Sample records for cliffs

  1. Cliffs User Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Tolkova, Elena


    Cliffs is an open-source relative of MOST (Method Of Splitting Tsunamis) numerical model, implemented as described in (Tolkova, 2014, Pure and Appl. Geophys., 171(9), 2289-2314). Cliffs features: Shallow-Water approximation with an option to manipulate numerical dispersion; Use of Cartesian or spherical (lon/lat) coordinates; 1D and 2D configurations; Structured co-located grid with (optionally) varying spacing; Runup on land; Initial conditions or boundary forcing; Grid nesting with one-way coupling; Parallelized with OpenMP; NetCDF format of input/output data. This user manual accompanies Cliffs code distribution.

  2. Advances in Activity Cliff Research. (United States)

    Dimova, Dilyana; Bajorath, Jürgen


    Activity cliffs, i.e. similar compounds with large potency differences, are of interest from a chemical and informatics viewpoint; as a source of structure-activity relationship information, for compound optimization, and activity prediction. Herein, recent highlights of activity cliff research are discussed including studies that have further extended our understanding of activity cliffs, yielded unprecedented insights, or paved the way for practical applications.

  3. Activity cliff networks for medicinal chemistry. (United States)

    Stumpfe, Dagmar; Bajorath, Jürgen


    Network representations are widely used in bioinformatics but have only been little explored in chemistry. Thus far, only a few attempts have been made to generate and analyze compound networks. Among these are the first activity cliff networks. In medicinal chemistry, activity cliffs are focal points of structure-activity relationships (SAR) analysis. Activity cliffs have generally been defined as pairs of structurally similar or analogous active compounds that have a large difference in potency against their target. However, most activity cliffs are not formed in isolation but in a coordinated manner involving multiple highly and weakly potent compounds. Recently, a comprehensive activity cliff network has been generated for current public domain bioactive compounds, hence providing a first global view of activity cliff formation. The design of activity cliff networks is discussed herein. From the global activity cliff network, local networks can be extracted for individual compound activity classes that provide graphical access to high-level SAR information for compound optimization efforts.

  4. 76 FR 1469 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2... (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2... Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC, the licensee, for operation of the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant..., Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant (NUREG-1437, Supplement 1), dated......

  5. A contrasting study: cliff and bank swallows (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of the project was to contrast as population of Cliff Swallows and a population of Bank Swallows. Both populations had nests located in a gravel pit near...

  6. Dynamics of a cliff top dune (United States)

    Rasmussen, K. R.


    Morphological changes during more than 100 years have been investigated for a cliff-top dune complex at Rubjerg at the Danish North Sea coast. Here the lower 50 m of the cliff front is composed of Pleistocene steeply inclined floes of silt and clay with coarse sand in between which gives it a saw-tooth appearance. On top of this the dunes are found for several kilometres along the coastline. Due to erosion by the North Sea the cliff has retreated about 120 m between approximately 1880 and 1970 as indicated from two national surveys, and recent GPS-surveys indicate that erosion is continuing at a similar rate. Nevertheless the cliff top dune complex has survived, but its morphology has undergone some changed. The old maps indicate that around 1880 the dune complex was composed of several up to about 20 m high dunes streamlined in the East-West direction which is parallel to the prevailing wind direction. When protective planting started during the first half of the 20th Century the cliff top dunes gradually merged together forming a narrow, tall ridge parallel to the shore line with the highest part reaching about 90 m near 1970. In 1993 the highest points along the ridge was almost 95 m high, but then the protective planting was considerably reduced and recent annual GPS-surveys indicate that the dunes respond quickly to this by changing their morphology towards the original appearance. It is remarkable that despite the mass wasting caused by the constant erosion of the cliff front the dunes have remained more or less intact. Theoretical studies of hill flow indicate given the proper geometry of the cliff then suspension of even coarse grains can be a very effective agent for carrying sand from the exposed parts of the cliff front to and beyond the cliff-top. Mostly the sand grains are deposited within some hundred meters downwind of the cliff dune while silt is often carried more than 10 km inland. Field observations indicate that where the dislodged floes and

  7. 75 FR 66802 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2... (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2... Regulatory Commission (the Commission) has granted the request of Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC... Operating License Nos. DPR-53 and DPR-69 for the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit......

  8. 76 FR 4391 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC, Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2... (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC, Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2; Exemption 1.0 Background Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC, the licensee, is the holder of Facility Operating License Nos. DPR-53 and DPR-69 which authorizes operation of the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear...

  9. 76 FR 39908 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2... (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2.... DPR-53 and DPR-69, for the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2 (CCNPP), respectively... (ISFSI), currently held by Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC as owner and licensed......

  10. Activity cliffs and activity cliff generators based on chemotype-related activity landscapes. (United States)

    Pérez-Villanueva, Jaime; Méndez-Lucio, Oscar; Soria-Arteche, Olivia; Medina-Franco, José L


    Activity cliffs have large impact in drug discovery; therefore, their detection and quantification are of major importance. This work introduces the metric activity cliff enrichment factor and expands the previously reported activity cliff generator concept by adding chemotype information to representations of the activity landscape. To exemplify these concepts, three molecular databases with multiple biological activities were characterized. Compounds in each database were grouped into chemotype classes. Then, pairwise comparisons of structure similarities and activity differences were calculated for each compound and used to construct chemotype-based structure-activity similarity (SAS) maps. Different landscape distributions among four major regions of the SAS maps were observed for different subsets of molecules grouped in chemotypes. Based on this observation, the activity cliff enrichment factor was calculated to numerically detect chemotypes enriched in activity cliffs. Several chemotype classes were detected having major proportion of activity cliffs than the entire database. In addition, some chemotype classes comprising compounds with smooth structure activity relationships (SAR) were detected. Finally, the activity cliff generator concept was applied to compounds grouped in chemotypes to extract valuable SAR information.

  11. 2012 Cliff Weiss Memorial Essay Contest Winners (United States)

    Techniques: Connecting Education and Careers (J3), 2012


    This article presents the winners of the 2012 Cliff Weiss Memorial Essay Contest. They are Naim Owens from Washington, DC, and Colissa Menke from Warrensburg, Missouri. The 2012 essay topic is "How do you feel CTE prepares individuals, including yourself, for a future career?"

  12. 77 FR 47121 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and 2... (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and 2; Exemption 1.0 Background Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC (the licensee) is the holder of Renewed..., ``Fatigue Management for Nuclear Power Plant Personnel,'' endorses the Nuclear Energy......

  13. Flora of the Orange Cliffs of Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shultz, L.M.; Neely, E.E.; Tuhy, J.S.


    The Orange Cliffs area, an area rich in oil sands deposits and defined here as part of the Colorado Plateau floristic province, harbors approximately 209 species in 123 genera and 49 families. Because of the potential of exploitation of the oil sands deposits in the area, a species checklist was made and a discussion of physical and floristic aspects of the region is given here. The flora is compared statistically to the San Rafael Swell flora, which is also a subset of the Colorado Plateau. They define six vegetation types and three edaphic communities; these are described and mapped. Of eleven endemic plant species in the Orange Cliffs, three are local and rare. Sites for Astragalus nidularius, A. moencoppensis, and Xylorhiza glabriuscula var. linearifolia are discussed and mapped. 24 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

  14. Deriving mechanisms and thresholds for cliff retreat in soft-rock cliffs under changing climates: Rapidly retreating cliffs of the Suffolk coast, UK (United States)

    Brooks, S. M.; Spencer, T.; Boreham, S.


    Understanding changing thresholds and mechanisms for retreat in soft rock cliffs is important under changing climates. This can be achieved through combining detailed field observation, long-term process and morphological monitoring and numerical modelling. The cliffs of the Suffolk coast, southern North Sea have exhibited long-term (1883-2010) recession rates of 3.5 m a- 1, rising to 4.7 m a- 1 in the period 1993-2010. Annual to biannual ground survey data, and the application of GIS techniques to digitised records of changing shoreline position from historic maps and aerial photography, reveal considerable decadal-scale variations in cliff recession, within which are nested inter-annual fluctuations in rates of retreat. Archival datasets on significant periods of onshore winds and their interaction with high water levels (including the incidence of storm surges) and rainstorm events are used to determine thresholds for cliff base erosion and its propagation upwards through the cliff profile. In addition, the ‘GEO-Slope' dynamic coupled hydrology-stability model is used to establish thresholds for cliff face failures driven by variations in rainfall inputs. Retreat mechanisms are complex, governed by cliff geology, both as a primary control on suction loss and through its interaction with basal marine conditions. The study allows a general model of cliff retreat for soft rock cliffs to be put forward, whereby a resistant basal platform is overlain by more erodible, weakly and moderately cemented sands and gravels. In this model, the varying balance between marine and terrestrial forcing factors are reflected in low ( 7 m a- 1) modes of cliff retreat.

  15. The Fiscal Cliff May be Overblown

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cyrus Sanati


    The markets have taken a beating since President Obama trounced Mitt Romney in Tuesday's election. The Dow is down 3% in the last two trading sessions and looks to be headed further south on Friday. While it is true that the markets historically take a dive after an incumbent president wins reelection, this latest drop has many on Wall Street on edge. Forget the weak corporate earnings, the freak hurricane that hit the East Coast and renewed troubles in Europe- no, this is all because of one thing: The looming fiscal cliff. Or that is what we are to believe.

  16. The Activist Decade: Its Influence on Briar Cliff College. (United States)

    Johnson, Patricia

    The influence of the "activist decade" (spanning the early 1960s through the early 1970s) on Briar Cliff College (Iowa), a small midwestern liberal arts college affiliated with the Catholic Church, is discussed. Forces such as racism, the Vietnam War, and student unrest elicited concern and activism at Briar Cliff College, although there…

  17. Predicting coastal cliff erosion using a Bayesian probabilistic model (United States)

    Hapke, C.; Plant, N.


    Regional coastal cliff retreat is difficult to model due to the episodic nature of failures and the along-shore variability of retreat events. There is a growing demand, however, for predictive models that can be used to forecast areas vulnerable to coastal erosion hazards. Increasingly, probabilistic models are being employed that require data sets of high temporal density to define the joint probability density function that relates forcing variables (e.g. wave conditions) and initial conditions (e.g. cliff geometry) to erosion events. In this study we use a multi-parameter Bayesian network to investigate correlations between key variables that control and influence variations in cliff retreat processes. The network uses Bayesian statistical methods to estimate event probabilities using existing observations. Within this framework, we forecast the spatial distribution of cliff retreat along two stretches of cliffed coast in Southern California. The input parameters are the height and slope of the cliff, a descriptor of material strength based on the dominant cliff-forming lithology, and the long-term cliff erosion rate that represents prior behavior. The model is forced using predicted wave impact hours. Results demonstrate that the Bayesian approach is well-suited to the forward modeling of coastal cliff retreat, with the correct outcomes forecast in 70-90% of the modeled transects. The model also performs well in identifying specific locations of high cliff erosion, thus providing a foundation for hazard mapping. This approach can be employed to predict cliff erosion at time-scales ranging from storm events to the impacts of sea-level rise at the century-scale. ?? 2010.

  18. Erosion risk assessment of active coastal cliffs in temperate environments (United States)

    Del Río, Laura; Gracia, F. Javier


    The potentially negative consequences resulting from cliff recession are a matter of serious concern in many coastal areas worldwide. The assessment of such processes has traditionally been performed by calculating average cliff recession rates and projecting them into the future, without taking into consideration the diverse factors affecting cliff dynamics and stability. In this work a new, practical method is presented to evaluate cliff erosion risk in temperate environments, by analysing the main factors responsible for both the physical and the socioeconomic aspects of erosion, representing cliff loss potential and damage potential, respectively. For this purpose an integration of 11 physical variables (such as cliff lithology, beach characteristics or rainfall regime) and 6 socioeconomic variables (such as land use type or population density) is proposed. These variables are weighted and combined into a Hazard Index and an Impact Index, which in turn are merged into a composite Risk Index where the resulting values are normalized and expressed as a percentage of the maximum theoretical risk. The method is tested and validated by using data about cliff retreat rates and mass movement processes in the coast of Cádiz province (SW Spain). The proposed approach allows the zoning of coastal cliffs according to the risk, hazard and/or impact levels, including the recognition of critical areas where specific intervention strategies should be adopted. The method presented in this work is deemed both practical and scientifically valid, without requiring extensive and detailed surveys of the area where it is to be applied. This way, it constitutes an easy to use, valuable tool for decision-making regarding land use planning and management strategies for active coastal cliffs.

  19. A quantitative analysis of rock cliff erosion environments (United States)

    Lim, M.; Rosser, N.; Petley, D. N.; Norman, E. C.; Barlow, J.


    The spatial patterns and temporal sequencing of failures from coastal rock cliffs are complex and typically generate weak correlations with environmental variables such as tidal inundation, wave energy, wind and rain. Consequently, understanding of rock cliff behaviour, its response to predicted changes in environmental forcing and, more specifically, the interaction between marine and climatic factors in influencing failure processes has remained limited. This work presents the results from the first attempt to characterise and quantify the conditions on coastal cliffs that lead to accelerated rates of material detachment. The rate of change in an 80 m high section of coastal rock cliffs has been surveyed annually with high-resolution terrestrial laser scanning (TLS). The rockfall data have been analysed according to a simplified source geology that exhibit distinct magnitude-frequency distributions relating to the dominance of particular failure types. An integrated network of sensors and instrumentation designed to reflect the lithological control on failure has been installed to examine both the distinction between prevailing conditions and those affecting the local cliff environment and the physical response of different rock types to micro-climatic processes. The monitoring system records near-surface rock strain, temperature, moisture and micro-seismic displacement in addition to air temperature, humidity, radiation, precipitation, water-level and three-dimensional wind characteristics. A characteristic environmental signal, unique to the cliff face material, has been identified that differs substantially from that experienced by the surrounding area; suggesting that established methods of meteorological and tidal data collection are insufficient and inappropriate to represent erosive processes. The interaction between thermo- and hydro-dynamics of the cliff environment and the physical response of the rock highlights the composite environmental effects

  20. Cliff swallow populations in the southern Askinuk Mountains, Alaska (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — During breeding season, cliff swallows are widely distributed throughout Alaska and North America south to Mexico, and they are locally common in western and...

  1. Life strategies of bryophytes on loess cliffs in Vojvodina, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabovljević Marko S.


    Full Text Available The loess cliffs of Vojvodina present a special ecosystem type. The main plant components in these habitats are cryptogams (bryophytes and lichens. The biology and life strategies of bryophytes recorded on loess in Vojvodina are studied in the present work, whose results confirm a very special ecology in such habitats. Colonist species with xeropottioid characteristics are dominant among bryophytes. It is stressed that loess cliff habitats are especially important from the standpoint of conservation.

  2. Recent progress in understanding activity cliffs and their utility in medicinal chemistry. (United States)

    Stumpfe, Dagmar; Hu, Ye; Dimova, Dilyana; Bajorath, Jürgen


    The activity cliff concept is of high relevance for medicinal chemistry. Recent studies are discussed that have further refined our understanding of activity cliffs and suggested different ways of exploiting activity cliff information. These include alternative approaches to define and classify activity cliffs in two and three dimensions, data mining investigations to systematically detect all possible activity cliffs, the introduction of computational methods to predict activity cliffs, and studies designed to explore activity cliff progression in medicinal chemistry. The discussion of these studies is complemented with new findings revealing the frequency of activity cliff formation when different molecular representations are used and the distribution of activity cliffs across different targets. Taken together, the results have a number of implications for the practice of medicinal chemistry.

  3. A regional approach for modeling cliff retreat rate: The Makhteshim Country, Israel (United States)

    Finzi, Yaron; Harlev, Noam


    Cliff retreat rate significantly affect the evolution of landforms and cliff stability. Cliff retreat studies also provide intriguing clues regarding past geomorphic conditions and environmental changes. We hereby present a model to calculate cliff retreat rate based on spatial data of cliff structure and morphology. The model is applied to numerous cliffs in the arid Makhteshim Country, Israel, and results are calibrated using published rates of two local cliffs. The calculated retreat rates confirm previous assertions that the crater cliffs are receding very slowly, but reveal that the rates vary significantly along the cliffs (1-18 cm ky- 1). Results also provide first estimates of retreat rates of other major cliffs in the region including fast retreat rates at the Sede Zin cliff (300-600 cm ky- 1). The proposed model provides a robust analysis to account for local cliff-talus morphology and yields rate estimates representative of current conditions rather than a long-term (geologic) average rate. Results presented constitute important new insights into regional geomorphic processes and on the stability of specific cliff sections within the study area.

  4. Power laws statistics of cliff failures, scaling and percolation

    CERN Document Server

    Baldassarri, Andrea


    The size of large cliff failures may be described in several ways, for instance considering the horizontal eroded area at the cliff top and the maximum local retreat of the coastline. Field studies suggest that, for large failures, the frequencies of these two quantities decrease as power laws of the respective magnitudes, defining two different decay exponents. Moreover, the horizontal area increases as a power law of the maximum local retreat, identifying a third exponent. Such observation suggests that the geometry of cliff failures are statistically similar for different magnitudes. Power laws are familiar in the physics of critical systems. The corresponding exponents satisfy precise relations and are proven to be universal features, common to very different systems. Following the approach typical of statistical physics, we propose a "scaling hypothesis" resulting in a relation between the three above exponents: there is a precise, mathematical relation between the distributions of magnitudes of erosion ...

  5. CliffsNotes Writing Grammar, Usage, and Style Quick Review

    CERN Document Server

    Eggenschwiler, Jean; Reinhardt, Claudia L W


    Inside the Book: Nouns - Verbs - Pronouns - Modifiers - Connecting Words and Phrases - Clauses, Phrases, and Sentences - Common Sentence Errors - Periods, Question Marks, and Exclamation Marks - Commas, Semicolons, and Colons - Dashes, Parentheses, and Quotation Marks - Idioms, Clichés, Jargon, and Wordiness - How to Begin a Writing Assignment - How to Research and Organize Your Writing - Revising and Editing - Review Questions - Resource Center - Glossary - Frequently Confused Words Why CliffsNotes? Go with the name you know and trust - Get the information you need-fast! CliffsNotes Quick Rev

  6. Crawling-Onset Age Predicts Visual Cliff Avoidance in Infants. (United States)

    Richards, John E.; Rader, Nancy


    Two experiments tested the effects of crawling-onset age, amount of crawling experience, and testing age on avoidance of the deep side of a visual cliff apparatus by human infants. Crawling-onset age disciminated between infants because crawling during the tactile phase interferes with later visual control of locomotion. (Author/RD)

  7. A physically based 3-D model of ice cliff evolution over debris-covered glaciers (United States)

    Buri, Pascal; Miles, Evan S.; Steiner, Jakob F.; Immerzeel, Walter W.; Wagnon, Patrick; Pellicciotti, Francesca


    We use high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) from unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) surveys to document the evolution of four ice cliffs on the debris-covered tongue of Lirung Glacier, Nepal, over one ablation season. Observations show that out of four cliffs, three different patterns of evolution emerge: (i) reclining cliffs that flatten during the ablation season; (ii) stable cliffs that maintain a self-similar geometry; and (iii) growing cliffs, expanding laterally. We use the insights from this unique data set to develop a 3-D model of cliff backwasting and evolution that is validated against observations and an independent data set of volume losses. The model includes ablation at the cliff surface driven by energy exchange with the atmosphere, reburial of cliff cells by surrounding debris, and the effect of adjacent ponds. The cliff geometry is updated monthly to account for the modifications induced by each of those processes. Model results indicate that a major factor affecting the survival of steep cliffs is the coupling with ponded water at its base, which prevents progressive flattening and possible disappearance of a cliff. The radial growth observed at one cliff is explained by higher receipts of longwave and shortwave radiation, calculated taking into account atmospheric fluxes, shading, and the emission of longwave radiation from debris surfaces. The model is a clear step forward compared to existing static approaches that calculate atmospheric melt over an invariant cliff geometry and can be used for long-term simulations of cliff evolution and to test existing hypotheses about cliffs' survival.

  8. Sea cliff instability susceptibility at regional scale: A statistically based assessment in southern Algarve, Portugal. (United States)

    Marques, F.; Matildes, R.; Redweik, P.


    Mass movements are the dominant process of sea cliff evolution, being a considerable source of natural hazard and a significant constrain for human activities in coastal areas. Related hazards include cliff top retreat, with implications on planning and land management, and unstable soil or rock movements at the cliffs face and toe, with implications mainly on beach users and support structures. To assess the spatial component of sea cliff hazard assessment with implications on planning, i.e. the susceptibility of a given cliff section to be affected by instabilities causing retreat of the cliff top, a statistically based study was carried out along the top of the sea cliffs of Burgau-Lagos coastal section (Southwest Algarve, Portugal). The study was based on bivariate and multi-variate statistics applied to a set of predisposing factors, mainly related with geology and geomorphology, which were correlated with an inventory of past cliff failures. The multi-temporal inventory of past cliff failures was produced using aerial digital photogrammetric methods, which included special procedures to enable the extraction of accurate data from old aerial photos, and validated by systematic stereo photo interpretation, helped by oblique aerial photos and field surveys. This study identified 137 cliff failures occurred between 1947 and 2007 along the 13 km long cliffs, causing the loss of 10,234 m2 of horizontal area at the cliffs top. The cliff failures correspond to planar slides (58%) mainly in Cretaceous alternating limestone and marls, toppling failures (17%) mainly in Miocene calcarenites, slumps (15%) in Plio-pleistocene silty sands that infill the karst in the Miocene rocks, and the remaining 10% correspond to complex movements, rockfalls and not determined cases. The space distribution of cliff failures is quite irregular but enables the objective separation of sub sections with homogeneous retreat behavior, for which were computed mean retreat rates between 5x10-3m

  9. Multi-temporal retreat rates along the eastern Mediterranean coastal cliff (United States)

    Katz, O.; Mushkin, A.


    The Israeli coastal cliff extends about 50 km along the eastern Mediterranean shores. The cliff is comprised of late Quaternary eolianites and paleosols and reaches heights of up to 50 meters. In places, time-averaged inland cliff-top retreat rates of up to a few tens of centimeters per year have been measured usually by comparing aerial photos from the last decades. Commonly, these locally constrained retreat rates have been: 1) extrapolated as representative of the entire cliff length, and 2) adopted by hazard-mitigation and planning authorities. Here, we re-evaluate the current understanding of coastal-retreat patterns and rates along Israel's Mediterranean cliff line using a suite of field observations, aerial photography and recently obtained airborne and ground based high resolution LiDAR measurement of cliff morphologies. First, we constrain the decadal-scale retreat rates along the coastal-cliff by comparing the cliff-top location in 1945 and 2004 using aerial photos. We find a statistically significant spatial correlation between: 1) calculated low retreat rates (less than 0.1 m/yr) and field-based criteria indicating overall stability: slope angle of 45 deg. and talus cover along the lower part of the cliff and developed vegetation cover, and 2) high retreat rates and field criteria indicating recent instability: fresh landslide scars and 'hanging' valleys, which provides independent support for the calculated retreat rates. Calculated 60 years average cliff-top retreat rates of less than 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 m/yr along 58%, 77% and 85% of the cliff length, respectively, reveal that extended stretches of the cliff line did not experience detectable retreat in the past 60 years, thus implying relative stability of 50% of Israel's costal cliffs during this time period. Second, we constrain the annual retreat rates using repeat high-resolution ground based LiDAR surveys before and after an extreme winter storm that occurred in Dec. 2010. Locally, storm induced

  10. Aerial Photogrammetric Analysis of a Scree Slope and Cliff (United States)

    Saunders, Greg; Galland, Olivier; Mair, Karen


    Mapping the physical features of landslide tracks provides information about factors controlling landslide movement. The increasing availability of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) provides the opportunity to efficiently and cost effectively map terrain. The main goal of this field study is to create a streamlined work-flow from acquisition to interpretation for the photogrammetric analysis of landslide tracks. Here an open source software package MicMac is used for ortho-image and point-cloud creation. A series of two flights were conducted over a scree (rockfall) slope in Kolsas, Norway. The slope runs roughly 500 m north-south with a maximum width of 60 m. A cliff to the west is the source area for the scree. The cliff consists of conglomerate, basalt, and porphyry from bottom to top respectively. The grain size of boulders in the scree slope apparently varies due to lateral differences in the cliff composition. The flights were completed under cloud cover and consisted of multiple lengthwise passes over the scree field. There was a minimum of 75% overlap between images. During the first flight the altitude was roughly 100 m, the camera was positioned normal to the scree (60 degrees from horizontal), and the resolution was 2.7 cm per pixel. The second flight had an altitude of 200 m, the camera orientation was 30 degrees from horizontal, and the resolution was 4.0 cm per pixel. Using the Micmac engine, Ortho-photos and Digital Elevation Models (DEM) were created for both the scree and the cliff. This data will allow for analysis of grain-size, surface roughness, grain-shape, fracture plane orientation, as well as geological mapping. Further work will focus the quantitative assessment of the significance different camera altitudes and angles have on the results. The work-flow used in this study provides a repeatable method for aerial photogrammetric surveys of scree slopes.

  11. Ancient "Red Cliff" battlefield: a historical-geographic study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xiugui


    The famous battle of Chibi,or "battle of Red Cliff",took place in 208 CE,the 13th year of the Jian'an period of the Eastern Han dynasty.This paper holds that the whole battle consisted of three inseparable stages,namely the initial clash at Chibi,the chase battle to Wulin,and Cao Cao's disorganized escape along Huarong Road.The Red Cliff battlefield thus extended across a distance of more than 300 li (150km).Even if the Chibi where the initial military engagement took place (that is,Chiji Hill,southwest of Wuchang in modern Wuhan City) has already disappeared,it should be restored to its proper historical position.The chase battle along the Yangzi River came to an end at Wulin,across the river is Chibi Hill in today's Chibi City.Although this Chibi is not the Chibi where the initial combat took place,it nonetheless forms an integral part of the ancient Chibi battlefield as a whole.The Huarong Road along which Cao Cao escaped runs through the middle of today's Jianghan Plain.Finally,the text aims to show that Chibi (Red Nose)1 Hill in modern Huangzhou City has nothing to do with the Chibi of the "battle of Red Cliff."

  12. An empirical conceptual gully evolution model for channelled sea cliffs (United States)

    Leyland, Julian; Darby, Stephen E.


    Incised coastal channels are a specific form of incised channel that are found in locations where stream channels flowing to cliffed coasts have the excess energy required to cut down through the cliff to reach the outlet water body. The southern coast of the Isle of Wight, southern England, comprises soft cliffs that vary in height between 15 and 100 m and which are retreating at rates ≤ 1.5 m a - 1 , due to a combination of wave erosion and landslides. In several locations, river channels have cut through the cliffs to create deeply (≤ 45 m) incised gullies, known locally as 'Chines'. The Chines are unusual in that their formation is associated with dynamic shoreline encroachment during a period of rising sea-level, whereas existing models of incised channel evolution emphasise the significance of base level lowering. This paper develops a conceptual model of Chine evolution by applying space for time substitution methods using empirical data gathered from Chine channel surveys and remotely sensed data. The model identifies a sequence of evolutionary stages, which are classified based on a suite of morphometric indices and associated processes. The extent to which individual Chines are in a state of growth or decay is estimated by determining the relative rates of shoreline retreat and knickpoint recession, the former via analysis of historical aerial images and the latter through the use of a stream power erosion model.

  13. Ice cliff dynamics in the Everest region of the Central Himalaya (United States)

    Scott Watson, C.; Quincey, Duncan J.; Carrivick, Jonathan L.; Smith, Mark W.


    The importance of ice cliffs for glacier-scale ablation on debris-covered glaciers is now widely recognised. However, a paucity of data exists to describe the spatio-temporal distribution of ice cliffs. In this study we analysed the position and geometry of 8229 ice cliffs and 5582 supraglacial ponds on 14 glaciers in the Everest region between 2000 and 2015. We observed notable ice cliff and pond spatial coincidence. On average across our study glaciers, 77% of supraglacial pond area was associated with an adjacent ice cliff, and 49% of ice cliffs featured an adjacent supraglacial pond. The spatial density of ice cliffs was not directly related to glacier velocity, but did peak within zones of active ice. Furthermore, we found that ice cliff density was glacier-specific, temporally variable, and was positively correlated with surface lowering and decreasing debris thickness for individual glaciers. Ice cliffs predominantly had a north-facing (commonly north-westerly) aspect, which was independent of glacier flow direction, thereby signifying a strong solar radiation control on cliff evolution. Independent field observations indicated that cliff morphology was related to aspect, local debris thickness, and presence of a supraglacial pond, and highlighted the importance of surface runnel formation, which acts as a preferential pathway for meltwater and debris fluxes. Overall, by coupling remote sensing and in-situ observations it has been possible to capture local and glacier-scale ice cliff dynamics across 14 glaciers, which is necessary if explicit parameterisation of ice cliffs in dynamic glacier models is to be achieved.

  14. Exploring the cliff retreat response to base level change using SFM photogrammetry and cosmogenic 36Cl, Coal Cliffs, Utah, USA (United States)

    Sheehan, C.; Ward, D.


    The retreat of cliffbands is an important erosional process within the relatively undeformed sedimentary layers of the Colorado Plateau. Many iconic cliff landforms, including those of Monument Valley and Grand Canyon, are maintained by the interaction of these different rock types. A several kilometer thickness of incised sandstone and shale formations allow this region to act as a natural laboratory for studying the effects of variable lithologies on landscape evolution. Cliffband morphology and retreat on the plateau are controlled by several factors that may vary over time and space, including lithology, rate and distribution of rockfall debris, bedrock structure, baselevel, and climate. The relative importance of each factor in setting rates of cliff retreat are not entirely clear. Because regional headwaters are commonly sourced at cliff bases, these landforms are often the final and slowest areas to respond to baselevel changes, allowing rockfall and other local stochastic processes to overwhelm the erosional response to a baselevel forcing. The roles of these processes are difficult to assess because very few measurements of retreat rates over geomorphic timescales (103-106 years) have been produced, and thus changes in cliffband position through time have only been constrained by inferences made from the regional erosional history. Here, we control for climate and rock type by focusing on a continuous, 40-kilometer section of the lithologically consistent Coal Cliffs in Emery County, Utah. This area presents several natural experiments illustrating cliffband response to different forcings, including relict surfaces reflecting a baselevel change, drainage divides across which the adjustment to base level change may be asynchronous, a zone wherein the caprock layer has been removed by backscarp erosion, and a generally continuous gradient in cliff height from 50 to >200 meters along the cliffline. We employ terrestrial Cl36 exposure dating on terraces, talus

  15. Human impact on the vegetation of limestone cliffs in the northern Swiss Jura mountains


    Müller, Stefan


    Cliffs provide unique habitats for many specialised organisms, including chamaephytes and slowly growing trees. Drought, high temperature amplitude, scarcity of nutrients and high insolation are general characteristics of exposed limestone cliff faces. The vegetation of limestone cliffs in the Swiss Jura mountains consists of plants of arctic-alpine, continental and Mediterranean origin. Several populations exhibit relicts from post- or interglacial warm or cold climatic per...

  16. Molecular scaffolds with high propensity to form multi-target activity cliffs. (United States)

    Hu, Ye; Bajorath, Jürgen


    In target-dependent activity landscapes of compound series, cliffs are formed by pairs of molecules that are structurally analogous but display significant differences in potency. The detection and analysis of such activity cliffs is a major task in structure-activity relationship analysis and compound optimization. In analogy to activity cliffs, selectivity cliffs can be defined that are formed by structural analogs having significantly different potencies against two targets. The formation of activity cliffs by analogs is generally a consequence of different R-group patterns; e.g., a specific substitution of a given scaffold might increase and another substitution decrease potency. Therefore, activity (or selectivity) cliffs are typically analyzed for a given scaffold representing an analog series, and it has thus far not been explored whether certain scaffolds might display a general tendency to yield compounds forming activity cliffs against different targets. We have exhaustively analyzed scaffolds and associated compound activity data in the ChemblDB and BindingDB databases in order to compare the availability of target-selective scaffolds in these databases and determine whether multi-target activity and multi-target selectivity cliff scaffolds exist. Perhaps unexpectedly, we have identified 143 scaffolds that are represented by multiple compounds and form activity or selectivity cliffs against different targets. These scaffolds have varying chemical complexities and are in part promiscuous binders (i.e., compounds containing these scaffolds bind to distantly related or unrelated targets). However, analogs derived from these scaffolds form steep activity cliffs against different targets. A catalog of scaffolds with high propensity to form activity or selectivity cliffs against multiple targets is provided to help identify potentially promiscuous candidate scaffolds during compound optimization efforts.

  17. The impact of solar radiation on vertical ice cliff recession on Kilimanjaro (United States)

    Winkler, M.; Cullen, N.; Kaser, G.; Mölg, T.; Pfeffer, T.


    The glaciers on the summit plateau of Mount Kilimanjaro (5700m a.s.l., 3°04'S, 37°21'E) are characterized by nearly vertical ice cliffs at their margins. Recent studies have shown that glacier retreat on Africa's highest peak is closely linked to the recession of these cliffs. More than one year of distance measurements between an automatic weather station close to a south-facing cliff and the cliff itself reveal a strong linkage of the recession pattern and the annual cycle of solar radiation. As the cliff is not hit by direct shortwave radiation from March to October, not enough energy is provided to raise the cliff's surface temperature to 0°C and make melting possible. Only sublimation occurs and the point measurements indicate recession rates at the order of 0.5cm/month. From November to February - if cloud cover allows - the cliff is hit by direct shortwave radiation all day and its surface temperature can reach the melting point during some hours of the day. Melting occurs, although air temperature is always below freezing point, and the cliff retreats 20-30 times faster, because melting is much more energy-efficient than sublimation. A solar radiation model, using data of a free-standing automatic weather station, is run to find out why the majority of the cliffs is exposed either to the north or to the south, and to extrapolate the point measurements to the whole ice cliff. In addition, the impact of small scale differences in slope and aspect on the cliff recession is investigated using the radiation model. A multi-temporal photogrammetrical survey is carried out to quantify small scale recession differences in order to validate the solar radiation model results.

  18. Nature of short-period microtremors on the cliff-like ground. 3; Gakechi kinbo no tanshuki bido . 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiguma, T.; Matsuzawa, H. [Saitama University, Saitama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    Vibration characteristics were investigated of the ground in the vicinity of a cliff-like sharp slope. Short-period microtremors were observed in the vicinity of an artificially made cliff-like test ground, height 8m and inclination 90{degree}, and a natural cliff, height approximately 9m and inclination approximately 35{degree}. The artificial cliff was reinforced by a virtually vertical retaining wall of concrete, and the ground was prepared for testing with a belt approximately 20m wide and 50m long along the cliff face. All the vibration components were simultaneously measured at measuring spots that were located 5-40m apart from the cliff end and orientated perpendicular to the cliff face. It was then found that in case of artificial cliff there is a conspicuous 3.1Hz prevalent ground vibration in the component squarely meeting the cliff face, that the prevalent ground vibration is not particularly great near the cliff end because the retaining wall and the ground are artificially prepared, that there is no influence of the cliff-like ground in the ground vibration parallel to or vertical along the cliff face, and that in case of natural ground there are no vibration characteristic proper to a cliff-like ground in any of the vibration components. 3 refs., 7 figs.

  19. The Glass Cliff: An Examination of the Female Superintendency in South Carolina (United States)

    Bowles, Blanche Boyd


    South Carolina public school districts are confronted with a series of difficult circumstances and rely more on female superintendents than the national average. The investigation of female South Carolina superintendents was guided by the glass cliff conceptual framework. The glass cliff represents situations where females are promoted over males…

  20. X Marks the Plot: Can Cliffs Notes Help Students Find Literary Gold? (United States)

    Lilla, Rick


    Examines Villanova University's decision to stop selling Cliffs Notes in its bookstore and attitudes toward Cliffs Notes, highlighting honest work, shortcuts, serious research, critical thinking, and original thinking. Provides the following advice for librarians: avoid being parental; avoid unexamined judgments; and avoid undervaluing Cliffs…

  1. Getting on top of the glass cliff : Reviewing a decade of evidence, explanations, and impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ryan, Michelle K.; Haslam, S. Alexander; Morgenroth, Thekla; Rink, Floor; Stoker, Janka; Peters, Kim


    The glass cliff refers to the tendency for women to be more likely than men to be appointed to leadership positions that are risky and precarious. This paper reviews the first decade of research into the phenomenon and has three key aims: (a) to summarize and integrate evidence of the glass cliff, (

  2. The Influence of Ephemeral Beaches on Alongshore Variability of Hard-rock Cliff Erosion (United States)

    Vann Jones, E. C.; Rosser, N. J.; Brain, M.; Varley, S. J.


    The role of abrasion of rock cliffs is typically considered in the long-term presence of a beach. During monthly monitoring of hard rock cliff erosion along the North Yorkshire coast, UK, we have observed a number of small ephemeral beaches of highly variable duration and extent. The erosive significance of the temporary presence of sediment at the cliffs is unknown and we set out to examine whether observed alongshore variability in erosion can be linked to the presence of ephemeral beaches. We explore the temporal and spatial variability in sediment deposition and transport along a low-sediment rock coast foreshore, the controlling marine conditions and the effects on cliff erosion. We focus on a 500 m wide embayment set into 70 m high hard rock cliffs consisting of horizontally bedded Jurassic mudstone, shale, siltstone and sandstone. The bay has a wide, shallow gradient foreshore up to 300 m wide with highly variable topography. With the exception of an ephemeral beach (of widths up to approximately 150 m alongshore and 10 m cross-shore) the rock foreshore is typically sand-free, with failed material from the cliffs quickly removed from the cliff toe by the sea leaving only boulders. The high tidal range (6 m) and storm wave environment of the North Sea result in variable marine conditions at the site. We use magnetic sand tracers and a grid of foreshore and cliff face magnets to examine the sand transport across the foreshore and to identify the vertical extent of cliff face impacted by sand. We monitor the driving marine conditions on the foreshore using a network of current meters and wave pressure sensors. Erosion of the cliff face across the whole bay is monitored at high-resolution using terrestrial laser scanning to examine the spatial distribution of abrasion and the influence of the ephemeral beach.

  3. 78 FR 49292 - Northshore Mining Company, a Subsidiary of Cliffs Natural Resources, Including On-Site Leased... (United States)


    ... Employment and Training Administration Northshore Mining Company, a Subsidiary of Cliffs Natural Resources..., Minnesota; Northshore Mining Company, a Subsidiary of Cliffs Natural Resources, Including On- Site Leased... Miming Company, a subsidiary of Cliffs Natural Resources, including on-site leased workers from...

  4. 77 FR 10784 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Notice of Withdrawal of Application for Amendment to... (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Notice of Withdrawal of Application for Amendment to... of Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC, the licensee, to withdraw its application dated October... the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2, respectively, located in Calvert County,...

  5. Bounds on the calving cliff height of marine terminating glaciers (United States)

    Ma, Yue; Tripathy, Cory S.; Bassis, Jeremy N.


    Increased calving and rapid retreat of glaciers can contribute significantly to sea level rise, but the processes controlling glacier retreat remain poorly understood. We seek to improve our understanding of calving by investigating the stress field controlling tensile and shear failure using a 2-D full-Stokes finite element model. Using idealized rectangular geometries, we find that when rapidly sliding glaciers thin to near buoyancy, full thickness tensile failure occurs, similar to observations motivating height-above-buoyancy calving laws. In contrast, when glaciers are frozen to their beds, basal crevasse penetration is suppressed and calving is minimal. We also find that shear stresses are largest when glaciers are thickest. Together, the tensile and shear failure criteria map out a stable envelope in an ice-thickness-water-depth diagram. The upper and lower bounds on cliff height can be incorporated into numerical ice sheet models as boundary conditions, thus bracketing the magnitude of calving rates in marine-terminating glaciers.

  6. Shakespeare Cliff, rempart symbolique aux portes du royaume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Price


    Full Text Available Figure 1 : Clarkson STANFIELD, Shakespeare Cliff, Dover, 1849, 1862« Il est une falaise, dont le front haut et courbeRegarde avec effroi dans l’abîme qu’elle enserre :Conduis-moi jusqu’à son bordEt je remédierai à la misère que tu souffresPar quelque riche objet ; de cet endroitJe n’aurai point besoin de guide. »Les lignes ci-dessus, tirées de l’Acte IV, Scène I du Roi Lear, font allusion aux falaises de Douvres, plus particulièrement à leur point culminant, un grand bloc de calcaire et de cr...

  7. Patent cliff mitigation strategies: giving new life to blockbusters. (United States)

    Kakkar, Ashish Kumar


    With several blockbuster drugs on the brink of another significant patent expiry cliff, innovator pharmaceutical firms are at risk of losing billions of dollars in sales to generic competition. With issues such as staggering R&D costs, reduced productivity and increasing governmental emphasis on pharmacoeconomics, timely planning and implementation of product lifecycle management strategies is becoming indispensable. A variety of strategies designed to mitigate the post-patent expiry revenue loss exist. These approaches range from fairly straightforward measures, such as strategic price cuts and launching own or authorized generics, to complex and lengthy ones, such as new formulations and indications that require companies to reinvent their pharmaceuticals. As patent expiries loom and product pipelines continue to remain thin, proactive planning for generic entry will be critical for pharma companies to drive growth and earnings in a sustainable manner.

  8. Recent acceleration in coastal cliff retreat rates on the south coast of Great Britain. (United States)

    Hurst, Martin D; Rood, Dylan H; Ellis, Michael A; Anderson, Robert S; Dornbusch, Uwe


    Rising sea levels and increased storminess are expected to accelerate the erosion of soft-cliff coastlines, threatening coastal infrastructure and livelihoods. To develop predictive models of future coastal change we need fundamentally to know how rapidly coasts have been eroding in the past, and to understand the driving mechanisms of coastal change. Direct observations of cliff retreat rarely extend beyond 150 y, during which humans have significantly modified the coastal system. Cliff retreat rates are unknown in prior centuries and millennia. In this study, we derived retreat rates of chalk cliffs on the south coast of Great Britain over millennial time scales by coupling high-precision cosmogenic radionuclide geochronology and rigorous numerical modeling. Measured (10)Be concentrations on rocky coastal platforms were compared with simulations of coastal evolution using a Monte Carlo approach to determine the most likely history of cliff retreat. The (10)Be concentrations are consistent with retreat rates of chalk cliffs that were relatively slow (2-6 cm⋅y(-1)) until a few hundred years ago. Historical observations reveal that retreat rates have subsequently accelerated by an order of magnitude (22-32 cm⋅y(-1)). We suggest that acceleration is the result of thinning of cliff-front beaches, exacerbated by regional storminess and anthropogenic modification of the coast.

  9. Recent acceleration in coastal cliff retreat rates on the south coast of Great Britain (United States)

    Hurst, Martin D.; Rood, Dylan H.; Ellis, Michael A.; Anderson, Robert S.; Dornbusch, Uwe


    Rising sea levels and increased storminess are expected to accelerate the erosion of soft-cliff coastlines, threatening coastal infrastructure and livelihoods. To develop predictive models of future coastal change we need fundamentally to know how rapidly coasts have been eroding in the past, and to understand the driving mechanisms of coastal change. Direct observations of cliff retreat rarely extend beyond 150 y, during which humans have significantly modified the coastal system. Cliff retreat rates are unknown in prior centuries and millennia. In this study, we derived retreat rates of chalk cliffs on the south coast of Great Britain over millennial time scales by coupling high-precision cosmogenic radionuclide geochronology and rigorous numerical modeling. Measured 10Be concentrations on rocky coastal platforms were compared with simulations of coastal evolution using a Monte Carlo approach to determine the most likely history of cliff retreat. The 10Be concentrations are consistent with retreat rates of chalk cliffs that were relatively slow (2-6 cmṡy-1) until a few hundred years ago. Historical observations reveal that retreat rates have subsequently accelerated by an order of magnitude (22-32 cmṡy-1). We suggest that acceleration is the result of thinning of cliff-front beaches, exacerbated by regional storminess and anthropogenic modification of the coast.

  10. Identification of Interaction Hot Spots in Structures of Drug Targets on the Basis of Three-Dimensional Activity Cliff Information. (United States)

    Furtmann, Norbert; Hu, Ye; Gütschow, Michael; Bajorath, Jürgen


    Activity cliffs are defined as pairs or groups of structurally similar or analogous compounds that share the same specific activity but have large differences in potency. Although activity cliffs are mostly studied in medicinal chemistry at the level of molecular graphs, they can also be assessed by comparing compound binding modes. If such three-dimensional activity cliffs (3D-cliffs) are studied on the basis of X-ray complex structures, experimental ligand-target interaction details can be taken into account. Rapid growth in the number of 3D-cliffs that can be derived from X-ray complex structures has made it possible to identify targets for which a substantial body of 3D-cliff information is available. Activity cliffs are typically studied to identify structure-activity relationship determinants and aid in compound optimization. However, 3D-cliff information can also be used to search for interaction hot spots and key residues, as reported herein. For six of seven drug targets for which more than 20 3D-cliffs were available, series of 3D-cliffs were identified that were consistently involved in interactions with different hot spots. These 3D-cliffs often encoded chemical modifications resulting in interactions that were characteristic of highly potent compounds but absent in weakly potent ones, thus providing information for structure-based design.

  11. Sea cliff instability hazard assessment at regional scale: a case study in the western coast of Portugal (United States)

    Marques, Fernando; Taborda, Rui; Carreira, Diogo


    Sea cliff evolution is mainly produced by mass movements of different types and sizes, which are a considerable source of natural hazard in coastal areas. For two neighboring counties (Sintra and Cascais) located in the west coast of Portugal, a sea cliff instability statistically based susceptibility assessment was tested in order to analyze the influence of a set of predisposing factors in the prediction of future failures affecting areas located along the cliff top. The coastal areas of Sintra (length of cliffs 24.8km) and Cascais (length of cliffs 22.0km) are examples of contrasting cliff morphology, height (from less than 6m to more than 120m), and rock mass composition and strength (alternating marls and limestones, sandstones, granite, limestones). The inventories of past instabilities were performed by a multitemporal study of aerial photographs from different dates, for the period 1947-2007 (Sintra), and 1947-2008 (Cascais), which enabled the detection and measurement of the local maximum retreat at the cliff top, length of cliff affected and horizontal area lost at the cliff top. The aerial photo based data coupled with field surveys enabled the identification of the type of movements. These are mainly of the rock fall and planar slide types. These aerial photo based studies enabled the identification and measurement of 63 cliff failures at Sintra and 67 at Cascais coasts, with variable spatial density from 0.4 to 20 failures per km of cliff length for the 60/61 years of study period, providing the basis for the division of the cliffs in homogeneous sections in terms of horizontal area lost at the cliff top. Along the different cliff sections, the mean retreat rates varied between 0.0003m/year and 0.025m/year, and the mean values of the maximum local retreat of the cliff top varied between 5m and 17m, with two exceptional cliff failures that caused a net retreat of the cliff top of 70m and 25m. For the assessment of the susceptibility of cliff failures

  12. Advancing the activity cliff concept [v1; ref status: indexed,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Hu


    Full Text Available The activity cliff concept has experienced increasing interest in medicinal chemistry and chemoinformatics. Activity cliffs have originally been defined as pairs of structurally similar compounds that are active against the same target but have a large difference in potency. Activity cliffs are relevant for structure-activity relationship (SAR analysis and compound optimization because small chemical modifications can be deduced from cliffs that result in large-magnitude changes in potency. In addition to studying activity cliffs on the basis of individual compounds series, they can be systematically identified through mining of compound activity data. This commentary aims to provide a concise yet detailed picture of our current understanding of activity cliffs. It is also meant to introduce the further refined activity cliff concept to a general audience in drug development.

  13. Cliff Richard hakkab veini tootma. Marilyn Manson avab isikliku kunstinäituse

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Cliff Richardi Portugali viinamarjaistandusest pärinevast veinist "Vida Nova". 20. septembril avab oma albumit "The Golden Age Of Grotesque" lõpetav laulja Marilyn Manson oma esimese kunstinäituse Los Angeleses Hollywoodis

  14. Connotations of architectural culture transmitted in cliff carvings in the Bashu region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Cong-hua; ZHANG Xing-guo; LIU Zhi-yong


    Based on site studies,historical literature investigation and academic communication,this work aims to dig out the cultural significance in architectural and religious aspects conveyed in cliff carvings in the Bashu region.After casting a glance at the origin and evolution of Bashu culture and religion mainly involving Daoism and Buddhism recorded in forms of cliff carvings,we concentrated on discovering the national,regional and folk architectural characters implicated in cliff carvings at different sites within the Bashu region.The cliff carvings in this region vividly depicted the evolution of the architectural culture hereof.The essence of their religious and architectural connotations can be good stuff to be input in today's architectural design philosophy.

  15. Development of Waterfall Cliff Face: An Implication from Multitemporal High-definition Topographic Data (United States)

    Hayakawa, Y. S.; Obanawa, H.


    Bedrock knickpoints (waterfalls) often act as erosional front in bedrock rivers, whose geomorphological processes are various. In waterfalls with vertical cliffs, both fluvial erosion and mass movement are feasible to form the landscape. Although morphological changes of such steep cliffs are sometimes visually observed, quantitative and precise measurements of their spatiotemporal distribution have been limited due to poor accessibility to such cliffs. For the clarification of geomorphological processes in such cliffs, multi-temporal mapping of the cliff face at a high resolution can be advantaged by short-range remote sensing approaches. Here we carry out multi-temporal terrestrial laser scanning (TLS), as well as structure-from-motion multi-view stereo (SfM-MVS) photogrammetry based on unmanned aerial system (UAS) for accurate topographic mapping of cliffs around a waterfall. The study site is Kegon Falls in central Japan, having a vertical drop of surface water from top of its overhanging cliff and groundwater outflows from its lower portions. The bedrock consists of alternate layers of jointed andesite lava and conglomerates. The latest major rockfall in 1986 caused approximately 8-m recession of the waterfall lip. Three-dimensional changes of the rock surface were detected by multi-temporal measurements by TLS over years, showing the portions of small rockfalls and surface lowering in the bedrock. Erosion was frequently observed in relatively weak the conglomerates layer, whereas small rockfalls were often found in the andesite layers. Wider areas of the waterfall and cliff were also measured by UAS-based SfM-MVS photogrammetry, improving the mapping quality of the cliff morphology. Point clouds are also projected on a vertical plane to generate a digital elevation model (DEM), and cross-sectional profiles extracted from the DEM indicate the presence of a distinct, 5-10-m deep depression in the cliff face. This appears to have been formed by freeze-thaw and

  16. Sea-cliff erosion at Pacifica, California caused by 1997/98 El Nino storms (United States)

    Snell, Charles B.; Lajoie, K.R.; Medley, Edward W.


    Twelve homes were constructed in 1949 at the top of a sea cliff along Esplanade Drive in the City of Pacifica, located on the northern coast of San Mateo County, California. During the heavy storms of the 1997/98 El Nino winter, a severe episode of cliff retreat undermined seven homes and threatened three others. The geologic, tide, wave, rainfall and wind data were analyzed to determine the causes of this erosion events.

  17. Cliff or Step? Posture-Specific Learning at the Edge of a Drop-Off


    Kretch, Kari S.; Adolph, Karen E.


    Infants require locomotor experience to behave adaptively at a drop-off. However, different experimental paradigms (visual cliff and actual gaps and slopes) have generated conflicting findings regarding what infants learn and the specificity of their learning. An actual, adjustable drop-off apparatus was used to investigate whether learning to distinguish a step from a cliff transfers from crawling to walking. Experienced 12-month-old crawlers (n=16) refused to crawl over risky drop-offs but ...

  18. The unsteady nature of sea cliff retreat due to mechanical abrasion, failure and comminution feedbacks (United States)

    Kline, Shaun W.; Adams, Peter N.; Limber, Patrick W.


    Sea cliff retreat is often linked to large waves, heavy precipitation and seismic events, but the specific operative mechanics have not been well constrained. In particular, what is the role of mechanical abrasion by beach sediments in cliff/platform evolution and how does it relate to the episodic nature of cliff retreat observed at certain locations? Here we present a simple, numerical model of sea cliff retreat that incorporates mechanical abrasion of a basal notch, threshold-controlled failure of the cantilevered block, and a feedback mechanism wherein retreat is dependent on the rate of sediment comminution within the surf zone. Using shore platform and cliff characteristics found in two coastal settings (the central California coast and the English North Sea coast), the model produces retreat rates comparable to those observed via field measurements. The highest retreat rates coincide with the steepest shore platforms and increasing wave height. Steeper platforms promote wave access to the cliff toe and, correspondingly, the receding cliff face produces additional accommodation space for the platform beach, preserving the erosive efficacy of the beach sediments. When exposed to energetic wave forcing, the slope of the inner platform segment controls retreat rates for concave platforms, whereas the slope of the outer platform segment exerts greater control for convex platforms. Platform beaches approached a long-term dynamic equilibrium on the concave profiles, leading to more consistent and steady retreat. Platform beaches were ephemeral on convex profiles, mirroring observed sand wave (Ord) migration on the Holderness coast, UK. These findings agree with previous field observations and support mechanical abrasion as a viable cause of temporal heterogeneity in cliff retreat rate for both coastlines.

  19. Modeling the cliff retreat response to base-level change in layered rocks, Colorado Plateau, USA (United States)

    Ward, D.; Sheehan, C.


    The retreat of cliffs is an important mode of erosion in layered rocks of variable strength. For example, the iconic Colorado Plateau landscapes of Grand Canyon, Canyonlands, and Monument Valley owe their unique forms to this process. These landscapes are the end result of incision by trunk streams followed by cliff retreat. Local interactions between stochastic rockfall and first-order channels draining a cliff regulate the cliff retreat response to a base-level fall. However, nonlinear transport dynamics, steep slopes, and variable rock strength challenge the modeling of landscape evolution in these settings. Here, we employ structure-from-motion photogrammetry to generate high-resolution DTMs of a natural experiment site on the Colorado Plateau. The site features a simple, sandstone-over-shale stratigraphy with a continuous gradient in cliffband height and evidence for an ongoing transient response to base level fall. The terrain data inform a high-resolution (dx=5 m), 2D numerical model of cliffband erosion. The model simulates the interaction of three primary processes: fluvial erosion and sediment transport; hillslope transport of regolith, including shallow landsliding; and rockfall from resistant units. Crucially, the model allows us to modify stratigraphy arbitrarily to examine the landscape response to parameters such as thickness, spacing, and dip of resistant units. Results indicate that the contrast in fluvial erodibility sets the pattern of emergence of cliffs as a resistant layer is exhumed, while the difference in weathering rates across rock types sets the rate at which cliffs emerge. Once rockfall begins, erosion rates are modified by the thickness of the resistant layer, which sets the volume of rockfall debris reaching the channels below the cliff. The modeling highlights the need for process-based understanding of the conditions for cliff failure by rockfall and redistribution of the debris in very steep, rapidly-eroding landscapes.

  20. Nature of short-period microtremors on the cliff-like ground. Part 4; Gakechi kinbo no tanshuki bido. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiguma, T.; Yoshiike, T. [Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan). School of Science and Engineering


    Microtremors were measured on the cliff-like ground with a height about 10 m, to examine the vibration characteristics. Test field-1 near Akabane, Kita-ku, Tokyo is located in a part of Musashino plateau covered with Kanto loam on its surface, and has relatively sound ground. Test field-2 at Machida is located in the western part of Tama hills, and also has Kanto loam on its surface. For the cliff-like ground with inclined angle 70{degree} at Akabane, remarkably predominant frequency 3.2 Hz was observed for the microtremors in the direction perpendicular to the cliff surface. However, this predominant vibration did not become larger due to the damping effects of the reinforcement walls near the end of cliff and the large trees on the cliff. Influence of the cliff-like ground was scarcely observed in the microtremors spectrum in both the directions parallel and vertical to the cliff-surface. From the observation of microtremors with short period on the cliff-like ground with inclined angle around 32{degree} at Machida, influence of cliff-like ground was not observed in the microtremors spectrum in all of the vibrating directions perpendicular, parallel and vertical to the cliff surface. 3 refs., 10 figs.

  1. The mechanics and behavior of cliff swallows during tandem flights. (United States)

    Shelton, Ryan M; Jackson, Brandon E; Hedrick, Tyson L


    Cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) are highly maneuverable social birds that often forage and fly in large open spaces. Here we used multi-camera videography to measure the three-dimensional kinematics of their natural flight maneuvers in the field. Specifically, we collected data on tandem flights, defined as two birds maneuvering together. These data permit us to evaluate several hypotheses on the high-speed maneuvering flight performance of birds. We found that high-speed turns are roll-based, but that the magnitude of the centripetal force created in typical maneuvers varied only slightly with flight speed, typically reaching a peak of ~2 body weights. Turning maneuvers typically involved active flapping rather than gliding. In tandem flights the following bird copied the flight path and wingbeat frequency (~12.3 Hz) of the lead bird while maintaining position slightly above the leader. The lead bird turned in a direction away from the lateral position of the following bird 65% of the time on average. Tandem flights vary widely in instantaneous speed (1.0 to 15.6 m s(-1)) and duration (0.72 to 4.71 s), and no single tracking strategy appeared to explain the course taken by the following bird.

  2. Subaerial Chalk Cliff Failures on the English Channel Coast, Based on Field Data From Recent Collapses (United States)



    The chalk cliffs along the English Channel coast are currently retreating at a mean rate of 0.5 m/year. However, the erosion is not constant over time, but occurs by catastrophic collapses. For the last three years, a minimum of 40 collapses have been observed along the French chalk coastline (120 km long) and about 10 collapses along the English chalk coastline (40 km long). The observed collapsed volumes are varying from 150 000 m3 (Beachy Head, UK) to a few m3, whereas the cliff heights are varying from 20 to 200m. Two kinds of scar extension have been observed on the cliff face: either the lower part only with few volumes involved, either the whole cliff height for the largest events. Two main cases of scar shape have been evidenced: (1) scar with a vertical upper part and a curved lower part with large striations and crushed chalk (Puys, France). The rupture process is an overall sliding process, with tearing of the upper part of the cliff and shearing in its lower part. The failure is mainly controlled by rain-fall and occurred by water pressure increase on impervious marl seams of the chalk (Duperret et al., in press, JCR). (2) scar with a regular and rectilinear profile, without any striation (Birling Gap, UK). The rupture propagates along pre-existing joint sets, parallel oriented to the cliff face. Locally, pre-existing large-scale transverse fractures may bound the lateral propagation of the scar. Where the scars extend all over the cliff height, the failure is mainly controlled by continental water infiltration. However the role of water through fractured chalk may differ according to the fracture pattern. Where the scars are restrained to the lower part of the cliff, the upward extension of the scars are bounded by lithological features of the chalk, as horizontal flint bands or stratification. In this case, the role of marine parameters, as wave impact at the toe of the cliff may be invoked as a significant triggering parameter contributing to failure

  3. The visual cliff's forgotten menagerie: rats, goats, babies, and myth-making in the history of psychology. (United States)

    Rodkey, Elissa N


    Eleanor Gibson and Richard Walk's famous visual cliff experiment is one of psychology's classic studies, included in most introductory textbooks. Yet the famous version which centers on babies is actually a simplification, the result of disciplinary myth-making. In fact the visual cliff's first subjects were rats, and a wide range of animals were tested on the cliff, including chicks, turtles, lambs, kid goats, pigs, kittens, dogs, and monkeys. The visual cliff experiment was more accurately a series of experiments, employing varying methods and a changing apparatus, modified to test different species. This paper focuses on the initial, nonhuman subjects of the visual cliff, resituating the study in its original experimental logic, connecting it to the history of comparative psychology, Gibson's interest in comparative psychology, as well as gender-based discrimination. Recovering the visual cliff's forgotten menagerie helps to counter the romanticization of experimentation by focusing on the role of extrascientific factors, chance, complexity, and uncertainty in the experimental process.

  4. Recreation impacts to cliff resources in the Potomac Gorge: Final report, June 2011 (United States)

    Marion, Jeffrey L.; Carr, C.; Davis, C.A.


    Managers of the National Park Service (NPS) are directed by law to accommodate appropriate types and amounts of visitation while ensuring that: any adverse impacts are the minimum necessary, unavoidable, cannot be further mitigated, and do not constitute impairment or derogation of park resources and values. (NPS 2006). The increasing popularity of the national park system presents substantial management challenges. High visitatation may cause unacceptable impacts to fragile natural and cultural resources, and may also cause crowding and other social impacts, which can also degrade the quality of visitor experiences. Responding to these concerns, NPS managers at Chesapeake & Ohio Canal National Historical Park (CHOH) and George Washington Memorial Parkway (GWMP) sponsored this research within the upper Potomac Gorge portions of these parks to investigate visitation-related impacts to the park?s cliff resources. The cliffs and rocky areas within the Great Falls and Mather Gorge areas provide important habitats for numerous sensitive rare plants and plant communities. A recent General Management Planning process for Great Falls Park (GFP), a portion of GWMP, highlighted the potential impacts of cliff-associated recreational activities, including hiking, climbing, and fishing, on sensitive cliff resources. The planning process identified the need for development of a Climbing Management Plan and a Trail Plan to more specifically address site and visitor management actions needed to protect rare and sensitive natural and cultural resources. Good science to assess cliff-associated rare plants and communities and to determine the existing and potential effects of cliff-related recreational activities is required for these new planning efforts. This research is designed to specifically address these informational needs and to assist park managers on both sides of the river with current and future cliff and recreation management decisions.

  5. Automatic Delineation of Sea-Cliff Limits Using Lidar-Derived High-Resolution DEMs in Southern California (United States)

    Palaseanu, M.; Danielson, J.; Foxgrover, A. C.; Barnard, P.; Thatcher, C.; Brock, J. C.


    Seacliff erosion is a serious hazard with implications for coastal management, and is often estimated using successive hand digitized cliff tops or bases (toe) to assess cliff retreat. Traditionally the recession of the cliff top or cliff base is obtained from aerial photographs, topographic maps, or in situ surveys. Irrespective of how or what is measured to categorize cliff erosion, the position of the cliff top and cliff base is important. Habitually, the cliff top and base are hand digitized even when using high resolution lidar derived DEMs. Even if efforts were made to standardize and eliminate as much as possible any digitizing subjectivity, the delineation of cliffs is time consuming, and depends on the analyst's interpretation. We propose an automatic procedure to delineate the cliff top and base from high resolution bare-earth DEMs. The method is based on bare-earth high-resolution DEMs, generalized coastal shorelines and approximate measurements of distance between the shoreline and the cliff top. The method generates orthogonal transects and profiles with a minimum spacing equal to the DEM resolution and extracts for each profile xyz coordinates for cliff's top and toe, as well as second major positive and negative inflections (second top and toe) along the profile. The difference between the automated and digitized top and toe, respectively, is smaller than the DEM error margin for over 82% of the top points and 86% of the toe points along a stretch of coast in Del Mar, CA. The larger errors were due either to the failure to remove all vegetation from the bare-earth DEM or errors of interpretation during hand digitizing. The automatic method was further applied between Point Conception and Los Angeles Harbor, CA. This automatic method is repeatable, takes advantage of the bare-earth high-resolution, and is more efficient.

  6. A floral survey of cliff habitats along Bull Run at Manassas National Battlefield Park, Virginia, 2014 (United States)

    Stroh, Esther D.; Struckhoff, Matthew A.; Grabner, Keith W.


    Isolated patches of native vegetation in human-modified landscapes are important reservoirs of biological diversity because they may be the only places in which rare or native species can persist. Manassas National Battlefield Park, Virginia, is an island embedded in a matrix of intensively modified lands; it is becoming increasingly isolated due to growth of the greater Washington, D.C. area. A series of cliffs along Bull Run support an eastern white pine community disjunct from its more typical range in the Appalachian Mountains. Cliffs frequently support vegetation communities that differ from surrounding habitat. In this ecological context, the cliffs along Bull Run are islands of specialized habitat within an island of natural and semi-natural communities (the park), surrounded by a human-dominated landscape. A floral survey of these cliffs was a top priority identified by the National Park Service National Capital Region via the National Resource Preservation Program; in 2014, we completed a floral survey of 11 cliffs in the park. We recorded 282 species in 194 genera and 83 families, including 23 newly documented species for the park.

  7. Sea cliff instability susceptibility at regional scale: a statistically based assessment in southern Algarve, Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. M. S. F. Marques


    along their top. The study was based on the application of the bivariate Information Value and multivariate Logistic regression statistical methods, using a set of predisposing factors for cliff failures, mainly related with geology (lithology, bedding dip, faults and geomorphology (maximum and mean slope, height, aspect, plan curvature, toe protection which were correlated with a photogrammetry based inventory of cliff failures occurred in a 60 yr period (1947–2007. The susceptibility models were validated against the inventory data using standard success rate and ROC curves, and provided encouraging results, indicating that the proposed approaches are effective for susceptibility assessment. The results obtained also stress the need for improvement of the predisposing factors to be used in this type of studies and the need of detailed and systematic cliff failures inventories.

  8. Analysis of Cliff-Ramp Structures in Homogeneous Scalar Turbulence by the Method of Line Segments (United States)

    Gauding, Michael; Goebbert, Jens Henrik; Peters, Norbert; Hasse, Christian


    The local structure of a turbulent scalar field in homogeneous isotropic turbulence is analyzed by direct numerical simulations (DNS). A novel signal decomposition approach is introduced where the signal of the scalar along a straight line is partitioned into segments based on the local extremal points of the scalar field. These segments are then parameterized by the distance between adjacent extremal points and a segment-based gradient. Joint statistics of the length and the segment-based gradient provide novel understanding about the local structure of the turbulent field and particularly about cliff-ramp-like structures. Ramp-like structures are unveiled by the asymmetry of joint distribution functions. Cliff-like structures are further analyzed by conditional statistics and it is shown from DNS that the width of cliffs scales with the Kolmogorov length scale.

  9. Determining Variation in Flight Speed and Pattern of Cliff Swallow Using Video Frame Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Santosh,


    Full Text Available Ability to fly faster varies from one species of birds to the other. Take off from their nest, settling on the nest or migratory speed of flight is different from one bird to the other, so is also to Cliff Swallows. Many workers have tried different ways to analyze the flight speed of birds using principles of mechanics and physics. Here we have analyzed take off and settling in speeds of Indian Cliff Swallows by applying Video frame analysis technique with fixed focal length.

  10. Assessing species habitat using Google Street View: a case study of cliff-nesting vultures. (United States)

    Olea, Pedro P; Mateo-Tomás, Patricia


    The assessment of a species' habitat is a crucial issue in ecology and conservation. While the collection of habitat data has been boosted by the availability of remote sensing technologies, certain habitat types have yet to be collected through costly, on-ground surveys, limiting study over large areas. Cliffs are ecosystems that provide habitat for a rich biodiversity, especially raptors. Because of their principally vertical structure, however, cliffs are not easy to study by remote sensing technologies, posing a challenge for many researches and managers working with cliff-related biodiversity. We explore the feasibility of Google Street View, a freely available on-line tool, to remotely identify and assess the nesting habitat of two cliff-nesting vultures (the griffon vulture and the globally endangered Egyptian vulture) in northwestern Spain. Two main usefulness of Google Street View to ecologists and conservation biologists were evaluated: i) remotely identifying a species' potential habitat and ii) extracting fine-scale habitat information. Google Street View imagery covered 49% (1,907 km) of the roads of our study area (7,000 km²). The potential visibility covered by on-ground surveys was significantly greater (mean: 97.4%) than that of Google Street View (48.1%). However, incorporating Google Street View to the vulture's habitat survey would save, on average, 36% in time and 49.5% in funds with respect to the on-ground survey only. The ability of Google Street View to identify cliffs (overall accuracy = 100%) outperformed the classification maps derived from digital elevation models (DEMs) (62-95%). Nonetheless, high-performance DEM maps may be useful to compensate Google Street View coverage limitations. Through Google Street View we could examine 66% of the vultures' nesting-cliffs existing in the study area (n = 148): 64% from griffon vultures and 65% from Egyptian vultures. It also allowed us the extraction of fine-scale features of cliffs

  11. Soft-Cliff Retreat, Self-Organized Critical Phenomena in the Limit of Predictability? (United States)

    Paredes, Carlos; Godoy, Clara; Castedo, Ricardo


    The coastal erosion along the world's coastlines is a natural process that occurs through the actions of marine and subaerial physico-chemical phenomena, waves, tides, and currents. The development of cliff erosion predictive models is limited due to the complex interactions between environmental processes and material properties over a wide range of temporal and spatial scales. As a result of this erosive action, gravity driven mass movements occur and the coastline moves inland. Like other studied earth natural and synthetically modelled phenomena characterized as self-organized critical (SOC), the recession of the cliff has a seemingly random, sporadic behavior, with a wide range of yearly recession rate values probabilistically distributed by a power-law. Usually, SOC systems are defined by a number of scaling features in the size distribution of its parameters and on its spatial and/or temporal pattern. Particularly, some previous studies of derived parameters from slope movements catalogues, have allowed detecting certain SOC features in this phenomenon, which also shares the recession of cliffs. Due to the complexity of the phenomenon and, as for other natural processes, there is no definitive model of recession of coastal cliffs. In this work, various analysis techniques have been applied to identify SOC features in the distribution and pattern to a particular case: the Holderness shoreline. This coast is a great case study to use when examining coastal processes and the structures associated with them. It is one of World's fastest eroding coastlines (2 m/yr in average, max observed 22 m/yr). Cliffs, ranging from 2 m up to 35 m in height, and made up of glacial tills, mainly compose this coast. It is this soft boulder clay that is being rapidly eroded and where coastline recession measurements have been recorded by the Cliff Erosion Monitoring Program (East Riding of Yorkshire Council, UK). The original database has been filtered by grouping contiguous

  12. Main factors determining bioerosion patterns on rocky cliffs in a drowned valley estuary in the Colombian Pacific (Eastern Tropical Pacific) (United States)

    Cobo-Viveros, Alba Marina; Cantera-Kintz, Jaime Ricardo


    Bioerosion is an important process that destroys coastal rocks in the tropics. However, the rates at which this process occurs, the organisms involved, and the dynamics of rocky cliffs in tropical latitudes have been less studied than in temperate and subtropical latitudes. To contribute to the knowledge of the bioerosion process in rocky cliffs on the Pacific coast of Colombia (Eastern Tropical Pacific) we compared: 1) boring volume, 2) grain size distribution of the rocks, and 3) rock porosity, across three tidal zones of two cliffs with different wave exposure; these factors were related to the bioeroding community found. We observed that cliffs that were not exposed to wave action (IC, internal cliffs) exhibited high percentages of clays in their grain size composition, and a greater porosity (47.62%) and perforation (15.86%) than exposed cliffs (EC, external cliffs). However, IC also exhibited less diversity and abundance of bioeroding species (22 species and 314 individuals, respectively) compared to the values found in EC (41.11%, 14.34%, 32 and 491, respectively). The most abundant bioeroders were Petrolisthes zacae in IC and Pachygrapsus transversus in EC. Our findings show that the tidal zone is the common factor controlling bioerosion on both cliffs; in addition to the abundance of bioeroders on IC and the number of bioeroding species on EC. The integration of geology, sedimentology, and biology allows us to obtain a more comprehensive view of the patterns and trends in the process of bioerosion.

  13. 78 FR 4467 - UniStar Nuclear Energy, Combined License Application for Calvert Cliffs Power Plant, Unit 3... (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION UniStar Nuclear Energy, Combined License Application for Calvert Cliffs Power Plant, Unit 3, Exemption 1.0 Background UniStar Nuclear Energy (UNE), on behalf of Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Project, LLC...

  14. 33 CFR 165.505 - Security Zone; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Chesapeake Bay, Calvert County, Maryland. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security Zone; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Chesapeake Bay, Calvert County, Maryland. 165.505 Section 165.505 Navigation and... Areas Fifth Coast Guard District § 165.505 Security Zone; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant,...

  15. Investigating ice cliff evolution and contribution to glacier mass-balance using a physically-based dynamic model (United States)

    Buri, Pascal; Miles, Evan; Ragettli, Silvan; Brun, Fanny; Steiner, Jakob; Pellicciotti, Francesca


    Supraglacial cliffs are a surface feature typical of debris-covered glaciers, affecting surface evolution, glacier downwasting and mass balance by providing a direct ice-atmosphere interface. As a result, melt rates can be very high and ice cliffs may account for a significant portion of the total glacier mass loss. However, their contribution to glacier mass balance has rarely been quantified through physically-based models. Most cliff energy balance models are point scale models which calculate energy fluxes at individual cliff locations. Results from the only grid based model to date accurately reflect energy fluxes and cliff melt, but modelled backwasting patterns are in some cases unrealistic, as the distribution of melt rates would lead to progressive shallowing and disappearance of cliffs. Based on a unique multitemporal dataset of cliff topography and backwasting obtained from high-resolution terrestrial and aerial Structure-from-Motion analysis on Lirung Glacier in Nepal, it is apparent that cliffs exhibit a range of behaviours but most do not rapidly disappear. The patterns of evolution cannot be explained satisfactorily by atmospheric melt alone, and are moderated by the presence of supraglacial ponds at the base of cliffs and by cliff reburial with debris. Here, we document the distinct patterns of evolution including disappearance, growth and stability. We then use these observations to improve the grid-based energy balance model, implementing periodic updates of the cliff geometry resulting from modelled melt perpendicular to the ice surface. Based on a slope threshold, pixels can be reburied by debris or become debris-free. The effect of ponds are taken into account through enhanced melt rates in horizontal direction on pixels selected based on an algorithm considering distance to the water surface, slope and lake level. We use the dynamic model to first study the evolution of selected cliffs for which accurate, high resolution DEMs are available

  16. The glass cliff: when and why women are selected as leaders in crisis contexts. (United States)

    Bruckmüller, Susanne; Branscombe, Nyla R


    The glass cliff refers to women being more likely to rise to positions of organizational leadership in times of crisis than in times of success, and men being more likely to achieve those positions in prosperous times. We examine the role that (a) a gendered history of leadership and (b) stereotypes about gender and leadership play in creating the glass cliff. In Expt 1, participants who read about a company with a male history of leadership selected a male future leader for a successful organization, but chose a female future leader in times of crisis. This interaction--between company performance and gender of the preferred future leader--was eliminated for a counter-stereotypic history of female leadership. In Expt 2, stereotypically male attributes were most predictive of leader selection in a successful organization, while stereotypically female attributes were most predictive in times of crisis. Differences in the endorsement of these stereotypes, in particular with regard to the ascription of lower stereotypically female attributes to the male candidate mediated the glass cliff effect. Overall, results suggest that stereotypes about male leadership may be more important for the glass cliff effect than stereotypes about women and leadership.

  17. The Cliff:A Deconstructive Analysis of The Catcher in the Rye

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Just as the cliff serves as a demarcation between two different worlds,there seems to the protagonist in The Catcher in the Rye the dichotomies between innocence and corruption,children and adults.While these dualisms are projected in the story,they are also deconstructed and the characterization of Holden clearly shows the instability of those dualisms.

  18. Responses to a Modified Visual Cliff by Pre-Walking Infants Born Preterm and at Term (United States)

    Lin, Yuan-Shan; Reilly, Marie; Mercer, Vicki S.


    The purpose of this study was to examine, using a modified visual cliff apparatus, possible perceptual differences at crawling age between infants born preterm and infants born at term without documented visual or motor impairments. Sixteen infants born at term and 16 born preterm were encouraged to crawl to their caregivers on a modified visual…

  19. Cliff or Step? Posture-Specific Learning at the Edge of a Drop-Off (United States)

    Kretch, Kari S.; Adolph, Karen E.


    Infants require locomotor experience to behave adaptively at a drop-off. However, different experimental paradigms (visual cliff and actual gaps and slopes) have generated conflicting findings regarding what infants learn and the specificity of their learning. An actual, adjustable drop-off apparatus was used to investigate whether learning to…

  20. Cliffs used as communal roosts by Andean condors protect the birds from weather and predators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio A Lambertucci

    Full Text Available The quality and availability of resources influence the geographical distribution of species. Social species need safe places to rest, meet, exchange information and obtain thermoregulatory benefits, but those places may also serve other important functions that have been overlooked in research. We use a large soaring bird that roosts communally in cliffs, the Andean condor (Vultur gryphus, as a model species to elucidate whether roost locations serve as a refuge from adverse weather conditions (climatic refuge hypothesis, CRH, and/or from predators or anthropogenic disturbances (threats refuge hypothesis, TRH. The CRH predicts that communal roosts will face in the opposite direction from where storms originate, and will be located in climatically stable, low precipitation areas. The TRH predicts that communal roosts will be large, poorly accessible cliffs, located far from human-made constructions. We surveyed cliffs used as communal roosts by condors in northwestern Patagonia, and compared them with alternative non-roosting cliffs to test these predictions at local and regional scales. We conclude that communal roosting places provide refuge against climate and disturbances such as, for instance, the threats of predators (including humans. Thus, it is not only the benefits gained from being aggregated per se, but the characteristics of the place selected for roosting that may both be essential for the survival of the species. This should be considered in management and conservation plans given the current scenario of global climate change and the increase in environmental disturbances.

  1. An experimental study of the effect of different onshore cliff angles on near shore hydrodynamics (United States)

    Sim, S.; Xu, C.; Huang, Z.


    As a tsunami propagates towards the shore, they will shoal and then break. This will lead to an up rush of water. In scenarios where there are no distinct obstacles that affect the near shore coastal topography, this inundation process will not be halted and the water will travel to its farthest extent without any hindrance. As the water recedes, the return flow will be that of a shallow sheet flow. However, these expected hydrodynamic observations may not be recorded if there are significant alterations to the near shore topographical settings. In this study we investigated the effect of an onshore cliff on near shore hydrodynamics. A series of laboratory experiments were conducted in a wave flume to examine how different onshore cliff angles can affect the near shore hydrodynamics. Key parameters recorded were the run-up and inundation values. The recorded measurements showed that when the cliff angle is very steep, the flow depth in front of the cliff will be amplified significantly. This is evidenced by video recordings of the side profile of the wave flume. The video recording also showed a return plunging breaker wave which entrained air; this could imply that the near shore morphology could also be affected as sediment near shore can be entrained by this turbulence generated and then carried further offshore.

  2. Experimental infection of cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) with varying doses of West Nile virus (United States)

    Oesterle, P.T.; Nemeth, N.M.; VanDalen, Kaci K.; Sullivan, H.; Bentler, K.T.; Young, G.R.; McLean, R.G.; Clark, L.; Smeraski, C.; Hall, J.S.


    Cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) were inoculated with differing doses of West Nile virus (WNV) to evaluate their potential role as reservoir hosts in nature. Swallows often nest in large colonies in habitats and months associated with high mosquito abundance and early WNV transmission in North America. Additionally, cliff swallow diet consists of insects, including mosquitoes, leading to an additional potential route of WNV infection. The average peak viremia titer among infected cliff swallows was 106.3 plaque-forming units (PFU)/mL serum and the reservoir competence index was 0.34. There was no correlation between dose and probability of becoming infected or viremia peak and duration. Oral shedding was detected from 2 to 14 days post-inoculation with an average peak titer of 1044 PFU/swab. These results suggest that cliff swallows are competent reservoir hosts of WNV and therefore, they may play a role in early seasonal amplification and maintenance of WNV. Copyright ?? 2009 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  3. Cliff Collapse Hazard from Repeated Multicopter Uav Acquisitions: Return on Experience (United States)

    Dewez, T. J. B.; Leroux, J.; Morelli, S.


    Cliff collapse poses a serious hazard to infrastructure and passers-by. Obtaining information such as magnitude-frequency relationship for a specific site is of great help to adapt appropriate mitigation measures. While it is possible to monitor hundreds-of-meter-long cliff sites with ground based techniques (e.g. lidar or photogrammetry), it is both time consuming and scientifically limiting to focus on short cliff sections. In the project SUAVE, we sought to investigate whether an octocopter UAV photogrammetric survey would perform sufficiently well in order to repeatedly survey cliff face geometry and derive rock fall inventories amenable to probabilistic rock fall hazard computation. An experiment was therefore run on a well-studied site of the chalk coast of Normandy, in Mesnil Val, along the English Channel (Northern France). Two campaigns were organized in January and June 2015 which surveyed about 60 ha of coastline, including the 80-m-high cliff face, the chalk platform at its foot, and the hinterland in a matter of 4 hours from start to finish. To conform with UAV regulations, the flight was flown in 3 legs for a total of about 30 minutes in the air. A total of 868 and 1106 photos were respectively shot with a Sony NEX 7 with fixed focal 16mm. Three lines of sight were combined: horizontal shots for cliff face imaging, 45°-oblique views to tie plateau/platform photos with cliff face images, and regular vertical shots. Photogrammetrically derived dense point clouds were produced with Agisoft Photoscan at ultra-high density (median density is 1 point every 1.7cm). Point cloud density proved a critical parameter to reproduce faithfully the chalk face's geometry. Tuning down the density parameter to "high" or "medium", though efficient from a computational point of view, generated artefacts along chalk bed edges (i.e. smoothing the sharp gradient) and ultimately creating ghost volumes when computing cloud to cloud differences. Yet, from a hazard point of


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. B. Dewez


    Full Text Available Cliff collapse poses a serious hazard to infrastructure and passers-by. Obtaining information such as magnitude-frequency relationship for a specific site is of great help to adapt appropriate mitigation measures. While it is possible to monitor hundreds-of-meter-long cliff sites with ground based techniques (e.g. lidar or photogrammetry, it is both time consuming and scientifically limiting to focus on short cliff sections. In the project SUAVE, we sought to investigate whether an octocopter UAV photogrammetric survey would perform sufficiently well in order to repeatedly survey cliff face geometry and derive rock fall inventories amenable to probabilistic rock fall hazard computation. An experiment was therefore run on a well-studied site of the chalk coast of Normandy, in Mesnil Val, along the English Channel (Northern France. Two campaigns were organized in January and June 2015 which surveyed about 60 ha of coastline, including the 80-m-high cliff face, the chalk platform at its foot, and the hinterland in a matter of 4 hours from start to finish. To conform with UAV regulations, the flight was flown in 3 legs for a total of about 30 minutes in the air. A total of 868 and 1106 photos were respectively shot with a Sony NEX 7 with fixed focal 16mm. Three lines of sight were combined: horizontal shots for cliff face imaging, 45°-oblique views to tie plateau/platform photos with cliff face images, and regular vertical shots. Photogrammetrically derived dense point clouds were produced with Agisoft Photoscan at ultra-high density (median density is 1 point every 1.7cm. Point cloud density proved a critical parameter to reproduce faithfully the chalk face’s geometry. Tuning down the density parameter to “high” or “medium”, though efficient from a computational point of view, generated artefacts along chalk bed edges (i.e. smoothing the sharp gradient and ultimately creating ghost volumes when computing cloud to cloud differences. Yet

  5. Sea-cliff erosion at Pacifica, California caused by 1997/98 El Niño storms (United States)

    Snell, Charles B.; Lajoie, Kenneth R.; Medley, Edward W.


    Twelve homes were constructed in 1949 at the top of a sea cliff along Esplanade Drive in the City of Pacifica, located on the northern coast of San Mateo County, California. The rear yards of those properties were bounded by an approximately 20-meter (70-foot) high cliff that has retreated episodically at an average rate of 0.5 to 0.6 meter (1.5 to 2 feet) per year over the past 146 years. During the heavy storms of the 1997/1998 El Niño winter, a severe episode of cliff retreat undermined seven homes and threatened three others. All ten homes were condemned and demolished by the City of Pacifica. In this study we analyze geologic, tide, wave, rainfall and wind data in an attempt to determine the causes of this most recent erosion event. We identify the following possible contributory causes of the cliff retreat: 1) wave-induced undercutting of the cliff landward of an old revetment, 2) reduction in beach width over time, 3) reduction in cliff-face stability owing to infiltration from heavy rains, 4) erosion of the cliff face by groundwater piping, and 5) wind-induced erosion of loose dune sand at the top of the cliff. While these factors may explain the retreat of the cliff below the twelve homes along Esplanade Drive, the question remains as to why other geologically similar sites in the region were not severely eroded during the 1997/1998 El Niño winter.

  6. Detection of morphological changes in cliff face surrounding a waterfall using terrestrial laser scanning and unmanned aerial system (United States)

    Hayakawa, Yuichi S.; Obanawa, Hiroyuki


    Waterfall or bedrock knickpoint appears as an erosional front in bedrock rivers forming deep v-shaped valley downstream. Following the rapid fluvial erosion of waterfall, rockfalls and gravita-tional collapses often occur in surrounding steep cliffs. Although morphological changes of such steep cliffs are sometimes visually observed, quantitative and precise measurements of their spatio-temporal distribution have been limited due to the difficulties in direct access to such cliffs if with classical measurement methods. However, for the clarification of geomorphological processes oc-curring in the cliffs, multi-temporal mapping of the cliff face at a high resolution is necessary. Re-mote sensing approaches are therefore suitable for the topographic measurements and detection of changes in such inaccessible cliffs. To achieve accurate topographic mapping of cliffs around a wa-terfall, here we perform multi-temporal terrestrial laser scanning (TLS), as well as structure-from-motion multi-view stereo (SfM-MVS) photogrammetry based on unmanned aerial system (UAS). The study site is Kegon Falls in central Japan, having a vertical drop of surface water from top of its overhanging cliff, as well as groundwater outflows from its lower portions. The bedrock is composed of alternate layers of andesite lava and conglomerates. Minor rockfalls in the cliffs are often ob-served by local people. The latest major rockfall occurred in 1986, causing ca. 8-m upstream propa-gation of the waterfall lip. This provides a good opportunity to examine the changes in the surround-ing cliffs following the waterfall recession. Multi-time point clouds were obtained by TLS measure-ment over years, and the three-dimensional changes of the rock surface were detected, uncovering the locus of small rockfalls and gully developments. Erosion seems particularly frequent in relatively weak the conglomerates layer, whereas small rockfalls seems to have occurred in the andesite layers. Also, shadows in the

  7. Inshore analyse of the morphostructural evolution of the coastal cliffs of Bessin, Basse-Normandie, France (United States)

    Vioget, Alizée; Costa, Stéphane; Derron, Marc-Henri; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Maquaire, Olivier; Michoud, Clément


    The cliffs' retreat is a major issue for the management of coastal territories. Two coastal areas in "Calvados" and "Pays de Caux", French Normandy, are studied by the University of Caen for several years, and more recently assisted by the University of Lausanne. The studied section of the cliffs of Bessin is about 4.3 km long and lies between the World War II artillery batteries of Longues-sur-Mer and Arromanches-les-Bains. The site's lithology is mainly made of two formations: the limestones of Bessin that lie on top of the marls of Port. On the coastline, the cliff's height varies between 10 and 75 meters above sea level. The marl formation acts like an aquitard, as it is semi-impermeable. Therefore, more or less important water outflows are observable at the point of contact between the marls and the limestones. First, the study aims to create an up to date geomorphological map as well as a kinematic classification of the existing instabilities of the different cliff's profiles. This part is realized with on site field measurements. We observe several profiles depending on the type of cliff studied: sinking of limestone panels due to creeping marls at the base, overhang limestone formation, wave-cut notch, detachment, tilt, rotational slide, superficial separation etc. These several behaviours depend on the cliff's exposure to the Channel sea and weathering factors, morphology, presence of pebble beach etc. The coastline section is thus classified depending on the different morphological types observed, which influence the stability and erosion rates. Principal morphological types here are: overhang limestone formation near Cape Manvieux, creeping marls near le Chaos and graben near le Bouffay. Then, the cliffs' condition is compared to the diachronic analyse of the shoreline evolution supported by different photographic documents. This part of the study allows to refine the spatiotemporal occurrence of the different ground movements. However, cliffs

  8. Comparative simulations of the 2011 Tohoku tsunami with MOST and Cliffs

    CERN Document Server

    Tolkova, Elena


    Wet-dry interface which appreciably increases accuracy of tsunami simulations with the MOST model (Method of Splitting Tsunamis, adapted by the NOAA for tsunami forecasting operations) is highlighted here with a few comparative simulations. The new solution, termed Cliffs, exceeds all MOST versions in accuracy of computing later waves. This is demonstrated with simulation of the Tohoku-2011 tsunami to Monterey Bay, CA, and into fiords, bays, and inlets of southeastern Alaska, followed by comparison with tide gage records.

  9. Cliff swallows Petrochelidon pyrrhonota as bioindicators of environmental mercury, Cache Creek Watershed, California (United States)

    Hothem, Roger L.; Trejo, Bonnie S.; Bauer, Marissa L.; Crayon, John J.


    To evaluate mercury (Hg) and other element exposure in cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota), eggs were collected from 16 sites within the mining-impacted Cache Creek watershed, Colusa, Lake, and Yolo counties, California, USA, in 1997-1998. Nestlings were collected from seven sites in 1998. Geometric mean total Hg (THg) concentrations ranged from 0.013 to 0.208 ??g/g wet weight (ww) in cliff swallow eggs and from 0.047 to 0.347 ??g/g ww in nestlings. Mercury detected in eggs generally followed the spatial distribution of Hg in the watershed based on proximity to both anthropogenic and natural sources. Mean Hg concentrations in samples of eggs and nestlings collected from sites near Hg sources were up to five and seven times higher, respectively, than in samples from reference sites within the watershed. Concentrations of other detected elements, including aluminum, beryllium, boron, calcium, manganese, strontium, and vanadium, were more frequently elevated at sites near Hg sources. Overall, Hg concentrations in eggs from Cache Creek were lower than those reported in eggs of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) from highly contaminated locations in North America. Total Hg concentrations were lower in all Cache Creek egg samples than adverse effects levels established for other species. Total Hg concentrations in bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) and foothill yellow-legged frogs (Rana boylii) collected from 10 of the study sites were both positively correlated with THg concentrations in cliff swallow eggs. Our data suggest that cliff swallows are reliable bioindicators of environmental Hg. ?? Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007.

  10. Observations of historical sea cliff retreat rates exceed long-term estimates derived from cosmogenic 10Be (United States)

    Hurst, Martin D.; Rood, Dylan H.; Ellis, Michael A.; Anderson, Robert S.


    Historical observation of coastal retreat are limited to relatively short timescales (change may be accelerated in the face of anticipated stormier climates and rising sea level, yet there is little knowledge of rates of coastal change prior to the relatively brief historical records. In order to make predictions about potential future coastal change it is important to establish baseline conditions averaged over longer time periods. Here we present analysis of sea cliff retreat throughout the Holocene averaged for chalk cliffs in south-east England using cosmogenic isotopes. We determine long-term rates of sea cliff erosion from 10Be measured from in-situ flint samples collected from three transects across coastal platforms in East Sussex. A numerical model of 10Be accumulation on an evolving coastal profile allows estimation of cliff retreat rate during the Holocene. The model accounts for variation in 10Be accumulation with tides and sea-level rise, and takes into account platform downwear and topographic shielding by adjacent cliffs. We find that cliff retreat rates during the Holocene were significantly slower (2-6 cm yr-1) than those derived from recent historical observations (15-25 cm yr-1). Modelled accumulation of 10Be requires retreat rates that increase rapidly in recent times, potentially reflecting human modification of the coastal sediment budget through construction of sea defences, flood defenses and aggregate extraction. Therefore knowledge of past human activity at the coastline may be important in anticipating future rates of coastal retreat.

  11. Reconstructing 3D coastal cliffs from airborne oblique photographs without ground control points (United States)

    Dewez, T. J. B.


    Coastal cliff collapse hazard assessment requires measuring cliff face topography at regular intervals. Terrestrial laser scanner techniques have proven useful so far but are expensive to use either through purchasing the equipment or through survey subcontracting. In addition, terrestrial laser surveys take time which is sometimes incompatible with the time during with the beach is accessible at low-tide. By comparison, structure from motion techniques (SFM) are much less costly to implement, and if airborne, acquisition of several kilometers of coastline can be done in a matter of minutes. In this paper, the potential of GPS-tagged oblique airborne photographs and SFM techniques is examined to reconstruct chalk cliff dense 3D point clouds without Ground Control Points (GCP). The focus is put on comparing the relative 3D point of views reconstructed by Visual SFM with their synchronous Solmeta Geotagger Pro2 GPS locations using robust estimators. With a set of 568 oblique photos, shot from the open door of an airplane with a triplet of synchronized Nikon D7000, GPS and SFM-determined view point coordinates converge to X: ±31.5 m; Y: ±39.7 m; Z: ±13.0 m (LE66). Uncertainty in GPS position affects the model scale, angular attitude of the reference frame (the shoreline ends up tilted by 2°) and absolute positioning. Ground Control Points cannot be avoided to orient such models.

  12. Sea cliff erosion in the eastern part of the North Aegean coastline, Northern Greece. (United States)

    Xeidakis, George S; Delimani, P K; Skias, S G


    The coastal zone is an area where many human activities are taking place. Erosion of the coast obstructs, in various ways, these activities creating occasionally serious socioeconomic and environmental problems. In this paper the coastal erosion problems encountered in the eastern Greek part of the North Aegean Sea Coast, a stretch of about 51 km long adjacent to the city of Alexandroupolis, are discussed. Given the observed type and location of erosion and other sea-action phenomena, the coast under study is divided in two parts/stretches. The western stretch, where the city of Alexandroupolis is presently extending, presents, mainly, cliff erosion problems and retreat of the coastline, very serious in some sections; whereas, the eastern stretch (to the east of the city) exhibits deposition and progression seawards due to the abundance of sediments supplied by Evros river delta. A classification of the coastline according to its relief, geologic material, erosion characteristics and rate, slope failure phenomena as well as the wave energy potential, is presented together with suggestions for case-appropriate mitigation and protection measures regarding the coastal erosion problems. The paper is focusing on the cliff erosion phenomena, since varying in height coastal cliffs made of soft rocks, cover the major part of the investigated coastline (western stretch).

  13. Cliff stability assessment using electrical resistivity tomography at the historic WWII D-Day invasion site, Pointe du Hoc, France (United States)

    Everett, M. E.; Udphuay, S.; Warden, R.


    The 1944 D-Day invasion site at Pointe du Hoc, Normandy, France is an important WWII battlefield and cultural resource but is at risk from chalk cliff collapse. The American Battle Monuments Commission tasked us to evaluate the geohazard to the observation post and other cliff-side buildings of historical significance. Geophysical multi-electrode resistivity profiling is used to study cliff stability and the condition of the observation- post foundations. Preliminary 2-D geological interpretations are provided of individual profiles. The copious steel, concrete and void spaces at the site renders hydrogeological interpretation challenging but tractable. The cliff face appears to be relatively intact and well-drained. Several routes taken by groundwater into fractures within the chalk were identified mainly on the western side of the site. The eastern side is drier and somewhat sheltered from the Atlantic storms but may contain large void spaces that could efficiently transmit groundwater flow during heavy precipitation events, thereby imperiling the major antiaircraft gun emplacement occupied by Col. Rudder in the early days of the Allied invasion. The forward German observation post perched close to the sea stack, which now hosts the U.S. Ranger memorial, may be moving with the soil and not securely anchored to bedrock. A complex failure mechanism is identified as a combination of groundwater dissolution of the fractured chalk and sea wave attack at the cliff base.

  14. Brief communication"Estimating rockfall frequency in a mountain limestone cliff using terrestrial laser scanner"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Guerin


    Full Text Available Using terrestrial laser scanner, 344 rockfalls larger than 0.05 m3 have been detected for a period of 1180 days, in a thinly bedded limestone cliff of width 750 m and height 200 m. The complementary cumulative distribution of the rockfall volume is well fitted by a power law, with an exponent b of 0.75 ± 0.04. In order to compare the rockfall frequencies in different geological contexts, a rockfall activity parameter has been defined, which is the number of rockfalls larger than 1 m3, which occur per century and per hm2.

  15. Processes and rate of retreat of the clay and sandstone sea cliffs of the northern Boulonnais (France) (United States)

    Pierre, Guillaume


    Retreat of the clay and sandstone cliffs of the northern Boulonnais (France) has been quantified using stereophotogrammetry. The low retreat rate of this coastal strip — 0.08 m/yr between 1939 and 2003 — is far less than that encountered on chalk and clay-chalk cliffs of either side of the Channel, and even less than a previous estimate of 0.17 m/yr regularly quoted in management studies. The retreat rate is closely related to shore platform morphology and dynamics. The shore platform presents 1) a steeply sloping ramp due to the accumulation of flat calcareous megaclasts that reduce marine erosion; 2) upstanding bare platform surfaces, related to tectonic deformation; and 3) thick platform-beaches trapped in troughs. In all three cases, the reflective behaviour of the nearshore protects the cliff foot from the incoming waves. Two critical eroding segments are the result of changes in the platform sedimentary budget. Around Cran Poulet, and between Plage de la Sirène and Pointe de la Courte Dune, the retreat rate is up to 0.25 and 0.15 m/yr, respectively. At Cran Poulet, recession has been facilitated by the extraction of pebble for more than half a century, whereas erosion of the beach at la Sirène is probably linked to severe erosion of the coastline in the adjacent Wissant Bay. Mass movements on the cliff face are essentially shallow-seated translational slides along with small debris falls and mudflows. The instability of the Argiles de Châtillon is greatly diminished by their sandy and silty texture and by the presence of interstratified solid shelly limestone beds that allow steep slopes to develop in rather weak material. The 'vertical erosion antecedent' is the erosional mode of the cliff, and its reduced efficiency explains the slow recession of the cliff. This study will help to determine the long term evolution of the Boulonnais coast.

  16. Molecular Phylogeny of the Cliff Ferns (Woodsiaceae: Polypodiales) with a Proposed Infrageneric Classification. (United States)

    Shao, Yizhen; Wei, Ran; Zhang, Xianchun; Xiang, Qiaoping


    The cliff fern family Woodsiaceae has experienced frequent taxonomic changes at the familial and generic ranks since its establishment. The bulk of its species were placed in Woodsia, while Cheilanthopsis, Hymenocystis, Physematium, and Protowoodsia are segregates recognized by some authors. Phylogenetic relationships among the genera of Woodsiaceae remain unclear because of the extreme morphological diversity and inadequate taxon sampling in phylogenetic studies to date. In this study, we carry out comprehensive phylogenetic analyses of Woodsiaceae using molecular evidence from four chloroplast DNA markers (atpA, matK, rbcL and trnL-F) and covering over half the currently recognized species. Our results show three main clades in Woodsiaceae corresponding to Physematium (clade I), Cheilanthopsis-Protowoodsia (clade II) and Woodsia s.s. (clade III). In the interest of preserving monophyly and taxonomic stability, a broadly defined Woodsia including the other segregates is proposed, which is characterized by the distinctive indument and inferior indusia. Therefore, we present a new subgeneric classification of the redefined Woodsia based on phylogenetic and ancestral state reconstructions to better reflect the morphological variation, geographic distribution pattern, and evolutionary history of the genus. Our analyses of the cytological character evolution support multiple aneuploidy events that have resulted in the reduction of chromosome base number from 41 to 33, 37, 38, 39 and 40 during the evolutionary history of the cliff ferns.

  17. Molecular Phylogeny of the Cliff Ferns (Woodsiaceae: Polypodiales with a Proposed Infrageneric Classification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yizhen Shao

    Full Text Available The cliff fern family Woodsiaceae has experienced frequent taxonomic changes at the familial and generic ranks since its establishment. The bulk of its species were placed in Woodsia, while Cheilanthopsis, Hymenocystis, Physematium, and Protowoodsia are segregates recognized by some authors. Phylogenetic relationships among the genera of Woodsiaceae remain unclear because of the extreme morphological diversity and inadequate taxon sampling in phylogenetic studies to date. In this study, we carry out comprehensive phylogenetic analyses of Woodsiaceae using molecular evidence from four chloroplast DNA markers (atpA, matK, rbcL and trnL-F and covering over half the currently recognized species. Our results show three main clades in Woodsiaceae corresponding to Physematium (clade I, Cheilanthopsis-Protowoodsia (clade II and Woodsia s.s. (clade III. In the interest of preserving monophyly and taxonomic stability, a broadly defined Woodsia including the other segregates is proposed, which is characterized by the distinctive indument and inferior indusia. Therefore, we present a new subgeneric classification of the redefined Woodsia based on phylogenetic and ancestral state reconstructions to better reflect the morphological variation, geographic distribution pattern, and evolutionary history of the genus. Our analyses of the cytological character evolution support multiple aneuploidy events that have resulted in the reduction of chromosome base number from 41 to 33, 37, 38, 39 and 40 during the evolutionary history of the cliff ferns.

  18. Vascular Plant and Vertebrate Inventory of Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument (United States)

    Powell, Brian F.; Albrecht, Eric W.; Halvorson, William L.; Schmidt, Cecilia A.; Docherty, Kathleen; Anning, Pamela


    Executive Summary This report summarizes the results of the first comprehensive biological inventory of Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument (NM) in western New Mexico. This project was part of a larger effort to inventory plants and vertebrates in eight National Park Service units in Arizona and New Mexico. Our surveys address many of the objectives that were set forth in the monument's natural resource management plan almost 20 years ago, but until this effort, those goals were never accomplished. From 2001 to 2003 we surveyed for vascular plants and vertebrates (amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals) at Gila Cliff Dwellings NM to document presence of species within the boundaries of the monument. For all taxonomic groups that we studied, we collected 'incidental' sightings on U.S. Forest Service lands adjacent to the monument, and in a few cases we did formal surveys on those lands. Because we used repeatable study designs and standardized field techniques, these inventories can serve as the first step in a biological monitoring program for Gila Cliff Dwellings NM and surrounding lands. We recorded 552 species at Gila Cliff Dwellings NM and the surrounding lands (Table 1). We found no non-native species of reptiles, birds, or mammals, one non-native amphibian (American bullfrog), and 33 non-native plants. Particularly on lands adjacent to the monument we found that the American bullfrog was very abundant, which is a cause for significant management concern. Species of non-native plants that are of management concern include red brome, bufflegrass, and cheatgrass. For a park unit of its size and geographic location, we found the plant and vertebrate communities to be fairly diverse; for each taxonomic group we found representative species from a wide range of taxonomic orders and/or families. The monument's geographic location, with influences from the Rocky Mountain, Chihuahuan Desert, and Madrean ecological provinces, plays an important role in determining

  19. Analysis of sea cliff slope stability integrating traditional geomechanical surveys and remote sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Martino


    Full Text Available An integrated approach to the geomechanical characterization of coastal sea cliffs was demonstrated at Mt. Pucci (Gargano promontory, Southern Italy by performing direct traditional geomechanical and remote geostructural investigations via Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS. The consistency of the integrated techniques allowed us to achieve a comprehensive and affordable characterization of the main joint sets on the sea cliff slope. The observed joint sets were observed to evaluate the susceptibility of the slope to rock falls by attributing safety factors (SFs to the topple- and wedge-prone rock blocks under three triggering conditions: (a filling with static water, (b seismic action, and (c weathering of joint surfaces. The results of the susceptibility analysis for the topple-prone blocks show that the critical height of water filling of the joint is up to 50 cm and that the critical pseudo-static acceleration values vary in the range of 0.16–0.3 g depending on the block geometry and slope face orientation. For the wedge blocks, the critical height of water filling of the joint is generally up to several centimeters, and the critical pseudo-static acceleration values vary in the range of 0.05–0.8 g depending on the block geometry and slope face orientation. Moreover, the unstable conditions of the blocks due to weathering generally represent 60% of the joint degradation of the intact rock. The combined action of weathering and static water fill was also considered, resulting in a significant decrease of the SFs. Specifically, unstable conditions are associated with water levels lower than 47% of the water levels observed in intact joints, even if less than 60% of the weathering is attributed to the joints. Furthermore, remote survey analyses via Thermal InfraRed Camera and Terrestrial SAR Interferometry (TInSAR were performed to evaluate the role of the surveyed joint sets in inducing instabilities in the Mt. Pucci sea cliff. The results of

  20. Influence in Times of Crisis : How Social and Financial Resources Affect Men's and Women's Evaluations of Glass-Cliff Positions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rink, Floor; Ryan, Michelle K.; Stoker, Janka I.


    In two scenario-based studies, we found that women and men evaluate glass-cliff positions (i.e., precarious leadership positions at organizations in crisis) differently depending on the social and financial resources available. Female and male participants evaluated a hypothetical leadership positio

  1. The Illinois Natural Heritage Conservation Education Kit V. [Ecology and Management of Special Habitats: Dune, Cave, Cliff, Bluff, and Urban. (United States)

    Stone, Sally F.

    The ecology and management of special habitats is the theme of this instructional guide. It contains 24 activities designed to help teachers familiarize their students with dune, cave, cliff, bluff, and urban habitats in Illinois. Each activity (which is ready to be copied and given to students) includes an objective (called a mission) and…

  2. 76 FR 81994 - UniStar Nuclear Energy; Combined License Application for Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit... (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION UniStar Nuclear Energy; Combined License Application for Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 3; Exemption 1.0 Background: UniStar Nuclear Energy (UNE) submitted to the U.S. Nuclear...

  3. Thermal Modeling of NUHOMS HSM-15 and HSM-1 Storage Modules at Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Station ISFSI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suffield, Sarah R.; Fort, James A.; Adkins, Harold E.; Cuta, Judith M.; Collins, Brian A.; Siciliano, Edward R.


    As part of the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign of the Department of Energy (DOE), visual inspections and temperature measurements were performed on two storage modules in the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Station’s Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI). Detailed thermal models models were developed to obtain realistic temperature predictions for actual storage systems, in contrast to conservative and bounding design basis calculations.

  4. Reactions to the glass cliff - Gender differences in the explanations for the precariousness of women's leadership positions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ryan, M.K; Haslam, S.A.; Postmes, T.


    Purpose - This paper aims to investigate the phenomenon of the glass cliff, whereby women are more likely than men to be placed in precarious leadership positions. Men's and women's reactions to this subtle form of gender discrimination are examined, the identity processes involved, and the implicat

  5. Think Crisis-Think Female : The Glass Cliff and Contextual Variation in the Think Manager-Think Male Stereotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ryan, Michelle K.; Haslam, S. Alexander; Hersby, Mette D.; Bongiorno, Renata


    The "think manager think male" (TMTM) association underlies many gender inequalities in the workplace. However, research into the "glass cliff" has demonstrated that the suitability of male and female managers varies as a function of company performance such that in times of poor performance people

  6. Politics and the Glass Cliff: Evidence that Women Are Preferentially Selected to Contest Hard-to-Win Seats (United States)

    Ryan, Michelle K.; Haslam, S. Alexander; Kulich, Clara


    Recent archival and experimental research has revealed that women are more likely than men to be appointed to leadership positions when an organization is in crisis. As a result, women often confront a "glass cliff" in which their position as leader is precarious. Our first archival study examined the 2005 UK general election and found…

  7. Chemical Constituents of the Rare Cliff Plant Oresitrophe rupifraga and Their Antineuroinflammatory Activity. (United States)

    Wu, Xi-Ying; Xiong, Juan; Liu, Xin-Hua; Hu, Jin-Feng


    Four new (1 - 4) and thirteen known (5 - 17) compounds were isolated from a rare cliff plant, Oresitrophe rupifraga. Based on spectroscopic evidence, the new structures were established to be [(2S,3R,4R)-4-(4-methoxybenzyl)-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-tetrahydrofuran-3-yl]methanol (1), (3α)-23-(acetyloxy)-3-hydroxyolean-12-en-29-oic acid (2), 3α,23-(isopropylidenedioxy)olean-12-en-29-oic acid (3, artifact of isolation), and (3β,15β)-3-hydroxycholest-5-en-15-yl β-d-glucopyranoside (4), respectively. Among the isolates, compounds 1, 4, epieudesmin (7), and 1-O-(9Z,12Z,15Z-octadecatrienoyl)glycerol (17) were found to show significant antineuroinflammatory effects by inhibiting the NO production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine BV-2 microglial cells, with IC50 values of 7.21, 9.39, 4.96, and 8.51 μm, respectively.

  8. Pressurized thermal shock evaluation of the Calvert Cliffs Unit 1 Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, L [ed.


    An evaluation of the risk to the Calvert Cliffs Unit 1 nuclear power plant due to pressurized thermal shock (PTS) has been completed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) with the assistance of several other organizations. This evaluation was part of a Nuclear Regulatory Commission program designed to study the PTS risk to three nuclear plants, the other two plants being Oconee Unit 1 and H.B. Robinson Unit 2. The specific objectives of the program were to (1) provide a best estimate of the frequency of a through-the-wall crack in the pressure vessel at each of the three plants, together with the uncertainty in the estimated frequency and its sensitivity to the variables used in the evaluation; (2) determine the dominant overcooling sequences contributing to the estimated frequency and the associated failures in the plant systems or in operator actions; and (3) evaluate the effectiveness of potential corrective measures.

  9. The potential of low-cost RPAS for multi-view reconstruction of rock cliffs (United States)

    Ettore Guccione, Davide; Thoeni, Klaus; Santise, Marina; Giacomini, Anna; Roncella, Riccardo; Forlani, Gianfranco


    RPAS, also known as drones or UAVs, have been used in military applications for many years. Nevertheless, the technology has become accessible to everyone only in recent years (Westoby et al., 2012; Nex and Remondino, 2014). Electric multirotor helicopters or multicopters have become one of the most exciting developments and several off-the-shelf platforms (including camera) are now available. In particular, RPAS can provide 3D models of sub-vertical rock faces, which for instance are needed for rockfall hazard assessments along road cuts and very steep mountains. The current work investigates the potential of two low-cost off-the-shelf quadcopters equipped with digital cameras for multi-view reconstruction of sub-vertical rock cliffs. The two platforms used are a DJI Phantom 1 (P1) equipped with a Gopro Hero 3+ (12MP) and a DJI Phantom 3 Professional (P3). The latter comes with an integrated 12MP camera mounted on a 3-axis gimbal. Both platforms cost less than 1.500€ including camera. The study area is a small rock cliff near the Callaghan Campus of the University of Newcastle (Thoeni et al., 2014). The wall is partly smooth with some evident geological features such as non-persistent joints and sharp edges. Several flights were performed with both cameras set in time-lapse mode. Hence, images were taken automatically but the flights were performed manually since the investigated rock face is very irregular which required adjusting the yaw and roll for optimal coverage since the flights were performed very close to the cliff face. The digital images were processed with a commercial SfM software package. Thereby, several processing options and camera networks were investigated in order to define the most accurate configuration. Firstly, the difference between the use of coded ground control targets versus natural features was studied. Coded targets generally provide the best accuracy but they need to be placed on the surface which is not always possible as rock

  10. Devonian lacustrine shore zone architecture: giving perspective to cliff exposures with ground penetrating radar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrews, Steven D.; Moreau, Julien; Archer, Stuart

    Lake margin sedimentary systems have been the subject of only limited study. The orbitally controlled cyclic lacustrine successions of the Middle Old Red Sandstone of Northern Scotland contains repeated developments of shore zone sandstones and thus provides an ideal location for the study...... of these units. The cycles are on average 16-m-thick and comprise deep lake, perennial lake and playa facies. The shore zone facies reaches 2 to 3.5 m in thickness and is found within the playa facies. On the exposures, the shore zone facies seems to be aggrading with most of the layers apparently subhorizontal....... However, this depositional environment ought to be relatively dynamic with sand body migration and erosions. In addition, along the coastal cliffs, the exposures are mainly on the same strike direction. To better understand the peculiar shore zone system, we carried out very high resolution sedimentary...

  11. The neglect of cliff instability can underestimate warming period melting in Antarctic ice sheet models

    CERN Document Server

    Ruckert, Kelsey L; Pollard, Dave; Guan, Yawen; Wong, Tony E; Forest, Chris E; Keller, Klaus


    The response of the Antarctic ice sheet (AIS) to changing climate forcings is an important driver of sea-level changes. Anthropogenic climate changes may drive a sizeable AIS tipping point response with subsequent increases in coastal flooding risks. Many studies analyzing flood risks use simple models to project the future responses of AIS and its sea-level contributions. These analyses have provided important new insights, but they are often silent on the effects of potentially important processes such as Marine Ice Sheet Instability (MISI) or Marine Ice Cliff Instability (MICI). These approximations can be well justified and result in more parsimonious and transparent model structures. This raises the question how this approximation impacts hindcasts and projections. Here, we calibrate a previously published AIS model, which neglects the effects of MICI, using a combination of observational constraints and a Bayesian inversion method. Specifically, we approximate the effects of missing MICI by comparing ou...

  12. Cliff top habitats provide important alternative feeding resources for wading birds of conservation importance wintering on non-estuarine coasts (United States)

    Furnell, Julie; Hull, Susan L.


    Rocky shores and beaches are important over-wintering areas for non-estuarine waders but have rarely been studied. We examined cliff top habitat use by 6 species of wader over 75 km of coast to assess their potential value as alternative feeding sites to rocky and sandy shores. Both the regional and local survey showed that waders occurred on golf courses and recreational grasslands in higher frequencies than expected but arable and pasture use was lower than expected. We also compared local wader densities on rocky and sandy shores, pastures, golf courses, caravan parks and recreational grasslands over two winters. Sanderling predominantly fed on the beach whereas Oystercatcher, Dunlin, Turnstone and Redshank numbers significantly increased on golf courses and recreational grasslands over the winter period, with pasture being rarely used. General linear models were used to relate environmental factors to the presence and absence of each species on the cliff top habitats. Redshank was the only species that showed a higher probability of occurrence on cliff top habitats at high tide whereas the probability of Turnstone, Oystercatcher and Redshank occurring increased as temperatures declined. Using core sampling, we determined that invertebrate richness and abundance was significantly higher on the recreational grasslands and golf courses than on the pasture or the beach. Our data demonstrated that cliff top habitats are important alternative feeding areas for over-wintering waders in areas where the intertidal is bounded by cliffs. Current management creates short sward, open field habitats with a diverse and abundant invertebrate food supply exploited by waders. Any alterations to the land use of these areas should be carefully considered by planning authorities in light of the fact that they support species that are of conservation concern.

  13. The 50s cliff: a decline in perceptuo-motor learning, not a deficit in visual motion perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Ren

    Full Text Available Previously, we measured perceptuo-motor learning rates across the lifespan and found a sudden drop in learning rates between ages 50 and 60, called the "50s cliff." The task was a unimanual visual rhythmic coordination task in which participants used a joystick to oscillate one dot in a display in coordination with another dot oscillated by a computer. Participants learned to produce a coordination with a 90° relative phase relation between the dots. Learning rates for participants over 60 were half those of younger participants. Given existing evidence for visual motion perception deficits in people over 60 and the role of visual motion perception in the coordination task, it remained unclear whether the 50s cliff reflected onset of this deficit or a genuine decline in perceptuo-motor learning. The current work addressed this question. Two groups of 12 participants in each of four age ranges (20s, 50s, 60s, 70s learned to perform a bimanual coordination of 90° relative phase. One group trained with only haptic information and the other group with both haptic and visual information about relative phase. Both groups were tested in both information conditions at baseline and post-test. If the 50s cliff was caused by an age dependent deficit in visual motion perception, then older participants in the visual group should have exhibited less learning than those in the haptic group, which should not exhibit the 50s cliff, and older participants in both groups should have performed less well when tested with visual information. Neither of these expectations was confirmed by the results, so we concluded that the 50s cliff reflects a genuine decline in perceptuo-motor learning with aging, not the onset of a deficit in visual motion perception.

  14. Inaccessible Biodiversity on Limestone Cliffs: Aster tianmenshanensis (Asteraceae, a New Critically Endangered Species from China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Jin Zhang

    Full Text Available Aster tianmenshanensis G. J. Zhang & T. G. Gao, a new species of Asteraceae from southern China is described and illustrated based on evidence from morphology, micromorphology and molecular phylogeny. The new species is superficially similar to Aster salwinensis Onno in having rosettes of spatulate leaves and a solitary, terminal capitulum, but it differs by its glabrous leaf margins, unequal disc floret lobes and 1-seriate pappus. The molecular phylogenetic analysis, based on nuclear sequences ITS, ETS and chloroplast sequence trnL-F, showed that the new species was nested within the genus Aster and formed a well supported clade with Aster verticillatus (Reinw. Brouillet et al. The new species differs from the latter in having unbranched stems, much larger capitula, unequal disc floret lobes, beakless achenes and persistent pappus. In particular, A. tianmenshanensis has very short stigmatic lines, only ca. 0.18 mm long and less than 1/3 of the length of sterile style tip appendages, remarkably different from its congeners. This type of stigmatic line, as far as we know, has not been found in any other species of Aster. The very short stigmatic lines plus the unequal disc floret lobes imply that the new species may have a very specialized pollination system, which may be a consequence of habitat specialization. The new species grows only on the limestone cliffs of Mt. Tianmen, Hunan Province, at the elevation of 1400 m. It could only be accessed when a plank walkway was built across the cliffs for tourists. As it is known only from an area estimated at less than 10 km2 and a walkway passes through this location, its habitat could be easily disturbed. This species should best be treated as Critically Endangered based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List Categories and Criteria B2a.

  15. Cliff-nesting seabirds influence production and sediment chemistry of lakes situated above their colony. (United States)

    Hargan, K E; Michelutti, N; Coleman, K; Grooms, C; Blais, J M; Kimpe, L E; Gilchrist, G; Mallory, M; Smol, J P


    Seabirds that congregate in large numbers during the breeding season concentrate marine-derived nutrients to their terrestrial nesting sites, and these nutrients disperse and enhance production in nearby terrestrial, freshwater and marine ecosystems. In the Canadian Arctic, large seabird colonies (>100,000 breeding pairs) nest on cliff faces that drain directly in the ocean, ultimately returning the nutrients back to the marine environment from which they were derived. However, strong winds blowing up cliff faces could transport nutrients up in elevation and onto surrounding terrestrial and aquatic environments. Here, we assess the degree to which seabird nutrients and metals have been delivered to coastal lakes near Hudson Strait (Nunavut, Canada) over the past century. Three lakes located at a higher elevation and increasing distance from a thick-billed murre (Uria lomvia) colony (~400,000 breeding pairs) were sampled for surface water chemistry. In addition, algal assemblages, nitrogen isotopes, and metal/metalloids were analyzed in four dated sediment cores. Elevated nutrients and major ions, as well as an enriched δ(15)N signature in the sediment cores, were measured in the lake lakes >1km from the seabird colony. In contrast, similar oligotrophic and benthic diatom assemblages were identified in all three lakes, suggesting that diatoms were not influenced by enhanced nutrient inputs in this Arctic environment. Chemical tracers (e.g., total mercury) and algal assemblages in the lake near the colony suggest climate warming since ~1950 was the most likely driver of limnological changes, but this effect was muted in the more distant lakes. These pronounced changes in the seabird-impacted lake suggest that, with warming air temperatures and diminished lake ice cover, longer growing seasons may allow for aquatic organisms to more fully exploit the seabird nutrient subsidies.

  16. Role of shore platforms on coastal cliffs protection in Algarve (South Portugal): First approach (United States)

    Gabriel, Selma; Moura, Delminda; Ferreira, Óscar; Pacheco, André; Matias, Ana; Veiga-Pires, Cristina; Jacob, José


    The complex interaction between morphogenetic processes acting on rocky coasts and substrate characteristics difficult the assessment of its evolution at different time scales. In opposition to other coastal environments such as beaches, where variations on substrate's attributes are constrained to a few possibilities, rocky coasts expose substrates having large amount of variables, among them, lithology, mechanical and chemical strength, density and orientation of faults and joints and, rocks' texture and structure (e.g., Trenhaile, 2003). Waves represent the most important energetic source on coastal areas and, abrasion, hammer effect and air compression in rocks discontinuities are the main mechanisms responsible for mechanical weathering induced by wave impact (e.g., Trenhaile, 1987, Sunamura, 1992). Shore platforms are the most conspicuous testimony of rocky cliffs recession. However, as shore platforms widen, cliffs foot rests out of the direct influence of breaking waves when sea level rise is slower than cliff retreat. Shore platforms have been reported as protective features against marine erosion by dissipating waves energy, its efficacy depending on height and slope (e.g., Porter et al., 2009; Trenhaile, 2010). The main objective of this work is to determine the role of shore platforms on cliffs protection at the Algarve (South Portugal) as monitored in two coastal sectors differently exposed to dominant waves. Coastal cliffs in the study area expose Miocene carbonate rocks with vertical facies variation between sub horizontal layers of calcarenites and siltstones, which represents a favourable geological context to the shore platform development. Waves height and period was measured along 12 months during spring tides and in some storm events by using pressure transducers. For that, pressure transducers were fixed into the rock in two coastal sectors positioned in both places at similar heights above mean sea level respectively for outer and inner edges

  17. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 projections of coastal cliff retreat due to 21st century sea-level rise (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Summary: This dataset contains projections of coastal cliff-retreat rates and positions for future scenarios of sea-level rise (SLR). Projections were made using...

  18. Investigating a rock instability. Exemple of the "Bornes du Diable" cliff, Switzerland (United States)

    Franz, Martin; Michoud, Clément; Güell Pons, Maria; Pedrazzini, Andrea; Jaboyedoff, Michel


    The « Bornes du Diable » cliff is located in the Val de Bagnes in south western Valais. In September 2008, a block of about 2000 m3 has fallen down causing damages to a small alpine road. This event shows the potential instability of the whole cliff which represents a larger volume. Indeed it measures 160 m high and about 100 m width. Several back-cracks are visible hundred meters back to the actual crest. The road, the reservoir of Mauvoisin and the related dam could be reached by the rockfalls. The goal of this study is to characterize the structural settings and to quantify the previous displacements that occurred in the area in order to assess the present day stability. Structural, geomorphological and geomechanical characterization have been carried by field investigations and completed by orthophotos and digital elevation model analysis. The unstable area was scanned in fall 2009 using terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) in order to have a very detailed topography and to perform a structural analysis using the home made software Coltop3D. Differential GPS campaign was initiated in July 2009 and will be continued for the next years to assess the potential movement affecting the entire area. Moreover, a photogrammetric analysis of two aerial photographs of 1979 and 2000 is performed to identify if previous movements occurred in the area. The potential unstable volume is estimated performing the Sloping Local Base Level method and geometrical analysis. Finally a model is performed with the UDEC™ and FLAC® softwares. The movement, the discontinuity sets, the rockfall mechanisms and the triggering factors are analyzed to define the deep structures and the mechanisms of a potential complete collapse. The preliminary results indicate an important rock fracturing in the area of the instability. The persistence schistosity and the highly weathered rock surface indicating a fair-poor rock mass quality. TLS point cloud analysis using Coltop3D highlights six

  19. Investigation of dust bands from blue ice fields in the Lewis Cliff (Beardmore) area, Antarctica: A progress report


    Koeberl, Christian; Yanai,Keizo; Cassidy, William A.; Schutt,John W.


    Blue ice fields in Antarctica are well known for their high areal meteorite concentrations. The exact type of accumulation model and the age of the ice is still not well known. Dust bands on blue ice fields may help to clarify some of these problems. Dust, which has been isolated from dust band samples from blue ice areas in the Lewis Cliff/Walcott Neve area (Beardmore region), Antarctica, was studied to determine petrographic characteristics and chemical compositions. One sample has an avera...

  20. Cliff´s Delta Calculator: A non-parametric effect size program for two groups of observations

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    Guillermo Macbeth


    Full Text Available The Cliff´s Delta statistic is an effect size measure that quantifies the amount of difference between two non-parametric variables beyond p-values interpretation. This measure can be understood as a useful complementary analysis for the corresponding hypothesis testing. During the last two decades the use of effect size measures has been strongly encouraged by methodologists and leading institutions of behavioral sciences. The aim of this contribution is to introduce the Cliff´s Delta Calculator software that performs such analysis and offers some interpretation tips. Differences and similarities with the parametric case are analysed and illustrated. The implementation of this free program is fully described and compared with other calculators. Alternative algorithmic approaches are mathematically analysed and a basic linear algebra proof of its equivalence is formally presented. Two worked examples in cognitive psychology are commented. A visual interpretation of Cliff´s Delta is suggested. Availability, installation and applications of the program are presented and discussed.

  1. Performance of Deep and Shallow Neural Networks, the Universal Approximation Theorem, Activity Cliffs, and QSAR. (United States)

    Winkler, David A; Le, Tu C


    Neural networks have generated valuable Quantitative Structure-Activity/Property Relationships (QSAR/QSPR) models for a wide variety of small molecules and materials properties. They have grown in sophistication and many of their initial problems have been overcome by modern mathematical techniques. QSAR studies have almost always used so-called "shallow" neural networks in which there is a single hidden layer between the input and output layers. Recently, a new and potentially paradigm-shifting type of neural network based on Deep Learning has appeared. Deep learning methods have generated impressive improvements in image and voice recognition, and are now being applied to QSAR and QSAR modelling. This paper describes the differences in approach between deep and shallow neural networks, compares their abilities to predict the properties of test sets for 15 large drug data sets (the kaggle set), discusses the results in terms of the Universal Approximation theorem for neural networks, and describes how DNN may ameliorate or remove troublesome "activity cliffs" in QSAR data sets.

  2. Don'T fall off the adaptation cliff: when asymmetrical fitness selects for suboptimal traits.

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    Elodie Vercken

    Full Text Available The cliff-edge hypothesis introduces the counterintuitive idea that the trait value associated with the maximum of an asymmetrical fitness function is not necessarily the value that is selected for if the trait shows variability in its phenotypic expression. We develop a model of population dynamics to show that, in such a system, the evolutionary stable strategy depends on both the shape of the fitness function around its maximum and the amount of phenotypic variance. The model provides quantitative predictions of the expected trait value distribution and provides an alternative quantity that should be maximized ("genotype fitness" instead of the classical fitness function ("phenotype fitness". We test the model's predictions on three examples: (1 litter size in guinea pigs, (2 sexual selection in damselflies, and (3 the geometry of the human lung. In all three cases, the model's predictions give a closer match to empirical data than traditional optimization theory models. Our model can be extended to most ecological situations, and the evolutionary conditions for its application are expected to be common in nature.

  3. The 50s cliff: perceptuo-motor learning rates across the lifespan.

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    Rachel O Coats

    Full Text Available We recently found that older adults show reduced learning rates when learning a new pattern of coordinated rhythmic movement. The purpose of this study was to extend that finding by examining the performance of all ages across the lifespan from the 20 s through to the 80 s to determine how learning rates change with age. We tested whether adults could learn to produce a novel coordinated rhythmic movement (90° relative phase in a visually guided unimanual task. We determined learning rates to quantify changes in learning with age and to determine at what ages the changes occur. We found, as before, that learning rates of participants in their 70 s and 80 s were half those of participants in their 20 s. We also found a gradual slow decline in learning rate with age until approximately age 50, when there was a sudden drop to a reduced learning rate for the 60 though 80 year olds. We discuss possible causes for the "50 s cliff" in perceptuo-motor learning rates and suggest that age related deficits in perception of complex motions may be the key to understanding this result.

  4. Microaneurysms detection with the radon cliff operator in retinal fundus images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giancardo, Luca [ORNL; Meriaudeau, Fabrice [ORNL; Karnowski, Thomas Paul [ORNL; Tobin Jr, Kenneth William [ORNL; Li, Yaquin [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Chaum, Edward [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)


    Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) is one of the leading causes of blindness in the industrialized world. Early detection is the key in providing effective treatment. However, the current number of trained eye care specialists is inadequate to screen the increasing number of diabetic patients. In recent years, automated and semi-automated systems to detect DR with color fundus images have been developed with encouraging, but not fully satisfactory results. In this study we present the initial results of a new technique for the detection and localization of microaneurysms, an early sign of DR. The algorithm is based on three steps: candidates selection, the actual microaneurysms detection and a final probability evaluation. We introduce the new Radon Cliff operator which is our main contribution to the field. Making use of the Radon transform, the operator is able to detect single noisy Gaussian-like circular structures regardless of their size or strength. The advantages over existing microaneurysms detectors are manifold: the size of the lesions can be unknown, it automatically distinguishes lesions from the vasculature and it provides a fair approach to microaneurysm localization even without post-processing the candidates with machine learning techniques, facilitating the training phase. The algorithm is evaluated on a publicly available dataset from the Retinopathy Online Challenge.

  5. The perfect storm: Unusual synchronisation of the components of wave energy spectra dominates episodic soft-cliff erosion. (United States)

    Hackney, Christopher; Darby, Stephen


    Between December 2013 and February 2014 the United Kingdom experienced the stormiest winter on record. The persistent low pressure systems arriving from the North Atlantic during this period resulted in some of the most energetic maritime conditions ever recorded along the English Channel. The unprotected soft cliffs which comprise the south west Isle of Wight coastline were highly exposed to these conditions, facing the full force of extreme sea-levels and significant wave heights. Although long term rates of soft-cliff erosion have previously been defined for this coastline, the role of such extreme forcings on rates of soft-cliff erosion has not previously been document, and is therefore relatively poorly understood. We employed pre-event LIDAR and post-event RTK-GPS shoreline surveys in tandem with hourly sea-levels and significant wave height records from the English Channel to build an unprecedented data set that we use here to determine the response of this soft-cliff coastline to the extreme forcings of the 2013/2014 winter. It was found that the between October 2013 and March 2014, the south west Isle of Wight eroded, on average 4.25 m (σ = 3.6m). Such a high degree of erosion is approximately a factor of nine times greater than the long term average retreat rate of ~0.5 m/yr for this coastline and is the largest recorded erosion event since the start of reliable records began. The extreme erosion observed is shown to be a result of the synchronisation between sea-levels and wave heights. Indeed, we show that a 7-hour lag of the wave height record relative to background sea-level would have resulted in only half (2.1 m) of the observed erosion. An analysis of the historical record implies that previous extreme erosion events were a function of similar synchronisation between sea-levels and wave heights, thus it is likely that future changes in the timing of peak sea-levels and wave heights have the potential to outweigh changes in magnitude in terms of

  6. Characteristics and hydrodynamic interpretation of storm-emplaced cliff-top boulder ridges on Inishmore, Aran Islands, Ireland (United States)

    Zentner, D. B.; Cox, R.


    Dramatic boulder ridges are widespread on cliff-top platforms of Ireland's Aran Islands, emplaced by storm waves at elevations up to 50 m. In places the ridges have overridden 19th-century field walls, and recent movement of large blocks is attested to by modern debris--including nylon ropes, aerosol cans, and plastic bottles--pinned under megaclasts of up to 40 tons. Large waves are common off Ireland's west coast, as revealed by the short records available from recently-deployed buoy systems. The Irish Marine Weather Buoy Network measured wave heights (≥10 m on 29 days between 2001 and 2007, and waves up to 18 m high were recorded in December 2007. Blocks quarried by such waves from the upper few m of the cliffs are transported inland to form semi-continuous boulder ridges parallel to the coastline, which therefore offer a record of hydrodynamics during high-energy wave events. On Inishmore, boulder ridges occur at elevations up to 28 m, separated from the cliff edge by wave-scoured platforms 1-70 m wide. The ridges consist of imbricated, highly angular slabs, ranging from small gravel to 5 m megaclasts. They are 1-4.6 m high, 10-48 m wide (Ripple Index 5-17), and strongly asymmetric, with steep narrow stoss faces (10- 35°), and long gentle lee slopes (<14°). With increasing cliff height, ridges are smaller, narrower, made of smaller blocks, and sit closer to the edge; but ridges 20 m wide and 2 m high, with half-ton clasts, occur as high as 28 m OD. The deposits are moderately to well sorted, predominantly unimodal, and fine skewed. Median clast size ranges from fine to coarse boulders (0.5-2 m). Clasts show strong seaward imbrication on both stoss and lee sides (dipping up to 85° with average 25°). "Blowout" features on the lee sides, with boulders imbricated radially around central depressions of 1-2 m diameter, suggest turbulent flow separation, as does the common occurrence of 1-3 smaller secondary ridges landward of the main crest. The uniformity of

  7. Life and death of ice cliffs and lakes on debris covered glaciers - insights from a new dataset from the Nepalese Himalaya (United States)

    Steiner, Jakob; Buri, Pascal; Miles, Evan; Ragettli, Silvan; Pellicciotti, Francesca


    Numerous studies suggest that supraglacial ice cliffs and lakes could be one contributing factor to relatively high overall ablation rates on debris covered glaciers. While some studies have quantified backwasting rates, developments over the larger scale have not yet been assessed. Field work and earlier studies during three seasons in the Langtang catchment in the Nepalese Himalaya has given some insights into how these landforms develop, from initial emergence to persistence and disappearance. From 6 sets of concurrent high-resolution satellite imagery and DEMs between 2006 and 2015 and an additional image from 1974, we assembled an extensive dataset of these landforms on all glaciers in the catchment, including nearly 4000 individual lakes and cliffs. We show that ice cliffs appear in combination with lakes or without and there are lakes that are not bordered by a cliff. Numbers vary strongly between seasons, especially as lakes show strong seasonal variability. There are furthermore different types of cliff forms - circular, lateral and longitudinal - that give an indication of their formation process. Circular cliffs form with either collapsing subglacial channels or overdeepenings caused by water accumulating on the surface, while lateral cliffs are likely associated with underlying crevasses. Some of the cliff and lake systems remain at the same location on-glacier over a number of years, while most move with the whole glacier body down valley. From the DEMs determine preferential slopes and expositions of the cliffs in the catchment which have been shown to be essential aspects in explaining the backwasting process. In combination with field observations from one glacier, where most of these types were present, we can infer development processes of a number of systems over the whole catchment. It is also apparent that densities of these landforms vary greatly over the glacier surface, which can be explained with velocities or underlying bed topography in

  8. Comprehensive knowledge base of two- and three-dimensional activity cliffs for medicinal and computational chemistry [v1; ref status: indexed,

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    Ye Hu


    Full Text Available Activity cliffs are formed by pairs or groups of structurally similar or analogous active compounds with large differences in potency. They can be defined in two or three dimensions by comparing graph-based molecular representations or compound binding modes, respectively. Through systematic analysis of publicly available compound activity data and ligand-target X-ray structures we have in a series of studies determined all currently available two- and three-dimensional activity cliffs (2D- and 3D-cliffs, respectively. Furthermore, we have systematically searched for 2D extensions of 3D-cliffs. Herein, we specify different categories of activity cliffs we have explored and introduce an open access data deposition in ZENODO (doi: 10.5281/zenodo.18490 that makes the entire knowledge base of current activity cliffs freely available in an organized form.

  9. A contribution for predicting Tsunami inundation induced by rock fall along the Gaeta cliff (Central Italy) (United States)

    di Manna, P.; Vittori, E.; Comerci, V.; Amanti, M.; Cesi, C.


    Many sectors of Italian coasts are characterized by tall scarps, close to large or pocket beaches that display ramp shape with moderate to low acclivity profile. During the summer, all these beaches are densely populated by sunbathers. Moreover, Italian coastal areas are often intensely urbanized even at a short distance from the sea and very close to sea level. Being cliffs often affected by gravity processes, the impact on the water of a falling volume of rock, depending on size and height of fall, may represent a potential source of tsunami-type hazard for adjacent beaches and boats. In this work we present an attempt to evaluate the run-up and ingression values in the Serapo beach (Gaeta, Tyrrhenian Sea coast of Central Italy) of an anomalous wave induced by a potential rock fall along the contiguous more than 100 meters high limestone cliff (the so-called Montagna Spaccata, "cleft mountain"). Detailed geological and geomorphological field analyses are being carried out, including geomechanical analyses and geodetic monitoring, in order to recognize the sectors with the most critical stability conditions. Preliminarily, the major potential volume of instable block and its most likely kinematics have been estimated with the purpose of characterizing the rock fall process. The first water rise produced by the impact of the rock on the sea surface has been estimated according to two approaches: a) the Murty (2003) equation, that gives the relation between water elevation and volume of fallen material; b) the Glasstone and Dolan method (Hills & Mader, 1997), comparing the carbonate rock fall to a meteoritic impact on the sea surface. The rockfall kinematics suggests that the Glasstone and Dolan equation, despite it was developed for a different environment, is better applicable than Murty's (valid for slides) to the case under discussion. On the basis of the Green's law (1837) we defined the shoaling component of the run-up values. Our results show that the impact

  10. Population genetics of self-incompatibility in a clade of relict cliff-dwelling plant species. (United States)

    Silva, Jose L; Brennan, Adrian C; Mejías, José A


    The mating systems of species in small or fragmented populations impact upon their persistence. Small self-incompatible (SI) populations risk losing S allele diversity, responsible for the SI response, by drift thereby limiting mate availability and leading to population decline or SI system breakdown. But populations of relict and/or endemic species have resisted these demographic conditions over long periods suggesting their mating systems have adapted. To address a lack of empirical data on this topic, we studied the SI systems of three relict cliff-dwelling species of Sonchus section Pustulati (Asteraceae): S. masguindalii, S. fragilis and S. pustulatus in the western Mediterranean region. We performed controlled pollinations within and between individuals to measure index of SI (ISI) expression and identify S alleles in multiple population samples. Sonchus masguindalii and S. pustulatus showed strong SI (ISI = 0.6-1.0) compared to S. fragilis (ISI = 0.1-0.7). Just five S alleles were estimated for Spanish S. pustulatus and a moderate 11-15 S alleles for Moroccan S. pustulatus and S. fragilis, respectively. The fact that autonomous fruit set was generally improved by active self-pollination in self-compatible S. fragilis suggests that individuals with weak SI can show a wide range of outcrossing levels dependent on the degree of self or outcross pollen that pollinators bear. We conclude that frequent S allele dominance interactions that mask the incompatibility interactions of recessive S alleles leading to higher mate availability and partial breakdown of SI leading to mixed mating, both contribute to reproductive resilience in this group.

  11. Modeling granular material flows: The angle of repose, fluidization and the cliff collapse problem (United States)

    Holsapple, Keith A.


    I discuss theories of granular material flows, with application to granular flows on the earth and planets. There are two goals. First, there is a lingering belief of some that the standard continuum plasticity Mohr-Coulomb and/or Drucker-Prager models are not adequate for many large-scale granular flow problems. The stated reason for those beliefs is the fact that the final slopes of the run-outs in collapse, landslide problems, and large-scale cratering are well below the angle of repose of the material. That observation, combined with the supposition that in those models flow cannot occur with slopes less than the angle of repose, has led to a number of researchers suggesting a need for lubrication or fluidization mechanisms and modeling. That issue is investigated in detail and shown to be false. A complete analysis of slope failures according to the Mohr-Coulomb model is presented, with special attention to the relations between the angle of repose and slope failures. It is shown that slope failure can occur for slope angles both larger than and smaller than the angle of repose. Second, to study the details of landslide run-outs, finite-difference continuum code simulations of the prototypical cliff collapse problem, using the classical plasticity models, are presented, analyzed and compared to experiments. Although devoid of any additional fluidization models, those simulations match experiments in the literature extremely well. The dynamics of this problem introduces additional important features relating to the run-out and final slope angles. The vertical free surface begins to fall at the initial 90° and flow continues to a final slope less than 10°. The detail in the calculation is examined to show why flow persists at slope angles that appear to be less than the angle of repose. The motions include regions of solid-like, fluid-like, and gas-like flows without invoking any additional models.

  12. Pre-failure behaviour of an unstable limestone cliff from displacement and seismic data

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    J.-L. Got


    Full Text Available We monitored the displacement and seismic activity of an unstable vertical rock slice in a natural limestone cliff of the southeast Vercors massif, southeast France, during the months preceding its collapse. Displacement measurements showed an average acceleration of the movement of its top, with clear increases in the displacement velocity and in the discrete seismic event production rate during periods where temperature falls, with more activity when rainfall or frost occurs. Crises of discrete seismic events produce high amplitudes in periodograms, but do not change the high frequency base noise level rate. We infer that these crises express the critical crack growth induced by water weakening (from water vapor condensation or rain of the rock strength rather than to a rapid change in applied stresses. Seismic noise analysis showed a steady increase in the high frequency base noise level and the emergence of spectral modes in the signal recorded by the sensor installed on the unstable rock slice during the weeks preceding the collapse. High frequency seismic noise base level seems to represent subcritical crack growth. It is a smooth and robust parameter whose variations are related to generalized changes in the rupture process. Drop of the seismic noise amplitude was concomitant with the emergence of spectral modes – that are compatible with high-order eigenmodes of the unstable rock slice – during the later stages of its instability. Seismic noise analysis, especially high frequency base noise level analysis may complement that of inverse displacement velocity in early-warning approaches when strong displacement fluctuations occur.

  13. Conceptual model for the origin of the Olympus Mons cliffs, Mars: An essential influence of water? (United States)

    De Blasio, Fabio Vittorio


    With a height of 21 km above the mean Martian altitude and a diameter of 600 km, the Olympus Mons of Mars is the highest and one of the largest volcanoes in the Solar System. It is a distinctive shield volcano, formed by stacked sequences of low-viscosity magma. Whereas the central part of the Olympus Mons exhibits slope angles of less than 1-5°, the periphery of the edifice terminates with steep cliffs sloping 12-15° up to 28°. Another remarkable feature is the aureole, a chain of crown-like deposits surrounding the edifice of Olympus Mons from an average distance of 400 km. The aureole deposits, which lack any obvious analogue on the Earth, have been variously interpreted as volcanic products, pyroclastic or ash flows, slow deep-seated deformation, or catastrophic landslides. Numerical simulations and a comparative study of similar volcanic structures on Earth suggest that a volcanic edifice with the characteristics of Olympus Mons cannot be formed without the presence of water at the base. Because of the low cooling rate of lava in sub-aerial conditions, the superposition of purely subaerial lava flows would contribute with gentle slope to the topography. In contrast, the presence of a medium like water increases the convective heat exchange rate by nearly three orders of magnitude, thus stopping the lava flow and causing a slope increase at the borders of the edifice, which subsequently collapses. A model for the evolution of the Olympus Mons is consequently suggested in analogy with the Canary and the Hawaii island on Earth.

  14. Influence of meteorological factors on rockfall occurrence in a middle mountain limestone cliff

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    J. D'Amato


    Full Text Available The influence of meteorological conditions on rockfall occurrence has been often highlighted, but its knowledge is still not sufficient due to the lack of exhaustive and precise rockfall data bases. In this study, rockfalls have been detected in a limestone cliff by annual terrestrial laser scanning, and dated by photographic survey during 2.5 years. A near-continuous survey (1 photo each 10 mn with a wide-angle lens have allowed dating 214 rockfalls larger than 0.1 m3, and a monthly survey with a telephoto lens, dating 854 rockfalls larger than 0.01 m3. The analysis of the two data bases shows that the rockfall frequency can be multiplied by a factor as high as 7 during freeze–thaw episodes and 26 when the mean rainfall intensity (since the beginning of the rainfall episode is higher than 5 mm h−1. Based on these results, a 4-level scale has been proposed for predicting the temporal variations of hazard. The more precise data base and freeze–thaw episode definition make it possible to distinguish different phases in freeze–thaw episodes: negative temperature cooling periods, negative temperature warming periods and thawing periods. It appears that rockfalls occur more frequently during warming and thawing periods than during cooling periods. It can be inferred that rockfalls are caused by thermal ice dilatation rather than by dilatation due to the phase transition. But they may occur only when the ice melt, because the cohesion of the ice–rock interface can be sufficient to hold the rock compartment which has been cut.

  15. Mobile Laser Scanning along Dieppe coastal cliffs: reliability of the acquired point clouds applied to rockfall assessments (United States)

    Michoud, Clément; Carrea, Dario; Augereau, Emmanuel; Cancouët, Romain; Costa, Stéphane; Davidson, Robert; Delacourt, Chirstophe; Derron, Marc-Henri; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Letortu, Pauline; Maquaire, Olivier


    Dieppe coastal cliffs, in Normandy, France, are mainly formed by sub-horizontal deposits of chalk and flintstone. Largely destabilized by an intense weathering and the Channel sea erosion, small and large rockfalls are regularly observed and contribute to retrogressive cliff processes. During autumn 2012, cliff and intertidal topographies have been acquired with a Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS) and a Mobile Laser Scanner (MLS), coupled with seafloor bathymetries realized with a multibeam echosounder (MBES). MLS is a recent development of laser scanning based on the same theoretical principles of aerial LiDAR, but using smaller, cheaper and portable devices. The MLS system, which is composed by an accurate dynamic positioning and orientation (INS) devices and a long range LiDAR, is mounted on a marine vessel; it is then possible to quickly acquire in motion georeferenced LiDAR point clouds with a resolution of about 15 cm. For example, it takes about 1 h to scan of shoreline of 2 km long. MLS is becoming a promising technique supporting erosion and rockfall assessments along the shores of lakes, fjords or seas. In this study, the MLS system used to acquire cliffs and intertidal areas of the Cap d'Ailly was composed by the INS Applanix POS-MV 320 V4 and the LiDAR Optech Ilirs LR. On the same day, three MLS scans with large overlaps (J1, J21 and J3) have been performed at ranges from 600 m at 4 knots (low tide) up to 200 m at 2.2 knots (up tide) with a calm sea at 2.5 Beaufort (small wavelets). Mean scan resolutions go from 26 cm for far scan (J1) to about 8.1 cm for close scan (J3). Moreover, one TLS point cloud on this test site has been acquired with a mean resolution of about 2.3 cm, using a Riegl LMS Z390i. In order to quantify the reliability of the methodology, comparisons between scans have been realized with the software Polyworks™, calculating shortest distances between points of one cloud and the interpolated surface of the reference point cloud. A Mat

  16. Rockfall frequency and influence of meteorological factors on a limestone cliff of the urban area of Grenoble. (United States)

    D'Amato, Julie; Hantz, Didier; Baillet, Laurent; Guerin, Antoine; Jaboyedoff, Michel


    The spatial temporal frequency of rockfall events helps to quantify diffuse rockfall hazard. The influence of meteorological factors can also be studied in order to better know the failure triggering factors, and to predict dangerous periods of the year. Detection and dating of some hundreds of rockfalls has been carried out for the Saint Eynard cliff, which towers above a residential area of the town of Grenoble (French Alps), and which consists of a thinly bedded limestone cliff. The rockfalls have been detected by a diachronic comparison of digital models of the cliff, obtained from annual terrestrial laser scanning. They have been dated by means of a continuous photographic and seismic survey of the cliff. Meteorological data are given by local temperature and rain stations. These data allowed to study the influence of meteorological factors in the failure process. Six hundreds rockfalls (volume 0.005m3 to 1500m3) have been dated by periods of 2 to 11 weeks. The average frequency of the detected rockfalls for the 18 months of survey is 1.0 rockfall per day. The winter periods (with freeze-thaw cycles) clearly show a higher rockfall frequency, up to 1.9 rockfall per day for the most active winter periods. Summer periods show a lower rockfall frequency, between 0.1 and 0.5 rockfall per day. The frequency is close to 0.5 for periods with more rainfall. 126 rockfalls were dated with a precision of 10 min to several hours. For these rockfalls, the average frequency is 0.010 rockfall/h. The frequency is 0.015 rockfall/h for the freezing days (days with negative minimal temperature), 0.029 rockfall/h for the days without freeze but following a freezing day, 0.011 rockfall/h for the days with a rainfall and 0.002 rockfall/h for the other days. Rainfall and freeze-thaw events have also been determined hourly. A rainfall event begins with the beginning of a rainfall, and ends at the beginning of the next 24 hours period without rain. The 24h period has been chosen

  17. Coastal cliff geometry derived from structure-from-motion photogrammetry at Stara Ba\\vska, Krk Island, Croatia (United States)

    Ružić, Igor; Marović, Ivan; Benac, Čedomir; Ilić, Suzana


    The aim of this study was to examine the capability of structure-from-motion photogrammetry in defining the geometry of cliffs and undercuts in rocks of complex geomorphology. A case site was chosen along pocket beaches near the village of Stara Ba\\vska on the Adriatic Sea island of Krk, Gulf of Kvarner, Croatia, where cliff erosion of 5 m in breccias was identified by comparison of aerial photographs from 1960 and 2004. The 3D point cloud was derived from approx. 800 photos taken on 9 January 2014 by a single camera from various elevations and angles, and processed using the online software ReCap (Autodesk). Data acquisition was found to be quick and the method easy to implement. The difference between the georeferenced 3D cloud points and an RTK-GPS survey was 7 cm, i.e. within the limits of RTK-GPS precision. Quantifying the spatial variation in undercut geometries revealed that the deepest and largest (17 m3) undercut was in the south-eastern sector of the beach. Reconstructing the detailed geomorphology of this 3.8-m-deep undercut convincingly demonstrates the high efficiency of the method. Such assessments of spatiotemporal changes in undercut and overhang volumes can prove useful for evaluations of cliff erosion risk. Coupled with the low cost and relatively simple application, this is evidently an attractive technique for meaningful geotechnical and coastal engineering monitoring in the future on the island of Krk and, for that matter, also on other Adriatic islands and in similar settings worldwide.

  18. Unusual death of millipedes (Diplopoda towards the north of the Varkala Cliff section near Papanasam, Kerala, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.K. Sarkar


    Full Text Available The cliff section at Varkala, Kerala consisting of clay, lignite band, clay, sandy-clay, sandstone of Mio-Pliocene age. This sedimentary sequence is overlain by a thick laterite. Above the lower lignite band, in the exposed clay beds several struggling and dead millipedes can be observed. Their death is probably due to the action of dehydration related to the sulphuric water infiltration in the sediments. However, it still remains a mystery why these millipedes choose such a toxic environment to create their habitat?

  19. Cliff collapses in the Alps, some fundamentals and a case study. Mineralogical aspects of the 1991 Randa Rockfall (Wallis, Switzerland)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thelin, P.; Girod, F. [Lausanne Univ., Lausanne (Switzerland). Institut de Mineralogie et de Geochimie


    The study of risks related to geochemical contamination of soil, water and atmosphere caused by the human activity seems to have become the priority as far as the environment is concerned. However among many other challenges which Earth Sciences must take up at the end of the 20. century, research into natural risks needs to be made a priority. Among the latter, in addition to the volcanic and seismic risks, the instability of hills lopes, potentially leading to landslides and cliff collapses, is to be considered with the greatest attention, in particular in the context of climatic reheating and excessive deforestation.

  20. Geophysical methods to investigate and survey unstable volumes along a cliff (United States)

    Levy, Clara; Baillet, Laurent; Jongmans, Denis; Mourot, Philippe; Hantz, Didier


    We successively instrumented 2 unstable sites along the 300 m high Urgonian cliff of the southern Vercors massif, French Alps. The first site, a rock column of 21000 m3, collapsed in November 2007, 5 months after the beginning of measurements. The experiment showed that information contained in seismic noise can be used for hazard assessment when considering the potential failure of an overhanging rock column. Indeed, the study of seismic noise recorded prior the rock fall revealed that low resonance frequencies follow a precursory pattern, as they decrease significantly, from 3.4 Hz to 2.6 Hz, before the collapse. We successfully reproduced this phenomenon with 2D numerical modelling of rock falls. Numerical simulation results pointed out that this decrease depends on the column-to-mass contact stiffness, which is controlled by the remaining rock bridges. Impulsive signals, which could be attributed to rock fracturing, have also been studied. P and S waves were identified for 40 events, allowing wave polarisation analysis and preliminary event location. Seismic sources able to trigger the vibration of the rock column were located along the broken plane and probably resulted from micro-cracks along rock bridges. From this first site study, we tried to closely follow the evolution of the natural frequencies at the second site, which also consists of a rock column decoupling from the mass with an open fracture in the rear. The value of the first eigenfrequency (about 7.6 Hz in June 2008) shows that the unstable volume is probably much smaller than for the first site. This evaluation is consistent with the estimated volume using DEM derived from LIDAR scan (about 1000 m3). A detailed investigation of the first eigenfrequency shows that its variation is also correlated with temperature and frost. After one year of a rough stability, the average value of the first eigenfrequency clearly shows a drift with the temperature variation pattern and an irreversible decrease of

  1. Influence in times of crisis: how social and financial resources affect men's and women's evaluations of glass-cliff positions. (United States)

    Rink, Floor; Ryan, Michelle K; Stoker, Janka I


    In two scenario-based studies, we found that women and men evaluate glass-cliff positions (i.e., precarious leadership positions at organizations in crisis) differently depending on the social and financial resources available. Female and male participants evaluated a hypothetical leadership position in which they would have both social and financial resources, financial resources but no social resources, or social resources but no financial resources. Women evaluated the position without social resources most negatively, whereas men evaluated the position without financial resources most negatively. In study 2, we found that women and men considered different issues when evaluating these leadership positions. Women's evaluations and expected levels of influence as leaders depended on the degree to which they expected to be accepted by subordinates. In contrast, men's evaluations and expected levels of acceptance by subordinates depended on the degree to which they expected to be influential in the position. Our findings have implications for the understanding of the glass-cliff phenomenon and gendered leadership stereotypes.

  2. From grazing marks to collapsed cliffs - intertidal bioerosion on all scales (United States)

    Kázmér, Miklós; Taboroši, Danko; Hsieh, Meng-Long; Shafeea Leman, Mohd; Aziz Ali, Che; Roslan Mohamed, Kamal; Choowong, Montri


    Rocky shores - particularly in limestone areas of tropical, subtropical, and some temperate regions - are subject to intense bioerosion. Detailed field studies along the Gulf of Siam and the Andaman coast of Thailand, Langkawi Islands of Malaysia, southern Java and Bali in Indonesia, Palau Islands, and Okinawa revealed the presence of rich populations of bioeroding organisms in the intertidal zone. Molluscs capable of damaging rock (the chiton Acanthopleura, limpets, and whelks) leave grazing traces as they feed on bacterial and algal biofilms and chasmolithic and endolithic microorganisms. Boring sponges (Entobia), bivalves (Gastrochaenolites and others), boring sipunculid worms (Caulostrepsis), and sea urchins (Echinometra) drill deeper to hide from predators beneath the rock surface. Individually, members of these taxa leave marks ranging from sub-millimetre to the metre scale, but collectively, their erosion creates marine notches, several-metres-deep features extending between low and high tide marks. When cliffs overhanging these notches collapse, landscape-scale scars are left behind. The various bioeroders display a clear vertical zonation between low and high tide. These are dictated by environmental stress, food availability, competition, and predation. Typical inhabitants of present-day zones include - from top to bottom - littorinid snails, patellid limpets, chitons, boring bivalves, and boring sea urchins. Each organism leaves a characteristic mark in the bedrock. Trace fossils found in the 'wrong place' - either too high or too low compared to the present-day occurrence of the animals - suggest changes in relative sea level. Similarly, sea level changes are suggested by the presence of compound markings produced through overprinting by organisms that live in different ecological zones. Preservation and obliteration of traces depends on the rates of sea level change and coastal denudation. Morphology of bioerosional markings and their vertical zonation

  3. Sources of Sulfate Found in Mounds and Lakes at the Lewis Cliffs Ice Tongue, Transantarctic (United States)

    Socki, Richard; Sun, Tao; Harvey, Ralph P.; Bish, David L.; Tonui, Eric; Bao, Huiming; Niles, Paul B.


    Massive but highly localized Na-sulfate mounds (mirabilite, Na2SO4.10H2O) have been found at the terminal moraine of the Lewis Cliffs Ice Tongue (LCIT), Antarctica. (Sigma)34S and (Sigma)18O values of LCIT mirabilite range from +48.8 to +49.3% (CDT), and -16.6 to -17.1% (V-SMOW), respectively, while (Delta)17O average -0.37% (V-SMOW). LCIT mirabilite mounds are isotopically different from other mirabilite mounds found in coastal regions of Antarctica, which have isotope values close to seawater compositions. (Sigma)18O and (Delta)17O values suggest the incorporation of isotopically light glacial water. Data point to initial sulfate formation in an anoxic water body, either as a stratified anoxic deep lake on the surface, a sub-glacial water reservoir, or a sub-glacial lake. Several surface lakes of varying size are also present within this region of the LCIT, and in some cases are adjacent to the mirabilite mounds. O and D isotope compositions of surface lakes confirm they are derived from a mixture of glacial ice and snow that underwent moderate evaporation. (Sigma)18O and (Sigma)D (V-SMOW) values of snow, ice, and lake water range from -64.2 to -29.7%, and -456.0 to -231.7%, respectively. However, the isotope chemistry of these surface lakes is extremely different from the mounds. Dissolved SO4-2 (Sigma)34S and (Sigma)18O values range from +12.0 to +20.0% and -12.8 to -22.2% (the most negative (Sigma)18O of terrestrial sulfate ever reported), respectively, with sulfate (Delta)17O ranging from +0.93 to 2.24%. Ion chromatography data show that lake water is fresh to brackish in origin, with TDS less than 1500 ppm, and sulfate concentration less than 431 ppm. Isotope and chemical data suggest that these lakes are unlikely the source of the mirabilite mounds. We suggest that lake water sulfate is potentially composed of a mixture of atmospheric sulfate and minor components of sulfate of weathering origin, much like the sulfate in the polar plateau soils of the Mc

  4. The outcrop and area underlain by the Upper Cretaceous Drip Tank Mb. of the Straight Cliffs Fm. in the Kaiparowits Plateau study area, southern Utah (kaikdtg) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a polygon file of the outcrop and area underlain by the Drip Tank Mb. of the Straight Cliffs Fm. (Upper Cretaceous) east of 112 degrees of longitude in the...

  5. Landslides: Geomorphology and Sea Cliff Hazard Potential, Santa Barbara - Isla Vista, California J.F. Klath and E.A. Keller (United States)

    Klath, J. F.; Keller, E. A.


    Coastal areas are often characterized by high population densities in an ever changing, dynamic environment. The world's coasts are often dominated by steeply sloping sea cliffs, the morphology of which reflects rock type, wave erosion, and surface erosion, as well as human activities such changing vegetation, urban runoff, and construction of coastal defenses. The Santa Barbara and Goleta area, with over 17 km of sea cliffs and beaches, extends from Santa Barbara Point west to the hamlet of Isla Vista. A deeper understanding of the local geology and the physical processes generating slope failure and, thus, landward cliff retreat is important for general public safety, as well as future development and planning. Our research objective includes assessment of landslide hazard potential through investigation of previous landslides and how these events relate to various physical variables and characteristics within the surrounding bedrock. How does landslide frequency, volume, and type relate to varying local bedrock and structure? Two geologic formations dominate the sea cliffs of the Santa Barbara area: Monterey shale (upper, middle, and lower) and Monterey Sisquoc shale. Geology varies from hard cemented shale and diatomaceous, low specific gravity shale to compaction shale. Variations in landslide characteristics are linked closely to the geology of a specific site that affects how easily rock units are weathered and eroded by wave erosion, naturally occurring oil and water seeps, burnt shale events, and landslide type and frequency on steeply dipped bedding planes/daylighting beds. Naturally occurring features linked to human processes often weaken bedrock and, thus, increase the likelihood of landslides. We categorize landslide frequency, type, and triggers; location of beach access, drainage pipes, and water; and oil and tar seeps in order to develop suggestions to minimize landslide potential. Lastly, using previously published erosion cliff retreat rates and

  6. Detection probability of cliff-nesting raptors during helicopter and fixed-wing aircraft surveys in western Alaska (United States)

    Booms, T.L.; Schempf, P.F.; McCaffery, B.J.; Lindberg, M.S.; Fuller, M.R.


    We conducted repeated aerial surveys for breeding cliff-nesting raptors on the Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge (YDNWR) in western Alaska to estimate detection probabilities of Gyrfalcons (Falco rusticolus), Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), Rough-legged Hawks (Buteo lagopus), and also Common Ravens (Corvus corax). Using the program PRESENCE, we modeled detection histories of each species based on single species occupancy modeling. We used different observers during four helicopter replicate surveys in the Kilbuck Mountains and five fixed-wing replicate surveys in the Ingakslugwat Hills near Bethel, AK. During helicopter surveys, Gyrfalcons had the highest detection probability estimate (p^;p^ 0.79; SE 0.05), followed by Golden Eagles (p^=0.68; SE 0.05), Common Ravens (p^=0.45; SE 0.17), and Rough-legged Hawks (p^=0.10; SE 0.11). Detection probabilities from fixed-wing aircraft in the Ingakslugwat Hills were similar to those from the helicopter in the Kilbuck Mountains for Gyrfalcons and Golden Eagles, but were higher for Common Ravens (p^=0.85; SE 0.06) and Rough-legged Hawks (p^=0.42; SE 0.07). Fixed-wing aircraft provided detection probability estimates and SEs in the Ingakslugwat Hills similar to or better than those from helicopter surveys in the Kilbucks and should be considered for future cliff-nesting raptor surveys where safe, low-altitude flight is possible. Overall, detection probability varied by observer experience and in some cases, by study area/aircraft type.

  7. New techniques to measure cliff change from historical oblique aerial photographs and structure-from-motion photogrammetry (United States)

    Warrick, Jonathan; Ritchie, Andy; Adelman, Gabrielle; Adelman, Ken; Limber, Patrick W


    Oblique aerial photograph surveys are commonly used to document coastal landscapes. Here it is shown that adequate overlap may exist in these photographic records to develop topographic models with Structure-from-Motion (SfM) photogrammetric techniques. Using photographs of Fort Funston, California, from the California Coastal Records Project, imagery were combined with ground control points in a four-dimensional analysis that produced topographic point clouds of the study area’s cliffs for 5 years spanning 2002 to 2010. Uncertainty was assessed by comparing point clouds with airborne LIDAR data, and these uncertainties were related to the number and spatial distribution of ground control points used in the SfM analyses. With six or more ground control points, the root mean squared errors between the SfM and LIDAR data were less than 0.30 m (minimum 1⁄4 0.18 m), and the mean systematic error was less than 0.10 m. The SfM results had several benefits over traditional airborne LIDAR in that they included point coverage on vertical- to-overhanging sections of the cliff and resulted in 10–100 times greater point densities. Time series of the SfM results revealed topographic changes, including landslides, rock falls, and the erosion of landslide talus along the Fort Funston beach. Thus, it was concluded that SfM photogrammetric techniques with historical oblique photographs allow for the extraction of useful quantitative information for mapping coastal topography and measuring coastal change. The new techniques presented here are likely applicable to many photograph collections and problems in the earth sciences.

  8. Geologic map of the Gila Hot Springs 7.5' quadrangle and the Cliff Dwellings National Monument, Catron and Grant Counties, New Mexico (United States)

    Ratté, James C.; Gaskill, David L.; Chappell, James R.


    The Gila Hot Springs quadrangle is of geologic interest with respect to four major features, which are: 1)\tThe caves of the Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument 2)\tThe hot springs associated with the faults of the Gila Hot Springs graben 3)\tThe Alum Mountain rhyolite dome and eruptive center 4)\tA proposed segment of the southeastern wall of the Gila Cliff Dwellings caldera The Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument consists of two tracts. The caves that were inhabited by the Mogollon people in the 14th century are in the main tract near the mouth of Cliff Dweller Canyon in the Little Turkey Park 7.5' quadrangle adjoining the northwest corner of the Gila Hot Springs quadrangle. The second tract includes the Cliff Dwellings National Monument Visitor Center at the confluence of the West and Middle Forks of the Gila River in the northwest corner of the Gila Hot Springs quadrangle. Both quadrangles are within the Gila National Forest and the Gila Wilderness except for a narrow corridor that provides access to the National Monument and the small ranching and residential community at Gila Center in the Gila River valley. The caves in Cliff Dweller Canyon were developed in the Gila Conglomerate of probable Miocene? and Pleistocene? age in this area by processes of lateral corrosion and spring sapping along the creek in Cliff Dweller Canyon. The hot springs in the Gila River valley are localized along faults in the deepest part of the Gila Hot Springs graben, which cuts diagonally northwest-southeast across the central part of the quadrangle. Some of the springs provide domestic hot water for space heating and agriculture in the Gila River valley and represent a possible thermal resource for development at the Cliff Dwellings National Monument. The Alum Mountain rhyolite dome and eruptive center in the southwestern part of the quadrangle is a colorful area of altered and mineralized rocks that is satellitic to the larger Copperas Canyon eruptive center, both being

  9. Hydrogeology of the Pictured Cliffs Sandstone in the San Juan structural basin, New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, and Utah (United States)

    Dam, William L.; Kernodle, J.M.; Thorn, C.R.; Levings, G.W.; Craigg, S.D.


    This report is one in a series resulting from the U.S. Geological Survey's Regional Aquifer System Analysis (RASA) study of the San Juan structural basin that began in October 1984. The purposes of the study (Welder, 1986) are to: (1) Define and evaluate the aquifer system; (2) assess the effects of past, present, and potential ground-water use on aquifers and streams, and (3) determine the availability and quality of ground water. Previous reports in this series describe the hydrogeology of the Dakota Sandstone (Craigg and others, 1989), Gallup Sandstone (Kernodle and others, 1989), Morrison Formation (Dam and others, 1990), Point Lookout Sandstone (Craigg and others, 1990), Kirtland Shale and Fruitland Formation (Kernodle and others, 1990), Menefee Formation (Levings and others, 1990), Cliff House Sandstone (Thorn and others, 1990), and Ojo Alamo Sandstone (Thorn and others, 1990) in the San Juan structural basin. This report summarizes information on the geology and the occurrence and quality of water in the Pictured Cliffs Sandstone, one of the primary water-bearing units in the regional aquifer system. Data used in this report were collected during the RASA study or derived from existing records in the U.S. Geological Survey's computerized National Water Information System (NWIS) data base, the Petroleum Information Corporation's data base, and the Dwight's ENERGYDATA Inc. BRIN database. Although all data available for the Pictured Cliffs Sandstone were considered in formulating the discussions in the text, not all those data could be plotted on the illustrations. The San Juan structural basin in New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, and Utah has an area of about 21,600 square miles (fig. 1). The structural basin is about 140 miles wide and about 200 miles long. The study area is that part of the structural basin that contains rocks of Triassic and younger age; therefore, the study area is less extensive than the structural basin. Triassic through Tertiary

  10. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 projections of coastal cliff retreat due to 21st century sea-level rise (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Summary: This dataset contains projections of coastal cliff-retreat rates and positions for future scenarios of sea-level rise (SLR). Projections were made using...

  11. 52例坠崖自杀案例分析%Fifty-two Cases Analysis of Cliff Suicide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋玉勇; 王剑; 邾立庆


    Objective To analyze suicide scene, damage morphology and case investigation of mountain type scenic spot for giving the references to determine the nature of cliff suicide cases. Methods The suicide cases collected from 2002 to 2012 in scenic spot of Mount Huangshan. The age, gender, native place, case location, damage inspection and behavior were analyzed. Results In the 52 suicide cases, the suicide rate of male was higher than that of female. The numbers from other provinces were higher than that of local province. The age was mainly range from 19 to 50. The time of suicide cases mostly happened between 16:00 to 24:00. The major damage was compound injury with varying degrees of traumatic brain injury, organic injury of pleuroperitoneal cavity and surface bruise and scratch. Conclu-sion In order to determine the nature of cliff suicide cases, it needs to work synthetically in the investi-gation of crime scene and interview.%目的:通过对山岳型景区高坠自杀案件的现场分析、损伤形态及案情调查情况进行分析,为高坠死亡案件的定性提供参考。方法收集52例黄山景区2002—2012年内坠崖自杀案例的资料,从年龄、性别、籍贯、事发时段、坠落地点、损伤检验、行为方式等方面进行分析。结果52例坠崖自杀案例中,男性的自杀率明显高于女性,外省籍比例明显高于本省籍,年龄分布于19~50岁,案发时间段多在16:00~24:00,损伤形态以复合伤为主,均不同程度伴有颅脑损伤、胸腹腔器官损伤及体表划擦伤。结论高坠死亡案件的定性需要进行现场勘验、案情调查走访等综合分析。

  12. Accurate 3D point cloud comparison and volumetric change analysis of Terrestrial Laser Scan data in a hard rock coastal cliff environment (United States)

    Earlie, C. S.; Masselink, G.; Russell, P.; Shail, R.; Kingston, K.


    Our understanding of the evolution of hard rock coastlines is limited due to the episodic nature and ';slow' rate at which changes occur. High-resolution surveying techniques, such as Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS), have just begun to be adopted as a method of obtaining detailed point cloud data to monitor topographical changes over short periods of time (weeks to months). However, the difficulties involved in comparing consecutive point cloud data sets in a complex three-dimensional plane, such as occlusion due to surface roughness and positioning of data capture point as a result of a consistently changing environment (a beach profile), mean that comparing data sets can lead to errors in the region of 10 - 20 cm. Meshing techniques are often used for point cloud data analysis for simple surfaces, but in surfaces such as rocky cliff faces, this technique has been found to be ineffective. Recession rates of hard rock coastlines in the UK are typically determined using aerial photography or airborne LiDAR data, yet the detail of the important changes occurring to the cliff face and toe are missed using such techniques. In this study we apply an algorithm (M3C2 - Multiscale Model to Model Cloud Comparison), initially developed for analysing fluvial morphological change, that directly compares point to point cloud data using surface normals that are consistent with surface roughness and measure the change that occurs along the normal direction (Lague et al., 2013). The surfaces changes are analysed using a set of user defined scales based on surface roughness and registration error. Once the correct parameters are defined, the volumetric cliff face changes are calculated by integrating the mean distance between the point clouds. The analysis has been undertaken at two hard rock sites identified for their active erosion located on the UK's south west peninsular at Porthleven in south west Cornwall and Godrevy in north Cornwall. Alongside TLS point cloud data, in

  13. A RETRAN model of the Calvert Cliffs-1 pressurized water reactor for assessing the safety implications of control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renier, J P.A.; Smith, O L


    The failure mode and effects analysis of Calvert Cliffs-1 identified sequences of events judged sufficiently complex to merit further analysis in detailed dynamic simulations. This report describes the RETRAN model developed for this purpose and the results obtained. The mathematical tool was RETRAN2/Mod3, the latest version of a widely used and extensively validated thermal-hydraulics production code obtained by license agreement with the developer, Electric Power Research Institute, and installed on the ORNL BM-3033 computers. RETRAN2 is based on a first-principles methodology that treats two-phase flow with slip. Thermal equilibrium of phases is assumed except in the pressurizer, where non-equilibrium processes are important and special methodology is used. Heat transfer in solids is obtained from the conventional conduction equation. Point or 1-D kinetics is available for the reactor core. The fundamental methodology is supplemented with a broad list of process submodels that calculate heat transfer coefficients, fluid and metal state properties, choked flow, form and wall friction losses, and other parameters. Also supplied are component submodels for various types of valves and pumps, the latter of which incorporate four-quadrant characteristics for components in which two-phase or reverse flow may be expected, and head versus flow curves for others. Extensive input allows the code to be highly particularized to a specific plant. The major investment in time and manpower occurs in setting up the base case; changes are comparatively easy to implement.

  14. The impact of rotary lobe blower seal upgrades at INCO's Copper Cliff Nickel Refinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corless, C; Costigan, J. [INCO Copper Cliff Nickel Refinery, Copper Cliff, ON (Canada)


    INCO's Pressure Carbonyl (IPC) plant at Copper Cliff is unique in the world in that it utilizes the same basic chemistry, but forms the nickel carbonyl at high pressure to accelerate the reaction and utilize less pure refinery feeds. Two main process gases are used, namely carbon monoxide and nickel carbonyl which are transported throughout the plant using various compressors and blowers depending on whether the gas is at high pressure or at low pressure. The high-pressure transport is accomplished by three five-stage reciprocating compressors. There are numerous low pressure gas blowers; all of them must have seals to ensure that the gas does not escape into the plant atmosphere, and just as importantly, to prevent the lubricating oil from entering the process gases. This paper describes an incident in 1997 when Castrol R40, a lubricant, entered the IPC plant carrier gas stream, adversely affecting equipment availability and process control. The main source of the Castrol R40 was determined to be the carrier gas and low pressure gas blowers. The entry of Castrol R40 into the carrier gas stream was successfully prevented when the mechanical shaft seals were replaced with Ferrofluidics seals. Details of the resulting new sealing arrangements, the status of blower upgrade project and results achieved to date are reviewed.

  15. Think crisis-think female: the glass cliff and contextual variation in the think manager-think male stereotype. (United States)

    Ryan, Michelle K; Haslam, S Alexander; Hersby, Mette D; Bongiorno, Renata


    The "think manager-think male" (TMTM) association underlies many gender inequalities in the workplace. However, research into the "glass cliff" has demonstrated that the suitability of male and female managers varies as a function of company performance such that in times of poor performance people may "think female" (Ryan & Haslam, 2005, 2007). Three studies examined gender and managerial stereotypes in the context of companies that are doing well or doing badly. Study 1 reproduced TMTM associations for descriptions of managers of successful companies but demonstrated a reversal for managers of unsuccessful companies. Study 2 examined the prescriptive nature of these stereotypes. No TMTM relationship was found for ideal managers of successful companies, but ideal managers of unsuccessful companies were associated with the female stereotype. Study 3 suggested that women may be favored in times of poor performance, not because they are expected to improve the situation, but because they are seen to be good people managers and can take the blame for organizational failure. Together, the studies illustrate the importance of context as a moderator of the TMTM association. Practical and theoretical implications for gender discrimination in the workplace are discussed.

  16. Limestone cliff - face and cave use by wild ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta in southwestern Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle L. Sauther


    Full Text Available Ring-tailed lemurs live in a range of habitats in southwestern Madagascar. To date, much of the knowledge of ring-tailed lemur ecology, biology and behavior come from riverine gallery forests sites. Recent years have seen an expansion of comprehensive research on this resilient species, including areas of limestone spiny forest along Madagascar’s southwestern coast. This work is documenting newly discovered behaviors by this species. The regular use of cliff-faces and embedded crevices and caves by ring-tailed lemurs in southwestern Madagascar are reported here. Cave use by several anthropoid primates has been explained as a thermoregulatory behavior. It is suggested that cliff-face and cave use by these ring-tailed lemurs serves several purposes, including resource acquisition, thermoregulation, and as an anti-predator avoidance strategy in the absence of suitable large sleeping trees. Observations indicate that the limestone boundaries of the Mahafaly Plateau and their associated xerophytic scrub forests warrant further conserva­tion attention, given the presence of behavioral variation and increasing threats to this endangered primate species. RÉSUMÉLemur catta occupe divers habitats dans le Sud-ouest de Madagascar. L’écologie, la biologie et le comportement de Lemur catta sont actuellement mieux connus des populations vivant dans les forêts riveraines et les zones environnantes. Pour mieux comprendre cette espèce de lémurien, les recherches ont été étendues à d’autres habitats dont les forêts épineuses du plateau calcaire qui est situé le long du littoral Sud-ouest de Madagascar. Dans cette étude nous rapportons les comportements récemment découverts de Lemur catta qui utilise les falaises et les grottes dans le Sud-ouest de Madagascar. L’utilisation des grottes par la plupart des primates hominoïdes est liée à un avantage thermorégulateur offert par ce milieu. Dans notre cas, l’exploitation de falaises et de

  17. Hydrogeology of the Cliff House Sandstone in the San Juan structural basin, New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona and Utah (United States)

    Thorn, Conde R.; Levings, G.W.; Craigg, S.D.; Dam, W.L.; Kernodle, J.M.


    This report is one in a series resulting from the U.S. Geological Survey's Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (RASA) study of the San Juan structural basin that began in October 1984. Previous reports in the series describe the hydrogeology of the Dakota Sandstone (Craigg and others, 1989), Point Lookout Sandstone (Craigg and others, 1990), Morrison Formation (Dam and others, 1990), Gallup Sandstone (Kernodle and others, 1989), and Menefee Formation (Levings and others, 1990) in the San Juan structural basin. The purposes of the RASA (Welder, 1986) are to: (1) Define and evaluate the aquifer system; (2) assess the effects of past, present, and potential ground-water use on aquifers and streams; and (3) determine the availability and quality of ground water. This report summarizes information on the geology and the occurrence and quality of water in the Cliff House Sandstone, one of the primary water-bearing units in the regional aquifer system. Data used in this report were collected during the study or were derived from existing records in the U.S. Geological Survey's computerized National Water Information System (NWIS) data base, the Petroleum Information Corporation's data base, and the Dwight's ENERGYDATA Inc. BRIN data base. Although all data available for the Cliff House Sandstone were considered in formulating the discussions in the text, not all those data could be plotted on the illustrations. The San Juan structural basin is in New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, and Utah and has an area of about 21,600 square miles (fig. 1). The structural basin is about 140 miles wide and about 200 miles long. The study area is that part of the structural basin that contains rocks of Triassic or younger age and, therefore, is less extensive than the structural basin. Triassic through Tertiary sedimentary rocks are emphasized in this study because the major aquifers in the basin are present in these rocks. The study area is about 140 miles wide (about the same as the

  18. Stream of Consciousness and Symbolism, the“Magic”Used by Heming-way to Characterize Harry as A Dying Man on the Cliff of Kilimanjaro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The Snows of Kilimanjaro was written in the 20th century when the realism was still the main stream in the field of litera-ture. However, Hemingway broke the cocoon of realism and flew into a new literary kingdom—modernism, where many new theories such as stream of consciousness and archetypal symbol blossomed and were used in literature. This paper mainly ana-lyzed how stream of consciousness and symbolism were used in the Snows of Kilimanjaro to characterize Harry as a dying man on the cliff of Kilimanjaro.

  19. Dendrobium officinale cliff epiphytic cultivation method%铁皮石斛悬崖附生栽培技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    斯金平; 陈梓云; 刘京晶; 朱玉球; 蔡国见; 黄柄荣; 章焜一; 金传高


    以铁皮石斛设施栽培投入大、药材功效不如野生等问题为导向,通过水分调控、崖壁坡度选择,研究悬崖附生铁皮石斛生长情况、农艺性状、产量、多糖及醇溶性浸出物含量.结果表明,将铁皮石斛附生于85 ~ 90°悬崖表面,在生长季节喷水1 ~2 h·d-1的条件下,即使在裸露的环境中,不用基质,不施肥料也能够较好的生长,获得较高的产量,其形态与悬崖上野生铁皮石斛无异;多糖与醇溶性浸出物含量显著高于设施基质栽培,并与萌蘖生理年龄密切相关,逆境有利于铁皮石斛多糖与醇溶性浸出物等功效成分的积累.%To solve the issues of costly planting of facility cultivation method and inferior efficacy than wild herbs of Dendrobium officinale,the cliff epiphytic cultivation method was studied.To research the growth,agronomic traits,yield,polysaccharide and alcohol-soluble extract contents were measured on the D.officinale from different water regulation and cliff slope gradients treatments.The results showed that D.officinale epiphytic at 85°-90° cliff and sprayed water 1-2 h · d-1 at the growing season can get better growth and obtain high yield,and the morphology has no different from wild cliff D.officinale,even in the environments without shade.The contents of polysaccharide and alcohol-soluble extract are closely related to the physiological ages,but significantly higher than the facility cultivation.It is possible that environmental stresses benefit the accumulation of polysaccharides,alcohol-soluble extract and other efficient ingredients.

  20. Reply to comment on: Lawrence, J.A., Mortimore, R.N., Stone, K.J., and Busby, J.P., 2013. Sea saltwater weakening of chalk and the impact on cliff instability. Geomorphology 191, 14-22 (United States)

    Lawrence, James A.; Mortimore, Rory N.


    We are grateful to Dornbusch (2014) for the opportunity to clarify the role we propose for salt water weakening of the chalk and its potential importance as a mechanism contributing to cliff instability. Dornbusch's argument is based largely on a single comment "This work challenges the established view by identifying the role of salt from seawater in the degradation of porous rocks in coastal environments as a third and potentially the most important mechanism leading to chalk cliff collapse" (Lawrence et al., 2013: 15). This was not intended as a "conclusion" as suggested by Dornbusch (2014) but is rather a qualitative introductory statement highlighting the potential importance of the salt water weakening process in coastal cliff instability. The actual conclusions of the work are not challenged by Dornbusch (2014).

  1. Edge of a cliff

    CERN Document Server

    Shimizu, Yusuke


    We discuss the neutrino flavor structures in the Occam's razor approach for the Dirac neutrino mass matrices. We assume that the charged lepton mass matrix takes a diagonal base, while the right-handed Majorana neutrino mass matrix is also diagonal and we consider nine patterns of the four zero textures for the Dirac neutrinos mass matrices. We numerically analyze the left-handed Majorana neutrino mass matrices for nine patterns of the Dirac neutrino mass matrices and we found two interesting patterns where both normal and inverted neutrino mass hierarchies can be realized. We also found if the neutrino mass is normal hierarchy, this scenario will be likely to be excluded by the measurements of the Dirac CP violating phase in the T2K and NO$\

  2. Investigating controls on debris-flow initiation and surge frequency at Chalk Cliffs, USA: initial results from monitoring and modeling (United States)

    Kean, J. W.; McCoy, S. W.; Tucker, G. E.; Staley, D. M.; Coe, J. A.


    Recent monitoring of a small (0.3 km2) bedrock-dominated catchment in central Colorado, USA, has revealed distinct differences in debris-flow surge dynamics relative to rainfall intensity. Moderate bursts of rainfall (15-40 mm/hr) typically trigger a set of coarse-grained surges with depths that can exceed 1.0 m. High-intensity bursts of rainfall (40-150 mm/hr), in contrast, often generate only a single moderate-amplitude coarse-grained surge (> 0.5 m depth), followed by several minutes of water-rich flow having comparable or greater peak depth. In both cases, debris flows are observed within minutes of rain bursts due to the rapid concentration of runoff from bedrock cliffs to channels loaded with sediment from dry ravel and rockfall. Video observations have shown that the runoff can initiate debris flows both at a steep (~40 degree) bedrock-colluvium interface, and in a lower gradient (~15 degree) section of channel. This latter style of initiation, which has only been observed at moderate rainfall intensity, involves the formation and failure of a highly porous sediment dam created by bedload transport. We speculate that this process may be responsible for the creation of the consistent surge patterns we observe with moderate intensity rainfall, and may explain the relative lack of granular surges with high-intensity rainfall. To investigate this possibility, we have developed a simple one-dimensional morphodynamic model of the formation and failure of sediment dams in an undulating bedrock channel filled with loose bed sediment. The model consists of a coupled surface-subsurface water flow model, which is used to drive bed-sediment topographic adjustments based on the mathematical divergence of the sediment transport rate. Under certain topographic and water-flow conditions, the shear stress in a section of the channel can fall below the critical shear stress, resulting in local deposition of sediment. Consistent with field observations, the modeled deposit

  3. Study of cliff activity dominating the gas and dust comae of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko during the early phase of the Rosetta mission using ROSINA/COPS and OSIRIS data (United States)

    Marschall, Raphael; Su, Cheng-Chin; Liao, Ying; Rubin, Martin; Wu, Jong-Shinn; Thomas, Nicolas; altwegg, kathrin; Sierks, Holger; OSIRIS, ROSINA


    The study by [1] has proposed the idea that the cometary dust jets in the northern hemisphere of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko arise mainly from rough cliff like terrain. Using our 3D gas and dust dynamics coma model [2] we have run simulations targeting the question whether areas with high gravitational slopes alone can indeed account for both the ROSINA/COPS and the OSIRIS data obtained for mid August to end October 2014.The basis of our simulations is the shape model "SHAP4S" of [3]. Surface temperatures have been defined using a simple 1-D thermal model (including insolation, shadowing, thermal emission, sublimation but neglecting conduction) computed for each facet of the shape model allowing a consistent and known description of the gas flux and its initial temperature. In a next step we use the DSMC program PDSC++ [4] to calculate the gas properties in 3D space. The gas solution can be compared with the in situ measurements by ROSINA/COPS. In a subsequent step dust particles are introduced into the gas flow to determine dust densities and with a column integrator and Mie theory dust brightnesses that can be compared to OSIRIS data.To examine cliff activity we have divided the surface into two sets. One with gravitational slopes larger than 30° which we call cliffs and one with slopes less than 30° which we shall call plains. We have set up two models, "cliff only" and "plains only" where the respective set of areas are active and the others inert. The outgassing areas are assumed to be purely insolation driven. The "cliffs only" model is a statistically equally good fit to the ROSINA/COPS data as the global insolation driven model presented in [2]. The "plains only" model on the other hand is statistically inferior to the "cliffs only" model. We found in [2] that increased activity in the Hapi region (called inhomogeneous model) of the comet improves the fit of the gas results significantly. We can show in this study that a "cliffs + Hapi" model fits the

  4. Adverse Programming:Operation Mechanism whereby Environment Slipping into Cliff%逆向编程:环境滑向悬崖的运行机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The environment cliff is formed in the adverse programming of environment. There are four causes promoting the adverse programming of environment, namely, disappearance of environment spatial tense region, serious lack of resources nourishing the environment, imbalance of population density, and sharp fall of the variety of life failing to support the environment authigenesis. The adverse environment begins in the community, develops into the cosmoscopic region, and then returns to the community, so as to reach the ad⁃verse symbiotic circulation with the cosmoscopic environment, with the orderly change of community constant and community variable as the basic operating mechanism. Its implicit mechanism refers to timely amplification of mutual sensitive dependence among the constitutional issues of community, while the original driving force promoting the timely amplification of the small changes among the sensitive dependence of the community ele⁃ments is the unlimited human desires for material well-being. Therefore, the ultimate hope to change the envi⁃ronment adverse programming and stop the environment cliff is to control or give up selfish human desires.%环境悬崖形成于环境逆向编程。环境空间张力域度消失、滋养环境自身的资源严重匮乏、种群密度高度失调、生命种类多样性锐减到不能支撑环境自生,此四者以涌现方式推动环境展开逆向编程。环境逆向编程始于群落,达于宇观领域,其后回复于群落而形成与宇观环境达成逆向共生循环,其根本运作机制是群落常量与群落变量序变,其内隐机制乃群落之构成要素相向敏感依赖性的时间化放大。推动其群落要素的敏感依赖性将微小变化予以时间尺度上的无限放大的原动力,却是无限度追求物质幸福的人类私欲。因而,改变环境逆向编程、中止环境悬崖之最终希望,是人类对私欲的节制或放弃。

  5. The identification of the pigments used to paint statues of Feixiange Cliff in China in late 19th century by micro-Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray analysis (United States)

    Jin, Pu-jun; Huang, Wei; Jianhua-Wang; Zhao, Gang; Wang, Xiao-ling


    The application of micro-Raman spectroscopy (μ-RS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) to the research of pigments collected from Statues of Feixiange Cliff No. 67 and No. 69 niche of Tang Dynasty in China is reported. Five kinds of pigments were found in the experimental data, including black (carbon), white (gypsum + quartz), blue (lapis lazuli) and green (Paris green + Barium sulphate). After synthesized in 1814, Paris green was reported for a large import as a light and bright green pigment to paint architectures in China from the late 19th century. The analyzed blue pigment demonstrated the similar Raman spectra to the Lâjvardina blue glazed ceramics, which indicated lapis lazuli was an artificial product. This confirmed the painting of Feixiange Cliff in the early Republic of China as the historical record, and also reveals that some pigments were imported from abroad.

  6. Geologic controls on transgressive-regressive cycles in the upper Pictured Cliffs sandstone and coal geometry in the lower Fruitland Formation, Northern San Juan Basin, New Mexico and Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrose, W.A.; Ayers, W.B. [University of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)


    Three upper Pictured Cliffs Sandstone tongues in the northern part of the San Juan Basin record high-frequency transgressive episodes during the Late Cretaceous and are inferred to have been caused by eustatic sea level rise coincident with differential subsidence. Outcrop and subsurface studies show that each tongue is an amalgamated barrier strand-plain unit up to 100 ft (30 m) thick. Upper Pictured Cliffs barrier strand-plain sandstones underlie and bound thickest Fruitland coal seams on the seaward side. Controls on Fruitland coal-seam thickness and continuity are a function of local facies distribution in a coastal-plain setting, shoreline positions related to transgressive-regressive cycles, and basin subsidence. During periods of relative sea level rise, the Pictured Cliffs shoreline was temporarily stabilized, allowing thick, coastal-plain peats to accumulate. Although some coal seams in the lower Fruitland tongue override abandoned Pictured Cliffs shoreline deposits, many pinch out against them. Differences in the degree of continuity of these coal seams relative to coeval shoreline sandstones are attributed to either differential subsidence in the northern part of the basin, multiple episodes of sea level rise, local variations in accommodation and progradation, stabilization of the shoreline by aggrading peat deposits, or a combination of these factors. Fruitland coalbed methane resources and productivity are partly controlled by coal-seam thickness; other important factors include thermal maturity, fracturing, and overpressuring. The dominant production trend occurs in the northern part of the basin and is oriented northwestward, coinciding with the greatest Fruitland net coal thickness.

  7. Several Grottos at the Southern Foot of Taihang Mountains and Cliff Rock Inscriptions and other Related Issues%太行山南麓几处石窟与摩崖石刻及相关问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    位于太行山南麓的河南省焦作市,佛教历史源远流长,基础深厚,在北魏隋唐时期,是平城与洛都、洛阳与邺城的重要通道。该地区青天河摩崖线刻观音经像、悬谷山太平寺石窟及摩崖造像和石佛滩摩崖石刻造像三处佛教遗迹,有珍贵的史料价值,对研究西域和中原佛教艺术的融合与交流有着重要的意义。%Jiaozuo City, located at the southern foot of Taihang Mountains in Henan Province, has a long history and deep foundation of Buddhism. During the Northern Wei, Sui and Tang dynasties, here was an important transportation channel between Ping Cheng and Luo Du, Luoyang and Ye Cheng. Its three most famous Buddhist relics, namely the cliff rock inscriptions of Guanyin Scripture in Qingtianhe, the Taiping Temple grottos and cliff rock statues in Xuangu Mountain, the cliff rock inscriptions and statues in Shifo Beach, have significant historical

  8. Observations of debris flows at Chalk Cliffs, Colorado, USA: Part 2, changes in surface morphometry from terrestrial laser scanning in the summer of 2009 (United States)

    Staley, Dennis M.; Wasklewicz, Thad A.; Coe, Jeffrey A.; Kean, Jason W.; McCoy, Scott W.; Tucker, Greg E.


    High resolution topographic data that quantify changes in channel form caused by sequential debris flows in natural channels are rare at the reach scale. Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) techniques are utilized to capture morphological changes brought about by a high-frequency of debris-flow events at Chalk Cliffs, Colorado. The purpose of this paper is to compare and contrast the topographic response of a natural channel to the documented debris-flow events. TLS survey data allowed for the generation of high-resolution (2-cm) digital terrain models (DTM) of the channel. A robust network of twelve permanent control points permitted repeat scanning sessions that provided multiple DTM to evaluate fine-scale topographic change associated with three debris-flow events. Difference surfaces from the DTM permit the interpretations of spatial variations in channel morphometry and net volume of material deposited and eroded within and between a series of channel reaches. Each channel reach experienced erosion, deposition, and both net volumetric gains and losses were measured. Analysis of potential relationships between erosion and deposition magnitudes yielded no strong correlations with measures of channel-reach morphometry, suggesting that channel reach-specific predictions of potential erosion or deposition locations or rates cannot be adequately derived from statistical analyses of pre-event channel-reach morphometry.

  9. Environment Cliff:Social Transformation Development and Ecological Civilization Construction-Main Academic Viewpoint Review of Environment Cliff and Social Transformation Development Academic Forum%环境悬崖:社会转型发展与生态文明建设--“环境悬崖与社会转型发展学术论坛”主要学术观点述评

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丽杰; 包庆德


    When we exchange academic conversation with international environmental philosophy, China's environmental philosophy has to highlight our own academic point of view, creates our own concept catego⁃ry, and constructs the academic discourse system with the Chinese culture characteristics. As a localized cate⁃gory, environment cliff is a cautionary alarmism with Chinese characteristics. It aims to state a self-collapse condition, which breaks through ecological point by persistent super strong external pressure. This concept gets attention by environmental philosophy and environmental ethics world. The academic forum centered the theme on environment cliff and social transformation development, exchanged academic thoughts about environment cliff concept, introspected multiple dimensions about environment cliff category, and discussed the inherent relevance among environment cliff, social transformation and ecological civilization construction.%中国环境哲学要与国际环境哲学界同行进行学术对话,就应该突出中国自己的学术观点,创新中国自己的概念范畴,建构符合中国文化特色的学术话语体系。作为中国本土化的“环境悬崖”范畴,是富有中国特色的新世纪警世危言,旨在指陈环境因持续超强外部压力推动突破生态临界点而滑向自我崩溃的状态。这一概念的适时提出,引起环境哲学与环境伦理学界的学术关注。成都·2015年环境哲学学术论坛围绕“环境悬崖与社会转型发展”主题,就“环境悬崖”概念进行深层对话交流,对“环境悬崖”范畴进行多维度深度反思,并就环境悬崖、社会转型与生态文明建设的内在关联进行深入研讨。

  10. Quantifying structural controls of rockfall activity on alpine limestone cliffs: a LiDAR-based geological approach in the Wetterstein Mountains, Bavarian Alps. (United States)

    Jacobs, Benjamin; Krautblatter, Michael


    smaller than TLS effective resolution (0.01 to 0.1 m³ at 400 to 800 m range) using an inverse power law function. However, the effect of secondary and primary rockfall on the results is still subject of discussion. Also, locally unique stress fields and the history of local rock slope evolution is an issue. Here we have chosen a well-established test site to (i) systematically analyse the structural geological imprint on rockfall activity in limestone cliffs and (ii) to validate the explanatory power of the incomplete rockfall size coverage of TLS at sites with frequent small fragmental rockfall. Krautblatter, M., Moser, M., Schrott L., Wolf, J. & Morche, D., 2012. Significance of rockfall magnitude and carbonate dissolution for rock slope erosion and geomorphic work on Alpine limestone cliffs (Reintal, German Alps). In: Geomorphology, 167-168: 1-14. DOI:10.1016/j.geomorph.2012.04.007

  11. Rockslide susceptibility and hazard assessment for mitigation works design along vertical rocky cliffs: workflow proposal based on a real case-study conducted in Sacco (Campania), Italy (United States)

    Pignalosa, Antonio; Di Crescenzo, Giuseppe; Marino, Ermanno; Terracciano, Rosario; Santo, Antonio


    The work here presented concerns a case study in which a complete multidisciplinary workflow has been applied for an extensive assessment of the rockslide susceptibility and hazard in a common scenario such as a vertical and fractured rocky cliffs. The studied area is located in a high-relief zone in Southern Italy (Sacco, Salerno, Campania), characterized by wide vertical rocky cliffs formed by tectonized thick successions of shallow-water limestones. The study concerned the following phases: a) topographic surveying integrating of 3d laser scanning, photogrammetry and GNSS; b) gelogical surveying, characterization of single instabilities and geomecanichal surveying, conducted by geologists rock climbers; c) processing of 3d data and reconstruction of high resolution geometrical models; d) structural and geomechanical analyses; e) data filing in a GIS-based spatial database; f) geo-statistical and spatial analyses and mapping of the whole set of data; g) 3D rockfall analysis; The main goals of the study have been a) to set-up an investigation method to achieve a complete and thorough characterization of the slope stability conditions and b) to provide a detailed base for an accurate definition of the reinforcement and mitigation systems. For this purposes the most up-to-date methods of field surveying, remote sensing, 3d modelling and geospatial data analysis have been integrated in a systematic workflow, accounting of the economic sustainability of the whole project. A novel integrated approach have been applied both fusing deterministic and statistical surveying methods. This approach enabled to deal with the wide extension of the studied area (near to 200.000 m2), without compromising an high accuracy of the results. The deterministic phase, based on a field characterization of single instabilities and their further analyses on 3d models, has been applied for delineating the peculiarity of each single feature. The statistical approach, based on geostructural

  12. Wildlife and Wildlife Habitat Loss Assessment at Detroit Big Cliff Dam and Reservoir Project, North Santiam River, Oregon, 1985 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noyes, J.H.


    A habitat based assessment was conducted of the US Army Corps of Engineers' Detroit/Big Cliff Dam and Reservoir Project (Detroit Project) on the North Santiam River, Oregon, to determine losses or gains resulting from the development and operation of the hydroelectric-related components of the project. Preconstruction, postconstruction, and recent vegetation cover types at the project site were mapped based on aerial photographs from 1939, 1956, and 1979, respectively. Vegetation cover types were identified within the affected area and acreages of each type at each time period were determined. Ten wildlife target species were selected to represent a cross-section of species groups affected by the project. An interagency team evaluated the suitability of the habitat to support the target species at each time period. An evaluation procedure which accounted for both the quantity and quality of habitat was used to aid in assessing impacts resulting from the project. The Detroit Project extensively altered or affected 6324 acres of land and river in the North Santiam River drainage. Impacts to wildlife centered around the loss of 1,608 acres of conifer forest and 620 acres of riparian habitat. Impacts resulting from the Detroit Project included the loss of winter range for black-tailed deer and Roosevelt elk, and the loss of year-round habitat for deer, river otter, beaver, ruffed grouse, pileated woodpecker, spotted owl, and many other wildlife species. Bald eagle and osprey were benefited by an increase in foraging habitat. The potential of the affected area to support wildlife was greatly altered as a result of the Detroit Project. Losses or gains in the potential of the habitat to support wildlife will exist over the life of the project.

  13. High Genetic Diversity and Insignificant Interspecific Differentiation in Opisthopappus Shih, an Endangered Cliff Genus Endemic to the Taihang Mountains of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongmin Guo


    Full Text Available Opisthopappus Shih is endemic to the Taihang Mountains, China. It grows in the crevice of cliffs and is in fragmented distribution. This genus consists of two species, namely, O. taihangensis (Ling Shih and O. longilobus Shih, which are both endangered plants in China. This study adopted intersimple sequence repeat markers (ISSR to analyze the genetic diversity and genetic structure from different levels (genus, species, and population in this genus. A total of 253 loci were obtained from 27 primers, 230 of which were polymorphic loci with a proportion of polymorphic bands (PPB of up to 90.91% at genus level. At species level, both O. taihangensis (PPB=90.12%, H=0.1842, and I=0.289 and O. longilobus (PPB=95.21%, H=0.2226, and I=0.3542 have high genetic diversity. Their respective genetic variation mostly existed within the population. And genetic variation in O. longilobus (84.95% was higher than that in O. taihangensis (80.45%. A certain genetic differentiation among populations in O. taihangensis was found (Gst=0.2740, Φst=0.196 and genetic differentiation in O. longilobus was very small (Gst=0.1034, Φst=0.151. Gene flow in different degrees (Nm=1.325 and 4.336, resp. and mating system can form the existing genetic structures of these two species. Furthermore, genetic differentiation coefficient (Gst=0.0453 between species and the clustering result based on the genetic distance showed that interspecific differentiation between O. taihangensis and O. longilobus was not significant and could occur lately.

  14. A Study on the Main Functional Regions Space Governance to Circumvent the Environment Cliff%主体功能区空间管治规避环境悬崖研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜黎明; 孙晓雅


    Environmental cliff is the geographical space, in which the environmental risk accumulates for a long time. As a result, the environmental capacity drops steeply, the environmental issues outbreak, the en⁃vironmental system�s ability of self⁃repairing and self⁃restoring suffers from devastating destruction and the pop⁃ulation carrying capacity of the environment is almost zero. Environmental cliff is the result of long⁃term im⁃proper exploitation and over exploitation in the special space, and its reality is that the regional economic soci⁃ety is unsustainable development. Environmental cliff is the problem of human civilization, the problem of space, also the selection problem of economic and social development model, and it forced the human produc⁃tion and lifestyle to change and the social transformation and development to take place. With the differentiated supply of people's livelihood to guide the population flow and rational behavior choice, with the differentiated land policy to control the type and intensity of the regional economic activity and with the differentiated envi⁃ronmental protection policies to eliminate the existing risk of environmental cliff, the main functional regions'space governance constructs the triune hedging mechanism of environmental cliff, including environmental risk dispersion, the incremental control and stock solution of environmental problem.%环境悬崖是环境风险长时期积累,环境容量陡然下降,环境问题集中爆发,环境系统的自我修复、恢复能力遭受毁灭性破坏,环境的人口承载能力近乎为零的地理空间。环境悬崖是特定空间长时期不当开发、过度开发的结果,现实表现为区域经济社会不可持续发展。环境悬崖是人类的文明问题,也是一个空间问题,还是一个经济社会发展模式选择问题;环境悬崖倒逼人类生产生活方式转变,倒逼社会转型发展。主体功能区空间管治

  15. Excavation of Cliff-side Tombs in Three Gorges Reservoir Construction Area within Fengjie County,Chongqing%重庆奉节县三峡工程库区崖墓的清理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    In 1994, 20 cliff-side tombs were excavated at Santang and Tuoban villages in Fengjie County, Chongqing. They are small-sized single-chambered pits mostly with a tomb-passage, a rectangular chamber and, in some cases, a niche, except for Tomb 7 at Tuoban village, which has double passages and double chambers. No coffins were found. The tombs are mostly robbed. The unearthed objects include mainly pottery, and also bronzes, porcelain, iron artifacts and a number of copper coins.The burials belong to five stages: the middle Eastern Han, late Eastern Han, early Shu Han, final years of the Western Jin to the beginning of the Eastern Jin, and the earlier Southern Dynasties period. Between these phases distinct changes are not seen in tomb form, but distinctive features occur in the aspect of funeral objects.

  16. “2014年青岛世园会”百果山园区岩壁景观的生态恢复与重建%Ecological Rehabilitation and Reconstruction Countermeasures of Rock Cliff Landscape in Baiguoshan Garden of World Park and Garden Fair in 2014 of Qingdao

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    由于长期开采花岗岩建筑石材,“2014年青岛世园会”百果山园区的花岗岩丘陵上遗留有6处开采石材形成的岩石崖壁.在园区建设过程中,将这6处岩石崖壁分为坡度70°以下的岩石崖壁和坡度70°以上的岩石崖壁2类,并遵循可行性原则、地域性原则和美学原则,分别提出了2类岩石崖壁景观的生态恢复与重建措施.其中,坡度70°以下的岩石崖壁可采取底层采石坑回填、“钻孔植绿”与“筑巢复绿”等措施进行生态恢复与重建;坡度70°以上的岩石崖壁可采取布鲁特罩面网垂直绿化技术、人工植生槽与顶部筑营养槽相结合,建造人工流水景观,建造人造雾喷景观,融入雕塑艺术等措施进行生态恢复与重建.%There are 6 rock cliffs of granite on hills in Baiguoshan garden of world park and garden fair of Qingdao in 2014, the rock cliffs are formed by long-term granite exploiting for construction. When constructing the Baiguoshan garden, the 6 rock cliffs are divided into 2 types, one type is the rock cliffs with slope less than 70°, the other type is the rock cliffs with slope more than 70°. The author put forwards different ecological rehabilitation and reconstruction countermeasures of the 2 kinds of rock cliff landscape by following the principles of feasibility, locality and aesthetics. The ecological rehabilitation and reconstruction countermeasures of the rock cliff with slope less than 70° include backfilling hew stone holes, planting green by drilling, renewing green by nesting, and so on. While the ecological rehabilitation and reconstruction countermeasures of the rock cliff with slope more than 70° include vertical greening by using bulut veil-mat, constructing man-made planting groove combining nourishment groove on upside of slope, constructing man-made falling water landscape, constructing man-made spray landscape, using sculpture technique, and so on.

  17. Nutrientes (K, P, Ca, Na, Mg e Fe em sedimentos (solos aluviais e cultivares (feijão e milho de praias e barrancos de rios de água branca: a bacia do purus no estado do Acre, Brasil Nutrients in sediment (alluvial soils and cultivates (bean and corn developed in beaches and cliffs found along loam water: the purus basin in state Acre, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milta Mariane da Mata Martins


    Full Text Available The present research highlights the macronutrient abundance in the sediments of beaches and cliffs and cultivates in the river Purus and flowing, southwest of Amazon. The concentrations found in leaves and bean seeds and corn leaves reflect the mineralogical and chemical nature of those rich sediments in K2O and Na2O, which are formed by smectite, illite and K-feldspar. The factors of transfer of the elements in the corn leaves and bean (Ca>K>Na and bean seeds (Na>K>Ca demonstrate that the nutrient needs of the cultivate were found appropriately in the sediments (soils of the beaches and cliffs.

  18. River response to climate and sea level changes during the Late Saalian/Early Eemian in northern Poland – a case study of meandering river deposits in the Chłapowo cliff section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moskalewicz Damian


    Full Text Available Fluvial sediments in the Chłapowo cliff section were studied in order to reconstruct their palaeoflow conditions and stratigraphical position. Lithofacies, textural and palaeohydraulic analyses as well as luminescence dating were performed so as to achieve the aim of study. Sedimentary successions were identified as a record of point bar cycles. The fluvial environment probably functioned during the latest Saalian, shortly after the retreat of the Scandinavian Ice Sheet. Discharge outflow was directed to the northwest. The river used the older fluvioglacial valley and probably was directly connected to the Eem Sea. Good preservation and strong aggradation of point-bar cycles were related to a rapid relative base level rise. The meandering river sediments recognised showed responses to climate and sea level changes as illustrated by stratigraphical, morphological and sedimentological features of the strata described. The present study also revealed several insights into proper interpretation of meandering fluvial successions, in which the most important were: specific lithofacies assemblage of GSt (St, Sp → Sl → SFrc → Fm (SFr and related architectural elements: channel/sandy bedforms CH/SB → lateral accretion deposits LA → floodplain fines with crevasse splays FF (CS; upward-fining grain size and decreasing content of denser heavy minerals; estimated low-energy flow regime with a mean depth of 1.6–3.3 m, a Froude number of 0.2–0.4 and a sinuosity of 1.5.

  19. Observations of debris flows at Chalk Cliffs, Colorado, USA: Part 1, in-situ measurements of flow dynamics, tracer particle movement and video imagery from the summer of 2009 (United States)

    McCoy, Scott W.; Coe, Jeffrey A.; Kean, Jason W.; Tucker, Greg E.; Staley, Dennis M.; Wasklewicz, Thad A.


    Debris flows initiated by surface-water runoff during short duration, moderate- to high-intensity rainfall are common in steep, rocky, and sparsely vegetated terrain. Yet large uncertainties remain about the potential for a flow to grow through entrainment of loose debris, which make formulation of accurate mechanical models of debris-flow routing difficult. Using a combination of in situ measurements of debris flow dynamics, video imagery, tracer rocks implanted with passive integrated transponders (PIT) and pre- and post-flow 2-cm resolution digital terrain models (terrain data presented in a companion paper by STALEY et alii, 2011), we investigated the entrainment and transport response of debris flows at Chalk Cliffs, CO, USA. Four monitored events during the summer of 2009 all initiated from surface-water runoff, generally less than an hour after the first measurable rain. Despite reach-scale morphology that remained relatively constant, the four flow events displayed a range of responses, from long-runout flows that entrained significant amounts of channel sediment and dammed the main-stem river, to smaller, short-runout flows that were primarily depositional in the upper basin. Tracer-rock travel-distance distributions for these events were bimodal; particles either remained immobile or they travelled the entire length of the catchment. The long-runout, large-entrainment flow differed from the other smaller flows by the following controlling factors: peak 10-minute rain intensity; duration of significant flow in the channel; and to a lesser extent, peak surge depth and velocity. Our growing database of natural debris-flow events can be used to develop linkages between observed debris-flow transport and entrainment responses and the controlling rainstorm characteristics and flow properties.

  20. EduBites: Cliffs Notes for EPO (United States)

    Brinkworth, Carolyn; Bartolone, L.; Wenger, M.; Martin, A.; Nichols-Yehling, M.; Llamas, J.; Hurt, R. L.; Squires, G. K.


    We present a new resource for the astronomy education community, with the goal of improving our community’s knowledge and understanding of the educational research papers pertinent to our work. When launched, EduBites will be a searchable database of summaries of peer-reviewed education papers, written by astronomy educators and posted for the entire community to use. While we are all aware that we should be basing our E/PO work on a solid research foundation, many people in the community are pushed for time when it comes to staying on top of the educational literature. EduBites aims to reduce that workload for the benefit of the entire community. Our database will ultimately tackle papers across the whole of the astronomy education spectrum, including formal and informal education, outreach, grades K-16, pedagogy, evaluation, and many other topics. We are keen to hear from anyone on the community who would be interested in joining our review team, and will welcome feedback on the EduBites user experience. EduBites is still currently under development but, when launched, it will be found at

  1. A View from the Sea-cliff. (United States)

    McKenzie, Hope Bussey

    Intended for college teachers and students of Anglo-Saxon literature, this paper provides an overview of the sophisticated poetic devices used by the "Beowulf" poet. The paper examines how old English words for color range in hues in a way that modern English words do not, and how these words for color are used in "Beowulf."…

  2. Analyse géotechnique et évaluation du risque lié à l’instabilité le long de la falaise du quartier Hassan (Rabat-Maroc Geotechnical analysis and evaluation of the instability risk along the Hassan district cliff (Rabat-Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahedi Kh.


    Full Text Available Située à l’intérieur du domaine urbain, la falaise du quartier Hassan montre des instabilités de terrain matérialisées par des chutes et écroulements de blocs. Ces phénomènes constituent un grand risque sur des enjeux humains, économiques, culturels et environnementaux. L’intensité de cette instabilité dépend des effets conjugués des différents aspects analysés dans ce travail à savoir : la lithologie, le contexte géotectonique, les surfaces de discontinuités notamment la fracturation. Les essais géotechniques effectués au laboratoire permettent l’identification et la caractérisation du comportement mécanique des formations superficielles constituant la falaise ainsi que son substratum marneux. Le degré d’activité de ce phénomène, plus ou moins remarquable, est mis en évidence par l’analyse et l’observation de terrain et par l’étude comparative des photos aériennes de différentes missions. La combinaison de ces différentes études permet d’établir une carte de synthèse qui donne une évaluation du risque dans ce secteur. The studied area is a case inside the urban domain that shows instabilities of ground along the cliff of Hassan district (Rabat- Morocco, materialized by rock falls and block collapses. These phenomena constitute a great risk on human, economic, cultural and environmental stakes. The intensity of this instability depends on the combined effects of different factors analyzed in this work such as the lithology nature, the geotectonic context, and the surfaces of discontinuities in particular those of fracturing. Geotechnical tests carried at the laboratory allow the identification and the characterization of the mechanical behaviour of the superficial formations constituting this cliff as well as its marly bedrock. The degree of activity of this phenomenon is highlighted by analysis and direct observation on the field and by a comparative study of the multi-dated aerial photos. The

  3. 古典诗词的现代接受效应——以《念奴娇·赤壁怀古》对电影《赤壁》的影响为例%Modern Adaptation of Classic Poems --On the Influence of Niart Nu Jiao Chi Bi Huai Gu on the Film Chi Bi Cliff

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    自古以来关于赤壁的诗词歌赋吟咏颇多,苏东坡的《念奴娇·赤壁怀古》是其中最具有代表性的作品。词中隐括的故事元素、情绪和史观早已深入人心,成为吴宇森电影《赤壁》剧本改编的重要精神依据。诗意表达的充分利用提升了影片《赤壁》的表现张力,使古典意味更浓重,并使影片在人物塑造、故事构思、声画效果、主题思想上都得到了更为便捷有力且深刻的阐释,同时也开拓了新时代对于词境活用的新领域和词学接受的新范畴。%There are a lot of poems on po~ray Chi Bi Cliff since ancient times. Nian Nu Jiao Chi Bi Huai Gu Written by SU Dongpo is one of the most representative works. Story elements, emotions and history hidden in this poem enjoy popular support, and they has become the important spiritual basis of screenplay adaptation of Chi Bi Cliff made by WU Yusen. The full use of poetic expressions makes the film more expressive and bear classic style, which not only makes all the characters, sto- ries, sound and picture effects, and the themes of the film more expressive, but also expands the new field of use and enjoyment of the Chinese classic poetry in new era.

  4. Peaks, Cliffs and Valleys: The Peculiar Incentives of Teacher Pensions (United States)

    Costrell, Robert M.; Podgursky, Michael


    Pensions have long been an important part of compensation for teachers in public schools. However, the incentive structures of teacher pension systems are not widely understood, even though they can have powerful effects on the composition of the teaching force and on public finance. In their research, the authors have found that teacher pension…

  5. EduBites: Cliffs Notes for E/PO (United States)

    Brinkworth, Carolyn; Bartolone, L.; Wenger, M.; Martin, A.; Nichols-Yehling, M.; Hurt, R. L.; Squires, G. K.


    We present a new resource for the astronomy education community, with the goal of improving our community’s knowledge and understanding of the educational research papers relevant to our work. EduBites is a searchable database of summaries of peer-reviewed education papers, written by astronomy educators and posted for the entire community to use. While we are all aware that we should be basing our E/PO work on a solid research foundation, many people in the community are pushed for time when it comes to staying on top of the educational literature. EduBites aims to reduce that workload for the benefit of the entire community. Our database is small, but growing, and will ultimately tackle papers across the whole of the astronomy education spectrum, including formal and informal education, outreach, grades K-16, pedagogy, evaluation, and many other topics. We are keen to hear from anyone on the community who would be interested in joining our review team, and welcome feedback on the EduBites user experience.

  6. STEMdex: CliffsNotes for Education and Public Outreach (United States)

    Bartolone, L.; Nichols-Yehling, M.; Brinkworth, C.; Hurt, R. L.; Llamas, J.; Squires, G. K.; Wenger, M.; Martin, A.


    We present a new resource for the astronomy education community, with the goal of improving our community's knowledge and understanding of the educational research pertinent to our work. STEMdex will be a searchable database of summaries of peer-reviewed education papers, written by educators and researchers, and posted for the entire community to use. While we know we should base our EPO work on a solid research foundation, many people have limited time when it comes to staying on top of the literature. STEMdex aims to reduce that workload. Our database will summarize papers across the astronomy education spectrum, including formal and informal education, outreach, pedagogy, evaluation, and other topics.

  7. Nickel, copper and cobalt coalescence in copper cliff converter slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf A.


    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation is to assess the effect of various additives on coalescence of nickel, copper and cobalt from slags generated during nickel extraction. The analyzed fluxes were silica and lime while examined reductants were pig iron, ferrosilicon and copper-silicon compound. Slag was settled at the different holding temperatures for various times in conditions that simulated the industrial environment. The newly formed matte and slag were characterized by their chemical composition and morphology. Silica flux generated higher partition coefficients for nickel and copper than the addition of lime. Additives used as reducing agents had higher valuable metal recovery rates and corresponding partition coefficients than fluxes. Microstructural studies showed that slag formed after adding reductants consisted of primarily fayalite, with some minute traces of magnetite as the secondary phase. Addition of 5 wt% of pig iron, ferrosilicon and copper-silicon alloys favored the formation of a metallized matte which increased Cu, Ni and Co recoveries. Addition of copper-silicon alloys with low silicon content was efficient in copper recovery but coalescence of the other metals was low. Slag treated with the ferrosilicon facilitated the highest cobalt recovery while copper-silicon alloys with silicon content above 10 wt% resulted in high coalescence of nickel and copper, 87 % and 72 % respectively.

  8. The End of an Era...Falling off a Cliff (United States)

    Zmuda, Allison


    This article is an adaptation of a speech, "Leading the Transformation of Education for the 21st-Century," given by Allison Zmuda at the American Library Association National Conference in Washington D.C. on June 26, 2010, for the American Association of School Librarian's President's Program. In her speech, Allison poses a challenge to school…

  9. CliffsNotes Algebra II QuickReview

    CERN Document Server

    Kohn, Edward


    Delivers the appropriate amount of expert coverage on Algebra II topics for consumers who need a supplement to a standard Algebra II text; who need to prepare for exams; or who need to brush up on the fundamentals of Algebra II; Chapter Check-In gives readers an overview of what they'll learn in the chapter; Chapter Check-Out reviews the chapter to enforce the items learned and help with comprehension; Review section is a summary test on all chapter topics in the book -- great tool for teachers and students; Resource Center directs reader to additional information available for the subject suc

  10. Extreme wave run-up on a vertical cliff

    CERN Document Server

    Carbone, Francesco; Dudley, John M; Dias, Frédéric


    Wave impact and run-up onto vertical obstacles are among the most important phenomena which must be taken into account in the design of coastal structures. From linear wave theory, we know that the wave amplitude on a vertical wall is twice the incident wave amplitude with weakly nonlinear theories bringing small corrections to this result. In this present study, however, we show that certain simple wave groups may produce much higher run-ups than previously predicted, with particular incident wave frequencies resulting in run up heights exceeding the initial wave amplitude by a factor of 5, suggesting that the notion of the design wave used in coastal structure design may need to be revisited. The results presented in this study can be considered as a note of caution for practitioners, on one side, and as a challenging novel material for theoreticians who work in the field of extreme wave - coastal structure interaction.

  11. Funding Survival Toolkit: 3 Fiscal Cliff Myths, Debunked (United States)

    House, Jenny


    In the face of annual budget deficits, sequestration means automatic, across-the-board spending cuts to all federal agencies. This drastic step allows Congress to limit the size of the budget and gives it the right to make mandatory cuts if the cost of running the government exceeds the cap. On March 1, we all watched as Congress was unable to…

  12. Golden Peaks and Perilous Cliffs: Rethinking Ohio's Teacher Pension System (United States)

    Costrell, Robert M.; Podgursky, Michael


    In response to a journalist inquiry regarding research on funding of Ohio's teacher retirement system and its effect on school district finances, this analysis by the Thomas B. Fordham Institute points to serious questions and profound concerns about the health of Ohio's teacher pension system, and that similar time bombs may be ticking in other…

  13. From Red Cliffs to Chosin: The Chinese Way of War (United States)


    Mandarin language, based on the phonetic pronunciation of its words, and provides the approved modern spellings for Mandarin Chinese using the Roman...the Authentic Tao Te Ching and the Inner Teachings of Chuang Tzu, (New York: Castle Books, 1992), 10. 17 would be victorious is like water. Now...Secret Teachings described strategic patience as essential to military excellence. According to T’ai Kung, “One who excels at warfare will await events

  14. Cliff nesting raptors of the Kisaralik River, western Alaska (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — For three consecutive years (1977 - 79), about 79 km (49 mi) of Alaskan river canyons were surveyed for raptors by helicopter. Occupation of eight breeding...

  15. 赤壁之战与电影《赤壁》%The Battle of Red Cliffs & the Movie of "Red Cliffs"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)




  16. Rationalization of Activity Cliffs of a Sulfonamide Inhibitor of DNA Methyltransferases with Induced-Fit Docking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L. Medina-Franco


    Full Text Available Inhibitors of human DNA methyltransferases (DNMT are of increasing interest to develop novel epi-drugs for the treatment of cancer and other diseases. As the number of compounds with reported DNMT inhibition is increasing, molecular docking is shedding light to elucidate their mechanism of action and further interpret structure–activity relationships. Herein, we present a structure-based rationalization of the activity of SW155246, a distinct sulfonamide compound recently reported as an inhibitor of human DNMT1 obtained from high-throughput screening. We used flexible and induce-fit docking to develop a binding model of SW155246 with a crystallographic structure of human DNMT1. Results were in excellent agreement with experimental information providing a three-dimensional structural interpretation of ‘activity cliffs’, e.g., analogues of SW155246 with a high structural similarity to the sulfonamide compound, but with no activity in the enzymatic assay.

  17. A Better State of War: Surmounting the Ethical Cliff in Cyber Warfare (United States)


    outside existing ethical standards without fear of political backlash. For instance, cyber forensics experts traced numerous cyber-attacks launched...the crossbow to nuclear intercontinental ballistic missiles, modern weapons trend toward increasingly lethality. While the world may never witness... ballistic missile program with its                                                              2 Douhet, The Command of the Air, 294.  3 Paul B

  18. Radiation exposure management systems at Baltimore Gas and Electric`s Clavert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stallings, G.B. [Baltimore Gas and Electric Co., Lusby, MD (United States). Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant; Fletcher, R.J. [Siemens Environmental Systems Ltd. (United Kingdom)


    This paper documents how BGE has moved from traditional passive dosimetry methods to using the latest electronic systems supported by fully computerized access control and dose record management. One of the cornerstones of these developments is the Electronic Personal Dosemeter (EPD), manufactured by Siemens in the UK. (author).

  19. 76 FR 22935 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation; Notice of... (United States)


    ... Docket No. is 72-8. An NRC acceptance review, documented in a letter to CCNPP dated March 11, 2011, found... offer assistance in using unlisted software. If a participant is electronically submitting a document to... or other law ] requires submission of such information. With respect to copyrighted works, except...

  20. Fluidized landslides induced by extreme rainfall along basaltic caldera cliff of Mt. Aso in July 2012 (United States)

    Fukuoka, Hiroshi; Matsushi, Yuki; Furuya, Gen; Saito, Hitoshi


    In the end of the rainy season of 2012, a extreme rainfall affected western Japan in July and induced hundreds of fluidized landslides claiming casualties of more than 20. Measured trigger precipitation was recorded by the nearby ground-based station of the AMeDAS network (Automated Meteorological Data Acquisition System)as about 80 mm/h for consecutive 4 hours. Analysis of Radar-Raingauge Analyzed Precipitation-operated by the Japan Meteorological Agency showed landslide affected area almost coincided with the ones of heavier precipitation. Most of the landslides took place along the outer caldera rim and flank of the central cone of Mt. Aso, a basaltic active volcano. Most of the landslides slid on the boundary of strongly weathered soils, which used to be new volcanic accretion materials. Outstanding features of these landslides are: (1) This area had been affected by similar heavy rainfall decades ago, however, again a number of landslides took place in the nearby past scars; (2) Many of the soil slide bodies are shallow less than 5 meters deep and possibly immediately transformed into debris flows or mud flows and traveled long distance to reach the downslope communities; (3) Visual observation of the sources showed the high possibility that some of the slides were apparently induced by liquefaction. Similar cases were reported of past 2 landslide disasters in Japan. This strongly suggests that excessive rainfall can trigger numerous mud flows of unexpected reach. We conducted close field study at a typical soil slide - mud flow site. It originally initiated as debris or soil slide on a thin steep bedding plane of about 34 degrees consisting of coarser accretion materials. Needle penetration test showed comparatively weaker strength in the layer. It is underlain by a layer of finer materials. Such a higher permeability contrast could contribute to higher susceptibility of excess pore pressure generation. We took soil samples from the vicinity of sliding surface and conducted pore-pressure-controlled ring shear test. We increased pore pressure at constant rate until failure after applying normal/shear stresses of certain ratio representing the steepness of the sliding surface for the normally consolidated (of 100 kPa) specimen prepared by disturbed samples. Immediately after failure took place, we observed quick and large drop of shear resistance in a few seconds. This clearly showed the occurrence of sliding surface liquefaction. The resultant shear resistance was so small and it clearly shows the mechanism of those long run-out and low apparent friction angle of those landslides.

  1. New Techniques for Monitoring and Analyzing the Stability of Steep Cliffs against Rock Falls


    Fujii, Yoshiaki; Maeda, S.; Sugawara, T.; Kodama, N.; Miyashita, N


    Mechanisms of joint opening leading to the formation of unstable rock blocks, such as thermal deformation, water-mineral reaction, pore pressure, freeze-thaw cycle, intrusion of wood roots etc. have been more or less clarified; however, the triggering mechanisms of rock falls remain to be elucidated. The problems which prevent the understanding of the mechanisms are (1) difficulty in installation of sensors to very unstable rock blocks, (2) thermoelastic deformation of sensors and attachments...

  2. Beyond the Glass Ceiling : The Glass Cliff and Its Lessons for Organizational Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruckmueller, Susanne; Ryan, Michelle K.; Rink, Floor; Haslam, S. Alexander


    It has been almost 30 years since the metaphor of the glass ceiling was coined to describe the often subtle, but very real, barriers that women face as they try to climb the organizational hierarchy. Here we review evidence for a relatively new form of gender discriminationcaptured by the metaphor o

  3. Detailed View of Cliff-face in the North Polar Layered Deposits (United States)


    On Earth, geologists use layers of rock to 'read' the history of our planet. Where rocks were initially formed as layers of sediment, the historic record of Earth is deciphered by knowing that older layers are found beneath the younger layers. Scientists investigating changes in Earth's climate over the past few million years also use this principle to examine cores of ice from Greenland and Antarctica. Layered rock and layered polar deposits on Mars may also preserve a comparable record of that planet's geologic and environmental history.The martian north and south polar regions are covered by large areas of layered deposits. Since their discovery in the early 1970's, these polar layered deposits have been cited as the best evidence that the martian climate experiences cyclic changes over time. It was proposed that detailed investigation of the polar layers (e.g., by landers and/or human beings) would reveal a climate record of Mars in much the same way that ice cores from Antarctica are used to study past climates on Earth. On January 3, 1999, NASA's Mars Polar Lander and Deep Space 2 Penetrators will launch on a journey to study the upper layers of these deposits in the martian southern hemisphere.Meanwhile, investigation of the north polar layered deposits has advanced significantly this year with the acquisition of MGS data. The Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter acquired new topographic profiles over the north polar deposits in June and early July, 1998, and dozens of new high resolution images were taken by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) from mid-July to mid-September, 1998. When it was proposed to NASA in 1985, one of the original objectives of MOC was to determine whether the polar layered deposits--then thought to consist of 10 to 100 layers each between 10 and 100 meters (33 to 330 feet) thick--have more and thinner layers in them. The layers were proposed to have formed by slow accumulation of dust and ice--perhaps only 100 micrometers (0.004 inches) per year. A layer 10 meters (33 feet) thick would take 100,000 years to accumulate, roughly equal to the timescale of climate changes predicted by computer models.The image shown here (right image) was taken at 11:52 p.m. PDT on July 30, 1998, near the start of the 461st orbit of Mars Global Surveyor. The picture shows a slope along the edge of the permanent north polar cap of Mars that has dozens of layers exposed in it. The image shows many more layers than were visible to the Viking Orbiters in the 1970s (left images). The layers appear to have different thicknesses (some thinner than 10 meters (33 feet)) and different physical expressions. Some of the layers form steeper slopes than others, suggesting that they are more resistant to erosion. The more resistant layers might indicate that a cement (possibly ice) is present, making those layers stronger. All of the layers appear to have a rough texture that might be the result of erosion and/or redistribution of sediment and polar ice on the slope surface.The presence of many more layers than were seen by Viking is an important and encouraging clue that suggests that future investigation of polar layered deposits by landers and, perhaps some day, by human explorers, will eventually lead to a better understanding of the of the polar regions and the climate history recorded there. Our view of these deposits will be much improved--starting in late March 1999--when the Mapping Phase of the MGS mission begins, and MOC will be able to obtain images with resolutions of 1.5 meters (5 feet) per pixel.[The Viking Images (left)]: Regional and local context of MOC image 46103. The small figure in the upper right corner is a map of the north polar region, centered on the pole with 0o longitude located in the lower middle of the frame. A small black box within the polar map indicates the location of the Viking Orbiter 2 image used here for local context. The Viking image, 560b60, was taken in March 1978, toward the end of Northern Spring. The thin strip superposed on the Viking image is MOC image 46103, reduced in size to mark its placement relative to the Viking context image. The black box on the MOC image shows the location of the subframe highlighted here (right image). Illumination is from the left in the Viking image. The 10 kilometer scale bar also represents approximately 6.2 miles.Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  4. Beyond the cliff of creativity: a novel key to Bipolar Disorder and creativity. (United States)

    Ricciardiello, Luciana; Fornaro, Pantaleo


    How brain processes translate into creativity is still an unsolved puzzle in science. Although a number of conceptual models of creativity has been proposed to date, the exact nature of the process is still unknown. Recent findings support the idea that creativity may reside upon a continuum with psychopathology. If creativity is meant as "the capability of generating novel and appropriate ideas to solve problems", the missing pieces of the puzzle might be nested in the link between creativity and Bipolar Disorder. The existence of such a link is widely accepted by the Scientific Community. What still remains unknown is the nature of this link. An unconventional perspective is adopted during the investigation. Starting from the observation that depression in Bipolar Disorder might possibly trace back to ancient survival strategies in extreme climatic conditions - i.e. hibernation - the paper analyses old and recent findings in different disciplines: paleo-anthropology, information technology, neurobiology. Hints from the related research fields are linked together. The unified framework that emerges, still as a set of hypotheses, is reported in the conclusions. A novel key of interpretation of both creativity and Bipolar Disorder is thus provided. The core result is that normal people, creative individuals and patients affected by Bipolar Disorder share the same mind mechanism for problem-solving. The mechanism consists of two specific components, which are described in detail in the paper. Dysfunctions in brain myelination, making signal interference possible, hold a big role. The conclusions of the paper are in agreement with reports by patients affected by Bipolar Disorder concerning their subjective experience during mania, which is traditionally described as prone to creativity. To make readers aware of such an experience, a synthesis was elaborated by the first author, in the unusual shape of a short story. The short story is the narrative version of a real diary of a real patient, tutored by the second author. The short story is available to readers on request.

  5. Seeing the History of the Earth in the Cliffs at Møn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedin, Gry


    During the first part of the nineteenth century, geologists developed a history of the earth so different from that accepted in previous centuries that it encouraged a rethinking of the relationship between man and nature. In this article I will argue that painters followed these changes closely ...

  6. Is Managing Academics "Women's Work"? Exploring the Glass Cliff in Higher Education Management (United States)

    Peterson, Helen


    Sweden is among the countries with the highest per cent of women university Vice Chancellors in Europe. In "She Figures 2012" the average proportion of female Vice Chancellors in the 27 European Union countries is estimated to be 10 per cent. In Sweden the number is much higher: 43 per cent. Swedish higher education management has…

  7. Comparative study of static and dynamic parameters of rock for the Xishan Rock Cliff Statue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin JIANG; Jin-zhong SUN


    Ultrasonic wave testing was applied to investigate the quality and weathering status of rock specimens obtained in two borings situated in the Xishan Buddha rock slope in Taiyuan,China.This paper pays special attention to the distribution of bulk density,dynamic parameters and static parameters of rock specimens as well as the relationship between static and dynamic parameters.The results illustrate that the distribution of both parameters is identical along the depth of two drilled holes in the rock slope.When the hole depth increases,the density of rock mass,saturated compression strength and static elastic modulus,dynamic elastic modulus and wave velocity also show increase tendency.The weathering degree in the rock mass ranging from the surface of cliffto the depth of 2.5 m is the highest while the rock mass is unsalted and more rigid when the depth is larger than 3.0 m.The relationship between dynamic elastic modulus,sonic wave velocity and horizontal depth indicates that dynamic elastic modulus is more sensitive than sonic wave velocity.Conversely,by comparing quantity relationship between static elastic modulus and sonic wave velocity,it is found that the composition of rock has a great influence on the relationship between static and dynamic parameters,that is,inequality of rock composition will lead to dispersion and abnormality of the distribution of static and dynamic parameters.

  8. Insights on WWW-based geoscience teaching: Climbing the first year learning cliff (United States)

    Lamberson, Michelle N.; Johnson, Mark; Bevier, Mary Lou; Russell, J. Kelly


    In early 1995, The University of British Columbia Department of Geological Sciences (now Earth and Ocean Sciences) initiated a project that explored the effectiveness of the World Wide Web as a teaching and learning medium. Four decisions made at the onset of the project have guided the department's educational technology plan: (1) over 90% of funding recieved from educational technology grants was committed towards personnel; (2) materials developed are modular in design; (3) a data-base approach was taken to resource development; and (4) a strong commitment to student involvement in courseware development. The project comprised development of a web site for an existing core course: Geology 202, Introduction to Petrology. The web site is a gateway to course information, content, resources, exercises, and several searchable data-bases (images, petrologic definitions, and minerals in thin section). Material was developed on either an IBM or UNIX machine, ported to a UNIX platform, and is accessed using the Netscape browser. The resources consist primarily of HTML files or CGI scripts with associated text, images, sound, digital movies, and animations. Students access the web site from the departmental student computer facility, from home or a computer station in the petrology laboratory. Results of a survey of the Geol 202 students indicate that they found the majority of the resources useful, and the site is being expanded. The Geology 202 project had a "trickle-up" effect throughout the department: prior to this project, there was minimal use of Internet resources in lower-level geology courses. By the end of the 1996-1997 academic year, we anticipate that at least 17 Earth and Ocean Science courses will have a WWW site for one or all of the following uses: (1) presenting basic information; (2) accessing lecture images; (3) providing a jumping-off point for exploring related WWW sites; (4) conducting on-line exercises; and/or (5) providing a communications forum for students and faculty via a Hypernews group. Url

  9. 75 FR 1802 - Termination of the Environmental Impact Statement for the General Management Plan, Gila Cliff... (United States)


    ... heritage by providing a more unified management approach to the two units of the monument. --Alternative 4... National Park Service Termination of the Environmental Impact Statement for the General Management Plan.... ACTION: Notice of termination of the Environmental Impact Statement for the General Management Plan,...

  10. Coastal archaeological heritage in relation to geomorphology of cliffs, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mascarenhas, A.

    of collapsing into the sea, and presently in ruins. Coastal historical assets offer a tremendous potential in terms of heritage tourism. However, appropriate policies devoted to the conservation or restoration of ancient coastal monuments are lacking. As a...

  11. 77 FR 34093 - License Renewal for Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC's (United States)


    ...; ecology; noise; historical and cultural; scenic and visual; public and occupational health and safety; and... SNM-2505 will not result in a significant impact to the environment. The NRC staff consulted with... significantly affect the quality of the human environment. Therefore, preparation of an environmental...

  12. Antarctic Mirabilite Mounds as Mars Analogs: The Lewis Cliffs Ice Tongue Revisited (United States)

    Socki, Richard A.; Sun, Tao; Niles, Paul B.; Harvey, Ralph P.; Bish, David L.; Tonui, Eric


    It has been proposed, based on geomorphic and geochemical arguments, that subsurface water has played an important role in the history of water on the planet Mars [1]. Subsurface water, if present, could provide a protected and long lived environment for potential life. Discovery of gullies [2] and recurring slopes [3] on Mars suggest the potential for subsurface liquid water or brines. Recent attention has also focused on small (Tongue (LCIT) [6] in the Transantarctic Mountains, Antarctica, and are potential terrestrial analogs for mounds observed on the martian surface. The following characteristics distinguish LCIT evaporite mounds from other evaporite mounds found in Antarctic coastal environments and/or the McMurdo Dry Valleys: (1) much greater distance from the open ocean (approx.500 km); (2) higher elevation (approx.2200 meters); and (3) colder average annual temperature (average annual temperature = -30 C for LCIT [7] vs. 20 C at sea level in the McMurdo region [8]. Furthermore, the recent detection of subsurface water ice (inferred as debris-covered glacial ice) by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter [9] supports the use of an Antarctic glacial environment, particularly with respect to the mirabilite deposits described in this work, as an ideal terrestrial analog for understanding the geochemistry associated with near-surface martian processes. S and O isotopic compositions.

  13. Cliff-wall surgery and vanishing of basic phase function for contractible topological Hamiltonian loop

    CERN Document Server

    Oh, Yong-Geun


    The main purpose of this note is to rectify the incomplete proof given in arXiv:1111.5992 of the following result, when $\\dim M = 2$. High dimensional cases will be treated elsewhere: For any \\emph{contractible topological Hamiltonian loop} $\\phi_F$, $$ f_{\\underline{\\mathbb F}} \\equiv 0, \\quad \\mathbb F(t,x,y) := F(t,x) $$ where $f_{\\underline{\\mathbb F}} := \\lim_{i \\to \\infty} f_{\\underline{\\mathbb F_i}}$ for an approximating sequence $F_i$ of $F$. Here $f_{\\underline{\\mathbb F_i}}$ is the basic phase function of the Lagrangian submanifold $\\phi_{\\mathbb F_i}^1(o_\\Delta) = \\Graph \\phi_{F_i}^1$ which is the graph selector previously constructed by Lagrangian Floer theory. A complete revision of the paper "Homotopy invariance of spectral invariants of topological Hamiltonian flows and its Lagrangian analog" in dimension 2, which combines Part I of arXiv:1111.5992(v5) and this note, is available in the author's homepage (

  14. A survey for cliff-nesting birds of prey along the Noatak River, Alaska (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The primary objective of the study was to locate peregrine falcon nesting sites and to locate nest sites of other raptor species and assess their location in...

  15. Walking the Cliff's Edge: The "New Nation's" Rhetoric of Resistance in Apartheid South Africa (United States)

    Trabold, Bryan


    This article examines the rhetoric of resistance used by South African anti-apartheid journalists to expose the links between the apartheid government and death squads. By utilizing allusions, repetition, and a concept I refer to as "subversive enthymemes," these journalists managed to reveal publicly information about death squad activity in a…

  16. Confessions of a Communications Junkie: Cliff Notes From the Science-Practice Interface (United States)

    Moser, S. C.


    Graduate education in the sciences is - among other things - about learning a foreign language. Proficiency in disciplinary jargon and a strange sort of eloquence in speaking English without being understood by anyone outside one's small 'country of expertise' are among the requirements for entry into academe. Until very recently, the ability to translate one's quirky knowledge back into common language was not part of entraining scientists. Yet, increasingly, the interested public, policy-makers and resource managers, not to speak of science funders, demand that scientists illustrate that their science has societal relevance. Moreover, the urgency of several complex societal and environmental problems puts the onus on scientists to work with experts in other disciplines. This means that the ability to communicate effectively with those outside one's own disciplinary home is rapidly becoming an essential qualification of a 'good' scientist. My own journey from a disciplinary boundary crosser, to hobby communicator, to professional translator of science into English, to alumnae of various media trainings and Aldo Leopold Leadership Fellow, to researcher of the science-practice interface and expert in communication for social change will form the basis of this talk. It weaves together personal experience with scientific insights on why scientists should, why many don't, and how they could interact more effectively with members of a 'different tribe.'

  17. Final Environmental Assessment to Renovate Fourth Cliff Recreational Area at Hanscom Air Force Base, Massachusetts (United States)


    tent sites, four picnic areas, a pavilion, a bath house, a recreation center (containing management office space, a small restaurant , a snack shop, a...concurrence or any recommendat ions at you earli est convenience . Responses on or before 9/ 16/ 2014 are appreciated. Thank you, Jim M araveli as

  18. Evolution of Feature-­Oriented Software: How to Stay on Course and Avoid the Cliffs of Modularity Drift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olszak, Andrzej; Lazarova-Molnar, Sanja; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard


    With time software systems easily become obsolete if not updated to reflect the ever-changing needs of their users. This update process is far from trivial as each feature is not necessarily captured by a single module, but rather scattered across a number of different modules. The situation is f...

  19. 77 FR 1748 - Atomic Safety and Licensing Board; Calvert Cliffs 3 Nuclear Project, LLC, and UniStar Nuclear... (United States)


    ... under represents potential contributions of wind and solar power, the combination alternative depends... parking lot, which is within walking distance of the hearing venue, located at 200 Duke Street,...

  20. A Fiscal Cliff: The Current U.S. Federal Budget, Potential Cuts, and Impacts on Science Funding (United States)

    Uhlenbrock, K. M.; Landau, E. A.; Hankin, E. R.


    As lawmakers on Capitol Hill face challenges to reach an agreement on how to cut the deficit while growing the economy, scientists must join the discussion and outline the serious impacts cuts to federal science programs will have on our society. Consistent and sustained federal science funding (discretionary spending) is an ever increasing struggle with the rising costs of mandatory spending and decrease in revenues. In 2011 Congress passed the Budget Control Act, which will require automatic across-the-board cuts, known as sequestration, and will take effect on 2 January 2013. Estimated cuts of $1.2 trillion and discretionary spending caps set at Fiscal Year 2012 levels will trigger non-defense program cuts of 9.8% in the first year as reported by the Congressional Research Service. Funding from non-defense program agencies such as NSF, NASA, DOE, NOAA, USGS, and others drive science and technological innovation, support public safety, create jobs, educate generations of scientists, stimulate the economy, protect our environment, and enrich lives. With non-defense discretionary programs representing less than one-fifth of the federal budget, severe cuts to these programs will not alleviate our deficit, but instead restrict our growth.

  1. On the Flow and Fluidization of Granular Materials: Applications to Large Lunar Craters, Cliff Collapses and Asteroid Shapes (United States)

    Holsapple, K. A.


    About flows of granular materials and assumptions about fluidization mechanisms to explain large flat craters and landslide run outs. No such mechanisms are needed, the reasons and examples are given.

  2. 'I'd rather keep running to the end and then jump off the cliff.' Retirement decisions: who decides?


    Vickerstaff, Sarah


    Government in the UK, as elsewhere in Europe, is keen to encourage individuals to delay their retirement, work for longer and save more for their retirement. This article argues that much of this public discussion is based on the debatable premise that most people are actively choosing to leave work ‘early’. Research on retirement decisions hitherto has concentrated on individual factors, which dispose towards early retirement and has neglected the role of the employer in determining retireme...

  3. 75 FR 25876 - Notice of Intent To Prepare Resource Management Plans for the Beaver Dam Wash and Red Cliffs... (United States)


    ... ecological, natural, cultural/historical, recreational, scenic, educational, wildlife and scientific values... and realty, paleontology, recreation, socio-economics, and soils and vegetation. Approved:...

  4. Evolution of Feature-­Oriented Software: How to Stay on Course and Avoid the Cliffs of Modularity Drift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olszak, Andrzej; Lazarova-Molnar, Sanja; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard


    , termed modularization compass, computes the modularity drift by optimizing the feature-oriented modularization of source code based on traceability links between features and source code. The optimized modularizations are created automatically by transforming the groupings of classes into packages, which...

  5. Are fractured cliffs the source of cometary dust jets ? Insights from OSIRIS/Rosetta at 67P

    CERN Document Server

    Vincent, J -B; Pajola, M; Höfner, S; Sierks, H; Hu, X; Barbieri, C; Lamy, P L; Rodrigo, R; Koschny, D; Rickman, H; Keller, H U; A'Hearn, M F; Barucci, M A; Bertaux, J -L; Bertini, I; Besse, S; Bodewits, D; Cremonese, G; Da Deppo, V; Davidsson, B; Debei, S; De Cecco, M; El-Maarry, M R; Fornasier, S; Fulle, M; Groussin, O; Gutiérrez, P J; Gutiérrez-Marquez, P; Güttler, C; Hofmann, M; Hviid, S F; Ip, W -H; Jorda, L; Knollenberg, J; Kovacs, G; Kramm, J -R; Kührt, E; Küppers, M; Lara, L M; Lazzarin, M; Lin, Z -Y; Lowry, S; Marzari, F; Massironi, M; Moreno, F; Mottola, S; Naletto, G; Preusker, F; Scholten, F; Shi, X; Thomas, N; Toth, I; Tubiana, C


    Dust jets, i.e. fuzzy collimated streams of cometary material arising from the nucleus, have been observed in-situ on all comets since the Giotto mission flew by comet 1P/Halley in 1986. Yet their formation mechanism remains unknown. Several solutions have been proposed, from localized physical mechanisms on the surface/sub-surface (see review in Belton (2010)) to purely dynamical processes involving the focusing of gas flows by the local topography (Crifo et al. 2002). While the latter seems to be responsible for the larger features, high resolution imagery has shown that broad streams are composed of many smaller features (a few meters wide) that connect directly to the nucleus surface. We monitored these jets at high resolution and over several months to understand what are the physical processes driving their formation, and how this affects the surface. Using many images of the same areas with different viewing angles, we performed a 3-dimensional reconstruction of collimated jets, and linked them precise...

  6. Population status and reproductive success of cliff-nesting seabirds at Bluff, Alaska in 1985: Report of field results (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 1985 fieldwork was conducted at the Bluff colony in Norton Sound to provide a continuing assessment of numbers and reproductive performance of Common Murres (Uria...

  7. Isopachs of the combined thickness of the Calico and A-sequences of the Straight Cliffs Formation in the Kaiparowits Plateau study area, southern Utah (kjhthk*g) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a polygon coverage of isopachs of the combined thickness of the Calico and A-sequences in the Kaiparowits Plateau study area. The outside polygon defines the...

  8. 试论将军崖岩画的原始艺术形式%On the Primitive Art of jiangiunya Cliff Painting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)




  9. 78 FR 33121 - Staff Requirements-SECY-12-0168-Calvert Cliffs 3 Nuclear Project, LLC & UniStar Nuclear Operating... (United States)


    ... in their comment submission. Your request should state that the NRC does not routinely edit comment... is likely due to the increased globalization of economic activity and associated added complexity of... government. Moreover, the NRC may not, in any event, issue a license to any person within the United...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin YAŞAR


    Full Text Available Kiralık Konak is the work of Yakup Kadri in which he intensively deals with westernization phenomenon. In the work, the destruction that the phenomenon causes in the society and family is attributed to the mansion of Naim Efendi, who symbolizes the tradition and the oldness, and Seniha‟s personality, who represents “malicious European style”. The way that European cultural values, which begin to affect the country with the Ottoman Reform Movement, are reflected to the protagonist Seniha and her friends are remarkable. Seniha is the 1920s version of the European style types who misunderstand the westernization. A lot of studies have been conducted on analysis of Seniha‟s actions. In this study, rather than the analysis, the reasons that have driven the heroine to have a European style have been examined in detail and holistic conclusions have been reached. Kiralık Konak, Yakup Kadri‟nin batılılaşma olgusunu en yoğun olarak işlediği yapıtıdır. Yapıtta bu olgunun toplumda ve ailede oluşturduğu yıkıntı, geleneği ve eskiyi temsil eden Naim Efendi‟nin konağına ve „hain alafrangalık‟ı simgeleyen Seniha‟nın şahsınaindirgenir. Tanzimat ile beraber ülkeye girmeye başlayan Avrupai kültür göstergelerinin romanın protagonisti Seniha‟nın ve arkadaş çevresine yansıma biçimi dikkatlere sunulur. Seniha, batılılaşmayı yanlış algılayan alafranga tiplerin bin dokuz yüz yirmilerdeki sürümüdür. Seniha‟nın edimlerinin tespitine yönelik birçok araştırma yapılmıştır. Bu çalışmada, tespitten öte kahramanı „alafrangalılık‟a iten sebepler detaylı bir biçimde irdelenerek bütünsel sonuçlara varılmıştır.

  11. Morpholithodynamical changes of the beach and the nearshore zone under the impact of submerged breakwaters – a case study (Orłowo Cliff, the Southern Baltic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Kubowicz-Grajewska


    Based on the conducted research and analysis, it has been found that the construction has a minor impact on the modification of the shore and nearshore zone morpholithodynamics, which is evidenced by a sinuate shape of the shoreline and a relatively stable cape in the central part of the area, present both before (1966–2005 and after SBWs were built. Furthermore, the progressive abrasion, the lack of significant changes in the morphology and particle size distribution of the beach and the nearshore zone, as well as the fact that those changes are limited only to the immediate surroundings of the submerged breakwaters prove their neutral impact.

  12. Adherence to HIV care after pregnancy among women in sub-Saharan Africa: falling off the cliff of the treatment cascade. (United States)

    Psaros, Christina; Remmert, Jocelyn E; Bangsberg, David R; Safren, Steven A; Smit, Jennifer A


    Increased access to testing and treatment means HIV can be managed as a chronic illness, though successful management requires continued engagement with the health care system. Most of the global HIV burden is in sub-Saharan Africa where rates of new infections are consistently higher in women versus men. Pregnancy is often the point at which an HIV diagnosis is made. While preventing mother to child transmission (PMTCT) interventions significantly reduce the rate of vertical transmission of HIV, women must administer ARVs to their infants, adhere to breastfeeding recommendations, and test their infants for HIV after childbirth. Some women will be expected to remain on the ARVs initiated during pregnancy, while others are expected to engage in routine testing so treatment can be reinitiated when appropriate. The postpartum period presents many barriers to sustained treatment adherence and engagement in care. While some studies have examined adherence to postpartum PMTCT guidelines, few have focused on continued engagement in care by the mother, and very few examine adherence beyond the 6-week postpartum visit. Here, we attempt to identify gaps in the research literature and make recommendations on how to address barriers to ongoing postpartum HIV care.

  13. Probing into Side-cliff Craze Weld Repair Craft of 395B Shovel%395B铲斗侧壁开裂焊接修复工艺的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫明; 乔宝元



  14. 续貂并非皆狗尾——电影《赤壁》剀谈%The Renewed Sables Are Not All the Dog Tails——Analysis of the Movie Red Cliff

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何婧雅; 谢丽娟



  15. 从史前岩画看中国原始舞蹈的艺术特征%The Study of Artistic Features of the Chinese Primitive Dance from the Cliff Painting in Prehistoric Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)




  16. Integrative Paths to the Past: Paleoanthropological Advances in Honor of F. Clark Howell, edited by Robert S. Corrnccini and Russell L. Ciochon, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1994.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela R. Willoughby


    Full Text Available F. Clark Howell retired from the faculty of the University of California at Berkeley in 1991. At Berkeley, and earlier while at the University of Chicago, he was responsible for training a number of specialists in human biocultural evolution, or palaeoanthropology. In fact, Howell is credited with developing the concept of palaeoanthropology (and defining the term itself; he certainly created the framework for this integrated, multi-disciplinary approach to human evolution. For his retirement, former students and colleagues collaborated to produce this volume. Some of the papers were presented at a one day symposium reviewing the highlights of Howell's career along with current research directions in palaeoanthropology. It took place during the annual meeting of the American Anthropological Association held in San Francisco in 1992. Bowell's long time colleague J. Desmond Clark gave the distinguished lecture at the same meeting. During his career, Howell directed excavations at Isimilain Tanzania, as well as Torralba and Ambrona in Spain (all extensive Acheulean localities, but is best known for his work west of the Omo River in southern Ethiopia. It was there during the 1960s and 1970s that he developed the methods and approaches which would come to characterize the best of palaeoanthropological research.

  17. Thinking freely between the moon and the waters---Rereading Boating at the red cliff by Su Shi%水月之间的精神逍遥--重读苏轼经典《前赤壁赋》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳琴; 林长洋


    This is a re-scrutiny of Qian Chi Bi Fu,a classical work by Su Shi,from the perspective of moon and water as“objective correlative”of people’s mind.In exploring the moon and water’s images in the heart of “host and guest”,it finds the two objects undergoing an evolution from personified targets of communication,to natural objects symbolizing nature-human opposition,and to spiritual containers of nature-human integration.In such an evolution underlies Su Shi’s profound meditati-ons on personal encountering,universal destiny and spiritual home,and within the text is an art of interwoven landscape por-trait,emotional reflection and philosophical speculation.%重读苏轼经典《前赤壁赋》,从水月作为心理意识的“客观对应物”角度切入,剖析“月和水”在“主与客”心中三重观感,探索它们由物我交流的人格对象,到天人相形的自然客体,再到物我同一的精神载体的不同地位,领略作者从个人境遇到宇宙人类命运再复归个人心灵的深邃思考,把握其景、情、理交融的艺术特质。

  18. 我国医药企业对专利悬崖期的药品仿制策略初探%Preliminary study on strategy of generics during patent cliff in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申团结; 黄泰康



  19. 清代龙袍上海水山崖纹的特征及其演变规律%Characteristics and evolution of wave-cliff patterns on dragon robes during Qing dynasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丹丹; 梁惠娥; 邢乐



  20. March 2006 Lidar Point Data of Southern California Coastline: Long Beach to US/Mexican Border (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains lidar point data (Geodetic Coordinates) from a strip of Southern California coastline (including water, beach, cliffs, and top of cliffs)...

  1. October 2005 Lidar Point Data of Southern California Coastline: Long Beach to US/Mexican Border (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains lidar point data (UTM, Zone 11) from a strip of Southern California coastline (including water, beach, cliffs, and top of cliffs) from Long...

  2. April 2004 Lidar Point Data of Southern California Coastline: Dana Point to Point La Jolla (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains lidar point data (Geodetic Coordinates) from a strip of Southern California coastline (including water, beach, cliffs, and top of cliffs) from...

  3. May 2002 Lidar Point Data of Southern California Coastline: Dana Point to Point La Jolla (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains lidar point data from a strip of Southern California coastline (including water, beach, cliffs, and top of cliffs) from Dana Point to Point La...

  4. October 2003 Lidar Point Data of Southern California Coastline: Newport Beach to US/Mexican Border (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains lidar point data (Geodetic Coordinates) from a strip of Southern California coastline (including water, beach, cliffs, and top of cliffs)...

  5. September 2002 Lidar Point Data of Southern California Coastline: Dana Point to Point La Jolla (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains lidar point data from a strip of Southern California coastline (including water, beach, cliffs, and top of cliffs) from Dana Point to Point...

  6. October 2003 Lidar Point Data of Southern California Coastline: Newport Beach to US/Mexican Border (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains lidar point data (Geodetic Coordinates) from a strip of Southern California coastline (including water, beach, cliffs, and top of cliffs) from...

  7. March 2006 Lidar Point Data of Southern California Coastline: Long Beach to US/Mexican Border (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains lidar point data (Geodetic Coordinates) from a strip of Southern California coastline (including water, beach, cliffs, and top of cliffs) from...

  8. September 2002 Lidar Point Data of Southern California Coastline: Dana Point to Point La Jolla (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains lidar point data from a strip of Southern California coastline (including water, beach, cliffs, and top of cliffs) from Dana Point to Point La...

  9. December 2002 Lidar Point Data of Southern California Coastline: Dana Point to Point La Jolla (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains lidar point data (latitude and longitude) from a strip of Southern California coastline (including water, beach, cliffs, and top of cliffs)...

  10. April 2005 Lidar Point Data of Southern California Coastline: Long Beach to US/Mexican Border (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains lidar point data (latitude/longitude) from a strip of Southern California coastline (including water, beach, cliffs, and top of cliffs) from...

  11. March 2003 Lidar Point Data of Southern California Coastline: Dana Point to Point La Jolla (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains lidar point data (Geodetic Coordinates) from a strip of Southern California coastline (including water, beach, cliffs, and top of cliffs) from...

  12. September 2004 Lidar Point Data of Southern California Coastline: Long Beach to US/Mexican Border (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains lidar point data (Geodetic Coordinates) from a strip of Southern California coastline (including water, beach, cliffs, and top of cliffs) from...

  13. 76 FR 31977 - Public Land Order No. 7768; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6861; Montana (United States)


    ... necessary to continue protection of Rattler Gulch Limestone Cliffs Area of Critical Environmental Concern... Gulch Limestone Cliffs Area of Critical ] Environmental Concern. The withdrawal extended by this order... Rattler Gulch Limestone Cliffs Area of Critical Environmental Concern, is hereby extended for...

  14. 76 FR 55937 - Sheldon National Wildlife Refuge, Washoe and Humboldt Counties, NV, and Lake County, OR; Draft... (United States)


    ..., sport fishing, and hunting; continuing fishing and hunting coordination with the States; improving... spring brooks, basalt cliffs and canyons; emergent marshes; juniper, mountain mahogany, and...

  15. 76 FR 70130 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability (United States)


    ... Project, Additional Information on Alternatives, Proposes to Construct a Copper and Silver Underground...: November 7, 2011. Cliff Rader, Acting Director, NEPA Compliance Division, Office of Federal...

  16. 在意象的悬崖上呐喊--鲁迅小说的“寒冷”意象探询%Loud Shouts on the Cliffs of Image-Dissertation on the Codeness Image of LU XUN’s Novels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    When reading throughout Lu Xun’s novels, it is easy to find out the coldness image running all through the whole texts of the novels, while closely combining narrative perspective and carrying authors’creation intention. Coldness is not only the simple performance of novel character’s environment, nor the pushing hand of the development of stories. It is in the same plane at the same time with authors, novel characters, as well as the hidden readers who are called. Because of which, the hidden readers can understand the authors’experiences and feelings of their times much stronger, and penetrate the realistic society underneath of the novels. Because of which, novel readers could feel pity for the novel characters, thus initiating the common thinking and chasing of human’s intangible life road..%纵观鲁迅的小说,往往出现“寒冷”意象,它贯穿于整个小说的文本之中,与叙事视角紧密结合,也寄寓着作者的创作意图,它不仅仅是小说人物的活动环境的简单呈现,也不仅仅是推动小说情节的发展,它和作者、文本中的人物、被呼唤的“隐含读者”处在一个共时平面,使“隐含读者”更强烈地体会作者对所处的时代的独特性体验,洞察透过小说文本展现的现实社会,使小说文本中的人物和文本外的读者相怜相惜,共同思考和追寻人生的“本无路之路”。

  17. 从岩画看视觉图像的构成--人类学视域的原始图像%An Analytical View Towards the Formation of Visual Images through Cliff Painting--Some original images out of the anthropological points of view

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)




  18. The Lily in the Cliff Is Blossoming in the Hopeless Situation——The Analysis on Maya Angelou's Autobiographical Novels%峭壁中的百合在绝境中恣情绽放——浅析玛雅·安吉罗的自传体小说

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)




  19. 76 FR 64388 - Biweekly Notice; Applications and Amendments to Facility Operating Licenses; Involving No... (United States)


    ... . Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC, Docket Nos. 50-317 and 50-318, Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant... No. 1 (DBNPS), Ottawa County, Ohio Docket No. 50-440, Perry Nuclear Power Plant, Unit No. 1 (PNPP... maintenance that is performed on plant equipment. Therefore, operation of the facility in accordance with......

  20. Toward an Air and Space Force: Naval Aviation and the Implications for Space Power (United States)


    hour support center that manages all requests relating to USAF space systems. 85. Ibid. 86. Cliff D. Ozmun , “Air Force Space Command Establishes First...Shield Declares Victory.” Space Tactics Bulletin 2, Issue 1 (November 1994): 3–4. Ozmun , Cliff D. “Air Force Space Command Establishes First Space

  1. 75 FR 18959 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Endangered Status for 48 Species... (United States)


    ..., predation by alien mammals, and catastrophic events such as hurricanes (VanderWerf and American Bird... greatly on topography, and the orographic (mountain-caused) effect is revealed by the wide range in the... ridge crests, outcrops, and steep rocky slopes and upper portions of basalt cliffs in the dry cliff...

  2. 76 FR 55668 - New York State Prohibition of Discharges of Vessel Sewage; Final Affirmative Determination (United States)


    ... run-off, lawn fertilizer runoff and discharges of untreated sewage from Combined Sewer Overflows (CSOs... Glenwood Landing. 9. 24 hours. & Marina. 31 Sea Cliff Yacht Hempstead Harbor, 516-671-7374; VHF May 15-Sept 15; 8 $5.00. Club. Sea Cliff. 9. Mon-Fri; 9 a.m.-5 p.m. 32 Town of North Hempstead Harbor,...

  3. 49 CFR Appendix F to Subchapter B... - Commercial Zones (United States)


    ....J.; the area within the borough limits of Alpine, Tenafly, Englewood Cliffs, Leonia, Fort Lee... right-of-way of the Reading Co., on the west by Cliff Road, and on the north by Woodbridge-Carteret Road... junction with Scott Run Creek, thence northerly down the course of Scott Run Creek to the Potomac...

  4. 40 CFR 761.123 - Definitions. (United States)


    ... rough terrain, mountains, or cliffs). Other restricted access (nonsubstation) locations means areas... occurring barriers such as mountains, cliffs, or rough terrain. These areas generally include industrial... discharges where the release results in any quantity of PCBs running off or about to run off the...

  5. 78 FR 65371 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)


    ... & Arizona; Red Cliff Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians of Wisconsin; Red Lake Band of Chippewa Indians... adults were likely found in 1924 during grading activities associated with railroad tracks running... & Arizona; Red Cliff Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians of Wisconsin; Red Lake Band of Chippewa...

  6. 75 FR 68738 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations (United States)


    .... Township of Hopewell. Approximately 0.4 mile +47 +46 upstream of State Route 29 (River Road). Miry Run At... within None +605 City of Bayfield, City community. of Washburn, Red Cliff Band of Lake Superior Chippewa... Maps are available for inspection at 119 Washington Avenue, Washburn, WI 54891. Red Cliff Band of...

  7. Seismic architecture of the Chalk Group from onshore reflection data in eastern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreau, Julien; Anderskouv, Kresten; Boldreel, Lars Ole

    The Upper Cretaceous-Danian chalk is well exposed in the 14 km long coastal cliff of Stevns Klint (eastern Denmark). The cliff is a world renowned for its spectacular exposure of the Cretaceous-Palaeogene boundary. Based on regional geological knowledge of the field and cores, the characteristics...

  8. Celebrity Endorsement of Direct Mail Advertising: An Experiment. (United States)


    to the role of ŕDavid A. Aaker and John G. Myers, Advertising Management (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1975), pp. 307-331. 1 2 Ibid...RA PH Y 68 BIBLIOGRAPHY Aaker , David A., and Myers, John G. Advertising Manage- ment. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1975. Andersen

  9. Social resources at a time of crisis : How gender stereotypes inform gendered leader evaluations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rink, Floor; Ryan, Michelle K.; Stoker, Janka I.


    Research suggests that women are more likely than men to be selected for leadership positions when organizations are in a performance crisis, a phenomenon labeled the glass cliff. Two scenario studies demonstrate that the glass-cliff effect is attenuated when organizational stakeholders support the

  10. Continuation of Research in the Development of High Sensitivity X-Ray and Electron Beam Resists Processes. (United States)


    J.M. Prausnitz, Molecular Thermodynamics Qf FliA Phase Eguiibria., Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1969, p. 298. 18. J. Manjkow, MS...Press, Ithaca, New York, 1953, p. 545. 25. J.M. Prausnitz, Molecular Thermodynamics 2f F Phase £ b , Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1969, p

  11. 78 FR 8705 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; States of Minnesota and Michigan... (United States)


    ... pollution from taconite plants. These large industrial polluters should clean up their air pollution under... history of each state's SIP-development process. Response: EPA agrees that Minnesota and Michigan spent... furnaces. Cliffs asserted that EPA ignored information provided by Cliffs and its process engineering...

  12. E-book Trial Using Handheld Devices Yields Mixed Reactions from Public Library Staff and Users in Essex County, UK. A review of: Dearnley, James, Cliff McKnight, and Anne Morris. “Electronic Book Usage in Public Libraries: A Study of User and Staff Reactions to a PDA-based Collection.” Journal of Librarianship and Information Science 36.4 (December 2004: 175‐82.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Hall


    Full Text Available Objective - To assess e-book delivery on handheld devices provided to public library patrons, particularly housebound or visually impaired patrons and the users of a mobile library. Design - Product trial with a post-trial questionnaire for patrons and a post-trial focus group discussion among participating library staff. Setting - Mid-to-large size public library system in the United Kingdom. Subjects - 23 patrons participated; the number of library staff participating is not identified. Although the target population initially identified was housebound people, patrons reliant on the mobile library, and visually impaired people, the project team determined that it did not have sufficient funds to upgrade the PDAs to be compatible woth their preferred software for the visually impaired, and therefore this group was eliminated from the study. Lack of funds was also cited as a factor in the team being unable to provide assistive technology for those users suffering from arthritis, though this group was not excluded from the study. Just over half the patrons were aged 60+, and more than half were female. Two patrons self-identified as housebound. Methods - e-books were downloaded onto Hewlett Packard iPAQ 1910 Pdas by library staff and were loaned to participants between Janualry and April 2004. Although the authors of the study state that "creating staff champions was an important objective in this project" (p.176, it is unclear whether staff were screened for positive attitude towards e-Books. Prior to the trial, staff members were provided with training and orientation, and participants were asked for their font sna d reading preferences. Suport for participating patrons was available from staff or via an accompanying user manual, e-mail, or telephone help line. In a questionnaire adminsitered following the trial, participants were asked to respond to questions on the functionality of the handheld devices and e-book formats, positive and negative reactions to reading from the devices, and differences in the reading experience using the PDA as oopsed to a book. A group discussion with p[articipating library staff was held in April of 2004. The feedback from both groups was compared. Main results - Patrons: The devices were generally found to be usable, with a few exceptions; one patron with arthritis had difficulty operating the device and another developed hand cramps. Positive reactions regarding the vovelty of using the devices, portability (the ability to store several books on one small device and readability (the ability to customize font size and to read in low light conditions were offset by frustration with low battery life, small screen size, limits on usage (i.e. not to be used in the bath, difficulty paging back and forth ('getting lost on the iPAQ', and the inferior sensation of using a PDA as opposed to the 'tactile' quantity of books. In addtion, some patrons voiced fears that e-books might supplant paper books and libraries themselves. In all, thirteen patrons indicated that the e-books had some advantages over books, while eighteen found that there were aspects of using e-books that they disliked compared to books. Staff: The staff shared some concerns with the users, identifying portability as a strength and low battery life (including the need to reformat devices after batteries ran out as a weakness. In addition, some staff felt that some patrons preferred e-book format for books on sensitive topcs, as they provided more privacy in borrowing. Other staff concerns included the potential for users loading other software on the devices and the (presumably in the case of a full roll-out where users would download their own e-books from home lack of a broadband connection for some users. Conclusions - This study should be read as a case study of a trial of the Adobe Book and Palm e-book formats in Hewlett Packard iPAQ 1910 Pdas amongst a small group pf public library (primarily mobile library patrons. While the findings generally indicated that both staff and users found the technology tooo problematic to be adopted, the trial was confined to hardware and software specified. Furthermore, since the sample surveyed was small and not randomly selected, it would be difficult to apply the study's findings to the larger population (exact number not specified in the study of housebound and mobile library users of the Essex County system. For those who are considering the introduction of similar technology in a public library setting, the final report on the larger project of which this study was a part is available on the British Library website:

  13. A coverage that differentiates between areas where the total Calico and A-sequence coal-bearing interval is preserved and where the coal-bearing strata are partially eroded in the Kaiparowits Plateau, southern Utah (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a polygon coverage that represents areas underlain by the coal-bearing Calico and A-sequences of the Straight Cliffs Formation east of 112 degrees of...

  14. Detailed structure of heat island phenomena from moving observations from electric tram-cars in Metropolitan Tokyo (United States)

    Yamashita, Shuji

    In this study, the detailed horizontal structure, i.e. cliffs and plateaux of the heat island of the Metropolitan Tokyo area is investigated. According to Oke (1977), cliff is steep temperature gradient at the rural/urban boundary and plateau is a steady but weaker horizontal gradient of increasing temperature towards the city center. However, these features are not always evident, e.g. large city like Tokyo. To elucidate such aspects, moving observations of the horizontal distribution of air temperature from electric trains of the transportation network of Metropolitan Tokyo during late evening or early morning were thus conducted. In total, 16 railroad lines were used for the moving observations. The observations were done in two phases for sectional and horizontal distributions. Results show that three cliffs exist in the heat island of Metropolitan Tokyo, although the location of these cliffs should be taken into consideration for urban planning or urban redevelopment.

  15. 77 FR 59655 - Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Walnut... (United States)


    ... Tribes.'' History and Description of the Remains In 1932, human remains representing a minimum of one... contiguous cliff dwelling. Based on the ceramic assemblage recovered from the site, NA739 is dated to...

  16. Effects of Habitat and Human Activities on Species Richness and Assemblages of Staphylinidae (Coleoptera in the Baltic Sea Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Irmler


    Full Text Available In 2009, the staphylind fauna was studied in six habitats of the Baltic Sea coast of Schleswig-Holstein (northern Germany. The following habitats lagoon, sandy beach, shingle beach, primary dune, wooded cliff, and woodless cliff were significantly separated by their species composition. Vegetation and soil moisture were the most important factors separating the assemblages. Lagoons exhibited the most species-rich habitat. Sandy beaches provided the highest number of endangered species. Both sandy beaches and woodless cliffs showed the highest number of exclusive species. A loss of species was determined in the gradient from sandy to shingle beaches. Few species preferred shingle beaches; abundance of Cafius xantholoma increased with the increasing amount of shingle. More species preferred the sandy conditions, for example, Polystomota grisea, P. punctatella, and Phytosus spinifer. Anotylus insecatus and Bledius defensus require distinct mixtures of sand and silt on woodless cliffs. Tourist impact on sandy beaches accounts for approximately 50% loss of species.

  17. Deltaic, Sebkha and Aeolian Sedimentation in Juventae Chasma and Their Stratigraphic Relationships (Mars) (United States)

    Ori, G. G.; Komatsu, G.; Pacifici, A.; Hauber, E.; Gwinner, K.; Neukum, G.; HRSC Co-Investigator Team


    The High Resolution Stereo Camera has remarkable stereo capabilities and it allows three-dimensional analysis of Martian outcrops in cliffs and slopes in a way similar to the study of large terrestrial outcrops or seismic lines.

  18. 76 FR 38361 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to a... (United States)


    ... transects parallel to the shoreline along the 3.5-mi waterfront. Transects were run from shallow water to... Wharf is extremely narrow, and is backed by a steep cliff face that is heavily vegetated with...

  19. 78 FR 47135 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian... (United States)


    ... tribal member duck season run from September 15, 2013, through January 15, 2014. A daily bag limit of 20... Chippewa Indians, the Lac du Flambeau Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians, the Red Cliff Band of...

  20. Heliplaat ja jõulukuu kingikott / Immo Mihkelson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mihkelson, Immo, 1959-


    Jõulukingiks sobilikest heliplaatidest Rod Stewart "The Greatest American Songbook", Cliff Richard "Platinum Collection", Frank Sinatra "Duets and Duets II", Bryan Adams "Anthology", Savage GArden "Truly madly Completely", Dire Straits & Mark Knopfler "Private Investigations"

  1. Point source data (drill locations) for coal in the Kaiparowits Plateau study area, southern Utah (kaiptg) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a point file that contains data for coal and other stratigraphic horizons in in the Calico and A-sequences of the Straight Cliffs Formation (Upper...

  2. Plaadid / Heidi Purga

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Purga, Heidy, 1975-


    Uutest heliplaatidest Gwen Stefani "The Sweet Escape", Errors "How Clean Is Your Acid House?", Cliff Richard "Two's Company", Jay-Z "Kingdom Come", Incubus "Light Grenades", Pogo Kreiner & Vienna Sound Orchestra "E"Magic Flute", Freddie Cruger "Soul Search"

  3. 78 FR 40474 - Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability (United States)


    ... Underground Mine Project, Review Period Ends: 08/05/2013, Contact: Janice Stadelman 775- 753-0346 EIS No.../2013; Extending Review Period from 07/08/2013 to 09/06/2013 Dated: July 1, 2013. Cliff Rader,...

  4. 76 FR 62405 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability (United States)


    ... Alternatives, Proposes to Construct a ] Copper and Silver Underground Mine and Associated Facilities, Including.../2011 to 11/29/2011. Dated: October 4, 2011. Cliff Rader, Acting Director, NEPA Compliance...

  5. 77 FR 5513 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability (United States)


    ... to Extract the Potash Remaining in Inactive Underground Mine, NPDES Permit, Eddy County, NM, Review... to 3/13/2012. Dated: January 31, 2012. Cliff Rader, Director, NEPA Compliance Division, Office...

  6. 78 FR 43200 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability (United States)


    ..., FTA, CA, Van Ness Bus Rapid Transit Project, Review Period Ends: 08/12/2013, Contact: Alex Smith 415... Alex Smith. Dated: July 16, 2013. Cliff Rader, Director, NEPA Compliance Division, Office of...

  7. Shores of the central west coast of India - a case study using remote sensing data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wagle, B.G.

    ridges, littoral terraces, dunes, tidal flats etc. have been described and demarcated. Ground truth have been collected for all the features identified from remote sensing data. The coast, with abandoned cliffs, littoral terraces, beach ridges, tidal...

  8. Models for Undergraduate Project Courses in Software Engineering (United States)


    B. Software Development: A Rigorous Approach. Prentice-Hall Interna- tional, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1980. 68. Jones, Capers . Programming...Engineering: Analysis and Verification. Reston Publishing Company, Reston, Virginia, 1982. 80. Liskov, Barbara and Guttag, John. Abstraction and

  9. 76 FR 48180 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions (United States)


    ..., Jct. of AL 14 & Webb Rd., Marion, 11000566 ARIZONA Maricopa County Silk Stocking Neighborhood Historic... Ave., Sea Cliff, 11000597 House at 52 Frost Mill Road, 52 Frost Mill Rd., Mill Neck, 11000598...

  10. Mampang Yumco: Mother of All Rivers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The Mapang Yumco Lake is famed as the “Mother of All Rivers”. In the absence of wind and waves, the vast lake surface is like a mirror reflecting the blue sky, white clouds, snowy peaks and steep cliffs.

  11. Demolition of Munitions Storage Area Facilities. Right Size Project 10-0192C (United States)


    existing hauling and demolition waste hauling would exceed constancy rates for noise but would be a temporary increase not unlike increases may occur...rock, including riprap slides and mine tailings. May be associated with cliffs. ____Snags and Logs: Trees are considered snags if they are dead or... mine tailings. May be associated with cliffs. ____Snags and Logs: Trees are considered snags if they are dead or dying and exhibit sufficient

  12. Climber Reaches Mountain Top

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    AT the recent China National Cliff Climbing Invitational Tournament, I first came to know Yang Lihong, the cliff climber. Her well-proportioned figure demonstrates a powerful explosive force attacking the surface. She sticks firmly to the rock as her limbs move rhythmically in search of new support points. Her black ponytail waves with every forceful movement of her body. Rock climbing is relatively new as a

  13. Effects of Habitat and Human Activities on Species Richness and Assemblages of Staphylinidae (Coleoptera) in the Baltic Sea Coast


    Ulrich Irmler


    In 2009, the staphylind fauna was studied in six habitats of the Baltic Sea coast of Schleswig-Holstein (northern Germany). The following habitats lagoon, sandy beach, shingle beach, primary dune, wooded cliff, and woodless cliff were significantly separated by their species composition. Vegetation and soil moisture were the most important factors separating the assemblages. Lagoons exhibited the most species-rich habitat. Sandy beaches provided the highest number of endangered species. Both ...

  14. 76 FR 19989 - New York State Prohibition of Discharges of Vessel Sewage; Receipt of Petition and Tentative... (United States)


    ... Landing. 31......... Sea Cliff Yacht Hempstead 516-671-7374; May 15-Sept 15; 8 $5.00. Club. Harbor, Sea VHF 9. Mon-Fri; 9 a.m.- Cliff. 5 p.m. 32......... Town of North Hempstead 516-767-4622; May 15-Nov 1... they do self Greenport. winterize. If service; requested, can $5.00 for run the pumpout assistanc...

  15. The Kaali crater field and other geosites of Saaremaa Island (Estonia): the perspectives for a geopark


    Raukas, Anto; Stankowski, Wojciech


    The Island of Saaremaa in Estonia offers highly spectacular geological features that belong to the most interesting in the Baltic Sea area. A unique geological monument on the island is the Kaali meteorite–crater field, formed by nine meteorite impacts. There are also attractive coastal cliffs, huge erratics, alvars (limestone areas covered by a very thin soil) and well-developed glacial and marine landforms. Limestone cliffs and shingle beaches abound with Silurian fossils and offer great op...

  16. Process-response coastal-recession model and its application to the Holderness coast (UK); Modelo proceso-respuesta de recesion de acantilados por variacion del nivel del mar. Aplicacion en la Costa de Holderness (Reino Unido)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castedo, R.; Paredes, C.; Fernandez, M.; Vega, R. de la


    At the moment the development of predictive cliff-erosion models is limited from a geomorphologic perspective due to the complex interactions existing between coupled processes acting over wide scales of time and space. Current models incorporate a probabilistic framework in order to simulate coastal recession events or cliff failure and tend to assess the effects of climate change through changes in the mean sea lea level. According to this procedure, the resulting simulations of cliffs with different behaviours might produce identical annual retreat characteristics even if their potential response to changing environments may not be the same. Thus, a new process-response model is developed to incorporate the behavioural characteristics of cohesive clay coasts with a protective talus wedge under erosive processes. To this end, the model incorporates dynamic marine processes such as variations in mean sea level, tides and waves together with cliff evolution in the shape of erosion, cliff failure and the formation of foot talus deposits. Cliff erosion is calculated on the basis of sea-level changes, wave incidence, shore platform slope and the uniaxial compressive strength of the rock over each tidal cycle. After each cycle the geomechanical stability against topple movement of the cliff face is evaluated and in the event of failure, a talus wedge is formed. The model has been corroborated by an assessment of profile evolution at various locations along a rapidly retreating area on the coast of Holderness in the UK. The results represent an important step-forward in linking material properties to cliff recession processes and the subsequent long-term coastal response in the face of changing sea-level conditions. (Author) 72 refs.

  17. The growth of headlands in a simple model of rocky coastline evolution (United States)

    Limber, P. W.; Murray, A. B.; Adams, P. N.


    Numerous wave-induced processes drive sea cliff retreat on rocky coastlines. Within the rock/wave interface, beach sand plays a key role: field evidence and laboratory experiments show that beach sediment can either act as an abrasive tool to enhance sea cliff retreat, or, when a beach is sufficiently wide, as a cover to curb retreat. Accordingly, sea cliffs with no fronting beach (and no abrasive tools) can erode more slowly than those where a small, optimal amount of sand is present. The nonlinear relationship between sediment cover and bedrock erosion suggests a mechanism for headland formation — a mechanism that has several terrestrial geomorphic analogs such as tor development in high alpine and desert environments and fluvial bedrock incision. In the rocky-coastline system, beach width is influenced by divergence of alongshore sediment flux (which depends on coastline shape), and sediment supplied by cliff retreat (which depends on beach width as well as cliff height and composition). We present a simple exploratory numerical model of rocky coastline evolution on millennial time scales in which these basic geomorphic processes interact in a kilometer-scale, plan-view domain. In the model, wave power delivered to the cliff depends on time-varying shore platform width, breaking wave height, and beach width. Bare-rock erosion rates vary with wave power, consistent with field observations. A relationship between beach width and sea cliff retreat features maximum and minimum retreat rates that occur when beach height equals the still water level (i.e. mid-tide level), as supported by existing laboratory experiments, and when beach width exceeds the wave run-up limit, respectively. Retreating sea cliffs produce beach sediment, which is then distributed by a diffusional alongshore sediment flux scheme, representing a low-angle-dominated wave climate. Finally, a global beach erosion rate simulates sediment sinks such as nearshore submarine canyons or sea level rise

  18. Chemical landscape analysis with the OpenTox framework. (United States)

    Jeliazkova, Nina; Jeliazkov, Vedrin


    The Structure-Activity Relationships (SAR) landscape and activity cliffs concepts have their origins in medicinal chemistry and receptor-ligand interactions modelling. While intuitive, the definition of an activity cliff as a "pair of structurally similar compounds with large differences in potency" is commonly recognized as ambiguous. This paper proposes a new and efficient method for identifying activity cliffs and visualization of activity landscapes. The activity cliffs definition could be improved to reflect not the cliff steepness alone, but also the rate of the change of the steepness. The method requires explicitly setting similarity and activity difference thresholds, but provides means to explore multiple thresholds and to visualize in a single map how the thresholds affect the activity cliff identification. The identification of the activity cliffs is addressed by reformulating the problem as a statistical one, by introducing a probabilistic measure, namely, calculating the likelihood of a compound having large activity difference compared to other compounds, while being highly similar to them. The likelihood is effectively a quantification of a SAS Map with defined thresholds. Calculating the likelihood relies on four counts only, and does not require the pairwise matrix storage. This is a significant advantage, especially when processing large datasets. The method generates a list of individual compounds, ranked according to the likelihood of their involvement in the formation of activity cliffs, and goes beyond characterizing cliffs by structure pairs only. The visualisation is implemented by considering the activity plane fixed and analysing the irregularities of the similarity itself. It provides a convenient analogy to a topographic map and may help identifying the most appropriate similarity representation for each specific SAR space. The proposed method has been applied to several datasets, representing different biological activities. Finally

  19. Rock fall simulation at Timpanogos Cave National Monument, American Fork Canyon, Utah, USA (United States)

    Harp, Edwin L.; Dart, Richard L.; Reichenbach, Paola


    Rock fall from limestone cliffs at Timpanogos Cave National Monument in American Fork Canyon east of Provo, Utah, is a common occurrence. The cave is located in limestone cliffs high on the southern side of the canyon. One fatality in 1933 led to the construction of rock fall shelters at the cave entrance and exit in 1976. Numerous rock fall incidents, including a near miss in 2000 in the vicinity of the trail below the cave exit, have led to a decision to extend the shelter at the cave exit to protect visitors from these ongoing rock fall events initiating from cliffs immediately above the cave exit. Three-dimensional rock fall simulations from sources at the top of these cliffs have provided data from which to assess the spatial frequencies and velocities of rock falls from the cliffs and to constrain the design of protective measures to reduce the rock fall hazard. Results from the rock fall simulations are consistent with the spatial patterns of rock fall impacts that have been observed at the cave exit site.

  20. Controls on the distribution of cosmogenic 10Be across shore platforms (United States)

    Hurst, Martin D.; Rood, Dylan H.; Ellis, Michael A.


    Quantifying rates of erosion on cliffed coasts across a range of timescales is vital for understanding the drivers and processes of coastal change and for assessing risks posed by future cliff retreat. Historical records cover at best the last 150 years; cosmogenic isotopes, such as 10Be could allow us to look further into the past to assess coastal change on millennial timescales. Cosmogenic isotopes accumulate in situ near the Earth surface and have been used extensively to quantify erosion rates, burial dates and surface exposure ages in terrestrial landscapes over the last 3 decades. More recently, applications in rocky coast settings have quantified the timing of mass wasting events, determined long-term averaged rates of cliff retreat and revealed the exposure history of shore platforms. In this contribution, we develop and explore a numerical model for the accumulation of 10Be on eroding shore platforms. In a series of numerical experiments, we investigated the influence of topographic and water shielding, dynamic platform erosion processes, the presence and variation in beach cover, and heterogeneous distribution of erosion on the distribution of 10Be across shore platforms. Results demonstrate that, taking into account relative sea level change and tides, the concentration of 10Be is sensitive to rates of cliff retreat. Factors such as topographic shielding and beach cover act to reduce 10Be concentrations on the platform and may result in overestimation of cliff retreat rates if not accounted for. The shape of the distribution of 10Be across a shore platform can potentially reveal whether cliff retreat rates are declining or accelerating through time. Measurement of 10Be in shore platforms has great potential to allow us to quantify long-term rates of cliff retreat and platform erosion.

  1. Evidence from cosmic-ray exposure dating based on 36Cl for the pre-Minoan caldera on Santorini, Greece (United States)

    Athanassas, Constantin; Bourlès, Didier; Braucher, Regis; Druitt, Tim; Nomikou, Paraskevi; Léanni, Laetitia


    The physiography of Santorini prior to the Minoan (Late Bronze Age) eruption (17th century BCE) is of great archaeological interest, given the importance of Santorini as a commercial centre and port in the Minoan empire. However, the paleogeography of the pre-Minoan caldera has been a point of controversy: Heiken and McCoy (1984) advocated the existence, in the southern part of the present-day caldera, of a pre-existing caldera formed during the 172 ka Lower Pumice eruption, whereas Druitt and Francaviglia (1992), based on the presence of in situ plinian pumice from the Minoan eruption adhering to the modern cliff, conceived the pre-Minoan (22 ka) caldera as having occupied much of the northern basin of the present-day caldera. With the goal of settling the debate we performed cosmic ray exposure dating employing in situ-produced cosmogenic 36Cl to date different generations of caldera cliffs at Santorini, and hence to identify those cliffs predating the Minoan eruption. Our methodology involved the determination of the in situ-produced cosmogenic 36Cl in basaltic and andesitic rocks cropping out in the cliffs. The samples returned 36Cl CRE ages consistent with previously published field mapping of cliff populations based on geomorphological and stratigraphic arguments (Druitt and Francaviglia 1992), suggesting that much of the present cliff line of northern Santorini predated the Minoan eruption, or was superficially modified by landslips and rockfalls during that eruption. The 36Cl CRE ages enable us to better define the paleogeography of the pre-Minoan caldera. References [1] Druitt, T. H. and Francaviglia, V.1992. Caldera formation on Santorini and the physiography of the islands in the Late Bronze Age. Bulletin of Volcanology 54, 484-493. [2] Heiken G and McCoy F (1984) Caldera development during the Minoan eruption, Thira, Cyclades, Greece. Journal of Geophysical Research: 89 (B10), 8841-8862.

  2. A Meltwater Pool Discovered in Tianshan Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ On an expedition to northwest China's Glacier 1 in the TianshanMountains, a research team led by Prof. Li Zhongqin from the CAS Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute found a 15-meter-long, 4-meterhigh ice cliff in the northwest of the source area on the glacier top. To their surprise, the south-facing ice cliff overlooked an approximately 30-m2 pool sprawling on the glacial sheet. The experts say the pool is at least 1.5 m deep and formed by the summer melt.

  3. Strategic analysis for the MER Cape Verde approach (United States)

    Gaines, D.; Belluta, P.; Herman, J.; Hwang, P.; Mukai, R.; Porter, D.; Jones, B.; Wood, E.; Grotzinger, J.; Edgar, L.; Hayes, A.; Hare, T.; Squyres, S.


    The Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has recently completed a two year campaign studying Victoria Crater. The campaign culminated in a close approach of Cape Verde in order to acquire high resolution imagery of the exposed stratigraphy in the cliff face. The close approach to Cape Verde provided significant challenges for every subsystem of the rover as the rover needed to traverse difficult, uncharacterised terrain and approach a cliff face with the potential of blocking out solar energy and communications with Earth. In this paper we describe the strategic analyses performed by the science and engineering teams so that we could successfully achieve the science objectives while keeping the rover safe. ??2009 IEEE.

  4. Terrestrial Laser Scanner for assessing rockfall susceptibility in the Cilento rocky coast (Southern Italy) (United States)

    Sorrentino, Valerio; Matasci, Battista; Abellan, Antonio; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Marino, Ermanno; Pignalosa, Antonio; Santo, Antonio


    Rockfalls and other types of landslides are the dominant processes causing a retreat of sea cliffs. The coastal areas constitute an important tourist attraction and a large number of people rest beneath the cliffs on a daily basis, considerably increasing the risk associated to rockfalls. We present an approach to assess rockfall susceptibility at the cliff scale based on terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) point clouds. The test area is a coastal cliff situated in the southern part of the Cilento (Centola Municipality, Campania Region), in which a natural arch was formed. This cliff is constituted by heavy fractured carbonate rock mass with a strong structural control. In June 2015 TLS data were acquired with long-range scanner RIEGL VZ1000®. The structural analysis of the cliff was performed in the field and using Coltop 3D software on the point cloud. As a result, 10 discontinuity sets (joint, faults and bedding planes) were individuated and the different characteristics such as orientation, spacing and persistence were measured. The kinematically unstable areas were highlighted using a script that computes an index of susceptibility to rockfalls based on the spatial distribution of failure mechanisms. The susceptibility index computation is based on the average surface that every joint set (or combinations of two joint sets in the case of wedge failure) forms on the topography according to its spacing, trace length, and incidence angle. This susceptibility index also depends on the steepness of the joint set (or of the intersection line in the case of wedge failure). As a result the most important discontinuity sets in terms of potential planar failure, wedge failure and toppling were individuated and an assessment of rockfall susceptibility at the cliff scale was achieved. Results show that the kinematically feasible failures are not equally distributed along the cliff but concentrated on certain areas. The most susceptible areas for planar failure are related to

  5. Spanish I

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez, Jill


    CliffsQuickReview course guides cover the essentials of your toughest classes. Get a firm grip on core concepts and key material, and test your newfound knowledge with review questions. CliffsQuickReview Spanish I is meant to provide all the foundations of basic Spanish pronunciation, spelling, and sentence construction. Spanish grammar is systematically explained in its most simplistic way, so there's no need for any prerequisite before beginning this ""review"" of the equivalent of two years of high school Spanish. As you work your way through this review, you'll be ready to tackle such conc

  6. Calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Zandy, Bernard V


    We take great notes-and make learning a snap When it comes to pinpointing the stuff you really need to know, nobody does it better than CliffsNotes. This fast, effective tutorial helps you master core Calculus concepts-from functions, limits, and derivatives to differentials, integration, and definite integrals- and get the best possible grade. At CliffsNotes, we're dedicated to helping you do your best, no matter how challenging the subject. Our authors are veteran teachers and talented writers who know how to cut to the chase- and zero in on the essential information you need to succeed.

  7. Time a traveler's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Pickover, Clifford A


    ""Bucky Fuller thought big,"" Wired magazine recently noted, ""Arthur C. Clarke thinks big, but Cliff Pickover outdoes them both."" In his newest book, Cliff Pickover outdoes even himself, probing a mystery that has baffled mystics, philosophers, and scientists throughout history--What is the nature of time? In Time: A Traveler's Guide, Pickover takes readers to the forefront of science as he illuminates the most mysterious phenomenon in the universe--time itself. Is time travel possible? Is time real? Does it flow in one direction only? Does it have a beginning and an end? What is eternity? P

  8. Computational Methods for Identification, Optimization and Control of PDE Systems (United States)


    for an air-breathing hypersonic vehicle in the presence of unmodeled dynamics, AIAA-2007-6527, August. 2007. 6. Lizette Zietsman, A Numerical Study of...1, 182–196. 17. E.M. Cliff, R.J. Kraus, J.C. Luby and C.A. Woolsey, Optimal Control of an Un- dersea Glider in a Symmetric Pull-Up, International...Cao, E.M. CLiff, N. Hovakimyan, A. Kurdila, and K. Wise, Design of an L1 Adaptive Controller for a Hypersonic Vehicle with Flexible Body Dy- namics

  9. Opening Plenary : Communicating about Theoretical Geography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Pumain


    Full Text Available First of all, I wish to thank Yves Guermond for drawing a superb image as a symbol of our colloquium. This superimposition of bookshelves on the Etretat cliffs reminds us of the splendid metaphor developed by Abraham Moles, the specialist in the psychology of space, about the wall of knowledge, which is continuously under construction, and to which each new piece of research adds a new brick. But might we not wonder whether there is not a risk that, as in the case of the Normandy cliffs last ...

  10. Opening Plenary : Communicating about Theoretical Geography


    Denise Pumain


    First of all, I wish to thank Yves Guermond for drawing a superb image as a symbol of our colloquium. This superimposition of bookshelves on the Etretat cliffs reminds us of the splendid metaphor developed by Abraham Moles, the specialist in the psychology of space, about the wall of knowledge, which is continuously under construction, and to which each new piece of research adds a new brick. But might we not wonder whether there is not a risk that, as in the case of the Normandy cliffs last ...

  11. Extreme Ground-Motion Rockfall Deposits on the Nevada Test Site (United States)

    Whitney, J. W.; Buckingham, S. E.; Magner, J. E.; Finkel, R. C.; Brune, J. N.; von Seggern, D.; Honke, J. S.


    In order to detect the evidence of extreme ground motion in the past, we have begun to catalog geomorphic characteristics that distinguish slope deposits strongly influenced by extreme ground motion from deposits primarily influenced by climate processes. Underground nuclear explosions (UNEs) of yields between 200 kilotons and 1.3 megatons were conducted under Pahute Mesa at the Nevada Test site from 1962 to 1992. The primary surface effects from these tests were surface cracks, triggered earthquakes, offsets on pre-existing faults, and changes in land surface topography. Rockfall and rock spall were observed along cliffs after a few nuclear tests; however, few observations of accumulations of shattered rock were documented. A large volume of rockfall located along a 1.5-km¬-long cliff of welded ash-flow tuff resulted from extreme ground motions from two nearby UNEs. In 1968 UNE Rickey released maximum ground motions of 500 cm/s peak ground velocity (PGV) at the closest cliff face and PGV decreased to about 300 cm/s at the north end of the cliff. Large boulders with 1-3-m average diameters were shaken loose from fracture planes and cooling joints to form a stack of jumbled boulders at the base of the cliff. Very few large boulders rolled to the base of the hillslope. Subsequently, in 1976, UNE Pool induced 300-350 cm/s PGV along the same cliff. A significant volume of rock, also released along fractures and joints, was added to the coarse boulder colluvium shaken loose in 1968. Ground motion from Pool also rearranged the hillslope boulders from UNE Rickey, but did not cause many boulders to roll downslope. Extreme ground motions from these two UNEs resulted in 1.5-3.0 m of physical erosion to the cliff face. Rockfall from less welded ash-flow tuff units situated above and below the cliff produced significantly less boulder colluvium. Our observations indicate that boulder size and rockfall volume from a cliff or ridge crest due to extreme ground motion are

  12. A Study to Identify the Transitional Training Needs for United States Army Medical Residents (United States)


    Books Kotler , Philip, and Roberta Clarke. Marketing for Health Care Organizations. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall, 1987. Runyon, Richard P ., and...I. INTRODUCTION..........................1 Orientation..........................1 General........................... P Problem Statement...leadership development, office communi-ations, professional and legal obligations, Rawls 8 and practice marketing . Because these newly trained physicians

  13. Science and design revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, Per; Kroes, Peter


    In 2012, Robert Farrell and Cliff Hooker published a paper in Design Studies, arguing against the conventional science–design distinction. Finding their position highly controversial, we opposed it in a paper of our own, to which Farrell and Hooker have now responded with a defence of their view...


    My career started with Cliff Dahm at the University of New Mexico. The western United States had been experiencing a new “gold rush” using cyanide to mine previously unextractable, low-grade ore and we studied the potential to stimulate native cyanide-degrading micro...

  15. 75 FR 26828 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and... (United States)


    ... Pharmaceuticals TLB Talbots Inc. Inc. CTIC Cell Therapeutics Inc... SYMC Symantec Corp. MDT Medtronic Inc AMED... Consumer Discretionary LDK LDK Solar Co Ltd. Sel. Sec. SPDR Fund. CLF Cliffs Natural Resources SPG Simon... process and review your comments more efficiently, please use only one method. The Commission will...

  16. 75 FR 26313 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX BX, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness... (United States)


    ... Holdings Co Ltd. CTIC Cell Therapeutics Inc. TLB Talbots Inc. MDT Medtronic Inc. SYMC Symantec Corp. TIVO... Discretionary Sel. Sec. SPDR Fund. NFLX NetFlix Inc. CLF Cliffs Natural Resources Inc. LDK LDK Solar Co Ltd... be included on the subject line if e-mail is used. To help the Commission process and review...

  17. Ultrasonic Wave Interaction with Advanced Complex Materials for Nondestructive Evaluation Applications (United States)


    in Elastic Solids, (American Elservier Pub. Co., New York, 1973) [21] Y. C. Fung, Foundation of Solid Mechanics. (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N...Propagations in Elastic Solids, (American Elservier Pub. Co., New York, 1973) [32] Y. C. Fung, Foundation of Solid Mechanics, (Prentice-Hall, Englewood

  18. Unmanned Systems: A Lab-Based Robotic Arm for Grasping (United States)


    Lagrangian equation of motion, calculating planar rotation and spatial rotation for a rigid body is possible. Applying the kinetic energy of the system to...ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall , 1989, pp. 615– 623. [6] JACO Specifications. (2014). Kinova. [Online]. Available:

  19. The Department of the Navy Systems Engineering Career Competency Model (SECCM) (United States)


    CA May 13, 2015 1 Presented by: Professor Cliff Whitcomb, Rabia Khan, Jessica Delgado, Dr. Dana Grambow, Paul Walter, Juli Alexander and Corina...Psychologist Rabia Khan Naval Postgraduate School Research Associate, Dept. of SE Paul Walter Ashore

  20. The Leadership Improvement Modules of the Precommissioning Leadership Assessment Program (United States)


    learning as originally developed by Miller and Dollard (1941) and as elaborated more recently by Bandurs (1969, 1977). Social Learning Theory (Bandura, 1977...1977). Social learning theory . Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Mall. Bandura, A., Ross, D., & Ross, S. (1961). Transmission of aggression through

  1. Effects of the Reciprocity of Self-Disclosure upon Attribution of Attractive Qualities to the Ingratiation Target. (United States)


    8217 (1977) social learning theory . Proponents of this hypothesis hold that when in an ambiguous situation, such as an experiment, subjects, in their...San Francisco: Josey Bass, 1979. Bandura, A. Social Learning Theory . Englewood Cliffs, N. J.: Prentice-Hall, 1977. Berscheid, E., & Walster, E. H

  2. Marketing and Utilization of the Active Duty Dependent’s Dental Insurance Plan (United States)


    program. of responses rather than to each level of response. Analyses According to Bandura’s " social learning theory :’ consumers were completed using the...Bandura A. Social Learning Theory . Englewood Cliffs. NJ. Prentice Hall Publishers. problem. 18 1977 However, to maximally enhance ADDDIP enrollment

  3. Personality and Selective Attention. (United States)


    1977) have integrated information processing models of attention with social learning theory in order to conoeptualize the behavior change process...consistency at these loci. ’M Nielsen & Sarason 35 References Bandura, A. Social learning theory . Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice- Hall, Inc

  4. The Attitudes of Navy Corrections Staff Members: What they Think About Confinees and their Jobs (United States)


    in a position to also facilitate behavioral changes in confinees by serving as appropriate role models. Social learning theory suggests that...319-342. Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory . Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Bhagat, R. S. (1982). Conditions under which stronger job

  5. Lithostratigraphy of the upper Oligocene–Miocene succession in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Erik Skovbjerg; Dybkjær, Karen; Piasecki, Stefan


    The Upper Oligocene – Miocene succession of onshore Denmark is about 250 m thick and is composed of interdigitating, coarse-grained fluvio-deltaic and mud-rich marine sediments; it is best exposed in coastal cliffs in eastern and northern Jylland but is also seen locally inland. These sediments...

  6. Saving Whales and Dolphins through Petroglyphs and Activist Artworks (United States)

    Bae, Jaehan


    Whaling emerged in ancient times, when whales served as a source of food, fuel, and other everyday resources that were vital for human civilizations. Prehistoric images of whales are found on rocks in a few areas throughout the world, most notably the famous petroglyphs at the Bangudae cliffs in Ulsan, South Korea, which depict whales and other…

  7. How Selected High School Newspapers Covered the Persian Gulf War. (United States)

    Peterson, Jane W.; Maronn, Michelle


    Discusses the many ways in which high school newspapers covered the Persian Gulf War, ranging from a serious analysis to satire in the form of a Cliff Notes summary. Compares two editorials from "The Little Hawk" (Iowa City, Iowa), one supporting the war and the other against. (PA)

  8. Back From the Brink

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A Chinese biologist works tirelessly to save an endangered species of monkey After a loud blast set off by villagers quarrying stones, a white-headed langur popped its head out of the tree canopy at the foot of a towering limestone cliff.

  9. Mechanical and chemical processes affecting the chalk during burial, insights from combined reflection seismics, well data and field work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreau, Julien; Boussaha, Myriam; Thibault, Nicolas Rudolph;


    and cores analyses, respectively.However, few sites allow to combine all the different scale of observation for chalk diagenesis. Onshore and offshore high resolution seismics, two fully cored >350 m wells with wireline logging tools and very high quality exposures from a coastal cliff and a quarry form...

  10. 77 FR 34285 - Safety Zone; 2012 Ironman U.S. Championship Swim, Hudson River, Fort Lee, NJ (United States)


    ... the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not plan now to... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; 2012 Ironman U.S. Championship Swim, Hudson... vicinity of Englewood Cliffs and Fort Lee, NJ for the 2012 Ironman U.S. Championship swim event....

  11. Applying an Avian Index of Biological Integrity to Assess and Monitor Arid and Semi-arid Riparian Ecosystems (United States)


    Introduced Cliff Mourning Dove Zenaida macroura Resident Granivore Ground Non-Dependent Native Tree Common Ground-Dove Columbina passerina Resident...Resident Omnivore Ground Non-Dependent Native Ground Chipping Sparrow Spizella passerina Resident Omnivore Ground Non-Dependent Native Coniferous Tree...Blue Grosbeak Guiraca caerulea Neotropical Omnivore Ground Obligate Native Shrub Lazuli Bunting Passerina amoena Neotropical Omnivore Ground PIF 1

  12. Lessons Carved in Stone:Basics of Buddhism at Sichuan's Dazu Rock Carvings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mike Meyer


    @@ Part I DAZU, SICHUAN PROVINCE "See the hungry devil? He eat the man!"the guide exclaimed, holding his charge in rapt attention atop Baoding Shan (Treasure Peak Mountain). He pointed to the Image of Six Ways of Transmigration,a carving of a towering demon that jutted from the cliff's face.

  13. Morphodynamic evolution of two deltas in arctic environments, east coast of Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroon, Aart; Pedersen, Jørn Bjarke Torp; Sigsgaard, Charlotte


    Changes in fluvial channel patterns on deltas have a significant impact on the coastal morphology along its fringes. Lateral channel migration can locally cause cliff erosion and introduce an extra sediment source in the local budget of an active delta plain. Stabilization of channels or even...

  14. Specification/Verification of Temporal Properties for Distributed Systems: Issues and Approaches. Volume 1 (United States)


    Philip A. Bernstein and Nathan Goodman. Concurrency control in distributed database systems. ACM Computing Surveys, 13(2):185-221, June 1981. [5] K. J...Sequential Processe8. Series in Computer Science. PrenticeHall International, Englewood Cliff, NJ, 1985. 96 [24] A. L. Hopkins Jr., T. Basil Smith, III, and J

  15. Air-Ground Integration: Preliminary Results from the Coalition Attack Guidance Experiment (The International C2 Journal Volume 5, Number 3, 2011) (United States)


    Between Structure and Technology. In Handbook of Organizational Design vol. 2: 3-38, eds. P. C. Nystrom and W. H. Starbuck . New York, NY: Oxford... Starbuck . New York, NY: Oxford University Press. Mintzberg, H. 1989. The Structure of Organizations. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ. Nemetz, P. L

  16. Back From the Brink

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ After a loud blast set off by villag-ers quarrying stones, a white-headed langur popped its head out of the tree canopy at the foot of a towering limestone cliff. Its eyes seemed to be filled with terror and sadness.

  17. A Proposed Method of FSK Generation and Demodulation for the DREO Radio Test Bed (United States)


    34, Addison Wesley Publishing Company, Reading, Massachusetts, 1982 [3] Wilson, M. J. (editor), "The 1987 ARRL Handbook For The Radio Amateur", American...Hughes, Frederick W., "Op-Amp Handbook ", Prentice-Hall Publications, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1986 [11] EXAR Corporation Databook [12] Bendix

  18. Array Signal Processing Under Model Errors With Application to Speech Separation (United States)


    Acoust. Speech Sig. Proc., pp. 1149-1152, Alburqueque NM, 1990. [37] E. A. Patrick , Fundamentals of Pattern Recognition, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1972...Proc., Toronto, pp. 1365-1368, 1991. [411 S. U. Pillai , Array Signal Processing, Springer Verlag, NY, 1989. [42] B. Porat and B. Friedlander

  19. TANDEM: understanding diabetes and tuberculosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crevel, R. van; Dockrell, H.M.; Netea, M.; Aarnoutse, R.E.


    Dockrell HM, Eckold CE, Cliff JM, Moore D, Griffiths UK, Laurence YV, van Crevel R, Netea MG, Aarnoutse R, Kaufmann SH, Beigier-Bompadre M, Leitner S, Löwe D, Golinski R, Ottenhoff TH, Haks MC, Joosten SA, Vrieling F, Walzl G, Ronacher K, Malherbe S, van der Spuy G, Critchley JA, Kerry SR, Pearson F

  20. Stigma: "What Is It and Why Does the Operational Commander Need To Be Concerned?" (United States)


    An Achievable Vision, 5. 5 Stuart, Stigma and Work. 6 Goffman , Stigma: Notes on the Management of Spoiled Identity. 7 Dovidio, Major, & Crocker...York: Guilford Press, 2000. Goffman , E. Stigma: Notes on the Management of Spoiled Identity. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1963

  1. An Empirical Study to Enhance the Reenlistment Process of Civilian Personnel with Prior Military Service. (United States)


    Analysis. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publica- tions, 1980. Kotler , P. Principles of Marketing. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice- Hall, Inc., 1980...02940 Mr. Philip Bernard B-K Dynamics, Inc. 15825 Shady Grove Road Rockville, MD 20850 Dr. Bruce M. Meglino College of Business Administration

  2. Change We Can Fight Over: The Relationship between Arable Land Supply and Substate Conflict (United States)


    experienced a period of arable land growth, followed by a sudden plateau (or cliff) in that trajectory . One could imagine a study structured quite similarly...Conflict. Respect: Sudanese Journal for Human Rights, Culture and Issues of Cultural Diversity 1, 1-25. Theisen, Ole Magnus . 2008. Blood and Soil

  3. Research in Biological and Medical Sciences, Including Biochemistry, Communicable Disease and Immunology, Internal Medicine, Nuclear Medicine, Physiology, Psychiatry, Surgery and Veterinary Medicine. Volume 2 (United States)


    efficacy of all 3 agents (Group VI vs Group IV; Group IX vs Group VII; Group XII vs Group X). WR 211,537 WR 2975 significant was not demon- this...Rattua rattua Cave aouth, slao far Inside Rattua nallll ap. nov. ( Tabla 3) LlMoton« cliffs, including aouth of cav« Falco aavarua A falcon

  4. A Multilevel Decision Analysis Method for Remediation of Contaminated Sites Under Conditions of Uncertainty (United States)


    Dr. Gregory G. Wilber and Dr. Keith D. Willett for their assistance and pertinent commentary during the course of this work. I would like to give...Cliff Murry and Ken Kebble. °iil TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter Page I. INTRODUCTION

  5. Incentives for Controlling the Performance of High Technology and Professional Employees. (United States)


    fictions permit the traditional image of authority to remain unchallenged by the advance of scientific knowledge [341. -3- - 7 Freidson [141 suggests that...Engelwood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1964. 14. E. Freidson , Professions of Medicine: A Study of the Sociology of Applied Knowledge, Dodd, Head, New York

  6. A Place to Stay: Building Green (United States)

    Deal, Walter F.


    Shelter has been a concern of humans and animals alike for the millennia. Animals, through their natural instincts, build nests and shelters to meet their needs for protection against predators and seasonal changes in the weather. Early humans sought shelter in caves and cliff dwellings and later began to design and build shelters based on the…

  7. The Organization of Wariness of Heights in Experienced Crawlers (United States)

    Ueno, Mika; Uchiyama, Ichiro; Campos, Joseph J.; Dahl, Audun; Anderson, David I.


    Most infants with more than 6 weeks of crawling experience completely avoid the deep side of a visual cliff (Campos, Bertenthal, & Kermoian, 1992; Gibson & Walk, 1960). However, some experienced crawlers do move onto the transparent surface suspended several feet above the ground. An important question is whether these "nonavoiders" lack wariness…

  8. Dismantling the Prison-House of Colonial History in a Selection of Michelle Cliff’s Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abid Larbi Labidi


    Full Text Available Most, if not all, writings by Jamaican writer Michelle Cliff are connected by a subterranean desire to re-write Afro-Caribbean history from new untold perspectives in reaction to the immense loss and/or distortions that marked the region’s history for entire centuries. In this paper, I meticulously read four of Cliff’s texts--Abeng (1984, its sequel No Telephone to Heaven (1987, Claiming an Identity They Taught Me to Despise (1980 and The Land of Look Behind (1985--to look at how Cliff retrieves her black ancestors’ submerged history and erased past. I particularly explore the methods Cliff deploys to re-center a history deliberately erased/or distorted by what she ironically calls “the official version” (Free Enterprise, 1994, p. 138 in allusion to the Eurocentric narratives about the twin imperial projects of slavery and colonialism. Finally, I investigate the wealth of possibilities offered by fiction, unrecorded memory, oral story-telling and imagination to out-tell Eurocentric historiography and re-write Afro-Caribbean history from the victims’ perspective: slaves, colonial subjects, marginalized female figures, black Diasporic characters, etc. Keywords: Michelle Cliff, “official” history, history re-writing, memory, fiction

  9. 78 FR 5489 - Notice of Utah's Recreation Resource Advisory Council/Resource Advisory Council Meeting (United States)


    ... alternatives for regional planning through 2015 and interim guidance for Utah on Sage-grouse; an update on the draft strategic plan for Utah public lands within the BLM's National Landscape Conservation System; and... on the San Juan River in San Juan County, Utah; the BLM Red Cliffs National Conservation Area,...

  10. Making a Good Group Decision (Low Risk) in Singapore Under an Environment That Has Time and Cost Constraints (United States)


    Douglas Nelson, Ph.D. Second Reader Cliff Whitcomb, Ph.D. Chair , Department of Systems Engineering iv THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK...Communication Network. .....................................................................60 Figure 18. Wheel Communication Network...activities, sports 5. Movement 6. Hygiene, therapy 6. Health 46 Table 2. List of derived needs with respective specific cultural reactions (from

  11. Guide to National Security Policy and Strategy (United States)


    possible strategy by examining it for suitability, acceptability, and feasibility. Those three adverbs test each of the three components of strategy...see Karl Deutsch , The Analysis of International Relations (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1968), pp. 21-39. 38 Robert Jervis, Perceptions and

  12. Inversion for Subbottom Sound Velocity Profiles in the Deep and Shallow Ocean (United States)


    the solution of the inverse problem have been established. In a recent paper, for example, Athanassoulis and Papanicolau [3] derived an inverse...D. 0. Anderson and John B. Moore. Optimal Filtering. Prentice-Hall, En- glewood Cliffs, NJ, 1979. [3] G. Athanassoulis and V. Papanicolau . Eigenvalue

  13. 77 FR 49679 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian... (United States)


    ... October 6, 2012, and run until January 20, 2013. The Tribes propose the same season dates for mergansers... season, the Tribe requests that the tribal member duck season run from September 15, 2012, through..., the Red Cliff Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians, the St. Croix Chippewa Indians of Wisconsin,...

  14. 77 FR 41902 - Special Local Regulation and Safety Zone; America's Cup Sailing Events, San Francisco, CA (United States)


    ... all maritime activity, to protect nesting seabirds along the western cliffs of the island. While the... 48'43'' N, 122 25'11'' W at the eastern end of Fisherman' s Wharf Breakwater, running east to position 37 48'43'' N, 122 25'01'' W, running north to position 37 49'07'' N, 122 25'01'' W,...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Wooing Movie GoersAfter 16 years directing Hollywood movies, John Woo Yu-sen is back with an ambitious historical epic titled Red Cliff. The world premiere was held at the Memorial of Marquis Zhuge Liang, a major char- acter in the blockbuster film,

  16. An astronomical time scale for the Maastrichtian at the Zumaia and Sopelana sections (Basque country, northern Spain)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batenburg, Sietske J.; Gale, Andy S.; Sprovieri, Mario;


    The rhythmically bedded limestone–marl alternations in the coastal cliffs of Sopelana and Zumaia in the Basque country, northern Spain, permit testing and refining of existing Maastrichtian chronologies (latest Cretaceous). The recently established astronomical time scale for the late Maastrichtian...

  17. Altering the Application of the Traditional Systems Development Life Cycle for Air Force Software Programs. (United States)


    York: North Holland, Inc., 1981. 2. Fox, Joseph M. Software and Its Development. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1982. A 3. Gujarati ... Damodar . Basic Econometrics. New York: McGraw- Hill Book Company, 1978. J.,. 4. Larr, L., et al. Planning Guide for Computer Programming Development

  18. Reconnaissance Report for Navigation Improvements (Reduction of Shoaling) at Santa Cruz Harbor Santa Cruz County, California (United States)


    sand and small vegetated sand dunes are forming. There are no trees on the beach; those on the cliffs are pine, cypress, eucalyptus and various...centerline. It would create in essence a 1- to 2-foot wide "concrete/grout curtain" inside the center of the Jetty structure. The materials used in the east

  19. The Unsinkable Aircraft Carrier - An American Response to the Chinese Anti-Access/Area Denial (A2/AD) Challenge (United States)


    Christopher P. Cavas and Vago Muradian. “New Program Could Redefine AF–Navy Joint Ops.”Air Force Times, 16 November 2009, and Krepinevich, Why...College, 2004. Cavas, Christopher P., and Vago Muradian. “New Program Could Redefine AF-Navy Joint Ops.”Air Force Times, 16 November 2009. Cliff

  20. Predation by ants controls swallow bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae: Oeciacus vicarius) infestations. (United States)

    Brown, Charles R; Page, Catherine E; Robison, Grant A; O'Brien, Valerie A; Booth, Warren


    The swallow bug (Oeciacus vicarius) is the only known vector for Buggy Creek virus (BCRV), an alphavirus that circulates in cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) and house sparrows (Passer domesticus) in North America. We discovered ants (Crematogaster lineolata and Formica spp.) preying on swallow bugs at cliff swallow colonies in western Nebraska, U.S.A. Ants reduced the numbers of visible bugs on active swallow nests by 74-90%, relative to nests in the same colony without ants. Ant predation on bugs had no effect on the reproductive success of cliff swallows inhabiting the nests where ants foraged. Ants represent an effective and presumably benign way of controlling swallow bugs at nests in some colonies. They may constitute an alternative to insecticide use at sites where ecologists wish to remove the effects of swallow bugs on cliff swallows or house sparrows. By reducing bug numbers, ant presence may also lessen BCRV transmission at the spatial foci (bird colony sites) where epizootics occur. The effect of ants on swallow bugs should be accounted for in studying variation among sites in vector abundance.

  1. Developing and Testing a Self-Regulated Learning Assessment Methodology Combined with Virtual-Patient Simulation in Medical Education (United States)


    Educational Psychologist, 40, 199-209. Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action : A social cognitive theory . Englewood Cliffs, NJ... reasoning , motivation, self-regulated learning (SRL), SRL microanalysis, undergraduate medical education, virtual patients Unclassified Unclassified...outcomes,4 but they also can be used to document shifts in students’ motivational beliefs and SRL during clinical reasoning activities.5 Further, recent

  2. Individual Attitudes and Social Influences on College Students' Intent to Participate in Study Abroad Programs (United States)

    Wang, Liz C.; Gault, John; Christ, Paul; Diggin, Patricia A.


    Participation in study abroad programs (SAPs) is widely viewed as offering important professional and personal benefits for college students. This study applies the "Theory of Reasoned Action" [Ajzen, I., & Fishbein, M. (1980) and "Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior," Englewood Cliffs, NJ:…

  3. Building a Culture of Excellence within the DeWitt Health Care Network (United States)


    Medical Command, the northeast subordinate command of the U.S. Army Medical Command. The DACH grew into the DHCN through reorganization and expansion ...Kuczmarski, T. D. (1995). Values-based leadership. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, Inc. Lee, F. (2004). If Disney ran your hospital: 9 Vi

  4. A Methodology to Assess UrbanSim Scenarios (United States)


    2015. Fort Monroe, Virginia : U.S. Army. USC Institute for Creative Technology. (2012). Retrieved February 16, 2012, from, NJ: Educational Technology Publications. Woolf , B. P. (2008). Building intelligent interactive tutors: Student-Centered Strategies for...Technical Information Center Ft. Belvoir, Virginia 2. Dudley Knox Library Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, California

  5. Mercury's shifting, rolling past


    Trulove, Susan


    Patterns of scalloped-edged cliffs or lobate scarps on Mercury's surface are thrust faults that are consistent with the planet shrinking and cooling with time. However, compression occurred in the planet's early history and Mariner 10 images revealed decades ago that lobate scarps are among the youngest features on Mercury. Why don't we find more evidence of older compressive features?

  6. The Army Communications Objectives Measurement System (ACOMS): Survey Analysis Plan (United States)


    such as those of Lavidge and Steiner (1961), McGuire (1969), and Fishbein and Azjen (1975). Fishbein and Azjen (1975) and Aaker (1975) present...REFERENCES Aaker , D. A. (Ed.). (1975). Advertising management Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Fishbein, M., & Azjen, I. (1975). Belief, attitude

  7. Sõber raamat

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Raamatukaupluses EURO Publications pakutavate raamatute tutvustus. James Davidson, The Complete Home Lightning Book, 1997 Inglismaa ; Candace Ord Manroe. Uncluttered : Storage Room by Room ; Ruth Pretty. The Ultimate Interior Designer, Inglismaa 1997 ; Judith ja Martin Miller. Period Finishes and Effects, Londoni 1992 ; Suzanne Slesin, Stafford Cliff, Daniel Rozensztroch. Spanish Style, esmatrükk 1990.

  8. Cold-water coral mounds on the Pen Duick Escarpment, Gulf of Cadiz: The MiCROSYSTEMS project approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Rooij, D.; Blamart, D.; De Mol, L.; Mienis, F.; Pirlet, H.; Wehrmann, L. M.; Barbieri, R.; Maignien, L.; Templer, S. P.; de Haas, H.; Hebbeln, D.; Frank, N.; Larmagnat, S.; Stadnitskaia, A.; Stivaletta, N.; van Weering, T.; Zhang, Y.; Hamoumi, N.; Cnudde, V.; Duyck, P.; Henriet, J.-P.; The MiCROSYSTEMS MD 169 Shipboard Party


    Here we present a case study of three cold-water coral mounds in a juvenile growth stage on top of the Pen Duick Escarpment in the Gulf of Cadiz; Alpha, Beta and Gamma mounds. Although cold-water corals are a common feature on the adjacent cliffs, mud volcanoes and open slope, no actual living cold-

  9. Micromechanics of Concrete. (United States)


    reflects the dispersion of the coarse aggregates on the mesoscale. Specifically, the experimental measure- ments indicate ( Mindess and Young 1981, Zaitsev...Mecanique des Materiaux Solides, Dunod, Paris. Mindess , S. and J. Young (1981), Concrete, Prentice-Hall Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ. Mura, T. (1982

  10. Laboratory Evaluation of Expedient Low-Temperature Concrete Admixtures for Repairing Blast Holes in Cold Weather (United States)


    binder material ( Mindess and Young 1981). The designated values of initial and final set are arbitrarily set at 500 and 4000 psi, respectively. Initial...6th ed. Belmont, CA: Professional Publications, Inc. Mindess , S., and J. F. Young. 1981. Concrete. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. PM-MRAP

  11. Investigation of Proprietary Air-Entraining Admixtures to Produce Frost- Resistant Concrete with Low Air Content (United States)


    given air content, a higher specific surface should result in a smaller spacing factor ( Mindess and Young 1981). Therefore, if a particular AEA produced...MS. Mindess , S., and Young, J. F. 1981. Concrete, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ. Powers, T. C. 1954 (May). "Void Spacing as a Basis for

  12. Human Factors Engineering. A Self-Paced Text, Lessons 6-10, (United States)


    second determines the frequency of the sound. You may see the frequency of a sound referred to as CPS (Cycles Per Sec.) or in more modern literature as Hz...Isn’t this cliff hanger a real thriller ? If you think this one was good, tune in next lesson for.. .standardization of controls, or which way is

  13. The Razor’s Edge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mei; Xinyu


    The U.S. economy faces deeper problems, though immediate danger subsided As if watching a replay of the fight over the U.S. national debt ceiling in 2011, the crisis billed as the "fiscal cliff" ended up with a last-minute compromise between thetwo major political parties of the United States.

  14. 76 FR 30130 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to a... (United States)


    ... species and behavior, distance estimation, and area scanning techniques in order to reduce observer... Wharf is extremely narrow, and is backed by a steep cliff face that is heavily vegetated with trees... (including age and sex), and its behavioral state and activity at the time of exposure. These...

  15. I just can't put my finger on it! Approaching coastal lagoon systems with remotely sensed data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Lasse; Kabuth, Alina Kristin

    - and supratidal environments, barrier systems, cliffs and dune fields, which we complement with an on-site correction and GPS survey data. This allows us to quantify our error and touch upon the potential of these datasets for primary site assessment in geomorphology, lagoonal research, and sea-level studies....

  16. Studying geometric structures in meso-scale flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos H. Halios


    Full Text Available Geometric shapes of coherent structures such as ramp or cliff like signals, step changes and waves, are commonly observed in meteorological temporal series and dominate the turbulent energy and mass exchange between the atmospheric surface layer and the layers above, and also relate with low-dimensional chaotic systems. In this work a simple linear technique to extract geometrical shapes has been applied at a dataset which was obtained at a location experiencing a number of different mesoscale modes. It was found that the temperature field appears much better organized than the wind field, and that cliff-ramp structures are dominant in the temperature time series. The occurrence of structural shapes was related with the dominant flow patterns and the status of the flow field. Temperature positive cliff-ramps and ramp-cliffs appear mainly during night time and under weak flow field, while temperature step and sine structures do not show a clear preference for the period of day, flow or temperature pattern. Uniformly stable, weak flow conditions dominate across all the wind speed structures. A detailed analysis of the flow field during two case studies revealed that structural shapes might be part of larger flow structures, such as a sea-breeze front or down-slope winds. During stagnant conditions structural shapes that were associated with deceleration of the flow were observed, whilst during ventilation conditions shapes related with the acceleration of the flow.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Shapotou Tourism Zone Located southeast of the Tengger Desert,20 km from Zhongwei City in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region,the Shapotou Tourism Zone borders the Yellow River,and features a unique landscape combining water and sand.Huge waves,precipi- tous cliffs and an oasis in the seas of sand make

  18. From Berries to Orchards: Tracing the History of Berrying and Economic Transformation among Lake Superior Ojibwe (United States)

    Norrgard, Chantal


    This article explores the history of berrying as a significant example of how Lake Superior Ojibwe weathered economic transitions in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. It looks at the emergence of the berry industry surrounding the Fond du Lac, Red Cliff, and Bad River communities, beginning with Ojibwe relocation to these…

  19. CrossTalk: The Journal of Defense Software Engineering. Volume 21, Number 6 (United States)


    Honorable John Grimes Kristen Baldwin Jeff Schwalb Phil Perkins Karl Rogers Joe Jarzombek Brent Baxter Kasey Thompson Ken Davies Chelene Fortier...Reading 1. Boehm, Barry W. Software Engineer- ing Economics. Prentice Hall, Engle- wood Cliffs, NJ; 1981. 2. Crosby , Philip B. Quality Is Free. New

  20. 77 FR 32635 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability (United States)


    ... EIS, BLM, NV, Hollister Underground Mine Project, Transitioning from Underground Exploration Activities to a Full Scale Producing Underground Gold and Silver Mine, Elko County, NV, Comment Period Ends... days from the beginning of the Forest Service appeal period. Dated: May 29, 2012. Cliff Rader,...

  1. Master Plan, Tucson Diversion Channel, Recreation Development Program. Gila River and Tributaries, Arizona and New Mexico. (United States)


    trail will not be lighted, but lighting is proposed for the multiple-purpose fields for night use. Wiring will be placed underground , and connections...1980 PREPARED BY CLIFF RADER ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY SECTION «M. ’*«i»si T7 A. Description of Proposed Project. The proposed project is the

  2. Students Explain the Value of CTE (United States)

    Techniques: Connecting Education and Careers, 2006


    In this article, the winning essays of the Cliff Weiss Memorial Essay Contest are presented. In the two winning essays, the authors describe how to explain the value of career and technical education (CTE) to a new student. Shi Meicheng, Secondary Winner, states that CTE has provided her with a toolbox for success while Ginnie Bushong,…

  3. 76 FR 67232 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on U.S... (United States)


    ....m. Until 5 p.m. The Subcommittee will review Chapters 7, ``Instrumentation and Controls,'' and 9..., ``Instrumentation and Controls,'' of the Calvert Cliffs RCOL SER with Open Items. The Subcommittee will hear... addition, one electronic copy of each presentation should be emailed to the DFO one day before the...

  4. Motivating the Notion of Generic Design within Information Processing Theory: the Design Problem Space (United States)


    company or a social welfare policy for a state. On this account, anyone dissatisfied with existing states of affairs and attempting to transform them into...Norman Cliff Dipartimento di Psicologia Department of Psychology Via della Pergola 48 Univ. of So. California 50121 Firenze Los Angeles, CA 90089-1061

  5. Innovations in Higher Education. (United States)

    Stier, William F., Jr.

    Section 1 of this report reviews the findings of a Carnegie Commission study of the use or planned use of innovative practices in 882 institutions, in general, and at Briar Cliff College at Sioux City, in particular. The innovations were divided into 4 categories: (1) curriculum and instruction, (2) instructional practice, (3) student governance…

  6. Toward an Ecology of Knowledge: A Proposal To Develop Faculty for General Education. (United States)

    Welu, Judith

    This final report describes the activities and accomplishments of a three-year faculty development project at Briar Cliff College (Iowa). During the project, a series of three one-month interdisciplinary colloquia were offered to foster scholarly dialogue across discipline lines in support of the college's new general education program. Each…

  7. Fostering the creative spirit in teaching-learning. (United States)

    Bunkers, Sandra Schmidt


    This author describes creativity and the development of several curriculum projects fostering the creative spirit in the nursing academy as well as in other health sciences. It introduces Dr. Barbara Condon's column describing the use of artistic expression, framed by the humanbecoming school of thought, in a senior level nursing course at Briar Cliff University.

  8. Five Colleges Look at General Education. (United States)

    Bowman, Leonard, Comp.; And Others

    A study was undertaken to provide an opportunity for faculty from five small, independent colleges in Iowa to become familiar with current developments concerning general education programs to facilitate planning and evaluation of general education in the institutions. The participating colleges were Briar Cliff, Graceland, Marycrest, Simpson, and…

  9. Utilization of the PPBS Concept in the Development of a Departmental Budget for a Liberal Arts College. (United States)

    Stier, William F., Jr.

    The report presented herein provides a comprehensive summary of the philosophical and educational structure of H.P.E.R. (Health Science, Physical Education and Recreation) and its relationship to general education at Briar Cliff College. The unique structure of H.P.E.R. is presented as well as its rationale and a conceptual view of its inner…

  10. Gorgeous Scenery in Xianju

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    正Xianju County in Zhejiang province of China, a national key scenic spot, has beautiful scenery and charming sight. The name of Xianju , originally Yong'an, was given by Zhao Heng, Emperor Zhenzong of the Song Dynasty in 1007 AD, over 1,000 years ago. Driving on the Zhuji-Yongjia expressway, steep cliffs and lofty peaks will immediately arouse

  11. Repair, Evaluation, Maintenance, and Rehabilitation Research Program: Evaluation of Bird Pest Problems at U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Civil Works Projects. (United States)


    All year John Updike 219-782-2181 (mainly excre- Lake IN but ment but also mainly nests) summer Chesapeake Philadelphia Chesapeake City, Bridges John ...Problem of Species# Project District Location Site Year Contact Telephone Cliff. Swallows John Martin Albuquerque Hasty, CO Dam complex End March-May

  12. Improved Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW) Effectiveness MSSE Capstone Project (United States)


    David H. Olwell, Ph.D. Dan C. Boger , Ph.D. Department of Systems Engineering Interim Vice President and...Advisor, Mr. Mark Rhoades REVIEWED BY: ______________________________ DATE: _____________ MSSE ( DL ) Academic Associate, Dr. Cliff Whitcomb...REVIEWED BY: ______________________________ DATE: _____________ MSSE ( DL ) Program Manager, Dr. Wally Owen REVIEWED BY

  13. Seriously Data-Driven Decision Making (United States)

    Casserly, Michael D.


    As states approach the funding cliff marking the end of federal stimulus help for education, school districts will be feeling more financial pain than they're experiencing now. But there's good news amid the bad: Big city districts are showing schools nationwide a way to save money and improve efficiency by working together. They've created the…

  14. Trends in Soviet Military Policy, (United States)


    Herbert S. Dinerstein, Leon Goure, and Thomas W. Wolfe (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1963). 15. Khrushchev Remembers: The Last Testamenc...34Lenin, Trotsky , Stalin: Soviet Concepts of War," in Earle, ed., Makers of Modern Strategy (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1944), p. 323. For

  15. Tufted puffins (Fratercula cirrhata) respond to predation danger during colony approach flights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Addison, B.; Ydenberg, R.C.; Smith, B.D.


    In spite of their putative importance in the evolution of certain traits (e.g., nocturnality, coloniality, cliff nesting), the effects of aerial predators on behavior of adult seabirds at colonies have been poorly investigated. We hypothesized that Tufted Puffins (Fratercula cirrhata) respond to dan

  16. System Design Analysis of a Lightweight Laser Satellite Terminal (United States)


    Communication. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice- Hall, Inc., 1987. 29. Klein, B.; Degnan, J. " Optical Antenna Gain. 1: Transmitting Antennas." Applied Optics, 13...2134-2141 (September 1974). 30. Klein, B.; Degnan, J. " Optical Antenna Gain. 2: Receiving Antennas." Applied Optics, 13: 2397-2401 (October 1974). 31

  17. Plant Growth Regulators as Potential Tools in Aquatic Plant Management: Efficacy and Persistence in Small-Scale Tests (United States)


    characteristics of Carya illinoensis ," Acta Hortic. 179:287-8. Zar, J. H. (1974). Biostatistical analysis. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ. 58...3 M aterials and Methods .................................... 4 Plant cultures ...Procedures for Detecting Flurprimidol Residues in Water, Plant Tissues , and Soil ..................................... 30 Introduction

  18. Trace fossils from the eocene Lillebælt clay formation, Røsnæs Peninsula, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jan Kresten; Milàn, Jesper; Mesfun, Daniel


    A cliff exposure of the Eocene Lillebælt Clay Formation, on the Røsnæs peninsula of Zealand, Denmark, has yielded a diverse trace-fossil assemblage. The trace fossils are described formally for the first time and assigned to Phymatoderma melvillensis, unnamed clusters of small burrows, Ophiomorph...

  19. The Contribution of Group Members’ Cognitive Resources to the Effectiveness of Small Groups (United States)


    into those who reported low and high job and boss stress, and correlations were then computed between their Wonderlic (1977) intelligence score, their...deviance. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Wonderlic , E. F. (1977). Wonderlic personnel test. Northfleld, IL: Wonderlic . Zais, M. M. (1979). The

  20. A Classification of Designated Logic Systems (United States)


    x CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION When thinking of ’logic’ we tend to think in Aristotelian terms, or in terms of the Principia Mathematica (Russell and...and Wright, Charles R. B. Discrete Mathematics. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1985. Russell, B. and Whitehead, A. Principia Mathematica

  1. Assessing the responses of creek chub (Semotilus atromaculatus) and pearl dace (Semotilus margarita) to metal mine effluents using in situ artificial streams in Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. (United States)

    Dubé, Monique G; MacLatchy, Deborah L; Hruska, Kimberly A; Glozier, Nancy E


    Mining of the world's second-largest nickel deposits in the area of Sudbury, Ontario, Canada, has caused acidification and metal saturation of some catchments. We conducted artificial stream studies in the years 2001 and 2002 to assess the effects of treated metal mine effluents (MMEs) from three different mining operations discharging to Junction Creek, Sudbury, on two fish species, creek chub (Semotilus atromaculatus) and pearl dace (Semotilus margarita). Treatments tested for 35 to 41 d included reference water, Garson MME (30%), Nolin MME (20%), and Copper Cliff MME (45%). In 2001, effects on chub included reduced survival and depressed testosterone levels (fivefold reduction) after exposure to all MMEs. In 2002, chub and dace survival were reduced to less than 60% in the Copper Cliff and Garson treatments. In addition, the total body weights of male and female dace were reduced after exposure to the Garson and Copper Cliff treatments. In 2001 and 2002, responses were most common to the 45% Copper Cliff and 30% Garson effluents, with consistent increases in nickel, rubidium, strontium, iron, lithium, thallium, and selenium observed across treatment waters and body tissues. More work is required to link observed effects to field effects and to identify multitrophic level responses of the ecosystem to the MMEs. The artificial stream studies provided a mechanism to identify changes in the endpoints of relevant fish species exposed to present-day metal mine discharges independent of historical depositions of metals in the Sudbury area.

  2. Basic illustrated knots for the outdoors

    CERN Document Server

    Jacobson, Cliff


    Cliff Jacobson is one of North America's most respected outdoors writers and wilderness canoe guides. His experiences as a professional outfitter and canoeing consultant have resulted in more than a dozen top-selling books on camping, canoeing, navigation, and outdoor skills.

  3. 78 FR 4465 - PPL Bell Bend, LLC; Combined License Application for Bell Bend Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption (United States)


    ... COMMISSION PPL Bell Bend, LLC; Combined License Application for Bell Bend Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption 1.0... Approvals for Nuclear Power Plants.'' This reactor is to be identified as Bell Bend Nuclear Power Plant... (RCOL) application for UniStar's Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 3 (CCNPP3). The......

  4. Explicit, Implicit, and Subjective Rating Measures of Situation Awareness in a Monitoring Task (United States)


    range of the subjects’ weapon (referred to as "envelope sensitivity" and calculated as A’ see Macmillan and Creelman , 1990). In his experiment...1982). Design and analysis: A researchers handbook. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Macmillan, N. A., and Creelman , C. D. (1990). Response

  5. Recent Naval Postgraduate School Publications. (United States)


    probability and statistics Englewood Cliffs, N. J., Prentice-Hall, June, 1985.’,.. 857 p. He, X G; Higashida , M; Kerr, D S; Orooji, A; Shi, Z Z; Strawser, P R...School, (NPS-52-85-011), , Aug., 1985. 46 p. He X; Higashida , M; Hsiao, D K; Kerr, D S; Orooji, A; Shi trawser, P the implementation of a multi

  6. 75 FR 5109 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Colorado Historical Society, Denver, CO; Correction (United States)


    ... (including Tower House, Balcony House, Cliff Palace, Mug House, Mummy House, Step House, and Spruce Tree House) at different times. Items recovered from earlier excavations led by the Wetherills were sold to... were removed by either Arthur Wilmarth or Al and Richard Wetherill from Mummy House (5MV524),...

  7. Poksiajaloo kuulsamaid Tuhkatriinu-lugusid jõuab kinoekraanidele

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    "Mees, kes tõusis jalule", režissöör Ron Howard : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2005. Poksija James J. Braddocki elust kirjutas filmi jaoks stsenaariumi Cliff Hollandsworth. Filmivõtetest, näitleja Russell Crowe rolliks valmistumisest

  8. Rock face stability analysis and potential rockfall source detection in Yosemite Valley (United States)

    Matasci, B.; Stock, G. M.; Jaboyedoff, M.; Oppikofer, T.; Pedrazzini, A.; Carrea, D.


    Rockfall hazard in Yosemite Valley is especially high owing to the great cliff heights (~1 km), the fracturing of the steep granitic cliffs, and the widespread occurrence of surface parallel sheeting or exfoliation joints. Between 1857 and 2011, 890 documented rockfalls and other slope movements caused 15 fatalities and at least 82 injuries. The first part of this study focused on realizing a structural study for Yosemite Valley at both regional (valley-wide) and local (rockfall source area) scales. The dominant joint sets were completely characterized by their orientation, persistence, spacing, roughness and opening. Spacing and trace length for each joint set were accurately measured on terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) point clouds with the software PolyWorks (InnovMetric). Based on this fundamental information the second part of the study aimed to detect the most important failure mechanisms leading to rockfalls. With the software Matterocking and the 1m cell size DEM, we calculated the number of possible failure mechanisms (wedge sliding, planar sliding, toppling) per cell, for several cliffs of the valley. Orientation, spacing and persistence measurements directly issued from field and TLS data were inserted in the Matterocking calculations. TLS point clouds are much more accurate than the 1m DEM and show the overhangs of the cliffs. Accordingly, with the software Coltop 3D we developed a methodology similar to the one used with Matterocking to identify on the TLS point clouds the areas of a cliff with the highest number of failure mechanisms. Exfoliation joints are included in this stability analysis in the same way as the other joint sets, with the only difference that their orientation is parallel to the local cliff orientation and thus variable. This means that, in two separate areas of a cliff, the exfoliation joint set is taken into account with different dip direction and dip, but its effect on the stability assessment is the same. Areas with a high

  9. Baltic Sea coastal erosion; a case study from the Jastrzębia Góra region (United States)

    Uścinowicz, Grzegorz; Kramarska, Regina; Kaulbarsz, Dorota; Jurys, Leszek; Frydel, Jerzy; Przezdziecki, Piotr; Jegliński, Wojciech


    The coastline in the Jastrzębia Góra area can be divided into three major zones of general importance: a beach and barrier section, a cliff section, and a section protected by a heavy hydrotechnical construction. These areas are characterised by a diverse geology and origin, and hence different vulnerability to erosion. In addition, observations have demonstrated a different pace of erosion within each zone. Based on the results obtained by remote sensing methods (analysis of aerial photographs and maps), it has been determined that the coastline in the barrier area, i.e., to the west of Jastrzębia Góra, moved landwards by about 130 m, in a period of 100 years, and 80 m over about 50 years. A smaller displacement of the shoreline could be observed within the cliff. Between the middle of the twentieth and the start of the twenty-first centuries the shore retreated by about 25 m. However, in recent years, an active landslide has led to the displacement of the uppermost part of the cliff locally up to 25 m. Another issue is, functioning since 2000, a heavy hydrotechnical construction which has been built in order to protect the most active part of the cliff. The construction is not stable and its western part, over a distance of 50 m, has moved almost 2 m vertically downwards and c. 2.5 m horizontally towards the sea in the past two years. This illustrates that the erosional factor does not comprise only marine abrasion, but also involves land-based processes determined by geology and hydrogeology. Changes in the shoreline at the beach and barrier part are constantly conditioned by rising sea levels, the slightly sloping profile of the sea floor and low elevation values of the backshore and dune areas. Cliffs are destroyed by mass wasting and repetitive storm surges that are responsible for the removal of the colluvium which protects the coast from adverse wave effects. Presumably, mass movements combined with groundwater outflow from the cliff, plus sea abrasion

  10. Baltic Sea coastal erosion; a case study from the Jastrzębia Góra region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uścinowicz Grzegorz


    Full Text Available The coastline in the Jastrzębia Góra area can be divided into three major zones of general importance: a beach and barrier section, a cliff section, and a section protected by a heavy hydrotechnical construction. These areas are characterised by a diverse geology and origin, and hence different vulnerability to erosion. In addition, observations have demonstrated a different pace of erosion within each zone. Based on the results obtained by remote sensing methods (analysis of aerial photographs and maps, it has been determined that the coastline in the barrier area, i.e., to the west of Jastrzębia Góra, moved landwards by about 130 m, in a period of 100 years, and 80 m over about 50 years. A smaller displacement of the shoreline could be observed within the cliff. Between the middle of the twentieth and the start of the twenty-first centuries the shore retreated by about 25 m. However, in recent years, an active landslide has led to the displacement of the uppermost part of the cliff locally up to 25 m. Another issue is, functioning since 2000, a heavy hydrotechnical construction which has been built in order to protect the most active part of the cliff. The construction is not stable and its western part, over a distance of 50 m, has moved almost 2 m vertically downwards and c. 2.5 m horizontally towards the sea in the past two years. This illustrates that the erosional factor does not comprise only marine abrasion, but also involves land-based processes determined by geology and hydrogeology. Changes in the shoreline at the beach and barrier part are constantly conditioned by rising sea levels, the slightly sloping profile of the sea floor and low elevation values of the backshore and dune areas. Cliffs are destroyed by mass wasting and repetitive storm surges that are responsible for the removal of the colluvium which protects the coast from adverse wave effects. Presumably, mass movements combined with groundwater outflow from the cliff

  11. Holocene Evolution of Incised Coastal Channels on the Isle of Wight, UK: Interpretation via Numerical Simulation. (United States)

    Leyland, J.; Darby, S. E.


    Incised coastal channels are found in numerous locations around the world where the shoreline morphology consists of cliffs. The incised coastal channels found on the Isle of Wight, UK, are known locally as `Chines' and debouche (up to 45m) through the soft cliffs of the south west coast, maintaining steep side walls subject to deep-seated mass wasting. These canyons offer sheltered locations and bare substrate, providing habitat for plant (Philonotis marchica, Anthoceros punctatos) and invertebrate (Psen atratinus, Baris analis, Melitaea cinxi) species of international importance. The base level of the Chines is highly dynamic, with episodes of sea cliff erosion causing the rejuvenation of the channel network. Consequently a key factor in Chine evolution is the relative balance between rates of cliff retreat and headwards incision caused by knickpoint migration. Specifically, there is concern that if contemporary coastal retreat rates are higher than the corresponding rates of knickpoint recession, there will be long-term a reduction in the overall extent of the Chines and their associated habitats. In an attempt to provide a long-term context for these issues, in this poster we explore the Holocene erosional history of the Chines using a numerical landscape evolution model. The model includes a stochastic cliff recession function that controls the position of the outlet boundary. Knickpoint recession rates are simulated using a detachment-limited channel erosion law wherein erosion rate is a power function of drainage area and stream gradient with model parameters defined using empirically- derived data. Simulations are undertaken for a range of imposed boundary conditions representing different scenarios of long-term cliff retreat forced by Holocene sea-level rise, plausible scenarios corresponding to cases where simulated and observed Chine and landscape forms match. The study provides an example of how a landscape evolution model could be used to reconstruct

  12. Unraveling the dynamics that scale cross-shore headland relief on rocky coastlines: 1. Model development (United States)

    Limber, Patrick W.; Brad Murray, A.; Adams, Peter N.; Goldstein, Evan B.


    We have developed an exploratory model of plan view, millennial-scale headland and bay evolution on rocky coastlines. Cross-shore coastline relief, or amplitude, arises from alongshore differences in sea cliff lithology, where durable, erosion-resistant rocks protrude seaward as headlands and weaker rocks retreat landward as bays. The model is built around two concurrent negative feedbacks that control headland amplitude: (1) wave energy convergence and divergence at headlands and bays, respectively, that increases in intensity as cross-shore amplitude grows and (2) the combined processes of beach sediment production by sea cliff erosion, distribution of sediment to bays by waves, and beach accumulation that buffers sea cliffs from wave attack and limits further sea cliff retreat. Paired with the coastline relief model is a numerical wave transformation model that explores how wave energy is distributed along an embayed coastline. The two models are linked through genetic programming, a machine learning technique that parses wave model results into a tractable input for the coastline model. Using a pool of 4800 wave model simulations, genetic programming yields a function that relates breaking wave power density to cross-shore headland amplitude, offshore wave height, approach angle, and period. The goal of the coastline model is to make simple, but fundamental, scaling arguments on how different variables (such as sea cliff height and composition) affect the equilibrium cross-shore relief of headland and bays. The model's generality highlights the key feedbacks involved in coastline evolution and allows its equations (and model behaviors) to be easily modified by future users.

  13. Seasonal shifts in body temperature and use of microhabitats by Galapagos land iguanas (Conolophus pallidus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, K.; Tracy, C.R.; Porter, W.P.


    Seasonal differences in the body temperatures (T/sub b/) of free-ranging Galapagos land iguanas (Conolophus pallidus) were detected by temperature sensitive telemetry transmitters. Midday T/sub b/'s of iguanas average 4.4/sup 0/C lower in the Garua (cool) season than in the Hot season. Measured T/sub b/'s and those predicted from biophysical models permitted the following conclusions: (1) lower T/sub b/'s during the Garua season represent an active shift in thermoregulation by the iguanas rather than a passive result of a cooler season; (2) the average midday T/sub b/ selected by the iguanas in either season is the T/sub b/ that allows maintenance of a constant T/sub b/ for the longest possible portion of the day; (3) by exploiting the warmer microclimate created by a cliff face, the iguanas are able to maintain a constant T/sub b/ for a full hour longer than they could elsewhere in their home range. Census data demonstrated that the iguanas exploited the warmer microclimate created by the cliff extensively during the Garua season, and the cliff face was visited by the iguanas relatively infrequently during the Hot season. Thus, the exploitation of the microclimate created by the cliff results in seasonal differences in the pattern of space utilization within the home ranges of the iguanas. Within the Garua season the iguanas moved away from the cliff more often on sunny days than during cloudy days. It is concluded that the physical environment is an important determinant of patterns of space utilization both within and between seasons.

  14. Roles of Thermophiles and Fungi in Bitumen Degradation in Mostly Cold Oil Sands Outcrops. (United States)

    Wong, Man-Ling; An, Dongshan; Caffrey, Sean M; Soh, Jung; Dong, Xiaoli; Sensen, Christoph W; Oldenburg, Thomas B P; Larter, Steve R; Voordouw, Gerrit


    Oil sands are surface exposed in river valley outcrops in northeastern Alberta, where flat slabs (tablets) of weathered, bitumen-saturated sandstone can be retrieved from outcrop cliffs or from riverbeds. Although the average yearly surface temperature of this region is low (0.7°C), we found that the temperatures of the exposed surfaces of outcrop cliffs reached 55 to 60°C on sunny summer days, with daily maxima being 27 to 31°C. Analysis of the cooccurrence of taxa derived from pyrosequencing of 16S/18S rRNA genes indicated that an aerobic microbial network of fungi and hydrocarbon-, methane-, or acetate-oxidizing heterotrophic bacteria was present in all cliff tablets. Metagenomic analyses indicated an elevated presence of fungal cytochrome P450 monooxygenases in these samples. This network was distinct from the heterotrophic community found in riverbeds, which included fewer fungi. A subset of cliff tablets had a network of anaerobic and/or thermophilic taxa, including methanogens, Firmicutes, and Thermotogae, in the center. Long-term aerobic incubation of outcrop samples at 55°C gave a thermophilic microbial community. Analysis of residual bitumen with a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer indicated that aerobic degradation proceeded at 55°C but not at 4°C. Little anaerobic degradation was observed. These results indicate that bitumen degradation on outcrop surfaces is a largely aerobic process with a minor anaerobic contribution and is catalyzed by a consortium of bacteria and fungi. Bitumen degradation is stimulated by periodic high temperatures on outcrop cliffs, which cause significant decreases in bitumen viscosity.

  15. Talus slope development: an integrated concept based on the Eastern Alps. (United States)

    Sanders, D.; Ostermann, M.


    Talus slopes are deposystems that accumulate in onlap onto the area of sediment provenance, that is, rock cliffs. 'Talus slope - rock cliff ensembles' are subject to strong internal feedback due to the direct interplay of slope accumulation with cliff degradation. Our field observations in numerous Quaternary talus-slope successions indicate an overall predictable relation between talus slope maturity, depositional geometry, and sedimentary facies: After exposure of rock cliffs by deglaciation or rocksliding, a low-dipping immature talus (dominated by debris flows and/or by rockfalls) or a rock glacier initially accumulates. Upon progressive aggradation and steepening of the proximal slope segment, prevalent processes of deposition change to grain flows and 'sorted rockfalls' in the steep-dipping (30-35°) proximal slope segment, while deposits of debris flows, ephemeral fluid flows, and rare large rockfalls prevail on the distal, lower-dipping slope segment. In successions of mature talus slopes, the proximal slope package overlies the lower-dipping, distal slope deposits along a narrow 'downlap interval'. The downlap interval is characterized by a marked upslope steepening of bedding surfaces over a short vertical and lateral distance. Immediately after cliff exposure by deglaciation or rocksliding, talus can aggrade at rates of up to a few tens of meters per 1000 years; initially high accumulation rates, however, decrease rapidly with buildup of slope and consequent burial of the rock cliff. On present carbonate-lithic talus slopes of the Eastern Alps the prevalent processes of sediment transport, final deposition, and deposit overprint in many cases change over lateral distances of a few tens to a few hundreds of meters; this gives rise to different types of talus slopes. Whereas glacial-interglacial cycles determine presence/absence of talus, as well as the altitude range of effective talus formation, minor climatic changes thus are hardly to read clearly from

  16. Controlled quantum secure direct communication by entanglement distillation or generalized measurement (United States)

    Tan, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Xiaoqian


    We propose two controlled quantum secure communication schemes by entanglement distillation or generalized measurement. The sender Alice, the receiver Bob and the controllers David and Cliff take part in the whole schemes. The supervisors David and Cliff can control the information transmitted from Alice to Bob by adjusting the local measurement angles θ _4 and θ _3. Bob can verify his secret information by classical one-way function after communication. The average amount of information is analyzed and compared for these two methods by MATLAB. The generalized measurement is a better scheme. Our schemes are secure against some well-known attacks because classical encryption and decoy states are used to ensure the security of the classical channel and the quantum channel.

  17. Herbicide treatment of invasive Vinca major growing with endangered Galium buxifolium, an island endemic (United States)

    McEachern, Kathryn; Chess, Katie; Flagg, Karen; Niessen, Ken; Owen,; Thompson,


    Galium buxifolium E. Greene [Rubiaceae] (sea-cliff bedstraw) is a small shrub restricted to San Miguel and Santa Cruz Islands, in the California Channel Islands. Almost all of the 26 known populations grow on vertical north-facing sea cliffs in native scrub, sandwiched between the sea below and non-native annual grasslands on the terraces above. A notable exception is a popula?tion at Pelican Bay on Santa Cruz Island, growing on the cliff and on thin terrace soils above the cliff in a stand of coastal bluff scrub that is recovering from more than a century of sheep grazing (Figure 1). Ironically, this stand is near the location of the historic Eaton Resort, a charismatic inn frequented by Hollywood glitterati in the early 1900s. Several landscape ornamentals planted there persist today in the area of the Galium population. Italian stone pine (Pinus pinaea) and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus spp.) tower over the site while the invasive groundcover Vinca major L. [Apocynaceae] (greater periwinkle) forms dense mats at the cliff edge that are spreading into the developing native plant stand. Wherever the Galium is found it is intermixed with other native scrub plants in dense communities on moist ocean bluffs. Historic notes and herbarium collections indicate that it may have been more widespread on nearshore terraces adjacent to sea-cliff populations before conversion to grassland. Since Pelican Bay is the only site that we know of where Galium is spreading onto the nearby terrace, we wanted to know whether the Vinca posed a roadblock to upslope population expansion. In 2005 we mapped Vinca and Galium at the site. We also measured Galium individuals to see where the smaller, younger plants were to better understand where the population is expanding. We observed that 1) both the Galium and the Vinca appear to be spreading from the cliff face upslope onto a series of rock outcrops, stone walls and benches, 2) the native scrub community is recovering at the site and 3) the Vinca

  18. Modelling the Holocene Evolution of a Drift-dominated Alluvial-fan Coast (United States)

    Hicks, M.; Dickson, M.; Coco, G.


    A numerical model is being developed to simulate shore evolution along an alluvial fan coast over the Holocene. The alluvial fan of the Waitaki River, on the east coast of New Zealand's South Island, was built by Pleistocene glacial advances but has been eroded back by waves over recent millennia. The retreat has left a cliffed shore fronted by a narrow beach of mixed sand and gravel and a gently sloping seabed with only a thin, patchy sand cover over the Pleistocene substrate. The study motivation is to examine the sensitivity of shoreline movements in this setting to wave-climate change, sea-level rise, and river sediment supplies. The modelling couples a profile evolution model with a shoreline model. The profile evolution model is operational and is driven by a series of coupled process models which include seabed scour, berm construction during normal waves, berm overtopping and subsequent beach-stripping and scour of the exposed substrate and cliff-toe notching by storm waves, gravity failure of the cliffs and talus construction, and beach sediment abrasion. Negative feedback regulates the rate of cliff erosion through the protection provided by the new material added into the beach from the eroding cliffs and substrate. The model is forced by two wave conditions: a normal swell and a randomly-varying storm wave. These operate for proportions of the yearly time step. The model was begun on a sloping fan surface inundated by the last stages of post-glacial sea-level rise (8000 yr BP). The initial response is for rapid growth of a gravel beach ridge fed by wave-excavation of the nearshore. As the nearshore profile nears equilibrium with the wave climate, the onshore feed wanes below the abrasion rate and the beach ridge loses volume. As sea level rises the beach ridge moves upward and landward, but its capacity to do so is limited by the rate of sediment feed from the nearshore. When the beach size reduces to a threshold at which storm waves periodically

  19. Illite/smectite clays preserving porosity at depth in Lower Permian Reservoirs, Northern Perth Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.D. Ferdinando; J.C. Baker; A. Gongora; B.A. Pidgeon


    The appraisal well Hovea-2, drilled in July 2002, was the first well in the onshore Perth Basin to discover commercial volumes of gas in sandstone reservoirs of the Artinskian (Early Permian) High Cliff Sandstone sealed beneath basal shales and siltstones of the Irwin River Coal Measures. A drill stem test in this formation, in the interval 2,370-419 mMDRT (measured depth below rotary table), flowed gas to surface at 16.5 MMcfd. Thereafter, the High Cliff Sandstone became an important play for exploration in the basin; however, no additional discoveries have been made in this reservoir, even though it has been tested in another seven wells (Jingemia-1, Eremia-1, Kunzia-1, Corybas-1, Yardarino-6, Hakia-2 and Bunjong-1).

  20. 3D Terrestrial LiDAR data classification of complex natural scenes using a multi-scale dimensionality criterion: applications in geomorphology

    CERN Document Server

    Brodu, Nicolas


    3D point clouds of natural environments relevant to geomorphology problems (rivers, cliffs...) often require to classify the data into elementary relevant classes. A typical example is the separation of riparian vegetation from soil in fluvial environments, the distinction between fresh surfaces and rockfall in cliff environments, or more generally the classification of surfaces according to their morphology (ripples, grain size...). Natural surfaces are very heterogeneous and their distinctive properties are seldom defined at a unique scale. We have thus defined a multi-scale measure of the point cloud dimensionality around each point. The dimensionality characterizes the local 3D organization of the point cloud and varies from being 1D (points set along a line) to really taking all 3D volume, at each scale. We present the technique and illustrate its efficiency in separating riparian vegetation from ground and classifying a mountain stream in vegetation, rock, gravel and water surface. The superiority of th...

  1. Wave energy fluxes and multi-decadal shoreline changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kabuth, Alina Kristin; Kroon, Aart


    Spatial patterns of multidecadal shoreline changes in two microtidal, low-energetic embayments of southern Zealand, Denmark, were investigated by using the directional distribution of wave energy fluxes. The sites include a barrier island system attached to moraine bluffs, and a recurved spit...... adjacent to a cliff coast. The barrier island system is characterized by cross-shore translation and by an alignment of the barrier alongshore alternating directions of barrier-spit progradation in a bidirectional wave field. The recurved spit adjacent to the cliff coast experienced shoreline rotation...... through proximal erosion and distal lateral accretion in a unidirectional wave climate. The multidecadal shoreline changes were coupled to a slope-based morphological coastal classification. All erosive shores occurred within a narrow range of onshore and offshore coastal slopes. The alongshore...

  2. Systematic Assessment of Molecular Selectivity at the Level of Targets, Bioactive Compounds, and Structural Analogues. (United States)

    Hu, Ye; Bajorath, Jürgen


    Through systematic mining of compound activity data, the target selectivity of bioactive compounds was systematically explored. The analysis was facilitated by applying, extending, and combining the concepts of target cliffs, selectivity cliffs, and matched molecular pairs. Selectivity relationships were explored at different levels including targets, individual bioactive compounds, and pairs of structural analogues. A variety of targets were identified for which active compounds were consistently nonselective or, by contrast, exclusively selective, making it possible to prioritize, or de-prioritize, targets for compound development. Furthermore, many chemical modifications were detected that altered compound selectivity in a well-defined manner including small structural changes that converted nonselective into target-selective compounds or inverted the target selectivity of active compounds. A large knowledge base of selectivity relationships across pharmaceutical targets and chemical modifications that alter selectivity was generated; this has been made freely available to the scientific community as a part of this investigation.

  3. A Marketing Assessment of Beneficiaries at Kimbrough Army Community Hospital (United States)


    L8(2), 58-66. Kotler , P ., & Clarke, R. N. (1987). Marketing for Health Care Organizations. Englewood-Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall. McDevitt, P . K...environment, organizational goal formulation, strategy formulation, Marketing Assessment 10 organization and systems design ( Kotler , 1987). Second...environmental analysis itself is concerned with identifying marketing opportunities, threats, environmental trends and their implications ( Kotler , 1987

  4. An Exploratory Study of the Use of an Inexpensive Cordless Telephone as a Part of a Data Communications Link. (United States)


    BJ, p . 3. 15. Brabb, GJ, p .5 - 8. 16. Kotler , Ps Principles of Marketing , Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1980, p . 49. 17. Whittemore, BJ, p ...15). Utility is defined as the abilityj to satisfyj a need or desire. The marketing discipline recognizes the four categories of utilityj Since information posesses the characteristics of goods in the market place and data is the raw material from which information is derived, it is

  5. Synthesis and Evaluation of Polymeric Materials (United States)


    maize ) starch produced by CPC International (Englewood Cliffs. NJ). with approximately 30% amylose and 70% amylopectin. The glycerol was purchased...on the flow behavior by use of an in-line rheometer. The Rheopac is a slit die rheometer which has been used to measure the viscosity of maize and...appearance of an orange peel . At high shear rates (500-1(KX) I/sec), the cracks were not evident and the surface was smoother. A smooth surface also

  6. Sleeping site use of the white-headed langur Trachypithecus leucocephalus: The role of predation risk, territorial defense, and proximity to feeding sites


    Dayong LI, Qihai ZHOU, Xiaoping TANG, Henglian HUANG, Chengming HUANG


    We collected data on sleeping site use from two groups of white-headed langurs Trachypithecus leucocephalus living in Fusui Nature Reserve, China between August 2007 and July 2008. This information was used to test several hypotheses regarding ultimate causes of sleeping site use in this primate. White-headed langurs slept either in caves (17 sites) or on a cliff ledge (one site). They used all sleeping sites repeatedly, and reused some of them on consecutive nights; three nights was the long...

  7. The Concept of Fit in Contingency Theory. (United States)


    approach contains a logical error that severely limits its utility. Bateson (1979) has called this an error of logical typing. By reducing or...Environments, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-11all. Alexander, C. 1964 Notes on the Synthesis ot form, Boston: lijrvjid. Bateson , g. 1979 Mind and Nature, New...Robert Gregory USAFA/DFBL U.S. Air Force Academy, CO 80840 AFOSR/NL Building 410 Bolling AFB Was’.ngton, LC 23332 Department of the Air Force HOUSAF ,’N

  8. Antecedents and Outcomes of End User Computing Competence (United States)


    Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall (1980). Ajzen , Icek . “The Theory of Planned Behavior,” Organizational Behavior & Human Decision Processes, 50...179-207 (December 1991). Ajzen , Icek . “Perceived Behavioral Control, Self-Efficacy, Locus of Control, and the Theory of Planned Behavior,” Journal...of Applied Social Psychology, 32: 1-20 (2002). Ajzen , Icek and Krebs, Dagmar. “Attitude Theory and Measurement: Implications for Survey Research

  9. Biosimilars: company strategies to capture value from the biologics market. (United States)

    Calo-Fernández, Bruno; Martínez-Hurtado, Juan Leonardo


    Patents for several biologic blockbusters will expire in the next few years. The arrival of biosimilars, the biologic equivalent of chemical generics, will have an impact on the current biopharmaceuticals market. Five core capabilities have been identified as paramount for those companies aiming to enter the biosimilars market: research and development, manufacturing, supporting activities, marketing, and lobbying. Understanding the importance of each of these capabilities will be key to maximising the value generated from the biologics patent cliff.

  10. Integrating Qualitative and Quantitative Research in Organizations. (United States)


    development is based on the conceptual terms used to describ. real phenomena. As was notea earlier, social learning theory has been heavily influenced by...A. Social learning theory . Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1977. Bandura, A. The self system in reciprocal determinism. American Psychologist...substitute for leadership: A social learning theory perspective. Academy of Management Review, 1980, 5, 361-367. Mash, E.J., & Terdal, L.G. (Eds.). Behavior

  11. Designing an Effective Prevention Program: Principles Underlying the Rand Smoking and Drug Prevention Experiment, (United States)


    to resist as well as resistance skills; o its integration of elements from the Health Belief Model, social learning theory , and the self-efficacy...resistance behavior, the principles underlying the curriculum represent a unique synthesis of the Health Belief Model of prevention, social learning theory , and...15 - REFERENCES Bandura, A. (1977a) Social Learning Theory Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Bandura, A. (1977b) "Self-efficacy: Toward a Unifying

  12. A Reliability Assessment of Participant Observational Measures of Leader Behavior in Natural Settings. (United States)


    significant increases in accuracy. Such practice exercises stem from the modeling principles of social learning theory (Bandura, 1977). Using videotaped...categories, and the trainees used the instru- ment to record the behaviors they observed. By following the principles of social learning theory (Bandura, 1976...Management, 1979, 2, 85-102. Bandura, A. Social learning theory . Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1977. Barrow, J.C. Worker performance and task

  13. Group size and nest spacing affect Buggy Creek virus (Togaviridae: Alphavirus infection in nestling house sparrows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie A O'Brien

    Full Text Available The transmission of parasites and pathogens among vertebrates often depends on host population size, host species diversity, and the extent of crowding among potential hosts, but little is known about how these variables apply to most vector-borne pathogens such as the arboviruses (arthropod-borne viruses. Buggy Creek virus (BCRV; Togaviridae: Alphavirus is an RNA arbovirus transmitted by the swallow bug (Oeciacus vicarius to the cliff swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota and the introduced house sparrow (Passer domesticus that has recently invaded swallow nesting colonies. The virus has little impact on cliff swallows, but house sparrows are seriously affected by BCRV. For house sparrows occupying swallow nesting colonies in western Nebraska, USA, the prevalence of BCRV in nestling sparrows increased with sparrow colony size at a site but decreased with the number of cliff swallows present. If one nestling in a nest was infected with the virus, there was a greater likelihood that one or more of its nest-mates would also be infected than nestlings chosen at random. The closer a nest was to another nest containing infected nestlings, the greater the likelihood that some of the nestlings in the focal nest would be BCRV-positive. These results illustrate that BCRV represents a cost of coloniality for a vertebrate host (the house sparrow, perhaps the first such demonstration for an arbovirus, and that virus infection is spatially clustered within nests and within colonies. The decreased incidence of BCRV in sparrows as cliff swallows at a site increased reflects the "dilution effect," in which virus transmission is reduced when a vector switches to feeding on a less competent vertebrate host.

  14. Group size and nest spacing affect Buggy Creek virus (Togaviridae: Alphavirus) infection in nestling house sparrows. (United States)

    O'Brien, Valerie A; Brown, Charles R


    The transmission of parasites and pathogens among vertebrates often depends on host population size, host species diversity, and the extent of crowding among potential hosts, but little is known about how these variables apply to most vector-borne pathogens such as the arboviruses (arthropod-borne viruses). Buggy Creek virus (BCRV; Togaviridae: Alphavirus) is an RNA arbovirus transmitted by the swallow bug (Oeciacus vicarius) to the cliff swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) and the introduced house sparrow (Passer domesticus) that has recently invaded swallow nesting colonies. The virus has little impact on cliff swallows, but house sparrows are seriously affected by BCRV. For house sparrows occupying swallow nesting colonies in western Nebraska, USA, the prevalence of BCRV in nestling sparrows increased with sparrow colony size at a site but decreased with the number of cliff swallows present. If one nestling in a nest was infected with the virus, there was a greater likelihood that one or more of its nest-mates would also be infected than nestlings chosen at random. The closer a nest was to another nest containing infected nestlings, the greater the likelihood that some of the nestlings in the focal nest would be BCRV-positive. These results illustrate that BCRV represents a cost of coloniality for a vertebrate host (the house sparrow), perhaps the first such demonstration for an arbovirus, and that virus infection is spatially clustered within nests and within colonies. The decreased incidence of BCRV in sparrows as cliff swallows at a site increased reflects the "dilution effect," in which virus transmission is reduced when a vector switches to feeding on a less competent vertebrate host.

  15. The paradigm shift to an “open” model in drug development


    Regina Au


    The rising cost of healthcare, the rising cost for drug development, the patent cliff for Big pharma, shorter patent protection, decrease reimbursement, and the recession have made it more difficult for the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industry to develop drugs. Due to the unsustainable amount of time and money in developing a drug that will have a significant return on investment (ROI) it has become hard to sustain a robust pipeline. The industry is transforming its business model to mee...

  16. Urban Redevelopment and the Structure of Power: The Impact of Private Interests on the Policy-Making Process in Columbus, Ohio. (United States)


    about influence and power relations in that city.10 . Harold Kaplan’s Urban Renewal Politics: q Ium Clearance in Newark, a longitudinal, comprehensive...according to Laski . According to Tipton, the federal agency had $300 million availal-!e for commercial demonsz:rati-ns of solar heating that year, and...Politics of Progress. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, 1972. Wolman, Harold . Politics of Federal Housing. New York: Dodd, Head, and Company; 1971. "Worries

  17. Macroeconomics and Public Policy. Revision. (United States)


    Abraham, W. I., National Income & Economic Accountina, Englewood Cliffs NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1969. Dornbusch , R. & Fischer, S., Macroeconomics, New...New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., • ,’-.3rd ed, 1968. - Dornbusch , R. & Fischer, S., Macroeconomics, New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1978. Edgmand, M...References Dornbusch , R. & Fischer, Macroeconomics, New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1978. Edgmand, M. R., Macroeconomics: Theory and Policy, Englewood

  18. Macroeconomics and Public Policy. (United States)


    I., National Income & Economic Accounting, Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall Inc., 1969. Dornbusch , R. & Fischer, S., Macroeconomics, New York...system. .0 207 0 References * Dornbusch , R. & Fischer, Macroeconomics, New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1978. Edgmand, M. R., Macroeconomics: Theory and...Central Banking, New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1974, 4th ed. Dornbusch , R. & Fischer, S., Macroeconomics, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1978. Goldfeld, S. M

  19. Effects of Practice in Selecting and Executing Keypressing Sequences (Effecten van oefening op het selecteren en uitvoeren van een sequentiele toetsdruktaak). (United States)


    is concurrent with execution ( Klapp & Wyatt, 1976; Portier et al., 1990; Portier & Van Galen, in press; Rosenbaum et al., 1986). The second aspect is...1980). Use of simple reaction time in motor programming studies: A reply to Klapp , Wyatt, and Lingo. Journal of Motor Behavior 12, 163-168. Henry, EM...and analysis: A researcher’s handbook. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Klapp , S.T. & Wyatt, E.P. (1976). Motor programming within a sequence of

  20. Improving Recruiting of the 6th Recruiting Brigade Through Statistical Analysis and Efficiency Measures (United States)


    commentary/2013/10/16/op-ed-why-ending- volunteer-service-next-fight-military-equalityPost. 11 Ibid. 12 Kathy Roth -Douquet and Frank Schaefer, AWOL...Spreadsheet Modeling & Decision Analysis, 4th ed. ( Mason , OH: Thomson South-Western, 2004), 107. 27 U.S. Army Recruiting Command, G7/9 - Marketing, Education...2009. newsarticle.aspx?id=53310. Ragsdale, Cliff T. Spreadsheet Modeling & Decision Analysis. 4th ed. Mason , OH

  1. Using Response Surface Methodology as an Approach to Understand and Optimize Operational Air Power (United States)


    Introduction to Taguchi Methodology. In Taguchi Methods : Proceedings of the 1988 European Conference, 1-14. London: Elsevier Applied Science. Box G. E. and N...Parameter Design, and the Taguchi Method . Journal of Quality Technology 17(4):176-188. Kometer, Michael W. 2005. Command in Air War: Centralized vs...1989. Quality Engineering Using Robust Design. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Ranjit R. 1990. A Primer on the Taguchi Method . New York, NY: Van

  2. Deep Null Antennas and Their Applications to Tactical VHF Radio Communications (United States)


    simulations must be carried out over less than perfect grounds. Reviev; of the Antenna Engineering Handbook . Vol. I [Ref. 6] provided the needed...means of getting the desired phase and magnitude relationships was not found, and as mentioned in the ARRL Antenna Book [Ret: 3: pp. 8-l-l], a number of...Englewood Cliffs, ::\\J, 1968. 3. American Radio Relay League, The ARRL Antenna Book, 15th ed., American Ra- dio Relay League, ~e,Yington, CT, 1988. 4

  3. Engineering Design Theory: Applying the Success of the Modern World to Campaign Creation (United States)


    common use relates to medicine , and to engineering within design curriculums. 51 Webster’s Third New International Dictionary, 8th ed. s.v. “Hueristic... medicine , the practice of law, or engineering. Design as a Cultural Shift The recommendation to move away from commander and cognitively-focused...Introduction to Design, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1962. Asimov, Isaac. The Roving Mind, New York, NY: Prometheus Books, 1983. Bell

  4. An Examination of Hypercube Implementations of Genetic Algorithms (United States)


    answer questions on the C programming language. Capt Paul Hardy and Capt Joann Sartor taught me much of what I know of IATEX and its Ada compiler. To have maximal portability, the C programming language, which is commonly available, is used to code the messy genetic algorithm...50. Kernighan, forian W. and Dennis M. Ritchie. The C Programming Language. Englewood Cliffs NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1978. 51. Kleinbaum, David G

  5. Big Bend National Park, TX, USA, Mexico (United States)


    The Sierra del Carmen of Mexico, across the Rio Grande River from Big Bend National Park, TX, (28.5N, 104.0W) is centered in this photo. The Rio Grande River bisects the scene; Mexico to the east, USA to the west. The thousand ft. Boquillas limestone cliff on the Mexican side of the river changes colors from white to pink to lavender at sunset. This severely eroded sedimentary landscape was once an ancient seabed later overlaid with volcanic activity.

  6. The Stigma of Failure in Organizations (United States)


    one” ( Goffman , 1963, p. 3; Sutton & Callahan, 1987, p. 406). For example, while failed entrepreneurs are often stigmatized in France and Japan, a...criminals and traitors to advertise their moral status as unfit for society ( Goffman , 1963). In the middle ages, the ritual pollution of...32), 333–350. Goffman , E. (1963). Stigma: Notes on the management of spoiled identity. Engelwood Cliffs: Simon and Schuster. Gromb, D

  7. A Study on How to Implement an Effective Marketing and Education Program for Coordinated Care (United States)


    could play. Philip Kotler and Roberta N. Clarke (1987) recognize that the role marketing plays in health care organizations varies greatly. It is...accepted by professional marketers is provided by Kotler and Clarke (1987): Marketing is the analysis, planning, implementation, and control of carefully...Gaithersburg, MD: Aspen. Kotler , P. & Clarke, R. N. (1987). Marketina for health care organizations. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Leebov, W. (1988

  8. Software Project Management (United States)


    incorporated into the sys- Kotler88 tem. Several interesting concepts are presented, but Kotler , P. Marketing Planning: Analysis, Planning, the bulk of the...Metzger87 Mantei, M. "The Effect of Programming Team Metzger, Philip W. Managing Programming Structures on Programming Tasks." Comm. ACM People: A Personal... Philips . Software Engi- Classic approach in organization theory. neering. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1988. Shannon75 An industrial approach

  9. Measuring Patient Satisfaction as a Basis for Medical Marketing and Strategic Planning (United States)


    Health Associates. Z. 100-105 (December 1975). Kotler , Philip . Marketin2 for Nonprofit Oranizations (Second Edition). Englewood Cliffs NJ: Prentice-Hall...programs designed to bring about voluntary exchanges of values of target markets for the purpose of achieving organizational objectives" ( Kotler , 1982:6...and William A. Fleiner. "The Marketing Audit: A Tool for Health Service Organizations," Health Care Marketing Issues and Trends Edited by Philip D

  10. Acquisition Review Quarterly. Vol. 2, No. 1, Winter 1995 (United States)


    then different strategies and tactics may be deemed necessary for each segment that is targeted ( Kotler , 1988). There are a number of plausible...and Co. Kotler , P. (1988). Marketing Management: Analysis and Planning (6th ed.), (pp. 280-284). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc. 40- Winter...James R. Penick, USA F; CAPT John H. Priesel, USN; Joseph M. Rivamonte; William E. Roberson, Jr.; CAPT Dennis L. Ryan, III, USN; Philip H. Spector

  11. Prospects for Reenlistment of Prior-Service Personnel. (United States)


    abilities and characteris- tics in common ( Kotler 1980, Chapter 10). The several segments, in turn, should be distinguishable from one another...Klecka, W. R. Discriminant Analysis. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publica- tions, 1980. Kotler , P. Principles of Marketing. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice...Library Naval War College Newport, RI 02940 Mr. Philip Bernard B-K Dynamics, Inc. 15825 Shady Grove Road Rockville, MD 20850 Dr. Bruce M. Meglino College of

  12. Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Guam Cleanup of Uruno Beach (United States)


    marine life in the sensitive marine ecological area. In addition, land transportation to the ocean from the base of the cliff would require...observed. The trunk of the coconut trees were rich with epiphytes, bryophytes , orchids, and ferns. The plateau area vegetation consists chiefly of... substrate is covered by staghorn coral, Acropora hebes which forms dense, flat-topped thickets growing upward to the low tide line. Massive Porites

  13. Geological garden in the neighborhood of Budapest, Hungary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Janos Haas; Géza Hámor


    @@ IntroductionMore than a hundred million year history of the Mesozoic evolution of the Tethys is recorded in the layers of the Kálvária (Calvary) Hill at Tata, a town 70 km northwest of Budapest, between the Gerecse and Vértes Mountains. On the ruins of a medieval church, located on the top of a projecting cliff, a chapel as well as calvary monuments were built in the 18th century lending the name of the hill.

  14. Isolation of Novel Extreme-Tolerant Cyanobacteria from a Rock-Dwelling Microbial Community by Using Exposure to Low Earth Orbit▿ †


    Olsson-Francis, Karen; de la Torre, Rosa; Cockell, Charles S.


    Many cyanobacteria are known to tolerate environmental extremes. Motivated by an interest in selecting cyanobacteria for applications in space, we launched rocks from a limestone cliff in Beer, Devon, United Kingdom, containing an epilithic and endolithic rock-dwelling community of cyanobacteria into low Earth orbit (LEO) at a height of approximately 300 kilometers. The community was exposed for 10 days to isolate cyanobacteria that can survive exposure to the extreme radiation and desiccatin...

  15. Computer-Based Teleconferencing and Its Impact on Command and Staff Relationships within the United States Army (United States)


    decision making process. 31 IV. LABOR vs. WORK Frederick Herzberg claims that, "people labor to avoid the growing pains of depravation, while they work...collar’ versus "white collar" personnel still apply for measures of efficiency and 1.3 Frederick Herzberg . "Maximizing Work & Minimizing Labor" Industry...PROCESS (Prentice-Hall Inc. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey. 1982). Herzberg , Frederick . "Maximizing Work and Minimizing Labor i.VYfTRY WIM", 13 October

  16. They've Got Your Number

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Iexpected a lovely Chinese vacation spot, where a happy family rents a boat or basks on a sandy beach. The guidebook didn't mention stepping off a cliff with absolutely nothing below. It didn't matter that at Yanxihu Lake, no one we met spoke any English. We quickly learned the magic word: piao, meaning ticket. I'm feeling pretty good about knowing

  17. Biosimilars: Company Strategies to Capture Value from the Biologics Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Leonardo Martínez-Hurtado


    Full Text Available Patents for several biologic blockbusters will expire in the next few years. The arrival of biosimilars, the biologic equivalent of chemical generics, will have an impact on the current biopharmaceuticals market. Five core capabilities have been identified as paramount for those companies aiming to enter the biosimilars market: research and development, manufacturing, supporting activities, marketing, and lobbying. Understanding the importance of each of these capabilities will be key to maximising the value generated from the biologics patent cliff.

  18. Environmental Assessment And Finding of No Significant Impact for the Low Impact Development Retrofit At Pillar Point Air Force Station, California (United States)


    January 2012 Gravel pads will be installed at all access points to prevent tracking of mud onto public roads. If fill material is to be imported...and forests. The pallid bat is most common in dry, open habitats and prefers rocky outcrops, cliffs, and crevices for roosting. Maternity colonies...disturbed area at any given time will be minimized . On-site vehicle speeds will be reduced to a maximum of 15 mph . Gravel pads will be installed at all

  19. To the border with Vietnam -Yunnan’s narrow-gauge railway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bruce Connolly


    <正>The highway from Kunming, capital of Southwest China’s Yunnan Province, to the Stone Forest scenic spot descends through a steep-sided gorge. Many times from that road I looked up at a railway high above which virtually clung to the cliffs, sometimes on a ledge, frequently disappearing into tunnels. This line, 468 kilometres long, runs from Yunnan’s capital city to Hekou, a small town on

  20. A Heritage Economy: Business Model Innovation for Economic Wealth, Social Well-Being, and Environmental Health


    Frédérick Brousseau-Gauthier; Yvon Brousseau


    Faced with the inherent unsustainability of infinite growth in a world of finite resources, the neoclassical economy is running towards a cliff. In order to avoid a hard landing, enterprises need to broaden their definitions of value and wealth to include parameters that are not currently in the economic lexicon, but are still of paramount importance in our lives. Taken from that angle, heritage can be seen as a perfect replacement for capital, because its multidimensional and complex nature ...

  1. Geomorphological hazard and tourist vulnerability along Portofino Park trails (Italy)


    Brandolini, P.; F. Faccini; Piccazzo, M.


    International audience; The many trails existing in the coastal area of Portofino Promontory are used by tourists for trekking or as pathways to small villages and beaches. The aim of this paper is to define geomorphological hazard and tourist vulnerability in this area, within the framework of the management and planning of hiking activities in Portofino Natural Park. In particular, processes triggered by gravity, running waters and wave motion, affecting the slopes and the cliff, are consi...

  2. Human Estimation of Slope, Distance, and Height of Terrain in Simulated Lunar Conditions (United States)


    ambient optic array”, whose structure is invariantly related to the physical properties of the world [40]. One may likely conclude that a hill partially...parallel sun rays and the lack of diffuse and ambient light cause one side of Mt. Hadley in Figure 2.6 to appear as a steep cliff. Beyond earthshine, H... Psicologia , 5, 45 – 58. [25] Daum, S.O. & Hecht, H. (2007). Distance Estimation in Vista Space, submitted to Perception and Psychophysics. [26] De

  3. Dinosaur tracks in Lower Jurassic coastal plain sediments (Sose Bugt Member, Rønne Formation) on Bornholm, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Lars B; Milàn, Jesper; Pedersen, Gunver K


    Fluvial palaeochannels of coastal plain sediments of the Lower Jurassic Sose Bugt Member of the Rønne Formation exposed in the coastal cliffs at Sose Bugt, Bornholm, contain abundant dinosaur or other large vertebrate tracks in the form of deformation structures exposed in vertical section...... track. Contemporary Upper Triassic – Lower Jurassic strata from southern Sweden and Poland contain a diverse track fauna, supporting our interpretation. This is the earliest evidence of dinosaur activity in Denmark....

  4. Federal R&D Funding: Trends and Projections (United States)

    White, K. S.


    Between sequestration, shutdowns, and budget "cliffs," the federal budget process has experienced many challenges in recent years. Budgets for research and development (R&D) have mirrored these larger fiscal constraints. Over the past decade, many agencies and programs have seen flat or declining budgets, particularly when inflation is considered. This talk will examine recent geoscience R&D funding in the historical context and examine projections of future science funding in the framework of the Budget Control Act and other initiatives.

  5. Proceedings of the Meeting of the Coastal Engineering Research Board (44th) Held at Sausalito, California on 4-6 November 1985. (United States)


    current meter, a pressure sen- sor , and a five-element optical backscatter sensor for measuring suspended load concentration. Ten data runs were...operating limits of other runup sen- sors . More than 150 data runs have been analyzed and the results published in a paper describing the typical Imperial Beach. However the source of the material * has changed from that in the past (Ti juana River). The beach cliffs in Mexico are now eroding

  6. Sport Psychology. Theories and Applications for Performance, Health and Humanity.



    This congress proceedings volume includes all abstracts submitted to the 14th European Congress of Sport Psychology of the European Federation of Sport Psychology FEPSAC that have been accepted by the scientific evaluation committee. Content: six keynote lectures, Panteleimon ("Paddy") Ekkekakis: Escape from Cognitivism: Exercise as Hedonic Experience; Sergio Lara-Bercial and Cliff Mallett: Serial Winning Coaches – Vision, People and Environment; Kari Fasting: Sexual Harassment and Abuse in S...

  7. The United States Army Medical Department Journal. October - December 2010 (United States)


    learning. Cognit Sci. 1988;12(2):257-285. 40. Prensky M. Digital natives, digital immigrants. Horizon. 2001;9(5):1-6. 41. Bandura A. Social Learning...Theory. New York, NY: General Learning Press; 1971. 42. Bandura A. Social Foundations of Thought and Action. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall...we used when we created them. Albert Einstein 74 USG who asked for the status of abortion

  8. Maritime Mass Rescue Interventions: Availability and Associated Technology (United States)


    Hudson River, New York, NY [ Ditching , January 2009] Multiple resources working together. Survivor accountability, manifest uncertainties ?N...multiple airframes Vessel deployable - multiple vessel sizes/types Land deployable - e.g., from a cliff, remote area Long range deployable Multiple...approximately 3 nm outside the immediate harbor, is the designated " ditch zone" for Toronto Pearson International Airport. The Marine Unit is

  9. Manager-Organization Linkages: The Impact of Changing Work Environments. (United States)


    creation of the rest of the occupational characteristics that have come to be associated with the professions (cf. Ritzer , 1977). One of the more...Institute for Social Research, Ann Arbor, Mi. Ritzer , G. (1977). Working: Conflict and Change, Second Edition, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ. Schein, E... George E. Rowland Temple University, The Merit Center Ritter Annex, 9th Floor College of Education Philadephia, PA 19122 Dr. Irwin G. Sarason

  10. Měkkýši navrhované PR Údolí Vrchlice u Kutné Hory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Juřičková


    Full Text Available This paper brings the first malacological research of the proposal nature reserve Vrchlice Valley (Central Bohemia, Czech Republic after hundred years. Altogether, 44 mollusc species have been recorded in a very diverse mosaic of floodplain forests, cliffs and meadows. Rare or locally important species Vertigo pusilla, Semilimax semilimax, Daudebardia rufa, Isognomostoma isognomostomos, Oxyloma elegans, Vitrea crystallina and Laciniaria plicata were recorded in the area of the reserve.

  11. Marta maailm / Marta Vaarik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaarik, Marta, 1987-


    Riigikogu liige Evelin Sepp käis sir Elton Johni kontserdil 15. sept. Saku Suurhallis. Poplaulja Mike Emelai on kaalus alla võtnud. Riigikogu liige Enn Eesmaa esineb Cliff Richardi looga "Don't Forget To Catch Me" 4. okt. Eesti Vähiliidu korraldataval heategevuskontserdil. "Tantsud tähtedega" saates paarina võistlevad laulja Koit Toome ja tantsija Kerttu Tänav käisid Elton Johni kontserdil

  12. Communication and Control in Organizations: Applying the Work of James Thompson and Gregory Bateson to Interpretive Research. (United States)


    Harre 1979), linquists (Chomsky JN 1976), literary theorists (Eagleton 1983), and a long list of social scientists ( Schutz 1970, Berger and Luckmann...the Corporation. New York: Basic Books. Kline, G. L. (1963). Alfred North Whtega: Essays on ail PhilQj . Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall...1983). ’A Communication-Rules Approach to Organizational Culture’. Administrative Science Quarterly, 28, 557-581. Schutz , A. (1970). DU Phenomenologv And

  13. The Determination of the Natural Frequencies and Mode Shapes for Anisotropic Laminated Plates Including the Effects of Shear Deformation and Rotatory Inertia. (United States)


    shear effects began with Pryor and Barker [133. Their model was based on Reissner’s plate theory and was applied to the cylindrical bending of a...Theory. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall, Inc., 1974. 6. Dym, Clive L. and Irving H. Shames. Solid Mechanics: A Variational Approach. New York: McGraw-Hill...13. Pryor, Jr., C. W. and Barker , R. M. "A Finite Element Analysis Including Transverse Shear Effects for Applications to Laminated Plates,’ AIAA J

  14. The Matrix Reloads%《黑客帝国》续集

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JESS CAGLE; 胡小兵


    @@ When we last visited the Matrix, computers had taken over the planet and imprisoned the human race in a computer-generated "reality". Keanu Reeves played Neo, a hacker5 turned superhero recruited to save his fellow man, and the movie ended with him literally taking flight6 It was a cliff-hanger7 that might as well have been subtitled "Watch for the sequel, coming soon to a theater near you - that is, if this thing makes any money."

  15. Extending the Season for Concrete Construction and Repair. Phase II - Defining Engineering Parameters (United States)


    18 Tricalcium aluminate 12 7 8 Tetracalcium alumino-ferrite 8 12 9 Fineness (Blaine, m2/kg) 350 350 370 * Data from Mindess and Young (1981...compares favorably to published values for the thermal coefficient of expansion of mortar of between 7 and 12 ppm/°C ( Mindess and Young 1981, p. 526...Prentice- Hall. Mindess , S. and J. F. Young. 1981. Concrete. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc. Mironov, S. A. 1977. Theory and

  16. Ground Wave Emergency Network Final Operational Capability: Environmental Assessment for Central Nevada Relay Node, Site Number RN 8W917NV (United States)


    the Intermountain West in a variety of habitats, including ponderosa pine forests and caves . It is most frequently found in California, Arizona, New...rabbit’s home range and impacts are not expected. The spotted bat habitats of high cliffs and canyons, ponderosa pine forests, and caves are absent from the...90, Tribal Administrator Shoshone-Paiute, but no response has been Owyhee , Nevada received to the letter or to several attempts at phone communication

  17. Examination of Noise Management Approaches in the United States (United States)


    a firm and they are free to reduce emissions in any manner to meet the targeted levels (Seneca and Taussig , 1984). For noise control this has been... Michael J. 1982. O’Hare International Airport: Impervious to Proposed State Efforts to Limit Airport Noise. Journal of Law and Commerce 47:413-48... Taussig . 1984. Environmental Economics. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc. Setter, David M. 1980-81. Highway Noise: To Compensate or Not to

  18. Measurement of Air Force Environmental Protection Program Performance. (United States)


    Environmental Improvement. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1974. 36. Seneca, Joseph J. and Michael K. Taussig . Environmental Economics. Englewood Cliffs NJ...Responsibility. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1980. 18. Deland, Michael R. "Environmental Auditing," Environmental Science and Technology, 16: 509...November 1982). 19. Deland, Michael R. "EPA’s New Management Approach," Environmental Science and Technology, 16: 605 (November 1982). 20. DeMarco, Anthony

  19. Rockfall-induced impact force causing a debris flow on a volcanoclastic soil slope: a case study in southern Italy (United States)

    Budetta, P.


    On 10 January 2003, a rockfall of approximately 10 m3 affected a cliff some 25 m high located along the northern slopes of Mt. St. Angelo (Nocera Inferiore, province of Salerno) in the southern Italian region of Campania. The impact of boulders on the lower sector of the slope, along which detrital-pyroclastic soils outcrop, triggered a small channelled debris flow of about 500 m3. Fortunately, no damage nor victims resulted from the landslide. Several marks of the impacts were observed at the cliff toe and outside the collapsed area, and the volumes of some fallen boulders were subsequently measured. By means of in-situ surveys, it was possible to reconstruct the cliff's geo-structural layout in detail. A rockfall back-analysis was subsequently performed along seven critical profiles of the entire slope (surface area of about 4000 m2). The results of this numerical modelling using the lumped-mass method were then used to map the kinetic iso-energy curves. In the triggering area of the debris flow, for a falling boulder of 1 m3, the mean kinetic energy was estimated at 120 kJ, this value being equivalent to an impact force, on an inclined surface, of some 800 kN. After landing, due to the locally high slope gradient (about 45°), and low angle of trajectory at impact (about 23°), some boulders slid down the slope as far as the endpoints. The maximum depth of penetration into the ground by a sliding block was estimated at about 16 cm. Very likely, owing to the high impact force of boulders on the saturated soil slope outcropping at the cliff base, the debris flow was triggered under undrained loading conditions. Initial failure was characterized by a translational slide involving a limited, almost elliptical area where the pyroclastic cover shows greater thickness in comparison with the surrounding areas.

  20. Geometric Modeling Applications Interface Program. Schema Manager User’s Manual (United States)


    Standard, Product Definition Data Interface (PDDI), Project 5601, Contract F33516-82-5036, July 1984. Information Modeling Manual IDEF-Extended ( IDEFIX ...Englewood Cliffs, N.J. Differential Geometry of Curves and Surfaces, M. P. de Carmo, Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1976. IDEFIX Readers Reference, D. Appleton...IDEF Information Modeling. IDEFIX -IDEF Extended Information Modeling. IDEF2 -IDEF Dynamics Modeling. IDSS - Integrated Decision Support System

  1. Organizational-economic mechanism of transfer of innovation Urals (for example, "Rural tourism"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Latysheva


    Full Text Available The article is devoted to questions of organizational and economic mechanisms of transfer of innovation and improvement of the Urals this process means "rural tourism." This paper draws attention to the training of rural specialists. The authors explain the principles and means of the transfer of innovation on the example of the "Marin cliff." Just show that government, business and science, interacting, can improve the competitiveness of agriculture and successfully carried out import of agricultural products.

  2. Range Riders and Game Wardens: A Brief History of Fort Bragg’s Forest Ranger Program (United States)


    19 Figure 29: Ranger Roger Fish, 1971 (photo comrtesy of the Fort Bragg Paraglide , Photo by CliffRhodes...20 Figure 30: Ranger M.C. Windley, 1971 (photo courte.Dy ofthe Fort Bragg Paraglide , photo by Chff Rhodes) ............... 20 Figure 31: Evelyn...Ellington, 1971 (photo courtegy of the Fort Bragg Paraglide ,photo by Ckff Rhodes) ..................... 21 Figure 32: Ranger’s wife feeding a young

  3. USAF Summer Research Program - 1995 Summer Faculty Research Program Final Reports, Volume 5A, Wright Laboratory (United States)


    Summer Faculty Program at WL/MT in addition to those named above. Al Taylor John Cantrell Shirley Henderson Mary Lewis Bill Brown Bob Reifenberg Mickey...Way. TQC towa Nanika-Nipponteki Hinshitsu Kanri. Prentice Hall, Inc. Englewood Cliffs. 1985. Katzenbach , Jon R. and Douglas K. Smith. The Wisdom of...36(3), 301 (1993). [2] A. I. Akinwande, P. P. Ruden, B. L. Goldenberg, D. K. Arch, and John King, Proceedings of 1994 Tri-Service (NASA) Cathode

  4. The Origin of Convex Waterfalls Along the Niobrara River by Valentine, Nebraska (United States)

    Pederson, D. T.; Mason, L. J.; Goble, R. J.


    Waterfalls on tributaries along a stretch of the Niobrara River east of Valentine, Nebraska have a convex-downstream geometry in the horizontal plane and an arc in the vertical plane. Siltstone forming the cliff face is only slightly indurated and should be easily eroded by stream water. This is not the case as the cliff face on either side of the waterfalls clearly undergoes more rapid erosion than the face of the falls forming a convex geometry. This differential erosion rate includes points where waterfalls occur immediately along the banks of the Niobrara River. At these points, riverbank erosion is clearly more effective upstream and downstream of a waterfall as evidenced by the protrusion of the waterfall face into the river. There appears to be repetitive-cycles of waterfall evolution along the tributaries. The convexity increases until collapse occurs on the face of the falls, headward erosion then occurs, followed by the development of a new convex waterfall. The waterfalls have a more typical geometry (convex upstream) on tributaries in the lower reaches of the Niobrara River, where cliff faces become coarser grained. The tributaries are fed by springs. Several processes interact to form the convex geometry. Freeze/thaw erosion is more effective on either side of the waterfalls. Water enters the face of the falls and wicks into the cliff causing negative pore pressures. Clay coatings on mineral grains appear to play a role in protection from erosion. Algae and lichen growth aids in protecting the face of the falls. Small groundwater flow systems, represented by seepage into the streambed above the falls and discharge to the side of the falls can cause seepage erosion and enhancement of freeze/thaw erosion.

  5. Taxonomic results of the Bryotrop expedition to Zaire and Rwanda : 6., Aytoniaceae, Marchantiaceae


    Bischler-Causse, Helene; Long, David G.


    A subspecies known with certainty only from Europe. Its electrophoretic pattern separates it clearly from the other subspecies of M. polymorpha , but its morphological characteristics are not clearly distinctive (Boisselier & Bischler 1989) . However, the tropical African specimens from Kenya and Tanzania, together with those of Rwanda, probably belong to this subspecies. It grows on wet soil in Senecio refractisquamata paramo and on cliffs in Hagenia- Dombeya forests, between 2700 and 3600 m...

  6. Narcissism and Toxic Leaders (United States)


    Psychology 36, (1978): 635-42; Albert Bandura , “Moral Disengagement in the Perpetration of Inhumanities,” Personality and Social Psychology Review, (3)3...1999): 193-209; Albert Bandura , Self- Efficacy: The Exercise of Control (New York: Freeman, 1997); Albert Bandura , Social Foundations of Thought and...Action: A Social Cognition Theory (Englewood Cliffs, NH: Prentice Hall, 1986). 9. Bandura , “Moral Disengagement in the Perpetration of Inhumanities

  7. Workforce Motivation in 1983: A Review for DoD Policy Implication. (United States)


    greater, subordinates knew the goals and what was expected of them, and the team spirit was higher. 10. Expectancy Victor H . Vroom developed his...34Productivity and Job Satisfaction," Personnel Psychology, Autumn 1960. 16. Vroom , Victor H . and Mann, Floyd C., "Leader Authoritarianism and Employee...Attitudes," Personnel Psychology, Summer 1960. 17. Vroom , Victor H ., Some Personality Determinants of the Effects of Participation, Englewood Cliffs

  8. Participative Budgeting as a Communication Process: A Model and Experiment. (United States)


    Partici- pative Budgeting on Managerial Behavior. New York: National Association of Accountants , 1975. Vroom , Victor H . Some Personality...Determinants of the Effects of Participation. Englewood Cliffs , N.J.: Prentice—Hall , Inc., 1960. Vroom , Victor H . and Yetton , Philli p W. Leadership and...about which you are concerned 3. Does your immediate superior ask your opi nion when a p rcb lem comes up that involves your work 16Victor H . Vroom

  9. Understanding Charts and Graphs. (United States)


    How to Lie . with Statistics . The acceptability principles introduced in this section are concerned with...and so on. Some of these principles are directly reflected by Huff’s (1954) observations about how to lie with statistics . Principles of contextual...Seminar Press, pp 41-58. Hochberg, J. E. (1964). Perception. Engelwood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Huff, D. (1954). How to Lie with Statistics . New York:

  10. Guidelines for Research Planning and Design in Task Analysis (United States)


    Kaplan, Abraham, THE CONDUCT OF INQUIRY, San Francisco: Chandler, 1964. Nagel , Ernest, THE STRUCTURE OF SCIENCE, New York: Harcourt Brace, Inc...Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1966. Selltiz , Claire,, RESEARCH METHODS IN SOCIAL RELATIONS, New York: Holt-Dryden, 1959...ATSH-DET Deputy Commander U.S. Array Institute of Administration Fort Benjamin Harrison, IN 46216 ATTN: EA Dr. Stanley L. Cohen U.S. Array

  11. Proteins in seed and seedlings of selected Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arnold) trees as genetic markers tolerant to drought


    Mataruga Milan; Isajev Vasilije; Konstantinov Kosana; Mladenović-Drinić Snežana; Daničić Vanja


    A precondition necessary for creation and selection of genotypes tolerant of stress conditions is a study of physiological, biochemical and molecular bases of their adaptive reaction to stress. The study includes 40 lines of free pollination originating from 5 provenances: Sutjeska, Višegrad, Tara, Teslić and Durmitor (B&H, Serbia and Montenegro). Two populations were selected from each provenance, i.e.: 5 lines of free pollination represent the population growing on the cliffs and 3 line...

  12. Soviet Counterinsurgency (United States)


    not result in the development of a comprehensive Marxist-Leninist military doctrine. As D.F. White notes, it was left to Trotsky , Frunze, Tukhachevsky...significantly alter the basic structure and interrelationships of d Meade Earle, "Lenin, Trotsky , Stalin: Soviet Concepts of War," in: Makers of Modern...Sokolovskii, ed., Soviet Military Strategv, trans. Herbert S. Dinerstein, Leon Goure, and Thomas Wolfe (Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall, 1963): 48-49. 22Joseph

  13. Understanding Predicting and Supporting Leader Self-Development (United States)


    of the participants’ uniformly high levels of cognitive ability, with an average Wonderlic Personnel Test (WPT) score of 29.25. The average score for...Applied Psychology, 80(2), 239-252. Vroom, V. (1964). Work and motivation. New York: John Wiley. Wonderlic Personnel Test. (1992). Wonderlic Personnel...Test user’s manual. Libertyville, IL: Wonderlic Personnel Test, Inc. 35 Yukl, G. A. (1998). Leadership in organizations (4h ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ

  14. 《史前一万年》影片概况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ 片名:10000 B.C. 译名:史前一万年 导演:罗兰·艾默里奇 Roland Emmefidl 主演:史蒂文·斯崔特 Steven Strait 卡米拉·贝勒 Camilla Belle 克利夫·柯蒂斯 Cliff Curtis 摄影:犹利·斯特格 配乐:哈罗德·科洛瑟托马斯·万德

  15. Enhanced Spectral Modeling of Sparse Aperture Imaging Systems (United States)


    Optical Society of America 61, 272-273. [19] Gonzalez , Rafael C. and R.E. Woods (2002). Digital Image Processing . Second Ed. Prentice Hall, Inc...research effort provides an adequate enough representation of the imaging process that any observed effects are not manufactured by the digital ...Fundamentals of Digital Image Processing . Prentice Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ. [30] Lampkin, Curt M., G.W. Flint, and M.J. MacFarlane (1988

  16. National Socialist Ideology: Impact on Strategy and Operational Art (United States)


    Jackson J Spielvogel, Second Edition, Hitler and NAZI Germany, A History. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Simon & Shuster Company), 49-50. 8 James Taylor and...W.W. Norton and Company, 2000), 135. 11 Spielvogel, Second Edition, Hitler and NAZI Germany, A History, 97. 12 Ibid., 28. 13 Ibid., 41. 14...Translated by Krista Smith. New York, NY: Enigma Books, 2003. Hitler, Adolf. Mein Kampf. Translated by Ralph Manheim. Boston, Mass: Houghton Mifflin

  17. A Study to Establish Baseline Data on the Retiree Population’s Perceptions of Access and Health Care Delivered through Outpatient Services at Ireland Army Community Hospital (United States)


    common household products, there are many ideas and principles that are used in marketing consumer products that can be applied to primary health care...Design & Analysis, Chicago: Free Press, 1955. Kotler , Phillip., Marketing for Nonprofit Organizations, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc., recapture ’the retiree population around IACH, Ft. Knox, KY. and to implement a marketing strategy which would attempt to recapture a portion of

  18. Sound / Märt Milter

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Milter, Märt


    Uute plaatide Rolling Stones "No Security", Spiritualized "Live At The Royal Albert Hall", Kelly family "From Their Hearts", Arnold "Hillside Album", Joe Cocker "Greatest Hits", OST "Acid House", Songs from Andrew Lloyd Webber and Jim Steinmans "Whistle Down The Wind", The Weather Girls "PuttinÒn The Hits", Cliff Richard "Real As I Wanna Be", Folkmill "Topelt rosin", SIG "Sig 20v. Juhla-EP", "Motown Celebrates Sinatra", John Lee Hooker "Best Of Friends"

  19. Multi-Sensor Scene Synthesis and Analysis (United States)


    vol. 8, pp. 313-333, 1978. 34. C. R. Brice and C. L. Fennema , "Scene Analysis Using Regions," Artificial Intelligence, vol. 1, pp. 205-226, 1970. 35. D...Cliffs, NJ, 1972. 85. C. R. Brice and C. L. Fennema , "Scene Analysis Using Regions," Art. Intell., vol. 1, pp. 205-226, 1970. 86. S. K. Chang, N. Donato, J

  20. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Foreign Military Review, No. 5, May 1987 (United States)


    three principal areas for such intervention therein: the affairs of developing countries that are headed by governments unsuitable to Washington; the...arrival of new ships in it. The "national defense program" adopted by the Japanese government in 1976 stipulates a quantitative level of 60 ships for...located on the southwest tip of the Pyrenees Peninsula at the entrance to the 74 Mediterranean and a well-known massive cliff rising 429 m, has decisive