    /exclusion criteria of patients, pilot testing, and training investigators through review of disagreements, were possibilities suggested for decreasing inter/intra observer variability. Factors affecting the image attenuation (Hounsfield numbers) and thus, the reproducibility of CT densitometric measurements were...... of parenchymal change in the lung. HRCT is considered relevant and superior in evaluating disease severity, disease progression, and in evaluating the effects of therapy regimes in the lung. It is, however, not clear to what extent these scoring methods may be implemented for grading PGD. Further efforts could...

  4. The Chandra Source Catalog: Source Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Michael; Rots, A. H.; McCollough, M. L.; Primini, F. A.; Glotfelty, K. J.; Bonaventura, N. R.; Chen, J. C.; Davis, J. E.; Doe, S. M.; Evans, J. D.; Evans, I.; Fabbiano, G.; Galle, E. C.; Gibbs, D. G., II; Grier, J. D.; Hain, R.; Hall, D. M.; Harbo, P. N.; He, X.; Houck, J. C.; Karovska, M.; Lauer, J.; McDowell, J. C.; Miller, J. B.; Mitschang, A. W.; Morgan, D. L.; Nichols, J. S.; Plummer, D. A.; Refsdal, B. L.; Siemiginowska, A. L.; Sundheim, B. A.; Tibbetts, M. S.; van Stone, D. W.; Winkelman, S. L.; Zografou, P.

    2009-09-01

    The Chandra Source Catalog (CSC) contains fields of view that have been studied with individual, uninterrupted observations that span integration times ranging from 1 ksec to 160 ksec, and a large number of which have received (multiple) repeat observations days to years later. The CSC thus offers an unprecedented look at the variability of the X-ray sky over a broad range of time scales, and across a wide diversity of variable X-ray sources: stars in the local galactic neighborhood, galactic and extragalactic X-ray binaries, Active Galactic Nuclei, etc. Here we describe the methods used to identify and quantify source variability within a single observation, and the methods used to assess the variability of a source when detected in multiple, individual observations. Three tests are used to detect source variability within a single observation: the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and its variant, the Kuiper test, and a Bayesian approach originally suggested by Gregory and Loredo. The latter test not only provides an indicator of variability, but is also used to create a best estimate of the variable lightcurve shape. We assess the performance of these tests via simulation of statistically stationary, variable processes with arbitrary input power spectral densities (here we concentrate on results of red noise simulations) at variety of mean count rates and fractional root mean square variabilities relevant to CSC sources. We also assess the false positive rate via simulations of constant sources whose sole source of fluctuation is Poisson noise. We compare these simulations to an assessment of the variability found in real CSC sources, and estimate the variability sensitivities of the CSC.

  5. INTER-EXAMINER VARIABILITY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To establish whether inter-examiner variability is still a significant factor for the undergraduate orthopaedic clinical ... D. The scores for each student were tabulated and the range, mean, and pass rate determined for each of the examiners. ... has not the heart to reject the man”, consistently gave higher scores (1).

  6. Several real variables

    CERN Document Server

    Kantorovitz, Shmuel

    2016-01-01

    This undergraduate textbook is based on lectures given by the author on the differential and integral calculus of functions of several real variables. The book has a modern approach and includes topics such as: •The p-norms on vector space and their equivalence •The Weierstrass and Stone-Weierstrass approximation theorems •The differential as a linear functional; Jacobians, Hessians, and Taylor's theorem in several variables •The Implicit Function Theorem for a system of equations, proved via Banach’s Fixed Point Theorem •Applications to Ordinary Differential Equations •Line integrals and an introduction to surface integrals This book features numerous examples, detailed proofs, as well as exercises at the end of sections. Many of the exercises have detailed solutions, making the book suitable for self-study. Several Real Variables will be useful for undergraduate students in mathematics who have completed first courses in linear algebra and analysis of one real variable.

  7. Variability in GPS sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jauncey, DL; King, EA; Bignall, HE; Lovell, JEJ; Kedziora-Chudczer, L; Tzioumis, AK; Tingay, SJ; Macquart, JP; McCulloch, PM

    2003-01-01

    Flux density monitoring data at 2.3 and 8.4 GHz is presented for a sample of 33 southern hemisphere GPS sources, drawn from the 2.7 GHz Parkes survey. This monitoring data, together with VLBI monitoring data, shows that a small fraction of these sources, similar to10%, vary. Their variability falls

  8. All Those Independent Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meacham, Merle L.

    This paper presents a case study of a sixth grade remedial math class which illustrates the thesis that only the "experimental attitude," not the "experimental method," is appropriate in the classroom. The thesis is based on the fact that too many independent variables exist in a classroom situation to allow precise measurement. The case study…

  9. Variable speed generators

    CERN Document Server

    Boldea, Ion

    2005-01-01

    With the deregulation of electrical energy production and distribution, says Boldea (Polytechnical Institute, Timisoara, Romania) producers are looking for ways to tailor their electricity for different markets. Variable-speed electric generators are serving that purpose, up to the 400 megavolt ampere unit size, in Japan since 1996 and Germany sinc

  10. Surfing wave climate variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espejo, Antonio; Losada, Iñigo J.; Méndez, Fernando J.

    2014-10-01

    International surfing destinations are highly dependent on specific combinations of wind-wave formation, thermal conditions and local bathymetry. Surf quality depends on a vast number of geophysical variables, and analyses of surf quality require the consideration of the seasonal, interannual and long-term variability of surf conditions on a global scale. A multivariable standardized index based on expert judgment is proposed for this purpose. This index makes it possible to analyze surf conditions objectively over a global domain. A summary of global surf resources based on a new index integrating existing wave, wind, tides and sea surface temperature databases is presented. According to general atmospheric circulation and swell propagation patterns, results show that west-facing low to middle-latitude coasts are more suitable for surfing, especially those in the Southern Hemisphere. Month-to-month analysis reveals strong seasonal variations in the occurrence of surfable events, enhancing the frequency of such events in the North Atlantic and the North Pacific. Interannual variability was investigated by comparing occurrence values with global and regional modes of low-frequency climate variability such as El Niño and the North Atlantic Oscillation, revealing their strong influence at both the global and the regional scale. Results of the long-term trends demonstrate an increase in the probability of surfable events on west-facing coasts around the world in recent years. The resulting maps provide useful information for surfers, the surf tourism industry and surf-related coastal planners and stakeholders.

  11. Some suggestions for the DSM-5 schizotypal personality disorder construct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummelen, Benjamin; Pedersen, Geir; Karterud, Sigmund

    2012-05-01

    This study relates to the schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) proposal of the upcoming fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) by investigating the construct validity of SPD as defined by DSM-IV in a large sample of patients from the Norwegian Network of Personality-Focused Treatment Programs (N = 2619), assessed by structured diagnostic interviews and the Longitudinal, Expert All Data standard. We investigated factor structure and psychometric properties of the SPD criteria, as well as co-occurrence patterns between SPD and other PDs. Thirty-six patients were diagnosed with SPD and 513 patients (21%) endorsed at least 2 schizotypal criteria. We found that 2 factors were specific for SPD, a cognitive-perceptual factor (ideas of reference, magical thinking, and unusual perceptual experiences) and an oddness factor (odd thinking and speech, constricted affect, and odd appearance or behavior). The criteria belonging to these factors had appropriate psychometric properties. The criteria of the cognitive-perceptual factor were more strongly associated with borderline personality disorder (PD) than with the other PDs. We did not find support for a consistent factor that reflected interpersonal problems. The criteria that used to be part of this factor (suspiciousness, lack of friends or confidants, and excessive social anxiety) performed poorly as specific SPD criteria. SPD was more strongly associated with antisocial PD and paranoid PD than with the other PDs. We suggest that ideas of reference should be included explicitly under the schizotypal facet of cognitive dysregulation in DSM-5, with less emphasis on the social phobic aspects of this feature. Furthermore, there should be more emphasis on the cognitive aspects of suspiciousness in SPD, and it should be considered to split up the affectivity criterion into constricted affect and inappropriate affect, with the latter type of affect being the expression of problems with

  12. Tides and Decadal Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Richard D.

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews the mechanisms by which oceanic tides and decadal variability in the oceans are connected. We distinguish between variability caused by tides and variability observed in the tides themselves. Both effects have been detected at some level. The most obvious connection with decadal timescales is through the 18.6-year precession of the moon's orbit plane. This precession gives rise to a small tide of the same period and to 18.6-year modulations in the phase and amplitudes of short-period tides. The 18.6-year "node tide" is very small, no more than 2 cm anywhere, and in sea level data it is dominated by the ocean's natural Variability. Some authors have naively attributed climate variations with periods near 19 years directly to the node tide, but the amplitude of the tide is too small for this mechanism to be operative. The more likely explanation (Loder and Garrett, JGR, 83, 1967-70, 1978) is that the 18.6-y modulations in short-period tides, especially h e principal tide M2, cause variations in ocean mixing, which is then observed in temperature and other climatic indicators. Tidally forced variability has also been proposed by some authors, either in response to occasional (and highly predictable) tidal extremes or as a nonlinear low-frequency oscillation caused by interactions between short-period tides. The former mechanism can produce only short-duration events hardly more significant than normal tidal ranges, but the latter mechanism can in principle induce low-frequency oscillations. The most recent proposal of this type is by Keeling and Whorf, who highlight the 1800-year spectral peak discovered by Bond et al. (1997). But the proposal appears contrived and should be considered, in the words of Munk et al. (2002), "as the most likely among unlikely candidates."

  13. Suggestion, persuasion and work: Psychotherapies in communist Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Sarah

    2018-01-01

    This article traces what recent research and primary sources tell us about psychotherapy in Communist Europe, and how it survived both underground and above the surface. In particular, I will elaborate on the psychotherapeutic techniques that were popular across the different countries and language cultures of the Soviet sphere, with a particular focus upon the Cold War period. This article examines the literature on the mixed fortunes of psychoanalysis and group therapies in the region. More specifically, it focuses upon the therapeutic modalities such as work therapy, suggestion and rational therapy, which gained particular popularity in the Communist countries of Central and Eastern Europe. The latter two approaches had striking similarities with parallel developments in behavioural and cognitive therapies in the West. In part, this was because clinicians on both sides of the 'iron curtain' drew upon shared European traditions from the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Nevertheless, this article argues that in the Soviet sphere, those promoting these approaches appropriated socialist thought as a source of inspiration and justification, or at the very least, as a convenient political shield.

  14. Trophic signatures of seabirds suggest shifts in oceanic ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagne, Tyler O.; Hyrenbach, K. David; Hagemann, Molly E.; Van Houtan, Kyle S.

    2018-01-01

    Pelagic ecosystems are dynamic ocean regions whose immense natural capital is affected by climate change, pollution, and commercial fisheries. Trophic level–based indicators derived from fishery catch data may reveal the food web status of these systems, but the utility of these metrics has been debated because of targeting bias in fisheries catch. We analyze a unique, fishery-independent data set of North Pacific seabird tissues to inform ecosystem trends over 13 decades (1890s to 2010s). Trophic position declined broadly in five of eight species sampled, indicating a long-term shift from higher–trophic level to lower–trophic level prey. No species increased their trophic position. Given species prey preferences, Bayesian diet reconstructions suggest a shift from fishes to squids, a result consistent with both catch reports and ecosystem models. Machine learning models further reveal that trophic position trends have a complex set of drivers including climate, commercial fisheries, and ecomorphology. Our results show that multiple species of fish-consuming seabirds may track the complex changes occurring in marine ecosystems. PMID:29457134

  15. Outcomes and Suggestions of the Nuclear Security Summit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae San; Jung, Myung Tak [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Through The third Nuclear Security Summit (NSS), the measurement for the nuclear security has become more strengthening and participating countries could recognize the importance of nuclear security than before. From the NSS sessions, the leaders of participating countries and international organizations (IAEA, UN, EU and INTERPOL) had an in-depth discussion about the seriousness of the nuclear terrorism, the urgency issues for strengthening the nuclear security, etc. What issues was discussed in NSS processes since 2010 and which facts become more important than ever for nuclear security? The purpose of this paper is to provide the substantive outcomes from the 1st to 3rd NSS and suggestions for consolidating the next NSS. The summit process has helped strengthen the nuclear security measures. In the following two years before 4th NSS, there will be various follow-up activities for making an effort to implementing national commitments, joint statement, continuous outreach with IAEA/UN and agreed measures in Hague. It should produce the substantial measures for enhancing the nuclear security that are aimed to the each country. And preemptively, it is necessary to understand the each nuclear security level by using the concrete questionnaire sheets substitute for the national progress report.

  16. Niche convergence suggests functionality of the nocturnal fovea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Gillian L; Melin, Amanda D; Tuh Yit Yu, Fred; Bernard, Henry; Ong, Perry S; Dominy, Nathaniel J

    2014-01-01

    The fovea is a declivity of the retinal surface associated with maximum visual acuity. Foveae are widespread across vertebrates, but among mammals they are restricted to haplorhine primates (tarsiers, monkeys, apes, and humans), which are primarily diurnal. Thus primates have long contributed to the view that foveae are functional adaptations to diurnality. The foveae of tarsiers, which are nocturnal, are widely interpreted as vestigial traits and therefore evidence of a diurnal ancestry. This enduring premise is central to adaptive hypotheses on the origins of anthropoid primates; however, the question of whether tarsier foveae are functionless anachronisms or nocturnal adaptations remains open. To explore this question, we compared the diets of tarsiers (Tarsius) and scops owls (Otus), taxa united by numerous anatomical homoplasies, including foveate vision. A functional interpretation of these homoplasies predicts dietary convergence. We tested this prediction by analyzing stable isotope ratios that integrate dietary information. In Borneo and the Philippines, the stable carbon isotope compositions of Tarsius and Otus were indistinguishable, whereas the stable nitrogen isotope composition of Otus was marginally higher than that of Tarsius. Our results indicate that species in both genera consumed mainly ground-dwelling prey. Taken together, our findings support a functional interpretation of the many homoplasies shared by tarsiers and scops owls, including a retinal fovea. We suggest that the fovea might function similarly in tarsiers and scops owls by calibrating the auditory localization pathway. The integration of auditory localization and visual fixation during prey detection and acquisition might be critical at low light levels.

  17. Outcomes and Suggestions of the Nuclear Security Summit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae San; Jung, Myung Tak

    2014-01-01

    Through The third Nuclear Security Summit (NSS), the measurement for the nuclear security has become more strengthening and participating countries could recognize the importance of nuclear security than before. From the NSS sessions, the leaders of participating countries and international organizations (IAEA, UN, EU and INTERPOL) had an in-depth discussion about the seriousness of the nuclear terrorism, the urgency issues for strengthening the nuclear security, etc. What issues was discussed in NSS processes since 2010 and which facts become more important than ever for nuclear security? The purpose of this paper is to provide the substantive outcomes from the 1st to 3rd NSS and suggestions for consolidating the next NSS. The summit process has helped strengthen the nuclear security measures. In the following two years before 4th NSS, there will be various follow-up activities for making an effort to implementing national commitments, joint statement, continuous outreach with IAEA/UN and agreed measures in Hague. It should produce the substantial measures for enhancing the nuclear security that are aimed to the each country. And preemptively, it is necessary to understand the each nuclear security level by using the concrete questionnaire sheets substitute for the national progress report

  18. Suggestion for improvement of PET quality control tests in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Fernanda C.L.; Magalhaes, Cinthia M.S.; Souza, Divanizia N.

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays nuclear medicine has a considerable importance among the other medical specialties. This medical specialty utilizes high-tech equipment for imaging in the diagnosis, obtaining information on the clinical functionality of organs and systems of the human body through the use of radioisotopes . In view of the importance of guaranteeing the image quality in SPECT and PET systems, enabling patients not repeat exams due to lack of quality control of equipment used in nuclear medicine, this paper aims to present a possible suggestion to update the quality control tests needed for quality assurance of nuclear medicine services. They were considered the requirements of the National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN) and the National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA) in Brazil. The minimum requirements to be defined for inclusion of quality control tests on PET in the standard CNEN are extremely important because they will guide the evaluation of PET systems, determining the quality control tests to be performed. And those tests for PET will be a regulatory requirement by the CNEN and ANVISA. As the National Health Surveillance Agency has already publication of RDC 38 with recommendations for services of nuclear medicine. This study will continue with evaluation of PET systems and presenting the tests of quality control with additional objects and simulators to ensure safety in PET systems have not standardized in nuclear medicine services in Brazil. (author)

  19. Failures and suggestions in Earthquake forecasting and prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, S. I.

    2013-12-01

    Seismologists have had poor success in earthquake prediction. However, wide ranging observations from earlier great earthquakes show that precursory data can exist. In particular, two aspects seem promising. In agreement with simple physical modeling, b-values decrease in highly loaded fault zones for years before failure. Potentially more usefully, in high stress regions, breakdown of dilatant patches leading to failure can yield expelled water-related observations. The volume increase (dilatancy) caused by high shear stresses decreases the pore pressure. Eventually, water flows back in restoring the pore pressure, promoting failure and expelling the extra water. Of course, in a generally stressed region there may be many small patches that fail, such as observed before the 1975 Haicheng earthquake. Only a few days before the major event will most of the dilatancy breakdown occur in the fault zone itself such as for the Tangshan, 1976 destructive event. Observations of 'water release' effects have been observed before the 1923 great Kanto earthquake, the 1984 Yamasaki event, the 1975 Haicheng and the 1976 Tangshan earthquakes and also the 1995 Kobe earthquake. While there are obvious difficulties in water release observations, not least because there is currently no observational network anywhere, historical data does suggest some promise if we broaden our approach to this difficult subject.

  20. Modelling of Arabidopsis LAX3 expression suggests auxin homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, Nathan; Péret, Benjamin; Porco, Silvana; Sairanen, Ilkka; Ljung, Karin; Bennett, Malcolm; King, John

    2015-02-07

    Emergence of new lateral roots from within the primary root in Arabidopsis has been shown to be regulated by the phytohormone auxin, via the expression of the auxin influx carrier LAX3, mediated by the ARF7/19 IAA14 signalling module (Swarup et al., 2008). A single cell model of the LAX3 and IAA14 auxin response was formulated and used to demonstrate that hysteresis and bistability may explain the experimentally observed 'all-or-nothing' LAX3 spatial expression pattern in cortical cells containing a gradient of auxin concentrations. The model was tested further by using a parameter fitting algorithm to match model output with qRT-PCR mRNA expression data following exogenous auxin treatment. It was found that the model is able to show good agreement with the data, but only when the exogenous auxin signal is degraded over time, at a rate higher than that measured in the experimental medium, suggesting the triggering of an endogenous auxin homeostasis mechanism. Testing the model over a more physiologically relevant range of extracellular auxin shows bistability and hysteresis still occur when using the optimised parameters, providing the rate of LAX3 active auxin transport is sufficiently high relative to passive diffusion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Basal Ganglia Calcification with Tetanic Seizure Suggest Mitochondrial Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finsterer, Josef; Enzelsberger, Barbara; Bastowansky, Adam

    2017-04-09

    BACKGROUND Basal ganglia calcification (BGC) is a rare sporadic or hereditary central nervous system (CNS) abnormality, characterized by symmetric or asymmetric calcification of the basal ganglia. CASE REPORT We report the case of a 65-year-old Gypsy female who was admitted for a tetanic seizure, and who had a history of polyneuropathy, restless-leg syndrome, retinopathy, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, osteoporosis with consecutive hyperkyphosis, cervicalgia, lumbalgia, struma nodosa requiring thyroidectomy and consecutive hypothyroidism, adipositas, resection of a vocal chord polyp, arterial hypertension, coronary heart disease, atheromatosis of the aorta, peripheral artery disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, steatosis hepatis, mild renal insufficiency, long-term hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, impingement syndrome, spondylarthrosis of the lumbar spine, and hysterectomy. History and clinical presentation suggested a mitochondrial defect which also manifested as hypoparathyroidism or Fanconi syndrome resulting in BGC. After substitution of calcium, no further tetanic seizures occurred. CONCLUSIONS Patients with BGC should be investigated for a mitochondrial disorder. A mitochondrial disorder may also manifest as tetanic seizure.

  2. The advances in radiation processing technology and some suggestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jilan; Wei Genshuan; Ha Hongfei

    1992-01-01

    Radiation processing technology has been made great advances in the last decade especially in the developed countries. According to the conservative evaluation, the total sales of radiation processing products approached about 2-3 billion U.S. dollar in 1981, there after, the processing capacity at least doubles. Now, the intensities of 60 Co in use for radiation processing are (5.55-7.40) x 10 18 Bq and there are about 600 sets of electron accelerators for radiation processing. The total sales of radiation processing products are supposed to be over 10 billion U.S. dollar in 1989. However, there are only several fields commercialized. In great scale, such as radiation crosslinked heat shrinkable materials, radiation crosslinked electric cables and wires, and radiation sterilization of medical articles. In China, the radiation processing technology has been developed rapidly in the past years, but the processing capacity is still lower in comparing with developed countries. We suggest that much attention should be devoted to the training of the workers, technicians and managers. The basic theoretical and new technological researches are the keys for developing radiation processing technology at high speed in our country

  3. Discrepancy detection in the retrieval-enhanced suggestibility paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Brendon Jerome; Loftus, Elizabeth F

    2018-04-01

    Retrieval-enhanced suggestibility (RES) refers to the finding that immediately recalling the details of a witnessed event can increase susceptibility to later misinformation. In three experiments, we sought to gain a deeper understanding of the role that retrieval plays in the RES paradigm. Consistent with past research, initial testing did increase susceptibility to misinformation - but only for those who failed to detect discrepancies between the original event and the post-event misinformation. In all three experiments, subjects who retrospectively detected discrepancies in the post-event narratives were more resistant to misinformation than those who did not. In Experiments 2 and 3, having subjects concurrently assess the consistency of the misinformation narratives negated the RES effect. Interestingly, in Experiments 2 and 3, subjects who had retrieval practice and detected discrepancies were more likely to endorse misinformation than control subjects who detected discrepancies. These results call attention to limiting conditions of the RES effect and highlight the complex relationship between retrieval practice, discrepancy detection, and misinformation endorsement.

  4. Child witnesses: a study of memory and suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grattagliano, I; Berlingerio, I; Lisi, A; Carabellese, F; Catanesi, R

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the influence of various factors on the ability of primary school children (aged 6-9 years) to refer an event that occurred during their life. The factors analyzed were: the time since the event occurred; the role the child had in the event; the type of questions asked to elicit the account. The results of this research indicate that 52.4% of 6-year old children are able to describe the main elements of the event if they are allowed to give a free account. Asking direct questions does not improve the quality of the narrative. By contrast, in 9-year-old children the quantity of data collected is improved if direct questions are asked. A role as a participant in the event improves the quality of the child's evidence but only in the group of children aged 9, whereas in younger children the difference is not significant. At the age of 9, the child's resistance to leading questions is already quite good (40.7%), whereas children of 6 are much more suggestible. The Authors conclude this work by making some reflections on the possible use of these findings in Law Courts, and on the need for a highly specific training of experts involved in the task of collecting evidence from young children.

  5. Maritime health: a review with suggestions for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLachlan, Malcolm; Kavanagh, Bill; Kay, Alison

    2012-01-01

    International maritime health has largely developed within the sphere of occupational health services and international health problems. We reviewed publications in the journal International Maritime Health from 2000 to 2010 to establish the coverage of the journal and the scope of research in maritime health. We identified six thematic categories: healthcare access, delivery and integration; telehealth; non-communicable diseases and physical health problems; communicable diseases; psychological functioning and health; and safety-related issues. We describe the research within these themes and report on their publication prominence. We also analyse the research in terms of its geographical focus, the population groups addressed and the research methodologies used. We suggest a broadening of maritime research to include randomised controlled trials, longitudinal studies and more qualitative research; more research addressing the context for non-European seafarers; and research on seafarers spouses and family supports and obligations. We also recommend more research on psychosocial and cultural issues and on telehealth, as well as the development of a stronger systems perspective for promoting maritime health.

  6. Unsaturated and Saturated Permeabilities of Fiber Reinforcement: Critics and Suggestions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Hae ePARK

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In general, permeability measurement results show a strong scattering according to the measurement method, the type of test fluid and the fluid injection condition, even though permeability is regarded as a unique property of porous medium. In particular, the discrepancy between the unsaturated and saturated permeabilities for the same fabric has been widely reported. In the literature, relative permeability has been adopted to model the unsaturated flow. This approach has some limits in the modeling of double-scale porosity medium. We address this issue of permeability measurement by rigorously examining the mass conservation condition. Finally, we identify that the pressure gradient is non-linear with positive curvature in the unsaturated flow and a misinterpretation of pressure gradient is the main reason for the difference between the saturated and unsaturated permeabilities of the same fiber reinforcement. We propose to use a fixed value of permeability and to modify the mass conservation equation if there are air voids which are entrapped inside the fiber tow. Finally, we also suggest some guidelines and future perspectives to obtain more consistent permeability measurement results.

  7. Elegy as a film genre. Adaptation — inspiration — suggestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Koschany

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The question that this is article is concerned to answer is how the position of the film elegy can be best formally established — with its artistic representations, as well as its functioning in the genology of the genre. An attempt to provide definitive answers that emerge from interdisciplinary, film and literary discourse brings a number of substantial threads. Firstly, there is, indeed, no theoretical description of the elegy as a film genre, though the very name does appear in many titles. Secondly, it seems that a juxtaposition of available examples of film ad-aptations of elegies does not lead to any consistent conclusion, since, apart from the suggestion proposed by the author, they are different in terms of formal and thematic elements involved. Thirdly, any attempt at a genological profiling has to, somehow, refer to a more or less fixed literary genre and the relevant theory behind it. In a most general way, one can state, albeit with a number of reservations, that the elegiac film is characterized by a distinguishable style, often simply called the elegiac style, and the theme, very broadly associated with time and the theme of passing.

  8. Current Situation in Vocational Schools: Issues and Some Suggested Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reha Metin ALKAN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vocational Schools which have undertaken various missions throughout history were established in order to train intermediate staff s with suff icient knowledge and skills in their fields, in accordance with the requirements of trade, industry and services sectors and they are the most important components of ‘vocational and technical education system' today. Analyzing the education given in the vocational schools in accordance with the national and international requirements, developing technologies and the needs of business world and making the necessary arrangements in line with these will contribute to the employability and preferability of graduates of these schools in an eff icient way. Many industrialists/businessmen in our country stated that they experienced serious problems in the supply of qualified staff with suff icient knowledge and skills needed in sectors. Although much progress has been achieved in this subject, it is a fact that there are still a lot of work to be done. In this study, current situation and main troubles in vocational schools are discussed in the light of the experiences gained at Hitit University Vocational School which was established about 40 years ago in Çorum and which is one of the first high schools in Turkey and some solutions are suggested in accordance with the problems mentioned.

  9. Two suggestions to ''improve the utilization of ISABELLE''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorndike, A.

    1976-01-01

    Two suggestions are outlined which are aimed at improving the efficiency of work in experimental areas by improving the information available to experimenters. A very good communication system would make work as efficient as possible during times when the beam is off. Here are some ideas: (1) it should be a dedicated system that is always on or can be turned on from either position, and it should be impossible for the two ends to be on different channels; (2) tv is desirable so each individual can watch what the other is doing to avoid confusion; (3) slave CRT units would be desirable so both can watch a given waveform or other test signal; and (4) it should also be possible to monitor key voltages from either location. It seems reasonable that beam information would be stored in one or more files on a disc in the on-line computer system. Each experimenter's computer could then get whatever information was desired. Handling the information by computer is straightforward, and more or less standard systems for data-base management should be applicable. Having satisfactory sensors to monitor the information that is needed seems like more of a problem, but they are required in any case

  10. RADIO VARIABILITY IN SEYFERT NUCLEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mundell, C. G.; Ferruit, P.; Nagar, N.; Wilson, A. S.

    2009-01-01

    Comparison of 8.4 GHz radio images of a sample of eleven, early-type Seyfert galaxies with previous observations reveals possible variation in the nuclear radio flux density in five of them over a seven year period. Four Seyferts (NGC 2110, NGC 3081, MCG -6-30-15, and NGC 5273) show a decline in their 8.4 GHz nuclear flux density between 1992 and 1999, while one (NGC 4117) shows an increase; the flux densities of the remaining six Seyferts (Mrk 607, NGC 1386, Mrk 620, NGC 3516, NGC 4968, and NGC 7465) have remained constant over this period. New images of MCG -5-23-16 are also presented. We find no correlation between radio variability and nuclear radio luminosity or Seyfert nuclear type, although the sample is small and dominated by type 2 Seyferts. Instead, a possible correlation between the presence of nuclear radio variability and the absence of hundred parsec-scale radio emission is seen, with four out of five marginally resolved or unresolved nuclei showing a change in nuclear flux density, while five out of six extended sources show no nuclear variability despite having unresolved nuclear sources. NGC 2110 is the only source in our sample with significant extended radio structure and strong nuclear variability (∼38% decline in nuclear flux density over seven years). The observed nuclear flux variability indicates significant changes are likely to have occurred in the structure of the nucleus on scales smaller than the VLA beam size (i.e., within the central ∼0.''1 (15 pc)), between the two epochs, possibly due to the appearance and fading of new components or shocks in the jet, consistent with previous detection of subparsec-scale nuclear structure in this Seyfert. Our results suggest that all Seyferts may exhibit variation in their nuclear radio flux density at 8.4 GHz, but that variability is more easily recognized in compact sources in which emission from the variable nucleus is not diluted by unresolved, constant flux density radio jet emission

  11. An attempt to assess the energy related climate variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iotova, A [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria). National Inst. of Meteorology and Hydrology

    1996-12-31

    A lot of efforts are directed now to study the interactions between energy and climate because of their significant importance for our planet. Globally, energy related emissions of Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) contribute for atmospheric warming. On regional level, where it is more difficult to determine concrete direction of climate variability and change, the role of energy remains considerable being not so direct as in the case of emissions` impact. Still there is essential necessity for further analyses and assessments of energy related climate variations and change in order to understand better and to quantify the energy - climate relations. In the presentation an attempt is made to develop approach for assessment of energy related climate variations on regional level. For this purpose, data and results from the research within Bulgarian Case Study (BCS) in the DECADES Inter-Agency Project framework are used. Considering the complex nature of the examined interconnections and the medium stage of the Study`s realisation, at the moment the approach can be presented in conceptual form. Correspondingly, the obtained results are illustrative and preliminary

  12. An attempt to assess the energy related climate variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iotova, A. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria). National Inst. of Meteorology and Hydrology

    1995-12-31

    A lot of efforts are directed now to study the interactions between energy and climate because of their significant importance for our planet. Globally, energy related emissions of Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) contribute for atmospheric warming. On regional level, where it is more difficult to determine concrete direction of climate variability and change, the role of energy remains considerable being not so direct as in the case of emissions` impact. Still there is essential necessity for further analyses and assessments of energy related climate variations and change in order to understand better and to quantify the energy - climate relations. In the presentation an attempt is made to develop approach for assessment of energy related climate variations on regional level. For this purpose, data and results from the research within Bulgarian Case Study (BCS) in the DECADES Inter-Agency Project framework are used. Considering the complex nature of the examined interconnections and the medium stage of the Study`s realisation, at the moment the approach can be presented in conceptual form. Correspondingly, the obtained results are illustrative and preliminary

  13. Suggestibility and compliance among alleged false confessors and resisters in criminal trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudjonsson, G H

    1991-04-01

    This paper describes a study which compares the interrogative suggestibility and compliance scores of 20 alleged false confessors and 20 subjects who had persistently denied their involvement in the crime they were charged with in spite of forensic evidence against them (labelled 'resisters'). The two groups were 'matched' for age, sex, intelligence, memory recall capacity, and the seriousness of the offence. It was hypothesized that the resisters would score significantly lower on tests of suggestibility and compliance than the alleged false confessors. The findings were confirmed at a high level of significance. A separate analysis of 14 resisters and 72 alleged false confessors, where IQ and memory were used as covariates rather than 'matching' the two groups on the relevant variables, gave almost identical results. The clinical implications of the findings are discussed.

  14. Do clinical features and MRI suggest the same nerve root in acute cervical radiculopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Conradie

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Different proposed pathophysiological mechanisms can result in variable clinical presentations of cervical radiculopathy (CR, often making it difficult to detect minor nerve root (NR conditions. This descriptive study determined (1 the level(s of  NR involvement suggested by the distribution patterns of clinical features and detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and (2 the most common associations between the different variables in patients diagnosed with acute CR by a neurosurgeon. A physiotherapist blinded to the level(s of NR involvement performed a standardized interview on 21 subjects to determine the distribution patterns of pain and paraesthesia, and a neurological examination. The Fisher exact test was used to determine associations between the different variables. Only seven subjects presented clinically and radiologically with the same single-level NR involvement. Multiple- level presentations occurred which might be due to dermatomal overlapping, central sensitization or the possible involvement of two adjacent NR levels. Distribution patterns of motor weakness, pain and paraesthesia, and to a lesser extent sensory and reflex changes, have value in identifying the compressed NR level. For this sample the distri-bution patterns of radicular features identified C6 and C8 with more certainty than C7.

  15. PAK4 crystal structures suggest unusual kinase conformational movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Eric Y; Ha, Byung Hak; Boggon, Titus J

    2018-02-01

    In order for protein kinases to exchange nucleotide they must open and close their catalytic cleft. These motions are associated with rotations of the N-lobe, predominantly around the 'hinge region'. We conducted an analysis of 28 crystal structures of the serine-threonine kinase, p21-activated kinase 4 (PAK4), including three newly determined structures in complex with staurosporine, FRAX486, and fasudil (HA-1077). We find an unusual motion between the N-lobe and C-lobe of PAK4 that manifests as a partial unwinding of helix αC. Principal component analysis of the crystal structures rationalizes these movements into three major states, and analysis of the kinase hydrophobic spines indicates concerted movements that create an accessible back pocket cavity. The conformational changes that we observe for PAK4 differ from previous descriptions of kinase motions, and although we observe these differences in crystal structures there is the possibility that the movements observed may suggest a diversity of kinase conformational changes associated with regulation. Protein kinases are key signaling proteins, and are important drug targets, therefore understanding their regulation is important for both basic research and clinical points of view. In this study, we observe unusual conformational 'hinging' for protein kinases. Hinging, the opening and closing of the kinase sub-domains to allow nucleotide binding and release, is critical for proper kinase regulation and for targeted drug discovery. We determine new crystal structures of PAK4, an important Rho-effector kinase, and conduct analyses of these and previously determined structures. We find that PAK4 crystal structures can be classified into specific conformational groups, and that these groups are associated with previously unobserved hinging motions and an unusual conformation for the kinase hydrophobic core. Our findings therefore indicate that there may be a diversity of kinase hinging motions, and that these may

  16. Pre-hospital Obstacles in Thrombolytic Therapy and Suggested Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betül Tekin Güveli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Acute ischemic stroke is frequently encountered in emergency neurology clinics. Especially when administered within 3 hours of symptom onset, thrombolytic therapy is important in reducing ischemic injury and neurological disability. In this study, we aimed to investigate the demographic and clinical characteristics according to application time, to identify situations which pose an obstacle to thrombolytic therapy and to review the thrombolytic therapy results in patients diagnosed with acute ischemic stroke. METHODS: The patients diagnosed with acute ischemic stroke were evaluated and their age, gender, complaints, risk factors, previous history of stroke, with whom they live, how they arrived at the hospital and their application time information were recorded. Those who were admitted within 3 hours of symptom onset were assessed as early, those admitted after 3 hours were assessed as late admission. Then the rate of thrombolytic therapy, final results and the clinical status in early admission patients and the reasons for delay in late admission patients were discussed. RESULTS: Among 361 acute ischemic stroke patients, the mean age was 66±14,1. 111 patients were admitted within 3 hours of symptom onset, 246 patients were admitted after three hours. Patients arriving to emergency room with 112 Ambulance Service were admitted earlier than those brought in by family, and this difference was statistically significant. The most common causes of time loss in late admissions were the patients being referred from other centers and the unawareness of family about the importance of the disease. There were 13 patients treated with thrombolytic therapy, and complications occurred in one patient. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Thrombolytic therapy is important in acute ischemic stroke for suitable patients.Our study suggested that the most important factors in spreading of performing the thrombolytic therapy are informing the public about

  17. Niche convergence suggests functionality of the nocturnal fovea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian L. Moritz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The fovea is a declivity of the retinal surface associated with maximum visual acuity. Foveae are widespread across vertebrates, but among mammals they are restricted to haplorhine primates (tarsiers, monkeys, apes, and humans, which are primarily diurnal. Thus primates have long contributed to the prevailing view that the fovea is a functional adaptation to diurnal color vision. The foveae of nocturnal taxa, such as tarsiers, are widely interpreted as vestigial traits and therefore evidence of a diurnal ancestry. This enduring premise has been central to adaptive hypotheses on the origins of anthropoid primates; however, the question of whether the fovea of tarsiers is a functionless anachronism or a nocturnal adaptation remains open. To address this question, we focused on the diets of tarsiers (Tarsius and scops owls (Otus, two taxa united by numerous anatomical homoplasies, including foveate vision. A functional interpretation of these homoplasies predicts dietary convergence and competition. This prediction can be tested with an analysis of carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes in tissues, which integrate dietary information. As predicted, the isotopic niches of Tarsius and Otus overlapped. In both Borneo and the Philippines, the δ13C values were indistinguishable, whereas the δ15N values of Otus were marginally higher than those of Tarsius. Our results indicate that both diets consisted mainly of ground-dwelling prey and raise the possibility of some resource partitioning. Taken together, our isotopic analysis supports a functional interpretation of the many homoplasies shared by tarsiers and scops owls, including a retinal fovea. We suggest that the fovea might function similarly in tarsiers and scops owls by calibrating the auditory localization pathway. The integration of auditory localization and visual fixation during prey detection and acquisition might be critical at low light levels.

  18. Policy Implications and Suggestions on Administrative Measures of Urban Flood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. V.; Lee, M. J.; Lee, C.; Yoon, J. H.; Chae, S. H.

    2017-12-01

    The frequency and intensity of floods are increasing worldwide as recent climate change progresses gradually. Flood management should be policy-oriented in urban municipalities due to the characteristics of urban areas with a lot of damage. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to prepare a flood susceptibility map by using data mining model and make a policy suggestion on administrative measures of urban flood. Therefore, we constructed a spatial database by collecting relevant factors including the topography, geology, soil and land use data of the representative city, Seoul, the capital city of Korea. Flood susceptibility map was constructed by applying the data mining models of random forest and boosted tree model to input data and existing flooded area data in 2010. The susceptibility map has been validated using the 2011 flood area data which was not used for training. The predictor importance value of each factor to the results was calculated in this process. The distance from the water, DEM and geology showed a high predictor importance value which means to be a high priority for flood preparation policy. As a result of receiver operating characteristic (ROC), random forest model showed 78.78% and 79.18% accuracy of regression and classification and boosted tree model showed 77.55% and 77.26% accuracy of regression and classification, respectively. The results show that the flood susceptibility maps can be applied to flood prevention and management, and it also can help determine the priority areas for flood mitigation policy by providing useful information to policy makers.

  19. Morphologic Features Suggestive of Endometriosis in Nondiagnostic Peritoneal Biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Beth T; Mittal, Khush

    2015-11-01

    Endometriosis is a common disorder that causes significant morbidity from dysmenorrhea, pelvic pain, and subfertility. Establishment of a definitive diagnosis has important therapeutic implications; however, only approximately 50% of biopsies of laparoscopically suspicious areas provide a diagnosis of endometriosis. Histologic criteria for diagnosis require the presence of endometrial glands or endometrial-type stroma. We hypothesize that other frequently present, but nondiagnostic, histologic features of endometriosis suggest its presence in patients with nondiagnostic peritoneal biopsies. We performed a retrospective clinicopathologic study of morphologic and immunohistochemical features that may improve the histologic diagnosis of endometriosis on laparoscopic peritoneal biopsies. We compared diagnostic (n=88) and nondiagnostic (n=54) peritoneal biopsies from pathologically confirmed endometriosis cases with negative peritoneal biopsies (n=84) from early-stage gynecologic cancer cases. Statistical analysis utilized the Fisher exact test. Multiple morphologic features were significantly increased in nondiagnostic biopsies from patients with endometriosis in comparison with those from negative controls, including foamy macrophages (P=0.0001) and submesothelial stromal clusters (SSCs) (P=0.0008). SSCs ranged from subtle aggregates of spindle cells to nodules of whorled spindle cells with small vessels and extravasated red blood cells resembling stromal endometriosis. Immunohistochemical studies confirmed that ER and CD10-positive SSCs were present in a greater proportion of both nondiagnostic and diagnostic peritoneal biopsies and at a greater number of lesions per biopsy. The overall histologic detection rate of peritoneal biopsies for endometriosis was 62.0%, and inclusion of SSCs with or without foamy macrophages in the diagnostic criteria appreciably increased this rate to between 72.5% and 76.8%. We describe SSCs, which appear to be an early or less developed

  20. Precise synaptic efficacy alignment suggests potentiation dominated learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph eHartmann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests that parallel synapses from the same axonal branch onto the same dendritic branch have almost identical strength. It has been proposed that this alignment is only possible through learning rules that integrate activity over long time spans. However, learning mechanisms such as spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP are commonly assumed to be temporally local. Here, we propose that the combination of temporally local STDP and a multiplicative synaptic normalization mechanism is sufficient to explain the alignment of parallel synapses.To address this issue, we introduce three increasingly complex models: First, we model the idealized interaction of STDP and synaptic normalization in a single neuron as a simple stochastic process and derive analytically that the alignment effect can be described by a so-called Kesten process. From this we can derive that synaptic efficacy alignment requires potentiation-dominated learning regimes. We verify these conditions in a single-neuron model with independent spiking activities but more realistic synapses. As expected, we only observe synaptic efficacy alignment for long-term potentiation-biased STDP. Finally, we explore how well the findings transfer to recurrent neural networks where the learning mechanisms interact with the correlated activity of the network. We find that due to the self-reinforcing correlations in recurrent circuits under STDP, alignment occurs for both long-term potentiation- and depression-biased STDP, because the learning will be potentiation dominated in both cases due to the potentiating events induced by correlated activity. This is in line with recent results demonstrating a dominance of potentiation over depression during waking and normalization during sleep. This leads us to predict that individual spine pairs will be more similar in the morning than they are after sleep depriviation.In conclusion, we show that synaptic normalization in conjunction with

  1. Partners in Science: A Suggested Framework for Inclusive Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, R. E.

    2012-12-01

    Public participation in scientific research, also known as citizen science, is effective on many levels: it produces sound, publishable science and data, helps participants gain scientific knowledge and learn about the methods and practices of modern science, and can help communities advance their own priorities. Unfortunately, the demographics of citizen science programs do not reflect the demographics of the US; in general people of color and less affluent members of society are under-represented. To understand the reasons for this disparity, it is useful to look to the broader research about participation in science in a variety of informal and formal settings. From this research, the causes for unequal participation in science can be grouped into three broad categories: accessibility challenges, cultural differences, and a gap between scientific goals and community priorities. Many of these challenges are addressed in working with communities to develop an integrated program of scientific research, education, and community action that addresses community priorities and invites community participation at every stage of the process from defining the question to applying the results. In the spectrum of ways to engage the public in scientific research, this approach of "co-creation" is the most intensive. This talk will explore several examples of co-creation of science, including collaborations with tribal communities around climate change adaptation, work in the Louisiana Delta concerning land loss, and the link between weather and disease in Africa. We will articulate some of the challenges of working this intensively with communities, and suggest a general framework for guiding this kind of work with communities. This model of intensive collaboration at every stage is a promising one for adding to the diversity of citizen science efforts. It also provides a powerful strategy for science more generally, and may help us diversify our field, ensure the use and

  2. Suggestions on the development strategy of shale gas in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dazhong Dong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available From the aspects of shale gas resource condition, main exploration and development progress, important breakthrough in key technologies and equipment, this paper systematically summarized and analyzed current situation of shale gas development in China and pointed out five big challenges such as misunderstandings, lower implementation degree and higher economic uncertainty of shale gas resource, and still no breakthrough in exploration and development core technologies and equipment for shale gas buried depth more than 3500 m, higher cost and other non-technical factors that restrict the development pace. Aiming at the above challenges, we put forward five suggestions to promote the shale gas development in China: (1 Make strategies and set goals according to our national conditions and exploration and development stages. That is, make sure to realize shale gas annual production of 20 × 109 m3, and strives to reach 30 × 109 m3. (2 Attach importance to the research of accumulation and enrichment geological theory and exploration & development key engineering technologies for lower production and lower pressure marine shale gas reservoir, and at the same time orderly promote the construction of non-marine shale gas exploration & development demonstration areas. (3 The government should introduce further policies and set special innovation funds to support the companies to carry out research and development of related technologies and equipment, especially to strengthen the research and development of technology, equipment and process for shale gas bellow 3500 m in order to achieve breakthrough in deep shale gas. (4 Continue to promote the geological theory, innovation in technology and management, and strengthen cost control on drilling, fracturing and the whole process in order to realize efficient, economic and scale development of China's shale gas. (5 Reform the mining rights management system, establish information platform of shale

  3. Variable Permanent Magnet Quadrupole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihara, T.; Iwashita, Y.; Kyoto U.; Kumada, M.; NIRS, Chiba; Spencer, C.M.; SLAC

    2007-01-01

    A permanent magnet quadrupole (PMQ) is one of the candidates for the final focus lens in a linear collider. An over 120 T/m strong variable permanent magnet quadrupole is achieved by the introduction of saturated iron and a 'double ring structure'. A fabricated PMQ achieved 24 T integrated gradient with 20 mm bore diameter, 100 mm magnet diameter and 20 cm pole length. The strength of the PMQ is adjustable in 1.4 T steps, due to its 'double ring structure': the PMQ is split into two nested rings; the outer ring is sliced along the beam line into four parts and is rotated to change the strength. This paper describes the variable PMQ from fabrication to recent adjustments

  4. Technological Capability's Predictor Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Maciel Reichert

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the factors that influence in configuration of the technological capability of companies in sectors with medium-low technological intensity. To achieve the goal proposed in this article a survey was carried out. Based on the framework developed by Lall (1992 which classifies firms in basic, intermediate and advanced level of technological capability; it was found that the predominant technological capability is intermediate, with 83.7% of respondent companies (plastics companies in Brazil. It is believed that the main contribution of this study is the finding that the dependent variable named “Technological Capability” can be explained at a rate of 65% by six variables: development of new processes; selection of the best equipment supplier; sales of internally developed new technology to third parties; design and manufacture of equipment; study of the work methods and perform inventory control; and improvement of product quality.

  5. Attributing the effects of climate on phenology change suggests high sensitivity in coastal zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyednasrollah, B.; Clark, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    The impact of climate change on spring phenology depends on many variables that cannot be separated using current models. Phenology can influence carbon sequestration, plant nutrition, forest health, and species distributions. Leaf phenology is sensitive to changes of environmental factors, including climate, species composition, latitude, and solar radiation. The many variables and their interactions frustrate efforts to attribute variation to climate change. We developed a Bayesian framework to quantify the influence of environment on the speed of forest green-up. This study presents a state-space hierarchical model to infer and predict change in forest greenness over time using satellite observations and ground measurements. The framework accommodates both observation and process errors and it allows for main effects of variables and their interactions. We used daily spaceborne remotely sensed data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to quantify temporal variability in the enhanced vegetation index (EVI) along a habitat gradient in the Southeastern United States. The ground measurements of meteorological parameters are obtained from study sites located in the Appalachian Mountains, the Piedmont and the Atlantic Coastal Plain between years 2000 and 2015. Results suggest that warming accelerates spring green-up in the Coastal Plain to a greater degree than in the Piedmont and Appalachian. In other words, regardless of variation in the timing of spring onset, the rate of greenness in non-coastal zones decreases with increasing temperature and hence with time over the spring transitional period. However, in coastal zones, as air temperature increases, leaf expansion becomes faster. This may indicate relative vulnerability to warming in non-coastal regions where moisture could be a limiting factor, whereas high temperatures in regions close to the coast enhance forest physiological activities. Model predictions agree with the remotely

  6. Squeezing more information out of time variable gravity data with a temporal decomposition approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barletta, Valentina Roberta; Bordoni, A.; Aoudia, A.

    2012-01-01

    an explorative approach based on a suitable time series decomposition, which does not rely on predefined time signatures. The comparison and validation against the fitting approach commonly used in GRACE literature shows a very good agreement for what concerns trends and periodic signals on one side......A measure of the Earth's gravity contains contributions from solid Earth as well as climate-related phenomena, that cannot be easily distinguished both in time and space. After more than 7years, the GRACE gravity data available now support more elaborate analysis on the time series. We propose...... used to assess the possibility of finding evidence of meaningful geophysical signals different from hydrology over Africa in GRACE data. In this case we conclude that hydrological phenomena are dominant and so time variable gravity data in Africa can be directly used to calibrate hydrological models....

  7. Variable Kernel Density Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Terrell, George R.; Scott, David W.

    1992-01-01

    We investigate some of the possibilities for improvement of univariate and multivariate kernel density estimates by varying the window over the domain of estimation, pointwise and globally. Two general approaches are to vary the window width by the point of estimation and by point of the sample observation. The first possibility is shown to be of little efficacy in one variable. In particular, nearest-neighbor estimators in all versions perform poorly in one and two dimensions, but begin to b...

  8. TEC variability over Havana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazo, B.; Alazo, K.; Rodriguez, M.; Calzadilla, A.

    2003-01-01

    The variability of total electron content (TEC) measured over Havana using ATS-6, SMS-1 and GOES-3 geosynchronous satellite signals has been investigated for low, middle and high solar activity periods from 1974 to 1982. The obtained results show that standard deviation is smooth during nighttime hours and maximum at noon or postnoon hours. Strong solar activity dependence of standard deviation with a maximum values during HSA has been found. (author)

  9. Short timescale variability in the faint sky variability survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morales-Rueda, L.; Groot, P.J.; Augusteijn, T.; Nelemans, G.A.; Vreeswijk, P.M.; Besselaar, E.J.M. van den

    2006-01-01

    We present the V-band variability analysis of the Faint Sky Variability Survey (FSVS). The FSVS combines colour and time variability information, from timescales of 24 minutes to tens of days, down to V = 24. We find that �1% of all point sources are variable along the main sequence reaching �3.5%

  10. Articulatory variability in cluttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartinger, Mariam; Mooshammer, Christine

    2008-01-01

    In order to investigate the articulatory processes of the hasty and mumbled speech in cluttering, the kinematic variability was analysed by means of electromagnetic midsagittal articulography. In contrast to persons with stuttering, those with cluttering improve their intelligibility by concentrating on their speech task. Variability has always been an important criterion in comparable studies of stuttering and is discussed in terms of the stability of the speech motor system. The aim of the current study was to analyse the spatial and temporal variability in the speech of three persons with cluttering (PWC) and three control speakers. All participants were native speakers of German. The speech material consisted of repetitive CV syllables and loan words such as 'emotionalisieren', because PWC have the severest problems with long words with a complex syllable structure. The results showed a significantly higher coefficient of variation for PWC in loan word production, both in the temporal and in the spatial domain, whereas the means of displacements and durations did not differ between groups. These findings were discussed in terms of the effects of the linguistic complexity, since for the syllable repetition task, no significant differences between PWC and controls were found. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Compensation in Swedish infrastructure projects and suggestions on policy improvements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper Persson

    2015-07-01

    were never explicitly mentioned in permits, but in practice a ratio of 1:1 (often measured as area or length was usually applied. The compensation measures typically consisted in recreating the same kind of natural asset that was affected, in a location close to the damaged area. In the two cases specially studied, the road and railway planning processes were not properly adjusted to integrate compensation issues, resulting in unnecessary bureaucracy and insufficient co-ordination between different projects, such as between the environmental-impact assessment process and the compensation process or between closely related sub-projects in the same region. To meet the EU’s goal of no net loss of biodiversity, we suggest that policy requirements should be made stricter and that incentives for voluntary compensation should be created. In line with the goals of Swedish national transport policy and the European Landscape Convention, account should be taken of social and cultural aspects, and there should be a shift from a narrow focus on individual projects to a broader planning approach, since this would allow compensation measures to be taken where they can deliver the greatest environmental benefits.

  12. Examining Impulse-Variability in Kicking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Andrew; Molina, Sergio L; McKibben, Jonathon; Stodden, David F

    2016-07-01

    This study examined variability in kicking speed and spatial accuracy to test the impulse-variability theory prediction of an inverted-U function and the speed-accuracy trade-off. Twenty-eight 18- to 25-year-old adults kicked a playground ball at various percentages (50-100%) of their maximum speed at a wall target. Speed variability and spatial error were analyzed using repeated-measures ANOVA with built-in polynomial contrasts. Results indicated a significant inverse linear trajectory for speed variability (p < .001, η2= .345) where 50% and 60% maximum speed had significantly higher variability than the 100% condition. A significant quadratic fit was found for spatial error scores of mean radial error (p < .0001, η2 = .474) and subject-centroid radial error (p < .0001, η2 = .453). Findings suggest variability and accuracy of multijoint, ballistic skill performance may not follow the general principles of impulse-variability theory or the speed-accuracy trade-off.

  13. Heart rate variability in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Maria; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Munkholm, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Background Heart rate variability (HRV) has been suggested reduced in bipolar disorder (BD) compared with healthy individuals (HC). This meta-analysis investigated: HRV differences in BD compared with HC, major depressive disorder or schizophrenia; HRV differences between affective states; HRV...

  14. About hidden influence of predictor variables: Suppressor and mediator variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milovanović Boško

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper procedure for researching hidden influence of predictor variables in regression models and depicting suppressor variables and mediator variables is shown. It is also shown that detection of suppressor variables and mediator variables could provide refined information about the research problem. As an example for applying this procedure, relation between Atlantic atmospheric centers and air temperature and precipitation amount in Serbia is chosen. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 47007

  15. Winds in cataclysmic variable stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordova, F.A.; Ladd, E.F.; Mason, K.O.

    1984-01-01

    Ultraviolet spectrophotometry of two dwarf novae, CN Ori and RX And, at various phases of their outburst cycles confirms that the far uv flux increases dramatically about 1-2 days after the optical outburst begins. At this time the uv spectral line profiles indicate the presence of a high velocity wind. The detectability of the wind depends more on the steepness of the spectrum, and thus on the flux in the extreme ultraviolet, than on the absolute value of the far uv luminosity. The uv continuum during outburst consists of (at least) two components, the most luminous of which is located behind the wind and is completely absorbed by the wind at the line frequencies. Several pieces of evidence suggest that the uv emission lines that are observed in many cataclysmic variables during quiescence have a different location in the binary than the wind, and are affected very little by the outburst

  16. Ergonomics: The Forgotten Variable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitterman, L. Jeffrey

    1998-01-01

    Defines ergonomics and discusses design and environmental considerations. Suggests work-space requirements for: tables, chairs, monitor height, ambient noise and light, electricity, and environmental hazards. Includes sources for additional information related to ergonomic design. (AEF)

  17. Clinical Implications of Glucose Variability: Chronic Complications of Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Seung Jung

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Glucose variability has been identified as a potential risk factor for diabetic complications; oxidative stress is widely regarded as the mechanism by which glycemic variability induces diabetic complications. However, there remains no generally accepted gold standard for assessing glucose variability. Representative indices for measuring intraday variability include calculation of the standard deviation along with the mean amplitude of glycemic excursions (MAGE. MAGE is used to measure major intraday excursions and is easily measured using continuous glucose monitoring systems. Despite a lack of randomized controlled trials, recent clinical data suggest that long-term glycemic variability, as determined by variability in hemoglobin A1c, may contribute to the development of microvascular complications. Intraday glycemic variability is also suggested to accelerate coronary artery disease in high-risk patients.

  18. Understanding Solar Cycle Variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, R. H.; Schüssler, M., E-mail: cameron@mps.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany)

    2017-07-10

    The level of solar magnetic activity, as exemplified by the number of sunspots and by energetic events in the corona, varies on a wide range of timescales. Most prominent is the 11-year solar cycle, which is significantly modulated on longer timescales. Drawing from dynamo theory, together with the empirical results of past solar activity and similar phenomena for solar-like stars, we show that the variability of the solar cycle can be essentially understood in terms of a weakly nonlinear limit cycle affected by random noise. In contrast to ad hoc “toy models” for the solar cycle, this leads to a generic normal-form model, whose parameters are all constrained by observations. The model reproduces the characteristics of the variable solar activity on timescales between decades and millennia, including the occurrence and statistics of extended periods of very low activity (grand minima). Comparison with results obtained with a Babcock–Leighton-type dynamo model confirm the validity of the normal-mode approach.

  19. An assessment of variability in radiocarbon dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, E.M.; Baxter, M.S.; Aitchison, T.C.

    1981-01-01

    A series of replicate experiments, involving analysis of homogenized wood and identical tree-ring sections, suggests that the 14 C counting error in radiocarbon dating quantifies only part of the total variability of measurement. Statistical modelling implies that a more realistic assessment of error is provided by a value approximately three times the counting error. The incorporation of this more realistic measure of variability into an appropriate procedure for calibrating a single date and for matching a floating chronology to a master chronology is described. (author)

  20. Climate variability and change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manton, M.

    2006-01-01

    When Australia's climate should not be definite barrier to the population reaching 30 million by 2050, it is recognised that our climate has limited the development of the nation over the past 200 years. Indeed in 1911, based on a comparison of the climate and development between the US and Australia. Griffith Taylor predicted that Australia's population would be 19 million at the end of the 20th century, which is a pretty good 90-year forecast. The climate constraint is not only due to much of the country being semi-arid with an annual rainfall below 400 millimetres, but also due to the large year-to-year variability of rainfall across the country

  1. Variable cycle engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, A.P.; Sprunger, E.V.

    1980-09-16

    A variable cycle turboshaft engine includes a remote fan system and respective high and low pressure systems for selectively driving the fan system in such a manner as to provide VTOL takeoff capability and minimum specific fuel consumption (SFC) at cruise and loiter conditions. For takeoff the fan system is primarily driven by the relatively large low pressure system whose combustor receives the motive fluid from a core bypass duct and, for cruise and loiter conditions, the fan system is driven by both a relatively small high pressure core and the low pressure system with its combustor inoperative. A mixer is disposed downstream of the high pressure system for mixing the relatively cold air from the bypass duct and the relatively hot air from the core prior to its flow to the low pressure turbine.

  2. Suggestibility, expectancy, trance state effects, and hypnotic depth: I. Implications for understanding hypnotism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekala, Ronald J; Kumar, V K; Maurer, Ronald; Elliott-Carter, Nancy; Moon, Edward; Mullen, Karen

    2010-04-01

    This paper reviews the relationships between trance or altered state effects, suggestibility, and expectancy as these concepts are defined in the theorizing of Weitzenhoffer (2002), Holroyd (2003), Kirsch (1991), and others, for the purpose of demonstrating how these concepts can be assessed with the PCI-HAP (Phenomenology of Consciousness Inventory: Hypnotic Assessment Procedure; Pekala, 1995a, b). In addition, how the aforementioned variables may relate to the nature of hypnosis/hypnotism as a function of self-reported hypnotic depth are discussed, along with how the PCI-HAP may be used as a means to measure hypnotic responsivity from a more phenomenological state perspective, in contrast to more traditional behavioral trait assessment instruments like the Harvard, the Stanford C, or the HIP. A follow-up paper (Pekala, Kumar, Maurer, Elliott-Carter, Moon, & Mullen, 2010) will present research data on the PCI-HAP model and how this model can be useful for better understanding hypnotism.

  3. Statistical variability of hydro-meteorological variables as indicators ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Statistical variability of hydro-meteorological variables as indicators of climate change in north-east Sokoto-Rima basin, Nigeria. ... water resources development including water supply project, agriculture and tourism in the study area. Key word: Climate change, Climatic variability, Actual evapotranspiration, Global warming ...

  4. An application of the variable-r method to subpopulation growth rates in a 19th century agricultural population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corey Sparks

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the differential growth rates of the farming and non-farming segments of a rural Scottish community during the 19th and early 20th centuries using the variable-r method allowing for net migration. Using this method, I find that the farming population of Orkney, Scotland, showed less variability in their reproduction and growth rates than the non-farming population during a period of net population decline. I conclude by suggesting that the variable-r method can be used in general cases where the relative growth of subpopulations or subpopulation reproduction is of interest.

  5. CHARACTERIZING THE OPTICAL VARIABILITY OF BRIGHT BLAZARS: VARIABILITY-BASED SELECTION OF FERMI ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruan, John J.; Anderson, Scott F.; MacLeod, Chelsea L.; Becker, Andrew C.; Davenport, James R. A.; Ivezić, Željko; Burnett, T. H.; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Plotkin, Richard M.; Sesar, Branimir; Stuart, J. Scott

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the use of optical photometric variability to select and identify blazars in large-scale time-domain surveys, in part to aid in the identification of blazar counterparts to the ∼30% of γ-ray sources in the Fermi 2FGL catalog still lacking reliable associations. Using data from the optical LINEAR asteroid survey, we characterize the optical variability of blazars by fitting a damped random walk model to individual light curves with two main model parameters, the characteristic timescales of variability τ, and driving amplitudes on short timescales σ-circumflex. Imposing cuts on minimum τ and σ-circumflex allows for blazar selection with high efficiency E and completeness C. To test the efficacy of this approach, we apply this method to optically variable LINEAR objects that fall within the several-arcminute error ellipses of γ-ray sources in the Fermi 2FGL catalog. Despite the extreme stellar contamination at the shallow depth of the LINEAR survey, we are able to recover previously associated optical counterparts to Fermi active galactic nuclei with E ≥ 88% and C = 88% in Fermi 95% confidence error ellipses having semimajor axis r < 8'. We find that the suggested radio counterpart to Fermi source 2FGL J1649.6+5238 has optical variability consistent with other γ-ray blazars and is likely to be the γ-ray source. Our results suggest that the variability of the non-thermal jet emission in blazars is stochastic in nature, with unique variability properties due to the effects of relativistic beaming. After correcting for beaming, we estimate that the characteristic timescale of blazar variability is ∼3 years in the rest frame of the jet, in contrast with the ∼320 day disk flux timescale observed in quasars. The variability-based selection method presented will be useful for blazar identification in time-domain optical surveys and is also a probe of jet physics.

  6. The Performance of Variable Annuities

    OpenAIRE

    Michael J. McNamara; Henry R. Oppenheimer

    1991-01-01

    Variable annuities have become increasingly important in retirement plans. This paper provides an examination of the investment performance of variable annuities for the period year-end 1973 to year-end 1988. Returns, risk, and selectivity measures are analyzed for the sample of annuities, for individual variable annuities, and for subsamples of annuities with similar portfolio size and turnover. While the investment returns of variable annuities were greater than inflation over the period, t...

  7. Clinical and acoustical variability in hypokinetic dysarthria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metter, E.J.; Hanson, W.R.

    1986-01-01

    Ten male patients with parkinsonism secondary to Parkinson's disease or progressive supranuclear palsy had clinical neurological, speech, and acoustical speech evaluations. In addition, seven of the patients were evaluated by x-ray computed tomography (CT) and (F-18)-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). Extensive variability of speech features, both clinical and acoustical, were found and seemed to be independent of the severity of any parkinsonian sign, CT, or FDG PET. In addition, little relationship existed between the variability across each measured speech feature. What appeared to be important for the appearance of abnormal acoustic measures was the degree of overall severity of the dysarthria. These observations suggest that a better understanding of hypokinetic dysarthria may result from more extensive examination of the variability between patients. Emphasizing a specific feature such as rapid speaking rate in characterizing hypokinetic dysarthria focuses on a single and inconstant finding in a complex speech pattern

  8. Strong Decomposition of Random Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann-Jørgensen, Jørgen; Kagan, Abram M.; Pitt, Loren D.

    2007-01-01

    A random variable X is stongly decomposable if X=Y+Z where Y=Φ(X) and Z=X-Φ(X) are independent non-degenerated random variables (called the components). It is shown that at least one of the components is singular, and we derive a necessary and sufficient condition for strong decomposability...... of a discrete random variable....

  9. Preservice Teachers' Understanding of Variable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sue; Bergman, Judy

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the research on middle school students' understanding of variables and explores preservice elementary and middle school teachers' knowledge of variables. According to research studies, middle school students have limited understanding of variables. Many studies have examined the performance of middle school students and offered…

  10. Variable angle correlation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.K.; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA

    1994-05-01

    In this dissertation, a novel nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique, variable angle correlation spectroscopy (VACSY) is described and demonstrated with 13 C nuclei in rapidly rotating samples. These experiments focus on one of the basic problems in solid state NMR: how to extract the wealth of information contained in the anisotropic component of the NMR signal while still maintaining spectral resolution. Analysis of the anisotropic spectral patterns from poly-crystalline systems reveal information concerning molecular structure and dynamics, yet in all but the simplest of systems, the overlap of spectral patterns from chemically distinct sites renders the spectral analysis difficult if not impossible. One solution to this problem is to perform multi-dimensional experiments where the high-resolution, isotropic spectrum in one dimension is correlated with the anisotropic spectral patterns in the other dimensions. The VACSY technique incorporates the angle between the spinner axis and the static magnetic field as an experimental parameter that may be incremented during the course of the experiment to help correlate the isotropic and anisotropic components of the spectrum. The two-dimensional version of the VACSY experiments is used to extract the chemical shift anisotropy tensor values from multi-site organic molecules, study molecular dynamics in the intermediate time regime, and to examine the ordering properties of partially oriented samples. The VACSY technique is then extended to three-dimensional experiments to study slow molecular reorientations in a multi-site polymer system

  11. Integration i flere variable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvorsen, Steen

    2010-01-01

    Denne note handler om parameterfremstillinger for kurver, flader og rumlige områder og om integration af funktioner på sådanne geometriske objekter. Formålet er primært at opstille og motivere de generelle definitioner og beregninger af henholdsvis kurve- \\, flade- \\, og rum-integraler. Udgangspu......Denne note handler om parameterfremstillinger for kurver, flader og rumlige områder og om integration af funktioner på sådanne geometriske objekter. Formålet er primært at opstille og motivere de generelle definitioner og beregninger af henholdsvis kurve- \\, flade- \\, og rum......-integralerne. Undervejs introduceres \\texttt{Integrator8}. Det er en pakke med Maple procedurer, som er udviklet specielt med henblik på eksempelbaseret visuel læring af de indledende integrationsbegreber og deres mangfoldige anvendelser. Vi giver eksempler på, hvordan integration i flere variable anvendes til beregning...... og forståelse af rumfang, vægt, massemidtpunkter, inertimomenter, kraftmomenter, etc. Flowkurverne for et givet vektorfelt i rummet kan findes og visualiseres med \\texttt{Integrator8}. De vigtige begreber divergens og rotation for et vektorfelt fremtræder derved som naturlige størrelser til...

  12. Affordances of Augmented Reality in Science Learning: Suggestions for Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kun-Hung; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2013-08-01

    Augmented reality (AR) is currently considered as having potential for pedagogical applications. However, in science education, research regarding AR-aided learning is in its infancy. To understand how AR could help science learning, this review paper firstly has identified two major approaches of utilizing AR technology in science education, which are named as image- based AR and location- based AR. These approaches may result in different affordances for science learning. It is then found that students' spatial ability, practical skills, and conceptual understanding are often afforded by image-based AR and location-based AR usually supports inquiry-based scientific activities. After examining what has been done in science learning with AR supports, several suggestions for future research are proposed. For example, more research is required to explore learning experience (e.g., motivation or cognitive load) and learner characteristics (e.g., spatial ability or perceived presence) involved in AR. Mixed methods of investigating learning process (e.g., a content analysis and a sequential analysis) and in-depth examination of user experience beyond usability (e.g., affective variables of esthetic pleasure or emotional fulfillment) should be considered. Combining image-based and location-based AR technology may bring new possibility for supporting science learning. Theories including mental models, spatial cognition, situated cognition, and social constructivist learning are suggested for the profitable uses of future AR research in science education.

  13. Human PTCHD3 nulls: rare copy number and sequence variants suggest a non-essential gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionel Anath C

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Copy number variations (CNVs can contribute to variable degrees of fitness and/or disease predisposition. Recent studies show that at least 1% of any given genome is copy number variable when compared to the human reference sequence assembly. Homozygous deletions (or CNV nulls that are found in the normal population are of particular interest because they may serve to define non-essential genes in human biology. Results In a genomic screen investigating CNV in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs we detected a heterozygous deletion on chromosome 10p12.1, spanning the Patched-domain containing 3 (PTCHD3 gene, at a frequency of ~1.4% (6/427. This finding seemed interesting, given recent discoveries on the role of another Patched-domain containing gene (PTCHD1 in ASD. Screening of another 177 ASD probands yielded two additional heterozygous deletions bringing the frequency to 1.3% (8/604. The deletion was found at a frequency of ~0.73% (27/3,695 in combined control population from North America and Northern Europe predominately of European ancestry. Screening of the human genome diversity panel (HGDP-CEPH covering worldwide populations yielded deletions in 7/1,043 unrelated individuals and those detected were confined to individuals of European/Mediterranean/Middle Eastern ancestry. Breakpoint mapping yielded an identical 102,624 bp deletion in all cases and controls tested, suggesting a common ancestral event. Interestingly, this CNV occurs at a break of synteny between humans and mouse. Considering all data, however, no significant association of these rare PTCHD3 deletions with ASD was observed. Notwithstanding, our RNA expression studies detected PTCHD3 in several tissues, and a novel shorter isoform for PTCHD3 was characterized. Expression in transfected COS-7 cells showed PTCHD3 isoforms colocalize with calnexin in the endoplasmic reticulum. The presence of a patched (Ptc domain suggested a role for PTCHD3 in various biological

  14. Climate variability and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rind, D.

    1990-01-01

    Changes of variability with climate change are likely to have a substantial impact on vegetation and society, rivaling the importance of changes in the mean values themselves. A variety of paleoclimate and future climate simulations performed with the GISS global climate model is used to assess how the variabilities of temperature and precipitation are altered as climate warms or cools. In general, as climate warms, temperature variability decreases due to reductions in the latitudinal temperature gradient and precipitation variability increases together with the intensity of the hydrologic cycle. If future climate projections are accurate, the reduction in temperature variability will be minimized by the rapid change in mean temperatures, but the hydrologic variability will be amplified by increased evapotranspiration. Greater hydrologic variability would appear to pose a potentially severe problem for the next century

  15. Climate variability and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rind, D.

    1991-01-01

    Changes of variability with climate change are likely to have a substantial impact on vegetation and society, rivaling the importance of changes in the mean values themselves. A variety of paleoclimate and future climate simulations performed with the GISS global climate model is used to assess how the variabilities of temperature and precipitation are altered as climate warms or cools. In general, as climate warms, temperature variability decreases due to reductions in the latitudinal temperature gradient and precipitation variability increases together with the intensity of the hydrologic cycle. If future climate projections are accurate, the reduction in temperature variability will be minimized by the rapid change in mean temperatures, but the hydrologic variability will be amplified by increased evapotranspiration. Greater hydrologic variability would appear to pose a potentially severe problem for the next century. 19 refs.; 3 figs.; 2 tabs

  16. Intraspecific chromosome variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Dubinin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available (Editorial preface. The publication is presented in order to remind us of one of dramatic pages of the history of genetics. It re-opens for the contemporary reader a comprehensive work marking the priority change from plant cytogenetics to animal cytogenetics led by wide population studies which were conducted on Drosophila polytene chromosomes. The year of the publication (1937 became the point of irretrievable branching between the directions of Old World and New World genetics connected with the problems of chromosome variability and its significance for the evolution of the species. The famous book of T. Dobzhansky (1937 was published by Columbia University in the US under the title “Genetics and the origin of species”, and in the shadow of this American ‘skybuilding’ all other works grew dim. It is remarkable that both Dobzhansky and Dubinin come to similar conclusions about the role of chromosomes in speciation. This is not surprising given that they both might be considered as representatives of the Russian genetic school, by their birth and education. Interestingly, Dobzhansky had never referred to the full paper of Dubinin et al. (1937, though a previous short communication in Nature (1936 was included together with all former papers on the related subject. In full, the volume of the original publication printed in the Biological Journal in Moscow comprised 47 pages, in that number 41 pages of the Russian text accompanied by 16 Figs, a table and reference list, and, above all, 6 pages of the English summary. This final part in English is now reproduced in the authors’ version with the only addition being the reference list in the originally printed form.

  17. The dynamics of variable-density turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandoval, D.L.

    1995-11-01

    The dynamics of variable-density turbulent fluids are studied by direct numerical simulation. The flow is incompressible so that acoustic waves are decoupled from the problem, and implying that density is not a thermodynamic variable. Changes in density occur due to molecular mixing. The velocity field, is in general, divergent. A pseudo-spectral numerical technique is used to solve the equations of motion. Three-dimensional simulations are performed using a grid size of 128 3 grid points. Two types of problems are studied: (1) the decay of isotropic, variable-density turbulence, and (2) buoyancy-generated turbulence in a fluid with large density fluctuations. In the case of isotropic, variable-density turbulence, the overall statistical decay behavior, for the cases studied, is relatively unaffected by the presence of density variations when the initial density and velocity fields are statistically independent. The results for this case are in quantitative agreement with previous numerical and laboratory results. In this case, the initial density field has a bimodal probability density function (pdf) which evolves in time towards a Gaussian distribution. The pdf of the density field is symmetric about its mean value throughout its evolution. If the initial velocity and density fields are statistically dependent, however, the decay process is significantly affected by the density fluctuations. For the case of buoyancy-generated turbulence, variable-density departures from the Boussinesq approximation are studied. The results of the buoyancy-generated turbulence are compared with variable-density model predictions. Both a one-point (engineering) model and a two-point (spectral) model are tested against the numerical data. Some deficiencies in these variable-density models are discussed and modifications are suggested

  18. Visual variability affects early verb learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twomey, Katherine E; Lush, Lauren; Pearce, Ruth; Horst, Jessica S

    2014-09-01

    Research demonstrates that within-category visual variability facilitates noun learning; however, the effect of visual variability on verb learning is unknown. We habituated 24-month-old children to a novel verb paired with an animated star-shaped actor. Across multiple trials, children saw either a single action from an action category (identical actions condition, for example, travelling while repeatedly changing into a circle shape) or multiple actions from that action category (variable actions condition, for example, travelling while changing into a circle shape, then a square shape, then a triangle shape). Four test trials followed habituation. One paired the habituated verb with a new action from the habituated category (e.g., 'dacking' + pentagon shape) and one with a completely novel action (e.g., 'dacking' + leg movement). The others paired a new verb with a new same-category action (e.g., 'keefing' + pentagon shape), or a completely novel category action (e.g., 'keefing' + leg movement). Although all children discriminated novel verb/action pairs, children in the identical actions condition discriminated trials that included the completely novel verb, while children in the variable actions condition discriminated the out-of-category action. These data suggest that - as in noun learning - visual variability affects verb learning and children's ability to form action categories. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  19. Response expectancies, treatment credibility, and hypnotic suggestibility: mediator and moderator effects in hypnotic and cognitive-behavioral pain interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milling, Leonard S; Shores, Jessica S; Coursen, Elizabeth L; Menario, Deanna J; Farris, Catherine D

    2007-04-01

    Several studies have shown that response expectancies are an important mechanism of popular psychological interventions for pain. However, there has been no research on whether response expectancies and treatment credibility independently mediate hypnotic and cognitive-behavioral pain interventions and whether the pattern of mediation is affected by experience with the interventions. Also, past research has indicated that hypnotic pain interventions may be moderated by hypnotic suggestibility. However, these studies have typically failed to measure the full range of suggestibility and have assessed pain reduction and suggestibility in the same experimental context, possibly inflating the association between these variables. To clarify the mediator role of response expectancies and treatment credibility, and the moderator role of hypnotic suggestibility in the hypnotic and cognitive-behavioral reduction of pain. Approximately 300 participants were assessed for suggestibility. Then, as part of an apparently unrelated experiment, 124 of these individuals received analogue cognitive-behavioral, hypnotic, or placebo control pain interventions. Response expectancies and credibility independently mediated treatment. The extent of mediation increased as participants gained more experience with the interventions. Suggestibility moderated treatment and was associated with relief only from the hypnotic intervention. Response expectancies and treatment credibility are unique mechanisms of hypnotic and cognitive-behavioral pain interventions. Hypnotic suggestibility predicts relief from hypnotic pain interventions and this association is not simply an artifact of measuring suggestibility and pain reduction in the same experimental context. The relationship between suggestibility and hypnotic pain reduction appears to be linear in nature.

  20. Fixed transaction costs and modelling limited dependent variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hempenius, A.L.

    1994-01-01

    As an alternative to the Tobit model, for vectors of limited dependent variables, I suggest a model, which follows from explicitly using fixed costs, if appropriate of course, in the utility function of the decision-maker.

  1. What makes your brain suggestible? Hypnotizability is associated with differential brain activity during attention outside hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cojan, Yann; Piguet, Camille; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2015-08-15

    Theoretical models of hypnosis have emphasized the importance of attentional processes in accounting for hypnotic phenomena but their exact nature and brain substrates remain unresolved. Individuals vary in their susceptibility to hypnosis, a variability often attributed to differences in attentional functioning such as greater ability to filter irrelevant information and inhibit prepotent responses. However, behavioral studies of attentional performance outside the hypnotic state have provided conflicting results. We used fMRI to investigate the recruitment of attentional networks during a modified flanker task in High and Low hypnotizable participants. The task was performed in a normal (no hypnotized) state. While behavioral performance did not reliably differ between groups, components of the fronto-parietal executive network implicated in monitoring (anterior cingulate cortex; ACC), adjustment (lateral prefrontal cortex; latPFC), and implementation of attentional control (intraparietal sulcus; IPS) were differently activated depending on the hypnotizability of the subjects: the right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG) was more recruited, whereas IPS and ACC were less recruited by High susceptible individuals compared to Low. Our results demonstrate that susceptibility to hypnosis is associated with particular executive control capabilities allowing efficient attentional focusing, and point to specific neural substrates in right prefrontal cortex. We demonstrated that outside hypnosis, low hypnotizable subjects recruited more parietal cortex and anterior cingulate regions during selective attention conditions suggesting a better detection and implementation of conflict. However, outside hypnosis the right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG) was more recruited by highly hypnotizable subjects during selective attention conditions suggesting a better control of conflict. Furthermore, in highly hypnotizable subjects this region was more connected to the default mode network

  2. Comparing aerodynamic efficiency in birds and bats suggests better flight performance in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muijres, Florian T; Johansson, L Christoffer; Bowlin, Melissa S; Winter, York; Hedenström, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Flight is one of the energetically most costly activities in the animal kingdom, suggesting that natural selection should work to optimize flight performance. The similar size and flight speed of birds and bats may therefore suggest convergent aerodynamic performance; alternatively, flight performance could be restricted by phylogenetic constraints. We test which of these scenarios fit to two measures of aerodynamic flight efficiency in two passerine bird species and two New World leaf-nosed bat species. Using time-resolved particle image velocimetry measurements of the wake of the animals flying in a wind tunnel, we derived the span efficiency, a metric for the efficiency of generating lift, and the lift-to-drag ratio, a metric for mechanical energetic flight efficiency. We show that the birds significantly outperform the bats in both metrics, which we ascribe to variation in aerodynamic function of body and wing upstroke: Bird bodies generated relatively more lift than bat bodies, resulting in a more uniform spanwise lift distribution and higher span efficiency. A likely explanation would be that the bat ears and nose leaf, associated with echolocation, disturb the flow over the body. During the upstroke, the birds retract their wings to make them aerodynamically inactive, while the membranous bat wings generate thrust and negative lift. Despite the differences in performance, the wake morphology of both birds and bats resemble the optimal wake for their respective lift-to-drag ratio regimes. This suggests that evolution has optimized performance relative to the respective conditions of birds and bats, but that maximum performance is possibly limited by phylogenetic constraints. Although ecological differences between birds and bats are subjected to many conspiring variables, the different aerodynamic flight efficiency for the bird and bat species studied here may help explain why birds typically fly faster, migrate more frequently and migrate longer distances

  3. Comparing aerodynamic efficiency in birds and bats suggests better flight performance in birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian T Muijres

    Full Text Available Flight is one of the energetically most costly activities in the animal kingdom, suggesting that natural selection should work to optimize flight performance. The similar size and flight speed of birds and bats may therefore suggest convergent aerodynamic performance; alternatively, flight performance could be restricted by phylogenetic constraints. We test which of these scenarios fit to two measures of aerodynamic flight efficiency in two passerine bird species and two New World leaf-nosed bat species. Using time-resolved particle image velocimetry measurements of the wake of the animals flying in a wind tunnel, we derived the span efficiency, a metric for the efficiency of generating lift, and the lift-to-drag ratio, a metric for mechanical energetic flight efficiency. We show that the birds significantly outperform the bats in both metrics, which we ascribe to variation in aerodynamic function of body and wing upstroke: Bird bodies generated relatively more lift than bat bodies, resulting in a more uniform spanwise lift distribution and higher span efficiency. A likely explanation would be that the bat ears and nose leaf, associated with echolocation, disturb the flow over the body. During the upstroke, the birds retract their wings to make them aerodynamically inactive, while the membranous bat wings generate thrust and negative lift. Despite the differences in performance, the wake morphology of both birds and bats resemble the optimal wake for their respective lift-to-drag ratio regimes. This suggests that evolution has optimized performance relative to the respective conditions of birds and bats, but that maximum performance is possibly limited by phylogenetic constraints. Although ecological differences between birds and bats are subjected to many conspiring variables, the different aerodynamic flight efficiency for the bird and bat species studied here may help explain why birds typically fly faster, migrate more frequently and migrate

  4. Solar variability and clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Kirkby, Jasper

    2000-01-01

    Satellite observations have revealed a surprising imprint of the 11- year solar cycle on global low cloud cover. The cloud data suggest a correlation with the intensity of Galactic cosmic rays. If this apparent connection between cosmic rays and clouds is real, variations of the cosmic ray flux caused by long-term changes in the solar wind could have a significant influence on the global energy radiation budget and the climate. However a direct link between cosmic rays and clouds has not been unambiguously established and, moreover, the microphysical mechanism is poorly understood. New experiments are being planned to find out whether cosmic rays can affect cloud formation, and if so how. (37 refs).

  5. Lengthened Cutaneous Silent Period in Fibromyalgia Suggesting Central Sensitization as a Pathogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seol-Hee Baek

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of fibromyalgia (FM has not been clearly elucidated, but central sensitization, which plays an important role in the development of neuropathic pain, is considered to be the main mechanism. The cutaneous silent period (CSP, which is a spinal reflex mediated by A-delta cutaneous afferents, is useful for the evaluation of sensorimotor integration at the spinal and supraspinal levels. To understand the pathophysiology of FM, we compared CSP patterns between patients with FM and normal healthy subjects. Twenty-four patients with FM diagnosed in accordance with the 1990 American College of Rheumatology classification system and 24 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers were recruited. The CSP was measured from the abductor pollicis brevis muscle. Demographic data, number of tender points, and visual analog scale and FM impact questionnaire scores were collected. The measured CSP and clinical parameters of the patient and control groups were compared. In addition, possible correlations between the CSP parameters and the other clinical characteristics were analyzed. Mean CSP latencies did not differ between patients (55.50 ± 10.97 ms and healthy controls (60.23 ± 11.87 ms; p = 0.158, although the mean CSP duration was significantly longer in patients (73.75 ± 15.67 ms than in controls (63.50 ± 14.05 ms; p = 0.021. CSP variables did not correlate with any clinical variables. The significantly longer CSP duration in FM patients suggests central dysregulation at the spinal and supraspinal levels, rather than peripheral small fiber dysfunction.

  6. WIND VARIABILITY IN BZ CAMELOPARDALIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honeycutt, R. K.; Kafka, S.; Robertson, J. W.

    2013-01-01

    Sequences of spectra of the nova-like cataclysmic variable (CV) BZ Cam were acquired on nine nights in 2005-2006 in order to study the time development of episodes of wind activity known to occur frequently in this star. We confirm the results of Ringwald and Naylor that the P-Cygni absorption components of the lines mostly evolve from higher expansion velocity to lower velocity as an episode progresses. We also commonly find blueshifted emission components in the Hα line profile, whose velocities and durations strongly suggest that they are also due to the wind. Curiously, Ringwald and Naylor reported common occurrences of redshifted Hα emission components in their BZ Cam spectra. We have attributed these emission components in Hα to occasions when gas concentrations in the bipolar wind (both front side and back side) become manifested as emission lines as they move beyond the disk's outer edge. We also suggest, based on changes in the P-Cygni profiles during an episode, that the progression from larger to smaller expansion velocities is due to the higher velocity portions of a wind concentration moving beyond the edge of the continuum light of the disk first, leaving a net redward shift of the remaining absorption profile. We derive a new orbital ephemeris for BZ Cam, using the radial velocity of the core of the He I λ5876 line, finding P = 0.15353(4). Using this period, the wind episodes in BZ Cam are found to be concentrated near the inferior conjunction of the emission line source. This result helps confirm that the winds in nova-like CVs are often phase dependent, in spite of the puzzling implication that such winds lack axisymmetry. We argue that the radiation-driven wind in BZ Cam receives an initial boost by acting on gas that has been lifted above the disk by the interaction of the accretion stream with the disk, thereby imposing flickering timescales onto the wind events, as well as leading to an orbital modulation of the wind due to the non

  7. Benchmarking Variable Selection in QSAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, Martin; Norinder, Ulf; Boyer, Scott; Carlsson, Lars

    2012-02-01

    Variable selection is important in QSAR modeling since it can improve model performance and transparency, as well as reduce the computational cost of model fitting and predictions. Which variable selection methods that perform well in QSAR settings is largely unknown. To address this question we, in a total of 1728 benchmarking experiments, rigorously investigated how eight variable selection methods affect the predictive performance and transparency of random forest models fitted to seven QSAR datasets covering different endpoints, descriptors sets, types of response variables, and number of chemical compounds. The results show that univariate variable selection methods are suboptimal and that the number of variables in the benchmarked datasets can be reduced with about 60 % without significant loss in model performance when using multivariate adaptive regression splines MARS and forward selection. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. A survey for southern delta Scuti variable stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McInally, C.J.; Austin, R.R.D.

    1978-01-01

    Twenty-nine field stars have been tested photoelectrically for short-period variability. Eighteen of these stars have spectral types between A2 and F5 and are not Am stars; of these, six have been discovered to be variable and one is a suspected variable. HD 185969, with a period of 0.361 day, has the longest known period for a star of the delta Scuti type. The predominance of discovered variables with amplitudes close to the detection limit is suggestive of most stars in the instability strip being pulsators. (author)

  9. HOW NORMAL IS VARIABLE, OR HOW VARIABLE IS NORMAL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TOUWEN, BCL

    Variability is an important property of the central nervous system, and it shows characteristic changes during infancy and childhood. The large amount of variations in the performance of sensomotor functions in infancy is called indiscriminate or primary variability. During toddling age the child

  10. Photometric Variability in the Faint Sky Variability Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morales-Rueda, L.; Groot, P.J.; Augusteijn, T.; Nelemans, G.A.; Vreeswijk, P.M.; Besselaar, E.J.M. van den

    2005-01-01

    The Faint Sky Variability Survey (FSVS) is aimed at finding photometric and/or astrometric variable objects between 16th and 24th mag on time-scales between tens of minutes and years with photometric precisions ranging from 3 millimag to 0.2 mag. An area of ~23 deg2, located at mid and

  11. The infrared variability and nature of symbiotic stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feast, M.W.; Catchpole, R.M.; Whitelock, P.A.; Carter, B.S.; Roberts, G.

    1983-01-01

    Infrared variability and spectra show that the symbiotic systems (He 2-106, He 2-38, He 2-34) contain Mira variable components. The first two also show a longer term infrared variability. It is suggested that this is due to variable dust obscuration (as in R Aqr). The phenomenon is then too frequent for the dust clouds to be confined to the orbital planes of the binary systems. Seven Miras in symbiotics have known periods which range from 370 to 580 days, suggesting a greater frequency of long-period Miras in symbiotics than in the general field. Symbiotic Miras have dust excesses with colour temperatures near 1000 K. Observations of four other symbiotic systems (Pe 2-3, He 2-87, H 2-5, AG Peg) are consistent with their containing non-variable or low amplitude M-type components. (author)

  12. Genotyping of Burkholderia mallei from an outbreak of glanders in Bahrain suggests multiple introduction events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger C Scholz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Glanders, caused by the gram-negative bacterium Burkholderia mallei, is a highly infectious zoonotic disease of solipeds causing severe disease in animals and men. Although eradicated from many Western countries, it recently emerged in Asia, the Middle-East, Africa, and South America. Due to its rareness, little is known about outbreak dynamics of the disease and its epidemiology.We investigated a recent outbreak of glanders in Bahrain by applying high resolution genotyping (multiple locus variable number of tandem repeats, MLVA and comparative whole genome sequencing to B. mallei isolated from infected horses and a camel. These results were compared to samples obtained from an outbreak in the United Arab Emirates in 2004, and further placed into a broader phylogeographic context based on previously published B. mallei data. The samples from the outbreak in Bahrain separated into two distinct clusters, suggesting a complex epidemiological background and evidence for the involvement of multiple B. mallei strains. Additionally, the samples from Bahrain were more closely related to B. mallei isolated from horses in the United Arab Emirates in 2004 than other B. mallei which is suggestive of repeated importation to the region from similar geographic sources.High-resolution genotyping and comparative whole genome analysis revealed the same phylogenetic patterns among our samples. The close relationship of the Dubai/UAE B. mallei populations to each other may be indicative of a similar geographic origin that has yet to be identified for the infecting strains. The recent emergence of glanders in combination with worldwide horse trading might pose a new risk for human infections.

  13. Phylogenetic data suggest the reclassification of Fasciola jacksoni (Digenea: Fasciolidae) as Fascioloides jacksoni comb. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heneberg, Petr

    2013-04-01

    Fasciola jacksoni (Cobbold, 1869) is a highly prevalent (18-62%) species colonizing the liver (less frequently the lungs, kidneys, pericardia, and intestines) of Elephas maximus indicus and Elephas maximus maximus in the Indomalayan region, causing cirrhosis, hemorrhages, and connective tissue proliferation. The phylogenetic relationships of Fasciola jacksoni in relation to representative species of the superfamily Echinostomatoidea was assessed using four independent DNA regions. The analysis involved conserved (28S rDNA) and highly variable (ITS1, ITS2, and ND1) loci utilizing both mitochondrial (ND1) and nuclear (28S rDNA, ITS1, and ITS2) DNA. Although the analyses confirmed the monophyletic origin of the Fasciolidae family, all four analyzed regions suggested high similarity of Fasciola jacksoni to Fascioloides magna, member of a hitherto monotypic genus, parasitizing a variety of wild and domestic ruminants through the Holarctic. Supporting evidence stems also from the morphological similarities, host spectrum overlaps, and similarities in disease onset and progression. Fasciola jacksoni was reclassified to its genus in the nineteenth century by Cobbold based on the shared possession of dendriform system of gastric canals. However, Fascioloides magna (discovered later) shares this feature as well. Conversely, Fascioloides magna and Fasciola hepatica possess long median intestinal branches, whereas relatively shorter median intestinal branches are characteristic for Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica only. Both, Fascioloides magna and Fasciola hepatica, are also similar in their possession of small, but distinctive cephalic cone, while the larger one is typical for Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica. Reflecting the combined data, reclassification of Fasciola jacksoni as Fascioloides jacksoni comb. nov. is suggested.

  14. Evidence suggesting digenic inheritance of Waardenburg syndrome type II with ocular albinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Pei-Wen; Spector, Elaine; McGregor, Tracy L

    2009-12-01

    Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is a series of auditory-pigmentary disorders inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. In most patients, WS2 results from mutations in the MITF gene. MITF encodes a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that activates transcription of tyrosinase and other melanocyte proteins. The clinical presentation of WS is highly variable, and we believe that Tietz syndrome and WS2 with ocular albinism (OA) are likely two variations of WS2 due to the presence of modifiers. One family with a molecular diagnosis of WS2 co-segregating with OA has previously been reported. A digenic mutation mechanism including both a MITF mutation and the TYR(R402Q) hypomorphic allele was proposed to be the cause of OA in this family. Here, we present a second WS2 family with OA and provide evidence suggesting the TYR(R402Q) allele does not cause OA in this family. We hypothesize the presence of a novel OCA3 mutation together with the MITF del p.R217 mutation account for the OA phenotype in this family. Since MITF is a transcription factor for pigmentation genes, a mutation in MITF plus a heterozygous mutation in OCA3 together provide an adverse effect crossing a quantitative threshold; therefore, WS2 with OA occurs. We have hypothesized previously that the clinical spectrum and mutation mechanism of OCA depend on the pigmentation threshold of an affected individual. This unique family has provided further evidence supporting this hypothesis. We suggest that by studying OCA patients alongside WS patients with various pigmentation profiles we can facilitate further understanding of the pigmentation pathway.

  15. An individual differences approach to the suggestibility of memory over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Peter; Nussbaum, Gregory; Loconto, Taylor; Syke, Richard; Warren, Casey; Muise, Christina

    2013-04-01

    We examined how certain personality traits might relate to the formation of suggestive memory over time. We hypothesised that compliance and trust relate to initial acceptance of misinformation as memory, whereas fantasy proneness might relate to integration of misinformation into memory after later intervals (relative to the time of exposure to misinformation). Participants watched an excerpt from a movie--the simulated eyewitness event. They next answered a recall test that included embedded misinformation about the movie. Participants then answered a yes/no recognition test. A week later, participants answered a second yes/no recognition test about the movie (each yes/no recognition test included different questions). Before both recognition tests, participants were warned about the misinformation shown during recall and were asked to base their answer on the movie excerpt only. After completing the second recognition test, participants answered questions from the Neuroticism Extroversion Openness Personality Inventory-3 (McCrae, Costa, & Martin, 2005) and Creative Experiences Questionnaire (Merckelbach, Horselenberg, & Muris, 2001). While compliance correlated with misinformation effects immediately after exposure to misinformation, fantasy-prone personality accounted for more of the variability in false recognition rates than compliance after a 1-week interval.

  16. Characterization of Reconstructed Ancestral Proteins Suggests a Change in Temperature of the Ancient Biosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanuma, Satoshi

    2017-08-06

    Understanding the evolution of ancestral life, and especially the ability of some organisms to flourish in the variable environments experienced in Earth's early biosphere, requires knowledge of the characteristics and the environment of these ancestral organisms. Information about early life and environmental conditions has been obtained from fossil records and geological surveys. Recent advances in phylogenetic analysis, and an increasing number of protein sequences available in public databases, have made it possible to infer ancestral protein sequences possessed by ancient organisms. However, the in silico studies that assess the ancestral base content of ribosomal RNAs, the frequency of each amino acid in ancestral proteins, and estimate the environmental temperatures of ancient organisms, show conflicting results. The characterization of ancestral proteins reconstructed in vitro suggests that ancient organisms had very thermally stable proteins, and therefore were thermophilic or hyperthermophilic. Experimental data supports the idea that only thermophilic ancestors survived the catastrophic increase in temperature of the biosphere that was likely associated with meteorite impacts during the early history of Earth. In addition, by expanding the timescale and including more ancestral proteins for reconstruction, it appears as though the Earth's surface temperature gradually decreased over time, from Archean to present.

  17. Assessment of Global Variability in UTBB MOSFETs in Subthreshold Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergej Makovejev

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The global variability of ultra-thin body and buried oxide (UTBB MOSFETs in subthreshold and off regimes of operation is analyzed. The variability of the off-state drain current, subthreshold slope, drain-induced barrier lowering (DIBL, gate leakage current, threshold voltage and their correlations are considered. Two threshold voltage extraction techniques were used. It is shown that the transconductance over drain current (gm/Id method is preferable for variability studies. It is demonstrated that the subthreshold drain current variability in short channel devices cannot be described by threshold voltage variability. It is suggested to include the effective body factor incorporating short channel effects in order to properly model the subthreshold drain current variability.

  18. Plasticity, Variability and Age in Second Language Acquisition and Bilingualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdsong, David

    2018-01-01

    Much of what is known about the outcome of second language acquisition and bilingualism can be summarized in terms of inter-individual variability, plasticity and age. The present review looks at variability and plasticity with respect to their underlying sources, and at age as a modulating factor in variability and plasticity. In this context we consider critical period effects vs. bilingualism effects, early and late bilingualism, nativelike and non-nativelike L2 attainment, cognitive aging, individual differences in learning, and linguistic dominance in bilingualism. Non-uniformity is an inherent characteristic of both early and late bilingualism. This review shows how plasticity and age connect with biological and experiential sources of variability, and underscores the value of research that reveals and explains variability. In these ways the review suggests how plasticity, variability and age conspire to frame fundamental research issues in L2 acquisition and bilingualism, and provides points of reference for discussion of the present Frontiers in Psychology Research Topic.

  19. Bell inequalities for continuous-variable measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Q. Y.; Reid, M. D.; Drummond, P. D.; Cavalcanti, E. G.

    2010-01-01

    Tests of local hidden-variable theories using measurements with continuous-variable (CV) outcomes are developed, and a comparison of different methods is presented. As examples, we focus on multipartite entangled Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger and cluster states. We suggest a physical process that produces the states proposed here, and investigate experiments both with and without binning of the continuous variable. In the former case, the Mermin-Klyshko inequalities can be used directly. For unbinned outcomes, the moment-based Cavalcanti-Foster-Reid-Drummond inequalities are extended to functional inequalities by consideration of arbitrary functions of the measurements at each site. By optimizing these functions, we obtain more robust violations of local hidden-variable theories than with either binning or moments. Recent inequalities based on the algebra of quaternions and octonions are compared with these methods. Since the prime advantage of CV experiments is to provide a route to highly efficient detection via homodyne measurements, we analyze the effect of noise and detection losses in both binned and unbinned cases. The CV moment inequalities with an optimal function have greater robustness to both loss and noise. This could permit a loophole-free test of Bell inequalities.

  20. Climate Change and Variability in Ghana: Stocktaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix A. Asante

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a holistic literature review of climate change and variability in Ghana by examining the impact and projections of climate change and variability in various sectors (agricultural, health and energy and its implication on ecology, land use, poverty and welfare. The findings suggest that there is a projected high temperature and low rainfall in the years 2020, 2050 and 2080, and desertification is estimated to be proceeding at a rate of 20,000 hectares per annum. Sea-surface temperatures will increase in Ghana’s waters and this will have drastic effects on fishery. There will be a reduction in the suitability of weather within the current cocoa-growing areas in Ghana by 2050 and an increase evapotranspiration of the cocoa trees. Furthermore, rice and rooted crops (especially cassava production are expected to be low. Hydropower generation is also at risk and there will be an increase in the incidence rate of measles, diarrheal cases, guinea worm infestation, malaria, cholera, cerebro-spinal meningitis and other water related diseases due to the current climate projections and variability. These negative impacts of climate change and variability worsens the plight of the poor, who are mostly women and children.

  1. Soil variability in mountain areas

    OpenAIRE

    Zanini, E.; Freppaz, M.; Stanchi, S.; Bonifacio, E.; Egli, M.

    2015-01-01

    The high spatial variability of soils is a relevant issue at local and global scales, and determines the complexity of soil ecosystem functions and services. This variability derives from strong dependencies of soil ecosystems on parent materials, climate, relief and biosphere, including human impact. Although present in all environments, the interactions of soils with these forming factors are particularly striking in mountain areas.

  2. Speed control variable rate irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speed control variable rate irrigation (VRI) is used to address within field variability by controlling a moving sprinkler’s travel speed to vary the application depth. Changes in speed are commonly practiced over areas that slope, pond or where soil texture is predominantly different. Dynamic presc...

  3. Delta Scuti variables. Lecture 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, A.N.

    1983-01-01

    The class of variables near or on the upper main sequence, the delta Scuti variables, are not only the usual ones about the masses, radii, and luminosities, but also the age, rotation, element diffusion to change the surface layer composition, the occurance of convection and the presence of radial and nonradial pulsation modes

  4. Variability in human body size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annis, J. F.

    1978-01-01

    The range of variability found among homogeneous groups is described and illustrated. Those trends that show significantly marked differences between sexes and among a number of racial/ethnic groups are also presented. Causes of human-body size variability discussed include genetic endowment, aging, nutrition, protective garments, and occupation. The information is presented to aid design engineers of space flight hardware and equipment.

  5. THE VARIABILITY OF INTERLANGUAGE USE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    www

    Variability is evident in the interlanguage grammars of all L2 learners, irrespective of their levels of proficiency; their interlanguage use is characterised by the variable occurrence of target L2 forms, and the .... instruction and negative feedback to discover that their hypotheses about the L2 are incorrect. 4.1. Krashen's view.

  6. Independent SU(2)-loop variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loll, R.

    1991-04-01

    We give a reduction procedure for SU(2)-trace variables and introduce a complete set of indepentent, gauge-invariant and almost local loop variables for the configuration space of SU(2)-lattice gauge theory in 2+1 dimensions. (orig.)

  7. Operant Variability: Procedures and Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Armando; Tonneau, Francois

    2012-01-01

    Barba's (2012) article deftly weaves three main themes in one argument about operant variability. From general theoretical considerations on operant behavior (Catania, 1973), Barba derives methodological guidelines about response differentiation and applies them to the study of operant variability. In the process, he uncovers unnoticed features of…

  8. Evolution and Outbursts of Cataclysmic Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.-B. Qian

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Mass transfer and accretion are very important to understand the evolution and observational properties of cataclysmic variables (CVs. Due to the lack of an accretion disk, eclipsing profiles of polars are the best source to study the character of mass transfer in CVs. By analyzing long-term photometric variations in the eclipsing polar HU Aqr, the property of mass transfer and accretion are investigated. The correlation between the brightness state change and the variation of the ingress profile suggests that both the accretion hot spot and the accretion stream are produced instantaneously. The observations clearly show that it is the variation of mass transfer causing the brightness state changes that is a direct evidence of variable mass transfer in a CV. It is shown that it is the local dark-spot activity near the L1 point to cause the change of the mass transfer rather than the activity cycles of the cool secondary star. Our results suggest that the evolution of CVs is more complex than that predicted by the standard model and we should consider the effect of variable mass accretion in nova and dwarf nova outbursts.

  9. THE TIME DOMAIN SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY: VARIABLE SELECTION AND ANTICIPATED RESULTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morganson, Eric; Green, Paul J. [Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Anderson, Scott F.; Ruan, John J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Myers, Adam D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Eracleous, Michael; Brandt, William Nielsen [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Laboratory, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Kelly, Brandon [Department of Physics, Broida Hall, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-9530 (United States); Badenes, Carlos [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Pittsburgh Particle Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology Center (PITT PACC), University of Pittsburgh, 3941 O’Hara St, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Bañados, Eduardo [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Blanton, Michael R. [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Bershady, Matthew A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, 475 N. Charter St., Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Borissova, Jura [Instituto de Física y Astronomía, Universidad de Valparaíso, Av. Gran Bretaña 1111, Playa Ancha, Casilla 5030, and Millennium Institute of Astrophysics (MAS), Santiago (Chile); Burgett, William S. [GMTO Corp, Suite 300, 251 S. Lake Ave, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Chambers, Kenneth, E-mail: emorganson@cfa.harvard.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); and others

    2015-06-20

    We present the selection algorithm and anticipated results for the Time Domain Spectroscopic Survey (TDSS). TDSS is an Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS)-IV Extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (eBOSS) subproject that will provide initial identification spectra of approximately 220,000 luminosity-variable objects (variable stars and active galactic nuclei across 7500 deg{sup 2} selected from a combination of SDSS and multi-epoch Pan-STARRS1 photometry. TDSS will be the largest spectroscopic survey to explicitly target variable objects, avoiding pre-selection on the basis of colors or detailed modeling of specific variability characteristics. Kernel Density Estimate analysis of our target population performed on SDSS Stripe 82 data suggests our target sample will be 95% pure (meaning 95% of objects we select have genuine luminosity variability of a few magnitudes or more). Our final spectroscopic sample will contain roughly 135,000 quasars and 85,000 stellar variables, approximately 4000 of which will be RR Lyrae stars which may be used as outer Milky Way probes. The variability-selected quasar population has a smoother redshift distribution than a color-selected sample, and variability measurements similar to those we develop here may be used to make more uniform quasar samples in large surveys. The stellar variable targets are distributed fairly uniformly across color space, indicating that TDSS will obtain spectra for a wide variety of stellar variables including pulsating variables, stars with significant chromospheric activity, cataclysmic variables, and eclipsing binaries. TDSS will serve as a pathfinder mission to identify and characterize the multitude of variable objects that will be detected photometrically in even larger variability surveys such as Large Synoptic Survey Telescope.

  10. The variability problem of normal human walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik B; Alkjær, Tine

    2012-01-01

    Previous investigations have suggested considerable inter-individual variability in the time course pattern of net joint moments during normal human walking, although the limited sample sizes precluded statistical analyses. The purpose of the present study was to obtain joint moment patterns from...... a group of normal subjects and to test whether or not the expected differences would prove to be statistically significant. Fifteen healthy male subjects were recorded on video while they walked across two force platforms. Ten kinematic and kinetic parameters were selected and input to a statistical...... cluster analysis to determine whether or not the 15 subjects could be divided into different 'families' (clusters) of walking strategy. The net joint moments showed a variability corroborating earlier reports. The cluster analysis showed that the 15 subjects could be grouped into two clusters of 5 and 10...

  11. ABOUT PSYCHOLOGICAL VARIABLES IN APPLICATION SCORING MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Rogers

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the contribution of psychological variables and scales suggested by Economic Psychology in predicting individuals’ default. Therefore, a sample of 555 individuals completed a self-completion questionnaire, which was composed of psychological variables and scales. By adopting the methodology of the logistic regression, the following psychological and behavioral characteristics were found associated with the group of individuals in default: a negative dimensions related to money (suffering, inequality and conflict; b high scores on the self-efficacy scale, probably indicating a greater degree of optimism and over-confidence; c buyers classified as compulsive; d individuals who consider it necessary to give gifts to children and friends on special dates, even though many people consider this a luxury; e problems of self-control identified by individuals who drink an average of more than four glasses of alcoholic beverage a day.

  12. Neuronal variability during handwriting: lognormal distribution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery I Rupasov

    Full Text Available We examined time-dependent statistical properties of electromyographic (EMG signals recorded from intrinsic hand muscles during handwriting. Our analysis showed that trial-to-trial neuronal variability of EMG signals is well described by the lognormal distribution clearly distinguished from the Gaussian (normal distribution. This finding indicates that EMG formation cannot be described by a conventional model where the signal is normally distributed because it is composed by summation of many random sources. We found that the variability of temporal parameters of handwriting--handwriting duration and response time--is also well described by a lognormal distribution. Although, the exact mechanism of lognormal statistics remains an open question, the results obtained should significantly impact experimental research, theoretical modeling and bioengineering applications of motor networks. In particular, our results suggest that accounting for lognormal distribution of EMGs can improve biomimetic systems that strive to reproduce EMG signals in artificial actuators.

  13. Imaging Variable Stars with HST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karovska, M.

    2012-06-01

    (Abstract only) The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of astronomical sources, ranging from objects in our solar system to objects in the early Universe, have revolutionized our knowledge of the Universe its origins and contents. I highlight results from HST observations of variable stars obtained during the past twenty or so years. Multiwavelength observations of numerous variable stars and stellar systems were obtained using the superb HST imaging capabilities and its unprecedented angular resolution, especially in the UV and optical. The HST provided the first detailed images probing the structure of variable stars including their atmospheres and circumstellar environments. AAVSO observations and light curves have been critical for scheduling of many of these observations and provided important information and context for understanding of the imaging results of many variable sources. I describe the scientific results from the imaging observations of variable stars including AGBs, Miras, Cepheids, semiregular variables (including supergiants and giants), YSOs and interacting stellar systems with a variable stellar components. These results have led to an unprecedented understanding of the spatial and temporal characteristics of these objects and their place in the stellar evolutionary chains, and in the larger context of the dynamic evolving Universe.

  14. Low-Frequency Temporal Variability in Mira and Semiregular Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Matthew R.; Karovska, M.; Waagen, E. O.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate low-frequency variability in a large sample of Mira and semiregular variables with long-term visual light curves from the AAVSO International Database. Our aim is to determine whether we can detect and measure long-timescale variable phenomena in these stars, for example photometric variations that might be associated with supergranular convection. We analyzed the long-term light curves of 522 variable stars of the Mira and SRa, b, c, and d classes. We calculated their low-frequency time-series spectra to characterize rednoise with the power density spectrum index, and then correlate this index with other observable characteristics such as spectral type and primary pulsation period. In our initial analysis of the sample, we see that the semiregular variables have a much broader range of spectral index than the Mira types, with the SRb subtype having the broadest range. Among Mira variables we see that the M- and S-type Miras have similarly wide ranges of index, while the C-types have the narrowest with generally shallower slopes. There is also a trend of steeper slope with larger amplitude, but at a given amplitude, a wide range of slopes are seen. The ultimate goal of the project is to identify stars with strong intrinsic red noise components as possible targets for resolved surface imaging with interferometry.

  15. Longitudinal Research with Latent Variables

    CERN Document Server

    van Montfort, Kees; Satorra, Albert

    2010-01-01

    This book combines longitudinal research and latent variable research, i.e. it explains how longitudinal studies with objectives formulated in terms of latent variables should be carried out, with an emphasis on detailing how the methods are applied. Because longitudinal research with latent variables currently utilizes different approaches with different histories, different types of research questions, and different computer programs to perform the analysis, the book is divided into nine chapters. Starting from some background information about the specific approach, short history and the ma

  16. Application of the ex-Gaussian function to the effect of the word blindness suggestion on Stroop task performance suggests no word blindness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Andrew Parris

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper was to apply the ex-Gaussian function to data reported by Parris et al. (2012 given its utility in studies involving the Stroop task. Parris et al. showed an effect of the word blindness suggestion when Response-Stimulus Interval (RSI was 500ms but not when it was 3500ms. Analysis revealed that: 1 The effect of the suggestion on interference is observed in µ, supporting converging evidence indicating the suggestion operates over response competition mechanisms; and, 2 Contrary to Parris et al., an effect of the suggestion was observed in µ when RSI was 3500ms. The reanalysis of the data from Parris et al. (2012 supports the utility of ex-Gaussian analysis in revealing effects that might otherwise be thought of as absent. We suggest that word reading itself is not suppressed by the suggestion but instead that response conflict is dealt with more effectively.

  17. Manipulating continuous variable photonic entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plenio, M.B.

    2005-01-01

    I will review our work on photonic entanglement in the continuous variable regime including both Gaussian and non-Gaussian states. The feasibility and efficiency of various entanglement purification protocols are discussed this context. (author)

  18. Intensive variable and its application

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Xinqi; Yuan, Zhiyuan

    2014-01-01

    Opening with intensive variables theory, using a combination of static and dynamic GIS and integrating numerical calculation and spatial optimization, this book creates a framework and methodology for evaluating land use effect, among other concepts.

  19. Variability of nitrate and phosphate

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sardessai, S.; Sundar, D.

    Nitrate and phosphate are important elements of the biogeochemical system of an estuary. Observations carried out during the dry season April-May 2002, and March 2003 and wet season September 2002, show temporal and spatial variability of these two...

  20. Solar Variability and Planetary Climates

    CERN Document Server

    Calisesi, Y; Gray, L; Langen, J; Lockwood, M

    2007-01-01

    Variations in solar activity, as revealed by variations in the number of sunspots, have been observed since ancient times. To what extent changes in the solar output may affect planetary climates, though, remains today more than ever a subject of controversy. In 2000, the SSSI volume on Solar Variability and Climate reviewed the to-date understanding of the physics of solar variability and of the associated climate response. The present volume on Solar Variability and Planetary Climates provides an overview of recent advances in this field, with particular focus at the Earth's middle and lower atmosphere. The book structure mirrors that of the ISSI workshop held in Bern in June 2005, the collection of invited workshop contributions and of complementary introductory papers synthesizing the current understanding in key research areas such as middle atmospheric processes, stratosphere-troposphere dynamical coupling, tropospheric aerosols chemistry, solar storm influences, solar variability physics, and terrestri...

  1. Comparative response of Rangifer tarandus and other northern ungulates to climatic variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert B. Weladji

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available To understand the factors influencing life history traits and population dynamics, attention is increasingly being given to the importance of environmental stochasticity. In this paper, we review and discuss aspects of current knowledge concerning the effect of climatic variation (local and global on population parameters of northern ungu¬lates, with special emphasis on reindeer/caribou (Rangifer tarandus. We also restrict ourselves to indirect effects of climate through both forage availability and quality, and insect activity. Various authors have used different weather variables; with sometime opposite trends in resulting life history traits of ungulates, and few studies show consistent effects to the same climatic variables. There is thus little consensus about which weather variables play the most sig¬nificant role influencing ungulate population parameters. This may be because the effects of weather on ungulate pop¬ulation dynamics and life history traits are scale dependent and it is difficult to isolate climatic effects from density dependent factors. This confirms the complexity of the relationship between environment and ecosystem. We point out limits of comparability between systems and the difficulty of generalizing about the effect of climate change broadly across northern systems, across species and even within species. Furthermore, insect harassment appears to be a key climate-related factor for the ecology of reindeer/caribou that has been overlooked in the literature of climatic effects on large herbivores. In light of this, there is a need for further studies of long time series in assessing effects of climate variability on reindeer/caribou.

  2. Flow variability and hillslope hydrology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huff, D D; O' Neill, R V; Emanuel, W R; Elwood, J W; Newbold, J D

    1982-01-01

    Examination of spatial variability of streamflow in headwater areas can provide important insight about factors that influence hillslope hydrology. Detailed observations of variations in stream channel input, based on a tracer experiment, indicate that topography alone cannot explain flow variability. However, determination of changes in channel input on a small spatial scale can provide valuable clues to factors, such as structural geology that control subsurface flows.

  3. Ordering variable for parton showers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagy, Zoltan [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Soper, Davison E. [Oregon Univ., Eugene, OR (United States). Inst. of Theoretical Science

    2014-01-15

    The parton splittings in a parton shower are ordered according to an ordering variable, for example the transverse momentum of the daughter partons relative to the direction of the mother, the virtuality of the splitting, or the angle between the daughter partons. We analyze the choice of the ordering variable and conclude that one particular choice has the advantage of factoring softer splittings from harder splittings graph by graph in a physical gauge.

  4. Ordering variable for parton showers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagy, Zoltán [DESY,Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Soper, Davison E. [Institute of Theoretical Science, University of Oregon,Eugene, OR 97403-5203 (United States)

    2014-06-30

    The parton splittings in a parton shower are ordered according to an ordering variable, for example the transverse momentum of the daughter partons relative to the direction of the mother, the virtuality of the splitting, or the angle between the daughter partons. We analyze the choice of the ordering variable and conclude that one particular choice has the advantage of factoring softer splittings from harder splittings graph by graph in a physical gauge.

  5. Variable stars in the classroom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Bajo, F [Departamento de Electronica e IngenierIa Electromecanica, Escuela de IngenierIas Industriales, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda de Elvas s/n, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Vaquero, J M [Departamento de Fisica, Escuela Politecnica, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda de la Universidad s/n, 10071 Caceres (Spain)

    2006-05-01

    Variable stars offer interesting possibilities from the point of view of educational applications, from the experimental collection of data to analysis to obtain physical information. In this paper, brightness measurements of two periodic variable stars easily accessible with small telescopes are presented and analysed. This practical experiment is highly appropriate for educational use in undergraduate physics and astrophysics laboratories and allows students to approximate scientific research.

  6. Variable stars in the classroom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Bajo, F; Vaquero, J M

    2006-01-01

    Variable stars offer interesting possibilities from the point of view of educational applications, from the experimental collection of data to analysis to obtain physical information. In this paper, brightness measurements of two periodic variable stars easily accessible with small telescopes are presented and analysed. This practical experiment is highly appropriate for educational use in undergraduate physics and astrophysics laboratories and allows students to approximate scientific research

  7. Ordering variable for parton showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, Zoltan; Soper, Davison E.

    2014-01-01

    The parton splittings in a parton shower are ordered according to an ordering variable, for example the transverse momentum of the daughter partons relative to the direction of the mother, the virtuality of the splitting, or the angle between the daughter partons. We analyze the choice of the ordering variable and conclude that one particular choice has the advantage of factoring softer splittings from harder splittings graph by graph in a physical gauge.

  8. Investigation of load reduction for a variable speed, variable pitch, and variable coning wind turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, K. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A two bladed, variable speed and variable pitch wind turbine was modeled using ADAMS{reg_sign} to evaluate load reduction abilities of a variable coning configuration as compared to a teetered rotor, and also to evaluate control methods. The basic dynamic behavior of the variable coning turbine was investigated and compared to the teetered rotor under constant wind conditions as well as turbulent wind conditions. Results indicate the variable coning rotor has larger flap oscillation amplitudes and much lower root flap bending moments than the teetered rotor. Three methods of control were evaluated for turbulent wind simulations. These were a standard IPD control method, a generalized predictive control method, and a bias estimate control method. Each control method was evaluated for both the variable coning configuration and the teetered configuration. The ability of the different control methods to maintain the rotor speed near the desired set point is evaluated from the RMS error of rotor speed. The activity of the control system is evaluated from cycles per second of the blade pitch angle. All three of the methods were found to produce similar results for the variable coning rotor and the teetered rotor, as well as similar results to each other.

  9. Long-Term Variability in o Ceti and Other Mira Variables: Signs of Supergranular Convection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Matthew R.; Karovska, Margarita

    2009-09-01

    We describe our study of long-term variability of o Ceti (Mira A), the prototype of the Mira-type pulsating stars. Our study was originally undertaken to search for coherent long-period variability, but the results of our analysis didn't uncover this. However, we detected a low-frequency ``red noise'' in the Fourier spectrum of the o Ceti century-long light curve. We have since found similar behavior in other Miras and pulsating giant stars and have begun a study of a large sample of Mira variables. Similar red noise has been previously detected in red supergiants and attributed to supergranular convection. Its presence in Miras suggests the phenomenon may be ubiquitous in cool giant pulsators. These results support high-angular resolution observations of Miras and supergiants showing asymmetries in their surface brightness distributions, which may be due to large supergranular convection cells. Theoretical modeling, and numerical simulations of pulsation processes in late-type giants and supergiants should therefore take into account the effects of deep convection and large supergranular structures, which in turn may provide important insights into the behavior of Miras and other giant and supergiant pulsators. In this work, we summarize our results for o Ceti, present preliminary results of our broader study of Mira variables, and discuss how the results of this study may be used by future studies of AGB variables.

  10. Variable star research at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, C.G.; Cox, A.N.; Adams, T.F.

    1978-01-01

    Three major areas of variable star research at Los Alamos are carried out: (1) a study using improved Cepheid light curves in order to define more precisely the Hertzsprung sequence, in collaboration with John Castor and John Cox; (2) the suggestion by A. Cox that helium enrichment occurs in the stellar envelope, by a stellar wind, which may explain many of the mass anomalies, this work being with G. Michaud, D. King, R. Deupree, and S. Hodson; and (3) the study of Cepheid and RR Lyrae colors to compare directly to the observations. A brief discussion of the present status of each of these research programs will be given. 25 references

  11. Brain Signal Variability Differentially Affects Cognitive Flexibility and Cognitive Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armbruster-Genç, Diana J N; Ueltzhöffer, Kai; Fiebach, Christian J

    2016-04-06

    Recent research yielded the intriguing conclusion that, in healthy adults, higher levels of variability in neuronal processes are beneficial for cognitive functioning. Beneficial effects of variability in neuronal processing can also be inferred from neurocomputational theories of working memory, albeit this holds only for tasks requiring cognitive flexibility. However, cognitive stability, i.e., the ability to maintain a task goal in the face of irrelevant distractors, should suffer under high levels of brain signal variability. To directly test this prediction, we studied both behavioral and brain signal variability during cognitive flexibility (i.e., task switching) and cognitive stability (i.e., distractor inhibition) in a sample of healthy human subjects and developed an efficient and easy-to-implement analysis approach to assess BOLD-signal variability in event-related fMRI task paradigms. Results show a general positive effect of neural variability on task performance as assessed by accuracy measures. However, higher levels of BOLD-signal variability in the left inferior frontal junction area result in reduced error rate costs during task switching and thus facilitate cognitive flexibility. In contrast, variability in the same area has a detrimental effect on cognitive stability, as shown in a negative effect of variability on response time costs during distractor inhibition. This pattern was mirrored at the behavioral level, with higher behavioral variability predicting better task switching but worse distractor inhibition performance. Our data extend previous results on brain signal variability by showing a differential effect of brain signal variability that depends on task context, in line with predictions from computational theories. Recent neuroscientific research showed that the human brain signal is intrinsically variable and suggested that this variability improves performance. Computational models of prefrontal neural networks predict differential

  12. Variable Selection via Partial Correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Runze; Liu, Jingyuan; Lou, Lejia

    2017-07-01

    Partial correlation based variable selection method was proposed for normal linear regression models by Bühlmann, Kalisch and Maathuis (2010) as a comparable alternative method to regularization methods for variable selection. This paper addresses two important issues related to partial correlation based variable selection method: (a) whether this method is sensitive to normality assumption, and (b) whether this method is valid when the dimension of predictor increases in an exponential rate of the sample size. To address issue (a), we systematically study this method for elliptical linear regression models. Our finding indicates that the original proposal may lead to inferior performance when the marginal kurtosis of predictor is not close to that of normal distribution. Our simulation results further confirm this finding. To ensure the superior performance of partial correlation based variable selection procedure, we propose a thresholded partial correlation (TPC) approach to select significant variables in linear regression models. We establish the selection consistency of the TPC in the presence of ultrahigh dimensional predictors. Since the TPC procedure includes the original proposal as a special case, our theoretical results address the issue (b) directly. As a by-product, the sure screening property of the first step of TPC was obtained. The numerical examples also illustrate that the TPC is competitively comparable to the commonly-used regularization methods for variable selection.

  13. Bedform response to flow variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, J.M.; Logan, B.L.; Kinzel, P.J.; Shimizu, Y.; Giri, S.; Shreve, R.L.; McLean, S.R.

    2011-01-01

    Laboratory observations and computational results for the response of bedform fields to rapid variations in discharge are compared and discussed. The simple case considered here begins with a relatively low discharge over a flat bed on which bedforms are initiated, followed by a short high-flow period with double the original discharge, during which the morphology of the bedforms adjusts, followed in turn by a relatively long period of the original low discharge. For the grain size and hydraulic conditions selected, the Froude number remains subcritical during the experiment, and sediment moves predominantly as bedload. Observations show rapid development of quasi-two-dimensional bedforms during the initial period of low flow with increasing wavelength and height over the initial low-flow period. When the flow increases, the bedforms rapidly increase in wavelength and height, as expected from other empirical results. When the flow decreases back to the original discharge, the height of the bedforms quickly decreases in response, but the wavelength decreases much more slowly. Computational results using an unsteady two-dimensional flow model coupled to a disequilibrium bedload transport model for the same conditions simulate the formation and initial growth of the bedforms fairly accurately and also predict an increase in dimensions during the high-flow period. However, the computational model predicts a much slower rate of wavelength increase, and also performs less accurately during the final low-flow period, where the wavelength remains essentially constant, rather than decreasing. In addition, the numerical results show less variability in bedform wavelength and height than the measured values; the bedform shape is also somewhat different. Based on observations, these discrepancies may result from the simplified model for sediment particle step lengths used in the computational approach. Experiments show that the particle step length varies spatially and

  14. Comparative skull analysis suggests species-specific captivity-related malformation in lions (Panthera leo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saragusty, Joseph; Shavit-Meyrav, Anat; Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki; Nadler, Rona; Bdolah-Abram, Tali; Gibeon, Laura; Hildebrandt, Thomas B; Shamir, Merav H

    2014-01-01

    Lion (Panthera leo) populations have dramatically decreased worldwide with a surviving population estimated at 32,000 across the African savannah. Lions have been kept in captivity for centuries and, although they reproduce well, high rates of stillbirths as well as morbidity and mortality of neonate and young lions are reported. Many of these cases are associated with bone malformations, including foramen magnum (FM) stenosis and thickened tentorium cerebelli. The precise causes of these malformations and whether they are unique to captive lions remain unclear. To test whether captivity is associated with FM stenosis, we evaluated 575 lion skulls of wild (N = 512) and captive (N = 63) origin. Tiger skulls (N = 276; 56 captive, 220 wild) were measured for comparison. While no differences were found between males and females or between subadults and adults in FM height (FMH), FMH of captive lions (17.36±3.20 mm) was significantly smaller and with greater variability when compared to that in wild lions (19.77±2.11 mm). There was no difference between wild (18.47±1.26 mm) and captive (18.56±1.64 mm) tigers in FMH. Birth origin (wild vs. captive) as a factor for FMH remained significant in lions even after controlling for age and sex. Whereas only 20/473 wild lions (4.2%) had FMH equal to or smaller than the 5th percentile of the wild population (16.60 mm), this was evident in 40.4% (23/57) of captive lion skulls. Similar comparison for tigers found no differences between the captive and wild populations. Lions with FMH equal to or smaller than the 5th percentile had wider skulls with smaller cranial volume. Cranial volume remained smaller in both male and female captive lions when controlled for skull size. These findings suggest species- and captivity-related predisposition for the pathology in lions.

  15. Comparative skull analysis suggests species-specific captivity-related malformation in lions (Panthera leo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Saragusty

    Full Text Available Lion (Panthera leo populations have dramatically decreased worldwide with a surviving population estimated at 32,000 across the African savannah. Lions have been kept in captivity for centuries and, although they reproduce well, high rates of stillbirths as well as morbidity and mortality of neonate and young lions are reported. Many of these cases are associated with bone malformations, including foramen magnum (FM stenosis and thickened tentorium cerebelli. The precise causes of these malformations and whether they are unique to captive lions remain unclear. To test whether captivity is associated with FM stenosis, we evaluated 575 lion skulls of wild (N = 512 and captive (N = 63 origin. Tiger skulls (N = 276; 56 captive, 220 wild were measured for comparison. While no differences were found between males and females or between subadults and adults in FM height (FMH, FMH of captive lions (17.36±3.20 mm was significantly smaller and with greater variability when compared to that in wild lions (19.77±2.11 mm. There was no difference between wild (18.47±1.26 mm and captive (18.56±1.64 mm tigers in FMH. Birth origin (wild vs. captive as a factor for FMH remained significant in lions even after controlling for age and sex. Whereas only 20/473 wild lions (4.2% had FMH equal to or smaller than the 5th percentile of the wild population (16.60 mm, this was evident in 40.4% (23/57 of captive lion skulls. Similar comparison for tigers found no differences between the captive and wild populations. Lions with FMH equal to or smaller than the 5th percentile had wider skulls with smaller cranial volume. Cranial volume remained smaller in both male and female captive lions when controlled for skull size. These findings suggest species- and captivity-related predisposition for the pathology in lions.

  16. Assessment of domestic cat personality, as perceived by 416 owners, suggests six dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Pauleen C; Rutter, Nicholas J; Woodhead, Jessica K; Howell, Tiffani J

    2017-08-01

    Understanding individual behavioral differences in domestic cats could lead to improved selection when potential cat owners choose a pet with whom to share their lives, along with consequent improvements in cat welfare. Yet very few attempts have been made to elicit cat personality dimensions using the trait-based exploratory approaches applied previously, with some success, to humans and dogs. In this study, a list of over 200 adjectives used to describe cat personality was assembled. This list was refined by two focus groups. A sample of 416 adult cat owners then rated a cat they knew well on each of 118 retained words. An iterative analytical approach was used to identify 29 words which formed six personality dimensions: Playfulness, Nervousness, Amiability, Dominance, Demandingness, and Gullibility. Chronbach's alpha scores for these dimensions ranged from 0.63 to 0.8 and, together, they explained 56.08% of the total variance. Very few significant correlations were found between participant scores on the personality dimensions and descriptive variables such as owner age, cat age and owner cat-owning experience, and these were all weak to barely moderate in strength (r≤0.30). There was also only one significant group difference based on cat sex. Importantly, however, several cat personality scores were moderately (r=0.3-0.49) or strongly (r≥0.5) correlated with simple measures of satisfaction with the cat, attachment, bond quality, and the extent to which the cat was perceived to be troublesome. The results suggest that, with further validation, this scale could be used to provide a simple, tick-box, assessment of an owner's perceptions regarding a cat's personality. This may be of value in both applied and research settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Genotyping of human lice suggests multiple emergencies of body lice from local head louse populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjun Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genetic analyses of human lice have shown that the current taxonomic classification of head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis and body lice (Pediculus humanus humanus does not reflect their phylogenetic organization. Three phylotypes of head lice A, B and C exist but body lice have been observed only in phylotype A. Head and body lice have different behaviours and only the latter have been involved in outbreaks of infectious diseases including epidemic typhus, trench fever and louse borne recurrent fever. Recent studies suggest that body lice arose several times from head louse populations. METHODS AND FINDINGS: By introducing a new genotyping technique, sequencing variable intergenic spacers which were selected from louse genomic sequence, we were able to evaluate the genotypic distribution of 207 human lice. Sequence variation of two intergenic spacers, S2 and S5, discriminated the 207 lice into 148 genotypes and sequence variation of another two intergenic spacers, PM1 and PM2, discriminated 174 lice into 77 genotypes. Concatenation of the four intergenic spacers discriminated a panel of 97 lice into 96 genotypes. These intergenic spacer sequence types were relatively specific geographically, and enabled us to identify two clusters in France, one cluster in Central Africa (where a large body louse outbreak has been observed and one cluster in Russia. Interestingly, head and body lice were not genetically differentiated. CONCLUSIONS: We propose a hypothesis for the emergence of body lice, and suggest that humans with both low hygiene and head louse infestations provide an opportunity for head louse variants, able to ingest a larger blood meal (a required characteristic of body lice, to colonize clothing. If this hypothesis is ultimately supported, it would help to explain why poor human hygiene often coincides with outbreaks of body lice. Additionally, if head lice act as a reservoir for body lice, and that any social degradation in

  18. Spatial and temporal variability of interhemispheric transport times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaokang; Yang, Huang; Waugh, Darryn W.; Orbe, Clara; Tilmes, Simone; Lamarque, Jean-Francois

    2018-05-01

    The seasonal and interannual variability of transport times from the northern midlatitude surface into the Southern Hemisphere is examined using simulations of three idealized age tracers: an ideal age tracer that yields the mean transit time from northern midlatitudes and two tracers with uniform 50- and 5-day decay. For all tracers the largest seasonal and interannual variability occurs near the surface within the tropics and is generally closely coupled to movement of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). There are, however, notable differences in variability between the different tracers. The largest seasonal and interannual variability in the mean age is generally confined to latitudes spanning the ITCZ, with very weak variability in the southern extratropics. In contrast, for tracers subject to spatially uniform exponential loss the peak variability tends to be south of the ITCZ, and there is a smaller contrast between tropical and extratropical variability. These differences in variability occur because the distribution of transit times from northern midlatitudes is very broad and tracers with more rapid loss are more sensitive to changes in fast transit times than the mean age tracer. These simulations suggest that the seasonal-interannual variability in the southern extratropics of trace gases with predominantly NH midlatitude sources may differ depending on the gases' chemical lifetimes.

  19. Ecosystem stability in space: α, β and γ variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaopeng; Loreau, Michel

    2014-08-01

    The past two decades have seen great progress in understanding the mechanisms of ecosystem stability in local ecological systems. There is, however, an urgent need to extend existing knowledge to larger spatial scales to match the scale of management and conservation. Here, we develop a general theoretical framework to study the stability and variability of ecosystems at multiple scales. Analogously to the partitioning of biodiversity, we propose the concepts of alpha, beta and gamma variability. Gamma variability at regional (metacommunity) scale can be partitioned into local alpha variability and spatial beta variability, either multiplicatively or additively. On average, variability decreases from local to regional scales, which creates a negative variability-area relationship. Our partitioning framework suggests that mechanisms of regional ecosystem stability can be understood by investigating the influence of ecological factors on alpha and beta variability. Diversity can provide insurance effects at the various levels of variability, thus generating alpha, beta and gamma diversity-stability relationships. As a consequence, the loss of biodiversity and habitat impairs ecosystem stability at the regional scale. Overall, our framework enables a synthetic understanding of ecosystem stability at multiple scales and has practical implications for landscape management. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  20. Community risk assessment of rainfall variability under rain-fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, a nuanced understanding of the perspectives of climate related risks among local populations affected is often lacking and or seldom explored in vulnerability assessments due to the dominance of top-down approaches. This paper explores the potential of Community Risk Assessment (CRA) and local knowledge ...