WorldWideScience

Sample records for cliffs

  1. Remembering Cliff Swartz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Erlend H.

    2011-01-01

    In recalling my 40-year friendship with Cliff Swartz, there are naturally a great many interesting anecdotes I could relate. But as amusing or poignant as they might be, they would tend to be rather disjointed—you could never tell what Cliff might do or think of next—without some overarching theme. Accordingly, since this is a magazine about teaching physics, I will concentrate on Cliff's teaching style and some of the many devices he used to enhance it.

  2. Cliffs User Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Tolkova, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Cliffs is an open-source relative of MOST (Method Of Splitting Tsunamis) numerical model, implemented as described in (Tolkova, 2014, Pure and Appl. Geophys., 171(9), 2289-2314). Cliffs features: Shallow-Water approximation with an option to manipulate numerical dispersion; Use of Cartesian or spherical (lon/lat) coordinates; 1D and 2D configurations; Structured co-located grid with (optionally) varying spacing; Runup on land; Initial conditions or boundary forcing; Grid nesting with one-way coupling; Parallelized with OpenMP; NetCDF format of input/output data. This user manual accompanies Cliffs code distribution.

  3. Study of cliff shoreline erosion

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez-Pina, Gregorio; Muñoz-Perez, Juan J.; Figueres, Miguel; Garrido, Joaquin; Ponce de León, Daniel; Perez, Angela; Velasco, Marta; Lizondo, Susana

    2012-01-01

    In this paper the cliff shoreline erosion on the coastline between Punta Montijo and the Chipiona Port (Cadiz, Spain) is studied. The reasons which cause this erosive phenomenon and the future erosive tendency of these cliffs are estimated, obtaining magnitudes of recession and the rate at which it will occur. Analysis of the current situation has been carried out by determining its plan shape, the study of the theoretical erosion profile of the cliffs and the verification of their failure. T...

  4. Cliffs at Gruchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Middleton

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Downward from Gruchy, past its wind-wrenched elm,The path drops under pastures to a cliffWhere outcrop boulder-stones glint blue and iron,Breaking above great sweeps of sea and sky.Below the rocks, rowing in close to shoreThe fishermen, no bigger than the gullsThat turn above them crying at their catch,Glide over green and lavender to sand.Outside the scene, a higher, flatter rockProvided the perspective for these stonesThat point toward the horizon’s shining line,Insight’s limitless limit bo...

  5. White Cliffs: Operating Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneff, S.

    1984-01-01

    The fourteen dish white cliffs solar power station area is remote and subject to extreme environmental conditions, solution of the associated problems required careful and thoughtful attention and the application of resources. Notwithstanding the wide range and harshness of conditions, the difficulties caused by remoteness and the lack of a technological base and the need for relatively rapid demonstration of success, the project has had a very positive outcome. Qualitative and quantitative information and lessons are now available to enable considerable simplifications to be made for a new system, reducing both hardware and operation and maintenance costs. Experience and lessons are presented, particularly in relation to: system performance in various environmental conditions; design philosophies for collectors, the array, control systems, engine and plant; operation and maintenance strategies and cost reducing possibilities. Experience so far gives encouragement for the future of such paraboloidal dish systems in appropriate areas.

  6. Lessons learned at Calvert Cliffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, C.C. III (Baltimore Gas and Electric Co.); Graf, D.V.; Honey, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    Initial operation of the Calvert Cliffs-1 Reactor yielded significant reliability information in the following areas: circulating water system, primary system valve leakage, steam generator blowdown recovery, spare parts availability, breathing air systems, primary system water chemistry, secondary system water chemistry, RPS/ESFAS interactions, in-core detectors, and computer trending.

  7. CliffsQuickReview Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huetinck, Linda; Ph., D.; Adams, Scott

    2001-06-01

    CliffsQuickReview course guides cover the essentials of your toughest subjects. Get a firm grip on core concepts and key material, and test your newfound knowledge with review questions. Whether you need a course supplement, help preparing for a physics exam, or a concise reference for physics, CliffsQuickReview Physics can help. This guide provides a valuable introduction to the concepts of classical mechanics, thermodynamics, magnetism, and electricity. In no time, you'll be ready to tackle other concepts in this book such as Wave motion and sound Current and resistance Electromagnetic induction Geometrical optics Nuclear physics Quantum mechanics CliffsQuickReview Physics acts as a supplement to your other learning material. Use this reference in any way that fits your personal style for study and review -- you decide what works best with your needs. You can flip through the book until you find what you're looking for -- it's organized to gradually build on key concepts. Or, here are just a few other ways you can search for topics: Use the free Pocket Guide full of essential information Get a glimpse of what you'll gain from a chapter by reading through the Chapter Check-In at the beginning of each chapter Use the Chapter Checkout at the end of each chapter to gauge your grasp of the important information you need to know Test your knowledge more completely in the CQR Review and look for additional sources of information in the CQR Resource Center Use the glossary to find key terms fast. With titles available for all the most popular high school and college courses, CliffsQuickReview guides are a comprehensive resource that can help you get the best possible grades.

  8. 76 FR 4391 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC, Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... COMMISSION Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC, Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2; Exemption 1.0 Background Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC, the licensee, is the holder of Facility Operating License Nos. DPR-53 and DPR-69 which authorizes operation of the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear...

  9. 76 FR 1469 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-10

    ... COMMISSION Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2... Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC, the licensee, for operation of the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant... for light-water nuclear power reactors,'' which requires that the calculated emergency core...

  10. 76 FR 39908 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ... COMMISSION Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2.... DPR-53 and DPR-69, for the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2 (CCNPP), respectively... (ISFSI), currently held by Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC as owner and licensed...

  11. 75 FR 66802 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... COMMISSION Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2... Regulatory Commission (the Commission) has granted the request of Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC... Operating License Nos. DPR-53 and DPR-69 for the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and...

  12. A contrasting study: cliff and bank swallows

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of the project was to contrast as population of Cliff Swallows and a population of Bank Swallows. Both populations had nests located in a gravel pit...

  13. CliffsNotes Statistics Quick Review

    CERN Document Server

    Voelker, David H; Adams, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Inside the Book: Graphic displays Numerical measures Probability Sampling Principles of testing Univariate inferential tests Bivariate relationships Review questions Resource center Glossary Common mistakes Tables Why CliffsNotes? Go with the name you know and trust Get the information you need-fast! CliffsNotes Quick Review guides give you a clear, concise, easy-to-use review of the basics. Introducing each topic, defining key terms, and carefully walking you through sample problems, this guide helps you grasp and understand the important concepts needed to succeed. Access 500

  14. 2012 Cliff Weiss Memorial Essay Contest Winners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techniques: Connecting Education and Careers (J3), 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the winners of the 2012 Cliff Weiss Memorial Essay Contest. They are Naim Owens from Washington, DC, and Colissa Menke from Warrensburg, Missouri. The 2012 essay topic is "How do you feel CTE prepares individuals, including yourself, for a future career?"

  15. Vertical cliff surveys with a phoswich

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A prototype backpack-portable phoswich detector system developed by Umbarger and Wolf, micro-R meters, and standard mountaineering techniques were used to survey 20m (60 ft) high cliff faces in the effluent outfall area of a former treatment plant for transuranic and fission product waste from the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. Selection of the phoswich system was based on the requirement to use the most sensitive survey meter system available to monitor for transuranics. Standard techniques for descending a fixed rope (considered to be the most practical and probably safest method) permitted ready access to all portions of the cliff face to determine the extent, if any, of residual contamination. This paper provides a brief summary of the characteristics and detection limits of the ruggedized phoswich system, and the survey methods used. (author)

  16. The Sensitivity of Coastal Cliffs to Changes in Sea Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosser, N.; Lim, M.; Petley, D.

    2007-12-01

    The impact of waves upon coastal cliffs is a significant control on erosion and subsequent cliff retreat. It is widely anticipated that climatically-driven sea-level rise will result in an increase in the rate of erosion, and thus the retreat, of coastal cliffs. Quantifying the changes in the rate of coastal erosion remains problematic, primarily due to the difficulty of collecting high-precision and high-frequency monitoring data on both cliff change and the variations in environmental conditions at the coast. In the UK, local authorities now have to produce a "Shoreline Management Plan" (SMP), indicating how the coastline will be managed for the future. This requires the estimation of rates of coastal retreat over the next century, making the impact of sea-level change a critical consideration. This study presents the results from a three year monitoring survey of a section of near-vertical coastal cliffs in north-east England. Data have been collected using a high-resolution terrestrial laser scanner to obtain cliff surfaces. Analysis of successive 3D cliff models is used to derive sequential change, from which the precise nature, geometry and rate of retreat can be measured. In parallel, data has been collected on the micro-seismic impact of waves onto the cliff to gain a direct measure of the delivery of energy at any given sea-level, rather than using a function of wave and tide gauge records. The coastline studied has a significant tidal range, in excess of 6 m, in addition to a large seasonal variability in mean tide heights, allowing a range of sea-level conditions to be assessed. For comparison weather, tide and wave monitoring has been undertaken. The results suggest a close link between the magnitude and frequency of wave impact and the loss of material from the cliff face. Marked changes in wave impact are apparent as the tide level fluctuates on an inter-monthly and inter-annual basis. Thresholds are identified which appear to reflect discrete changes

  17. Cliff swallow populations in the southern Askinuk Mountains, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — During breeding season, cliff swallows are widely distributed throughout Alaska and North America south to Mexico, and they are locally common in western and...

  18. Life strategies of bryophytes on loess cliffs in Vojvodina, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabovljević Marko S.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The loess cliffs of Vojvodina present a special ecosystem type. The main plant components in these habitats are cryptogams (bryophytes and lichens. The biology and life strategies of bryophytes recorded on loess in Vojvodina are studied in the present work, whose results confirm a very special ecology in such habitats. Colonist species with xeropottioid characteristics are dominant among bryophytes. It is stressed that loess cliff habitats are especially important from the standpoint of conservation.

  19. Stability of permafrost dominated coastal cliffs in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, Md. Azharul; Pollard, Wayne H.

    2016-03-01

    Block failure is considered to be an important component of coastal retreat in permafrost regions. A comprehensive model is developed to study the effects of thermoerosional niche and ice wedge morphology on the stability of permafrost dominated coastal cliff against block failure. The model is formulated by coupling slope stability analysis with a time dependent progression of thermoerosional niches and the morphology of the nearby ice wedges. Model computations are initially performed for failure conditions for a given cliff height, frozen soil strength, ice content, water pressure in the active layer, thermoerosional niche depth and ice wedge morphology. Under these conditions block failures are found to be predominantly overturning failures and are governed by the tensile strength of frozen soil, thermoerosional niche depth and ice wedge location and depth. The effects of ice wedges are then examined by analyzing failure conditions for ice wedges of different locations and depths. For a given cliff height, strength and thermoerosional niche, block failure may occur at a range of different combinations of ice wedge locations and depths. Two stability nomograms are developed through repeated model calculations for range of cliff heights and frozen soil tensile strength. These nomograms can be used to determine the critical combinations of thermoerosional niche depth, ice wedge distance and ice wedge depth that lead to block collapse of a cliff of known height and soil strength. Some analytical expressions are also derived to determine potential block failure criteria along Arctic coasts.

  20. Power laws statistics of cliff failures, scaling and percolation

    CERN Document Server

    Baldassarri, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The size of large cliff failures may be described in several ways, for instance considering the horizontal eroded area at the cliff top and the maximum local retreat of the coastline. Field studies suggest that, for large failures, the frequencies of these two quantities decrease as power laws of the respective magnitudes, defining two different decay exponents. Moreover, the horizontal area increases as a power law of the maximum local retreat, identifying a third exponent. Such observation suggests that the geometry of cliff failures are statistically similar for different magnitudes. Power laws are familiar in the physics of critical systems. The corresponding exponents satisfy precise relations and are proven to be universal features, common to very different systems. Following the approach typical of statistical physics, we propose a "scaling hypothesis" resulting in a relation between the three above exponents: there is a precise, mathematical relation between the distributions of magnitudes of erosion ...

  1. Cliff House Hotel: Dessert Menu 5th of September, 2014.

    OpenAIRE

    Cliff House Hotel

    2014-01-01

    The Cliff House Hotel is a five-star, privately owned luxury hotel located close to Cork and Waterford. The building seems to cling to a cliff on the south side of Ardmore Bay where there has long been a fishing village, and a Christian settlement that pre-dates St. Patrick. From sun-drenched terraces and private balconies it is possible to see Ardmore’s sands, lobster pots and dolphins that play out on the water. All our luxury rooms and suites are sea facing while many are interconnected...

  2. Cliff House Hotel: Dinner Menu 5th of September, 2014.

    OpenAIRE

    Cliff House Hotel

    2014-01-01

    The Cliff House Hotel is a five-star, privately owned luxury hotel located close to Cork and Waterford. The building seems to cling to a cliff on the south side of Ardmore Bay where there has long been a fishing village, and a Christian settlement that pre-dates St. Patrick. From sun-drenched terraces and private balconies it is possible to see Ardmore’s sands, lobster pots and dolphins that play out on the water. All our luxury rooms and suites are sea facing while many are interconnected...

  3. Cliff House Hotel: Tasting Menu 4th of September, 2014.

    OpenAIRE

    Cliff House Hotel

    2014-01-01

    The Cliff House Hotel is a five-star, privately owned luxury hotel located close to Cork and Waterford. The building seems to cling to a cliff on the south side of Ardmore Bay where there has long been a fishing village, and a Christian settlement that pre-dates St. Patrick. From sun-drenched terraces and private balconies it is possible to see Ardmore’s sands, lobster pots and dolphins that play out on the water. All our luxury rooms and suites are sea facing while many are interconnected...

  4. CliffsNotes Writing Grammar, Usage, and Style Quick Review

    CERN Document Server

    Eggenschwiler, Jean; Reinhardt, Claudia L W

    2011-01-01

    Inside the Book: Nouns - Verbs - Pronouns - Modifiers - Connecting Words and Phrases - Clauses, Phrases, and Sentences - Common Sentence Errors - Periods, Question Marks, and Exclamation Marks - Commas, Semicolons, and Colons - Dashes, Parentheses, and Quotation Marks - Idioms, Clichés, Jargon, and Wordiness - How to Begin a Writing Assignment - How to Research and Organize Your Writing - Revising and Editing - Review Questions - Resource Center - Glossary - Frequently Confused Words Why CliffsNotes? Go with the name you know and trust - Get the information you need-fast! CliffsNotes Quick Rev

  5. Mapping of landslide susceptibility of coastal cliffs : the Mont-Roig del Camp case study

    OpenAIRE

    Montoya-Montei, I.; Rodríguez-Santalla, I.; Sánchez-García, M.J.; Alcántara-Carrió, Javier; Martín-Velázquez, S.; Gómez-Ortiz, D.; Martín-Crespo, T.

    2012-01-01

    The weathered and fractured conglomerate cliffs of Mont Roig del Camp constitute a rock fall hazard for the surrounding pocket beaches and, therefore, for the population that frequent them, especially over the summer. Landslide susceptibility of the cliff has been assessed using the Rock Engineering System method (RES). The determinant and triggering factors considered in this study include: wave exposure, shoreline variations, cliff height, cliff slope, geotechnical quality of the rocky mass...

  6. The modes of instability of the Antalya (SW-Turkey) coastal cliffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipova, Nihat

    2010-05-01

    Cliff erosion and the consequent instabilities present a significant risk to Antalya city (SW-Turkey). Erosional processes include the chemical action of mixing zone water, the mechanical action of waves, salt erosion and biological degradation. The rock properties (lithology, stratification, strength etc) are the controlling factors to this erosion. The coastal cliffs of Antalya are composed of tufa type carbonate rocks which occur in a wide range, from collapsible soil to hard rock. The instability problems of the cliffs of Antalya tufa commonly involve: rock fall, cave collapse, raveling, washout of weakly lithified tufa, shear failure and secondary toppling. Secondary toppling type instabilities, Culmann type failures and complex failures, a combination of these two, are widespread on the cliffs. The occurrence of large failures are usually associated with heavy rainfall as heavy rainfall causes the saturation of pores, increases pore water pressures and reduces the strength of the rock. Comparison between aerial photographs and topographic maps of different dates, do not provide evidence of considerable retreat. According to the historical data there has been little or no cliff retreat for 2000 years. Therefore the erosion rate of the Antalya tufa cliffs is said to be so very slow that retreat is valid only in a geological timescale. However in an engineering timescale these cliffs are subjected to instabilities and to local failures causing local retreats. Keywords: Antalya, Coastal cliff, Cliff erosion, Cliff instability, Tufa

  7. Aerial Photogrammetric Analysis of a Scree Slope and Cliff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Greg; Galland, Olivier; Mair, Karen

    2014-05-01

    Mapping the physical features of landslide tracks provides information about factors controlling landslide movement. The increasing availability of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) provides the opportunity to efficiently and cost effectively map terrain. The main goal of this field study is to create a streamlined work-flow from acquisition to interpretation for the photogrammetric analysis of landslide tracks. Here an open source software package MicMac is used for ortho-image and point-cloud creation. A series of two flights were conducted over a scree (rockfall) slope in Kolsas, Norway. The slope runs roughly 500 m north-south with a maximum width of 60 m. A cliff to the west is the source area for the scree. The cliff consists of conglomerate, basalt, and porphyry from bottom to top respectively. The grain size of boulders in the scree slope apparently varies due to lateral differences in the cliff composition. The flights were completed under cloud cover and consisted of multiple lengthwise passes over the scree field. There was a minimum of 75% overlap between images. During the first flight the altitude was roughly 100 m, the camera was positioned normal to the scree (60 degrees from horizontal), and the resolution was 2.7 cm per pixel. The second flight had an altitude of 200 m, the camera orientation was 30 degrees from horizontal, and the resolution was 4.0 cm per pixel. Using the Micmac engine, Ortho-photos and Digital Elevation Models (DEM) were created for both the scree and the cliff. This data will allow for analysis of grain-size, surface roughness, grain-shape, fracture plane orientation, as well as geological mapping. Further work will focus the quantitative assessment of the significance different camera altitudes and angles have on the results. The work-flow used in this study provides a repeatable method for aerial photogrammetric surveys of scree slopes.

  8. Ancient "Red Cliff" battlefield: a historical-geographic study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xiugui

    2006-01-01

    The famous battle of Chibi,or "battle of Red Cliff",took place in 208 CE,the 13th year of the Jian'an period of the Eastern Han dynasty.This paper holds that the whole battle consisted of three inseparable stages,namely the initial clash at Chibi,the chase battle to Wulin,and Cao Cao's disorganized escape along Huarong Road.The Red Cliff battlefield thus extended across a distance of more than 300 li (150km).Even if the Chibi where the initial military engagement took place (that is,Chiji Hill,southwest of Wuchang in modern Wuhan City) has already disappeared,it should be restored to its proper historical position.The chase battle along the Yangzi River came to an end at Wulin,across the river is Chibi Hill in today's Chibi City.Although this Chibi is not the Chibi where the initial combat took place,it nonetheless forms an integral part of the ancient Chibi battlefield as a whole.The Huarong Road along which Cao Cao escaped runs through the middle of today's Jianghan Plain.Finally,the text aims to show that Chibi (Red Nose)1 Hill in modern Huangzhou City has nothing to do with the Chibi of the "battle of Red Cliff."

  9. A pliocene cliff-line around the Giza Pyramids Plateau, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Aigner, Thomas

    1982-01-01

    Aigner, T., 1983. A Pliocene cliff-line around the Giza Pyramids Plateau, Egypt. Palaeogeogr., Palaeoclimatol., Palaeoecol., 4 2 : 313—322. Escarpments bordering the Giza Pyramids Plateau represent the cliff-line of a Pliocene transgression up the pre-Nile ("Eonile") Valley. Geomorphologically, a limestone cliff can be distinguished from a slip-block shore associated with a distinct fining-up sequence. Differences in bedrock lithology and in structure (Joint pattern, faults) are morphogen...

  10. Test method improves motor bearing wear assessment at Calvert Cliffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article describes how motor current signature analysis is helping plant maintenance engineers assess the condition of inaccessible motors during plant operation. At Baltimore Gas ampersand Electric Co.'s Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, maintenance activities are based on reliability-centered maintenance (RCM) concepts and guided by a non-intrusive condition evaluation (NICE) policy wherever achievable. One technique that fits these criteria is motor current signature analysis (MCSA). The new technique has helped plant maintenance personnel assess the condition of relatively inaccessible containment cooling fan motors inside reactor containment during normal plant operation

  11. Nature of short-period microtremors on the cliff-like ground. 3; Gakechi kinbo no tanshuki bido . 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiguma, T.; Matsuzawa, H. [Saitama University, Saitama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-05-01

    Vibration characteristics were investigated of the ground in the vicinity of a cliff-like sharp slope. Short-period microtremors were observed in the vicinity of an artificially made cliff-like test ground, height 8m and inclination 90{degree}, and a natural cliff, height approximately 9m and inclination approximately 35{degree}. The artificial cliff was reinforced by a virtually vertical retaining wall of concrete, and the ground was prepared for testing with a belt approximately 20m wide and 50m long along the cliff face. All the vibration components were simultaneously measured at measuring spots that were located 5-40m apart from the cliff end and orientated perpendicular to the cliff face. It was then found that in case of artificial cliff there is a conspicuous 3.1Hz prevalent ground vibration in the component squarely meeting the cliff face, that the prevalent ground vibration is not particularly great near the cliff end because the retaining wall and the ground are artificially prepared, that there is no influence of the cliff-like ground in the ground vibration parallel to or vertical along the cliff face, and that in case of natural ground there are no vibration characteristic proper to a cliff-like ground in any of the vibration components. 3 refs., 7 figs.

  12. Interactions and management of the Stakeholders-Tourists-Trails-Environment system at Látrabjarg Cliffs (Iceland): a comparative study with Moher Cliffs (Ireland)

    OpenAIRE

    Legatelois, Marie Jannie Madeleine, 1989-

    2014-01-01

    Látrabjarg Cliffs (Iceland) are the biggest cliffs and sea bird colony of Europe. This site attracts an increasing number of international tourists. However, the current infrastructure presents on the site is not adapted for this tourism and the resulting pressure on the environment raises issues for the sustainability of this important site. Stakeholders are currently transforming Látrabjarg into a National Park and developing conservation and land-use plans to address these issues. The rese...

  13. 77 FR 10784 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Notice of Withdrawal of Application for Amendment to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-23

    ... COMMISSION Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Notice of Withdrawal of Application for Amendment to... of Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC, the licensee, to withdraw its application dated October... the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2, respectively, located in Calvert County,...

  14. Management perspective of the Alloy 600 issue at Calvert Cliffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In response to the question posed in the agenda regarding this presentation, let it be known at the onset that the impact of the pressurizer nozzle primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) on Calvert Cliffs was gigantic. It reached all levels of the Company management, including the Board of Directors. The investigation and repair cost over $20 million without any consideration for replacement power or consequential lost work by those who were involved in the repairs to the pressurizer. It occupied the attention of management and was a major ingredient to most decision processes for about eight months. It caused organizational modifications, capital commitments, and major resource reallocation. It became the focal point around which much of the site work revolved for approximately 6 months (until the repair process was well in hand and other issues prevailed). I will try and describe the impact it had on management, the ingredients used to reach certain important decisions and the concerns that influenced the decisions

  15. Survey on Cosmogenic 26Al in Lewis Cliff Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welten, K. C.; Alderliesten, C.; Lindner, L.

    1992-07-01

    INTRODUCTION: We have embarked upon a ^26Al gamma-ray survey of meteorites selected from about 2000 samples recently recovered from the Lewis Cliff Ice Fields (84 degrees 18'S/161 degrees 20'E). Due to its 705-ka half-life ^26Al can be used for estimating terrestrial ages and thus contribute to further characterization of Antarctic meteorites in addition to their classification and thermoluminescence (TL) properties. The ^26Al survey is also useful for identifying meteorites with unusual exposure histories, which merit additional measurements of cosmogenic radionuclides (by AMS) and noble gases. In addition, it provides clues on possible pairings. METHOD: Low-level gamma-ray spectroscopy is well suited for ^26Al survey work, since bulk meteorite samples can be measured routinely and nondestructively without any previous sample preparation. The required size of the samples (30-500 g) makes the method relatively independent of depth effects and compositional inhomogeneities. The use of a high-resolution GeLi detector also allows the determination of the natural ^40K activity and thus the K content of the samples, which can be used as an additional pairing criterion for ordinary chondrites. Also ^137Cs, a fall-out surface contamination [1], is simultaneously measured; low values may be characteristic for meteorites recently fallen or released from the ablating ice. For the detector an efficiency calibration curve has been made that adequately accounts for differences in size and shape of the meteorite samples. RESULTS and DISCUSSION: TERRESTRIAL AGES: So far, we have measured over 30 Lewis Cliff equilibrated H and L chondrites, collected from widely differing locations. Normalized to L-chondrite composition, the ^26Al contents range from 27 to 110 dpm/kg with peaks around 43 and 53 dpm/kg. This bimodal ^26Al distribution is reminiscent of that observed for Allan Hills ordinary chondrites [2]. Tentative terrestrial ages, calculated on the basis of ^26Al saturation

  16. Shakespeare Cliff, rempart symbolique aux portes du royaume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Price

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Figure 1 : Clarkson STANFIELD, Shakespeare Cliff, Dover, 1849, 1862« Il est une falaise, dont le front haut et courbeRegarde avec effroi dans l’abîme qu’elle enserre :Conduis-moi jusqu’à son bordEt je remédierai à la misère que tu souffresPar quelque riche objet ; de cet endroitJe n’aurai point besoin de guide. »Les lignes ci-dessus, tirées de l’Acte IV, Scène I du Roi Lear, font allusion aux falaises de Douvres, plus particulièrement à leur point culminant, un grand bloc de calcaire et de cr...

  17. Survey on Cosmogenic 26Al in Lewis Cliff Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welten, K. C.; Alderliesten, C.; Lindner, L.

    1992-07-01

    INTRODUCTION: We have embarked upon a ^26Al gamma-ray survey of meteorites selected from about 2000 samples recently recovered from the Lewis Cliff Ice Fields (84 degrees 18'S/161 degrees 20'E). Due to its 705-ka half-life ^26Al can be used for estimating terrestrial ages and thus contribute to further characterization of Antarctic meteorites in addition to their classification and thermoluminescence (TL) properties. The ^26Al survey is also useful for identifying meteorites with unusual exposure histories, which merit additional measurements of cosmogenic radionuclides (by AMS) and noble gases. In addition, it provides clues on possible pairings. METHOD: Low-level gamma-ray spectroscopy is well suited for ^26Al survey work, since bulk meteorite samples can be measured routinely and nondestructively without any previous sample preparation. The required size of the samples (30-500 g) makes the method relatively independent of depth effects and compositional inhomogeneities. The use of a high-resolution GeLi detector also allows the determination of the natural ^40K activity and thus the K content of the samples, which can be used as an additional pairing criterion for ordinary chondrites. Also ^137Cs, a fall-out surface contamination [1], is simultaneously measured; low values may be characteristic for meteorites recently fallen or released from the ablating ice. For the detector an efficiency calibration curve has been made that adequately accounts for differences in size and shape of the meteorite samples. RESULTS and DISCUSSION: TERRESTRIAL AGES: So far, we have measured over 30 Lewis Cliff equilibrated H and L chondrites, collected from widely differing locations. Normalized to L-chondrite composition, the ^26Al contents range from 27 to 110 dpm/kg with peaks around 43 and 53 dpm/kg. This bimodal ^26Al distribution is reminiscent of that observed for Allan Hills ordinary chondrites [2]. Tentative terrestrial ages, calculated on the basis of ^26Al saturation

  18. Coastal archaeological heritage in relation to geomorphology of cliffs, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mascarenhas, A.

    at Dona Paula. Goa: larae cracks make such ~reci~nces vulnerable to coilapse (Photo: H. ~a~i); ' Plate 48. The cliff at Varkala, Kerala, is in the process of continuous erosion as the base is composed of soft clay (Photo: A. Mascarenhas) ~late'49.... Forts atop sea cliffs: (4A) The chapel (in the background) within the fort of Diu on the verge of collapse due to severe erosion of sandstone cliffs (Photo: A. Mascarenhas); Plate 50. The seaside wall of Bekal fort (Kerala) on a granite bedrock...

  19. Cliff Richard hakkab veini tootma. Marilyn Manson avab isikliku kunstinäituse

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    Cliff Richardi Portugali viinamarjaistandusest pärinevast veinist "Vida Nova". 20. septembril avab oma albumit "The Golden Age Of Grotesque" lõpetav laulja Marilyn Manson oma esimese kunstinäituse Los Angeleses Hollywoodis

  20. Connotations of architectural culture transmitted in cliff carvings in the Bashu region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Cong-hua; ZHANG Xing-guo; LIU Zhi-yong

    2006-01-01

    Based on site studies,historical literature investigation and academic communication,this work aims to dig out the cultural significance in architectural and religious aspects conveyed in cliff carvings in the Bashu region.After casting a glance at the origin and evolution of Bashu culture and religion mainly involving Daoism and Buddhism recorded in forms of cliff carvings,we concentrated on discovering the national,regional and folk architectural characters implicated in cliff carvings at different sites within the Bashu region.The cliff carvings in this region vividly depicted the evolution of the architectural culture hereof.The essence of their religious and architectural connotations can be good stuff to be input in today's architectural design philosophy.

  1. Virginia Tech's Cliff and Rocky selected for Grand Challenge starting line

    OpenAIRE

    Crumbley, Liz

    2005-01-01

    Virginia Tech's "Cliff" and "Rocky" were among an elite group of 23 autonomous vehicles that revved their engines on Oct. 8 at the starting line of the $2 million DARPA Grand Challenge race through the Mojave Desert.

  2. Development of Waterfall Cliff Face: An Implication from Multitemporal High-definition Topographic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Y. S.; Obanawa, H.

    2015-12-01

    Bedrock knickpoints (waterfalls) often act as erosional front in bedrock rivers, whose geomorphological processes are various. In waterfalls with vertical cliffs, both fluvial erosion and mass movement are feasible to form the landscape. Although morphological changes of such steep cliffs are sometimes visually observed, quantitative and precise measurements of their spatiotemporal distribution have been limited due to poor accessibility to such cliffs. For the clarification of geomorphological processes in such cliffs, multi-temporal mapping of the cliff face at a high resolution can be advantaged by short-range remote sensing approaches. Here we carry out multi-temporal terrestrial laser scanning (TLS), as well as structure-from-motion multi-view stereo (SfM-MVS) photogrammetry based on unmanned aerial system (UAS) for accurate topographic mapping of cliffs around a waterfall. The study site is Kegon Falls in central Japan, having a vertical drop of surface water from top of its overhanging cliff and groundwater outflows from its lower portions. The bedrock consists of alternate layers of jointed andesite lava and conglomerates. The latest major rockfall in 1986 caused approximately 8-m recession of the waterfall lip. Three-dimensional changes of the rock surface were detected by multi-temporal measurements by TLS over years, showing the portions of small rockfalls and surface lowering in the bedrock. Erosion was frequently observed in relatively weak the conglomerates layer, whereas small rockfalls were often found in the andesite layers. Wider areas of the waterfall and cliff were also measured by UAS-based SfM-MVS photogrammetry, improving the mapping quality of the cliff morphology. Point clouds are also projected on a vertical plane to generate a digital elevation model (DEM), and cross-sectional profiles extracted from the DEM indicate the presence of a distinct, 5-10-m deep depression in the cliff face. This appears to have been formed by freeze-thaw and

  3. Sea-cliff erosion at Pacifica, California caused by 1997/98 El Nino storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Charles B.; Lajoie, K.R.; Medley, Edward W.

    2000-01-01

    Twelve homes were constructed in 1949 at the top of a sea cliff along Esplanade Drive in the City of Pacifica, located on the northern coast of San Mateo County, California. During the heavy storms of the 1997/98 El Nino winter, a severe episode of cliff retreat undermined seven homes and threatened three others. The geologic, tide, wave, rainfall and wind data were analyzed to determine the causes of this erosion events.

  4. Reconstructing 3D coastal cliffs from airborne oblique photographs without ground control points

    OpenAIRE

    Dewez, T.J. B.

    2014-01-01

    Coastal cliff collapse hazard assessment requires measuring cliff face topography at regular intervals. Terrestrial laser scanner techniques have proven useful so far but are expensive to use either through purchasing the equipment or through survey subcontracting. In addition, terrestrial laser surveys take time which is sometimes incompatible with the time during with the beach is accessible at low-tide. By comparison, structure from motion techniques (SFM) are much less costly to ...

  5. Nature of short-period microtremors on the cliff-like ground. Part 4; Gakechi kinbo no tanshuki bido. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiguma, T.; Yoshiike, T. [Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan). School of Science and Engineering

    1996-10-01

    Microtremors were measured on the cliff-like ground with a height about 10 m, to examine the vibration characteristics. Test field-1 near Akabane, Kita-ku, Tokyo is located in a part of Musashino plateau covered with Kanto loam on its surface, and has relatively sound ground. Test field-2 at Machida is located in the western part of Tama hills, and also has Kanto loam on its surface. For the cliff-like ground with inclined angle 70{degree} at Akabane, remarkably predominant frequency 3.2 Hz was observed for the microtremors in the direction perpendicular to the cliff surface. However, this predominant vibration did not become larger due to the damping effects of the reinforcement walls near the end of cliff and the large trees on the cliff. Influence of the cliff-like ground was scarcely observed in the microtremors spectrum in both the directions parallel and vertical to the cliff-surface. From the observation of microtremors with short period on the cliff-like ground with inclined angle around 32{degree} at Machida, influence of cliff-like ground was not observed in the microtremors spectrum in all of the vibrating directions perpendicular, parallel and vertical to the cliff surface. 3 refs., 10 figs.

  6. Sea cliff instability susceptibility at regional scale: a statistically based assessment in the southern Algarve, Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, F. M. S. F.; Matildes, R.; Redweik, P.

    2013-12-01

    Sea cliff evolution is dominated by the occurrence of slope mass movements of different types and sizes, which are a considerable source of natural hazard, making their assessment a relevant issue in terms of human loss prevention and land use regulations. To address the assessment of the spatial component of sea cliff hazards, i.e. the susceptibility, a statistically based study was made to assess the capacity of a set of conditioning factors to express the occurrence of sea cliff failures affecting areas located along their top. The study was based on the application of the bivariate information value and multivariate logistic regression statistical methods, using a set of predisposing factors for cliff failures, mainly related to geology (lithology, bedding dip, faults) and geomorphology (maximum and mean slope, height, aspect, plan curvature, toe protection), which were correlated with a photogrammetry-based inventory of cliff failures that occurred in a 60 yr period (1947-2007). The susceptibility models were validated against the inventory data using standard success rate and ROC curves, and provided encouraging results, indicating that the proposed approaches are effective for susceptibility assessment. The results obtained also stress the need for improvement of the predisposing factors to be used in this type of study and the need for detailed and systematic cliff failure inventories.

  7. Development of cliff-top dunes in the Hengchun Peninsula of the southern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Lih-Der; Wong, Yi-Chia; Lüthgens, Christopher; Chyi, Shyhjeng; Yen, Jiun-Yee

    2016-04-01

    Fung-Chuei-Sha cliff-top dune is located on a 60-meter-high cliff surface in the Hengchun Peninsula of Taiwan. It is still unclear that the history of the aeolian sediment deposition on the top of the cliff, and what factors may influence the evolution of the cliff-top dune. This study aims to investigate the evolutionary history of the Fung-Chuei-Sha cliff-top dune by analyzing the grain size, CaCO3 concentration and absolute dates of the dune sediment, and the land snail species found in the deposit.The results show three phases of aeolian sand accumulation in the Fung-Chuei-Sha cliff-top dune. 1. Phase I: aeolian sediment may accumulate in the bottom of the cliff between 2800 yr BP and 2100 yr BP. 2. Phase II: the cliff-top dune accumulated a 3.1-meter-thick sediment layer from 1500 yr BP to 1300 yr BP. In this phase, dune sediment deposited in a rate of 1.55 cm/yr. The paleoclimate proxy data from the nearby area indicate that the environment was cool and dry, and the Asian winter monsoon was strong during 1500-1300 yr BP. It blew the old coastal dune deposit at the bottom of the cliff up to the cliff top, and induced the C14 age reverse phenomenon. The aeolian deposition began to stabilize because of the wetter environment in the end of the Phase II. At the same time, the stable dune formed the silt and clay layer on the surface of the dune. A layer cemented by CaCO3 may indicate the position of the palaeo-groundwater table. 3. Phase III: the phase stared from 1500-1300 yr BP to the present. A 2.4-meter-thick eolian deposit was accumulated in a rate of 0.18 cm/yr during this phase. Four kinds of land snail shells, Cyclophorus formosensis, Hemiphaedusa similaris, Platyrhaphe swinhoei, Odontartemon heudei, which prefer to live in a relatively humid environment, were commonly observed in the dune deposit, indicating the environment was wet and consequently caused a slower aeolian deposition rate at this phase. Between 1000 yr BP and 500 yr BP, there was a

  8. The Cliffs of Time. Cliffs of the Neuse State Park. An Environmental Education Learning Experience, Designed for Grades 6-8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neal, Adrian

    This activity packet provides educators with a series of hands-on interdisciplinary classroom and outdoor education activities for grades 6-8 that focus on geology and prehistoric life at Cliffs of the Neuse State Park, North Carolina. The packet was designed to meet established curriculum objectives of the North Carolina Department of Public…

  9. Improved dust handling at Inco's Copper Cliff smelter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cooper Cliff Smelter Complex comprises three major production departments - a Nickel Smelter for the processing of nickel concentrated to a low iron, nickel - copper sulphide (Bessemer) matte; a Matte Processing plant for the separation of matte sulphides and the production of market nickel oxides and refinery feeds and a Copper Smelter to process copper concentrates to blister copper. Annual production is currently -114,000 tonnes of copper as blister and -110,000 tonnes of nickel. The nickel concentrate (11-13% Ni, 2-3% Cu) is roasted in multi-hearth roasters, smelted in oxy-fuel fired reverberatory furnaces to a 30-35% CuNiCo matte and converted to Bessemer matte (75% CuNiCo) in Peirce-Smith converters. The Bessemer matte is slow cooled and crushed for subsequent separation by mineral dressing techniques in the Matte Processing plant into nickel (sulphide and metallic) concentrates and a copper (chalcocite) concentrate. Nickel sulphides are further processed in fluid bed reactors to oxide market product or refinery feedstock. The copper concentrate (29-30% Cu, 0.9% No.) is dried in fluid bed driers, smelted to a 40-50% copper matte in an Inco oxygen flash furnace and converted to blister copper in Peirce-Smith converters. The chalcocite concentrate from the matte separation stage is flash converted to a semi-blister (3-4% S, 4-5% Ni) and then finished to lighter conventionally. A schematic process flowsheet of the Smelter Complex is shown in this paper

  10. Sea cliff instability susceptibility at regional scale: a statistically based assessment in southern Algarve, Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. M. S. F. Marques

    2013-05-01

    along their top. The study was based on the application of the bivariate Information Value and multivariate Logistic regression statistical methods, using a set of predisposing factors for cliff failures, mainly related with geology (lithology, bedding dip, faults and geomorphology (maximum and mean slope, height, aspect, plan curvature, toe protection which were correlated with a photogrammetry based inventory of cliff failures occurred in a 60 yr period (1947–2007. The susceptibility models were validated against the inventory data using standard success rate and ROC curves, and provided encouraging results, indicating that the proposed approaches are effective for susceptibility assessment. The results obtained also stress the need for improvement of the predisposing factors to be used in this type of studies and the need of detailed and systematic cliff failures inventories.

  11. Seismic precursory patterns before a cliff collapse and critical-point phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Amitrano, David; Senfaute, Gloria

    2005-01-01

    We analyse the statistical pattern of seismicity before a 1-2 103 m3 chalk cliff collapse on the Normandie ocean shore, Western France. We show that a power law acceleration of seismicity rate and energy in both 40 Hz-1.5 kHz and 2 Hz-10kHz frequency range, is defined on 3 order of magnitude, within 2 hours from the collapse time. Simultaneously, the average size of the seismic events increases toward the time to failure. These in-situ results are derived from the only station located within one rupture length distance from the rock fall rupture plane. They mimic the "critical point" like behavior recovered from physical and numerical experiments before brittle failures and tertiary creep failures. Our analysis of this first seismic monitoring data of a cliff collapse suggests that the thermodynamic phase transition models for failure may apply for cliff collapse.

  12. 75 FR 25876 - Notice of Intent To Prepare Resource Management Plans for the Beaver Dam Wash and Red Cliffs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-10

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Intent To Prepare Resource Management Plans for the Beaver Dam Wash... Dam Wash and the Red Cliffs National Conservation Areas and an amendment to the St. George Field... BLM SGFO, St. George, Utah intends to prepare RMPs for the Beaver Dam Wash and the Red Cliffs...

  13. 78 FR 4467 - UniStar Nuclear Energy, Combined License Application for Calvert Cliffs Power Plant, Unit 3...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION UniStar Nuclear Energy, Combined License Application for Calvert Cliffs Power Plant, Unit 3, Exemption 1.0 Background UniStar Nuclear Energy (UNE), on behalf of Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Project, LLC and UniStar Nuclear Operating Services,...

  14. Assessing species habitat using Google Street View: a case study of cliff-nesting vultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro P Olea

    Full Text Available The assessment of a species' habitat is a crucial issue in ecology and conservation. While the collection of habitat data has been boosted by the availability of remote sensing technologies, certain habitat types have yet to be collected through costly, on-ground surveys, limiting study over large areas. Cliffs are ecosystems that provide habitat for a rich biodiversity, especially raptors. Because of their principally vertical structure, however, cliffs are not easy to study by remote sensing technologies, posing a challenge for many researches and managers working with cliff-related biodiversity. We explore the feasibility of Google Street View, a freely available on-line tool, to remotely identify and assess the nesting habitat of two cliff-nesting vultures (the griffon vulture and the globally endangered Egyptian vulture in northwestern Spain. Two main usefulness of Google Street View to ecologists and conservation biologists were evaluated: i remotely identifying a species' potential habitat and ii extracting fine-scale habitat information. Google Street View imagery covered 49% (1,907 km of the roads of our study area (7,000 km². The potential visibility covered by on-ground surveys was significantly greater (mean: 97.4% than that of Google Street View (48.1%. However, incorporating Google Street View to the vulture's habitat survey would save, on average, 36% in time and 49.5% in funds with respect to the on-ground survey only. The ability of Google Street View to identify cliffs (overall accuracy = 100% outperformed the classification maps derived from digital elevation models (DEMs (62-95%. Nonetheless, high-performance DEM maps may be useful to compensate Google Street View coverage limitations. Through Google Street View we could examine 66% of the vultures' nesting-cliffs existing in the study area (n = 148: 64% from griffon vultures and 65% from Egyptian vultures. It also allowed us the extraction of fine-scale features of

  15. Soft-Cliff Retreat, Self-Organized Critical Phenomena in the Limit of Predictability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, Carlos; Godoy, Clara; Castedo, Ricardo

    2015-03-01

    The coastal erosion along the world's coastlines is a natural process that occurs through the actions of marine and subaerial physico-chemical phenomena, waves, tides, and currents. The development of cliff erosion predictive models is limited due to the complex interactions between environmental processes and material properties over a wide range of temporal and spatial scales. As a result of this erosive action, gravity driven mass movements occur and the coastline moves inland. Like other studied earth natural and synthetically modelled phenomena characterized as self-organized critical (SOC), the recession of the cliff has a seemingly random, sporadic behavior, with a wide range of yearly recession rate values probabilistically distributed by a power-law. Usually, SOC systems are defined by a number of scaling features in the size distribution of its parameters and on its spatial and/or temporal pattern. Particularly, some previous studies of derived parameters from slope movements catalogues, have allowed detecting certain SOC features in this phenomenon, which also shares the recession of cliffs. Due to the complexity of the phenomenon and, as for other natural processes, there is no definitive model of recession of coastal cliffs. In this work, various analysis techniques have been applied to identify SOC features in the distribution and pattern to a particular case: the Holderness shoreline. This coast is a great case study to use when examining coastal processes and the structures associated with them. It is one of World's fastest eroding coastlines (2 m/yr in average, max observed 22 m/yr). Cliffs, ranging from 2 m up to 35 m in height, and made up of glacial tills, mainly compose this coast. It is this soft boulder clay that is being rapidly eroded and where coastline recession measurements have been recorded by the Cliff Erosion Monitoring Program (East Riding of Yorkshire Council, UK). The original database has been filtered by grouping contiguous

  16. Cliffs used as communal roosts by Andean condors protect the birds from weather and predators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio A Lambertucci

    Full Text Available The quality and availability of resources influence the geographical distribution of species. Social species need safe places to rest, meet, exchange information and obtain thermoregulatory benefits, but those places may also serve other important functions that have been overlooked in research. We use a large soaring bird that roosts communally in cliffs, the Andean condor (Vultur gryphus, as a model species to elucidate whether roost locations serve as a refuge from adverse weather conditions (climatic refuge hypothesis, CRH, and/or from predators or anthropogenic disturbances (threats refuge hypothesis, TRH. The CRH predicts that communal roosts will face in the opposite direction from where storms originate, and will be located in climatically stable, low precipitation areas. The TRH predicts that communal roosts will be large, poorly accessible cliffs, located far from human-made constructions. We surveyed cliffs used as communal roosts by condors in northwestern Patagonia, and compared them with alternative non-roosting cliffs to test these predictions at local and regional scales. We conclude that communal roosting places provide refuge against climate and disturbances such as, for instance, the threats of predators (including humans. Thus, it is not only the benefits gained from being aggregated per se, but the characteristics of the place selected for roosting that may both be essential for the survival of the species. This should be considered in management and conservation plans given the current scenario of global climate change and the increase in environmental disturbances.

  17. 76 FR 22935 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    ... Class C (GTCC) waste and other radioactive materials associated with spent fuel storage at the CCNPP... granted, the renewed license will authorize the applicant to continue to store spent fuel in a dry cask... COMMISSION Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation; Notice...

  18. 75 FR 60147 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ... COMMISSION Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation; Notice of... Branch, Division of Spent Fuel Storage and Transportation, Office of Nuclear Material Safety and... Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI) Technical Specifications (TS) be revised as follows: 1....

  19. Experimental infection of cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) with varying doses of West Nile virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oesterle, P.T.; Nemeth, N.M.; VanDalen, Kaci K.; Sullivan, H.; Bentler, K.T.; Young, G.R.; McLean, R.G.; Clark, L.; Smeraski, C.; Hall, J.S.

    2009-01-01

    Cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) were inoculated with differing doses of West Nile virus (WNV) to evaluate their potential role as reservoir hosts in nature. Swallows often nest in large colonies in habitats and months associated with high mosquito abundance and early WNV transmission in North America. Additionally, cliff swallow diet consists of insects, including mosquitoes, leading to an additional potential route of WNV infection. The average peak viremia titer among infected cliff swallows was 106.3 plaque-forming units (PFU)/mL serum and the reservoir competence index was 0.34. There was no correlation between dose and probability of becoming infected or viremia peak and duration. Oral shedding was detected from 2 to 14 days post-inoculation with an average peak titer of 1044 PFU/swab. These results suggest that cliff swallows are competent reservoir hosts of WNV and therefore, they may play a role in early seasonal amplification and maintenance of WNV. Copyright ?? 2009 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  20. Cliff or Step? Posture-Specific Learning at the Edge of a Drop-Off

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretch, Kari S.; Adolph, Karen E.

    2013-01-01

    Infants require locomotor experience to behave adaptively at a drop-off. However, different experimental paradigms (visual cliff and actual gaps and slopes) have generated conflicting findings regarding what infants learn and the specificity of their learning. An actual, adjustable drop-off apparatus was used to investigate whether learning to…

  1. The Cliff Reconnaissance Vehicle: a tool to improve astronaut exploration efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souchier, Alain

    2014-05-01

    The close examination of cliff strata on Mars may reveal important information about conditions that existed in the past on that planet. To have access to such difficult-to-reach locations, the Association Planète Mars (France) has, since 2001, been experimenting with designs of manually operated, instrumented vehicles capable of being lowered down the faces of cliffs. The latest tests in the series in which the Cliff Reconnaissance Vehicle (CRV) or Cliffbot was used were conducted as part of the Austrian Space Forum's MARS2013 field analog project in Morocco in February 2013. Experimentation centered on vehicle configuration for maximum all-terrain capabilities; operational procedures, which included use while the operator was wearing an analog space suit; and imaging, mapping, and geological/biological feature detection capabilities. The exercise demonstrated that Cliffbot is capable of examining hard-to-reach rock strata in cliff faces but that it needs further mechanical modification to improve its ability to overcome some particular terrain obstacles and situational awareness by the operator. PMID:24823801

  2. Cliff Collapse Hazard from Repeated Multicopter Uav Acquisitions: Return on Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewez, T. J. B.; Leroux, J.; Morelli, S.

    2016-06-01

    Cliff collapse poses a serious hazard to infrastructure and passers-by. Obtaining information such as magnitude-frequency relationship for a specific site is of great help to adapt appropriate mitigation measures. While it is possible to monitor hundreds-of-meter-long cliff sites with ground based techniques (e.g. lidar or photogrammetry), it is both time consuming and scientifically limiting to focus on short cliff sections. In the project SUAVE, we sought to investigate whether an octocopter UAV photogrammetric survey would perform sufficiently well in order to repeatedly survey cliff face geometry and derive rock fall inventories amenable to probabilistic rock fall hazard computation. An experiment was therefore run on a well-studied site of the chalk coast of Normandy, in Mesnil Val, along the English Channel (Northern France). Two campaigns were organized in January and June 2015 which surveyed about 60 ha of coastline, including the 80-m-high cliff face, the chalk platform at its foot, and the hinterland in a matter of 4 hours from start to finish. To conform with UAV regulations, the flight was flown in 3 legs for a total of about 30 minutes in the air. A total of 868 and 1106 photos were respectively shot with a Sony NEX 7 with fixed focal 16mm. Three lines of sight were combined: horizontal shots for cliff face imaging, 45°-oblique views to tie plateau/platform photos with cliff face images, and regular vertical shots. Photogrammetrically derived dense point clouds were produced with Agisoft Photoscan at ultra-high density (median density is 1 point every 1.7cm). Point cloud density proved a critical parameter to reproduce faithfully the chalk face's geometry. Tuning down the density parameter to "high" or "medium", though efficient from a computational point of view, generated artefacts along chalk bed edges (i.e. smoothing the sharp gradient) and ultimately creating ghost volumes when computing cloud to cloud differences. Yet, from a hazard point of

  3. Multi-temporal Terrestrial Laser Scanner monitoring of coastal instability processes at Coroglio cliff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, Teresa; Somma, Renato; Marino, Ermanno; Matano, Fabio; Troise, Claudia; De Natale, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    The Coroglio cliff is a morphological evolution of the caldera rim of Neapolitan Yellow Tuff (NYT) in Campi Flegrei caldera (CFc) with an elevation of 150 m a.s.l. and a length of about 200 m. The lithology consists of NYT, extremely lithified, overlaid by less lithified recent products of the Phlegrean volcanism., These materials are highly erodible and, due to proximity to the sea, the sea wave and wind actions cause very strong erosion process. In the recent years Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS) technique is used for environmental monitoring purposes through the creation of high resolution Digital Surface Model (DSM) and Digital Terrain Model (DTM). This method allows the reconstruction, by means of a dense cloud of points, of a 3D model for the entire investigated area. The scans need to be performed from different points of view in order to ensure a good coverage of the area, because a widespread problem is the occurrence of shaded areas. In our study we used a long-range laser scanner model RIEGL VZ1000®. Numerous surveys (April 2013, June 2014, February 2015) have been performed for monitoring coastal cliff morphological evolution. An additional survey was executed in March 2015, shortly after a landslide occurrence. To validate the multi-temporal monitoring of the laser scanner, a "quick" comparison of the acquired point clouds has been carried out using an algorithm cloud-to-cloud, in order to identify 3D changes. Then 2.5D raster images of the different scans has been performed in GIS environment, also in order to allow a map overlay of the produced thematic layer, both raster and vector data (geology, contour map, orthophoto, and so on). The comparison of multi-temporal data have evidenced interesting geomorphological processes on the cliff. It was observed a very intense (about 6 m) local moving back at the base of the cliff, mainly due to the sea wave action during storms, while in cliff sectors characterized by less compact lithologies widespread

  4. Origin of caves and notches observed on the Antalya Tufa Cliffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipova, Nihat; Emine Sukran, Okudan; Uzunsakal, Levent

    2010-05-01

    This study aims the investigation of caves and notches observed on the Antalya tufa cliffs from the geological, biological and morphological points of view. Through observations, sampling and measurements on the 13 km long Antalya cliffs, geological and biological definitions have been made. Through topographical surveys morphology of caves have been determined. The caves on Antalya tufa cliffs are of three origin; 1) The sea caves occurred due to wave action on weak parts of the tufa, 2) The flank margin caves occurred due to mixing corrosion, 3) The caves occurred as blind holes behind tufa curtains which deposited on tufa cascade environment of deposition. In this study more attention has been paid on porosity development and related cave formation due to mixing corrosion. The mixing corrosion is a process in which mixed water dissolves calcium carbonate rock where groundwater and sea water interfere. Cavities which occur in this process can join together and form big chambers. When rock load on this chambers exceeds rocks strength, the roof may collapse and fall into the chamber. This fallen block is also subject to further dissolution resulting in enlargement of the cave. The idea that the flank margin caves have been formed on Antalya cliffs due to mixing corrosion have been proven making in-situ water chemistry tests. Entrances of the caves on the cliffs are concentrated between present sea level and 5 m below this level. Similarly, on the sea level caves depth of the caves is around 5 m. Starting from a time of constant sea level, and following sea level rise, mixing corrosion and flank margin cave development should have been continued. Formation of notches on the Antalya tufa cliffs should have been affected by wave direction, wave force, rock strength and bioerosion-bioconstruction. From the biological point of view, rocks on the notches and caves serve as substrate for various organisms. Especially notches are the places where covering organisms live

  5. Detection of morphological changes in cliff face surrounding a waterfall using terrestrial laser scanning and unmanned aerial system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Yuichi S.; Obanawa, Hiroyuki

    2015-04-01

    Waterfall or bedrock knickpoint appears as an erosional front in bedrock rivers forming deep v-shaped valley downstream. Following the rapid fluvial erosion of waterfall, rockfalls and gravita-tional collapses often occur in surrounding steep cliffs. Although morphological changes of such steep cliffs are sometimes visually observed, quantitative and precise measurements of their spatio-temporal distribution have been limited due to the difficulties in direct access to such cliffs if with classical measurement methods. However, for the clarification of geomorphological processes oc-curring in the cliffs, multi-temporal mapping of the cliff face at a high resolution is necessary. Re-mote sensing approaches are therefore suitable for the topographic measurements and detection of changes in such inaccessible cliffs. To achieve accurate topographic mapping of cliffs around a wa-terfall, here we perform multi-temporal terrestrial laser scanning (TLS), as well as structure-from-motion multi-view stereo (SfM-MVS) photogrammetry based on unmanned aerial system (UAS). The study site is Kegon Falls in central Japan, having a vertical drop of surface water from top of its overhanging cliff, as well as groundwater outflows from its lower portions. The bedrock is composed of alternate layers of andesite lava and conglomerates. Minor rockfalls in the cliffs are often ob-served by local people. The latest major rockfall occurred in 1986, causing ca. 8-m upstream propa-gation of the waterfall lip. This provides a good opportunity to examine the changes in the surround-ing cliffs following the waterfall recession. Multi-time point clouds were obtained by TLS measure-ment over years, and the three-dimensional changes of the rock surface were detected, uncovering the locus of small rockfalls and gully developments. Erosion seems particularly frequent in relatively weak the conglomerates layer, whereas small rockfalls seems to have occurred in the andesite layers. Also, shadows in the

  6. Cliff´s Delta Calculator: A non-parametric effect size program for two groups of observations

    OpenAIRE

    Guillermo Macbeth; Eugenia Razumiejczyk; Rubén Daniel Ledesma

    2011-01-01

    The Cliff´s Delta statistic is an effect size measure that quantifies the amount of difference between two non-parametric variables beyond p-values interpretation. This measure can be understood as a useful complementary analysis for the corresponding hypothesis testing. During the last two decades the use of effect size measures has been strongly encouraged by methodologists and leading institutions of behavioral sciences. The aim of this contribution is to introduce the Cliff´s Delta Calcul...

  7. Implementation of a Geographical Information System. GIS, in the Natural National Park, Cliffs of Cali

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this project was to generate a tool to improve the handling, conservation and administration of the Park National Natural - Cliffs of Cali, belonging to the Special Administrative Unit of the System of Natural National Parks, UAESPNN, of the Ministry of the Environment. With this purpose it was implemented a System of Geographical Information, GIS, like methodological model. The GIS; Cliffs of Cali used a database relational, developed with the software ACCESS tm, compatible with the used GIS Arc/INFO tm and Arc/View tm (for work station). The data space accessed to the database were those of topography, hydrology, areas of life, geology, limit, fronts, to zone with handling ends, precipitation, indigenous occupation and municipalities; it contain related alphanumeric information, administrative, socioeconomic handling and physique among others

  8. Cliff swallows Petrochelidon pyrrhonota as bioindicators of environmental mercury, Cache Creek Watershed, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hothem, R.L.; Trejo, B.S.; Bauer, M.L.; Crayon, J.J.

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate mercury (Hg) and other element exposure in cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota), eggs were collected from 16 sites within the mining-impacted Cache Creek watershed, Colusa, Lake, and Yolo counties, California, USA, in 1997-1998. Nestlings were collected from seven sites in 1998. Geometric mean total Hg (THg) concentrations ranged from 0.013 to 0.208 ??g/g wet weight (ww) in cliff swallow eggs and from 0.047 to 0.347 ??g/g ww in nestlings. Mercury detected in eggs generally followed the spatial distribution of Hg in the watershed based on proximity to both anthropogenic and natural sources. Mean Hg concentrations in samples of eggs and nestlings collected from sites near Hg sources were up to five and seven times higher, respectively, than in samples from reference sites within the watershed. Concentrations of other detected elements, including aluminum, beryllium, boron, calcium, manganese, strontium, and vanadium, were more frequently elevated at sites near Hg sources. Overall, Hg concentrations in eggs from Cache Creek were lower than those reported in eggs of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) from highly contaminated locations in North America. Total Hg concentrations were lower in all Cache Creek egg samples than adverse effects levels established for other species. Total Hg concentrations in bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) and foothill yellow-legged frogs (Rana boylii) collected from 10 of the study sites were both positively correlated with THg concentrations in cliff swallow eggs. Our data suggest that cliff swallows are reliable bioindicators of environmental Hg. ?? Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007.

  9. Effects of Long-Term Trampling on the Above-Ground Forest Vegetation and Soil Seed Bank at the Base of Limestone Cliffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusterholz, Hans-Peter; Verhoustraeten, Christine; Baur, Bruno

    2011-11-01

    Exposed limestone cliffs in central Europe harbor a highly divers flora with many rare and endangered species. During the past few decades, there has been increasing recreational use of these cliffs, which has caused local environmental disturbances. Successful restoration strategies hinge on identifying critical limitations. We examined the composition of aboveground forest vegetation and density and species composition of seeds in the soil seed bank at the base of four limestone cliffs in mixed deciduous forests that are intensively disturbed by human trampling and at four undisturbed cliffs in the Jura Mountains in northwestern Switzerland. We found that long-term human trampling reduced total aboveground vegetation cover at the base of cliffs and caused a significant shift in the plant-species composition. Compared with undisturbed cliffs, total seed density was lower in disturbed cliffs. Human trampling also altered the species composition of seeds in the soil seed bank. Seeds of unintentionally introduced, stress-tolerant, and ruderal species dominated the soil seed bank at the base of disturbed cliffs. Our findings indicate that a restoration of degraded cliff bases from the existing soil seed bank would result in a substantial change of the original unique plant composition. Active seed transfer, or seed flux from adjacent undisturbed forest areas, is essential for restoration success.

  10. Structural analysis of San Leo (RN, Italy) east and north cliffs using 3D point clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spreafico, Margherita Cecilia; Bacenetti, Marco; Borgatti, Lisa; Cignetti, Martina; Giardino, Marco; Perotti, Luigi

    2013-04-01

    The town of San Leo, like many others in the historical region of Montefeltro (Northern Apennines, Italy), was built in medieval period on a calcarenite and sandstone slab, bordered by subvertical and overhanging cliffs up to 100 m high, for defense purposes. The slab and the underlying clayey substratum show widespread landslide phenomena: the first is tectonized and crossed by joints and faults, and it is affected by lateral spreading with associated rock falls, topples and tilting. Moreover, the underlying clayey substratum is involved in plastic movements, like earth flows and slides. The main cause of instability in the area, which brings about these movements, is the high deformability contrast between the plate and the underlying clays. The aim of our research is to set up a numerical model that can well describe the processes and take into account the different factors that influence the evolution of the movements. One of these factors is certainly the structural setting of the slab, characterized by several joints and faults; in order to better identify and detect the main joint sets affecting the study area a structural analysis was performed. Up to date, a series of scans of San Leo cliff taken in 2008 and 2011, with a Riegl Z420i were analyzed. Initially, we chose a test area, located in the east side of the cliff, in which analyses were performed using two different softwares: COLTOP 3D and Polyworks. We repeated the analysis using COLTOP for all the east wall and for a part of the north wall, including an area affected by a rock fall in 2006. In the test area we identified five sets with different dips and dip directions. The analysis of the east and north walls permitted to identify eight sets (seven plus the bedding) of discontinuities. We compared these results with previous ones from surveys taken by others authors in some areas and with some preliminary data from a traditional geological survey of the whole area. With traditional methods only a

  11. Combined rock slope stability and shallow landslide susceptibility assessment of the Jasmund cliff area (Rügen Island, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Günther

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution we evaluated both the structurally-controlled failure susceptibility of the fractured Cretaceous chalk rocks and the topographically-controlled shallow landslide susceptibility of the overlying glacial sediments for the Jasmund cliff area on Rügen Island, Germany. We employed a combined methodology involving spatially distributed kinematical rock slope failure testing with tectonic fabric data, and both physically- and inventory-based shallow landslide susceptibility analysis. The rock slope failure susceptibility model identifies areas of recent cliff collapses, confirming its value in predicting the locations of future failures. The model reveals that toppling is the most important failure type in the Cretaceous chalk rocks of the area. The shallow landslide susceptibility analysis involves a physically-based slope stability evaluation which utilizes material strength and hydraulic conductivity data, and a bivariate landslide susceptibility analysis exploiting landslide inventory data and thematic information on ground conditioning factors. Both models show reasonable success rates when evaluated with the available inventory data, and an attempt was made to combine the individual models to prepare a map displaying both terrain instability and landslide susceptibility. This combination highlights unstable cliff portions lacking discrete landslide areas as well as cliff sections highly affected by past landslide events. Through a spatial integration of the rock slope failure susceptibility model with the combined shallow landslide assessment we produced a comprehensive landslide susceptibility map for the Jasmund cliff area.

  12. Film Review: Red cliff%影评:《赤壁》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ 1 As the first film to re-create the 208 A.D. Battle of Chibi, themost famous military feat in Chinese history, John Woo's "RedCliff" is a Pan-Asian project with the word "monumental" written allover it. The 140-minute first half that opened across major Asianterritories is only a prelude that provides the beams and columns forthe narrative framework, but with a few decisive and spot-on actionspectacles, it sufficiently kindles expectations for the climactic clash inupcoming Part 2.

  13. Radiological survey results at 12 Cliff Street, Beverly, Massachusetts (VB010)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), a team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducted a radiological survey at 12 Cliff Street, Beverly, Massachusetts. The survey was performed in May 1991. The purpose of the survey was to determine if uranium dust from work performed under government contract at the former Ventron facility had migrated off-site to neighboring areas. The survey included a surface gamma scan and the collection of soil samples for radionuclide analyses. Results of the survey demonstrated no radionuclide concentrations or radiation measurements in excess of the DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program guidelines

  14. Radiological survey results at 13 Cliff Street, Beverly, Massachusetts (VB015)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), a team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducted a radiological survey at 13 Cliff Street, Beverly, Massachusetts. The survey was performed in May 1991. The purpose of the survey was to determine if uranium from work performed under government contract at the former Ventron facility had migrated off-site to neighboring areas. The survey included a surface gamma scan, a beta-gamma scan of paved areas, and the collection of soil samples for radionuclide analyses. Results of the survey demonstrated no radionuclide concentrations or radiation measurements in excess of the DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program guidelines

  15. Radiological survey results at 14 Cliff Street, Beverly, Massachusetts (VB011)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), a team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducted a radiological survey at 14 Cliff Street, Beverly, Massachusetts. The survey was performed in May 1991. The purpose of the survey was to determine if uranium dust from work performed under government contract at the former Ventron facility had migrated off-site to neighboring areas. The survey included a surface gamma scan and the collection of soil samples for radionuclide analyses. Results of the survey demonstrated no radionuclide concentrations or radiation measurements in excess of the DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program guidelines

  16. Radiological survey results at 20 Cliff Street, Beverly, Massachusetts (VB013)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), a team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducted a radiological survey at 20 Cliff Street, Beverly, Massachusetts. The survey was performed in May 1991. The purpose of the survey was to determine if uranium dust from work performed under government contract at the former Ventron facility had migrated off-site to neighboring areas. The survey included a surface gamma scan and the collection of soil samples for radionuclide analyses. Results of the survey demonstrated no radionuclide concentrations or radiation measurements in excess of the DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program guidelines

  17. Radiological survey results at 2 Cliff Street, Beverly, Massachusetts (VB007)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), a team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducted a radiological survey at 2 Cliff Street, Beverly, Massachusetts. The survey was performed in May 1991. The purpose of the survey was to determine if uranium dust from work performed under government contract at the former Ventron facility had migrated off-site to neighboring areas. The survey included a surface gamma scan and the collection of soil samples for radionuclide analyses. Results of the survey demonstrated no radionuclide concentrations or radiation measurements in excess of the DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program guidelines

  18. Radiological survey results at 10 Cliff Street, Beverly, Massachusetts (VB021)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), a team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducted a radiological survey at 10 Cliff Street, Beverly, Massachusetts. The survey was performed in May 1991. The purpose of the survey was to determine if uranium from work performed under government contract at the former Ventron facility had migrated off-site to neighboring areas. The survey included a surface gamma scan, a beta-gamma scan of paved areas, and the collection of soil samples for radionuclide analyses.Results of the survey demonstrated no radionuclide concentrations or radiation measurements in excess of the DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program guidelines

  19. Radiological survey results at 18 Cliff Street, Beverly, Massachusetts (VB012)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), a team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducted a radiological survey at 18 Cliff Street, Beverly, Massachusetts. The survey was performed in May 1991. The purpose of the survey was to determine if uranium dust from work performed under government contract at the former Ventron facility had migrated off-site to neighboring areas. The survey included a surface gamma scan and the collection of soil samples for radionuclide analyses. Results of the survey demonstrated no radionuclide concentrations or radiation measurements in excess of the DOE mannerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program guidelines

  20. Radiological survey results at 9 Cliff Street, Beverly, Massachusetts (VB017)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), a team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducted a radiological survey at 9 Cliff Street, Beverly, Massachusetts. The survey was performed in May 1991. The purpose of the survey was to determine if uranium from work performed under government contract at the former Ventron facility had migrated off-site to neighboring areas. The survey included a surface gamma scan and the collection of soil samples for radionuclide analyses. Results of the survey demonstrated no radionuclide concentrations or radiation measurements in excess of the DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program guidelines

  1. Radiological survey results at 15 Cliff Street, Beverly, Massachusetts (VB014)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), a team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducted a radiological survey at 15 Cliff Street, Beverly, Massachusetts. The survey was performed in May 1991. The purpose of the survey was to determine if uranium dust from work performed under government contract at the former Ventron facility had migrated off-site to neighboring areas. The survey included a surface gamma scan and the collection of soil samples for radionuclide analyses. Results of the survey demonstrated no radionuclide concentrations or radiation measurements in excess of the DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program guidelines

  2. Brief communication"Estimating rockfall frequency in a mountain limestone cliff using terrestrial laser scanner"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Guerin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Using terrestrial laser scanner, 344 rockfalls larger than 0.05 m3 have been detected for a period of 1180 days, in a thinly bedded limestone cliff of width 750 m and height 200 m. The complementary cumulative distribution of the rockfall volume is well fitted by a power law, with an exponent b of 0.75 ± 0.04. In order to compare the rockfall frequencies in different geological contexts, a rockfall activity parameter has been defined, which is the number of rockfalls larger than 1 m3, which occur per century and per hm2.

  3. Processes and rate of retreat of the clay and sandstone sea cliffs of the northern Boulonnais (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Guillaume

    2006-01-01

    Retreat of the clay and sandstone cliffs of the northern Boulonnais (France) has been quantified using stereophotogrammetry. The low retreat rate of this coastal strip — 0.08 m/yr between 1939 and 2003 — is far less than that encountered on chalk and clay-chalk cliffs of either side of the Channel, and even less than a previous estimate of 0.17 m/yr regularly quoted in management studies. The retreat rate is closely related to shore platform morphology and dynamics. The shore platform presents 1) a steeply sloping ramp due to the accumulation of flat calcareous megaclasts that reduce marine erosion; 2) upstanding bare platform surfaces, related to tectonic deformation; and 3) thick platform-beaches trapped in troughs. In all three cases, the reflective behaviour of the nearshore protects the cliff foot from the incoming waves. Two critical eroding segments are the result of changes in the platform sedimentary budget. Around Cran Poulet, and between Plage de la Sirène and Pointe de la Courte Dune, the retreat rate is up to 0.25 and 0.15 m/yr, respectively. At Cran Poulet, recession has been facilitated by the extraction of pebble for more than half a century, whereas erosion of the beach at la Sirène is probably linked to severe erosion of the coastline in the adjacent Wissant Bay. Mass movements on the cliff face are essentially shallow-seated translational slides along with small debris falls and mudflows. The instability of the Argiles de Châtillon is greatly diminished by their sandy and silty texture and by the presence of interstratified solid shelly limestone beds that allow steep slopes to develop in rather weak material. The 'vertical erosion antecedent' is the erosional mode of the cliff, and its reduced efficiency explains the slow recession of the cliff. This study will help to determine the long term evolution of the Boulonnais coast.

  4. Uranophane at the Silver Cliff Mine Near Lusk, Niobrara County, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilmarth, V.R.; Johnson, D.H.

    1952-05-01

    In 1950, the U.S. Geological Survey studied a uranium deposit, previously exploited, at the Silver Cliff mine near Lusk, Wyoming. The deposit consists primarily of uranophane that occurs as fracture fillings and small replacement pockets in faulted and fractured quartzite of Cambrian (?) age. The country rock in the vicinity of the mine is schist of pre-Cambrian age intruded by pegmatite dikes and unconformably overlain by flat-lying Cambrian (?) quartzite. The mine is at the southern end of the Lusk Dome, a local structure probably related to the Hartville uplift. In the immediate vicinity of the mine, this dome is cut by the Silver Cliff fault, which is a north-trneding high-angle reverse fault approximately 1,200 feet in length with a stratigraphic throw of 70 feet. The fractured quartzite has been the locus for the deposition of uranophane, metatorbernite, pitchblende, calcite, native silver, native copper, chalcocite, azurite, malachite, chrysocolla, and cuprite. The fault was probably mineralized throughout its length, but owing to erosion the mineralized zone is now discontinuous. The principal ore body is about 800 feet long. The width and depth of the mineralized zone are not accurately known but are at least 20 feet and 60 feet, respectively. The uranium content of material sampled in the mine ranges from 0.001 to 0.23 percent uranium, whereas dump samples range from 0.076 to 3.39 percent uranium.

  5. Construction of accurate geological cross-sections along trenches, cliffs and mountain slopes using photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Santiago; Uzkeda, Hodei; Poblet, Josep; Bulnes, Mayte; Rubio, Ramón

    2013-02-01

    This paper discusses the application of close range photogrammetry for the construction of geological cross-sections from outcrops located on trenches, cliffs and mountain slopes. Our methodology is based on stereoscopic pairs of photographs of the outcrops on which geological interpretations may be carried out directly using a digital stereo viewer. It is also possible to automatically obtain point clouds. Through control points of known coordinates taken on the field and located in the photographs, the three-dimensional model recovered is correctly geo-referenced and the residual error is minimized. Layers and tectonic structures recognized in the photographs can be easily projected in any desired direction, as, for example, in the direction of the fold axes to obtain a proper view of the geometry of the structures, or in one direction parallel to the tectonic transport vector if a restoration is demanded. The application of this methodology is shown by constructing a detailed geological cross-section at the cliffs of La Conejera Inlet (Asturias, Spain). The studied structures, involving Jurassic rocks, are located in a Permian-Mesozoic extensional basin called Asturian Basin (NW Iberian Peninsula). This basin was partially formed during the opening of the Bay of Biscay and partially inverted during a Cenozoic contraction responsible for the Pyrenees and its western prolongation along the north margin of the Iberian Peninsula.

  6. Vascular Plant and Vertebrate Inventory of Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Brian F.; Albrecht, Eric W.; Halvorson, William L.; Schmidt, Cecilia A.; Docherty, Kathleen; Anning, Pamela

    2006-01-01

    Executive Summary This report summarizes the results of the first comprehensive biological inventory of Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument (NM) in western New Mexico. This project was part of a larger effort to inventory plants and vertebrates in eight National Park Service units in Arizona and New Mexico. Our surveys address many of the objectives that were set forth in the monument's natural resource management plan almost 20 years ago, but until this effort, those goals were never accomplished. From 2001 to 2003 we surveyed for vascular plants and vertebrates (amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals) at Gila Cliff Dwellings NM to document presence of species within the boundaries of the monument. For all taxonomic groups that we studied, we collected 'incidental' sightings on U.S. Forest Service lands adjacent to the monument, and in a few cases we did formal surveys on those lands. Because we used repeatable study designs and standardized field techniques, these inventories can serve as the first step in a biological monitoring program for Gila Cliff Dwellings NM and surrounding lands. We recorded 552 species at Gila Cliff Dwellings NM and the surrounding lands (Table 1). We found no non-native species of reptiles, birds, or mammals, one non-native amphibian (American bullfrog), and 33 non-native plants. Particularly on lands adjacent to the monument we found that the American bullfrog was very abundant, which is a cause for significant management concern. Species of non-native plants that are of management concern include red brome, bufflegrass, and cheatgrass. For a park unit of its size and geographic location, we found the plant and vertebrate communities to be fairly diverse; for each taxonomic group we found representative species from a wide range of taxonomic orders and/or families. The monument's geographic location, with influences from the Rocky Mountain, Chihuahuan Desert, and Madrean ecological provinces, plays an important role in determining

  7. Analysis of sea cliff slope stability integrating traditional geomechanical surveys and remote sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Martino

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available An integrated approach to the geomechanical characterization of coastal sea cliffs was demonstrated at Mt. Pucci (Gargano promontory, Southern Italy by performing direct traditional geomechanical and remote geostructural investigations via Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS. The consistency of the integrated techniques allowed us to achieve a comprehensive and affordable characterization of the main joint sets on the sea cliff slope. The observed joint sets were observed to evaluate the susceptibility of the slope to rock falls by attributing safety factors (SFs to the topple- and wedge-prone rock blocks under three triggering conditions: (a filling with static water, (b seismic action, and (c weathering of joint surfaces. The results of the susceptibility analysis for the topple-prone blocks show that the critical height of water filling of the joint is up to 50 cm and that the critical pseudo-static acceleration values vary in the range of 0.16–0.3 g depending on the block geometry and slope face orientation. For the wedge blocks, the critical height of water filling of the joint is generally up to several centimeters, and the critical pseudo-static acceleration values vary in the range of 0.05–0.8 g depending on the block geometry and slope face orientation. Moreover, the unstable conditions of the blocks due to weathering generally represent 60% of the joint degradation of the intact rock. The combined action of weathering and static water fill was also considered, resulting in a significant decrease of the SFs. Specifically, unstable conditions are associated with water levels lower than 47% of the water levels observed in intact joints, even if less than 60% of the weathering is attributed to the joints. Furthermore, remote survey analyses via Thermal InfraRed Camera and Terrestrial SAR Interferometry (TInSAR were performed to evaluate the role of the surveyed joint sets in inducing instabilities in the Mt. Pucci sea cliff. The results of

  8. Think Crisis-Think Female : The Glass Cliff and Contextual Variation in the Think Manager-Think Male Stereotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ryan, Michelle K.; Haslam, S. Alexander; Hersby, Mette D.; Bongiorno, Renata

    2011-01-01

    The "think manager think male" (TMTM) association underlies many gender inequalities in the workplace. However, research into the "glass cliff" has demonstrated that the suitability of male and female managers varies as a function of company performance such that in times of poor performance people

  9. Thermal Modeling of NUHOMS HSM-15 and HSM-1 Storage Modules at Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Station ISFSI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suffield, Sarah R.; Fort, James A.; Adkins, Harold E.; Cuta, Judith M.; Collins, Brian A.; Siciliano, Edward R.

    2012-10-01

    As part of the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign of the Department of Energy (DOE), visual inspections and temperature measurements were performed on two storage modules in the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Station’s Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI). Detailed thermal models models were developed to obtain realistic temperature predictions for actual storage systems, in contrast to conservative and bounding design basis calculations.

  10. Reactions to the glass cliff - Gender differences in the explanations for the precariousness of women's leadership positions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ryan, M.K; Haslam, S.A.; Postmes, T.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - This paper aims to investigate the phenomenon of the glass cliff, whereby women are more likely than men to be placed in precarious leadership positions. Men's and women's reactions to this subtle form of gender discrimination are examined, the identity processes involved, and the implicat

  11. Structural interpretation of activity cliffs revealed by systematic analysis of structure-activity relationships in analog series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisay, Mihiret T; Peltason, Lisa; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2009-10-01

    Discontinuity in structure-activity relationships (SARs) is caused by so-called activity cliffs and represents one of the major caveats in SAR modeling and lead optimization. At activity cliffs, small structural modifications of compounds lead to substantial differences in potency that are essentially unpredictable using quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) methods. In order to better understand SAR discontinuity at the molecular level of detail, we have analyzed different compound series in combinatorial analog graphs and determined substitution patterns that introduce activity cliffs of varying magnitude. So identified SAR determinants were then analyzed on the basis of complex crystal structures to enable a structural interpretation of SAR discontinuity and underlying activity cliffs. In some instances, SAR discontinuity detected within analog series could be well rationalized on the basis of structural data, whereas in others a structural explanation was not possible. This reflects the intrinsic complexity of small molecule SARs and suggests that the analysis of short-range receptor-ligand interactions seen in X-ray structures is insufficient to comprehensively account for SAR discontinuity. However, in other cases, SAR information extracted from ligands was incomplete but could be deduced taking X-ray data into account. Thus, taken together, these findings illustrate the complementarity of ligand-based SAR analysis and structural information. PMID:19761254

  12. 77 FR 1748 - Atomic Safety and Licensing Board; Calvert Cliffs 3 Nuclear Project, LLC, and UniStar Nuclear...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-11

    ... Information and Resource Services, Beyond Nuclear, Public Citizen Energy Program, and Southern Maryland Citizens Alliance for Renewable Energy Solutions; (2) UniStar Nuclear Operating Services, LLC and Calvert... be located adjacent to the existing Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant (CCNPP), Units 1 and 2,...

  13. 76 FR 81994 - UniStar Nuclear Energy; Combined License Application for Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... COMMISSION UniStar Nuclear Energy; Combined License Application for Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 3; Exemption 1.0 Background: UniStar Nuclear Energy (UNE) submitted to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory... in a violation of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, or the NRC's regulations. Therefore,...

  14. Cliff top habitats provide important alternative feeding resources for wading birds of conservation importance wintering on non-estuarine coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnell, Julie; Hull, Susan L.

    2014-02-01

    Rocky shores and beaches are important over-wintering areas for non-estuarine waders but have rarely been studied. We examined cliff top habitat use by 6 species of wader over 75 km of coast to assess their potential value as alternative feeding sites to rocky and sandy shores. Both the regional and local survey showed that waders occurred on golf courses and recreational grasslands in higher frequencies than expected but arable and pasture use was lower than expected. We also compared local wader densities on rocky and sandy shores, pastures, golf courses, caravan parks and recreational grasslands over two winters. Sanderling predominantly fed on the beach whereas Oystercatcher, Dunlin, Turnstone and Redshank numbers significantly increased on golf courses and recreational grasslands over the winter period, with pasture being rarely used. General linear models were used to relate environmental factors to the presence and absence of each species on the cliff top habitats. Redshank was the only species that showed a higher probability of occurrence on cliff top habitats at high tide whereas the probability of Turnstone, Oystercatcher and Redshank occurring increased as temperatures declined. Using core sampling, we determined that invertebrate richness and abundance was significantly higher on the recreational grasslands and golf courses than on the pasture or the beach. Our data demonstrated that cliff top habitats are important alternative feeding areas for over-wintering waders in areas where the intertidal is bounded by cliffs. Current management creates short sward, open field habitats with a diverse and abundant invertebrate food supply exploited by waders. Any alterations to the land use of these areas should be carefully considered by planning authorities in light of the fact that they support species that are of conservation concern.

  15. The natural thermoluminescence of meteorites. IV - Ordinary chondrites at the Lewis Cliff ice field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Paul H.; Sears, Hazel; Sears, Derek W. G.

    1992-01-01

    Results of natural thermoluminescence (TL) measurements of 302 meteorites from the vicinity of the Lewis Cliff in the Beardmore region of Antarctica are presented in order to identify fragments of a single fall and to elucidate ice sheet movements and the mechanisms by which meteorite concentration occurs at this site. From the distribution of meteorites on the ice, the shape of the fields of 'paired' meteorites, and trends in the natural TL data, it is inferred that there is a western component to the movement of the ice at this location, as well as the previously supposed movement to the north. The western vector explains the concentration of meteorites along the western edge of the ice tongue. These new natural TL data identify several recent falls and several meteorites which probably had unusually small perihelia immediately prior to capture by the earth.

  16. Detection probability of gyrfalcons and other cliff-nesting raptors during aerial surveys in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booms, Travis L.; Fuller, Mark R.; Schempf, Philip F.; McCaffery, Brian J.; Lindberg, Mark S.

    2011-01-01

    Assessing the status of Gyrfalcons (Falco rusticolus) and other cliffnesting raptors as the Arctic climate changes often requires aerial surveys of their breeding habitats. Because traditional, count-based surveys that do not adjust for differing detection probabilities can provide faulty inference about population status (Link and Sauer 1998, Thompson 2002), it will be important to incorporate measures of detection probability into survey methods whenever possible. To evaluate the feasibility of this, we conducted repeated aerial surveys for breeding cliff-nesting raptors on the Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge (YDNWR) in western Alaska to estimate detection probabilities of Gyrfalcons, Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), Rough-legged Hawks (Buteo lagopus), and also Common Ravens (Corvus corax). Using the program PRESENCE, we modeled detection histories of each species based on single species occupancy modeling following MacKenzie et al. (2002, 2006). We used different observers during four helicopter replicate surveys in the Kilbuck Mountains and five fixed-wing replicate surveys in the Ingakslugwat Hills (hereafter called Volcanoes) near Bethel, Alaska. We used the following terms and definitions throughout: Survey Site: site of a nest used previously by a raptor and marked with a GPS-obtained latitude and longitude accurate to within 20 m. All GPS locations were obtained in prior years from a helicopter hovering approximately 10?20 m from a nest. The site was considered occupied if a bird or an egg was detected within approximately 500 m of the nest and this area served as our sampling unit. When multiple historical nests were located on a single cliff, we used only one GPS location to locate the survey site. Detection probability (p): the probability of a species being detected at a site given the site is occupied. Occupancy (?): the probability that the species of interest is present at a site during the survey period. A site was considered occupied if the

  17. Pressurized thermal shock evaluation of the Calvert Cliffs Unit 1 Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An evaluation of the risk to the Calvert Cliffs Unit 1 nuclear power plant due to pressurized thermal shock (PTS) has been completed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) with the assistance of several other organizations. This evaluation was part of a Nuclear Regulatory Commission program designed to study the PTS risk to three nuclear plants, the other two plants being Oconee Unit 1 and H.B. Robinson Unit 2. The specific objectives of the program were to (1) provide a best estimate of the frequency of a through-the-wall crack in the pressure vessel at each of the three plants, together with the uncertainty in the estimated frequency and its sensitivity to the variables used in the evaluation; (2) determine the dominant overcooling sequences contributing to the estimated frequency and the associated failures in the plant systems or in operator actions; and (3) evaluate the effectiveness of potential corrective measures

  18. Radiological survey results at 30 Cliff Street, Beverly, Massachusetts (VB022)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), a team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducted a radiological survey at 30 Cliff Street, Beverly, Massachusetts. The survey was performed in May 1991. The purpose of the survey was to determine if uranium from work performed under government contract at the former Ventron facility had migrated off-site to neighboring areas. The survey included a surface gamma scan, a beta-gamma scan of paved areas, and the collection of soil samples for radionuclide analyses. Results of the survey demonstrated no radionuclide concentrations or radiation measurements in excess of the DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program guidelines. The radionuclide distributions were not significantly different from typical background levels in the Beverly, Massachusetts, area

  19. Pressurized thermal shock evaluation of the Calvert Cliffs Unit 1 Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, L [ed.

    1985-09-01

    An evaluation of the risk to the Calvert Cliffs Unit 1 nuclear power plant due to pressurized thermal shock (PTS) has been completed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) with the assistance of several other organizations. This evaluation was part of a Nuclear Regulatory Commission program designed to study the PTS risk to three nuclear plants, the other two plants being Oconee Unit 1 and H.B. Robinson Unit 2. The specific objectives of the program were to (1) provide a best estimate of the frequency of a through-the-wall crack in the pressure vessel at each of the three plants, together with the uncertainty in the estimated frequency and its sensitivity to the variables used in the evaluation; (2) determine the dominant overcooling sequences contributing to the estimated frequency and the associated failures in the plant systems or in operator actions; and (3) evaluate the effectiveness of potential corrective measures.

  20. The potential of low-cost RPAS for multi-view reconstruction of rock cliffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettore Guccione, Davide; Thoeni, Klaus; Santise, Marina; Giacomini, Anna; Roncella, Riccardo; Forlani, Gianfranco

    2016-04-01

    RPAS, also known as drones or UAVs, have been used in military applications for many years. Nevertheless, the technology has become accessible to everyone only in recent years (Westoby et al., 2012; Nex and Remondino, 2014). Electric multirotor helicopters or multicopters have become one of the most exciting developments and several off-the-shelf platforms (including camera) are now available. In particular, RPAS can provide 3D models of sub-vertical rock faces, which for instance are needed for rockfall hazard assessments along road cuts and very steep mountains. The current work investigates the potential of two low-cost off-the-shelf quadcopters equipped with digital cameras for multi-view reconstruction of sub-vertical rock cliffs. The two platforms used are a DJI Phantom 1 (P1) equipped with a Gopro Hero 3+ (12MP) and a DJI Phantom 3 Professional (P3). The latter comes with an integrated 12MP camera mounted on a 3-axis gimbal. Both platforms cost less than 1.500€ including camera. The study area is a small rock cliff near the Callaghan Campus of the University of Newcastle (Thoeni et al., 2014). The wall is partly smooth with some evident geological features such as non-persistent joints and sharp edges. Several flights were performed with both cameras set in time-lapse mode. Hence, images were taken automatically but the flights were performed manually since the investigated rock face is very irregular which required adjusting the yaw and roll for optimal coverage since the flights were performed very close to the cliff face. The digital images were processed with a commercial SfM software package. Thereby, several processing options and camera networks were investigated in order to define the most accurate configuration. Firstly, the difference between the use of coded ground control targets versus natural features was studied. Coded targets generally provide the best accuracy but they need to be placed on the surface which is not always possible as rock

  1. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 projections of coastal cliff retreat due to 21st century sea-level rise

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Summary: This dataset contains projections of coastal cliff-retreat rates and positions for future scenarios of sea-level rise (SLR). Projections were made using...

  2. Sea-cliff erosion as a function of beach changes and extreme wave runup during the 1997-1998 El Nino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallenger, A.H., Jr.; Krabill, W.; Brock, J.; Swift, R.; Manizade, S.; Stockdon, H.

    2002-01-01

    Over time scales of hundreds to thousands of years, the net longshore sand transport direction along the central California coast has been driven to the south by North Pacific winter swell. In contrast, during the El Nin??o winter of 1997-1998, comparisons of before and after airborne lidar surveys showed sand was transported from south to north and accumulated on the south sides of resistant headlands bordering pocket beaches. This resulted in significant beach erosion at the south ends of pocket beaches and deposition in the north ends. Coincident with the south-to-north redistribution of sand, shoreline morphology became prominently cuspate with longshore wavelengths of 400-700 m. The width and elevation of beaches were least where maximum shoreline erosion occurred, preferentially exposing cliffs to wave attack. The resulting erosional hotspots typically were located in the embayments of giant cusps in the southern end of the pocket beaches. The observed magnitude of sea cliff retreat, which reached 14 m, varied with the number of hours that extreme wave runup exceeded certain thresholds representing the protective capacity of the beach during the El Nin??o winter. A threshold representing the width of the beach performed better than a threshold representing the elevation of the beach. The magnitude of cliff erosion can be scaled using a simple model based on the cross-shore distance that extreme wave runup exceeded the pre-winter cliff position. Cliff erosion appears to be a balance between terrestrial mass wasting processes, which tend to decrease the cliff slope, and wave attack, which removes debris and erodes the cliff base increasing the cliff slope. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Combined rock slope stability and shallow landslide susceptibility assessment of the Jasmund cliff area (Rügen Island, Germany)

    OpenAIRE

    Günther, A.; Thiel, C

    2009-01-01

    In this contribution we evaluated both the structurally-controlled failure susceptibility of the fractured Cretaceous chalk rocks and the topographically-controlled shallow landslide susceptibility of the overlying glacial sediments for the Jasmund cliff area on Rügen Island, Germany. We employed a combined methodology involving spatially distributed kinematical rock slope failure testing with tectonic fabric data, and both physically- and inventory-based shallow landslide susceptibility anal...

  4. IRTROCK: A MATLAB toolbox for contactless recognition of surface and shallow weakness of a rock cliff by infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teza, Giordano; Marcato, Gianluca; Castelli, Eugenio; Galgaro, Antonio

    2012-08-01

    Infrared thermography (IRT) can be used in remote recognition of potential weakening features of a rock cliff like shallow holes, high fracturing, moisture or material inhomogeneities, providing useful information for the corresponding rock mass geo-engineering characterization. A method aimed at such a recognition is proposed here together with its MATLAB implementation (IRTROCK package). It is based on the acquisition of a series of IRT images during the night-time cooling of a rock mass and on the search for possible anomalous thermal transients. The IRT alone is unable to completely characterize a rock mass; a meaningful interpretation of the results requires a geological on-contact survey or other on-contact or contactless techniques. Nevertheless, the results obtained in a portion of the cliff, where a detailed study with other techniques has been carried out, can be advantageously extended to the whole cliff. Moreover, the IRT measurements can be easily and safety repeated over time to evaluate possible changes that affect the studied rock mass. The effectiveness of the proposed approach has been verified in two test sites.

  5. Cliff´s Delta Calculator: A non-parametric effect size program for two groups of observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Macbeth

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The Cliff´s Delta statistic is an effect size measure that quantifies the amount of difference between two non-parametric variables beyond p-values interpretation. This measure can be understood as a useful complementary analysis for the corresponding hypothesis testing. During the last two decades the use of effect size measures has been strongly encouraged by methodologists and leading institutions of behavioral sciences. The aim of this contribution is to introduce the Cliff´s Delta Calculator software that performs such analysis and offers some interpretation tips. Differences and similarities with the parametric case are analysed and illustrated. The implementation of this free program is fully described and compared with other calculators. Alternative algorithmic approaches are mathematically analysed and a basic linear algebra proof of its equivalence is formally presented. Two worked examples in cognitive psychology are commented. A visual interpretation of Cliff´s Delta is suggested. Availability, installation and applications of the program are presented and discussed.

  6. Molecular characterization and geological microenvironment of a microbial community inhabiting weathered receding shale cliffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockell, Charles S; Pybus, David; Olsson-Francis, Karen; Kelly, Laura; Petley, David; Rosser, Nick; Howard, Kieren; Mosselmans, Fred

    2011-01-01

    Shales play an important role in many earth system processes including coastal erosion, and they form the foundations of many engineering structures. The geobiology of the interior of pyrite-containing receding shale cliffs on the coast of northeast England was examined. The surface of the weathered shales was characterised by a thin layer of disordered authigenic iron oxyhydroxides and localised acicular, platy and aggregated gypsum, which was characterised by Raman spectroscopy, XAS and SEM. These chemical changes are likely to play an important role in causing rock weakening along fractures at the micron scale, which ultimately lead to coastal retreat at the larger scale. The surface of the shale hosts a novel, low-diversity microbial community. The bacterial community was dominated by Proteobacteria, with phylotypes closely associating with Methylocella and other members of the γ-subdivision. The second largest phylogenetic group corresponded to Nitrospira. The archaeal 16S rRNA phylotypes were dominated by a single group of sequences that matched phylotypes reported from South African gold mines and possessed ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) genes. Both the phylogenetic and the mineral data show that acidic microenvironments play an important role in shale weathering, but the shale has a higher microbial diversity than previously described pyritic acid mine drainage sites. The presence of a potentially biogeochemically active microbial population on the rock surface suggests that microorganisms may contribute to early events of shale degradation and coastal erosion. PMID:20683587

  7. Changing the culture at Calvert Cliffs to focus on root cause analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the previous decade, the industry has made a significant investment in technical training and procedure revisions. However, many in the industry remain reactive to emergent issues with a frustrating lack of results. This paper will share with the industry an ongoing program at Calvert Cliffs to develop a culture for problem prevention/problem solving. The approach forming the basis for this focus is Kepner-Tregoe's Problem/Decision Analysis process. Rather than individually targeted training or attitude awareness, the approach here was to integrate the process into work systems and jobs, and train to specific roles. In this manner, skills learned are consistently applied, clearly documentable, and positively supported. To date, the program has resulted in millions of dollars saved and at least 15 days outage time prevented, and has identified several opportunities to revise functional relationships to best focus on results. The clear lesson here is that change and continuous improvement can best occur when results and roles are defined and trained to at the organizational level in addition to the individual task level

  8. Replacement steam generators for Calvert Cliffs, Oconee and future replacement design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the completion of steam generators presently being fabricated, a total of forty replacement steam generators will have been built for fourteen reactor units located at ten reactor sites. This represents approximately $1 billion of manufacture excluding installation costs. Replacement steam generator work began with the initiation of the Millstone 2 steam generator replacement program for Northeast Utilities in 1989. Manufacture is presently underway on replacement recirculating steam generators for Calvert Cliffs Units 1 and 2 plants of Constellation Nuclear (OEM Combustion Engineering) and the once-through steam generators for the Oconee 1, 2 and 3 plants of Duke Power (OEM Babcock and Wilcox). These two sites are the first and second respectively to have applied for and received approval for a life extension of 20 years beyond their original operating license. The application and granting of these license extensions reflects a major change in the nuclear industry over the recent past. The attitude to nuclear power has changed from a relatively defensive strategy to a much more optimistic agenda of utility reorganization, purchase of well performing older plants, replacement of aging components, plant refurbishment, and upgrades and applications for license extension. Possible new plants are also being considered. The paper discusses specific features, attributes, performance and operating experience with replacement steam generators (RSGs) both in service and under construction. Industry issues and design features applicable to future replacement steam generators are also reviewed. (author)

  9. Modelling weathering induced retreat of c-φ cliffs with limited tensile strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voulgari, C.

    2015-09-01

    Natural cliffs subject to weathering induced retreat are typically made of hard soils and / or weak rocks exhibiting limited tensile strength. In this paper, the morphologic evolution of uniform c, φ slopes subject to weathering is investigated for a range of values of tensile strengths employing the limit analysis upper bound method. This paper extends the analytical framework set up in [1, 2] by accounting for the limited tensile strength of the ground which was previously disregarded. The solutions were obtained by employing the kinematic method of limit analysis providing rigorous upper bounds to the true collapse values. The inclusion of tension cracks leads to modified analytical expressions of the energy balance equation (the balance between external work and dissipated energy) and as a consequence, of the function whose minimum provides the solution in terms of failure mechanisms and associated values of soil strength. Pre-existing cracks are considered, as well as cracks that form as part of the failure mechanism. It turns out that the presence of tension cracks may significantly alter the size of each landslide contributing to the retrogression of the slope. Results in the form of dimensionless ready-to-use charts are produced for any value of engineering interest of friction angle and slope inclination for the case of dry cracks. Moreover, upper bounds for values not included in the charts can be achieved either by interpolation from the charts or by running the minimisation of the analytical functions provided in the paper.

  10. Modeling Block Failure in Vertical Cliffs of Arctic Coasts Underlain by Permafrost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, W. H.

    2004-12-01

    Arctic coasts lie at the interface between terrestrial systems dominated by permafrost, and marine systems that are characterized by long periods of ice cover and short periods of open water when wave action and storm activity are important. Permafrost, sea ice and wind-wave conditions are driven by regional and local climate forcing and interact in such a way that a change in one produces feedbacks affecting the other two. However, under predicted climate change scenarios of warming, increased storm activity and sea level rise will profoundly affect all three leading to potentially devastating rates of coastal erosion and permafrost degradation. Permafrost coasts are subject to complex erosional processes, however one of the most poorly understood but probably most important is block failure. Thermo-abrasional falls or block collapses provide the most spectacular form of coastal recession in permafrost areas. This study provides computational models for block failure mechanisms and investigates the relative contribution of horizontal thermo-erosional niches and ice wedges to block failure of permafrost cliffs fronted by a beach.

  11. Microaneurysms detection with the radon cliff operator in retinal fundus images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giancardo, Luca [ORNL; Meriaudeau, Fabrice [ORNL; Karnowski, Thomas Paul [ORNL; Tobin Jr, Kenneth William [ORNL; Li, Yaquin [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Chaum, Edward [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2010-01-01

    Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) is one of the leading causes of blindness in the industrialized world. Early detection is the key in providing effective treatment. However, the current number of trained eye care specialists is inadequate to screen the increasing number of diabetic patients. In recent years, automated and semi-automated systems to detect DR with color fundus images have been developed with encouraging, but not fully satisfactory results. In this study we present the initial results of a new technique for the detection and localization of microaneurysms, an early sign of DR. The algorithm is based on three steps: candidates selection, the actual microaneurysms detection and a final probability evaluation. We introduce the new Radon Cliff operator which is our main contribution to the field. Making use of the Radon transform, the operator is able to detect single noisy Gaussian-like circular structures regardless of their size or strength. The advantages over existing microaneurysms detectors are manifold: the size of the lesions can be unknown, it automatically distinguishes lesions from the vasculature and it provides a fair approach to microaneurysm localization even without post-processing the candidates with machine learning techniques, facilitating the training phase. The algorithm is evaluated on a publicly available dataset from the Retinopathy Online Challenge.

  12. Microaneurysms detection with the radon cliff operator in retinal fundus images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giancardo, Luca; Mériaudeau, Fabrice; Karnowski, Thomas P.; Tobin, Kenneth W.; Li, Yaqin; Chaum, Edward

    2010-03-01

    Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) is one of the leading causes of blindness in the industrialized world. Early detection is the key in providing effective treatment. However, the current number of trained eye care specialists is inadequate to screen the increasing number of diabetic patients. In recent years, automated and semi-automated systems to detect DR with color fundus images have been developed with encouraging, but not fully satisfactory results. In this study we present the initial results of a new technique for the detection and localization of microaneurysms, an early sign of DR. The algorithm is based on three steps: candidates selection, the actual microaneurysms detection and a final probability evaluation. We introduce the new Radon Cliff operator which is our main contribution to the field. Making use of the Radon transform, the operator is able to detect single noisy Gaussian-like circular structures regardless of their size or strength. The advantages over existing microaneurysms detectors are manifold: the size of the lesions can be unknown, it automatically distinguishes lesions from the vasculature and it provides a fair approach to microaneurysm localization even without post-processing the candidates with machine learning techniques, facilitating the training phase. The algorithm is evaluated on a publicly available dataset from the Retinopathy Online Challenge.

  13. Comprehensive knowledge base of two- and three-dimensional activity cliffs for medicinal and computational chemistry [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/5ir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Hu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Activity cliffs are formed by pairs or groups of structurally similar or analogous active compounds with large differences in potency. They can be defined in two or three dimensions by comparing graph-based molecular representations or compound binding modes, respectively. Through systematic analysis of publicly available compound activity data and ligand-target X-ray structures we have in a series of studies determined all currently available two- and three-dimensional activity cliffs (2D- and 3D-cliffs, respectively. Furthermore, we have systematically searched for 2D extensions of 3D-cliffs. Herein, we specify different categories of activity cliffs we have explored and introduce an open access data deposition in ZENODO (doi: 10.5281/zenodo.18490 that makes the entire knowledge base of current activity cliffs freely available in an organized form.

  14. The water erosion processes in the retreat erosive of cliff on soft rocks in the province of Cadiz (Spain); Los procesos de erosion hidrica en el retroceso erosivo de acantilados sobre rocas blandas en la provincia de Cadiz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rendon Aragon, J. J.; Gracia Prieto, F. J.; Rio Rodriguez, L. del

    2009-07-01

    The littoral cliffs on soft materials of the Atlantic Cadiz coast show an important activity of the fresh water erosion processes, sometimes even more significant than the marine erosion processes. The connection of the lower cliffs with sandy beaches favours aeolian sand invasion, which fills previous rills and reduces the water erosion intensity by increasing infiltration. Cliff retreat and rill erosion measurement by using erosion sticks has shown very variables values, most of them higher than the estimated error of the employed methods. This indicates the existence of other factors influencing the distribution of water erosion processes along these cliffs, which have to be studied through different techniques. (Author) 5 refs.

  15. Influence of meteorological factors on rockfall occurrence in a middle mountain limestone cliff

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amato, Julie; Hantz, Didier; Guerin, Antoine; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Baillet, Laurent; Mariscal, Armand

    2016-03-01

    The influence of meteorological conditions on rockfall occurrence has been often highlighted, but knowledge of it is still not sufficient due to the lack of exhaustive and precise rockfall databases. In this study, rockfalls have been detected in a limestone cliff by annual terrestrial laser scanning, and dated by photographic survey over a period of 2.5 years. A near-continuous survey (one photo every 10 min) with a wide-angle lens has made it possible to date 214 rockfalls larger than 0.1 m3, and a monthly survey with a telephoto lens has dated 854 rockfalls larger than 0.01 m3. Analysis of the two databases shows that the rockfall frequency can be multiplied by a factor as high as 7 during freeze-thaw episodes and 26 when the mean rainfall intensity (since the beginning of the rainfall episode) is higher than 5 mmh-1. Based on these results, a three-level scale has been proposed for predicting the temporal variations of rockfall frequency. The more precise database and freeze-thaw episode definition make it possible to distinguish different phases in freeze-thaw episodes: negative temperature cooling periods, negative temperature warming periods and thawing periods. It appears that rockfalls occur more frequently during warming and thawing periods than during cooling periods. It can be inferred that rockfalls are caused by thermal ice dilatation rather than by dilatation due to the phase transition. But they may occur only when the ice melts, because the cohesion of the ice-rock interface can be sufficient to hold the rock compartment which has been cut.

  16. Pre-failure behaviour of an unstable limestone cliff from displacement and seismic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-L. Got

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We monitored the displacement and seismic activity of an unstable vertical rock slice in a natural limestone cliff of the southeast Vercors massif, southeast France, during the months preceding its collapse. Displacement measurements showed an average acceleration of the movement of its top, with clear increases in the displacement velocity and in the discrete seismic event production rate during periods where temperature falls, with more activity when rainfall or frost occurs. Crises of discrete seismic events produce high amplitudes in periodograms, but do not change the high frequency base noise level rate. We infer that these crises express the critical crack growth induced by water weakening (from water vapor condensation or rain of the rock strength rather than to a rapid change in applied stresses. Seismic noise analysis showed a steady increase in the high frequency base noise level and the emergence of spectral modes in the signal recorded by the sensor installed on the unstable rock slice during the weeks preceding the collapse. High frequency seismic noise base level seems to represent subcritical crack growth. It is a smooth and robust parameter whose variations are related to generalized changes in the rupture process. Drop of the seismic noise amplitude was concomitant with the emergence of spectral modes – that are compatible with high-order eigenmodes of the unstable rock slice – during the later stages of its instability. Seismic noise analysis, especially high frequency base noise level analysis may complement that of inverse displacement velocity in early-warning approaches when strong displacement fluctuations occur.

  17. Population genetics of self-incompatibility in a clade of relict cliff-dwelling plant species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Jose L.; Brennan, Adrian C.; Mejías, José A.

    2016-01-01

    The mating systems of species in small or fragmented populations impact upon their persistence. Small self-incompatible (SI) populations risk losing S allele diversity, responsible for the SI response, by drift thereby limiting mate availability and leading to population decline or SI system breakdown. But populations of relict and/or endemic species have resisted these demographic conditions over long periods suggesting their mating systems have adapted. To address a lack of empirical data on this topic, we studied the SI systems of three relict cliff-dwelling species of Sonchus section Pustulati (Asteraceae): S. masguindalii, S. fragilis and S. pustulatus in the western Mediterranean region. We performed controlled pollinations within and between individuals to measure index of SI (ISI) expression and identify S alleles in multiple population samples. Sonchus masguindalii and S. pustulatus showed strong SI (ISI = 0.6–1.0) compared to S. fragilis (ISI = 0.1–0.7). Just five S alleles were estimated for Spanish S. pustulatus and a moderate 11-15 S alleles for Moroccan S. pustulatus and S. fragilis, respectively. The fact that autonomous fruit set was generally improved by active self-pollination in self-compatible S. fragilis suggests that individuals with weak SI can show a wide range of outcrossing levels dependent on the degree of self or outcross pollen that pollinators bear. We conclude that frequent S allele dominance interactions that mask the incompatibility interactions of recessive S alleles leading to higher mate availability and partial breakdown of SI leading to mixed mating, both contribute to reproductive resilience in this group. PMID:27154621

  18. 3-D Resistivity Tomography for Cliff Stability Study at the D-Day Pointe du Hoc Historic Site in Normandy, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udphuay, S.; Everett, M. E.; Guenther, T.; Warden, R. R.

    2007-12-01

    The D-Day invasion site at Pointe du Hoc in Normandy, France is one of the most important World War II battlefields. The site remains today a valuable historic cultural resource. However the site is vulnerable to cliff collapses that could endanger the observation post building and U.S. Ranger memorial located just landward of the sea stack, and an anti-aircraft gun emplacement, Col. Rudder's command post, located on the cliff edge about 200 m east of the observation post. A 3-D resistivity tomography incorporating extreme topography is used in this study to provide a detailed site stability assessment with special attention to these two buildings. Multi-electrode resistivity measurements were made across the cliff face and along the top of the cliff around the two at-risk buildings to map major subsurface fracture zones and void spaces that could indicate possible accumulations and pathways of groundwater. The ingress of acidic groundwater through the underlying carbonate formations enlarges pre-existing tectonic fractures via limestone dissolution and weakens the overall structural integrity of the cliff. The achieved 3-D resistivity tomograms provide diagnostic subsurface resistivity distributions. Resistive zones associated with subsurface void spaces have been located. These void spaces constitute a stability geohazard as they become significant drainage routes during and after periods of heavy rainfalls.

  19. Experimental study of turbulent supercritical open channel water flow as applied to the CLiFF concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental study of turbulent open channel water flows was conducted that simulated basic features of the flow of molten salt in the convective liquid flow first-wall (CLiFF) concept, which is a part of the Advanced Power Extraction (APEX) study. Unlike many other studies of open channel flows, the present one concentrates on a supercritical flow regime, in which surface waviness and wave-turbulence interaction are the most important processes that determine the heat transfer rate in CLiFF flows. The current study covers the Reynolds number and Froude number range of 1x104-6x104 and 150-250, respectively, with a fixed chute inclination angle of 30 deg. . The statistical characteristics of the wavy interface were obtained with an ultrasound transducer. A spectral analysis of the oscillating flow thickness shows that a major part of the spectrum is presented by long finite-amplitude waves (f=10-50 Hz), which carry a significant part of the volumetric flux. Based on dye technique observations, short waves are mostly responsible for mixing the liquid at the surface. The surface waviness can be characterized by a parameter built through the mean flow thickness, h, and its standard deviation (S.D.), σ, as 0.5σ/h, which is almost constant, 0.1, in all experiments. The mean flow thickness variations are predicted well with the 'K-ε' model of turbulence [Int. J. Eng. Sci. 40/6 (2002) 693], but the fluctuations are not resolved. Thermal images of the free surface measured by an infrared (IR) camera are very non-uniform and show the 'strike' structures in the form of elongated strips of 'hotter' and 'cooler' liquid. The present observations are the first steps to better understanding and quantitative predictions of liquid wall flows in the CLiFF design

  20. Application of an LWR operator information systems analysis to the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant-Unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the formulation and demonstration of a method to help utilities achieve their objectives of nuclear plant safety and economy. Called The Integrated Approach to Economic and Safe Nuclear Power Production, it is a framework for showing how plant equipment and personnel work together in successful nuclear operations. It is being applied to the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant Unit 1 to evaluate the current plant information systems and, should it appear to be desirable, to identify potential cost-beneficial improvements to plant information systems

  1. Slope mass movements on rocky sea-cliffs: A power-law distributed natural hazard on the Barlavento Coast, Algarve, Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Sebastião Braz

    2006-06-01

    The coast of the Central Algarve, Portugal, is dominated by sea-cliffs, cut on Miocene calcarenites; here, the main coastal geologic hazards result from the conflict between human occupation and sea-cliff recession. The evolution of this rocky coast occurs through an intermittent and discontinuous series of slope mass movements, along a 46 km cliff front. For the last 30 years, the increase of tourism occupation has amplified the risks to both people and buildings. In the last decade we have seen several accidents caused by cliff failure, which killed or wounded people and destroyed several buildings. The definition of buffer zones limited by hazard lines parallel to the cliff edge, where land use is restricted, is a widely used and effective preventive measure for mitigating risk. Rocky coasts typically show a slow cliff evolution. The process of gathering statistically significant field inventories of mass movements is, thus, very long. Although mass movement catalogues provide fundamental information on sea cliff evolution patterns and are an outstanding tool in hazard assessment, published data sets are still rare. In this work, we use two inventories of mass movement width, recorded on sea cliffs cut on Miocene calcarenites: a nine year long continuous field inventory (1995-2004) with 140 recorded events, and a 44 year long catalogue based on comparative analysis of aerial photographs (1947-1991), that includes 177 events. The cumulative frequency-width distributions of both data sets fit, above a critical width value corresponding to the threshold of full completeness of the inventories, to power-law distributions. The knowledge of the limits of the catalogues enabled the construction of a 53 year long record inventory over the range of mean width ⩾3 m ( n=167 events) and maximum width ⩾4 m ( n=155 events). The data assembled corresponds to a partial series and was converted to a return period-size distribution. Both return period-width distributions

  2. Experiments to investigate direct containment heating phenomena with scaled models of the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Surtsey Test Facility is used to perform scaled experiments simulating High Pressure Melt Ejection accidents in a nuclear power plant (NPP). The experiments investigate the effects of direct containment heating (DCH) on the containment load. The results from Zion and Surry experiments can be extrapolated to other Westinghouse plants, but predicted containment loads cannot be generalized to all Combustion Engineering (CE) plants. Five CE plants have melt dispersal flow paths which circumvent the main mitigation of containment compartmentalization in most Westinghouse PWRs. Calvert Cliff-like plant geometries and the impact of codispersed water were addressed as part of the DCH issue resolution. Integral effects tests were performed with a scale model of the Calvert Cliffs NPP inside the Surtsey test vessel. The experiments investigated the effects of codispersal of water, steam, and molten core stimulant materials on DCH loads under prototypic accident conditions and plant configurations. The results indicated that large amounts of coejected water reduced the DCH load by a small amount. Large amounts of debris were dispersed from the cavity to the upper dome (via the annular gap). 22 refs., 84 figs., 30 tabs

  3. Experiments to investigate direct containment heating phenomena with scaled models of the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchat, T.K.; Pilch, M.M.; Allen, M.D.

    1997-02-01

    The Surtsey Test Facility is used to perform scaled experiments simulating High Pressure Melt Ejection accidents in a nuclear power plant (NPP). The experiments investigate the effects of direct containment heating (DCH) on the containment load. The results from Zion and Surry experiments can be extrapolated to other Westinghouse plants, but predicted containment loads cannot be generalized to all Combustion Engineering (CE) plants. Five CE plants have melt dispersal flow paths which circumvent the main mitigation of containment compartmentalization in most Westinghouse PWRs. Calvert Cliff-like plant geometries and the impact of codispersed water were addressed as part of the DCH issue resolution. Integral effects tests were performed with a scale model of the Calvert Cliffs NPP inside the Surtsey test vessel. The experiments investigated the effects of codispersal of water, steam, and molten core stimulant materials on DCH loads under prototypic accident conditions and plant configurations. The results indicated that large amounts of coejected water reduced the DCH load by a small amount. Large amounts of debris were dispersed from the cavity to the upper dome (via the annular gap). 22 refs., 84 figs., 30 tabs.

  4. High frequency seismic monitoring of debris flows at Chalk Cliffs (CO), USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coviello, Velio; Kean, Jason; Smith, Joel; Coe, Jeffrey; Arattano, Massimo; McCoy, Scott

    2015-04-01

    A growing number of studies adopt passive seismic monitoring techniques to investigate slope instabilities and landslide processes. These techniques are attractive and convenient because large areas can be monitored from a safe distance. This is particularly true when the phenomena under investigation are rapid and infrequent mass movements like debris flows. Different types of devices are used to monitor debris flow processes, but among them ground vibration detectors (GVDs) present several, specific advantages that encourage their use. These advantages include: (i) the possibility to be installed outside the channel bed, (ii) the high adaptability to different and harsh field conditions, and (iii) the capability to detect the debris flow front arrival tens of seconds earlier than contact and stage sensors. Ground vibration data can provide relevant information on the dynamics of debris flows such as timing and velocity of the main surges. However, the processing of the raw seismic signal is usually needed, both to obtain a more effective representation of waveforms and to decrease the amount of data that need to be recorded and analyzed. With this objective, the methods of Amplitude and Impulses are commonly adopted to transform the raw signal to a 1-Hz signal that allows for a more useful representation of the phenomenon. In that way, peaks and other features become more visible and comparable with data obtained from other monitoring devices. In this work, we present the first debris flows seismic recordings gathered in the Chalk Cliffs instrumented basin, central Colorado, USA. In May 2014, two 4.5-Hz, three-axial geophones were installed in the upper part of the catchment. Seismic data are sampled at 333 Hz and then recorded by a standalone recording unit. One geophone is directly installed on bedrock, the other one mounted on a 1-m boulder partially buried in colluvium. This latter sensor integrates a heavily instrumented cross-section consisting of a 225 cm2

  5. From grazing marks to collapsed cliffs - intertidal bioerosion on all scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kázmér, Miklós; Taboroši, Danko; Hsieh, Meng-Long; Shafeea Leman, Mohd; Aziz Ali, Che; Roslan Mohamed, Kamal; Choowong, Montri

    2014-05-01

    Rocky shores - particularly in limestone areas of tropical, subtropical, and some temperate regions - are subject to intense bioerosion. Detailed field studies along the Gulf of Siam and the Andaman coast of Thailand, Langkawi Islands of Malaysia, southern Java and Bali in Indonesia, Palau Islands, and Okinawa revealed the presence of rich populations of bioeroding organisms in the intertidal zone. Molluscs capable of damaging rock (the chiton Acanthopleura, limpets, and whelks) leave grazing traces as they feed on bacterial and algal biofilms and chasmolithic and endolithic microorganisms. Boring sponges (Entobia), bivalves (Gastrochaenolites and others), boring sipunculid worms (Caulostrepsis), and sea urchins (Echinometra) drill deeper to hide from predators beneath the rock surface. Individually, members of these taxa leave marks ranging from sub-millimetre to the metre scale, but collectively, their erosion creates marine notches, several-metres-deep features extending between low and high tide marks. When cliffs overhanging these notches collapse, landscape-scale scars are left behind. The various bioeroders display a clear vertical zonation between low and high tide. These are dictated by environmental stress, food availability, competition, and predation. Typical inhabitants of present-day zones include - from top to bottom - littorinid snails, patellid limpets, chitons, boring bivalves, and boring sea urchins. Each organism leaves a characteristic mark in the bedrock. Trace fossils found in the 'wrong place' - either too high or too low compared to the present-day occurrence of the animals - suggest changes in relative sea level. Similarly, sea level changes are suggested by the presence of compound markings produced through overprinting by organisms that live in different ecological zones. Preservation and obliteration of traces depends on the rates of sea level change and coastal denudation. Morphology of bioerosional markings and their vertical zonation

  6. The outcrop and area underlain by the Upper Cretaceous Drip Tank Mb. of the Straight Cliffs Fm. in the Kaiparowits Plateau study area, southern Utah (kaikdtg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a polygon file of the outcrop and area underlain by the Drip Tank Mb. of the Straight Cliffs Fm. (Upper Cretaceous) east of 112 degrees of longitude in the...

  7. Landslides: Geomorphology and Sea Cliff Hazard Potential, Santa Barbara - Isla Vista, California J.F. Klath and E.A. Keller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klath, J. F.; Keller, E. A.

    2015-12-01

    Coastal areas are often characterized by high population densities in an ever changing, dynamic environment. The world's coasts are often dominated by steeply sloping sea cliffs, the morphology of which reflects rock type, wave erosion, and surface erosion, as well as human activities such changing vegetation, urban runoff, and construction of coastal defenses. The Santa Barbara and Goleta area, with over 17 km of sea cliffs and beaches, extends from Santa Barbara Point west to the hamlet of Isla Vista. A deeper understanding of the local geology and the physical processes generating slope failure and, thus, landward cliff retreat is important for general public safety, as well as future development and planning. Our research objective includes assessment of landslide hazard potential through investigation of previous landslides and how these events relate to various physical variables and characteristics within the surrounding bedrock. How does landslide frequency, volume, and type relate to varying local bedrock and structure? Two geologic formations dominate the sea cliffs of the Santa Barbara area: Monterey shale (upper, middle, and lower) and Monterey Sisquoc shale. Geology varies from hard cemented shale and diatomaceous, low specific gravity shale to compaction shale. Variations in landslide characteristics are linked closely to the geology of a specific site that affects how easily rock units are weathered and eroded by wave erosion, naturally occurring oil and water seeps, burnt shale events, and landslide type and frequency on steeply dipped bedding planes/daylighting beds. Naturally occurring features linked to human processes often weaken bedrock and, thus, increase the likelihood of landslides. We categorize landslide frequency, type, and triggers; location of beach access, drainage pipes, and water; and oil and tar seeps in order to develop suggestions to minimize landslide potential. Lastly, using previously published erosion cliff retreat rates and

  8. Detection probability of cliff-nesting raptors during helicopter and fixed-wing aircraft surveys in western Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booms, T.L.; Schempf, P.F.; McCaffery, B.J.; Lindberg, M.S.; Fuller, M.R.

    2010-01-01

    We conducted repeated aerial surveys for breeding cliff-nesting raptors on the Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge (YDNWR) in western Alaska to estimate detection probabilities of Gyrfalcons (Falco rusticolus), Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), Rough-legged Hawks (Buteo lagopus), and also Common Ravens (Corvus corax). Using the program PRESENCE, we modeled detection histories of each species based on single species occupancy modeling. We used different observers during four helicopter replicate surveys in the Kilbuck Mountains and five fixed-wing replicate surveys in the Ingakslugwat Hills near Bethel, AK. During helicopter surveys, Gyrfalcons had the highest detection probability estimate (p^;p^ 0.79; SE 0.05), followed by Golden Eagles (p^=0.68; SE 0.05), Common Ravens (p^=0.45; SE 0.17), and Rough-legged Hawks (p^=0.10; SE 0.11). Detection probabilities from fixed-wing aircraft in the Ingakslugwat Hills were similar to those from the helicopter in the Kilbuck Mountains for Gyrfalcons and Golden Eagles, but were higher for Common Ravens (p^=0.85; SE 0.06) and Rough-legged Hawks (p^=0.42; SE 0.07). Fixed-wing aircraft provided detection probability estimates and SEs in the Ingakslugwat Hills similar to or better than those from helicopter surveys in the Kilbucks and should be considered for future cliff-nesting raptor surveys where safe, low-altitude flight is possible. Overall, detection probability varied by observer experience and in some cases, by study area/aircraft type.

  9. Accurate 3D point cloud comparison and volumetric change analysis of Terrestrial Laser Scan data in a hard rock coastal cliff environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earlie, C. S.; Masselink, G.; Russell, P.; Shail, R.; Kingston, K.

    2013-12-01

    Our understanding of the evolution of hard rock coastlines is limited due to the episodic nature and ';slow' rate at which changes occur. High-resolution surveying techniques, such as Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS), have just begun to be adopted as a method of obtaining detailed point cloud data to monitor topographical changes over short periods of time (weeks to months). However, the difficulties involved in comparing consecutive point cloud data sets in a complex three-dimensional plane, such as occlusion due to surface roughness and positioning of data capture point as a result of a consistently changing environment (a beach profile), mean that comparing data sets can lead to errors in the region of 10 - 20 cm. Meshing techniques are often used for point cloud data analysis for simple surfaces, but in surfaces such as rocky cliff faces, this technique has been found to be ineffective. Recession rates of hard rock coastlines in the UK are typically determined using aerial photography or airborne LiDAR data, yet the detail of the important changes occurring to the cliff face and toe are missed using such techniques. In this study we apply an algorithm (M3C2 - Multiscale Model to Model Cloud Comparison), initially developed for analysing fluvial morphological change, that directly compares point to point cloud data using surface normals that are consistent with surface roughness and measure the change that occurs along the normal direction (Lague et al., 2013). The surfaces changes are analysed using a set of user defined scales based on surface roughness and registration error. Once the correct parameters are defined, the volumetric cliff face changes are calculated by integrating the mean distance between the point clouds. The analysis has been undertaken at two hard rock sites identified for their active erosion located on the UK's south west peninsular at Porthleven in south west Cornwall and Godrevy in north Cornwall. Alongside TLS point cloud data, in

  10. A Comparison Of The Wind Spectrum According To Different Methods - An Original Project Of A Building On A Cliff In Gdynia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zielińska M.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents numerical simulations of the dynamic wind loads on the structure of a building designed on a cliff in Gdynia. The results obtained from the two methods: Davenport’s and Karman’s are compared. The results allowed a comparison of the two methods, and they provided an answer to the question how a construction, designed in such an unusual condition of a cliff behaves under the influence of the gusting wind. The wind spectrum is presented and compared in both directions: of the X-axis and of the Y-axis. The dynamic calculations are carried out in the Abaqus software. The conducted numerical analyses compare the displacements in two points - at half height of the building and at the top - obtained by the two methods.

  11. Think crisis-think female: the glass cliff and contextual variation in the think manager-think male stereotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Michelle K; Haslam, S Alexander; Hersby, Mette D; Bongiorno, Renata

    2011-05-01

    The "think manager-think male" (TMTM) association underlies many gender inequalities in the workplace. However, research into the "glass cliff" has demonstrated that the suitability of male and female managers varies as a function of company performance such that in times of poor performance people may "think female" (Ryan & Haslam, 2005, 2007). Three studies examined gender and managerial stereotypes in the context of companies that are doing well or doing badly. Study 1 reproduced TMTM associations for descriptions of managers of successful companies but demonstrated a reversal for managers of unsuccessful companies. Study 2 examined the prescriptive nature of these stereotypes. No TMTM relationship was found for ideal managers of successful companies, but ideal managers of unsuccessful companies were associated with the female stereotype. Study 3 suggested that women may be favored in times of poor performance, not because they are expected to improve the situation, but because they are seen to be good people managers and can take the blame for organizational failure. Together, the studies illustrate the importance of context as a moderator of the TMTM association. Practical and theoretical implications for gender discrimination in the workplace are discussed. PMID:21171729

  12. A localized corrosion assessment of 6% molybdenum stainless steel condenser tubing at the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A condition assessment was performed on the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant Unit 1 Main Steam Condenser 6% molybdenum stainless steel tubing. This work consisted of eddy current (EC) examination, in-situ visual examination of tubes, and destructive analysis of pulled tubes. The assessment objectives were as follows: to determine the tubing degradation mechanism, to render the condenser leak-tight, to identify methods of improving condenser life management, and to develop a basis for projecting the remaining condenser life. Once the corrosion mechanism was identified, seawater corrosion tests were performed on UNS N08366 and N08367 tubing using vinyl sleeves, Type 316 stainless compression fittings, and epoxy paint as crevice formers. Based on eddy current examination results, greater than 95% of the 49,500 tubes in the condenser had no detectable degradation. Over 1,200 tubes were plugged with either eddy current indications measuring greater than 60% wall loss or with obstructions. One waterbox (11A) contained 52% of all eddy current indications with over half of these in one section (B). Destructive analysis of pulled tubes revealed crevice corrosion, a form of localized corrosion that initiated under deposits. This type of corrosion occurred most often and had the deepest penetration in the weld seam. This was attributed to molybdenum and chromium segregation in the as-welded tubes and to deleterious secondary phases formed during weld solidification

  13. Application of laser scanning and opto-electronic devices for monitoring cliff instability in the Campi Flegrei coastal area: the Coroglio case study ( Napoli, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somma, R.; Caputo, T.; Esposito, G.; Marino, E.; Matano, F.; Carlino, S.; Iuliano, S.; Sacchi, M.; Troise, C.; De Natale, G.

    2013-12-01

    This study introduces a Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) application for the landslides monitoring and its experiment in Gulf of Pozzuoli coastal area (Italy). This area is a part of the Campi Flegrei volcanic district, one of the major volcanic risk zones of the world, with more than 300.000 people and a lot of infrastructures concentrated within it. The cliffs consist of very erodible volcanoclastic lithologies as same as tuffs and ignimbrites, affected by the erosive action of both sea and meteorological agents, very high erosion rate. Furthermore, in this area the bradyseismic phenomenon occurred too, producing differential displacement and fracturing. The Coroglio test site was chosen taking into account cliff's geological and geomorphological properties, as well as aspect, fractures, lithology, and elements at risk located upslope or downslope: The Coroglio site is characterized by lithified upper member of the NYT with stratified, wavy-to-planar alternations of coarse-grained, disorganized, matrix-supported layers, thinly-laminated discontinuous beds and massive, even fine ash layers. The accuracy of the technique used reaches a detailed level in landslide monitoring which allows this methodology to be complementary to the monitoring by setup a geodetic deformation monitoring network. With this aim we have firstly reconstructed a 3D model of the investigated cliff with the use of dedicated softwares and successively analyzed the main lithological, structural and geomorphologic elements related to cliff instability processes. What is possible to confirm after this first study, can be here resumed: (1) These tests were designed to set-up landslide monitoring in highly urbanised areas such as the Campi Flegrei; they are very important sites with a well-established road network, which can be affected by landslide phenomena as occurred in the past causing either traffic interruption and damage to infrastructures insisting along the landslides fronts. (2) In the

  14. Stream of Consciousness and Symbolism, the“Magic”Used by Heming-way to Characterize Harry as A Dying Man on the Cliff of Kilimanjaro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蓝清珂

    2016-01-01

    The Snows of Kilimanjaro was written in the 20th century when the realism was still the main stream in the field of litera-ture. However, Hemingway broke the cocoon of realism and flew into a new literary kingdom—modernism, where many new theories such as stream of consciousness and archetypal symbol blossomed and were used in literature. This paper mainly ana-lyzed how stream of consciousness and symbolism were used in the Snows of Kilimanjaro to characterize Harry as a dying man on the cliff of Kilimanjaro.

  15. The many ways of falling down a cliff: Culture- and Language-specific ways of expressing path in Jaminjung and Kriol

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffmann, Dorothea

    2011-01-01

    The many ways of falling down a cliff: Culture- and language-specific ways of expressing path in Jaminjung and KriolThis paper aims to give an overview of the strategies of motion event encoding in narrative and discourse for two Australian Aboriginal Languages. Jaminjung is a highly endangered non-Pama-Nyungan language spoken by approximately fifty people and Kriol is an English-lexified Creole with ca. 20,000 speakers of different varieties across northern Australia. The encoding of path is...

  16. Seismic response analysis of a tuff cliff by an effective stress non-linear 2D model approach: an example in Sorrento Peninsula, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Fiore, V.; Angelino, A.; Buonocunto, F. P.; Rapolla, A.; Tarallo, D.

    2009-04-01

    We present a model to describe the behavior of a tuff cliff under the dynamic stress considering a law reference input motion. The studied area is located in the Sorrento Peninsula, a major Quaternary morpho-structural unit of the western flank of Southern Apennines. The peninsula forms a narrow and elevated mountain range (up to 1444 m) that separates two major embayments of the eastern Tyrrhenian margin and is characterized by a carbonate bedrock capped by pyroclastic deposits (i.e. "Campania Ignimbrite"), originated from the Campi Flegrei volcanic district. The occurrence of steep slopes and the high relief energy of the area, along with the marine erosion at the base of the coastal cliff creates favorable conditions for the occurrence of a generalized instability of the slopes that is manifested by tuff rock falls as prevailing landslide phenomena. These events are highly dangerous because of the sudden detachments of conspicuous volumes of rocks with high speed, especially when the rock fall initiates in the upper part of the slopes. Prediction of such landslides is difficult if not accompanied by accurate hydrogeologic and geotechnical monitoring and assessment. The geometry of our model is represented by a tuff cliff of 48 m height, covered by a 8 m thick volcaniclastic layer. At the base of the tuff cliff marine sand deposits occur. The geotechnical parameters used for the analysis were selected from the literature. We have used an effective stress non-linear 2D model to determine the dynamic stress field of our model. The effective stress non-linear algorithm uses the Direct Integration Method to compute the motion and excess pore-water pressures arising from inertial forces at user-defined time steps. The seismic response analysis was performed using the field shear stress generated by synthetic 1-30 Hz band-limited accelerogram. The finite elements mesh considered for the test problem was established by 395 element and 401 nodal point. Our results show a

  17. Video image cliff notes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szu, Harold; Hsu, Charles

    2012-06-01

    Can a compressive sampling expert system help to build a summary of a video in a composited picture? Digital Internet age has provided all with an information degree of freedom; but, comes with it, the societal trash being accumulated beyond analysts to sort through, to summary video automatically as a digital library category. While we wish preserve the spirit of democratic Smartphone-Internet to all, we provide an automation and unbiased tool called the compressive sampling expert system (CSpES) to summarize the video content at user's own discretion.

  18. Edge of a cliff

    CERN Document Server

    Shimizu, Yusuke

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the neutrino flavor structures in the Occam's razor approach for the Dirac neutrino mass matrices. We assume that the charged lepton mass matrix takes a diagonal base, while the right-handed Majorana neutrino mass matrix is also diagonal and we consider nine patterns of the four zero textures for the Dirac neutrinos mass matrices. We numerically analyze the left-handed Majorana neutrino mass matrices for nine patterns of the Dirac neutrino mass matrices and we found two interesting patterns where both normal and inverted neutrino mass hierarchies can be realized. We also found if the neutrino mass is normal hierarchy, this scenario will be likely to be excluded by the measurements of the Dirac CP violating phase in the T2K and NO$\

  19. America's fiscal cliff

    OpenAIRE

    Ethan Ilzetzki; Jonathan Pinder

    2012-01-01

    The US economy is still suffering from its most severe recession in seven decades. This article covers the key issue of taxes, spending and public debt, a major point of disagreement between the two candidates in the 2012 US election, President Obama and Governor Romney.

  20. Environmental radionuclide concentrations in the vicinity of the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant and the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station: 1996--1997. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Maryland Power Plant Research Program monitors concentrations of natural, weapons, and power plant produced radionuclides in environmental samples collected from the Chesapeake Bay in the vicinity of the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant (CCNPP) and from the Susquehanna River-Chesapeake Bay system in the vicinity of Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS). The purpose of this monitoring is to determine the fate, transport, and potential effects of power plant-produced radionuclides. This report contains a description of monitoring activities and data collected during the 1996 and 1997 calendar years. Radionuclide concentrations in shellfish, finfish, aquatic vegetation, and sediment were measured using high-resolution gamma spectrometry. Radionuclides in environmental samples originated from natural sources, historic atmospheric weapons testing, and normal operations of CCNPP and PBAPS

  1. The identification of the pigments used to paint statues of Feixiange Cliff in China in late 19th century by micro-Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Pu-jun; Huang, Wei; Jianhua-Wang; Zhao, Gang; Wang, Xiao-ling

    2010-11-01

    The application of micro-Raman spectroscopy (μ-RS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) to the research of pigments collected from Statues of Feixiange Cliff No. 67 and No. 69 niche of Tang Dynasty in China is reported. Five kinds of pigments were found in the experimental data, including black (carbon), white (gypsum + quartz), blue (lapis lazuli) and green (Paris green + Barium sulphate). After synthesized in 1814, Paris green was reported for a large import as a light and bright green pigment to paint architectures in China from the late 19th century. The analyzed blue pigment demonstrated the similar Raman spectra to the Lâjvardina blue glazed ceramics, which indicated lapis lazuli was an artificial product. This confirmed the painting of Feixiange Cliff in the early Republic of China as the historical record, and also reveals that some pigments were imported from abroad.

  2. 论藏东吐蕃摩崖造像与吐蕃高僧益西央%On Cliff Carvings in East Tibet from the Tubo Dynasty and Yishi Yang, a Tibetan Monk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍巍

    2015-01-01

    Some cliff carvings of the Tubo dynasty have been discovered in the east part of the Qinghai-Tibet pla⁃teau in recent years, among which there are three locations of cliff carvings with explicit records of the organizer of the cliff carving, Yishi Yang (ye-shes-dbyang), a Tibetan monk of the Tubo dynasty. It becomes a key clue for us to comprehend the new archaeological material. Based on the understanding of the inscription found at the three locations and some relevant records in Dunhuang literature, this article explores the life of Yishi Yang so as to know the exact time and the religious background of the cliff carvings.%近年来在青藏高原东麓相继发现了一批吐蕃时期的摩崖造像,其中有三处造像地点都明确记载了造像的组织者为吐蕃高僧益西央(ye-shes-dbyang),这是我们理解这批新发现考古材料关键性的线索之一。文章通过对三处造像题记的解读并结合敦煌出土古藏文文献,探讨吐蕃高僧益西央的生平事迹,进而更为深刻地理解藏东吐蕃摩崖造像产生的时代与宗教背景。

  3. Cliffs Minerals, Inc. Eastern Gas Shales Project, New York No. 3 well - Steuben County. Phase III report. Summary of laboratory analyses and mechanical characterization results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-11-01

    This report summarizes the characterization work performed on approximately 60 feet of 3-1/2 inch diameter core retrieved from the EGSP-New York No. 3 well in Steuben County. Information provided in previous reports by Cliffs Minerals, Inc. includes a definitive lithologic description and tabulated fracture data resulting from detailed core examinations, and stratigraphic interpretations as indicated in the core and on geophysical logs. Plane of weakness orientations stemming from a program of physical properties testing are also summarized. Core retrieval was performed on July 26, 1980. The core was cut from the lower part of the Rhinestreet Shale Member of the West Falls Formation. Physical properties tests of point load induced fractures and pretest fracture orientations suggest preferred orientations of fracturing in the Rhinestreet Shale, as follows: the preferred direction of fracturing for the Rhinestreet Shale is N90/sup 0/E +- 15/sup 0/ with a possible secondary preferred direction of N60/sup 0/W +- 15/sup 0/ as indicated by the point load tests and N0/sup 0/E +- 15/sup 0/ from the small number of pretest fractures.

  4. TRAC-PF1 analyses of potential pressurized-thermal-shock transients at Calvert Cliffs/Unit 1: a Combustion Engineering PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Los Alamos National Laboratory participated in a program to assess the risk of a pressurized thermal shock (PTS) to the reactor vessel during a postulated overcooling transient in a pressurized water reactor (PWR). We provided the thermal-hydraulic analyses of three general accident categories: steamline breaks, runaway-feedwater transients, and small-break loss-of-coolant accidents. These postulated accidents included multiple operator and equipment failures. Results were provided to ORNL which plans to determine the probability of vessel failure and accident occurrence for an overall assessment of PTS risk. As specified by ORNL, the postulated overcooling transients were simulated for 7200 s (2 h) after the transient initiation. Our study was performed for a Combustion Engineering (C-E) PWR, Calvert Cliffs/Unit 1, using the Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC-PF1). The analyses identified the phenomena important to the PTS issue. Flow stagnation in all reactor coolant loops, which occurred in one transient, could have severe consequences. We found the results to be very sensitive to the initial conditions of the plant. If the plant was initially at hot-zero power (compared to full power), the decay heat was much less, which made it possible for the same accident initiator to produce significantly lower downcomer temperatures. However, routine operator actions may reduce the consequences of any of these simulated accidents if the prescribed pressure-temperature relationships are followed

  5. Quantifying structural controls of rockfall activity on alpine limestone cliffs: a LiDAR-based geological approach in the Wetterstein Mountains, Bavarian Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Benjamin; Krautblatter, Michael

    2016-04-01

    smaller than TLS effective resolution (0.01 to 0.1 m³ at 400 to 800 m range) using an inverse power law function. However, the effect of secondary and primary rockfall on the results is still subject of discussion. Also, locally unique stress fields and the history of local rock slope evolution is an issue. Here we have chosen a well-established test site to (i) systematically analyse the structural geological imprint on rockfall activity in limestone cliffs and (ii) to validate the explanatory power of the incomplete rockfall size coverage of TLS at sites with frequent small fragmental rockfall. Krautblatter, M., Moser, M., Schrott L., Wolf, J. & Morche, D., 2012. Significance of rockfall magnitude and carbonate dissolution for rock slope erosion and geomorphic work on Alpine limestone cliffs (Reintal, German Alps). In: Geomorphology, 167-168: 1-14. DOI:10.1016/j.geomorph.2012.04.007

  6. Rockslide susceptibility and hazard assessment for mitigation works design along vertical rocky cliffs: workflow proposal based on a real case-study conducted in Sacco (Campania), Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignalosa, Antonio; Di Crescenzo, Giuseppe; Marino, Ermanno; Terracciano, Rosario; Santo, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    The work here presented concerns a case study in which a complete multidisciplinary workflow has been applied for an extensive assessment of the rockslide susceptibility and hazard in a common scenario such as a vertical and fractured rocky cliffs. The studied area is located in a high-relief zone in Southern Italy (Sacco, Salerno, Campania), characterized by wide vertical rocky cliffs formed by tectonized thick successions of shallow-water limestones. The study concerned the following phases: a) topographic surveying integrating of 3d laser scanning, photogrammetry and GNSS; b) gelogical surveying, characterization of single instabilities and geomecanichal surveying, conducted by geologists rock climbers; c) processing of 3d data and reconstruction of high resolution geometrical models; d) structural and geomechanical analyses; e) data filing in a GIS-based spatial database; f) geo-statistical and spatial analyses and mapping of the whole set of data; g) 3D rockfall analysis; The main goals of the study have been a) to set-up an investigation method to achieve a complete and thorough characterization of the slope stability conditions and b) to provide a detailed base for an accurate definition of the reinforcement and mitigation systems. For this purposes the most up-to-date methods of field surveying, remote sensing, 3d modelling and geospatial data analysis have been integrated in a systematic workflow, accounting of the economic sustainability of the whole project. A novel integrated approach have been applied both fusing deterministic and statistical surveying methods. This approach enabled to deal with the wide extension of the studied area (near to 200.000 m2), without compromising an high accuracy of the results. The deterministic phase, based on a field characterization of single instabilities and their further analyses on 3d models, has been applied for delineating the peculiarity of each single feature. The statistical approach, based on geostructural

  7. Wildlife and Wildlife Habitat Loss Assessment at Detroit Big Cliff Dam and Reservoir Project, North Santiam River, Oregon, 1985 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noyes, J.H.

    1985-02-01

    A habitat based assessment was conducted of the US Army Corps of Engineers' Detroit/Big Cliff Dam and Reservoir Project (Detroit Project) on the North Santiam River, Oregon, to determine losses or gains resulting from the development and operation of the hydroelectric-related components of the project. Preconstruction, postconstruction, and recent vegetation cover types at the project site were mapped based on aerial photographs from 1939, 1956, and 1979, respectively. Vegetation cover types were identified within the affected area and acreages of each type at each time period were determined. Ten wildlife target species were selected to represent a cross-section of species groups affected by the project. An interagency team evaluated the suitability of the habitat to support the target species at each time period. An evaluation procedure which accounted for both the quantity and quality of habitat was used to aid in assessing impacts resulting from the project. The Detroit Project extensively altered or affected 6324 acres of land and river in the North Santiam River drainage. Impacts to wildlife centered around the loss of 1,608 acres of conifer forest and 620 acres of riparian habitat. Impacts resulting from the Detroit Project included the loss of winter range for black-tailed deer and Roosevelt elk, and the loss of year-round habitat for deer, river otter, beaver, ruffed grouse, pileated woodpecker, spotted owl, and many other wildlife species. Bald eagle and osprey were benefited by an increase in foraging habitat. The potential of the affected area to support wildlife was greatly altered as a result of the Detroit Project. Losses or gains in the potential of the habitat to support wildlife will exist over the life of the project.

  8. High Genetic Diversity and Insignificant Interspecific Differentiation in Opisthopappus Shih, an Endangered Cliff Genus Endemic to the Taihang Mountains of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongmin Guo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Opisthopappus Shih is endemic to the Taihang Mountains, China. It grows in the crevice of cliffs and is in fragmented distribution. This genus consists of two species, namely, O. taihangensis (Ling Shih and O. longilobus Shih, which are both endangered plants in China. This study adopted intersimple sequence repeat markers (ISSR to analyze the genetic diversity and genetic structure from different levels (genus, species, and population in this genus. A total of 253 loci were obtained from 27 primers, 230 of which were polymorphic loci with a proportion of polymorphic bands (PPB of up to 90.91% at genus level. At species level, both O. taihangensis (PPB=90.12%, H=0.1842, and I=0.289 and O. longilobus (PPB=95.21%, H=0.2226, and I=0.3542 have high genetic diversity. Their respective genetic variation mostly existed within the population. And genetic variation in O. longilobus (84.95% was higher than that in O. taihangensis (80.45%. A certain genetic differentiation among populations in O. taihangensis was found (Gst=0.2740, Φst=0.196 and genetic differentiation in O. longilobus was very small (Gst=0.1034, Φst=0.151. Gene flow in different degrees (Nm=1.325 and 4.336, resp. and mating system can form the existing genetic structures of these two species. Furthermore, genetic differentiation coefficient (Gst=0.0453 between species and the clustering result based on the genetic distance showed that interspecific differentiation between O. taihangensis and O. longilobus was not significant and could occur lately.

  9. Valve replacement at Calvert Cliffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article describes how new valves helped solve plant's chronic salt water system problems resulting from years of design changes required by regulations that resulted in operational efficiency-related problems. The topics of the article include harsh service conditions (salt water related corrosion, biological fouling and tearing of rubber liners of valves), spare parts headaches and the permanent solution

  10. A Study on the Main Functional Regions Space Governance to Circumvent the Environment Cliff%主体功能区空间管治规避环境悬崖研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜黎明; 孙晓雅

    2016-01-01

    Environmental cliff is the geographical space, in which the environmental risk accumulates for a long time. As a result, the environmental capacity drops steeply, the environmental issues outbreak, the en⁃vironmental system�s ability of self⁃repairing and self⁃restoring suffers from devastating destruction and the pop⁃ulation carrying capacity of the environment is almost zero. Environmental cliff is the result of long⁃term im⁃proper exploitation and over exploitation in the special space, and its reality is that the regional economic soci⁃ety is unsustainable development. Environmental cliff is the problem of human civilization, the problem of space, also the selection problem of economic and social development model, and it forced the human produc⁃tion and lifestyle to change and the social transformation and development to take place. With the differentiated supply of people's livelihood to guide the population flow and rational behavior choice, with the differentiated land policy to control the type and intensity of the regional economic activity and with the differentiated envi⁃ronmental protection policies to eliminate the existing risk of environmental cliff, the main functional regions'space governance constructs the triune hedging mechanism of environmental cliff, including environmental risk dispersion, the incremental control and stock solution of environmental problem.%环境悬崖是环境风险长时期积累,环境容量陡然下降,环境问题集中爆发,环境系统的自我修复、恢复能力遭受毁灭性破坏,环境的人口承载能力近乎为零的地理空间。环境悬崖是特定空间长时期不当开发、过度开发的结果,现实表现为区域经济社会不可持续发展。环境悬崖是人类的文明问题,也是一个空间问题,还是一个经济社会发展模式选择问题;环境悬崖倒逼人类生产生活方式转变,倒逼社会转型发展。主体功能区空间管治

  11. River response to climate and sea level changes during the Late Saalian/Early Eemian in northern Poland – a case study of meandering river deposits in the Chłapowo cliff section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moskalewicz Damian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Fluvial sediments in the Chłapowo cliff section were studied in order to reconstruct their palaeoflow conditions and stratigraphical position. Lithofacies, textural and palaeohydraulic analyses as well as luminescence dating were performed so as to achieve the aim of study. Sedimentary successions were identified as a record of point bar cycles. The fluvial environment probably functioned during the latest Saalian, shortly after the retreat of the Scandinavian Ice Sheet. Discharge outflow was directed to the northwest. The river used the older fluvioglacial valley and probably was directly connected to the Eem Sea. Good preservation and strong aggradation of point-bar cycles were related to a rapid relative base level rise. The meandering river sediments recognised showed responses to climate and sea level changes as illustrated by stratigraphical, morphological and sedimentological features of the strata described. The present study also revealed several insights into proper interpretation of meandering fluvial successions, in which the most important were: specific lithofacies assemblage of GSt (St, Sp → Sl → SFrc → Fm (SFr and related architectural elements: channel/sandy bedforms CH/SB → lateral accretion deposits LA → floodplain fines with crevasse splays FF (CS; upward-fining grain size and decreasing content of denser heavy minerals; estimated low-energy flow regime with a mean depth of 1.6–3.3 m, a Froude number of 0.2–0.4 and a sinuosity of 1.5.

  12. River response to climate and sea level changes during the Late Saalian/Early Eemian in northern Poland - a case study of meandering river deposits in the Chłapowo cliff section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskalewicz, Damian; Sokołowski, Robert J.; Fedorowicz, Stanisław

    2016-03-01

    Fluvial sediments in the Chłapowo cliff section were studied in order to reconstruct their palaeoflow conditions and stratigraphical position. Lithofacies, textural and palaeohydraulic analyses as well as luminescence dating were performed so as to achieve the aim of study. Sedimentary successions were identified as a record of point bar cycles. The fluvial environment probably functioned during the latest Saalian, shortly after the retreat of the Scandinavian Ice Sheet. Discharge outflow was directed to the northwest. The river used the older fluvioglacial valley and probably was directly connected to the Eem Sea. Good preservation and strong aggradation of point-bar cycles were related to a rapid relative base level rise. The meandering river sediments recognised showed responses to climate and sea level changes as illustrated by stratigraphical, morphological and sedimentological features of the strata described. The present study also revealed several insights into proper interpretation of meandering fluvial successions, in which the most important were: specific lithofacies assemblage of GSt (St, Sp) → Sl → SFrc → Fm (SFr) and related architectural elements: channel/sandy bedforms CH/SB → lateral accretion deposits LA → floodplain fines with crevasse splays FF (CS); upward-fining grain size and decreasing content of denser heavy minerals; estimated low-energy flow regime with a mean depth of 1.6-3.3 m, a Froude number of 0.2-0.4 and a sinuosity of 1.5.

  13. Facies analysis and sequence stratigraphic framework of upper Campanian strata (Neslen and Mount Garfield formations, Bluecastle Tongue of the Castlegate sandstone, and Mancos shale), Eastern Book cliffs, Colorado and Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschbaum, Mark A.; Hettinger, Robert D.

    2004-01-01

    Facies and sequence-stratigraphic analysis identifies six high-resolution sequences within upper Campanian strata across about 120 miles of the Book Cliffs in western Colorado and eastern Utah. The six sequences are named after prominent sandstone units and include, in ascending order, upper Sego sequence, Neslen sequence, Corcoran sequence, Buck Canyon/lower Cozzette sequence, upper Cozzette sequence, and Cozzette/Rollins sequence. A seventh sequence, the Bluecastle sequence, is present in the extreme western part of the study area. Facies analysis documents deepening- and shallowing- upward successions, parasequence stacking patterns, downlap in subsurface cross sections, facies dislocations, basinward shifts in facies, and truncation of strata.All six sequences display major incision into shoreface deposits of the Sego Sandstone and sandstones of the Corcoran and Cozzette Members of the Mount Garfield Formation. The incised surfaces represent sequence-boundary unconformities that allowed bypass of sediment to lowstand shorelines that are either attached to the older highstand shorelines or are detached from the older highstand shorelines and located southeast of the main study area. The sequence boundary unconformities represent valley incisions that were cut during successive lowstands of relative sea level. The overlying valley-fill deposits generally consist of tidally influenced strata deposited during an overall base level rise. Transgressive surfaces can be traced or projected over, or locally into, estuarine deposits above and landward of their associated shoreface deposits. Maximum flooding surfaces can be traced or projected landward from offshore strata into, or above, coastal-plain deposits. With the exception of the Cozzette/Rollins sequence, the majority of coal-bearing coastal-plain strata was deposited before maximum flooding and is therefore within the transgressive systems tracts. Maximum flooding was followed by strong progradation of

  14. Nutrientes (K, P, Ca, Na, Mg e Fe) em sedimentos (solos aluviais) e cultivares (feijão e milho) de praias e barrancos de rios de água branca: a bacia do purus no estado do Acre, Brasil Nutrients in sediment (alluvial soils) and cultivates (bean and corn) developed in beaches and cliffs found along loam water: the purus basin in state Acre, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Milta Mariane da Mata Martins; Marcondes Lima da Costa

    2009-01-01

    The present research highlights the macronutrient abundance in the sediments of beaches and cliffs and cultivates in the river Purus and flowing, southwest of Amazon. The concentrations found in leaves and bean seeds and corn leaves reflect the mineralogical and chemical nature of those rich sediments in K2O and Na2O, which are formed by smectite, illite and K-feldspar. The factors of transfer of the elements in the corn leaves and bean (Ca>K>Na) and bean seeds (Na>K>Ca) demonstrate that the ...

  15. (长江下游)废弃采石场石壁植被自然恢复序列及景观重建探索%The Restoration Sequence of Natural Vegetation on the Cliffs of Abandoned Quarries and Study on the Landscape Reconstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    全威; 唐岱; 许晓岗

    2013-01-01

    运用生态演替理论,采用“空间替代时间”的方法,对长江下游地区的15个废弃采石场石壁上的自然植被进行了调查研究.本次调查的植物共有48科94种,其中乔木17科27种,灌木2l科33种,草本24科43种,藤本/攀援植物9科12种.研究的废弃采石场石壁的植被演替开始于裸露岩石,属于原生演替,恢复序列为裸岩→先锋草本群落→草灌群落→简单的复合群落→高级复合群落.在恢复植物景观方面,可以选择一些有观赏价值的优势树种,在演替时间较长的样地中适当增加一些常绿树种.%Ecological succession theory and the technique of bartering space for time were applied in this research,a summary of the data and conclusions in the prophase thesis was made,and some further investigations and analysis of soil nature and vegetation in the cliff of two other quarries located in the lower Yangtze valley were also made.Investigation results are as follows:1.There were 94 species in 48families in this investigation.Among them,arbor accounted for 17 families and 21 species,frutex for 21 families and 33 species,herbage for 24 families and 43 species,and liana for 9 families and 12 species.2.The succession of the cliffs in the abandoned quarries is primary successional sequence and it strated from the bare rocks.The restoration sequence is:Bare Stones→ Pioneer Herbage Communities→Herbage and Shrub Communities→ Simple Compound Communities→ Climax Communities.3.In the area of the plant landscape reconstruction,we can choose dominant tree species which have ornamental value and add some evergreen species in the quarries with the succession for a long time.

  16. The International Adoption Cliff: Do Child Human Rights Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Bartholet, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    This revised speech characterizes the dramatic decline in international adoption since 2004 as a major child human rights tragedy, deliberately created by governmental and NGO policy-makers. It contrasts U.S. human rights policy imposing sanctions for the violation of adult human rights, to U.S. failure to act in the face of child human rights violations. It calls for a change in U.S. policy that would: (1)Hold countries accountable for the human rights violations inherent in their shutdown...

  17. The Fiscal Cliff and the Dynamics of Income

    OpenAIRE

    McGranahan, Leslie; Nohel, Tom

    2014-01-01

    At the end of 2012, certain income tax policies were set to end and others to become effective. Central among these was the planned expiration of the 2001 and 2003 tax cuts (the “Bush tax cuts”), which had been extended for two years in 2010.

  18. Funding Survival Toolkit: 3 Fiscal Cliff Myths, Debunked

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    In the face of annual budget deficits, sequestration means automatic, across-the-board spending cuts to all federal agencies. This drastic step allows Congress to limit the size of the budget and gives it the right to make mandatory cuts if the cost of running the government exceeds the cap. On March 1, we all watched as Congress was unable to…

  19. SO2 abatement, energy conservation, and productivity at Copper Cliff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that Inco pioneered the use of tonnage oxygen in nonferrous metallurgy when it commissioned the first industrial oxygen flash smelting process for the treatment of copper concentrates in the early 1950s. This was followed by other applications of oxygen such as the enrichment of reverberatory furnace and Peirce-Smith converter blasts; oxy-fuel smelting in reverb furnaces; and, very recently, flash conversion of chalcocite to copper. Inco is currently implementing a sulfur dioxide abatement project designed to reduce SO2 emissions form the smelter by 60 percent (to 265 kt) in 1994. At that time, oxygen consumption at the smelter will reach about 1.7 t O2/t Cu + Ni. Oxygen smelting and converting technology will lead to a substantial decrease in the use of fossil fuels and to the generation of high-strength SO2 off-gases suitable for cost-effective fixation in a new acid plant

  20. STEMdex: CliffsNotes for Education and Public Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolone, L.; Nichols-Yehling, M.; Brinkworth, C.; Hurt, R. L.; Llamas, J.; Squires, G. K.; Wenger, M.; Martin, A.

    2014-07-01

    We present a new resource for the astronomy education community, with the goal of improving our community's knowledge and understanding of the educational research pertinent to our work. STEMdex will be a searchable database of summaries of peer-reviewed education papers, written by educators and researchers, and posted for the entire community to use. While we know we should base our EPO work on a solid research foundation, many people have limited time when it comes to staying on top of the literature. STEMdex aims to reduce that workload. Our database will summarize papers across the astronomy education spectrum, including formal and informal education, outreach, pedagogy, evaluation, and other topics.

  1. Cliff nesting raptors of the Kisaralik River, western Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — For three consecutive years (1977 - 79), about 79 km (49 mi) of Alaskan river canyons were surveyed for raptors by helicopter. Occupation of eight breeding...

  2. The CEO of Novartis on growing after a patent cliff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Joseph

    2012-12-01

    When Joseph Jimenez joined Novartis, in 2007, the company was facing a big challenge: Its blockbuster drug Diovan, which accounted for more than 20% of the pharmaceutical division's revenue, would lose its U.S. patent in 2012. His senior executives had some ideas for offsetting the loss-about 100 of them. From that list they chose three on which to focus: (1) The division invested significantly in testing Afinitor (a treatment for renal cell carcinoma that was nearly ready for market) in breast cancer. (2) It set up Novartis China Commercial University to screen, hire, and train several hundred salespeople for rapid expansion in high-growth markets. (3) It began to transition to an outcomes-based approach to selling medicine by offering to screen patients for responsiveness to new drugs before they're prescribed. Five years later, Jimenez writes, those efforts are beginning to pay off: Revenue is expected to remain stable even as Diovan gives way to generics. PMID:23227577

  3. 77 FR 47121 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-07

    ... Consideration (73 FR 17148; March 31, 2008), states that ``Plant emergencies are extraordinary circumstances... the Commission) now or hereafter in effect. The facility consists of two pressurized-water reactors... of this exemption will not have a significant effect on the quality of the human environment....

  4. 赤壁之战与电影《赤壁》%The Battle of Red Cliffs & the Movie of "Red Cliffs"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈伯俊

    2008-01-01

    本文综合史料,概述了历史上的赤壁之战的几个主要问题.在此基础上,对电影,肯定其为观众提供视觉大餐的成绩和传播中华传统文化的努力;对其在理解历史的高度、人物性格把握、情节设置等方面存在的若干缺陷,则予以实事求是的评析.

  5. Cliff notes: the effects of the 2013 debt-ceiling crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Ali K. Ozdagli; Peek, Joe

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the effects of the 2013 debt-ceiling crisis on the Treasury bill market and possible spillovers to the commercial paper market and money market funds. We also compare this experience with the prior debt-ceiling crisis in 2011. We find that the 2013 debt-ceiling crisis reduced the demand for Treasury bills that were scheduled to mature right after the debt-ceiling deadline, but not for longer-term Treasury bills. Accordingly, we see that a hump formed at the shorter end of the t...

  6. Devonian lacustrine shore zone architecture: giving perspective to cliff exposures with ground penetrating radar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrews, Steven D.; Moreau, Julien; Archer, Stuart

    amalgamated forming subtle low angle accretionary bar complexes. These features are imaged well on the radar profiles where successive erosion/accretion can be recognised and their three dimensional form and distribution mapped. The orientation of these features is consistent with extensive palaeocurrent...... measurements from oscillation ripples. Further loaded sandstone beds and sand-filled shallow channel features overlie the bar forms. The channels are well imaged in the radar scans where their wider context can be gained. The shore zone sandstones overlie playa facies which contains abundant desiccation...... units. The cycles are on average 16-m-thick and comprise deep lake, perennial lake and playa facies. The shore zone facies reaches 2 to 3.5 m in thickness and is found within the playa facies. On the exposures, the shore zone facies seems to be aggrading with most of the layers apparently subhorizontal...

  7. Variation and diversity of spider assemblages along a thermal gradient in scree slopes and adjacent cliffs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Růžička, Vlastimil; Zacharda, Miloslav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 2 (2010), s. 361-369. ISSN 1505-2249 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/06/1236 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508; CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : biodiversity * microclimate * rock wall Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.542, year: 2010

  8. Patent cliff and strategic switch: exploring strategic design possibilities in the pharmaceutical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chie Hoon; Han, Jeung-Whan

    2016-01-01

    Extending the period of the market exclusivity and responding properly to the recent agglomeration of patent expiries are pivotal to the success of pharmaceutical companies. Declining R&D productivity, rising costs of commercialization, near-term patent expirations for many top-selling drugs are forcing companies to adopt new systems to introduce innovative products to market and to focus on strategies that increase the returns from the existing product portfolio. This systematic review explores various strategic and tactical management approaches by synthesizing the relevant literature and practical examples on patent expiration strategies. It further discusses how the mix of competition policies and strategic instruments can be used to maintain declining revenue streams from the blockbuster business model of the pharmaceutical industry. The review provides a comprehensive overview of the research on various strategies, offers both theoretical and practical guidelines for strategy transformation that companies can use to prolong the market exclusivity, and identifies knowledge gaps that needed to be addressed in order to improve efficiency in policy design. PMID:27347468

  9. Beyond the cliff of creativity: a novel key to Bipolar Disorder and creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardiello, Luciana; Fornaro, Pantaleo

    2013-05-01

    How brain processes translate into creativity is still an unsolved puzzle in science. Although a number of conceptual models of creativity has been proposed to date, the exact nature of the process is still unknown. Recent findings support the idea that creativity may reside upon a continuum with psychopathology. If creativity is meant as "the capability of generating novel and appropriate ideas to solve problems", the missing pieces of the puzzle might be nested in the link between creativity and Bipolar Disorder. The existence of such a link is widely accepted by the Scientific Community. What still remains unknown is the nature of this link. An unconventional perspective is adopted during the investigation. Starting from the observation that depression in Bipolar Disorder might possibly trace back to ancient survival strategies in extreme climatic conditions - i.e. hibernation - the paper analyses old and recent findings in different disciplines: paleo-anthropology, information technology, neurobiology. Hints from the related research fields are linked together. The unified framework that emerges, still as a set of hypotheses, is reported in the conclusions. A novel key of interpretation of both creativity and Bipolar Disorder is thus provided. The core result is that normal people, creative individuals and patients affected by Bipolar Disorder share the same mind mechanism for problem-solving. The mechanism consists of two specific components, which are described in detail in the paper. Dysfunctions in brain myelination, making signal interference possible, hold a big role. The conclusions of the paper are in agreement with reports by patients affected by Bipolar Disorder concerning their subjective experience during mania, which is traditionally described as prone to creativity. To make readers aware of such an experience, a synthesis was elaborated by the first author, in the unusual shape of a short story. The short story is the narrative version of a real diary of a real patient, tutored by the second author. The short story is available to readers on request. PMID:23452643

  10. Monitoring debris flow induced channel morphodynamics with terrestrial laser scanning, Chalk Cliffs, CO (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasklewicz, T. A.; Staley, D. M.

    2010-12-01

    Debris flows are important geomorphic agents in alpine drainages. They have been linked with channel initiation in headwater streams, connectivity of organic material and sediment through drainage basins, and as hazards to human development in and adjacent to steep watersheds. Debris flows also significantly alter channel morphometry at a variety of spatial scales. Of particular interest are topographic changes associated with multiple surge fronts within a debris flow as well as between several debris flows. An unnamed tributary stream to Chalk Creek, CO has over the last decade experienced one to four debris flow events annually. Four field sampling campaigns were conducted in the summer and fall of 2009. A Leica ScanStation 2, in conjunction with a robust local control network, were used to capture channel morphodynamics along five stream reaches prior to the debris flow season and after three debris flows. Point cloud data from the scanner permit the generation of two centimeter planimetric resolution digital terrain models (DTM). DTM-of-difference analyses and measures of slope, roughness, sediment transport volumes and channel dimensions were employed to detect spatial and temporal morphometric changes. The first debris flow occurred on unsaturated bed material and resulted in aggradation along 3 of the 5 reaches. One reach, a bedrock step, remained relatively unchanged, while the final reach saw significant erosion along boulder steps in the channel and an associated mass failure adjacent to the stream bank through this section. The second debris flow resulted in net aggradation along all of the reaches. The third and largest debris flow took place on saturated bed materials. The flow produced net erosion along all reaches. Significant channel changes were associated with the headward erosion of debris flow snouts and bank failures associated with undercutting of angle-of-repose slopes during debris flow erosion. Analysis of the potential relationships between the magnitude of erosion and deposition magnitudes yielded no strong correlations with channel morphometry measures. This would indicate channel point- and reach-scale cannot be used to adequately predict erosion and deposition. Instead, a combination of high-resolution topographic changes and process information from in-situ measurements of flow dynamics are necessary to capture channel morphodynamics in coupled hillslope-channel streams.

  11. 77 FR 34093 - License Renewal for Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC's

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ... Piscataway Indians. NRC Letter to Maryland Commission on ML110560771 African American History and Culture... Subtribes, the Cedarville Band of Piscataway Indians, and the Maryland Commission on African American History and Culture. These consultations ensured that the requirements of Section 7 of the...

  12. Insights on WWW-based geoscience teaching: Climbing the first year learning cliff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberson, Michelle N.; Johnson, Mark; Bevier, Mary Lou; Russell, J. Kelly

    1997-06-01

    In early 1995, The University of British Columbia Department of Geological Sciences (now Earth and Ocean Sciences) initiated a project that explored the effectiveness of the World Wide Web as a teaching and learning medium. Four decisions made at the onset of the project have guided the department's educational technology plan: (1) over 90% of funding recieved from educational technology grants was committed towards personnel; (2) materials developed are modular in design; (3) a data-base approach was taken to resource development; and (4) a strong commitment to student involvement in courseware development. The project comprised development of a web site for an existing core course: Geology 202, Introduction to Petrology. The web site is a gateway to course information, content, resources, exercises, and several searchable data-bases (images, petrologic definitions, and minerals in thin section). Material was developed on either an IBM or UNIX machine, ported to a UNIX platform, and is accessed using the Netscape browser. The resources consist primarily of HTML files or CGI scripts with associated text, images, sound, digital movies, and animations. Students access the web site from the departmental student computer facility, from home or a computer station in the petrology laboratory. Results of a survey of the Geol 202 students indicate that they found the majority of the resources useful, and the site is being expanded. The Geology 202 project had a "trickle-up" effect throughout the department: prior to this project, there was minimal use of Internet resources in lower-level geology courses. By the end of the 1996-1997 academic year, we anticipate that at least 17 Earth and Ocean Science courses will have a WWW site for one or all of the following uses: (1) presenting basic information; (2) accessing lecture images; (3) providing a jumping-off point for exploring related WWW sites; (4) conducting on-line exercises; and/or (5) providing a communications forum for students and faculty via a Hypernews group. Url http://www.science.ubc.ca/

  13. Is Managing Academics "Women's Work"? Exploring the Glass Cliff in Higher Education Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Sweden is among the countries with the highest per cent of women university Vice Chancellors in Europe. In "She Figures 2012" the average proportion of female Vice Chancellors in the 27 European Union countries is estimated to be 10 per cent. In Sweden the number is much higher: 43 per cent. Swedish higher education management has…

  14. Recent Atmospheric Deposition and its Effects on Sandstone Cliffs in Bohemian Switzerland National Park, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vařilová, Z.; Navrátil, Tomáš; Dobešová, Irena

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 220, 1/4 (2011), s. 117-130. ISSN 0049-6979 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : acid deposition * sandstone percolates * chemical weathering * salt efflorescence * Black Triangle * aluminum * sulfates Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 1.625, year: 2011

  15. A survey for cliff-nesting birds of prey along the Noatak River, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The primary objective of the study was to locate peregrine falcon nesting sites and to locate nest sites of other raptor species and assess their location in...

  16. Beyond the Glass Ceiling : The Glass Cliff and Its Lessons for Organizational Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruckmueller, Susanne; Ryan, Michelle K.; Rink, Floor; Haslam, S. Alexander

    2014-01-01

    It has been almost 30 years since the metaphor of the glass ceiling was coined to describe the often subtle, but very real, barriers that women face as they try to climb the organizational hierarchy. Here we review evidence for a relatively new form of gender discriminationcaptured by the metaphor o

  17. 3-D Surface Visualization of pH Titration "Topos": Equivalence Point Cliffs, Dilution Ramps, and Buffer Plateaus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Garon C.; Hossain, Md Mainul; MacCarthy, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    3-D topographic surfaces ("topos") can be generated to visualize how pH behaves during titration and dilution procedures. The surfaces are constructed by plotting computed pH values above a composition grid with volume of base added in one direction and overall system dilution on the other. What emerge are surface features that…

  18. Are fractured cliffs the source of cometary dust jets ? Insights from OSIRIS/Rosetta at 67P

    CERN Document Server

    Vincent, J -B; Pajola, M; Höfner, S; Sierks, H; Hu, X; Barbieri, C; Lamy, P L; Rodrigo, R; Koschny, D; Rickman, H; Keller, H U; A'Hearn, M F; Barucci, M A; Bertaux, J -L; Bertini, I; Besse, S; Bodewits, D; Cremonese, G; Da Deppo, V; Davidsson, B; Debei, S; De Cecco, M; El-Maarry, M R; Fornasier, S; Fulle, M; Groussin, O; Gutiérrez, P J; Gutiérrez-Marquez, P; Güttler, C; Hofmann, M; Hviid, S F; Ip, W -H; Jorda, L; Knollenberg, J; Kovacs, G; Kramm, J -R; Kührt, E; Küppers, M; Lara, L M; Lazzarin, M; Lin, Z -Y; Lowry, S; Marzari, F; Massironi, M; Moreno, F; Mottola, S; Naletto, G; Preusker, F; Scholten, F; Shi, X; Thomas, N; Toth, I; Tubiana, C

    2015-01-01

    Dust jets, i.e. fuzzy collimated streams of cometary material arising from the nucleus, have been observed in-situ on all comets since the Giotto mission flew by comet 1P/Halley in 1986. Yet their formation mechanism remains unknown. Several solutions have been proposed, from localized physical mechanisms on the surface/sub-surface (see review in Belton (2010)) to purely dynamical processes involving the focusing of gas flows by the local topography (Crifo et al. 2002). While the latter seems to be responsible for the larger features, high resolution imagery has shown that broad streams are composed of many smaller features (a few meters wide) that connect directly to the nucleus surface. We monitored these jets at high resolution and over several months to understand what are the physical processes driving their formation, and how this affects the surface. Using many images of the same areas with different viewing angles, we performed a 3-dimensional reconstruction of collimated jets, and linked them precise...

  19. Cliff and Rocky may not have won the Grand Challenge, but they out-performed peer competitors

    OpenAIRE

    Crumbley, Liz

    2005-01-01

    The official results of the DARPA Grand Challenge autonomous vehicle race through the Mojave Desert are in and, although the two Virginia Tech vehicles did not win the $2 million prize or even complete the 132-mile course, they out-performed all other vehicles developed by purely academic teams.

  20. A Fiscal Cliff: The Current U.S. Federal Budget, Potential Cuts, and Impacts on Science Funding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlenbrock, K. M.; Landau, E. A.; Hankin, E. R.

    2012-12-01

    As lawmakers on Capitol Hill face challenges to reach an agreement on how to cut the deficit while growing the economy, scientists must join the discussion and outline the serious impacts cuts to federal science programs will have on our society. Consistent and sustained federal science funding (discretionary spending) is an ever increasing struggle with the rising costs of mandatory spending and decrease in revenues. In 2011 Congress passed the Budget Control Act, which will require automatic across-the-board cuts, known as sequestration, and will take effect on 2 January 2013. Estimated cuts of $1.2 trillion and discretionary spending caps set at Fiscal Year 2012 levels will trigger non-defense program cuts of 9.8% in the first year as reported by the Congressional Research Service. Funding from non-defense program agencies such as NSF, NASA, DOE, NOAA, USGS, and others drive science and technological innovation, support public safety, create jobs, educate generations of scientists, stimulate the economy, protect our environment, and enrich lives. With non-defense discretionary programs representing less than one-fifth of the federal budget, severe cuts to these programs will not alleviate our deficit, but instead restrict our growth.

  1. Synergic use of satellite and ground based remote sensing methods for monitoring the San Leo rock cliff (Northern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frodella, William; Ciampalini, Andrea; Gigli, Giovanni; Lombardi, Luca; Raspini, Federico; Nocentini, Massimiliano; Scardigli, Cosimo; Casagli, Nicola

    2016-07-01

    The historic town of San Leo (Emilia Romagna Region, northern Italy) is located on top of an isolated rock massif above the Marecchia River valley hillside. On February 27th 2014, a northeastern sector of the massif collapsed; minor structural damages were reported in the town and a few buildings were evacuated as a precautionary measure. Although no fatalities occurred and the San Leo cultural heritage suffered no damage, minor rock fall events kept taking place on the newly formed rock wall, worsening this hazardous situation. In this framework, a monitoring system based on remote sensing techniques, such as radar interferometry (both spaceborne and ground-based) and terrestrial laser scanning, was planned in order to monitor the ground deformation of the investigated area and to evaluate the residual risk. In this paper the main outlines of a 1-year monitoring activity are described, including a pre-event analysis of possible landslide precursors and a post-event analysis of the displacements of both the collapse-affected rock wall sector and the rock fall deposits.

  2. Evolution of Feature-­Oriented Software: How to Stay on Course and Avoid the Cliffs of Modularity Drift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olszak, Andrzej; Lazarova-Molnar, Sanja; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2014-01-01

    With time software systems easily become obsolete if not updated to reflect the ever-changing needs of their users. This update process is far from trivial as each feature is not necessarily captured by a single module, but rather scattered across a number of different modules. The situation is f...... is guided by a multi-objective grouping genetic algorithm. The proposed approach was evaluated by application to long-term release histories of three open-source Java applications......., termed modularization compass, computes the modularity drift by optimizing the feature-oriented modularization of source code based on traceability links between features and source code. The optimized modularizations are created automatically by transforming the groupings of classes into packages, which...

  3. 33 CFR 165.505 - Security Zone; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Chesapeake Bay, Calvert County, Maryland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Specific Regulated Navigation Areas and Limited Access... number 410-576-2693 or on VHF channel 16 (156.8 MHz) to seek permission to transit the area....

  4. Cliffs Minerals, Inc. Eastern Gas Shales Project, Ohio No. 6 series: Gallia County. Phase II report. Preliminary laboratory results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-01

    The US Department of Energy is funding a research and development program entitled the Eastern Gas Shales Project designed to increase commercial production of natural gas in the eastern United States from Middle and Upper Devonian Shales. On September 28, 1978 the Department of Energy entered into a cooperative agreement with Mitchell Energy Corporation to explore Devonian shale gas potential in Gallia County, Ohio. Objectives of the cost-sharing contract were the following: (1) to select locations for a series of five wells to be drilled around the periphery of a possible gas reservoir in Gallia County, Ohio; (2) to drill, core, log, case, fracture, clean up, and test each well, and to monitor production from the wells for a five-year period. This report summarizes the procedures and results of core characterization work performed at the Eastern Gas Shales Project Core Laboratory on core retrieved from the Gallia County EGSP wells, designated OH No. 6/1, OH No. 6/2, OH No. 6/3, OH No. 6/4, and OH No. 6/5. Characterization work performed includes photographic logs, fracture logs, measurements of core color variation, and stratigraphic interpretation of the cored intervals. In addition the following tests were performed by Michigan Technological University to obtain the following data: directional ultrasonic velocity; directional tensile strength, strength in point load; trends of microfractures; and hydraulic fracturing characteristics.

  5. Nonlinear balance and exchange of stability in dynamics of solitons, peakons, ramps/cliffs and leftons in a 1+1 nonlinear evolutionary PDE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study exchange of stability in the dynamics of solitary wave solutions under changes in the nonlinear balance in a 1+1 evolutionary partial differential equation related both to shallow water waves and to turbulence. We find that solutions of the equation mt+umx+buxm=νmxx with m=u-α2uxx for fluid velocity u(x,t) change their behavior at the special values b=0,±1,±2,±3

  6. SENİHA: A YOUNG GIRL ROLLING DOWN THE CLIFF SENİHA: UÇURUMUN DİBİNE YUVARLANAN BİR GENÇ KIZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin YAŞAR

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Kiralık Konak is the work of Yakup Kadri in which he intensively deals with westernization phenomenon. In the work, the destruction that the phenomenon causes in the society and family is attributed to the mansion of Naim Efendi, who symbolizes the tradition and the oldness, and Seniha‟s personality, who represents “malicious European style”. The way that European cultural values, which begin to affect the country with the Ottoman Reform Movement, are reflected to the protagonist Seniha and her friends are remarkable. Seniha is the 1920s version of the European style types who misunderstand the westernization. A lot of studies have been conducted on analysis of Seniha‟s actions. In this study, rather than the analysis, the reasons that have driven the heroine to have a European style have been examined in detail and holistic conclusions have been reached. Kiralık Konak, Yakup Kadri‟nin batılılaşma olgusunu en yoğun olarak işlediği yapıtıdır. Yapıtta bu olgunun toplumda ve ailede oluşturduğu yıkıntı, geleneği ve eskiyi temsil eden Naim Efendi‟nin konağına ve „hain alafrangalık‟ı simgeleyen Seniha‟nın şahsınaindirgenir. Tanzimat ile beraber ülkeye girmeye başlayan Avrupai kültür göstergelerinin romanın protagonisti Seniha‟nın ve arkadaş çevresine yansıma biçimi dikkatlere sunulur. Seniha, batılılaşmayı yanlış algılayan alafranga tiplerin bin dokuz yüz yirmilerdeki sürümüdür. Seniha‟nın edimlerinin tespitine yönelik birçok araştırma yapılmıştır. Bu çalışmada, tespitten öte kahramanı „alafrangalılık‟a iten sebepler detaylı bir biçimde irdelenerek bütünsel sonuçlara varılmıştır.

  7. Isopachs of the interval between the top of the Huerfanito Bentonite Bed and the top of the Pictured Cliffs Sandstone, San Juan Basin (sjbhintg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This shapefile and coverage depicts the thickness of the interval between the top of the Huerfanito Bentonite bed in the Lewis Shale and the top of the Pictured...

  8. Models for the distribution of quaking aspen in geographic and potential evapotranspiration spaces relevant to the Book Cliffs (Utah), 2000-2002

    OpenAIRE

    Sexton, Joseph O.

    2003-01-01

    Quaking aspen is the most widely distributed tree species in North America and an asset to sociological, ecological, and hydrological land values in the western United States. In recognition of these values, land managers seek means to oppose a regional decline of aspen in the Intermountain West—a decline apparently in progress since the close of the Pleistocene and driven by climate change, fire suppression, and increasing ungulate densities. One location of special relevance to this decline...

  9. 攀岩力量训练方法初探%The Methods of Strength Exercises in the Cliff- Climbing sports

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶磊; 廖志刚; 邓毅洲

    2003-01-01

    通过文献资料法研究和探讨了攀岩运动力量训练的方法,指出在力量训练的过程中应紧密结合攀岩运动的实际需要,循序渐进,有所针对的采取各种有效手缎,在训练的过程中要不断追求肌力与体重的最大比例,并提出几点建议.

  10. Driftwood dropstones in mid-Miocene shallow marine strata (Calvert Cliffs, Maryland Coastal Plain): An erratic lithic pebble des not necessarily a cold paleoclimate make

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, P. R.; Parrish, M.

    2009-12-01

    Erratic lithic pebbles recovered from marine sediments are routinely identified as Ice-Rafted Debris (IRD), transported by icebergs, sea ice, or river ice discharged into the sea. We suggest this is not always the transport mechanism--especially when other paleoclimatologic proxies indicate relatively warm climates and extensive forests in the pebble provenance regions. Rivers could transport significant amounts of pebbbles as driftwood dropstones, trapped in the roots of trees and later uprooted in floods and carried out to sea. To illustrate a likely example of Tree-Rafted Detritus (TRD), we analyzed a collection of lithic erratics collected from three beds in eroding (5-10 cm/a) mid-Miocene (Serravalian)shallow marine deposits (upper Calvert Formation,Chesapeake Bay, southern Maryland), which predate the ca. 13.9 Ma global cooling and expansion of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet. The ca. 220 specimens (1-10 cm in diameter) are extremely variable in lithology and degree of roundness. The great majority are evidently of Piedmont provenance and were probably rafted ca. 120 km to the collection site from the paleo-mouth of the Susquehanna River, floated out to sea and carried south by the Miocene Coastal Current. River ice can probably be ruled out as the transport mechanism, given the prevailing warm temperate to subtropical climates. Common carbonized wood fragments (typically 2 x 10 cm in outcrop dimensions) in the same strata containing the erratics support driftwood transport. The lithic erratics may serve as independent tracers for terrestrial vertebrate fossils, transported into the Calvert Sea (Atlantic Ocean) by the 'float and bloat' mechanism.(Allowance has to be made for ca. 20 m/Ma post-middle Miocene source region denudation). However,only 3% of the clasts (mostly quartz diorite gneiss)could be readily related to a specific outcrop--the Port Deposit Gneiss near the modern mouth of the Susquehanna River. We suggest that driftwood transport be considered as a possibly significant alternative source of lithic erratics found in e.g. Middle Eocene Arctic Basin sediments--especially given that this basin was largely enclosed and fed by large rivers draining vast forests.

  11. A Cliff Hanger: How America's Public Schools Continue to Feel the Impact of the Economic Downturn. Report of Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellerson, Noelle M.

    2010-01-01

    This study is the seventh in a series of studies conducted by the American Association of School Administrators on the impact of the economic downturn on schools. AASA launched the series in fall 2008 in response to state budget shortfalls, federal buy-outs and interventions, and a series of additional events characterizing a slowing, stagnant…

  12. Lherzolitic Martian meteorites Allan Hills 77005, Lewis Cliff 88516 and Yamato-793605: Major and minor element zoning in pyroxene and plagioclase glass

    OpenAIRE

    Mikouch,Takashi/Miyamoto,Masamichi

    2000-01-01

    Three lherzolitic Martian meteorites (ALH77005,LEW88516 and Y-793605) show very similar petrography and mineralogy. They consist of the poikilitic and non-poikilitic (interstitial) areas that are heterogeneous on a cm-scale. A detailed electron microprobe analysis of pyroxene and plagioclase glass from these meteorites gives characteristic distributions of major and minor elements. It is striking that pyroxene and plagioclase glass in all three meteorites have nearly identical zoning patterns...

  13. Isopachs of the combined thickness of the Calico and A-sequences of the Straight Cliffs Formation in the Kaiparowits Plateau study area, southern Utah (kjhthk*g)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a polygon coverage of isopachs of the combined thickness of the Calico and A-sequences in the Kaiparowits Plateau study area. The outside polygon defines...

  14. September 2002 Lidar Point Data of Southern California Coastline: Dana Point to Point La Jolla

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains lidar point data from a strip of Southern California coastline (including water, beach, cliffs, and top of cliffs) from Dana Point to Point...

  15. 75 FR 2163 - Constellation Energy; Notice of Docketing of Special Nuclear Material License SNM-2505 Amendment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-14

    ... Application for the Calvert Cliffs Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory..., Project Manager, Licensing Branch, Division of Spent Fuel Storage and Transportation, Office of Nuclear... associated with spent fuel storage at the Calvert Cliffs Independent Spent Fuel Storage......

  16. April 2004 Lidar Point Data of Southern California Coastline: Dana Point to Point La Jolla

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains lidar point data (Geodetic Coordinates) from a strip of Southern California coastline (including water, beach, cliffs, and top of cliffs)...

  17. September 2004 Lidar Point Data of Southern California Coastline: Long Beach to US/Mexican Border

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains lidar point data (Geodetic Coordinates) from a strip of Southern California coastline (including water, beach, cliffs, and top of cliffs)...

  18. May 2002 Lidar Point Data of Southern California Coastline: Dana Point to Point La Jolla

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains lidar point data from a strip of Southern California coastline (including water, beach, cliffs, and top of cliffs) from Dana Point to Point...

  19. April 2005 Lidar Point Data of Southern California Coastline: Long Beach to US/Mexican Border

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains lidar point data (latitude/longitude) from a strip of Southern California coastline (including water, beach, cliffs, and top of cliffs) from...

  20. March 2006 Lidar Point Data of Southern California Coastline: Long Beach to US/Mexican Border

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains lidar point data (Geodetic Coordinates) from a strip of Southern California coastline (including water, beach, cliffs, and top of cliffs)...

  1. October 2005 Lidar Point Data of Southern California Coastline: Long Beach to US/Mexican Border

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains lidar point data (UTM, Zone 11) from a strip of Southern California coastline (including water, beach, cliffs, and top of cliffs) from Long...

  2. October 2003 Lidar Point Data of Southern California Coastline: Newport Beach to US/Mexican Border

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains lidar point data (Geodetic Coordinates) from a strip of Southern California coastline (including water, beach, cliffs, and top of cliffs)...

  3. December 2002 Lidar Point Data of Southern California Coastline: Dana Point to Point La Jolla

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains lidar point data (latitude and longitude) from a strip of Southern California coastline (including water, beach, cliffs, and top of cliffs)...

  4. March 2003 Lidar Point Data of Southern California Coastline: Dana Point to Point La Jolla

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains lidar point data (Geodetic Coordinates) from a strip of Southern California coastline (including water, beach, cliffs, and top of cliffs)...

  5. 50 CFR 21.29 - Falconry standards and falconry permitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... disturbance. A “giant hood” or similar container is acceptable for transporting or housing a raptor when you... take of the bird from the wild. This would occur, for example, if another person climbs a tree or rappells down a cliff and takes a nestling for you and gives it to you at the tree or cliff. (vi) If...

  6. An Uncommon Cottage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Scott

    2008-01-01

    This article features the Cliffs Cottage, a "showcase home" at Furman University which demonstrates the use of green technology in residential building and teaches about sustainability. Custom-built for the shelter-magazine dreams of "Southern Living," a sponsor of the home, the house seems better suited for a tony subdivision. The Cliffs Cottage…

  7. Wildlife Species, RockyMountainElk-This dataset represents Rocky Mountain elk use areas in Utah as determined by wildlife biologists during 2001. With an update from the Book Cliffs in 2003. A maintenance update January 2004., Published in 2004, 1:100000 (1in=8333ft) scale, State of Utah Automated Geographic Reference Center.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Wildlife Species dataset, published at 1:100000 (1in=8333ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Observation information as of 2004. It is described...

  8. Disentangle plume-induced anisotropy in the velocity field in buoyancy-driven turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Quan

    2011-01-01

    We present a method of disentangling the anisotropies produced by the cliff structures in turbulent velocity field and test it in the system of turbulent Rayleigh-B\\'{e}nard (RB) convection. It is found that in the RB system the cliff structures in the velocity field are generated by thermal plumes. These cliff structures induce asymmetry in the velocity increments, which leads us to consider the plus and minus velocity structure functions (VSF). The plus velocity increments exclude cliff structures, while the minus ones include them. Our results show that the scaling exponents of the plus VSFs are in excellent agreement with those predicted for homogeneous and isotropic turbulence (HIT), whereas those of the minus VSFs exhibit significant deviations from HIT expectations in places where thermal plumes abound. These results demonstrate that plus and minus VSFs can be used to quantitatively study the effect of cliff structures in the velocity field and to effectively disentangle the associated anisotropies cau...

  9. Point source data (drill locations) for coal in the Kaiparowits Plateau study area, southern Utah (kaiptg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a point file that contains data for coal and other stratigraphic horizons in in the Calico and A-sequences of the Straight Cliffs Formation (Upper...

  10. Celiac Disease and Gluten-Free Diet Videos

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Quote Clark Kolterman Quote Cliff Hauck Quote Dean E. Cling Quote Diane Eve Paley Quote Gary Powers ... P Sullivan Quote William A. Locke Quote William E. Morris Quote Search Symptoms and Systems Symptoms Diagnosis ...

  11. Heliplaat ja jõulukuu kingikott / Immo Mihkelson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mihkelson, Immo, 1959-

    2005-01-01

    Jõulukingiks sobilikest heliplaatidest Rod Stewart "The Greatest American Songbook", Cliff Richard "Platinum Collection", Frank Sinatra "Duets and Duets II", Bryan Adams "Anthology", Savage GArden "Truly madly Completely", Dire Straits & Mark Knopfler "Private Investigations"

  12. Mampang Yumco: Mother of All Rivers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    The Mapang Yumco Lake is famed as the “Mother of All Rivers”. In the absence of wind and waves, the vast lake surface is like a mirror reflecting the blue sky, white clouds, snowy peaks and steep cliffs.

  13. Shores of the central west coast of India - a case study using remote sensing data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wagle, B.G.

    ridges, littoral terraces, dunes, tidal flats etc. have been described and demarcated. Ground truth have been collected for all the features identified from remote sensing data. The coast, with abandoned cliffs, littoral terraces, beach ridges, tidal...

  14. Plaadid / Heidi Purga

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Purga, Heidy, 1975-

    2006-01-01

    Uutest heliplaatidest Gwen Stefani "The Sweet Escape", Errors "How Clean Is Your Acid House?", Cliff Richard "Two's Company", Jay-Z "Kingdom Come", Incubus "Light Grenades", Pogo Kreiner & Vienna Sound Orchestra "E"Magic Flute", Freddie Cruger "Soul Search"

  15. 76 FR 48180 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-08

    ..., Jct. of AL 14 & Webb Rd., Marion, 11000566 ARIZONA Maricopa County Silk Stocking Neighborhood Historic... Ave., Sea Cliff, 11000597 House at 52 Frost Mill Road, 52 Frost Mill Rd., Mill Neck, 11000598...

  16. 78 FR 64009 - Certain Optical Disc Drives, Components Thereof, and Products Containing the Same; Institution of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... U.S.A., Inc., 1000 Sylvan Avenue, Englewood Cliffs, NJ 07632. Nintendo Co., Ltd., 11-1 Hokotate-cho, Kamitoba, Minami-ku, Kyoto 601- 8501, Japan. Nintendo of America, Inc., 4600 150th Avenue NE, Redmond,...

  17. 78 FR 56245 - Certain Wireless Consumer Electronics Devices and Components Thereof; Notice of Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    ... Seoul, Korea; LG Electronics U.S.A., Inc. of Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey; Nintendo Co. Ltd. of Kyoto, Japan; Nintendo of America, Inc. of Redmond, Washington; Novatel Wireless, Inc. of San Diego,...

  18. 77 FR 51572 - Certain Wireless Consumer Electronics Devices and Components Thereof; Institution of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    ... Korea. LG Electronics U.S.A., Inc., 1000 Sylvan Avenue, Englewood Cliffs, NJ 07632. Nintendo Co., Ltd., 11-1 Kamitoba Hokotate-Cho, Minami-Ku, Kyoto 601- 8501, Japan. Nintendo of America, Inc., 4600...

  19. A coverage that differentiates between areas where the total Calico and A-sequence coal-bearing interval is preserved and where the coal-bearing strata are partially eroded in the Kaiparowits Plateau, southern Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a polygon coverage that represents areas underlain by the coal-bearing Calico and A-sequences of the Straight Cliffs Formation east of 112 degrees of...

  20. Process-response coastal-recession model and its application to the Holderness coast (UK); Modelo proceso-respuesta de recesion de acantilados por variacion del nivel del mar. Aplicacion en la Costa de Holderness (Reino Unido)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castedo, R.; Paredes, C.; Fernandez, M.; Vega, R. de la

    2012-11-01

    At the moment the development of predictive cliff-erosion models is limited from a geomorphologic perspective due to the complex interactions existing between coupled processes acting over wide scales of time and space. Current models incorporate a probabilistic framework in order to simulate coastal recession events or cliff failure and tend to assess the effects of climate change through changes in the mean sea lea level. According to this procedure, the resulting simulations of cliffs with different behaviours might produce identical annual retreat characteristics even if their potential response to changing environments may not be the same. Thus, a new process-response model is developed to incorporate the behavioural characteristics of cohesive clay coasts with a protective talus wedge under erosive processes. To this end, the model incorporates dynamic marine processes such as variations in mean sea level, tides and waves together with cliff evolution in the shape of erosion, cliff failure and the formation of foot talus deposits. Cliff erosion is calculated on the basis of sea-level changes, wave incidence, shore platform slope and the uniaxial compressive strength of the rock over each tidal cycle. After each cycle the geomechanical stability against topple movement of the cliff face is evaluated and in the event of failure, a talus wedge is formed. The model has been corroborated by an assessment of profile evolution at various locations along a rapidly retreating area on the coast of Holderness in the UK. The results represent an important step-forward in linking material properties to cliff recession processes and the subsequent long-term coastal response in the face of changing sea-level conditions. (Author) 72 refs.

  1. Assessment of rockfall hazard on the steep-high slopes: Ermenek (Karaman, Turkey)

    OpenAIRE

    Taga, Hidayet; Zorlu, Kıvanç

    2016-01-01

    Ermenek is one of the curious settlement areas because of its topographical features in Karaman (Turkey). The city is located in northern side of the very steep cliffs formed byjointed limestone which are suddenly increased from 1250 m to 1850 m. Moreover, these cliffs having almost 90° slope dip are the main rockfall source areas due to their lithologicalcharacteristics, climatic effects and engineering properties of rock units. Up to now, depending on rockfall events, almost 50...

  2. Extreme Reproduction and Survival of a True Cliffhanger: The Endangered Plant Borderea chouardii (Dioscoreaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    García, María B.; Xavier Espadaler; Jens M Olesen

    2012-01-01

    Cliff sides are extreme habitats, often sheltering a rich and unique flora. One example is the dioecious herb Bordereachouardii (Dioscoreaceae), which is a Tertiary, tropical relict, occurring only on two adjacent vertical cliffs in the world. Westudied its reproductive biology, which in some aspects is extreme, especially the unusual double mutualistic role of ants asboth pollinators and dispersers. We made a 2-year pollination census and four years of seed-dispersal experiments,recording fl...

  3. Strategic analysis for the MER Cape Verde approach

    OpenAIRE

    Gaines, Daniel; Belluta, Paolo; Herman, Jennifer; Hwang, Pauline; Mukai, Ryan; Porter, Dan; Jones, Byron; Wood, Eric; Grotzinger, John; Edgar, Lauren; Hayes, Alex; Hare, Trent; Squyres, Steve

    2009-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has recently completed a two year campaign studying Victoria Crater. The campaign culminated in a close approach of Cape Verde in order to acquire high resolution imagery of the exposed stratigraphy in the cliff face. The close approach to Cape Verde provided significant challenges for every subsystem of the rover as the rover needed to traverse difficult, un-characterised terrain and approach a cliff face with the potential of blocking out solar energy ...

  4. E-book Trial Using Handheld Devices Yields Mixed Reactions from Public Library Staff and Users in Essex County, UK. A review of: Dearnley, James, Cliff McKnight, and Anne Morris. “Electronic Book Usage in Public Libraries: A Study of User and Staff Reactions to a PDA-based Collection.” Journal of Librarianship and Information Science 36.4 (December 2004: 175‐82.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Hall

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective - To assess e-book delivery on handheld devices provided to public library patrons, particularly housebound or visually impaired patrons and the users of a mobile library. Design - Product trial with a post-trial questionnaire for patrons and a post-trial focus group discussion among participating library staff. Setting - Mid-to-large size public library system in the United Kingdom. Subjects - 23 patrons participated; the number of library staff participating is not identified. Although the target population initially identified was housebound people, patrons reliant on the mobile library, and visually impaired people, the project team determined that it did not have sufficient funds to upgrade the PDAs to be compatible woth their preferred software for the visually impaired, and therefore this group was eliminated from the study. Lack of funds was also cited as a factor in the team being unable to provide assistive technology for those users suffering from arthritis, though this group was not excluded from the study. Just over half the patrons were aged 60+, and more than half were female. Two patrons self-identified as housebound. Methods - e-books were downloaded onto Hewlett Packard iPAQ 1910 Pdas by library staff and were loaned to participants between Janualry and April 2004. Although the authors of the study state that "creating staff champions was an important objective in this project" (p.176, it is unclear whether staff were screened for positive attitude towards e-Books. Prior to the trial, staff members were provided with training and orientation, and participants were asked for their font sna d reading preferences. Suport for participating patrons was available from staff or via an accompanying user manual, e-mail, or telephone help line. In a questionnaire adminsitered following the trial, participants were asked to respond to questions on the functionality of the handheld devices and e-book formats, positive and negative reactions to reading from the devices, and differences in the reading experience using the PDA as oopsed to a book. A group discussion with p[articipating library staff was held in April of 2004. The feedback from both groups was compared. Main results - Patrons: The devices were generally found to be usable, with a few exceptions; one patron with arthritis had difficulty operating the device and another developed hand cramps. Positive reactions regarding the vovelty of using the devices, portability (the ability to store several books on one small device and readability (the ability to customize font size and to read in low light conditions were offset by frustration with low battery life, small screen size, limits on usage (i.e. not to be used in the bath, difficulty paging back and forth ('getting lost on the iPAQ', and the inferior sensation of using a PDA as opposed to the 'tactile' quantity of books. In addtion, some patrons voiced fears that e-books might supplant paper books and libraries themselves. In all, thirteen patrons indicated that the e-books had some advantages over books, while eighteen found that there were aspects of using e-books that they disliked compared to books. Staff: The staff shared some concerns with the users, identifying portability as a strength and low battery life (including the need to reformat devices after batteries ran out as a weakness. In addition, some staff felt that some patrons preferred e-book format for books on sensitive topcs, as they provided more privacy in borrowing. Other staff concerns included the potential for users loading other software on the devices and the (presumably in the case of a full roll-out where users would download their own e-books from home lack of a broadband connection for some users. Conclusions - This study should be read as a case study of a trial of the Adobe Book and Palm e-book formats in Hewlett Packard iPAQ 1910 Pdas amongst a small group pf public library (primarily mobile library patrons. While the findings generally indicated that both staff and users found the technology tooo problematic to be adopted, the trial was confined to hardware and software specified. Furthermore, since the sample surveyed was small and not randomly selected, it would be difficult to apply the study's findings to the larger population (exact number not specified in the study of housebound and mobile library users of the Essex County system. For those who are considering the introduction of similar technology in a public library setting, the final report on the larger project of which this study was a part is available on the British Library website: http://www.bl.uk/about/cooperation/laser-pubs.html

  5. E-book Trial Using Handheld Devices Yields Mixed Reactions from Public Library Staff and Users in Essex County, UK. A review of: Dearnley, James, Cliff McKnight, and Anne Morris. “Electronic Book Usage in Public Libraries: A Study of User and Staff Reactions to a PDA-based Collection.” Journal of Librarianship and Information Science 36.4 (December 2004): 175‐82.

    OpenAIRE

    Stephanie Hall

    2006-01-01

    Objective - To assess e-book delivery on handheld devices provided to public library patrons, particularly housebound or visually impaired patrons and the users of a mobile library. Design - Product trial with a post-trial questionnaire for patrons and a post-trial focus group discussion among participating library staff. Setting - Mid-to-large size public library system in the United Kingdom. Subjects - 23 patrons participated; the number of library staff participating is not identi...

  6. Using carbon nanotube probes for high-resolution three-dimensional imaging of cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While atomic force microscopy (AFM) has become a promising tool for visualizing membrane morphology of cells, many studies have reported the presence of artifacts such as cliffs on the edges of cells. These artifacts shield important structural features such as lamellopodia, filopodia, microvilli and membrane ridges, which represent characteristic status in signaling processes such as spreading and activation. These cliff-like edges arise from a premature contact of the probe side contact with the cell prior to the probe top apex-cell contact. Carbon nanotube (CNT) modified AFM probes were utilized to address this drawback. Using rat basophilic leukemia (RBL) cells, this work revealed that CNT probes diminish cliff-like artifacts and enabled visualization of entire membrane morphology and structural features in three dimensions. The high aspect ratio of CNT probes provides a very effective remedy to the cliff-like artifacts as well as tip convolution of conventional probes, which shall enhance the validity and application of AFM in cellular biology research. -- Highlights: → When imaging cells, atomic force microscopy frequently encounters an artifact known as 'side cliffs.' → Using carbon nanotube (CNT) modified probes, this artifact can be completely eliminated. → The origin and mechanism of elimination of this artifact are also discussed.

  7. Using carbon nanotube probes for high-resolution three-dimensional imaging of cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehne, J.E. [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Stevens, R.M. [Carbon Design Innovations, Burlingame, CA 94010 (United States); Zink, T. [Biophysics Graduate Group, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Deng, Z. [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Chen, H.; Weng, I.C.; Liu, F.T. [Department of Dermatology, School of Medicine, University of California-Davis, Sacramento, CA 95817 (United States); Liu, G.Y., E-mail: liu@chem.ucdavis.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Biophysics Graduate Group, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2011-07-15

    While atomic force microscopy (AFM) has become a promising tool for visualizing membrane morphology of cells, many studies have reported the presence of artifacts such as cliffs on the edges of cells. These artifacts shield important structural features such as lamellopodia, filopodia, microvilli and membrane ridges, which represent characteristic status in signaling processes such as spreading and activation. These cliff-like edges arise from a premature contact of the probe side contact with the cell prior to the probe top apex-cell contact. Carbon nanotube (CNT) modified AFM probes were utilized to address this drawback. Using rat basophilic leukemia (RBL) cells, this work revealed that CNT probes diminish cliff-like artifacts and enabled visualization of entire membrane morphology and structural features in three dimensions. The high aspect ratio of CNT probes provides a very effective remedy to the cliff-like artifacts as well as tip convolution of conventional probes, which shall enhance the validity and application of AFM in cellular biology research. -- Highlights: {yields} When imaging cells, atomic force microscopy frequently encounters an artifact known as 'side cliffs.' {yields} Using carbon nanotube (CNT) modified probes, this artifact can be completely eliminated. {yields} The origin and mechanism of elimination of this artifact are also discussed.

  8. Relationships between the stable isotopic signatures of living and fossil foraminifera in Monterey Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jonathan B.; Day, Shelley A.; Rathburn, Anthony E.; Perez, M. Elena; Mahn, Chris; Gieskes, Joris

    2004-04-01

    Fossil foraminifera are critical to paleoceanographic reconstructions including estimates of past episodes of methane venting. These reconstructions rely on benthic foraminifera incorporating and retaining unaltered the ambient isotopic compositions of pore fluids and bottom waters. Comparisons are made here of isotopic compositions of abundant live and fossil foraminifera (Uvigerina peregrina, Epistominella pacifica, Bulimina mexicana, and Globobulimina pacifica) collected in Monterey Bay, CA from two cold seeps (Clam Flats and Extrovert Cliffs) and from sediments ˜5 m outside of the Clam Flats seep. Clam Flats has steep δ13CDIC gradients (to Extrovert Cliffs is less enriched in 12C (to approximately -22‰). Oxygen isotope values of fossil foraminifera at Clam Flats are ˜1.5‰ enriched in 18O over the living foraminifera, as well as those of both live and fossil foraminifera at Extrovert Cliffs, suggesting they may have lived during the last glacial maximum. Statistical comparisons (Student's t and Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests) of δ13C and δ18O values indicate that live and fossil foraminifera come from different populations at both Clam Flats and Extrovert Cliffs. At Clam Flats, the difference appears to result from alteration enriching some fossil foraminifera in 12C over live foraminifera. At Extrovert Cliffs, the fossil foraminifera are enriched in 13C over the live foraminifera, suggesting they lived prior to the onset of venting and thus that venting began recently. The short time of venting at Extrovert Cliffs may be responsible for the less alteration there compared with Clam Flats. These results indicate that preservation of foraminifera is likely to be poor within long-lived cold seeps, but that foraminifera living in the surrounding sediment may incorporate and preserve broad basin-wide changes in isotopic compositions of the ambient water.

  9. Evidence from cosmic-ray exposure dating based on 36Cl for the pre-Minoan caldera on Santorini, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanassas, Constantin; Bourlès, Didier; Braucher, Regis; Druitt, Tim; Nomikou, Paraskevi; Léanni, Laetitia

    2016-04-01

    The physiography of Santorini prior to the Minoan (Late Bronze Age) eruption (17th century BCE) is of great archaeological interest, given the importance of Santorini as a commercial centre and port in the Minoan empire. However, the paleogeography of the pre-Minoan caldera has been a point of controversy: Heiken and McCoy (1984) advocated the existence, in the southern part of the present-day caldera, of a pre-existing caldera formed during the 172 ka Lower Pumice eruption, whereas Druitt and Francaviglia (1992), based on the presence of in situ plinian pumice from the Minoan eruption adhering to the modern cliff, conceived the pre-Minoan (22 ka) caldera as having occupied much of the northern basin of the present-day caldera. With the goal of settling the debate we performed cosmic ray exposure dating employing in situ-produced cosmogenic 36Cl to date different generations of caldera cliffs at Santorini, and hence to identify those cliffs predating the Minoan eruption. Our methodology involved the determination of the in situ-produced cosmogenic 36Cl in basaltic and andesitic rocks cropping out in the cliffs. The samples returned 36Cl CRE ages consistent with previously published field mapping of cliff populations based on geomorphological and stratigraphic arguments (Druitt and Francaviglia 1992), suggesting that much of the present cliff line of northern Santorini predated the Minoan eruption, or was superficially modified by landslips and rockfalls during that eruption. The 36Cl CRE ages enable us to better define the paleogeography of the pre-Minoan caldera. References [1] Druitt, T. H. and Francaviglia, V.1992. Caldera formation on Santorini and the physiography of the islands in the Late Bronze Age. Bulletin of Volcanology 54, 484-493. [2] Heiken G and McCoy F (1984) Caldera development during the Minoan eruption, Thira, Cyclades, Greece. Journal of Geophysical Research: 89 (B10), 8841-8862.

  10. Terrestrial Laser Scanner for assessing rockfall susceptibility in the Cilento rocky coast (Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorrentino, Valerio; Matasci, Battista; Abellan, Antonio; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Marino, Ermanno; Pignalosa, Antonio; Santo, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    Rockfalls and other types of landslides are the dominant processes causing a retreat of sea cliffs. The coastal areas constitute an important tourist attraction and a large number of people rest beneath the cliffs on a daily basis, considerably increasing the risk associated to rockfalls. We present an approach to assess rockfall susceptibility at the cliff scale based on terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) point clouds. The test area is a coastal cliff situated in the southern part of the Cilento (Centola Municipality, Campania Region), in which a natural arch was formed. This cliff is constituted by heavy fractured carbonate rock mass with a strong structural control. In June 2015 TLS data were acquired with long-range scanner RIEGL VZ1000®. The structural analysis of the cliff was performed in the field and using Coltop 3D software on the point cloud. As a result, 10 discontinuity sets (joint, faults and bedding planes) were individuated and the different characteristics such as orientation, spacing and persistence were measured. The kinematically unstable areas were highlighted using a script that computes an index of susceptibility to rockfalls based on the spatial distribution of failure mechanisms. The susceptibility index computation is based on the average surface that every joint set (or combinations of two joint sets in the case of wedge failure) forms on the topography according to its spacing, trace length, and incidence angle. This susceptibility index also depends on the steepness of the joint set (or of the intersection line in the case of wedge failure). As a result the most important discontinuity sets in terms of potential planar failure, wedge failure and toppling were individuated and an assessment of rockfall susceptibility at the cliff scale was achieved. Results show that the kinematically feasible failures are not equally distributed along the cliff but concentrated on certain areas. The most susceptible areas for planar failure are related to

  11. The Indian coastline: Processes and landforms.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mukhopadhyay, R.; Karisiddaiah, S.M.

    -regions discussed in the text. Figure 8.2. Lateritic Cliffs and Platform in Dona Paula, Goa (Photo Vishwas Kale) Figure 8.3. Columnar basalts in St. Mary Island off Udupi, Karnataka- an evidence of India-Madagascar separation at 85-90 Ma (http...://www.bubblews.com. Figure 8.4. Sea cliffs and shore platform in khondalites near Visakhapatnam on the east coast of India (Photo Vishwas Kale) Figure 8.5. Marshy, muddy and mangrove rich Sundarbans (Photo RL Chavan) ...

  12. Time a traveler's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Pickover, Clifford A

    1998-01-01

    ""Bucky Fuller thought big,"" Wired magazine recently noted, ""Arthur C. Clarke thinks big, but Cliff Pickover outdoes them both."" In his newest book, Cliff Pickover outdoes even himself, probing a mystery that has baffled mystics, philosophers, and scientists throughout history--What is the nature of time? In Time: A Traveler's Guide, Pickover takes readers to the forefront of science as he illuminates the most mysterious phenomenon in the universe--time itself. Is time travel possible? Is time real? Does it flow in one direction only? Does it have a beginning and an end? What is eternity? P

  13. Spanish I

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez, Jill

    2001-01-01

    CliffsQuickReview course guides cover the essentials of your toughest classes. Get a firm grip on core concepts and key material, and test your newfound knowledge with review questions. CliffsQuickReview Spanish I is meant to provide all the foundations of basic Spanish pronunciation, spelling, and sentence construction. Spanish grammar is systematically explained in its most simplistic way, so there's no need for any prerequisite before beginning this ""review"" of the equivalent of two years of high school Spanish. As you work your way through this review, you'll be ready to tackle such conc

  14. Strategic Analysis for the MER Cape Verde Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Daniel; Belluta, Paolo; Herman, Jennifer; Hwang, Pauline; Mukai, Ryan; Porter, Dan; Jones, Byron; Wood, Eric; Grotzinger, John; Edgar, Lauren; Hayes, Alex; Hare, Trent; Squyres, Steve

    2009-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has recently completed a two year campaign studying Victoria Crater. The campaign culminated in a close approach of Cape Verde in order to acquire high resolution imagery of the exposed stratigraphy in the cliff face. The close approach to Cape Verde provided significant challenges for every subsystem of the rover as the rover needed to traverse difficult, uncharacterised terrain and approach a cliff face with the potential of blocking out solar energy and communications with Earth. In this paper we describe the strategic analyses performed by the science and engineering teams so that we could successfully achieve the science objectives while keeping the rover safe.

  15. Calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Zandy, Bernard V

    2003-01-01

    We take great notes-and make learning a snap When it comes to pinpointing the stuff you really need to know, nobody does it better than CliffsNotes. This fast, effective tutorial helps you master core Calculus concepts-from functions, limits, and derivatives to differentials, integration, and definite integrals- and get the best possible grade. At CliffsNotes, we're dedicated to helping you do your best, no matter how challenging the subject. Our authors are veteran teachers and talented writers who know how to cut to the chase- and zero in on the essential information you need to succeed.

  16. 78 FR 14126 - Biweekly Notice; Applications and Amendments to Facility Operating Licenses and Combined Licenses...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-04

    ... the effectiveness of maintenance at nuclear power plants, which will ensure the control of maintenance activities associated with the DC electrical power system. The integrity of fission product barriers, plant... Power Plant, LLC, Docket Nos. 50-317 and 50-318, Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and...

  17. Science and design: identical twins?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, Per; Kroes, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Recently, Robert Farrell and Cliff Hooker opposed the conventional view that ‘design and science are distinct types of intellectual study and production’, claiming that science and design ‘are not different in kind’, and explicitly challenging proponents of the conventional view to ‘provide expli...

  18. Hybrid digital-analog video transmission in wireless multicast and multiple-input multiple-output system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Lin, Xiaocheng; Fan, Nianfei; Zhang, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Wireless video multicast has become one of the key technologies in wireless applications. But the main challenge of conventional wireless video multicast, i.e., the cliff effect, remains unsolved. To overcome the cliff effect, a hybrid digital-analog (HDA) video transmission framework based on SoftCast, which transmits the digital bitstream with the quantization residuals, is proposed. With an effective power allocation algorithm and appropriate parameter settings, the residual gains can be maximized; meanwhile, the digital bitstream can assure transmission of a basic video to the multicast receiver group. In the multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system, since nonuniform noise interference on different antennas can be regarded as the cliff effect problem, ParCast, which is a variation of SoftCast, is also applied to video transmission to solve it. The HDA scheme with corresponding power allocation algorithms is also applied to improve video performance. Simulations show that the proposed HDA scheme can overcome the cliff effect completely with the transmission of residuals. What is more, it outperforms the compared WSVC scheme by more than 2 dB when transmitting under the same bandwidth, and it can further improve performance by nearly 8 dB in MIMO when compared with the ParCast scheme.

  19. 40 CFR 131.33 - Idaho.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 160., or, although not so designated, are waters of the United States as defined at 40 CFR 122.2. ..., Chamberlain Creek, Cliff Creek, Colt Creek, Corn Creek, Crooked Creek, Deer Creek, Dennis Creek... Creek, Reynolds Creek, Rim Creek, Ring Creek, Rock Creek, Root Creek, Runaway Creek, Sabe Creek,...

  20. Back From the Brink

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A Chinese biologist works tirelessly to save an endangered species of monkey After a loud blast set off by villagers quarrying stones, a white-headed langur popped its head out of the tree canopy at the foot of a towering limestone cliff.

  1. From ooze to sedimentary rock, the first diagenetic processes affecting the chalk of eastern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreau, Julien; Boussaha, Myriam; Nielsen, Lars;

    -resolution seismic reflection profiles, high-resolution wireline logs and sedimentological data from a fully cored borehole, and field information from quarry and coastal cliff exposures were taken to inform about early diagenetic features. This integrated approach for the first time enabled placing different...

  2. AEM ANALYSIS OF STAINLESS STEEL

    OpenAIRE

    Ogilvie, R.

    1984-01-01

    Quantitative AEM of thin films of stainless steel is presented. The X-ray data is corrected for absorption, secondary fluorescence and detector efficiency. A new form of the fluorescence correction has been derived. A modified form of the Cliff-Lorimer equations is also presented.

  3. Basic illustrated knots for the outdoors

    CERN Document Server

    Jacobson, Cliff

    2008-01-01

    Cliff Jacobson is one of North America's most respected outdoors writers and wilderness canoe guides. His experiences as a professional outfitter and canoeing consultant have resulted in more than a dozen top-selling books on camping, canoeing, navigation, and outdoor skills.

  4. Science and design revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, Per; Kroes, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, Robert Farrell and Cliff Hooker published a paper in Design Studies, arguing against the conventional science–design distinction. Finding their position highly controversial, we opposed it in a paper of our own, to which Farrell and Hooker have now responded with a defence of their view...

  5. Eleanor Gibsonová (*7.12.1910 - +30.12.2002)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šikl, Radovan

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 2 (2003), s. 97-104. ISSN 0009-062X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK9058117 Keywords : perceptual development * visual cliff * affordance Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 0.232, year: 2003

  6. What if We Made Fewer Ph.D.'s?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassuto, Leonard

    2012-01-01

    Whenever a discussion opens about nonacademic employment for Ph.D.s, it is not long before someone suggests reducing graduate-school admissions. "The market for full-time scholars has fallen off a cliff lately," this argument goes, "so why not just train fewer of them?" The strategy to reduce the number of Ph.D. students recurs in those…

  7. Saving Whales and Dolphins through Petroglyphs and Activist Artworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jaehan

    2013-01-01

    Whaling emerged in ancient times, when whales served as a source of food, fuel, and other everyday resources that were vital for human civilizations. Prehistoric images of whales are found on rocks in a few areas throughout the world, most notably the famous petroglyphs at the Bangudae cliffs in Ulsan, South Korea, which depict whales and other…

  8. Individual Attitudes and Social Influences on College Students' Intent to Participate in Study Abroad Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liz C.; Gault, John; Christ, Paul; Diggin, Patricia A.

    2016-01-01

    Participation in study abroad programs (SAPs) is widely viewed as offering important professional and personal benefits for college students. This study applies the "Theory of Reasoned Action" [Ajzen, I., & Fishbein, M. (1980) and "Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior," Englewood Cliffs, NJ:…

  9. Back From the Brink

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG YUANKAI

    2010-01-01

    @@ After a loud blast set off by villag-ers quarrying stones, a white-headed langur popped its head out of the tree canopy at the foot of a towering limestone cliff. Its eyes seemed to be filled with terror and sadness.

  10. 78 FR 15051 - Investigations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ... (Company). ] 82472 Deutsch, TE Connectivity Tullahoma, TN 02/19/13 02/18/13 (Company). 82473 Cliffs Natural.../13 02/13/13 Stop). 82476 SuperValu Inc. (Company).... Pleasant Prairie, WI... 02/19/13 02/15/13 82477 Google (Motorola Mobility Libertyville and 02/19/13 02/14/13 Group) (Workers). Plantation, IL....

  11. Using carbon nanotube probes for high-resolution three-dimensional imaging of cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehne, J E; Stevens, R M; Zink, T; Deng, Z; Chen, H; Weng, I C; Liu, F T; Liu, G Y

    2011-07-01

    While atomic force microscopy (AFM) has become a promising tool for visualizing membrane morphology of cells, many studies have reported the presence of artifacts such as cliffs on the edges of cells. These artifacts shield important structural features such as lamellopodia, filopodia, microvilli and membrane ridges, which represent characteristic status in signaling processes such as spreading and activation. These cliff-like edges arise from a premature contact of the probe side contact with the cell prior to the probe top apex-cell contact. Carbon nanotube (CNT) modified AFM probes were utilized to address this drawback. Using rat basophilic leukemia (RBL) cells, this work revealed that CNT probes diminish cliff-like artifacts and enabled visualization of entire membrane morphology and structural features in three dimensions. The high aspect ratio of CNT probes provides a very effective remedy to the cliff-like artifacts as well as tip convolution of conventional probes, which shall enhance the validity and application of AFM in cellular biology research. PMID:21741916

  12. Analytical Electron Microscopy of Ni-based Alloys: Adjustment of Parameters for Standardless Quantification

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buršík, Jiří

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 1 (2004), s. 461-465. ISSN 1335-1532 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/01/0383 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2041904 Keywords : STEM * X-ray * Cliff-Lorimer factor Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  13. TOURISM INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Shapotou Tourism Zone Located southeast of the Tengger Desert,20 km from Zhongwei City in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region,the Shapotou Tourism Zone borders the Yellow River,and features a unique landscape combining water and sand.Huge waves,precipi- tous cliffs and an oasis in the seas of sand make

  14. 77 FR 515 - Certain Portable Communication Devices; Receipt of Amended Complaint; Solicitation of Comments...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-05

    ... Electronics Co., Ltd. of South Korea; Samsung Electronics America, Inc. of Ridgefield Park, New Jersey... importation of certain portable communication devices. The complaint names Research In Motion Ltd. of Canada... Electronics, Inc. of South Korea; LG Electronics U.S.A. Inc. of Englewood Cliffs, NJ; LG Electronics...

  15. 76 FR 30968 - In the Matter of Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices, Products Containing Same, and Methods...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ...- confidential documents filed in connection with this investigation are or will be available for inspection... Taiwan; Haier America Trading LLC, of New York, New York; Haier Group Company of China; LG Electronics Inc. of South Korea; LG Electronics U.S.A., Inc. of Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey; SANYO Electric...

  16. 77 FR 77092 - Certain Devices for Improving Uniformity Used in a Backlight Module and Components Thereof and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... documents filed in connection with this investigation are or will be available for inspection during... (collectively ``ITRI''). 76 FR 56796-97 (Sept. 14, 2011). The complaint alleges violations of section 337 in the... Electronics, Inc. of Seoul, Republic of South Korea; and LG Electronics, U.S.A., Inc. of Englewood Cliffs,...

  17. 77 FR 45377 - Certain Light-Emitting Diodes and Products Containing the Same; Notice of Request for Statements...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    ... imported by LG Electronics, Inc. of Seoul, Republic of Korea; LG Innotek Co., Ltd. of Seoul, Republic of Korea; LG Electronics U.S.A., Inc. of Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey; and LG Innotek U.S.A., Inc. of San...-3106. Copies of non- confidential documents filed in connection with this investigation are or will...

  18. 77 FR 75190 - Certain Light-Emitting Diodes and Products Containing Same; Commission Determination Not To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ... respondents included the following: LG Electronics, Inc. and LG Innotek Co., Ltd., both of Seoul, South Korea; LG Electronics U.S.A., Inc. of Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey; and LG Innotek U.S.A., Inc. of San Diego... (202) 708-2310. Copies of non- confidential documents filed in connection with this investigation...

  19. 78 FR 10635 - Certain Integrated Circuit Devices and Products Containing the Same; Notice of Receipt of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ..., Inc. of Bellevue, WA; LG Electronics, Inc. of Korea; LG Electronics U.S.A., Inc. of Englewood Cliffs, NJ; LG Electronics MobileComm U.S.A., Inc. of San Diego, CA; Motorola Mobility LLC of Libertyville... document electronically on or before the deadlines stated above and submit 8 true paper copies to...

  20. 76 FR 58840 - In the Matter of Certain Display Devices, Including Digital Televisions and Monitors II; Notice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-22

    ...- confidential documents filed in connection with this investigation are or will be available for inspection... Sony Corporation of Tokyo, Japan (``Sony''). 76 FR 13432 (Mar. 11, 2011). The complaint alleged... Electronics, Inc. of Seoul, Korea, and LG Electronics U.S.A., Inc. of Englewood Cliffs, New...

  1. 76 FR 383 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ... respondents LG Electronics, Inc. of Seoul, Korea; LG Electronics U.S.A., Inc. of Englewood Cliffs, NJ; and LG Electronics Mobilecomm U.S.A., Inc. of San Diego, CA. The complainant, proposed respondents, other interested... investigation. Persons filing written submissions must file the original document and 12 true copies thereof...

  2. 75 FR 42783 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ... components thereof. The complaint names as respondents LG Electronics, Inc. of Seoul, South Korea and LG Electronics U.S.A., Inc., of Englewood Cliffs, NJ. The complainant, proposed respondents, other interested... investigation. Persons filing written submissions must file the original document and 12 true copies thereof...

  3. Tufted puffins (Fratercula cirrhata) respond to predation danger during colony approach flights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Addison, B.; Ydenberg, R.C.; Smith, B.D.

    2007-01-01

    In spite of their putative importance in the evolution of certain traits (e.g., nocturnality, coloniality, cliff nesting), the effects of aerial predators on behavior of adult seabirds at colonies have been poorly investigated. We hypothesized that Tufted Puffins (Fratercula cirrhata) respond to dan

  4. Virginia Tech qualifies two vehicles for $2 million DARPA Grand Challenge race

    OpenAIRE

    Crumbley, Liz

    2005-01-01

    Two Virginia Tech engineering teams are among only 40 in the nation to qualify for the 2005 DARPA Grand Challenge autonomous vehicle competition, which offers a cash prize of $2 million. In addition, Virginia Tech is one of only two competitors to qualify two vehicles -- "Rocky" and "Cliff" -- for the race across the Mojave Desert on Oct. 8.

  5. 78 FR 4465 - PPL Bell Bend, LLC; Combined License Application for Bell Bend Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... COMMISSION PPL Bell Bend, LLC; Combined License Application for Bell Bend Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption 1.0... Approvals for Nuclear Power Plants.'' This reactor is to be identified as Bell Bend Nuclear Power Plant... (RCOL) application for UniStar's Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 3 (CCNPP3). The NRC...

  6. 76 FR 81992 - PPL Bell Bend, LLC; Combined License Application for Bell Bend Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... COMMISSION PPL Bell Bend, LLC; Combined License Application for Bell Bend Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption 1.0..., Certifications, and Approvals for Nuclear Power Plants.'' This reactor is to be identified as Bell Bend Nuclear... application is based upon the U.S. EPR reference COL (RCOL) application for UniStar's Calvert Cliffs...

  7. Infrared stimulated luminescence dating of an Eemian (MIS 5e) site in Denmark using K-feldspar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buylaert, Jan-Pieter; Huot, Sebastian; Murray, Andrew S.;

    2011-01-01

    marine sands exposed in a cliff section on the coast of southern Jutland (Denmark) are used to test the accuracy and precision of IRSL dating using K-feldspars. This material has been used previously to test quartz OSL dating (Murray & Funder 2003): a small systematic underestimation of...

  8. Clifford Malcolm: Glimpses of His South African Legacy of Hope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govender, Nadaraj; Ramsuran, Anitha; Dhunpath, Rubby

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews the contributions of Cliff Malcolm while in South Africa during the period 1997-2005. It focuses on his contribution to the fields of science education, teacher education, learner-centered education, transformational outcomes-based education and HIV/AIDS education. In this paper we provide snapshots of his work as an academic,…

  9. 49 CFR Appendix F to Subchapter B... - Commercial Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... definitions is identical to the text of 49 CFR Part 1048, revised as of October 1, 1975, which is no longer in....J.; the area within the borough limits of Alpine, Tenafly, Englewood Cliffs, Leonia, Fort Lee... Hudson County, N.J., east of Newark Bay and the Hackensack River; (2) Transportation which is...

  10. Predation by ants controls swallow bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae: Oeciacus vicarius) infestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Charles R; Page, Catherine E; Robison, Grant A; O'Brien, Valerie A; Booth, Warren

    2015-06-01

    The swallow bug (Oeciacus vicarius) is the only known vector for Buggy Creek virus (BCRV), an alphavirus that circulates in cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) and house sparrows (Passer domesticus) in North America. We discovered ants (Crematogaster lineolata and Formica spp.) preying on swallow bugs at cliff swallow colonies in western Nebraska, U.S.A. Ants reduced the numbers of visible bugs on active swallow nests by 74-90%, relative to nests in the same colony without ants. Ant predation on bugs had no effect on the reproductive success of cliff swallows inhabiting the nests where ants foraged. Ants represent an effective and presumably benign way of controlling swallow bugs at nests in some colonies. They may constitute an alternative to insecticide use at sites where ecologists wish to remove the effects of swallow bugs on cliff swallows or house sparrows. By reducing bug numbers, ant presence may also lessen BCRV transmission at the spatial foci (bird colony sites) where epizootics occur. The effect of ants on swallow bugs should be accounted for in studying variation among sites in vector abundance. PMID:26047195

  11. 75 FR 68618 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-08

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... the Red Cliff Band of Lake Superior Chippewas (``Tribe'') and the State of Wisconsin Gaming Compact of... CONTACT: Paula L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

  12. Assessing the responses of creek chub (Semotilus atromaculatus) and pearl dace (Semotilus margarita) to metal mine effluents using in situ artificial streams in Sudbury, Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé, Monique G; MacLatchy, Deborah L; Hruska, Kimberly A; Glozier, Nancy E

    2006-01-01

    Mining of the world's second-largest nickel deposits in the area of Sudbury, Ontario, Canada, has caused acidification and metal saturation of some catchments. We conducted artificial stream studies in the years 2001 and 2002 to assess the effects of treated metal mine effluents (MMEs) from three different mining operations discharging to Junction Creek, Sudbury, on two fish species, creek chub (Semotilus atromaculatus) and pearl dace (Semotilus margarita). Treatments tested for 35 to 41 d included reference water, Garson MME (30%), Nolin MME (20%), and Copper Cliff MME (45%). In 2001, effects on chub included reduced survival and depressed testosterone levels (fivefold reduction) after exposure to all MMEs. In 2002, chub and dace survival were reduced to less than 60% in the Copper Cliff and Garson treatments. In addition, the total body weights of male and female dace were reduced after exposure to the Garson and Copper Cliff treatments. In 2001 and 2002, responses were most common to the 45% Copper Cliff and 30% Garson effluents, with consistent increases in nickel, rubidium, strontium, iron, lithium, thallium, and selenium observed across treatment waters and body tissues. More work is required to link observed effects to field effects and to identify multitrophic level responses of the ecosystem to the MMEs. The artificial stream studies provided a mechanism to identify changes in the endpoints of relevant fish species exposed to present-day metal mine discharges independent of historical depositions of metals in the Sudbury area. PMID:16494220

  13. Middle to late Pleistocene coastal deposits of Alghero, northwest Sardinia (Italy)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreucci, S; Clemmensen, L; Murray, A.S.;

    2010-01-01

    subdivision of the succession in four unconformity-bounded units (U2, U3a, U3b, U4). Unit U2 of penultimate glacial stage (MIS 6; ca. 150 ka) is composed of dune deposits formed intermittently along rocky coastal areas under strong wind conditions. Subunit U3a is composed of cliff-bounded gravelly dominated...

  14. Sõber raamat

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1997-01-01

    Raamatukaupluses EURO Publications pakutavate raamatute tutvustus. James Davidson, The Complete Home Lightning Book, 1997 Inglismaa ; Candace Ord Manroe. Uncluttered : Storage Room by Room ; Ruth Pretty. The Ultimate Interior Designer, Inglismaa 1997 ; Judith ja Martin Miller. Period Finishes and Effects, Londoni 1992 ; Suzanne Slesin, Stafford Cliff, Daniel Rozensztroch. Spanish Style, esmatrükk 1990.

  15. Do Modes of Thinking Predict Career Interest Types among Chinese University Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-fang; Fan, Weiqiao

    2007-01-01

    This study had two objectives. The preliminary objective was to further test the psychometric properties of the short-version self-directed search that was intended to be a brief research tool for measuring Holland [Holland, J. L. (1973). "Making vocational choices: A theory of careers." Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall; Holland, J. L. (1994).…

  16. Stable isotope stratigraphy of ice cores and the age of the last eruption at Mount Melbourne, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deuterium/hydrogen analysis of two snow profiles on Mount Melbourne and the Campbell Glacier, northern Victoria Land, Antarctica, indicate snow accumulation rates of 0.5-2.2 m/a. From the depth of burial of ash layers in ice cliffs at Mt Melbourne it is estimated that the last major eruption was between 1862 and 1922. (auth)

  17. A novel Antarctic microbial endolithic community within gypsum crusts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Kevin A; Lawley, Blair

    2003-07-01

    A novel endolithic microbial habitat is described from a climatically extreme site at Two Step Cliffs, Alexander Island, Antarctic Peninsula (71 degrees 54'S, 68 degrees 13'W). Small endolithic colonies (endolithic communities are less extensive than those of the Dry Valleys, continental Antarctica, probably owing to only recent deglaciation (<7000 year ago). PMID:12823188

  18. Plastic mistaken for prey by a colony-breeding Eleonora's falcon (Falco eleonorae) in the Mediterranean Sea, revealed by camera-trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Ronny; Torjussen, Cathrine S; Jones, Dean W; Tsimpidis, Thodoris; Miliou, Anastasia

    2016-05-15

    Discarded plastic is known to be harmful for marine animals through ingestion and entanglement. Here we report the first documentation of Eleonora's falcons providing plastic waste to dependent nestlings. Eleonora's falcons breed colonially on sea cliffs and islets in areas of the Mediterranean Sea and the Canary Islands in which they normally feed their nestlings exclusively with small migratory birds. PMID:26971232

  19. MICROBIAL ECOLOGY OF POLLUTION ABATEMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    My career started with Cliff Dahm at the University of New Mexico. The western United States had been experiencing a new “gold rush” using cyanide to mine previously unextractable, low-grade ore and we studied the potential to stimulate native cyanide-degrading micro...

  20. Morphodynamic evolution of two deltas in arctic environments, east coast of Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroon, Aart; Pedersen, Jørn Bjarke Torp; Sigsgaard, Charlotte

    Changes in fluvial channel patterns on deltas have a significant impact on the coastal morphology along its fringes. Lateral channel migration can locally cause cliff erosion and introduce an extra sediment source in the local budget of an active delta plain. Stabilization of channels or even...

  1. Local Tsunami Hazard In The Marquesas Islands (french Polynesia) : Numerical Modeling of The 1999 Fatu Hiva Landslide and Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert, H.; Schindelé, F.; Heinrich, P.; Piatanesi, A.; Okal, E. A.

    In French Polynesia, the Marquesas Islands are particularly prone to amplification of tsunamis generated at the Pacific Rim, due to relatively mild submarine slopes and to large open bays not protected by any coral reef. These islands are also threatened by local tsunamis, as shown by the recent 1999 event on Fatu Hiva. On September 13, 1999, Omoa Bay was struck by 2 to 5 m high water waves: several buildings, among them the school, were flooded and destroyed but no lives were lost. Observations gath- ered during a post-event survey revealed the recent collapse into the sea of a 300x300 m, at least 20-m thick, cliff located 5 km southeast of Omoa. This cliff failure most certainly triggered the tsunami waves since the cliff was reported intact 45 min earlier. We simulate the tsunami generation due to a subaerial landslide, using a finite- difference model assimilating the landslide to a flow of granular material. Numerical modeling shows that a 0.0024-km3 landslide located in the presumed source area ac- counts well for the tsunami waves reported in Omoa Bay. We show that the striking amplification observed in Omoa Bay is related to the trapping of waves due to the shallow submarine shelf surrounding the island. These results stress the local tsunami hazard that should be taken into account in the natural hazard assessment and mitiga- tion of the area, where historical cliff collapses can be observed and should happen again.

  2. Seriously Data-Driven Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casserly, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    As states approach the funding cliff marking the end of federal stimulus help for education, school districts will be feeling more financial pain than they're experiencing now. But there's good news amid the bad: Big city districts are showing schools nationwide a way to save money and improve efficiency by working together. They've created the…

  3. Rockfall failure mechanisms in Yosemite Valley, California (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matasci, Battista; Guerin, Antoine; Carrea, Dario; Stock, Greg M.; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Collins, Brian

    2014-05-01

    Rockfall hazard is especially high in Yosemite Valley, with tens of rockfalls inventoried every year. A rockfall on 5 October 2013 from Ahwiyah Point consisted of a volume of 740 cubic meters and occurred within the perimeter of a larger event on 28 March 2009 that released 25'400 cubic meters of rock (Zimmer et al., 2012). In both events (2009 and 2013), the initial rockfall volumes dislodged a second one approximately equivalent in size by impacting the cliff below the source area during the fall. Rock fragments of up to several cubic meters were deposited on the talus slope, damaging a heavily used and recently reconstructed hiking path. We performed extensive mapping of structural features for several cliffs of Yosemite Valley to improve the assessment of the most susceptible rockfall areas. In particular we mapped and characterized the main brittle structures, the exfoliation joints and the failure mechanisms of the past rockfalls. Several failure mechanisms exist in Yosemite including the propagation of brittle structures that may lead to tensile, planar sliding, wedge sliding or toppling failures. Frequently, topographically-parallel exfoliation joints and topographically-oblique discontinuities coexist, resulting in complex failures. We also developed a methodology to examine how the distribution of joints within the cliff faces of Yosemite Valley affects overall stability with respect to the identified failure mechanisms. For these analyses, we used terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) to collect high resolution point clouds of the vertical and overhanging rock faces throughout the Valley. This provided the necessary 3D data to identify the main joint sets, perform spacing and trace length measurements, and calculate volumes of previous and potential rockfalls. We integrated this information with stability calculations to identify the likely failure mechanisms for each area of cliff and to obtain the number of potential failures per square meter of cliff face

  4. Baltic Sea coastal erosion; a case study from the Jastrzębia Góra region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uścinowicz Grzegorz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The coastline in the Jastrzębia Góra area can be divided into three major zones of general importance: a beach and barrier section, a cliff section, and a section protected by a heavy hydrotechnical construction. These areas are characterised by a diverse geology and origin, and hence different vulnerability to erosion. In addition, observations have demonstrated a different pace of erosion within each zone. Based on the results obtained by remote sensing methods (analysis of aerial photographs and maps, it has been determined that the coastline in the barrier area, i.e., to the west of Jastrzębia Góra, moved landwards by about 130 m, in a period of 100 years, and 80 m over about 50 years. A smaller displacement of the shoreline could be observed within the cliff. Between the middle of the twentieth and the start of the twenty-first centuries the shore retreated by about 25 m. However, in recent years, an active landslide has led to the displacement of the uppermost part of the cliff locally up to 25 m. Another issue is, functioning since 2000, a heavy hydrotechnical construction which has been built in order to protect the most active part of the cliff. The construction is not stable and its western part, over a distance of 50 m, has moved almost 2 m vertically downwards and c. 2.5 m horizontally towards the sea in the past two years. This illustrates that the erosional factor does not comprise only marine abrasion, but also involves land-based processes determined by geology and hydrogeology. Changes in the shoreline at the beach and barrier part are constantly conditioned by rising sea levels, the slightly sloping profile of the sea floor and low elevation values of the backshore and dune areas. Cliffs are destroyed by mass wasting and repetitive storm surges that are responsible for the removal of the colluvium which protects the coast from adverse wave effects. Presumably, mass movements combined with groundwater outflow from the cliff

  5. Modeling rocky coastline evolution and equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limber, P. W.; Murray, A. B.

    2010-12-01

    Many of the world’s rocky coastlines exhibit planform roughness in the form of alternating headlands and embayments. Along cliffed coasts, it is often assumed that headlands consist of rock that is more resistant to wave attack than in neighboring bays, because of either structural or lithologic variations. Bays would then retreat landward faster than headlands, creating the undulating planform profiles characteristic of a rocky coastal landscape. While the interplay between alongshore rock strength and nearshore wave energy is, in some circumstances, a fundamental control on coastline shape, beach sediment is also important. Laboratory experiments and field observations have shown that beach sediment, in small volumes, can act as an abrasive tool to encourage sea cliff retreat. In large volumes, though, sediment discourages wave attack on the cliff face, acting as a protective barrier. This nonlinearity suggests a means for headland persistence, even without alongshore variations in rock strength: bare-rock headlands could retreat more slowly than, or at the same rate as, neighboring sediment-filled embayments because of alongshore variations in the availability of beach sediment. Accordingly, nearshore sediment dynamics (i.e. sediment production from sea cliff retreat and alongshore sediment transport) could promote the development of autogenic planform geometry. To explore these ideas, we present numerical and analytical modeling of large-scale (> one kilometer) and long-term (millennial-scale) planform rocky coastline evolution, in which sediment is supplied by both sea cliff erosion and coastal rivers and is distributed by alongshore sediment transport. We also compare model predictions with real landscapes. Previously, our modeling exercises focused on a basic rocky coastline configuration where lithologically-homogeneous sea cliffs supplied all beach sediment and maintained a constant alongshore height. Results showed that 1) an equilibrium alongshore

  6. Unraveling the dynamics that scale cross-shore headland relief on rocky coastlines: 1. Model development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limber, Patrick W.; Brad Murray, A.; Adams, Peter N.; Goldstein, Evan B.

    2014-04-01

    We have developed an exploratory model of plan view, millennial-scale headland and bay evolution on rocky coastlines. Cross-shore coastline relief, or amplitude, arises from alongshore differences in sea cliff lithology, where durable, erosion-resistant rocks protrude seaward as headlands and weaker rocks retreat landward as bays. The model is built around two concurrent negative feedbacks that control headland amplitude: (1) wave energy convergence and divergence at headlands and bays, respectively, that increases in intensity as cross-shore amplitude grows and (2) the combined processes of beach sediment production by sea cliff erosion, distribution of sediment to bays by waves, and beach accumulation that buffers sea cliffs from wave attack and limits further sea cliff retreat. Paired with the coastline relief model is a numerical wave transformation model that explores how wave energy is distributed along an embayed coastline. The two models are linked through genetic programming, a machine learning technique that parses wave model results into a tractable input for the coastline model. Using a pool of 4800 wave model simulations, genetic programming yields a function that relates breaking wave power density to cross-shore headland amplitude, offshore wave height, approach angle, and period. The goal of the coastline model is to make simple, but fundamental, scaling arguments on how different variables (such as sea cliff height and composition) affect the equilibrium cross-shore relief of headland and bays. The model's generality highlights the key feedbacks involved in coastline evolution and allows its equations (and model behaviors) to be easily modified by future users.

  7. Tectonic context of fluid venting at the toe of the eastern Nankai accretionary prism: Evidence for a shallow detachment fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamot-Rooke, N.; Lallemant, S. J.; Le Pichon, X.; Henry, P.; Sibuet, M.; Boulègue, J.; Foucher, J.-P.; Furuta, T.; Gamo, T.; Glaçon, G.; Kobayashi, K.; Kuramoto, S.; Ogawa, Y.; Schultheiss, P.; Segawa, J.; Takeuchi, A.; Tarits, P.; Tokuyama, H.

    1992-04-01

    During the Kaiko-Nankai diving cruise the peak of the venting activity was located near the top of the very first anticline. The most prominent morphological feature between the mid-slope (3870 m) and the apex of the fold (3770 m) is a 20 m high cliff cutting through subhorizontal massive mudstones affected by numerous joints. The trend of this scarp is oblique to the fold axis and structurally controlled along two sharply defined NNE-SSE and E-W directions. Fresh talus and blocks found locally suggest active tectonics and recent erosion. Intense deformation is evident from strongly tilted strata restricted to the base of the cliff that we interpret as an upslope thrust. At the scale of Seabeam mapping, this thrust can be followed eastward for more than 5 km along the 3820 m isobath. Two seismic lines recorded during one of the pre-site surveys show deformation at shallow depth, including small-scale folding and thrusting affecting only the wedge-shaped top sequence. Deeper layers can be traced continuously below this sequence. We conclude that the boundary between the "piggy-back" basin and the frontal fold turbidites acts as a shallow detachment fault, and interpret the base of the cliff as the outcrop of the fault. Dense colonies ofCalyptogena clams and strongly nonlinear thermal gradients locate the major peak of fluid activity at the edge of the plateau above the main cliff. Scattered biological colonies as well as white bacterial mats and cemented chimneys were also found in a narrow belt along the base of the cliff. Fluid activity is thus closely related to the shallow detachment fault, fluid being expelled both at the outcrop of the fault and above it through the overlying strata, possibly using the very dense joint network.

  8. Reflexiones sobre identidades contemporáneas a partir de No Telephone to Heaven Contemporany identities in No Telephone to Heaven

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Stecher

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo desarrolla un análisis de la novela NoTelephone to Heaven (1987 de Michelle Cliff, reconocida escritora jamaiquina residente en Estados Unidos. A partir de la consideración de los debates contemporáneos sobre los procesos y problemáticas identitarias en las sociedades tardomodernas, se propone una lectura del texto que indaga en torno a las formas que asumen en esta narrativa los procesos de configuración identitaria de la protagonista y otros personajes centrales. De esta manera, el artículo releva la importancia de establecer diálogos entre los desarrollos de las ciencias humanas y sociales y la producción crítica y literaria. El análisis del texto de Cliff permite ofrecer lecturas alternativas a las propuestas por la crítica postcolonial y postmoderna para dar cuenta de los procesos contemporáneos de construcción identitaria.This article analyses the novel No Telephone to Heaven (1987 by Michelle Cliff, a well known Jamaican writer who lives in the United States of America. Taking into account contemporary debates concerning identity processes in late modern societies, the article examines the narrative forms used in the depiction of the protagonist"s and other characters" identity configuration. Thus the article stresses the importance of establishing a dialogic relationship between the developments in human and social sciences and the critical and literary production. The analysis of Cliff"s text offers alternative readings to the postcolonial and postmodern views of contemporary identity construction processes.

  9. Uso de la morfología costera como geoindicador de susceptibilidad a la erosión en costas cohesivas, Necochea, Buenos Aires Use of the coastal morphology as a geoindicator of erosional susceptibility in cohesive coasts, Necochea, Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.C. Marcomini

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Se estudian los rasgos morfológicos de la costa sur de la provincia de Buenos Aires entre el Balneario Los Angeles y la localidad de Costa Bonita localizadas en el municipio de Necochea, provincia de Buenos Aires. El objetivo del trabajo consistió en identificar geoindicadores de vulnerabilidad a la erosión, mediante la caracterización morfológica e hidrodinámica del área costera, estimando modelos morfo-evolutivos para los acantilados cohesivos que subyacen la barrera de dunas austral. Estos modelos fueron estimados sobre la base de la morfología costera, del monitoreo del perfil transversal de los acantilados, la actividad y morfología de los sistemas de dunas colgados y del comportamiento de las rampas eólicas. Se observó un aumento de la vulnerabilidad a la erosión siguiendo la siguiente secuencia morfológica: costas con dunas activas, con dunas estabilizadas, acantilados cubiertos por rampas, acantilados con rampas, acantilados con rampas mixtas, acantilados inactivos, acantilados activos. Las acciones humanas; tales como forestación y urbanización del campo de dunas activo e inactivo, las explotaciones mineras y la construcción de escolleras han impactado en forma negativa subsaturando los flujos tanto eólico como en las corrientes litorales, alterando el perfil costero, con tendencia a la desaparición de las rampas eólicas. El modelo, basado en la secuencia en los estadios morfológicos del perfil costero, podrá ser empleado como un geoindicador de vulnerabilidad a la erosión costera en la planificación y manejo del área en estudio.The purpose of the paper is to analyze the geomorphology and hydrodynamic of the coastal area, to model the evolution of the coastal cohesive cliffs and the hanging dune barrier system along southern Buenos Aires coast. The morphology and evolution of coastal transverse profile are used as geoindicator of erosional susceptibility for planning and manage the coastal communities

  10. Dynamic rock fragmentation: thresholds for long runout rock avalanches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.T. Bowman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic fragmentation of rock within rock avalanches is examined using the fragmentation concepts introduced by Grady and co-workers. The analyses use typical material values for weak chalk and limestone in order to determine theoretical strain rate thresholds for dynamic fragmentation and resulting fragment sizes. These are found to compare favourably with data obtained from field observations of long runout rock avalanches and chalk cliff collapses in spite of the simplicity of the approach used. The results provide insight as to the energy requirements to develop long runout behaviour and hence may help to explain the observed similarities between large rock avalanches and much smaller scale chalk cliff collapses as seen in Europe.

  11. Vertical motion of the lithosphere - From the erosion of rocky coastlines to geo-dynamics via dating with Beryllium-10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis for the 'accreditation to conduct researches' diploma consists of four chapters: 1) the geo-dynamics of subduction zones, 2) the geo-morphology of rocky coastlines, 3) Be10 - dating and methodology, and 4) the formation of marine or river terraces. The Be10 dating method is based on the production of Be10 in the soil by the neutrons forming the most part of the cosmic ray cascade when this cascade reaches the earth surface. By measuring the concentration of Be10 in a soil sample and according to some assumptions, we can deduce how long a particular surface has been exposed. This method is used here to determine when a particular deposit was made and as a consequence to determine the long-term time evolution of the withdrawal of a cliff by dating samples taken on the terrace at the base of the cliff. (A.C.)

  12. Matched molecular pair-based data sets for computer-aided medicinal chemistry [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/2w9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Hu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Matched molecular pairs (MMPs are widely used in medicinal chemistry to study changes in compound properties including biological activity, which are associated with well-defined structural modifications. Herein we describe up-to-date versions of three MMP-based data sets that have originated from in-house research projects. These data sets include activity cliffs, structure-activity relationship (SAR transfer series, and second generation MMPs based upon retrosynthetic rules. The data sets have in common that they have been derived from compounds included in the latest release of the ChEMBL database for which high-confidence activity data are available. Thus, the activity data associated with MMP-based activity cliffs, SAR transfer series, and retrosynthetic MMPs cover the entire spectrum of current pharmaceutical targets. Our data sets are made freely available to the scientific community.

  13. 3D Terrestrial LiDAR data classification of complex natural scenes using a multi-scale dimensionality criterion: applications in geomorphology

    CERN Document Server

    Brodu, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    3D point clouds of natural environments relevant to geomorphology problems (rivers, cliffs...) often require to classify the data into elementary relevant classes. A typical example is the separation of riparian vegetation from soil in fluvial environments, the distinction between fresh surfaces and rockfall in cliff environments, or more generally the classification of surfaces according to their morphology (ripples, grain size...). Natural surfaces are very heterogeneous and their distinctive properties are seldom defined at a unique scale. We have thus defined a multi-scale measure of the point cloud dimensionality around each point. The dimensionality characterizes the local 3D organization of the point cloud and varies from being 1D (points set along a line) to really taking all 3D volume, at each scale. We present the technique and illustrate its efficiency in separating riparian vegetation from ground and classifying a mountain stream in vegetation, rock, gravel and water surface. The superiority of th...

  14. Surface flow visualisation over forward facing steps with varying yaw angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many Australian wind farms are located near escarpments and cliffs where flow separation occurs. An absence of literature addressing the effect of wind direction over cliffs have motivated surface shear stress visualisations on forward facing steps at yaw angles between 0° and 50°. These visualisations have been conducted in the Monash University 450 kW wind tunnel. Mean reattachment lengths were measured and shown to vary as a function of the boundary layer thickness to step height ratio and the yaw angle. Vortices shed off the crest of the step induced surface shear stresses on the top surface of the step. The orientation of these shear stresses varied linearly with the yaw angle. Three-dimensional structures of different forms were also observed. At zero yaw angle the flow converged at points along the crest. At high yaw angles distinct sections of misaligned flow were observed downstream of the reattachment line, indicating a spatial periodicity in shedding

  15. Seismic architecture of the Chalk Group from onshore reflection data in eastern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreau, Julien; Anderskouv, Kresten; Boldreel, Lars Ole;

    The Upper Cretaceous-Danian chalk is well exposed in the 14 km long coastal cliff of Stevns Klint (eastern Denmark). The cliff is a world renowned for its spectacular exposure of the Cretaceous-Palaeogene boundary. Based on regional geological knowledge of the field and cores, the characteristics...... completed with the acquisition of an extensive set of subsurface data. The data include high resolution 2D multichannel seismics onshore and offshore, a seismic refraction profile, two entirely cored boreholes including wireline logs, GPR cross-hole tomography, thermographic analysis, etc. We intend...... to compile and merge the geological and geophysical datasets to investigate the variation of the Chalk Group properties and their signature in the subsurface. In this communication, the seismic reflection data are being analysed. Very high resolution litho-, bio- and cyclostratigraphy can be correlated...

  16. Controlled quantum secure direct communication by entanglement distillation or generalized measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Xiaoqian

    2016-05-01

    We propose two controlled quantum secure communication schemes by entanglement distillation or generalized measurement. The sender Alice, the receiver Bob and the controllers David and Cliff take part in the whole schemes. The supervisors David and Cliff can control the information transmitted from Alice to Bob by adjusting the local measurement angles θ _4 and θ _3. Bob can verify his secret information by classical one-way function after communication. The average amount of information is analyzed and compared for these two methods by MATLAB. The generalized measurement is a better scheme. Our schemes are secure against some well-known attacks because classical encryption and decoy states are used to ensure the security of the classical channel and the quantum channel.

  17. Echoes from Si gang lih: Burao Yilu's 'Moon Mountain'

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Bender (Preface)

    2011-01-01

    Wa poet Burao Yilu's utilization of myth, ritual, and folk customs in representing the Wa ethnic group in the poem 'Moon Mountain' is discussed. Negative stereotypes of the Wa, an indigenous people of southwestern Yunnan Province, China, include the now forbidden practice of headhunting. By referencing the origin myth 'Si gang lih' and evoking images of ancient cliff paintings, rituals, and agricultural practices, Burao offers a nuanced view of Wa culture while affirming deep-rooted aspects o...

  18. Pengaruh Kemampuan Pegawai, dan Kepuasan Masyarakat terhadap Kualitas Pelayanan Kesehatan Puskesmas Pasar Gambir Tebing Tinggi Kota

    OpenAIRE

    Hasibuan, Rizki Syahwani

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to determine whether there is a significant effect on the ability of employees , and people's satisfaction with the quality of health care and to know how much influence these partially or simultaneously . The research was conducted in Puskesmas Pasar Gambir High Cliff State . The method used in this research is descriptive method using survey. The collection of data and information held by the field study through questionnaires as research tools were distributed to patient...

  19. Turnpike Horizons for Production Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Gerald L. Thompson; Sethi, Suresh P.

    1980-01-01

    A quadratic model for production-inventory planning was made famous by Holt, Modigliani, Muth, and Simon in 1960 in (Holt, C. C., F. Modigliani, J. F. Muth, H. A. Simon. 1960. Planning Production, Inventories, and Work Force. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey.), especially for its application to a paint factory. A discrete control version of a related quadratic production-inventory model was studied by Kleindorfer, Kriebel, Thompson, and Kleindorfer in (Kleindorfer, P. R., C. H. Kri...

  20. Boulder aprons indicate long-term gradual and non-catastrophic evolution of cliffed escarpments, Stołowe Mts, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duszyński, Filip; Migoń, Piotr

    2015-12-01

    Caprock-crowned escarpments are characteristic geomorphic features of the sandstone tableland of the Stołowe Mountains (SW Poland). Their mid- and lower slopes truncate weaker sedimentary formations but are littered with sandstone boulders of various size, often more than 5 m long, which form nearly continuous aprons. A model of escarpment retreat by rock fall has been widely accepted in literature but in the Stołowe Mountains it has never been tested against field evidence; in addition no rock fall events except one minor fall in 1921 have been recorded in historical times. In this paper we erected five hypotheses of how escarpments may have evolved through time to result in widespread boulder presence on the slopes. Mapping boulder extent and slope morphology, run-out distance simulations using Conefall software, and rock strength determinations using the Schmidt hammer carried out on boulders along eight representative slope profiles provide data about characteristics of the boulder covers. Systematic decrease in intact rock strength with an increasing distance from the sandstone cliffs suggests that the boulder aprons are diachronic and record long-term retreat of escarpments. There exists no conclusive evidence of widespread boulder downslope movement, although in a few localities shallow landslides have rafted boulders far away from the cliff lines. Modelling exercise shows that the actual extent of boulders is 2-3 times bigger than suggested by Conefall predictions. These findings, coupled with observations along the cliff lines themselves, lead us to propose a model of free face in situ disintegration as the most likely hypothesis to explain block detachment and release from rock faces. As cliff lines recede and the slope surface below is lowered, remnant boulders occupy a position increasingly further away from escarpment rims, but experience little actual movement. This model complements the existing models of tableland evolution which tend to emphasize

  1. JIT supply chain; an investigation through general system theory

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, O P; Vikas kumar; Dixit Garg

    2013-01-01

    This paper explains theoretical approach of the four theories of General system Theory (GST) developed by Yourdon (1989) [Yourdon, E. (1989). Modern Structured Analysis. Yourdon Press, Prentice-Hall International, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey. Senge] while applying it in information technology and subsequently used by caddy (2007) [Caddy I.N., & Helou, M.M. (2007). Supply chains and their management: Application of general systems theory. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 14, 319–32...

  2. A Stochastic Model of Consumer Behavior and Optimal Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    CHARLES S. TAPIERO

    1982-01-01

    A stochastic consumer behavior model is constructed transforming Nicosia's (Nicosia, F. M., 1966. Consumer Decision Processes. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey.) postulates into probability hypotheses. Nicosia's deterministic model is obtained in the mean evolutions and variance-covariances, defined by a system of linear differential equations obtained. This system, forming together with mean evolutions a closed system of five simultaneous differential equations is studied for stab...

  3. Rock fall photogrammetric monitoring in the active crater of Piton de la Fournaise volcano, la Reunion Island

    OpenAIRE

    Hibert, Clément; Dewez, Thomas; Mangeney, Anne; Grandjean, Gilles; Boissier, Fabrice; Catherine, Philippe; Kowalski, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    The collapse of the active crater at Piton de la Fournaise volcano, La Reunion Island, 5th April 2007, offers a rare opportunity to observe frequent rock fall and granular landslides, and test new monitoring techniques. Events concern volumes ranging from single blocks to more massive cliff collapse. The purpose of the presentation is two fold: first, we present a comparison between a Digital Terrain Model (DTM) obtained prior to crater collapse and a DTM extracted from aerial photographs sho...

  4. Influence of tectonic folding on rockfall susceptibility, American Fork Canyon, Utah, USA

    OpenAIRE

    J. A. Coe; Harp, E. L.

    2007-01-01

    International audience We examine rockfall susceptibility of folded strata in the Sevier fold-thrust belt exposed in American Fork Canyon in north-central Utah. Large-scale geologic mapping, talus production data, rock-mass-quality measurements, and historical rockfall data indicate that rockfall susceptibility is correlated with limb dip and curvature of the folded, cliff-forming Mississippian limestones. On fold limbs, rockfall susceptibility increases as dip increases. This relation is ...

  5. GIS-based decision support methodology for the assessment of the impacts of mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel Palamara; Ernest Baafi; Phil Flentje [University of Wollongong, NSW (Australia)

    2007-05-15

    The objectives of this project were to develop and demonstrate practical decision support methodology for the assessment of the impacts of mining subsidence on natural features. The decision support tools were developed within the flexibility of the Geographic Information System (GIS) environment and uses relevant case studies to demonstrate the usefulness of GIS tools. The use of GIS was prompted by the fact that the process of understanding and managing coalmine subsidence impacts is, to a large part, a spatial one and that many of the factors that are critical to the assessment of subsidence impacts have a strong spatial component. Features identified using spatial data and GIS (or traditional field-based methods) can be evaluated for potential impact susceptibility based on either knowledge-based or data-driven methodologies. Case studies are presented based on both methods, focussing on the cliffs of the Nepean River near the proposed BHPB Illawarra Coal Douglas mine. The knowledge-based case study employs a number of spatial data layers and the factors identified in the 'Management Information Handbook - The Undermining of Cliffs, Gorges, and River Systems' to produce an assessment of expected cliff impacts. The results of this case study demonstrate the advantages of a digital, spatial approach to impact assessment. The main recommendations to come from this report is that the coalmining Industry as a whole should encourage and facilitate the development of subsidence impact databases, consisting of mapped and annotated impacts associated with past and current mining activities. The value of collecting accurate spatial records of subsidence impacts, such as surface and underground fracturing, upsidence, cliff falls and so on is demonstrated in numerous case studies throughout this report.

  6. High Meiofaunal and Nematodes Diversity around Mesophotic Coral Oases in the Mediterranean Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Bianchelli, Silvia; Pusceddu, Antonio; Canese, Simone; Greco, Silvio; Danovaro, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Although the mesophotic zone of the Mediterranean Sea has been poorly investigated, there is an increasing awareness about its ecological importance for its biodiversity, as fish nursery and for the recruitment of shallow water species. Along with coastal rocky cliffs, isolated coralligenous concretions emerging from muddy bottoms are typical structures of the Mediterranean Sea mesophotic zone. Coralligenous concretions at mesophotic depths in the South Tyrrhenian Sea were investigated to ass...

  7. Landslide hazard, monitoring and conservation strategy for the safeguard of Vardzia Byzantine monastery complex, Georgia

    OpenAIRE

    Margottini, Claudio; Corominas Dulcet, Jordi; Crosta, Giovanni Battista; Frattini, Paolo; Gigli, Giovanni; Giordan, Daniele; Iwasaky, Ioshinori; Lollino, Giorgio; Scavia, Claudio; Marinos, Paul; A. Manconi; Sonessa, A.; Spizzichino, Danielle; Vacheishvili, N.; Antidze, N.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports preliminary results of a feasibility project developed in cooperation with National Agency for Cultural Heritage Preservation of Georgia, and aimed at envisaging the stability conditions of the Vardzia monastery slope (rupestrian city cave in the south-western Georgia). The aim is the implementation of a low-impact monitoring system together with long-term mitigation/conservation policies. A field analysis was conducted to reconstruct geometry of the rocky cliff, characteri...

  8. On the marine fauna of the Anglesey coast adjacent to Wylfa power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The findings of recent surveys of the marine fauna in the vicinity of Wylfa Power Station are collated and discussed in the context of previous studies on the biota of this coast. The surveys included a study of the mussel populations of the north Anglesey coast, general surveys of rocky shore and beach habitats and of Cemlyn Beach and Lagoon and a detailed quantification of cliff-dwelling species from which those influenced by the cooling water have been identified. (author)

  9. Provenance study of Pliocene–Pleistocene sands based on ancient detrital zircons (Alvalade basin, SW Iberian Atlantic Coast)

    OpenAIRE

    Albardeiro, Luis; Pereira, M. Francisco; Gama, Cristina; Chichorro, Martim; Hofmann, Mandy; Linnemann, Ulf

    2014-01-01

    Pliocene–Pleistocene sand of the Alvalade basinwas taken fromthe sea-cliffs of SWIberia coast for a provenance study using radiometric dating. The U–Pb ages obtained revealed a wide interval ranging from Cretaceous to Archean, with predominance of Paleozoic, Neoproterozoic and Cretaceous zircon ages. Cretaceous ages interpreted to indicate a Sines Massif provenance are dominant in sands close to Cape Sines but are absent in sand sampled 12 km north. Carboniferous ages younger than...

  10. Micro paleontology of Camacho, Raigon and Libertad formations in San Jose department in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camacho, Raigon and Libertad formations of Miocene to Pleistocene age, are rich in microfossils as showed by recent studies of samples coming from cliffs at San Jose department, at Rio de la Plata shore and from Borehole N 1394/4 (DINAMIGE) which was made near to Kiyu resort. The microfossils are integrated by foraminiferids, diatoms, ostracods, silicophitoliths and uniaxial sponge spicles. By means of paleontologic analysis we can reach to a much clear definition of the geological evolution of the area

  11. Geomorphological hazard and tourist vulnerability along Portofino Park trails (Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Brandolini, P.; F. Faccini; Piccazzo, M.

    2006-01-01

    International audience The many trails existing in the coastal area of Portofino Promontory are used by tourists for trekking or as pathways to small villages and beaches. The aim of this paper is to define geomorphological hazard and tourist vulnerability in this area, within the framework of the management and planning of hiking activities in Portofino Natural Park. In particular, processes triggered by gravity, running waters and wave motion, affecting the slopes and the cliff, are con...

  12. Central Asian drug trafficking dilemma

    OpenAIRE

    McGowen, Richard S.

    2003-01-01

    Tajikistan, a state that is completely landlocked, consists of very rough terrain that is comprised of mountains, cliffs and glaciers. There are very few transportation links through the area that gives Tajikistan limited access to neighboring countries. Security problems resulting from the increasing flow of narcotics illegally smuggled across the 1200 km Tajikistan- Afghanistan border have become critical in understanding the nature of political instability within Central Asia. This thesis ...

  13. Factors Influencing Nest Site Selection, Breeding Density and Breeding Success in the Bearded Vulture (Gypaetus barbatus)

    OpenAIRE

    Donázar, José A.; Hiraldo, F.; Bustamante, Javier

    1993-01-01

    1. We examined the nest site selection, breeding density and breeding success in the bearded vulture Gypaetus barbatus in relation to physiography, climate, land-use and degree of human disturbance. The study area was in the Pyrenean Cordillera, Spain, where the largest European population of this species occurs. Univariate analyses and Generalized Linear Models were employed. 2. Models correctly classified the 78% of the cliffs analysed (occupied by be...

  14. Population dynamics and spatial distribution of Griffon Vultures (Gyps fulvus) Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Beest, van, I.; Bremer, van den, L.; Boer; Heitkonig, I.M.A.; Monteiro, A.E.

    2008-01-01

    The global decrease of vulture populations has been attributed to several factors, such as food availability, poisoning, human disturbance, or habitat suitability. We studied the effect of factors that vary both spatially and temporally on the nest site distribution of the Griffon Vulture Gyps fulvus in northeast Portugal, and influence the population dynamics of these cliff-dwelling birds. Several demographic parameters were studied in the field, and the age structure of the population was d...

  15. Reptiles escamosos (Squamata) del Pleistoceno Medio del Norte de la ciudad de Mar del Plata (provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina)

    OpenAIRE

    Santiago Brizuela; Marcos M. Cenizo; Daniel A. Tassara

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we describe two fossil remains of squamate reptiles found in Middle Pleistocene outcrops at the northern marine cliffs of the city of Mar del Plata (Buenos Aires province). The specimens were found forming a taphocenosis with remains of other microvertebrates (amphibians, mammals and birds). The reptiles recognized in the association are represented by remains of an undetermined colubrid, and the anguid Ophiodes sp. This latter finding represents the first fossil record for th...

  16. Study of coastline recession down drift of Chewton Bunny, Christchurch Bay

    OpenAIRE

    Farquharson, Neil Douglas

    2007-01-01

    Throughout the study of coastline downdrift of Chewton Bunny two principle objectives are covered. (i) The observation of how the Naish Farm site has developed historically, the rate of coast line recession and the change of geomorphology in the cliff degradation sequence. (ii) The usability and accuracy of a Geographical Information System (GIS) to analyse the rate of coastal recession and identify geomorphological features. To understand the development of the site the process o...

  17. During-treatment Outcomes among Female Methamphetamine-Using Offenders in Prison-based Treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Rowan-Szal, Grace A.; Joe, George W.; SIMPSON, D. DWAYNE; Greener, Jack M.; Vance, Jerry

    2009-01-01

    An increasingly important treatment group is the expanding population of methamphetamine-using female offenders. This study focused on women methamphetamine-using offenders (n = 359) who were treated either in a modified TC program (CLIFF-TC: n = 234) designed for non-violent offenders with significant impairment from methamphetamine use or the standard “outpatient” treatment (OTP: n = 125). All participants were assessed on motivation, psychological and social functioning, and treatment enga...

  18. A new species of Bothriembryon (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Bothriembryontidae) from south-eastern Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whisson, Corey S.; Breure, Abraham S.H.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Bothriembryon sophiarum sp. n. is described, based on shell and anatomical morphology, from the coastal area of south-easternmost Western Australia. This is the first description of a new extant Australian bothriembryontid in 33 years. The shell of Bothriembryon sophiarum is slender with a unique teleoconch sculpture. It is found in low coastal scrub on cliff edges and escarpments and because of its restricted distribution, qualifies as a short range endemic. PMID:27199583

  19. Primary school teacher's sports activity in connection with the quality of physical education

    OpenAIRE

    Vodovnik, Jasmina

    2014-01-01

    In today's environment and society, modern technology is present everywhere. This so-called modern era offers so many healthy as well as unhealthy alternatives for physical exercise that the amount of it is dangerously diminishing. It is something we must stand up to. Every individual must realize that physical exercise is necessary. Each physical activity leads us over the cliffs that are called diseases of contemporary times. Illnesses like diabetes type 2, osteoporosis, arteriosclerosis, h...

  20. Biosimilars: Company Strategies to Capture Value from the Biologics Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Leonardo Martínez-Hurtado

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Patents for several biologic blockbusters will expire in the next few years. The arrival of biosimilars, the biologic equivalent of chemical generics, will have an impact on the current biopharmaceuticals market. Five core capabilities have been identified as paramount for those companies aiming to enter the biosimilars market: research and development, manufacturing, supporting activities, marketing, and lobbying. Understanding the importance of each of these capabilities will be key to maximising the value generated from the biologics patent cliff.

  1. Inversión tectónica y efecto contrafuerte de fallas extensionales cretácicas en el Urgoniano de la ensenada de Tejilla (Región Vasco-cantábrica: Castro Urdíales, Cantabria)

    OpenAIRE

    Quintanilla, Luisa

    2002-01-01

    In the Basque-Cantabrian Region extensional and compresional structures exist related to the opening and closure of the Biscay Bay. In the Tejilla cove a marly-calcareous succession of Lower Creatceous age crop out. This succession is deformed by typical inversion tectonic structures, and shows extensional and compresive structures from the analysis of a cross-section in the cliff of the cove. The results of this analysis has shown the existence of four extensional faults that display a diffe...

  2. Tufted puffins (Fratercula cirrhata) respond to predation danger during colony approach flights

    OpenAIRE

    Addison, B.; Ydenberg, R.C.; Smith, B. D.

    2007-01-01

    In spite of their putative importance in the evolution of certain traits (e.g., nocturnality, coloniality, cliff nesting), the effects of aerial predators on behavior of adult seabirds at colonies have been poorly investigated. We hypothesized that Tufted Puffins (Fratercula cirrhata) respond to danger posed by aerial predators by modifying their behavior to mitigate danger. We observed Tufted Puffins making repeated colony fly-ins and departures and characterized (1) the timing of this behav...

  3. Landslide survey : High Lossit, near Machrihanish Bay, Mull of Kintyre

    OpenAIRE

    Ellen, R.; Whitbread, K.

    2014-01-01

    A walkover survey was carried out from the 20th to the 21st of February 2014 to inspect a landslide at High Lossit, Mull of Kintyre, Scotland [NR 62655, 19980]. The subsidence and ground deformation associated with the landslide affected an area of approximately 12 000 sq m of rough grazing land, bordering coastal cliffs, and causing minor damage to stone walls and fencing. The reported landslide occurred within the boundary of a larger, pre-existing landslide that probably occurred follow...

  4. Line segments in homogeneous scalar turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauding, Michael; Goebbert, Jens Henrik; Hasse, Christian; Peters, Norbert

    2015-09-01

    The local structure of a turbulent scalar field in homogeneous isotropic turbulence is analyzed by direct numerical simulations (DNS) with different Taylor micro-scale based Reynolds numbers between 119 and 529. A novel signal decomposition approach is introduced where the signal of the scalar along a straight line is partitioned into segments based on the local extremal points of the scalar field. These segments are then parameterized by the distance ℓ between adjacent extremal points and the scalar difference Δϕ at the extrema. Both variables are statistical quantities and a joint distribution function of these quantities contains most information to statistically describe the scalar field. It is highlighted that the marginal distribution function of the length becomes independent of Reynolds number when normalized by the mean length ℓm. From a statistical approach, it is further shown that the mean length scales with the Kolmogorov length, which is also confirmed by DNS. For turbulent mixing, the scalar gradient plays a paramount role. Turbulent scalar fields are characterized by cliff-ramp-like structures manifesting the occurrence of localized large scalar gradients. To study turbulent mixing, a segment-based gradient is defined as Δϕ/ℓ. Joint statistics of the length and the segment-based gradient provide novel understanding of cliff-ramp-like structures. Ramp-like structures are unveiled by the asymmetry of the joint distribution function of the segment-based gradient and the length. Cliff-like structures are further analyzed by conditional statistics and it is shown from DNS that the width of cliffs scales with the Kolmogorov length scale.

  5. Stone Lakes Virus (Family Togaviridae, Genus Alphavirus), a Variant of Fort Morgan Virus Isolated From Swallow Bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) West of the Continental Divide

    OpenAIRE

    Brault, Aaron C; Armijos, M. Veronica; Wheeler, Sarah; Wright, Stan; Fang, Ying; Langevin, Stanley; Reisen, William K.

    2009-01-01

    Multiple isolates of an alphaviruses within the western equine encephalomyelitis-serocomplex that were related closely to Ft. Morgan and its variant Buggy Creek virus were made from swallow bugs, Oeciacus vicarius Horvath (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), collected from cliff swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) nests at the Stone Lakes National Wildlife Refuge, Sacramento County, CA, during the summers of 2005 and 2006. This virus (hereafter Stone Lakes virus, family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus, STLV)...

  6. Matlab Optimization Software

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Sims

    1999-01-01

    Matlab programs that solve nonlinear equations and minimize using quasi-Newton with BFGS update. The programs are somewhat more robust, apparently, than the stock Matlab programs that do about the same thing. The minimizer can negotiate discontinuous "cliffs" without getting stuck. This directory contains a set of matlab m files that do unconstrained optimization and nonlinear equations-solving. It also contains some auxiliary m files. csminwel: minimization. Uses a quasi-Newton method with B...

  7. Monitoring coastal change using terrestrial LiDAR

    OpenAIRE

    Hobbs, P; Gibson, A.; L. Jones; Poulton, C; Jenkins, G.; Pearson, S.; K. Freeborough

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes recent applications by the British Geological Survey (BGS) of the technique of mobile terrestrial Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) surveying to monitor various geomorphological changes on English coasts and estuaries. These include cliff recession, landslides and flood defences, and are usually sited at remote locations undergoing dynamic processes with no fixed reference points. Advantages, disadvantages and some practical problems are discussed. The role of GPS in las...

  8. Exploring Innovative & Open Educational Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Shaffer, Clifford; Jantzen, Benjamin C.; Mahin, Bruce; Walz, Anita R.

    2014-01-01

    Panelists include: Dr. Clifford Shaffer, Professor of Computer Science, Virginia Tech Dr. Benjamin Jantzen, Asst. Professor Philosophy, Virginia Tech Dr. Bruce Mahin, Professor of Composition and Music Theory, Radford University The Multimedia tour will showcase innovative and open educational resources from Virginia Tech, Radford, and beyond. Panel themes will be further explored in the after-panel hands-on workshop. URLs for two of the live demos: http://algoviz.org (Cliff Shaffer) https://...

  9. Automated visual surveillance of a population of nesting seabirds

    OpenAIRE

    Qing, Chunmei; Dickinson, Patrick; Lawson, Shaun; Freeman, Robin

    2011-01-01

    Seabird populations are a valuable and accessible indicator of marine health: population changes have been linked with fish stock levels, climate change, and pollution. Understanding the development of particular colonies requires detailed data, but manual collection methods are labour intensive and error prone. Our work is concerned with development of computer vision algorithms to support autonomous visual monitoring of cliff-nesting nesting seabirds, and collection of behavioural data on a...

  10. Note---On the Minimum of a Nonconvex Inventory Function

    OpenAIRE

    Chandrasekhar Das

    1988-01-01

    The paper deals with a nonconvex, bivariate minimization problem arising in a heuristic inventory model of Hadley and Whitin (Hadley, G., T. M. Whitin. 1963. Analysis of Inventory Systems. Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ.). An approach is suggested whereby the existence and uniqueness of the solution can be determined even though the model does not fulfill the standard second-order conditions. It is observed that the global minimum for this model can be identified by means of the fi...

  11. A new species of Bothriembryon (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Bothriembryontidae) from south-eastern Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whisson, Corey S; Breure, Abraham S H

    2016-01-01

    Bothriembryon sophiarum sp. n. is described, based on shell and anatomical morphology, from the coastal area of south-easternmost Western Australia. This is the first description of a new extant Australian bothriembryontid in 33 years. The shell of Bothriembryon sophiarum is slender with a unique teleoconch sculpture. It is found in low coastal scrub on cliff edges and escarpments and because of its restricted distribution, qualifies as a short range endemic. PMID:27199583

  12. Attenuation of cosmogenic 10Be production in the first 20 cm below a rock surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosmogenic 10Be has been measured in short drill cores taken from a glacially polished cliff surface. The high-resolution concentration depth profile is compared to theoretical profiles of various attenuation lengths and different shapes near the surface. Preliminary modeling results shows that long apparent attenuation lengths and perhaps a non-decreasing or 'flat' section right below the surface are best suited to bring experiment and theory into agreement

  13. Organizational-economic mechanism of transfer of innovation Urals (for example, "Rural tourism"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Latysheva

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to questions of organizational and economic mechanisms of transfer of innovation and improvement of the Urals this process means "rural tourism." This paper draws attention to the training of rural specialists. The authors explain the principles and means of the transfer of innovation on the example of the "Marin cliff." Just show that government, business and science, interacting, can improve the competitiveness of agriculture and successfully carried out import of agricultural products.

  14. Sound / Märt Milter

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Milter, Märt

    1998-01-01

    Uute plaatide Rolling Stones "No Security", Spiritualized "Live At The Royal Albert Hall", Kelly family "From Their Hearts", Arnold "Hillside Album", Joe Cocker "Greatest Hits", OST "Acid House", Songs from Andrew Lloyd Webber and Jim Steinmans "Whistle Down The Wind", The Weather Girls "PuttinÒn The Hits", Cliff Richard "Real As I Wanna Be", Folkmill "Topelt rosin", SIG "Sig 20v. Juhla-EP", "Motown Celebrates Sinatra", John Lee Hooker "Best Of Friends"

  15. Marta maailm / Marta Vaarik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaarik, Marta, 1987-

    2007-01-01

    Riigikogu liige Evelin Sepp käis sir Elton Johni kontserdil 15. sept. Saku Suurhallis. Poplaulja Mike Emelai on kaalus alla võtnud. Riigikogu liige Enn Eesmaa esineb Cliff Richardi looga "Don't Forget To Catch Me" 4. okt. Eesti Vähiliidu korraldataval heategevuskontserdil. "Tantsud tähtedega" saates paarina võistlevad laulja Koit Toome ja tantsija Kerttu Tänav käisid Elton Johni kontserdil

  16. COASTLINE EXTRACTION IN VHR IMAGERY USING MATHEMATICAL MORPHOLOGY WITH SPATIAL AND SPECTRAL KNOWLEDGE

    OpenAIRE

    Puissant, Anne; Lefèvre, Sébastien; Weber, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we are dealing with the problem of coastline extraction in Very High Resolution (VHR) multispectral images (Quickbird) on the Normandy Coast (France). Locating precisely the coastline is a crucial task in the context of coastal resource management and planning. In VHR imagery, some details on coastal zone become visible and the coastline definition depends on the geomorphologic context. According to the type of coastal units (sandy beach, wetlands, dune, cliff), several defin...

  17. Analisis Faktor – Faktor Yang Mempengaruhi Kinerja Sistem Informasi Akuntansi ( Studi Kasus Pada Ptpn Iii Rambutan Tebing Tinggi Sumatera Utara )

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana

    2016-01-01

    ANALYSIS OF FACTORS AFFECTING THE PERFORMANCE OF ACCOUNTING INFORMATION SYSTEM (CASE STUDY ON HIGH CLIFFS PTPN III RAMBUTAN NORTH SUMATRA) This study aimed to examine the effect of variable user involvement in decision-SIA, the capabilities of the personnel system, top management support, formalization of information systems development, education and training programs, the location of departments, affect the performance of accounting information systems. This study is based on the c...

  18. Generation of Longitudinally Polarised Terahertz Radiation for the Energy Manipulation of Relativistic Electron Beams

    OpenAIRE

    Cliffe, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    The University of Manchester Matthew J. Cliffe Doctor of Philosophy Generation of Longitudinally Polarised Terahertz Radiation for the Energy Manipulation of Relativistic Electron BeamsSeptember 2015The acceleration of charged particles with ultrafast terahertz electromagnetic radiation could enable new, and improve many of aspects of, accelerator applications. These include providing shorter electron bunches for ultrafast time-resolved pump-probe spectroscopy, enabling complex longitudinal p...

  19. MANAGEMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL RISKS IN COASTAL AREAS

    OpenAIRE

    M. Caprioli; R. Trizzino; R. Pagliarulo; Scarano, M; F. Mazzone; A. Scognamiglio

    2015-01-01

    The present work deals with the assessment and management of environmental risk conditions in a typical costal area of Southern Italy. This area, located in the Salento peninsula, is subject to recurrent widespread instability phenomena due to the presence of steep rocky cliffs. Along the coast there are numerous beach resorts that are very crowded in the summer season. The environmental hazard deriving from the possible rock falls is unacceptably high for the people safety. Moreover, the lan...

  20. I trade, therefore I am:legal personhood in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    O'Brien, Charlotte Rachel

    2013-01-01

    The piecemeal, case by case construction of EU citizenship has created a patchwork of personhoods rather than a unitary status - a patchwork with significant gaps through which people deemed economically inactive are allowed to fall. This paper argues that it is necessary to assess the integrity and effects of a market-centric, economic citizenship. The free movement legal landscape is riven with welfare rights "cliff edges," as changes in circumstance tip claimants from full equal welfare en...

  1. Estimating population size of a nocturnal burrow-nesting seabird using acoustic monitoring and habitat mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Oppel

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Population size assessments for nocturnal burrow-nesting seabirds are logistically challenging because these species are active in colonies only during darkness and often nest on remote islands where manual inspections of breeding burrows are not feasible. Many seabird species are highly vocal, and recent technological innovations now make it possible to record and quantify vocal activity in seabird colonies. Here we test the hypothesis that remotely recorded vocal activity in Cory’s shearwater (Calonectris borealis breeding colonies in the North Atlantic increases with nest density, and combined this relationship with cliff habitat mapping to estimate the population size of Cory’s shearwaters on the island of Corvo (Azores. We deployed acoustic recording devices in 9 Cory’s shearwater colonies of known size to establish a relationship between vocal activity and local nest density (slope = 1.07, R2 = 0.86, p < 0.001. We used this relationship to predict the nest density in various cliff habitat types and produced a habitat map of breeding cliffs to extrapolate nest density around the island of Corvo. The mean predicted nest density on Corvo ranged from 6.6 (2.1–16.2 to 27.8 (19.5–36.4 nests/ha. Extrapolation of habitat-specific nest densities across the cliff area of Corvo resulted in an estimate of 6326 Cory’s shearwater nests (95% confidence interval: 3735–10,524. This population size estimate is similar to previous assessments, but is too imprecise to detect moderate changes in population size over time. While estimating absolute population size from acoustic recordings may not be sufficiently precise, the strong positive relationship that we found between local nest density and recorded calling rate indicates that passive acoustic monitoring may be useful to document relative changes in seabird populations over time.

  2. Comparative xenology of two angrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the results of Xe analyses in stepwise heating of the angrite meteorite Lewis Cliff 86010 and of a comparative study of Xe component structures in this meteorite and in the first known angrite, Angra dos Reis. Both meteorites are poor in trapped Xe and rich in fission Xe from 244Pu and in spallation Xe produced by cosmic ray irradiation of Ba and the light rare earth elements (REE). Neither meteorite shows evidence for the presence of excess 129Xe derived from 129I, presumably because the volatile element iodine is depleted along with other volatiles in the angrites. Both meteorites show pronounced variations in the composition of spallation Xe attributable to separation of the Ba and REE components. In both meteorites 244Pu-derived fission Xe is correlated with REE spallation, consistent with Pu-REE coherence in igneous partitioning. The Ba spallation Xe composition in Lewis Cliff 86010 differs somewhat from that in Angra dos Reis, primarily in a lower relative yield of the neutron sensitive isotope 131Xe. This suggests a lower neutron flux during cosmic ray exposure for the Lewis Cliff Meteorite, an effect opposite to that suggested by neutron capture effects in Sm. Resolution of these observations appears to require a complex exposure history for at least Angra dos Reis. The 244Pu/REE ratio in Lewis Cliff 86010 is only about half that in Angra dos Reis. This difference probably does not reflect a difference in the time of Xe retention. Unless this difference arose in igneous processes despite the apparent chemical coherence of Pu and Ree in mineral partitioning, it must have characterized the parent magmas and/or precursor materials from which these two meteorites were derived. (orig.)

  3. Comparative xenology of two angrites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohenberg, C.M.; Bernatowicz, T.J.; Podosek, F.A. (McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences, Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (USA))

    1991-02-01

    We report the results of Xe analyses in stepwise heating of the angrite meteorite Lewis Cliff 86010 and of a comparative study of Xe component structures in this meteorite and in the first known angrite, Angra dos Reis. Both meteorites are poor in trapped Xe and rich in fission Xe from {sup 244}Pu and in spallation Xe produced by cosmic ray irradiation of Ba and the light rare earth elements (REE). Neither meteorite shows evidence for the presence of excess {sup 129}Xe derived from {sup 129}I, presumably because the volatile element iodine is depleted along with other volatiles in the angrites. Both meteorites show pronounced variations in the composition of spallation Xe attributable to separation of the Ba and REE components. In both meteorites {sup 244}Pu-derived fission Xe is correlated with REE spallation, consistent with Pu-REE coherence in igneous partitioning. The Ba spallation Xe composition in Lewis Cliff 86010 differs somewhat from that in Angra dos Reis, primarily in a lower relative yield of the neutron sensitive isotope {sup 131}Xe. This suggests a lower neutron flux during cosmic ray exposure for the Lewis Cliff Meteorite, an effect opposite to that suggested by neutron capture effects in Sm. Resolution of these observations appears to require a complex exposure history for at least Angra dos Reis. The {sup 244}Pu/REE ratio in Lewis Cliff 86010 is only about half that in Angra dos Reis. This difference probably does not reflect a difference in the time of Xe retention. Unless this difference arose in igneous processes despite the apparent chemical coherence of Pu and Ree in mineral partitioning, it must have characterized the parent magmas and/or precursor materials from which these two meteorites were derived. (orig.).

  4. Las sucesiones sedimentarias continentales expuestas en Centinela del Mar, provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina (Pleistoceno Inferior-Holoceno)

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos M. Cenizo

    2011-01-01

    In the present paper, the geomorphological and sedimentary characteristics of the continental sequences exposed on the coastal cliffs and surrounding areas of the Centinela del Mar locality are described and interpreted. Fourteen lithofacies are defined, their relation, geometry and structure are represented using transversal and longitudinal detailed profiles. In the basal and medium sector of the profile, facies of different degrees of transport and aqueous rework were recognized. In the su...

  5. Měkkýši navrhované PR Údolí Vrchlice u Kutné Hory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Juřičková

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper brings the first malacological research of the proposal nature reserve Vrchlice Valley (Central Bohemia, Czech Republic after hundred years. Altogether, 44 mollusc species have been recorded in a very diverse mosaic of floodplain forests, cliffs and meadows. Rare or locally important species Vertigo pusilla, Semilimax semilimax, Daudebardia rufa, Isognomostoma isognomostomos, Oxyloma elegans, Vitrea crystallina and Laciniaria plicata were recorded in the area of the reserve.

  6. The Use Of A Natural Cave For Breeding By Giant Otters In The Brazilian Pantanal: Observations And New Insights On Giant Otter Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Camilo-Alves C.; Desbiez A.

    2005-01-01

    It has long been known that giant otters excavate dens for breeding and resting. One family of giant otters which we have observed on the Brazilian Pantanal, also use a long cave in a rocky cliff, particularly when raising cubs. The cave is not above the highest flood level, but does not usually flood, unlike excavated dens, which are very susceptible to flooding. Nearby caves were used by Neotropical Otters (Lontra longicaudis) and Capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris).

  7. Performance Evaluation and Parameter Optimization of SoftCast Wireless Video Broadcast

    OpenAIRE

    Dongxue Yang; Yunqiang Bi; Zhongwei Si; Zhiqiang He; Kai Niu

    2015-01-01

    Wireless video broadcast plays an imp ortant role in multimedia communication with the emergence of mobile video applications. However, conventional video broadcast designs suffer from a cliff effect due to separated source and channel encoding. The newly prop osed SoftCast scheme employs a cross-layer design, whose reconstructed video quality is prop ortional to the channel condition. In this pap er, we provide the p erformance evaluation and the parameter optimization of the SoftCast system...

  8. The Use Of A Natural Cave For Breeding By Giant Otters In The Brazilian Pantanal: Observations And New Insights On Giant Otter Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo-Alves C.

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available It has long been known that giant otters excavate dens for breeding and resting. One family of giant otters which we have observed on the Brazilian Pantanal, also use a long cave in a rocky cliff, particularly when raising cubs. The cave is not above the highest flood level, but does not usually flood, unlike excavated dens, which are very susceptible to flooding. Nearby caves were used by Neotropical Otters (Lontra longicaudis and Capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris.

  9. Spatial and temporal variability of the evaporation duct in the Gulf of Aden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available An evaporation duct climatology is constructed for the Gulf of Aden using a 31-year high-resolution data set from the climate reanalysis product National Centers for Environmental Prediction Climate Forecast System Reanalysis. The climatology reveals spatio-temporal heterogeneity in the evaporation duct height (EDH regulated by the strong interplay between the seasonal monsoon reversals and the related atmospheric and oceanic responses. It also reveals that the Gulf of Aden exhibits a special EDH distribution that is distinct from the adjacent Arabian Sea when the south-west monsoon dominates the gulf. Under these conditions, the EDH of the entire gulf is significantly higher than that of the adjoining Arabian Sea. A cliff-style EDH drop (referred to as the EDH cliff forms at the mouth of the Gulf of Aden. Furthermore, the influence of the EDH cliff on marine radar was investigated using a ray-optics method. Based on the analysis, it was found that the local EDH significantly affects the radar detection ability beneath the evaporation duct for ships sailing in the Gulf of Aden.

  10. Rockfall travel distance analysis by using empirical models (Solà d'Andorra la Vella, Central Pyrenees)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copons, R.; Vilaplana, J. M.; Linares, R.

    2009-12-01

    The prediction of rockfall travel distance below a rock cliff is an indispensable activity in rockfall susceptibility, hazard and risk assessment. Although the size of the detached rock mass may differ considerably at each specific rock cliff, small rockfall (government has been documenting rockfalls since 1999. This documentation consists in mapping the release point and the individual fallen blocks immediately after the event. The documentation of historical rockfalls by morphological analysis, eye-witness accounts and historical images serve to increase available information. In total, data from twenty small rockfalls have been gathered which reveal an amount of a hundred individual fallen rock blocks. The data acquired has been used to check the reliability of the main empirical models widely adopted (reach and shadow angle models) and to analyse the influence of parameters which affecting the travel distance (rockfall size, height of fall along the rock cliff and volume of the individual fallen rock block). For predicting travel distances in maps with medium scales, a method has been proposed based on the "reach probability" concept. The accuracy of results has been tested from the line entailing the farthest fallen boulders which represents the maximum travel distance of past rockfalls. The paper concludes with a discussion of the application of both empirical models to other study areas.

  11. Cooperative Exploration of Rough Martian Terrains with the "Scorpion" Legged Robot as an Adjunct to a Rover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombano, Silvano P.; Kirchner, Frank; Spenneberg, Dirk; Starman, Jared; Hanratty, James; Kovsmeyer, David (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    NASA needs autonomous robotic exploration of difficult (rough and/or steep) scientifically interesting Martian terrains. Concepts involving distributed autonomy for cooperative robotic exploration are key to enabling new scientific objectives in robotic missions. We propose to utilize a legged robot as an adjunct scout to a rover for access to difficult - scientifically interesting - terrains (rocky areas, slopes, cliffs). Our final mission scenario involves the Ames rover platform "K9" and Scorpion acting together to explore a steep cliff, with the Scorpion robot rappelling down using the K9 as an anchor as well as mission planner and executive. Cooperation concepts, including wheeled rappelling robots have been proposed before. Now we propose to test the combined advantages of a wheeled vehicle with a legged scout as well as the advantages of merging of high level planning and execution with biologically inspired, behavior based robotics. We propose to use the 8-legged, multifunctional autonomous robot platform Scorpion that is currently capable of: Walking on different terrains (rocks, sand, grass, ...). Perceiving its environment and modifying its behavioral pattern accordingly. These capabilities would be extended to enable the Scorpion to: communicate and cooperate with a partner robot; climb over rocks, rubble piles, and objects with structural features. This will be done in the context of exploration of rough terrains in the neighborhood of the rover, but inaccessible to it, culminating in the added capability of rappelling down a steep cliff for both vertical and horizontal terrain observation.

  12. Stone Lakes virus (family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus), a variant of Fort Morgan virus isolated from swallow bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) west of the Continental Divide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brault, Aaron C; Armijos, M Veronica; Wheeler, Sarah; Wright, Stan; Fang, Ying; Langevin, Stanley; Reisen, William K

    2009-09-01

    Multiple isolates of an alphaviruses within the western equine encephalomyelitis-serocomplex that were related closely to Ft. Morgan and its variant Buggy Creek virus were made from swallow bugs, Oeciacus vicarius Horvath (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), collected from cliff swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) nests at the Stone Lakes National Wildlife Refuge, Sacramento County, CA, during the summers of 2005 and 2006. This virus (hereafter Stone Lakes virus, family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus, STLV) was the first record of this viral group west of the Continental Divide. STLV replicated well in Vero and other vertebrate cell cultures but failed to replicate in C6/36 cells or infect Culex tarsalis Coquillett mosquitoes. STLV failed to produce elevated viremias in adult chickens or house sparrows and was weakly immunogenic. In addition, STLV was not isolated from cliff swallow nestlings nor was antibody detected in adults collected at mist nets. We suggest that STL and related swallow bug viruses may be primarily infections of cimicids that are maintained and amplified either by vertical or nonviremic transmission and that cliff swallows may primarily be important as a bloodmeal source for the bugs rather than as an amplification host for the viruses. PMID:19769055

  13. Atmospheric flow measurements using the PIV and HWA techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Bassi Marinho Pires

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Alcântara Space Center (ASC is the Brazilian gate to the space where rockets of different sizes are launched. At ASC there is a relative topographical variation, coastal cliff, which modifies the atmospheric boundary layer characteristics and can cause interference for operations of rockets. In the present work, a simplified model (mock-up was studied in a wind tunnel. A scale factor of 1:1000 was used and the atmospheric flow was measured using the hot wire anemometer (HWA and particle image velocimetry (PIV techniques. Using of HWA it was possible to calculate values of average wind speed and fluctuations in a set of points of the section of tests that representing the region of the ASC. Through these measures, other meteorological parameters that represent the atmospheric flow, such as the friction velocity (u*, the roughness length (z0 from the logarithmic profile and the alpha exponent (ɑ of the power law were calculated. With the use of the PIV´s technique, the streamlines and the vorticity fields were obtained and it was noticed that the vorticity generated downwind of the coastal cliff has a strong turbulence (vorticities around 2000 sˉ¹. A rectangular building (simulating the mobile integration tower was inserted at the mock-up and the downwind turbulence was similar to the one generated by the coastal cliff.

  14. Evidence from cosmic ray exposure (CRE) dating for the existence of a pre-Minoan caldera on Santorini, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanassas, C. D.; Bourlès, D. L.; Braucher, R.; Druitt, T. H.; Nomikou, P.; Léanni, L.

    2016-05-01

    Cosmic ray exposure (CRE) dating was performed on the caldera cliffs of Santorini with the aim of detecting cliff segments predating the Minoan eruption (17th century BCE). The methodology involved the determination of in situ-produced cosmogenic 36Cl concentration in basaltic-to-rhyodacitic whole rocks cropping out in the cliffs. After the samples were processed following the chemical protocol of 36Cl preparation for silicate rocks, 36Cl concentrations were measured by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Important challenges during the implementation procedure were related to large amounts of radiogenic 36Cl, complex modeling of inherited 36Cl, and dominance of the thermal and epithermal (low-energy) neutron capture production pathway. Nevertheless, quantitative assessments on the basis of the contribution of the low-energy neutron capture pathway percent to the total production rate validated the calculated CRE dates. Current CRE ages demonstrate that an ancient caldera existed on pre-Minoan Santorini, occupying at least the northern half of the modern-day caldera.

  15. Distribution and behaviour of passerines around peregrine Falco peregrinus eyries in western Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meese, R.J.; Fuller, M.R.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the distribution and behavior of passerine birds within 1 km of Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus eyries in western Greenland. Passerine populations were censused in 1983 around six cliffs occupied by nesting Peregrines and at six sites on the open tundra, and in 1984 at two unoccupied sites suitable for Peregrine nesting. Four passerine species accounted for over 90% of birds seen. Within 400 m of Peregrine occupied cliffs, three species, Lapland Longspur Calcarius lapponicus. Northern Wheatear Oenanthe oenanthe, and Common Redpoll Carduelisflammea, were found in lower than average abundance while the fourth, Snow Bunting Plectrophenax nivalis, was found in increased abundance. Our indirect tests suggest that Peregrine presence, rather than direct predation, was responsible for the distributions of the first three species. The Snow Bunting, however, behaviourally adapts to Peregrine presence in order to exploit nesting habitat available at the cliff base. These results contrast strongly with those reported by other Arctic workers, where increased abundances of potential prey were observed in close proximity to nesting Peregrines.

  16. Coastal erosion as a source of mercury into the marine environment along the Polish Baltic shore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bełdowska, Magdalena; Jędruch, Agnieszka; Łęczyński, Leszek; Saniewska, Dominika; Kwasigroch, Urszula

    2016-08-01

    The climate changes in recent years in the southern Baltic have been resulting in an increased frequency of natural extreme phenomena (i.e. storms, floods) and intensification of abrasion processes, which leads to introduction of large amounts of sedimentary deposits into the marine environment. The aim of this study was to determine the mercury load introduced to the Baltic Sea with deposits crumbling off the cliffs-parts of the coast that are the most exposed to abrasion. The studies were carried out close to five cliffs located on the Polish coast in the years 2011-2014. The results show that coastal erosion could be an important Hg source into the marine environment. This process is the third most important route, after riverine and precipitation input, by which Hg may enter the Gulf of Gdańsk. In the Hg budget in the gulf, the load caused by erosion (14.3 kg a(-1)) accounted for 80 % of the wet deposition and was 50 % higher than the amount of mercury introduced with dry deposition. Although the Hg concentration in the cliff deposits was similar to the natural background, due to their large mass, this problem could be significant. In addition, the preliminary studies on the impact of coastal erosion on the Hg level in the marine ecosystem have shown that this process may be one of the Hg sources into the trophic chain. PMID:27164873

  17. Obituary: Clifford G. Toner (1959-2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Frank

    2011-12-01

    Cliff Toner passed away unexpectedly at home in Tucson, Arizona on March 29, 2009. For most of his career, Cliff was involved with the Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG), a facility of the National Solar Observatory in Tucson, Arizona. GONG is a set of instruments around the world to observe the inside of the sun using the sound that is trapped below the solar surface. This science is called helioseismology. Cliff Toner was born on December 8, 1959 in New Westminster, British Columbia near the western coast of Canada. After receiving his B.Sc. in Physics & Astronomy at the University of British Columbia at Vancouver in 1981, he headed east to the University of Western Ontario in London. His graduate school period was spent in collaboration with David F. Gray, with whom he received both an M.Sc. in Astronomy in 1984, and a Ph.D. in Astronomy in 1988. Toner actually wrote two theses at UWO, one on "Line Asymmetries in F, G, and K Supergiants and Bright Giants" for his M.Sc., and the other on "The Time Variability of Spectral Line Asymmetries and Equivalent Widths for the G8 Dwarf ? Boo A: Evidence for a Starpatch" for his Ph.D. After graduate school, Cliff Toner left the cool climate of Canada in 1988 and accepted a postdoctoral position in the warmer temperatures of Hawai'i at the Institute for Astronomy located at the University of Hawai'i in Honolulu. There he worked primarily with Barry LaBonte. At first, he continued his work on ? Boo A, but he became interested in the sun and helioseismology. This led to the discovery of halos of enhanced high-frequency acoustic power surrounding solar active regions (Ap.J. 415, 847). At the end of his post-doc, Cliff Toner was hired by the GONG project as a Data Scientist in 1991. He quickly tackled the problem of merging the data from the six GONG sites, which was the major data reduction challenge facing GONG at the time. In parallel, he and Stuart Jefferies developed an algorithm to measure the radii of full-disk solar

  18. Ecological effects of nuclear steam electric station operations on estuarine systems. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the findings of studies of the impact of the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant on the aquatic biota of Chesapeake Bay. Physical findings show that the typical radial extent of influence of the discharge on the physical and chemical environment of the Bay is rather limited (< 2 km). This suggestion is bolstered by findings of phytoplankton and zooplankton studies: when effects were noted at all, they only appeared at sampling stations nearest (within 2 km of) the discharge. Also, direct entrainment effects on these groups were either small (in the case of phytoplankton) or species-specific (in the case of zooplankton). Benthos showed mixed responses to plant operations - the populations of some species were enhanced, one species was adversely affected, and others were unaffected. The major plant effect on the benthos was due to habitat resource enrichment, and the consequence was higher standing stocks (e.g., more food for fish) in the affected area. Direct plant effects on finfish are dominated by impingement. Mortality as a result of impingement, for many species, tends to be moderate to slight. Effects as a result of entrainment of eggs and larvae are limited because the Calvert Cliffs area is not a major spawning location for any species. In sum, the Calvert Cliffs plant appears to have a limited effect on the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem. 180 references, 6 figures, 18 tables

  19. Dynamics of a recovering Arctic bird population: the importance of climate, density dependence, and site quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruggeman, Jason E; Swem, Ted; Andersen, David E; Kennedy, Patricia L; Nigro, Debora

    2015-10-01

    Intrinsic and extrinsic factors affect vital rates and population-level processes, and understanding these factors is paramount to devising successful management plans for wildlife species. For example, birds time migration in response, in part, to local and broadscale climate fluctuations to initiate breeding upon arrival to nesting territories, and prolonged inclement weather early in the breeding season can inhibit egg-laying and reduce productivity. Also, density-dependent regulation occurs in raptor populations, as territory size is related to resource availability. Arctic Peregrine Falcons (Falco peregrinus tundrius; hereafter Arctic peregrine) have a limited and northern breeding distribution, including the Colville River Special Area (CRSA) in the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska, USA. We quantified influences of climate, topography, nest productivity, prey habitat, density dependence, and interspecific competition affecting Arctic peregrines in the CRSA by applying the Dail-Madsen model to estimate abundance and vital rates of adults on nesting cliffs from 1981 through 2002. Arctic peregrine abundance increased throughout the 1980s, which spanned the population's recovery from DDT-induced reproductive failure, until exhibiting a stationary trend in the 1990s. Apparent survival rate (i.e., emigration; death) was negatively correlated with the number of adult Arctic peregrines on the cliff the previous year, suggesting effects of density-dependent population regulation. Apparent survival and arrival rates (i.e., immigration; recruitment) were higher during years with earlier snowmelt and milder winters, and apparent survival was positively correlated with nesting season maximum daily temperature. Arrival rate was positively correlated with average Arctic peregrine productivity along a cliff segment from the previous year and initial abundance was positively correlated with cliff height. Higher cliffs with documented higher productivity (presumably

  20. Investigations of the Origin of the Magnetic Remanence in Late Pleistocene Lacustrine Sediments in the Mono Basin, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, N.; Corley, A. D.

    2015-12-01

    In the Mono Basin, CA, fine sand, silt, and volcanic ash deposited in Pleistocene Lake Russell is exposed on the margin of Mono Lake, and on Paoha Island in the lake. The silt records the Mono Lake Excursion (MLE: Denham and Cox, 1971) and several tens of thousands of years of paleomagnetic secular variation (PSV: Denham and Cox, 1971; Liddicoat, 1976; Lund et al., 1988). The sediment is believed to be an accurate recorder of PSV because the MLE has the same signal at widely separated localities in the basin (Denham, 1974; Liddicoat and Coe, 1979; Liddicoat, 1992) with the exception at wave-cut cliffs on the southeast side of the lake (Coe and Liddicoat, 1994). Magnetite, titanomagnetite, and titanomaghemite are present in the sediment (Denham and Cox, 1971; Liddicoat, 1976; Liddicoat and Coe, 1979), which is glacial flour from the adjacent Sierra Nevada (Lajoie, 1968). X-rays of the sediment and lineation measurements show patterns of normal bedding with layers aligned such that the minimum axes are within 5-10 degrees of normal bedding, with 10 percent foliation and 1 percent lineation (Coe and Liddicoat, 1994). We explore reasons for the difference in part of the PSV record at the wave-cut cliffs beyond the interpretation of Coe and Liddicoat (1994) that paleomagnetic field strength is a controlling factor. Possibilities include the sedimentation rate - at localities on the margin of Mono Lake the rate is about 60 percent less than at the wave-cut cliffs - and lithology of the sediment. At Mill Creek on the northwest side of Mono Lake, the non-magnetic sediment fraction is coarser-grained than at the wave-cut cliffs by a factor of about two, and there is a similar difference in the total inorganic carbon (TIC) percentage by weight for the two localities. (Spokowski et al., 2011) Studies of the sediment at two localities in the basin where the Hilina Pali Excursion (Teanby et al., 2002) might be recorded (Wilson Creek and South Shore Cliffs; Liddicoat and Coe

  1. Geologic Map of the House Rock Valley Area, Coconino County, Northern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billingsley, George H.; Priest, Susan S.

    2010-01-01

    This geologic map is a cooperative effort of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Bureau of Land Management, the National Park Service, and the U.S. Forest Service to provide a geologic database for resource management officials and visitor information services. This map was produced in response to information needs related to a proposed withdrawal of three segregated land areas near Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona, from new hard rock mining activity. House Rock Valley was designated as the east parcel of the segregated lands near the Grand Canyon. This map was needed to provide connectivity for the geologic framework of the Grand Canyon segregated land areas. This geologic map of the House Rock Valley area encompasses approximately 280 mi2 (85.4 km2) within Coconino County, northern Arizona, and is bounded by longitude 111 degrees 37'30' to 112 degrees 05' W. and latitude 36 degrees 30' to 36 degrees 50' N. The map area is in the eastern part of the Arizona Strip, which lies within the southern Colorado Plateaus geologic province (herein Colorado Plateau). The Arizona Strip is the part of Arizona lying north of the Colorado River. The map is bound on the east by the Colorado River in Marble Canyon within Grand Canyon National Park and Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, on the south and west by the Kaibab National Forest and Grand Canyon National Game Preserve, and on the north by the Vermilion Cliffs Natural Area, the Paria Canyon Vermilion Cliffs Wilderness Area, and the Vermilion Cliffs National Monument. House Rock State Buffalo Ranch also bounds the southern edge of the map area. The Bureau of Land Management Arizona Field Office in St. George, Utah, manages public lands of the Vermilion Cliffs Natural Area, Paria Canyon - Vermilion Cliffs Wilderness and Vermilion Cliffs National Monument. The North Kaibab Ranger District in Fredonia, Arizona, manages U.S. Forest Service land along the west edge of the map area and House Rock State Buffalo Ranch

  2. Airborne LiDAR data as a key element of the integrated monitoring of the reservoir shore zone development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarek, Halina

    2015-04-01

    The research of the transformation of the shore zone of artificial water reservoirs are long-term monitoring studies, often covering the entire length of the shoreline of the tested basin. Extremely valuable sources of data in such studies are variously dated cartographic materials: large-scale maps and surveying plans as well as aerial photographs. In recent years, the materials derived from the airborne laser scanning, i.e. light detection and ranging (LiDAR) which are among the most accurate terrain data, gained importance. The possibility of using data from the airborne laser scanning in the studies of the transformation of the shore zone of a water reservoir will be presented on the example of the Jeziorsko Reservoir on the Warta River (Central Poland). The reservoir was created in the years 1986-1992. It is a typical retention reservoir with large, nearly 5-m, water level changes in a yearly cycle. Its total surface area, depending on the water level, is between 19.6 km2 and 242.3 km2. The total length of the shore is 44.3 km, of which 14.2 km (32.1%) are embanked. Nearly 40% of the non-embanked shore is still active, and its development is the result of the processes of shoreline erosion, mass movements and accumulation. Most problems are caused by the abrasive shores which represent 27% of the non-embanked shoreline. The height of the accompanying cliff varies from a few cm to 12.5 m. In the years 1991-2009 the shoreline of the reservoir retreated by 6.9 to 18.7 m in the northern part of the reservoir (the cliff of 1-12.2 m) and by 9 to 29.6 m in its southern part (the cliff of 2.0-8.5 m). The cliff recession pace with the development of the shore zone significantly decreased; in the northern part of the reservoir the cliff recession dropped from 1.5 m/y in 1991-2004 to 0.5 m/y in 2004-2009, while in the southern part - from 0.7-2.22 m/y in 1991-2004 to 0-1.12 m/y in 2004-2009. The study used the airborne LiDAR data from the years 2009 and 2011 in the ALS

  3. Sand sources and transport pathways for the San Francisco Bay coastal system, based on X-ray diffraction mineralogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, James R.; Mizell, Kira; Barnard, Patrick L.

    2013-01-01

    The mineralogical compositions of 119 samples collected from throughout the San Francisco Bay coastal system, including bayfloor and seafloor, area beaches, cliff outcrops, and major drainages, were determined using X-ray diffraction (XRD). Comparison of the mineral concentrations and application of statistical cluster analysis of XRD spectra allowed for the determination of provenances and transport pathways. The use of XRD mineral identifications provides semi-quantitative compositions needed for comparisons of beach and offshore sands with potential cliff and river sources, but the innovative cluster analysis of XRD diffraction spectra provides a unique visualization of how groups of samples within the San Francisco Bay coastal system are related so that sand-sized sediment transport pathways can be inferred. The main vector for sediment transport as defined by the XRD analysis is from San Francisco Bay to the outer coast, where the sand then accumulates on the ebb tidal delta and also moves alongshore. This mineralogical link defines a critical pathway because large volumes of sediment have been removed from the Bay over the last century via channel dredging, aggregate mining, and borrow pit mining, with comparable volumes of erosion from the ebb tidal delta over the same period, in addition to high rates of shoreline retreat along the adjacent, open-coast beaches. Therefore, while previously only a temporal relationship was established, the transport pathway defined by mineralogical and geochemical tracers support the link between anthropogenic activities in the Bay and widespread erosion outside the Bay. The XRD results also establish the regional and local importance of sediment derived from cliff erosion, as well as both proximal and distal fluvial sources. This research is an important contribution to a broader provenance study aimed at identifying the driving forces for widespread geomorphic change in a heavily urbanized coastal-estuarine system.

  4. Hazards in the coastal karst of Balai (NW Sardinia, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna, Laura; Uda, Michele; Pascucci, Vincenzo

    2016-04-01

    The coastal karst area of Balai headland is located in the central part of the Gulf of Asinara (North-West Sardinia, Italy) near the city of Porto Torres, comprised between the homonymous harbour and Platamona beach. This karst plateau has a monocline geometry truncated by the coastal escarpment, up to 40 m-high, that in the last decades has been affected by slope instability related to human activities and/or climate change. The area is characterised by a flat morphology constituted of Miocene limestone gently dipping towards the North-West. Its altitude ranges from 0 to 50 m asl. The 3 km-long cliff is locally interrupted by some small gravelly coves. Along the longitudinal profile of the headland, three main morphological steps have been identified at 15, 8 and 6.5 m asl. They represent past wave cut platforms. The shoreline is well marked and the coves cut into the land up to 50 m in length, perpendicularly to the coast. They follow the direction of a series of parallel NE-facing fractures. The modern tidal notch is well exposed along the carbonate cliff at the present sea level. Along the limestone cliff, notch development is amplified by mixing of sea and fresh water coming from submerged springs. Moreover, this marine erosion feature is a good sea level marker in microtidal conditions, such as Mediterranean Sea, and an indicator of tectonic stability, of the Sardinian microplate. In some coves, two generations of fossil notches have been observed at 6.5 m asl and -1 m bsl, respectively, along with lithophaga boreholes up to 8 m asl. Both indicate the past eustatic conditions. All these geomorphic features make Balai promontory an interesting geological spot for studying past sea level fluctuations and present slope movements, trying to distinguish hazards due to climate change from those directly related to anthropogenic forces such as wave-induced damage due to waterborne navigation.

  5. Research on Yazhou culture brand building and itsDevelopment%崖州文化品牌塑造及其发展研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭文静

    2015-01-01

    崖州是三亚历史上的称谓,其古城历代为州郡治所,迄今已有千余年。崖州地处我国最南边陲,扼海上丝绸之路要冲。其文化内涵呈现四个方面的特性:汉黎民族文化的融汇;基于海上丝绸之路的中外文化交汇;中原文化与天涯文化的交汇;多元宗教思想的影响,并由此形成其品牌特征。崖州文化积淀深厚,但随着崖州地名的消失,崖州文化及品牌也存在承载与发展之惑。%Cliff is the history of Sanya city as its title,the county seat,so far,more than a thousand years. The state is located in the southernmost border of China,the maritime Silk Road hub choke. Its cultural connotation has four characteristics:the fusion of Han Li ethnic culture;based on the Silk Road on the sea in Chinese culture and foreign cultures;intersection of the culture of central plain and the limits of the earth;the influence of religious pluralism,and thus the formation of its brand identity. Ya,profound cultural accumulation,but with the names of the cliff cliff disappear,culture and brand are bearing and development.

  6. Rockfall travel distance analysis by using empirical models (Solà d'Andorra la Vella, Central Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Copons

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The prediction of rockfall travel distance below a rock cliff is an indispensable activity in rockfall susceptibility, hazard and risk assessment. Although the size of the detached rock mass may differ considerably at each specific rock cliff, small rockfall (<100 m3 is the most frequent process. Empirical models may provide us with suitable information for predicting the travel distance of small rockfalls over an extensive area at a medium scale (1:100 000–1:25 000. "Solà d'Andorra la Vella" is a rocky slope located close to the town of Andorra la Vella, where the government has been documenting rockfalls since 1999. This documentation consists in mapping the release point and the individual fallen blocks immediately after the event. The documentation of historical rockfalls by morphological analysis, eye-witness accounts and historical images serve to increase available information. In total, data from twenty small rockfalls have been gathered which reveal an amount of a hundred individual fallen rock blocks. The data acquired has been used to check the reliability of the main empirical models widely adopted (reach and shadow angle models and to analyse the influence of parameters which affecting the travel distance (rockfall size, height of fall along the rock cliff and volume of the individual fallen rock block. For predicting travel distances in maps with medium scales, a method has been proposed based on the "reach probability" concept. The accuracy of results has been tested from the line entailing the farthest fallen boulders which represents the maximum travel distance of past rockfalls. The paper concludes with a discussion of the application of both empirical models to other study areas.

  7. Stability of Molasse: TLS for structural analysis in the valley of Gotteron-Fribourg, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Hammouda, Mariam; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Derron, Marc Henri; Bouaziz, Samir; Mazotti, Benoit

    2016-04-01

    The marine molasses of Fribourg (Switzerland) is an area where the cliff collapses and rockfalls are quite frequent and difficult to predict due to this particular lithology, a poorly consolidated greywacke. Because of some recent rockfall events, the situation became critical especially in the valley of Gotteron where a big block has slightly moved down and might destroy a house in case of rupture. The cliff made of jointed sandstone and thin layers of clay and siltstone presents many fractures, joints and massive cross bedding surfaces which increases the possibility of slab failure. This paper presents a detailed structural analysis of the cliff and the identification of the potential failure mechanisms. The methodology is about combining field observation and terrestrial LiDAR scanning point cloud in order to assess the stability of potential slope instabilities of molasses. Three LiDAR scans were done i) to extract discontinuity families depending to the dip and the dip direction of joints and ii) to run kinematic tests in order to identify responsible sets for each potential failure mechanisms. Raw point clouds were processed using IMAlign module of Polyworks and CloudCompare software. The structural analysis based on COLTOP 3D (Jaboyedoff et al. 2007) allowed the identification of four discontinuity sets that were not measured in the field. Two different failure mechanisms have been identified as critical: i) planar sliding which is the main responsible mechanism of the present fallen block and ii) wedge sliding. The planar sliding is defined by the discontinuity sets J1 and J5 with a direction parallel to the slope and with a steep dip angle. The wedges, defined by couples of discontinuity sets, contribute to increase cracks' opening and to the detachment of slabs. The use of TLS combined with field survey provides us a first interpretation of instabilities and a very promising structural analysis.

  8. High-Resolution Monitoring of Himalayan Glacier Dynamics Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immerzeel, W.; Kraaijenbrink, P. D. A.; Shea, J.; Shrestha, A. B.; Pellicciotti, F.; Bierkens, M. F.; de Jong, S. M.

    2014-12-01

    Himalayan glacier tongues are commonly debris covered and play an important role in modulating the glacier response to climate . However, they remain relatively unstudied because of the inaccessibility of the terrain and the difficulties in field work caused by the thick debris mantles. Observations of debris-covered glaciers are therefore limited to point locations and airborne remote sensing may bridge the gap between scarce, point field observations and coarse resolution space-borne remote sensing. In this study we deploy an Unmanned Airborne Vehicle (UAV) on two debris covered glaciers in the Nepalese Himalayas: the Lirung and Langtang glacier during four field campaigns in 2013 and 2014. Based on stereo-imaging and the structure for motion algorithm we derive highly detailed ortho-mosaics and digital elevation models (DEMs), which we geometrically correct using differential GPS observations collected in the field. Based on DEM differencing and manual feature tracking we derive the mass loss and the surface velocity of the glacier at a high spatial resolution and accuracy. We also assess spatiotemporal changes in supra-glacial lakes and ice cliffs based on the imagery. On average, mass loss is limited and the surface velocity is very small. However, the spatial variability of melt rates is very high, and ice cliffs and supra-glacial ponds show mass losses that can be an order of magnitude higher than the average. We suggest that future research should focus on the interaction between supra-glacial ponds, ice cliffs and englacial hydrology to further understand the dynamics of debris-covered glaciers. Finally, we conclude that UAV deployment has large potential in glaciology and it represents a substantial advancement over methods currently applied in studying glacier surface features.

  9. 阿里岩画中的原始法鼓考%A Research on Primordial Buddhistic Drum appeared in Petrous Picture around Ngari Prefecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦虎三

    2015-01-01

    在阿里地区,有不少反映苯教早期活动的岩画,其中塔康巴岩画点与任姆栋岩画中物左手抓执“圆形物”应为“单面抓执式皮鼓”。通过将之与多种少数民族皮鼓以及其他区“单面抓执式皮鼓”典型特质的比较研究,有助于我们了解苯教早期的活动形态,同时可以见苯教原始法鼓的源流与演化路径。%In Ngari Prefecture,there are quite a few cliff paintings that reflect the early activities of bon the original religion,among which there are Takangba cliff painting and Renmudong cliff painting.In the two paintings,the “round objects” held in the left hand of the figures are proved as “single-side rabbing leather drum” by this article.To compare it with various kinds of leather drums of the ethnic minority and “single-side grabbing leather drum” in other areas in their typical,we could understand etter about the early activities of the original religion,and get a glimpse of the source and evolution ath of the ancient Dharma drums of Bon,the original religion.

  10. Paleoseismic and Paleogeographic Reconstruction of the Central Coastal of Ecuador: Insights from Quaternary Geological Data for the Jaramijó bay area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunga, K.; Maurizio, M.; Garces, D.; Quiñonez, M. F.; Peña, G. E.

    2015-12-01

    Late Holocene sequences of loose to weakly consolidated sand and clay sediments intercalated with volcanic-ash layers (particles transported by fall-out), are outcrops on a sea cliff in the Jaramijó bay area (situated 7 km away in the East direction from Manta city, Manabí, at the middle section of Ecuador's Pacific coastline). The main geomorphologic feature in the site is the wave-cut beach platform permanently exposed at the lowest tides and an 18 m-high coastal cliff retreat with an estimated rate of ca. 2.5 meter/year (Chunga, 2014). One of the most remarkable geoarchaeological evidences found in this outcrop, it is the remains of two large bones (ie., radius and radial) of the human forearm of ca. 800 years ago (with archaeological vestiges of the Manteña culture) covered by a 8 to 25 cm-thick volcanic ash layer, stratigraphically at the top, an erosive contact with chaotic deposition of medium to fine-grained sand which indicates a potential tsunami deposit. Moreover, several volcanic ash and lahar layers are well distinguished on the sea cliff, which are associated with pyroclastic products transported as lahars from the Quilotoa and Cotopaxi, Pululahua volcanic structures (northern Andes in Ecuador) situated at a distance between of 150-190 kilometers (Mothes and Hall, 2008; Usselman, 2006). It is not excluded that previous pre-Columbian cultures also have been displaced in the last 2,000 years by disastrous geological events such as subduction earthquakes, local tsunami and volcanic lahar-ash deposits. All of these stratigraphic and palaeoseismologic features will allow us to understand the catastrophic geological events that abruptly shaped the landscape, furthermore, to investigate the changes of moderate to high Late Holocene progradation rates of the Jaramijó bay coastline.

  11. Site selection and nest survival of the Bar-Headed Goose (Anser indicus) on the Mongolian Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batbayar, Nyambayar; Takekawa, John Y.; Natsagdorj, Tseveenmyadag; Spragens, Kyle A.; Xiao, Xiamgming

    2014-01-01

    Waterbirds breeding on the Mongolian Plateau in Central Asia must find suitable wetland areas for nesting in a semiarid region characterized by highly variable water conditions. The first systematic nesting study of a waterbird dependent on this region for breeding was conducted on the Bar-headed Goose (Anser indicus). The purpose of this study was to document Bar-headed Goose nesting locations, characterize nests and nesting strategies, and estimate daily nest survival (n = 235 nests) from eight areas of west-central Mongolia across three summers (2009–2011) using a modified Mayfield estimator. Bar-headed Goose daily nest survival ranged from 0.94 to 0.98, with a 3-year average nest success of 42.6% during incubation. Bar-headed Geese were found to primarily nest on isolated pond and lake islands as previously reported, but were also documented regularly, though less frequently, along rocky cliffs in several regions of west-central Mongolia. Daily nest survival was higher for cliff nests than for island nests. Information-theoretic models indicated that nest survival decreased with nest age and varied annually with changing environmental conditions. Results of this study suggest that while Bar-headed Geese primarily rely on nesting island sites these sites may be more susceptible to anthropogenic disturbance and predation events influenced by seasonal variation in environmental conditions, and that higher daily nest survival values documented for the less frequent cliff nest strategy may provide an important alternative strategy during poor island nest success years. Thus, conservation efforts for this and other waterbird species in the semiarid region should be focused on conserving nesting islands and protecting them from disturbance in areas of high livestock densities experiencing a rapidly warming climate.

  12. An open source GIS-based tool to integrate the fragmentation mechanism in rockfall propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matas, Gerard; Lantada, Nieves; Gili, Josep A.; Corominas, Jordi

    2015-04-01

    Rockfalls are frequent instability processes in road cuts, open pit mines and quarries, steep slopes and cliffs. Even though the stability of rock slopes can be determined using analytical approaches, the assessment of large rock cliffs require simplifying assumptions due to the difficulty of working with a large amount of joints, the scattering of both the orientations and strength parameters. The attitude and persistency of joints within the rock mass define the size of kinematically unstable rock volumes. Furthermore the rock block will eventually split in several fragments during its propagation downhill due its impact with the ground surface. Knowledge of the size, energy, trajectory… of each block resulting from fragmentation is critical in determining the vulnerability of buildings and protection structures. The objective of this contribution is to present a simple and open source tool to simulate the fragmentation mechanism in rockfall propagation models and in the calculation of impact energies. This tool includes common modes of motion for falling boulders based on the previous literature. The final tool is being implemented in a GIS (Geographic Information Systems) using open source Python programming. The tool under development will be simple, modular, compatible with any GIS environment, open source, able to model rockfalls phenomena correctly. It could be used in any area susceptible to rockfalls with a previous adjustment of the parameters. After the adjustment of the model parameters to a given area, a simulation could be performed to obtain maps of kinetic energy, frequency, stopping density and passing heights. This GIS-based tool and the analysis of the fragmentation laws using data collected from recent rockfall have being developed within the RockRisk Project (2014-2016). This project is funded by the Spanish Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad and entitled "Rockfalls in cliffs: risk quantification and its prevention"(BIA2013-42582-P).

  13. Echoes from Si gang lih: Burao Yilu's 'Moon Mountain'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Bender

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Wa poet Burao Yilu's utilization of myth, ritual, and folk customs in representing the Wa ethnic group in the poem 'Moon Mountain' is discussed. Negative stereotypes of the Wa, an indigenous people of southwestern Yunnan Province, China, include the now forbidden practice of headhunting. By referencing the origin myth 'Si gang lih' and evoking images of ancient cliff paintings, rituals, and agricultural practices, Burao offers a nuanced view of Wa culture while affirming deep-rooted aspects of the Wa worldview. As a literary work, 'Moon Mountain' is an example of the Chinese language (Sinophone poetry being produced by ethnic minority writers in southwest China today.

  14. Cost/benefit analyses of environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various aspects of cost-benefit analyses are considered. Some topics discussed are: regulations of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA); statement of AEC policy and procedures for implementation of NEPA; Calvert Cliffs decision; AEC Regulatory Guide; application of risk-benefit analysis to nuclear power; application of the as low as practicable (ALAP) rule to radiation discharges; thermal discharge restrictions proposed by EPA under the 1972 Amendment to the Water Pollution Control Act; estimates of somatic and genetic insult per unit population exposure; occupational exposure; EPA Point Source Guidelines for Discharges from Steam Electric Power Plants; and costs of closed-cycle cooling using cooling towers. (U.S.)

  15. Late Quaternary lake-level changes of Lake El'gygytgyn, NE Siberia

    OpenAIRE

    Juschus, O.; Pavlov, M.; G. Schwamborn; Preusser, F.; Fedorov, G.; Melles, M.

    2011-01-01

    Lake El'gygytgyn is situated in a 3.6 Ma old impact crater in northeastern Siberia. Presented here is a reconstruction of the Quaternary lake-level history as derived from sediment cores from the southern lake shelf. There, a cliff-like bench 10 m below the modern water level has been investigated. Deep-water sediments on the shelf indicate high lake levels during a warm Mid-Pleistocene period. One period with low lake level prior to Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage (MIS) 3 has been identified, fo...

  16. CRISIS FOCUS:Into the Abyss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The United States,facing its deepest financial crisis since the Great Depression,has spared no efforts to save its economy from falling off a cliff.But its federal bailout program has appeared flawed given the country’s mounting fiscal deficits.Will the government’s rescue efforts be a panacea for the ailing markets?Will the U.S. economy drift into a prolonged recession?Dong Yuping,a researcher at the Institute of Finance and Banking under Chinese Academy of Social Sciences,discussed these issues in a recent article in China Finance magazine.Excerpts follow:

  17. Science and design: identical twins?

    OpenAIRE

    Galle, Per; Kroes, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Recently, Robert Farrell and Cliff Hooker opposed the conventional view that ‘design and science are distinct types of intellectual study and production’, claiming that science and design ‘are not different in kind’, and explicitly challenging proponents of the conventional view to ‘provide explicit arguments’ in its defence. This calls for an in-depth conceptual clarification of the science-design relationship. The aims of the present paper are to take up the gauntlet thrown by Farrell and H...

  18. Earnings management under price regulation. Empirical evidence from the Spanish electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyses the effect of price regulation on the accounting policy of Spanish electricity companies over the period 1991-2001. As predicted by the political costs hypothesis (Watts and Zimmerman, 1986) (Watts, R.L., Zimmerman, J.L. 1986. Positive accounting theory, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ), managers artificially reduce reported earnings when the government establishes tariff increases. In this way, companies attempt to diminish their political visibility and counteract social outcry arising from the government's decision. Several abnormal accruals models existent in the literature are used to obtain a proxy for managerial accounting discretion on earnings

  19. Earnings management under price regulation: empirical evidence from the Spanish electricity industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill-de-Albornoz, B. [Universitat Jaume I, Castellon (Spain). Dept. of Finance and Accounting; Illueca, M. [Universitat Jaume I, Castellon (Spain). Dept. of Finance and Accounting; Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Economicas, Valencia (Spain)

    2005-03-01

    This paper analyses the effect of price regulation on the accounting policy of Spanish electricity companies over the period 1991-2001. As predicted by the political costs hypothesis (Watts and Zimmerman, 1986) [Watts, R.L., Zimmerman, J.L. 1986. Positive accounting theory, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ], managers artificially reduce reported earnings when the government establishes tariff increases. In this way, companies attempt to diminish their political visibility and counteract social outcry arising from the government's decision. Several abnormal accruals models existent in the literature are used to obtain a proxy for managerial accounting discretion on earnings. (author)

  20. Earnings management under price regulation. Empirical evidence from the Spanish electricity industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill-de-Albornoz, Belen; Illueca, Manuel [Department of Finance and Accounting, Universitat Jaume I, Campus del Riu Sec, 12081, Castellon (Spain)

    2005-03-15

    This paper analyses the effect of price regulation on the accounting policy of Spanish electricity companies over the period 1991-2001. As predicted by the political costs hypothesis (Watts and Zimmerman, 1986) [Watts, R.L., Zimmerman, J.L. 1986. Positive accounting theory, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ], managers artificially reduce reported earnings when the government establishes tariff increases. In this way, companies attempt to diminish their political visibility and counteract social outcry arising from the government's decision. Several abnormal accruals models existent in the literature are used to obtain a proxy for managerial accounting discretion on earnings.

  1. Eelgrass fairy rings: sulfide as inhibiting agent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borum, Jens; Raun, Ane-Marie Løvendahl; Hasler-Sheetal, Harald; Pedersen, Mia Østergaard; Pedersen, Ole; Holmer, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    Distinct ‘fairy rings’ consisting of narrow fringes of eelgrass (Zostera marina l.) expand radially over a bottom of chalk plates outside the calcium carbon- ate cliffs of the island of Møn, Denmark. We conducted a survey to evaluate possible explanations for the formation of the rings and, more...... expanded over the bare chalk plates. On the inner side, shoots were smaller, had lower absolute and specific leaf growth, shoot density was lower and the sediment eroded leaving the bare chalk with scattered boulders behind. Sediment organic matter and nutrients and tissue nutrient contents were not...

  2. Green's generic syzygy conjecture for curves of even genus lying on a K3 surface

    OpenAIRE

    Voisin, Claire

    2002-01-01

    We consider the generic Green conjecture on syzygies of a canonical curve, and particularly the following reformulation thereof: {\\it For a smooth projective curve $C$ of genus $g$ in characteristic 0, the condition ${\\rm Cliff} C>l$ is equivalent to the fact that $K_{g-l'-2,1}(C,K_C)=0, \\forall l'\\leq l$.} We propose a new approach, which allows up to prove this result for generic curves $C$ of genus $g(C)$ and gonality ${\\rm gon(C)}$ in the range $$\\frac{g(C)}{3}+1\\leq {\\rm gon(C)}\\leq\\frac...

  3. APL workers install CRIS on the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) in SAEF-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Workers from the Johns Hopkins University's Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) install the Cosmic Ray Isotope Spectrometer (CRIS) on the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) spacecraft in KSC's Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility-2 (SAEF-2). From left, are Al Sadilek, Marcos Gonzalez and Cliff Willey. CRIS is one of nine instruments on ACE, which will investigate the origin and evolution of solar phenomenon, the formation of the solar corona, solar flares and the acceleration of the solar wind. ACE was developed for NASA by the APL. The spacecraft is scheduled to be launched Aug. 21 aboard a two-stage Delta II 7920-8 rocket from Space Launch Complex 17, Pad A.

  4. Mars Stratigraphy Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budney, C. J.; Miller, S. L.; Cutts, J. A.

    2000-01-01

    The Mars Stratigraphy Mission lands a rover on the surface of Mars which descends down a cliff in Valles Marineris to study the stratigraphy. The rover carries a unique complement of instruments to analyze and age-date materials encountered during descent past 2 km of strata. The science objective for the Mars Stratigraphy Mission is to identify the geologic history of the layered deposits in the Valles Marineris region of Mars. This includes constraining the time interval for formation of these deposits by measuring the ages of various layers and determining the origin of the deposits (volcanic or sedimentary) by measuring their composition and imaging their morphology.

  5. A study of the reactivation of landsliding at Barton-on-Sea, Hampshire, following stabilisation works in the 1960s

    OpenAIRE

    Garvey, Phil

    2007-01-01

    The mostly clay cliffs of Barton-on-Sea, Hampshire, comprise inhomogeneous strata of the Bracklesham, Barton and Headon Hill Formations, overlain unconformably by Plateau Gravels, and have a long history of erosion and instability. Heavily-engineered stabilisation works involving a 1,500m-long sheet-piled wall and cut-off drain were installed in the 1960s but a number of catastrophic failures of the wall have occurred at locations along the Barton frontage since then. This report is concerned...

  6. Penentuan Kadar Air Dan Kadar Kotoran Pada Inti Sawit Di Stasiun Kernel Di PTPN III Nusantara Pabrik Kelapa Sawit Rambutan Tebing Tinggi

    OpenAIRE

    Putra, Andika Eka

    2014-01-01

    Determination of Moisture and dirt from the kernel oil content in kernel station at High Cliff Rambutan PTPN III by conducting experiments for 7 days. Analytical results obtained varied, ie respectively 9.59%, 7.86%, 7.90%, 6.11, 11.70%, 7.90% and 7.80% for water content and successive 7.97%, 9.50%, 8.50%, 9.38%, 4.43%, 8.50% and 7.87% for the levels of impurities. Results of analysis of water content and the levels of these impurities there are two samples that do not meet the quality standa...

  7. Advanced numerical models - influence of partial material factors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koudelka, Petr; Koudelka, T.

    London/Leiden/New York : Taylor and Francis Group, 2007 - (Kanda, J.; Furuta, H.), s. 597-598 ISBN 978-0-415-45134-5. [IC on Applications of statistics and probability in civilengineering. Tokyo (JP), 31.07.2007-03.08.2007] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA103/05/2130; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA2071302 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20710524 Keywords : advanced numerical models * stability * rock cliff * reliability * Limit State Design * partial material factors Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  8. Rockfall source characterization at high rock walls in complex geological settings by photogrammetry, structural analysis and DFN techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agliardi, Federico; Riva, Federico; Galletti, Laura; Zanchi, Andrea; Crosta, Giovanni B.

    2016-04-01

    Rockfall quantitative risk analysis in areas impended by high, subvertical cliffs remains a challenge, due to the difficult definition of potential rockfall sources, event magnitude scenarios and related probabilities. For this reasons, rockfall analyses traditionally focus on modelling the runout component of rockfall processes, whereas rock-fall source identification, mapping and characterization (block size distribution and susceptibility) are over-simplified in most practical applications, especially when structurally complex rock masses are involved. We integrated field and remote survey and rock mass modelling techniques to characterize rock masses and detect rockfall source in complex geo-structural settings. We focused on a test site located at Valmadrera, near Lecco (Southern Alps, Italy), where cliffs up to 600 m high impend on a narrow strip of Lake Como shore. The massive carbonates forming the cliff (Dolomia Principale Fm), normally characterized by brittle structural associations due to their high strength and stiffness, are here involved in an ENE-trending, S-verging kilometre-scale syncline. Brittle mechanisms associated to folding strongly controlled the nature of discontinuities (bedding slip, strike-slip faults, tensile fractures) and their attributes (spacing and size), as well as the spatial variability of bedding attitude and fracture intensity, with individual block sizes up to 15 m3. We carried out a high-resolution terrestrial photogrammetric survey from distances ranging from 1500 m (11 camera stations from the opposite lake shore, 265 pictures) to 150 m (28 camera stations along N-S directed boat routes, 200 pictures), using RTK GNSS measurements for camera station geo-referencing. Data processing by Structure-from-Motion techniques resulted in detailed long-range (1500 m) and medium-range (150 to 800 m) point clouds covering the entire slope with maximum surface point densities exceeding 50 pts/m2. Point clouds allowed a detailed

  9. Reptiles escamosos (Squamata del Pleistoceno Medio del Norte de la ciudad de Mar del Plata (provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Brizuela

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we describe two fossil remains of squamate reptiles found in Middle Pleistocene outcrops at the northern marine cliffs of the city of Mar del Plata (Buenos Aires province. The specimens were found forming a taphocenosis with remains of other microvertebrates (amphibians, mammals and birds. The reptiles recognized in the association are represented by remains of an undetermined colubrid, and the anguid Ophiodes sp. This latter finding represents the first fossil record for the family Anguidae exhumed in Argentina.

  10. High performance multi-channel high-speed I/O circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Oh, Taehyoun

    2013-01-01

    This book describes design techniques that can be used to mitigate crosstalk in high-speed I/O circuits. The focus of the book is in developing compact and low power integrated circuits for crosstalk cancellation, inter-symbol interference (ISI) mitigation and improved bit error rates (BER) at higher speeds. This book is one of the first to discuss in detail the problem of crosstalk and ISI mitigation encountered as data rates have continued beyond 10Gb/s. Readers will learn to avoid the data performance cliff, with circuits and design techniques described for novel, low power crosstalk cancel

  11. 3D Modelling of Inaccessible Areas using UAV-based Aerial Photography and Structure from Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obanawa, Hiroyuki; Hayakawa, Yuichi; Gomez, Christopher

    2014-05-01

    In hardly accessible areas, the collection of 3D point-clouds using TLS (Terrestrial Laser Scanner) can be very challenging, while airborne equivalent would not give a correct account of subvertical features and concave geometries like caves. To solve such problem, the authors have experimented an aerial photography based SfM (Structure from Motion) technique on a 'peninsular-rock' surrounded on three sides by the sea at a Pacific coast in eastern Japan. The research was carried out using UAS (Unmanned Aerial System) combined with a commercial small UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) carrying a compact camera. The UAV is a DJI PHANTOM: the UAV has four rotors (quadcopter), it has a weight of 1000 g, a payload of 400 g and a maximum flight time of 15 minutes. The camera is a GoPro 'HERO3 Black Edition': resolution 12 million pixels; weight 74 g; and 0.5 sec. interval-shot. The 3D model has been constructed by digital photogrammetry using a commercial SfM software, Agisoft PhotoScan Professional®, which can generate sparse and dense point-clouds, from which polygonal models and orthophotographs can be calculated. Using the 'flight-log' and/or GCPs (Ground Control Points), the software can generate digital surface model. As a result, high-resolution aerial orthophotographs and a 3D model were obtained. The results have shown that it was possible to survey the sea cliff and the wave cut-bench, which are unobservable from land side. In details, we could observe the complexity of the sea cliff that is nearly vertical as a whole while slightly overhanging over the thinner base. The wave cut bench is nearly flat and develops extensively at the base of the cliff. Although there are some evidences of small rockfalls at the upper part of the cliff, there is no evidence of very recent activity, because no fallen rock exists on the wave cut bench. This system has several merits: firstly lower cost than the existing measuring methods such as manned-flight survey and aerial laser

  12. ’He descended legs-upwards‘: Position and motion in Tzeltal frog stories

    OpenAIRE

    P Brown

    2000-01-01

    How are events framed in narrative? Speakers of English (a 'satellite-framed' language), when 'reading' Mercer Mayer's wordless picture book 'Frog, Where Are You?', find the story self-evident: a boy has a dog and a pet frog; the frog escapes and runs away; the boy and dog look for it across hill and dale, through woods and over a cliff, until they find it and return home with a baby frog child of the original pet frog. In Tzeltal, as spoken in a Mayan community in southern Mexico, the story ...

  13. Position and motion in Tzeltal frog stories: The acquisition of narrative style

    OpenAIRE

    P Brown

    2004-01-01

    How are events framed in narrative? Speakers of English (a 'satellite-framed' language), when 'reading' Mercer Mayer's wordless picture book 'Frog, Where Are You?', find the story self-evident: a boy has a dog and a pet frog; the frog escapes and runs away; the boy and dog look for it across hill and dale, through woods and over a cliff, until they find it and return home with a baby frog child of the original pet frog. In Tzeltal, as spoken in a Mayan community in southern Mexico, the story ...

  14. The paradigm shift to an “open” model in drug development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Au

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The rising cost of healthcare, the rising cost for drug development, the patent cliff for Big pharma, shorter patent protection, decrease reimbursement, and the recession have made it more difficult for the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industry to develop drugs. Due to the unsustainable amount of time and money in developing a drug that will have a significant return on investment (ROI it has become hard to sustain a robust pipeline. The industry is transforming its business model to meet these challenges. In essence a paradigm shift is occurring; the old “closed” model is giving way to a new “open” business model.

  15. Geotechnical properties in relation to grain-size and mineral composition: case study landslide in the Rječina Valley (Croatia)

    OpenAIRE

    Benac, Čedomir; Oštrić, Maja; Dugonjić Jovančević, Sanja

    2014-01-01

    Investigated landslide is the largest active mass movement along the Croatian coast, situated on the north-eastern slope in the central part of the Rječina Valley (north-eastern coastal part of Adriatic Sea, Croatia). Slopes in this valley are formed in siliciclastic rocks - flysch, while limestone rock mass is visible on the cliffs around the top of the river valley. The slopes are at the limit of a stable equilibrium state, and mass movement phenomena have been recorded since 19th century....

  16. 2003年十勝沖地震(MJMA 8.0)発生直後に樽前火山で起きた高感度カメラで明るく見える現象

    OpenAIRE

    寺田, 暁彦; 中川, 光弘; 大島, 弘光; 青山, 裕; 神山, 裕幸

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the authors describe remarkable thermo-activities especially at the fumaroles B on the southwestern cliff of the summit dome on Tarumae volcano, which unusually occurred soon after the Tokachi-oki erathquake that took place on Sep. 26 2003 (MJMA 8.0). The unusual thermoactivities include (1) increase in gas flux, (2) weak glow witnessed by the high-sensitive camera in the nighttime with positions moving night by night, and (3) ash ejection of about 24m^3. Since the high-sensiti...

  17. ATLAS Virtual Visit-Grantham-27-09-2014

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    Uniquely commissioned for the Gravity Fields Festival, the CERN Live exhibition is all about the world’s biggest experiment, the Large Hadron Collider. The Gravity Fields Festival celebrates South Lincolnshire as the home of Sir Isaac Newton and is a mix of science, arts and heritage events. As part of the festival, the Science and Technology Facilities Council has supported an exhibition which includes live events and speakers from the Large Hadron Collider, live links with CERN and an exhibition. CERN Live is curated by Dr Harry Cliff.

  18. III turismikonverents

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Ülevaade Ameerika Ühendriikide suursaadiku Aldona Sofia Wosi, TÜ Pärnu Kolledzhi külalisprofessori James N. Hollerani, Domina World Traveli tegevjuhi Ulvi Tüllineni, OÜ Tallinntuur tegevjuhi Daisy Järva, Hansabussi tegevjuhi Neeme Tammise, Saka Cliff Hotel&SPA OÜ direktori Terje Bürklandi, AS-i Bookinhouse nõukogu esimehe Andres Liinati, majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniministeeriumi siseturuosakonna juhataja Maria Alajõe, EAS-i juhatuse liikme Ülari Alametsa, Säästva Eesti Instituudi kliima ja energeetikaprogrammi projektijuhi Raimo Oinuse, Eesti Giidide Liidu liikme Margit Hallmäe ning zooloog Aleksei Turovski ettekannetest

  19. The last glacial cycles in East Greenland, an overVIew

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funder, Svend Visby

    1994-01-01

    Marine, fluvial and glacigcnc sediments exposed in coastal cliffs and stream-cllt sections in East Greenland between latitudes 69° and 78°N display a record of Quaternary climatic and environmental change going back to prc-SaaJian times (> 240 ka), but with main emphasis on the last interglacial...... ( ~ Eemian) the advection of warm Atlantic water was higher than during the Holocene, and the terrestrial flora and insect faullas show that summer temperatures were 3-4"C higher than during the Holocene optimum. There is no unambiguous evidence for cooling in the sediments from this interval. Later...

  20. Balance Game

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    China has acted swiftly and resolutely to recover the brisk economic growth it has enjoyed in the past five years. But growth is not everything. Analysts fret that the government’s spending spree may complicate the country’s efforts to edge toward a consumption-driven economy. What should we do to prevent the economy from falling off a cliff and at the same time switch the mix of growth from exports and investment to consumption? Yu Yongding, Director of the Institute of World Economics and Politics at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, discussed this issue in an inter- view with China Securities Journal. Excerpts follow:

  1. Impact of climate change on zooplankton communities, seabird populations and arctic terrestrial ecosystem—A scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stempniewicz, Lech; Błachowiak-Samołyk, Katarzyna; Węsławski, Jan M.

    2007-11-01

    Many arctic terrestrial ecosystems suffer from a permanent deficiency of nutrients. Marine birds that forage at sea and breed on land can transport organic matter from the sea to land, and thus help to initiate and sustain terrestrial ecosystems. This organic matter initiates the emergence of local tundra communities, increasing primary and secondary production and species diversity. Climate change will influence ocean circulation and the hydrologic regime, which will consequently lead to a restructuring of zooplankton communities between cold arctic waters, with a dominance of large zooplankton species, and Atlantic waters in which small species predominate. The dominance of large zooplankton favours plankton-eating seabirds, such as the little auk ( Alle alle), while the presence of small zooplankton redirects the food chain to plankton-eating fish, up through to fish-eating birds (e.g., guillemots Uria sp.). Thus, in regions where the two water masses compete for dominance, such as in the Barents Sea, plankton-eating birds should dominate the avifauna in cold periods and recess in warmer periods, when fish-eaters should prevail. Therefore under future anthropogenic climate scenarios, there could be serious consequences for the structure and functioning of the terrestrial part of arctic ecosystems, due in part to changes in the arctic marine avifauna. Large colonies of plankton-eating little auks are located on mild mountain slopes, usually a few kilometres from the shore, whereas colonies of fish-eating guillemots are situated on rocky cliffs at the coast. The impact of guillemots on the terrestrial ecosystems is therefore much smaller than for little auks because of the rapid washing-out to sea of the guano deposited on the seabird cliffs. These characteristics of seabird nesting sites dramatically limit the range of occurrence of ornithogenic soils, and the accompanying flora and fauna, to locations where talus-breeding species occur. As a result of climate

  2. Radioactive waste warehousing site installation - INB 56, Additional safety assessment with respect to the accident which occurred in the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a presentation of some characteristics of the installation located in Cadarache and used for radioactive waste warehousing (description, radioactive and chemical materials, specific risks, present status), this document reports the identification of cliff-edge effect risks and of critical structures and equipment. Then, it addresses the different risks: earthquake (installation sizing, margin assessment), external flooding (installation sizing, margin assessment in relationship with the different flooding origins), other extreme natural events (hail, extreme rainfalls, strong winds, lightning, and earthquake exceeding the design level), loss of electric supplies. The next parts address severe accident management (means and organization for crisis management, robustness of available means), and subcontracting conditions and practices

  3. Reduced interface recombination in Cu2ZnSnS4 solar cells with atomic layer deposition Zn1-xSnxO buffer layers

    OpenAIRE

    Platzer-Björkman, Charlotte; Frisk, Christoper; Larsen, Jes; Ericson, Tove; Li, Shuyi; Scragg, Jonathan; Keller, Jan; Larsson, Fredrik; Törndahl, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) solar cells typically include a CdS buffer layer in between the CZTS and ZnO front contact. For sulfide CZTS, with a bandgap around 1.5 eV, the band alignment between CZTS and CdS is not ideal ("cliff-like"), which enhances interface recombination. In this work, we show how a Zn1-xSnxOy (ZTO) buffer layer can replace CdS, resulting in improved open circuit voltages (V-oc) for CZTS devices. The ZTO is deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD), with a process previously develo...

  4. Safety analysis and code development for nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Annual safety research report, JFY 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear library of the MVP-ORBURN, a Monte Carlo burnup code for burnup credit applications, was updated to the JENDL-4.0. The test analysis was performed using the selected post irradiation experiment data from the SFCOMPO database. The selected samples were: Takahama unit 3 (14 samples), Calvert Cliffs No.1 (9 samples), Fukushima-Daini unit 2 (14 samples), and H. B. Robinson unit 2 (6 samples). The preliminary results showed significant improvement in the Am and Cm densities compared with the previous version JENDL-3.3: This result partly agrees with the main conclusions obtained from the pre-analysis by JAEA. (author)

  5. Trillions thriving in the emerging information ecology

    CERN Document Server

    Lucas, Peter; McManus, Mickey

    2012-01-01

    We are facing a future of unbounded complexity. Whether that complexity is harnessed to build a world that is safe, pleasant, humane, and profitable, or whether it causes us to careen off a cliff into an abyss of mind-numbing junk is an open question. The challenges and opportunities-technical, business, and human-that this technological sea change will bring are without precedent. Entire industries will be born and others will be laid to ruin as our society navigates this journey. There are already many more computing devices in the world than there are people. In a few more years, their n

  6. ActionScript Developer's Guide to PureMVC

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, Cliff

    2011-01-01

    Gain hands-on experience with PureMVC, the popular open source framework for developing maintainable applications with a Model-View-Controller architecture. In this concise guide, PureMVC creator Cliff Hall teaches the fundamentals of PureMVC development by walking you through the construction of a complete non-trivial Adobe AIR application. Through clear explanations and numerous ActionScript code examples, you'll learn best practices for using the framework's classes in your day-to-day work. Discover how PureMVC enables you to focus on the purpose and scope of your application, while the f

  7. トロイアの木馬に関する覚え書き

    OpenAIRE

    平山, 晃司

    2010-01-01

    In the debate about how to deal with the wooden horse, the Trojans are divided into three groups: one insists that it should be dedicated to Athena, another wants it to be burnt down or broken in pieces with an ax, while yet another suggests that they should throw it down from the cliffs. It may seem strange that the opinions of those who object to the first idea should split up in this way. Hurling it down from a precipice is a well attested form of disposing of a scapegoat; and the Trojan h...

  8. ORONYMS IN SERBIAN MEDIEVAL CHARTERS: THEIR MEMORIAL IN FUNCTION OF THE BORDER AREA ENTITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Снежана Божанић

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Relief is one of the most important and influential elements of the environment. All forms of the Earth's surface, i.e. its roughness and plane surfaces predetermine the type and forms of borders in a space. Mountains, hills, and mountain peaks, head, ridges, cliffs, rocks, steep slopes, headlands, valleys and pastures have a border role. Oronyms are clear, precise, easily visible, immobile, permanent borders, which exist under the same or similar name since the Middle Ages to the present day.

  9. Field trip report: Observations made at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada. Special report No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field trip was made to the Yucca Mountain area on December 5-9, 1992 by Jerry Frazier, Don Livingston, Christine Schluter, Russell Harmon, and Carol Hill. Forty-three separate stops were made and 275 lbs. of rocks were collected during the five days of the field trip. Key localities visited were the Bare Mountains, Yucca Mountain, Calico Hills, Busted Butte, Harper Valley, Red Cliff Gulch, Wahmonie Hills, Crater Flat, and Lathrop Wells Cone. This report only describes field observations made by Carol Hill. Drawings are used rather than photographs because cameras were not permitted on the Nevada Test Site during this trip

  10. The origin of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I first stepped through the doorway of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory in 1976, and I was impressed by what I saw: A dozen people working out of a stone-and-metal building perched at the edge of a high cliff with a spectacular view of a vast volcanic plain. Their primary purpose was to monitor the island's two active volcanoes, Kilauea and Mauna Loa. I joined them, working for six weeks as a volunteer and then, years later, as a staff scientist. That gave me several chances to ask how the observatory had started.

  11. Status of Indirect Drive ICF Experiments on the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the quest to demonstrate Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) ignition of deuterium-tritium (DT) filled capsules and propagating thermonuclear burn with net energy gain (fusion energy/laser energy >1), recent experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) have shown progress towards increasing capsule hot spot temperature (Tion>5 keV) and fusion neutron yield (~1016), while achieving ~2x yield amplification by alpha particle deposition. At the same time a performance cliff was reached, resulting in lower fusion yields than expected as the implosion velocity was increased. Ongoing studies of the hohlraum and capsule physics are attempting to disseminate possible causes for this performance ceiling.

  12. Simulations of a hypothetical temperature control structure at Detroit Dam on the North Santiam River, northwestern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccola, Norman L.; Stonewall, Adam J.; Rounds, Stewart A.

    2015-01-01

    Water temperature models of Detroit Lake, Big Cliff Lake, and the North Santiam River in northwestern Oregon were used to assess the potential for a hypothetical structure with variable intake elevations and an internal connection to power turbines at Detroit Dam (scenario SlidingWeir) to release more natural, pre-dam temperatures year round. This hypothetical structure improved outflow temperature control from Detroit Dam while meeting minimum dry-season release rates and lake levels specified by the rule curve specified for Detroit Lake.

  13. On the glaciology of Edgeøya and Barentsøya, Svalbard

    OpenAIRE

    Dowdeswell, Julian A.; Bamber, Jonathan L.

    1995-01-01

    The ice masses on Edgeøya and Barentsøya are the least well known in Svalbard. The islands are 42-47% ice covered with the largest ice cap, Edgeøyjøkulen, 1365 km2 in area. The tidewater ice cliffs of eastern Edgeøya are over 80 km long and produce small tabular icebergs. Several of the ice-cap outlet glaciers on Edgeøya and Barentsøya are known to surge, and different drainage basins within the ice caps behave as dynamically separate units. Terminus advances during surging have punctuated mo...

  14. A radiocarbon dated Weichselian sequence from Sejeroe, Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kineto-stratigraphic studies through a cliff section on the island of Sejeroe, Denmark, have revealed the presence of three till beds (interbedded with stratified meltwater deposits) related to the Main-, the East-Jutland-, and Belt Sea advances respectively. Below the tills there is a stratified deposit of clayey sand and silt with and admixture of organic material. The pollen in the organic part contains high percentages of Cyperaceae and Gramineae; radiocarbon dates of 36900 +- 460 B.P. and 36710 +- 460 B.P. from the deposit suggest a correlation with the Hengelo Interstadial in the Netherlands. (auhtor)

  15. Transient impurity transport by automated ion chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An ion chromatograph has been modified to automatically sample ten liquid water streams from the secondary side of three pressurized water reactors, Calvert Cliffs, Unit One, Rancho Seco and McGuire, Unit 1. Sampling and measurement is semicontinuous with a cycle time of approximately five hours for 10 locations with sensitivities in the range of 0.1 to 0.5 ppb. The efficiency of the condensate polishing system and subsequent transport of sodium, chloride, and sulfate around the system can be readily followed. Sulfate has been shown to have unusual volatility into the steam phase from the steam generator as well as a tendency to pass through the condensate polisher

  16. A 10,500 Sequence of Bird Remains from the Southern Boreal Forest Region of Western Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Driver, Jonathan C.; Keith A. Hobson

    1992-01-01

    The prehistoric avian fauna from the Charlie Lake Cave site, Peace River District, British Columbia, spans the last 10 500 years and includes birds from eleven orders. Prior to about 10 000 B.P. the fauna is sparse and the most common species is Cliff Swallow (Hirundopyrrhonota), which probably nested at the site. The avian fauna from 10 000 B.P. to the present is dominated by wetland associated birds (mainly grebes and ducks) of the same species found in the area today and is consistent with...

  17. 天堂波多黎各%A Puerto Rican Paradise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael Blanding

    2005-01-01

    @@ Standing on the white sands of Red Beach,it's hard to believe that US Navy bombers ever droned over the surf on their way to drop explosives nearby.The beach,a semicircle (半圆形) of stark cliffs and swaying palms surrounding a sparkling azure sea, is as perfect a picture of paradise as the wallpaper in a 1970s rumpus (喧闹) room. Silence is broken only by the murmurs of a dozen or so families lolling (懒洋洋地倚靠)on the sand,an unbelievably low population for a beach touted(吹捧) as one of the best in the Caribbean.

  18. Praxis II mathematics content knowledge test (0061)

    CERN Document Server

    McCune, Ennis Donice

    2007-01-01

    Your guide to a higher score on the Praxis II?: Mathematics Content Knowledge Test (0061) Why CliffsTestPrep Guides? Go with the name you know and trust Get the information you need--fast! Written by test-prep specialists About the contents: Introduction * Overview of the exam * How to use this book * Proven study strategies and test-taking tips Part I: Subject Review * Focused review of all exam topics: arithmetic and basic algebra, geometry, trigonometry, analytic geometry, functions and their graphs, calculus, probability and statistics, discrete mathematics, linear algebra, compute

  19. Breeding Long-legged Buzzard Buteo rufinus in forests of southwestern Iran: feeding habits and reproductive performance

    OpenAIRE

    SHAFAEIPOUR, ARYA

    2015-01-01

    The breeding biology, behavior, and diet of Long-legged Buzzard Buteo rufinus were studied during 2 breeding seasons in forests in southwestern Iran (n = 3 nests) from April to June in 2012 and 2013. All nests faced west to east on the upper edges of cliffs. Eggs were laid during 7-11 March. The clutch size was 3 eggs and incubation period was 31 ± 1 days. Brood reduction was observed in one of the nests (in the first year), and mortality of the smallest chicks occurred during the second week...

  20. Unustatuid eurolaulude tipp-10. Naine nagu Eurovisioon / Olavi Pihlamägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pihlamägi, Olavi, 1949-

    2008-01-01

    Eurovisiooni lauludest: Austria 1976 Waterloo & Robisnon "My Little Word" (5. koht), Suurbritannia 1972 The New Seekers "Beg, Steal or Borrow" (2. koht), Jugoslaavia 1983 Daniel "Dzuli (Julie)" (4. koht), Cliff Richard "Power To All Our Friends (3. koht)", Luksemburg 1967 Vicky Leandros "L'Amour Est Bleu" (4. koht), Holland 1974 Mouth & McNeal "I See A Star" (3. koht), Soome 1969 Jarkko & Laura "Kuin silloin ennen" (12. koht), Saksamaa 1981 Lena Valaitis "Johnny Blue", Saksamaa Katja Ebstein "Diese Welt" (3. koht), Luksemburg 1980 "Le Papa pinquin" (10. koht). Heli Läätsa lauldud eesti keelde kaverdatud eurolauludest

  1. Tourism Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Wudang Mountain Wudang Mountain, called Taihe Mountain or Xianshi Mountain in the past, is located near the city of Danjiangkou in central China’s Hubei Province. Wudang Mountain is both a famous scenic spot and a renowned Taoist shrine. The ancient architectural complex on the mountain was listed by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization in 1994 as a World Cultural Heritage Site. The natural scenery of Wudang Mountain is magnificent, tinged with some fantastically serene and charming touches. Major scenic spots include 72 peaks, 36 cliffs and 24 streams. Tianzhu Peak, the

  2. Precambrian Chuar source rock play: An exploration case history in southern Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uphoff, T.L. [BHP Petroleum, Houston, TX (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Source rock potential of the Upper Proterozoic Chuar Group, specifically the Walcott Member of the Kwagunt Formation, provides the basis for a petroleum play in southern Utah. Analyses of Chuar black shales from outcrops in the Grand Canyon show total organic carbon values of 3-9%, hydrogen indices up to 255, and maximum maturity within the oil window. Modeling indicates a potential 150 mi{sup 2} (400 km{sup 2}) area with a minimum generative potential of 2700 MBO{sup *}. Chuar source rocks are proposed as one part of a petroleum system that includes reservoirs in the Cambrian Tapeats Sandstone and seal in the overlying Bright Angel Shale. Prospective structures include anticlines of Laramide age not drilled through the Tapeats interval. One such structure is the Circle Cliffs uplift, which exhibits an area under closure of 9000 mi{sup 2} (2300 km{sup 2}) at the top of the Devonian. In 1994, BHP Petroleum drilled the 28-1 Federal well on the Circle Cliffs structure. The well logged 142 ft (43 m) of Tapeats porosity (>7%) and flowed CO{sub 2} gas at rates up to 5.0 Mcf{sup *} per day. Analysis of bitumen in the reservoir indicated an earlier hydrocarbon charge and suggested a new oil type for the region.

  3. The Evolution of Empathy and Women's Precarious Leadership Appointments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vongas, John G; Al Hajj, Raghid

    2015-01-01

    Glass cliffs describe situations in which women are promoted to executive roles in declining organizations. To explain them, some authors suggest that people tend to "think crisis-think female." However, the root cause of this association remains elusive. Using several subfields of evolutionary theory, we argue that biology and culture have shaped the perception of women as being more empathic than men and, consequently, as capable of quelling certain crises. Some crises are more intense than others and, whereas some brew within organizations, others originate from the external environment. We therefore propose that women will be selected to lead whenever a crisis is minimal to moderate and stems primarily from within the organization. Men, on the other hand, will be chosen as leaders whenever the crisis threatens the very existence of the firm and its source is an external threat. Leadership is a highly stressful experience, and even more so when leaders must scale glass cliffs. It is imperative that we understand what gives rise to them not only because they place women and potentially other minorities in positions where the likelihood of failure is high, but also because they help propagate stereotypes that undermine their true leadership ability. PMID:26617564

  4. Detailed rock failure susceptibility mapping in steep rocky coasts by means of non-contact geostructural surveys: the case study of the Tigullio Gulf (Eastern Liguria, Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. De Vita

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an engineering geological analysis for the assessment of the rock failure susceptibility of a high, steep, rocky coast was developed by means of non-contact geostructural surveys. The methodology was applied to a 6-km coastal cliff located in the Gulf of Tigullio (Northern Tyrrhenian Sea between Rapallo and Chiavari.

    The method is based on the geostructural characterisation of outcropping rock masses through meso- and macroscale stereoscopic analyses of digital photos that were taken continuously from a known distance from the coastline. The results of the method were verified through direct surveys of accessible sample areas. The rock failure susceptibility of the coastal sector was assessed by analysing the fundamental rock slope mechanisms of instability and the results were implemented into a Geographic Information System (GIS.

    The proposed method is useful for rock failure susceptibility assessments in high, steep, rocky coastal areas, where accessibility is limited due to cliffs or steep slopes. Moreover, the method can be applied to private properties or any other area where a complete and systematic analysis of rock mass structural features cannot be achieved.

    Compared to direct surveys and to other non-contact methods based on digital terrestrial photogrammetry, the proposed procedure provided good quality data of the structural features of the rock mass at a low cost. Therefore, the method could be applied to similar coastal areas with a high risk of rock failure occurrence.

  5. Spatial pattern of denudation in a lithologically controlled sub-tropical flat landscape: Insights from the Kimberley region, NW Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazes, Gaël; Fink, David; Codilean, Alexandru T.; Fülöp, Réka-Hajnalka

    2016-04-01

    The Kimberley region, northwest Australia, is well known for its expansive and diverse collection of prehistorical aboriginal rock art that potentially dates back to 40,000 years ago. The region is characterized by a tropical, semi-arid climate with a monsoonal rainfall distribution and a flat landscape interrupted by massive sandstone mesas and deeply incised bedrock river gorges. In order to constrain the chronology of the rock art it is necessary to quantify the spatial and temporal dimensions of landscape evolution. We report cosmogenic 10Be and 26Al concentrations in modern fluvial sediment collected from 27 catchments with areas spanning several orders of magnitude (13.6 -- 13,900 km2). All catchments are characterized by a very low topographic gradient (average basin slopes world, despite the strong climatic seasonality of the region. Our measured denudation rates exhibit a strong correlation with topographic gradient, which in the overall flat landscapes of the Kimberley, is controlled by the prevailing sandstone bedrock lithology and the presence of numerous escarpments adjacent to the river channels. We present a modelling approach that makes use of the 26Al/10Be ratio in the fluvial sediments as a source tracer (ie escarpment cliffs, river channels, plateau bedrocks), and use this to explore the control and retreat rate of the eroding escarpment cliffs in order to provide information on the spatial distribution of denudation in the landscape. We acknowledge field-work support from the Kimberly Foundation Australia.

  6. Combining scales in habitat models to improve conservation planning in an endangered vulture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo-Tomás, Patricia; Olea, Pedro P.

    2009-07-01

    Predictive modelling of species' distributions has been successfully applied in conservation ecology, but effective conservation requires predictive and accurate models. The combination of different scales to build habitat models might improve their predictive ability and hence their usefulness for conservation, but this approach has rarely been evaluated. We developed habitat-occupancy models combining scales from nest-site to landscape for a key population at the northwestern edge of the distribution of the globally endangered Egyptian vulture ( Neophron percnopterus). We used generalised linear models (GLM) and an information-theoretic approach to identify the best combination of scales and resolutions for explaining occurrence. Those models that combined nest-site and landscape scales improved the predictive ability compared with the scale-specific ones. The best combined model had a very high predictive ability when used against an independent dataset (92% correct classifications). Egyptian vultures preferred to nest in caves with vegetation at the entrance that were situated at the base of long cliffs, provided that these cliffs are embedded within low-lying, heterogeneous areas with little topographic irregularity and with little human disturbance. The density of sheep around the nest positively influenced Egyptian vulture presence. Conservation of the studied population should focus on minimising human disturbance and on promoting sustainable development through conservation of traditional pastoralism. Our findings highlight the importance of developing region-specific multiscale models in order to design effective conservation strategies. The approach described here may be applied similarly in other populations and species.

  7. The Evolution of Empathy and Women’s Precarious Leadership Appointments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vongas, John G.; Al Hajj, Raghid

    2015-01-01

    Glass cliffs describe situations in which women are promoted to executive roles in declining organizations. To explain them, some authors suggest that people tend to “think crisis-think female.” However, the root cause of this association remains elusive. Using several subfields of evolutionary theory, we argue that biology and culture have shaped the perception of women as being more empathic than men and, consequently, as capable of quelling certain crises. Some crises are more intense than others and, whereas some brew within organizations, others originate from the external environment. We therefore propose that women will be selected to lead whenever a crisis is minimal to moderate and stems primarily from within the organization. Men, on the other hand, will be chosen as leaders whenever the crisis threatens the very existence of the firm and its source is an external threat. Leadership is a highly stressful experience, and even more so when leaders must scale glass cliffs. It is imperative that we understand what gives rise to them not only because they place women and potentially other minorities in positions where the likelihood of failure is high, but also because they help propagate stereotypes that undermine their true leadership ability. PMID:26617564

  8. Computer analysis of sound recordings from two Anasazi sites in northwestern New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loose, Richard

    2002-11-01

    Sound recordings were made at a natural outdoor amphitheater in Chaco Canyon and in a reconstructed great kiva at Aztec Ruins. Recordings included computer-generated tones and swept sine waves, classical concert flute, Native American flute, conch shell trumpet, and prerecorded music. Recording equipment included analog tape deck, digital minidisk recorder, and direct digital recording to a laptop computer disk. Microphones and geophones were used as transducers. The natural amphitheater lies between the ruins of Pueblo Bonito and Chetro Ketl. It is a semicircular arc in a sandstone cliff measuring 500 ft. wide and 75 ft. high. The radius of the arc was verified with aerial photography, and an acoustic ray trace was generated using cad software. The arc is in an overhanging cliff face and brings distant sounds to a line focus. Along this line, there are unusual acoustic effects at conjugate foci. Time history analysis of recordings from both sites showed that a 60-dB reverb decay lasted from 1.8 to 2.0 s, nearly ideal for public performances of music. Echoes from the amphitheater were perceived to be upshifted in pitch, but this was not seen in FFT analysis. Geophones placed on the floor of the great kiva showed a resonance at 95 Hz.

  9. Coastal vulnerability assessment of Point Reyes National Seashore (PORE) to sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendleton, Elizabeth A.; Thieler, E. Robert; Williams, S. Jeffress

    2006-01-01

    A coastal vulnerability index (CVI) was used to map the relative vulnerability of the coast to future sea-level rise within Point Reyes National Seashore in Northern California. The CVI ranks the following in terms of their physical contribution to sea-level rise-related coastal change: geomorphology, regional coastal slope, rate of relative sea-level rise, historical shoreline change rates, mean tidal range and mean significant wave height. The rankings for each input variable were combined and an index value calculated for 1-minute grid cells covering the park. The CVI highlights those regions where the physical effects of sea-level rise might be the greatest. This approach combines the coastal system's susceptibility to change with its natural ability to adapt to changing environmental conditions, yielding a quantitative, although relative, measure of the park's natural vulnerability to the effects of sea-level rise. The CVI provides an objective technique for evaluation and long-term planning by scientists and park managers. Point Reyes National Seashore consists of sand and gravel beaches, rock cliffs, sand dune cliffs, and pocket beaches. The areas within Point Reyes that are likely to be most vulnerable to sea-level rise are areas of unconsolidated sediment where the coastal slope is lowest and wave energy is high.

  10. Origin of the springs of Costa Verde beach in Lima Peru

    CERN Document Server

    Rojas, Ruben; Mamani, Enoc; Maguina, Jose; Montoya, Eduardo; Baltuano, Oscar; Bedregal, Patricia; Coria, Lucy; Guerra, Alcides; Justo, Santiago; Churasacari, Tania

    2013-01-01

    This paper tries to determine the origin of springs on the Costa Verde beach, located in the district of Barranco, Miraflores and Magdalena, province of Lima, Peru. These springs emerge near the shoreline, from the lower layers of a 80 meter high cliff. They have survived the process of urbanization of agricultural land, started in the early 70, which decreased the water table aquifer of Lima, and wiped the water leaks from the cliffs. To identify the source of the springs, isotopic, physical, chemical and bacteriological analysis was carried out for samples from five springs. The isotopic concentrations in waters from Costa Verde springs are depleted compared to those obtained for Lima aquifer waters, which is recharged by infiltration of the Rimac River. The measured values of those concentrations suggest that water from the Costa Verde springs should come from a direct recharge in the upper and middle basin, due to infiltration of rainfall or the river at an altitude of about 3600 m. Conductivity and tempe...

  11. The location of uranium in source rocks and sites of secondary deposition at the Needle's Eye natural analogue site, Dumfries and Galloway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The British Geological Survey has been conducting a co-ordinated research programme at the natural analogue site of Needle's Eye at Southwick on the Solway coast in SW Scotland. This study of a naturally radioactive geochemical system has been carried out with the aim of improving our confidence in using predictive models of radionuclide migration in the geosphere. This report describes results of integrated mineralogical techniques which have been applied to the study of both the 'source-term' and sites of secondary accumulation of uranium. Pitchblende in a polymetallic-carbonate breccia vein exposed in ancient sea-cliffs is the main source of labile uranium although other uranium-bearing minerals present in the granodiorite and hornfelsed siltstone host-rocks present probable ancillary leachable sites. In keeping with the complex chemistry of the primary sulphide-rich mineralization, a large variety of secondary U minerals has been recorded among which arsenates and hydrous silicates appear to predominate. Uranium transported in groundwaters draining the cliffs has accumulated in organic-rich estuarine/intertidal mudflat sediments of Quaternary age. Charged particle track registration techniques have demonstrated convincingly the effectiveness of humidified organic matter in retarding uranium transport and, coupled with scanning electron microscopy, have indicated an important role of living plants and bacteria in uranium uptake and concentration. (author)

  12. The location of uranium in source rocks and sites of secondary deposition at the Needle's Eye natural analogue site, Dumfries and Galloway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The British Geological Survey has been conducting a coordinated research programme at the natural analogue site of Needle's Eye at Southwick on the Solway coast in south-west Scotland. This study of a naturally radioactive geochemical system has been carried out with the aim of improving our confidence in using predictive models of radionuclide migration in the geosphere. This report describes results of integrated mineralogical techniques which have been applied to the study of both the source-term and sites of secondary accumulation of uranium. Pitchblende in a polymetallic-carbonate breccia vein exposed in ancient sea-cliffs is the main source of labile uranium although other uranium-bearing minerals present in the granodiorite and hornfelsed siltstone host-rocks present probable ancillary leachable sites. In keeping with the complex chemistry of the primary sulphide-rich mineralization, a large variety of secondary U minerals has been recorded among which arsenates and hydrous silicates appear to predominate. Uranium transported in groundwaters draining the cliffs has accumulated in organic-rich estuarine/intertidal mudflat sediments of Quaternary age. Charged particle track registration techniques have demonstrated convincingly the effectiveness of humified organic matter in retarding uranium transport and, coupled with scanning electron microscopy, have indicated the important role of living plants and bacteria in uranium uptake and concentration. Computer codes used: CHEMVAL; CHEMTARD 5 figs.; 64 plates; 37 refs

  13. INB 40 OSIRIS and ISIS reactors: complementary safety evaluation in the light of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station accident; INB 40 reacteurs OSIRIS et ISIS evaluation complementaire de la surete au regard de l'accident servenu a la centrale nucleaire de Fukushima Daiichi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This report proposes a complementary safety evaluation of the Osiris and Isis reactors (INB 40) in Saclay, one of the French basic nuclear installations (BNI, in French INB) in the light of the Fukushima accident. This evaluation takes the following risks into account: risks of flooding, earthquake, loss of power supply and loss of cooling, in addition to operational management of accident situations. It presents some characteristics of the installation (brief description, buildings, effluents, control-command, radioprotection), identifies the risks of cliff effect and the main structures and equipment, evaluates the seismic risk (installation sizing, installation conformity, margin evaluation), evaluates the flooding risk (installation sizing, installation conformity, margin evaluation), briefly examines other extreme natural phenomena (extreme events, combination of events, earthquake or flooding with a higher level than that for which the installation is designed, measures to prevent a cliff effect). It analyzes the risk of a loss of power supply and of cooling (loss of external and internal electric sources, loss of the ultimate cooling system). It analyzes the management of severe accidents: crisis management organization, training and exercises, available intervention means, robustness of available means, measures for the protection of the confinement integrity after fuel damage. It discusses the conditions of the use of subcontractors

  14. INB 40 OSIRIS and ISIS reactors: complementary safety evaluation in the light of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report proposes a complementary safety evaluation of the Osiris and Isis reactors (INB 40) in Saclay, one of the French basic nuclear installations (BNI, in French INB) in the light of the Fukushima accident. This evaluation takes the following risks into account: risks of flooding, earthquake, loss of power supply and loss of cooling, in addition to operational management of accident situations. It presents some characteristics of the installation (brief description, buildings, effluents, control-command, radioprotection), identifies the risks of cliff effect and the main structures and equipment, evaluates the seismic risk (installation sizing, installation conformity, margin evaluation), evaluates the flooding risk (installation sizing, installation conformity, margin evaluation), briefly examines other extreme natural phenomena (extreme events, combination of events, earthquake or flooding with a higher level than that for which the installation is designed, measures to prevent a cliff effect). It analyzes the risk of a loss of power supply and of cooling (loss of external and internal electric sources, loss of the ultimate cooling system). It analyzes the management of severe accidents: crisis management organization, training and exercises, available intervention means, robustness of available means, measures for the protection of the confinement integrity after fuel damage. It discusses the conditions of the use of subcontractors

  15. Vascular Plant and Vertebrate Inventory of Montezuma Castle National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Cecilia A.; Drost, Charles A.; Halvorson, William Lee

    2006-01-01

    Executive Summary We summarize past inventory efforts for vascular plants and vertebrates at Montezuma Castle National Monument (NM) in Arizona. We used data from previous research to compile complete species lists for the monument and to assess inventory completeness. There have been 784 species recorded at Montezuma Castle NM, of which 85 (11%) are non-native. In each taxon-specific chapter we highlight areas of resources that contributed to species richness or unique species for the monument. Of particular importance are Montezuma Well and Beaver and Wet Beaver creeks and the surrounding riparian vegetation, which are responsible for the monument having one of the highest numbers of bird species in the Sonoran Desert Network of park units. Beaver Creek is also home to populations of federally-listed fish species of concern. Other important resources include the cliffs along the creeks and around Montezuma Well (for cliff and cave roosting bats). Based on the review of past studies, we believe the inventory for most taxa is nearly complete, though some rare or elusive species will be added with additional survey effort. We recommend additional inventory, monitoring and research studies.

  16. Kraški rob (landscape term Geologic section along the motorway Kozina – Koper (Capodistria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Placer

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Geologic section along the motorway from Kozina to Koper in totality exposed geologic structure of the border belt between Adriatic-Apulian foreland and Dinarides that was formed by subthrusting of Adriatic-Apulian foreland (Istria, Friuli underneath External Dinarides (Kras, Čičarija. During this process within the subthrusting belt a geomorphologic step was formed at sites where limestone became overthrust on flyschbeds.Apartof this geomorphologic step became known in the last decade of 20st century as the Kraški rob (Karst edge. With respect to geologic and geomorphologic considerations the term Kra{ki rob (»Karst Edge« as landscape term for cliffs above the valleys of the Osapska reka and upper Rižana rivers should be distinguished from term karst edge (kra{ki rob as a general term which is a synonym for the geomorphologic step consisting of precipitous cliffs and steep carbonate slopes situated entirely between the mouth of the river Timava and Mt. Učka that form the border belt between the karstic plateaus of Kras and Čičarije from one side, and the flysch Istria with the Trieste flysch coastal zone on the otherside.

  17. A Seamless, High-Resolution, Coastal Digital Elevation Model (DEM) for Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Hoover, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    A seamless, 3-meter digital elevation model (DEM) was constructed for the entire Southern California coastal zone, extending 473 km from Point Conception to the Mexican border. The goal was to integrate the most recent, high-resolution datasets available (for example, Light Detection and Ranging (Lidar) topography, multibeam and single beam sonar bathymetry, and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (IfSAR) topography) into a continuous surface from at least the 20-m isobath to the 20-m elevation contour. This dataset was produced to provide critical boundary conditions (bathymetry and topography) for a modeling effort designed to predict the impacts of severe winter storms on the Southern California coast (Barnard and others, 2009). The hazards model, run in real-time or with prescribed scenarios, incorporates atmospheric information (wind and pressure fields) with a suite of state-of-the-art physical process models (tide, surge, and wave) to enable detailed prediction of water levels, run-up, wave heights, and currents. Research-grade predictions of coastal flooding, inundation, erosion, and cliff failure are also included. The DEM was constructed to define the general shape of nearshore, beach and cliff surfaces as accurately as possible, with less emphasis on the detailed variations in elevation inland of the coast and on bathymetry inside harbors. As a result this DEM should not be used for navigation purposes.

  18. The necessity of sample quality assessment in 14C AMS dating: The case of Cova des Pas (Menorca - Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cova des Pas cave is a karstic cave in the cliffs of the Barranc (canyon) de Trebaluger. It is a small cave only 6.5 m deep, 4.5 m wide and 1.7 m high. Yet more than 70 burials, in foetal position, from the Early Iron Age were found in this small cave. The conservation of the archaeological remains was very unusual. Not only wood, ropes and other plant material was found, but also remains of body tissue, hair and leather. In spite of the remarkable preservation of the bodies and artefacts, the state of conservation of the bone material was very bad. The bones contained little and heavily deteriorated collagen and the organic plant material was very fragile. The special environmental conditions of the cave are the cause of these unusual preservation conditions. Although the cave is situated in a limestone cliff, the soil of the cave is very acid. Unexpectedly bad sample quality seemed to be the major drawback for AMS radiocarbon dating on hair, wood, ropes and bone collagen, as well as on bio-apatite.

  19. Preliminary development of an integrated approach to the evaluation of pressurized thermal shock as applied to the Oconee Unit 1 Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, T J; Cheverton, R D; Flanagan, G F; White, J D; Ball, D G; Lamonica, L B; Olson, R

    1986-05-01

    An evaluation of the risk to the Oconee-1 nuclear plant due to pressurized thermal shock (PTS) has been Completed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This evaluaion was part of a Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) program designed to study the PTS risk to three nuclear plants: Oconee-1, a Babcock and Wilco reactor plant owned and operated by Duke Power Company; Calvert Cliffs-1, a Combustion Engineering reactor plant owned and operated by Baltimore Gas and Electric company; and H.B. Robinson-2, a Westinghouse reactor plant owned and operated by Carolina Power and Light Company. Studies of Calvert Cliffs-1 and H.B. Robinson-2 are still underway. The specific objectives of the Oconee-1 study were to: (1) provide a best estimate of the probability of a through-the-wall crack (TWC) occurring in the reactor pressure vessel as a result of PTS; (2) determine dominant accident sequences, plant features, operator and control actions and uncertainty in the PTS risk; and (3) evaluate effectiveness of potential corrective measures.

  20. Using artificial streams to assess the effects of metal-mining effluent on the life cycle of the freshwater midge (Chironomus tentans) in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruska, Kimberly A; Dubé, Monique G

    2004-11-01

    In 2002, we developed an in situ life-cycle bioassay with Chironomus tentans in artificial streams to evaluate the effects of a complex metal mine effluent under ambient environmental conditions. The bioassay was tested in the field using effluent from the Copper Cliff Waste Water Treatment Plant at INCO (Sudbury, ON, Canada). Chironomus tentans were exposed throughout the life cycle to 45% Copper Cliff effluent, which is the average effluent concentration measured in Junction Creek (ON, Canada), the natural receiving environment. Chironomus tentans in the effluent treatment exhibited reduced survival (p = 0.001), reduced total emergence (p = 0.001), increased time-to-emergence (p = 0.001), and reduced hatching success (p = 0.001) relative to animals in the reference water treatment. Chironomus tentans in the effluent treatment were not significantly different from the reference in terms of growth, sex ratio, number of egg cases/female, and number of eggs/egg case. This research showed how a life-cycle bioassay could be used in situ to assess metal mine effluent effects on a benthic invertebrate. PMID:15559287

  1. Radiocarbon dating of the Peruvian Chachapoya/Inca site at the Laguna de los Condores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: An archaeological site with several funerary houses built in the cliffs of the Laguna de los Condores by the Chachapoya people was discovered in 1997 in the cloud forest at a sea level of 2500 m in the Amazonas/San Martin area in Peru. The Chachapoya people and their culture is not fully understood until now and some myths entwine around the origin of that South American ancient civilisation. The Chachapoya are described as people of warriors, which were finally subdued by the Incas. A typical characteristic of their culture is the special burial of their dead in funeral bundles containing the remains of the bodies. At the Laguna de los Condores more that 200 mummies have been found and transferred to Leymebamba. During the rescue work of the mummies, which were in danger to be destroyed by looters, it turned out that two different burial patterns could be detected. It is assumed, that after conquering of the Chachapoyas, the Inca people took over also the burial cliff houses and used it for their own burials. The Incas themselves were subdued by the Spanish Conquistadors in 1532 AD. In order to shed light on the transition from the Chachapoya to the Inka dominance, which is connected with the history of the Laguna de los Condores funeral site, a multidisciplinary project between archaeologists, anthropologists and physicists has been started. VERA contributes to this project with several radiocarbon dates of archaeological objects and of the mummies from this Chachapoya/Inca site. (author)

  2. TopCAT-Topographical Compartment Analysis Tool to analyze seacliff and beach change in GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Michael J.; Young, Adam P.; Ashford, Scott A.

    2012-08-01

    This paper discusses the development of a new GIS extension named the Topographic Compartment Analysis Tool (TopCAT), which compares sequential digital elevation models (DEMs) and provides a quantitative and statistical analysis of the alongshore topographical change. TopCAT was specifically designed for the morphological analysis of seacliffs and beaches but may be applied to other elongated features which experience topographical change, such as stream beds, river banks, coastal dunes, etc. To demonstrate the capabilities of TopCAT two case studies are presented herein. The first case examines coastal cliff retreat for a 500 m section in Del Mar, California and shows that large failures comprised a large portion of the total eroded volume and the average retreat rate does not provide a good estimate of local maximum cliff retreat. The second case investigates the alongshore volumetric beach sand change caused by hurricane Bonnie (1998) for an 85 km section in the Cape Hatteras National Seashore, North Carolina. The results compare well (generally within 6%) with previous investigations. These case studies highlight additional information gained through performing a detailed, discretized analysis using TopCAT.

  3. Sediment Sources and Transport Pathway Identification Based on Grain-Size Distributions on the SW Coast of Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqin Du

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Espichel-Sines is an embayed coast in SW Portugal, consisting of two capes at both extremities, a tidal inlet and associated ebb tidal delta, a barrier spit, sandy beaches, sea cliffs, and a submarine canyon. Beach berm, backshore, near shore and inner shelf sediment samples were taken. Samples were analyzed for their grain-size compositions. This study ranks the hypothetical sediment sources influences on the sediment distributions in the study area using the multivariate Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF techniques. Transport pathways in this study were independently identified using the grain size trend analysis (GSTA technique to verify the EOF findings. The results show that the cliff-erosion sediment is composed of pebbles and sand and is the most important sediment source for the entire embayment. The sediment at the inlet mouth is a mixture of pebbles, sand, silt, and clay, which is a minor sediment source that only has local influence. The overall grain-size distributions on the shelf are dominated by the sand except for the high mud content around the tidal delta front in the northern embayment. Sediment transport patterns on the inner shelf at the landward and north sides of the canyon head are landward and northward along the barrier spit, respectively. On the south side of the canyon head, the prevailing sediment transport is seaward. Sediment transport occurs in both directions along the shore.

  4. Licence renewal in the United States - enhancing the process through lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) is the Washington based policy organisation representing the broad and varied interests of the diverse nuclear energy industry. It comprises nearly 300 corporate members in 15 countries with a budget last year of about USD 26.5 million. It has been working for 10 years with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), colleagues in the industry and others to demonstrate that license renewal is a safe and workable process. The first renewed license was issued on 24 March to BGE for the the Calvert Cliffs plant. One month later the NRC issued the renewed license for the Ocoenne plant. By 'Enhancing the process through lessons learned', we mean reducing the uncertainty in the license renewal process. This is achieved through lessons learned from the net wave of applicants and the reviews of the Calvert Cliffs and Ocoenne applications. Three areas will be covered: - Incentive for minimising uncertainty as industry interest in license renewal is growing dramatically. - Rigorous reviews by Nuclear Regulatory Commission assure continued safety: process put in place by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to assure safety throughout the license renewal term, specifically areas where the lessons learned suggest improvements can be made. - Lessons learned have identified enhancements to the process: numerous benefits associated with renewal of nuclear power plant licenses for consumers of electricity, the environment, the nuclear operating companies and the nation. (author)

  5. Complex alpine extrication: case report of mountain and speleological rescue cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sette, Piersandro; Carlini, Mauro; Berti, Damiano; Rucci, Igor; Marchiori, Francesco; Toffali, Fausto; Schonsberg, Alberto; Ricci, Giorgio; Tardivo, Stefano

    2015-06-01

    Mountain sporting activities are an increasingly popular practice that exposes mountaineers to a high risk of adverse events. This report describes a unique case of recovery in an austere environment that involved explosives. In June 2012, a 52-year-old man ascended a cliff tower in the Eastern Alps, Italy. A landslide occurred, and a boulder crushed the climber against a large stone located farther down the cliff, causing compression of the lower limbs and the pelvis with consequent severe musculoskeletal trauma. The National Alpine and Cave Rescue Unit (NACRU) arrived and proceeded with stabilization of the injured climber, which took 6 hours and involved a difficult extrication supported by the Cave Rescue division of NACRU. Unfortunately, during transport to the trauma center of Borgo Trento, Verona, the patient exhibited signs of progressive traumatic shock because of crush syndrome, hypovolemia, and acidosis, which led to cardiac arrest and death. Based on an extensive literature review, this report was determined to be the only one of a mountain rescue using explosives for the extrication of a victim in the Northeast Italian Alps. This case describes how a rescue in austere environments can represent a high-risk situation, and it shows how improvisation and cooperation between rescue teams are crucial for a successful recovery. PMID:25747541

  6. Preliminary development of an integrated approach to the evaluation of pressurized thermal shock as applied to the Oconee Unit 1 Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An evaluation of the risk to the Oconee-1 nuclear plant due to pressurized thermal shock (PTS) has been Completed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This evaluaion was part of a Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) program designed to study the PTS risk to three nuclear plants: Oconee-1, a Babcock and Wilco reactor plant owned and operated by Duke Power Company; Calvert Cliffs-1, a Combustion Engineering reactor plant owned and operated by Baltimore Gas and Electric company; and H.B. Robinson-2, a Westinghouse reactor plant owned and operated by Carolina Power and Light Company. Studies of Calvert Cliffs-1 and H.B. Robinson-2 are still underway. The specific objectives of the Oconee-1 study were to: (1) provide a best estimate of the probability of a through-the-wall crack (TWC) occurring in the reactor pressure vessel as a result of PTS; (2) determine dominant accident sequences, plant features, operator and control actions and uncertainty in the PTS risk; and (3) evaluate effectiveness of potential corrective measures

  7. Opportunity's 'Olympia' Panorama

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Opportunity's 'Olympia' Panorama (QTVR) This view from the panoramic camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows an outcrop called 'Olympia' along the northwestern margin of 'Erebus' crater. The view spans about 120 degrees from side to side, generally looking southward. The outcrop exposes a broad expanse of sulfate-rich sedimentary rocks. The rocks were formed predominantly from windblown sediments, but some also formed in environmental conditions from damp to under shallow surface water. After taking the images that were combined into this view, Opportunity drove along along a path between sand dunes to the upper left side of the image, where a cliff in the background can be seen. This is a cliff is known as the 'Mogollon Rim.' Researchers expect it to expose more than 1 meter (3 feet) of new strata. These strata may represent the highest level observed yet by Opportunity. The image is an approximately true-color rendering generated using the panoramic camera's 750-nanometer, 530-nanometer and 430-nanometer filters.

  8. Damage due to Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake and related subsurface conditions in Toyonaka City; Hanshin/Awaji Daishinsai ni okeru Toyonakashi no higai to jiban

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinozaki, W.; Tanimura, K. [Construction Project Consultant Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan); Takada, N. [Osaka City Univ., Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-02-01

    In spite of the fact that Toyonaka City in Osaka Prefecture is away from the seismic center by about 50 km, the number of houses completely or partially destroyed was as large as 10,000, and a maximum of about 3000 people had lived refuge lives. Toyonaka City topographically comprises an alluvial plain on the south of the Sone terraced cliff extending from east to west in the central part of the same city, and the undulating Senri hills on the north of the terraced cliff. In the substantially whole area of the alluvial plain, the wooden houses and some medium-storied ferro-concrete buildings were damaged, and, in the western inclined part of the hilly area, houses and housing lands were suffered from the earthquake. Underground buried facilities, such as waterworks and sewage were also damaged in substantially the same areas in which houses were destructed. This paper summarizes the relation between the distribution of seismic destruction and the ground and topographical conditions, correlating the results of the investigation into the earthquake disaster which was conducted by Toyonaka City with the ground diagram of the same city. It is considered that the damage by the earthquake was enlarged by not only the weak alluvial layers and loose fill-up ground but also the seismic motion amplified by the generally called `waterside focusing effect` of the hills extending toward the seismic center. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Faults in Quaternary cover as a relfection of basement tectonics: Kolguev island, barents sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapivner, R. B.; Skorobogat'ko, A. V.

    2012-09-01

    The paper is concerned with the results of the detailed study of dislocations in the Pliocene-Quaternary loose sediments exposed as cliffs extending for ˜30 km along the rectilinear shore of Kolguev Island. According to seismic data, this lineament is related to the Coastal Fault in the lower part of the sedimentary cover. A system of faults longitudinal, diagonal, and transverse relative to the shoreline is established from observations at the cliffs. Their arrangement in plan view corresponds to the geometry of the right-lateral shear zone, the axis of which almost coincides with the shoreline. This has allowed us to identify the faults as secondary disturbances in the region of dynamic effect of the Coastal Fault in the basement. The kinematics of the secondary faults and their dip azimuth are consistent with echeloned geometry in plan view. The low-angle dip of the reverse-strike-slip faults observed at the outcrops is caused by their near-surface flattening toward the subsided block. The shallow-seated dislocations are related to ductile lateral shear in the vertical plane. The lower layers of the sedimentary cover mimic the horizontal movements in the basement more closely than the upper layers. The data obtained indicate high neotectonic activity of the Barents Sea shelf and specify the geodynamic setting of the region in the Pliocene and Quaternary.

  10. Geothermal Progress Monitor. Report No. 18

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The near-term challenges of the US geothermal industry and its long-range potential are dominant themes in this issue of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Geothermal Progress Monitor which summarizes calendar-year 1996 events in geothermal development. Competition is seen as an antidote to current problems and a cornerstone of the future. Thus, industry's cost-cutting strategies needed to increase the competitiveness of geothermal energy in world markets are examined. For example, a major challenge facing the US industry today is that the sales contracts of independent producers have reached, or soon will, the critical stage when the prices utilities must pay them drop precipitously, aptly called the cliff. However, Thomas R. Mason, President and CEO of CalEnergy told the DOE 1996 Geothermal Program Review XIV audience that while some of his company's plants have ''gone over the cliff, the world is not coming to an end.'' With the imposition of severe cost-cutting strategies, he said, ''these plants remain profitable... although they have to be run with fewer people and less availability.'' The Technology Development section of the newsletter discusses enhancements to TOUGH2, the general purpose fluid and heat flow simulator and the analysis of drill cores from The Geysers, but the emphasis is on advanced drilling technologies.

  11. Isolation of novel extreme-tolerant cyanobacteria from a rock-dwelling microbial community by using exposure to low Earth orbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson-Francis, Karen; de la Torre, Rosa; Cockell, Charles S

    2010-04-01

    Many cyanobacteria are known to tolerate environmental extremes. Motivated by an interest in selecting cyanobacteria for applications in space, we launched rocks from a limestone cliff in Beer, Devon, United Kingdom, containing an epilithic and endolithic rock-dwelling community of cyanobacteria into low Earth orbit (LEO) at a height of approximately 300 kilometers. The community was exposed for 10 days to isolate cyanobacteria that can survive exposure to the extreme radiation and desiccating conditions associated with space. Culture-independent (16S rRNA) and culture-dependent methods showed that the cyanobacterial community was composed of Pleurocapsales, Oscillatoriales, and Chroococcales. A single cyanobacterium, a previously uncharacterized extremophile, was isolated after exposure to LEO. We were able to isolate the cyanobacterium from the limestone cliff after exposing the rock-dwelling community to desiccation and vacuum (0.7 x 10(-3) kPa) in the laboratory. The ability of the organism to survive the conditions in space may be linked to the formation of dense colonies. These experiments show how extreme environmental conditions, including space, can be used to select for novel microorganisms. Furthermore, it improves our knowledge of environmental tolerances of extremophilic rock-dwelling cyanobacteria. PMID:20154120

  12. Evaluation of operational safety at Babcock and Wilcox plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A methodology was developed to assess the operational performance of nuclear power plants through an integration of thermal-hydraulic, human factors, and risk analysis techniques. This methodology was applied to evaluate the effectiveness of plant systems and operator actions in lessening the severity of selected transients for Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) plants. Comparisons were also performed to assess differences in operational performance capabilities and limitations between selected Combustion Engineering, Westinghouse, and B and W plants. For the selected B and W plant, the results show the probability that an operating crew would not respond within the times available (the non-response probability) is estimated to be relatively small for the three transients studied. Results also show a strong correlation between operator performance and the influence of eight performance shaping factors (PSFs). Comparison of results from the Oconee, Calvert Cliffs, and H. B. Robinson plants indicate that the likelihood operators would take the proper actions to return Oconee to a safe stable state is not judged to be significantly different than the likelihood operators at Calvert Cliffs or H. B. Robinson would recover their plants for the transients investigated. The validity of this conclusion depends on the assumption that the performance shaping factors at all three plants are essentially equivalent. Recommendations are made that influence performance shaping factors positively and thereby influence operator performance positively

  13. A new rapid method for rockfall energies and distances estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomini, Anna; Ferrari, Federica; Thoeni, Klaus; Lambert, Cedric

    2016-04-01

    Rockfalls are characterized by long travel distances and significant energies. Over the last decades, three main methods have been proposed in the literature to assess the rockfall runout: empirical, process-based and GIS-based methods (Dorren, 2003). Process-based methods take into account the physics of rockfall by simulating the motion of a falling rock along a slope and they are generally based on a probabilistic rockfall modelling approach that allows for taking into account the uncertainties associated with the rockfall phenomenon. Their application has the advantage of evaluating the energies, bounce heights and distances along the path of a falling block, hence providing valuable information for the design of mitigation measures (Agliardi et al., 2009), however, the implementation of rockfall simulations can be time-consuming and data-demanding. This work focuses on the development of a new methodology for estimating the expected kinetic energies and distances of the first impact at the base of a rock cliff, subject to the conditions that the geometry of the cliff and the properties of the representative block are known. The method is based on an extensive two-dimensional sensitivity analysis, conducted by means of kinematic simulations based on probabilistic modelling of two-dimensional rockfall trajectories (Ferrari et al., 2016). To take into account for the uncertainty associated with the estimation of the input parameters, the study was based on 78400 rockfall scenarios performed by systematically varying the input parameters that are likely to affect the block trajectory, its energy and distance at the base of the rock wall. The variation of the geometry of the rock cliff (in terms of height and slope angle), the roughness of the rock surface and the properties of the outcropping material were considered. A simplified and idealized rock wall geometry was adopted. The analysis of the results allowed finding empirical laws that relate impact energies

  14. Dynamic characteristics of a coastal area of lateral spreading using ambient noise time series - Anchor Bay, Malta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galea, Pauline; D'Amico, Sebastiano; Farrugia, Daniela

    2013-04-01

    Anchor Bay and surrounding regions are located on the northwest coast of the island of Malta, Central Mediterranean. The area is characterized by a coastal cliff environment having an outcropping layer of hard coralline limestone (UCL) resting on a thick (up to 50m) layer of clays and marls (Blue Clay, BC). This configuration gives rise to a number of processes leading to coastal instability, in particular lateral spreading phenomena and rock falls. Previous and ongoing studies have identified both lateral spreading rates and vertical motions of up to 27mm per year (Mantovani et al, 2012). The area is an interesting natural laboratory as coastal detachment processes in a number of different stages can be identified and are easily accessible. We investigate the site dynamic characteristics of this study area by recording ambient noise time series (20 minutes long) at over 20 points, over an area of 0.07 km2, using a portable 3-component seismograph (Tromino ) The time series are processed to give both horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio graphs (HVSR) as well as frequency-dependent polarisation analysis as proposed by Burjanek (2011, 2012). The HVSR graphs illustrate and quantify aspects of site resonance effects due both to underlying geology as well as to mechanical resonance of partly or wholly detached boulders or blocks. The polarization diagrams indicate predominant directions of vibrational effects. Results from this study show an unambiguous distinction between the behavior of "stable" areas, away from the cliff edges, the region of the unstable cliff edge and the actual rockfall areas. Stable regions are characterized by a single and pronounced HVSR resonance peak at around 1.5Hz that are characteristic of all other areas in the Maltese islands having the same underlying geological sequence, while HVSR curves closer to the cliff edge show more complex responses at higher frequencies characteristic of the dynamic behavior of individual detached blocks

  15. Environmental Sensitivity Index: Estonian shoreline geology classification (Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aps, Robert; Kopti, Madli; Tõnisson, Hannes; Orviku, Kaarel; Suursaar, Ülo

    2013-04-01

    At International Maritime Organization's (IMO) Marine Environment Protection Committee's 53rd session in July 2005, the Baltic Sea was designated as a Particularly Sensitive Sea Area (PSSA). At the same time the oil transportation is growing significantly in the Baltic Sea area and especially in the Gulf of Finland exceeding 250 million tons a year by 2015. Despite of improving navigation measures there is a growing risk for incidental oil spills and associated oil pollution. Oil spill accident history and simulations show that once the oil spill at sea has occurred, it is almost impossible to prevent it from reaching ashore. Advice on sensitive shoreline likely to be impacted by the oil washing ashore is of critical importance in order to support decisions whether or not a response is necessary or what kind and extent of response is appropriate. Furthermore, choices made in cleanup strategies and the decisionmaking process in the aftermath of a spill are significantly affecting the cleanup costs. This paper introduces the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) shoreline geology classification adapted and modified according to the environmental conditions of the Estonian coast of the Gulf of Finland (Baltic Sea) and ranked according to substrate type and grain size related natural persistence of oil and ease of cleanup. Relative exposure to wave (hydrodynamic energy level) and the shoreline slope are characterized and taken into account. The length of the shoreline is over 700 km. The most common shore types are till shores (40%) and sandy shores (25%). Long stretches of cliff shores (11% in total) and gravel-pebble shores (10%) on the close neighborhood of the cliffs are the most characteristic features of the Estonian coast of the Gulf of Finland. Silty shores and artificial shores make up to 7% and 6% respectively of the total shoreline length here. Over 2/3 of the shores here are with very high ESI values. Till shores are often covered by coarse gravel, pebble

  16. An integrated management tool for rockfall evaluation along transportation corridors: the ParaChute research project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloutier, Catherine; Locat, Jacques; Mayers, Mélanie; Noël, François; Turmel, Dominique; Jacob, Chantal; Dorval, Pierre; Bossé, François; Gionet, Pierre; Jaboyedoff, Michel

    2016-04-01

    Rockfall is a significant hazard along linear infrastructures due to the presence of natural and man-made rock slopes. Knowing where the problematic rockfalls source areas are is of primary importance to properly manage and mitigate the risk associated to rockfall along linear infrastructures. The aim of the ParaChute research project is to integrate various technologies into a workflow for rockfall characterization for such infrastructures, using a 220 km-long railroad as the study site which is located on Québec's North Shore, Canada. The objectives of this 3-year project which started in 2014 are: (1) to optimize the use of terrestrial, mobile and airborne laser scanners data into terrain analysis, structural geology analysis and rockfall susceptibility rating, (2) to further develop the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) for photogrammetry applied to rock cliff characterization, and (3) to integrate rockfall simulation studies into a rock slope classification system similar to the Rockfall Hazard Rating System. Firstly, based on laser scanner data and aerial photographs, the morpho-structural features of the terrain (genetic material, landform, drainage, etc.) are mapped. The result can be used to assess all types of mass movements. Secondly, to guide field work and decrease uncertainty of various parameters, systematic rockfall simulations and a first structural analysis are made from point clouds acquired by mobile and airborne laser scanner. The simulation results are used to recognize the rock slopes that have potentially problematic rockfall paths, meaning they could reach the linear infrastructure. Other rock slopes are not included in the inventory. Field work is carried out to validate and complete the rock slopes characterization previously made from remote sensing technique. Because some or parts of cliffs are not visible or accessible from the railroad, we are currently developing the use of photogrammetry by UAV in order to complete the

  17. An Interglacial Polar Bear and an Early Weichselian Glaciation at Poolepynten, Western Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingolfsson, O.; Alexanderson, H.

    2012-12-01

    Recent discovery of a subfossil polar bear (Ursus maritimus) jawbone in the Poolepynten coastal cliff sequence, western Svalbard (Ingolfsson & Wiig, 2009), and its implications for the natural history of the polar bear (Lindqvist et al. 2010; Miller et al. 2012), motivated an effort to better constrain the environmental history and age envelope of the Poolepynten sediment sequence, particularly the lithostratigraphy of the coastal cliffs with emphasis on re-dating the sequence using the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating technique. We report a revised lithostratigraphy and nine new OSL ages. It is concluded that the Poolepynten sequence holds evidence of four regional glaciation events, recorded in the strata as erosional unconformities and/or glacial deposits followed by shallow-marine deposition signifying transgressions and subsequent glacio-isostatic rebound and regression. Our OSL ages refine previous age determinations (14C and IRSL) and support the interpretation that the subfossil polar bear jawbone is of last interglacial (Eemian) age (Alexanderson et al. in press). References: Alexanderson, H., Ingolfsson, O., Murray, A.S. & Dudek, J. in press. An Interglacial Polar Bear and an Early Weichselian Glaciation at Poolepynten, Western Svalbard. Boreas 00, 000-000. Ingolfsson, O. & Wiig, O. 2009. Late Pleistocene fossil find in Svalbard: the oldest remains of a polar bear (Ursus maritimus Phipps, 1744) ever discovered. Polar Research 28, 455-466. Lindqvist, C., Schuster, S. C., Sun, Y., Talbot, S. L., Qi, J., Ratan, A., Tomsho, L. P., Kasson, L., Zeyl, E., Aars, J., Miller, W., Ingólfsson, Ó., Bachmann, L. & Wiig, Ø. 2010. Complete mitochondrial genome of a Pleistocene jawbone unveils the origin of polar bear. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107, 5053-5057. Miller, W., Schuster, S. C., Welch, A. J., Ratan, A., Bedoya-Reina, O. C., Zhao, F., Kim, H. L., Burhans, R.C., Drautz, D.I., Wittekindt, N.E., Tomsho, L.P., Ibarra-Laclette, E

  18. Gasbuggy Site Assessment and Risk Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-03-01

    The Gasbuggy site is in northern New Mexico in the San Juan Basin, Rio Arriba County (Figure 1-1). The Gasbuggy experiment was designed to evaluate the use of a nuclear detonation to enhance natural gas production from the Pictured Cliffs Formation, a tight, gas-bearing sandstone formation. The 29-kiloton-yield nuclear device was placed in a 17.5-inch wellbore at 4,240 feet (ft) below ground surface (bgs), approximately 40 ft below the Pictured Cliffs/Lewis shale contact, in an attempt to force the cavity/chimney formed by the detonation up into the Pictured Cliffs Sandstone. The test was conducted below the southwest quarter of Section 36, Township 29 North, Range 4 West, New Mexico Principal Meridian. The device was detonated on December 10, 1967, creating a 335-ft-high chimney above the detonation point and a cavity 160 ft in diameter. The gas produced from GB-ER (the emplacement and reentry well) during the post-detonation production tests was radioactive and diluted, primarily by carbon dioxide. After 2 years, the energy content of the gas had recovered to 80 percent of the value of gas in conventionally developed wells in the area. There is currently no technology capable of remediating deep underground nuclear detonation cavities and chimneys. Consequently, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) must continue to manage the Gasbuggy site to ensure that no inadvertent intrusion into the residual contamination occurs. DOE has complete control over the 1/4 section (160 acres) containing the shot cavity, and no drilling is permitted on that property. However, oil and gas leases are on the surrounding land. Therefore, the most likely route of intrusion and potential exposure would be through contaminated natural gas or contaminated water migrating into a producing natural gas well outside the immediate vicinity of ground zero. The purpose of this report is to describe the current site conditions and evaluate the potential health risks posed by the most plausible

  19. The Use of a Reflectorless Scanning Total Station for Non-Invasive Measurements of Snowpack and Glacial Ice Volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duane, W. J.; Pepin, N. C.; Chowanski, K.; Hardy, D. R.

    2005-12-01

    Snow and ice distribution is a critical factor when determining how alpine and montane zones function. Annual snowpack development in mid-latitudes is of fundamental importance for water supply and runoff during the spring melt period. Additionally, the presence of lying snow has significant implications for the ecology of the high mountains, especially in the alpine tundra and montane forest zones. Ice in the form of glaciers is also of critical interest, particularly concerning water storage in the hydrological cycle and any long-term change due to climate forcing. It is time consuming to obtain accurate three-dimensional models of a snow or ice surface, and manual surveys using poles or stakes are extremely costly in terms of human resources, and in the case of a fresh snow surface, are invasive. This last point is of particular importance if there is other instrumentation above or below the snow surface. This poster describes the employment of a reflectorless, motorized total station with a `face-scan' capability allowing for a systematic, non-invasive method of creating digital terrain models of snow or ice surfaces. Using this technique, an irregularly shaped area can be delineated and a suitable grid resolution selected, before collecting the data. Any changes in the snow or ice elevation whether through accumulation, ablation or redistribution can then be derived and mapped relatively simply. Check observations to fixed targets can give an assessment of accuracies between scans such that objective confidence levels can be given to the results. Sub-centimetre accuracies in plan and height are regularly achieved. Two examples of applications using this methodology examine, a) snow redistribution in the sub-alpine forest zone of Niwot Ridge, Colorado, U.S.A. and b) ice-cliff retreat at the glacial margins on Mt. Kilimanjaro, Tanzania. In Colorado repeated scans of a large snowdrift in a sub-alpine clearing were collected on a daily basis during two field

  20. Active and passive seismic methods for characterization and monitoring of unstable rock masses: field surveys, laboratory tests and modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombero, Chiara; Baillet, Laurent; Comina, Cesare; Jongmans, Denis; Vinciguerra, Sergio

    2016-04-01

    Appropriate characterization and monitoring of potentially unstable rock masses may provide a better knowledge of the active processes and help to forecast the evolution to failure. Among the available geophysical methods, active seismic surveys are often suitable to infer the internal structure and the fracturing conditions of the unstable body. For monitoring purposes, although remote-sensing techniques and in-situ geotechnical measurements are successfully tested on landslides, they may not be suitable to early forecast sudden rapid rockslides. Passive seismic monitoring can help for this purpose. Detection, classification and localization of microseismic events within the prone-to-fall rock mass can provide information about the incipient failure of internal rock bridges. Acceleration to failure can be detected from an increasing microseismic event rate. The latter can be compared with meteorological data to understand the external factors controlling stability. On the other hand, seismic noise recorded on prone-to-fall rock slopes shows that the temporal variations in spectral content and correlation of ambient vibrations can be related to both reversible and irreversible changes within the rock mass. We present the results of the active and passive seismic data acquired at the potentially unstable granitic cliff of Madonna del Sasso (NW Italy). Down-hole tests, surface refraction and cross-hole tomography were carried out for the characterization of the fracturing state of the site. Field surveys were implemented with laboratory determination of physico-mechanical properties on rock samples and measurements of the ultrasonic pulse velocity. This multi-scale approach led to a lithological interpretation of the seismic velocity field obtained at the site and to a systematic correlation of the measured velocities with physical properties (density and porosity) and macroscopic features of the granitic cliff (fracturing, weathering and anisotropy). Continuous

  1. Geomorphological hazard and tourist vulnerability along Portofino Park trails (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandolini, P.; Faccini, F.; Piccazzo, M.

    2006-06-01

    The many trails existing in the coastal area of Portofino Promontory are used by tourists for trekking or as pathways to small villages and beaches. The aim of this paper is to define geomorphological hazard and tourist vulnerability in this area, within the framework of the management and planning of hiking activities in Portofino Natural Park. In particular, processes triggered by gravity, running waters and wave motion, affecting the slopes and the cliff, are considered. The typology of the trails and trail maintenance are also taken into account in relation to weather conditions that can make the excursion routes dangerous for tourists. In conclusion, an operative model is applied for the definition of possible risk scenarios. This model is founded on an inventory and the quantification of geomorphological hazards and tourist vulnerability, in comparison with trail rescue data. The model can be applied to other environments and tourist areas.

  2. Saker Falcon on the Crimean Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Karyakin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article we made a revaluation of a number of the Saker (Falco cherrug on the Crimean Peninsula based on data obtained in an expedition conducted in May 9–26 of 2015. During this expedition Sakers were observed on 58 sites (31 times they were seen on pylons of power lines, 14 – on cliffs in the foothills of Crimean Mountains, 8 – on the coastal cliffs and 4 on the coastal precipices, and one adult male was seen in the forest shelter belt near Syvash lagoon. We revealed 49 breeding territories of Saker including 42 occupied nests with successful breeding. The estimation of the total number of breeding population on peninsula is 145–184 (mean 165 breeding pairs, including 125–159 (mean 142 pairs which breeding attempts were successful in 2015. The distance between the neighboring pairs is 1.95–15.21 km (mean 6.56±3.37 km, n=43. Pylons of power lines were used by 30 breeding pairs (61.22% out of 49, and 29 successful nests (69.05% out of 42 were built on pylons. Supposedly, 63.83% of all breeding pairs in Crimea are bred on pylons, and the percentage of successful nests out of the total number of nests in population is 71.89%. From the 34 nests that were built on pylons, 24 (70.59% were located on the concrete pylons and 10 (29.41% on the metal ones. On cliffs and precipices we found 24 nests in total. Eighteen (75% of them were built on a bare ground, while the others were found in the nests built by other bird species (most of them were made in the former nests of the Raven (Corvus corax, and one pair occupies a nest of the Long-legged Buzzard (Buteo rufinus located on cliff. The percentage of successful nests out of occupied ones was 85.71%. We found broods of 1–4 nestlings, which in average (n=23 makes 2.83±0.78 nestling per successful nest. The majority of broods (65.22% consisted of 3 nestlings. On 20 breeding territories (90.91% male birds were older then 2 years old, and two breeding territories (9.09% were occupied

  3. JIT supply chain; an investigation through general system theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O P Mishra

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper explains theoretical approach of the four theories of General system Theory (GST developed by Yourdon (1989 [Yourdon, E. (1989. Modern Structured Analysis. Yourdon Press, Prentice-Hall International, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey. Senge] while applying it in information technology and subsequently used by caddy (2007 [Caddy I.N., & Helou, M.M. (2007. Supply chains and their management: Application of general systems theory. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 14, 319–327.] in field of supply chain and management. JIT philosophy in core activities of supply chain i.e. procurement, production processes, and logistics are discussed through general system theory. The growing structure of the supply chain poses the implication restrictions and requires a heavy support system, many times a compromise is done while implementing JIT. The study would be useful to understand the general trends generated naturally regarding the adoption of the JIT philosophy in the supply chain.

  4. Status of Indirect Drive ICF Experiments on the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewald, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-03-21

    In the quest to demonstrate Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) ignition of deuterium-tritium (DT) filled capsules and propagating thermonuclear burn with net energy gain (fusion energy/laser energy >1), recent experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) have shown progress towards increasing capsule hot spot temperature (Tion>5 keV) and fusion neutron yield (~1016), while achieving ~2x yield amplification by alpha particle deposition. At the same time a performance cliff was reached, resulting in lower fusion yields than expected as the implosion velocity was increased. Ongoing studies of the hohlraum and capsule physics are attempting to disseminate possible causes for this performance ceiling.

  5. Business planning for license renewal and plant acquisitions. Panel Discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: Subsequent to Calvert Cliffs and Oconee license renewals in 2000, many plants have not applied for license renewal. Industry is moving to standardize and streamline the process to make it as efficient and effective as possible. At the same time, it is focusing on business practices and competitiveness of nuclear plants in the long-term market-both under regulated and deregulated state formats. In addition, new acquisitions and consolidation in the nuclear market have created several large owner-operators that have specialized business needs. Speakers with experience in the foregoing facets have been selected from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Nuclear Energy Institute, and utilities to address the business challenges facing them now and in the future. (authors)

  6. Consequence reduction through systematic organizational learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baltimore Gas ampersand Electric Company instituted a major trip reduction initiative at Calvert Cliff's nuclear power plant. As part of the effort, the nuclear staff sought the involvement of personnel from outside the Nuclear Energy Division. Participation in this effort resulted in the realization outside the Nuclear Energy Division, as well as inside, that substantial business improvements might be obtained through the systematic use of investigative organizational learning. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the most fundamental aspects of the framework for that systematic organizational learning. Prior to this effort, traditional open-quotes root causeclose quotes efforts were applied by individual work groups to reduce their own impact on service interruptions. These efforts did not result in adequately meaningful insights into significant issues

  7. Checklist of plant species of the coastal fynbos and rocky head­lands, south of George, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Victor

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available A checklist of vascular plants and cryptograms was compiled for the fynbos and rocky headland communities of the coastal region south of George The area studied is a 12 km stretch of steep sandstone cliffs forming alternating bays and headlands situated between Glentana and Wilderness. The plant communities of the natural vegetation inhabiting the coastline are a mixture of coastal thicket, riparian thicket, fynbos and rocky headland types. The extent of natural vegetation has been reduced by the spread of agricultural land and urban development and is under further threat from the spread of naturalised alien invader species, particularly Acacia cyclops. The checklist records the occurrence of 271 taxa including 16 alien species (6% of taxa. Of the flowering plant species recorded, 6% were regional or local endemics.

  8. Birds on a wire: empirical studies of flocking dyna-mics in linear aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Elliott; Fulton, Andrew; Rosenthal, Lee; Kane, Suzanne Amador

    2014-03-01

    The dynamics of avian flocking is difficult to study because of the transient, highly mobile and unpredictable nature of bird flocks. However, birds often form clusters when perched on wires and fences, offering a stable platform for studying the formation, internal structure and dynamics of these approximately one-dimensional flocks. Previous studies have examined the distribution of the distances between birds perched on wires, but not the time-dependence of this behavior. We present results from a video study of cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) perched on power lines in Sierra Valley, California. Phenomena studied include how the interbird distance distribution varies as a function of time, what factors influence the addition of further birds to an existing cluster, how the distribution evolves in response to perturbations, and typical timescales for the observed behaviors.

  9. Hydraulic fracturing as a possible mechanism of dyke-sill transitions and horizontal discordant intrusions in trachytic tabular bodies of Arraial do Cabo, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.E. Sichel

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some field descriptions and genetic considerations about dyke-sill transitions and horizontal-discordant intrusions of the early Tertiary felsic alkaline dyke swarm at Arraial do Cabo, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Two examples show the entire process of dyke-sill transition. Near sea level they are vertical-discordant; at middle height, oblique-concordant; at the top of the cliff, horizontal-discordant. The latter process cannot be explained by a traditional model of magma intrusion along weaknesses in the host body. It can be accounted for by hydraulic fracturing: magma pressure creates a new fracture normal to σ3, regardless of whether old fracture systems exist. The dyke-sill transition takes place at a depth such that σ3 changes direction from horizontal to vertical. In the specific case described here, the stress change could be caused by intrusion and volume expansion of the Cabo Frio Island syenitic body.

  10. Devonian lacustrine shore zone architecture imaged with ground penetrating radar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrews, Steven D.; Moreau, Julien; Archer, Stuart

    subtle low angle accretionary bar complexes. These features are imaged well on the radar profiles where successive erosion/accretion can be recognised and their three dimensional form and distribution can be mapped. The orientation of these features are similar to extensive palaeocurrent measurements...... from oscillation ripples suggesting an alignment of the shore zone bars perpendicular to the prevailing wind direction. Further loaded sandstone beds and sand-filled shallow channel features overlie the bar forms. The channels are well imaged in the radar scans where their wider context can be gained...... sedimentary logs and the GPR data, the cliffs were accessed using rope access techniques while GPR grids were shot directly above. The profiles were shot mainly in the strike direction of what was thought to be the shore elongation every 5-10 m and every 20-30 m in the dip direction. Shore zone systems of 3...

  11. Geologic analysis of Devonian Shale cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-02-01

    Cleveland Cliffs Iron Company was awarded a DOE contract in December 1977 for field retrieval and laboratory analysis of cores from the Devonian shales of the following eleven states: Michigan, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, New York, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Maryland, Kentucky, Tennessee and Virginia. The purpose of this project is to explore these areas to determine the amount of natural gas being produced from the Devonian shales. The physical properties testing of the rock specimens were performed under subcontract at Michigan Technological University (MTU). The study also included LANDSAT information, geochemical research, structural sedimentary and tectonic data. Following the introduction, and background of the project this report covers the following: field retrieval procedures; laboratory procedures; geologic analysis (by state); references and appendices. (ATT)

  12. Sustainable tourism and natural resources management in small islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present issue reports the results obtained through the activities dedicated to the Management of Natural Resources of Sicily Eco-innovation Project, focused on sustainable tourism. Both studies and interventions were carried out between 2012 and 2015 in collaboration with the City Council and the Marine Protected Area of Egadi Islands, within the islets of Egadi Archipelago (few kilometres offshore of the Sicilian west coast). The study area is characterised by many ecological and naturalistic assets, particularly in the underwater environment, where a very high biodiversity is present thanks to the location and its particular hydrologic conditions. Here, the seabed has an irregular morphology with many cliffs, outcrops, sand banks and submarine valleys. It is a natural laboratory where the seasonal anthropic pressure is strongly related to tourism, leisure and professional/illegal fishing, pollution related to urbanisation (more intense in the Island of Favignana); all activities highly impacting the marine ecosystem and main threat for biological resources

  13. Primary colonization and breakdown of igneous rocks by endemic, succulent elephant trees ( Pachycormus discolor) of the deserts in Baja California, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashan, Yoav; Vierheilig, Horst; Salazar, Bernardo G.; de-Bashan, Luz E.

    2006-07-01

    Trees growing in rocks without soil are uncommon. In two arid regions in Baja California, Mexico, field surveys found large numbers of rock-colonizing elephant trees ( Pachycormus discolor (Benth.) Coville ex Standl. (Mexican name: copalquin) growing in igneous rocks (granite and basalt) as primary colonizers without the benefit of soil or with a very small amount of soil generated by their own growth. Many adult trees broke large granite boulders and were capable of wedging, growing in, and colonizing rocks and cliffs made of ancient lava flows. This is the first record of a tree species, apart from the previously recorded cacti, capable of primary colonization of rocks and rock rubble in hot deserts.

  14. 'Nice girls don't carry knives': constructions of ambition in media coverage of Australia's first female prime minister.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Lauren J; Donaghue, Ngaire

    2013-12-01

    Julia Gillard became the first female prime minister of Australia in 2010. This paper examines the various ways in which her success was constructed in the Australian print media in the days immediately following her elevation. In particular, we focus on how an issue that has long beset women aspiring to power and leadership - the so-called 'double bind' in which aspiring women leaders must display high competence and ambition in traditionally masculine domains while maintaining sufficient femininity so as not to be disliked - was constructed in this high-profile instance. We discuss the coverage in terms of its implications for the need to create an androgynized presentation of ambition, the continuing relevance of gender stereotypes, and the mixture of threat and opportunity provided to women taking positions on 'the glass cliff'. These issues remain crucially important for women aspiring to power and leadership in contemporary western societies. PMID:22909214

  15. The relationship between normal and strike-slip faults in Valley of Fire State Park, Nevada, and its implications for stress rotation and partitioning of deformation in the east-central Basin and Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Atilla; de Joussineau, Ghislain

    2014-06-01

    This study expands on our earlier studies of the evolution of fracturing and faulting in the Jurassic aeolian Aztec Sandstone exposed over a large area in the Valley of Fire State Park, southeastern Nevada. Based on a nearly three-dimensional data set collected from 200-m-high cliff-face exposures with stair-case morphology composed of steep and flat parts, we find that a series of inclined, relatively low-angle normal faults and their splay fractures are precursors of the strike-slip fault network that we previously documented. We discuss the significance of this finding in terms of the tectonics of the broader area, stress rotation, partitioning of deformation, and the development of fracture clusters with compartmentalization of the structures as a function of spatial, depositional and deformational domains.

  16. The Cabri installation - INB 24. Additional safety assessment with respect to the accident which occurred in the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a presentation of some characteristics of the Cabri base nuclear installation located in Cadarache (brief description, buildings, operation), this document reports the identification of cliff-edge effect risks and of critical structures and equipment. Then, it addresses the different risks: earthquake (installation sizing and compliance, margin assessment for the different structures and equipment), external flooding (installation sizing and compliance, margin assessment in relationship with the different flooding origins), other extreme natural events (extreme meteorological conditions related to flooding, earthquake exceeding the design level), and loss of external or internal electric supplies and of cooling systems. The next parts address severe accident management (means and organization for crisis management, robustness of available means), and subcontracting conditions and practices

  17. The Murang'a landslide, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, T. C.; Nyambok, I. O.

    1993-04-01

    On 15 May 1991, a landslide occurred at Gacharage Village in the Murang'a District of Kenya; it buried a house near the toe of a cliff, killing all eight residents in their sleep. The principal determining factors of the slide were a high, mechanically unstable slope of deeply weathered volcanic soil and a high sorption capacity of the surface soil layer. The slide was triggered by rapid saturation of the soil following a heavy downpour. Based on field investigations and laboratory studies, this paper discusses the physical properties and environmental factors that affected slope stability at Murang'a. It also points out the economic and social impact of landslides in the region and suggests remedial measures.

  18. Correlated Oscillations Due to Similar Multipath Effects Seen in Two Widely Separated Radio Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diep, P. N.; Phuong, N. T.; Darriulat, P.; Nhung, P. T.; Anh, P. T.; Dong, P. N.; Hoai, D. T.; Thao, N. T.

    2014-07-01

    A multipath mechanism similar to that used in Australia sixty years ago by the Sea-cliff Interferometer is shown to generate correlations between the periods of oscillations observed by two distant radio telescopes pointed to the Sun. The oscillations are the result of interferences between the direct wave detected in the main antenna lobe and its reflection on ground detected in a side lobe. A model is made of such oscillations in the case of two observatories located at equal longitudes and opposite tropical latitudes, respectively in Ha Noi (Viet Nam) and Learmonth (Australia), where similar radio telescopes are operated at 1.4 GHz. Simple specular reflection from ground is found to give a good description of the observed oscillations and to explain correlations that had been previously observed and for which no satisfactory interpretation, instrumental or other, had been found.

  19. Geomorphological hazard and tourist vulnerability along Portofino Park trails (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Brandolini

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The many trails existing in the coastal area of Portofino Promontory are used by tourists for trekking or as pathways to small villages and beaches. The aim of this paper is to define geomorphological hazard and tourist vulnerability in this area, within the framework of the management and planning of hiking activities in Portofino Natural Park. In particular, processes triggered by gravity, running waters and wave motion, affecting the slopes and the cliff, are considered. The typology of the trails and trail maintenance are also taken into account in relation to weather conditions that can make the excursion routes dangerous for tourists. In conclusion, an operative model is applied for the definition of possible risk scenarios. This model is founded on an inventory and the quantification of geomorphological hazards and tourist vulnerability, in comparison with trail rescue data. The model can be applied to other environments and tourist areas.

  20. Test Series 2: seismic-fragility tests of naturally-aged Class 1E Exide FHC-19 battery cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The seismic-fragility of naturally-aged nuclear station safety-related batteries is of interest for two reasons: (1) to determine actual failure modes and their thresholds and (2) to determine the validity of using the electrical capacity of individual cells as an indicator of the ''end-of-life'' of a battery if subjected to a seismic event. This report, the second in a test series of an extensive seismic research program, covers the testing of 10-year old lead-calcium Exide FHC-19 cells from the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Station operated by the Baltimore Gas and Electric Company. The Exide cells were tested in two configurations using a triaxial shake table: single-cell tests, both rigidly and loosely mounted; and multicell (three-cell) tests, mounted in a typical battery rack. A total of six electrically active cells was used in the two different cell configurations

  1. An Approach to Geotopes of Jajrud Catchment Basin from Meygun to Darbandsar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asemeh Soleimanifakhr

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Development of urbanization imposed many mental and physical stresses on citizens. Air Pollution, noise pollution, Overcrowding, cars and the lack of green space caused Urbanites to need to have more leisure time. These causes resulted in interests of authorities to tourism. Tourism plays an important role in both Increasing revenues and employment and cultural and social aspects. Geotopes and geological phenomenon including caves, canyons, valleys, fossil sites, beaches etc., as a geological heritage, can be examined as potential geosites in developing geotourism and establishing geoparks. The studied area has various Climatic and geomorphological heritage including glacial cirques, terrace, wandering rocks, canyons and cliffs, caves and springs reflecting the ancient climates. Hence, it can be introduced as a platform for more geographical research as a geosite.

  2. Detectable Aspects Of Alaska, and the Southwests Kokopelli, Indicate That Environmental Monitoring By Native American/span>s Utilized Several Sensory Modes, and That Their Conservation Held Moral Value Within Their Traditional Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochs, Michael Ann; Mc Leod, Roger D.

    2004-03-01

    Place-names of Alaska and the Americas, in names like Natick, MA, Matagamon, ME, Matacumbe Key, FL, Tecate Mt, CA, and Tacoma, WA as well as Allapatah, FL, and Issaqua, WA indicate Native Americans all monitored equivalent aspects of the earths EMF. Former coastal and island areas of Native American activity and culture in Alaska show a traditional, historic leader climbed the mountain of one cliff-like island area for weather prediction. We suggest that the ascent onto the mountain and the subsequent significant stay there was for purposes of cultural and religious reverence associated with direct observation of phenomena associated with known weather sequences. Similar cultural awareness of EMF phenomena and weather-making could be related to practices of the MiKmaw/Micmac Indians of the northeast, and the so-called rain-dance of the Hopi of the southwest. *This paper does not necessarily represent the views of the U.S. E.P.A

  3. The Rapsodie installation - INB 25. Additional safety assessment with respect to the accident which occurred in the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a presentation of some characteristics of the Rapsodie base nuclear installation located in Cadarache (brief description of buildings, radioactive and chemical material inventory, specific risks, and present status), this document reports the identification of cliff-edge effect risks and of critical structures and equipment. Then, it addresses the different risks: earthquake (reference earthquake, installation sizing and compliance issues, margin assessment for the different structures and equipment), external flooding (installation sizing, compliance, and margin assessment in relationship with the different flooding origins), other extreme natural events (extreme meteorological conditions related to flooding, earthquake exceeding the design level), and loss of external or internal electric supplies and of cooling systems. The next parts address severe accident management (risks related to the industrial environment, means and organization for crisis management, exercises and training, robustness of available means), and subcontracting conditions, modalities and practices

  4. CSET mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Ortiz, Enrique

    2007-01-01

    Your complete guide to a higher score on the CSET: Mathematics.Features information about certification requirements, an overview of the test - with a scoring scale, description of the test structure and format and proven test-taking strategies Approaches for answering the three types of questions: multiple-choiceenhanced multiple-choiceconstructed-response. Reviews and PracticeFocused reviews of all areas tested: algebra, number theory, geometry, probability, calculus, and history of mathematicsPractice problems for selected difficult areas and domains 2 Full-Length Practice Tests are structured like the actual exam and are complete with answers and explanationsThe Glossary of Terms has description of Key Formulas and PropertiesTest-Prep Essentials from the Experts at CliffsNotes

  5. The effects of cognitive development and age on elementary students' science achievement for structured inductive and semi-deductive inquiry strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yore, Larry D.

    This study explored Morine and Morine's (Discovery: A challenge to teachers. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1973) assumptions regarding age and cognitive development of learners successfully utilizing two types of inquiry, specifically structured inductive and semi-deductive. Two groups of elementary school students from grades one, three and five were individually assessed on six conservation tasks and a multiplicative classification task. The two groups were instructed on two different science topics utilizing different inquiry strategies. Achievement data from topic specific tests were analyzed by an ANOVA technique. The results indicated that age made a significant difference on achievement for both inquiry strategies. The significant contributions were due to the differences between grade one and grades three and five. The differences between grade three and grade five were not significant. The effect of cognitive development was more noticeable in the less structured semi-deductive strategy in which four conservation tasks and the multiplicative classification tasks were significant.

  6. Bartlit Residence%传统石材的新篇章--巴特里特住宅

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lake/Flato architects,Inc.; 史洪

    2006-01-01

    @@ 松堡崖(Cliffs at Castle Pines)是美国科罗拉多州一个自然风光别样美丽的地方.它位于海拔约6400英尺的山脊上,从这个位置可以俯视南到派克峰(Pike's Peak),北至朗氏峰(Long's Peak)的整个弗朗特山脉(Front Range)以及山谷中的河床.基地裸露的花岗岩之间,生长着蓬得罗萨松(PonderosaPine)和胭脂栎,还有一些本土的奇花野草,形成了基地脆弱的自然生态环境.

  7. Development of a laser fluorosensor for airborne surveying of the aquatic environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristow, M. P. F.; Houston, W. R.; Measures, R. M.

    1975-01-01

    A field based laser fluorosensor, employing a pulsed nitrogen laser and telescope photomultiplier detector system, has been successfully tested at night from a cliff top site overlooking Lake Ontario providing target ranges greater than 274 meters. Remotely sensed spectra and amplitude changes in the fluorescence emission of natural waters have shown potential as a water quality indicator. In this connection, a convenient internal reference standard with which to gauge the amplitude of the fluorescence signal is realized in the form of the concurrent water Raman emission. Remote measurements of oil fluorescence emission spectra suggest that airborne laser fluorosensors are capable of detecting and characterizing the oil in a given slick and that environmental aging of these slicks does not significantly alter their fluorescence emission signature.

  8. Stopping computer crimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1989-01-01

    Two new books about intrusions and computer viruses remind us that attacks against our computers on networks are the actions of human beings. Cliff Stoll's book about the hacker who spent a year, beginning in Aug. 1986, attempting to use the Lawrence Berkeley Computer as a stepping-stone for access to military secrets is a spy thriller that illustrates the weaknesses of our password systems and the difficulties in compiling evidence against a hacker engaged in espionage. Pamela Kane's book about viruses that attack IBM PC's shows that viruses are the modern version of the old problem of a Trojan horse attack. It discusses the most famous viruses and their countermeasures, and it comes with a floppy disk of utility programs that will disinfect your PC and thwart future attack.

  9. Detecting thermally driven cyclic deformation of an exfoliation sheet with lidar and radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Brian D.; Stock, Greg M.

    2014-01-01

    Rock falls from steep, exfoliating cliffs are common in many landscapes. Of the many mechanisms known to trigger rock falls, thermally driven deformation is among the least quantified, despite potentially being a prevalent trigger due to its occurrence at all times of year. Here we present the results of a field-based monitoring program using instrumentation, ground-based lidar, and ground-based radar to investigate the process of thermally driven deformation of an exfoliation sheet, and the ability of remote sensing tools to capture cyclic expansion and contraction patterns. Our results indicate that thermally driven exfoliation occurs on diurnal cycles and can be measured at the submillimeter to centimeter scale using high-resolution strain gauges, short-range (2 km) radar interfer-ometry.

  10. Demonstrations of Gravity-Independent Mobility and Drilling on Natural Rock using Microspines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parness, Aaron; Frost, Matthew; King, Jonathan P.; Thatte, Nitish

    2012-01-01

    The video presents microspine-based anchors be ing developed for gripping rocks on the surfaces of comets and asteroids, or for use on cliff faces and lava tubes on Mars. Two types of anchor prototypes are shown on supporting forces in all directions away from the rock; >160 N tangent, >150 N at 45?, and >180 N normal to the surface of the rock. A compliant robotic ankle with two active degrees of freedom interfaces these anchors to the Lemur IIB robot for future climbing trials. Finally, a rotary percussive drill is shown coring into rock regardless of gravitational orientation. As a harder- than-zero-g proof of concept, inverted drilling was performed creating 20mm diameter boreholes 83 mm deep in vesicular basalt samples while retaining 12 mm diameter rock cores in 3-6 pieces.

  11. Morphological and Molecular Phylogenetic Data Reveal a New Species of Primula (Primulaceae) from Hunan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuan; Yu, Xun-Lin; Hu, Chi-Ming; Hao, Gang

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Primulaceae, Primula undulifolia, is described from the hilly area of Hunan province in south-central China. Its morphology and distributional range suggest that it is allied to P. kwangtungensis, both adapted to subtropical climate, having contiguous distribution and similar habitat, growing on shady and moist cliffs. Petioles, scapes and pedicels of them are densely covered with rusty multicellular hairs, but the new species can be easily distinguished by its smaller flowers and narrowly oblong leaves with undulate margins. Molecular phylogenetic analysis based on four DNA markers (ITS, matK, trnL-F and rps16) confirmed the new species as an independent lineage and constitutes a main clade together with P. kwangtungensis, P. kweichouensis, P. wangii and P. hunanensis of Primula sect. Carolinella. PMID:27579832

  12. INB 101 - Orphee reactor. Additional safety assessment with respect to the accident which occurred in the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a presentation of some characteristics of the Orphee installation (buildings, reactor, circuits, integrated experimental devices, venting systems, electricity supply and distribution systems, reactor command and control and protection means, operation), this document reports the identification of cliff-edge risks and of critical structures and equipment. Then, it addresses the different risks: earthquake (installation sizing and compliance, margin assessment for the different structures and equipment), flooding (installation sizing, margin assessment), other extreme natural events (tempests, rainfalls, extreme earthquake inducing flooding), loss of electric supplies and of cooling systems. The next parts address the organization of severe accident management (exercises, available means, influence of other installations, confinement integrity after fuel damage) and subcontracting practices

  13. Effect of laser peening with different energies on fatigue fracture evolution of 6061-T6 aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, J.; Huang, S.; Zhou, J. Z.; Lu, J. Z.; Xu, S. Q.; Zhang, H. F.

    2016-03-01

    To deeply understand the effect of laser peening (LP) with different laser pulse energies on 6061-T6 aluminum alloy, the fatigue fracture morphologies evolution process at various fatigue crack growth (FCG) stages and the corresponding strengthen mechanism were investigated. At the initial stage of FCG, more fatigue micro-cliffs were found after LP, while the fatigue striation spacing simultaneously reduced. A "stop-continue" phenomenon of crack propagation was discovered for laser peened samples. The fatigue striation spacing at the middle stage of FCG increased significantly while compared with that at the initial stage, in addition, the fatigue striation spacing decreased with an increase in laser pulse energy. Fracture morphologies in transition region of laser peened samples exhibit a mixing fracture characteristic of striations and dimples. The laser peened sample with laser pulse energy of 7 J presents more circuitous growing paths. Due to the complex stress state induced by LP, dimples with different sizes appeared in the final fracture region.

  14. Quaternary coastline evolution of Lake Ohrid (Macedonia/Albania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Nadine; Reicherter, Klaus; Grützner, Christoph; Hürtgen, Jochen; Rudersdorf, Andreas; Viehberg, Finn; Wessels, Martin

    2012-03-01

    Lake Ohrid (between FYR of Macedonia and Albania), situated in an active tectonic region of the Balkanides, is characterized by N — S trending active faults. To reconstruct the Holocene shoreline evolution we investigated the coastline using sediment cores and geophysical methods to image sedimentary and tectonic structures. We revealed areas of differing sedimentation regimes. The plains north and south of the lake are dominated by clastic input related to climate variations and uplift/erosion, whereas the steep western and eastern margins are controlled by recent tectonics. Furthermore, no evidence for a much higher lake-level during the Holocene was found in the plains north and south of the lake, except rare temporary floodings. This is supported by mappings of the limestone cliffs around Lake Ohrid, which yielded no evidence for abrasional platforms or notches as indicators for past highstands.

  15. Interpretation SP anomaly caused by subsurface fluid flow; Chika ryudokei ni yoru shizen den`i anomaly no kaishaku ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasukawa, K. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Mogi, T.; Kawahira, M. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-05-01

    A PTSP simulator, developed by combining a fluid flow simulator and a simulator for computing the spontaneous potential (SP) out of flow velocity distribution, was used to investigate the impact of the distribution of terrain, permeability, and resistivity upon the ground surface SP. SP computation using simple models such as highlands or cliffs indicated that the terrain-caused SP anomaly was negatively dependent upon elevation. It was also indicated, however, that, in some types of resistivity distribution, the SP profile changes, the peak goes out of place, and even the apparent polarity may reverse in extreme cases. In the study of the SP profile for the Takeyu hot spa, Oita Prefecture, PTSP-aided modeling was carried out. It was then found that fluid flows caused by the terrain were not enough to explain the peak at the middle of the mountain, which suggested the existence of a fluid flow caused by temperature distribution. 11 refs., 5 figs.

  16. Backwash process of marine macroplastics from a beach by nearshore currents around a submerged breakwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Tomoya; Hinata, Hirofumi; Kato, Shigeru

    2015-12-30

    A key factor for determining the residence time of macroplastics on a beach is the process by which the plastics are backwashed offshore (backwash process). Here, we deduced the backwash process of plastic fishing floats on Wadahama Beach based on the analysis of two-year mark-recapture experiments as well as nearshore current structures revealed by sequential images taken by za webcam installed at the edge of a cliff behind the beach. The analysis results revealed the occurrence of a combination of offshore currents and convergence of alongshore currents in the surf zone in storm events around a submerged breakwater off the northern part of the beach, where 48% of the backwashed floats were last found. We conclude that the majority of the floats on the beach were transported alongshore and tended to concentrate in the convergence zone, from where they were backwashed offshore by the nearshore currents generated in the events. PMID:26561445

  17. Literature survey of cracking of alloy 600 penetrations in PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of a literature survey of cracking of alloy 600 components in PWR plants. Alloy 600 cracking of S/G tubes and/or plugs has been previously addressed. This report focuses on incidents occurring primarily in the pressurizer region. It documents these problems and recommends utility actions to address the issue of PWSCC of alloy 600 components in the primary system. Cracking problems have occurred both domestically and abroad. Information provided for each event includes plant, affected component, date of incident, plant date of commercial operation, detection method, outcome, remedial actions, and number of components cracked. Incidents are reported for US plants including San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station Unit 3, St. Lucie Unit 2, Arkansas Nuclear One Unit 2, and Calvert Cliffs Unit, and for Electricite de France. 38 refs., 21 figs., 3 tabs

  18. The CHICADE installation - INB 156. Additional safety assessment with respect to the accident which occurred in the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a presentation of some characteristics of the Chicade base nuclear installation located in Cadarache (brief description, radioactive and chemical material inventory, specific risks, and present status), this document reports the identification of cliff-edge effect risks and of critical structures and equipment. Then, it addresses the different risks: earthquake (installation sizing and compliance, margin assessment for the different structures and equipment), external flooding (installation sizing, compliance, and margin assessment in relationship with the different flooding origins), other extreme natural events (extreme meteorological conditions related to flooding like tempest, rainfalls and so on, earthquake exceeding the design level), and loss of external or internal electric supplies. The next parts address severe accident management (risks related to the industrial environment, means and organization for crisis management, exercises and training, robustness of available means), and subcontracting conditions and practices

  19. The Pegase installation - INB 22. Additional safety assessment with respect to the accident which occurred in the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a presentation of some characteristics of the Pegase base nuclear installation located in Cadarache (description and functions, radioactive and chemical materials, specific risks, present status), this document reports the identification of cliff-edge effect risks and of critical structures and equipment. Then, it addresses the different risks: earthquake (installation sizing and compliance, margin assessment), external flooding (installation sizing and compliance, margin assessment in relationship with the different flooding origins), other extreme natural events (hail, extreme rainfalls, strong winds, lightning, and earthquake exceeding the design level), and loss of external or internal electric supplies. The next parts address severe accident management (means and organization for crisis management, robustness of available means), and subcontracting conditions and practices

  20. Geomorphic expression of late Quaternary sea level changes along the southern Saurashtra coast, western India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nilesh Bhatt; Uday Bhonde

    2006-08-01

    Geomorphic expression of land-sea interaction is preserved in the form of abandoned cliffs, marine terraces,shore platforms and marine notches along the southern Saurashtra coast. These features have been used to ascertain the magnitude of sea level changes during late Quaternary.Notch morphology and associated biological encrustation have been used to estimate the magnitude and duration of palaeo-sea strands.Marine notches and other erosive features occurring between 12 and 15 m above the present Biological Mean Sea Level (BMSL) are attributed to the last interglacial corresponding to the Marine Isotopic Stage 5 (MIS-5). However,6 to 9 m upliftment of the coastal fringe is attributed to this sea level.The second major high sea strand was identified during the mid-Holocene when the sea rose 2 m above the present level.Notches corresponding to this high sea level are recorded 4 to 5 m above the present BMSL.