WorldWideScience

Sample records for climate change mitigation

  1. Climate Change and Mitigation

    OpenAIRE

    Nibleus, Kerstin; Lundin, Rickard

    2010-01-01

    Planet Earth has experienced repeated changes of its climate throughout time. Periods warmer than today as well as much colder, during glacial episodes, have alternated. In our time, rapid population growth with increased demand for natural resources and energy, has made society increasingly vulnerable to environmental changes, both natural and those caused by man; human activity is clearly affecting the radiation balance of the Earth. In the session “Climate Change and Mitigation” the speake...

  2. Regional climate change mitigation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to explore some of the key methodological issues that arise from an analysis of regional climate change mitigation options. The rationale for any analysis of regional mitigation activities, emphasising both the theoretical attractiveness and the existing political encouragement and the methodology that has been developed are reviewed. The differences arising from the fact that mitigation analyses have been taken from the level of the national - where the majority of the work has been completed to date - to the level of the international - that is, the 'regional' - will be especially highlighted. (EG)

  3. Regional climate change mitigation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowlands, Ian H. [UNEP Collaborating Centre on Energy and Environment, and Univ. of Waterloo (Canada)

    1998-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore some of the key methodological issues that arise from an analysis of regional climate change mitigation options. The rationale for any analysis of regional mitigation activities, emphasising both the theoretical attractiveness and the existing political encouragement and the methodology that has been developed are reviewed. The differences arising from the fact that mitigation analyses have been taken from the level of the national - where the majority of the work has been completed to date - to the level of the international - that is, the `regional` - will be especially highlighted. (EG)

  4. Climate change mitigation in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The UNEP Collaborating Centre on Energy and Environment (UCCEE) in conjunction with the Southern Centre for Energy and Environment (SCEE) hosted a conference on 'Climate Change Mitigation in Africa' between 18 and 20 May. The Conference set out to address the following main objectives: to present to a wider audience the results of UNEP/GEF and related country studies; to present results of regional mitigation analysis; exchange of information with similar projects in the region; to expose countries to conceptual and methodological issues related to climate change mitigation; to provide input to national development using climate change related objectives. This volume contains reports of the presentations and discussions, which took place at the conference at Victoria Falls between 18 and 20 May 1998. Representatives of 11 country teams made presentations and in addition two sub-regions were discussed: the Maghreb region and SADC. The conference was attended by a total of 63 people, representing 22 African countries as well as international organisations. (EG)

  5. Climate change mitigation in Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackenzie, G.A.; Turkson, J.K.; Davidson, O.R. [eds.

    1998-10-01

    The UNEP Collaborating Centre on Energy and Environment (UCCEE) in conjunction with the Southern Centre for Energy and Environment (SCEE) hosted a conference on `Climate Change Mitigation in Africa` between 18 and 20 May. The Conference set out to address the following main objectives: to present to a wider audience the results of UNEP/GEF and related country studies; to present results of regional mitigation analysis; exchange of information with similar projects in the region; to expose countries to conceptual and methodological issues related to climate change mitigation; to provide input to national development using climate change related objectives. This volume contains reports of the presentations and discussions, which took place at the conference at Victoria Falls between 18 and 20 May 1998. Representatives of 11 country teams made presentations and in addition two sub-regions were discussed: the Maghreb region and SADC. The conference was attended by a total of 63 people, representing 22 African countries as well as international organisations. (EG)

  6. Climate change mitigation in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Bo

    2012-07-01

    China has been experiencing great economic development and fast urbanisation since its reforms and opening-up policy in 1978. However, these changes are reliant on consumption of primary energy, especially coal, characterised by high pollution and low efficiency. China's greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, with carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) being the most significant contributor, have also been increasing rapidly in the past three decades. Responding to both domestic challenges and international pressure regarding energy, climate change and environment, the Chinese government has made a point of addressing climate change since the early 2000s. This thesis provides a comprehensive analysis of China's CO{sub 2} emissions and policy instruments for mitigating climate change. In the analysis, China's CO{sub 2} emissions in recent decades were reviewed and the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis examined. Using the mostly frequently studied macroeconomic factors and time-series data for the period of 1980-2008, the existence of an EKC relationship between CO{sub 2} per capita and GDP per capita was verified. However, China's CO{sub 2} emissions will continue to grow over coming decades and the turning point in overall CO{sub 2} emissions will appear in 2078 according to a crude projection. More importantly, CO{sub 2} emissions will not spontaneously decrease if China continues to develop its economy without mitigating climate change. On the other hand, CO{sub 2} emissions could start to decrease if substantial efforts are made. China's present mitigation target, i.e. to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions per unit of GDP by 40-45 % by 2020 compared with the 2005 level, was then evaluated. Three business-as-usual (BAU) scenarios were developed and compared with the level of emissions according to the mitigation target. The calculations indicated that decreasing the CO{sub 2} intensity of GDP by 40-45 % by 2020 is a challenging but hopeful target. To

  7. Handbook of Climate Change Mitigation

    CERN Document Server

    Seiner, John; Suzuki, Toshio; Lackner, Maximilian

    2012-01-01

    There is a mounting consensus that human behavior is changing the global climate and its consequence could be catastrophic. Reducing the 24 billion metric tons of carbon dioxide emissions from stationary and mobile sources is a gigantic task involving both technological challenges and monumental financial and societal costs. The pursuit of sustainable energy resources, environment, and economy has become a complex issue of global scale that affects the daily life of every citizen of the world. The present mitigation activities range from energy conservation, carbon-neutral energy conversions, carbon advanced combustion process that produce no greenhouse gases and that enable carbon capture and sequestion, to other advanced technologies. From its causes and impacts to its solutions, the issues surrounding climate change involve multidisciplinary science and technology. This handbook will provide a single source of this information. The book will be divided into the following sections: Scientific Evidence of Cl...

  8. Climate change mitigation and electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An increasing number of mitigation scenarios with deep cuts in greenhouse gas emissions have focused on expanded use of demand-side electric technologies, including battery electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid vehicles, and heat pumps. Here we review such “electricity scenarios” to explore commonalities and differences. Newer scenarios are produced by various interests, ranging from environmental organizations to industry to an international organization, and represent a variety of carbon-free power generation technologies on the supply side. The reviewed studies reveal that the electrification rate, defined here as the ratio of electricity to final energy demand, rises in baseline scenarios, and that its increase is accelerated under climate policy. The prospect of electrification differs from sector to sector, and is the most robust for the buildings sector. The degree of transport electrification differs among studies because of different treatment and assumptions about technology. Industry does not show an appreciable change in the electrification rate. Relative to a baseline scenario, an increase in the electrification rate often implies an increase in electricity demand but does not guarantee it. - Highlights: ► Until recently few mitigation scenarios paid attention to electrification. ► Recent scenarios show an increasing focus on demand-side electric technologies. ► They are represented by various interests. ► Level of electrification increases with stringency of climate policy. ► Prospect of electrification differs across sectors.

  9. Climate Change Mitigation, Peacebuilding, and Resilience

    OpenAIRE

    Krampe, Florian

    2014-01-01

    How are our efforts to reduce the impact of climate change affecting post-conflict societies? Thinking and research about the possible impacts of climate change adaptation and mitigation on post-conflict societies is almost nonexistent. Most attention remains on climate change and variability and their link to war.1 In this article I discuss the link between climate change mitigation and building peace. Drawing on new empirical data of micro hydropower development in post-conflict Nepal I inq...

  10. Climate change mitigation policies in Lithuania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konstantinaviciute, I.

    2003-09-01

    The Lithuanian climate change policy has to be considered in the framework of the Convention on Climate Change. The National Strategy for Implementation of Convention was the first step in evaluating the country's impact on climate change, adapting to the Convention and foreseeing the means and measures for climate change mitigation. The paper introduces main issues related to climate change mitigation policy in Lithuania. It presents an analysis of greenhouse gas emission trends in Lithuania and surveys institutional organizations as well as stakeholder associations related to climate change issues and their role in climate policy making. The main Lithuanian international environmental obligation and Lithuanian governmental climate change mitigation policy in the energy sector are presented as well. (Author)

  11. Climate Change Mitigation A Balanced Approach to Climate Change

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    This book provides a fresh and innovative perspective on climate change policy. By emphasizing the multiple facets of climate policy, from mitigation to adaptation, from technological innovation and diffusion to governance issues, it contains a comprehensive overview of the economic and policy dimensions of the climate problem. The keyword of the book is balance. The book clarifies that climate change cannot be controlled by sacrificing economic growth and many other urgent global issues. At the same time, action to control climate change cannot be delayed, even though gradually implemented. Therefore, on the one hand climate policy becomes pervasive and affects all dimensions of international policy. On the other hand, climate policy cannot be too ambitious: a balanced approach between mitigation and adaptation, between economic growth and resource management, between short term development efforts and long term innovation investments, should be adopted. I recommend its reading. Carlo Carraro, President, Ca�...

  12. Can increased organic consumption mitigate climate changes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heerwagen, Lennart Ravn; Andersen, Laura Mørch; Christensen, Tove;

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the evidence for a positive correlation between increased consumption of organic products and potential climate change mitigation via decreased consumption of meat and it is discussed to what extent organic consumption is motivated by climate...... correlation between increasing organic budget shares and decreasing meat budget shares is found. People include food-related behaviour such as the purchase of organic food and reduced meat consumption as ways to mitigate climate change. However, other behavioural modifications such as reduction of car usage...... household data would supplement the analyses. Practical implications – Demand-side policies aiming at climate-friendly consumption could be a central factor in combating climate change. Already, food-related mitigation strategies such as lowered meat consumption are established practices among a group of...

  13. Climate change mitigation and sustainability: Educational issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciegis, R.; Streimikiene, D.; Gineitiene, D. [Socio-Cultural Research Centre, Kaunas Faculty of Humanities, Vilnius Univ. (Lithuania)

    2007-07-01

    There is a dual relationship between climate change and sustainable development policies, thus climate change mitigation should be considered in line with policies aiming to implement sustainable development. Training, education and raising awareness are the crucial issues in seeking to implement climate change mitigation and sustainable development policies and especially now, when environmental regulation tools are becoming voluntary and ethical public participation is the most important issue in implementing policies. Only an educated society, which understands the importance of climate change mitigation and sustainable development principles, can create a favourable situation for the development of corporate social responsibility and other voluntary measures. This chapter analyses the relationship between climate change and sustainable development and discusses the most important issues concerning education in this field. The analysis of the main problems and challenges of Parties to UNFCCC in climate change education is performed and comparison with Lithuania's situation in this field is provided. Base on analysis performed, the proposals for the development of education in Lithuania integrating climate change mitigation issues into the scope of sustainable development education were elaborated. (orig.)

  14. Bioenergy and climate change mitigation: an assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Creutzig, Felix; Ravindranath, N. H.; Berndes, Göran; Bolwig, Simon; Bright, Ryan; Cherubini, Francesco; Chum, Helena; Corbera, Esteve; Delucchi, Mark; Faaij, Andre; Fargione, Joseph; Haberl, Helmut; Heath, Garvin; Lucon, Oswaldo; Plevin, Richard; Popp, Alexander; Robledo-Abad, Carmenza; Rose, Steven; Smith, Pete; Stromman, Anders; Sangwon, Suh; Masera, Omar

    2015-01-01

    Bioenergy deployment offers significant potential for climate change mitigation, but also carries considerable risks. In this review, we bring together perspectives of various communities involved in the research and regulation of bioenergy deployment in the context of climate change mitigation......: Land-use and energy experts, land-use and integrated assessment modelers, human geographers, ecosystem researchers, climate scientists and two different strands of life-cycle assessment experts. We summarize technological options, outline the state-of-the-art knowledge on various climate effects...... met, large-scale deployment (>200 EJ), together with BECCS, could help to keep global warming below 2° degrees of preindustrial levels; but such high deployment of land-intensive bioenergy feedstocks could also lead to detrimental climate effects, negatively impact ecosystems, biodiversity and...

  15. Bioenergy and climate change mitigation: an assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Creutzig, Felix; Ravindranath, N. H.; Berndes, Göran;

    2015-01-01

    met, large-scale deployment (>200 EJ), together with BECCS, could help to keep global warming below 2° degrees of preindustrial levels; but such high deployment of land-intensive bioenergy feedstocks could also lead to detrimental climate effects, negatively impact ecosystems, biodiversity and......Bioenergy deployment offers significant potential for climate change mitigation, but also carries considerable risks. In this review, we bring together perspectives of various communities involved in the research and regulation of bioenergy deployment in the context of climate change mitigation......: Land-use and energy experts, land-use and integrated assessment modelers, human geographers, ecosystem researchers, climate scientists and two different strands of life-cycle assessment experts. We summarize technological options, outline the state-of-the-art knowledge on various climate effects...

  16. Climate change adaptation strategies and mitigation policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Fernández, Cristina

    2015-04-01

    The pace of climate change and the consequent warming of the Earth's surface is increasing vulnerability and decreasing adaptive capacity. Achieving a successful adaptation depends on the development of technology, institutional organization, financing availability and the exchange of information. Populations living in arid and semi-arid zones, low-lying coastal areas, land with water shortages or at risk of overflow or small islands are particularly vulnerable to climate change. Due to increasing population density in sensitive areas, some regions have become more vulnerable to events such as storms, floods and droughts, like the river basins and coastal plains. Human activities have fragmented and increased the vulnerability of ecosystems, which limit both, their natural adaptation and the effectiveness of the measures adopted. Adaptation means to carry out the necessary modifications for society to adapt to new climatic conditions in order to reduce their vulnerability to climate change. Adaptive capacity is the ability of a system to adjust to climate change (including climate variability and extremes) and to moderate potential damages, to take advantage of opportunities or face the consequences. Adaptation reduces the adverse impacts of climate change and enhance beneficial impacts, but will not prevent substantial cost that are produced by all damages. The performances require adaptation actions. These are defined and implemented at national, regional or local levels since many of the impacts and vulnerabilities depend on the particular economic, geographic and social circumstances of each country or region. We will present some adaptation strategies at national and local level and revise some cases of its implementation in several vulnerable areas. However, adaptation to climate change must be closely related to mitigation policies because the degree of change planned in different climatic variables is a function of the concentration levels that are achieved

  17. Mitigating climate change: The Philippine case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Government of the Philippines signed the UN Framework Convention on Climate change on June 12, 1992 and the Philippine Congress ratified it in 1994. The Philippine Government has also subsequently created the Inter-Agency Committee on Climate Change (IACCC). The GOP is currently preparing the Philippine Country Study to address climate change. The first phase of the work was financed by a grant from the US Country Studies Program which is led by the US Department of Energy. The Study includes the following elements: a) development of a National Inventory of GHG emission and Sinks; b) vulnerability assessment and evaluation of adaptations of coastal resources; c) identification of alternative programs and measures to promote mitigation and/or adaptation to climate change; d) public information and education campaign; and e) development of the National Action Plan on Climate Change. (au)

  18. Climate change mitigation studies in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Sri Lanka, Climate Change Mitigation Studies have received low priority and have been limited to an ADB-sponsored preliminary study followed by an initial assessment of some mitigation options in the energy and agricultural sectors, with technical assistance from the US Country Studies Program. The major focus was on options of the mitigation of carbon dioxide emissions from the energy sector. Owing to funding constraints, only the potential for reduction of carbon dioxide emissions resulting from the various mitigation options were quantified; analysis of monetary costs and benefits or policy/programs for adoption of the options were not undertaken. For the non-energy sector, a very limited study on mitigation of methane emissions from rice fields was carried out. (au)

  19. Climate change mitigation studies in Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wickramaratne, Rupa [Ministry of Forestry and Environment, GEF/UNDP Enabling Activity Project (Sri Lanka)

    1998-12-01

    In Sri Lanka, Climate Change Mitigation Studies have received low priority and have been limited to an ADB-sponsored preliminary study followed by an initial assessment of some mitigation options in the energy and agricultural sectors, with technical assistance from the US Country Studies Program. The major focus was on options of the mitigation of carbon dioxide emissions from the energy sector. Owing to funding constraints, only the potential for reduction of carbon dioxide emissions resulting from the various mitigation options were quantified; analysis of monetary costs and benefits or policy/programs for adoption of the options were not undertaken. For the non-energy sector, a very limited study on mitigation of methane emissions from rice fields was carried out. (au)

  20. Climate change and parasitic disease: farmer mitigation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Eric R; Wall, Richard

    2009-07-01

    Global climate change predictions suggest that far-ranging effects might occur in the population dynamics and distributions of livestock parasites, provoking fears of widespread increases in disease incidence and production loss. However, several biological mechanisms (including increased parasite mortality and more rapid acquisition of immunity), in tandem with changes in husbandry practices (including reproduction, housing, nutrition, breed selection, grazing patterns and other management interventions), might act to mitigate increased parasite development rates, preventing dramatic rises in overall levels of disease. Such changes might, therefore, counteract predicted climate-driven increases in parasite challenge. Optimum mitigation strategies will be highly system specific and depend on detailed understanding of interactions between climate, parasite abundance, host availability and the cues for and economics of farmer intervention. PMID:19540163

  1. Technologies for Climate Change Mitigation - Agriculture Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uprety, D.C.; Dhar, Subash; Hongmin, Dong;

    Technology Needs Assessment (TNA) project (http://tech-action.org) that is assisting developing countries in identifying and analysing the priority technology needs for mitigating and adapting to climate change. The TNA process involves different stakeholders in a consultative process, enabling all......This guidebook describes crop and livestock management technologies and practices that contribute to climate change mitigation while improving crop productivity, reducing reliance on synthetic fertilizers, and lowering water consumption. It is co-authored by internationally recognised experts in...... the areas of crops, livestock, emissions, and economics, and we are grateful for their efforts in producing this cross disciplinary work. This publication is part of a technical guidebook series produced by the UNEP Risø Centre on Energy, Climate and Sustainable Development (URC) as part of the...

  2. A New Strategy for Mitigating Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaya, Y.; Akimoto, K./ Oda, J.

    2007-07-01

    This paper proposes a new strategy for mitigating climate change, both in short term and in long term. The basic character of the strategy is action oriented with multi-country collaboration, while the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) and Kyoto protocol is numerical target oriented within United Nation Framework. The introductory part of the paper briefly describes deficits of FCCC and Kyoto protocol and the needs of a different strategy for mitigating climate change. Then the short term strategy is focused on energy conservation and its effectiveness for mitigating climate change is illustrated by estimating the potential of reducing CO{sub 2} emission when intense collaboration is achieved for distributing main energy conservation measures in power generation and key industries among Asia Pacific Partnership countries. The long term strategy is developing novel types of renewables among countries. Geoheat and space solar power systems (SSPS) are candidates which may be developed among major developed countries. Necessity of international collaboration is stressed for R and D of these candidate renewables. (auth)

  3. Revaluing unmanaged forests for climate change mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krug Joachim

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unmanaged or old-growth forests are of paramount importance for carbon sequestration and thus for the mitigation of climate change among further implications, e.g. biodiversity aspects. Still, the importance of those forests for climate change mitigation compared to managed forests is under controversial debate. We evaluate the adequacy of referring to CO2 flux measurements alone and include external impacts on growth (nitrogen immissions, increasing temperatures, CO2 enrichment, changed precipitation patterns for an evaluation of central European forests in this context. Results We deduce that the use of CO2 flux measurements alone does not allow conclusions on a superiority of unmanaged to managed forests for mitigation goals. This is based on the critical consideration of uncertainties and the application of system boundaries. Furthermore, the consideration of wood products for material and energetic substitution obviously overrules the mitigation potential of unmanaged forests. Moreover, impacts of nitrogen immissions, CO2 enrichment of the atmosphere, increasing temperatures and changed precipitation patterns obviously lead to a meaningful increase in growth, even in forests of higher age. Conclusions An impact of unmanaged forests on climate change mitigation cannot be valued by CO2 flux measurements alone. Further research is needed on cause and effect relationships between management practices and carbon stocks in different compartments of forest ecosystems in order to account for human-induced changes. Unexpected growth rates in old-growth forests – managed or not – can obviously be related to external impacts and additionally to management impacts. This should lead to the reconsideration of forest management strategies.

  4. Climate Change Mitigation in Swiss Agricultural Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Simone L. Karrer; Dominique Barjolle

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates farmers’ response to climate change mitigation strategies in Swiss agriculture. It reports the results of a discriminant analysis carried out using data from a survey (n = 1’909) among farmers in the German-speaking part of Switzerland. Thereby, the main focus lies on the role of risk perception and barriers to adoption within a conceptual model of decision- making based on the protection motivation theory.

  5. Technology Prizes for Climate Change Mitigation

    OpenAIRE

    Newell, Richard; Wilson, Nathan

    2005-01-01

    We analyze whether technology inducement prizes could be a useful complement to standard research grants and contracts in developing climate change mitigation technologies. We find that there are important conceptual advantages to using inducement prizes in certain circumstances. These conceptual inferences are borne out by an examination of the track record of prizes inducing research into public goods, including relevant energy technologies. However, we also find that the prizes’ successes ...

  6. Integrating uncertainties for climate change mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogelj, Joeri; McCollum, David; Reisinger, Andy; Meinshausen, Malte; Riahi, Keywan

    2013-04-01

    The target of keeping global average temperature increase to below 2°C has emerged in the international climate debate more than a decade ago. In response, the scientific community has tried to estimate the costs of reaching such a target through modelling and scenario analysis. Producing such estimates remains a challenge, particularly because of relatively well-known, but ill-quantified uncertainties, and owing to limited integration of scientific knowledge across disciplines. The integrated assessment community, on one side, has extensively assessed the influence of technological and socio-economic uncertainties on low-carbon scenarios and associated costs. The climate modelling community, on the other side, has worked on achieving an increasingly better understanding of the geophysical response of the Earth system to emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG). This geophysical response remains a key uncertainty for the cost of mitigation scenarios but has only been integrated with assessments of other uncertainties in a rudimentary manner, i.e., for equilibrium conditions. To bridge this gap between the two research communities, we generate distributions of the costs associated with limiting transient global temperature increase to below specific temperature limits, taking into account uncertainties in multiple dimensions: geophysical, technological, social and political. In other words, uncertainties resulting from our incomplete knowledge about how the climate system precisely reacts to GHG emissions (geophysical uncertainties), about how society will develop (social uncertainties and choices), which technologies will be available (technological uncertainty and choices), when we choose to start acting globally on climate change (political choices), and how much money we are or are not willing to spend to achieve climate change mitigation. We find that political choices that delay mitigation have the largest effect on the cost-risk distribution, followed by

  7. Equity Concerns over Climate Change Mitigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Ying; Pan Jiahu

    2004-01-01

    As a complicated concept with ethical implications, equity or fairness in the field of climate change mitigation concerns the relations not only between individual human beings but also between human beings and the nature. In this paper, after the review of equity between individuals, market and non-market attributes of emissions rights are distinguished and discussed. Based on the argument of equal per capita emissions rights, three types of emissions rights and the concept of minimum emissions rights as social security are proposed.

  8. Assessing climate change mitigation technology interventions by international institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Coninck, H.C. de; Puig, D.

    2015-01-01

    Accelerating the international use of climate mitigation technologies is key if effortsto curb climate change are to succeed, especially in developing countries, where weakdomestic technological innovation systems constrain the uptake of climate change mitigationtechnologies. Several intergovernmental agencies have set up specific programmes to supportthe diffusion of climate mitigation technologies. Using a simplified technological innovationsystem-based framework, this paper aims to systema...

  9. National action to mitigate global climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over 170 participants from 60 countries met for three days in Copenhagen from 7 to 9 June 1994 to discuss howe the aims of the United Nations Framework convention on Climate Change can be translated into practical action. The Conference was organised by the UNEP collaborating Centre on Energy and Environment (UCCEE), with financial support from the Danish International Development Agency (Danida), the Global Environment Facility (GEF), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and Risoe National Laboratory, Denmark. The main objective of the conference was to identify common approaches to national mitigation analysis for countries to use in meeting their commitments under the FCCC, and in setting priorities for national actions. Although addressing a broader theme, the conference marked the completion and publication of the second phase on UNEP Greenhouse Gas Abatement Costing Study. (au)

  10. Climate change mitigation through livestock system transitions

    OpenAIRE

    Havlík, Petr; Valin, Hugo; Herrero, Mario; Obersteiner, Michael; Schmid, Erwin; Rufino, Mariana C.; Mosnier, Aline; Thornton, Philip K.; Böttcher, Hannes; Conant, Richard T.; Frank, Stefan; FRITZ, Steffen; Fuss, Sabine; Kraxner, Florian; Notenbaert, An

    2014-01-01

    The livestock sector contributes significantly to global warming through greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. At the same time, livestock is an invaluable source of nutrition and livelihood for millions of poor people. Therefore, climate mitigation policies involving livestock must be designed with extreme care. Here we demonstrate the large mitigation potential inherent in the heterogeneity of livestock production systems. We find that even within existing systems, autonomous transitions from ext...

  11. Transport policies related to climate change mitigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Kappel, Jannik

    This report presents the Danish national policies on reducing the emissions of greenhouse gasses and reducing Denmark’s dependency on fossil fuels in the transport sector, as well as some of the results of the policies. Systematic focus on efficient transport and climate mitigation started in 2008...... large challenges for the transport sectors, which has not yet been systematically analysed from any Governmental body. In this report we list projects which have done so. The first chapter describes policies and initiatives of international relevance within climate mitigation. The following chapters...... explain in further debt these policies and their effects as well as a number of additional policies and initiatives related to climate mitigation and transport. The private sector and local government has proven important in connection with an efficient transport sector. Hence selected local and regional...

  12. Characterizing Uncertainty for Regional Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unwin, Stephen D.; Moss, Richard H.; Rice, Jennie S.; Scott, Michael J.

    2011-09-30

    This white paper describes the results of new research to develop an uncertainty characterization process to help address the challenges of regional climate change mitigation and adaptation decisions.

  13. Climate Change Education for Mitigation and Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Allison

    2012-01-01

    This article makes the case for the education sector an untapped opportunity to combat climate change. It sets forth a definition of Climate Change Education for Sustainable Development that is comprehensive and multidisciplinary and asserts that it must not only include relevant content knowledge on climate change, environmental and social…

  14. Indonesian National Policy on Adaptation and Mitigation of Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Wahyu Yun Santoso

    2015-01-01

    From its arousal, the issue of climate change or global warming has become a distinct global trend setter in multidisciplinary discussion, including in the law perspective. Within legal discourse, the issue of climate change developed rapidly into several aspect, not only about adaptation nor mitigation, especially since the plurality of moral conviction relevant to the climate change facts. As a global matter, each country has the responsibility to adapt and mitigate with its own characte...

  15. Climate change, nuclear power, and the adaptation-mitigation dilemma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many policy-makers view nuclear power as a mitigation for climate change. Efforts to mitigate and adapt to climate change, however, interact with existing and new nuclear power plants, and these installations must contend with dilemmas between adaptation and mitigation. This paper develops five criteria to assess the adaptation-mitigation dilemma on two major points: (1) the ability of nuclear power to adapt to climate change and (2) the potential for nuclear power operation to hinder climate change adaptation. Sea level rise models for nine coastal sites in the United States, a review of US Nuclear Regulatory Commission documents, and reports from France's nuclear regulatory agency provided insights into issues that have arisen from sea level rise, shoreline erosion, coastal storms, floods, and heat waves. Applying the criteria to inland and coastal nuclear power plants reveals several weaknesses. Safety stands out as the primary concern at coastal locations, while inland locations encounter greater problems with interrupted operation. Adapting nuclear power to climate change entails either increased expenses for construction and operation or incurs significant costs to the environment and public health and welfare. Mere absence of greenhouse gas emissions is not sufficient to assess nuclear power as a mitigation for climate change. - Research Highlights: → The adaptation-mitigation criteria reveal nuclear power's vulnerabilities. → Climate change adaptation could become too costly at many sites. → Nuclear power operation jeopardizes climate change adaptation. → Extreme climate events pose a safety challenge.

  16. PUBLIC PRIVATE COLLABORATION ON CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirckinck-Holmfeld, Kasper

    How can local governments influence companies to reduce their climate change impacts? This overall problem is examined in this PhD thesis. The PhD thesis is based on the experiences of seven Danish municipalities participating in the EU Life+ project, Carbon 20. Analyses are made of the...... companies to implement energy savings • Options for municipal environmental officers to address climate change and energy as part of the direct environmental regulation of companies • Cooperation between municipalities and energy utilities on providing free of charge energy screenings • The municipalities......’ activities to combine local business support with the climate and environmental agenda under the concept of green growth • The learning and competences of the municipal officers. The insights from these five analyses are combined into the sixth analysis as an assessment of the competencies needed to assist...

  17. Climate change and health: impacts, vulnerability, adaptation and mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellstrom, Tord; Weaver, Haylee J

    2009-01-01

    Global climate change is progressing and health impacts have been observed in a number of countries, including Australia. The main health impacts will be due to direct heat exposure, extreme weather, air pollution, reduced local food production, food- and vectorborne infectious diseases and mental stress. The issue is one of major public health importance. Adaptation to reduce the effects of climate change involves many different sectors to minimise negative health outcomes. Wide-scale mitigation is also required, in order to reduce the effects of climate change. In addition, future urban design must be modified to mitigate and adapt to the effects of climate change. Strategies for mitigation and adaptation can create co-benefits for both individual and community health, by reducing non-climate-related health hazard exposures and by encouraging health promoting behaviours and lifestyles. PMID:19261209

  18. Benefits of interrelationships between climate change mitigation and adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Lea Ravnkilde; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl

    2014-01-01

    and product 2: climate change adaptation. The production possibilities frontier (PPF) summarises the production benefits of the two products. The case study of the paper is the replanting of mangrove forests in the coastal wetland areas of Peam Krasaob Wildlife Sanctuary in Cambodia. The benefits of...... climate change mitigation will be estimated on the basis of the amount of carbon sequestrated in the replanted area. The benefits of climate change adaptation are the replanted area’s ability to protect the local community from storms and sea level rise, including the co-benefits of enhanced productivity...... estimated benefits of climate change mitigation and adaptation are tested under different climate change scenarios, seeing as the impact and frequency of storms can have a significant effect on coastal wetland areas and the replanting of the mangrove forests and therefore also on the joint benefits of...

  19. Carbon Sequestration to Mitigate Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundquist, Eric; Burruss, Robert; Faulkner, Stephen; Gleason, Robert; Harden, Jennifer; Kharaka, Yousif; Tieszen, Larry; Waldrop, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Human activities, especially the burning of fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and gas, have caused a substantial increase in the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere. This increase in atmospheric CO2 - from about 280 to more than 380 parts per million (ppm) over the last 250 years - is causing measurable global warming. Potential adverse impacts include sea-level rise; increased frequency and intensity of wildfires, floods, droughts, and tropical storms; changes in the amount, timing, and distribution of rain, snow, and runoff; and disturbance of coastal marine and other ecosystems. Rising atmospheric CO2 is also increasing the absorption of CO2 by seawater, causing the ocean to become more acidic, with potentially disruptive effects on marine plankton and coral reefs. Technically and economically feasible strategies are needed to mitigate the consequences of increased atmospheric CO2. The United States needs scientific information to develop ways to reduce human-caused CO2 emissions and to remove CO2 from the atmosphere.

  20. Global climate change: Implications, challenges, and mitigation measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book presents a perspective of the potential problem of global climate change induced by human activity. The editors have presented viewpoints of experts (advocates and skeptics) representing the issues of climate change. Possible results from long-term global change discussed in this book include mass migrations of plants and animals; changes in crop yields; flood and drought; and economic, political, and cultural changes. The text contains 20 chapters on the impact of global climate change and 10 chapters on the mitigation of effects and policy development

  1. How much climate change can be avoided by mitigation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Warren M.; Knutti, Reto; Meehl, Gerald A.; Teng, Haiyan; Tebaldi, Claudia; Lawrence, David; Buja, Lawrence; Strand, Warren G.

    2009-04-01

    Avoiding the most serious climate change impacts will require informed policy decisions. This in turn will require information regarding the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions required to stabilize climate in a state not too much warmer than today. A new low emission scenario is simulated in a global climate model to show how some of the impacts from climate change can be averted through mitigation. Compared to a non-intervention reference scenario, emission reductions of about 70% by 2100 are required to prevent roughly half the change in temperature and precipitation that would otherwise occur. By 2100, the resulting stabilized global climate would ensure preservation of considerable Arctic sea ice and permafrost areas. Future heat waves would be 55% less intense, and sea level rise from thermal expansion would be about 57% lower than if a non-mitigation scenario was followed.

  2. Economy of climatic change. From mitigation to adaptation policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate change adaptation policies are the subject of this thesis. It has been showed that the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (1992) and the response strategies construction are characteristic of a pollutionist approach. This approach led to envision the question of climate change as a classic pollution and environment issue. As a result, this approach has generated a double bias to the disadvantage of adaptation compared to mitigation policies: adaptation has been confined in a secondary and marginal role in climate policies structuring, and with an inoperative conceptual and methodological framework for its implementation. The thesis proposes a deconstruction of this climate change conceptualization. Moreover, the major limits that characterize mitigation policies call into question the predominance given to them in climate policies construction. The 'pollutionist' approach deconstruction allows at first to show that adaptation policies definition and operationalization need to go beyond (i) the standard analytic framework of climate policies and, (ii) the climate change conceptualization as a classic pollution and environment management issue. The thesis then argues that adaptation has to be integrated in development promoting policies, which means that adaptation needs to be conceptualized no longer as an ad hoc management of pollution effects issue, but as a development issue. Whether in the proper context of adaptation policies, or more largely of climate policies, the thesis leaves open the questions of the viability, but also of the organization and financing modalities, of a climate regime which fits within development promoting. (author)

  3. Climate change mitigation in the energy sector of developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Framework Convention on Climate change, singed by more than 150 governments worldwide, calls on parties to the Convention to undertake inventories of national sources and sinks of greenhouse gases and to develop plans for responding to climate change. Several institutions, including UNEP, have initiated programs to assist developing countries and countries with economies in transition to meet this obligation. This paper describes a mitigation methodology that is being used for these country studies, and discusses issues that have arisen in conducting mitigation assessments for developing countries in the past. (EG)

  4. Volume 3 Chapter 1: Mitigation and adaptation to climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Mechler, R.; Nakicenovic, N.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the needs and opportunities as well as the constraints and barriers with respect to mitigation and adaptation to climate change. While the chapter concentrates mainly on Austria, information is provided on the global and EU level to the extent they are relevant for Austria. Section 1.1 discusses the targets already specified for mitigation at the global level, as well as technologies that are already available or are emerging with the potential to meet the challenges a...

  5. Global Warming Control to Mitigate Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Antipas T. S. Massawe

    2012-01-01

    Paper describes a proposed development of empirical model of global warming fit on the collective determinants in all countries. Aim is to enable establishment and comparison of the collective effects of global determinants on global warming in the prescription of the regulations most fit for the collective deployment in each of the determinant countries to enable mitigation of the greenhouse gases build-up caused global warming.

  6. Industrial Energy Efficiency and Climate Change Mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, Ernst; Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Price, Lynn; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Harnisch, Jochen

    2009-02-02

    Industry contributes directly and indirectly (through consumed electricity) about 37% of the global greenhouse gas emissions, of which over 80% is from energy use. Total energy-related emissions, which were 9.9 GtCO2 in 2004, have grown by 65% since 1971. Even so, industry has almost continuously improved its energy efficiency over the past decades. In the near future, energy efficiency is potentially the most important and cost-effective means for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from industry. This paper discusses the potential contribution of industrial energy efficiency technologies and policies to reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions to 2030.

  7. Assessing climate change mitigation technology interventions by international institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Coninck, Heleen; Puig, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Accelerating the international use of climate mitigation technologies is key if effortsto curb climate change are to succeed, especially in developing countries, where weakdomestic technological innovation systems constrain the uptake of climate change mitigationtechnologies. Several...... intergovernmental agencies have set up specific programmes to supportthe diffusion of climate mitigation technologies. Using a simplified technological innovationsystem-based framework, this paper aims to systematically review these programmes, with thedual aim of assessing their collective success in promoting...... further developed include knowledge development, legitimation and marketformation. These could be focal areas for the UNFCCC Technology Mechanism. We recommendthat, in future programmes, part of the funding is dedicated to programmes doingresearch and development as well as capability development....

  8. Does leadership promote cooperation in climate change mitigation policy?

    OpenAIRE

    Saul, U; C. Seidel

    2011-01-01

    In the run-up to the Copenhagen negotiations, commentators, politicians and the public had great expectations of some state taking the lead towards a new global climate deal. Is there something in such a call for leadership? In two steps, this article provides an empirically informed answer to that question. The first part develops a theoretical account of the relation between leadership and cooperation in international climate change mitigation policy (ICCMP). Starting from a five-dimensiona...

  9. China–Europe Relations in the Mitigation of Climate Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berger, Axel; Fischer, Doris; Lema, Rasmus;

    2013-01-01

    Despite the large-scale investments of both China and the EU in climate-change mitigation and renewable-energy promotion, the prevailing view on China–EU relations is one of conflict rather than cooperation. In order to evaluate the prospects of cooperation between China and the EU in these policy...

  10. A country framework for analyzing climate change mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Once the global community accepted the threat of global climate change as a serious one, many countries began to study its possible consequences and the scope for national action that could help mitigate it. Governments will find that national climate change studies are useful quite apart from helping them to fulfill commitments under the FCCC. All countries, developed and developing, will benefit from an understanding of the sacrifice they need to make for the greater benefit of climate change mitigation. This sacrifice - that is, the set of trade-offs or the 'added burden' - is what economists refer to as the 'incremental cost' of climate change mitigation actions. All countries will benefit from knowing what these costs are and from knowing how much their national action will matter. Using measures of cost and mitigation, they will be able to choose from among their alternative national actions those with the greatest effect and the lowest incremental cost. Eligible countries can also use these measures to negotiate the amount of financial assistance they need from the financial mechanism of the FCCC or other sources. A country framework for medium-term considerations will yield results useful for investment planning, policy choice, and financial reimbursement (where appropriate). This is the focus of the framework outlined in this paper. (EG) 15 refs

  11. Investigating afforestation and bioenergy CCS as climate change mitigation strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The land-use sector can contribute to climate change mitigation not only by reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, but also by increasing carbon uptake from the atmosphere and thereby creating negative CO2 emissions. In this paper, we investigate two land-based climate change mitigation strategies for carbon removal: (1) afforestation and (2) bioenergy in combination with carbon capture and storage technology (bioenergy CCS). In our approach, a global tax on GHG emissions aimed at ambitious climate change mitigation incentivizes land-based mitigation by penalizing positive and rewarding negative CO2 emissions from the land-use system. We analyze afforestation and bioenergy CCS as standalone and combined mitigation strategies. We find that afforestation is a cost-efficient strategy for carbon removal at relatively low carbon prices, while bioenergy CCS becomes competitive only at higher prices. According to our results, cumulative carbon removal due to afforestation and bioenergy CCS is similar at the end of 21st century (600–700 GtCO2), while land-demand for afforestation is much higher compared to bioenergy CCS. In the combined setting, we identify competition for land, but the impact on the mitigation potential (1000 GtCO2) is partially alleviated by productivity increases in the agricultural sector. Moreover, our results indicate that early-century afforestation presumably will not negatively impact carbon removal due to bioenergy CCS in the second half of the 21st century. A sensitivity analysis shows that land-based mitigation is very sensitive to different levels of GHG taxes. Besides that, the mitigation potential of bioenergy CCS highly depends on the development of future bioenergy yields and the availability of geological carbon storage, while for afforestation projects the length of the crediting period is crucial. (letters)

  12. Investigating afforestation and bioenergy CCS as climate change mitigation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humpenöder, Florian; Popp, Alexander; Dietrich, Jan Philip; Klein, David; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Bonsch, Markus; Bodirsky, Benjamin Leon; Weindl, Isabelle; Stevanovic, Miodrag; Müller, Christoph

    2014-05-01

    The land-use sector can contribute to climate change mitigation not only by reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, but also by increasing carbon uptake from the atmosphere and thereby creating negative CO2 emissions. In this paper, we investigate two land-based climate change mitigation strategies for carbon removal: (1) afforestation and (2) bioenergy in combination with carbon capture and storage technology (bioenergy CCS). In our approach, a global tax on GHG emissions aimed at ambitious climate change mitigation incentivizes land-based mitigation by penalizing positive and rewarding negative CO2 emissions from the land-use system. We analyze afforestation and bioenergy CCS as standalone and combined mitigation strategies. We find that afforestation is a cost-efficient strategy for carbon removal at relatively low carbon prices, while bioenergy CCS becomes competitive only at higher prices. According to our results, cumulative carbon removal due to afforestation and bioenergy CCS is similar at the end of 21st century (600-700 GtCO2), while land-demand for afforestation is much higher compared to bioenergy CCS. In the combined setting, we identify competition for land, but the impact on the mitigation potential (1000 GtCO2) is partially alleviated by productivity increases in the agricultural sector. Moreover, our results indicate that early-century afforestation presumably will not negatively impact carbon removal due to bioenergy CCS in the second half of the 21st century. A sensitivity analysis shows that land-based mitigation is very sensitive to different levels of GHG taxes. Besides that, the mitigation potential of bioenergy CCS highly depends on the development of future bioenergy yields and the availability of geological carbon storage, while for afforestation projects the length of the crediting period is crucial.

  13. Climate change mitigation policy paradigms — national objectives and alignments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halsnæs, Kirsten; Garg, Amit; Christensen, John M.;

    2014-01-01

    for discussing how a multi objective policy paradigm can contribute to future climate change mitigation. The paper includes country case studies from Brazil, Canada, China, the European Union (EU), India, Japan, Mexico, Nigeria, South Africa, South Korea and the United States covering renewable energy options......, industry, transportation, the residential sector and cross-sectoral policies. These countries and regions together contribute more than two thirds of global GHG emissions. The paper finds that policies that are nationally driven and that have multiple objectives, including climate-change mitigation, have...... been widely applied for decades in both developing countries and industrialised countries. Many of these policies have a long history, and adjustments have taken place based on experience and cost effectiveness concerns. Various energy and climate-change policy goals have worked together...

  14. Methodological Issues on Climate Change Mitigation Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene; Borges, Pedro Castro; Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    1999-01-01

    , etc.) interact to analyse and solve important decision problems by applying methodologies. A simple framework is used to identify several sources of contradictions that may have a significant impact on studies carried out in the single countries as well on the implementation of abatement measures....... Some methodological principles are suggested to address such contradictions, structure, and change th einteractions between the different dimensions of hte social process framework. Two studies are mentioned in which ideas are presented on how to deal with the central contradictions. Applying such...... methodologies to case studies is seen as one way of improving the chances of understanding and handling environmental problems...

  15. Potentials to mitigate climate change using biochar - the Austrian perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckman, Viktor J.; Klinglmüller, Michaela; Liu, Jay; Uzun, Basak B.; Varol, Esin A.

    2015-04-01

    Biomass utilization is seen as one of various promising strategies to reduce additional carbon emissions. A recent project on potentials of biochar to mitigate climate change (FOREBIOM) goes even a step further towards bioenergy in combination of CCS or "BECS" and tries to assess the current potentials, from sustainable biomass availability to biochar amendment in soils, including the identification of potential disadvantages and current research needs. The current report represents an outcome of the 1st FOREBIOM Workshop held in Vienna in April, 2013 and tries to characterize the Austrian perspective of biochar for climate change mitigation. The survey shows that for a widespread utilization of biochar in climate change mitigation strategies, still a number of obstacles have to be overcome. There are concerns regarding production and application costs, contamination and health issues for both producers and customers besides a fragmentary knowledge about biochar-soil interactions specifically in terms of long-term behavior, biochar stability and the effects on nutrient cycles. However, there are a number of positive examples showing that biochar indeed has the potential to sequester large amounts of carbon while improving soil properties and subsequently leading to a secondary carbon sink via rising soil productivity. Diversification, cascadic utilization and purpose designed biochar production are key strategies overcoming initial concerns, especially regarding economic aspects. A theoretical scenario calculation showed that relatively small amounts of biomass that is currently utilized for energy can reduce the gap between Austria's current GHG emissions and the Kyoto target by about 30% if biomass residues are pyrolized and biochar subsequently used as soil amendment. However, by using a more conservative approach that is representing the aims of the underlying FOREBIOM project (assuming that 10% of the annual biomass increment from forests is used for biochar

  16. Economics of nuclear power and climate change mitigation policies

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, Nico; Brecha, Robert J.; Luderer, Gunnar

    2012-01-01

    The events of March 2011 at the nuclear power complex in Fukushima, Japan, raised questions about the safe operation of nuclear power plants, with early retirement of existing nuclear power plants being debated in the policy arena and considered by regulators. Also, the future of building new nuclear power plants is highly uncertain. Should nuclear power policies become more restrictive, one potential option for climate change mitigation will be less available. However, a systematic analysis ...

  17. Role of Biodiversity in Climate Change Mitigation (ROBIN). Final report

    OpenAIRE

    Parr, Terry

    2016-01-01

    Tropical forest landscapes are hot spots for biodiversity and hold substantial stores of carbon. They are used by forestry, agriculture, nature conservation and other sectors, and they must provide for peoples’ health, well-being and economic security. The aim of the EC’s ROBIN project was to reconcile these many and potentially conflicting demands by understanding, measuring and quantifying the role of biodiversity in mitigating climate change and in providing other benefits to people. It ad...

  18. Development of bioenergy conversion alternatives for climate change mitigation

    OpenAIRE

    Nana S.A. Derkyi, Daniel Sekyere, Philip Y. Okyere, Nicholas A. Darkwa, Samuel K. Nketiah

    2011-01-01

    Traditional charcoal production, firewood sourcing and over-dependence on the national grid for electricity are associated with high greenhouse gas emissions relative to other common energy options. However, there have been few attempts to analyze the potential of cogeneration and briquetting as favourable energy options for climate change mitigation. The possibility of utilizing abundant wood residues to produce energy for domestic and industrial application through co-generation and sawdust...

  19. Climate change, mitigation and adaptation with uncertainty and learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the major issues in climate change policy is how to deal with the considerable uncertainty that surrounds many of the elements. Some of these uncertainties will be resolved through the process of further research. This process of learning raises a crucial timing question: should society delay taking action in anticipation of obtaining better information, or should it accelerate action, because we might learn that climate change is much more serious than expected. Much of the analysis to date has focussed on the case where the actions available to society are just the mitigation of emissions, and where there is little or no role for learning. We extend the analysis to allow for both mitigation and adaptation. We show that including adaptation weakens the effect of the irreversibility constraint and so, for this model, makes it more likely that the prospect of future learning should lead to less action now to deal with climate change. We review the empirical literature on climate change policy with uncertainty, learning, and irreversibility, and show that to date the effects on current policy are rather small, though this may reflect the particular choice of models employed

  20. Strategies to mitigate climate change in a sustainable development framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strategies that mitigate climate resulting from increasing concentration of greenhouse gas emissions while promoting sustainable and equitable development are needed to be taken rapidly and immediately by countries world-wide. Choice of strategies that are sensitive to regional and national needs is a major challenge because of diversities in responsibility and obligations and developmental needs in the world. However, large number of tools and techniques available which can assist countries and regions to determine such strategies. They will need to be continuously adapted so as to overcome the numerous barriers and threats that remain in implementing actions to mitigate for climate change. To ensure sustainable development for the vast majority in the world, local management of resources is crucial. (au)

  1. Economics of nuclear power and climate change mitigation policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Nico; Brecha, Robert J; Luderer, Gunnar

    2012-10-16

    The events of March 2011 at the nuclear power complex in Fukushima, Japan, raised questions about the safe operation of nuclear power plants, with early retirement of existing nuclear power plants being debated in the policy arena and considered by regulators. Also, the future of building new nuclear power plants is highly uncertain. Should nuclear power policies become more restrictive, one potential option for climate change mitigation will be less available. However, a systematic analysis of nuclear power policies, including early retirement, has been missing in the climate change mitigation literature. We apply an energy economy model framework to derive scenarios and analyze the interactions and tradeoffs between these two policy fields. Our results indicate that early retirement of nuclear power plants leads to discounted cumulative global GDP losses of 0.07% by 2020. If, in addition, new nuclear investments are excluded, total losses will double. The effect of climate policies imposed by an intertemporal carbon budget on incremental costs of policies restricting nuclear power use is small. However, climate policies have much larger impacts than policies restricting the use of nuclear power. The carbon budget leads to cumulative discounted near term reductions of global GDP of 0.64% until 2020. Intertemporal flexibility of the carbon budget approach enables higher near-term emissions as a result of increased power generation from natural gas to fill the emerging gap in electricity supply, while still remaining within the overall carbon budget. Demand reductions and efficiency improvements are the second major response strategy. PMID:23027963

  2. IPCC Climate Change 2013: Mitigation of Climate Change - Key Findings and Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokona, Youba

    2014-05-01

    The Working Group III contribution to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Mitigation of Climate Change, examines the results of scientific research about mitigation, with special attention on how knowledge has evolved since the Fourth Assessment Report published in 2007. Throughout, the focus is on the implications of its findings for policy, without being prescriptive about the particular policies that governments and other important participants in the policy process should adopt. The report begins with a framing of important concepts and methods that help to contextualize the findings presented throughout the assessment. The valuation of risks and uncertainties, ethical concepts and the context of sustainable development and equity are among the guiding principles for the assessment of mitigation strategies. The report highlights past trends in stocks and flows of greenhouse gases and the factors that drive emissions at global, regional, and sectoral scales including economic growth, technology or population changes. It provides analyses of the technological, economic and institutional requirements of long-term mitigation scenarios and details on mitigation measures and policies that are applied in different economic sectors and human settlements. It then discusses interactions of mitigation policies and different policy instrument types at national, regional and global governance levels and between economic sectors, The Working Group III report comprises 16 chapters and in assembling this assessment authors were guided by the principles of the IPCC mandate: to be explicit about mitigation options, to be explicit about their costs and about their risks and opportunities vis-à-vis other development priorities, and to be explicit about the underlying criteria, concepts, and methods for evaluating alternative policies.

  3. Climate Change, Carbon Dioxide, and Pest Biology: Monitor, Mitigate, Manage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziska, Lewis H; McConnell, Laura L

    2016-01-13

    Rising concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide ([CO2]) and subsequent changes in climate, including temperature and precipitation extremes, are very likely to alter pest pressures in both managed and unmanaged plant communities. Such changes in pest pressures can be positive (migration from a region) or negative (new introductions), but are likely to be accompanied by significant economic and environmental consequences. Recent studies indicate the range of invasive weeds such as kudzu and insects such as mountain pine beetle have already expanded to more northern regions as temperatures have risen. To reduce these consequences, a better understanding of the link between CO2/climate and pest biology is needed in the context of existing and new strategies for pest management. This paper provides an overview of the probable biological links and the vulnerabilities of existing pest management (especially chemical control) and provides a preliminary synthesis of research needs that could potentially improve the ability to monitor, mitigate, and manage pest impacts. PMID:25671793

  4. Towards food, feed and energy crops mitigating climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippot, Laurent; Hallin, Sara

    2011-09-01

    Agriculture is an important source of anthropogenic emissions of the greenhouse gases (GHG), methane (CH(4)) and nitrous oxide (N(2)O), and crops can affect the microbial processes controlling these emissions in many ways. Here, we summarize the current knowledge of plant-microbe interactions in relation to the CH(4) and N(2)O budgets and show how this is promoting new generations of crop cultivars that have the potential to mitigate GHG emissions for future agricultural use. The possibility of breeding low GHG-emitting cultivars is a paradigm shift towards sustainable agriculture that balances climate change and food and bioenergy security. PMID:21700487

  5. Climate change mitigation policies and poverty in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Zekarias; Hertel, Thomas; Golub, Alla

    2013-09-01

    Mitigation of the potential impacts of climate change is one of the leading policy concerns of the 21st century. However, there continues to be heated debate about the nature, the content and, most importantly, the impact of the policy actions needed to limit greenhouse gas emissions. One contributing factor is the lack of systematic evidence on the impact of mitigation policy on the welfare of the poor in developing countries. In this letter we consider two alternative policy scenarios, one in which only the Annex I countries take action, and the second in which the first policy is accompanied by a forest carbon sequestration policy in the non-Annex regions. Using an economic climate policy analysis framework, we assess the poverty impacts of the above policy scenarios on seven socio-economic groups in 14 developing countries. We find that the Annex-I-only policy is poverty friendly, since it enhances the competitiveness of non-Annex countries—particularly in agricultural production. However, once forest carbon sequestration incentives in the non-Annex regions are added to the policy package, the overall effect is to raise poverty in the majority of our sample countries. The reason for this outcome is that the dominant impacts of this policy are to raise returns to land, reduce agricultural output and raise food prices. Since poor households rely primarily on their own labor for income, and generally own little land, and since they also spend a large share of their income on food, they are generally hurt on both the earning and the spending fronts. This result is troubling, since forest carbon sequestration—particularly through avoided deforestation—is a promising, low cost option for climate change mitigation.

  6. Climate change mitigation policies and poverty in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitigation of the potential impacts of climate change is one of the leading policy concerns of the 21st century. However, there continues to be heated debate about the nature, the content and, most importantly, the impact of the policy actions needed to limit greenhouse gas emissions. One contributing factor is the lack of systematic evidence on the impact of mitigation policy on the welfare of the poor in developing countries. In this letter we consider two alternative policy scenarios, one in which only the Annex I countries take action, and the second in which the first policy is accompanied by a forest carbon sequestration policy in the non-Annex regions. Using an economic climate policy analysis framework, we assess the poverty impacts of the above policy scenarios on seven socio-economic groups in 14 developing countries. We find that the Annex-I-only policy is poverty friendly, since it enhances the competitiveness of non-Annex countries—particularly in agricultural production. However, once forest carbon sequestration incentives in the non-Annex regions are added to the policy package, the overall effect is to raise poverty in the majority of our sample countries. The reason for this outcome is that the dominant impacts of this policy are to raise returns to land, reduce agricultural output and raise food prices. Since poor households rely primarily on their own labor for income, and generally own little land, and since they also spend a large share of their income on food, they are generally hurt on both the earning and the spending fronts. This result is troubling, since forest carbon sequestration—particularly through avoided deforestation—is a promising, low cost option for climate change mitigation. (letter)

  7. Urban Planning and Climate Change: Adaptation and Mitigation Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulvia Pinto

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is a current phenomenon: the temperatures rise, rainfall patterns are changing, glaciers melt and the average global sea level is rising. It is expected that these changes will continue and that the extreme weather events, such as floods and droughts, will become more frequent and intense. The impact and vulnerability factors for nature, for the economy and for our health are different, depending on the territorial, social and economic aspects. The current scientific debate is focused on the need to formulate effective policies for adaptation and mitigation to climate change. The city plays an important role in this issue: it emits the most greenhouse gas emissions (more than 60% of the world population currently lives in urban areas and the city is more exposed and vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. Urban planning and territorial governance play a crucial role in this context: the international debate on the sustainability of urban areas is increasing. It’s necessary to adapt the tools of building regulations to increase the quality of energy - environment of the cities.

  8. Promoting interactions between local climate change mitigation, sustainable energy development, and rural development policies in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lithuania has developed several important climate change mitigation policy documents however there are no attempts in Lithuania to develop local climate change mitigation policies or to decentralize climate change mitigation policy. Seeking to achieve harmonization and decentralization of climate change mitigation and energy policies in Lithuania the framework for local climate change mitigation strategy need to be developed taking into account requirements, targets and measures set in national climate change mitigation and energy policy documents. The paper will describe how national climate change mitigation and energy policies can be implemented via local energy and climate change mitigation plans. The aim of the paper is to analyze the climate change mitigation policy and its relationship with policies promoting sustainable energy development in Lithuania and to present a framework for local approaches to climate change mitigation in Lithuania, in the context of the existing national and supra-national energy, climate change, and rural development policies. - Highlights: ► The framework for local energy action plans is offered. ► The structural support possibilities are assessed with respect to the Lithuanian legal base. ► The proposals are given for further promotion of sustainable energy at the local level.

  9. United States policy for mitigating global climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary objective of this paper is to explain current US policy on global climate change. US Department of Energy (DOE) efforts to implement this policy are described. A secondary objective of this paper is to discuss from a US perspective the social and political efforts which must be initiated in order for ocean storage of CO2 to be considered as a viable CO2 mitigation option. The fact that the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) has not been successful in reducing greenhouse gas emissions is now recognized. Thus, US policy has shifted towards the development of binding medium-term emissions targets and long-term atmosphere concentration goals. The US believes these goals can be accomplished through the adoption of cost-effective joint implementation agreements and international emissions trading mechanisms. Studies are currently underway to assess specific targets and timetables for emissions reductions. Voluntary efforts on the part of US industry have proven to be extremely successful in reducing US CO2-emissions. The US electric utility industry has taken the lead in voluntarily lowering greenhouse gas emissions under the DOE Climate Challenge Program. Areas of research interest to DOE include the development of high efficiency advanced power generation cycles and CO2 sequestration technology. The US currently spends $1.6 billion on understanding global climate phenomena and only $1.6 million on CO2 mitigation research. A number of socio-political considerations must be looked at in assessing the feasibility of ocean storage of CO2. Developing public trust appears to be a major concern in establishing the acceptability of ocean storage. Uncertainties in the effects of CO2 on marine life, potential safety hazards associated with pipelining, and ship transport of CO2 are all issues which must be dealt with as soon as possible. Some hidden costs associated with ocean disposal is also discussed

  10. Development of bioenergy conversion alternatives for climate change mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana S.A. Derkyi, Daniel Sekyere, Philip Y. Okyere, Nicholas A. Darkwa, Samuel K. Nketiah

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Traditional charcoal production, firewood sourcing and over-dependence on the national grid for electricity are associated with high greenhouse gas emissions relative to other common energy options. However, there have been few attempts to analyze the potential of cogeneration and briquetting as favourable energy options for climate change mitigation. The possibility of utilizing abundant wood residues to produce energy for domestic and industrial application through co-generation and sawdust briquetting was assessed. Annual residues generated in the three mills studied ranged from 19,230 m3 to 32,610 m3. Annual output of semi-carbonized and carbonized sawdust briquette from the briquette factory studied was 1400 tonnes. Heating values of the wood species ranged from 8.2 to 20.3 MJ/kg. Power requirements for the mills, necessary for sizing co-generation units were derived from their monthly electricity bills. Power ratings for co-generation units were specified between 400 kWe to 2000 kWe with heat to power ratios of 19 to 21. The energy generated could be used to produce electrical power and reduce dependency on the national grid. Conversion of sawdust in the briquette factory potentially contributes a saving of 5,600 tonnes of trees/year that would have been cut from the forest. Thus, adoption of co-generation and sawdust briquetting nationwide could be of immense benefit to the country in terms of climate change mitigation.

  11. Development of bioenergy conversion alternatives for climate change mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derkyi, Nana S.A.; Sekyere, Daniel [CSIR-FORIG, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology KNUST Box 63 (Ghana); Okyere, Philip Y. [Electrical Engineering Department, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology KNUST (Ghana); Darkwa, Nicholas A. [FRNR, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology KNUST (Ghana); Nketiah, Samuel K. [TROPENBOS International (Ghana)

    2011-07-01

    Traditional charcoal production, firewood sourcing and over-dependence on the national grid for electricity are associated with high greenhouse gas emissions relative to other common energy options. However, there have been few attempts to analyze the potential of cogeneration and briquetting as favourable energy options for climate change mitigation. The possibility of utilizing abundant wood residues to produce energy for domestic and industrial application through co-generation and sawdust briquetting was assessed. Annual residues generated in the three mills studied ranged from 19,230 m3 to 32,610 m3. Annual output of semi-carbonized and carbonized sawdust briquette from the briquette factory studied was 1400 tonnes. Heating values of the wood species ranged from 8.2 to 20.3 MJ/kg. Power requirements for the mills, necessary for sizing co-generation units were derived from their monthly electricity bills. Power ratings for co-generation units were specified between 400 kWe to 2000 kWe with heat to power ratios of 19 to 21. The energy generated could be used to produce electrical power and reduce dependency on the national grid. Conversion of sawdust in the briquette factory potentially contributes a saving of 5,600 tonnes of trees/year that would have been cut from the forest. Thus, adoption of co-generation and sawdust briquetting nationwide could be of immense benefit to the country in terms of climate change mitigation.

  12. China's strategy for energy development and climate change mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, China has made great efforts in energy saving and carbon emission reduction by pushing forward domestic sustainable development along with global climate change mitigation. The efforts have paid off with a dramatic decrease in carbon intensity. Nevertheless, China is still confronted with tough challenges in emission control due to the fast pace of industrialization, large total historical emission and high growth rate of emissions. Therefore, China should give priority to energy saving by improving energy efficiency and sectoral structure adjustment and upgrade, and develop sustainable and renewable energy to optimize energy mix and its carbon content. China should continue to regard significant reduction of energy intensity and carbon intensity as the main objective in the near future, strive to achieve peak emissions around 2030, and realize a relatively sharp emissions reduction by 2050 in order to address climate change to meet the goal of making the warming less than 2°. During the 12th Five Year Plan (FYP), China will further strengthen measures to control the amount of energy consumption, establish a statistics, accounting and evaluation system of carbon emissions, and promote a market-based carbon emissions trading mechanism to facilitate the low-carbon transformation of China's economy. - Highlights: ► This paper studies China's strategy for energy development and climate change mitigation. ► We suggest that China should focus on reducing the energy intensity and carbon intensity of GDP, and optimization of energy mix in the near term. ► In the long term, China should achieve the peak emission around 2030, and realize a relative sharp emission reduction by 2050. ► The paper also concludes some important measures which China should take during the 12th Five-Year-Plan (2011–2015).

  13. Climate change and groundwater: India's opportunities for mitigation and adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Tushaar

    2009-07-01

    For millennia, India used surface storage and gravity flow to water crops. During the last 40 years, however, India has witnessed a decline in gravity-flow irrigation and the rise of a booming 'water-scavenging' irrigation economy through millions of small, private tubewells. For India, groundwater has become at once critical and threatened. Climate change will act as a force multiplier; it will enhance groundwater's criticality for drought-proofing agriculture and simultaneously multiply the threat to the resource. Groundwater pumping with electricity and diesel also accounts for an estimated 16-25 million mt of carbon emissions, 4-6% of India's total. From a climate change point of view, India's groundwater hotspots are western and peninsular India. These are critical for climate change mitigation as well as adaptation. To achieve both, India needs to make a transition from surface storage to 'managed aquifer storage' as the center pin of its water strategy with proactive demand- and supply-side management components. In doing this, India needs to learn intelligently from the experience of countries like Australia and the United States that have long experience in managed aquifer recharge.

  14. Climate change and groundwater: India's opportunities for mitigation and adaptation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For millennia, India used surface storage and gravity flow to water crops. During the last 40 years, however, India has witnessed a decline in gravity-flow irrigation and the rise of a booming 'water-scavenging' irrigation economy through millions of small, private tubewells. For India, groundwater has become at once critical and threatened. Climate change will act as a force multiplier; it will enhance groundwater's criticality for drought-proofing agriculture and simultaneously multiply the threat to the resource. Groundwater pumping with electricity and diesel also accounts for an estimated 16-25 million mt of carbon emissions, 4-6% of India's total. From a climate change point of view, India's groundwater hotspots are western and peninsular India. These are critical for climate change mitigation as well as adaptation. To achieve both, India needs to make a transition from surface storage to 'managed aquifer storage' as the center pin of its water strategy with proactive demand- and supply-side management components. In doing this, India needs to learn intelligently from the experience of countries like Australia and the United States that have long experience in managed aquifer recharge.

  15. Building synergies between climate change mitigation and energy poverty alleviation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Even though energy poverty alleviation and climate change mitigation are inextricably linked policy goals, they have remained as relatively disconnected fields of research inquiry and policy development. Acknowledging this gap, this paper explores the mainstream academic and policy literatures to provide a taxonomy of interactions and identify synergies and trade-offs between them. The most important trade-off identified is the potential increase in energy poverty levels as a result of strong climate change action if the internalisation of the external costs of carbon emissions is not offset by efficiency gains. The most significant synergy was found in deep energy efficiency in buildings. The paper argues that neither of the two problems – deep reductions in GHG emissions by mid-century, and energy poverty eradication – is likely to be solved fully on their own merit, while joining the two policy goals may provide a very solid case for deep efficiency improvements. Thus, the paper calls for a strong integration of these two policy goals (plus other key related benefits like energy security or employment), in order to provide sufficient policy motivation to mobilise a wide-scale implementation of deep energy efficiency standards. - Highlights: ► A taxonomy of interactions between climate change and energy poverty is offered. ► Energy poverty levels may increase as a result of strong climate change action. ► However, strong synergies are offered by deep improvements of energy efficiency. ► Access to modern energy carriers is a key requirement in developing countries. ► Sufficiently solving both problems requires the integration of policy goals.

  16. Setting priorities for land management to mitigate climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Böttcher Hannes

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background No consensus has been reached how to measure the effectiveness of climate change mitigation in the land-use sector and how to prioritize land use accordingly. We used the long-term cumulative and average sectorial C stocks in biomass, soil and products, C stock changes, the substitution of fossil energy and of energy-intensive products, and net present value (NPV as evaluation criteria for the effectiveness of a hectare of productive land to mitigate climate change and produce economic returns. We evaluated land management options using real-life data of Thuringia, a region representative for central-western European conditions, and input from life cycle assessment, with a carbon-tracking model. We focused on solid biomass use for energy production. Results In forestry, the traditional timber production was most economically viable and most climate-friendly due to an assumed recycling rate of 80% of wood products for bioenergy. Intensification towards "pure bioenergy production" would reduce the average sectorial C stocks and the C substitution and would turn NPV negative. In the forest conservation (non-use option, the sectorial C stocks increased by 52% against timber production, which was not compensated by foregone wood products and C substitution. Among the cropland options wheat for food with straw use for energy, whole cereals for energy, and short rotation coppice for bioenergy the latter was most climate-friendly. However, specific subsidies or incentives for perennials would be needed to favour this option. Conclusions When using the harvested products as materials prior to energy use there is no climate argument to support intensification by switching from sawn-wood timber production towards energy-wood in forestry systems. A legal framework would be needed to ensure that harvested products are first used for raw materials prior to energy use. Only an effective recycling of biomaterials frees land for long

  17. Co-benefits of Near-Term Climate Change Mitigation

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Klimont

    2012-01-01

    While mitigation of carbon dioxide remains the principal climate target, addressing the so-called short-lived climate forcers including black carbon, tropospheric ozone, and methane offers significant co-benefits for near-term climate, human health, food security, and the cryosphere. Using IIASA’s GAINS (Greenhouse Gas and Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies) model we identified 14 specific emission control measures targeting black carbon and methane, an ozone precursor, that were select...

  18. Implications of small modular reactors for climate change mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achieving climate policy targets will require large-scale deployment of low-carbon energy technologies, including nuclear power. The small modular reactor (SMR) is viewed as a possible solution to the problems of energy security as well as climate change. In this paper, we use an integrated assessment model (IAM) to investigate the evolution of a global energy portfolio with SMRs under a stringent climate policy. Technology selection in the model is based on costs; we use results from previous expert elicitation studies of SMR costs. We find that the costs of achieving a 2 °C target are lower with SMRs than without. The costs are higher when large reactors do not compete for market share compared to a world in which they can compete freely. When both SMRs and large reactors compete for market share, reduction in mitigation cost is achieved only under advanced assumptions about SMR technology costs and future cost improvements. While the availability of SMRs could lower mitigation costs by a moderate amount, actual realization of these benefits would depend on the rapid up-scaling of SMRs in the near term. Such rapid deployment could be limited by several social, institutional and behavioral obstacles. - Highlights: • Costs of achieving a 2 °C target are lower with SMRs than without. • Costs are higher when large reactors do not compete for market share. • Under competition, cost is reduced only with advanced SMR technology. • Realization of benefits will depend on rapid near term up-scaling of SMRs

  19. Optimising fusion's contribution to economically efficient climate change mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The ambience within which fusion development planning is undertaken is changing. Recent publications by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and by the Stern Review (by the former Vice-President and Chief Economist of the World Bank) have removed most of the residual uncertainties about the reality, causation, pace and cost of climate change. European and Governmental decisions, and demonstrations of public support, have displayed increasing commitment to mitigating climate-changing emissions. It is becoming more widely appreciated that during the second two-thirds of this century continued world economic development, and continued growth in energy consumption, must co-exist with the reduction of carbon emissions to very low levels, and that this will give rise to large political and economic forces. The concluding of the ITER Treaty and the Broader Approach Agreement has removed much uncertainty relating to the near-term steps of fusion development. Concerns over energy security and diversity of supply have also markedly increased. Thus, it has become reasonable to plan on the assumption that in twenty years time ITER and IFMIF will have been successful and the world will be eager for clean, secure energy supplies. Previously published 'fast track' scenario studies all assumed a sequential model of fusion development, severely constrained by funding. The present paper explores the economic justification for relaxing these assumptions, drawing on the lessons to be learnt from self-consistent energy/environment/economics modelling, and the resulting potential for more rapid, but cost-effective, fusion deployment. This includes the consideration of the acceptability of reduced targets for the economic performance of the first generation of power plants (as might be evinced, for example, by pulsed operation or ITER design-basis plasma physics, lower fluence-limited lifetime for some components, and lower power density), and overlapping of

  20. The role of nuclear energy in Lithuania under various post-Kyoto climate change mitigation regimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streimikiene, Dalia [Lithuanian Energy Institute, Breslaujos 3, LT-44403 Kaunas (Lithuania)], E-mail: dalia@mail.lei.lt

    2008-07-15

    The article aims to evaluate the potential role of nuclear energy in Lithuania under various post-Kyoto climate change mitigation regimes. Seeking to achieve this target the analysis of possible energy sector development scenarios in Lithuania was performed and CO{sub 2} emission projections for these scenarios were developed. The analysis of post-Kyoto climate change mitigation architectures was performed and the requirements of these possible climate change mitigation regimes for greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction in Lithuania were assessed. Based on these assessments the potential role of new nuclear power in Lithuania was identified under various future climate change mitigation regimes.

  1. Climate Change Disaster Management: Mitigation and Adaptation in a Public Goods Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Reviva Hasson; Åsa Löfgren; Martine Visser

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the collective action problem as it relates to climate change and develops two models that capture the mitigation/adaptation trade-off. The first model presents climate change as a certain disaster, while the second models climate change as a stochastic event. A one-shot public goods experiment with students reveals a relatively low rate of mitigation for both models. The effect of vulnerability towards climate change is also examined by varying the magnitude of the disast...

  2. URBAN INDIA AND CLIMATE CHANGE: MITIGATION STRATEGIES TOWARDS INCLUSIVE GROWTH

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Sohail; Mack Joong CHOI

    2010-01-01

    Climate change has been emerged as a major challenge for the sustainable human settlement. The recent studies have established scientific evidences for climate change. This paper presents impacts of climate change in the urban India, which has about 30 percent of population and expected to grow over 800 million by next 50 years. Citizens are already facing adverse impact of climate change, which is evenly spread throughout the country and mostly to vulnerable citizens. India’s expenditure on ...

  3. Factors Affecting Climate Change Risk Perception and Policy Support for Mitigation Measures: A Case of Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Bhatta, Shiv Raj

    2012-01-01

    Environmental psychology can made significant contribution in understanding climate-risk mitigation behaviors for reducing its adverse impacts, especially in a country highly vulnerable to climate change like Nepal. Individual level analysis to explore what motivate people to support mitigation policies is important for policy consideration. In this study, public perceptions of risk of climate change is assessed and its impacts on public support for risk-mitigation policies in Nepal is examin...

  4. The Paradox of Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation in Danish Housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, Rob

    2012-01-01

    as a climate mitigation strategy has therefore been carried out in relation to future climate change scenarios. It is shown that severe indoor comfort problems can occur, ques-tioning the relevance of passive solar energy as a climate mitigation strategy. In con-clusion, a theoretical study of the interplay...

  5. Etude Climat no. 40 'The contribution of European forest to climate change mitigation'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the publications of CDC Climat Research, 'Climate Reports' offer in-depth analyses on a given subject. This issue addresses the following points: In a framework where no common forestry policy exists at the EU level (such as the Common Agriculture Policy for agriculture), this report lists EU policies that have an impact on climate change mitigation that can be achieved by the forestry sector. With the objective of analyzing the coherence of these policies, we have established a typology and a hierarchy firstly by laying out the legal status and the financial and institutional resources associated with each policy, and secondly by reviewing the objectives of each policy in regards to climate change mitigation in the forestry sector. We finally analyze potentials synergies and conflicts between them

  6. Bioenergy, Land Use Change and Climate Change Mitigation. Report for Policy Advisors and Policy Makers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berndes, Goran [Chalmers Univ. of Technology (Sweden); Bird, Nell [Joanneum Research (Austria); Cowle, Annette [National Centre for Rural Greenhouse Gas Research (Australia)

    2010-07-01

    The report addresses a much debated issue - bioenergy and associated land use change, and how the climate change mitigation from use of bioenergy can be influenced by greenhouse gas emissions arising from land use change. The purpose of the report was to produce an unbiased, authoritative statement on this topic aimed especially at policy advisors and policy makers.

  7. Policy progress in mitigation of climate change in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To make an active contribution to the global effort in mitigation of climate change, Taiwan government has implemented the 'Frameworks for Sustainable Energy Policy-An Energy-Saving and Carbon-Reduction Action Plan' in June 2008. It has made a commitment of a stepwise reduction of nationwide greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, which returns the nationwide GHG emission to 2008 levels by 2020, then reduces to 2000 levels by 2025, and finally cuts 50% of 2000 levels by 2050. The fundamental strategy is to reduce the GHG emission under acceptable economic development and energy security to achieve generation-spanning triple-win in energy, environment and economy. The major policy instruments such as 'Statute for Renewable Energy Development', 'GHG Reduction Law (draft),' 'Regulation for Energy Tax (draft),' and 'Energy Management Act' have been either implemented or scheduled for legislative reviewing. The purpose of this paper is to present an updated review of the outcomes of GHG emission reduction in Taiwan. In addition, the progress and priority of policy instruments in GHG emission reduction are analyzed as well. - Research highlights: →Taiwan has made a commitment of stepwise targets of GHG emission reduction to contribute to the global efforts in combating climate change in 2008. →The near-term target returns the nationwide GHG emissions back to 2008 levels during years of 2016-2020. Then, emission levels are cut to 2000 levels by 2025, and finally 50% of 2000 levels by 2050. →In addition to finish legislative review of the 'GHG Reduction Act', Taiwan has prepared a comprehensive action plan to reduce the national GHG emissions, involving improvement of the efficiency in energy use, development of the sustainable energy, and taxation of carbon on fossils.

  8. Identify: Improving industrial energy efficiency and mitigating global climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of energy in the industrial sectors of nations with both industrialized and developing economies will continue to be, a major source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, particularly carbon dioxide. The patterns of industrial-sector energy use--energy provided primarily by the combustion of fossil fuels-have shifted both within the between countries in recent decades. Projections of future energy use and carbon-dioxide (CO2) emissions suggest continued shifts in these patterns, as industrial production in developed countries stabilizes and declines, while industrial output in the developing world continues to expand. This expansion of industrial-sector activity and CO2 emissions in developing countries presents both a challenge and an opportunity. To seize this opportunity and contribute to international efforts to mitigate global climate change, the United National Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) recently initiated a two-phase effort to help improve the efficiency of energy-intensive industries (iron and steel, chemicals, refining, paper and pulp, and cement) in developing countries. As part of the Phase I, the authors reviewed industrial sector scenarios and to initiated development of a software-based toolkit for identifying and assessing GHG mitigating technologies. This toolkit, called IDENTIFY, is comprised of a technology inventory and a companion economic analysis tool. In addition, UNIDO commissioned institutions in India, South Africa, and Argentina to review energy use patterns and savings opportunities in selected industries across nine developing countries, and contribute to the development of the IDENTIFY toolkit. UNIDO is now preparing to launch Phase 2, which will focus on full development and dissemination of the IDENTIFY toolkit through seminars and case studies around the world. This paper describes Phase 1 of the UNIDO project

  9. Integrated energy planning: Strategies to mitigate climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, Johnny N; Sheffield, John W [University of Missouri-Rolla (United States)

    1997-07-01

    The framework convention on climate change, signed by more than 150 governments worldwide in June 1992, calls on parties to the convention undertaken inventories of national sources and sinks of greenhouse gases and to develop plans for responding to climate change. The energy sector is comprised of the major energy demand sectors (industry, residential and commercial, transport and agriculture), and the energy supply sector, which consists of resource extraction, conversion, and delivery of energy products. Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions occur at various points in the sector, from resource extraction to end use application, and accordingly, options for mitigation exist at various points. In most countries, will be a major focus of GHG mitigation analysis. The primary focus of this paper is on the identification of strategies that can mitigate climate changes on the basis of integrated energy planing analysis. The overall approach follows a methodology developed by the U.S. Country Studies Program under the framework of the Convention's commitments. It involves the development of scenarios based on energy uses and evaluation of specific technologies that can satisfy demands for energy services. One can compare technologies based on their relative cost to achieve a unit of GHG reduction and other features of interest. This approach gives equal weight to both energy supply and energy demand options. A variety of screening criteria including indicators of cost-effectiveness as well as non-economic analysis concerns, can be used to identify and assess promising options, which can then be combined to create one or more scenarios. Mitigation scenarios are evaluated against the backdrop of a baseline scenario, which simulates assumed to take place in the absence of mitigation efforts. Mitigation scenarios can be designed to meet specific emission reduction targets or to simulate the effect of specific policy inventions. The paper ends with an application using a

  10. Geography Teachers and Climate Change: Emotions about Consequences, Coping Strategies, and Views on Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, Mikaela

    2016-01-01

    It has been indicated that teachers' emotions about climate change and their views on mitigation influence their instruction and students' engagement in mitigation actions. The aim of the study is to explore Finnish secondary geography teachers' emotions about the consequences of climate change, their strategies for coping with these emotions, and…

  11. Mitigating Climate Change in the Arid Lands of Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Martin B.; Sorensen, Marten

    2014-05-01

    Mitigating Climate Change in the Arid Lands of Namibia Namibia is the most arid country south of the Sahara, with scarce rainfall and perennial rivers only at its borders, > 80% of the area relies solely on groundwater. This has had devastating economic effects limiting opportunities for sustainable rural livelihoods that keep the population majority living below the World Bank poverty line (IFAD, 2013). A primary example of climatic variability which affects agrarian productivity is increased bush encroachment of Namibia's arid grazing land. The result has been a severe biodiversity loss, increased desertification and diminished water-use efficiency and underground water tables. Given these factors, Namibia's arid lands provide a unique opportunity to assess and test innovative / appropriate adaptation and mitigation strategies. Working toward sustainable management, restoration, and maintenance of balanced, resilient arid ecosystems in Namibia will also be a means to support and expand economic sectors incl. opportunities for job creation and potentially provide a model for similar arid regions. Main vegetation zones are: desert (46%), savannah (37%), and dry woodlands and forests (17%), i.e. dimensions of management strategies within stakeholder groups using participatory approaches. 3. Determine science-based alternatives for adaptive land management strategies and test their acceptability to local communities and within the current policy framework. 4. Integrate identified indigenous knowledge with appropriate science and new emerging technologies to develop a training toolkit of effective strategies relevant to all stakeholders. 5. Utilize training sessions, education workshops, curriculum revisions, and appropriate information and communication technologies (ICTs) including social media outlets to disseminate the toolkit strategies. 6. Apply a modified logic model approach within a value chain analysis process to evaluate program effectiveness and impacts at

  12. Air pollution may alter efforts to mitigate climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassaa, Noureddine

    2016-02-01

    Renewable energy, considered in the past as a mitigation option to climate change by reducing carbon emission, is now becoming a source of energy security and competing fossil fuels in many areas of the world. According to recent reports (e.g., IEA, IRENA, REN21), renewable energy has reached in 2014 a historical record of power generation capacity. With 1712 GW installed capacity in 2014, renewable energy represents 27.7% of the world's power generating capacity. Solar photovoltaic (PV) energy, conversion of solar light to electricity through solar panels, has increased to reach 177 GW mostly due to the political engagement for the deployment of renewable through targeted programs and the decrease of PV panels prize in the market (roughly 80% decrease since 2008 according to IRENA's report). Concentrated Solar Power (CSP), reaching a total capacity of 4.4 GW in 2014 (REN21 Report), is also demonstrating a clear growth and progresses have been made with regards to the efficiency, the storage capacity and the cost. In order to reduce the energy consumption and carbon emissions, water solar heaters are being installed in the rooftop of households and a total capacity of 406 GW thermal was recorded in 2014 (REN21 Report).

  13. Impacts on Canadian Competitiveness of International Climate Change Mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Somerville

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available This article summarizes and provides additional perspective on a study that contributes to the growing body of analyses of the costs of limiting greenhouse gas emissions. The study estimates the economic costs to Canada of six planning scenarios. Four of these scenarios involve the use of tradable emission permits and two involved a carbon tax. In each case, the mechanism's target is to stabilize greenhouse gas emissions at some percentage of 1990 levels (100% or 90% by either 2010 or 2015. Policies that impose greater constraints on carbon dioxide emissions lead to higher economic costs in terms of foregone output. These costs, however, vary for the same objective, depending on the mechanism chosen and the economic assumptions made. In one typical scenario, in which tradable emission permits are used to achieve stabilization at 1990 levels by 2010, GDP is depressed from the "business-as-usual" scenario by about 2% for the first decade, after which it recovers to business-as-usual levels. Generally, for all scenarios, the economic impact of climate change mitigation imposes a transition cost on the economy, but the long-term productive capacity of the economy is not significantly affected.

  14. The incremental cost of climate change mitigation projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The three recent international environmental treaties - the Montreal Protocol, the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC), and the Convention on Biological diversity - include provisions to make available to developing countries financial resources for global environmental benefits. They specify that these resources shall be for 'incremental costs' that are 'agreed' upon by the financial mechanism of the treaties and the country where the project or intervention is to be undertaken. The paper presents a taxonomy of mitigation options based on the work of the Scientific and Technical Advisory Panel (STAP) of the GEF, introduces the definition of incremental costs, and applies it to five potential projects. The examples and calculations are intentionally kept simple to illustrate the concepts involved; possible complications in estimating costs and benefits are mentioned but not elaborated upon. As the examples in this paper demonstrate, a case-by-case approach in the calculation of incremental costs seems inevitable. Factors unique to each situation greatly influence the calculation, underlining the need for 'agreement' between the host country and the implementing agency for projects involving both incremental costs and incremental global benefits. (EG) 14 refs

  15. Why Technical Fixes Won’t Mitigate Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Moriarty, Patrick; Honnery, Damon

    2015-01-01

    We may have already surpassed prudent limits for atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations, and have exceeded (or are near) safe limits for a number of other Earth system processes. If fossil fuels maintain their present share, bringing the expected year 2050 world population up to US primary energy levels would involve a 6-fold rise in energy consumption, with a similar rise in CO2 emissions. We argue that even a combination of the various conventional approaches for climate mitigation will ...

  16. Forest conversion can help to mitigate impacts of climate change on common forest birds

    OpenAIRE

    Gottschalk, Thomas K.; Reiners, Tobias E.

    2015-01-01

    International audience Key messageWe forecasted the effects of climate change and forest conversion options on common forest bird species by employing nation-wide high-resolution models. The results give details on how, where, and for which species forest conversion can mitigate climate change effects.Context To mitigate effects of climate change on forests, alterations are required to convert forests into less vulnerable forest types. Coniferous forest that has been cultivated extensively...

  17. Climate change and climate variability: personal motivation for adaptation and mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ploubidis George B

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Global climate change impacts on human and natural systems are predicted to be severe, far reaching, and to affect the most physically and economically vulnerable disproportionately. Society can respond to these threats through two strategies: mitigation and adaptation. Industry, commerce, and government play indispensable roles in these actions but so do individuals, if they are receptive to behavior change. We explored whether the health frame can be used as a context to motivate behavioral reductions of greenhouse gas emissions and adaptation measures. Methods In 2008, we conducted a cross-sectional survey in the United States using random digit dialing. Personal relevance of climate change from health threats was explored with the Health Belief Model (HBM as a conceptual frame and analyzed through logistic regressions and path analysis. Results Of 771 individuals surveyed, 81% (n = 622 acknowledged that climate change was occurring, and were aware of the associated ecologic and human health risks. Respondents reported reduced energy consumption if they believed climate change could affect their way of life (perceived susceptibility, Odds Ratio (OR = 2.4 (95% Confidence Interval (CI: 1.4 - 4.0, endanger their life (perceived severity, OR = 1.9 (95% CI: 1.1 - 3.1, or saw serious barriers to protecting themselves from climate change, OR = 2.1 (95% CI: 1.2 - 3.5. Perceived susceptibility had the strongest effect on reduced energy consumption, either directly or indirectly via perceived severity. Those that reported having the necessary information to prepare for climate change impacts were more likely to have an emergency kit OR = 2.1 (95% CI: 1.4 - 3.1 or plan, OR = 2.2 (95% CI: 1.5 -3.2 for their household, but also saw serious barriers to protecting themselves from climate change or climate variability, either by having an emergency kit OR = 1.6 (95% CI: 1.1 - 2.4 or an emergency plan OR = 1.5 (95%CI: 1.0 - 2

  18. Climate change adaptation and mitigation in the Congo basin forest of Cameroon : strategies for synergy

    OpenAIRE

    Chia, Eugene Loh

    2011-01-01

    Climate change mitigation through Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and land Degradation (REDD), is dominating climate policy processes in many tropical forests countries. However concerns have been stressed about the implications of these activities for the livelihoods of forest-dependent communities, who are already vulnerable to climatic and non-climatic stresses. Synergizing adaptation and mitigation to exploit win-win opportunities is a necessary but challenging strategy. Build on the...

  19. Effort sharing in ambitious, global climate change mitigation scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekholm, Tommi [TKK Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo (Finland); Soimakallio, Sampo; Syri, Sanna; Savolainen, Ilkka [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, FIN-02044 VTT (Finland); Moltmann, Sara; Hoehne, Niklas [Ecofys Germany GmbH, Cologne (Germany)

    2010-04-15

    The post-2012 climate policy framework needs a global commitment to deep greenhouse gas emission cuts. This paper analyzes reaching ambitious emission targets up to 2050, either or from 1990 levels, and how the economic burden from mitigation efforts could be equitably shared between countries. The scenarios indicate a large low-cost mitigation potential in electricity and industry, while reaching low emission levels in international transportation and agricultural emissions might prove difficult. The two effort sharing approaches, Triptych and Multistage, were compared in terms of equitability and coherence. Both approaches produced an equitable cost distribution between countries, with least developed countries having negative or low costs and more developed countries having higher costs. There is, however, no definitive solution on how the costs should be balanced equitably between countries. Triptych seems to be yet more coherent than other approaches, as it can better accommodate national circumstances. Last, challenges and possible hindrances to effective mitigation and equitable effort sharing are presented. The findings underline the significance of assumptions behind effort sharing on mitigation potentials and current emissions, the challenge of sharing the effort with uncertain future allowance prices and how inefficient markets might undermine the efficiency of a cap-and-trade system. (author)

  20. International energy technology collaboration and climate change mitigation. Synthesis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Justus, D. [Environment Directorate, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development OECD, Paris (France); Philibert, C. [Energy and Environment Division, International Energy Agency IEA, Paris (France)

    2005-11-18

    This paper is the last in an AIXG (Annex 1 Expert Group of the UNFCC) series that looks at international collaboration, particularly for energy technologies, in the context of climate change mitigation. The papers and case studies point out that there is little information to indicate that technology collaboration alone leads to emission reductions on the scale needed to limit growth in greenhouse gas emissions. For many energy production and consumption activities, technology change is a slow process. So to improve the environmental performance of energy technologies and accelerate their uptake, governments need a portfolio approach that includes technology and complementary economic and social policies that provide an adequate framework for essential private sector investment. As the papers and case studies show, international collaboration can help in the quest by speeding momentum, sharing risks, exchanging knowledge and resources, sharing learning investments and harmonising standards. The incentives for collaboration include the need to 'learn' from technical and operational solutions and failed approaches of others, to improve the reliability of tools and techniques, to develop standards across market areas and to foster technical expertise for regulatory and standard setting processes. Technology collaboration can also provide a framework for long-term co-operation on climate change and energy challenges in which Annex I and Non-Annex I Parties can participate. The rationale for governments to engage in international collaboration is considered in the second part of this paper including the benefits and possible drawbacks of co-operative endeavours. Long-term and large-scale transformative energy technologies and systems that entail significant costs and risks are well suited for broad collaboration, as illustrated in the examples of hydrogen-fuel cells and fusion power (see annex) and carbon capture and storage. As new technologies progress

  1. Climate change and eHealth: a promising strategy for health sector mitigation and adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Holmner, Åsa; Ng, Nawi; Nilsson, Maria; Rocklöv, Joacim

    2012-01-01

    Climate change is one of today’s most pressing global issues. Policies to guide mitigation and adaptation are needed to avoid the devastating impacts of climate change. The health sector is a significant contributor to greenhouse gas emissions in developed countries, and its climate impact in low-income countries is growing steadily. This paper reviews and discusses the literature regarding health sector mitigation potential, known and hypothetical co-benefits, and the potential of health inf...

  2. Climate change and eHealth : a promising strategy for health sector mitigation and adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Åsa Holmner; Joacim Rocklöv; Nawi Ng; Maria Nilsson

    2012-01-01

    Climate change is one of today's most pressing global issues. Policies to guide mitigation and adaptation are needed to avoid the devastating impacts of climate change. The health sector is a significant contributor to greenhouse gas emissions in developed countries, and its climate impact in low-income countries is growing steadily. This paper reviews and discusses the literature regarding health sector mitigation potential, known and hypothetical co-benefits, and the potential of hea...

  3. Mitigating Climate Change in the Arid Lands of Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Martin B.; Sorensen, Marten

    2014-05-01

    Mitigating Climate Change in the Arid Lands of Namibia Namibia is the most arid country south of the Sahara, with scarce rainfall and perennial rivers only at its borders, > 80% of the area relies solely on groundwater. This has had devastating economic effects limiting opportunities for sustainable rural livelihoods that keep the population majority living below the World Bank poverty line (IFAD, 2013). A primary example of climatic variability which affects agrarian productivity is increased bush encroachment of Namibia's arid grazing land. The result has been a severe biodiversity loss, increased desertification and diminished water-use efficiency and underground water tables. Given these factors, Namibia's arid lands provide a unique opportunity to assess and test innovative / appropriate adaptation and mitigation strategies. Working toward sustainable management, restoration, and maintenance of balanced, resilient arid ecosystems in Namibia will also be a means to support and expand economic sectors incl. opportunities for job creation and potentially provide a model for similar arid regions. Main vegetation zones are: desert (46%), savannah (37%), and dry woodlands and forests (17%), i.e. management strategies currently used by rural communities. 2. Capture and assess cultural and gender dimensions of management strategies within stakeholder groups using participatory approaches. 3. Determine science-based alternatives for adaptive land management strategies and test their acceptability to local communities and within the current policy framework. 4. Integrate identified indigenous knowledge with appropriate science and new emerging technologies to develop a training toolkit of effective strategies relevant to all stakeholders. 5. Utilize training sessions, education workshops, curriculum revisions, and appropriate information and communication technologies (ICTs) including social media outlets to disseminate the toolkit strategies. 6. Apply a modified logic

  4. Climate Change and Sugarcane Production: Potential Impact and Mitigation Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Duli Zhao; Yang-Rui Li

    2015-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) is an important crop for sugar and bioenergy worldwide. The increasing greenhouse gas emission and global warming during climate change result in the increased frequency and intensity of extreme weather events. Climate change is expected to have important consequences for sugarcane production in the world, especially in the developing countries because of relatively low adaptive capacity, high vulnerability to natural hazards, and poor forecasting systems ...

  5. Mitigation of climate change: which technologies for Vietnam?

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Thi Thu Ha

    2012-01-01

    Vietnam is one of the countries suffering from the most serious adverse effects due to climate change and sea level rise. The main cause of climate change is the increased activities generating greenhouse gases. Organic waste is the main source of carbon dioxide emission, which has the largest concentration among different kinds of greenhouse gases in the earth’s atmosphere. The conversion of organic waste and biomass into energy contributes not only to supply cleaner energy but also to reduc...

  6. Using Local Stories as a Call to Action on Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation in Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, M.

    2015-12-01

    Climate Generation: A Will Steger Legacy and the University of Minnesota's Regional Sustainability Development Partnerships (RSDP) have developed a novel approach to engaging rural Minnesotans on climate change issues. Through the use of personal, local stories about individuals' paths to action to mitigate and or adapt to climate change, Climate Generation and RSDP aim to spur others to action. Minnesota's Changing Climate project includes 12 Climate Convenings throughout rural Minnesota in a range of communities (tourism-based, agrarian, natural resources-based, university towns) to engage local populations in highly local conversations about climate change, its local impacts, and local solutions currently occurring. Climate Generation and RSDP have partnered with Molly Phipps Consulting to evaluate the efficacy of this approach in rural Minnesota. Data include pre and post convening surveys examining participants' current action around climate change, attitudes toward climate change (using questions from Maibach, Roser-Renouf, and Leiserowitz, 2009), and the strength of their social network to support their current and ongoing work toward mitigating and adapting to climate change. Although the Climate Convenings are tailored to each community, all include a resource fair of local organizations already engaging in climate change mitigation and adaptation activities which participants can participate in, a welcome from a trusted local official, a presentation on the science of climate change, sharing of local climate stories, and break-out groups where participants can learn how to get involved in a particular mitigation or adaptation strategy. Preliminary results have been positive: participants feel motivated to work toward mitigating and adapting to climate change, and more local stories have emerged that can be shared in follow-up webinars and on a project website to continue to inspire others to act.

  7. Climate change mitigation strategies in Germany. Integrated dynamic approach to the year 2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A national strategy for mitigation of the consequences of a climate change has to take into account the national economic welfare. With regard to this, a cost effective greenhouse gas mitigation strategy that aims at maximizing the amount of CO2 reduced per German Mark invested is of paramount importance. The climate change, a sound economy, a sustainable environment and security of energy supply have to be taken as a unit, on which political and economic decisions should focus. The study presents different climate change mitigation options aiming at achieving environmentally and economically compatible solutions for abatement of energy related greenhouse gas emissions in Germany. (author). 5 figs

  8. Climate change mitigation and adaptation in strategic environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Countries are implementing CO2 emission reduction targets in order to meet a globally agreed global warming limit of +2 °C. However, it was hypothesised that these national reduction targets are not translated to regional or state level planning, and are not considered through Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) in order to meet emission reduction obligations falling on the transport, energy, housing, agriculture, and forestry sectors. SEAs of land use plans in the German state of Saxony, and the English region of the East of England were examined for their consideration of climate change impacts based on a set of criteria drawn from the literature. It was found that SEAs in both cases failed to consider climate change impacts at scales larger than the boundary of the spatial plan, and that CO2 reduction targets were not considered. This suggests a need for more clarity in the legal obligations for climate change consideration within the text of the SEA Directive, a requirement for monitoring of carbon emissions, a need for methodological guidance to devolve global climate change targets down to regional and local levels, and a need for guidance on properly implementing climate change protection in SEA. - Highlights: ► Strategic Environmental Assessments (SEA) of 12 land use plans from Germany and England have been examined. ► SEA failed to consider climate change impacts at scales larger than the boundary of the land use plans. ► SEA should be an important instrument for climate protection. ► Concrete steps for climate protection mainstreaming into SEA at the European Union and national levels have been suggested.

  9. Implications of land ecosystem-atmosphere interactions for strategies for climate change adaptation and mitigation

    OpenAIRE

    Betts, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The standard approach to predicting climate change, assessing its impacts and planning mitigation strategies tends to be compartmentalized, leading to inadequate or incomplete advice for climate policy. Climate models used for future global warming predictions and attribution of past changes generally consider only global climate drivers, ignoring local drivers, such as land use change and urban effects. Impacts studies are generally carried out in isolation from each other and hence ignore i...

  10. Climate change, mitigation and adaptation: the case of the Murray–Darling Basin in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    John Quiggin; David Adamson; Sarah Chambers; Peggy Schrobback

    2009-01-01

    Climate change is likely to have substantial effects on irrigated agriculture. It is anticipated that many areas that are already dry will become drier, while areas that already receive high rainfall may experience further increases. Extreme climate events such as droughts are likely to become more common. These patterns are evident in projections of climate change for the Murray–Darling Basin in Australia. To understand the effects of climate change, as modified by mitigation and adaptation,...

  11. Sugarcane ethanol: contributions to climate change mitigation and the environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuurbier, P.J.P.; Vooren, van de J.G.

    2008-01-01

    Climate change is a challenge facing human life. It will change mobility and asks for new energy solutions. Bioenergy has gained increased attention as an alternative to fossil fuels. Energy based on renewable sources may offer part of the solution. Bio ethanol based on sugar cane offers advantages

  12. Mitigating Climate Change on Malaria by Biotechnological Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Tarana Nigam

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is progressing globally and is likely to affect the human health in various ways. Transmission of vector borne diseases like malaria, which is endemic in most parts of India, is likely to be affected by climate variability. Temperature affects the developmental period related to different stages of mosquitoes' life cycle like blood feeding rates, gonotrophic cycle and longevity. Increase in temperature increases the probability of transmission by reducing the time of gonotrophi...

  13. Review: Sugarcane production: Impact of climate change and its mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ASHOK K. SRIVASTAVA

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane is a climatic sensitive crop: therefore, its spatial distribution on the globe is restricted as per the suitability of various climatic parameters. The climate change, though, a very slow phenomenon is now accelerated due to natural, as well as enormous human activities disturbing the composition of atmosphere. The predications of various climatic models for probable rise in temperature, rainfall, sea level show an alarming condition in forthcoming decades. As the sugarcane is very sensitive to temperature, rainfall, solar radiations etc. therefore, a significant effect on its production and sugar yield is expected in future. It is also well known that sugarcane is one of the precious crops of the world and its end products i.e. sugar and ethanol have a continuous growing demand on global level. Hence, the studies related to good production of sugarcane in changing conditions of climate has become one among the front line area of research and is a major concern of scientist’s world over. Advance agronomic measures including development of suitable cane varieties susceptible to changed climatic conditions, land preparation, time and pattern of plantation, weed, disease and pest managements, nutrients managements, proper timing and adequate water management seems to be the affective measures for obtaining high production of crop with good quality juice in future.

  14. Addressing Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Together: A Global Assessment of Agriculture and Forestry Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsager, Rico; Locatelli, Bruno; Chazarin, Florie

    2016-01-01

    to greenhouse gas emissions and removals, are vulnerable to climate variations, and form part of adaptive strategies for rural livelihoods. We assessed how climate change project design documents (PDDs) considered a joint contribution to adaptation and mitigation in forestry and agriculture in the tropics......Adaptation and mitigation share the ultimate purpose of reducing climate change impacts. However, they tend to be considered separately in projects and policies because of their different objectives and scales. Agriculture and forestry are related to both adaptation and mitigation: they contribute...

  15. Under What Circumstances Do Wood Products from Native Forests Benefit Climate Change Mitigation?

    OpenAIRE

    Heather Keith; David Lindenmayer; Andrew Macintosh; Brendan Mackey

    2015-01-01

    Climate change mitigation benefits from the land sector are not being fully realised because of uncertainty and controversy about the role of native forest management. The dominant policy view, as stated in the IPCC's Fifth Assessment Report, is that sustainable forest harvesting yielding wood products, generates the largest mitigation benefit. We demonstrate that changing native forest management from commercial harvesting to conservation can make an important contribution to mitigation. Con...

  16. Governing Carbon Mitigation and Climate Change within Local Councils: A Case Study of Adelaide, South Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Zeppel

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available There is growing concern about climate change impacts on local government areas. In Australia, the federal carbon tax (from 1 July 2012 will also increase costs for local councils. This paper evaluates what carbon mitigation (i.e. energy, water, and waste management actions have been implemented by metropolitan Adelaide councils (n=14 and why (or why not. A survey of environmental officers profiled carbon mitigation actions, emissions auditing, and motives for emissions reduction by Adelaide councils. The main reasons for adopting carbon actions were a climate change plan, climate leadership, and cost savings. Internal council governance of climate change actions was also evaluated. A climate governance framework based on adaptive management, communication, and reflective practice (Nursey-Bray 2010 was applied to assess climate mitigation by Adelaide councils.

  17. Exploring Opportunities for Promoting Synergies between Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation in Forest Carbon Initiatives

    OpenAIRE

    Eugene L. Chia; Kalame Fobissie; Markku Kanninen

    2016-01-01

    There is growing interest in designing and implementing climate change mitigation and adaptation (M + A) in synergy in the forest and land use sectors. However, there is limited knowledge on how the planning and promotion of synergies between M + A can be operationalized in the current efforts to mitigate climate change through forest carbon. This paper contributes to fill this knowledge gap by exploring ways of planning and promoting M + A synergy outcomes in forest carbon initiatives. It ex...

  18. Global assessment of technological innovation for climate change adaptation and mitigation in developing world

    OpenAIRE

    Ademola A. Adenle; Azadi, Hossein; Arbiol, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Concerns about mitigating and adapting to climate change resulted in renewing the incentive for agricultural research investments and developing further innovation priorities around the world particularly in developing countries. In the near future, development of new agricultural measures and proper diffusion of technologies will greatly influence the ability of farmers in adaptation and mitigation to climate change. Using bibliometric approaches through output of academic journal publicatio...

  19. Incorporating climate change mitigation programmes in local administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoff, Jens Villiam

    2015-01-01

    programme’s implementation in Australia and New Zealand a substantial translation took place, especially in the larger local councils and where energy managers or climate change officers were appointed. This translation was supported by organisational norms related to project ownership and network creation...

  20. Sugarcane ethanol: contributions to climate change mitigation and the environment

    OpenAIRE

    Zuurbier, P.J.P.; Vooren, van de, J.

    2008-01-01

    Climate change is a challenge facing human life. It will change mobility and asks for new energy solutions. Bioenergy has gained increased attention as an alternative to fossil fuels. Energy based on renewable sources may offer part of the solution. Bio ethanol based on sugar cane offers advantages to people, the environment and the economy. Not surprisingly, governments currently enact powerful incentives for the development and exploitation of bio ethanol. However, every inch we come closer...

  1. Groundwater and climate change: mitigating the global groundwater crisis and adapting to climate change model

    Science.gov (United States)

    To better understand the effects of climate change on global groundwater resources, the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) International Hydrological Programme (IHP) initiated the GRAPHIC (Groundwater Resources Assessment under the Pressures of Humanity and Cl...

  2. Tanzanian rangelands in a changing climate: Impacts, adaptations and mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeda A. Z.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Livestock are central to the livelihoods of Tanzanians who rely on them for income via sales of milk, meat, skins and draught power. Owning livestock is amongst the ways in which many Tanzanians could diversify their risks, increase assets and improve their resilience to changes in climate. Though local coping strategies can deal with shocks in the short-term, they are hardly able to cope with more frequent and severe climate events. Observably, temperature, rainfall and atmospheric CO2 concentration interact with grazing and land cover change to influence rangeland quality and composition. Increased temperature increases drought stress and tissue lignifications in plants and, consequently, affects their digestibility and decomposition rate. Increased temperature and lower rainfall also increases vegetation flammability resulting in a shift in species composition due to increased fire frequency. Literature indicates that, Tanzania rangelands receiving between 400 and 1000 mm of rain per year (e.g. Kongwa, Monduli, Kiteto, Simanjiro, Ngorongoro, Babati, Hanang, Mbulu and Karatu have greatest impact on climate change on surface drainage. A 10% drop in rainfall of 1000 mm per year in a rangeland results in a decline in surface drainage of only 17%, while in areas of 500 mm per year will result in a 50% decline. Interventions such as controlled animal stocking rates, sustainable yield and use of good pasture will lessen the negative impacts of climate change on rangelands. Opportunities for reducing greenhouse gas emissions on rangelands include maintaining or increasing carbon sequestration through better soil management and reducing methane production by altering animal management practices on rangelands. There is a need to focus on enabling herd mobility through securing better access to water resources, land use planning, and improve early warning systems and supporting a diversification of livelihoods.

  3. Benefits of Organic Agriculture as a Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation Strategy in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Muller, Adrian

    2008-01-01

    Organic Agriculture (OA) as an adaptation strategy (AS) to Climate Change (CC) is a concrete and promising option for adaptation in rural communities. OA has additional potential as a mitigation strategy (MS). This text is a short review note on this topic. Adaptation and mitigation based on OA can build on well-established practice as OA is a sustainable livelihood strategy with decades of experience in several climate zones and under a wide range of specific local conditions. Given the larg...

  4. Terraforming the Planets and Climate Change Mitigation on Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toon, O. B.

    2008-12-01

    Hopefully, purposeful geo-engineering of the Earth will remain a theoretical concept. Of course, we have already inadvertently changed the Earth, and over geologic history life has left an indelible imprint on our planet. We can learn about geo-engineering schemes by reference to Earth history, for example climate changes after volcanic eruptions provide important clues to using sulfates to modify the climate. The terrestrial planets and Titan offer additional insights. For instance, Mars and Venus both have carbon dioxide dominated greenhouses. Both have more than 10 times as much carbon dioxide in their atmospheres as Earth, and both absorb less sunlight than Earth, yet one is much colder than Earth and one is much hotter. These facts provide important insights into carbon dioxide greenhouses that I will review. Mars cools dramatically following planet wide dust storms, and Titan has what is referred to as an anti- greenhouse climate driven by aerosols. These data can be used to reassure us that we can model aerosol caused changes to the climate of a planet, and also provide examples of aerosols offsetting a gas-driven greenhouse effect. People have long considered whether we might make the other planets habitable. While most of the schemes considered belong in the realm of science fiction, it is possible that some schemes might be practical. Terraforming brings to mind a number of issues that are thought provoking, but not so politically charged as geo-engineering. For example: What criteria define habitability, is it enough for people to live in isolated glass enclosures, or do we need to walk freely on the planet? Different creatures have different needs. Is a planet habitable if plants can thrive in the open, or do animals also need to be free? Are the raw materials present on any planet to make it habitable? If not, can we make the materials, or do we have to import them? Is it ethical to change a planetary climate? What if there are already primitive

  5. Nuclear Energy's Role in Mitigating Climate Change and Air Pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy experts expect energy demand to rise dramatically in the 21st century, especially in developing countries, where today, over one billion people have no access to modern energy services. Meeting global energy demand will require a 75% expansion in primary energy supply by 2050. If no steps are taken to reduce emissions, the energy-related CO2 emissions would nearly double in the same period. The increased levels of this greenhouse gas in the atmosphere could raise average global temperatures 3oC or more above pre-industrial levels, which may trigger the dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system, which the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change seeks to prevent.

  6. Renewable energy sources and climate change mitigation. Special report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edenhofer, O. (Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK), Potsdam (Germany)); Pichs Madruga, R. (Centro de Investigaciones de la Economia Mundial (CIEM), Hanoi (Viet Nam)); Sokona, Y. (African Climate Policy Centre, United Nations Economic Commission for Africa, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia)) (and others)

    2012-07-01

    Climate change is one of the great challenges of the 21st century. Its most severe impacts may still be avoided if efforts are made to transform current energy systems. Renewable energy sources have a large potential to displace emissions of greenhouse gases from the combustion of fossil fuels and thereby to mitigate climate change. If implemented properly, renewable energy sources can contribute to social and economic development, to energy access, to a secure and sustainable energy supply, and to a reduction of negative impacts of energy provision on the environment and human health. This Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation (SRREN) impartially assesses the scientific literature on the potential role of renewable energy in the mitigation of climate change for policymakers, the private sector, academic researchers and civil society. It covers six renewable energy sources - bioenergy, direct solar energy, geothermal energy, hydropower, ocean energy and wind energy - as well as their integration into present and future energy systems. It considers the environmental and social consequences associated with the deployment of these technologies, and presents strategies to overcome technical as well as non-technical obstacles to their application and diffusion. The authors also compare the levelized cost of energy from renewable energy sources to recent non-renewable energy costs. (Author)

  7. The potential contribution to climate change mitigation from temporary carbon storage in biomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Susanne Vedel; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Nielsen, Per H.

    2015-01-01

    While lasting mitigation solutions are needed to avoid climate change in the long term, temporary solutions may play a positive role in terms of avoiding certain climatic target levels, for preventing the crossing of critical and perhaps irreversible climatic tipping points. While the potential v...... the long-term climate change impacts given by the global warming potential which does not account for temporary aspects like benefits from non-permanent storage in terms of avoiding a critical climatic target level.......While lasting mitigation solutions are needed to avoid climate change in the long term, temporary solutions may play a positive role in terms of avoiding certain climatic target levels, for preventing the crossing of critical and perhaps irreversible climatic tipping points. While the potential...... value of temporary carbon storage in terms of climate change mitigation has been widely discussed, this has not yet been directly coupled to avoiding climatic target levels representing predicted climatic tipping points. This paper provides recommendations on how to model temporary carbon storage in...

  8. Energy supply options for climate change mitigation and sustainable development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobran, Flavio

    2010-09-15

    Modern society is dependent on fossil fuels for its energy needs, but their combustion is producing emissions of greenhouse gases that cause global warming. If these emissions remain unconstrained they risk of producing significant impacts on humanity and ecosystems. Replacement of fossil fuels with alternative energy sources can stabilize anthropogenic global warming and thus reduce the climate change impacts. The deployment of alternative energy supply technologies should be based on objectives that are consistent with sustainability indicators and incorporate quantitative risk assessment multiattribute utility decision methodologies capable of ascertaining effective future energy supply options.

  9. The Dragons of Inaction: Psychological Barriers That Limit Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Most people think climate change and sustainability are important problems, but too few global citizens engaged in high-greenhouse-gas-emitting behavior are engaged in enough mitigating behavior to stem the increasing flow of greenhouse gases and other environmental problems. Why is that? Structural barriers such as a climate-averse infrastructure…

  10. The optimal paths of climate change mitigation and adaptation under certainty and uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Felgenhauer, T.; Bruin, de K.C.

    2009-01-01

    Tradeoffs between climate change mitigation and adaptation policies are explored under both certainty and uncertainty with learning using a numerical two-period decision model. We first replicate a version of the Adaptation in DICE climate model (AD-DICE) (de Bruin et al., 2009), which modifies the

  11. Framework for Climate Change Mitigation and Adaption in Cities by Utilizing Green Infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prapaspongsa, Trakarn; Davidson, Cliff I.; Jindal, Ranjina;

    Climate change has threatened global security of ecosystems, human health and natural resources. These threats have increased demand for various mitigation technology solutions as well as effective strategies for adapting to anticipated impacts. Green infrastructure (GI) technologies such as green...... roofs and urban forestry are viewed as ones of the best climate adaptation strategies in cities. This study aims to develop a framework for climate change mitigation and adaptation (CCMA) in cities by using green infrastructure technologies. The framework is established by integrating existing green...... infrastructure frameworks with indicators from green building rating systems (LEED 2009, BCA Green Mark 4.0, CASBEE, and TREES-NC 1.0). The climate change mitigation and adaptation framework addresses benefits from applying different GI technologies as well as limitations in existing rating systems and the green...

  12. Quantifying the Benefit of Early Climate Change Mitigation in Avoiding Biodiversity Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, R.; Vanderwal, J.; Price, J.; Welbergen, J.; Atkinson, I. M.; Ramirez-Villegas, J.; Osborn, T.; Shoo, L.; Jarvis, A.; Williams, S.; Lowe, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    Quantitative simulations of the global-scale benefits of climate change mitigation in avoiding biodiversity loss are presented. Previous studies have projected widespread global and regional impacts of climate change on biodiversity. However, these have focused on analysis of business-as-usual scenarios, with no explicit mitigation policy included. This study finds that early, stringent mitigation would avoid a large proportion of the impacts of climate change induced biodiversity loss projected for the 2080s. Furthermore, despite the large number of studies addressing extinction risks in particular species groups, few studies have explored the issue of potential range loss in common and widespread species. Our study is a comprehensive global scale analysis of 48,786 common and widespread species. We show that without climate change mitigation, 57+/-6% of the plants and 34+/-7% of the animals studied are likely to lose over 50% of their present climatic range by the 2080s. This estimate incorporates realistic, taxon-specific dispersal rates. With stringent mitigation, in which emissions peak in 2016 and are reduced by 5% annually thereafter, these losses are reduced by 60%. Furthermore, with stringent mitigation, global temperature rises more slowly, allowing an additional three decades for biodiversity to adapt to a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels. The work also shows that even with mitigation not all the impacts can now be avoided, and ecosystems and biodiversity generally has a very limited capacity to adapt. Delay in mitigation substantially reduces the percentage of impacts that can be avoided, for example if emissions do not peak until 2030, the percentage of losses that can be avoided declines to 40%. Since even small declines in common and widespread species can disrupt ecosystem function and services, these results indicate that without mitigation, globally widespread losses in ecosystem service provision are to be expected.

  13. Incorporating changes in albedo in estimating the climate mitigation benefits of land use change projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. Bird

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Some climate scientists are questioning whether the practice of converting of non-forest lands to forest land (afforestation or reforestation is an effective climate change mitigation option. The discussion focuses particularly on areas where the new forest is primarily coniferous and there is significant amount of snow since the increased climate forcing due to the change in albedo may counteract the decreased climate forcing due to carbon dioxide removal.

    In this paper, we develop a stand-based model that combines changes in surface albedo, solar radiation, latitude, cloud cover and carbon sequestration. As well, we develop a procedure to convert carbon stock changes to equivalent climatic forcing or climatic forcing to equivalent carbon stock changes. Using the model, we investigate the sensitivity of combined affects of changes in surface albedo and carbon stock changes to model parameters. The model is sensitive to amount of cloud, atmospheric absorption, timing of canopy closure, carbon sequestration rate among other factors. The sensitivity of the model is investigated at one Canadian site, and then the model is tested at numerous sites across Canada.

    In general, we find that the change in albedo reduces the carbon sequestration benefits by approximately 30% over 100 years, but this is not drastic enough to suggest that one should not use afforestation or reforestation as a climate change mitigation option. This occurs because the forests grow in places where there is significant amount of cloud in winter. As well, variations in sequestration rate seem to be counterbalanced by the amount and timing of canopy closure.

    We close by speculating that the effects of albedo may also be significant in locations at lower latitudes, where there are less clouds, and where there are extended dry seasons. These conditions make grasses light coloured and when irrigated crops, dark forests or other vegetation such as

  14. Potential for carbon sequestration and mitigation of climate change by irrigation of grasslands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A generic method for climate change mitigation feasibility of PVWPS is developed. • Restoration of degraded lands in China has large climate change mitigation potential. • PV produces excess electricity included in the mitigation potential of the system. • The benefit is higher than if the PV were to produce electricity for the grid only. - Abstract: The climate change mitigation potential of irrigation powered by a photovoltaic water pumping system (PVWPS) to restore degraded grasslands has been investigated using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 2006 Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories for Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use. The purpose of this study is to develop a generic and simple method to estimate the climate change mitigation benefit of a PVWPS. The possibility to develop carbon credits for the carbon offset markets has also been studied comparing carbon sequestration in grasslands to other carbon sequestration projects. The soil carbon sequestration following irrigation of the grassland is calculated as an annual increase in the soil organic carbon pool. The PVWPS can also generate an excess of electricity when irrigation is not needed and the emissions reductions due to substitution of grid electricity give additional climate change mitigation potential. The results from this study show that the carbon sequestration and emissions reductions benefits per land area using a PVWPS for irrigating grasslands are comparable to other carbon sequestration options such as switching to no-till practice. Soil carbon in irrigated grasslands is increased with over 60% relative to severely degraded grasslands and if nitrogen fixing species are introduced the increase in soil organic carbon can be almost 80%. Renewable electricity generation by the PVWPS will further increase the mitigation benefit of the system with 70–90%. When applying the methodology developed in this paper to a case in Qinghai, China

  15. Update of indicators for climate change mitigation in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyses the factors affecting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Greece, (i.e. the drivers of pressures on climate change), using environmental indicators related to energy, demographics and economic growth. The analysis is based on the data of 2008 and considers types of fuel and sectors. The Kaya identity is used to identify the relationship between drivers and pressures, using annual time series data of National GHG emissions, population, energy consumption and gross domestic product. The analysis shows that over the period 2000-2008, GHG emissions show a slight variation, but they are almost stabilised, with a total increase of 1.6%. Despite the economic growth over that period, this stabilisation may be considered as a combination of reductions in the energy intensity of GDP and the carbon intensity of energy, which are affected by improvements in energy efficiency and introduction of 'cleaner' fuels, such as natural gas and renewables in the energy mixture of the country. - Highlights: → We analyse drivers affecting GHG emissions (pressures on climate) in Greece, using indicators. → Indicators relate to energy, demographics and economic growth. → Kaya identity identifies the relationship between drivers and pressures. → GHG emissions are almost stable due to reductions in energy intensity and carbon intensity of energy. → Improvements in energy efficiency and introduction of clean fuels in energy mix reduce emissions.

  16. Balancing expenditures on mitigation of and adaptation to climate change : an exploration of Issues relevant to developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Lecocq, Franck; Shalizi, Zmarak

    2007-01-01

    Although climate policies have been so far mostly focused on mitigation, adaptation to climate change is a growing concern in developed and developing countries. This paper discusses how adaptation fits into the global climate strategy, at the global and national levels. To do so, a partial equilibrium optimization model of climate policies-which includes mitigation, proactive adaptation (...

  17. Climate change and eHealth: a promising strategy for health sector mitigation and adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åsa Holmner

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is one of today's most pressing global issues. Policies to guide mitigation and adaptation are needed to avoid the devastating impacts of climate change. The health sector is a significant contributor to greenhouse gas emissions in developed countries, and its climate impact in low-income countries is growing steadily. This paper reviews and discusses the literature regarding health sector mitigation potential, known and hypothetical co-benefits, and the potential of health information technology, such as eHealth, in climate change mitigation and adaptation. The promising role of eHealth as an adaptation strategy to reduce societal vulnerability to climate change, and the link's between mitigation and adaptation, are also discussed. The topic of environmental eHealth has gained little attention to date, despite its potential to contribute to more sustainable and green health care. A growing number of local and global initiatives on ‘green information and communication technology (ICT’ are now mentioning eHealth as a promising technology with the potential to reduce emission rates from ICT use. However, the embracing of eHealth is slow because of limitations in technological infrastructure, capacity and political will. Further research on potential emissions reductions and co-benefits with green ICT, in terms of health outcomes and economic effectiveness, would be valuable to guide development and implementation of eHealth in health sector mitigation and adaptation policies.

  18. Climate change and eHealth: a promising strategy for health sector mitigation and adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmner, Asa; Rocklöv, Joacim; Ng, Nawi; Nilsson, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Climate change is one of today's most pressing global issues. Policies to guide mitigation and adaptation are needed to avoid the devastating impacts of climate change. The health sector is a significant contributor to greenhouse gas emissions in developed countries, and its climate impact in low-income countries is growing steadily. This paper reviews and discusses the literature regarding health sector mitigation potential, known and hypothetical co-benefits, and the potential of health information technology, such as eHealth, in climate change mitigation and adaptation. The promising role of eHealth as an adaptation strategy to reduce societal vulnerability to climate change, and the link's between mitigation and adaptation, are also discussed. The topic of environmental eHealth has gained little attention to date, despite its potential to contribute to more sustainable and green health care. A growing number of local and global initiatives on 'green information and communication technology (ICT)' are now mentioning eHealth as a promising technology with the potential to reduce emission rates from ICT use. However, the embracing of eHealth is slow because of limitations in technological infrastructure, capacity and political will. Further research on potential emissions reductions and co-benefits with green ICT, in terms of health outcomes and economic effectiveness, would be valuable to guide development and implementation of eHealth in health sector mitigation and adaptation policies. PMID:22679398

  19. The Future of Tourism: Can Tourism Growth and Climate Policy be Reconciled? A Climate Change Mitigation Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gössling, S.; Hall, C.M.; Peeters, P.M.; Scott, D.

    2010-01-01

    Tourism is an increasingly significant contributor to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Emissions growth in the sector is in substantial conflict with global climate policy goals that seek to mitigate climate change through deep emission reductions. This article discusses the role of various tourism s

  20. What Role Should Black Carbon Play in Climate Change Mitigation Strategies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deangelo, B. J.

    2006-12-01

    The uncertainties of the black carbon-climate linkage remain large with regard to emissions quantification, temporal and regional atmospheric concentrations, and net radiative and other climatic effects. Given these physical uncertainties plus other economic and emission control considerations, what is the appropriate role for BC and organic carbon in any climate change mitigation strategy? If the climate effects of BC are considered `large enough' (a judgment call) to warrant emission controls to mitigate climate change, additional considerations are necessary to determine how best to do this. First, BC cannot be singly targeted, as BC is co-emitted with OC in various ratios depending on fuel type and combustion technology. The climate effects of any control strategy will depend on the net BC and OC, plus possible greenhouse gas, co-effects, which in turn will vary by specific emission source, sector and region. Second, the extent to which air quality policies (primarily targeting particulate matter for health concerns) control BC and OC can determine whether additional emission mitigation is necessary, or if additional mitigation is best pursued within the context of air quality policies, rather than being introduced into the climate area. In the U.S., on-road and off-road diesel vehicles are the largest sources of BC, but these emissions are expected to decline substantially over the next few decades due to recently issued U.S. EPA standards. Third is the issue of costs of BC reductions relative to the costs of other mitigation strategies. Results will be presented on 1) near-term (out to 2020) emission projections for the U.S. taking into account recent air quality regulations; 2) emerging work from the Energy Modeling Forum Black Carbon Subgroup on global and regional projections by region and sector, and mitigation scenarios; and 3) the costs of potential BC mitigation options for the U.S.

  1. Climate change effects on mitigation measures: The case of extreme wind events and Philippines’ biofuel plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biofuel production has increased dramatically over the past decade, among other to mitigate climate change. However, climate change vulnerability may currently not be sufficiently accounted for in national biofuel strategies, hence neglecting a possible link between mitigation and adaptation to climate change. To the best of our knowledge this potential link has received very little attention in the literature. One example is the Philippines, which is currently implementing an ambitious program of biofuel production. Its aim is to reduce dependency on imported fuel, increase rural employment and incomes, and mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. The Philippines is frequently battered by tropical typhoons and from 1975 to 2002 the annual average damage to agriculture was 3.047 billion pesos. We calculate wind damage on biofuel feedstock production, and assess the effect that a future potential increase in tropical cyclone intensity would have on energy security, rural development and climate change mitigation in the Philippines. A Monte Carlo simulation is used to obtain the future expected development of typhoon impacts. Based on the Philippines legislated target of 10% biodiesel blend in gasoline by 2011, simulation of the affected area for each feedstock, and expected biofuel feedstock damage is computed for the Philippine's 80 provinces in 2050, for two different typhoon climate change scenarios. Additional indirect economic effects are assessed in a tentative way. The results suggest a modest decrease in biofuel feedstock productivity at the national level, but with strong local differences that are shown to affect the Philippine's policy goals. In a broader perspective the paper accentuates a so far little described link between climate change mitigation and climate change adaptation. This link may merit further attention by policy makers and development planners in order to ensure that policies are economically sound not only in the short but also medium term.

  2. Data of a willingness to pay survey for national climate change mitigation policies in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehleke, Reinhard

    2016-06-01

    The dataset includes responses from a contingent valuation study about the national climate change mitigation policies in Germany. The online survey was carried out in the spring of 2014. It assesses the willingness to pay for an increase of the national CO2 reduction target by 10 percentage points, which closely represents Germany׳s climate change mitigation strategy. Respondents were randomly allocated to one of the following three question formats: The dichotomous choice referendum, the dissonance minimizing referendum and the two-sided payment ladder. The data can be used to investigate the influence of alternative statistical approaches on the willingness to pay measures and their comparison across question formats. PMID:27054192

  3. Global Farm Animal Production and Global Warming: Impacting and Mitigating Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Koneswaran, Gowri; Nierenberg, Danielle

    2008-01-01

    Background The farm animal sector is the single largest anthropogenic user of land, contributing to many environmental problems, including global warming and climate change. Objectives The aim of this study was to synthesize and expand upon existing data on the contribution of farm animal production to climate change. Methods We analyzed the scientific literature on farm animal production and documented greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, as well as various mitigation strategies. Discussions An a...

  4. Governing Carbon Mitigation and Climate Change within Local Councils: A Case Study of Adelaide, South Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Heather Zeppel

    2012-01-01

    There is growing concern about climate change impacts on local government areas. In Australia, the federal carbon tax (from 1 July 2012) will also increase costs for local councils. This paper evaluates what carbon mitigation (i.e. energy, water, and waste management) actions have been implemented by metropolitan Adelaide councils (n=14) and why (or why not). A survey of environmental officers profiled carbon mitigation actions, emissions auditing, and motives for emissions reduction by Adela...

  5. Addressing Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Together: A Global Assessment of Agriculture and Forestry Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongsager, Rico; Locatelli, Bruno; Chazarin, Florie

    2016-02-01

    Adaptation and mitigation share the ultimate purpose of reducing climate change impacts. However, they tend to be considered separately in projects and policies because of their different objectives and scales. Agriculture and forestry are related to both adaptation and mitigation: they contribute to greenhouse gas emissions and removals, are vulnerable to climate variations, and form part of adaptive strategies for rural livelihoods. We assessed how climate change project design documents (PDDs) considered a joint contribution to adaptation and mitigation in forestry and agriculture in the tropics, by analyzing 201 PDDs from adaptation funds, mitigation instruments, and project standards [e.g., climate community and biodiversity (CCB)]. We analyzed whether PDDs established for one goal reported an explicit contribution to the other (i.e., whether mitigation PDDs contributed to adaptation and vice versa). We also examined whether the proposed activities or expected outcomes allowed for potential contributions to the two goals. Despite the separation between the two goals in international and national institutions, 37 % of the PDDs explicitly mentioned a contribution to the other objective, although only half of those substantiated it. In addition, most adaptation (90 %) and all mitigation PDDs could potentially report a contribution to at least partially to the other goal. Some adaptation project developers were interested in mitigation for the prospect of carbon funding, whereas mitigation project developers integrated adaptation to achieve greater long-term sustainability or to attain CCB certification. International and national institutions can provide incentives for projects to harness synergies and avoid trade-offs between adaptation and mitigation.

  6. Reservoir management and environmental protection: The mitigation of climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is widely accepted that human activities which produce greenhouse gases have had a discernible effect upon global mean temperatures over the last 50 years. A number of gases entering the atmosphere as a result of human activities can act as greenhouse gases. The most important is carbon dioxide the atmospheric concentration of which has risen by about 30% compared to pre-industrial concentrations. Energy related emissions arising from the use of fossil fuels account for more than 80% of the CO2 released to the atmosphere each year with these fuels accounting for around 90% of the world's commercial energy production. The provisions of the 1997 Kyoto protocol go some way to promote reductions in emissions of greenhouse gases and are an important first step. However, according to this presentation, current energy production and consumption patterns violate principles of sustainability. As a result the world is committed to warming as a result of emissions of greenhouse gases from the use of these fuels. Pragmatically, one should limit the use of fossil fuels and eventually replace them by renewable energy sources.and efforts to increase the overall energy efficiency. Given this, proposals to sequester and dump/store carbon dioxide are an unsustainable solution in their own right, but also perpetuate unsustainable energy use based on fossil fuels. Probably attempts to limit the impacts of climate change by the capture and disposal of CO2 will result in undesirable and unanticipated impacts. The presentation recommends that resources currently deployed in investigating disposal schemes for CO2 should rather go to the development of renewable energy generation and energy efficiency

  7. Net climate change mitigation of the Clean Development Mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) has allowed industrialized countries to buy credits from developing countries for the purpose of meeting targets under the Kyoto Protocol. In principle, the CDM simply shifts the location of emission reductions, with no net mitigation impact. Departing from this zero-sum calculus, the Cancun Agreements reached at the sixteenth session of the Conference of the Parties (COP) in 2010 called for “one or more market-based mechanisms” capable of “ensuring a net decrease and/or avoidance of global greenhouse gas emissions”, an intention reiterated at COP 17 and COP 18. This article explores the extent to which the CDM may or may not already lead to such a “net decrease.” It finds that the CDM's net mitigation impact likely hinges on the additionality of large-scale power projects, which are expected to generate the majority of CDM credits going forward. If these projects are truly additional and continue to operate well beyond the credit issuance period, they will decrease global greenhouse gas emissions. However, if they are mostly non-additional, as research suggests, they could increase global greenhouse gas emissions. The article closes with a discussion of possible means to increase mitigation benefit. - Highlights: • The CDM's method for assessing additionality remains controversial and contested. • We develop two scenarios of the net emissions impact of the CDM. • The integrity of the CDM hinges on the emissions impact of power supply projects. • Additionality is hard to demonstrate with confidence for most power-supply projects. • A number of options are available to increase the mitigation benefit of the CDM

  8. Climate change mitigation in Asia and financing Mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shukla, P.R.; Deo, P. [eds.

    1998-12-01

    The three primary objectives of the conference, which was organized by the UNEP Collaborating Centre on Energy and Environment (UCCEE) in conjunction with the Environment Department of the World Bank, at Goa in India from May 4 to 6, 1998, were: 1) to share the GHG mitigation experiences from Asian developing countries; 2) to disseminate the standard methodological approach for mitigation analysis developed by UNEP and its applications in different countries; and 3) assess the role and efficacy of financial mechanisms and to, specifically, seek feedback on the Prototype Carbon Fund proposed by the World Bank. Follwing these objectives, the workshop presentations and discussions were structured in three parts. In the first part, participants from eleven Asian developing countries made presentations that were followed by discussions. The second part included the presentations by the experts from UCCEE, UNFCCC and other invited experts who presented the mitigation methodology and the issues and experiences relating to various co-operative implementation mechanisms. The third part included the presentations by the World Bank representatives on the Prototype Carbon Fund and the discussions on financial mechanisms. (EG)

  9. Alternative energy balances for Bulgaria to mitigate climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christov, Christo

    1996-01-01

    Alternative energy balances aimed to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are developed as alternatives to the baseline energy balance. The section of mitigation options is based on the results of the GHG emission inventory for the 1987 1992 period. The energy sector is the main contributor to the total CO2 emissions of Bulgaria. Stationary combustion for heat and electricity production as well as direct end-use combustion amounts to 80% of the total emissions. The parts of the energy network that could have the biggest influence on GHG emission reduction are identified. The potential effects of the following mitigation measures are discussed: rehabilitation of the combustion facilities currently in operation; repowering to natural gas; reduction of losses in thermal and electrical transmission and distribution networks; penetration of new combustion technologies; tariff structure improvement; renewable sources for electricity and heat production; wasteheat utilization; and supply of households with natural gas to substitute for electricity in space heating and cooking. The total available and the achievable potentials are estimated and the implementation barriers are discussed.

  10. Using the transtheoretical model of behavioural change to understand the processes through which climate change films might encourage mitigation action

    OpenAIRE

    Howell, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    A number of recent films such as An Inconvenient Truth and The Age of Stupid aim not merely to inform their audience about climate change, but to engage them in taking mitigation action. This paper outlines the transtheoretical model of behavioural change, which incorporates six stages of change that individuals progress through as they change their behaviour, and ten associated processes of change. Using four climate change films as illustrations, I show how the model can be applied to ident...

  11. Relative outcomes of climate change mitigation related to global temperature versus sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehl, Gerald A.; Hu, Aixue; Tebaldi, Claudia; Arblaster, Julie M.; Washington, Warren M.; Teng, Haiyan; Sanderson, Benjamin M.; Ault, Toby; Strand, Warren G.; White, James B.

    2012-08-01

    There is a common perception that, if human societies make the significant adjustments necessary to substantively cut emissions of greenhouse gases, global temperature increases could be stabilized, and the most dangerous consequences of climate change could be avoided. Here we show results from global coupled climate model simulations with the new representative concentration pathway mitigation scenarios to 2300 to illustrate that, with aggressive mitigation in two of the scenarios, globally averaged temperature increase indeed could be stabilized either below 2 °C or near 3 °C above pre-industrial values. However, even as temperatures stabilize, sea level would continue to rise. With little mitigation, future sea-level rise would be large and continue unabated for centuries. Though sea-level rise cannot be stopped for at least the next several hundred years, with aggressive mitigation it can be slowed down, and this would buy time for adaptation measures to be adopted.

  12. The mitigation of the climate change: discourse and actions in APEC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Guadalupe Figueroa González

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is a shared problem that requires concerted action to meet the challenge on the best terms. The social, economic and political issue, pressed implications for designing mechanisms for cooperation on mitigation and adaptation. In Asia Pacific the largest emitters of greenhouse gases (GHGs that contribute to climate change are located; therefore becomes important convergence of national policies leading to a regional protocol on sustainable development. The Forum Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC has added to its agenda commitment to sustainable development and addressing climate change from different approaches: energy, agriculture, transport, and from different areas: the city and the region.

  13. Technology policy for climate change mitigation: a transatlantic perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This workshop was the second climate policy conference jointly organized by RFF and IFRI in Paris. (The first one, ''How to Make Progress Post-Kyoto?'', was held on March 19, 2003). This Summary Paper is divided into two parts: The first part presents short summaries of all the presentations at the workshop (rationale and past experience in technology policies, the challenges and policy responses of the climate friendly technologies). The second part, which is an edited version of the closing remarks by Pierre Noel (Ifri), highlights some of the policy lessons that emerged from the workshop. (A.L.B.)

  14. Technology policy for climate change mitigation: a transatlantic perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This workshop was the second climate policy conference jointly organized by RFF and IFRI in Paris. (The first one, ''How to Make Progress Post-Kyoto?'', was held on March 19, 2003). This Summary Paper is divided into two parts: The first part presents short summaries of all the presentations at the workshop (rationale and past experience in technology policies, the challenges and policy responses of the climate friendly technologies). The second part, which is an edited version of the closing remarks by Pierre Noel (Ifri), highlights some of the policy lessons that emerged from the workshop. (A.L.B.)

  15. A review of renewable energy sources, sustainability issues and climate change mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phebe Asantewaa Owusu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The world is fast becoming a global village due to the increasing daily requirement of energy by all population across the world while the earth in its form cannot change. The need for energy and its related services to satisfy human social and economic development, welfare and health is increasing. Returning to renewables to help mitigate climate change is an excellent approach which needs to be sustainable in order to meet energy demand of future generations. The study reviewed the opportunities associated with renewable energy sources which includes: Energy Security, Energy Access, Social and Economic development, Climate Change Mitigation, and reduction of environmental and health impacts. Despite these opportunities, there are challenges that hinder the sustainability of renewable energy sources towards climate change mitigation. These challenges include Market failures, lack of information, access to raw materials for future renewable resource deployment, and our daily carbon footprint. The study suggested some measures and policy recommendations which when considered would help achieve the goal of renewable energy thus to reduce emissions, mitigate climate change and provide a clean environment as well as clean energy for all and future generations.

  16. Distributional impacts of climate change mitigation in Indian electricity: The influence of governance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies that examine the distributional impacts of climate change mitigation policies often neglect the influence of institutions that implement these policies. This study examines the short-term consumption-side distributional impacts of expanding low-carbon electric supply in the state of Maharashtra, India with a focus on the influence of regulatory discretion in pricing. Households' welfare impacts from economy-wide electricity price shocks are simulated against a baseline that is calibrated to actual household economic and electricity service conditions, including actual electricity budgets, block tier prices and supply rationing. Industrial price impacts are propagated to households using a Leontief input–output analysis. Regulatory pricing decisions are evaluated based on social welfare metrics for economic efficiency and income inequality. The analysis reveals new linkages between climate change mitigation, electricity policy and income distribution. Low-income households can be shielded from mitigation impacts without losses in aggregate welfare to the extent that regulators can recover mitigation costs through industrial price increases. Regulators' flexibility to distribute costs across households is constrained by industrial customers' migration off the grid. Reduced supply interruptions to the rural poor from the resulting demand contraction are a potential co-benefit of mitigation. Distributional impacts, therefore, depend on other electricity policies that are driven by the political economy of the sector. - Highlights: • Indirect price increases harm most households less than residential price increases. • Regulators have flexibility to distribute mitigation costs across income groups. • Reduced supply interruptions are a potential co-benefit of mitigation

  17. Challenging the claims on the potential of biochar to mitigate climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francischinelli Rittl, T.

    2015-01-01

    Summary In this PhD thesis I studied the influence of biochar discourses on the political practices in Brazil and the impact of biochar on soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks, thus contributing to the current debate on the potential of biochar to mitigate climate change. Biochar is the solid material o

  18. Renewable and low-carbon energies as mitigation options of climate change for China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urban, F.; Benders, R. M. J.; Moll, H. C.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses how renewable and low-carbon energies can serve as mitigation options of climate change in China's power sector. Our study is based on scenarios developed in PowerPlan, a bottom-up model simulating a countries' power sector and its emissions. We first adjusted the model to Chi

  19. Discounting versus risk aversion: Their effects on individual demands for climate change mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, T.A. [Univ. of Oregon (United States). Dept. of Economics; Gerdes, G.R.

    2007-07-01

    Policies to reduce carbon emissions in an effort to prevent climate change involve large near-term costs and uncertain long-term benefits (i.e. the avoided future adverse consequences of climate change). This uncertainty, along with the very different time profiles of costs and benefits, means that risk aversion and time preferences will be key features of any model that seeks to explain heterogeneity in consumer demand for climate change mitigation programs. Unfortunately, while most reduced-form empirical demand models for climate change mitigation can easily control for individual characteristics such as age, gender, and income, these two key structural determinants -- risk preferences and time preferences -- are typically unobservable. Risk aversion and time preferences are important sources of heterogeneity in preferences for public policies with near-term costs and uncertain future benefits. Using stated preference data, the authors first jointly estimate individual-specific risk aversion and discount rate parameters then use these as individual 'characteristics' in a separate model to explain preferences for climate change mitigation policies. The more risk-averse the individual, and/or the lower their discount rate, the higher is their willingness to pay. The authors also simulate expected demand under counterfactual conditions -- such as risk neutrality, or the lower social discount rates that would be used by a benevolent central planner.

  20. Considering only first-order effects? : How simplifications lead to unrealistic technology optimism in climate change mitigation

    OpenAIRE

    Arvesen, Anders; Bright, Ryan M.; Hertwich, Edgar G.

    2011-01-01

    This article challenges the notion that energy efficiency and ‘clean’ energy technologies can deliver sufficient degrees of climate change mitigation. By six arguments not widely recognized in the climate policy arena, we argue that unrealistic technology optimism exists in current climate change mitigation assessments, and, consequently, world energy and climate policy. The overarching theme of the arguments is that incomplete knowledge of indirect effects, and neglect of interactions betwee...

  1. Environmental and socio-economic impacts of global climate change: An overview on mitigation approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhat Kumar Rai

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is expected to bring about major change in freshwater availability, the productive capacity of soils, and in patterns of human settlement. Likewise, climate change is intimately linked to human health either directly or indirectly. However, considerable uncertainties exist with regard to the extent and geographical distribution of these changes. Predicting scenarios for how climate-related environmental change may influence human societies and political systems necessarily involves an even higher degree of uncertainty. Societies have a long record of adapting to climate risks and, climate changes. Household asset portfolios and livelihood choices are shaped by the need to manage climatic risks, especially in rural areas and for lowincome households. Likewise, disaggregated analysis revealed that demographic and environmental variables have a very profound effect on the risk of civil conflict and hence peace. In nutshell, we can say that there may be multifaceted impact of climate change in its totality. Further, different views, issues and mitigation measures are discussed particularly in Indian scenario. In this direction, The "National Action Plan on Climate Change" was set by Indian Prime Minister which encompasses a broad and extensive range of measures, and focuses on eight missions, which will be pursued as key components of the strategy for sustainable development. These include missions on solar energy, enhanced energy efficiency, sustainable habitat, conserving water, sustaining the Himalayan ecosystem, creating a "Green India," sustainable agriculture and, finally, establishing a strategic knowledge platform for climate change. Finally, different steps/approaches pertaining to green, eco-friendly and sustainable technology has been discussed in order to mitigate the impact of global environmental damage originating from increased industrialization and hence appropriately address this global disaster which is being the

  2. Balance between climate change mitigation benefits and land use impacts of bioenergy : Conservation implications for European birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meller, Laura; Thuiller, Wilfried; Pironon, Samuel; Barbet-Massin, Morgane; Hof, Andries; Cabeza, Mar

    2015-01-01

    Both climate change and habitat modification exert serious pressure on biodiversity. Although climate change mitigation has been identified as an important strategy for biodiversity conservation, bioenergy remains a controversial mitigation action due to its potential negative ecological and socio-e

  3. Balance between climate change mitigation benefits and land use impacts of bioenergy : Conservation implications for European birds

    OpenAIRE

    Meller, Laura; Thuiller, Wilfried; Pironon, Samuel; Barbet-Massin, Morgane; Hof, Andries; Cabeza, Mar

    2015-01-01

    Both climate change and habitat modification exert serious pressure on biodiversity. Although climate change mitigation has been identified as an important strategy for biodiversity conservation, bioenergy remains a controversial mitigation action due to its potential negative ecological and socio-economic impacts which arise through habitat modification by land use change. While the debate continues, the separate or simultaneous impacts of both climate change and bioenergy on biodiversity ha...

  4. Strategic and legal framework in forestry and related sectors: Climate change mitigation in European Union and Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Ranković Nenad; Stanišić Mirjana; Nedeljković Jelena; Nonić Dragan

    2016-01-01

    The important role of forests in mitigating and adapting to climate changes is recognized and widely accepted. Therefore, it becomes a subject of universal interest and support. However, in the national strategies relating to climate change, the importance of the forestry sector in mitigating these changes is quite often not discussed in detail. In addition, the problem of climate change is not fully represented and included in national forestry policies. T...

  5. Mitigating climate change: Decomposing the relative roles of energy conservation, technological change, and structural shift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We decompose the contribution of five drivers of energy use and CO2 emissions reductions in achieving climate change goals over 2005–2100 for various climate policy scenarios. This study contributes to the decomposition literature in three ways. First, it disaggregates drivers of energy demand into technological progress and demand for energy services, represented in terms of useful energy, allowing us to estimate their contributions independently — an improvement over other economy-wide decomposition studies. Secondly, this approach reduces the ambiguity present in many previous measures of structural change. We delineate structural shifts into two separate measures: changes in fuel mix within a given resource or service pathway; and changes in mix among distinct energy resources or end-use services. Finally, this study applies decomposition methods to energy and emission trajectories from two mutually informing perspectives: (i) primary energy resources — crude oil, natural gas, coal, nuclear, and renewables; and (ii) end-uses of energy services — residential and commercial buildings, industry, and transportation. Our results show that technological improvements and energy conservation are important in meeting climate goals in the first half of the coming century; and that nuclear and renewable energy and CCS technology are crucial in meeting more stringent goals in the second half of the century. We examine the relative roles of the drivers in reducing CO2 emissions separately for developed and developing regions. Although the majority of energy and emission growth – and by extension the greatest opportunities for mitigation – will occur in developing countries, the decomposition shows that the relative roles of the five drivers are broadly consistent between these two regions. - Highlights: • We decompose the contribution of five drivers of energy use and CO2 emissions reductions in achieving climate change goals • We analyze differences across

  6. Does Climate Change Mitigation Activity Affect Crude Oil Prices? Evidence from Dynamic Panel Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jude C. Dike

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically investigates how climate change mitigation affects crude oil prices while using carbon intensity as the indicator for climate change mitigation. The relationship between crude oil prices and carbon intensity is estimated using an Arellano and Bond GMM dynamic panel model. This study undertakes a regional-level analysis because of the geographical similarities among the countries in a region. Regions considered for the study are Africa, Asia and Oceania, Central and South America, the EU, the Middle East, and North America. Results show that there is a positive relationship between crude oil prices and carbon intensity, and a 1% change in carbon intensity is expected to cause about 1.6% change in crude oil prices in the short run and 8.4% change in crude oil prices in the long run while the speed of adjustment is 19%.

  7. US major crops’ uncertain climate change risks and greenhouse gas mitigation benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, Ian Sue; Monier, Erwan; Stern, Ari; Mundra, Anupriya

    2015-11-01

    We estimate the costs of climate change to US agriculture, and associated potential benefits of abating greenhouse gas emissions. Five major crops’ yield responses to climatic variation are modeled empirically, and the results combined with climate projections for a no-policy, high-warming future, as well as moderate and stringent mitigation scenarios. Unabated warming reduces yields of wheat and soybeans by 2050, and cotton by 2100, but moderate warming increases yields of all crops except wheat. Yield changes are monetized using the results of economic simulations within an integrated climate-economy modeling framework. Uncontrolled warming’s economic effects on major crops are slightly positive—annual benefits reaching 17 B under moderate mitigation, but only 7 B with stringent mitigation. Costs and benefits are sensitive to irreducible uncertainty about the fertilization effects of elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide, without which unabated warming incurs net costs of up to 18 B, generating benefits to moderate (stringent) mitigation as large as 26 B (20 B).

  8. US major crops’ uncertain climate change risks and greenhouse gas mitigation benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We estimate the costs of climate change to US agriculture, and associated potential benefits of abating greenhouse gas emissions. Five major crops’ yield responses to climatic variation are modeled empirically, and the results combined with climate projections for a no-policy, high-warming future, as well as moderate and stringent mitigation scenarios. Unabated warming reduces yields of wheat and soybeans by 2050, and cotton by 2100, but moderate warming increases yields of all crops except wheat. Yield changes are monetized using the results of economic simulations within an integrated climate-economy modeling framework. Uncontrolled warming’s economic effects on major crops are slightly positive—annual benefits <$4 B. These are amplified by emission reductions, but subject to diminishing returns—by 2100 reaching $17 B under moderate mitigation, but only $7 B with stringent mitigation. Costs and benefits are sensitive to irreducible uncertainty about the fertilization effects of elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide, without which unabated warming incurs net costs of up to $18 B, generating benefits to moderate (stringent) mitigation as large as $26 B ($20 B). (letter)

  9. Role of Brazilian Amazon protected areas in climate change mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares-Filho, Britaldo; Moutinho, Paulo; Nepstad, Daniel; Anderson, Anthony; Rodrigues, Hermann; Garcia, Ricardo; Dietzsch, Laura; Merry, Frank; Bowman, Maria; Hissa, Letícia; Silvestrini, Rafaella; Maretti, Cláudio

    2010-06-15

    Protected areas (PAs) now shelter 54% of the remaining forests of the Brazilian Amazon and contain 56% of its forest carbon. However, the role of these PAs in reducing carbon fluxes to the atmosphere from deforestation and their associated costs are still uncertain. To fill this gap, we analyzed the effect of each of 595 Brazilian Amazon PAs on deforestation using a metric that accounts for differences in probability of deforestation in areas of pairwise comparison. We found that the three major categories of PA (indigenous land, strictly protected, and sustainable use) showed an inhibitory effect, on average, between 1997 and 2008. Of 206 PAs created after the year 1999, 115 showed increased effectiveness after their designation as protected. The recent expansion of PAs in the Brazilian Amazon was responsible for 37% of the region's total reduction in deforestation between 2004 and 2006 without provoking leakage. All PAs, if fully implemented, have the potential to avoid 8.0 +/- 2.8 Pg of carbon emissions by 2050. Effectively implementing PAs in zones under high current or future anthropogenic threat offers high payoffs for reducing carbon emissions, and as a result should receive special attention in planning investments for regional conservation. Nevertheless, this strategy demands prompt and predictable resource streams. The Amazon PA network represents a cost of US$147 +/- 53 billion (net present value) for Brazil in terms of forgone profits and investments needed for their consolidation. These costs could be partially compensated by an international climate accord that includes economic incentives for tropical countries that reduce their carbon emissions from deforestation and forest degradation. PMID:20505122

  10. Evaluating the Contribution of Soil Carbon to Global Climate Change Mitigation in an Integrated Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, A. M.; Izaurralde, R. C.; Clarke, L. E.

    2006-12-01

    Assessing the contribution of terrestrial carbon sequestration to national and international climate change mitigation requires integration across scientific and disciplinary boundaries. In a study for the US Climate Change Technology Program, site based measurements and geographic data were used to develop a three- pool, first-order kinetic model of global agricultural soil carbon (C) stock changes over 14 continental scale regions. This model was then used together with land use scenarios from the MiniCAM integrated assessment model in a global analysis of climate change mitigation options. MiniCAM evaluated mitigation strategies within a set of policy environments aimed at achieving atmospheric CO2 stabilization by 2100 under a suite of technology and development scenarios. Adoption of terrestrial sequestration practices is based on competition for land and economic markets for carbon. In the reference case with no climate policy, conversion of agricultural land from conventional cultivation to no tillage over the next century in the United States results in C sequestration of 7.6 to 59.8 Tg C yr-1, which doubles to 19.0 to 143.4 Tg C yr-1 under the most aggressive climate policy. Globally, with no carbon policy, agricultural C sequestration rates range from 75.2 to 18.2 Tg C yr-1 over the century, with the highest rates occurring in the first fifty years. Under the most aggressive global climate change policy, sequestration in agricultural soils reaches up to 190 Tg C yr-1 in the first 15 years. The contribution of agricultural soil C sequestration is a small fraction of the total global carbon offsets necessary to reach the stabilization targets (9 to 20 Gt C yr-1) by the end of the century. This integrated assessment provides decision makers with science-based estimates of the potential magnitude of terrestrial C sequestration relative to other greenhouse gas mitigation strategies in all sectors of the global economy. It also provides insight into the

  11. Climate change mitigation in Asia and financing mechanism (contributions from Bangladesh)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Environment (DOE), Ministlry of Environment and forest, Government of the people's Republic of Bangladesh made a request for a grant to the U.S. Government for studying various aspects of climate change and its implications for Bangladesh. Upon its subsequent approval, a country Study on Climate Change (Bangladesh Climate Change study) was launched in October 1994 to address the following major issues: Preparation of a country-specific inventory of greenhouse gases (GHGs); Assessment of vulnerability of the country, with special respect to climate change; Assessment of mitigation options to develop appropriate strategies and policies for reducing GHG emission into the atmosphere; Recommendations for an appropriate awareness and dissemination programme based on findings of the above components. (au)

  12. Mapping of soil organic carbon stocks for spatially explicit assessments of climate change mitigation potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current methods for assessing soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks are generally not well suited for understanding variations in SOC stocks in landscapes. This is due to the tedious and time-consuming nature of the sampling methods most commonly used to collect bulk density cores, which limits repeatability across large areas, particularly where information is needed on the spatial dynamics of SOC stocks at scales relevant to management and for spatially explicit targeting of climate change mitigation options. In the current study, approaches were explored for (i) field-based estimates of SOC stocks and (ii) mapping of SOC stocks at moderate to high resolution on the basis of data from four widely contrasting ecosystems in East Africa. Estimated SOC stocks for 0–30 cm depth varied both within and between sites, with site averages ranging from 2 to 8 kg m−2. The differences in SOC stocks were determined in part by rainfall, but more importantly by sand content. Results also indicate that managing soil erosion is a key strategy for reducing SOC loss and hence in mitigation of climate change in these landscapes. Further, maps were developed on the basis of satellite image reflectance data with multiple R-squared values of 0.65 for the independent validation data set, showing variations in SOC stocks across these landscapes. These maps allow for spatially explicit targeting of potential climate change mitigation efforts through soil carbon sequestration, which is one option for climate change mitigation and adaptation. Further, the maps can be used to monitor the impacts of such mitigation efforts over time. (letter)

  13. River basin management planning in the context of climate change adaptation and mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspersen, B. S.; Kjær, T.

    2012-12-01

    The EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) raises a number of challenges for river basin management planning in the EU Member States, one of which concerns the incorporation of climate change considerations in the development of action programmes. This includes adaptation to climate-related risks as well as mitigation of climate change through possible adverse effects of WFD implementation measures on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Complying with proposed WFD water quality standards for 'good ecological status' in Denmark requires programmes of measures (PoMs) to reduce nutrient losses to surface waters from point and diffuse sources. The combined future impacts of climate change are projected to lead to a shifting baseline, resulting in a situation where loads of nutrients have to be reduced more than estimated under present climate conditions. In this study, a GIS-based decision support system is used to support the integration of climate change challenges into the development of PoMs in the Isefjord-Roskilde Fjord River Basin in Denmark. Alternative PoMs are evaluated in terms of effectiveness and cost-effectiveness under varying nutrient reduction targets related to climate change impacts and the potential for synergies between reduction of diffuse nutrient losses and mitigation of GHG emissions is assessed at catchment scale. There appears to be a substantial potential for reductions of GHG emissions through the implementation of WFD PoMs; including measures related to land use change, energy crops and manure based biogas systems. A targeted and differentiated approach to the development of PoMs is believed to be necessary in order to exploit this kind of win-win solutions in river basin management planning and to ensure appropriate and cost-effective climate change adaptation strategies.

  14. International technology transfer for climate change mitigation and the cases of Russia and China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The environmental agenda for mitigating climate change through international transfers of technology is linked with a diverse literature, reviewed here within a framework that combines technological, agent/agenda, and market/transaction perspectives. Literature that bears on international technology transfer for climate change mitigation is similar in many ways for Russia and China: opportunities for energy efficiency and renewable energy, economic reform and restructuring, the difficulties enterprises face in responding to market conditions, international assistance policies, international joint ventures, market intermediation, and capacity building for market development. In both countries, capacity building means enhancing market-oriented capabilities in addition to technological capabilities. For Russia, institutional development is critical, such as new commercial legal codes and housing-sector changes beyond privatization. For China, technology policies and modernization programs significantly influence technology transfers. 234 refs., 3 tabs

  15. Manipulating biotic carbon sources and sinks for climate change mitigation: can science keep up with practice?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential for natural C sinks to be manipulated by human means to mitigate climate change has been discussed in the environmental literature for more than a decade. There now appears to be little doubt that changes in global land-use and land management practices could significantly slow the accumulation of CO2 in the atmosphere. As a result, some forward-thinking companies and governmental bodies are acting now upon the biotic mitigation literature by developing actual mitigation projects. It is now national policy in the United States to encourage such activities. The future of C offsets, however, is unclear, due in large measure to lagging scientific knowledge. Large-scale private action likely will await regulatory signals that action will be accepted as a legitimate mitigation measure, perhaps providing retroactive regulatory credit, a source of tradeable emission entitlements, or credit against yet-to-be-established C taxes. The practical potential of most biotic mitigation approaches is unknown, and the entire concept remains subject to political challenge domestically and abroad. The ability to predict C benefits of individual mitigation projects is often tenuous and subject to debate. To allow expansion of C offset practices as quickly as possible, and hopefully to fund projects with many ancillary environmental and economic benefits, policy makers and project developers desperately need physical and social science data to be provided in a useable form. 25 refs., 1 tab

  16. Potential Roles of Swedish Forestry in the Context of Climate Change Mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Lundmark

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In Sweden, where forests cover more than 60% of the land area, silviculture and the use of forest products by industry and society play crucial roles in the national carbon balance. A scientific challenge is to understand how different forest management and wood use strategies can best contribute to climate change mitigation benefits. This study uses a set of models to analyze the effects of different forest management and wood use strategies in Sweden on carbon dioxide emissions and removals through 2105. If the present Swedish forest use strategy is continued, the long-term climate change mitigation benefit will correspond to more than 60 million tons of avoided or reduced emissions of carbon dioxide annually, compared to a scenario with similar consumption patterns in society but where non-renewable products are used instead of forest-based products. On average about 470 kg of carbon dioxide emissions are avoided for each cubic meter of biomass harvested, after accounting for carbon stock changes, substitution effects and all emissions related to forest management and industrial processes. Due to Sweden’s large export share of forest-based products, the climate change mitigation effect of Swedish forestry is larger abroad than within the country. The study also shows that silvicultural methods to increase forest biomass production can further reduce net carbon dioxide emissions by an additional 40 million tons of per year. Forestry’s contribution to climate change mitigation could be significantly increased if management of the boreal forest were oriented towards increased biomass production and if more wood were used to substitute fossil fuels and energy-intensive materials.

  17. Knowledge systems of societies for adaptation and mitigation of impacts of climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate change is broadly recognized as a key environmental issue affecting social and ecological systems worldwide. At the Cancun summit of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change's 16th Conference, the parties jointly agreed that the vulnerable groups particularly in developing countries and whose livelihood is based on land use practices are the most common victims as in most cases their activities are shaped by the climate. Therefore, solving the climate dilemma through mitigation processes and scientific research is an ethical concern. Thus combining the knowledge systems of the societies and scientific evidences can greatly assist in the creation of coping mechanisms for sustainable development in a situation of changing climate. International Humboldt Kolleg focusing on ''knowledge systems of societies and Climate Change'' was organized at ISEC. This event was of unique importance, as the year 2011-12 was celebrated as the 60th Anniversary of Diplomatic Relations between India and Germany with the motto ''Germany and India - Infinite Opportunities.'' This volume is the outcome of the papers presented during the IHK 2011 at ISEC, India. It reports on the present knowledge systems in a third world country which has always practiced a live and let live philosophy. Furthermore it provides valuable information for understanding the complexity of socio-ecological systems in relation to the projected impacts of climate change.

  18. Knowledge systems of societies for adaptation and mitigation of impacts of climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nautiyal, Sunil; Raju, K.V. [Institute for Social and Economic Change, Bangalore (India). Centre for Ecological Economics and Natural Resources; Rao, K.S. [Delhi Univ. (India). Dept. of Botany; Kaechele, Harald [Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research, Muencheberg (Germany). Inst. of Socioeconomics; Schaldach, Ruediger (ed.) [Kassel Univ. (Germany). Centre for Environmental System Research

    2013-07-01

    Climate change is broadly recognized as a key environmental issue affecting social and ecological systems worldwide. At the Cancun summit of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change's 16th Conference, the parties jointly agreed that the vulnerable groups particularly in developing countries and whose livelihood is based on land use practices are the most common victims as in most cases their activities are shaped by the climate. Therefore, solving the climate dilemma through mitigation processes and scientific research is an ethical concern. Thus combining the knowledge systems of the societies and scientific evidences can greatly assist in the creation of coping mechanisms for sustainable development in a situation of changing climate. International Humboldt Kolleg focusing on ''knowledge systems of societies and Climate Change'' was organized at ISEC. This event was of unique importance, as the year 2011-12 was celebrated as the 60th Anniversary of Diplomatic Relations between India and Germany with the motto ''Germany and India - Infinite Opportunities.'' This volume is the outcome of the papers presented during the IHK 2011 at ISEC, India. It reports on the present knowledge systems in a third world country which has always practiced a live and let live philosophy. Furthermore it provides valuable information for understanding the complexity of socio-ecological systems in relation to the projected impacts of climate change.

  19. Challenging the claims on the potential of biochar to mitigate climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Francischinelli Rittl, T.

    2015-01-01

    Summary In this PhD thesis I studied the influence of biochar discourses on the political practices in Brazil and the impact of biochar on soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks, thus contributing to the current debate on the potential of biochar to mitigate climate change. Biochar is the solid material obtained from the carbonization of biomass. The deliberate production and application to soil distinguishes biochar from other carbonized products, e.g. charcoal. Inspired by the aged charcoal found...

  20. EFFECT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON DAIRY PRODUCTION IN BOTSWANA AND ITS SUITABLE MITIGATION STRATEGIES

    OpenAIRE

    J.C. MOREKI; C.M. TSOPITO

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the effects of climate change on dairy production in Botswana and mitigation strategies are suggested. Dairy farming has not experienced growth over time rendering the country heavily dependent on milk imports. National dairy herd is estimated to be approximately 5000 and per capita consumption of milk about 32.5 litres per person per year. Currently, Botswana is experiencing average high temperatures and low rainfall, frequent droughts and scarcity of both ground and surf...

  1. Renewable and low-carbon energies as mitigation options of climate change for China

    OpenAIRE

    Urban, F.; Benders, R.M.J.; Moll, H.C.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses how renewable and low-carbon energies can serve as mitigation options of climate change in China's power sector. Our study is based on scenarios developed in PowerPlan, a bottom-up model simulating a countries' power sector and its emissions. We first adjusted the model to China's present-day economy and power sector. We then developed different scenarios based on story lines for possible future developments in China. We simulated China's carbon-based electricity produc...

  2. Reforestation and climate change mitigation: A background study for Joint Implementation in China and Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Gan, Lin; Næss, Lars Otto; Kasa, Sjur; O'Brien, Karen

    1998-01-01

    This paper discusses the importance of institutional barriers in promoting reforestation as a means of mitigating global climate change. It is argued that cost-effective implementation of reforestation depends on proper institutional settings in host countries. The study is motivated by the growing interest for reforestation projects in developing countries through the Joint Implementation (JI) mechanism. Particular emphasis is given to the role of property rights. The relationship between va...

  3. Why do some people do "more" to mitigate climate change than others? Exploring heterogeneity in psycho-social associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Egea, José Manuel; García-de-Frutos, Nieves; Antolín-López, Raquel

    2014-01-01

    The urgency of climate change mitigation calls for a profound shift in personal behavior. This paper investigates psycho-social correlates of extra mitigation behavior in response to climate change, while also testing for potential (unobserved) heterogeneity in European citizens' decision-making. A person's extra mitigation behavior in response to climate change is conceptualized--and differentiated from common mitigation behavior--as some people's broader and greater levels of behavioral engagement (compared to others) across specific self-reported mitigation actions and behavioral domains. Regression analyses highlight the importance of environmental psychographics (i.e., attitudes, motivations, and knowledge about climate change) and socio-demographics (especially country-level variables) in understanding extra mitigation behavior. By looking at the data through the lens of segmentation, significant heterogeneity is uncovered in the associations of attitudes and knowledge about climate change--but not in motivational or socio-demographic links--with extra mitigation behavior in response to climate change, across two groups of environmentally active respondents. The study has implications for promoting more ambitious behavioral responses to climate change, both at the individual level and across countries. PMID:25191841

  4. Integration of Adaptation and Mitigation in Climate Change and Forest Policies in Indonesia and Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pham Thu Thuy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Forests play a major role in both climate change mitigation and adaptation, but few policies, if any, integrate these two aspects. Using Indonesia and Vietnam as case studies, we identify challenges at the national level but opportunities at the local level. Although both countries demonstrate political commitment to integrating adaptation and mitigation in their development plans, guidelines for policy and planning treat the two approaches separately. The main challenges identified are lack of knowledge, lack of political will, lack of financial incentives, and fragmentation of mandates and tasks of different government agencies. In contrast, at the local level, integration of mitigation and adaptation is facilitated by subnational autonomy, where mitigation projects might have adaptation co-benefits, and vice versa. Our results also show that many actors have a dual mandate that could bridge adaptation and mitigation if appropriate political and financial incentives are put in place. Successful integration of mitigation and adaptation policies would not only remove contradictions between policies, but also encourage governments that are designing domestic policies to exploit the potential for positive spillovers and realize the benefits of both approaches.

  5. Strategic and legal framework in forestry and related sectors: Climate change mitigation in European Union and Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranković Nenad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The important role of forests in mitigating and adapting to climate changes is recognized and widely accepted. Therefore, it becomes a subject of universal interest and support. However, in the national strategies relating to climate change, the importance of the forestry sector in mitigating these changes is quite often not discussed in detail. In addition, the problem of climate change is not fully represented and included in national forestry policies. The aim of this research was to determine the compliance and differences of strategic and legislative frameworks in forestry and related sectors, relating to climate change mitigation in the EU and Serbia. At the EU level, there are two strategies and a policy framework, and in Serbia, eight sectoral strategies, referring and discussing the climate change mitigation through forestry. At the same time, these issues are highlighted as the primary objective, only in the Climate and Energy Package of the EU and the Forestry Development Strategy in Serbia. In terms of legislative framework in Serbia, two laws have climate change mitigation through forestry as the primary objective, while for the analyzed relevant EU legislation, this is a secondary objective. In Serbia, only the Forest law has a direct impact on climate change mitigation through forestry, while at EU level, there is no regulation, directive or communication, with the same direct influence. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43007: Studies of climate changes and their impact on the environment-monitoring impacts, adaptation and mitigation, podprojekat, 43007/16-III: Socio-economic development, mitigation and adaptation to climate change

  6. Perspectives on global climate change: A review of the adaptation and mitigation approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper was prepared for the conference on Global Climate Change and International Security sponsored by the Midwest Consortium for International Security Studies of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and held in Chicago, Illinois on February 11-13, 1992. The purpose of the paper is to provide some background on the different perceptions and perspectives that are presently shaping the policy debate on how to respond to the problem of global warming. For better or worse, this debate has focused primarily on whether to adapt to climate change in the future or to mitigate climate change in the present, and as the issue has become increasingly political this debate has become polarized. The two approaches, as this paper notes, are not mutually exclusive; in fact, they share much in common. Differences, however, can be found in how proponents of each view the risks of global climate change. This paper provides a brief outline of the progression of global warming from an obscure scientific concern into a leading international political issue, reviews previous efforts by social scientists to assess attitudes and positions on global warming, and examines in detail the adaptation and mitigation perspectives and assesses how they differ on the basis of different conceptions of uncertainty and risk, equity, and technology

  7. Land use and management change under climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies: a U.S. case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Jianhong E.; Wein, Anne; McCarl, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    We examine the effects of crop management adaptation and climate mitigation strategies on land use and land management, plus on related environmental and economic outcomes. We find that crop management adaptation (e.g. crop mix, new species) increases Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 1.7 % under a more severe climate projection while a carbon price reduces total forest and agriculture GHG annual flux by 15 % and 9 %, respectively. This shows that trade-offs are likely between mitigation and adaptation. Climate change coupled with crop management adaptation has small and mostly negative effects on welfare; mitigation, which is implemented as a carbon price starting at $15 per metric ton carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalent with a 5 % annual increase rate, bolsters welfare carbon payments. When both crop management adaptation and carbon price are implemented the effects of the latter dominates.

  8. ¨ A Dilemma of Abundance: Governance Challenges of Reconciling Shale Gas Development and Climate Change Mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karena Shaw

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Shale gas proponents argue this unconventional fossil fuel offers a “bridge” towards a cleaner energy system by offsetting higher-carbon fuels such as coal. The technical feasibility of reconciling shale gas development with climate action remains contested. However, we here argue that governance challenges are both more pressing and more profound. Reconciling shale gas and climate action requires institutions capable of responding effectively to uncertainty; intervening to mandate emissions reductions and internalize costs to industry; and managing the energy system strategically towards a lower carbon future. Such policy measures prove challenging, particularly in jurisdictions that stand to benefit economically from unconventional fuels. We illustrate this dilemma through a case study of shale gas development in British Columbia, Canada, a global leader on climate policy that is nonetheless struggling to manage gas development for mitigation. The BC case is indicative of the constraints jurisdictions face both to reconcile gas development and climate action, and to manage the industry adequately to achieve social licence and minimize resistance. More broadly, the case attests to the magnitude of change required to transform our energy systems to mitigate climate change.

  9. 2007 status of climate change: Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Summary for Policy-makers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Working Group III contribution to the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) focuses on new literature on the scientific, technological, environmental, economic and social aspects of mitigation of climate change, published since the IPCC Third Assessment Report (TAR) and the Special Reports on CO2 Capture and Storage (SRCCS) and on Safeguarding the Ozone Layer and the Global Climate System (SROC).The main aim of this summary report is to assess options for mitigating climate change. Several aspects link climate change with development issues. This report explores these links in detail, and illustrates where climate change and sustainable development are mutually reinforcing. Economic development needs, resource endowments and mitigative and adaptive capacities differ across regions. There is no one-size-fits-all approach to the climate change problem, and solutions need to be regionally differentiated to reflect different socio-economic conditions and, to a lesser extent, geographical differences. Although this report has a global focus, an attempt is made to differentiate the assessment of scientific and technical findings for the various regions. Given that mitigation options vary significantly between economic sectors, it was decided to use the economic sectors to organize the material on short- to medium-term mitigation options. Contrary to what was done in the Third Assessment Report, all relevant aspects of sectoral mitigation options, such as technology, cost, policies etc., are discussed together, to provide the user with a comprehensive discussion of the sectoral mitigation options. The report is organised into six sections after the introduction: - Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission trends; - Mitigation in the short and medium term, across different economic sectors (until 2030); - Mitigation in the long-term (beyond 2030); - Policies, measures and instruments to mitigate climate change; - Sustainable development and climate change mitigation; - Gaps in

  10. Policies for accelerating access to clean energy, improving health, advancing development, and mitigating climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Andy; Smith, Kirk R; Anderson, Dennis; Epstein, Paul R; McMichael, Anthony J; Roberts, Ian; Wilkinson, Paul; Woodcock, James; Woods, Jeremy

    2007-10-01

    The absence of reliable access to clean energy and the services it provides imposes a large disease burden on low-income populations and impedes prospects for development. Furthermore, current patterns of fossil-fuel use cause substantial ill-health from air pollution and occupational hazards. Impending climate change, mainly driven by energy use, now also threatens health. Policies to promote access to non-polluting and sustainable sources of energy have great potential both to improve public health and to mitigate (prevent) climate disruption. There are several technological options, policy levers, and economic instruments for sectors such as power generation, transport, agriculture, and the built environment. However, barriers to change include vested interests, political inertia, inability to take meaningful action, profound global inequalities, weak technology-transfer mechanisms, and knowledge gaps that must be addressed to transform global markets. The need for policies that prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate while addressing the energy needs of disadvantaged people is a central challenge of the current era. A comprehensive programme for clean energy should optimise mitigation and, simultaneously, adaption to climate change while maximising co-benefits for health--eg, through improved air, water, and food quality. Intersectoral research and concerted action, both nationally and internationally, will be required. PMID:17868819

  11. Mitigation of climate change: back to IPCC's fifth report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article provides an overview of current knowledge on climate change mitigation, based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Working Group III fifth assessment report. The report emphasizes how little room for manoeuvre there is to meet the target of a global mean surface temperature increase below 2 deg. C, if ambitious policies to reduce greenhouse gases are not implemented by 2020. It also assesses sectoral potentials for emissions reductions and addresses emerging questions, in particular regarding the financing of decarbonization pathways. The report finally highlights the need for integrated policies to take advantage of co-benefits of climate policies (health, energy security, etc.), the evaluation of which is becoming more systematic. (authors)

  12. Under What Circumstances Do Wood Products from Native Forests Benefit Climate Change Mitigation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Heather; Lindenmayer, David; Macintosh, Andrew; Mackey, Brendan

    2015-01-01

    Climate change mitigation benefits from the land sector are not being fully realised because of uncertainty and controversy about the role of native forest management. The dominant policy view, as stated in the IPCC's Fifth Assessment Report, is that sustainable forest harvesting yielding wood products, generates the largest mitigation benefit. We demonstrate that changing native forest management from commercial harvesting to conservation can make an important contribution to mitigation. Conservation of native forests results in an immediate and substantial reduction in net emissions relative to a reference case of commercial harvesting. We calibrated models to simulate scenarios of native forest management for two Australian case studies: mixed-eucalypt in New South Wales and Mountain Ash in Victoria. Carbon stocks in the harvested forest included forest biomass, wood and paper products, waste in landfill, and bioenergy that substituted for fossil fuel energy. The conservation forest included forest biomass, and subtracted stocks for the foregone products that were substituted by non-wood products or plantation products. Total carbon stocks were lower in harvested forest than in conservation forest in both case studies over the 100-year simulation period. We tested a range of potential parameter values reported in the literature: none could increase the combined carbon stock in products, slash, landfill and substitution sufficiently to exceed the increase in carbon stock due to changing management of native forest to conservation. The key parameters determining carbon stock change under different forest management scenarios are those affecting accumulation of carbon in forest biomass, rather than parameters affecting transfers among wood products. This analysis helps prioritise mitigation activities to focus on maximising forest biomass. International forest-related policies, including negotiations under the UNFCCC, have failed to recognize fully the mitigation

  13. Under What Circumstances Do Wood Products from Native Forests Benefit Climate Change Mitigation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Keith

    Full Text Available Climate change mitigation benefits from the land sector are not being fully realised because of uncertainty and controversy about the role of native forest management. The dominant policy view, as stated in the IPCC's Fifth Assessment Report, is that sustainable forest harvesting yielding wood products, generates the largest mitigation benefit. We demonstrate that changing native forest management from commercial harvesting to conservation can make an important contribution to mitigation. Conservation of native forests results in an immediate and substantial reduction in net emissions relative to a reference case of commercial harvesting. We calibrated models to simulate scenarios of native forest management for two Australian case studies: mixed-eucalypt in New South Wales and Mountain Ash in Victoria. Carbon stocks in the harvested forest included forest biomass, wood and paper products, waste in landfill, and bioenergy that substituted for fossil fuel energy. The conservation forest included forest biomass, and subtracted stocks for the foregone products that were substituted by non-wood products or plantation products. Total carbon stocks were lower in harvested forest than in conservation forest in both case studies over the 100-year simulation period. We tested a range of potential parameter values reported in the literature: none could increase the combined carbon stock in products, slash, landfill and substitution sufficiently to exceed the increase in carbon stock due to changing management of native forest to conservation. The key parameters determining carbon stock change under different forest management scenarios are those affecting accumulation of carbon in forest biomass, rather than parameters affecting transfers among wood products. This analysis helps prioritise mitigation activities to focus on maximising forest biomass. International forest-related policies, including negotiations under the UNFCCC, have failed to recognize

  14. Under What Circumstances Do Wood Products from Native Forests Benefit Climate Change Mitigation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Heather; Lindenmayer, David; Macintosh, Andrew; Mackey, Brendan

    2015-01-01

    Climate change mitigation benefits from the land sector are not being fully realised because of uncertainty and controversy about the role of native forest management. The dominant policy view, as stated in the IPCC’s Fifth Assessment Report, is that sustainable forest harvesting yielding wood products, generates the largest mitigation benefit. We demonstrate that changing native forest management from commercial harvesting to conservation can make an important contribution to mitigation. Conservation of native forests results in an immediate and substantial reduction in net emissions relative to a reference case of commercial harvesting. We calibrated models to simulate scenarios of native forest management for two Australian case studies: mixed-eucalypt in New South Wales and Mountain Ash in Victoria. Carbon stocks in the harvested forest included forest biomass, wood and paper products, waste in landfill, and bioenergy that substituted for fossil fuel energy. The conservation forest included forest biomass, and subtracted stocks for the foregone products that were substituted by non-wood products or plantation products. Total carbon stocks were lower in harvested forest than in conservation forest in both case studies over the 100-year simulation period. We tested a range of potential parameter values reported in the literature: none could increase the combined carbon stock in products, slash, landfill and substitution sufficiently to exceed the increase in carbon stock due to changing management of native forest to conservation. The key parameters determining carbon stock change under different forest management scenarios are those affecting accumulation of carbon in forest biomass, rather than parameters affecting transfers among wood products. This analysis helps prioritise mitigation activities to focus on maximising forest biomass. International forest-related policies, including negotiations under the UNFCCC, have failed to recognize fully the mitigation

  15. The role of HFCs in mitigating 21st century climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Xu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There is growing international interest in mitigating climate change during the early part of this century by reducing emissions of short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs, in addition to reducing emissions of CO2. The SLCPs include methane (CH4, black carbon aerosols (BC, tropospheric ozone (O3 and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs. Recent studies have estimated that by mitigating emissions of CH4, BC, and O3 using available technologies, about 0.5 to 0.6 °C warming can be avoided by mid-21st century. Here we show that avoiding production and use of high-GWP (global warming potential HFCs by using technologically feasible low-GWP substitutes to meet the increasing global demand can avoid as much as another 0.5 °C warming by the end of the century. This combined mitigation of SLCPs would cut the cumulative warming since 2005 by 50% at 2050 and by 60% at 2100 from the CO2-only mitigation scenarios, significantly reducing the rate of warming and lowering the probability of exceeding the 2 °C warming threshold during this century.

  16. Climate change, loss of (bio)diversity, natural ressource depletion, social marginalization etc: Our adaptation and mitigation contribution

    OpenAIRE

    Gattinger, A.; Horneburg, B.; Sundberg, C; Medina, C.P.

    2014-01-01

    The environmental and social challenges of the planet are a sad reality. Organic Agriculture advocates often espouse its contributions to mitigating the negative effects of farming. But mitigation alone is not enough. Farmers also need to adapt to a changed climate, reduced biodiversity and depleted resources as well as to an ever-changing socio-cultural environment.

  17. Cotton and Climate Change: Impacts and Options to mitigate and adapt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ton, P.

    2012-04-01

    Cotton & Climate change: Impacts and Options to mitigate and adapt. Climate change will have major impacts on cotton production and trade depending on production location. This report to be presented analyses the impacts of climate change on cotton production and trade in the main producing areas world-wide, and the options available to mitigate and to adapt to these impacts. Cotton production is both a contributor to climate change and subject to its impacts. Agricultural production, processing, trade and consumption contribute up to 40% of the world's emissions when forest clearance is included in the calculation. Cotton production contributes to between 0.3% and 1% of total global GHG emissions. Cotton has a certain resilience to high temperatures and drought due to its vertical tap root. The crop is, however, sensitive to water availability, particularly at the height of flowering and boll formation. Rising temperatures favour plant development, unless day temperatures exceed 32°C. New production areas may be established where cotton was not grown before. Increases in atmospheric CO2 will also favour plant development. In turn, increased pests, water stress, diseases, and weather extremes will pose adaptation challenges. Overall, the negative impacts of climate change on cotton production relate to the reduced availability of water for irrigation, in particular in Xinjiang (China), Pakistan, Australia and the western United States. Heat stress risks creating depressed yields in Pakistan in particular, while in other countries limited increases in temperatures could favour cotton plant growth and lengthen the cotton growing season. The impacts of climate change on rainfall will likely be positive in the Yellow River area (China), in India, the south-eastern United States and south-eastern Anatolia (Turkey). Impacts on rainfall in Brazil and West and Central Africa are unclear. Mitigation and adaptation to climate change in cotton production, as in agriculture

  18. Accessing international financing for climate change mitigation - A guidebook for developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limaye, D.R.; Zhu, X.

    2012-08-15

    This guidebook has been prepared by the UNEP Risoe Centre (URC) as part of its Technology Needs Assessment (TNA) project. The TNA project assists developing countries to identify national mitigation and adaptation technology priorities and to develop Technology Action Plans (TAPs) for mitigation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and climate change adaptation. This guidebook provides information to help TNA countries better identify and access financial resources for the mitigation activities included in their national TAPs. This guidebook covers both mitigation 'projects' (such as a wind farm or a solar PV generation facility) and 'programmes' (such as a credit line for financing energy efficiency projects in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), or bulk procurement and distribution of compact fluorescent lamps to households). The primary emphasis is on multilateral and bilateral sources of financing but the guidebook also includes an overview of private funding sources and public-private partnerships (PPPs). This guidebook only covers international financing for mitigation actions in developing countries. For example, EU funding for EU member countries and Chinese funding for mitigation in China are not covered in this guidebook. However, the EU funding for mitigation in developing countries and Chinese funding supporting mitigation in other developing countries are included. Special funds established in some developing countries by pooling financing support from developed countries are also covered in this guidebook. Information on the financing sources was compiled in a standard format and reviewed and analysed to categorise the financing sources. For the multilateral and bilateral financing sources, the available information was used to define their major characteristics (such as geographic coverage, technology/sector focus, funding sources, financing objectives, financing mechanisms, and management and governance). In addition, the

  19. Combating the effects of climatic change on forests by mitigation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Matthias

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Forests occur across diverse biomes, each of which shows a specific composition of plant communities associated with the particular climate regimes. Predicted future climate change will have impacts on the vulnerability and productivity of forests; in some regions higher temperatures will extend the growing season and thus improve forest productivity, while changed annual precipitation patterns may show disadvantageous effects in areas, where water availability is restricted. While adaptation of forests to predicted future climate scenarios has been intensively studied, less attention was paid to mitigation strategies such as the introduction of tree species well adapted to changing environmental conditions. Results We simulated the development of managed forest ecosystems in Germany for the time period between 2000 and 2100 under different forest management regimes and climate change scenarios. The management regimes reflect different rotation periods, harvesting intensities and species selection for reforestations. The climate change scenarios were taken from the IPCC's Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES. We used the scenarios A1B (rapid and successful economic development and B1 (high level of environmental and social consciousness combined with a globally coherent approach to a more sustainable development. Our results indicate that the effects of different climate change scenarios on the future productivity and species composition of German forests are minor compared to the effects of forest management. Conclusions The inherent natural adaptive capacity of forest ecosystems to changing environmental conditions is limited by the long life time of trees. Planting of adapted species and forest management will reduce the impact of predicted future climate change on forests.

  20. Public attention to science and political news and support for climate change mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, P. Sol; Nisbet, Erik C.; Myers, Teresa A.

    2015-06-01

    We examine how attention to science and political news may influence public knowledge, perceived harm, and support for climate mitigation policies. Previous research examining these relationships has not fully accounted for how political ideology shapes the mental processes through which the public interprets media discourses about climate change. We incorporate political ideology and the concept of motivated cognition into our analysis to compare and contrast two prominent models of opinion formation, the scientific literacy model, which posits that disseminating scientific information will move public opinion towards the scientific consensus, and the motivated reasoning model, which posits that individuals will interpret information in a biased manner. Our analysis finds support for both models of opinion formation with key differences across ideological groups. Attention to science news was associated with greater perceptions of harm and knowledge for conservatives, but only additional knowledge for liberals. Supporting the literacy model, greater knowledge was associated with more support for climate mitigation for liberals. In contrast, consistent with motivated reasoning, more knowledgeable conservatives were less supportive of mitigation policy. In addition, attention to political news had a negative association with perceived harm for conservatives but not for liberals.

  1. Toward Collective Impact for Climate Resilience: Maximizing Climate Change Education for Preparedness, Adaptation, and Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledley, T. S.; Niepold, F., III; McCaffrey, M.

    2014-12-01

    Increasing the capacity of society to make informed climate decisions based on scientific evidence is imperative. While a wide range of education programs and communication efforts to improve understanding and facilitate responsible effective decision-making have been developed in recent years, these efforts have been largely disconnected. The interdisciplinary and trans-disciplinary nature of the problems and potential responses to climate change requires a broad range of expertise and a strategy that overcomes the inherent limitations of isolated programs and efforts. To extend the reach and impact of climate change education and engagement efforts, it is necessary to have a coordination that results in greater collective impact. The Collective Impact model, as described by Kania & Kramer (2011), requires five elements: 1) a common agenda; 2) shared measurement systems; 3) mutually reinforcing activities; 4) continuous communication; and 5) a well-funded backbone support organization. The CLEAN Network has facilitated a series of discussions at six professional meetings from late 2012 through spring 2014 to begin to develop and define the elements of collective impact on climate change education and engagement. These discussions have focused on getting input from the community on a common agenda and what a backbone support organization could do to help extend their reach and impact and enable a longer-term sustainability. These discussions will continue at future meetings, with the focus shifting to developing a common agenda and shared metrics. In this presentation we will summarize the outcomes of these discussions thus far, especially with respect to what activities a backbone support organization might provide to help increase the collective impact of climate change education effort and invite others to join the development of public-private partnership to improve the nations climate literacy. The cumulative input into this evolving discussion on collective

  2. Co-creation of climate change mitigation policies: the superiority of a community-based approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoff, Jens Villiam

    research project and spread over the continuum from local government initiated to citizen initiated, and from projects aimed at changing individual behaviour to projects involving bigger communities (housing association, villages, etc.), it will be argued that both from a governance perspective (CO2......The focus of this paper is on the places where citizens and public authorities meet – possible involving other stakeholders as well – to discuss, formulate and implement climate change mitigation policies at the local level. Through looking at a number of concrete cases stemming from the CIDEA...

  3. Mitigating the Urban Heat Island under Climate Change through Urban Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, L.; Lee, X.; Oleson, K. W.; Schultz, N. M.; Smith, R. B.

    2015-12-01

    The urban heat island (UHI) represents ubiquitous urban warmth compared to surrounding rural areas. This phenomenon, when compounded with future climate warming, will exacerbate heat stress on urban residents who will comprise 70% of the world's population by 2070. At the same time, urban climate adaptation plans have shown great potential for reducing the impacts of global change. In this study, we assess three mitigation strategies, including reflective roofs, green roofs, and street trees, to ameliorate the warming under climate change through both "online" and "offline" methods. The "online" method compares modeling results from a modified urban roof albedo configuration (ALB-MOD) where the roof albedo is raised to a high reflective value to the modeling results from the default configuration (CTRL), both using the Community Earth System Model (CESM). Three pairs of simulations under current climate forcing and two future scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) are conducted. The "offline" method uses a surface temperature attribution solution derived previously for partitioning the UHI intensity to assess the efficacy of the mitigation strategies. The "offline" method supplements the "online" method in assessing green roof and street tree strategies, because the current design of CESM does not have explicit vegetation in the urban canopy configuration. The excellent agreement between the "online" and "offline" results confirms the validity of the offline scheme, supporting that the "offline" method can be used to predict the impacts of various urban adaptation strategies for development planning. Results show that albedo management is the most effective and viable way to mitigate UHIs, whereas although green roof and street trees strategies have evaporative cooling effects, the cooling is compensated by vegetation's lower albedo, showing much less effectiveness on UHI mitigation. Although convection efficiency associated with the surface roughness is an important

  4. Climate change mitigation in the Forest Sector: what Happened in Poznan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate change mitigation in the forestry sector was an important topic during the recent Climate Convention conference in Poznan (1- 12 December 2008). Forests appeared in various agenda items of the formal negotiations: - under the Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action under the Convention (AWG-LCA) concerning policy approaches and positives incentives on issues relating to reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries; and the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries ('REDD+'), - under the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA) concerning methodological aspects on the above, - under the Ad Hoc Working Group on Further Commitments for Annex I Parties under the Kyoto Protocol (AWG-KP) concerning the treatment of greenhouse gas emissions and removals related to land use, land use change and forestry (LULUCF) in Annex I Parties in the context of post-2012 commitments. This note recalls what happened under these agenda items and also on the margins of formal negotiations in relation to climate change mitigation in the forest sector. (author)

  5. Soil biochar amendment as a climate change mitigation tool: Key parameters and mechanisms involved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassard, Patrick; Godbout, Stéphane; Raghavan, Vijaya

    2016-10-01

    Biochar, a solid porous material obtained from the carbonization of biomass under low or no oxygen conditions, has been proposed as a climate change mitigation tool because it is expected to sequester carbon (C) for centuries and to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from soils. This review aimed to identify key biochar properties and production parameters that have an effect on these specific applications of the biochar. Moreover, mechanisms involved in interactions between biochar and soils were highlighted. Following a compilation and comparison of the characteristics of 76 biochars from 40 research studies, biochars with a lower N content, and consequently a higher C/N ratio (>30), were found to be more suitable for mitigation of N2O emissions from soils. Moreover, biochars produced at a higher pyrolysis temperature, and with O/C ratio <0.2, H/Corg ratio <0.4 and volatile matter below 80% may have high C sequestration potential. Based on these observations, biochar production and application to the field can be used as a tool to mitigate climate change. However, it is important to determine the pyrolysis conditions and feedstock needed to produce a biochar with the desired properties for a specific application. More research studies are needed to identify the exact mechanisms involved following biochar amendment to soil. PMID:27420171

  6. Climate Change Mitigation in a Sustainable World - Findings of the IPCC 4th Assessment Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 4th Assessment Report on climate change of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2007) has recently been completed. The fi rst report in the IPCC 4th Assessment series by Working Group I outlined the latest knowledge on Climate Science. The second by Working Group 2 covered the possibilities for Adaptation of ecosystems, glaciers preceding, sea level rising, droughts etc in various regions. This paper is based on the findings of Working Group III as presented in the recently published report Climate Change 2007: Mitigation of Climate Change. The 27 paragraph Summary for Policy Makers was approved sentence by sentence over 4 days in May 2007 by 120 government delegations in Bangkok, Thailand. The three short Summaries for Policy Makers (SPM), Synthesis report, and the three full reports can be found at www.ipcc.ch. In addition the short Synthesis Report across all three working groups is soon to be released. The report on Mitigation attempted to compile the latest scientific knowledge relating to low-carbon emitting technologies; assessed their costs and potentials for greenhouse gas (GHG) emission avoidance; evaluated their long term prospects out to 2100 for stabilising atmospheric GHGs; provided a detailed list of policy options; and discussed the opportunities for sustainable development and equity linked with GHG abatement. Over the 3 year writing and review process, the author of this paper was the co-ordinating lead author of the writing team for the Working Group III chapter on Energy Supply. Of the 13 chapters, this one received the greatest attention with over 5000 review comments that were each responded to, and with the sections on nuclear and renewable energy receiving a major share of them. Since the 3rd Assessment Report (TAR) was published in 2001, the over-arching message now being delivered by Working Group III is a stronger but positive one: Action is required. The situation is urgent - but not beyond repair. Many energy

  7. Considering only first-order effects? How simplifications lead to unrealistic technology optimism in climate change mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article challenges the notion that energy efficiency and 'clean' energy technologies can deliver sufficient degrees of climate change mitigation. By six arguments not widely recognized in the climate policy arena, we argue that unrealistic technology optimism exists in current climate change mitigation assessments, and, consequently, world energy and climate policy. The overarching theme of the arguments is that incomplete knowledge of indirect effects, and neglect of interactions between parts of physical and social sub-systems, systematically leads to overly optimistic assessments. Society must likely seek deeper changes in social and economic structures to preserve the climatic conditions to which the human civilization is adapted. We call for priority to be given to research evaluating aspects of mitigation in a broad, system-wide perspective. - Highlights: → We highlight some of the simplifying assumptions in climate change mitigation scenarios. → Mitigation assessments are the basis of unfounded technology optimism in climate policy. → Society must likely seek deeper changes in social and economic structures to stabilize climate.

  8. Considering only first-order effects? How simplifications lead to unrealistic technology optimism in climate change mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvesen, Anders, E-mail: anders.arvesen@ntnu.no [Industrial Ecology Programme and Department of Energy and Process Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim NO-7491 (Norway); Bright, Ryan M.; Hertwich, Edgar G. [Industrial Ecology Programme and Department of Energy and Process Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim NO-7491 (Norway)

    2011-11-15

    This article challenges the notion that energy efficiency and 'clean' energy technologies can deliver sufficient degrees of climate change mitigation. By six arguments not widely recognized in the climate policy arena, we argue that unrealistic technology optimism exists in current climate change mitigation assessments, and, consequently, world energy and climate policy. The overarching theme of the arguments is that incomplete knowledge of indirect effects, and neglect of interactions between parts of physical and social sub-systems, systematically leads to overly optimistic assessments. Society must likely seek deeper changes in social and economic structures to preserve the climatic conditions to which the human civilization is adapted. We call for priority to be given to research evaluating aspects of mitigation in a broad, system-wide perspective. - Highlights: > We highlight some of the simplifying assumptions in climate change mitigation scenarios. > Mitigation assessments are the basis of unfounded technology optimism in climate policy. > Society must likely seek deeper changes in social and economic structures to stabilize climate.

  9. USDA Southwest Regional Hub for Adaptation to and Mitigation of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rango, A.; Elias, E.; Steele, C. M.; Havstad, K.

    2014-12-01

    The USDA Southwest (SW) Climate Hub was created in February 2014 to develop risk adaptation and mitigation strategies for coping with climate change effects on agricultural productivity. There are seven regional hubs across the country with three subsidiary hubs. The SW Climate Hub Region is made up of six states: New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, Nevada, California and Hawaii (plus the Trust Territories of the Pacific Islands). The SW Climate Hub has a subsidiary hub located in Davis, California. The Southwest region has high climatic diversity, with the lowest and highest average annual rainfall in the U.S.(6.0 cm in Death Valley, CA and 1168 cm at Mt. Waialeale, HI). There are major deserts in five of the six states, yet most of the states, with exception of Hawaii, depend upon the melting of mountain snowpacks for their surface water supply. Additionally, many of the agricultural areas of the SW Regional Hub depend upon irrigation water to maintain productivity. Scientific climate information developed by the Hub will be used for climate-smart decision making. To do this, the SW Regional Hub will rely upon existing infrastructure of the Cooperative Extension Service at Land-Grant State Universities. Extension service and USDA-NRCS personnel have existing networks to communicate with stakeholders (farmers, ranchers, and forest landowners) through meetings and workshops which have already started in the six states. Outreach through the development of a weather and climate impact modules designed for seventh grade students and their teachers will foster education of future generations of rural land managers. We will be synthesizing and evaluating existing reports, literature and information on regional climate projections, water resources, and agricultural adaptation strategies related to climate in the Southwest. The results will be organized in a spatial format and provided through the SW Hub website (http://swclimatehub.info) and peer-reviewed articles.

  10. Public Perception of Climate Change and Mitigation Technologies; Percepcion Publica del Cambio Climatico y las Tecnologias de Mitigacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sola, R.; Sala, R.; Oltra, C.

    2007-09-27

    Public perception and understanding of climate change and mitigation policies may have a significant influence on the development of political programs as well as on individual behavioral intentions to address climate change. The study of public attitudes and beliefs about climate change and energy policy may be useful in the design of suitable communication strategies and in the efficient implementation of climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies. Based on a survey to the Spanish population, we analyze different issues such as the level of concern towards climate change, the existing knowledge about the contribution of different energy technologies to global warming, the attitudes toward energy technologies and the beliefs about potential adaptation strategies. Comparisons with other countries based on similar public opinion surveys are established to obtain a broader view of policy preferences and attitudes regarding climate change. (Author) 5 refs.

  11. Climate change, insurance and the building sector: technological synergisms between adaptation and mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Examining the intersection of risk analysis and sustainable energy strategies reveals numerous examples of energy-efficient and renewable energy technologies that offer insurance loss-prevention benefits. The growing threat of climate change provides an added motivation for the risk community to understand better this area of opportunity. While analyses of climate change mitigation typically focus on the emissions-reduction characteristics of sustainable energy technologies, less often recognised are a host of synergistic ways in which these technologies also offer adaptation benefits, e.g. making buildings more resilient to natural disasters. While there is already some relevant activity, there remain various barriers to expanding these efforts significantly. Achieving successful integration of sustainable energy considerations with risk-management objectives requires a more proactive orientation, and coordination among diverse actors and industry groups. (author)

  12. Climate change, insurance, and the buildings sector: Technological synergisms between adaptation and mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Evan

    2002-11-01

    Examining the intersection of risk analysis and sustainable energy strategies reveals numerous examples of energy efficient and renewable energy technologies that offer insurance loss-prevention benefits. The growing threat of climate change provides an added motivation for the risk community to better understand this area of opportunity. While analyses of climate change mitigation typically focus on the emissions-reduction characteristics of sustainable energy technologies, less often recognized are a host of synergistic ways in which these technologies also offer adaptation benefits, e.g. making buildings more resilient to natural disasters. While there is already some relevant activity, there remain various barriers to significantly expanding these efforts. Achieving successful integration of sustainable energy considerations with risk-management objectives requires a more proactive orientation, and coordination among diverse actors and industry groups.

  13. Linking climate change mitigation and coastal eutrophication management through biogas technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaspersen, Bjarke Stoltze; Christensen, Thomas Budde; Fredenslund, Anders Michael;

    2016-01-01

    food industry residues, pig manure and beach-cast seaweed is feasible and that there is a very significant, cost-effective GHG and nutrient loading mitigation potential for this bioenergy concept. Our research demonstrates how an integrated planning process where considerations about the total...... concept for anaerobic co-digestion of food industry residues, manure and beach-cast seaweed has been developed and tested in order to quantify the potential for synergies between climate change mitigation and coastal eutrophication management in the Køge Bay catchment. The biogas plant, currently under...... environment are integrated into the design and decision processes can support the development of this kind of holistic bioenergy solutions....

  14. Transport policies related to climate change mitigation:the case of Denmark

    OpenAIRE

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Kappel, Jannik

    2013-01-01

    This report presents the Danish national policies on reducing the emissions of greenhouse gasses and reducing Denmark’s dependency on fossil fuels in the transport sector, as well as some of the results of the policies. Systematic focus on efficient transport and climate mitigation started in 2008 and 2009 with a change – not only in the wording and in the political visions – but also in the actual prioritisation of investments and policies to a very large extent. In March 2012 another milest...

  15. The potential of carbon sequestration to mitigate against climate change in forests and agro ecosystems of Zimbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    Mujuru, L.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change adversely affects human livelihoods and the environment through alteration of temperatures, rainfall patterns, sea level rise and ecosystem productivity. Developing countries are more vulnerable to climate change because they directly depend on agriculture and natural ecosystem products for their livelihoods. Mitigation of climate change impacts includes practices that can store carbon (C) in soil and biomass thus, reducing concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and...

  16. Accounting for Impacts of Natural Disturbances on Climate Change Mitigation Projects in Tropical Forests (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdsey, R.; Dai, Z.; Hernandez, J.; Johnson, K. D.; Vargas, R.

    2013-12-01

    Most forests in the world are recovering from natural or human-induced disturbances -- the fraction of the world's forests disturbed each year by fire and insects alone is conservatively estimated by FAO to be 2.6%. Natural disturbances are common in many tropical forest areas and have significant impacts on carbon stocks. For example, emissions from wildfires in tropical forests are estimated to exceed 700 TgC yr-1 annually, with significant interannual variability related to global weather cycles. Several lines of evidence point toward long-term climate-induced increases in natural disturbances, with the potential for changing the world's terrestrial ecosystems from a sink to a source of CO2. This raises the important question of whether forests can be an effective part of a climate change mitigation strategy and concurrently, how to account for the effects of disturbances separately from the effects of changes in land use or forest management. Although global and regional studies have made some good progress to quantify the impacts of natural disturbances, it remains a technical challenge to separate or 'factor out' the impacts of natural disturbances from other causes of changes in carbon stocks, such as vegetation regrowth and CO2 fertilization, when developing the accounting and monitoring systems required to support climate change mitigation projects. We tested one approach in the semi-deciduous dry forests of the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico using the ecosystem process model DNDC. Spatial variability in simulated C stocks reflects variations in stand age, vegetation type, soil characteristics and disturbance. Disturbances that occurred between 1985 and 2010 led to a mean decrease in C stocks of 3.2 Mg C ha-1 in 2012 not including forestland lost to crops and urban land uses. Other approaches may be possible for factoring out specific causes of changes in carbon stocks, but the IPCC has twice determined that none of the currently available alternatives is

  17. EFFECT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON DAIRY PRODUCTION IN BOTSWANA AND ITS SUITABLE MITIGATION STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. MOREKI

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the effects of climate change on dairy production in Botswana and mitigation strategies are suggested. Dairy farming has not experienced growth over time rendering the country heavily dependent on milk imports. National dairy herd is estimated to be approximately 5000 and per capita consumption of milk about 32.5 litres per person per year. Currently, Botswana is experiencing average high temperatures and low rainfall, frequent droughts and scarcity of both ground and surface water, which all contribute to low livestock and crop productivity. Changes in rainfall patterns, frequent droughts, high incidences of animal diseases (e.g., mastitis and FMD and parasites, and high environmental temperatures cause significant decrease in livestock productivity. For dairy animals, there is a decline in milk yield and reduced animal weight gain due mainly to high temperatures and inadequate feeds. Mitigation strategies comprise using smaller dairy breeds such as Jersey and Brown Swiss and local Tswana breed, growing fodder crops and utilization of crop residues and constructing cow sheds. Thus, the effects of climate change on dairy cattle production are real and require immediate attention if they are to be minimized or managed properly to attain higher milk production.

  18. Limited potential of no-till agriculture for climate change mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powlson, David S.; Stirling, Clare M.; Jat, M. L.; Gerard, Bruno G.; Palm, Cheryl A.; Sanchez, Pedro A.; Cassman, Kenneth G.

    2014-08-01

    The Emissions Gap Report 2013 from the United Nations Environment Programme restates the claim that changing to no-till practices in agriculture, as an alternative to conventional tillage, causes an accumulation of organic carbon in soil, thus mitigating climate change through carbon sequestration. But these claims ignore a large body of experimental evidence showing that the quantity of additional organic carbon in soil under no-till is relatively small: in large part apparent increases result from an altered depth distribution. The larger concentration near the surface in no-till is generally beneficial for soil properties that often, though not always, translate into improved crop growth. In many regions where no-till is practised it is common for soil to be cultivated conventionally every few years for a range of agronomic reasons, so any soil carbon benefit is then lost. We argue that no-till is beneficial for soil quality and adaptation of agriculture to climate change, but its role in mitigation is widely overstated.

  19. Applications of Advanced Technology for Monitoring Forest Carbon to Support Climate Change Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdsey, R.; Hurtt, G. C.; Dubayah, R.; Hagen, S. C.; Vargas, R.; Nehrkorn, T.; Domke, G. M.; Houghton, R. A.

    2015-12-01

    Measurement, Reporting, and Verification (MRV) is a broad concept guiding the application of monitoring technology to the needs of countries or entities for reporting and verifying reductions in greenhouse gas emissions or increases in greenhouse gas sinks. Credibility, cost-effectiveness, and compatibility are important features of global MRV efforts that can support implementation of climate change mitigation programs such as Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation and Sustainable Forest Management (REDD+). Applications of MRV technology may be tailored to individual country circumstances following guidance provided by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change; hence, there is no single approach that is uniquely viable but rather a range of ways to integrate new MRV methods. MRV technology is advancing rapidly with new remote sensing and advanced measurement of atmospheric CO2, and in situ terrestrial and ocean measurements, coupled with improvements in data analysis, modeling, and assessing uncertainty. Here we briefly summarize some of the most application-ready MRV technologies being developed under NASA's Carbon Monitoring System (CMS) program, and illustrate how these technologies may be applied for monitoring forests using several case studies that span a range of scales, country circumstances, and stakeholder reporting requirements. We also include remarks about the potential role of advanced monitoring technology in the context of the global climate accord that is expected to result from the 21st session of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, which is expected to take place in December 2015, in Paris, France.

  20. Benefits of collaborative and comparative research on land use change and climate mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhiliang; Gong, Peng

    2016-04-01

    The world's two largest economies are also the latest greenhouse gas emitters. The United States is committed to reduce the net greenhouse gas emission by 28% below the 2005 level by 2025. Similarly China also announced significant climate mitigation steps at the Paris climate convention. These policy plans will require actions including reduction of GHG emissions as well as protection of carbon stored in biologic pools and increase of carbon sequestration by the natural ecosystems. Major drivers of ecosystem carbon sequestration and protection of existing carbon resources include land use, disturbances, and climate change. Recent studies indicate that vegetated ecosystems in the United States remain as a carbon sink but the sink is weakening due to increased disturbances (such as wildfire and harvesting) and aging of forests. Unique land use policies in China such as large-scale afforestation in the recent decades have reportedly led to significant increase in total forest area and aboveground biomass, although it is not clear to what degree the increase has translated to strengthened net uptake of atmospheric CO2 and the rate of sequestration by vegetated ecosystems. What lessons can we draw from different land management and land use practices in the U.S. and China that can benefit scientific advances and climate mitigation goals? Research conducted collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey and China Ministry of Science and Technology has led to improved techniques for tracking and modeling land use change and ecosystem disturbances and improved understanding of consequences of different land use change and management practices on ecosystem carbon sequestration capacities.

  1. Developing a Future Dam Operation Alternative to Mitigate Impact of Climate Change on Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J.; Kim, Y.

    2011-12-01

    There have been few studies on water quality projection considering climate change. South Korea is not an exception. The simple way to mitigate the future water quality change is to alter dam operations in upstream. In this study, a small watershed in South Korea with two multi-purpose dams is considered. A common chained-modeling procedure for the climate change assessment study is applied to the watershed, i.e. water quality projections are made with GCMs and the LARS-WG downscaling method, and the SWAT hydrologic model. The projections uncertainty is quantified by using multiple scenarios of GCMs. With these future water quality projections, this study first examines how vulnerable to the potential climate change the watershed is and then develop a possible dam operation alternative to improve the future water quality. Finally this study also proposes other water management alternatives that can improve the potential water quality change in addition to the dam operation alternative. Keywords: adaptation, dam operation alternative, HEC-5, LARS-WG, SWAT, water quality, uncertainty.

  2. Land Use and Management Change in the U.S. with Adaptation and Mitigation under Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, J. E.; McCarl, B.

    2011-12-01

    Land use and management change interact with climate change. Land uses such as forestry, cropping and grazing depend on specific ecosystems that will be affected by climate change. Furthermore, this change will not be uniform across land uses or regions. Consequently, land use productivity will change as will the mix of land uses (Mendelsohn and Dinar 2009). On the other hand, land use has been a major contributor to greenhouse gas emissions (IPCC 2007). Therefore, research focusing on land use change, climate change and greenhouse gas mitigation should consider the interaction between these effects. The research to be reported in this presentation investigates how agricultural and forestry land use and management decisions change across the coterminous U.S. under climate change with and without adaptation plus how a carbon price policy influences decisions, mitigates GHG emissions and alters carbon sequestration. Our approach is to simulate behavior under climate scenarios by 2030 using data from alternative two climate and two vegetation models while allowing for adaptive responses and imposing carbon prices. To do this, we use the Forest and Agricultural Optimization model with Greenhouse Gases (FASOMGHG) (Adams et al. 2005). In total, 16 scenarios are considered involving climate change and GHG prices relative to a base case with no climate change and no adaptation or mitigation. After analyzing results across regions and sectors, our findings include: 1.More land is converted to forestry use and less land is used for agricultural purposes under both the adaptation and mitigation strategies. 2. Harvest rotation of hardwood is lengthened and harvest of softwood and hardwood are reduced when a carbon price is included. However, such management changes were insignificant when only the adaptation strategy is used. 3. The total GHG emissions from agricultural and forestry sector are increased by 2-3 millions tones CO2 equivalent under climate change and adaptation

  3. Climate Change mitigation opportunities in the Energy sector for the Caribbean region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doral, Wenceslao Carrera; Chinchilla, Oscar Coto; Delgado, Ivan Relova;

    The “Climate change mitigation opportunities in the energy sector for the Caribbean region” has been prepared as part of the implementation of the Caribbean Regional Subcomponent of the MEAs Program for Africa, the Caribbean and the Pacific (ACP MEAs)1. The study has being executed with the...... climate finance opportunities), by looking in closer depth at two potential PoAs in the region. As well as many other SIDS 4, the Caribbean Countries are “heavily dependent on imported petroleum products, largely for transport and electricity generation. This is likely to continue in the short to medium...... term, however the efficiency of such use can be greatly increased through appropriate technology and national energy policies which promote more economic and environmentally beneficial energy use. Several constraints to the large-scale commercial use of renewable energy resources remain, including...

  4. Climate Change Mitigation Challenge for Wood Utilization-The Case of Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soimakallio, Sampo; Saikku, Laura; Valsta, Lauri; Pingoud, Kim

    2016-05-17

    The urgent need to mitigate climate change invokes both opportunities and challenges for forest biomass utilization. Fossil fuels can be substituted by using wood products in place of alternative materials and energy, but wood harvesting reduces forest carbon sink and processing of wood products requires material and energy inputs. We assessed the extended life cycle carbon emissions considering substitution impacts for various wood utilization scenarios over 100 years from 2010 onward for Finland. The scenarios were based on various but constant wood utilization structures reflecting current and anticipated mix of wood utilization activities. We applied stochastic simulation to deal with the uncertainty in a number of input variables required. According to our analysis, the wood utilization decrease net carbon emissions with a probability lower than 40% for each of the studied scenarios. Furthermore, large emission reductions were exceptionally unlikely. The uncertainty of the results were influenced clearly the most by the reduction in the forest carbon sink. There is a significant trade-off between avoiding emissions through fossil fuel substitution and reduction in forest carbon sink due to wood harvesting. This creates a major challenge for forest management practices and wood utilization activities in responding to ambitious climate change mitigation targets. PMID:27074531

  5. The potential of Indonesian mangrove forests for global climate change mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdiyarso, Daniel; Purbopuspito, Joko; Kauffman, J. Boone; Warren, Matthew W.; Sasmito, Sigit D.; Donato, Daniel C.; Manuri, Solichin; Krisnawati, Haruni; Taberima, Sartji; Kurnianto, Sofyan

    2015-12-01

    Mangroves provide a wide range of ecosystem services, including nutrient cycling, soil formation, wood production, fish spawning grounds, ecotourism and carbon (C) storage. High rates of tree and plant growth, coupled with anaerobic, water-logged soils that slow decomposition, result in large long-term C storage. Given their global significance as large sinks of C, preventing mangrove loss would be an effective climate change adaptation and mitigation strategy. It has been reported that C stocks in the Indo-Pacific region contain on average 1,023 MgC ha-1 (ref. ). Here, we estimate that Indonesian mangrove C stocks are 1,083 +/- 378 MgC ha-1. Scaled up to the country-level mangrove extent of 2.9 Mha (ref. ), Indonesia’s mangroves contained on average 3.14 PgC. In three decades Indonesia has lost 40% of its mangroves, mainly as a result of aquaculture development. This has resulted in annual emissions of 0.07-0.21 Pg CO2e. Annual mangrove deforestation in Indonesia is only 6% of its total forest loss; however, if this were halted, total emissions would be reduced by an amount equal to 10-31% of estimated annual emissions from land-use sectors at present. Conservation of carbon-rich mangroves in the Indonesian archipelago should be a high-priority component of strategies to mitigate climate change.

  6. Tooling up urban planning for climate change mitigation in Malaysian cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The city's 2-dimensional spatial structure and 3-dimensional form significantly influence its energy and GHG emission intensity. In rapidly developing urban-regions, the ability of the local planning authorities to quantify the spatial structure and form of existing urban areas, new developments and the emergent urban-region in terms of GHG emission is vital to any effective local, national and global climate change mitigation effort. While a wide array of tools has been developed for assessing built environment sustainability at various spatial scales, these are predominantly eco-efficiency rating tools that do not model the 'spatial structure-GHG' relationship and do not illustrate the GHG implications of urban structure and form, which crucially inform local planning decisions with respect to climate change mitigation. This paper takes the first steps in analysing three spatial-based planning models (Envision Tomorrow, GHGProof, URBEMIS) that estimate GHG emissions towards assessing their adaptability for application in Malaysian cities. It looks into the models' inner working, unpacking the variables and their relationships; assumptions and conversion rates used; and their data requirement and structure. The models' characteristics and features are critically compared to evaluate their capabilities, limitations and relevance to the Malaysian urban planning context, particularly in terms of data availability

  7. A trinity of sense: Using biomass in the transport sector for climate change mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis analyses two strategies for decreasing anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions: to capture and store CO2, and to increase the use of biomass. First, two concepts for CO2 capture with low capture penalties are evaluated. The concepts are an integrated gasification combined cycle where the oxygen is supplied by a membrane reactor, and a hybrid cycle where the CO2 is captured at elevated pressure. Although the cycles have comparatively high efficiencies and low penalties, they illustrate the inevitable fact that capturing CO2 will always induce significant efficiency penalties. Other strategies are also needed if CO2 emissions are to be forcefully decreased. An alternative is increased use of biomass, which partially could be used for production of motor fuels (biofuels). This work examines arguments for directing biomass to the transport sector, analyses how biofuels (and also some other means) may be used to reduce CO2 emissions and increase security of motor fuel supply. The thesis also explores the possibility of reducing CO2 emissions by comparatively easy and cost-efficient CO2 capture from concentrated CO2 streams available in some types of biofuel plants. Many conclusions of the thesis could be associated with either of three meanings of the word sense: First, there is reason in biofuel production - since it e.g. reduces oil dependence. From a climate change mitigation perspective, however, motor fuel production is often a CO2-inefficient use of biomass, but the thesis explores how biofuels' climate change mitigation effects may be increased by introducing low-cost CO2 capture. Second, the Swedish promotion of biofuels appears to have been governed more by a feeling for attaining other goals than striving for curbing climate change. Third, it seems to have been the prevalent opinion among politicians that the advantages of biofuels - among them their climate change mitigation benefits - are far greater than the disadvantages and that they should be

  8. South Africa's national REDD+ initiative: assessing the potential of the forestry sector on climate change mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries (REDD+) is regarded by its proponents as one of the more efficient and cost effective ways to mitigate climate change. There was further progress toward the implementation of this mechanism at the 16th Conference of Parties (COP) in Cancun in December 2010. Many countries in southern African, including South Africa, have not been integrated (do not participate) into the UN-REDD+ programme, probably due to their low forest cover and national rates of deforestation. This paper discusses the potential contribution of REDD+ activities to the South African Government's pledge of reducing national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 34% below business as usual by 2020. A number of issues such as complex land tenure system, limited forest cover and other conflicting environmental issues present challenges for REDD+ in South Africa. Despite these genuine concerns, REDD+ remains a practical strategy to contribute to climate change mitigation for South Africa. The paper raises the need for development of a variety of emission reduction programmes – not only in the energy sector. The paper also assesses several national options and opportunities towards a working REDD+ mechanism. It concludes by identifying key mechanisms for moving forward to prepare for REDD+ actions in South Africa and raises the urgent need for national dialogue between stakeholders and institutions to evaluate the feasibility of making use of the mechanism in South Africa and the Southern African Development Cooperation (SADC) region. The paper further addresses possible synergies and conflicts between the national climate change and forestry policies towards REDD+ development. It suggests that REDD+ should be part of the national dialogue on policy to respond to climate change and should be integrated into the national flagship programmes that the national climate change white paper seeks to implement. A multiple

  9. Butterfly effect: understanding and mitigating the local consequences of climate change impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Butterfly Effect is the notion that tiny differences in initial conditions are amplified in the evolution of a dynamic system and directly affect the eventual outcome. In 1963 mathematician and meteorologist Edward Lorenz proposed that the flapping of a butterfly's wing would cause a disturbance that becomes exponentially amplified so as to eventually affect large-scale atmospheric motion. This was to illustrate the 'sensitive dependence on initial conditions'; sensitivity also true in affecting the extent of damages experienced as a result of climate change. In a climate change context, The Butterfly Effect suggests the local consequences of climate change impacts will depend on their interaction with the economic, environmental, institutional, technological and demographic attributes unique to a city or region. It is this mix of factors that will determine the extent, both positively and negatively, to which climate change will be experienced locally. For a truly effective climate change response, it is imperative that regional risk assessments and adaptation strategies take into account not only the projected impacts but the full range of flow-on implications of those impacts and their sensitivity factors. Understanding of the sensitivity factors that will amplify or mitigate climate change impacts and implications enables government and business leaders to calculate the likely extent of localised damages if no adaptation is undertaken. This allows industries and communities to evaluate the likely significance of a particular impact and to consider how to adjust or counter the sensitivity factor to build resilience and reduce vulnerability. Thus, it also assists in the local prioritisation of issues and responses. Such a strategic response can also mean the required adaptation measures may be less extensive and thereby require less cost and time to implement. This paper discusses the flow-on implications of Australia's projected climate change

  10. Soils as a Solution: The Potential of Rangelands to Contribute to Climate Change Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, W. L.; Ryals, R.; DeLonge, M. S.; Owen, J. J.

    2015-12-01

    The majority of soil-related climate change research has focused on describing the problem - estimating rates of carbon (C) losses and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from natural and managed ecosystems. More research is needed to explore potential solutions to climate change through mitigation and adaptation. Here we report on an integrated set of studies aimed at critically evaluating the biogeochemical potential of rangeland soils to help mitigate climate change, while improving the sustainability and productivity of food production systems. We explored direct effects through enhanced net primary production (NPP) and soil C sequestration, and indirect effects through diversion of high emitting sources to lower emitting organic matter dynamics. We used a combination of long- and short-term field experiments, modeling, laboratory assays, life cycle assessment (LCA), and meta-analyses in consultation with a diverse group of stakeholders from both the private and public sectors. We found that organic matter amendments held particularly strong potential. Compost amendments increased soil C storage by 0.5-1.0 Mg C ha-1 y-1 in surface soils over 5 y, and increased NPP and water holding capacity. We measured 1.0 Mg of new C ha-1 y-1 over 3 y. Long-term amendment of cattle manure increased surface soil C by 19.0±7.3 Mg C ha-1 relative to unmanured fields. However, field and modeling experiments suggested that manure amendments lead to large nitrous oxide emissions that eventually eliminated CO2e benefits, whereas compost amendments continued to benefit climate for decades longer. An LCA identified a broader range of climate impacts. When scaled to an area of 25% of California's rangelands, new C sequestered following compost amendments (21 million Mg CO2e) exceeded emissions from cattle (15 million Mg CO2e); diverting organics from waste streams to amendments led to additional GHG savings. In collaboration with our partners, our research contributed to the development of

  11. Climate change and groundwater: India's opportunities for mitigation and adaptation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Tushaar, E-mail: t.shah@cgiar.or [International Water Management Institute, Colombo (Sri Lanka)

    2009-07-15

    For millennia, India used surface storage and gravity flow to water crops. During the last 40 years, however, India has witnessed a decline in gravity-flow irrigation and the rise of a booming 'water-scavenging' irrigation economy through millions of small, private tubewells. For India, groundwater has become at once critical and threatened. Climate change will act as a force multiplier; it will enhance groundwater's criticality for drought-proofing agriculture and simultaneously multiply the threat to the resource. Groundwater pumping with electricity and diesel also accounts for an estimated 16-25 million mt of carbon emissions, 4-6% of India's total. From a climate change point of view, India's groundwater hotspots are western and peninsular India. These are critical for climate change mitigation as well as adaptation. To achieve both, India needs to make a transition from surface storage to 'managed aquifer storage' as the center pin of its water strategy with proactive demand- and supply-side management components. In doing this, India needs to learn intelligently from the experience of countries like Australia and the United States that have long experience in managed aquifer recharge.

  12. The role of technological availability for the distributive impacts of climate change mitigation policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impacts of the availability of low-carbon technologies on the regional distribution of mitigation costs are analyzed in a global multi-regional integrated assessment model. Three effects on regional consumption losses are distinguished: domestic measures, trade of fossil energy carriers and trade of emission permits. Key results are: (i) GDP losses and a redirection of investments in the energy system towards capital-intensive technologies are major contributions to regional consumption losses. (ii) A devaluation of tradable fossil energy endowments contributes largely to the mitigation costs of fossil fuel exporters. (iii) In case of reduced availability of low-carbon technologies, the permit market volume and associated monetary redistributions increase. The results suggest that the availability of a broad portfolio of low-carbon technologies could facilitate negotiations on the permit allocation scheme in a global cap-and-trade system. - Highlights: → We analyze the distribution of climate change mitigation costs among world regions. → We quantify contributions from various effects on regional costs. → The interference of world trade and low-carbon technologies is essential. → A broad portfolio of technologies helps international negotiations.

  13. Global climate change mitigation and sustainable forest management--The challenge of monitoring and verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makundi, Willy R.

    1997-12-31

    In this paper, sustainable forest management is discussed within the historical and theoretical framework of the sustainable development debate. The various criteria and indicators for sustainable forest management put forth by different institutions are critically explored. Specific types of climate change mitigation policies/projects in the forest sector are identified and examined in the light of the general criteria for sustainable forest management. Areas of compatibility and contradiction between the climate mitigation objectives and the minimum criteria for sustainable forest management are identified and discussed. Emphasis is put on the problems of monitoring and verifying carbon benefits associated with such projects given their impacts on pre-existing policy objectives on sustainable forest management. The implications of such policy interactions on assignment of carbon credits from forest projects under Joint Implementation/Activities Implemented Jointly initiatives are discussed. The paper concludes that a comprehensive monitoring and verification regime must include an impact assessment on the criteria covered under other agreements such as the Biodiversity and/or Desertification Conventions. The actual carbon credit assigned to a specific project should at least take into account the negative impacts on the criteria for sustainable forest management. The value of the impacts and/or the procedure to evaluate them need to be established by interested parties such as the Councils of the respective Conventions.

  14. Climate change under aggressive mitigation: the ENSEMBLES multi-model experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johns, T.C.; Hewitt, C.D. [Met Office, Hadley Centre, Exeter (United Kingdom); Royer, J.F.; Salas y. Melia, D. [Centre National de Recherches Meteorologiques-Groupe d' Etude de l' Atmosphere Meteorologique (CNRM-GAME Meteo-France CNRS), Toulouse (France); Hoeschel, I.; Koerper, J. [Freie Universitaet Berlin, Institute for Meteorology, Berlin (Germany); Huebener, H. [Hessian Agency for the Environment and Geology, Wiesbaden (Germany); Roeckner, E.; Giorgetta, M.A. [Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg (Germany); Manzini, E. [Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg (Germany); Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Bologna (Italy); Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici (CMCC), Bologna (Italy); May, W.; Yang, S. [Danish Meteorological Institute, Danish Climate Centre, Copenhagen (Denmark); Dufresne, J.L. [Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique (LMD/IPSL), UMR 8539 CNRS, ENS, UPMC, Ecole Polytechnique, Paris Cedex 05 (France); Otteraa, O.H. [Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Center, Bergen (Norway); Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, Bergen (Norway); Uni. Bjerknes Centre, Bergen (Norway); Vuuren, D.P. van [Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands); Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving (PBL), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Denvil, S. [Institut Pierre Simon Laplace (IPSL), FR 636 CNRS, UVSQ, UPMC, Paris Cedex 05 (France); Fogli, P.G. [Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici (CMCC), Bologna (Italy); Tjiputra, J.F. [University of Bergen, Department of Geophysics, Bergen (Norway); Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, Bergen (Norway); Stehfest, E. [Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving (PBL), Bilthoven (Netherlands)

    2011-11-15

    We present results from multiple comprehensive models used to simulate an aggressive mitigation scenario based on detailed results of an Integrated Assessment Model. The experiment employs ten global climate and Earth System models (GCMs and ESMs) and pioneers elements of the long-term experimental design for the forthcoming 5th Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change assessment. Atmospheric carbon-dioxide concentrations pathways rather than carbon emissions are specified in all models, including five ESMs that contain interactive carbon cycles. Specified forcings also include minor greenhouse gas concentration pathways, ozone concentration, aerosols (via concentrations or precursor emissions) and land use change (in five models). The new aggressive mitigation scenario (E1), constructed using an integrated assessment model (IMAGE 2.4) with reduced fossil fuel use for energy production aimed at stabilizing global warming below 2 K, is studied alongside the medium-high non-mitigation scenario SRES A1B. Resulting twenty-first century global mean warming and precipitation changes for A1B are broadly consistent with previous studies. In E1 twenty-first century global warming remains below 2 K in most models, but global mean precipitation changes are higher than in A1B up to 2065 and consistently higher per degree of warming. The spread in global temperature and precipitation responses is partly attributable to inter-model variations in aerosol loading and representations of aerosol-related radiative forcing effects. Our study illustrates that the benefits of mitigation will not be realised in temperature terms until several decades after emissions reductions begin, and may vary considerably between regions. A subset of the models containing integrated carbon cycles agree that land and ocean sinks remove roughly half of present day anthropogenic carbon emissions from the atmosphere, and that anthropogenic carbon emissions must decrease by at least 50% by 2050 relative

  15. Carbon sequestration in soils - has the potential for climate change mitigation been over-stated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powlson, David

    2013-04-01

    The term "carbon sequestration" is commonly used to describe any increase in soil organic carbon (SOC) content caused by a change in land management, with the implication that increased soil carbon (C) storage mitigates climate change. But this only true if the management practice causes additional net transfer of C from atmosphere to land. Limitations of C sequestration for climate change mitigation include: (1) the quantity of C stored in soil is finite; (2) the process is reversible; (3) even if SOC is increased there may be changes in the fluxes of other greenhouse gases especially nitrous oxide (N2O). Removing land from annual cropping and converting to forest, grassland or perennial crops will remove C from atmospheric CO2 and genuinely contribute to climate change mitigation. However, indirect effects such as conversion of land elsewhere under native vegetation to agriculture could negate the benefit due to increased CO2 emission. Re-vegetating degraded land, of limited value for food production, avoids this problem. Adding organic materials such as crop residues or animal manure to soil, whilst increasing SOC, generally does not constitute an additional transfer of C from atmosphere to land - it depends on the alternative fate of the residue. Increases in SOC from reduced tillage now appear to be much smaller than previously claimed, at least in temperate regions, and in some situations increased nitrous oxide emission may outweigh any increase in stored C. The climate change benefit of increased SOC from enhanced crop growth (e.g. from the use of fertilizers) must be balanced against greenhouse gas emissions associated with manufacture and use of fertilizer. For soils under long-term grassland there is less scope for increasing soil C stock than in arable soils because these already have a higher SOC content. A key issue with grasslands is to ensure good management practices that maintain the high SOC content. Any form of soil degradation, such as

  16. Water demand and supply co-adaptation to mitigate climate change impacts in agricultural water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, Matteo; Mainardi, Matteo; Castelletti, Andrea; Gandolfi, Claudio

    2013-04-01

    decisions, the operation of the upstream reservoir (Como Lake) is optimised with respect to the real irrigation demand of the crops. Then, the farmers can re-adapt their decisions according with the new optimal operating strategy, thus activating a loop between the two systems that exchange expected supply and irrigation demand. Results show that the proposed interaction between farmers and water managers is able to enhance the efficiency of water management practices, foster crop production and mitigate climate change impacts.

  17. A Nuclear Renaissance: The Role of Nuclear Power in Mitigating Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winslow, Anne

    2011-06-01

    The U. N. Framework Convention on Climate Change calls for the stabilization of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions at double the preindustrial atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration to avoid dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. To achieve this goal, carbon emissions in 2050 must not exceed their current level, despite predictions of a dramatic increase in global electricity demand. The need to reduce GHG emissions and simultaneously provide for additional electricity demand has led to a renewed interest in the expansion of alternatives to fossil fuels—particularly renewable energy and nuclear power. As renewable energy sources are often constrained by the intermittency of natural energy forms, scale-ability concerns, cost and environmental barriers, many governments and even prominent environmentalist turn to nuclear energy as a source of clean, reliable base-load electricity. Described by some as a "nuclear renaissance", this trend of embracing nuclear power as a tool to mitigate climate change will dramatically influence the feasibility of emerging nuclear programs around the world.

  18. Global and regional ocean carbon uptake and climate change: sensitivity to a substantial mitigation scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vichi, Marcello; Masina, Simona; Navarra, Antonio [Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici (CMCC), Bologna (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Bologna (Italy); Manzini, Elisa [Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici (CMCC), Bologna (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Bologna (Italy); Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg (Germany); Fogli, Pier Giuseppe [Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici (CMCC), Bologna (Italy); Alessandri, Andrea [Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici (CMCC), Bologna (Italy); ENEA, Rome (Italy); Patara, Lavinia [Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici (CMCC), Bologna (Italy); Leibniz Institute of Marine Sciences (IFM-GEOMAR), Kiel (Germany); Scoccimarro, Enrico [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Bologna (Italy)

    2011-11-15

    Under future scenarios of business-as-usual emissions, the ocean storage of anthropogenic carbon is anticipated to decrease because of ocean chemistry constraints and positive feedbacks in the carbon-climate dynamics, whereas it is still unknown how the oceanic carbon cycle will respond to more substantial mitigation scenarios. To evaluate the natural system response to prescribed atmospheric ''target'' concentrations and assess the response of the ocean carbon pool to these values, 2 centennial projection simulations have been performed with an Earth System Model that includes a fully coupled carbon cycle, forced in one case with a mitigation scenario and the other with the SRES A1B scenario. End of century ocean uptake with the mitigation scenario is projected to return to the same magnitude of carbon fluxes as simulated in 1960 in the Pacific Ocean and to lower values in the Atlantic. With A1B, the major ocean basins are instead projected to decrease the capacity for carbon uptake globally as found with simpler carbon cycle models, while at the regional level the response is contrasting. The model indicates that the equatorial Pacific may increase the carbon uptake rates in both scenarios, owing to enhancement of the biological carbon pump evidenced by an increase in Net Community Production (NCP) following changes in the subsurface equatorial circulation and enhanced iron availability from extratropical regions. NCP is a proxy of the bulk organic carbon made available to the higher trophic levels and potentially exportable from the surface layers. The model results indicate that, besides the localized increase in the equatorial Pacific, the NCP of lower trophic levels in the northern Pacific and Atlantic oceans is projected to be halved with respect to the current climate under a substantial mitigation scenario at the end of the twenty-first century. It is thus suggested that changes due to cumulative carbon emissions up to present and the

  19. China–Europe Relations in the Mitigation of Climate Change: A Conceptual Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Berger

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the large-scale investments of both China and the EU in climate-change mitigation and renewable-energy promotion, the prevailing view on China–EU relations is one of conflict rather than cooperation. In order to evaluate the prospects of cooperation between China and the EU in these policy fields, empirical research has to go beyond simplistic narratives. This paper suggests a conceptual apparatus that will help researchers better understand the complexities of the real world. The relevant actors operate at different levels and in the public and private sectors. The main message of the paper is that combining the multi-level governance and value-chain approaches helps clarify the multiple relationships between these actors.

  20. Exploring Opportunities for Promoting Synergies between Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation in Forest Carbon Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene L. Chia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is growing interest in designing and implementing climate change mitigation and adaptation (M + A in synergy in the forest and land use sectors. However, there is limited knowledge on how the planning and promotion of synergies between M + A can be operationalized in the current efforts to mitigate climate change through forest carbon. This paper contributes to fill this knowledge gap by exploring ways of planning and promoting M + A synergy outcomes in forest carbon initiatives. It examines eight guidelines that are widely used in designing and implementing forest carbon initiatives. Four guiding principles with a number of criteria that are relevant for planning synergy outcomes in forest carbon activities are proposed. The guidelines for developing forest carbon initiatives need to demonstrate that (1 the health of forest ecosystems is maintained or enhanced; (2 the adaptive capacity of forest-dependent communities is ensured; (3 carbon and adaptation benefits are monitored and verified; and (4 adaptation outcomes are anticipated and planned in forest carbon initiatives. The forest carbon project development guidelines can encourage the integration of adaptation in forest carbon initiatives. However, their current efforts guiding projects and programs to deliver biodiversity and environmental benefits, ecosystem services, and socioeconomic benefits are not considered explicitly as efforts towards enhancing adaptation. An approach for incentivizing and motivating project developers, guideline setters, and offset buyers is imperative in order to enable existing guidelines to make clear contributions to adaptation goals. We highlight and discuss potential ways of incentivizing and motivating the explicit planning and promotion of adaptation outcomes in forest carbon initiatives.

  1. U.S. EPA's global climate change program: Landfill emissions and mitigation research. Rept. for Aug 90-May 91

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper discusses the U.S. EPA's global climate change program, concentrating on global landfill methane (CH4) emissions and mitigation research. The EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory (AEERL) has begun research on developing more reliable emission estimates of the key greenhouse gas sources that are amenable to cost-effective control. Research has been initiated on biomass and CH4 utilization, tropospheric ozone, and evaluation of potential mitigation opportunities for emissions contributing to global climate change. The emissions program has begun to identify and quantify emission sources of greenhouse gases for anthropogenic sources including landfills, coal mines, natural gas production/distribution, cookstoves, and biomass burning. Development of enhanced emission estimates will improve the understanding of atmospheric chemistry and feedback effects, target mitigation opportunities, and ensure cost-effective mitigation strategies

  2. The Contribution of Managed and Unmanaged Forests to Climate Change Mitigation—A Model Approach at Stand Level for the Main Tree Species in Bavaria

    OpenAIRE

    Christoph Schulz; Markus Blaschke; Sebastian Höllerl; Daniel Klein

    2013-01-01

    Forestry-based carbon sequestration projects demand a comprehensive quantification of the different climate change mitigation effects. In our study, we modeled a life cycle of managed pure stands consisting of the four main tree species in Bavaria (spruce, pine, beech and oak). For spruce and beech, an unmanaged stand was additionally integrated in order to analyze the differences in climate change mitigation effects compared to the managed stands. We developed a climate change mitigation mod...

  3. Special report on renewable energy sources and climate change mitigation, (SRREN). Summary for policy makers; FNs klimapanel: Spesialrapport om fornybar energi, sammendrag for beslutningstakere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-06-15

    In May 2011 the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change published a report on six renewable energy sources and their role in climate change mitigation. This is a Norwegian, unofficial translation of the Summary for Policy makers. (Author)

  4. Local Climate Action Plans in climate change mitigation - examining the case of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsø, Tue Noa Jacques; Kjær, Tyge; Christensen, Thomas Budde

    2016-01-01

    The article examines the climate action plans (CAPs) of local governments (LGs) in Denmark. Applying a quantitative content analysis approach, all available Danish LG action plans within the climate and energy field has been collected and coded, giving insight into the extent of LG CAPs. We asses...

  5. The mitigation framework in the 2015 climate change agreement: from targets to pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is an effort between researchers from different countries and with different backgrounds to achieve an agreed text on an important issue in the climate negotiations through a thought experiment of 'think tank level negotiation'. It is a significant achievement for two groups of authors from China and Europe to have come this far. Countries have agreed to negotiate a new climate agreement by 2015. One of the key elements of this negotiation process will be a new mitigation framework and new emissions targets for all. How should the information that Parties put forward be structured, in order to promote participation, equity, transparency and ambition? The new agreement needs to find a way to allow the continuous strengthening of the action of sovereign states, to reflect the 2 deg. C objective. It will also need to provide a flexible and equitable framework for mitigation targets, to reflect both different levels of uncertainty and the large spectrum of countries and gaps in the development of different country groups. There is a need to shift out of the 'target mentality' and towards an understanding of climate change as the challenge of shifting long-term social, technological, investment and infra-structural pathways, as well as behaviours. Uncertainties in such structural processes may be particularly high in developing or emerging countries still undergoing industrialization, demographic shift, and urbanization. Mastering them requires long-term policy horizons, cooperation, technology innovation and policy learning, focusing on the drivers of emissions reductions. The Warsaw decision stated in 2013 that mitigation targets would be nationally-determined. In this context, the discussion around a global goal should no longer be seen as a basis for top-down allocation, but rather as a directional reference against which global progress must be assessed to identify the gap to be filled to foster enhanced action. It is essential to

  6. Developing Carbon Sequestration Forestry for Mitigating Climate Change: Practice and Management of Carbon Sequestration Forestry in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    By elaborating the functions and effects of forestry in mitigating climate change, introducing the concepts and significance of forest carbon sink, forestry carbon sequestration, and carbon sequestration forestry, and summarizing the practices of carbon sequestration forestry in China, the paper came up with the outline for strengthening the management of carbon sequestration forestry, i.e. implementing the Climate Change Forestry Action Plan, reinforcing the accounting and monitoring of national forest car...

  7. Household perceptions of climate change and preferences for mitigation action: the case of the Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Akter, Sonia; Bennett, Jeffrey W.

    2009-01-01

    The study aims to reveal Australian households’ perceptions of climate change and their preferences for climate change mitigation actions. A web-based survey was conducted in November 2008 in which about 600 New South Wales households were asked for their willingness to bear extra household expenditure to support the ‘Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme (CPRS)’ as proposed by the Australian government. The Contingent Valuation Method (CVM), a widely used non-market valuation technique, was appl...

  8. Climate Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn; Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the effects of climate change relevant for Denmark, including the change in mean year values as well as the extent of maximum and minimum extremes. Described by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the assumptions that the scenarios are based on were outlined and...... evaluated in a Danish context. The uncertainty of the scenarios leaves major challenges that, if not addressed and taken into account in building design, will grow far more serious as climate change progresses. Cases implemented in the Danish building stock illustrate adaptation to climate change and...... illustrate how building design can include mitigating measures to counteract climate change. Cases studied were individual buildings as well as the urban environment. Furthermore the paper describes some of the issues that must be addressed, as the building sector is investing in measures to adapt to climate...

  9. Climate Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn; Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the effects of climate change relevant for Denmark, including the change in mean year values as well as the extent of maximum and minimum extremes. Described by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the assumptions that the scenarios are based on were outlined...... and evaluated in a Danish context. The uncertainty of the scenarios leaves major challenges that, if not addressed and taken into account in building design, will grow far more serious as climate change progresses. Cases implemented in the Danish building stock illustrate adaptation to climate change...... and illustrate how building design can include mitigating measures to counteract climate change. Cases studied were individual buildings as well as the urban environment. Furthermore the paper describes some of the issues that must be addressed, as the building sector is investing in measures to adapt to climate...

  10. Implications of electric power sector restructuring on climate change mitigation in Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasson, G.; Bouille, D. [Instituto de Economia Energetica, (Argentina); Redlinger, R. [UNEP, (Denmark)

    2000-05-01

    The Argentine electricity industry has undergone fundamental reforms since 1992, involving large-scale privatisation, and competition in generation and wholesale power markets. In terms of climate change mitigation, these reforms have had the beneficial effect of encouraging improved generation efficiency among thermal power plants and improved end-use consumption efficiency among large industrial firms. However, the reforms have also had the negative effect (from a climate change perspective) of encouraging an ever-increasing use of natural gas combustion for electricity generation, greatly diminishing the role of hydroelectric power which had previously played an important role in the Agentine electricity sector. This report examines the current structure and regulations of the Argentine electricity system and analyses the forces at work which are influencing current technology choices, both in terms of power generation and end-use consumption. The report goes on to examine international experiences in promoting renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies; and finally, the report considers the applicability of these various policy mechanisms within the Agentine context. (EHS)

  11. The monitoring evaluation, reporting and verification of climate change mitigation projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vine, E.; Sathaye, J.

    1998-05-01

    Because of concerns with the growing threat of global climate change from increasing emissions of greenhouse gases, the US and other countries are implementing, by themselves or in cooperation with one or more other nations, climate change mitigation projects. These projects will reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions or sequester carbon, and will also result in non-GHG benefits (i.e., environmental, economic, and social benefits). Monitoring, evaluating, reporting, and verifying (MERV) guidelines are needed for these projects to accurately determine their net GHG, and other, benefits. Implementation of MERV guidelines is also intended to: (1) increase the reliability of data for estimating GHG benefits; (2) provide real-time data so that mid-course corrections can be made; (3) introduce consistency and transparency across project types and reporters; and (4) enhance the credibility of the projects with stakeholders. In this paper, the authors review the issues involved in MERV activities. They identify several topics that future protocols and guidelines need to address, such as: (1) establishing a credible baseline; (2) accounting for impacts outside project boundaries through leakage; (3) net GHG reductions and other benefits; (4) precision of measurement; (5) MERV frequency; (6) persistence (sustainability) of savings, emissions reduction, and carbon sequestration; (7) reporting by multiple project participants; (8) verification of GHG reduction credits; (9) uncertainty and risk; (10) institutional capacity in conducting MERV; and (11) the cost of MERV.

  12. Voluntary business activities to mitigate climate change: Case studies in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voluntary business activities, such as the voluntary action plans conducted by comprehensive business associations in Japan to reduce environmental damage, are viable policy instruments alongside regulations and economic incentives (e.g. taxes and emissions trading schemes). This paper examines three case studies in which voluntary activities have played a successful role in mitigating climate change. Based on interviews with business organisations together with a literature review and data analysis, we show why businesses are motivated to take socially responsible actions and describe the major benefits of such activities. One of the important benefits of voluntary activities is their flexibility in phasing measures. This flexibility is greatly appreciated, since industries are able to retain control of their responses to future uncertainties, which allows them to tackle climate change issues aggressively. We conclude that voluntary activities have been more environmentally effective than alternative policy measures under a proper institutional framework, which consists of effective motivation mechanisms for businesses, governmental measures to encourage their compliance, and capable industrial associations that can lessen the transaction costs both of the government and of industry. - Highlights: • Businesses are well motivated to take suitable, technologically feasible actions. • Capability of industrial associations is a key to successful voluntary activities. • Flexibility allows businesses to manage uncertainty and aim for ambitious goals

  13. Approaches to classifying and restoring degraded tropical forests for the anticipated REDD+ climate change mitigation mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasaki N

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Inclusion of improved forest management as a way to enhance carbon sinks in the Copenhagen Accord of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (December 2009 suggests that forest restoration will play a role in global climate change mitigation under the post-Kyoto agreement. Although discussions about restoration strategies often pertain solely to severely degraded tropical forests and invoke only the enrichment planting option, different approaches to restoration are needed to counter the full range of degrees of degradation. We propose approaches for restoration of forests that range from being slightly to severely degraded. Our methods start with ceasing the causes of degradation and letting forests regenerate on their own, progress through active management of natural regeneration in degraded areas to accelerate tree regeneration and growth, and finally include the stage of degradation at which re-planting is necessary. We argue that when the appropriate techniques are employed, forest restoration is cost-effective relative to conventional planting, provides abundant social and ecological co-benefits, and results in the sequestration of substantial amounts of carbon. For forest restoration efforts to succeed, a supportive post-Kyoto agreement is needed as well as appropriate national policies, institutional arrangements, and local participation.

  14. Climate change mitigation in developing countries through interregional collaboration by local governments: Japanese citizens' preference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study explores the motivation of domestic and international interregional collaboration on climate change mitigation through carbon crediting by Japanese local governments, using a social survey. The study finds balanced collaboration with domestic partner regions and developing countries is preferred in the case of collaboration, given that the unit cost of collaboration is assumed lower than that of no collaboration. Appreciation of benefits such as technology transfer and local environmental improvement in developing countries increases the preference of collaboration with developing countries. Two factors hinder Japanese local governments' collaboration with developing countries from the perspective of citizens: a sense of environmental responsibility to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions within the city and a preference for domestic orientation even if the collaboration with developing countries is less costly and has benefits of technology transfer and local environmental improvement. The preference for a lower total cost of GHG emissions reductions is confirmed except for those with a sense of environmental responsibility. The study also finds that provision of information on mitigation projects and co-benefits would increase the preference for interregional collaboration with developing countries depending on the types of collaborative project, except for those with a sense of environmental responsibility. - Highlights: → We surveyed views of Japanese citizens on interregional/international cooperation of their cities for GHG reduction. → Sense of environmental responsibility is negatively correlated with the needs for cooperation. → Information on co-benefits of collaboration would strengthen preference for cooperation.

  15. The Kyoto Protocol and climate change mitigation : implications for Canada's forest industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Kyoto Protocol establishes a policy framework and mechanisms by which countries can mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. It imposes legally binding targets and provides for the use of economic instruments to help achieve its long-term objectives which will take decades to achieve. This paper discussed the effect that the Kyoto Protocol will have on the Canadian forest sector which plays an important role in the global carbon cycle. The production of forest products is energy intensive and the forest sector can contribute to climate change mitigation through reductions in GHG emissions and increases in carbon sequestration. Participation by the forest sector will require long-term adjustment in how energy is used and how forest carbon is managed. This paper discussed the implications of the Canadian Domestic Emissions Trading (DET) system, a carbon trading system designed to control GHG emissions through the creation and sale of credits in an international marketplace. The impact that DET may have on the competitiveness of companies in the Canadian forest products sector was discussed. 41 refs., 9 tabs., 2 figs

  16. Evaluation of forestry strategies for climate change mitigation in continental France. Scientific literature and main actors' positioning review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work contributes to the current scientific debate regarding the optimization of the forest sector's contribution to mitigating climate change. A scientific literature review has pointed out some uncertainties on the contribution to emission reduction objectives in the short to medium-term of an increasing harvest of forest resources for wood construction and energy generation. Timing of mitigation benefits for a managed forest depends on forestry upstream characteristics(forest and soil type and silviculture method) and downstream characteristics (transport distance, use of wood, efficiency of wood based energy production, fossil-fuel based reference system that is substituted,etc). A survey conducted among national forest experts points out debates concerning optimal silviculture practices to mitigating climate change. These discussions are due to the trades-off between sequestering carbon in forest ecosystems and climatic benefits obtained by sustainable forest harvesting and use of wood products to displace fossil emissions. (author)

  17. Policies and Measures to Realise Industrial Energy Efficiency and Mitigate Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The industrial sector is responsible for a significant share of global energy use and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Energy efficiency is commonly seen as the most cost-effective, least-polluting, and most readily-accessible industrial energy saving option available in the industrial sector worldwide. Capturing the full extent of these potential end-use energy efficiency improvements rapidly is essential if the world is to be on a path to stabilise greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations to a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. In the International Energy Agency (IEA) 450 parts per million stabilisation scenario, over a quarter of all energy efficiency gains need to come from the industrial sector by 2050, largely by changing the pattern of industrial energy use. The reduction potential estimated by IEA and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) for five energy-intensive industrial sub-sectors ranges from about 10 to 40 per cent, depending upon the sector. There is significant potential to reduce, at low or no cost, the amount of energy used to manufacture most commodities. Many policies and programmes - at a national level - have already demonstrated significant improvements in industrial energy efficiency. The associate reduction in energy needs often also improves economic competitiveness as well as mitigates GHG emissions. However, at an international level, approaches such as the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) are not yet delivering the expected energy efficiency improvements. Existing and effective industrial energy efficiency policies and measures could be replicated at a global level. Key elements of those policies and measures include increasing facility management attention to the issue of energy efficiency; promoting the dissemination of information, practice, and tools; increasing the auditing and implementation capacity; and developing the market for industrial energy efficiency

  18. Impact of Real-world Factors Influencing Investment Decisions on the Costs and Distribution of Climate Change Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, J.; Iyer, G.; McJeon, H. C.; Leon, C.; Hultman, N.

    2015-12-01

    Strategies to mitigate dangerous anthropogenic climate change require a dramatic transformation of the energy system to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, that in turn requires large-scale investments. Investment decisions depend not only on investment capital availability but also on investment risks. A number of factors such as national policy environments, quality of public and private institutions, sector, firm and technology specific characteristics can affect investors' assessments of risks, leading to a wide variation in the business climate for investment. Such heterogeneity in investment risks can have important implications, as investors usually respond to risks by requiring higher returns for riskier projects; delaying or forgoing the investments; or preferring to invest in existing, familiar projects. We study the impact of variation in investment risks on regional patterns of emissions mitigation, the cost of emissions mitigation and patterns of technology deployment. We modify an integrated assessment model, widely used in global climate policy analyses (the Global Change Assessment Model) and incorporate decisions on investments based on risks along two dimensions. Along the first dimension, we vary perceived risks associated with particular technologies. To do so, we assign a higher cost of capital for investment in low-carbon technologies as these involve intrinsically higher levels of regulatory and market risk. The second dimension uses a proxy to vary investment risks across regions, based on an institutional quality metric published by the World Economic Forum. Explicit representation of investment risks has two major effects. First, it raises the cost of emissions mitigation relative to a world with uniform investment risks. Second, it shifts the pattern of emissions mitigation, with industrialized countries mitigating more, and developing countries mitigating less. Our results suggest that institutional reforms aimed at lowering investment

  19. Understanding the systemic nature of cities to improve health and climate change mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Ralph; Howden-Chapman, Philippa; Capon, Anthony

    2016-09-01

    Understanding cities comprehensively as systems is a costly challenge and is typically not feasible for policy makers. Nevertheless, focusing on some key systemic characteristics of cities can give useful insights for policy to advance health and well-being outcomes. Moreover, if we take a coevolutionary systems view of cities, some conventional assumptions about the nature of urban development (e.g. the growth in private vehicle use with income) may not stand up. We illustrate this by examining the coevolution of urban transport and land use systems, and institutional change, giving examples of policy implications. At a high level, our concern derives from the need to better understand the dynamics of urban change, and its implications for health and well-being. At a practical level, we see opportunities to use stylised findings about urban systems to underpin policy experiments. While it is now not uncommon to view cities as systems, policy makers appear to have made little use so far of a systems approach to inform choice of policies with consequences for health and well-being. System insights can be applied to intelligently anticipate change - for example, as cities are subjected to increasing natural system reactions to climate change, they must find ways to mitigate and adapt to it. Secondly, systems insights around policy cobenefits are vital for better informing horizontal policy integration. Lastly, an implication of system complexity is that rather than seeking detailed, 'full' knowledge about urban issues and policies, cities would be well advised to engage in policy experimentation to address increasingly urgent health and climate change issues. PMID:27126780

  20. iRESM INITIATIVE UNDERSTANDING DECISION SUPPORT NEEDS FOR CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION AND ADAPTATION --US Midwest Region—

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, Jennie S.; Runci, Paul J.; Moss, Richard H.; Anderson, Kate L.

    2010-10-01

    The impacts of climate change are already affecting human and environmental systems worldwide, yet many uncertainties persist in the prediction of future climate changes and impacts due to limitations in scientific understanding of relevant causal factors. In particular, there is mounting urgency to efforts to improve models of human and environmental systems at the regional scale, and to integrate climate, ecosystem and energy-economic models to support policy, investment, and risk management decisions related to climate change mitigation (i.e., reducing greenhouse gas emissions) and adaptation (i.e., responding to climate change impacts). The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing a modeling framework, the integrated Regional Earth System Model (iRESM), to address regional human-environmental system interactions in response to climate change and the uncertainties therein. The framework will consist of a suite of integrated models representing regional climate change, regional climate policy, and the regional economy, with a focus on simulating the mitigation and adaptation decisions made over time in the energy, transportation, agriculture, and natural resource management sectors.

  1. Asia's role in mitigating climate change: A technology and sector specific analysis with ReMIND-R

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We use the ReMIND-R model to analyze the role of Asia in the context of a global effort to mitigate climate change. We introduce a novel method of secondary energy based mitigation shares, which allows us to quantify the economic mitigation potential of technologies in different regions and final energy carriers. The 2005 share of Asia in global CO2 emissions amounts to 38%, and is projected to grow to 53% under business-as-usual until the end of the century. Asia also holds a large fraction of the global mitigation potential. A broad portfolio of technologies is deployed in the climate policy scenarios. We find that biomass in combination with CCS, other renewables, and end-use efficiency each make up a large fraction of the global mitigation potential, followed by nuclear and fossil CCS. We find considerable differences in decarbonization patterns across the final energy types electricity, heat and transport fuels. Regional differences in technology use are a function of differences in resource endowments, and structural differences in energy end use. Under climate policy, a substantial mitigation potential of non-biomass renewables emerges for China and other developing countries of Asia (OAS). Asia also accounts for the dominant share of the global mitigation potential of nuclear energy. In view of the substantial near term investments into new energy infrastructure in China and India, early adoption of climate policy prevents lock-in into carbon intensive infrastructure and thus leads to a much higher long-term mitigation potential. - Highlights: ► We develop a novel methodology for the attribution of emission reductions to technologies. ► Asia accounts for a substantial and increasing share of global CO2 emissions. ► A broad portfolio of technologies contributes to emission reductions. ► Early action increases the long term mitigation potential of China and India.

  2. Potential for Climate Change Mitigation in Degraded Forests: A Study from La Primavera, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Balderas Torres

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Forests contribute to climate change mitigation by removing atmospheric carbon dioxide and storing it in biomass and other carbon pools. Additionally, since appropriate forest management can reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, it is important to estimate the magnitude of these services to include them into climate policy. We used a forest inventory stratified by canopy cover in the oak-pine forest of La Primavera Biosphere Reserve in México (30,500 ha, to assess the potential provision of forest carbon services. Inventory results were used in combination with a Landsat image to estimate carbon stocks in arboreal biomass. Potential carbon removals were calculated from published allometric equations and models estimating tree growth rates, for enhancements in forested areas and for reforestation/afforestation. Carbon stocks estimated in arboreal biomass at the time of the inventory were 4.16 MtCO2eq (3.42–4.89. The potential for further carbon sequestration and enhancement could take the level of stocks up to 9.77 MtCO2eq (7.66–11.89, 95% confidence interval; previous fires have degraded carbon stocks below their natural potential. The results present a gradient of carbon stocks for different degradation levels and are consistent with national and international estimates and previous local research. The baseline for the estimation of reduced emissions is critical for assessing the overall contribution of forests to mitigate climate change. The local baseline of emissions might be around 1% according to historical data; however, when enhancements and reduced emissions are valuated together, a baseline of 3.7% is required to prevent the creation of perverse incentives favouring previously degraded areas; considering these figures for reduced emissions, the yearly carbon services provided by La Primavera, including enhancements, sequestration and reduced emissions, could be between 169.4 ktCO2eq/year (134.8–204.5 and

  3. Climate Change under aggressive mitigation: The ENSEMBLES multi-model experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johns, T.C.; Royer, J.F.; Hoeschel, I.; Huebener, H.; Roeckner, E.; Manzini, E.; May, W.; Dufresne, J.L.; Ottera, O.H.; van Vuuren, D.P.; Salas y Melia, D.; Giorgetta, M.A.; Denvil, S.; Yang, S.; Fogli, P.G.; Koerper, J.; Tjiputra, J.F.; Stehfest, E.; Hewitt, C.D.

    2011-01-01

    We present results from multiple comprehensive models used to simulate an aggressive mitigation scenario based on detailed results of an Integrated Assessment Model. The experiment employs ten global climate and Earth System models (GCMs and ESMs) and pioneers elements of the long-term experimental

  4. Climate Change Impacts on US Agriculture and the Benefits of Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monier, E.; Sue Wing, I.; Stern, A.

    2014-12-01

    As contributors to the US EPA's Climate Impacts and Risk Assessment (CIRA) project, we present empirically-based projections of climate change impacts on the yields of five major US crops. Our analysis uses a 15-member ensemble of climate simulations using the MIT Integrated Global System Model (IGSM) linked to the NCAR Community Atmosphere Model (CAM), forced by 3 emissions scenarios (a "business as usual" reference scenario and two stabilization scenarios at 4.5W/m2 and 3.7 W/m2 by 2100), quantify the agricultural impacts avoided due to greenhouse gas emission reductions. Our innovation is the coupling of climate model outputs with empirical estimates of the long-run relationship between crop yields and temperature, precipitation and soil moisture derived from the co-variation between yields and weather across US counties over the last 50 years. Our identifying assumption is that since farmers' planting, management and harvesting decisions are based on land quality and expectations of weather, yields and meteorological variables share a long-run equilibrium relationship. In any given year, weather shocks cause yields to diverge from their expected long-run values, prompting farmers to revise their long-run expectations. We specify a dynamic panel error correction model (ECM) that statistically distinguishes these two processes. The ECM is estimated for maize, wheat, soybeans, sorghum and cotton using longitudinal data on production and harvested area for ~1,100 counties from 1948-2010, in conjunction with spatial fields of 3-hourly temperature, precipitation and soil moisture from the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) forcing and output files, binned into annual counts of exposure over the growing season and mapped to county centroids. For scenarios of future warming the identical method was used to calculate counties' current (1986-2010) and future (2036-65 and 2086-2110) distributions of simulated 3-hourly growing season temperature, precipitation

  5. Environmental and socio-economic impacts of global climate change: An overview on mitigation approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Prabhat Kumar Rai; Prashant Kumar Rai

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is expected to bring about major change in freshwater availability, the productive capacity of soils, and in patterns of human settlement. Likewise, climate change is intimately linked to human health either directly or indirectly. However, considerable uncertainties exist with regard to the extent and geographical distribution of these changes. Predicting scenarios for how climate-related environmental change may influence human societies and political systems necessarily invo...

  6. Forecasting the effects of land use scenarios on farmland birds reveal a potential mitigation of climate change impacts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Princé

    Full Text Available Climate and land use changes are key drivers of current biodiversity trends, but interactions between these drivers are poorly modeled, even though they could amplify or mitigate negative impacts of climate change. Here, we attempt to predict the impacts of different agricultural change scenarios on common breeding birds within farmland included in the potential future climatic suitable areas for these species. We used the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES to integrate likely changes in species climatic suitability, based on species distribution models, and changes in area of farmland, based on the IMAGE model, inside future climatic suitable areas. We also developed six farmland cover scenarios, based on expert opinion, which cover a wide spectrum of potential changes in livestock farming and cropping patterns by 2050. We ran generalized linear mixed models to calibrate the effects of farmland cover and climate change on bird specific abundance within 386 small agricultural regions. We used model outputs to predict potential changes in bird populations on the basis of predicted changes in regional farmland cover, in area of farmland and in species climatic suitability. We then examined the species sensitivity according to their habitat requirements. A scenario based on extensification of agricultural systems (i.e., low-intensity agriculture showed the greatest potential to reduce reverse current declines in breeding birds. To meet ecological requirements of a larger number of species, agricultural policies accounting for regional disparities and landscape structure appear more efficient than global policies uniformly implemented at national scale. Interestingly, we also found evidence that farmland cover changes can mitigate the negative effect of climate change. Here, we confirm that there is a potential for countering negative effects of climate change by adaptive management of landscape. We argue that such studies will help inform

  7. Integrated assessment of global water scarcity over the 21st century – Part 2: Climate change mitigation policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Hejazi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the effects of emission mitigation policies on water scarcity both globally and regionally using the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM, a leading community integrated assessment model of energy, agriculture, climate, and water. Three climate policy scenarios with increasing mitigation stringency of 7.7, 5.5, and 4.2 W m−2 in year 2095 (equivalent to the SRES A2, B2, and B1 emission scenarios, respectively, under two carbon tax regimes (a universal carbon tax (UCT which includes land use change emissions, and a fossil fuel and industrial emissions carbon tax (FFICT which excludes land use change emissions are analyzed. The results are compared to a baseline scenario (i.e. no climate change mitigation policy with radiative forcing reaching 8.8 W m−2 (equivalent to the SRES A1Fi emission scenario by 2095. When compared to the baseline scenario and maintaining the same baseline socioeconomic assumptions, water scarcity declines under a UCT mitigation policy but increases with a FFICT mitigation scenario by the year 2095 particularly with more stringent climate mitigation targets. The decreasing trend with UCT policy stringency is due to substitution from more water-intensive to less water-intensive choices in food and energy production, and in land use. Under the FFICT scenario, water scarcity is projected to increase driven by higher water demands for bio-energy crops. This study implies an increasingly prominent role for water availability in future human decisions, and highlights the importance of including water in integrated assessment of global change. Future research will be directed at incorporating water shortage feedbacks in GCAM to better understand how such stresses will propagate across the various human and natural systems in GCAM.

  8. Modeling climate change mitigation from alternative methods of charcoal production in Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailis, Rob [Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, 195 Prospect St, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    Current carbon accounting methodologies do not accommodate activities that involve emissions reductions from both land-use change and energy production. This paper analyzes the climate change mitigation potential of charcoal production in East Africa by examining the impact of changing both land management and technology. Current production in a major charcoal producing region of Kenya where charcoal is made as a by-product of land clearance for commercial grain production is modeled as the ''business-as-usual'' scenario. Alternative production systems are proposed based on coppice management of native or exotic trees. Improved kilns are also considered. Changes in aboveground, belowground, and soil carbon are modeled and two distinct baseline assessments are analyzed: one is based on a fixed area of land and one is based on the quantity of non-renewable fuel that is displaced by project activities. The magnitude of carbon emissions reductions varies depending on land management as well as the choice of carbonization technology. However, these variations are smaller than the variations arising from the choice of baseline methodology. The fixed-land baseline yields annualized carbon emission reductions equivalent to 0.5-2.8 tons per year (t y{sup -1}) with no change in production technology and 0.7-3.5 t y{sup -1} with improved kilns. In contrast, the baseline defined by the quantity of displaced non-renewable fuel is 2-6 times larger, yielding carbon emissions reductions of 1.4-12.9 t y{sup -1} with no change in production technology and 3.2-20.4 t y{sup -1} with improved kilns. The results demonstrate the choice of baseline, often a political rather than scientific decision, is critical in assessing carbon emissions reductions. (author)

  9. US/Japan workshop on mitigation and adaptation technologies related to global climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernthal, F.M.

    1993-12-31

    It is a great pleasure for me to have the honor of delivering the keynote address for this important gathering, an honor enhanced further because of the many activities and historic relationships represented by this workshop. First of all, it represents the spirit of continuing cooperation and good relations between the United States and Japan. With the aid of the framework provided by the U.S./Japan Science and Technology Agreement, our two nations can come together to address a problem that has no national boundaries {hor_ellipsis} and we can think about solutions of potential benefit to all citizens of the global community. This workshop also symbolizes the spirit of cooperation so characteristic of the conduct of research in science and technology -- cooperation between us as individual scientists and engineers, between the various institutions we represent, and across our diverse disciplines. This workshop is only the second of its kind. The first US/Japan Workshop on global climate change was held last year in Japan. That workshop focused on cooperative scientific research in the United States and Japan. Out of it came a general agreement to continue collaborative work and to extend cooperation into the area of global change-related technologies, in particular those technologies that hold promise for mitigation and adaptation.

  10. Crop-Cattle Integrated Farming System: An Alternative of Climatic Change Mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munandar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available An integrated farming system is one of the alternatives for climatic change mitigation. This paper reports the application of corn-cattle based integrated farming system in Agrotechno Park Center of Palembang, and discusses its impact on CO2 fixation and the reduction of methane emissions. The study was based on the data of the first 6 yr from 2003 until 2009. The CO2 fixed in the soil and plants was determined based on the content of organic C which was multiplied by the index of 3.67. The methane gas produced by Balinese cattle and its dung was observed and modified into feed rations. The results showed that soil organic C increased from 40.80 tons C/ha in the 1st yr to 66.40 tons C/ha in the 6th yr. In addition, there was organic C fixation equivalent to 93.95 tons of CO2e. Corn biomass increased from 6.67 tons/ha to 18.66 tons/ha, equivalent to an increase in the fixation of atmospheric CO2e as much as 19.80 tons CO2e/ha. The supplementation of 60%-80% grass fodder with concentrate lowered the concentration of methane gas in cattle breathing by 28.7%, from 617 ppm to 440 ppm, while the methane emissions from cattle manure decreased by 31%, from 1367 mL/head/d to 943 mL/head/d. Installing a bio digester that generates biogas served to accommodate methane gas emissions from cattle dung and used it for bioenergy. Composting reduced the formation of methane gas from cattle manure through a regular process of turning over that gives aeration and forms aerobic condition in the heap of cattle dung. Recycling produces a variety of organic products that store carbon for a longer period of time and slowed the conversion of organic C into CO2. This study showed that the diverse activities of an integrated crop-cattle farming could be an alternative solution to climatic change mitigation.

  11. The effectiveness of energy service demand reduction: A scenario analysis of global climate change mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A reduction of energy service demand is a climate mitigation option, but its effectiveness has never been quantified. We quantify the effectiveness of energy service demand reduction in the building, transport, and industry sectors using the Asia-Pacific Integrated Assessment/Computable General Equilibrium (AIM/CGE) model for the period 2015–2050 under various scenarios. There were two major findings. First, a 25% energy service demand reduction in the building, transport, and basic material industry sectors would reduce the GDP loss induced by climate mitigation from 4.0% to 3.0% and from 1.2% to 0.7% in 2050 under the 450 ppm and 550 ppm CO2 equivalent concentration stabilization scenarios, respectively. Second, the effectiveness of a reduction in the building sector's energy service demand would be higher than those of the other sectors at the same rate of the energy service demand reduction. Furthermore, we also conducted a sensitivity analysis of different socioeconomic conditions, and the climate mitigation target was found to be a key determinant of the effectiveness of energy service demand reduction measures. Therefore, more certain climate mitigation targets would be useful for the decision makers who design energy service demand reduction measures. - Highlights: • The effectiveness of a reduction in energy service demand is quantified. • A 25% reduction in energy service demand would be equivalent to 1% of GDP in 2050. • Stringent mitigation increases the effectiveness of energy service demand reduction. • Effectiveness of a reduction in energy demand service is higher in the building sector

  12. Climate Policy Must Favour Mitigation Over Adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    SCHUMACHER, Ingmar

    2016-01-01

    In climate change policy, adaptation tends to be viewed as beingas important as mitigation. In this article we present a simple yet generalargument for which mitigation must be preferred to adaptation.The argument rests on the observation that mitigation is a public goodwhile adaptation is a private one. This implies that the more one disaggregatesthe units in a social welfare function, i.e. the more one teasesout the public good nature of mitigation, the lower is average incomeand thus less ...

  13. Practicing Conservation Agriculture to mitigate and adapt to Climate Change in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khresat, Saeb

    2016-04-01

    Climate change scenarios indicate that Jordan and the Middle East could suffer from reduced agricultural productivity and water availability among other negative impacts. Based on the projection models for the area, average temperature in Jordan is projected to increase between 1.2 and 1.6 °C by 2050. Projections for precipitation trends are projected to decrease by 16% by the year 2050. Evaporation is likely to increase due to higher temperatures. This is likely to increase the incidence of drought potential since precipitation is projected to decrease. The dominant form of agriculture system in Jordan is based on intensive tillage. This form of tillage has resulted in large losses of organic soil carbon, weaker soil structure, and cause compaction. It has negative effects on soil aeration, root development and water infiltration among other factors. There is a need to transform farming practices to conservation agriculture to sequester carbon so that climate change mitigation becomes an inherent property of future farming systems. Conservation Agriculture, a system avoiding or minimizing soil disturbance, combined with soil cover and crop diversification, is considered to be a sustainable production system that can also sequester carbon unlike tillage agriculture. Conservation agriculture promotes minimal disturbance of the soil by tillage (zero tillage), balanced application of chemical inputs and careful management of residues and wastes. This study was conducted to develop a clear understanding of the impacts and benefits of the two most common types of agriculture, traditional tillage agriculture and conservation agriculture with respect to their effects on land productivity and on soil carbon pools. The study results indicated that conservation agriculture contributed to the reduction of the farming systems' greenhouse gas emissions and enhance its role as carbon sinks. Also, it was found that by shifting to conservation agriculture labor cost needed for

  14. Quantifying the biophysical climate change mitigation potential of Canada's forest sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. Smyth

    2014-01-01

    delays in achieving carbon benefits for many forest-based mitigation activities, future contributions of the forest sector to climate mitigation can be maximized if implemented soon.

  15. Mitigating climate change by sequestering carbon soils: A hypertext-based scientific assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauscher, H.M.; Alban, D.H. (USDA Forest Service, Grand Rapids, MN (United States)); Johnson, D.W. (Univ. of Nevada, Reno (United States))

    1992-01-01

    The general objective of this project is the development of a hypertext-based scientific assessment on the subject of mitigating climate change by sequestering carbon in soils. Specifically, the authors want to (1) translate the scientific knowledge base on soil carbon cycling into a form meaningful for policy makers by using the theory of issue-based hypertext for problem solving using the argumentative approach developed by the late Horst Rittel, professor of planning and design at the University of California, Berkeley; (2) provide an organized and evaluated scientific knowledge base on soil carbon dynamics for research scientists to aid in the rapid and economical review and understanding of the subfield of science; and (3) test this new hybrid hypertext and AI methodology for use as a tool for program managers to help them evaluate a research domain to find knowledge gaps, to prioritize these knowledge gaps, to channel available research funding to these projects aimed at filling the most promising knowledge gaps in order to have the greatest possible impact on the entire knowledge base of the field, and to help explicitly measure scientific progress in terms that funding sources can understand. The authors began this project in fall 1991 and expect to complete it by fall 1993.

  16. Mitigating climate change by sequestering carbon soils: A hypertext-based scientific assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The general objective of this project is the development of a hypertext-based scientific assessment on the subject of mitigating climate change by sequestering carbon in soils. Specifically, the authors want to (1) translate the scientific knowledge base on soil carbon cycling into a form meaningful for policy makers by using the theory of issue-based hypertext for problem solving using the argumentative approach developed by the late Horst Rittel, professor of planning and design at the University of California, Berkeley; (2) provide an organized and evaluated scientific knowledge base on soil carbon dynamics for research scientists to aid in the rapid and economical review and understanding of the subfield of science; and (3) test this new hybrid hypertext and AI methodology for use as a tool for program managers to help them evaluate a research domain to find knowledge gaps, to prioritize these knowledge gaps, to channel available research funding to these projects aimed at filling the most promising knowledge gaps in order to have the greatest possible impact on the entire knowledge base of the field, and to help explicitly measure scientific progress in terms that funding sources can understand. The authors began this project in fall 1991 and expect to complete it by fall 1993

  17. Market of innovative timber products in Europe and Serbia and their contribution to climate change mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sretenović Predrag

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows results of researching the market of glued laminated timber as the most frequent innovative timber product in constructing timber framed residential facilities in Europe and Serbia. The research included the development of production, consumption and trade flows for the most significant countries in the European Union and Serbia. Additionally, the paper gives characteristics of this innovative timber product regarding dimensions, allowed deviations of dimensions defined in adequate European standard, wood species it is made of and fire resistance. The last part of the paper shows results of econometric modeling of the impact of building timber-framed houses on the consumption of glued laminated timber in Austria as one of the countries belonging to the group of the largest consumers of this innovative timber product in Europe. Taking into consideration that the substitution of classic building materials, primarily concrete, steel and aluminum, with glued laminated timber in residential construction contributes to the reduction of carbon-dioxide emission and climate change mitigation, research results of the effects of such substitution are presented in the last chapter in this paper. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III43007: Istraživanje klimatskih promena na životnu sredinu: praćenje uticaja, adaptacija i ublažavanje

  18. The economics of climate change mitigation in developing countries - methodological and empirical results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halsnaes, K.

    1997-12-01

    This thesis presents a methodological and empirical discussion of the costs associated with implementing greenhouse gas reduction strategies in developing countries. It presents a methodological framework for national costing studies and evaluates a number of associated valuation methods. The methodological framework has been applied in several developing countries as part of a UNEP project in which the author has participated, and reference is made to the results of these country studies. Some of the theoretical issues associated with the determination of the costs of emission reductions are discussed with reference to a number of World Bank and UN guidelines for project analysis in developing countries. The use of several accounting prices is recommended for mitigation projects, with a distinction being made between internationally and domestically traded goods. The consequences of using different accounting prices are discussed with respect to the methodology applied in the UNEP country studies. In conclusion the thesis reviews the results of some of the most important international studies of greenhouse gas emissions in developing countries. The review, which encompasses a total of 27 country studies, was undertaken by the author for the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change, the IPCC. Its conclusion is that the UNEP methodological framework and associated country study results are consistent with the recommendations and conclusions of the IPCC. (EG) 23 refs.

  19. The economics of climate change mitigation in developing countries -methodological and empirical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis presents a methodological and empirical discussion of the costs associated with implementing greenhouse gas reduction strategies in developing countries. It presents a methodological framework for national costing studies and evaluates a number of associated valuation methods. The methodological framework has been applied in several developing countries as part of a UNEP project in which the author has participated, and reference is made to the results of these country studies. Some of the theoretical issues associated with the determination of the costs of emission reductions are discussed with reference to a number of World Bank and UN guidelines for project analysis in developing countries. The use of several accounting prices is recommended for mitigation projects, with a distinction being made between internationally and domestically traded goods. The consequences of using different accounting prices are discussed with respect to the methodology applied in the UNEP country studies. In conclusion the thesis reviews the results of some of the most important international studies of greenhouse gas emissions in developing countries. The review, which encompasses a total of 27 country studies, was undertaken by the author for the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change, the IPCC. Its conclusion is that the UNEP methodological framework and associated country study results are consistent with the recommendations and conclusions of the IPCC. (EG) 23 refs

  20. Must developing countries commit quantified targets? Time flexibility and equity in climate change mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Equity and efficiency dimensions of global time flexibility in GHG emission reduction are analyzed with an integrated assessment model. Global time flexibility is justifiable to some extent as found in previous studies by Wigley et al. Nevertheless, it does not necessarily serve as a rationale to delay emission reduction commitment and efforts of developed countries as they suggested. The time flexibility can be saved for developing countries, and it must be so in equity consideration; early reduction by developed countries eases burden of developing countries in both time and emission quantity dimensions. This equity-oriented argument is robust against time and spatial efficiency consideration, since the apparent benefits that might accrue to developed countries from delaying reductions will by no means be transferred to far distant future developing countries for mitigation of and adaptation to climate change. The analysis thus support entry into force of the Kyoto Protocol without participation of key low income developing countries such as China and India with legally binding quantified targets in the First Commitment Period from 2008 to 2012

  1. Climate Change and Air Pollution: Exploring the Synergies and Potential for Mitigation in Industrializing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances C. Moore

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Air pollutants such as tropospheric ozone and black carbon (soot also contribute to the greenhouse effect. Black carbon is thought to be the second or third most important anthropogenic contributor to global warming, while troposheric ozone is the fourth most important. Both are also major components of indoor and outdoor air pollution. This paper reviews the existing literature of the health, economic, and climatic impacts of tropospheric ozone and black carbon emissions, together with mitigation options. The local nature of many of the impacts, combined with their short atmospheric lifetime and the existence of cost-effective abatement technologies that are already widely deployed in developed countries means reducing these emissions provides a highly climatically-effective mitigation option that is also appropriate to the development strategy of industrializing countries.

  2. The Role of Forests in Mitigating Climate Change – a Case Study for Europe

    OpenAIRE

    GÁLOS, Borbála; Hänsler, Andreas; Kindermann, Georg; Rechid, Diana; Sieck, Kevin; Jacob, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    A regional-scale case study has been carried out to assess the possible climatic benefits of forest cover increase in Europe. For the end of the 21st century (2071–2090) it has been investigated, whether the projected climate change could be reduced assuming potential afforestation of the continent. The magnitude of the biogeophysical effects of enhanced forest cover on temperature and precipitation means and extremes have been analyzed relative to the magnitude of the climate change signal a...

  3. Tools for adaptation and mitigation of climate change on southwestern working-lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    In February 2014, the USDA established 7 Hubs and 3 Sub Hubs across the nation to assist farmers, ranchers and foresters in adapting to the effects of climate change. Specific vulnerabilities related to projected climatic changes in the Southwest (SW) include water scarcity, the effects of elevated ...

  4. Ready for the Storm: Education for Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagawa, Fumiyo; Selby, David

    2012-01-01

    Incidences of disaster and climate change impacts are rising globally. Disaster risk reduction and climate change education are two educational responses to present and anticipated increases in the severity and frequency of hazards. They share significant complementarities and potential synergies, the latter as yet largely unexploited. Three…

  5. Climate Change Impacts and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Effects on U.S. Hydropower Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change will have potentially significant effects on hydropower generation due to changes in the magnitude and seasonality of river runoff and increases in reservoir evaporation. These physical impacts will in turn have economic consequences through both producer revenues ...

  6. Costing issues for mitigation and adaptation to climate change: what policy makers need

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estrada-Oyuele, R.A. [Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Argentine Republic, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2000-07-01

    As a supreme body on climate change, IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) discusses related issues in conventions and originates scientific information which are needed by policy makers. This article highlights the problems usually faced by IPCC in originating such information. The author critically assesses the problems faces by climate change policy markers. He suggests that the scientific community should be actively involved in climate change policy formulation rather than providing warning against the risk of climate change. Plain language and clarity in preparing IPCC reports will improve the general understanding of the assessment. The author also points out that proliferation of scenarios is another source of many problems for policy makers. He argues out that the scenarios should be organized and presented according to some order of probability, as there is a tendency to confuse scenarios with forecasting.

  7. Adaptation and mitigation of wheat production in the UK to climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Röder, M.

    2012-01-01

    Climate change has impacts on agricultural production which, coupled with population growth and structural changes, will make sustainably feeding the world extremely challenging. Many regions are expected to face worsening condition, especially areas with already vulnerable food systems. Some world regions might be favoured by moderate climate change impacts but in any case globally the risk for food systems to be affected by unpredictable weather and extreme weather events is increasing, wh...

  8. Assessing natural disaster preparedness and climate change mitigation strategies in the coastal areas of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Md. Mokhlesur

    2013-01-01

    Global climate is changing continuously as a result of industrial revolution and rapid urbanisation in many countries of the world which has significant impacts on environment, socio-economic condition, physical and biological issues. Increase of global temperature, rainfall changes, sea level rise, occurrences of extreme weather events such as floods, cyclones, typhoons, droughts etc. are the major and direct consequences of climate change in the world (Pulhin et al., 2010, & Shaw et al., 20...

  9. Middle and High School Students' Conceptions of Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bofferding, Laura; Kloser, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Both scientists and policy-makers emphasize the importance of education for influencing pro-environmental behavior and minimizing the effects of climate change on biological and physical systems. Education has the potential to impact students' system knowledge--their understanding of the variables that affect the climate system--and action…

  10. Micro water harvesting for climate change mitigation: Trade-offs between health and poverty reduction in Northern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Hagos, F.; Yohannes, M.; Linderhof, V.G.M.; Kruseman, G.; Mulugeta, A; Samuel, G.G.; Abreha, Z.

    2006-01-01

    Water harvesting is an important tool for mitigating the adverse effects of climate change. This report investigates the trade-offs between health and poverty reduction by considering the impacts of water harvesting on health in Tigray region, northern Ethiopia. In particular, we assess the prevalence of malaria in association with ponds and wells. Moreover, the determinants of malaria incidence are explored with multivariate analysis. Additionally, we investigate people¿s willingness to pay ...

  11. The influence of collective action on the demand for voluntary climate change mitigation in hypothetical and real situations

    OpenAIRE

    Sturm, Bodo; Uehleke, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    In this experiment, we investigate determinants of the individual demand for voluntary climate change mitigation. Subjects decide between a cash prize and an allowance from the EU Emissions Trading Scheme for one ton of CO2 that will be deleted afterwards. We vary the incentives of the decision situation in which we distinguish between real monetary incentives and a hypothetical decision situation with and without a cheap talk script. Furthermore, decisions were implemented either as purely i...

  12. The influence of collective action on the demand for voluntary climate change mitigation in hypothetical and real situations

    OpenAIRE

    Sturm, Bodo; Uehleke, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    In this experiment, we investigate determinants of the individual demand for voluntary climate change mitigation. Subjects decide between a cash prize and an allowance from the EU Emissions Trading Scheme for one ton of CO2 that will be deleted afterwards. We vary the incentives of the decision situation in which we distinguish between real monetary incentives and a hypothetical decision situation with and without a cheap talk script. Furthermore, decisions were implemented either...

  13. What if ... abrupt and extreme climate change? Programme of VAM (Vulnerability, Adaptation, Mitigation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of researchers from different social scientific disciplines present a view in response to the question 'what will happen in our society if the climate suddenly changes?'. They answer questions such as: How will people respond to real risks such as imminent flooding? What are the economic consequences? How will it affect sectors such as inland shipping and coastal tourism? What are the costs of adapting our country to rising sea levels or sudden cold? As a society what do we consider to be socially and publicly acceptable? Can we still insure ourselves? Who will assume responsibility and what are the tasks of the various parties involved? The book merely sets the scene. Social sciences research into climate change has only just started. Besides providing answers to the question about the social and public implications of abrupt climate change, the book calls for a greater involvement of social scientists in climate change issues

  14. What incentives to climate change mitigation through harvested wood products in the current french policy framework?

    OpenAIRE

    Deheza, Mariana; Bellassen, Valentin; N'Goran, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Beyond the important role that forests play in the fight against climate change through the sequestration of carbon in their biomass, wood products also contribute to climate change through three channels: Material substitution : the manufacturing of wood products being less energy intensive allows to avoid carbon emissions from the processing of other alternative materials (eg. concrete, steel, etc); Energy substitution: achieved by the generation of energy from wood combustion replaci...

  15. How can we mitigate impacts of global climate change on mangrove forests in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    M'rabu, E.; Bosire, J. O.; Cannicci, S.; Dahdouh-Guebas, F.

    2009-01-01

    Periodic episodes arising out of global climate changes seem to pose a reasonable threat to the integrity of mangrove ecosystems. Mangrove macrofauna, which are residents of mangrove areas throughout their adult life, stand to be highly affected by the periodic episodes resulting from global climate change. During the 1997-98 El-Niño event, massive sedimentation due to erosion of terrigenous sediments caused mangrove die-back in many areas along the Kenyan coast. Mwache Creek, a periurban man...

  16. Strengthening Carbon Sinks in Urban Soils to Mitigate and Adapt to Climate Change (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, K.

    2010-12-01

    long industrial history and devastations during World War II. In most surface soils in Stuttgart, however, OM was dominated by plant litter derived compounds but in one urban soil anthropogenic OM and black carbon (BC) dominated soil organic carbon (SOC) as indicated by bloch decay solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Artifacts such as municipal solid waste, construction waste, and fragments of charcoal, coal and glass were also found in urban forest soil profiles to 1-m depth in Columbus, OH. To this depth, about 150 Mg SOC ha-1 were stored and, thus, more than in urban forest soils of Baltimore, MD, and New York City, NY. However, the contribution of litter derived vs. artifact derived OM compounds such as BC has not been assessed for urban soils in the U.S.. In summary, studies on biogeochemical cycles in urban ecosystems must include the entire soil profile as anthropogenic activities may create Technosols with properties not encountered in soils of natural ecosystems. As urban ecosystems are major sources of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), Technosols may be tailor-made to imitate natural soils with high SOC pools and long carbon mean residence times. Thus, the C sink in urban soils must be strengthened to mitigate and adapt urban ecosystems to abrupt climate change.

  17. Climate change and prairie pothole wetlands: mitigating water-level and hydroperiod effects through upland management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renton, David A.; Mushet, David M.; DeKeyser, Edward S.

    2015-01-01

    Prairie pothole wetlands offer crucial habitat for North America’s waterfowl populations. The wetlands also support an abundance of other species and provide ecological services valued by society. The hydrology of prairie pothole wetlands is dependent on atmospheric interactions. Therefore, changes to the region’s climate can have profound effects on wetland hydrology. The relevant literature related to climate change and upland management effects on prairie pothole wetland water levels and hydroperiods was reviewed. Climate change is widely expected to affect water levels and hydroperiods of prairie pothole wetlands, as well as the biota and ecological services that the wetlands support. In general, hydrologic model projections that incorporate future climate change scenarios forecast lower water levels in prairie pothole wetlands and longer periods spent in a dry condition, despite potential increases in precipitation. However, the extreme natural variability in climate and hydrology of prairie pothole wetlands necessitates caution when interpreting model results. Recent changes in weather patterns throughout much of the Prairie Pothole Region have been in increased precipitation that results in increased water inputs to wetlands above losses associated with warmer temperatures. However, observed precipitation increases are within the range of natural climate variability and therefore, may not persist. Identifying management techniques with the potential to affect water inputs to prairie pothole wetlands would provide increased options for managers when dealing with the uncertainties associated with a changing climate. Several grassland management techniques (for example, grazing and burning) have the potential to affect water levels and hydroperiods of prairie pothole by affecting infiltration, evapotranspiration, and snow deposition.

  18. Climate change politics with Chinese characteristics :: from discourse to institutionalised greenhouse gas mitigation

    OpenAIRE

    Ellermann, Christian; Liverman, Diana

    2013-01-01

    China has seen tremendous economic growth in the past three decades, and in the order of eight to ten per cent since 2000. This development has come with ever increasing energy consumption, and thus emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG). This trend has been an important topic in the international climate negotiations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change; China is under constant pressure from other large economies to contribute to reversing the GHG emissions trend in o...

  19. The effect of climate change, population distribution, and climate mitigation on building energy use in the U.S. and China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yuyu; Eom, Jiyong; Clarke, Leon E.

    2013-08-01

    A changing climate will affect the energy system in a number of ways, one of which is through changes in demands for heating and cooling in buildings. Understanding the potential effect of climate on heating and cooling demands must take into account not only the manner in which the building sector might evolve over time - including, for example, movements from rural to urban environments in developing countries - but also important uncertainty about the nature of climate change itself and the growth and movements of populations over time. In this study, we explored the uncertainty in climate change impacts on heating and cooling by constructing estimates of heating and cooling degree days for both a reference (no-policy) scenario and a climate mitigation scenario built from 0.5 degree latitude by 0.5 degree longitude resolution output from three different Global Climate Models (GCMs) and three gridded scenarios of population distribution. The implications that changing climate and population distribution might have for building energy consumption in the U.S. and China were then explored by using the heating and cooling degree days results as inputs to a detailed, building energy model, nested in the long-term global integrated assessment framework, Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM). Across the climate models and population distribution scenarios, the results indicate that unabated climate change would cause total final energy consumption to decrease modestly in both U.S. and China buildings by the end of the century, as decreased heating consumption is more than balanced by increased cooling using primarily electricity. However, the results also indicate that when indirect emissions from the power sector are also taken into account, climate change may have negligible effect on building sector CO2 emissions in the two countries. The variation in results due to variation of population distribution is noticeably smaller than variation due to the use of different

  20. The relative impact of climate change mitigation policies and socioeconomic drivers on water scarcity - An integrated assessment modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejazi, M. I.; Edmonds, J. A.; Clarke, L. E.; Kyle, P.; Davies, E. G.; Chaturvedi, V.; Patel, P.; Eom, J.; Wise, M.; Kim, S.; Calvin, K. V.; Moss, R. H.

    2012-12-01

    We investigate the relative effects of climate emission mitigation policies and socioeconomic drivers on water scarcity conditions over the 21st century both globally and regionally, by estimating both water availability and demand within a technologically-detailed global integrated assessment model of energy, agriculture, and climate change - the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM). We first develop a global gridded monthly hydrologic model that reproduces historical streamflow observations and simulates the future availability of freshwater under both a changing climate and an evolving landscape, and incorporate this model into GCAM. We then develop and incorporate technologically oriented representations of water demands for the agricultural (irrigation and livestock), energy (electricity generation, primary energy production and processing), industrial (manufacturing and mining), and municipal sectors. The energy, industrial, and municipal sectors are represented in fourteen geopolitical regions, with the agricultural sector further disaggregated into as many as eighteen agro-ecological zones (AEZs) within each region. To perform the water scarcity analysis at the grid scale, the global water demands for the six demand sectors are spatially downscaled to 0.5 o x 0.5o resolution to match the scale of GWAM. The water scarcity index (WSI) compares total water demand to the total amount of renewable water available, and defines extreme water scarcity in any region as demand greater than 40% of total water availability. Using a reference scenario (i.e., no climate change mitigation policy) with radiative forcing reaching 8.8 W/m2 by 2095 and a global population of 14 billion, global annual water demand grows from about 9% of total annual renewable freshwater in 2005 to about 32% by 2095. This results in almost half of the world population living under extreme water scarcity by the end of the 21st century. Regionally, the demands for water exceed the total

  1. Coupling pre-season famers planning and optimal water supply management to mitigate climate change impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelletti, A.; Giuliani, M.; Mainardi, M.; Chiaradia, E.; Gandolfi, C.

    2012-12-01

    Agriculture is the main land use in the world and also the sector characterized by the highest water demand. To meet projected growth in human population and per-capita food demand, agricultural production will have to significantly increase in the next decades. Farmers' practices are significantly sensitive to climate variations. To effectively face a changing climate, adaptation strategies are essential and many potential options are available for marginal changes of existing agricultural systems: changing crop type and rotation, shifting sowing and harvesting dates, adopting high efficiency irrigation techniques. Yet, farmer adaptation is only one part of the equation. Adaptation also concerns the supply system, in particular the reallocation of water availability in space and time, Changes in water supply management strategies might impact on farmer decisions altering water availability. Most of the studies in the literature consider the two systems separately either analysing the impact of climate change of farmers decisions and demand formation for a given water supply scenario or optimizing water supply for several water demand scenarios. In this study we close the loop between supply and demand by explicitly studying the coevolution of farmers and water supply systems under climate changes. Given an expected water availability, the farmers solve a yearly planning problem to decide the most profitable crop to plant. Knowing the farmers decisions, the operation of the water supply system is optimized on the actual water demand of the crops. Then, the farmers can re-adapt their decisions according with the new optimal operating strategy, thus activating an information loop between the two systems that exchange expected supply and irrigation demand. Projected hydro-climatic scenarios are used as boundary conditions to the loop. The proposed approach is demonstrated on a real-world case study, namely the Lake Como that serves the Muzza-Bassa Lodigiana irrigation

  2. Renewables and climate change mitigation: Irreversible energy investment under uncertainty and portfolio effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ongoing negotiations under the UNFCCC center around the possibilities for stabilization of greenhouse gases at a “safe” level. New energy technologies are assumed to make major contributions to this goal. However, in the light of scientific uncertainty (e.g. about climate sensitivity, feedback effects, etc.), market uncertainty (e.g. fuel price volatility), technological uncertainty (e.g. availability of renewable technology), socio-economic uncertainty (e.g. development of different macroeconomic factors) and policy uncertainty (e.g. about commitment to specific targets and stability of CO2 prices), it is difficult to assess the importance of different technologies in achieving robust long-term climate risk mitigation. One example currently debated in this context is biomass-based energy, which can be used to produce both carbon-neutral electricity and at the same time offer the possibility of “negative emissions” by capturing carbon from biomass combustion at the conversion facility and permanently storing it. In this study, we analyze the impact of uncertainty on investment decision-making at the plant level in a real options valuation framework, and then use the GGI Scenario Database () as a point of departure for deriving optimal technology portfolios across different socio-economic scenarios for a range of stabilization targets, focusing, in particular, on the new, low-emission targets using alternative risk measures.

  3. The Land Use and Cover Change in Miombo Woodlands under Community Based Forest Management and Its Implication to Climate Change Mitigation: A Case of Southern Highlands of Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Lupala, Z. J.; Lusambo, L. P.; Y. M. Ngaga; Makatta, Angelingis A.

    2015-01-01

    In Tanzania, miombo woodland is the most significant forest vegetation with both ecological and socioeconomic importance. The vegetation has been threatened from land use and cover change due to unsustainable utilization. Over the past two decades, community based forest management (CBFM) has been practiced to address the problem. Given the current need to mitigate global climate change, little is known on the influence of CBFM to the land use and cover change in miombo woodlands and therefor...

  4. Reconciling oil palm expansion and climate change mitigation in Kalimantan, Indonesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemen G Austin

    Full Text Available Our society faces the pressing challenge of increasing agricultural production while minimizing negative consequences on ecosystems and the global climate. Indonesia, which has pledged to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG emissions from deforestation while doubling production of several major agricultural commodities, exemplifies this challenge. Here we focus on palm oil, the world's most abundant vegetable oil and a commodity that has contributed significantly to Indonesia's economy. Most oil palm expansion in the country has occurred at the expense of forests, resulting in significant GHG emissions. We examine the extent to which land management policies can resolve the apparently conflicting goals of oil palm expansion and GHG mitigation in Kalimantan, a major oil palm growing region of Indonesia. Using a logistic regression model to predict the locations of new oil palm between 2010 and 2020 we evaluate the impacts of six alternative policy scenarios on future emissions. We estimate net emissions of 128.4-211.4 MtCO2 yr(-1 under business as usual expansion of oil palm plantations. The impact of diverting new plantations to low carbon stock land depends on the design of the policy. We estimate that emissions can be reduced by 9-10% by extending the current moratorium on new concessions in primary forests and peat lands, 35% by limiting expansion on all peat and forestlands, 46% by limiting expansion to areas with moderate carbon stocks, and 55-60% by limiting expansion to areas with low carbon stocks. Our results suggest that these policies would reduce oil palm profits only moderately but would vary greatly in terms of cost-effectiveness of emissions reductions. We conclude that a carefully designed and implemented oil palm expansion plan can contribute significantly towards Indonesia's national emissions mitigation goal, while allowing oil palm area to double.

  5. Reconciling oil palm expansion and climate change mitigation in Kalimantan, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Kemen G; Kasibhatla, Prasad S; Urban, Dean L; Stolle, Fred; Vincent, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Our society faces the pressing challenge of increasing agricultural production while minimizing negative consequences on ecosystems and the global climate. Indonesia, which has pledged to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from deforestation while doubling production of several major agricultural commodities, exemplifies this challenge. Here we focus on palm oil, the world's most abundant vegetable oil and a commodity that has contributed significantly to Indonesia's economy. Most oil palm expansion in the country has occurred at the expense of forests, resulting in significant GHG emissions. We examine the extent to which land management policies can resolve the apparently conflicting goals of oil palm expansion and GHG mitigation in Kalimantan, a major oil palm growing region of Indonesia. Using a logistic regression model to predict the locations of new oil palm between 2010 and 2020 we evaluate the impacts of six alternative policy scenarios on future emissions. We estimate net emissions of 128.4-211.4 MtCO2 yr(-1) under business as usual expansion of oil palm plantations. The impact of diverting new plantations to low carbon stock land depends on the design of the policy. We estimate that emissions can be reduced by 9-10% by extending the current moratorium on new concessions in primary forests and peat lands, 35% by limiting expansion on all peat and forestlands, 46% by limiting expansion to areas with moderate carbon stocks, and 55-60% by limiting expansion to areas with low carbon stocks. Our results suggest that these policies would reduce oil palm profits only moderately but would vary greatly in terms of cost-effectiveness of emissions reductions. We conclude that a carefully designed and implemented oil palm expansion plan can contribute significantly towards Indonesia's national emissions mitigation goal, while allowing oil palm area to double. PMID:26011182

  6. How Can Urban Policies Improve Air Quality and Help Mitigate Global Climate Change: a Systematic Mapping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slovic, Anne Dorothée; de Oliveira, Maria Aparecida; Biehl, João; Ribeiro, Helena

    2016-02-01

    Tackling climate change at the global level is central to a growing field of scientific research on topics such as environmental health, disease burden, and its resulting economic impacts. At the local level, cities constitute an important hub of atmospheric pollution due to the large amount of pollutants that they emit. As the world population shifts to urban centers, cities will increasingly concentrate more exposed populations. Yet, there is still significant progress to be made in understanding the contribution of urban pollutants other than CO2, such as vehicle emissions, to global climate change. It is therefore particularly important to study how local governments are managing urban air pollution. This paper presents an overview of local air pollution control policies and programs that aim to reduce air pollution levels in megacities. It also presents evidence measuring their efficacy. The paper argues that local air pollution policies are not only beneficial for cities but are also important for mitigating and adapting to global climate change. The results systematize several policy approaches used around the world and suggest the need for more in-depth cross-city studies with the potential to highlight best practices both locally and globally. Finally, it calls for the inclusion of a more human rights-based approach as a mean of guaranteeing of clean air for all and reducing factors that exacerbate climate change. PMID:26698311

  7. Renewable Energy Production from Waste to Mitigate Climate Change and Counteract Soil Degradation - A Spatial Explicit Assessment for Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraxner, Florian; Yoshikawa, Kunio; Leduc, Sylvain; Fuss, Sabine; Aoki, Kentaro; Yamagata, Yoshiki

    2014-05-01

    Waste production from urban areas is growing faster than urbanization itself, while at the same time urban areas are increasingly contributing substantial emissions causing climate change. Estimates indicate for urban residents a per capita solid waste (MSW) production of 1.2 kg per day, subject to further increase to 1.5 kg beyond 2025. Waste water and sewage production is estimated at about 260 liters per capita and day, also at increasing rates. Based on these figures, waste - including e.g. MSW, sewage and animal manure - can generally be assumed as a renewable resource with varying organic components and quantity. This paper demonstrates how new and innovative technologies in the field of Waste-to-Green Products can help in various ways not only to reduce costs for waste treatment, reduce the pressure on largely overloaded dump sites, and reduce also the effect of toxic materials at the landfill site and by that i.e. protect the groundwater. Moreover, Waste-to-Green Products can contribute actively to mitigating climate change through fossil fuel substitution and carbon sequestration while at the same time counteracting negative land use effects from other types of renewable energy and feedstock production through substitution. At the same time, the co-production and recycling of fertilizing elements and biochar can substantially counteract soil degradation and improve the soil organic carbon content of different land use types. The overall objective of this paper is to assess the total climate change mitigation potential of MSW, sewage and animal manure for Japan. A techno-economic approach is used to inform the policy discussion on the suitability of this substantial and sustainable mitigation option. We examine the spatial explicit technical mitigation potential from e.g. energy substitution and carbon sequestration through biochar in rural and urban Japan. For this exercise, processed information on respective Japanese waste production, energy demand

  8. Mitigating methane emission from paddy soil with rice-straw biochar amendment under projected climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Xingguo Han; Xue Sun; Cheng Wang; Mengxiong Wu; Da Dong; Ting Zhong; Thies, Janice E.; Weixiang Wu

    2016-01-01

    Elevated global temperatures and increased concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere associated with climate change will exert profound effects on rice cropping systems, particularly on their greenhouse gas emitting potential. Incorporating biochar into paddy soil has been shown previously to reduce methane (CH4) emission from paddy rice under ambient temperature and CO2. We examined the ability of rice straw-derived biochar to reduce CH4 emission from paddy soil under elevated...

  9. The potential of conservation agriculture to mitigate climate change in mediterranean areas

    OpenAIRE

    González Sánchez, Emilio Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Agriculture contributes to climate change, and is affected by it. On the one hand, solar energy is used primarily by photosynthetic organisms which transform it into carbohydrates, releasing oxygen (O2) whilst consuming carbon dioxide (CO2) and water. In inland areas, agriculture and forestry favor photosynthesis which is performed by plants and trees; that is how this chemical reaction that sustains life is generated. On the other hand, several agricultural activities, for exa...

  10. Geologic Carbon Sequestration: Mitigating Climate Change by Injecting CO2 Underground (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oldenburg, Curtis M [LBNL Earth Sciences Division

    2009-07-21

    Summer Lecture Series 2009: Climate change provides strong motivation to reduce CO2 emissions from the burning of fossil fuels. Carbon dioxide capture and storage involves the capture, compression, and transport of CO2 to geologically favorable areas, where its injected into porous rock more than one kilometer underground for permanent storage. Oldenburg, who heads Berkeley Labs Geologic Carbon Sequestration Program, will focus on the challenges, opportunities, and research needs of this innovative technology.

  11. Contribution of intensive silvopastoral systems to animal performance and to adaptation and mitigation of climate change

    OpenAIRE

    César A Cuartas Cardona; Juan F Naranjo Ramírez; Ariel M Tarazona Morales; Enrique Murgueitio Restrepo; Julián D Chará Orozco; Juan Ku Vera; Francisco J Solorio Sánchez; Martha X Flores Estrada; Baldomero Solorio Sánchez; Rolando Barahona Rosales

    2014-01-01

    According to FAO, world demand for animal products will double in the first half of this century as a result of increasing population and economic growth. During the same period, major changes are expected in world climate. Food security remains one of the highest priority issues in developing Latin American countries, a region where livestock production plays a fundamental role. Agricultural activities seriously threaten natural resources; therefore, it is necessary to ensure that livestock ...

  12. Mitigating Climate Change by the Development and Deployment of Solar Water Heating Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. T. Wara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy is becoming an alternative for the limited fossil fuel resources. One of the simplest and most direct applications of this energy is the conversion of solar radiation into heat, which can be used in Water Heating Systems. Ogun State in Nigeria was used as a case study. The solar radiation for the state was explored with an annual average of 4.775 kWh/m2 recorded. The designed system comprised storage tanks and the collector unit which comprises wooden casing, copper tube, and aluminium foil. Test results for the unlagged and lagged storage tanks for water temperature at various angles of inclination (2.500°–20.000° were on the average 27.800°C and 28.300°C, respectively, for the inlet temperature and 60.100°C and 63.000°C for the outlet temperature, respectively. The efficiency of the Solar Water Heating System was 72.500% and the power saved 2.798 kW. The cost of the unit is put at 1121,400 ($145 as at August 2012. The unit developed can be applied for the purpose of reducing the cost of energy, dealing with environmental challenges, and improving the use of energy, hence serving as a climate mitigation process as this can be extended for water heating for domestic and other industrial purposes.

  13. Afforestation to mitigate climate change: impacts on food prices under consideration of albedo effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreidenweis, Ulrich; Humpenöder, Florian; Stevanović, Miodrag; Bodirsky, Benjamin Leon; Kriegler, Elmar; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Popp, Alexander

    2016-08-01

    Ambitious climate targets, such as the 2 °C target, are likely to require the removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Afforestation is one such mitigation option but could, through the competition for land, also lead to food prices hikes. In addition, afforestation often decreases land-surface albedo and the amount of short-wave radiation reflected back to space, which results in a warming effect. In particular in the boreal zone, such biophysical warming effects following from afforestation are estimated to offset the cooling effect from carbon sequestration. We assessed the food price response of afforestation, and considered the albedo effect with scenarios in which afforestation was restricted to certain latitudinal zones. In our study, afforestation was incentivized by a globally uniform reward for carbon uptake in the terrestrial biosphere. This resulted in large-scale afforestation (2580 Mha globally) and substantial carbon sequestration (860 GtCO2) up to the end of the century. However, it was also associated with an increase in food prices of about 80% by 2050 and a more than fourfold increase by 2100. When afforestation was restricted to the tropics the food price response was substantially reduced, while still almost 60% cumulative carbon sequestration was achieved. In the medium term, the increase in prices was then lower than the increase in income underlying our scenario projections. Moreover, our results indicate that more liberalised trade in agricultural commodities could buffer the food price increases following from afforestation in tropical regions.

  14. Future state of the climate change, mitigation and development of sustainable agriculture in Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazandjiev, V.; Georgieva, V.; Moteva, M.; Marinova, T.; Dimitrov, P.

    2010-09-01

    The farming is one of the most important branches that bring the increase to the gross internal production in Bulgaria. At the same time, the agriculture is the only branch, as in home, so in world scale in which the made as well direct production spending and investing regenerating (or not) only in the frameworks to one vegetative season. In addition on this, development of the intensive farming without using the most advanced technologies such as irrigation, automation, selection - for obtaining stable cultivars and hybrids, permanent weather monitoring and agroclimatic zoning and integrated and biochemical protection to the cultures and plantations had not possible. Analysis of long-term meteorological data from different regions shows clear tendencies to warming and drying for the period of contemporary climate (1971-2000) as well in Bulgaria. Hydro-meteorological conditions in the country are worsened. The most entire estimate is made from the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) 2007. Most of authors proven that the last decades are really warmest for last century, even for the entire period of the most instrumental observations. The causes for global warming was long time debatable, but the last investigations prove it anthropogenetic derive. The main goal of the paper is framing in conditions of the expected climate changes in our country for period 2020-2050-2070 and the most likely impacts on the agriculture with inspection padding to the consequences in them and making physical conditions for development of proof farming in production regions of the country. By the means of the systematized database of meteorological and agrometeorological data which we have at disposition for the period of this survey (1971-2000); Provide assignment of the expected climatic changes according to the scenarios in the centers for observing and investigations of climatic changes in Europe, US., Canada and Australia (ECHAM 4, HadCM 2, CGCM 1, CSIRO-MK2 Bs and

  15. Climate and Change

    OpenAIRE

    Roger S. Pulwarty

    2011-01-01

    A presentation about the basics of climate change - the science, the impacts, and the consequences. The focus is on water and the Caribbean in particular but the information is general. It includes information about climate change mitigation and climate change adaptation.

  16. PUBLIC SECTOR ASSET MANAGEMENT PLANNING TO MITIGATE CLIMATE CHANGE DRIVEN NATURAL DISASTERS - A STUDY OF UK DISASTER AND BUSINESS CONTINUITY PLANNING

    OpenAIRE

    C.M.J. Warren

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the current climate change predictions and the likely consequences for European building assets. It addresses the role of Public Sector Asset Managers with particular emphasis on UK practice. It highlights the need for asset managers to mitigate the adverse effects of climate change and prepare for extreme weather events and other associated natural disasters.The paper is based on a literature review of current climate data and best practice public sector asset management...

  17. Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation in the Land Use Sector: From Complementarity to Synergy

    OpenAIRE

    Lalisa A. Duguma; Minang, Peter A.; van Noordwijk, Meine

    2014-01-01

    Currently, mitigation and adaptation measures are handled separately, due to differences in priorities for the measures and segregated planning and implementation policies at international and national levels. There is a growing argument that synergistic approaches to adaptation and mitigation could bring substantial benefits at multiple scales in the land use sector. Nonetheless, efforts to implement synergies between adaptation and mitigation measures are rare due to the weak conceptual fra...

  18. Climate change mitigation and adaptation in the land use sector: from complementarity to synergy

    OpenAIRE

    Duguma, L.A.; Minang, P.A.; Noordwijk, van, M.

    2014-01-01

    Currently, mitigation and adaptation measures are handled separately, due to differences in priorities for the measures and segregated planning and implementation policies at international and national levels. There is a growing argument that synergistic approaches to adaptation and mitigation could bring substantial benefits at multiple scales in the land use sector. Nonetheless, efforts to implement synergies between adaptation and mitigation measures are rare due to the weak conceptual fra...

  19. Ancillary human health benefits of improved air quality resulting from climate change mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krupnick Alan J

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Greenhouse gas (GHG mitigation policies can provide ancillary benefits in terms of short-term improvements in air quality and associated health benefits. Several studies have analyzed the ancillary impacts of GHG policies for a variety of locations, pollutants, and policies. In this paper we review the existing evidence on ancillary health benefits relating to air pollution from various GHG strategies and provide a framework for such analysis. Methods We evaluate techniques used in different stages of such research for estimation of: (1 changes in air pollutant concentrations; (2 avoided adverse health endpoints; and (3 economic valuation of health consequences. The limitations and merits of various methods are examined. Finally, we conclude with recommendations for ancillary benefits analysis and related research gaps in the relevant disciplines. Results We found that to date most assessments have focused their analysis more heavily on one aspect of the framework (e.g., economic analysis. While a wide range of methods was applied to various policies and regions, results from multiple studies provide strong evidence that the short-term public health and economic benefits of ancillary benefits related to GHG mitigation strategies are substantial. Further, results of these analyses are likely to be underestimates because there are a number of important unquantified health and economic endpoints. Conclusion Remaining challenges include integrating the understanding of the relative toxicity of particulate matter by components or sources, developing better estimates of public health and environmental impacts on selected sub-populations, and devising new methods for evaluating heretofore unquantified and non-monetized benefits.

  20. Using Design as Boundary Spanner Object in Climate Change Mitigation Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Fernandez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is a growing concern for society and the focus of numerous research initiatives across multiple fields of science. These initiatives often need to capitalize on the cross-specialized knowledge contributed by researchers from very different fields. The diversity of worldviews among key stakeholders requires an effective overall design strategy acting as a boundary spanner object. This study presents an account of the issues faced by a multidisciplinary research project and discusses the suitability of a design approach to help address issues such as equality, empowerment, autonomy, creativity, performance, reduction of innovation cycle times and also provide for the necessary balance between control, speediness and flexibility.

  1. There is a high cost to using subsidies to promote renewable energy to mitigate climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Cullen, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    With the threat posed by climate change becoming more and more apparent, many are pushing for greater use of more sustainable energy sources, such as wind power. While these ‘green’ energy sources can attract generous subsidies from government, can this investment be justified in comparison to their reductions of greenhouse gas emissions? Joseph Cullen takes an in-depth look at the cost of wind power, compared with the value of emissions avoided. He finds that given the current social cost of...

  2. Carbon sinks in mitigating climate change. Evaluation with models of varying scope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohjola, J.

    2010-07-01

    This dissertation examines the economywide and sectoral impacts of emissions reduction targets and policy measures implemented to mitigate climate change. The special attention is given to analysis of carbon sinks and their role in achieving the emission limits. The analysis is based on applying numerical methods. The emphasis of the methods is on the computable general equilibrium modeling, while the stand level model describing the behavior of the forest owner is applied in one of the essays. The first essay describes the computable general equilibrium (CGE) model for Finland built by the author. The novelty of the model is to include endogenous carbon sequestration with timber supply and incentives to increase carbon sinks in a CGE framework. This enables the evaluation of the importance of forest carbon sequestration in achieving the given emission target. The marginal cost curves for reducing fossil fuel emissions and emissions from wood are calculated in the study. The results suggest that with small reductions of net emissions it is cost-efficient to reduce only the emissions from fossil fuels, while when stabilizing the net emissions to the level of year 1990 nearly half of the emission reduction is achieved by increasing the carbon sink. Although the reduction is larger in terms of net emissions than gross emissions, the carbon tax needed to achieve the reduction is lower in case of net emission reduction. The welfare loss is of similar magnitude in both cases. The study provides the sensitivity analysis related to the parameter values and assumptions in the model.The second essay provides the detailed analysis on economywide, sectoral and trade impacts of inclusion of carbon sinks in the Kyoto protocol. The focus of the analysis is on the special treatment for Canada and Japan that allows them larger sinks. The analysis is performed with the multi-region computable general equilibrium model GTAP-E. Carbon sinks are modeled exogenously by adjusting the

  3. Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in a place over a period of time. Climate change is major change in temperature, rainfall, snow, or ... by natural factors or by human activities. Today climate changes are occurring at an increasingly rapid rate. Climate ...

  4. Forest policy implications of climate change: Economic impacts and potential mitigation strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasing mean global temperatures due to rising levels of carbon dioxide and other ''greenhouse'' gases in the atmosphere could affect the distribution of commercially important forests in North America significantly. The temperature increases might outpace the ability of forests to adapt, causing considerable stress and mortality to trees in the southern part of their range without a commensurate increase in growth across the expanding range. If realized, these potential biological impacts on forest distribution and health would affect management decisions substantially and could adversely impact forest-based economies in the United States. Specific effects on forest management include changes in the methods and costs of fire, insect, and disease protection; greater demands on forest lands for conversion to food production; and uncertain changes in site quality. One means of mitigating the effects of CO2 emissions is to establish tree plantations for carbon sequestration. Preliminary analyses suggest that a program aimed at marginal cropland in the South could store more than 563 million tons of carbon over 45 years, although 90 million tons would be lost due to risks associated with plantations

  5. Climate Change And Mitigation Measures For The Hydrometerological Disaster In Himachal Pradesh India- In Light Of Dams.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay K. Pandey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Continuing climate change is predicted to lead to major changes in the climate of the Himalayan region. Casualties and damage due to hazards in mountain regions will increase irrespective of global warming especially where populations are growing and infrastructure is developed at exposed locations. But climate change will definitely increase risk due to the fact that expected increases of heavy rainfall heat waves and glacier melt will amplify hazards in Himalayan region. The rapid release of melt water and rainfall may combine to trigger debris flows and flash flood in higher ranges including the formation of potentially dangerous lakes. These lakes may breach suddenly resulting in discharge of huge volume of water and debris. Himachal Pradesh had experienced a large number of incidences of Hydro-meteorological disaster HMD since its inception in 1971. Flash flood of March 1975 Dec 1988 Satluj flash flood of August 2000 July 2001 June 2005 Flash flood of July 2005 and Cloud burst in June 2013 are the major natural calamities in Himachal Pradesh. Due to continuous HMD brought heavy toll to the state as the loss was estimated in several thousand millions of rupees and also killed several hundreds of people besides large number of cattle heads. Through this paper we carried out a comprehensive study of past HMD and mitigation measures solution and concluded that these disaster are by their nature difficult to predict and control but it is possible to reduce the risk to lives and property through develop mitigation strategy and plan to construct damsbarrages with awareness and knowledge among local communities about the impacts of global warming natural disaster and the threat to the ecosystem communities and infrastructure are generally inadequate.

  6. Integrating climate change mitigation, adaptation, communication and education strategies in Matanzas Province, Cuba: A Citizen Science Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Bueno, R. A.; Byrne, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Environment Service Center of Matanzas (ESCM), Cuba and the University of Lethbridge are collaborating on the development of climate mitigation and adaptation programs in Matanzas province. Tourism is the largest industry in Matanzas. Protecting that industry means protecting coastal zones and conservation areas of value to tourism. These same areas are critical to protecting the landscape from global environmental change: enhanced tropical cyclones, flooding, drought and a range of other environmental change impacts. Byrne (2014) adapted a multidisciplinary methodology for climate adaptation capacity definition for the population of Nicaragua. A wide array of adaptive capacity skills and resources were integrated with agricultural crop modeling to define regions of the country where adaptive capacity development were weakest and should be improved. In Matanzas province, we are developing a series of multidisciplinary mitigation and adaptation programs that builds social science and science knowledge to expand capacity within the ESCM and the provincial population. We will be exploring increased risk due to combined watershed and tropical cyclone flooding, stresses on crops, and defining a range of possibilities in shifting from fossil fuels to renewable energy. The program will build ongoing interactions with thousands of Matanzas citizens through site visits carried out by numerous Cuban and visiting students participating in a four-month education semester with a number of Lethbridge and Matanzas faculty. These visits will also provide local citizens with better access to web-based interactions. We will evaluate mitigation and adaptive capacities in three municipalities and some rural areas across the province. Furthermore, we will explore better ways and means to communicate between the research and conservation staff and the larger population of the province.

  7. Linking climate change mitigation and coastal eutrophication management through biogas technology: Evidence from a new Danish bioenergy concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspersen, Bjarke Stoltze; Christensen, Thomas Budde; Fredenslund, Anders Michael; Møller, Henrik Bjarne; Butts, Michael Brian; Jensen, Niels H; Kjaer, Tyge

    2016-01-15

    The interest in sustainable bioenergy solutions has gained great importance in Europe due to the need to reduce GHG emissions and to meet environmental policy targets, not least for the protection of groundwater and surface water quality. In the Municipality of Solrød in Denmark, a novel bioenergy concept for anaerobic co-digestion of food industry residues, manure and beach-cast seaweed has been developed and tested in order to quantify the potential for synergies between climate change mitigation and coastal eutrophication management in the Køge Bay catchment. The biogas plant, currently under construction, was designed to handle an annual input of up to 200,000 t of biomass based on four main fractions: pectin wastes, carrageenan wastes, manure and beach-cast seaweed. This paper describes how this bioenergy concept can contribute to strengthening the linkages between climate change mitigation strategies and Water Framework Directive (WFD) action planning. Our assessments of the projected biogas plant indicate an annual reduction of GHG emissions of approx. 40,000 t CO2 equivalents, corresponding to approx. 1/3 of current total GHG emissions in the Municipality of Solrød. In addition, nitrogen and phosphorous loads to Køge Bay are estimated to be reduced by approx. 63 t yr.(-1) and 9 tyr.(-1), respectively, contributing to the achievement of more than 70% of the nutrient reduction target set for Køge Bay in the first WFD river basin management plan. This study shows that anaerobic co-digestion of the specific food industry residues, pig manure and beach-cast seaweed is feasible and that there is a very significant, cost-effective GHG and nutrient loading mitigation potential for this bioenergy concept. Our research demonstrates how an integrated planning process where considerations about the total environment are integrated into the design and decision processes can support the development of this kind of holistic bioenergy solutions. PMID:26476058

  8. Mitigating methane emission from paddy soil with rice-straw biochar amendment under projected climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xingguo; Sun, Xue; Wang, Cheng; Wu, Mengxiong; Dong, Da; Zhong, Ting; Thies, Janice E.; Wu, Weixiang

    2016-04-01

    Elevated global temperatures and increased concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere associated with climate change will exert profound effects on rice cropping systems, particularly on their greenhouse gas emitting potential. Incorporating biochar into paddy soil has been shown previously to reduce methane (CH4) emission from paddy rice under ambient temperature and CO2. We examined the ability of rice straw-derived biochar to reduce CH4 emission from paddy soil under elevated temperature and CO2 concentrations expected in the future. Adding biochar to paddy soil reduced CH4 emission under ambient conditions and significantly reduced emissions by 39.5% (ranging from 185.4 mg kg‑1 dry weight soil, dws season‑1 to 112.2 mg kg‑1 dws season‑1) under simultaneously elevated temperature and CO2. Reduced CH4 release was mainly attributable to the decreased activity of methanogens along with the increased CH4 oxidation activity and pmoA gene abundance of methanotrophs. Our findings highlight the valuable services of biochar amendment for CH4 control from paddy soil in a future that will be shaped by climate change.

  9. Mitigating methane emission from paddy soil with rice-straw biochar amendment under projected climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xingguo; Sun, Xue; Wang, Cheng; Wu, Mengxiong; Dong, Da; Zhong, Ting; Thies, Janice E; Wu, Weixiang

    2016-01-01

    Elevated global temperatures and increased concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere associated with climate change will exert profound effects on rice cropping systems, particularly on their greenhouse gas emitting potential. Incorporating biochar into paddy soil has been shown previously to reduce methane (CH4) emission from paddy rice under ambient temperature and CO2. We examined the ability of rice straw-derived biochar to reduce CH4 emission from paddy soil under elevated temperature and CO2 concentrations expected in the future. Adding biochar to paddy soil reduced CH4 emission under ambient conditions and significantly reduced emissions by 39.5% (ranging from 185.4 mg kg(-1) dry weight soil, dws season(-1) to 112.2 mg kg(-1) dws season(-1)) under simultaneously elevated temperature and CO2. Reduced CH4 release was mainly attributable to the decreased activity of methanogens along with the increased CH4 oxidation activity and pmoA gene abundance of methanotrophs. Our findings highlight the valuable services of biochar amendment for CH4 control from paddy soil in a future that will be shaped by climate change. PMID:27090814

  10. Forest management considerations and climatic change in the Pacific Northwest: A framework for devising adaptation/mitigation strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential for global climate change, especially in its regional and local manifestations, requires decision making in the face of uncertainty. It is demonstrated that in the Pacific Northwest region, the present climate forecasts are uncertain and probabilistic, and the ecological responses are equally uncertain, but a framework for analyzing and devising response strategies for future conditions is feasible in this context. A risk-based approach derived from classical decision analysis is suggested as the most rational response currently practicable to protect the forest resources of the Pacific Northwest. Lists of possible events are needed for two areas: the anticipated outcome of climate change and the possible responses of Pacific Northwest forests to these changes. Meaningful analysis requires estimates of the outcomes and responses, even if they remain subjective for some time, or at least until better and more reliable information becomes available. Once possible responses have been identified, an analysis of the valuation of the tradeoffs for various strategies needs to be made. This approach permits updating, revision, and even negation, but also provides a process that puts focus on information needs and priorities for action. It is concluded that it is highly unlikely that mitigation may be easier to implement than adaptation. 39 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  11. An Analysis of the Climate Change Mitigation Potential through Soil Organic Carbon Sequestration in a Corn Belt Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, M. D.; Secchi, S.; Schoof, J. T.

    2015-12-01

    The sequestration of carbon constitutes one of major options in agricultural climate change land-based mitigation. We examined the carbon sequestration potential of alternative agricultural land uses in an intensively farmed Corn Belt watershed. We Used downscaled data from eight atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs) for a simulation period between 2015 and 2099 with three emission pathways reflecting low, medium and high greenhouse gas scenarios. The use of downscaled data, coupled with high resolution land use and soil data, can help policy makers and land managers better understand spatial and temporal impacts of climate change. We consider traditional practices such as no-till corn-soybean rotations and continuous corn and include also switchgrass, a bioenergy crop. Our results show that switching from conventional tillage continuous corn to no-till corn-soybean can sequester the equivalent of 156,000 MtCO2 of soil organic carbon with a sequestration rate of 2.38 MtCO2 ha-1 yr-1 for the simulated period. Our results also indicate that switchgrass can sequester the equivalent of 282,000 MtCO2 of soil organic carbon with a sequestration rate of 4.4 MtCO2 ha-1 yr-1 for the period. Our finding also suggests that while climate change impacts corn and soybean yields, it does not have a significant effect on switchgrass yields possibly due to carbon fertilization effect on switchgrass yields.

  12. Understanding Perceptions of Climate Change, Priorities, and Decision-Making among Municipalities in Lima, Peru to Better Inform Adaptation and Mitigation Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siña, Mariella; Wood, Rachel C; Saldarriaga, Enrique; Lawler, Joshua; Zunt, Joseph; Garcia, Patricia; Cárcamo, César

    2016-01-01

    Climate change poses multiple risks to the population of Lima, the largest city and capital of Peru, located on the Pacific coast in a desert ecosystem. These risks include increased water scarcity, increased heat, and the introduction and emergence of vector-borne and other climate sensitive diseases. To respond to these threats, it is necessary for the government, at every level, to adopt more mitigation and adaptation strategies. Here, focus groups were conducted with representatives from five Lima municipalities to determine priorities, perception of climate change, and decision-making processes for implementing projects within each municipality. These factors can affect the ability and desire of a community to implement climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies. The results show that climate change and other environmental factors are of relatively low priority, whereas public safety and water and sanitation services are of highest concern. Perhaps most importantly, climate change is not well understood among the municipalities. Participants had trouble distinguishing climate change from other environmental issues and did not fully understand its causes and effects. Greater understanding of what climate change is and why it is important is necessary for it to become a priority for the municipalities. Different aspects of increased climate change awareness seem to be connected to having experienced extreme weather events, whether related or not to climate change, and to higher socioeconomic status. PMID:26808087

  13. Understanding Perceptions of Climate Change, Priorities, and Decision-Making among Municipalities in Lima, Peru to Better Inform Adaptation and Mitigation Planning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariella Siña

    Full Text Available Climate change poses multiple risks to the population of Lima, the largest city and capital of Peru, located on the Pacific coast in a desert ecosystem. These risks include increased water scarcity, increased heat, and the introduction and emergence of vector-borne and other climate sensitive diseases. To respond to these threats, it is necessary for the government, at every level, to adopt more mitigation and adaptation strategies. Here, focus groups were conducted with representatives from five Lima municipalities to determine priorities, perception of climate change, and decision-making processes for implementing projects within each municipality. These factors can affect the ability and desire of a community to implement climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies. The results show that climate change and other environmental factors are of relatively low priority, whereas public safety and water and sanitation services are of highest concern. Perhaps most importantly, climate change is not well understood among the municipalities. Participants had trouble distinguishing climate change from other environmental issues and did not fully understand its causes and effects. Greater understanding of what climate change is and why it is important is necessary for it to become a priority for the municipalities. Different aspects of increased climate change awareness seem to be connected to having experienced extreme weather events, whether related or not to climate change, and to higher socioeconomic status.

  14. Shading and watering as a tool to mitigate the impacts of climate change in sea turtle nests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob E Hill

    Full Text Available Increasing sand temperatures resulting from climate change may negatively impact sea turtle nests by altering sex ratios and decreasing reproductive output. We analyzed the effect of nest shading and watering on sand temperatures as climate mitigation strategies in a beach hatchery at Playa Grande, Costa Rica. We set up plots and placed thermocouples at depths of 45 cm and 75 cm. Half of the plots were shaded and half were exposed to the sun. Within these exposure treatments, we applied three watering treatments over one month, replicating local climatic conditions experienced in this area. We also examined gravimetric water content of sand by collecting sand samples the day before watering began, the day after watering was complete, and one month after completion. Shading had the largest impact on sand temperature, followed by watering and depth. All watering treatments lowered sand temperature, but the effect varied with depth. Temperatures in plots that received water returned to control levels within 10 days after watering stopped. Water content increased at both depths in the two highest water treatments, and 30 days after the end of water application remained higher than plots with low water. While the impacts of watering on sand temperature dissipate rapidly after the end of application, the impacts on water content are much more lasting. Although less effective at lowering sand temperatures than shading, watering may benefit sea turtle clutches by offsetting negative impacts of low levels of rain in particularly dry areas. Prior to implementing such strategies, the natural conditions at the location of interest (e.g. clutch depth, environmental conditions, and beach characteristics and natural hatchling sex ratios should be taken into consideration. These results provide insight into the effectiveness of nest shading and watering as climate mitigation techniques and illustrate important points of consideration in the crafting of such

  15. Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation in the Land Use Sector: From Complementarity to Synergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duguma, Lalisa A.; Minang, Peter A.; van Noordwijk, Meine

    2014-09-01

    Currently, mitigation and adaptation measures are handled separately, due to differences in priorities for the measures and segregated planning and implementation policies at international and national levels. There is a growing argument that synergistic approaches to adaptation and mitigation could bring substantial benefits at multiple scales in the land use sector. Nonetheless, efforts to implement synergies between adaptation and mitigation measures are rare due to the weak conceptual framing of the approach and constraining policy issues. In this paper, we explore the attributes of synergy and the necessary enabling conditions and discuss, as an example, experience with the Ngitili system in Tanzania that serves both adaptation and mitigation functions. An in-depth look into the current practices suggests that more emphasis is laid on complementarity—i.e., mitigation projects providing adaptation co-benefits and vice versa rather than on synergy. Unlike complementarity, synergy should emphasize functionally sustainable landscape systems in which adaptation and mitigation are optimized as part of multiple functions. We argue that the current practice of seeking co-benefits (complementarity) is a necessary but insufficient step toward addressing synergy. Moving forward from complementarity will require a paradigm shift from current compartmentalization between mitigation and adaptation to systems thinking at landscape scale. However, enabling policy, institutional, and investment conditions need to be developed at global, national, and local levels to achieve synergistic goals.

  16. Concerns About Climate Change Mitigation Projects: Summary of Findings from Case Studies in Brazil, India, Mexico, and South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathaye, Jayant A.; Andrasko, Kenneth; Makundi, Willy; La Rovere, Emilio Lebre; Ravinandranath, N.H.; Melli, Anandi; Rangachari, Anita; Amaz, Mireya; Gay, Carlos; Friedmann, Rafael; Goldberg, Beth; van Horen, Clive; Simmonds, Gillina; Parker, Gretchen

    1998-11-01

    The concept of joint implementation as a way to implement climate change mitigation projects in another country has been controversial ever since its inception. Developing countries have raised numerous issues at the project-specific technical level, and broader concerns having to do with equity and burden sharing. This paper summarizes the findings of studies for Brazil, India, Mexico and South Africa, four countries that have large greenhouse gas emissions and are heavily engaged in the debate on climate change projects under the Kyoto Protocol. The studies examine potential or current projects/programs to determine whether eight technical concerns about joint implementation can be adequately addressed. They conclude that about half the concerns were minor or well managed by project developers, but concerns about additionality of funds, host country institutions and guarantees of performance (including the issues of baselines and possible leakage) need much more effort to be adequately addressed. All the papers agree on the need to develop institutional arrangements for approving and monitoring such projects in each of the countries represented. The case studies illustrate that these projects have the potential to bring new technology, investment, employment and ancillary socioeconomic and environmental benefits to developing countries. These benefits are consistent with the goal of sustainable development in the four study countries. At a policy level, the studies' authors note that in their view, the Annex I countries should consider limits on the use of jointly implemented projects as a way to get credits against their own emissions at home, and stress the importance of industrialized countries developing new technologies that will benefit all countries. The authors also observe that if all countries accepted caps on their emissions (with a longer time period allowed for developing countries to do so) project-based GHG mitigation would be significantly

  17. The Role of Proactive Adaptation in International Climate Change Mitigation Agreements

    OpenAIRE

    Bruin, de, B.; Weikard, H.P.; Dellink, R.B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of proactive adaptation in international mitigation coalition formation. Adaptation is introduced into a three stage cartel game of coalition formation. We analytically derive the optimal level of mitigation and proactive adaptation for the singletons and coalition members. We introduce the AD-STACO model which is constructed based on the STACO model, which is an applied three-stage cartel formation model with 12 heterogenous regions. Simulating all possible c...

  18. Estimating urban trees and carbon stock potentials for mitigating climate change in Lagos: Case of Ikeja Government Reserved Area (GRA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, P. O.; Faderin, A.

    2014-12-01

    Urban trees are a component of the urban infrastructure which offers diverse services including environmental, aesthetic and economic. The accumulation of carbon in the atmosphere resulting from the indiscriminate distribution of human populations and urban activities with the unsustainable consumption of natural resources contributes to global environmental change especially in coastal cities like Lagos. Carbon stocks and sequestration by urban trees are increasingly recognized to play significant roles for mitigating climate change. This paper focuses on the estimation of carbon stock and sequestration through biomass estimation and quantification in Ikeja GRA, Lagos. Ikeja possesses a characteristic feature as a microcosm of Lagos due to the wide range of land uses. A canopy assessment of tree population was carried out using itree canopy software. A GPS survey was used to collect an inventory of all trees showing their location, spatial distribution and other attributes. The analysis of the carbon storage and sequestration potential of both actual and potential tree planting sites involved biomass estimations from tree allometry equations. Trees were identified at species level and measurements of their dendrometric values were recorded and integrated into the GIS database to estimate biomass of trees and carbon storage. The trees in the study area were estimated to have a biomass of 441.9 mg and carbon storage of 221.395 kg/tree. By considering the potential tree planting sites the estimated carbon stored increased to 11,352.73 kg. Carbon sequestration value in the study area was found to be 1.6790 tonnes for the existing trees and 40.707 tonnes for the potential tree planting sites (PTPS). The estimation of carbon storage and sequestration values of trees are important incentives for carbon accounting/footprints and monitoring of climate change mitigation which has implications for evaluation and monitoring of urban ecosystem.

  19. Evaluation of mitigation scenarios of climate change in the electric sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electricity generation contributes to development and to improve the quality of life, But it is ones of the most important contributors to the Greenhouse Gas and particle emissions particularly in Cuba where 99.4% of electricity in the National Electric System is generated from fossil fuels. In the paper from mitigation measures three mitigation scenarios are evaluated for the Expansion of the Cuban electric system using DECADES Tools. Evaluated scenarios include the Use of 60% of the biomass potential, the combinations of this with nuclear power reactors, Hydraulic energy and combined cycle power plants. Finally in the paper the Greenhouse Gas level reduction, investment, fuel, operation and Maintenance costs and Carbon Intensity in generation are analyzed for evaluated mitigation Scenarios and conclusions are offered

  20. Including adaptation and mitigation responses to climate change in a multiobjective evolutionary algorithm framework for urban water supply systems incorporating GHG emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paton, F. L.; Maier, H. R.; Dandy, G. C.

    2014-08-01

    Cities around the world are increasingly involved in climate action and mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, in the context of responding to climate pressures in the water sector, very few studies have investigated the impacts of changing water use on GHG emissions, even though water resource adaptation often requires greater energy use. Consequently, reducing GHG emissions, and thus focusing on both mitigation and adaptation responses to climate change in planning and managing urban water supply systems, is necessary. Furthermore, the minimization of GHG emissions is likely to conflict with other objectives. Thus, applying a multiobjective evolutionary algorithm (MOEA), which can evolve an approximation of entire trade-off (Pareto) fronts of multiple objectives in a single run, would be beneficial. Consequently, the main aim of this paper is to incorporate GHG emissions into a MOEA framework to take into consideration both adaptation and mitigation responses to climate change for a city's water supply system. The approach is applied to a case study based on Adelaide's southern water supply system to demonstrate the framework's practical management implications. Results indicate that trade-offs exist between GHG emissions and risk-based performance, as well as GHG emissions and economic cost. Solutions containing rainwater tanks are expensive, while GHG emissions greatly increase with increased desalinated water supply. Consequently, while desalination plants may be good adaptation options to climate change due to their climate-independence, rainwater may be a better mitigation response, albeit more expensive.

  1. Climate-resilient agroforestry: physiological responses to climate change and engineering of crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) as a mitigation strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borland, Anne M; Wullschleger, Stan D; Weston, David J; Hartwell, James; Tuskan, Gerald A; Yang, Xiaohan; Cushman, John C

    2015-09-01

    Global climate change threatens the sustainability of agriculture and agroforestry worldwide through increased heat, drought, surface evaporation and associated soil drying. Exposure of crops and forests to warmer and drier environments will increase leaf:air water vapour-pressure deficits (VPD), and will result in increased drought susceptibility and reduced productivity, not only in arid regions but also in tropical regions with seasonal dry periods. Fast-growing, short-rotation forestry (SRF) bioenergy crops such as poplar (Populus spp.) and willow (Salix spp.) are particularly susceptible to hydraulic failure following drought stress due to their isohydric nature and relatively high stomatal conductance. One approach to sustaining plant productivity is to improve water-use efficiency (WUE) by engineering crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) into C3 crops. CAM improves WUE by shifting stomatal opening and primary CO2 uptake and fixation to the night-time when leaf:air VPD is low. CAM members of the tree genus Clusia exemplify the compatibility of CAM performance within tree species and highlight CAM as a mechanism to conserve water and maintain carbon uptake during drought conditions. The introduction of bioengineered CAM into SRF bioenergy trees is a potentially viable path to sustaining agroforestry production systems in the face of a globally changing climate. PMID:25366937

  2. Climate change adaptation & mitigation strategies for Water-Energy-Land Nexus management in Mediterranean region: Case study of Catalunya (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vikas; Schuhmacher, Marta

    2016-04-01

    Water-Energy-Land (WEL) Nexus management is one of those complex decision problems where holistic approach to supply-demand management considering different criteria would be valuable. However, multi-criteria decision making with diverse indicators measured on different scales and uncertainty levels is difficult to solve. On the other hand, climate adaptation and mitigation need to be integrated, and resource sensitive regions like Mediterranean provide ample opportunities towards that end. While the water sector plays a key role in climate adaptation, mitigation focuses on the energy and agriculture sector. Recent studies on the so-called WEL nexus confirm the potential synergies to be derived from mainstreaming climate adaptation in the water sector, while simultaneously addressing opportunities for co-management with energy (and also land use). Objective of this paper is to develop scenarios for the future imbalances in water & energy supply and demand for a water stressed Mediterranean area of Northern Spain (Catalonia) and to test the scenario based climate adaptation & mitigation strategy for WEL management policies. Resource sensitive area of Catalonia presents an interesting nexus problem to study highly stressed water demand scenario (representing all major demand sectors), very heterogeneous land use including intensive agriculture to diversified urban and industrial uses, and mixed energy supply including hydro, wind, gas turbine to nuclear energy. Different energy sectors have different water and land requirements. Inter-river basin water transfer is another factor which is considered for this area. The water-energy link is multifaceted. Energy production can affect water quality, while energy is used in water treatment and to reduce pollution. Similarly, hydropower - producing energy from water - and desalination - producing freshwater using energy - both play important role in economic growth by supplying large and secure amounts of 'green' energy or

  3. Adaptation of business activities to the requirements of climate change mitigation - Case carrier bags; Liiketoiminnan sopeuttaminen ilmastonmuutoksen hillinnaen vaatimuksiin (OPTIKASSI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlbo, H.; Mattila, T.; Korhonen, M.-R.; Myllymaa, T. (Finnish Environment Institute SYKE, Helsinki (Finland)); Soukka, R. (Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology, Department of Energy and Environmental Technology (Finland)); Kujanpaeae, M. (KCL Science and Consulting, Espoo (Finland))

    2009-07-01

    Shopping bags have been a prominent topic of debate lately. Many countries have banned disposable bags or imposed a tax on them. The motives have been to avoid littering, reduce reliance on oil, and curb climate change. Restrictions are also justified by the accumulation of plastic garbage in the oceans, and by the damage to marine organisms. The environmental effects of production, use, and disposal of shopping bags are small compared with other consumption. However, the choice of a shopping bag is repeated every week, and the consumer is not sure about the consequences of each alternative. To reduce this uncertainty the OPTIKASSI study was made. The study called 'Adaptation of business activities to the requirements of climate change mitigation . case shopping bags, OPTIKASSI project' was implemented to study shopping bag alternatives in Finnish grocery stores, and the effects of the bags on climate change and the possibilities to mitigate them. Finnish Environment Institute and Lappeenranta University of Technology were responsible for the study, funded by Tekes ClimBus Programme, and the bag producers Suominen Flexible Packaging Ltd, Plastiroll Oy (Ltd), UPM-Kymmene LtdWisapaper and CabassiOy. The goal of the OPTIKASSI project was to compile lifecycle based information about the climate effects of the most typical shopping bags. It was also desirable to find the best consumption and waste management solutions for bags made of various materials. Products compared were plastic bags of virgin material, and of recycled material, paper bags, canvas bags, and shopping bags of biodegradable plastic. According to the results the shopping bags are an insignificant part of the climate effects of a Finnish household, but negligent use of bags may multiply the effects. Based on scenario, sensitivity, and ambiguity studies: garbage bags should be replaced by plastic bags, and the bins packed full and tight, incineration is not sensible; paper bags should be

  4. Innovative Financial Instruments and mechanisms for financing forest restoration and mitigating climate change: select cases from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teki Surayya

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Climate Change (CC is universal concern. One of the causes for CC is degradation offorest. World over every minute 22 hectares forest is degraded. Reckonings suggests thatUS$ 11880, funds must be invested every minute to restore the forest.In India Atmospheric pollution has severed in 90’s because of increasedautomobiles and electronic goods. Green car congress reported level of NO2concentration in Delhi ranged 70 - 102 microgram per cm, in 2005. It is argued that theconsumers are capable of meeting part of cost of CC mitigation. Recent survey (Teki,2008 in National Capital Region revealed that 40% of sample preferred to compensatethrough tax on petroleum products, 22 % in investing in forestry bonds, 57% favouredcompulsory investment in bonds. Awareness rate about climate change was 92%, and 88%favoured both technology transitions and economic sanctions for mitigating CC. Evolvinginnovative financing instruments and mechanisms to finance forest restoration andmitigating CC is important.Timber was considered important contribution of forests, as 2% GDP comes toexchequer. NTFPs now considered equally important for forest restoration as 25 – 55% offorest living people survival comes from NTFPs. Forests have innovative financialinstruments like Eco-tourism, to finance forest restoration. Self reliance apart from thegovernment funding and the private funding. Mobilisation of savings, bank finance,creating/strengthening global carbon fund effectively and financing the substitute sectorsare important for restoration of ecological integration and productivity and economic valueof deforested or degraded land. Objectives of paper are: a to assess level and impact offorest degradation and forest restoration in India, b to translate carbon pollution level intomitigating CC, b awareness level of CC in NCR c measure willingness of consumers tocompensate for CC, and d evolve innovative financial instruments and mechanisms tofinance sustainable forest

  5. Presentation of an Innovative Zero-Emission Cycle for Mitigating the Global Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Mathieu

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available In the spectrum of possible options to cope with the global climate change, a novel technology based on the zero CO2 emission MATIANT cycle (contraction of the names of the 2 designers : MATHIEU and IANTOVSKI is presented here. This latter is basically a regenerative gas cycle operating on CO2 as the working fluid and using O2 as the fuel oxidiser in the combustion chambers. The cycle uses the highest temperatures and pressures compatible with the most advanced materials in the steam and gas turbines. In addition, reheat and staged compression with intercooling are used. Therefore the optimized cycle efficiency rises up to around 45% when operating on natural gas. A big asset of the system is its ability to remove totally the CO2 produced in the combustion process in liquid or supercritical state and at high pressure, making it ready for transportation, for reuse or for final storage. It avoids the cost in performance (decrease of efficiency and power output and in money of the CO2 capture by a MEA scrubber. The assets and drawbacks of the cycle are mentioned. The technical issues for the design of a prototype plant are examined.

  6. Rewetted industrial cutaway peatlands in western Ireland: a prime location for climate change mitigation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Wilson

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Rewetting of drained industrial peatlands may reduce greenhouse gas (GHG emissions and promote recolonisation by peat forming plant species. We investigated carbon dioxide (CO2, methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O dynamics over a three-year period in a rewetted industrial peatland in Ireland. Sample plots were established in bare peat, Juncus effusus-Sphagnum cuspidatum, Sphagnum cuspidatum and Eriophorum angustifolium dominated microsites. The relationships between fluxes and environmental variables were examined and regression models were used to provide an estimate of the annual GHG balance for each microsite. All the vegetated microsites were carbon sinks for the duration of the study. Highest uptake occurred in the Eriophorum microsite (146–583 g C m-2 yr-1, followed by Juncus-Sphagnum (35–204 g C m-2 yr-1 and Sphagnum (5–140 g C m-2 yr-1. The bare peat microsite was a source of 37–82 g C m-2 yr-1. No N2O fluxes were detected. Strong inter-annual variation was observed in all microsites, driven by variation in precipitation and subsequent changes in the position of the water table. In terms of Global Warming Potential (GWP, the microsites had either a cooling effect (Eriophorum, a close to neutral effect (Juncus-Sphagnum, Sphagnum or a warming effect (bare peat on the climate.

  7. Raising Public Awareness: The Role of the Household Sector in Mitigating Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shis-Ping

    2015-10-01

    In addition to greenhouse gas emissions from the industrial, transportation and commercial sectors, emissions from the household sector also contribute to global warming. By examining residents of Taiwan (N = 236), this study aims to reveal the factors that influence households' intention to purchase energy-efficient appliances. The assessment in this study is based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB), and perceived benefit or cost (BOC) is introduced as an independent variable in the proposed efficiency action toward climate change (ECC) model. According to structural equation modeling, most of the indicators presented a good fit to the corresponding ECC model constructs. The analysis indicated that BOC is a good complementary variable to the TPB, as the ECC model explained 61.9% of the variation in intention to purchase energy-efficient appliances, which was higher than that explained by the TPB (58.4%). This result indicates that the ECC model is superior to the TPB. Thus, the strategy of promoting energy-efficient appliances in the household sector should emphasize global warming and include the concept of BOC. PMID:26492262

  8. Raising Public Awareness: The Role of the Household Sector in Mitigating Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shis-Ping Lin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In addition to greenhouse gas emissions from the industrial, transportation and commercial sectors, emissions from the household sector also contribute to global warming. By examining residents of Taiwan (N = 236, this study aims to reveal the factors that influence households’ intention to purchase energy-efficient appliances. The assessment in this study is based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB, and perceived benefit or cost (BOC is introduced as an independent variable in the proposed efficiency action toward climate change (ECC model. According to structural equation modeling, most of the indicators presented a good fit to the corresponding ECC model constructs. The analysis indicated that BOC is a good complementary variable to the TPB, as the ECC model explained 61.9% of the variation in intention to purchase energy-efficient appliances, which was higher than that explained by the TPB (58.4%. This result indicates that the ECC model is superior to the TPB. Thus, the strategy of promoting energy-efficient appliances in the household sector should emphasize global warming and include the concept of BOC.

  9. Adaptation versus mitigation broadens need for societal capacity building coping with climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch-Hansen, Mogens

    2009-01-01

    Kampen for at nedbringe koncentrationen af drivhusgasser i atmossfæren, på engelsk betegnet mitigation, har i vid udstrækning været ført an af naturvidenskaberne, ikke mindst i opstillingen af forskellige klimamodeller. Tilpasningen til de uundgåelige klimaforandringer, som vil være mest omfatten...

  10. Ecotourism and Climates changes: the ecolodge contribution in global warming mitigation

    OpenAIRE

    Lukman Hakim; Nobukazu Nakagoshi

    2014-01-01

    Global attention to the global warming reduction has invite numerous strategy implemented with the objectives is mitigating greenhouse gasses emission which threats to the future of living in biosphere. Essentially, absorbing CO2 from atmosphere and sequestering in terrestrial ecosystem is one of the significant strategy. While in developing countries it is become essential, support for forest conservation, afforestation and effort to increase te...

  11. Agenda to address climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document looks at addressing climate change in the 21st century. Topics covered are: Responding to climate change; exploring new avenues in energy efficiency; energy efficiency and alternative energy; residential sector; commercial sector; industrial sector; transportation sector; communities; renewable energy; understanding forests to mitigate and adapt to climate change; the Forest Carbon budget; mitigation and adaptation

  12. The economic potential of bioenergy for climate change mitigation with special attention given to implications for the land system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popp, Alexander; Dietrich, Jan Philipp; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Klein, David; Bauer, Nico; Krause, Michael; Beringer, Tim; Gerten, Dieter; Edenhofer, Ottmar, E-mail: popp@pik-potsdam.de [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK), PO Box 60 12 03, 14412 Potsdam (Germany)

    2011-07-15

    Biomass from cellulosic bioenergy crops is expected to play a substantial role in future energy systems, especially if climate policy aims at stabilizing greenhouse gas concentration at low levels. However, the potential of bioenergy for climate change mitigation remains unclear due to large uncertainties about future agricultural yield improvements and land availability for biomass plantations. This letter, by applying a modelling framework with detailed economic representation of the land and energy sector, explores the cost-effective contribution of bioenergy to a low-carbon transition, paying special attention to implications for the land system. In this modelling framework, bioenergy competes directly with other energy technology options on the basis of costs, including implicit costs due to biophysical constraints on land and water availability. As a result, we find that bioenergy from specialized grassy and woody bioenergy crops, such as Miscanthus or poplar, can contribute approximately 100 EJ in 2055 and up to 300 EJ of primary energy in 2095. Protecting natural forests decreases biomass availability for energy production in the medium, but not in the long run. Reducing the land available for agricultural use can partially be compensated for by means of higher rates of technological change in agriculture. In addition, our trade-off analysis indicates that forest protection combined with large-scale cultivation of dedicated bioenergy is likely to affect bioenergy potentials, but also to increase global food prices and increase water scarcity. Therefore, integrated policies for energy, land use and water management are needed.

  13. Increased fitness of rice plants to abiotic stress via habitat adapted symbiosis: a strategy for mitigating impacts of climate change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina S Redman

    Full Text Available Climate change and catastrophic events have contributed to rice shortages in several regions due to decreased water availability and soil salinization. Although not adapted to salt or drought stress, two commercial rice varieties achieved tolerance to these stresses by colonizing them with Class 2 fungal endophytes isolated from plants growing across moisture and salinity gradients.Plant growth and development, water usage, ROS sensitivity and osmolytes were measured with and without stress under controlled conditions.The endophytes conferred salt, drought and cold tolerance to growth chamber and greenhouse grown plants. Endophytes reduced water consumption by 20-30% and increased growth rate, reproductive yield, and biomass of greenhouse grown plants. In the absence of stress, there was no apparent cost of the endophytes to plants, however, endophyte colonization decreased from 100% at planting to 65% compared to greenhouse plants grown under continual stress (maintained 100% colonization.These findings indicate that rice plants can exhibit enhanced stress tolerance via symbiosis with Class 2 endophytes, and suggest that symbiotic technology may be useful in mitigating impacts of climate change on other crops and expanding agricultural production onto marginal lands.

  14. Increased fitness of rice plants to abiotic stress via habitat adapted symbiosis: A strategy for mitigating impacts of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, R.S.; Kim, Y.-O.; Woodward, C.J.D.A.; Greer, C.; Espino, L.; Doty, S.L.; Rodriguez, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    Climate change and catastrophic events have contributed to rice shortages in several regions due to decreased water availability and soil salinization. Although not adapted to salt or drought stress, two commercial rice varieties achieved tolerance to these stresses by colonizing them with Class 2 fungal endophytes isolated from plants growing across moisture and salinity gradients. Plant growth and development, water usage, ROS sensitivity and osmolytes were measured with and without stress under controlled conditions. The endophytes conferred salt, drought and cold tolerance to growth chamber and greenhouse grown plants. Endophytes reduced water consumption by 20–30% and increased growth rate, reproductive yield, and biomass of greenhouse grown plants. In the absence of stress, there was no apparent cost of the endophytes to plants, however, endophyte colonization decreased from 100% at planting to 65% compared to greenhouse plants grown under continual stress (maintained 100% colonization). These findings indicate that rice plants can exhibit enhanced stress tolerance via symbiosis with Class 2 endophytes, and suggest that symbiotic technology may be useful in mitigating impacts of climate change on other crops and expanding agricultural production onto marginal lands.

  15. The evolution of international policies and mechanisms to advance sustainable forest management and mitigate global climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scientific findings regarding global climate change and deforestation led industrialized nations to bring both issues to the forefront of an international dialogue on the environment. International institutional attention to deforestation began in 1985 with the Tropical Forestry Action Program which helped countries develop plans for sustainable forest management. A few years later, the International Tropical Timber Organization, though designed to facilitate tropical timber trade, adopted guidelines for sustainable management of tropical production forests. Next, the activities before and after UNCED established a general set of forest principles and regional efforts to define sustainable forest management. The World Bank has also sought to reduce past lending failures that led to deforestation and other environmental degradation, through programmatic redirections and macro-economic policy reforms. Finally, through innovative financial incentives, industrialized and developing countries are identifying opportunities to offset debts and increase economic development without depleting forest resources. Collectively, these efforts have let to some trends that support sustainable forest management and mitigate climate change. The upcoming years will see a proactive set of multilateral programs to address deforestation, an increasing link between trade and the environment, and more uses of financial incentives to encourage sustainable forest management

  16. The economic potential of bioenergy for climate change mitigation with special attention given to implications for the land system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomass from cellulosic bioenergy crops is expected to play a substantial role in future energy systems, especially if climate policy aims at stabilizing greenhouse gas concentration at low levels. However, the potential of bioenergy for climate change mitigation remains unclear due to large uncertainties about future agricultural yield improvements and land availability for biomass plantations. This letter, by applying a modelling framework with detailed economic representation of the land and energy sector, explores the cost-effective contribution of bioenergy to a low-carbon transition, paying special attention to implications for the land system. In this modelling framework, bioenergy competes directly with other energy technology options on the basis of costs, including implicit costs due to biophysical constraints on land and water availability. As a result, we find that bioenergy from specialized grassy and woody bioenergy crops, such as Miscanthus or poplar, can contribute approximately 100 EJ in 2055 and up to 300 EJ of primary energy in 2095. Protecting natural forests decreases biomass availability for energy production in the medium, but not in the long run. Reducing the land available for agricultural use can partially be compensated for by means of higher rates of technological change in agriculture. In addition, our trade-off analysis indicates that forest protection combined with large-scale cultivation of dedicated bioenergy is likely to affect bioenergy potentials, but also to increase global food prices and increase water scarcity. Therefore, integrated policies for energy, land use and water management are needed.

  17. Toward policies for climate change mitigation: "Barriers for family-sized biogas in the District of Gihanga, Burundi"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkunzimana, Leonard; Huart, Michel; Zaccai, Edwin

    2014-05-01

    In the context of climate change mitigation and poverty reduction, it has been argued that biogas energy is relevant, as it is economically and ecologically useful. In the 1980s, biogas use played an important role in the development of Burundi. Many schools and public institutions had implemented such installations. Unfortunately, many biogas infrastructures were destroyed in the civil war of the 1990s. This study analyzes what could be done, after a decade of crisis, to develop that sector. It aims to assess how and to what extent the inhabitants of villages are willing to contribute to the development of biogas technologies. We interviewed 150 farmers in order to assess their perception on the ecologic and economic features of biogas plants if implemented in their villages. The influence of socioeconomic, cultural, and demographic factors of households was assessed in this study. Results suggest that the maximum amount that a household is willing to pay each month for biogas use at a family level is positive for large-size households, households that are aware of climate change, consumers of candles, households with high income, households with an educated head, women, and breeders. However, the willingness decreases for households with older head of families. The study concludes that awareness campaigns on biogas benefits and financial and nonfinancial incentives are necessary. This policy should probably and primarily be oriented toward some more receptive categories of the population. Women should be fully involved, considering their positive motivation toward sustaining this sector.

  18. Coastal Climate Change Education, Mitigation, and Adaptation in the Natural and Built Environments: Progress of the Coastal Areas Climate Change Education Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, A.; Herman, B.; Vernaza-Hernández, V.; Ryan, J. G.; Muller-Karger, F. E.; Gilbes, F.

    2011-12-01

    The Coastal Area Climate Change Education (CACCE) Partnership, funded by the National Science Foundation, seeks to develop new ways to educate citizens about global climate change. The core themes are sea level rise and impacts of climate change in the southeastern United States and the Caribbean Sea. CACCE focuses on helping partners, educators, students, and the general public gain a fundamental and working understanding of the interrelation among the natural environment, built environment, and social aspects in the context of climate change in coastal regions. To this end, CACCE's objectives reported here include: 1) defining the current state of awareness, perceptions, and literacy about the impacts of climate change; and 2) testing a model of transdisciplinary research and learning as a means of training a new generation of climate professionals. Objective one is met in part by CACCE survey efforts that reveal Florida and Puerto Rico secondary science teachers hold many non-scientific views about climate change and climate change science and provide inadequate instruction about climate change. Associated with objective two are five Multiple Outcome Interdisciplinary Research and Learning (MOIRL) pilot projects underway in schools in Florida and Puerto Rico. In the CACCE Partnership the stakeholders include: students (K-16 and graduate); teachers and education researchers; informal science educators; scientists and engineers; business and industry; policy makers; and community members. CACCE combines interdisciplinary research with action research and community-based participatory research in a way that is best described as "transdisciplinary". Learning occurs in all spheres of interactions among stakeholders as they engage in scientific, educational, community and business activities through their legitimate peripheral participation in research communities of practice. We will describe the process of seeking and building partnerships, and call for a dialogue

  19. Review of the Policy and Legal Framework for Implementing Clean Development Mechanism Projects in Uganda and its Implications for Climate Change Mitigation - Comment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mabasi Thadeus

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the policy and legal framework for the implementation of CDM projects in Uganda and its implications for climate change mitigation. It gives a background to climate change in Uganda and notes that climate change in Uganda can largely be attributed to unsustainable utilisation of the natural resources which has led to over exploitation and total loss of some of the natural resources. The paper reviews the international legal regime for climate change and its significance for climate change mitigation in Uganda and observes that Uganda has implemented the UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol in accordance with the principles of common but differentiated responsibilities and the precautionary principle. This has for instance culminated in the carrying out of a National Inventory of Sources and Sinks of Greenhouse gases. The role of CDM in climate change mitigation is explored by examining the key CDM projects that have been implemented in Uganda. The key finding of the paper is that Uganda does not have an independent policy or law which deals with CDM and recommends that such policy and legal inadequacies should urgently be addressed.

  20. No way out? The double-bind in seeking global prosperity along with mitigated climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Garrett

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In a prior study (Garrett, 2011, I introduced a simple thermodynamics-based economic growth model. By treating civilization as a whole, it was found that the global economy's current rate of energy consumption can be tied through a constant to its current accumulation of wealth. The value of the constant is λ = 9.7 ± 0.3 milliwatts per 1990 US dollar. Here, this model is coupled to a linear formulation for the evolution of atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Despite the model's extreme simplicity, multi-decadal hindcasts of trajectories in gross world product (GWP and CO2 agree closely with recent observations. Extending the model to the future, the model implies that the well-known IPCC SRES scenarios substantially underestimate how much CO2 levels will rise for a given level of future economic prosperity. Instead, what is shown is that, like a long-term natural disaster, future greenhouse warming should be expected to retard the real growth of wealth through inflationary pressures. Because wealth is tied to rates of energy consumption through the constant λ, it follows that dangerous climate change should be a negative feedback on CO2 emission rates, and therefore the ultimate extent of greenhouse warming. Nonetheless, if atmospheric CO2 concentrations are to remain below a "dangerous" level of 450 ppmv (Hansen et al., 2007, there will have to be some combination of an unrealistically rapid rate of energy decarbonization and a near immediate collapse of civilization wealth. Effectively, civilization is in a double-bind. If civilization does not collapse quickly this century, then CO2 levels will likely end up exceeding 1000 ppmv; but, if CO2 levels rise by this much, then the danger is that civilization will gradually tend towards collapse.

  1. Review: Soil management in mitigating the adverse effects of climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Aman Ullah BhattI; Muhammad Mumtaz Khan

    2012-01-01

    Emission of Green House Gases (GHGs) from various sources into the atmosphere causes rise in air temperature. This addition of GHGs has a great impact on the environment. Among the GHGs, carbon dioxide (CO2) is the major contributor. A variety of options exists for mitigation of GHGs emissions in agriculture. The most prominent options are improved soil management practices viz. integrated plant nutrient management, precision agriculture (variable rate fertilizer technology), use of nitrifica...

  2. Climate change mitigation in Asia and financing Mechanisms.Proceedings of a Regional Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The three primary objectives of the conference, which was organized by the UNEP Collaborating Centre on Energy and Environment (UCCEE) in conjunction with the Environment Department of the World Bank, at Goa in India from May 4 to 6, 1998, were: 1) to share the GHG mitigation experiences from Asian developing countries; 2) to disseminate the standard methodological approach for mitigation analysis developed by UNEP and its applications in different countries; and 3) assess the role and efficacy of financial mechanisms and to, specifically, seek feedback on the Prototype Carbon Fund proposed by the World Bank. Follwing these objectives, the workshop presentations and discussions were structured in three parts. In the first part, participants from eleven Asian developing countries made presentations that were followed by discussions. The second part included the presentations by the experts from UCCEE, UNFCCC and other invited experts who presented the mitigation methodology and the issues and experiences relating to various co-operative implementation mechanisms. The third part included the presentations by the World Bank representatives on the Prototype Carbon Fund and the discussions on financial mechanisms. (EG)

  3. Mind the gap in SEA: An institutional perspective on why assessment of synergies amongst climate change mitigation, adaptation and other policy areas are missing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article takes its point of departure in two approaches to integrating climate change into Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA): Mitigation and adaptation, and in the fact that these, as well as the synergies between them and other policy areas, are needed as part of an integrated assessment and policy response. First, the article makes a review of how positive and negative synergies between a) climate change mitigation and adaptation and b) climate change and other environmental concerns are integrated into Danish SEA practice. Then, the article discusses the implications of not addressing synergies. Finally, the article explores institutional explanations as to why synergies are not addressed in SEA practice. A document analysis of 149 Danish SEA reports shows that only one report comprises the assessment of synergies between mitigation and adaptation, whilst 9,4% of the reports assess the synergies between climate change and other environmental concerns. The consequences of separation are both the risk of trade-offs and missed opportunities for enhancing positive synergies. In order to propose explanations for the lacking integration, the institutional background is analysed and discussed, mainly based on Scott's theory of institutions. The institutional analysis highlights a regulatory element, since the assessment of climate change synergies is underpinned by legislation, but not by guidance. This means that great focus is on normative elements such as the local interpretation of legislation and of climate change mitigation and adaptation. The analysis also focuses on how the fragmentation of the organisation in which climate change and SEA are embedded has bearings on both normative and cultural–cognitive elements. This makes the assessment of synergies challenging. The evidence gathered and presented in the article points to a need for developing the SEA process and methodology in Denmark with the aim to include climate change in the assessments in

  4. Save the forests to mitigate climate, twice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkama, Ramdane; Cescatti, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    Deforestation impacts climate in two major ways: affecting the atmospheric CO2 concentration and modulating the land-atmosphere fluxes of energy and water vapor. While the mitigation effects of forest biogeochemistry have been largely investigated and are accounted for in climate protocols, the biophysical impacts of forest cover are still debated in the scientific community and are ignored in climate treaties. On the other hand, currently available model predictions of land biophysical effects are rather uncertain thus additional robust experimental evidence at the global scale is required to inform climate policy. In this work we report an observation-driven analysis of the biophysical impacts of forest losses and gains on the local climate, based on a combination of Earth observations of forest cover, surface radiometric temperatures, and in-situ air temperatures. Results show that deforestation causes significant local changes in mean air temperature. In addition, forest losses produce a substantial increase in both the diurnal and annual temperature variation at all latitudes, by increasing daytime and reducing nighttime temperatures (except in the case of snow cover when both days and nights are cooled). These experimental observations provide a global and robust quantification of the local climate sensitivities to deforestation and a novel assessment of the mitigation potentials of forests on the diurnal and seasonal temperature variations. Ultimately, these findings may support the development of land-based mitigation strategies that build on the integration of biogeochemical and biophysical effects of afforestation and deforestation.

  5. The potential of carbon sequestration to mitigate against climate change in forests and agro ecosystems of Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mujuru, L.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change adversely affects human livelihoods and the environment through alteration of temperatures, rainfall patterns, sea level rise and ecosystem productivity. Developing countries are more vulnerable to climate change because they directly depend on agriculture and natural ecosystem produc

  6. Using Remotely Sensed Data for Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation: A Collaborative Effort Between the Climate Change Adaptation Science Investigators Workgroup (CASI), NASA Johnson Space Center, and Jacobs Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagge, Amy

    2016-01-01

    With ever changing landscapes and environmental conditions due to human induced climate change, adaptability is imperative for the long-term success of facilities and Federal agency missions. To mitigate the effects of climate change, indicators such as above-ground biomass change must be identified to establish a comprehensive monitoring effort. Researching the varying effects of climate change on ecosystems can provide a scientific framework that will help produce informative, strategic and tactical policies for environmental adaptation. As a proactive approach to climate change mitigation, NASA tasked the Climate Change Adaptation Science Investigators Workgroup (CASI) to provide climate change expertise and data to Center facility managers and planners in order to ensure sustainability based on predictive models and current research. Generation of historical datasets that will be used in an agency-wide effort to establish strategies for climate change mitigation and adaptation at NASA facilities is part of the CASI strategy. Using time series of historical remotely sensed data is well-established means of measuring change over time. CASI investigators have acquired multispectral and hyperspectral optical and LiDAR remotely sensed datasets from NASA Earth Observation Satellites (including the International Space Station), airborne sensors, and astronaut photography using hand held digital cameras to create a historical dataset for the Johnson Space Center, as well as the Houston and Galveston area. The raster imagery within each dataset has been georectified, and the multispectral and hyperspectral imagery has been atmospherically corrected. Using ArcGIS for Server, the CASI-Regional Remote Sensing data has been published as an image service, and can be visualized through a basic web mapping application. Future work will include a customized web mapping application created using a JavaScript Application Programming Interface (API), and inclusion of the CASI data

  7. Natural resource mitigation, adaptation and research needs related to climate change in the Great Basin and Mojave Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughson, Debra L.; Busch, David E.; Davis, Scott; Finn, Sean P.; Caicco, Steve; Verburg, Paul S.J.

    2011-01-01

    This report synthesizes the knowledge, opinions, and concerns of many Federal and State land managers, scientists, stakeholders, and partners from a workshop, held at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas, on April 20-22, 2010. Land managers, research scientists, and resource specialists identified common concerns regarding the potential effects of climate change on public lands and natural resources in the Great Basin and Mojave Desert and developed recommendations for mitigation, adaptation, and research needs. Water and, conversely, the effects of drought emerged as a common theme in all breakout sessions on terrestrial and aquatic species at risk, managing across boundaries, monitoring, and ecosystem services. Climate change models for the southwestern deserts predict general warming and drying with increasing precipitation variability year to year. Scientists noted that under these changing conditions the past may no longer be a guide to the future in which managers envision increasing conflicts between human water uses and sustaining ecosystems. Increasing environmental stress also is expected as a consequence of shifting ecosystem boundaries and species distributions, expansion of non-native species, and decoupling of biotic mutualisms, leading to increasingly unstable biologic communities. Managers uniformly expressed a desire to work across management and agency boundaries at a landscape scale but conceded that conflicting agency missions and budgetary constraints often impede collaboration. More and better science is needed to cope with the effects of climate change but, perhaps even more important is the application of science to management issues using the methods of adaptive management based on long-term monitoring to assess the merits of management actions. Access to data is essential for science-based land management. Basic inventories, spatial databases, baseline condition assessments, data quality assurance, and data sharing were identified as top

  8. A wedge-based approach to estimating health co-benefits of climate change mitigation activities in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balbus, John M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Greenblatt, Jeffery B. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Chari, Ramya [Rand Corporation, Santa Monica, CA (United States); Millstein, Dev [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ebi, Kristie L. [ClimAdapt, Inc., Los Altos, CA (United States)

    2015-02-01

    While it has been recognized that actions reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions can have significant positive and negative impacts on human health through reductions in ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations, these impacts are rarely taken into account when analyzing specific policies. This study presents a new framework for estimating the change in health outcomes resulting from implementation of specific carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction activities, allowing comparison of different sectors and options for climate mitigation activities. Our estimates suggest that in the year 2020, the reductions in adverse health outcomes from lessened exposure to PM2.5 would yield economic benefits in the range of $6 to $14 billion (in 2008 USD), depending on the specific activity. This equates to between $40 and $93 per metric ton of CO2 in health benefits. Specific climate interventions will vary in the health co-benefits they provide as well as in potential harms that may result from their implementation. Rigorous assessment of these health impacts is essential for guiding policy decisions as efforts to reduce GHG emissions increase in scope and intensity.

  9. Bioenergy expansion in the EU: Cost-effective climate change mitigation, employment creation and reduced dependency on imported fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presently, the European Union (EU) is promoting bioenergy. The aim of this paper is to study the prospects for using domestic biomass resources in Europe and specifically to investigate whether different policy objectives underlying the promotion of bioenergy (cost-effective climate change mitigation, employment creation and reduced dependency on imported fuels) agree on which bioenergy options that should be used. We model bioenergy use from a cost-effectiveness perspective with a linear regionalized energy- and transport-system model and perform supplementary analysis. It is found that the different policy objectives do not agree on the order of priority among bioenergy options. Maximizing climate benefits cost-effectively is in conflict with maximizing employment creation. The former perspective proposes the use of lignocellulosic biomass in the stationary sector, while the latter requires biofuels for transport based on traditional agricultural crops. Further, from a security-of-supply perspective, the appeal of a given bioenergy option depends on how oil and gas import dependencies are weighed relative to each other. Consequently, there are tradeoffs that need to be addressed by policymakers promoting the use of bioenergy. Also, the importance of bioenergy in relation to employment creation and fuel import dependency reduction needs to be further addressed

  10. Harnessing the biosphere to mitigate global climate change and sea level rise

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Smetacek, V.

    to the responsible media and educated public to separate the wheat from the chaff and, in the interests of future generations of humans, as also the plants and animals with which we share the planet, to take the steps necessary to avert impending calamity... that can be lethal for humans and animals. Forecasting the effect of cleaning the notorious ‘Asian brown haze’ on local temperatures and ultimately on the global climate machinery in the coming decades is a challenge facing climate modellers...

  11. Global fossil energy markets and climate change mitigation - an analysis with REMIND

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bauer, Nico; Mouratiadou, Ioanna; Luderer, Gunnar; Baumstark, Lavinia; Brecha, Robert J.; Edenhofer, Ottmar; Kriegler, Elmar

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the dynamics of global fossil resource markets under different assumptions for the supply of fossil fuel resources, development pathways for energy demand, and climate policy settings. Resource markets, in particular the oil market, are characterized by a large discrepancy between costs o

  12. Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be caused by natural factors or by human activities. Today climate changes are occurring at an increasingly rapid rate. Climate change can affect our health. It can lead to More heat-related illness ...

  13. A ranking of net national contributions to climate change mitigation through tropical forest conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, L R; Papworth, S K

    2014-12-15

    Deforestation in tropical regions causes 15% of global anthropogenic carbon emissions and reduces the mitigation potential of carbon sequestration services. A global market failure occurs as the value of many ecosystem services provided by forests is not recognised by the markets. Identifying the contribution of individual countries to tropical carbon stocks and sequestration might help identify responsibilities and facilitate debate towards the correction of the market failure through international payments for ecosystem services. We compare and rank tropical countries' contributions by estimating carbon sequestration services vs. emissions disservices. The annual value of tropical carbon sequestration services in 2010 from 88 tropical countries was estimated to range from $2.8 to $30.7 billion, using market and social prices of carbon respectively. Democratic Republic of Congo, India and Sudan contribute the highest net carbon sequestration, whereas Brazil, Nigeria and Indonesia are the highest net emitters. PMID:25214074

  14. Review: Soil management in mitigating the adverse effects of climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aman Ullah BhattI

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Emission of Green House Gases (GHGs from various sources into the atmosphere causes rise in air temperature. This addition of GHGs has a great impact on the environment. Among the GHGs, carbon dioxide (CO2 is the major contributor. A variety of options exists for mitigation of GHGs emissions in agriculture. The most prominent options are improved soil management practices viz. integrated plant nutrient management, precision agriculture (variable rate fertilizer technology, use of nitrification inhibitors, crop residue management, moisture restoration and restoration of crop productivity of degraded lands, which increase crop production per unit area, enhancing crop production and withdraw atmospheric CO2 through enhanced photosynthesis. This paper shows that such improved soil management practices can restore the crop productivity of marginal lands and purify the air by withdrawing atmospheric CO2.

  15. Composting projects under the Clean Development Mechanism: Sustainable contribution to mitigate climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of the Kyoto Protocol aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in developing countries and at the same time to assist these countries in sustainable development. While composting as a suitable mitigation option in the waste sector can clearly contribute to the former goal there are indications that high rents can also be achieved regarding the latter. In this article composting is compared with other CDM project types inside and outside the waste sector with regards to both project numbers and contribution to sustainable development. It is found that, despite the high number of waste projects, composting is underrepresented and a major reason for this fact is identified. Based on a multi-criteria analysis it is shown that composting has a higher potential for contribution to sustainable development than most other best in class projects. As these contributions can only be assured if certain requirements are followed, eight key obligations are presented.

  16. Reconciling Oil Palm Expansion and Climate Change Mitigation in Kalimantan, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Austin, Kemen G.; Kasibhatla, Prasad S.; Urban, Dean L.; Stolle, Fred; Vincent, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Our society faces the pressing challenge of increasing agricultural production while minimizing negative consequences on ecosystems and the global climate. Indonesia, which has pledged to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from deforestation while doubling production of several major agricultural commodities, exemplifies this challenge. Here we focus on palm oil, the world’s most abundant vegetable oil and a commodity that has contributed significantly to Indonesia’s economy. Most oil palm...

  17. What drives the international transfer of climate change mitigation technologies?: empirical evidence from patent data

    OpenAIRE

    Dechezlepretre, Antoine; Glachant, Matthieu; Ménière, Yann

    2013-01-01

    Technology transfer plays a key role in global efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In this paper, we characterize the factors that promote or hinder the international diffusion of climate-friendly technologies using detailed patent data from 96 countries for the period 1995-2007. The data provide strong evidence that lax Intellectual Property regimes have a strong and negative impact on the international diffusion of patented knowledge. Restrictions on international trade and foreign ...

  18. On the Commons and Climate Change: Collective Action and GHG Mitigation - Working Paper No. 2012-13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reducing greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions from anthropogenic activity may be one of the greatest collective-action problems faced by humanity. This poses challenges not only in terms of the institutional configurations to support coordinated governance processes, but equally the information tools and expertise necessary to link GHG mitigation with other policy priorities. This paper theoretically explores how the adoption of a modified theory of collective action based upon a behavioral theory of the individual allows for a re-framing of the climate-change policy challenge. As such, it appears important to develop a context within which collective action becomes possible where success is no longer solely tied to incentives, but equally to the provision of information, learning, and interaction between stakeholders while simultaneously fostering trust and reciprocity among actors. At all levels of government, information plays a key role to both inform and to facilitate communication, as well as to identify and develop the necessary actions and investments and to track changes in conditions. In the case of climate change, greenhouse-gas inventories and other informational tools are necessary components to track an a priori intangible emission. As such, it is key to analyze the legitimacy, credibility and saliency of information and expertise integrated into the decision-making process. Further, it is important to recognize that the construction of indicators and other information tools is not apolitical, but rather the product of a number of assumptions, interests and decisions concerning what is included and what is excluded shaped by the involved actors. (author)

  19. The impact of residential, commercial, and transport energy demand uncertainties in Asia on climate change mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy consumption in residential, commercial and transport sectors have been growing rapidly in the non-OECD Asian countries over the last decades, and the trend is expected to continue over the coming decades as well. However, the per capita projections for energy demand in these particular sectors often seem to be very low compared to the OECD average until 2050, and it is clear that the scenario assessments of final energy demands in these sectors include large uncertainties. In this paper, a sensitivity analysis have been carried out to study the impact of higher rates of energy demand growths in the non-OECD Asia on global mitigation costs. The long term energy and emission scenarios for China, India and South-East Asia have been contributed as a part of Asian Modeling Exercise (AME). The scenarios presented have been modeled by using a global TIMES-VTT energy system model, which is based on the IEA-ETSAP TIMES energy system modeling framework and the global ETSAP-TIAM model. Our scenario results indicate that the impacts of accelerated energy demand in the non-OECD Asia has a relatively small impact on the global marginal costs of greenhouse gas abatement. However, with the accelerated demand projections, the average per capita greenhouse gas emissions in the OECD were decreased while China, India, and South-East Asia increased their per capita greenhouse gas emissions. This indicates that the costs of the greenhouse gas abatement would especially increase in the OECD region, if developing Asian countries increase their final energy consumption more rapidly than expected. - Highlights: ► Scenarios of final energy demands in developing Asia include large uncertainties. ► Impact of accelerated Asian energy demand on global mitigation costs is quite low. ► Accelerated Asian energy consumption increases GHG abatement costs in the OECD. ► 3.7 W/m3 target is feasible in costs even with accelerated Asian energy demands. ► 2.6 W/m2 target is beyond

  20. What Drives the International Transfer of Climate Change Mitigation Technologies? Empirical Evidence from Patent Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using patent data from 66 countries for the period 1990-2003, we characterize the factors which promote or hinder the international diffusion of climate-friendly technologies on a global scale. Regression results show that technology-specific capabilities of the recipient countries are determinant factors. In contrast, the general level of education is less important. We also show that restrictions to international trade - e.g., high tariff rates - and to a lesser extent lax intellectual property regimes negatively influence the international diffusion of patented knowledge. A counter-intuitive result is that barriers to foreign direct investments can promote transfers. We discuss different possible interpretations. (authors)

  1. Implementing Local Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation Actions: The Role of Various Policy Instruments in a Multi-Level Governance Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Carina H. Keskitalo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, considerable focus, e.g., in the fifth IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Assessment Report (2014 has been trained on why adaptation and mitigation have not been developed more than at present, with relatively few local government actions taken compared with, for example, more discursive policy agreement on the importance of the issue of climate change. Going beyond a focus on general limits and barriers, this comment suggests that one important issue is that climate change has not yet been sufficiently integrated into the state regulative structure of legislation and policy-making. A comparison between three cases suggests that local developments that are not supported in particular by binding regulation are unlikely to achieve the same general level of implementation as issues for which such regulative demands (and thereby also requirements for prioritization exist. This constitutes an important consideration for the development of adaptation and mitigation as policy areas, including on the local level.

  2. The Role of Science in Advising the Decision Making Process: A Pathway for Building Effective Climate Change Mitigation Policies in Mexico at the Local Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraza, Roberto; Velazquez-Angulo, Gilberto; Flores-Tavizón, Edith; Romero-González, Jaime; Huertas-Cardozo, José Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    This study examines a pathway for building urban climate change mitigation policies by presenting a multi-dimensional and transdisciplinary approach in which technical, economic, environmental, social, and political dimensions interact. Now, more than ever, the gap between science and policymaking needs to be bridged; this will enable judicious choices to be made in regarding energy and climate change mitigation strategies, leading to positive social impacts, in particular for the populations at-risk at the local level. Through a case study in Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico, we propose a multidimensional and transdisciplinary approach with the role of scientist as policy advisers to improve the role of science in decision-making on mitigation policies at the local level in Mexico. PMID:27128933

  3. The Role of Science in Advising the Decision Making Process: A Pathway for Building Effective Climate Change Mitigation Policies in Mexico at the Local Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Barraza

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examines a pathway for building urban climate change mitigation policies by presenting a multi-dimensional and transdisciplinary approach in which technical, economic, environmental, social, and political dimensions interact. Now, more than ever, the gap between science and policymaking needs to be bridged; this will enable judicious choices to be made in regarding energy and climate change mitigation strategies, leading to positive social impacts, in particular for the populations at-risk at the local level. Through a case study in Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico, we propose a multidimensional and transdisciplinary approach with the role of scientist as policy advisers to improve the role of science in decision-making on mitigation policies at the local level in Mexico.

  4. The Role of Science in Advising the Decision Making Process: A Pathway for Building Effective Climate Change Mitigation Policies in Mexico at the Local Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraza, Roberto; Velazquez-Angulo, Gilberto; Flores-Tavizón, Edith; Romero-González, Jaime; Huertas-Cardozo, José Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    This study examines a pathway for building urban climate change mitigation policies by presenting a multi-dimensional and transdisciplinary approach in which technical, economic, environmental, social, and political dimensions interact. Now, more than ever, the gap between science and policymaking needs to be bridged; this will enable judicious choices to be made in regarding energy and climate change mitigation strategies, leading to positive social impacts, in particular for the populations at-risk at the local level. Through a case study in Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico, we propose a multidimensional and transdisciplinary approach with the role of scientist as policy advisers to improve the role of science in decision-making on mitigation policies at the local level in Mexico. PMID:27128933

  5. Projected impacts to the production of outdoor recreation opportunities across US state park systems due to the adoption of a domestic climate change mitigation policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A technical efficiency model identifies where state park systems can be improved. • The technical efficiency model is joined with output of CC policy simulations. • Shifts in operating expenditure under the CC mitigation policy are estimated. • Results reveal substantial variability across states. • Increasing technical efficiency is the best solution to adapt to CC policy impacts. - Abstract: Numerous empirical and simulation-based studies have documented or estimated variable impacts to the economic growth of nation states due to the adoption of domestic climate change mitigation policies. However, few studies have been able to empirically link projected changes in economic growth to the provision of public goods and services. In this research, we couple projected changes in economic growth to US states brought about by the adoption of a domestic climate change mitigation policy with a longitudinal panel dataset detailing the production of outdoor recreation opportunities on lands managed in the public interest. Joining empirical data and simulation-based estimates allow us to better understand how the adoption of a domestic climate change mitigation policy would affect the provision of public goods in the future. We first employ a technical efficiency model and metrics to provide decision makers with evidence of specific areas where operational efficiencies within the nation's state park systems can be improved. We then augment the empirical analysis with simulation-based changes in gross state product (GSP) to estimate changes to the states’ ability to provide outdoor recreation opportunities from 2014 to 2020; the results reveal substantial variability across states. Finally, we explore two potential solutions (increasing GSP or increasing technical efficiency) for addressing the negative impacts on the states’ park systems operating budgets brought about by the adoption of a domestic climate change mitigation policy; the

  6. Lay rationalities of climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, Fátima; Caeiro, Sandra; Azeiteiro, Ulisses

    2014-01-01

    In this special issue we were also interested in revealing the level of concepts and the level of social action, trying to contribute to the answer of questions like: How local populations explain, interpret and deal with climate change? What are the individual and collective actions in response to climate change? How do populations deal with Climate Change mitigation (risk perception and risk-mitigating)? What is the available traditional knowledge about Climate Change? How does the cu...

  7. Ecotourism and Climates changes: the ecolodge contribution in global warming mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukman Hakim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Global attention to the global warming reduction has invite numerous strategy implemented with the objectives is mitigating greenhouse gasses emission which threats to the future of living in biosphere. Essentially, absorbing CO2 from atmosphere and sequestering in terrestrial ecosystem is one of the significant strategy. While in developing countries it is become essential, support for forest conservation, afforestation and effort to increase terrestrial ability to capture and storage carbon is poor. Ecotourism offer potential key to solved such problems by promoting ecolodge as a sustainable tourism accomodations. This paper aims to explore the potential of ecotourism sector to alleviate global warming and establishing framework for ecolodge planning and development in tropical developing countries. This paper highlight the significant of ecolodge attraction and development management to meet proper carbon capture and sequestration mechanism. The attraction management and developing programs ultimately able to increase plants biomass while accommodation able to practicing energy efficient and optimizing reuse and recycle approach. It will become the potential solution for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and create clean development strategy.

  8. The role of energy-service demand reduction in global climate change mitigation: Combining energy modelling and decomposition analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to reduce energy-related CO2 emissions different options have been considered: energy efficiency improvements, structural changes to low carbon or zero carbon fuel/technologies, carbon sequestration, and reduction in energy-service demands (useful energy). While efficiency and technology options have been extensively studied within the context of climate change mitigation, this paper addresses the possible role of price-related energy-service demand reduction. For this analysis, the elastic demand version of the TIAM-UCL global energy system model is used in combination with decomposition analysis. The results of the CO2 emission decomposition indicate that a reduction in energy-service demand can play a limited role, contributing around 5% to global emission reduction in the 21st century. A look at the sectoral level reveals that the demand reduction can play a greater role in selected sectors like transport contributing around 16% at a global level. The societal welfare loss is found to be high when the price elasticity of demand is low. - Highlights: → A reduction in global energy-service demand can contribute around 5% to global emission reduction in the 21st century. → The role of demand is a lot higher in transport than in the residential sector. → Contribution of demand reduction is higher in early periods of the 21st century. → Societal welfare loss is found to be high when the price elasticity of demand is low. → Regional shares in residual emissions vary under different elasticity scenarios.

  9. Ecosystem carbon stock influenced by plantation practice: implications for planting forests as a measure of climate change mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chengzhang; Luo, Yiqi; Fang, Changming; Li, Bo

    2010-01-01

    Uncertainties remain in the potential of forest plantations to sequestrate carbon (C). We synthesized 86 experimental studies with paired-site design, using a meta-analysis approach, to quantify the differences in ecosystem C pools between plantations and their corresponding adjacent primary and secondary forests (natural forests). Totaled ecosystem C stock in plant and soil pools was 284 Mg C ha(-1) in natural forests and decreased by 28% in plantations. In comparison with natural forests, plantations decreased aboveground net primary production, litterfall, and rate of soil respiration by 11, 34, and 32%, respectively. Fine root biomass, soil C concentration, and soil microbial C concentration decreased respectively by 66, 32, and 29% in plantations relative to natural forests. Soil available N, P and K concentrations were lower by 22, 20 and 26%, respectively, in plantations than in natural forests. The general pattern of decreased ecosystem C pools did not change between two different groups in relation to various factors: stand age ( or = 25 years), stand types (broadleaved vs. coniferous and deciduous vs. evergreen), tree species origin (native vs. exotic) of plantations, land-use history (afforestation vs. reforestation) and site preparation for plantations (unburnt vs. burnt), and study regions (tropic vs. temperate). The pattern also held true across geographic regions. Our findings argued against the replacement of natural forests by the plantations as a measure of climate change mitigation. PMID:20523733

  10. Green technology for keeping soil-water-nutrient fluxes on cultivated steep land and climate change mitigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Effiom Oku

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Use of vetiver as a green technology can address African farmers’ ecological problems through protecting farmlands on steep lands. In addition, it offers the opportunity to integrate smallholders into the green economy as it sequesters carbon, keep water and nutrient fluxes within the system, sustain high crop yield with climate change adaptation potentials. This is particularly important as more slopes are converted to agricultural lands due to increase in population density and poverty. Thus, the study investigated the optimal strip width for increases in soil productivity and farmers’ preferences for space. The study planted maize and cassava in between vetiver field structures (VFS installed on the contour at 5, 15 , 25 m apart and compared it with Farmers’ Practice (FP on a 45 % slope and quantified the amount of soil displaced, water and plant nutrient losses and crop yields. Vetiver installed at 5 m surface interval spacing significantly enhanced carbon sequestration indicating potentials for GHGs mitigation and reduced N, P, Ca, Mg, Na and K losses when compared with FP. Vetiver allowed only 7 % rainfall lost as against 29 % on FP this demonstrates the climate change adaptation potentials of vetiver. Soil displaced under FP was 68 times higher than the soil loss tolerance limit of 12 t ha-1 yr-1 whereas under VFS at 5, 15 and 25 m it was 2½, 13 and 12 times higher. Maize grain yield were 35, 23 and 24 % higher on the VFS field at 5, 15 and 25 m respectively when compared to FP. The corresponding values for cassava fresh tuber were 43, 32 and 29 % higher. Unlike other technologies, vetiver grass contributes to the livelihood of the farmers by providing raw material for house thatching, handicrafts and fodder for livestock during lean seasons.

  11. RE: Forests and forest management plays a key role in mitigating climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentsen, Niclas Scott; Nord-Larsen, Thomas; Larsen, Søren;

    2016-01-01

    authors should have asked: What would the GHG emissions have been in absence of forest management in Europe? The services provided by forest management - increased biofuel and materials production – substitute fossil fuels and materials, which are generally GHG-intensive. The report ignores that sustained......The report by Naudts et al. concludes that forest management in Europe during the last 260 years has failed to result in net CO2 removal from the atmosphere. The authors have reached this conclusion through their failure to consider a key factor in their otherwise comprehensive analysis. The...... authors present an analysis of net carbon emissions from forest, but omit substitution effects related to the link between forest management and the fossil carbon pool. The link between fossil and terrestrial carbon pools is however critical for modelling climate impacts. To conclude as they do, the...

  12. Behavioural Climate Change Mitigation Options and Their Appropriate Inclusion in Quantitative Longer Term Policy Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faber, J.; Schroten, A.; Bles, M.; Sevenster, M.; Markowska, A.; Smit, M. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Rohde, C.; Duetschke, E.; Koehler, J.; Gigli, M. [Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research ISI, Karlsruhe (Germany); Zimmermann, K.; Soboh, R.; Van ' t Riet, J. [Landbouw Economisch Instituut LEI, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2012-01-15

    Changes in consumer behaviour can lead to major reductions in greenhouse gas emissions in the European Union, particularly in the areas of transport, housing and food. Behavioural changes can complement technological changes and can allow emission reduction targets to be achieved more cost-effectively overall. The study identifies 36 options for behavioural change that would cut greenhouse gas emissions. Of these, 11 particularly relevant options have been studied in detail. They include shifting to a more healthy and balanced diet, eating less meat and dairy products, buying and using a smaller car or an electric car, teleworking, adjusting room temperature and optimising ventilation. For each of the behavioural changes studied in depth, emission reduction potentials have been quantified for 2020, 2030 and 2050. The study identifies barriers to implementing the changes, and quantifies the likely effects of policy packages which could overcome these barriers. The results show that the behavioural changes that could take place simultaneously have the potential to save emissions totalling up to about 600 million tonnes of CO2-equivalent a year in 2020. This is about one-quarter of the projected annual emissions from sectors not covered by the EU emissions trading system. The savings potential is particularly high in the area of food.

  13. Energy R and D portfolio analysis based on climate change mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diverse nature and uncertain potential of the energy technologies that are or may be available to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions pose a challenge to policymakers trying to invest public funds in an optimal R and D portfolio. This paper discusses two analytical approaches to this challenge used to inform funding decisions related to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) applied energy R and D portfolio. The two approaches are distinguished by the constraints under which they were conducted: the need to provide an end-to-end portfolio analysis as input to internal DOE budgeting processes, but with limited time and subject to institutional constraints regarding important issues such as expert judgment. Because of these constraints, neither approach should be viewed as an attempt to push forward the state of the art in portfolio analysis in the abstract. Instead, they are an attempt to use more stylized, heuristic methods that can provide first-order insights in the DOE institutional context. Both approaches make use of advanced technology scenarios implemented in an integrated assessment modeling framework and then apply expert judgment regarding the likelihood of achieving associated R and D and commercialization goals. The approaches differ in the granularity of the scenarios used and in the definition of the benefits of technological advance: in one approach the benefits are defined as the cumulative emission reduction attributable to a particular technology; in the other approach benefits are defined as the cumulative cost reduction. In both approaches a return on investment (ROI) criterion is established based on benefits divided by federal R and D investment. The ROI is then used to build a first-order approximation of an optimal applied energy R and D investment portfolio. Although these methodologies have been used to inform an actual budget request, the results reflect only one input among many used in budget formulation. The results are therefore not

  14. An analysis of long-term climate change mitigation in power generation sector by using a world energy systems model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development and diffusion of various technologies are important for reducing CO2 emission. In power generation sector, nuclear power generation, CO2 capture and storage, and renewable energies such as wind power and PV are hoped as effective technologies for reducing CO2 emission. However, social acceptance, cost, supply potential and etc. are problems to be solved for their diffusion. In this paper, climate change mitigations in power generation sector for four scenarios with considering uncertainty of the above three technologies were quantitatively analyzed by using DNE21+. Model analysis reveals that 1) If the three technologies are developed and diffused, CO2 shadow price for achieving 450 ppm CO2 is $100/tCO2 in the year 2050. 2) If technology development and diffusion are stagnant, the CO2 shadow price for achieving 450 ppm CO2 are risen up and the price are $149/tCO2 - $334/tCO2 in the year 2050, 3) Power generation sector play an important role for CO2 emission reduction. Large CO2 emission reduction is really difficult without technology development and diffusion of power generation sector. (author)

  15. Implications of climate mitigation for future agricultural production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate change is projected to negatively impact biophysical agricultural productivity in much of the world. Actions taken to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and mitigate future climate changes, are thus of central importance for agricultural production. Climate impacts are, however, not unidirectional; some crops in some regions (primarily higher latitudes) are projected to benefit, particularly if increased atmospheric carbon dioxide is assumed to strongly increase crop productivity at large spatial and temporal scales. Climate mitigation measures that are implemented by reducing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations lead to reductions both in the strength of climate change and in the benefits of carbon dioxide fertilization. Consequently, analysis of the effects of climate mitigation on agricultural productivity must address not only regions for which mitigation is likely to reduce or even reverse climate damages. There are also regions that are likely to see increased crop yields due to climate change, which may lose these added potentials under mitigation action. Comparing data from the most comprehensive archive of crop yield projections publicly available, we find that climate mitigation leads to overall benefits from avoided damages at the global scale and especially in many regions that are already at risk of food insecurity today. Ignoring controversial carbon dioxide fertilization effects on crop productivity, we find that for the median projection aggressive mitigation could eliminate ∼81% of the negative impacts of climate change on biophysical agricultural productivity globally by the end of the century. In this case, the benefits of mitigation typically extend well into temperate regions, but vary by crop and underlying climate model projections. Should large benefits to crop yields from carbon dioxide fertilization be realized, the effects of mitigation become much more mixed, though still positive globally and beneficial in many food insecure

  16. Implications of climate mitigation for future agricultural production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Christoph; Elliott, Joshua; Chryssanthacopoulos, James; Deryng, Delphine; Folberth, Christian; Pugh, Thomas A. M.; Schmid, Erwin

    2015-12-01

    Climate change is projected to negatively impact biophysical agricultural productivity in much of the world. Actions taken to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and mitigate future climate changes, are thus of central importance for agricultural production. Climate impacts are, however, not unidirectional; some crops in some regions (primarily higher latitudes) are projected to benefit, particularly if increased atmospheric carbon dioxide is assumed to strongly increase crop productivity at large spatial and temporal scales. Climate mitigation measures that are implemented by reducing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations lead to reductions both in the strength of climate change and in the benefits of carbon dioxide fertilization. Consequently, analysis of the effects of climate mitigation on agricultural productivity must address not only regions for which mitigation is likely to reduce or even reverse climate damages. There are also regions that are likely to see increased crop yields due to climate change, which may lose these added potentials under mitigation action. Comparing data from the most comprehensive archive of crop yield projections publicly available, we find that climate mitigation leads to overall benefits from avoided damages at the global scale and especially in many regions that are already at risk of food insecurity today. Ignoring controversial carbon dioxide fertilization effects on crop productivity, we find that for the median projection aggressive mitigation could eliminate ∼81% of the negative impacts of climate change on biophysical agricultural productivity globally by the end of the century. In this case, the benefits of mitigation typically extend well into temperate regions, but vary by crop and underlying climate model projections. Should large benefits to crop yields from carbon dioxide fertilization be realized, the effects of mitigation become much more mixed, though still positive globally and beneficial in many food insecure

  17. Feasibility study on: Reforestation of degraded grasslands in Indonesia as a climate change mitigation option

    OpenAIRE

    Dalfelt, Arne; Næss, Lars Otto; Sutamihardja, R. T. M.; Gintings, Ngaloken

    1996-01-01

    Deforestation and changes in land use in the tropics contribute a significant share of the anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases, of which the most important is carbon dioxide (CO2). Increasing the uptake and storage of carbon in the terrestrial biosphere through reforestation has been proposed as one strategy to counteract the atmospheric build-up of greenhouse gases. This study investigates the feasibility of reforestation of degraded Imperata (alang-alang) grasslands in Indonesi...

  18. Can declining energy intensity mitigate climate change? Decomposition and meta-regression results

    OpenAIRE

    Stephan B. Bruns; Gross, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on the Kaya identity, we assess the role of the main driver of the decline in carbon intensity, namely the (economic) energy intensity. Using meta-signi…ficance testing for a sample of 44 studies, dealing with the causality between energy and GDP, we …find that both variables are strongly coupled. Hence, after having exhausted energy savings from nonrecurring structural changes, the economic energy intensity may soon converge than being arbitrarily reducible. We suggest, therefore, no...

  19. Study on the climate change mitigation potential of a poly-generation system in Bangladesh – a supply chain analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Emran, Saad Been

    2014-01-01

    Livestock and poultry are two growing subsectors of global farming economy with an impact on the environment and thus deserving closer attention. While the farms play a major role in providing protein essential for human diets, they are also sources of significant amounts of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Hence, the sectors need to improve their environmental performance and mitigate their negative impacts on climate. To estimate the annual GHG emissions from a dairy and poultry farm, a case...

  20. Invention and transfer of climate change mitigation technologies on a global scale: a study drawing on patent data

    OpenAIRE

    Dechezlepretre, Antoine; Glachant, Matthieu; Hascic, Ivan; Johnstone, Nick; Meniere, Yann

    2010-01-01

    Accelerating the development of less GHG intensive technologies and promoting their global diffusion - in particular in fast-growing emerging economies - is imperative in achieving the transition to a low-carbon economy. Consequently, technology is at the core of current discussions about the post-Kyoto regime. The purpose of this study is to fuel this discussion by providing an in-depth analysis of the geographic distribution of climate mitigation inventions since 1978 and their internationa...

  1. Clearing the cloudy crystal balls: Hybrid modelling for energy and climate change mitigation scenarios – A case study for Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Patrícia Alexandra Fortes da

    2014-01-01

    Dissertação para obtenção do Grau de Doutor em Ambiente Energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions scenarios, generated by energy-economy-environment (E3) models, have been used to explore alternative futures and support energy and climate mitigation policy decisions. The uncertainty carried in these scenarios comes from inherent uncertainty of future conditions, reflected in the models input assumptions, and from the models intrinsic features (e.g. technology bottom-up vs. economic top-...

  2. 2007 status of climate change: Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Summary for Policy-makers; Bilan 2007 des changements climatiques: l'attenuation des changements climatiques. Contribution du Groupe de travail 3 au quatrieme rapport d'evaluation du Groupe d'Experts Intergouvernemental sur l'Evolution du Climat (GIEC). Resume a l'attention des decideurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barker, T.; Bashmakov, I.; Bernstein, L.; Bogner, J.; Bosch, P.; Dave, R.; Davidson, O.; Fisher, B.; Grubb, M.; Gupta, S.; Halsnaes, K.; Heij, B.; Kahn Ribeiro, S.; Kobayashi, S.; Levine, M.; Martino, D.; Masera Cerutti, O.; Metz, B.; Meyer, L.; Nabuurs, G.J.; Najam, A.; Nakicenovic, N.; Holger Rogner, H.; Roy, J.; Sathaye, J.; Schock, R.; Shukla, P.; Sims, R.; Smith, P.; Swart, R.; Tirpak, D.; Urge-Vorsatz, D.; Dadi, Z

    2007-07-01

    The Working Group III contribution to the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) focuses on new literature on the scientific, technological, environmental, economic and social aspects of mitigation of climate change, published since the IPCC Third Assessment Report (TAR) and the Special Reports on CO{sub 2} Capture and Storage (SRCCS) and on Safeguarding the Ozone Layer and the Global Climate System (SROC).The main aim of this summary report is to assess options for mitigating climate change. Several aspects link climate change with development issues. This report explores these links in detail, and illustrates where climate change and sustainable development are mutually reinforcing. Economic development needs, resource endowments and mitigative and adaptive capacities differ across regions. There is no one-size-fits-all approach to the climate change problem, and solutions need to be regionally differentiated to reflect different socio-economic conditions and, to a lesser extent, geographical differences. Although this report has a global focus, an attempt is made to differentiate the assessment of scientific and technical findings for the various regions. Given that mitigation options vary significantly between economic sectors, it was decided to use the economic sectors to organize the material on short- to medium-term mitigation options. Contrary to what was done in the Third Assessment Report, all relevant aspects of sectoral mitigation options, such as technology, cost, policies etc., are discussed together, to provide the user with a comprehensive discussion of the sectoral mitigation options. The report is organised into six sections after the introduction: - Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission trends; - Mitigation in the short and medium term, across different economic sectors (until 2030); - Mitigation in the long-term (beyond 2030); - Policies, measures and instruments to mitigate climate change; - Sustainable development and climate change mitigation; - Gaps in

  3. [Meat consumption reduction policies: benefits for climate change mitigation and health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelozzi, Paola; Lapucci, Enrica; Farchi, Sara

    2015-08-01

    Agricultural food production substantially contributes to green house gas (GHG) emissions worldwide and 80% of the agricultural emissions arise from the livestock sector, in particular from ruminants. Meat consumption is generally above dietary recommendations in many countries, including Italy, and it is increasing in developing countries. Although meat is a source of essential nutrients, it provides large amounts of saturated fat, which is a known risk factor for obesity and for several diseases such as stroke, breast cancer and colon cancer. Dietary changes, with lower intake of red and processed meat, are likely to be beneficial for improving health and for the environment by reducing emissions of GHG. Data on meat consumption in Italy among adults, referred to the last ten years, shows heterogeneity among regions, with the highest consumption in the North-western regions and generally with higher consumption among males. We describe meat consumption distribution worldwide, in Europe and Italy. An assessment of the potential environmental and health co-benefits considering different reduction scenarios of red meat consumption in Italy is provided. Dietary changes can substantially lower GHG and coordinated actions are needed across public health and other sectors to promote healthy, low-emission diets. PMID:26228857

  4. Social and environmental impacts of climate change: In the absence of mitigation, will we be able to adapt?

    OpenAIRE

    Ozer, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, as it is now evident from observations of increases in global average air and ocean temperatures, widespread melting of snow and ice and rising global average sea level. Observational evidence from all continents and most oceans shows that many natural systems are being affected by regional climate changes, particularly temperature increases. Other effects of regional climate changes on natural and human environments are emerging, although many ar...

  5. Feasibility Study on: Reforestation of Degraded Grasslands in Indonesia as a Climate Change Mitigation Option

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalfelt, A.; Naess, L.O.; Sutamihardja, R.T.M.; Gintings, N.

    1996-12-31

    The report deals with a cooperation project between Norway and Indonesia dealing with a feasibility study on sustainable reforestation of degraded grasslands in Indonesia. Poor forest management and uncontrolled land use changes contribute a significant share anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases, especially CO{sub 2}, and one of many ways to reduce the CO{sub 2} emission is to encourage reforestation and better forest management. The report contains a brief overview of the issue of Imperata (alang-alang) grasslands, an outline of the present status, a discussion of potential costs and benefits associated with reforestation, and suggestions of strategies which could be applied to reach the desired goals. Case studies are presented from three locations where field work has been undertaken. The case studies provide baseline data about the sites and the imperata grasslands, experiences from earlier efforts to rehabilitate the grasslands, the common attitude to reforestation among the local communities, a discussion of the feasibility of reforestation, and finally, recommendations for the future. 142 refs., 11 figs., 15 tabs.

  6. Whole-farm models to quantify greenhouse gas emissions and their potential use for linking climate change mitigation and adaptation in temperate grassland ruminant-based farming systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    del Prado, A; Crosson, P; Olesen, Jørgen E;

    2013-01-01

    The farm level is the most appropriate scale for evaluating options for mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, because the farm represents the unit at which management decisions in livestock production are made. To date, a number of whole farm modelling approaches have been developed to...... components and the sensitivity of GHG outputs and mitigation measures to different approaches. Potential challenges for linking existing models with the simulation of impacts and adaptation measures under climate change are explored along with a brief discussion of the effects on other ecosystem services....

  7. Re-use of wastewater for a sustainable forest production and climate change mitigation under arid environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Monteverdi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Over the last decades biotic and abiotic constrains together with human actions are determining a substantial environmental pressure, particularly in dry lands as the south of the Mediterranean region. From very long time, indeed, simultaneous drivers such as demographic growth, climate change and socio-economic factors are weakening the previous homeostasis between human needs and natural resources on the regional scale.Resulting pressures are determining environmental degradation and increase of desertification risk for the arid and semiarid lands. Water quality and availability are both crucial points limiting people well-being and livelihoods in the same context. Scarcity of fresh water and heavy and mismanaged production of wastewater are the main factors affecting water resources. Increasing pollution of soil and ground waters reduces the possibility of sustainable development of local communities with relevant social consequences. The FAO's supporting program in north Africa aims to: a develop new and cheaper phytotechnologies (e.g. constructed wetland system; innovative treatment system for reuse of waste water for fertigation; b treat wastewater for water quality protection; c promote land recovery by means of sustainable multipurpose forestry; d adopt bioengineering interventions to stop slopes erosion and protect urban, and semi-urban infrastructures; e create pilot demonstrative areas to test multi-purpose sustainable agroforestry systems. Within this frame, an integrated approach was designed to promote innovative sustainable water management and multipurpose forestry, in order to mitigate the effects of climate change, promote land recovery, and improve the livelihoods of local population. The present paper aims to provide an overview of the FAO project GCP/RAB/013/ITA. Particularly, two pilot studies are shown and discussed. Normal 0 14 false false false IT X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions

  8. Can ecosystem-scale translocations mitigate the impact of climate change on terrestrial biodiversity? Promises, pitfalls, and possibilities: Ecosystem-scale translocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Stéphane; Case, Bradley S; Lefort, Marie-Caroline; Waterhouse, Benjamin R; Wratten, Stephen D

    2016-01-01

    Because ecological interactions are the first components of the ecosystem to be impacted by climate change, future forms of threatened-species and ecosystem management should aim at conserving complete, functioning communities rather than single charismatic species. A possible way forward is the deployment of ecosystem-scale translocation (EST), where above- and below-ground elements of a functioning terrestrial ecosystem (including vegetation and topsoil) are carefully collected and moved together. Small-scale attempts at such practice have been made for the purpose of ecological restoration. By moving larger subsets of functioning ecosystems from climatically unstable regions to more stable ones, EST could provide a practical means to conserve mature and complex ecosystems threatened by climate change. However, there are a number of challenges associated with EST in the context of climate change mitigation, in particular the choice of donor and receptor sites. With the aim of fostering discussion and debate about the EST concept, we  1) outline the possible promises and pitfalls of EST in mitigating the impact of climate change on terrestrial biodiversity and 2) use a GIS-based approach to illustrate how  potential source and receptor sites, where EST could be trialed and evaluated globally, could be identified. PMID:26989475

  9. Quantification of physical and economic impacts of climate change on public infrastructure in Alaska and benefits of global greenhouse gas mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, A. M.; Larsen, P.; Boehlert, B.; Martinich, J.; Neumann, J.; Chinowsky, P.; Schweikert, A.; Strzepek, K.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change poses many risks and challenges for the Arctic and sub-Arctic, including threats to infrastructure. The safety and stability of infrastructure in this region can be impacted by many factors including increased thawing of permafrost soils, reduced coastline protection due to declining arctic sea ice, and changes in inland flooding. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is coordinating an effort to quantify physical and economic impacts of climate change on public infrastructure across the state of Alaska and estimate how global greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation may avoid or reduce these impacts. This research builds on the Climate Change Impacts and Risk Analysis (CIRA) project developed for the contiguous U.S., which is described in an EPA report released in June 2015. We are using a multi-model analysis focused primarily on the impacts of changing permafrost, coastal erosion, and inland flooding on a range of infrastructure types, including transportation (e.g. roads, airports), buildings and harbors, energy sources and transmission, sewer and water systems, and others. This analysis considers multiple global GHG emission scenarios ranging from a business as usual future to significant global action. These scenarios drive climate projections through 2100 spanning a range of outcomes to capture variability amongst climate models. Projections are being combined with a recently developed public infrastructure database and integrated into a version of the Infrastructure Planning Support System (IPSS) we are modifying for use in the Arctic and sub-Arctic region. The IPSS tool allows for consideration of both adaptation and reactive responses to climate change. Results of this work will address a gap in our understanding of climate change impacts in Alaska, provide estimates of the physical and economic damages we may expect with and without global GHG mitigation, and produce important insights about infrastructure vulnerabilities in response to

  10. Sustainability Impact Assessment of two forest-based bioenergy production systems related to mitigation and adaption to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartzia-Bengoetxea, Nahia; Arias-González, Ander; Tuomasjukka, Diana

    2016-04-01

    New forest management strategies are necessary to resist and adapt to Climate Change (CC) and to maintain ecosystem functions such as forest productivity, water storage and biomass production. The increased use of forest-based biomass for energy generation as well as the application of combustion or pyrolysis co-products such as ash or biochar back into forest soils is being suggested as a CC mitigation and adaptation strategy while trying to fulfil the targets of both: (i) Europe 2020 growth strategy in relation to CC and energy sustainability and (ii) EU Action Plan for the Circular Economy. The energy stored in harvested biomass can be released through combustion and used for energy generation to enable national energy security (reduced oil dependence) and the substitution of fossil fuel by renewable biomass can decrease the emission of greenhouse gases.In the end, the wood-ash produced in the process can return to the forest soil to replace the nutrients exported by harvesting. Another way to use biomass in this green circular framework is to pyrolyse it. Pyrolysis of the biomass produce a carbon-rich product (biochar) that can increase carbon sequestration in the soils and liquid and gas co-products of biomass pyrolysis can be used for energy generation or other fuel use thereby offsetting fossil fuel consumption and so avoiding greenhouse gas emissions. Both biomass based energy systems differ in the amount of energy produced, in the co-product (biochar or wood ash) returned to the field, and in societal impacts they have. The Tool for Sustainability Impact Assessment (ToSIA) was used for modelling both energy production systems. ToSIA integrates several different methods, and allows a quantification and objective comparison of economic, environmental and social impacts in a sustainability impact assessment for different decision alternatives/scenarios. We will interpret the results in order to support the bioenergy planning in temperate forests under the

  11. The role of biomass in climate change mitigation : Assessing the long-term dynamics of bioenergy and biochemicals in the land and energy systems

    OpenAIRE

    Daioglou, V.

    2016-01-01

    Scientific literature addressing climate change mitigation options have highlighted the potentially important role of biomass as a substitute for fossil fuels in the provision of energy and materials. However significant uncertainties remain concerning the drivers and constraints of the available biomass, the overall greenhouse gas (GHG) benefit, and the most effective supply and demand chains. This thesis builds on the IMAGE integrated assessment model in order to improve the representation ...

  12. The German contribution to the global forest policy. Analysis and evaluation of the engagement for biodiversity conservation and mitigation measures climatic change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The booklet on the German contribution to the global forest policy covers with analysis and evaluation of the engagement for biodiversity conservation and mitigation measures climatic change. The analysis is based on expert interviews; the theoretical background is the conception on society by Niklas Lehmann. The evaluation includes the issues of allocation of public goods, the improvement of public participation, and improvement of financing resources.

  13. Climate change mitigation options in the rural land use sector: Stakeholders’ perspectives on barriers, enablers and the role of policy in North East Scotland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Farmers are mainly willing to expand the uptake of mitigation practices they already implement. • Main barriers and enablers to uptake are physical–environmental constraints and personal values. • Farmers consider that agriculture is a “special case” because their function is to produce food. • Lack of incentives is not the main barrier to the uptake of mitigation practices. • Policies should allow differentiation, and mitigation measures should be integrated with other mechanisms. - Abstract: The rural land use sector could potentially mitigate a large amount of GHG emissions. Implementation requires the engagement of farmers and other land managers. Understanding the barriers and enablers for the uptake of these practices is essential both to inform policy-makers and to achieve effective policy outreach. In Scotland, the rural land use sector is subject to a greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction target of 21% by 2020 relative to 1990 levels. This study contributes to the body of research on stakeholders’ perspectives about suitability of climate change mitigation practices at the regional level. Mixed-methods were used to collect the data, namely participatory workshops with scientists and relevant stakeholders, a farmer questionnaire, and focus groups with farmers. Findings show that farmers were mainly willing to expand the uptake of mitigation practices they were already implementing because they consider these are the most cost-effective. Barriers to the implementation of mitigation practices are mainly related to physical–environmental constraints, lack of information and education and personal interests and values. Similarly, enablers are also related to physical–environmental factors and personal interests and values. Economic incentives, voluntary approaches and provision of information have been identified by workshop participants as the most favourable approaches needed to promote the uptake of technically feasible

  14. Steps in preparing and biodiversity section of climate change action plan. Development and evolution of forestry and biodiversity mitigation measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methodic for drawing up of national action plans on prevention of unfavorable consequences of climate change in forestry is described. Approaches to development and measures evolution in these fields on greenhouse effect reduce are considered. (author)

  15. Managing the Consequences of Climate Change: Can Green Value Creation Mitigate Risks and Create Opportunities in the Financial Sector?

    OpenAIRE

    Moa, Anne

    2014-01-01

    The current economic system is dependent upon constant growth and consumption to function, but the planetary boundaries are finite (UNEP 2013). The resulting climate change is likely to influence companies’ ability to do business in both positive and negative ways. The financial industry could be heavily impacted by the predicted consequences. This study seeks to identify the risks and opportunities that could arise as a result of climate change, and discuss whether the concept of green ...

  16. Invention and Transfer of Climate Change Mitigation Technologies on a Global Scale: A Study Drawing on Patent Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper uses the EPO/OECD World Patent Statistical Database (PATSTAT) to provide a quantitative description of the geographic distribution of inventions in thirteen climate mitigation technologies since 1978 and their international diffusion on a global scale. Statistics suggest that innovation has mostly been driven by energy prices until 1990. Since then, environmental policies, and climate policies more recently, have accelerated the pace of innovation. Innovation is highly concentrated in three countries - Japan, Germany and the USA - which account for 60% of total innovations. Surprisingly, the innovation performance of emerging economies is far from being negligible as China and South Korea together represent about 15% of total inventions. However, they export much less inventions than industrialized countries, suggesting their inventions have less value. More generally, international transfers mostly occur between developed countries (73% of exported inventions). Exports from developed countries to emerging economies are still limited (22%) but are growing rapidly, especially to China. (authors)

  17. Invention and Transfer of Climate Change Mitigation Technologies on a Global Scale: A Study Drawing on Patent Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dechezlepretre, A.; Glachant, M.; Hascic, I.; Johnstone, N.; Meniere, Y.

    2010-07-01

    This paper uses the EPO/OECD World Patent Statistical Database (PATSTAT) to provide a quantitative description of the geographic distribution of inventions in thirteen climate mitigation technologies since 1978 and their international diffusion on a global scale. Statistics suggest that innovation has mostly been driven by energy prices until 1990. Since then, environmental policies, and climate policies more recently, have accelerated the pace of innovation. Innovation is highly concentrated in three countries - Japan, Germany and the USA - which account for 60% of total innovations. Surprisingly, the innovation performance of emerging economies is far from being negligible as China and South Korea together represent about 15% of total inventions. However, they export much less inventions than industrialized countries, suggesting their inventions have less value. More generally, international transfers mostly occur between developed countries (73% of exported inventions). Exports from developed countries to emerging economies are still limited (22%) but are growing rapidly, especially to China. (authors)

  18. Climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchal, V.; Dellink, R.; Vuuren, D.P. van; Clapp, C.; Chateau, J.; Magné, B.; Lanzi, E.; Vliet, J. van

    2012-01-01

    This chapter analyses the policy implications of the climate change challenge. Are current emission reduction pledges made in Copenhagen/Cancun enough to stabilise the climate and limit global average temperature increase to 2 oC? If not, what will the consequences be? What alternative growth pathwa

  19. Climate Change Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepma, Catrinus J.; Munasinghe, Mohan; Bolin, Foreword By Bert; Watson, Robert; Bruce, James P.

    1998-03-01

    There is increasing scientific evidence to suggest that humans are gradually but certainly changing the Earth's climate. In an effort to prevent further damage to the fragile atmosphere, and with the belief that action is required now, the scientific community has been prolific in its dissemination of information on climate change. Inspired by the results of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Second Assessment Report, Jepma and Munasinghe set out to create a concise, practical, and compelling approach to climate change issues. They deftly explain the implications of global warming, and the risks involved in attempting to mitigate climate change. They look at how and where to start action, and what organization is needed to be able to implement the changes. This book represents a much needed synopsis of climate change and its real impacts on society. It will be an essential text for climate change researchers, policy analysts, university students studying the environment, and anyone with an interest in climate change issues. A digestible version of the IPCC 1995 Economics Report - written by two of IPCC contributors with a Foreword by two of the editors of Climate Change 1995: Economics of Climate Change: i.e. has unofficial IPCC approval Focusses on policy and economics - important but of marginal interest to scientists, who are more likely to buy this summary than the full IPCC report itself Has case-studies to get the points across Separate study guide workbook will be available, mode of presentation (Web or book) not yet finalized

  20. Climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on contributions on 120 French and foreign scientists representing different disciplines (mathematics, physics, mechanics, chemistry, biology, medicine, and so on), this report proposes an overview of the scientific knowledge and debate about climate change. It discusses the various indicators of climate evolution (temperatures, ice surfaces, sea level, biological indicators) and the various factors which may contribute to climate evolution (greenhouse gases, solar radiation). It also comments climate evolutions in the past as they can be investigated through some geological, thermal or geochemical indicators. Then, the authors describe and discuss the various climate mechanisms: solar activity, oceans, ice caps, greenhouse gases. In a third part, the authors discuss the different types of climate models which differ by the way they describe processes, and the current validation process for these models

  1. Farmer’s On-farm Traditional Mitigation, Techniques against Climate Change Impacts in Selected Lgas of Kano State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Ejeh, Udeh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the perceptions and observations of rural farmers in selected communities of two local government areas of Kano state on climate change and its impacts on their livelihood strategies over four decades. It explores some traditional initiatives or techniques taken by the local communities to minimize climate change impacts and effects. Focus Group Discussions (FGD were organized to collect and analyze vulnerability context on climate change and its impacts on various sectors of the economy in the LGAs such as: agriculture, livestock, infrastructure, water sources etc. similarly, information on available service providers, Kano Agricultural and Rural Development Authority (KNRDA and their contributions were sourced through secondary sources. It was observed that local communities of the selected villages/towns in Kano State were facing challenges of climate change overtime and were adapting traditional techniques as against it. Some of on-farm strategies such as zero or minimum tillage. Alteration of planting date, are environmentally friendly and socially acceptable. However, these traditional adaptive techniques of the villagers are not strong enough to cope with current scourge of climate change in the area.

  2. certainty and Climate Change Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Quiggin, John

    2008-01-01

    The paper consists of a summary of the main sources of uncertainty about climate change, and a discussion of the major implications for economic analysis and the formulation of climate policy. Uncertainty typically implies that the optimal policy is more risk-averse than otherwise, and therefore enhances the case for action to mitigate climate change.

  3. Climatic change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In spite of man's remarkable advances in technology, ultimately he is still dependent on the Earth's climatic system for food and fresh water. The recent occurrences in certain regions of the world of climatic extremes such as excessive rain or droughts and unseasonably high or low temperatures have led to speculation that a major climatic change is occurring on a global scale. Some point to the recent drop in temperatures in the northern hemisphere as an indication that the Earth is entering a new ice age. Others see a global warming trend that may be due to a build-up of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. An authoritative report on the subject has been prepared by a World Meteorological Organization Panel of Experts on Climatic Change. Excerpts from the report are given. (author)

  4. Global climate change: Science, policy, and mitigation strategies. Proceedings of the Air and Waste Management Association international specialty conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference was held April 5--8, 1994 in Phoenix, Arizona for the purpose of providing a forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information relating to the global climate change. Human activities are increasing the concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The buildup of greenhouse gases threatens to change the global climate system, perhaps raising sea levels, inflicting irreversible damage to ecosystems, and de-stabilizing agricultural production. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  5. Climatic change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book proposes both a scientific and societal approach of a phenomenon which is today the object of lot of debates. Climates perception is illustrated with examples taken in various modern civilizations and in the history of mankind. The Sahara example illustrates the notion of climate evolution. The last chapters are devoted to forecasting and scenarios for the future, taking into account the share of uncertainty. The controversies generated by these forecasts and the Kyoto protocol stakes demonstrate the tight links between the scientific, economical and political aspects in climatic change debates. (J.S.)

  6. DTU Climate Change Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    During 2008 and 2009, DTU held a workshop series focusing on assessment of and adaption to climate changes as well as on mitigation of green house gasses. In the workshops, a total of 1500 scientists, government officials and business leaders have outlined scenarios for technology development...

  7. A time to change? The supply of climate mitigation products from land-use change in northern NSW

    OpenAIRE

    Moss, Jonathan; Cacho, Oscar J.; Mounter, Stuart W.

    2010-01-01

    With the impending introduction of an Australian Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme, farmers and landholders in rural Australia have increased opportunities to participate in the market. This includes the adoption of land-use change to sequester additional carbon in exchange for carbon credits and the production of a renewable energy source (biofuels). However, these land-use changes compete with existing farm enterprises and may contain significant transaction costs. Therefore it is necessary...

  8. Land use and desertification in the Binh Thuan Province of Southeastern Vietnam: mitigation and adaptation options now and under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobin, A.; Le Trinh, H.; Pham Ha, L.; Hens, L.

    2012-04-01

    Desertification and drought affects approximately 300,000 ha of land in the southeastern provinces of Vietnam, much of which is located on agricultural land and forest in the Binh Thuan Province. The methodology for analysing mitigation and adaptation options follows a chain of risk approach that includes a spatio-temporal characterisation of (1) the hazard, (2) the bio-physical and socio-economic impact, (3) the vulnerability to different activities as related to land uses, and (4) risk management options. The present forms of land degradation include sand dune formation and severe erosion (63%), degradation due to laterisation (14%), salinisation (13%), and rock outcrops (10%). The climate is characterized by a distinct dry season with high temperatures, a lot of sunshine and a warm land wind resulting in high evapotranspiration rates. Delays in the onset of the rainy season, e.g. with 20 days in 2010, cause a shift in the growing season. Damages due to drought are estimated at hundreds billion VND (US 1 = VND 20,8900) and contribute to poverty in the rural areas. The current risk-exposure is exacerbated further by climate change. Combined effects of desertification and climate change cause increased degradation of natural resources including land cover. At the same time land use changes are crucial in influencing responses to climate change and desertification. A further SWOT analysis combined with spatio-temporal analysis for each of the major sectors (agriculture, forestry and nature protection, urban and rural development, water resources and fisheries, industry) demonstrates a series of adaptation and mitigation options. Land is a valuable and limited resource. An integrated approach to land use and management is therefore essential to combat environmental hazards such as desertification and climate change.

  9. Global Air Quality and Health Co-benefits of Mitigating Near-term Climate Change Through Methane and Black Carbon Emission Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anenberg, Susan C.; Schwartz, Joel; Shindell, Drew Todd; Amann, Markus; Faluvegi, Gregory S.; Klimont, Zbigniew; Janssens-Maenhout, Greet; Pozzoli, Luca; Dingenen, Rita Van; Vignati, Elisabetta; Emberson, Lisa; Muller, Nicholas Z.; West, J. Jason; Williams, Martin; Demkine, Volodymyr; Hicks, W. Kevin; Kuylenstierna, Johan; Raes, Frank; Ramanathan, Veerabhadran

    2012-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone and black carbon (BC), a component of fine particulate matter (PM emission control measures targeting BC and methane, an ozone precursor, that were selected because of their potential to reduce the rate of climate change over the next 20-40 years. Methods: We simulated the impacts of mitigation measures on outdoor concentrations of PM2.5 and ozone using two composition-climate models, and calculated associated changes in premature PM2.5- and ozone-related deaths using epidemiologically derived concentration-response functions. Results: We estimated that, for PM2.5 and ozone, respectively, fully implementing these measures could reduce global population-weighted average surface concentrations by 23-34% and 7-17% and avoid 0.6-4.4 and 0.04-0.52 million annual premature deaths globally in 2030. More than 80% of the health benefits are estimated to occur in Asia. We estimated that BC mitigation measures would achieve approximately 98% of the deaths that would be avoided if all BC and methane mitigation measures were implemented, due to reduced BC and associated reductions of nonmethane ozone precursor and organic carbon emissions as well as stronger mortality relationships for PM2.5 relative to ozone. Although subject to large uncertainty, these estimates and conclusions are not strongly dependent on assumptions for the concentration-response function. Conclusions: In addition to climate benefits, our findings indicate that the methane and BC emission control measures would have substantial co-benefits for air quality and public health worldwide, potentially reversing trends of increasing air pollution concentrations and mortality in Africa and South, West, and Central Asia. These projected benefits are independent of carbon dioxide mitigation measures. Benefits of BC measures are underestimated because we did not account for benefits from reduced indoor exposures and because outdoor exposure estimates were limited by model spatial resolution.

  10. Climate change - the impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This special dossier about the impacts of climate change is made of 6 contributions dealing with: the mitigation of climate effects and how to deal with them (Bertrand Reysset); how to dare and transmit (Laurent Billes-Garabedian); littoral risks, the Pas-de-Calais example (Julien Henique); extreme meteorological events and health impacts (Mathilde Pascal, Philippe Pirard, Yvon Motreff); Biodiversity and climate: the janus of global change (Robert Barbault, Jacques Weber); adapting agriculture to dryness and temperatures (Philippe Gate); Paris and the future heats of the year 2100 (Jean-Luc Salagnac, Julien Desplat, Raphaelle Kounkou-Arnaud)

  11. Scenarios for future biodiversity loss due to multiple drivers reveal conflict between mitigating climate change and preserving biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Thomas W. R.; Lenton, Timothy M.

    2013-06-01

    We assess the potential for future biodiversity loss due to three interacting factors: energy withdrawal from ecosystems due to biomass harvest, habitat loss due to land-use change, and climate change. We develop four scenarios to 2050 with different combinations of high or low agricultural efficiency and high or low meat diets, and use species-energy and species-area relationships to estimate their effects on biodiversity. In our scenarios, natural ecosystems are protected except when additional land is necessary to fulfil the increasing dietary demands of the global population. Biomass energy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) is used as a means of carbon dioxide removal (CDR) from the atmosphere (and offsetting fossil fuel emissions). BECCS is based on waste biomass, with the addition of bio-energy crops only when already managed land is no longer needed for food production. Forecast biodiversity loss from natural biomes increases by more than a factor of five in going from high to low agricultural efficiency scenarios, due to destruction of productive habitats by the expansion of pasture. Biodiversity loss from energy withdrawal on managed land varies by a factor of two across the scenarios. Biodiversity loss due to climate change varies only modestly across the scenarios. Climate change is lowest in the ‘low meat high efficiency’ scenario, in which by 2050 around 660 million hectares of pasture are converted to biomass plantation that is used for BECCS. However, the resulting withdrawal of energy from managed ecosystems has a large negative impact on biodiversity. Although the effects of energy withdrawal and climate change on biodiversity cannot be directly compared, this suggests that using bio-energy to tackle climate change in order to limit biodiversity loss could instead have the opposite effect.

  12. Scenarios for future biodiversity loss due to multiple drivers reveal conflict between mitigating climate change and preserving biodiversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We assess the potential for future biodiversity loss due to three interacting factors: energy withdrawal from ecosystems due to biomass harvest, habitat loss due to land-use change, and climate change. We develop four scenarios to 2050 with different combinations of high or low agricultural efficiency and high or low meat diets, and use species–energy and species–area relationships to estimate their effects on biodiversity. In our scenarios, natural ecosystems are protected except when additional land is necessary to fulfil the increasing dietary demands of the global population. Biomass energy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) is used as a means of carbon dioxide removal (CDR) from the atmosphere (and offsetting fossil fuel emissions). BECCS is based on waste biomass, with the addition of bio-energy crops only when already managed land is no longer needed for food production. Forecast biodiversity loss from natural biomes increases by more than a factor of five in going from high to low agricultural efficiency scenarios, due to destruction of productive habitats by the expansion of pasture. Biodiversity loss from energy withdrawal on managed land varies by a factor of two across the scenarios. Biodiversity loss due to climate change varies only modestly across the scenarios. Climate change is lowest in the ‘low meat high efficiency’ scenario, in which by 2050 around 660 million hectares of pasture are converted to biomass plantation that is used for BECCS. However, the resulting withdrawal of energy from managed ecosystems has a large negative impact on biodiversity. Although the effects of energy withdrawal and climate change on biodiversity cannot be directly compared, this suggests that using bio-energy to tackle climate change in order to limit biodiversity loss could instead have the opposite effect. (letter)

  13. Evaluating the contribution of Sustainable Land Management to climate change adaptation and mitigation, and its impacts on Mediterranean ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vente, Joris; Zagaria, Cecilia; Pérez-Cutillas, Pedro; Almagro, Maria; Martínez-Mena, Maria; Baartman, Jantiene; Boix-Fayos, Carolina

    2015-04-01

    Changing climate and land management have strong implications for soil and water resources and for many essential ecosystem services (ES), such as provision of drinking and irrigation water, soil erosion control, and carbon sequestration. Large impacts of climate change are expected in the Mediterranean, characterized by a high dependence on scarce soil and water resources. On the other hand, well designed Sustainable Land Management (SLM) strategies can reduce the risks associated with climate change, but their design requires knowledge of their multiple effects on ecosystem services under present and future climate scenarios and of possible tradeoffs. Moreover, strategies are only viable if suited to local environmental, socio-economic and cultural conditions, so stakeholder engagement is crucial during their selection, evaluation and implementation. We present preliminary results of a catchment wide assessment of the expected impacts of climate change on water availability in the Segura basin (18800 km2) southeastern Spain. Furthermore, we evaluated the impacts of past land use changes and the benefits of catchment wide implementation of SLM practices to protect soil and water resources, prevent sedimentation of reservoirs and increase carbon sequestration in soil and vegetation. We used the InVEST modeling framework to simulate the water availability and sediment export under different climate, land use and land management scenarios, and quantified carbon stocks in soil and vegetation. Realistic scenarios of implementation of SLM practices were prepared based on an extensive process of stakeholder engagement and using latest climate change predictions from Regional Climate Models for different emission scenarios. Results indicate a strong decrease in water availability in the Segura catchment under expected climate change, with average reductions of upto 60% and large spatial variability. Land use changes (1990 - 2006) resulted in a slight increase in water

  14. Species and media effects on soil carbon dynamics in the landscape: opportunities for climate change mitigation from urban landscape plantings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most scientists now agree that climate change is occurring as a direct result of human activities. Agricultural production has been shown to be a major emitter of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions; however, horticulture production is unique in that it also has the potential to serve as a major carbon (...

  15. Europe's forest management did not mitigate climate warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naudts, Kim; Chen, Yiying; McGrath, Matthew J; Ryder, James; Valade, Aude; Otto, Juliane; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan

    2016-02-01

    Afforestation and forest management are considered to be key instruments in mitigating climate change. Here we show that since 1750, in spite of considerable afforestation, wood extraction has led to Europe's forests accumulating a carbon debt of 3.1 petagrams of carbon. We found that afforestation is responsible for an increase of 0.12 watts per square meter in the radiative imbalance at the top of the atmosphere, whereas an increase of 0.12 kelvin in summertime atmospheric boundary layer temperature was mainly caused by species conversion. Thus, two and a half centuries of forest management in Europe have not cooled the climate. The political imperative to mitigate climate change through afforestation and forest management therefore risks failure, unless it is recognized that not all forestry contributes to climate change mitigation. PMID:26912701

  16. Climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This paper presented indicators of climate change for British Columbia (BC) with an emphasis on the coastal region. An overview of global effects of climate change was presented, as well as details of BC's current climate change action plan. Indicators examined in the paper for the BC coastal region included long-term trends in air temperature; long-term trends in precipitation; coastal ocean temperatures; sea levels on the BC coast; and the sensitivity of the BC coast to sea level rise and erosion. Data suggested that average air temperatures have become higher in many areas, and that Springtime temperatures have become warmer over the whole province. Winters have become drier in many areas of the province. Sea surface temperature has risen over the entire coast, with the North Coast and central Strait of Georgia showing the largest increases. Deep-water temperatures have also increased in 5 inlets on the South Coast. Results suggested that the direction and spatial pattern of the climate changes reported for British Columbia are consistent with broader trends in North America and the type of changes predicted by climate models for the region. Climate change will likely result in reduced snow-pack in southern BC. An earlier spring freshet on many snow-dominated river systems is anticipated as well as glacial retreat and disappearance. Warmer temperatures in some lakes and rivers are expected, as well as the increased frequency and severity of natural disturbances such as the pine mountain beetle. Large-scale shifts in ecosystems and the loss of certain ecosystems may also occur. BC's current climate plan includes cost effective actions that address GHG emissions and support efficient infrastructure and opportunities for innovation. Management programs for forest and agricultural lands have been initiated, as well as programs to reduce emissions from government operations. Research is also being conducted to understand the impacts of climate change on

  17. Climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presented indicators of climate change for British Columbia (BC) with an emphasis on the coastal region. An overview of global effects of climate change was presented, as well as details of BC's current climate change action plan. Indicators examined in the paper for the BC coastal region included long-term trends in air temperature; long-term trends in precipitation; coastal ocean temperatures; sea levels on the BC coast; and the sensitivity of the BC coast to sea level rise and erosion. Data suggested that average air temperatures have become higher in many areas, and that Springtime temperatures have become warmer over the whole province. Winters have become drier in many areas of the province. Sea surface temperature has risen over the entire coast, with the North Coast and central Strait of Georgia showing the largest increases. Deep-water temperatures have also increased in 5 inlets on the South Coast. Results suggested that the direction and spatial pattern of the climate changes reported for British Columbia are consistent with broader trends in North America and the type of changes predicted by climate models for the region. Climate change will likely result in reduced snow-pack in southern BC. An earlier spring freshet on many snow-dominated river systems is anticipated as well as glacial retreat and disappearance. Warmer temperatures in some lakes and rivers are expected, as well as the increased frequency and severity of natural disturbances such as the pine mountain beetle. Large-scale shifts in ecosystems and the loss of certain ecosystems may also occur. BC's current climate plan includes cost effective actions that address GHG emissions and support efficient infrastructure and opportunities for innovation. Management programs for forest and agricultural lands have been initiated, as well as programs to reduce emissions from government operations. Research is also being conducted to understand the impacts of climate change on water

  18. Legumes for mitigation of climate change and the provision of feedstock for biofuels and biorefineries. A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Erik Steen; Peoples, Mark B.; Boddey, Robert M.;

    2012-01-01

    Humans are currently confronted by many global challenges. These include achieving food security for a rapidly expanding population, lowering the risk of climate change by reducing the net release of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere due to human activity, and meeting the increasing demand...... for energy in the face of dwindling reserves of fossil energy and uncertainties about future reliability of supply. Legumes deliver several important services to societies. They provide important sources of oil, fiber, and protein-rich food and feed while supplying nitrogen (N) to agro-ecosystems via...... of climate change by reducing fossil fuel use or by providing feedstock for the emerging biobased economies where fossil sources of energy and industrial raw materials are replaced in part by sustainable and renewable biomass resources. The aim of this review was to collate the current knowledge regarding...

  19. Green economics : a case study of South African's willingness to pay for climate change mitigation / Alicia Fourie

    OpenAIRE

    Fourie, Alicia

    2011-01-01

    Climate change is the greatest environmental challenge that the world is currently facing due to expanding economies, an increase in population and claims on the earth. Nevertheless, individuals are exploiting resources from the environment at a rate that is unsustainable but they are only harming themselves because certain individuals adopt the same exploitative strategy and resources are depleted. Literature suggests that there is no clear value for the environment. Neoclassi...

  20. Can ecosystem-scale translocations mitigate the impact of climate change on terrestrial biodiversity? Promises, pitfalls, and possibilities

    OpenAIRE

    Stéphane Boyer; Bradley S. Case; Marie-Caroline Lefort; Benjamin R. Waterhouse; Wratten, Stephen D.

    2016-01-01

    Because ecological interactions are the first components of the ecosystem to be impacted by climate change, future forms of threatened-species and ecosystem management should aim at conserving complete, functioning communities rather than single charismatic species. A possible way forward is the deployment of ecosystem-scale translocation (EST), where above- and below-ground elements of a functioning terrestrial ecosystem (including vegetation and topsoil) are carefully collected and moved to...

  1. Fractured tenure, unaccountable authority, and benefit capture: Constraints to improving community benefits under climate change mitigation schemes in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuel Marfo; Emmanuel Acheampong; Emmanuel Opuni-Frimpong

    2012-01-01

    The debate on climate change and ecosystem services has grown substantially over the past two decades. The post-Kyoto protocol period particularly has witnessed increased formulation of financial mechanisms to compensate for green efforts towards carbon sequestration and reduction in deforestation. In most cases, communities substantially depend on forests for their livelihoods or their actions have a direct bearing on the sustainability of the forests. Will the economic incentives from emerg...

  2. Welfare impacts of climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hof, Andries F.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change can affect well-being in poor economies more than previously shown if its effect on economic growth, and not only on current production, is considered. But this result does not necessarily suggest greater mitigation efforts are required.

  3. Climate change and compensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Klint; Flanagan, Tine Bech

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a case for compensation of actual harm from climate change in the poorest countries. First, it is shown that climate change threatens to reverse the fight to eradicate poverty. Secondly, it is shown how the problems raised in the literature for compensation to some extent...... are based on misconceptions and do not apply to compensation of present actual harm. Finally, two arguments are presented to the effect that, in so far as developed countries accept a major commitment to mitigate climate change, they should also accept a commitment to address or compensate actual harm from...... climate change. The first argument appeals to the principle that if it is an injustice to cause risk of incurring harm in the future, then it is also an injustice to cause a similar harm now. The second argument appeals to the principle that if there is moral reason to reduce the risk of specific harms...

  4. A hybrid energy-economy model for global integrated assessment of climate change, carbon mitigation and energy transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • This paper introduces the design of a hybrid energy-economy model, GTEM-C. • The model offers a unified tool to analyse the energy-carbon-environment nexus. • Results are presented on global energy transformation due to carbon mitigation. • Electrification with renewable energies can contain the spiking of carbon prices. - Abstract: This paper introduces the design of the CSIRO variant of the Global Trade and Environment model (GTEM-C). GTEM-C is a hybrid model that combines the top-down macroeconomic representation of a computable general equilibrium model with the bottom-up engineering details of energy production. The model features detailed accounting for global energy flows that are embedded in traded energy goods, and it offers a unified framework to analyse the energy-carbon-environment nexus. As an illustrative example, we present simulation results on global energy transformation under the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s representative carbon pathways 4.5 and 8.5. By testing the model’s sensitivity to the relevant parameter, we find that the pace of electrification will significantly contain the spiking of carbon prices because electricity can be produced from carbon-free or less carbon-intensive technologies. The decoupling of energy use and carbon footprint, due to the uptake of clean electricity technologies, such as nuclear, wind, solar, and carbon capture and storage, allows the world to maintain high level of energy consumption, which is essential to economic growth

  5. Changing Climate Is Affecting Agriculture in the U.S.

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Building Blocks for Climate Smart Agriculture & Forestry Changing Climate Is Affecting Agriculture in the U.S. Climate change ... by 2050. Preparing for Increased Weather Risks Regional Climate Hubs In an effort to mitigate climate-related ...

  6. Quantification and Mitigation of Long-Term Impacts of Urbanization and Climate Change in the Tropical Coastal City of San Juan, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comarazamy, Daniel; Gonzalez, Jorge E.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.

    2014-01-01

    Urbanization, along with other cases of land cover and land use changes, has significant climate impacts in tropical regions with the added complexity of occurring within the context of global warming. The individual and combined effects of these two factors on the surface energy balance of a tropical city are investigated by use of an integrated atmospheric modeling approach, taking the San Juan Metropolitan Area (SJMA), Puerto Rico as the test case. To achieve this goal, an ensemble of climate and weather simulations is performed, with the climate scenarios combining urban development and sprawl with regional climate change over the past 50 years, and the short-term simulations designed to test the sensitivity to different urban vegetation configurations as mitigating alternatives. As indicator of change, we use the thermal response number (TRN), which is a measure of the sensible heating to the thermal storage of a surface or region, and the Bowen ratio, which is defined as the ratio of sensible to latent heat fluxes. The TRN of the area occupied by the SJMA has decreased as a consequence of replacing the low land coastal plain vegetation with man made materials, indicating that it takes less energy to raise the surface temperature of the urban area, whereas the TRN of forested regions has remained virtually unchanged. The global warming signal also has effects on the thermal response of the SJMA, where dryer current conditions generate lower TRN values. Differences due to global warming are more evident in the Bowen ratio pattern, mostly associated with the drier present conditions observed and its effects on sensible and latent heat fluxes. In terms of testing different mitigation strategies, the short-term simulations show that the urban area is more efficient in partitioning surface energy balance terms when green roofs are specified, as opposed to including vegetation inside the urban core.

  7. Financing for climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper argues that the 2009 pledge of $100 billion in 2020 by rich countries for mitigation and adaptation should not be used for mitigation by commercial firms in developing countries, since that would artificially create competitive advantage for such firms and provoke protectionist reactions in the rich countries where firms must bear the costs of mitigation, thereby undermining the world trading system. The costs of heating the earth's surface should be borne by all emitters, just as the price of copper and other scarce resources is paid by all users, rich or poor. That will still leave scope for rich country help in adaptation to climate change and in bringing to fruition new technologies to reduce emissions. - Highlights: ► Slowing climate change significantly cannot occur without the participation of the largest emitters among developing countries. ► The cost of GHG mitigation must be the same for all competing firms, wherever they are located. ► The world trading system is seriously at risk in the face of a poorly designed system for global mitigation of greenhouse gases. ► No significantly emitting firm, anywhere, public or private, should be protected from the incentive to reduce its emissions. ► Higher prices for fossil fuels need not reduce national growth rates in consuming countries.

  8. Trade and climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamiotti, L.; Teh, R.; Kulacoglu, V. (World Trade Organization (WTO), Geneva (Switzerland)); Olhoff, A.; Simmons, B.; Abaza, H. (United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) (Denmark))

    2009-06-15

    The Report aims to improve understanding about the linkages between trade and climate change. It shows that trade intersects with climate change in a multitude of ways. For example, governments may introduce a variety of policies, such as regulatory measures and economic incentives, to address climate change. This complex web of measures may have an impact on international trade and the multilateral trading system. The Report begins with a summary of the current state of scientific knowledge on climate change and on the options available for responding to the challenge of climate change. The scientific review is followed by a part on the economic aspects of the link between trade and climate change, and these two parts set the context for the subsequent parts of the Report, which looks at the policies introduced at both the international and national level to address climate change. The part on international policy responses to climate change describes multilateral efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to adapt to the effects of climate change, and also discusses the role of the current trade and environment negotiations in promoting trade in technologies that aim to mitigate climate change. The final part of the Report gives an overview of a range of national policies and measures that have been used in a number of countries to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to increase energy efficiency. It presents key features in the design and implementation of these policies, in order to draw a clearer picture of their overall effect and potential impact on environmental protection, sustainable development and trade. It also gives, where appropriate, an overview of the WTO rules that may be relevant to such measures. (author)

  9. RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES AND THEIR POTENTIAL ROLE IN MITIGATION OF CLIMATE CHANGES AND AS A SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT DRIVER IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petar M Gvero

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bosnia and Herzegovina have significant physical potential regarding to renewable energy sources. Hydro, biomass, geothermal, wind, and solar potential can play important role in the whole state economy. Bosnia and Herzegovina is Non-Annex I country according to UNFCCC and according to that it is obligated to participate in the global efforts in order to reduce green house gases emission. This paper gives some analysis of the physical, technological, economic, and market potential of renewable energy sources in Bosnia and Herzegovina and their potential role in mitigation of climate changes. Paper also gives the analysis of the potential connections between renewable energy sources and sustainable development of the economy, taking in to consideration specific political structure of the state. Bosnia and Herzegovina is consisting from two entities: Republic of Srpska and Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Brcko District; energy sector and climate changes mitigation measures are under their jurisdiction. According to that some of this paper results can be useful for the improvement of entity and state strategies with the final aim to place renewable energy sources on the right position, as some of the major economy drivers, not only in Bosnia and Herzegovina, but in whole region.

  10. Addressing Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Peter S. Heller

    2007-01-01

    Global climate change has moved high on the agenda of key policy makers in many industrial countries. As a “global public good,†a coordinated global response in terms of efforts at mitigation will be critically necessary. Equally, many countries will face serious economic harm in the absence of adaptation efforts. As one of the key global institutions with responsibility for global economic stability and growth, this paper argues that climate change should be on the economic surveillance ...

  11. Climate mitigation and the future of tropical landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Allison M; Calvin, Katherine V; Chini, Louise P; Hurtt, George; Edmonds, James A; Bond-Lamberty, Ben; Frolking, Steve; Wise, Marshall A; Janetos, Anthony C

    2010-11-16

    Land-use change to meet 21st-century demands for food, fuel, and fiber will depend on many interactive factors, including global policies limiting anthropogenic climate change and realized improvements in agricultural productivity. Climate-change mitigation policies will alter the decision-making environment for land management, and changes in agricultural productivity will influence cultivated land expansion. We explore to what extent future increases in agricultural productivity might offset conversion of tropical forest lands to crop lands under a climate mitigation policy and a contrasting no-policy scenario in a global integrated assessment model. The Global Change Assessment Model is applied here to simulate a mitigation policy that stabilizes radiative forcing at 4.5 W m(-2) (approximately 526 ppm CO(2)) in the year 2100 by introducing a price for all greenhouse gas emissions, including those from land use. These scenarios are simulated with several cases of future agricultural productivity growth rates and the results downscaled to produce gridded maps of potential land-use change. We find that tropical forests are preserved near their present-day extent, and bioenergy crops emerge as an effective mitigation option, only in cases in which a climate mitigation policy that includes an economic price for land-use emissions is in place, and in which agricultural productivity growth continues throughout the century. We find that idealized land-use emissions price assumptions are most effective at limiting deforestation, even when cropland area must increase to meet future food demand. These findings emphasize the importance of accounting for feedbacks from land-use change emissions in global climate change mitigation strategies. PMID:20921413

  12. Linking a Microsimulation Model to a Dynamic CGE Model: Climate Change Mitigation Policies and Income Distribution in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Hielke Buddelmeyer; Nicolas Hérault; Guyonne Kalb; Mark van Zijll de Jong

    2012-01-01

    This paper extends the ‘top-down’ framework developed by Robilliard et al. (2001) to link a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model to a microsimulation (MS) model. The proposed approach allows for the linking of an MS model to a dynamic (rather than static) CGE model. The approach relies on altering the sample weights in order to reproduce long-term population projections and changes in employment as estimated by the CGE model. The approach is applied to assess the effects of climate-chan...

  13. Innovative Financial Instruments and mechanisms for financing forest restoration and mitigating climate change: select cases from India

    OpenAIRE

    Teki Surayya

    2012-01-01

    Climate Change (CC) is universal concern. One of the causes for CC is degradation offorest. World over every minute 22 hectares forest is degraded. Reckonings suggests thatUS$ 11880, funds must be invested every minute to restore the forest.In India Atmospheric pollution has severed in 90’s because of increasedautomobiles and electronic goods. Green car congress reported level of NO2concentration in Delhi ranged 70 - 102 microgram per cm, in 2005. It is argued that theconsumers are capable of...

  14. Climate change governance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knieling, Joerg [HafenCity Univ. Hamburg (Germany). Urban Planning and Regional Development; Leal Filho, Walter (eds.) [HAW Hamburg (Germany). Research and Transfer Centre Applications of Life Science

    2013-07-01

    Climate change is a cause for concern both globally and locally. In order for it to be tackled holistically, its governance is an important topic needing scientific and practical consideration. Climate change governance is an emerging area, and one which is closely related to state and public administrative systems and the behaviour of private actors, including the business sector, as well as the civil society and non-governmental organisations. Questions of climate change governance deal both with mitigation and adaptation whilst at the same time trying to devise effective ways of managing the consequences of these measures across the different sectors. Many books have been produced on general matters related to climate change, such as climate modelling, temperature variations, sea level rise, but, to date, very few publications have addressed the political, economic and social elements of climate change and their links with governance. This book will address this gap. Furthermore, a particular feature of this book is that it not only presents different perspectives on climate change governance, but it also introduces theoretical approaches and brings these together with practical examples which show how main principles may be implemented in practice.

  15. Climate Change, Growth, and Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Hull, Katy

    2008-01-01

    Equity emerged as the principal theme during the Poverty Reduction and Economic Management (PREM) week session 'climate change, growth and poverty,' where presenters addressed the distributional consequences of climate change, as well as countries' unequal capacity to cope with the twin challenges of adaptation and mitigation. They highlighted actions to strengthen the global knowledge bas...

  16. Fractured tenure, unaccountable authority, and benefit capture: Constraints to improving community benefits under climate change mitigation schemes in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Marfo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The debate on climate change and ecosystem services has grown substantially over the past two decades. The post-Kyoto protocol period particularly has witnessed increased formulation of financial mechanisms to compensate for green efforts towards carbon sequestration and reduction in deforestation. In most cases, communities substantially depend on forests for their livelihoods or their actions have a direct bearing on the sustainability of the forests. Will the economic incentives from emerging initiatives offer new sources of income to support rural livelihoods and reduce poverty? There is some doubt about this potential, because there is enormous evidence across the world to show that forest exploitation and use has not substantially benefited local people and Ghana is no exception. This paper draws on existing evidence in Ghana to show that the lack of secure community tenure rights and the dominance of unaccountable authority-which leads to benefit capture by local elites-are critical constraints to equitable forest benefit sharing. Building on the evidence, this paper argues that unless these issues are addressed in policy and practice, the potential economic benefits from the various emerging mechanisms under climate change and ecosystem services may not benefit local people; they may even reinforce the gap between the rich and the poor.

  17. Participatory rural appraisal approaches: an overview and an exemplary application of focus group discussion in climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.N. Uddin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Different tools and techniques of participatory approaches are the basic way of conducting qualitative research especially in the field of applied social science. Focus Group Discussion (FGD is one of the main Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA technique often used in combination with others to achieve desired goals. Considering this concept, this paper attempts to review the PRA approach and then application of FGD, in combination with matrix scoring and ranking to identify problems and causes of climate change along with possible mitigation and adaptation strategies. A group of 20 students at post graduate level under the faculty of Agriculture and Horticulture at Humboldt University of Berlin, Germany those from different corner of the world was considered as target people of the study. The results concluded that “unpredictable weather events” was ranked as the present outstanding visible climate change problem caused by “human activities”. However, it was noted that if alternative renewable energy sources are exploited, this could contribute to solving the present climate change problem. This finding might have the good reference for the policy makers in the same line not only for developing countries but also for developed countries.

  18. Mitigation of global greenhouse gas emissions from waste: conclusions and strategies from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report. Working Group III (Mitigation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogner, Jean; Pipatti, Riitta; Hashimoto, Seiji; Diaz, Cristobal; Mareckova, Katarina; Diaz, Luis; Kjeldsen, Peter; Monni, Suvi; Faaij, Andre; Gao, Qingxian; Zhang, Tianzhu; Ahmed, Mohammed Abdelrafie; Sutamihardja, R T M; Gregory, Robert

    2008-02-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from post-consumer waste and wastewater are a small contributor (about 3%) to total global anthropogenic GHG emissions. Emissions for 2004-2005 totalled 1.4 Gt CO2-eq year(-1) relative to total emissions from all sectors of 49 Gt CO2-eq year(-1) [including carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and F-gases normalized according to their 100-year global warming potentials (GWP)]. The CH4 from landfills and wastewater collectively accounted for about 90% of waste sector emissions, or about 18% of global anthropogenic methane emissions (which were about 14% of the global total in 2004). Wastewater N2O and CO2 from the incineration of waste containing fossil carbon (plastics; synthetic textiles) are minor sources. Due to the wide range of mature technologies that can mitigate GHG emissions from waste and provide public health, environmental protection, and sustainable development co-benefits, existing waste management practices can provide effective mitigation of GHG emissions from this sector. Current mitigation technologies include landfill gas recovery, improved landfill practices, and engineered wastewater management. In addition, significant GHG generation is avoided through controlled composting, state-of-the-art incineration, and expanded sanitation coverage. Reduced waste generation and the exploitation of energy from waste (landfill gas, incineration, anaerobic digester biogas) produce an indirect reduction of GHG emissions through the conservation of raw materials, improved energy and resource efficiency, and fossil fuel avoidance. Flexible strategies and financial incentives can expand waste management options to achieve GHG mitigation goals; local technology decisions are influenced by a variety of factors such as waste quantity and characteristics, cost and financing issues, infrastructure requirements including available land area, collection and transport considerations, and regulatory constraints

  19. An integrated multi-parameter monitoring approach for the quantification and mitigation of the climate change impact on the coasts of Eastern Crete, S. Aegean Sea (Project AKTAIA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghionis, George; Alexandrakis, George; Karditsa, Aikaterini; Sifnioti, Dafni; Vousdoukas, Michalis; Andreadis, Olympos; Petrakis, Stelios; Poulos, Serafim; Velegrakis, Adonis; Kampanis, Nikolaos; Lipakis, Michalis

    2014-05-01

    associated sediment transport and beach morphodynamics, calibrated with in situ data, is used to predict beach response and vulnerability to different climate change scenarios. Finally, the socio-economic impact of the climate change on the coastal zone will be assessed and a management protocol for the coastal zone and for the mitigation of the climate change impact will be developed. The ultimate scope of the project is to benefit the society by providing current and high quality information on the consequences of the climate change, especially those related to sea-level rise, and on the available protection and mitigation measures. In addition, the technological product will help in the proper planning of the required actions and technical interventions, reducing the need for costly, incomplete and frequently redundant localized studies and the risk of unsuccessful interventions. Acknowledgements The project is supported by the Action "Cooperation 2007-2013" (09SYN-31-711 "AKTAIA") of the Operational Program "Competitiveness and Entrepreneurship" co-funded by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) and the General Secretariat for Research and Technology (Hellenic Ministry of Education).

  20. Climate Change and Poverty Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Simon

    2011-08-15

    Climate change will make it increasingly difficult to achieve and sustain development goals. This is largely because climate effects on poverty remain poorly understood, and poverty reduction strategies do not adequately support climate resilience. Ensuring effective development in the face of climate change requires action on six fronts: investing in a stronger climate and poverty evidence base; applying the learning about development effectiveness to how we address adaptation needs; supporting nationally derived, integrated policies and programmes; including the climate-vulnerable poor in developing strategies; and identifying how mitigation strategies can also reduce poverty and enable adaptation.

  1. Promotion of renewable energy to mitigate impact of heavy use of carbon energy on society and climate change in Central Sub-Saharan Africa remote areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenfack, Joseph; Bignom, Blaise

    2015-04-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa owns important renewable energy potential and is still heavily using carbon energy. This is having a negative impact on the climate and on the environment. Given the local cost of carbon energy, the purchase power of people, the availability and the reserve of carbon energy in the area, this resource is being heavily used. This practice is harmful to the climate and is also resulting on poor effort to promote renewable energy in remote areas. The important renewable energy potential is still suffering from poor development. The purpose of this paper is among other things aiming at showing the rate of carbon energy use and its potential impact on climate and environment. We will also ensure that the renewable energy resources of Central Sub-Saharan Africa are known and are subject to be used optimally to help mitigate climate change. After showing some negative impacts of carbon energy used in the area, the work also suggests actions to promote and sustain the development of renewable energy. Based on the knowledge of the Central African energy sector, this paper will identify actions for reduce access to carbon energy and improved access to sustainable, friendly, affordable energy services to users as well as a significant improvement of energy infrastructure and the promotion of energy efficiency. We will show all type of carbon energy used, the potential for solar, biomass and hydro while showing where available the level of development. After a swot analysis of the situation, identified obstacles for the promotion of clean energy will be targeted. Finally, suggestions will be made to help the region develop a vision aiming at developing good clean energy policy to increase the status of renewable energy and better contribute to fight against climate change. Cameroon case study will be examined as illustration. Analysis will be made from data collected in the field. |End Text|

  2. Economic analysis of climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Vojtíšek, Petr

    2012-01-01

    The bachelor thesis themed “Economic Analysis of Climate Change” focuses on the climate change from an economical point of view. The theoretical part sums up the basic facts about climate change, go through the most important social, environmental and economic impacts, main opinions about the climate change and also the main ideas of the mitigation and adaptation processes. The analyses tries to give the climate a monetary value with a use of non-market method to find out how much would be st...

  3. Renewable Energies and Enhanced Energy Efficiencies: Mitigation/Adaptation Measures to Climate Change Impacts on Cyprus and in the Eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Manfred

    2010-05-01

    The Eastern Mediterranean in general and Cyprus in particular are considered "hot spots" of future climate change. This will become manifest through an increase in the number and duration of drought events and extended hot-spells. The need to cope with the impacts of climate change will lead to enhanced requirements for cooling of private and public housing and growing demands for potable water derived from seawater desalination. This in turn will cause increasing pressures on electricity production and will result in additional strain on the energy sector in the region. For Cyprus, the current electricity production is entirely based on fossil-fuel fired power plants. However, the use of conventional energy sources is clearly an undesirable option. It enhances the economic burden on energy consumers and at the same time increases Cyprus' dependency on external providers of petroleum products. Moreover, it leads to growing emissions of carbon dioxide and thereby worsens Cyprus' already challenged greenhouse gas emission budget. While current emissions amount to about 9.9 Mill. t of CO2, the total allowance according to EU regulations lies at 5.5 Mill. t. The current building stock on Cyprus lacks basic measures for energy efficiency. This is particularly noteworthy with regard to insufficient insulation of buildings, which causes significant amounts of energy to be expanded for cooling. In light of these facts, an increased use of renewable energies and measures to enhance energy efficiencies in the built environment constitute important elements of a stringent and effective mitigation/adaptation strategy to climate change. The Eastern Mediterranean is among the most suitable location for the utilization of solar energy in Europe. A global direct normal irradiance of more than 1 800 kWh/m2 on Cyprus offers a renewable electricity potential of app. 20 to 23 TWh/yr when concentrated solar power (CSP) technology is employed. With regard to enhanced energy efficiency

  4. Climate Change: Basic Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are here: EPA Home Climate Change Basic Information Climate Change: Basic Information On This Page Climate change ... We can make a difference How is the climate changing in the U.S.? Observations across the United ...

  5. Climate Mitigation Versus Agriculture in the Tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAfee, K.

    2011-12-01

    Significant new drivers of land-use change in the tropics are market-based strategies for climate-change mitigation and biodiversity conservation. These strategies are based on the putative monetary values of new commodities: genetic resources and ecosystem services, especially carbon sequestration services by forests. Payments for Ecosystem Services projects are expanding in Latin America, Asia, and some parts of Africa, promising a 'triple-win' for nature, the private sector, and the poor. Analysis of Mexico's national PES program and review of a growing body of PES case studies, however, reveal a pattern of conflict between poverty alleviation and other social goals, on the one hand, and the market-efficiency criteria that frame many PES projects, on the other hand. This poses a warning for more ambitious, global schemes based on similar principles, such as Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD). Additionally, transnational trade in carbon offsets, seen as a source of finance for PES and for REDD, puts climate policy on a collision course with agriculture, particularly given the context of closing land frontiers and international 'land-grabbing' claims on land for food-export plantations. Because market-based PES and REDD tend to target small- and medium-scale farmers, they are likely to constrain agriculture for domestic needs in regions where food security is already weak. Land-use governance based on conservation-by-commercialization can be compared to alternative approaches that link greening, food production, and social equity in a more integrated way, by combining scientific and local ecological and agroecological knowledge with strategies for rural revitalization and development.

  6. Climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The indicators in this bulletin are part of a national set of environmental indicators designed to provide a profile of the state of Canada's environment and measure progress towards sustainable development. A review of potential impacts on Canada shows that such changes would have wide-ranging implications for its economic sectors, social well-being including human health, and ecological systems. This document looks at the natural state of greenhouse gases which help regulate the Earth's climate. Then it looks at human influence and what is being done about it. The document then examines some indicators: Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel use; global atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases; and global and Canadian temperature variations

  7. Effects of agricultural management on productivity, soil quality and climate change mitigation - evaluations within the EU Project (FP 7) CATCH-C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Heide; Schlatter, Norman; Haslmayr, Hans-Peter; Baumgarten, Andreas; ten Berge, Hein

    2014-05-01

    Soils are the main basis for the production of food and feed. Furthermore, the production of biomass for energy and material use is becoming increasingly important. Goals for an optimal management of agricultural soils are, on the one hand, the maintenance or improvement of soil quality and, on the other hand, high productivity and climate change mitigation (reduction of GHG emissions and C sequestration). Thus, the EU project CATCH-C aims to evaluate current management practices concerning these three goals based on indicators derived from long-term field experiments of the project partners and from literature data. A maximum of 72 indicators for productivity, soil quality and the potential for carbon storage in the soil and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions were selected by the project partners. As indicators for productivity, crop yields are determined in almost all field trials. The content of soil organic carbon (SOC) is an indicator for chemical, physical and biological soil quality and was analysed in the topsoil in all field trials. Less data exist for SOC contents in the subsoil. An important physical soil quality indicator is the bulk density, however, it is not determined in all field trials of the project partners. Therefore, information on SOC stocks, with relevance to carbon storage and climate change mitigation, is not available in all field experiments. Other physical indicators, such as penetration resistance, runoff coefficient and soil losses are evaluated. Essential biological indicators are microbial biomass and the number and weight of earthworms, which have been tested in several field trials. The evaluation of all these indicators will help to select "best management practices" and to address trade-offs and synergies for all indicators under consideration of major European farm type zones. CATCH-C is funded within the 7th Framework Programme for Research, Technological Development and Demonstration, Theme 2 - Biotechnologies

  8. GETTING INDIGENOUS PEOPLES AND MARGINALIZED POPULATIONS TO SHARE TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE FOR CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION AND MITIGATION: CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES TO WATER AND FOOD SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwasi Frimpong-Mensah

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The depth of traditional knowledge found in indigenous and marginalized communities dictates the extent to which their populations adapt to and mitigates climate change much as the intactness of biodiversity of the agro-ecosystems on which they depend does. Often, a lot more is done to ensure the intactness of biodiversity than the effective sharing of traditional knowledge in a quest to empower indigenous and marginalized populations to adapt to and mitigate climate change. But the latter is equally important as the former, and the two ought to go close together in empowering indigenous and marginalized populations. Nonetheless, the effective sharing of a dynamic commodity as traditional knowledge requires an all inclusive approach which involves consultation with all groups as the leaving out or the limited participation of any group could undermine the sharing process. However, there are issues that arise in ensuring an all-inclusive traditional knowledge sharing process. Issues may be viewed as challenges or opportunities to the effective sharing of traditional knowledge, and arise as a result of cultural, political, economic, legal, geographical, technical, historical, and institutional differences (subtle as they may be within/among indigenous and marginalized groups. Thus, this paper captures these challenges and opportunities that characterize the all-inclusive sharing of traditional knowledge within/among the different groups in indigenous and marginalized populations. And, recommends the best way forward by using competent actors who are self-motivated to bring all their competences to the facilitation of all-inclusive traditional knowledge sharing within/among the different groups for oneness of voice of indigenous and marginalized communities.

  9. Energy use in Kenya: advancement of alternative energy sources to mitigate climate change through Activities Implemented Jointly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogola, J.S.; Omulo, M.A. [Climate Network Africa, Nairobi (Cayman Islands)

    1998-08-01

    The main energy sources in Kenya are biomass, hydropower and geothermal. The source of biomass fuel includes fuelwood, crop residues and animal waste; woodfuel processed through carbonization; biogas from animal waste processed through fermentation; power alcohol and waste-wood from industries. Woodfuel in 1992 provided about 70% of Kenya`s total energy supply. The annual energy consumption in Kenya is about 7 million tonnes of oil equivalent. The main consumers of energy are domestic household, 60%; transport and manufacturing, 13% each, agriculture, 10%; and commercial sector, 6%. Petroleum fuels account for about 20% of the net energy and meets about 86% of the industrial energy demand. The ability to produce hydropower is sensitive to climate-induced water supply changes as power generation turbines operates within a small range of water level variability. Global warming is likely to increase precipitation in the highlands of Kenya. This is bound to affect the five hydropower generating plants along Tana River which contribute about 78% to the national electricity grid. However, increased exploitation of the geothermal resources at Olkaria, Eburru and Lake Bogoria could alleviate the situation once the targeted output of 1000 MW is achieved. The paper carries out a review of the potential energy sources in the country and proposes a country study on the use of renewable sources of energy particularly among the rural population who currently rely heavily on fuelwood as a source of energy. The paper finally proposes specific projects for the AIJ undertaking. (author)

  10. Changing climate, changing frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We show development of flood policy frames in context of climate change attention. ► Rising attention on climate change influences traditional flood policy framing. ► The new framing employs global-scale scientific climate change knowledge. ► With declining attention, framing disregards climate change, using local knowledge. ► We conclude that frames function as sensemaking devices selectively using knowledge. -- Abstract: Water management and particularly flood defence have a long history of collective action in low-lying countries like the Netherlands. The uncertain but potentially severe impacts of the recent climate change issue (e.g. sea level rise, extreme river discharges, salinisation) amplify the wicked and controversial character of flood safety policy issues. Policy proposals in this area generally involve drastic infrastructural works and long-term investments. They face the difficult challenge of framing problems and solutions in a publicly acceptable manner in ever changing circumstances. In this paper, we analyse and compare (1) how three key policy proposals publicly frame the flood safety issue, (2) the knowledge referred to in the framing and (3) how these frames are rhetorically connected or disconnected as statements in a long-term conversation. We find that (1) framings of policy proposals differ in the way they depict the importance of climate change, the relevant timeframe and the appropriate governance mode; (2) knowledge is selectively mobilised to underpin the different frames and (3) the frames about these proposals position themselves against the background of the previous proposals through rhetorical connections and disconnections. Finally, we discuss how this analysis hints at the importance of processes of powering and puzzling that lead to particular framings towards the public at different historical junctures

  11. Invited review: Contemporary environmental issues: a review of the dairy industry's role in climate change and air quality and the potential of mitigation through improved production efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Place, S E; Mitloehner, F M

    2010-08-01

    Environmental concerns involving the dairy industry are shifting from an exclusive focus on water quality to encompass climate change and air quality issues. The dairy industry's climate change air emissions of concern are the greenhouse gases methane and nitrous oxide. With regard to air quality, the dairy industry's major emission contributions are particulate matter, volatile organic compounds, and ammonia. The emissions of these compounds from dairies can be variable because of a number of factors including weather conditions, animal type, management, and nutrition. To evaluate and compare emissions across the diverse operations that comprise the US dairy industry, emissions should be reported per unit of output (e.g., per kg of 3.5% fat-corrected milk). Accurately modeling emissions with models that can predict the complex bio-geochemical processes responsible for emissions is critical to assess current emissions inventories and develop mitigation strategies. Improving the dairy industry's production efficiency (e.g., improvements in management, nutrition, reproduction, and cow comfort) is an effective way to reduce emissions per unit of milk. With accurate process-based models, emissions reductions due to improved production efficiency could be reported per unit of milk and predicted on a farm-to-farm basis. PMID:20655409

  12. Reservoir Systems in Changing Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, W.; Tung, C.; Tai, C.

    2007-12-01

    Climate change may cause more climate variability and further results in more frequent extreme hydrological events which may greatly influence reservoir¡¦s abilities to provide service, such as water supply and flood mitigation, and even danger reservoir¡¦s safety. Some local studies have identified that climate change may cause more flood in wet period and less flow in dry period in Taiwan. To mitigate climate change impacts, more reservoir space, i.e. less storage, may be required to store higher flood in wet periods, while more reservoir storage may be required to supply water for dry periods. The goals to strengthen adaptive capacity of water supply and flood mitigation are conflict under climate change. This study will focus on evaluating the impacts of climate change on reservoir systems. The evaluation procedure includes hydrological models, a reservoir water balance model, and a water supply system dynamics model. The hydrological models are used to simulate reservoir inflows under different climate conditions. Future climate scenarios are derived from several GCMs. Then, the reservoir water balance model is developed to calculate reservoir¡¦s storage and outflows according to the simulated inflows and operational rules. The ability of flood mitigation is also evaluated. At last, those outflows are further input to the system dynamics model to assess whether the goal of water supply can still be met. To mitigate climate change impacts, the implementing adaptation strategies will be suggested with the principles of risk management. Besides, uncertainties of this study will also be analyzed. The Feitsui reservoir system in northern Taiwan is chosen as a case study.

  13. Renewable Energy Production from Municipal Solid Waste to Mitigate Climate Change: A Spatially Explicit Assessment for Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, S. T.; Leduc, S; F. Kraxner

    2015-01-01

    The utilization of municipal solid waste (MSW) as a renewable resource could overcome waste disposal issues, generate power for fossil fuel displacement, and mitigate CO2 emissions from landfill. However, the availability of waste feedstock varies with the effectiveness of waste management while the profitability and the environmental impact are mostly dependent on the conversion technology, plant location, and plant capacity. This study aims to evaluate the complexity of waste-to-energy (WTE...

  14. Can adaptation to climate variability and change be combined with mitigation of emissions at the local level?

    OpenAIRE

    Neupane, Bijaya

    2013-01-01

    This research investigated how community forest user groups at two sites in Nepal adapt with local weather events and climate variability, and the major factors that affected adaptive capacity of local people. Besides, this research identified to what extent the community forests could help in managing climate variability that impact on sustainable livelihood by improving the adaptive capacity of local people. This study also quantified the total above ground carbon sequestrated by two commun...

  15. Climate change and future scenarios

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ač, Alexander; Krupková, Lenka; Marek, Michal V.

    Volume 1. 1. Brno: Global Change Research Centre, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v. v. i, 2015 - (Urban, O.; Klem, K.), s. 8-24 ISBN 978-80-87902-14-1 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : climate change * global climate change * ecosystems * tipping points * adaptation * mitigation * complexity Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology

  16. Energy and Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-06-15

    Climate change, and more specifically the carbon emissions from energy production and use, is one of the more vexing problems facing society today. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has just completed its latest assessment on the state of the science of climate change, on the potential consequences related to this change, and on the mitigation steps that could be implemented beginning now, particularly in the energy sector. Few people now doubt that anthropogenic climate change is real or that steps must be taken to deal with it. The World Energy Council has long recognized this serious concern and that in its role as the world's leading international energy organization, it can address the concerns of how to provide adequate energy for human well-being while sustaining our overall quality of life. It has now performed and published 15 reports and working papers on this subject. This report examines what has worked and what is likely to work in the future in this regard and provides policymakers with a practical roadmap to a low-carbon future and the steps needed to achieve it.

  17. Climate change and developing country interests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Chinowsky, Paul; Fant, Charles;

    We consider the interplay of climate change impacts, global mitigation policies, and the interests of developing countries to 2050. Focusing on Malawi, Mozambique, and Zambia, we employ a structural approach to biophysical and economic modeling that incorporates climate uncertainty and allows for...... developing countries in effective global mitigation policies, even in the relatively near term, with the likelihood of much larger benefits post 2050....... rigorous comparison of climate, biophysical, and economic outcomes across global mitigation regimes. We find that effective global mitigation policies generate two sources of benefit. First, less distorted climate outcomes result in typically more favourable economic outcomes. Second, successful global...

  18. Climate change: An inconvenient maybe

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Gonzalo

    2008-01-01

    The subject of Climate Change is here to stay for at least the rest of the 21st century. The extent to which climate change can be expected; the importance in its determination of anthropogenic factors, relative to natural causes; its impact on world agriculture, migration patterns and economic growth; the costs involved and the best practices to mitigate the consequences, are all still subject to great controversy and remain in the realm of the speculative, in spite of specific matters where...

  19. Cinematic climate change, a promising perspective on climate change communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakellari, Maria

    2015-10-01

    Previous research findings display that after having seen popular climate change films, people became more concerned, more motivated and more aware of climate change, but changes in behaviors were short-term. This article performs a meta-analysis of three popular climate change films, The Day after Tomorrow (2005), An Inconvenient Truth (2006), and The Age of Stupid (2009), drawing on research in social psychology, human agency, and media effect theory in order to formulate a rationale about how mass media communication shapes our everyday life experience. This article highlights the factors with which science blends in the reception of the three climate change films and expands the range of options considered in order to encourage people to engage in climate change mitigation actions. PMID:24916195

  20. Climate adaptation as mitigation: the case of agricultural investments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobell, David B.; Baldos, Uris Lantz C.; Hertel, Thomas W.

    2013-03-01

    Successful adaptation of agriculture to ongoing climate changes would help to maintain productivity growth and thereby reduce pressure to bring new lands into agriculture. In this paper we investigate the potential co-benefits of adaptation in terms of the avoided emissions from land use change. A model of global agricultural trade and land use, called SIMPLE, is utilized to link adaptation investments, yield growth rates, land conversion rates, and land use emissions. A scenario of global adaptation to offset negative yield impacts of temperature and precipitation changes to 2050, which requires a cumulative 225 billion USD of additional investment, results in 61 Mha less conversion of cropland and 15 Gt carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) fewer emissions by 2050. Thus our estimates imply an annual mitigation co-benefit of 0.35 GtCO2e yr-1 while spending 15 per tonne CO2e of avoided emissions. Uncertainty analysis is used to estimate a 5-95% confidence interval around these numbers of 0.25-0.43 Gt and 11-22 per tonne CO2e. A scenario of adaptation focused only on Sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America, while less costly in aggregate, results in much smaller mitigation potentials and higher per tonne costs. These results indicate that although investing in the least developed areas may be most desirable for the main objectives of adaptation, it has little net effect on mitigation because production gains are offset by greater rates of land clearing in the benefited regions, which are relatively low yielding and land abundant. Adaptation investments in high yielding, land scarce regions such as Asia and North America are more effective for mitigation. To identify data needs, we conduct a sensitivity analysis using the Morris method (Morris 1991 Technometrics 33 161-74). The three most critical parameters for improving estimates of mitigation potential are (in descending order) the emissions factors for converting land to agriculture, the price elasticity of land supply

  1. Business Case for Energy Efficiency in Support of Climate Change Mitigation, Economic and Societal Benefits in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bojda, Nicholas; Ke, Jing; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; E. Letschert, Virginie; E. McMahon, James; McNeil, Michael A.

    2011-06-01

    This study seeks to provide policymakers and other stakeholders with actionable information towards a road map for reducing energy consumption in the most cost-effective way. A major difference between the current study and some others is that we focus on individual equipment types that might be the subject of policies - such as labels, energy performance standards, and incentives - to affect market transformation in the short term, and on high-efficiency technology options that are available today. The approach of the study is to assess the impact of short-term actions on long-term impacts. “Short term” market transformation is assumed to occur by 2015, while “long-term” energy demand reduction impacts are assessed in 2030. In the intervening years, most but not all of the equipment studied will turn over completely. The 15-year time frame is significant for many products however, indicating that delay of implementation postpones impacts such as net economic savings and mitigation of emissions of carbon dioxide. Such delays would result in putting in place energy-wasting technologies, postponing improvement until the end of their service life, or potentially resulting in expensive investment either in additional energy supplies or in early replacement to achieve future energy or emissions reduction targets.

  2. The monitoring, evaluation, reporting, and verification of climate change mitigation projects: Discussion of issues and methodologies and review of existing protocols and guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vine, E.; Sathaye, J.

    1997-12-01

    Because of concerns with the growing threat of global climate change from increasing emissions of greenhouse gases, the US and other countries are implementing, by themselves or in cooperation with one or more other nations (i.e., joint implementation), climate change mitigation projects. These projects will reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions or sequester carbon, and will also result in non-GHG impacts (i.e., environmental, economic, and social impacts). Monitoring, evaluating, reporting, and verifying (MERV) guidelines are needed for these projects in order to accurately determine their net GHG, and other, benefits. Implementation of MERV guidelines is also intended to: (1) increase the reliability of data for estimating GHG benefits; (2) provide real-time data so that mid-course corrections can be made; (3) introduce consistency and transparency across project types and reporters; and (4) enhance the credibility of the projects with stakeholders. In this paper, the authors review the issues and methodologies involved in MERV activities. In addition, they review protocols and guidelines that have been developed for MERV of GHG emissions in the energy and non-energy sectors by governments, nongovernmental organizations, and international agencies. They comment on their relevance and completeness, and identify several topics that future protocols and guidelines need to address, such as (1) establishing a credible baseline; (2) accounting for impacts outside project boundaries through leakage; (3) net GHG reductions and other impacts; (4) precision of measurement; (5) MERV frequency; (6) persistence (sustainability) of savings, emissions reduction, and carbon sequestration; (7) reporting by multiple project participants; (8) verification of GHG reduction credits; (9) uncertainty and risk; (10) institutional capacity in conducting MERV; and (11) the cost of MERV.

  3. Climatic change; Le Changement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perthuis, Ch. de [Universite de Paris-Dauphine, 75 - Paris (France); Caisse des depots, Mission climat, 75 - Paris (France); Delbosc, A. [Caisse des depots, Mission climat, 75 - Paris (France)

    2009-07-01

    Received ideas about climatic change are a mixture of right and wrong information. The authors use these ideas as starting points to shade light on what we really know and what we believe to know. The book is divided in three main chapters: should we act in front of climatic change? How can we efficiently act? How can we equitably act? For each chapter a series of received ideas is analyzed in order to find those which can usefully contribute to mitigate the environmental, economical and social impacts of climatic change. (J.S.)

  4. Changing Climate Is Affecting Agriculture in the U.S.

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Regional Hubs to Help Agriculture, Forestry Mitigate the Impacts of a Changing Climate (February 5, 2014) The following two assessments project climate impacts over the coming years: Climate Change and Agriculture ...

  5. Climate Change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    According to the National Academy of Sciences in American,the Earth's surface temperature has risen by about 1 degree Fahrenheit in the past century, with accelerated warming during the past two decades. There is new and stronger evidence that most of the warming over the last 50 years is attributable to human activities.Human activities have altered the chemical composition of the atmosphere through the buildup of greenhouse gases-primarily carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide. The heat-trapping property of these gases is undisputed although uncertainties exist about exactly how earth's climate responds to them.

  6. Business Case for Energy Efficiency in Support of Climate Change Mitigation, Economic and Societal Benefits in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeil, Michael A.; Bojda, Nicholas; Ke, Jing; Qin, Yining; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Fridley, David; Letschert, Virginie E.; McMahon, James E.

    2011-08-18

    This study seeks to provide policymakers and other stakeholders with actionable information towards a road map for reducing energy consumption cost-effectively. We focus on individual end use equipment types (hereafter referred to as appliance groups) that might be the subject of policies - such as labels, energy performance standards, and incentives - to affect market transformation in the short term, and on high-efficiency technology options that are available today. As the study title suggests, the high efficiency or Business Case scenario is constructed around a model of cost-effective efficiency improvement. Our analysis demonstrates that a significant reduction in energy consumption and emissions is achievable at net negative cost, that is, as a profitable investment for consumers. Net savings are calculated assuming no additional costs to energy consumption such as carbon taxes. Savings relative to the base case as calculated in this way is often referred to as 'economic savings potential'. Chinese energy demand has grown dramatically over the last few decades. While heavy industry still plays a dominant role in greenhouse gas emissions, demand from residential and commercial buildings has also seen rapid growth in percentage terms. In the residential sector this growth is driven by internal migration from the countryside to cities. Meanwhile, income in both urban and rural subsectors allows ownership of major appliances. While residences are still relatively small by U.S. or European standards, nearly all households own a refrigerator, a television and an air conditioner. In the future, ownership rates are not expected to grow as much as in other developing countries, because they are already close to saturation. However, the gradual turnover of equipment in the world's largest consumer market provides a huge opportunity for greenhouse gas mitigation. In addition to residences, commercial floor space has expanded rapidly in recent years, and

  7. Analysis of the carbon sequestration costs of afforestation and reforestation agroforestry practices and the use of cost curves to evaluate their potential for implementation of climate change mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Arturo Balderas [Environment Department, University of York, YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Instituto Tecnologico y de Estudios Superiores de Occidente (ITESO), Tlaquepaque CP (Mexico); Technology and Sustainable Development Section, Center for Clean Technology and Environmental Policy, University of Twente/CSTM, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Marchant, Rob; Smart, James C.R. [Environment Department, University of York, YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Lovett, Jon C. [Environment Department, University of York, YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Technology and Sustainable Development Section, Center for Clean Technology and Environmental Policy, University of Twente/CSTM, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Tipper, Richard [Ecometrica, Edinburgh, EH9 1PJ (United Kingdom)

    2010-01-15

    Carbon sequestration in forest sinks is an important strategy to remove greenhouse gases and to mitigate climate change; however its implementation has been limited under the Clean Development Mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol which has not created the incentives for widespread implementation. The objective of this paper is to analyze the sequestration costs of agroforestry afforestation and reforestation projects (ARPs) following a partial market equilibrium using average cost curves and economic break even analysis to identify the supply costs. The modelling done in this work contrasts the voluntary and clean development mechanism transaction costs. Data is based on the voluntary project, Scolel Te, being implemented in Mexico. Cost curves are developed for seven different sequestration options considering transaction and implementation costs; information from agricultural production in Chiapas Mexico is used to integrate opportunity costs of two agroforestry practices suggesting that sequestration costs may follow a 'U' shape, with an initial reduction due to economies of scale and a subsequent increase caused by high opportunity costs. The widespread implementation of agroforestry options not requiring complete land conversion (e.g. living fences and coffee under shade) might be cost effective strategies not generating high opportunity costs. Results also suggest that payments in the early years of the project and lower transaction costs favour the development of ARPs in the voluntary market especially in marginal rural areas with high discount rates. (author)

  8. Managing Climate Change Risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, R. [CSIRO Atmospheric Research, PMB1 Aspendale, Victoria 3195 (Australia)

    2003-07-01

    Issues of uncertainty, scale and delay between action and response mean that 'dangerous' climate change is best managed within a risk assessment framework that evolves as new information is gathered. Risk can be broadly defined as the combination of likelihood and consequence; the latter measured as vulnerability to greenhouse-induced climate change. The most robust way to assess climate change damages in a probabilistic framework is as the likelihood of critical threshold exceedance. Because vulnerability is dominated by local factors, global vulnerability is the aggregation of many local impacts being forced beyond their coping ranges. Several case studies, generic sea level rise and temperature, coral bleaching on the Great Barrier Reef and water supply in an Australian catchment, are used to show how local risk assessments can be assessed then expressed as a function of global warming. Impacts treated thus can be aggregated to assess global risks consistent with Article 2 of the UNFCCC. A 'proof of concept' example is then used to show how the stabilisation of greenhouse gases can constrain the likelihood of exceeding critical thresholds at both the both local and global scale. This analysis suggests that even if the costs of reducing greenhouse gas emissions and the benefits of avoiding climate damages can be estimated, the likelihood of being able to meet a cost-benefit target is limited by both physical and socio-economic uncertainties. In terms of managing climate change risks, adaptation will be most effective at reducing vulnerability likely to occur at low levels of warming. Successive efforts to mitigate greenhouse gases will reduce the likelihood of reaching levels of global warming from the top down, with the highest potential temperatures being avoided first, irrespective of contributing scientific uncertainties. This implies that the first cuts in emissions will always produce the largest economic benefits in terms of avoided

  9. Linking a Dynamic CGE Model and a Microsimulation Model: Climate Change Mitigation Policies and Income Distribution in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Hielke Buddelmeyer; Nicolas Hérault; Guyonne Kalb; Mark van Zijll de Jong

    2009-01-01

    This paper extends the 'top-down' framework, introduced by Robilliard et al. (2001), to link a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model to a microsimulation model. The proposed approach allows the linking of a microsimulation model to a dynamic, and not simply a static, CGE model by enabling the microsimulation model to reproduce the predicted long-term changes in the base population. The approach relies on altering the sample weights in order to reproduce population projections and the cha...

  10. 全球长期减排目标与碳排放权分配原则%Long-Term Climate Change Mitigation Target and Carbon Permit Allocation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何建坤; 陈文颖; 滕飞; 刘滨

    2009-01-01

    Long-term climate change mitigation target would highly constrain global carbon emissions in future.Carbon permit allocation under the long-term mitigation target would impact development space for all countries,involving the fundamental interests.Some developed countries advocate the principle of per capita emission convergence while China and other developing countries propose the principle of convergence of accumulative emission per capita to consider historical responsibility.If the latter is used for carbon permit allocation,CO_2 emissions of developed countries since the industrial revolution have far exceeded their allocated permits.Developed countries'high per capita emissions at present and for quite a long period in future would continue to occupy emission spaces for developing countries.Therefore,developed countries must commit deeper emission reduction rate for the next commitment period at the Copenhagen conference in order to achieve the emission pathway under the long-term emission reduction target,and to save necessary development space for developing countries.At the same time,developed countries should provide adequate financial and technical suppoa as compensation for their overuse of the development space for developing countries,to improve developing countries'capacity to respond to climate change under the framework of sustainable development.On the one hand,we should insist on the principle of equity to obtain reasonable emission space for our country in the international climate change negotiation;while on the other hand,we should enhance development toward low-carbon economy to protect global environment and to achieve sustainable development.%全球长期减排目标将对世界未来的碳排放形成严重制约,减排义务的分担原则涉及各国的发展空间,事关根本利益.部分发达国家倡导人均排放趋同原则,回避发达国家的历史责任,中国等发展中国家提出人均累积排放趋同原则,强调公

  11. Climate variability and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes of variability with climate change are likely to have a substantial impact on vegetation and society, rivaling the importance of changes in the mean values themselves. A variety of paleoclimate and future climate simulations performed with the GISS global climate model is used to assess how the variabilities of temperature and precipitation are altered as climate warms or cools. In general, as climate warms, temperature variability decreases due to reductions in the latitudinal temperature gradient and precipitation variability increases together with the intensity of the hydrologic cycle. If future climate projections are accurate, the reduction in temperature variability will be minimized by the rapid change in mean temperatures, but the hydrologic variability will be amplified by increased evapotranspiration. Greater hydrologic variability would appear to pose a potentially severe problem for the next century. 19 refs.; 3 figs.; 2 tabs

  12. Climate variability and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes of variability with climate change are likely to have a substantial impact on vegetation and society, rivaling the importance of changes in the mean values themselves. A variety of paleoclimate and future climate simulations performed with the GISS global climate model is used to assess how the variabilities of temperature and precipitation are altered as climate warms or cools. In general, as climate warms, temperature variability decreases due to reductions in the latitudinal temperature gradient and precipitation variability increases together with the intensity of the hydrologic cycle. If future climate projections are accurate, the reduction in temperature variability will be minimized by the rapid change in mean temperatures, but the hydrologic variability will be amplified by increased evapotranspiration. Greater hydrologic variability would appear to pose a potentially severe problem for the next century

  13. Forest Policies Addressing Climate Change in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    As a developing country with a large population and a fragile ecological environment, China is particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change. Beginning with the Rio Conference of 1992 China has played a progressively enhanced role in combating climate change. A series of policies and measures to address climate change have been taken in the overall context of national sustainable development strategy, making positive contributions to the mitigation and adaptation to climate change, among ...