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Sample records for cliffs

  1. Cliffs User Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Tolkova, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Cliffs is an open-source relative of MOST (Method Of Splitting Tsunamis) numerical model, implemented as described in (Tolkova, 2014, Pure and Appl. Geophys., 171(9), 2289-2314). Cliffs features: Shallow-Water approximation with an option to manipulate numerical dispersion; Use of Cartesian or spherical (lon/lat) coordinates; 1D and 2D configurations; Structured co-located grid with (optionally) varying spacing; Runup on land; Initial conditions or boundary forcing; Grid nesting with one-way coupling; Parallelized with OpenMP; NetCDF format of input/output data. This user manual accompanies Cliffs code distribution.

  2. Advances in Activity Cliff Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimova, Dilyana; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2016-05-01

    Activity cliffs, i.e. similar compounds with large potency differences, are of interest from a chemical and informatics viewpoint; as a source of structure-activity relationship information, for compound optimization, and activity prediction. Herein, recent highlights of activity cliff research are discussed including studies that have further extended our understanding of activity cliffs, yielded unprecedented insights, or paved the way for practical applications.

  3. Cliffs at Gruchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Middleton

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Downward from Gruchy, past its wind-wrenched elm,The path drops under pastures to a cliffWhere outcrop boulder-stones glint blue and iron,Breaking above great sweeps of sea and sky.Below the rocks, rowing in close to shoreThe fishermen, no bigger than the gullsThat turn above them crying at their catch,Glide over green and lavender to sand.Outside the scene, a higher, flatter rockProvided the perspective for these stonesThat point toward the horizon’s shining line,Insight’s limitless limit bo...

  4. Activity cliff networks for medicinal chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumpfe, Dagmar; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2014-08-01

    Network representations are widely used in bioinformatics but have only been little explored in chemistry. Thus far, only a few attempts have been made to generate and analyze compound networks. Among these are the first activity cliff networks. In medicinal chemistry, activity cliffs are focal points of structure-activity relationships (SAR) analysis. Activity cliffs have generally been defined as pairs of structurally similar or analogous active compounds that have a large difference in potency against their target. However, most activity cliffs are not formed in isolation but in a coordinated manner involving multiple highly and weakly potent compounds. Recently, a comprehensive activity cliff network has been generated for current public domain bioactive compounds, hence providing a first global view of activity cliff formation. The design of activity cliff networks is discussed herein. From the global activity cliff network, local networks can be extracted for individual compound activity classes that provide graphical access to high-level SAR information for compound optimization efforts.

  5. California Sea Cliff Metrics: Mapping and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaseanu, M.; Thatcher, C.; Danielson, J.; Logan, J. B.; Foxgrover, A. C.; Brock, J. C.; Barnard, P.

    2015-12-01

    Seacliff erosion is a serious hazard with implications for coastal management, and is often estimated using successive hand digitized cliff tops or bases (toe) to assess cliff retreat. We developed an automated procedure to extract the location of the cliff top from high resolution lidar-derived digital elevation models using transects generated at approximately 1-m intervals. The automated method to define cliff tops is repeatable, takes advantage of detailed topographic information within high-resolution elevation data, and is more efficient than hand-digitizing. To validate the results obtained from a 2010 aerial lidar survey, we conducted a terrestrial lidar (tlidar) survey at Bonny Doon beach near Santa Cruz California in 2014 and mapped the location of the cliff tops using real-time kinematic GPS. Bonny Doon beach has highly irregular cliffs, with several small sea caves and erosion features that were not distinguishable in the aerial lidar digital terrain model (DTM). We extracted the location of the cliff top from the tlidar point cloud along the same transects used previously to automatically derive cliff tops from the aerial lidar derived DTM. The minimum horizontal distance between the tlidar derived cliff top points and GPS points was calculated. The error measurements between GPS and terrestrial lidar are 0.19 m mean absolute error (MAE) and 0.51 m root mean square error (RMSE) respectively. The MAE and the RMSE between the GPS and aerial lidar cliff top points were 0.96 and 1.82 m respectively. The larger errors between aerial lidar cliff top points and GPS are likely due to the failure to remove all vegetation from the aerial lidar data, the positional accuracy of the aerial lidar, and a 4-year gap between surveys. The error assessment indicates that the automated procedure mapped the cliff top location successfully using both the aerial and terrestrial lidar, although the cliff top delineation based on the tlidar data was more accurate.

  6. CliffsQuickReview Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huetinck, Linda; Ph., D.; Adams, Scott

    2001-06-01

    CliffsQuickReview course guides cover the essentials of your toughest subjects. Get a firm grip on core concepts and key material, and test your newfound knowledge with review questions. Whether you need a course supplement, help preparing for a physics exam, or a concise reference for physics, CliffsQuickReview Physics can help. This guide provides a valuable introduction to the concepts of classical mechanics, thermodynamics, magnetism, and electricity. In no time, you'll be ready to tackle other concepts in this book such as Wave motion and sound Current and resistance Electromagnetic induction Geometrical optics Nuclear physics Quantum mechanics CliffsQuickReview Physics acts as a supplement to your other learning material. Use this reference in any way that fits your personal style for study and review -- you decide what works best with your needs. You can flip through the book until you find what you're looking for -- it's organized to gradually build on key concepts. Or, here are just a few other ways you can search for topics: Use the free Pocket Guide full of essential information Get a glimpse of what you'll gain from a chapter by reading through the Chapter Check-In at the beginning of each chapter Use the Chapter Checkout at the end of each chapter to gauge your grasp of the important information you need to know Test your knowledge more completely in the CQR Review and look for additional sources of information in the CQR Resource Center Use the glossary to find key terms fast. With titles available for all the most popular high school and college courses, CliffsQuickReview guides are a comprehensive resource that can help you get the best possible grades.

  7. 75 FR 66802 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... COMMISSION Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2... Regulatory Commission (the Commission) has granted the request of Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC... Operating License Nos. DPR-53 and DPR-69 for the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and...

  8. 76 FR 39908 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ... COMMISSION Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2.... DPR-53 and DPR-69, for the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2 (CCNPP), respectively... (ISFSI), currently held by Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC as owner and licensed...

  9. 76 FR 1469 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-10

    ... COMMISSION Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2... Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC, the licensee, for operation of the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant... for light-water nuclear power reactors,'' which requires that the calculated emergency core...

  10. A contrasting study: cliff and bank swallows

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of the project was to contrast as population of Cliff Swallows and a population of Bank Swallows. Both populations had nests located in a gravel pit...

  11. Activity cliffs and activity cliff generators based on chemotype-related activity landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Villanueva, Jaime; Méndez-Lucio, Oscar; Soria-Arteche, Olivia; Medina-Franco, José L

    2015-11-01

    Activity cliffs have large impact in drug discovery; therefore, their detection and quantification are of major importance. This work introduces the metric activity cliff enrichment factor and expands the previously reported activity cliff generator concept by adding chemotype information to representations of the activity landscape. To exemplify these concepts, three molecular databases with multiple biological activities were characterized. Compounds in each database were grouped into chemotype classes. Then, pairwise comparisons of structure similarities and activity differences were calculated for each compound and used to construct chemotype-based structure-activity similarity (SAS) maps. Different landscape distributions among four major regions of the SAS maps were observed for different subsets of molecules grouped in chemotypes. Based on this observation, the activity cliff enrichment factor was calculated to numerically detect chemotypes enriched in activity cliffs. Several chemotype classes were detected having major proportion of activity cliffs than the entire database. In addition, some chemotype classes comprising compounds with smooth structure activity relationships (SAR) were detected. Finally, the activity cliff generator concept was applied to compounds grouped in chemotypes to extract valuable SAR information.

  12. CliffsNotes Statistics Quick Review

    CERN Document Server

    Voelker, David H; Adams, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Inside the Book: Graphic displays Numerical measures Probability Sampling Principles of testing Univariate inferential tests Bivariate relationships Review questions Resource center Glossary Common mistakes Tables Why CliffsNotes? Go with the name you know and trust Get the information you need-fast! CliffsNotes Quick Review guides give you a clear, concise, easy-to-use review of the basics. Introducing each topic, defining key terms, and carefully walking you through sample problems, this guide helps you grasp and understand the important concepts needed to succeed. Access 500

  13. Do Higher Sea-cliff Retreat Rates Imply Faster Sea-cliff Retreat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushkin, A.; Katz, O.; Porat, N.

    2015-12-01

    Inland retreat of sea cliffs in response to post LGM (last glacial maximum) sea-level rise is an ongoing process that affects coastal environments and communities worldwide. Here, we examine a globally recurring pattern where reported sea-cliff retreat rates since the 20th century often appear to exceed longer-term millennial-scale ('background') rates that rarely exceed ~0.1 m/yr. Focusing on Israel's 30-km-long Mediterranean 'Sharon' sea-cliff as a case study we demonstrate that such apparent increase in rates may also reflect a widely acknowledged sampling bias in geologic rate estimates inferred from observation time windows ('Tobs') shorter than process episodicity. We show that this possible bias leads to an ambiguity in conventional rate estimates obtained by averaging observed retreat distances over Tobs, and that as a result despite ubiquitous and robust observations of cliff retreat since the 20th century (e.g., aerial photographs) recent/current retreat rates for many of the world's episodically retreating sea cliffs remain essentially unknown. To address this present limitation in our ability to detect and quantify recent changes in sea-cliff retreat rates we use airborne LiDAR to measure the continuous wave-driven volumetric erosion of collapsed material from the cliff base as an effective upper-bound constraint for the m/yr rate of episodic retreat of the cliff itself. We find that while conventional retreat rate estimates since the 20th century along the Sharon sea cliff artefactually increase up to several m/yr as an inverse function of Tobs, the LiDAR-constrained retreat rates are not susceptible to this sampling bias, are comparable to the cliff's background retreat rate of 0.03-0.07 m/yr since the mid Holocene and thus indicate no recent acceleration in retreat. This ability to unambiguously constrain sea-cliff retreat rates with annual to decadal-scale observations directly impacts the global-scale push to quantify, better understand and

  14. 2012 Cliff Weiss Memorial Essay Contest Winners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techniques: Connecting Education and Careers (J3), 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the winners of the 2012 Cliff Weiss Memorial Essay Contest. They are Naim Owens from Washington, DC, and Colissa Menke from Warrensburg, Missouri. The 2012 essay topic is "How do you feel CTE prepares individuals, including yourself, for a future career?"

  15. 77 FR 47121 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-07

    ... COMMISSION Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and 2; Exemption 1.0 Background Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC (the licensee) is the holder of Renewed..., ``Fatigue Management for Nuclear Power Plant Personnel,'' endorses the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI)...

  16. The Sensitivity of Coastal Cliffs to Changes in Sea Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosser, N.; Lim, M.; Petley, D.

    2007-12-01

    The impact of waves upon coastal cliffs is a significant control on erosion and subsequent cliff retreat. It is widely anticipated that climatically-driven sea-level rise will result in an increase in the rate of erosion, and thus the retreat, of coastal cliffs. Quantifying the changes in the rate of coastal erosion remains problematic, primarily due to the difficulty of collecting high-precision and high-frequency monitoring data on both cliff change and the variations in environmental conditions at the coast. In the UK, local authorities now have to produce a "Shoreline Management Plan" (SMP), indicating how the coastline will be managed for the future. This requires the estimation of rates of coastal retreat over the next century, making the impact of sea-level change a critical consideration. This study presents the results from a three year monitoring survey of a section of near-vertical coastal cliffs in north-east England. Data have been collected using a high-resolution terrestrial laser scanner to obtain cliff surfaces. Analysis of successive 3D cliff models is used to derive sequential change, from which the precise nature, geometry and rate of retreat can be measured. In parallel, data has been collected on the micro-seismic impact of waves onto the cliff to gain a direct measure of the delivery of energy at any given sea-level, rather than using a function of wave and tide gauge records. The coastline studied has a significant tidal range, in excess of 6 m, in addition to a large seasonal variability in mean tide heights, allowing a range of sea-level conditions to be assessed. For comparison weather, tide and wave monitoring has been undertaken. The results suggest a close link between the magnitude and frequency of wave impact and the loss of material from the cliff face. Marked changes in wave impact are apparent as the tide level fluctuates on an inter-monthly and inter-annual basis. Thresholds are identified which appear to reflect discrete changes

  17. Predicting coastal cliff erosion using a Bayesian probabilistic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapke, C.; Plant, N.

    2010-01-01

    Regional coastal cliff retreat is difficult to model due to the episodic nature of failures and the along-shore variability of retreat events. There is a growing demand, however, for predictive models that can be used to forecast areas vulnerable to coastal erosion hazards. Increasingly, probabilistic models are being employed that require data sets of high temporal density to define the joint probability density function that relates forcing variables (e.g. wave conditions) and initial conditions (e.g. cliff geometry) to erosion events. In this study we use a multi-parameter Bayesian network to investigate correlations between key variables that control and influence variations in cliff retreat processes. The network uses Bayesian statistical methods to estimate event probabilities using existing observations. Within this framework, we forecast the spatial distribution of cliff retreat along two stretches of cliffed coast in Southern California. The input parameters are the height and slope of the cliff, a descriptor of material strength based on the dominant cliff-forming lithology, and the long-term cliff erosion rate that represents prior behavior. The model is forced using predicted wave impact hours. Results demonstrate that the Bayesian approach is well-suited to the forward modeling of coastal cliff retreat, with the correct outcomes forecast in 70-90% of the modeled transects. The model also performs well in identifying specific locations of high cliff erosion, thus providing a foundation for hazard mapping. This approach can be employed to predict cliff erosion at time-scales ranging from storm events to the impacts of sea-level rise at the century-scale. ?? 2010.

  18. Erosion risk assessment of active coastal cliffs in temperate environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Río, Laura; Gracia, F. Javier

    2009-11-01

    The potentially negative consequences resulting from cliff recession are a matter of serious concern in many coastal areas worldwide. The assessment of such processes has traditionally been performed by calculating average cliff recession rates and projecting them into the future, without taking into consideration the diverse factors affecting cliff dynamics and stability. In this work a new, practical method is presented to evaluate cliff erosion risk in temperate environments, by analysing the main factors responsible for both the physical and the socioeconomic aspects of erosion, representing cliff loss potential and damage potential, respectively. For this purpose an integration of 11 physical variables (such as cliff lithology, beach characteristics or rainfall regime) and 6 socioeconomic variables (such as land use type or population density) is proposed. These variables are weighted and combined into a Hazard Index and an Impact Index, which in turn are merged into a composite Risk Index where the resulting values are normalized and expressed as a percentage of the maximum theoretical risk. The method is tested and validated by using data about cliff retreat rates and mass movement processes in the coast of Cádiz province (SW Spain). The proposed approach allows the zoning of coastal cliffs according to the risk, hazard and/or impact levels, including the recognition of critical areas where specific intervention strategies should be adopted. The method presented in this work is deemed both practical and scientifically valid, without requiring extensive and detailed surveys of the area where it is to be applied. This way, it constitutes an easy to use, valuable tool for decision-making regarding land use planning and management strategies for active coastal cliffs.

  19. Cliff swallow populations in the southern Askinuk Mountains, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — During breeding season, cliff swallows are widely distributed throughout Alaska and North America south to Mexico, and they are locally common in western and...

  20. Life strategies of bryophytes on loess cliffs in Vojvodina, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabovljević Marko S.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The loess cliffs of Vojvodina present a special ecosystem type. The main plant components in these habitats are cryptogams (bryophytes and lichens. The biology and life strategies of bryophytes recorded on loess in Vojvodina are studied in the present work, whose results confirm a very special ecology in such habitats. Colonist species with xeropottioid characteristics are dominant among bryophytes. It is stressed that loess cliff habitats are especially important from the standpoint of conservation.

  1. Stability of permafrost dominated coastal cliffs in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, Md. Azharul; Pollard, Wayne H.

    2016-03-01

    Block failure is considered to be an important component of coastal retreat in permafrost regions. A comprehensive model is developed to study the effects of thermoerosional niche and ice wedge morphology on the stability of permafrost dominated coastal cliff against block failure. The model is formulated by coupling slope stability analysis with a time dependent progression of thermoerosional niches and the morphology of the nearby ice wedges. Model computations are initially performed for failure conditions for a given cliff height, frozen soil strength, ice content, water pressure in the active layer, thermoerosional niche depth and ice wedge morphology. Under these conditions block failures are found to be predominantly overturning failures and are governed by the tensile strength of frozen soil, thermoerosional niche depth and ice wedge location and depth. The effects of ice wedges are then examined by analyzing failure conditions for ice wedges of different locations and depths. For a given cliff height, strength and thermoerosional niche, block failure may occur at a range of different combinations of ice wedge locations and depths. Two stability nomograms are developed through repeated model calculations for range of cliff heights and frozen soil tensile strength. These nomograms can be used to determine the critical combinations of thermoerosional niche depth, ice wedge distance and ice wedge depth that lead to block collapse of a cliff of known height and soil strength. Some analytical expressions are also derived to determine potential block failure criteria along Arctic coasts.

  2. A regional approach for modeling cliff retreat rate: The Makhteshim Country, Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finzi, Yaron; Harlev, Noam

    2016-10-01

    Cliff retreat rate significantly affect the evolution of landforms and cliff stability. Cliff retreat studies also provide intriguing clues regarding past geomorphic conditions and environmental changes. We hereby present a model to calculate cliff retreat rate based on spatial data of cliff structure and morphology. The model is applied to numerous cliffs in the arid Makhteshim Country, Israel, and results are calibrated using published rates of two local cliffs. The calculated retreat rates confirm previous assertions that the crater cliffs are receding very slowly, but reveal that the rates vary significantly along the cliffs (1-18 cm ky- 1). Results also provide first estimates of retreat rates of other major cliffs in the region including fast retreat rates at the Sede Zin cliff (300-600 cm ky- 1). The proposed model provides a robust analysis to account for local cliff-talus morphology and yields rate estimates representative of current conditions rather than a long-term (geologic) average rate. Results presented constitute important new insights into regional geomorphic processes and on the stability of specific cliff sections within the study area.

  3. Power laws statistics of cliff failures, scaling and percolation

    CERN Document Server

    Baldassarri, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The size of large cliff failures may be described in several ways, for instance considering the horizontal eroded area at the cliff top and the maximum local retreat of the coastline. Field studies suggest that, for large failures, the frequencies of these two quantities decrease as power laws of the respective magnitudes, defining two different decay exponents. Moreover, the horizontal area increases as a power law of the maximum local retreat, identifying a third exponent. Such observation suggests that the geometry of cliff failures are statistically similar for different magnitudes. Power laws are familiar in the physics of critical systems. The corresponding exponents satisfy precise relations and are proven to be universal features, common to very different systems. Following the approach typical of statistical physics, we propose a "scaling hypothesis" resulting in a relation between the three above exponents: there is a precise, mathematical relation between the distributions of magnitudes of erosion ...

  4. CliffsNotes Writing Grammar, Usage, and Style Quick Review

    CERN Document Server

    Eggenschwiler, Jean; Reinhardt, Claudia L W

    2011-01-01

    Inside the Book: Nouns - Verbs - Pronouns - Modifiers - Connecting Words and Phrases - Clauses, Phrases, and Sentences - Common Sentence Errors - Periods, Question Marks, and Exclamation Marks - Commas, Semicolons, and Colons - Dashes, Parentheses, and Quotation Marks - Idioms, Clichés, Jargon, and Wordiness - How to Begin a Writing Assignment - How to Research and Organize Your Writing - Revising and Editing - Review Questions - Resource Center - Glossary - Frequently Confused Words Why CliffsNotes? Go with the name you know and trust - Get the information you need-fast! CliffsNotes Quick Rev

  5. 77 FR 34093 - License Renewal for Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC's

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ... COMMISSION License Renewal for Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC's AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant site near Lusby, Maryland. The NRC has prepared an Environmental Assessment... dated September 17, 2010, Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC (CCNPP) submitted an application...

  6. Sea cliff instability susceptibility at regional scale: A statistically based assessment in southern Algarve, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, F.; Matildes, R.; Redweik, P.

    2012-04-01

    Mass movements are the dominant process of sea cliff evolution, being a considerable source of natural hazard and a significant constrain for human activities in coastal areas. Related hazards include cliff top retreat, with implications on planning and land management, and unstable soil or rock movements at the cliffs face and toe, with implications mainly on beach users and support structures. To assess the spatial component of sea cliff hazard assessment with implications on planning, i.e. the susceptibility of a given cliff section to be affected by instabilities causing retreat of the cliff top, a statistically based study was carried out along the top of the sea cliffs of Burgau-Lagos coastal section (Southwest Algarve, Portugal). The study was based on bivariate and multi-variate statistics applied to a set of predisposing factors, mainly related with geology and geomorphology, which were correlated with an inventory of past cliff failures. The multi-temporal inventory of past cliff failures was produced using aerial digital photogrammetric methods, which included special procedures to enable the extraction of accurate data from old aerial photos, and validated by systematic stereo photo interpretation, helped by oblique aerial photos and field surveys. This study identified 137 cliff failures occurred between 1947 and 2007 along the 13 km long cliffs, causing the loss of 10,234 m2 of horizontal area at the cliffs top. The cliff failures correspond to planar slides (58%) mainly in Cretaceous alternating limestone and marls, toppling failures (17%) mainly in Miocene calcarenites, slumps (15%) in Plio-pleistocene silty sands that infill the karst in the Miocene rocks, and the remaining 10% correspond to complex movements, rockfalls and not determined cases. The space distribution of cliff failures is quite irregular but enables the objective separation of sub sections with homogeneous retreat behavior, for which were computed mean retreat rates between 5x10-3m

  7. Multi-temporal retreat rates along the eastern Mediterranean coastal cliff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, O.; Mushkin, A.

    2012-12-01

    The Israeli coastal cliff extends about 50 km along the eastern Mediterranean shores. The cliff is comprised of late Quaternary eolianites and paleosols and reaches heights of up to 50 meters. In places, time-averaged inland cliff-top retreat rates of up to a few tens of centimeters per year have been measured usually by comparing aerial photos from the last decades. Commonly, these locally constrained retreat rates have been: 1) extrapolated as representative of the entire cliff length, and 2) adopted by hazard-mitigation and planning authorities. Here, we re-evaluate the current understanding of coastal-retreat patterns and rates along Israel's Mediterranean cliff line using a suite of field observations, aerial photography and recently obtained airborne and ground based high resolution LiDAR measurement of cliff morphologies. First, we constrain the decadal-scale retreat rates along the coastal-cliff by comparing the cliff-top location in 1945 and 2004 using aerial photos. We find a statistically significant spatial correlation between: 1) calculated low retreat rates (less than 0.1 m/yr) and field-based criteria indicating overall stability: slope angle of 45 deg. and talus cover along the lower part of the cliff and developed vegetation cover, and 2) high retreat rates and field criteria indicating recent instability: fresh landslide scars and 'hanging' valleys, which provides independent support for the calculated retreat rates. Calculated 60 years average cliff-top retreat rates of less than 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 m/yr along 58%, 77% and 85% of the cliff length, respectively, reveal that extended stretches of the cliff line did not experience detectable retreat in the past 60 years, thus implying relative stability of 50% of Israel's costal cliffs during this time period. Second, we constrain the annual retreat rates using repeat high-resolution ground based LiDAR surveys before and after an extreme winter storm that occurred in Dec. 2010. Locally, storm induced

  8. Ancient "Red Cliff" battlefield: a historical-geographic study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xiugui

    2006-01-01

    The famous battle of Chibi,or "battle of Red Cliff",took place in 208 CE,the 13th year of the Jian'an period of the Eastern Han dynasty.This paper holds that the whole battle consisted of three inseparable stages,namely the initial clash at Chibi,the chase battle to Wulin,and Cao Cao's disorganized escape along Huarong Road.The Red Cliff battlefield thus extended across a distance of more than 300 li (150km).Even if the Chibi where the initial military engagement took place (that is,Chiji Hill,southwest of Wuchang in modern Wuhan City) has already disappeared,it should be restored to its proper historical position.The chase battle along the Yangzi River came to an end at Wulin,across the river is Chibi Hill in today's Chibi City.Although this Chibi is not the Chibi where the initial combat took place,it nonetheless forms an integral part of the ancient Chibi battlefield as a whole.The Huarong Road along which Cao Cao escaped runs through the middle of today's Jianghan Plain.Finally,the text aims to show that Chibi (Red Nose)1 Hill in modern Huangzhou City has nothing to do with the Chibi of the "battle of Red Cliff."

  9. An empirical conceptual gully evolution model for channelled sea cliffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyland, Julian; Darby, Stephen E.

    2008-12-01

    Incised coastal channels are a specific form of incised channel that are found in locations where stream channels flowing to cliffed coasts have the excess energy required to cut down through the cliff to reach the outlet water body. The southern coast of the Isle of Wight, southern England, comprises soft cliffs that vary in height between 15 and 100 m and which are retreating at rates ≤ 1.5 m a - 1 , due to a combination of wave erosion and landslides. In several locations, river channels have cut through the cliffs to create deeply (≤ 45 m) incised gullies, known locally as 'Chines'. The Chines are unusual in that their formation is associated with dynamic shoreline encroachment during a period of rising sea-level, whereas existing models of incised channel evolution emphasise the significance of base level lowering. This paper develops a conceptual model of Chine evolution by applying space for time substitution methods using empirical data gathered from Chine channel surveys and remotely sensed data. The model identifies a sequence of evolutionary stages, which are classified based on a suite of morphometric indices and associated processes. The extent to which individual Chines are in a state of growth or decay is estimated by determining the relative rates of shoreline retreat and knickpoint recession, the former via analysis of historical aerial images and the latter through the use of a stream power erosion model.

  10. Nature of short-period microtremors on the cliff-like ground. Part 5; Gakechi kinbo no tanshuki bido. 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiguma, T.; Yoshiike, T. [Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan). School of Science and Engineering; Yasui, M. [Toda Corp., Tokyo, (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    It is recorded that damage by an earthquake in an area near the cliff-like ground is greater than in other areas. Short-period microtremors have been observed on the ground around a cliff with a height of 5 meters. It was reported from the observation that remarkably dominant frequency of 4.5 Hz has been reported in that case; seismic motion as large as three times that in normal earthquakes has occurred near the edge of the cliff; and the influence of the cliff topography has extended to nearly 15 m, which is about three times greater than the cliff height. This paper describes an investigation on seismic characteristics of ground by measuring short-period microtremors in two cliff-like areas with an elevation difference of about 17 m, making an inclination angle of about 50 degrees. Natural dominant frequency of 8.0 Hz was measured in the Akiruno cliff, and 4.0 Hz in the Kagurazaka cliff. This difference is thought to have been caused by the Akiruno cliff being formed of gravel-soil ground, while the Kagurazaka cliff being formed of loamy soil ground. The influence of the cliff-like ground on seismic motion in ground appears noticeably as a seismic motion perpendicular to the cliff surface, less noticeably in the parallel direction, and very little in vertical motions. Concrete walls constructed on cliff surface can suppress very effectively the seismic motions in the ground near the cliff. 4 refs., 11 figs.

  11. Exploring the cliff retreat response to base level change using SFM photogrammetry and cosmogenic 36Cl, Coal Cliffs, Utah, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, C.; Ward, D.

    2015-12-01

    The retreat of cliffbands is an important erosional process within the relatively undeformed sedimentary layers of the Colorado Plateau. Many iconic cliff landforms, including those of Monument Valley and Grand Canyon, are maintained by the interaction of these different rock types. A several kilometer thickness of incised sandstone and shale formations allow this region to act as a natural laboratory for studying the effects of variable lithologies on landscape evolution. Cliffband morphology and retreat on the plateau are controlled by several factors that may vary over time and space, including lithology, rate and distribution of rockfall debris, bedrock structure, baselevel, and climate. The relative importance of each factor in setting rates of cliff retreat are not entirely clear. Because regional headwaters are commonly sourced at cliff bases, these landforms are often the final and slowest areas to respond to baselevel changes, allowing rockfall and other local stochastic processes to overwhelm the erosional response to a baselevel forcing. The roles of these processes are difficult to assess because very few measurements of retreat rates over geomorphic timescales (103-106 years) have been produced, and thus changes in cliffband position through time have only been constrained by inferences made from the regional erosional history. Here, we control for climate and rock type by focusing on a continuous, 40-kilometer section of the lithologically consistent Coal Cliffs in Emery County, Utah. This area presents several natural experiments illustrating cliffband response to different forcings, including relict surfaces reflecting a baselevel change, drainage divides across which the adjustment to base level change may be asynchronous, a zone wherein the caprock layer has been removed by backscarp erosion, and a generally continuous gradient in cliff height from 50 to >200 meters along the cliffline. We employ terrestrial Cl36 exposure dating on terraces, talus

  12. Nature of short-period microtremors on the cliff-like ground. 3; Gakechi kinbo no tanshuki bido . 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiguma, T.; Matsuzawa, H. [Saitama University, Saitama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-05-01

    Vibration characteristics were investigated of the ground in the vicinity of a cliff-like sharp slope. Short-period microtremors were observed in the vicinity of an artificially made cliff-like test ground, height 8m and inclination 90{degree}, and a natural cliff, height approximately 9m and inclination approximately 35{degree}. The artificial cliff was reinforced by a virtually vertical retaining wall of concrete, and the ground was prepared for testing with a belt approximately 20m wide and 50m long along the cliff face. All the vibration components were simultaneously measured at measuring spots that were located 5-40m apart from the cliff end and orientated perpendicular to the cliff face. It was then found that in case of artificial cliff there is a conspicuous 3.1Hz prevalent ground vibration in the component squarely meeting the cliff face, that the prevalent ground vibration is not particularly great near the cliff end because the retaining wall and the ground are artificially prepared, that there is no influence of the cliff-like ground in the ground vibration parallel to or vertical along the cliff face, and that in case of natural ground there are no vibration characteristic proper to a cliff-like ground in any of the vibration components. 3 refs., 7 figs.

  13. X Marks the Plot: Can Cliffs Notes Help Students Find Literary Gold?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilla, Rick

    1998-01-01

    Examines Villanova University's decision to stop selling Cliffs Notes in its bookstore and attitudes toward Cliffs Notes, highlighting honest work, shortcuts, serious research, critical thinking, and original thinking. Provides the following advice for librarians: avoid being parental; avoid unexamined judgments; and avoid undervaluing Cliffs…

  14. The Glass Cliff: An Examination of the Female Superintendency in South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Blanche Boyd

    2013-01-01

    South Carolina public school districts are confronted with a series of difficult circumstances and rely more on female superintendents than the national average. The investigation of female South Carolina superintendents was guided by the glass cliff conceptual framework. The glass cliff represents situations where females are promoted over males…

  15. Getting on top of the glass cliff : Reviewing a decade of evidence, explanations, and impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ryan, Michelle K.; Haslam, S. Alexander; Morgenroth, Thekla; Rink, Floor; Stoker, Janka; Peters, Kim

    2016-01-01

    The glass cliff refers to the tendency for women to be more likely than men to be appointed to leadership positions that are risky and precarious. This paper reviews the first decade of research into the phenomenon and has three key aims: (a) to summarize and integrate evidence of the glass cliff, (

  16. The Influence of Ephemeral Beaches on Alongshore Variability of Hard-rock Cliff Erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vann Jones, E. C.; Rosser, N. J.; Brain, M.; Varley, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    The role of abrasion of rock cliffs is typically considered in the long-term presence of a beach. During monthly monitoring of hard rock cliff erosion along the North Yorkshire coast, UK, we have observed a number of small ephemeral beaches of highly variable duration and extent. The erosive significance of the temporary presence of sediment at the cliffs is unknown and we set out to examine whether observed alongshore variability in erosion can be linked to the presence of ephemeral beaches. We explore the temporal and spatial variability in sediment deposition and transport along a low-sediment rock coast foreshore, the controlling marine conditions and the effects on cliff erosion. We focus on a 500 m wide embayment set into 70 m high hard rock cliffs consisting of horizontally bedded Jurassic mudstone, shale, siltstone and sandstone. The bay has a wide, shallow gradient foreshore up to 300 m wide with highly variable topography. With the exception of an ephemeral beach (of widths up to approximately 150 m alongshore and 10 m cross-shore) the rock foreshore is typically sand-free, with failed material from the cliffs quickly removed from the cliff toe by the sea leaving only boulders. The high tidal range (6 m) and storm wave environment of the North Sea result in variable marine conditions at the site. We use magnetic sand tracers and a grid of foreshore and cliff face magnets to examine the sand transport across the foreshore and to identify the vertical extent of cliff face impacted by sand. We monitor the driving marine conditions on the foreshore using a network of current meters and wave pressure sensors. Erosion of the cliff face across the whole bay is monitored at high-resolution using terrestrial laser scanning to examine the spatial distribution of abrasion and the influence of the ephemeral beach.

  17. 78 FR 49292 - Northshore Mining Company, a Subsidiary of Cliffs Natural Resources, Including On-Site Leased...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-13

    ... Employment and Training Administration Northshore Mining Company, a Subsidiary of Cliffs Natural Resources..., Minnesota; Northshore Mining Company, a Subsidiary of Cliffs Natural Resources, Including On- Site Leased... Miming Company, a subsidiary of Cliffs Natural Resources, including on-site leased workers from...

  18. Patent cliff mitigation strategies: giving new life to blockbusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakkar, Ashish Kumar

    2015-01-01

    With several blockbuster drugs on the brink of another significant patent expiry cliff, innovator pharmaceutical firms are at risk of losing billions of dollars in sales to generic competition. With issues such as staggering R&D costs, reduced productivity and increasing governmental emphasis on pharmacoeconomics, timely planning and implementation of product lifecycle management strategies is becoming indispensable. A variety of strategies designed to mitigate the post-patent expiry revenue loss exist. These approaches range from fairly straightforward measures, such as strategic price cuts and launching own or authorized generics, to complex and lengthy ones, such as new formulations and indications that require companies to reinvent their pharmaceuticals. As patent expiries loom and product pipelines continue to remain thin, proactive planning for generic entry will be critical for pharma companies to drive growth and earnings in a sustainable manner.

  19. Shakespeare Cliff, rempart symbolique aux portes du royaume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Price

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Figure 1 : Clarkson STANFIELD, Shakespeare Cliff, Dover, 1849, 1862« Il est une falaise, dont le front haut et courbeRegarde avec effroi dans l’abîme qu’elle enserre :Conduis-moi jusqu’à son bordEt je remédierai à la misère que tu souffresPar quelque riche objet ; de cet endroitJe n’aurai point besoin de guide. »Les lignes ci-dessus, tirées de l’Acte IV, Scène I du Roi Lear, font allusion aux falaises de Douvres, plus particulièrement à leur point culminant, un grand bloc de calcaire et de cr...

  20. Survey on Cosmogenic 26Al in Lewis Cliff Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welten, K. C.; Alderliesten, C.; Lindner, L.

    1992-07-01

    INTRODUCTION: We have embarked upon a ^26Al gamma-ray survey of meteorites selected from about 2000 samples recently recovered from the Lewis Cliff Ice Fields (84 degrees 18'S/161 degrees 20'E). Due to its 705-ka half-life ^26Al can be used for estimating terrestrial ages and thus contribute to further characterization of Antarctic meteorites in addition to their classification and thermoluminescence (TL) properties. The ^26Al survey is also useful for identifying meteorites with unusual exposure histories, which merit additional measurements of cosmogenic radionuclides (by AMS) and noble gases. In addition, it provides clues on possible pairings. METHOD: Low-level gamma-ray spectroscopy is well suited for ^26Al survey work, since bulk meteorite samples can be measured routinely and nondestructively without any previous sample preparation. The required size of the samples (30-500 g) makes the method relatively independent of depth effects and compositional inhomogeneities. The use of a high-resolution GeLi detector also allows the determination of the natural ^40K activity and thus the K content of the samples, which can be used as an additional pairing criterion for ordinary chondrites. Also ^137Cs, a fall-out surface contamination [1], is simultaneously measured; low values may be characteristic for meteorites recently fallen or released from the ablating ice. For the detector an efficiency calibration curve has been made that adequately accounts for differences in size and shape of the meteorite samples. RESULTS and DISCUSSION: TERRESTRIAL AGES: So far, we have measured over 30 Lewis Cliff equilibrated H and L chondrites, collected from widely differing locations. Normalized to L-chondrite composition, the ^26Al contents range from 27 to 110 dpm/kg with peaks around 43 and 53 dpm/kg. This bimodal ^26Al distribution is reminiscent of that observed for Allan Hills ordinary chondrites [2]. Tentative terrestrial ages, calculated on the basis of ^26Al saturation

  1. Survey on Cosmogenic 26Al in Lewis Cliff Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welten, K. C.; Alderliesten, C.; Lindner, L.

    1992-07-01

    INTRODUCTION: We have embarked upon a ^26Al gamma-ray survey of meteorites selected from about 2000 samples recently recovered from the Lewis Cliff Ice Fields (84 degrees 18'S/161 degrees 20'E). Due to its 705-ka half-life ^26Al can be used for estimating terrestrial ages and thus contribute to further characterization of Antarctic meteorites in addition to their classification and thermoluminescence (TL) properties. The ^26Al survey is also useful for identifying meteorites with unusual exposure histories, which merit additional measurements of cosmogenic radionuclides (by AMS) and noble gases. In addition, it provides clues on possible pairings. METHOD: Low-level gamma-ray spectroscopy is well suited for ^26Al survey work, since bulk meteorite samples can be measured routinely and nondestructively without any previous sample preparation. The required size of the samples (30-500 g) makes the method relatively independent of depth effects and compositional inhomogeneities. The use of a high-resolution GeLi detector also allows the determination of the natural ^40K activity and thus the K content of the samples, which can be used as an additional pairing criterion for ordinary chondrites. Also ^137Cs, a fall-out surface contamination [1], is simultaneously measured; low values may be characteristic for meteorites recently fallen or released from the ablating ice. For the detector an efficiency calibration curve has been made that adequately accounts for differences in size and shape of the meteorite samples. RESULTS and DISCUSSION: TERRESTRIAL AGES: So far, we have measured over 30 Lewis Cliff equilibrated H and L chondrites, collected from widely differing locations. Normalized to L-chondrite composition, the ^26Al contents range from 27 to 110 dpm/kg with peaks around 43 and 53 dpm/kg. This bimodal ^26Al distribution is reminiscent of that observed for Allan Hills ordinary chondrites [2]. Tentative terrestrial ages, calculated on the basis of ^26Al saturation

  2. Management perspective of the Alloy 600 issue at Calvert Cliffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In response to the question posed in the agenda regarding this presentation, let it be known at the onset that the impact of the pressurizer nozzle primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) on Calvert Cliffs was gigantic. It reached all levels of the Company management, including the Board of Directors. The investigation and repair cost over $20 million without any consideration for replacement power or consequential lost work by those who were involved in the repairs to the pressurizer. It occupied the attention of management and was a major ingredient to most decision processes for about eight months. It caused organizational modifications, capital commitments, and major resource reallocation. It became the focal point around which much of the site work revolved for approximately 6 months (until the repair process was well in hand and other issues prevailed). I will try and describe the impact it had on management, the ingredients used to reach certain important decisions and the concerns that influenced the decisions

  3. Identification of Interaction Hot Spots in Structures of Drug Targets on the Basis of Three-Dimensional Activity Cliff Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtmann, Norbert; Hu, Ye; Gütschow, Michael; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2015-12-01

    Activity cliffs are defined as pairs or groups of structurally similar or analogous compounds that share the same specific activity but have large differences in potency. Although activity cliffs are mostly studied in medicinal chemistry at the level of molecular graphs, they can also be assessed by comparing compound binding modes. If such three-dimensional activity cliffs (3D-cliffs) are studied on the basis of X-ray complex structures, experimental ligand-target interaction details can be taken into account. Rapid growth in the number of 3D-cliffs that can be derived from X-ray complex structures has made it possible to identify targets for which a substantial body of 3D-cliff information is available. Activity cliffs are typically studied to identify structure-activity relationship determinants and aid in compound optimization. However, 3D-cliff information can also be used to search for interaction hot spots and key residues, as reported herein. For six of seven drug targets for which more than 20 3D-cliffs were available, series of 3D-cliffs were identified that were consistently involved in interactions with different hot spots. These 3D-cliffs often encoded chemical modifications resulting in interactions that were characteristic of highly potent compounds but absent in weakly potent ones, thus providing information for structure-based design.

  4. Sea cliff instability hazard assessment at regional scale: a case study in the western coast of Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Fernando; Taborda, Rui; Carreira, Diogo

    2010-05-01

    Sea cliff evolution is mainly produced by mass movements of different types and sizes, which are a considerable source of natural hazard in coastal areas. For two neighboring counties (Sintra and Cascais) located in the west coast of Portugal, a sea cliff instability statistically based susceptibility assessment was tested in order to analyze the influence of a set of predisposing factors in the prediction of future failures affecting areas located along the cliff top. The coastal areas of Sintra (length of cliffs 24.8km) and Cascais (length of cliffs 22.0km) are examples of contrasting cliff morphology, height (from less than 6m to more than 120m), and rock mass composition and strength (alternating marls and limestones, sandstones, granite, limestones). The inventories of past instabilities were performed by a multitemporal study of aerial photographs from different dates, for the period 1947-2007 (Sintra), and 1947-2008 (Cascais), which enabled the detection and measurement of the local maximum retreat at the cliff top, length of cliff affected and horizontal area lost at the cliff top. The aerial photo based data coupled with field surveys enabled the identification of the type of movements. These are mainly of the rock fall and planar slide types. These aerial photo based studies enabled the identification and measurement of 63 cliff failures at Sintra and 67 at Cascais coasts, with variable spatial density from 0.4 to 20 failures per km of cliff length for the 60/61 years of study period, providing the basis for the division of the cliffs in homogeneous sections in terms of horizontal area lost at the cliff top. Along the different cliff sections, the mean retreat rates varied between 0.0003m/year and 0.025m/year, and the mean values of the maximum local retreat of the cliff top varied between 5m and 17m, with two exceptional cliff failures that caused a net retreat of the cliff top of 70m and 25m. For the assessment of the susceptibility of cliff failures

  5. Virginia Tech's Cliff and Rocky selected for Grand Challenge starting line

    OpenAIRE

    Crumbley, Liz

    2005-01-01

    Virginia Tech's "Cliff" and "Rocky" were among an elite group of 23 autonomous vehicles that revved their engines on Oct. 8 at the starting line of the $2 million DARPA Grand Challenge race through the Mojave Desert.

  6. Connotations of architectural culture transmitted in cliff carvings in the Bashu region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Cong-hua; ZHANG Xing-guo; LIU Zhi-yong

    2006-01-01

    Based on site studies,historical literature investigation and academic communication,this work aims to dig out the cultural significance in architectural and religious aspects conveyed in cliff carvings in the Bashu region.After casting a glance at the origin and evolution of Bashu culture and religion mainly involving Daoism and Buddhism recorded in forms of cliff carvings,we concentrated on discovering the national,regional and folk architectural characters implicated in cliff carvings at different sites within the Bashu region.The cliff carvings in this region vividly depicted the evolution of the architectural culture hereof.The essence of their religious and architectural connotations can be good stuff to be input in today's architectural design philosophy.

  7. Cliff Richard hakkab veini tootma. Marilyn Manson avab isikliku kunstinäituse

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    Cliff Richardi Portugali viinamarjaistandusest pärinevast veinist "Vida Nova". 20. septembril avab oma albumit "The Golden Age Of Grotesque" lõpetav laulja Marilyn Manson oma esimese kunstinäituse Los Angeleses Hollywoodis

  8. Development of Waterfall Cliff Face: An Implication from Multitemporal High-definition Topographic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Y. S.; Obanawa, H.

    2015-12-01

    Bedrock knickpoints (waterfalls) often act as erosional front in bedrock rivers, whose geomorphological processes are various. In waterfalls with vertical cliffs, both fluvial erosion and mass movement are feasible to form the landscape. Although morphological changes of such steep cliffs are sometimes visually observed, quantitative and precise measurements of their spatiotemporal distribution have been limited due to poor accessibility to such cliffs. For the clarification of geomorphological processes in such cliffs, multi-temporal mapping of the cliff face at a high resolution can be advantaged by short-range remote sensing approaches. Here we carry out multi-temporal terrestrial laser scanning (TLS), as well as structure-from-motion multi-view stereo (SfM-MVS) photogrammetry based on unmanned aerial system (UAS) for accurate topographic mapping of cliffs around a waterfall. The study site is Kegon Falls in central Japan, having a vertical drop of surface water from top of its overhanging cliff and groundwater outflows from its lower portions. The bedrock consists of alternate layers of jointed andesite lava and conglomerates. The latest major rockfall in 1986 caused approximately 8-m recession of the waterfall lip. Three-dimensional changes of the rock surface were detected by multi-temporal measurements by TLS over years, showing the portions of small rockfalls and surface lowering in the bedrock. Erosion was frequently observed in relatively weak the conglomerates layer, whereas small rockfalls were often found in the andesite layers. Wider areas of the waterfall and cliff were also measured by UAS-based SfM-MVS photogrammetry, improving the mapping quality of the cliff morphology. Point clouds are also projected on a vertical plane to generate a digital elevation model (DEM), and cross-sectional profiles extracted from the DEM indicate the presence of a distinct, 5-10-m deep depression in the cliff face. This appears to have been formed by freeze-thaw and

  9. Sea-cliff erosion at Pacifica, California caused by 1997/98 El Nino storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Charles B.; Lajoie, K.R.; Medley, Edward W.

    2000-01-01

    Twelve homes were constructed in 1949 at the top of a sea cliff along Esplanade Drive in the City of Pacifica, located on the northern coast of San Mateo County, California. During the heavy storms of the 1997/98 El Nino winter, a severe episode of cliff retreat undermined seven homes and threatened three others. The geologic, tide, wave, rainfall and wind data were analyzed to determine the causes of this erosion events.

  10. Modeling the cliff retreat response to base-level change in layered rocks, Colorado Plateau, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, D.; Sheehan, C.

    2015-12-01

    The retreat of cliffs is an important mode of erosion in layered rocks of variable strength. For example, the iconic Colorado Plateau landscapes of Grand Canyon, Canyonlands, and Monument Valley owe their unique forms to this process. These landscapes are the end result of incision by trunk streams followed by cliff retreat. Local interactions between stochastic rockfall and first-order channels draining a cliff regulate the cliff retreat response to a base-level fall. However, nonlinear transport dynamics, steep slopes, and variable rock strength challenge the modeling of landscape evolution in these settings. Here, we employ structure-from-motion photogrammetry to generate high-resolution DTMs of a natural experiment site on the Colorado Plateau. The site features a simple, sandstone-over-shale stratigraphy with a continuous gradient in cliffband height and evidence for an ongoing transient response to base level fall. The terrain data inform a high-resolution (dx=5 m), 2D numerical model of cliffband erosion. The model simulates the interaction of three primary processes: fluvial erosion and sediment transport; hillslope transport of regolith, including shallow landsliding; and rockfall from resistant units. Crucially, the model allows us to modify stratigraphy arbitrarily to examine the landscape response to parameters such as thickness, spacing, and dip of resistant units. Results indicate that the contrast in fluvial erodibility sets the pattern of emergence of cliffs as a resistant layer is exhumed, while the difference in weathering rates across rock types sets the rate at which cliffs emerge. Once rockfall begins, erosion rates are modified by the thickness of the resistant layer, which sets the volume of rockfall debris reaching the channels below the cliff. The modeling highlights the need for process-based understanding of the conditions for cliff failure by rockfall and redistribution of the debris in very steep, rapidly-eroding landscapes.

  11. The unsteady nature of sea cliff retreat due to mechanical abrasion, failure and comminution feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Shaun W.; Adams, Peter N.; Limber, Patrick W.

    2014-08-01

    Sea cliff retreat is often linked to large waves, heavy precipitation and seismic events, but the specific operative mechanics have not been well constrained. In particular, what is the role of mechanical abrasion by beach sediments in cliff/platform evolution and how does it relate to the episodic nature of cliff retreat observed at certain locations? Here we present a simple, numerical model of sea cliff retreat that incorporates mechanical abrasion of a basal notch, threshold-controlled failure of the cantilevered block, and a feedback mechanism wherein retreat is dependent on the rate of sediment comminution within the surf zone. Using shore platform and cliff characteristics found in two coastal settings (the central California coast and the English North Sea coast), the model produces retreat rates comparable to those observed via field measurements. The highest retreat rates coincide with the steepest shore platforms and increasing wave height. Steeper platforms promote wave access to the cliff toe and, correspondingly, the receding cliff face produces additional accommodation space for the platform beach, preserving the erosive efficacy of the beach sediments. When exposed to energetic wave forcing, the slope of the inner platform segment controls retreat rates for concave platforms, whereas the slope of the outer platform segment exerts greater control for convex platforms. Platform beaches approached a long-term dynamic equilibrium on the concave profiles, leading to more consistent and steady retreat. Platform beaches were ephemeral on convex profiles, mirroring observed sand wave (Ord) migration on the Holderness coast, UK. These findings agree with previous field observations and support mechanical abrasion as a viable cause of temporal heterogeneity in cliff retreat rate for both coastlines.

  12. Reconstructing 3D coastal cliffs from airborne oblique photographs without ground control points

    OpenAIRE

    Dewez, T.J. B.

    2014-01-01

    Coastal cliff collapse hazard assessment requires measuring cliff face topography at regular intervals. Terrestrial laser scanner techniques have proven useful so far but are expensive to use either through purchasing the equipment or through survey subcontracting. In addition, terrestrial laser surveys take time which is sometimes incompatible with the time during with the beach is accessible at low-tide. By comparison, structure from motion techniques (SFM) are much less costly to ...

  13. Nature of short-period microtremors on the cliff-like ground. Part 4; Gakechi kinbo no tanshuki bido. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiguma, T.; Yoshiike, T. [Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan). School of Science and Engineering

    1996-10-01

    Microtremors were measured on the cliff-like ground with a height about 10 m, to examine the vibration characteristics. Test field-1 near Akabane, Kita-ku, Tokyo is located in a part of Musashino plateau covered with Kanto loam on its surface, and has relatively sound ground. Test field-2 at Machida is located in the western part of Tama hills, and also has Kanto loam on its surface. For the cliff-like ground with inclined angle 70{degree} at Akabane, remarkably predominant frequency 3.2 Hz was observed for the microtremors in the direction perpendicular to the cliff surface. However, this predominant vibration did not become larger due to the damping effects of the reinforcement walls near the end of cliff and the large trees on the cliff. Influence of the cliff-like ground was scarcely observed in the microtremors spectrum in both the directions parallel and vertical to the cliff-surface. From the observation of microtremors with short period on the cliff-like ground with inclined angle around 32{degree} at Machida, influence of cliff-like ground was not observed in the microtremors spectrum in all of the vibrating directions perpendicular, parallel and vertical to the cliff surface. 3 refs., 10 figs.

  14. Sea cliff instability susceptibility at regional scale: a statistically based assessment in the southern Algarve, Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, F. M. S. F.; Matildes, R.; Redweik, P.

    2013-12-01

    Sea cliff evolution is dominated by the occurrence of slope mass movements of different types and sizes, which are a considerable source of natural hazard, making their assessment a relevant issue in terms of human loss prevention and land use regulations. To address the assessment of the spatial component of sea cliff hazards, i.e. the susceptibility, a statistically based study was made to assess the capacity of a set of conditioning factors to express the occurrence of sea cliff failures affecting areas located along their top. The study was based on the application of the bivariate information value and multivariate logistic regression statistical methods, using a set of predisposing factors for cliff failures, mainly related to geology (lithology, bedding dip, faults) and geomorphology (maximum and mean slope, height, aspect, plan curvature, toe protection), which were correlated with a photogrammetry-based inventory of cliff failures that occurred in a 60 yr period (1947-2007). The susceptibility models were validated against the inventory data using standard success rate and ROC curves, and provided encouraging results, indicating that the proposed approaches are effective for susceptibility assessment. The results obtained also stress the need for improvement of the predisposing factors to be used in this type of study and the need for detailed and systematic cliff failure inventories.

  15. Development of cliff-top dunes in the Hengchun Peninsula of the southern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Lih-Der; Wong, Yi-Chia; Lüthgens, Christopher; Chyi, Shyhjeng; Yen, Jiun-Yee

    2016-04-01

    Fung-Chuei-Sha cliff-top dune is located on a 60-meter-high cliff surface in the Hengchun Peninsula of Taiwan. It is still unclear that the history of the aeolian sediment deposition on the top of the cliff, and what factors may influence the evolution of the cliff-top dune. This study aims to investigate the evolutionary history of the Fung-Chuei-Sha cliff-top dune by analyzing the grain size, CaCO3 concentration and absolute dates of the dune sediment, and the land snail species found in the deposit.The results show three phases of aeolian sand accumulation in the Fung-Chuei-Sha cliff-top dune. 1. Phase I: aeolian sediment may accumulate in the bottom of the cliff between 2800 yr BP and 2100 yr BP. 2. Phase II: the cliff-top dune accumulated a 3.1-meter-thick sediment layer from 1500 yr BP to 1300 yr BP. In this phase, dune sediment deposited in a rate of 1.55 cm/yr. The paleoclimate proxy data from the nearby area indicate that the environment was cool and dry, and the Asian winter monsoon was strong during 1500-1300 yr BP. It blew the old coastal dune deposit at the bottom of the cliff up to the cliff top, and induced the C14 age reverse phenomenon. The aeolian deposition began to stabilize because of the wetter environment in the end of the Phase II. At the same time, the stable dune formed the silt and clay layer on the surface of the dune. A layer cemented by CaCO3 may indicate the position of the palaeo-groundwater table. 3. Phase III: the phase stared from 1500-1300 yr BP to the present. A 2.4-meter-thick eolian deposit was accumulated in a rate of 0.18 cm/yr during this phase. Four kinds of land snail shells, Cyclophorus formosensis, Hemiphaedusa similaris, Platyrhaphe swinhoei, Odontartemon heudei, which prefer to live in a relatively humid environment, were commonly observed in the dune deposit, indicating the environment was wet and consequently caused a slower aeolian deposition rate at this phase. Between 1000 yr BP and 500 yr BP, there was a

  16. Subaerial Chalk Cliff Failures on the English Channel Coast, Based on Field Data From Recent Collapses

    Science.gov (United States)

    DUPERRET, A.; MARTINEZ, A.; GENTER, A.; MORTIMORE, R. N.; WATREMEZ, P.

    2001-12-01

    The chalk cliffs along the English Channel coast are currently retreating at a mean rate of 0.5 m/year. However, the erosion is not constant over time, but occurs by catastrophic collapses. For the last three years, a minimum of 40 collapses have been observed along the French chalk coastline (120 km long) and about 10 collapses along the English chalk coastline (40 km long). The observed collapsed volumes are varying from 150 000 m3 (Beachy Head, UK) to a few m3, whereas the cliff heights are varying from 20 to 200m. Two kinds of scar extension have been observed on the cliff face: either the lower part only with few volumes involved, either the whole cliff height for the largest events. Two main cases of scar shape have been evidenced: (1) scar with a vertical upper part and a curved lower part with large striations and crushed chalk (Puys, France). The rupture process is an overall sliding process, with tearing of the upper part of the cliff and shearing in its lower part. The failure is mainly controlled by rain-fall and occurred by water pressure increase on impervious marl seams of the chalk (Duperret et al., in press, JCR). (2) scar with a regular and rectilinear profile, without any striation (Birling Gap, UK). The rupture propagates along pre-existing joint sets, parallel oriented to the cliff face. Locally, pre-existing large-scale transverse fractures may bound the lateral propagation of the scar. Where the scars extend all over the cliff height, the failure is mainly controlled by continental water infiltration. However the role of water through fractured chalk may differ according to the fracture pattern. Where the scars are restrained to the lower part of the cliff, the upward extension of the scars are bounded by lithological features of the chalk, as horizontal flint bands or stratification. In this case, the role of marine parameters, as wave impact at the toe of the cliff may be invoked as a significant triggering parameter contributing to failure

  17. The visual cliff's forgotten menagerie: rats, goats, babies, and myth-making in the history of psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodkey, Elissa N

    2015-01-01

    Eleanor Gibson and Richard Walk's famous visual cliff experiment is one of psychology's classic studies, included in most introductory textbooks. Yet the famous version which centers on babies is actually a simplification, the result of disciplinary myth-making. In fact the visual cliff's first subjects were rats, and a wide range of animals were tested on the cliff, including chicks, turtles, lambs, kid goats, pigs, kittens, dogs, and monkeys. The visual cliff experiment was more accurately a series of experiments, employing varying methods and a changing apparatus, modified to test different species. This paper focuses on the initial, nonhuman subjects of the visual cliff, resituating the study in its original experimental logic, connecting it to the history of comparative psychology, Gibson's interest in comparative psychology, as well as gender-based discrimination. Recovering the visual cliff's forgotten menagerie helps to counter the romanticization of experimentation by focusing on the role of extrascientific factors, chance, complexity, and uncertainty in the experimental process.

  18. The Cliffs of Time. Cliffs of the Neuse State Park. An Environmental Education Learning Experience, Designed for Grades 6-8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neal, Adrian

    This activity packet provides educators with a series of hands-on interdisciplinary classroom and outdoor education activities for grades 6-8 that focus on geology and prehistoric life at Cliffs of the Neuse State Park, North Carolina. The packet was designed to meet established curriculum objectives of the North Carolina Department of Public…

  19. Analysis of behavior based control for planetary cliff descent using cooperative robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumm, Erik; Farritor, Shane; Huntsberger, Terrance L.; Schenker, Paul S.

    2003-09-01

    Future robotic planetary exploration will need to traverse geographically diverse and challenging terrain. Cliffs, ravines, and fissures are of great scientific interest because they may contain important data regarding past water flow and past life. Highly sloped terrain is difficult and often impossible to safely navigate using a single robot. This paper describes a control system for a team of three robots that access cliff walls at inclines up to 70°. Two robot assistants, or anchors, lower a third robot, called the rappeller, down the cliff using tethers. The anchors use actively controlled winches to first assist the rappeller in navigation about the cliff face and then retreat to safe ground. This paper describes the control of these three robots so they function as a team to explore the cliff face. Stability requirements for safe operation are identified and a behavior-based control scheme is presented. Behaviors are defined for the system and command fusion methods are described. Controller stability and sensitivity are examined. Controller performance is evaluated with simulation and a laboratory system.

  20. Seismic precursory patterns before a cliff collapse and critical-point phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Amitrano, David; Senfaute, Gloria

    2005-01-01

    We analyse the statistical pattern of seismicity before a 1-2 103 m3 chalk cliff collapse on the Normandie ocean shore, Western France. We show that a power law acceleration of seismicity rate and energy in both 40 Hz-1.5 kHz and 2 Hz-10kHz frequency range, is defined on 3 order of magnitude, within 2 hours from the collapse time. Simultaneously, the average size of the seismic events increases toward the time to failure. These in-situ results are derived from the only station located within one rupture length distance from the rock fall rupture plane. They mimic the "critical point" like behavior recovered from physical and numerical experiments before brittle failures and tertiary creep failures. Our analysis of this first seismic monitoring data of a cliff collapse suggests that the thermodynamic phase transition models for failure may apply for cliff collapse.

  1. Analysis of Cliff-Ramp Structures in Homogeneous Scalar Turbulence by the Method of Line Segments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauding, Michael; Goebbert, Jens Henrik; Peters, Norbert; Hasse, Christian

    2015-11-01

    The local structure of a turbulent scalar field in homogeneous isotropic turbulence is analyzed by direct numerical simulations (DNS). A novel signal decomposition approach is introduced where the signal of the scalar along a straight line is partitioned into segments based on the local extremal points of the scalar field. These segments are then parameterized by the distance between adjacent extremal points and a segment-based gradient. Joint statistics of the length and the segment-based gradient provide novel understanding about the local structure of the turbulent field and particularly about cliff-ramp-like structures. Ramp-like structures are unveiled by the asymmetry of joint distribution functions. Cliff-like structures are further analyzed by conditional statistics and it is shown from DNS that the width of cliffs scales with the Kolmogorov length scale.

  2. Sea cliff instability susceptibility at regional scale: a statistically based assessment in southern Algarve, Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. M. S. F. Marques

    2013-05-01

    along their top. The study was based on the application of the bivariate Information Value and multivariate Logistic regression statistical methods, using a set of predisposing factors for cliff failures, mainly related with geology (lithology, bedding dip, faults and geomorphology (maximum and mean slope, height, aspect, plan curvature, toe protection which were correlated with a photogrammetry based inventory of cliff failures occurred in a 60 yr period (1947–2007. The susceptibility models were validated against the inventory data using standard success rate and ROC curves, and provided encouraging results, indicating that the proposed approaches are effective for susceptibility assessment. The results obtained also stress the need for improvement of the predisposing factors to be used in this type of studies and the need of detailed and systematic cliff failures inventories.

  3. 75 FR 25876 - Notice of Intent To Prepare Resource Management Plans for the Beaver Dam Wash and Red Cliffs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-10

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Intent To Prepare Resource Management Plans for the Beaver Dam Wash... Dam Wash and the Red Cliffs National Conservation Areas and an amendment to the St. George Field... BLM SGFO, St. George, Utah intends to prepare RMPs for the Beaver Dam Wash and the Red Cliffs...

  4. Main factors determining bioerosion patterns on rocky cliffs in a drowned valley estuary in the Colombian Pacific (Eastern Tropical Pacific)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobo-Viveros, Alba Marina; Cantera-Kintz, Jaime Ricardo

    2015-10-01

    Bioerosion is an important process that destroys coastal rocks in the tropics. However, the rates at which this process occurs, the organisms involved, and the dynamics of rocky cliffs in tropical latitudes have been less studied than in temperate and subtropical latitudes. To contribute to the knowledge of the bioerosion process in rocky cliffs on the Pacific coast of Colombia (Eastern Tropical Pacific) we compared: 1) boring volume, 2) grain size distribution of the rocks, and 3) rock porosity, across three tidal zones of two cliffs with different wave exposure; these factors were related to the bioeroding community found. We observed that cliffs that were not exposed to wave action (IC, internal cliffs) exhibited high percentages of clays in their grain size composition, and a greater porosity (47.62%) and perforation (15.86%) than exposed cliffs (EC, external cliffs). However, IC also exhibited less diversity and abundance of bioeroding species (22 species and 314 individuals, respectively) compared to the values found in EC (41.11%, 14.34%, 32 and 491, respectively). The most abundant bioeroders were Petrolisthes zacae in IC and Pachygrapsus transversus in EC. Our findings show that the tidal zone is the common factor controlling bioerosion on both cliffs; in addition to the abundance of bioeroders on IC and the number of bioeroding species on EC. The integration of geology, sedimentology, and biology allows us to obtain a more comprehensive view of the patterns and trends in the process of bioerosion.

  5. 33 CFR 165.505 - Security Zone; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Chesapeake Bay, Calvert County, Maryland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security Zone; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Chesapeake Bay, Calvert County, Maryland. 165.505 Section 165.505 Navigation and... Areas Fifth Coast Guard District § 165.505 Security Zone; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant,...

  6. 78 FR 4467 - UniStar Nuclear Energy, Combined License Application for Calvert Cliffs Power Plant, Unit 3...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION UniStar Nuclear Energy, Combined License Application for Calvert Cliffs Power Plant, Unit 3, Exemption 1.0 Background UniStar Nuclear Energy (UNE), on behalf of Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Project, LLC...

  7. Assessing species habitat using Google Street View: a case study of cliff-nesting vultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olea, Pedro P; Mateo-Tomás, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    The assessment of a species' habitat is a crucial issue in ecology and conservation. While the collection of habitat data has been boosted by the availability of remote sensing technologies, certain habitat types have yet to be collected through costly, on-ground surveys, limiting study over large areas. Cliffs are ecosystems that provide habitat for a rich biodiversity, especially raptors. Because of their principally vertical structure, however, cliffs are not easy to study by remote sensing technologies, posing a challenge for many researches and managers working with cliff-related biodiversity. We explore the feasibility of Google Street View, a freely available on-line tool, to remotely identify and assess the nesting habitat of two cliff-nesting vultures (the griffon vulture and the globally endangered Egyptian vulture) in northwestern Spain. Two main usefulness of Google Street View to ecologists and conservation biologists were evaluated: i) remotely identifying a species' potential habitat and ii) extracting fine-scale habitat information. Google Street View imagery covered 49% (1,907 km) of the roads of our study area (7,000 km²). The potential visibility covered by on-ground surveys was significantly greater (mean: 97.4%) than that of Google Street View (48.1%). However, incorporating Google Street View to the vulture's habitat survey would save, on average, 36% in time and 49.5% in funds with respect to the on-ground survey only. The ability of Google Street View to identify cliffs (overall accuracy = 100%) outperformed the classification maps derived from digital elevation models (DEMs) (62-95%). Nonetheless, high-performance DEM maps may be useful to compensate Google Street View coverage limitations. Through Google Street View we could examine 66% of the vultures' nesting-cliffs existing in the study area (n = 148): 64% from griffon vultures and 65% from Egyptian vultures. It also allowed us the extraction of fine-scale features of cliffs

  8. Assessing species habitat using Google Street View: a case study of cliff-nesting vultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro P Olea

    Full Text Available The assessment of a species' habitat is a crucial issue in ecology and conservation. While the collection of habitat data has been boosted by the availability of remote sensing technologies, certain habitat types have yet to be collected through costly, on-ground surveys, limiting study over large areas. Cliffs are ecosystems that provide habitat for a rich biodiversity, especially raptors. Because of their principally vertical structure, however, cliffs are not easy to study by remote sensing technologies, posing a challenge for many researches and managers working with cliff-related biodiversity. We explore the feasibility of Google Street View, a freely available on-line tool, to remotely identify and assess the nesting habitat of two cliff-nesting vultures (the griffon vulture and the globally endangered Egyptian vulture in northwestern Spain. Two main usefulness of Google Street View to ecologists and conservation biologists were evaluated: i remotely identifying a species' potential habitat and ii extracting fine-scale habitat information. Google Street View imagery covered 49% (1,907 km of the roads of our study area (7,000 km². The potential visibility covered by on-ground surveys was significantly greater (mean: 97.4% than that of Google Street View (48.1%. However, incorporating Google Street View to the vulture's habitat survey would save, on average, 36% in time and 49.5% in funds with respect to the on-ground survey only. The ability of Google Street View to identify cliffs (overall accuracy = 100% outperformed the classification maps derived from digital elevation models (DEMs (62-95%. Nonetheless, high-performance DEM maps may be useful to compensate Google Street View coverage limitations. Through Google Street View we could examine 66% of the vultures' nesting-cliffs existing in the study area (n = 148: 64% from griffon vultures and 65% from Egyptian vultures. It also allowed us the extraction of fine-scale features of

  9. Soft-Cliff Retreat, Self-Organized Critical Phenomena in the Limit of Predictability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, Carlos; Godoy, Clara; Castedo, Ricardo

    2015-03-01

    The coastal erosion along the world's coastlines is a natural process that occurs through the actions of marine and subaerial physico-chemical phenomena, waves, tides, and currents. The development of cliff erosion predictive models is limited due to the complex interactions between environmental processes and material properties over a wide range of temporal and spatial scales. As a result of this erosive action, gravity driven mass movements occur and the coastline moves inland. Like other studied earth natural and synthetically modelled phenomena characterized as self-organized critical (SOC), the recession of the cliff has a seemingly random, sporadic behavior, with a wide range of yearly recession rate values probabilistically distributed by a power-law. Usually, SOC systems are defined by a number of scaling features in the size distribution of its parameters and on its spatial and/or temporal pattern. Particularly, some previous studies of derived parameters from slope movements catalogues, have allowed detecting certain SOC features in this phenomenon, which also shares the recession of cliffs. Due to the complexity of the phenomenon and, as for other natural processes, there is no definitive model of recession of coastal cliffs. In this work, various analysis techniques have been applied to identify SOC features in the distribution and pattern to a particular case: the Holderness shoreline. This coast is a great case study to use when examining coastal processes and the structures associated with them. It is one of World's fastest eroding coastlines (2 m/yr in average, max observed 22 m/yr). Cliffs, ranging from 2 m up to 35 m in height, and made up of glacial tills, mainly compose this coast. It is this soft boulder clay that is being rapidly eroded and where coastline recession measurements have been recorded by the Cliff Erosion Monitoring Program (East Riding of Yorkshire Council, UK). The original database has been filtered by grouping contiguous

  10. Investigating ice cliff evolution and contribution to glacier mass-balance using a physically-based dynamic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buri, Pascal; Miles, Evan; Ragettli, Silvan; Brun, Fanny; Steiner, Jakob; Pellicciotti, Francesca

    2016-04-01

    Supraglacial cliffs are a surface feature typical of debris-covered glaciers, affecting surface evolution, glacier downwasting and mass balance by providing a direct ice-atmosphere interface. As a result, melt rates can be very high and ice cliffs may account for a significant portion of the total glacier mass loss. However, their contribution to glacier mass balance has rarely been quantified through physically-based models. Most cliff energy balance models are point scale models which calculate energy fluxes at individual cliff locations. Results from the only grid based model to date accurately reflect energy fluxes and cliff melt, but modelled backwasting patterns are in some cases unrealistic, as the distribution of melt rates would lead to progressive shallowing and disappearance of cliffs. Based on a unique multitemporal dataset of cliff topography and backwasting obtained from high-resolution terrestrial and aerial Structure-from-Motion analysis on Lirung Glacier in Nepal, it is apparent that cliffs exhibit a range of behaviours but most do not rapidly disappear. The patterns of evolution cannot be explained satisfactorily by atmospheric melt alone, and are moderated by the presence of supraglacial ponds at the base of cliffs and by cliff reburial with debris. Here, we document the distinct patterns of evolution including disappearance, growth and stability. We then use these observations to improve the grid-based energy balance model, implementing periodic updates of the cliff geometry resulting from modelled melt perpendicular to the ice surface. Based on a slope threshold, pixels can be reburied by debris or become debris-free. The effect of ponds are taken into account through enhanced melt rates in horizontal direction on pixels selected based on an algorithm considering distance to the water surface, slope and lake level. We use the dynamic model to first study the evolution of selected cliffs for which accurate, high resolution DEMs are available

  11. Cliffs used as communal roosts by Andean condors protect the birds from weather and predators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio A Lambertucci

    Full Text Available The quality and availability of resources influence the geographical distribution of species. Social species need safe places to rest, meet, exchange information and obtain thermoregulatory benefits, but those places may also serve other important functions that have been overlooked in research. We use a large soaring bird that roosts communally in cliffs, the Andean condor (Vultur gryphus, as a model species to elucidate whether roost locations serve as a refuge from adverse weather conditions (climatic refuge hypothesis, CRH, and/or from predators or anthropogenic disturbances (threats refuge hypothesis, TRH. The CRH predicts that communal roosts will face in the opposite direction from where storms originate, and will be located in climatically stable, low precipitation areas. The TRH predicts that communal roosts will be large, poorly accessible cliffs, located far from human-made constructions. We surveyed cliffs used as communal roosts by condors in northwestern Patagonia, and compared them with alternative non-roosting cliffs to test these predictions at local and regional scales. We conclude that communal roosting places provide refuge against climate and disturbances such as, for instance, the threats of predators (including humans. Thus, it is not only the benefits gained from being aggregated per se, but the characteristics of the place selected for roosting that may both be essential for the survival of the species. This should be considered in management and conservation plans given the current scenario of global climate change and the increase in environmental disturbances.

  12. The glass cliff: when and why women are selected as leaders in crisis contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckmüller, Susanne; Branscombe, Nyla R

    2010-09-01

    The glass cliff refers to women being more likely to rise to positions of organizational leadership in times of crisis than in times of success, and men being more likely to achieve those positions in prosperous times. We examine the role that (a) a gendered history of leadership and (b) stereotypes about gender and leadership play in creating the glass cliff. In Expt 1, participants who read about a company with a male history of leadership selected a male future leader for a successful organization, but chose a female future leader in times of crisis. This interaction--between company performance and gender of the preferred future leader--was eliminated for a counter-stereotypic history of female leadership. In Expt 2, stereotypically male attributes were most predictive of leader selection in a successful organization, while stereotypically female attributes were most predictive in times of crisis. Differences in the endorsement of these stereotypes, in particular with regard to the ascription of lower stereotypically female attributes to the male candidate mediated the glass cliff effect. Overall, results suggest that stereotypes about male leadership may be more important for the glass cliff effect than stereotypes about women and leadership.

  13. 75 FR 60147 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ... COMMISSION Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation; Notice of... Branch, Division of Spent Fuel Storage and Transportation, Office of Nuclear Material Safety and... Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI) Technical Specifications (TS) be revised as follows: 1....

  14. Cliff or Step? Posture-Specific Learning at the Edge of a Drop-Off

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretch, Kari S.; Adolph, Karen E.

    2013-01-01

    Infants require locomotor experience to behave adaptively at a drop-off. However, different experimental paradigms (visual cliff and actual gaps and slopes) have generated conflicting findings regarding what infants learn and the specificity of their learning. An actual, adjustable drop-off apparatus was used to investigate whether learning to…

  15. The Cliff:A Deconstructive Analysis of The Catcher in the Rye

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐建南

    2012-01-01

    Just as the cliff serves as a demarcation between two different worlds,there seems to the protagonist in The Catcher in the Rye the dichotomies between innocence and corruption,children and adults.While these dualisms are projected in the story,they are also deconstructed and the characterization of Holden clearly shows the instability of those dualisms.

  16. 76 FR 22935 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    ... Class C (GTCC) waste and other radioactive materials associated with spent fuel storage at the CCNPP... granted, the renewed license will authorize the applicant to continue to store spent fuel in a dry cask... COMMISSION Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation; Notice...

  17. Experimental infection of cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) with varying doses of West Nile virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oesterle, P.T.; Nemeth, N.M.; VanDalen, Kaci K.; Sullivan, H.; Bentler, K.T.; Young, G.R.; McLean, R.G.; Clark, L.; Smeraski, C.; Hall, J.S.

    2009-01-01

    Cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) were inoculated with differing doses of West Nile virus (WNV) to evaluate their potential role as reservoir hosts in nature. Swallows often nest in large colonies in habitats and months associated with high mosquito abundance and early WNV transmission in North America. Additionally, cliff swallow diet consists of insects, including mosquitoes, leading to an additional potential route of WNV infection. The average peak viremia titer among infected cliff swallows was 106.3 plaque-forming units (PFU)/mL serum and the reservoir competence index was 0.34. There was no correlation between dose and probability of becoming infected or viremia peak and duration. Oral shedding was detected from 2 to 14 days post-inoculation with an average peak titer of 1044 PFU/swab. These results suggest that cliff swallows are competent reservoir hosts of WNV and therefore, they may play a role in early seasonal amplification and maintenance of WNV. Copyright ?? 2009 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  18. Cliff Collapse Hazard from Repeated Multicopter Uav Acquisitions: Return on Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewez, T. J. B.; Leroux, J.; Morelli, S.

    2016-06-01

    Cliff collapse poses a serious hazard to infrastructure and passers-by. Obtaining information such as magnitude-frequency relationship for a specific site is of great help to adapt appropriate mitigation measures. While it is possible to monitor hundreds-of-meter-long cliff sites with ground based techniques (e.g. lidar or photogrammetry), it is both time consuming and scientifically limiting to focus on short cliff sections. In the project SUAVE, we sought to investigate whether an octocopter UAV photogrammetric survey would perform sufficiently well in order to repeatedly survey cliff face geometry and derive rock fall inventories amenable to probabilistic rock fall hazard computation. An experiment was therefore run on a well-studied site of the chalk coast of Normandy, in Mesnil Val, along the English Channel (Northern France). Two campaigns were organized in January and June 2015 which surveyed about 60 ha of coastline, including the 80-m-high cliff face, the chalk platform at its foot, and the hinterland in a matter of 4 hours from start to finish. To conform with UAV regulations, the flight was flown in 3 legs for a total of about 30 minutes in the air. A total of 868 and 1106 photos were respectively shot with a Sony NEX 7 with fixed focal 16mm. Three lines of sight were combined: horizontal shots for cliff face imaging, 45°-oblique views to tie plateau/platform photos with cliff face images, and regular vertical shots. Photogrammetrically derived dense point clouds were produced with Agisoft Photoscan at ultra-high density (median density is 1 point every 1.7cm). Point cloud density proved a critical parameter to reproduce faithfully the chalk face's geometry. Tuning down the density parameter to "high" or "medium", though efficient from a computational point of view, generated artefacts along chalk bed edges (i.e. smoothing the sharp gradient) and ultimately creating ghost volumes when computing cloud to cloud differences. Yet, from a hazard point of

  19. CLIFF COLLAPSE HAZARD FROM REPEATED MULTICOPTER UAV ACQUISITIONS: RETURN ON EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. B. Dewez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cliff collapse poses a serious hazard to infrastructure and passers-by. Obtaining information such as magnitude-frequency relationship for a specific site is of great help to adapt appropriate mitigation measures. While it is possible to monitor hundreds-of-meter-long cliff sites with ground based techniques (e.g. lidar or photogrammetry, it is both time consuming and scientifically limiting to focus on short cliff sections. In the project SUAVE, we sought to investigate whether an octocopter UAV photogrammetric survey would perform sufficiently well in order to repeatedly survey cliff face geometry and derive rock fall inventories amenable to probabilistic rock fall hazard computation. An experiment was therefore run on a well-studied site of the chalk coast of Normandy, in Mesnil Val, along the English Channel (Northern France. Two campaigns were organized in January and June 2015 which surveyed about 60 ha of coastline, including the 80-m-high cliff face, the chalk platform at its foot, and the hinterland in a matter of 4 hours from start to finish. To conform with UAV regulations, the flight was flown in 3 legs for a total of about 30 minutes in the air. A total of 868 and 1106 photos were respectively shot with a Sony NEX 7 with fixed focal 16mm. Three lines of sight were combined: horizontal shots for cliff face imaging, 45°-oblique views to tie plateau/platform photos with cliff face images, and regular vertical shots. Photogrammetrically derived dense point clouds were produced with Agisoft Photoscan at ultra-high density (median density is 1 point every 1.7cm. Point cloud density proved a critical parameter to reproduce faithfully the chalk face’s geometry. Tuning down the density parameter to “high” or “medium”, though efficient from a computational point of view, generated artefacts along chalk bed edges (i.e. smoothing the sharp gradient and ultimately creating ghost volumes when computing cloud to cloud differences. Yet

  20. Multi-temporal Terrestrial Laser Scanner monitoring of coastal instability processes at Coroglio cliff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, Teresa; Somma, Renato; Marino, Ermanno; Matano, Fabio; Troise, Claudia; De Natale, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    The Coroglio cliff is a morphological evolution of the caldera rim of Neapolitan Yellow Tuff (NYT) in Campi Flegrei caldera (CFc) with an elevation of 150 m a.s.l. and a length of about 200 m. The lithology consists of NYT, extremely lithified, overlaid by less lithified recent products of the Phlegrean volcanism., These materials are highly erodible and, due to proximity to the sea, the sea wave and wind actions cause very strong erosion process. In the recent years Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS) technique is used for environmental monitoring purposes through the creation of high resolution Digital Surface Model (DSM) and Digital Terrain Model (DTM). This method allows the reconstruction, by means of a dense cloud of points, of a 3D model for the entire investigated area. The scans need to be performed from different points of view in order to ensure a good coverage of the area, because a widespread problem is the occurrence of shaded areas. In our study we used a long-range laser scanner model RIEGL VZ1000®. Numerous surveys (April 2013, June 2014, February 2015) have been performed for monitoring coastal cliff morphological evolution. An additional survey was executed in March 2015, shortly after a landslide occurrence. To validate the multi-temporal monitoring of the laser scanner, a "quick" comparison of the acquired point clouds has been carried out using an algorithm cloud-to-cloud, in order to identify 3D changes. Then 2.5D raster images of the different scans has been performed in GIS environment, also in order to allow a map overlay of the produced thematic layer, both raster and vector data (geology, contour map, orthophoto, and so on). The comparison of multi-temporal data have evidenced interesting geomorphological processes on the cliff. It was observed a very intense (about 6 m) local moving back at the base of the cliff, mainly due to the sea wave action during storms, while in cliff sectors characterized by less compact lithologies widespread

  1. Inshore analyse of the morphostructural evolution of the coastal cliffs of Bessin, Basse-Normandie, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vioget, Alizée; Costa, Stéphane; Derron, Marc-Henri; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Maquaire, Olivier; Michoud, Clément

    2014-05-01

    The cliffs' retreat is a major issue for the management of coastal territories. Two coastal areas in "Calvados" and "Pays de Caux", French Normandy, are studied by the University of Caen for several years, and more recently assisted by the University of Lausanne. The studied section of the cliffs of Bessin is about 4.3 km long and lies between the World War II artillery batteries of Longues-sur-Mer and Arromanches-les-Bains. The site's lithology is mainly made of two formations: the limestones of Bessin that lie on top of the marls of Port. On the coastline, the cliff's height varies between 10 and 75 meters above sea level. The marl formation acts like an aquitard, as it is semi-impermeable. Therefore, more or less important water outflows are observable at the point of contact between the marls and the limestones. First, the study aims to create an up to date geomorphological map as well as a kinematic classification of the existing instabilities of the different cliff's profiles. This part is realized with on site field measurements. We observe several profiles depending on the type of cliff studied: sinking of limestone panels due to creeping marls at the base, overhang limestone formation, wave-cut notch, detachment, tilt, rotational slide, superficial separation etc. These several behaviours depend on the cliff's exposure to the Channel sea and weathering factors, morphology, presence of pebble beach etc. The coastline section is thus classified depending on the different morphological types observed, which influence the stability and erosion rates. Principal morphological types here are: overhang limestone formation near Cape Manvieux, creeping marls near le Chaos and graben near le Bouffay. Then, the cliffs' condition is compared to the diachronic analyse of the shoreline evolution supported by different photographic documents. This part of the study allows to refine the spatiotemporal occurrence of the different ground movements. However, cliffs

  2. Cliff´s Delta Calculator: A non-parametric effect size program for two groups of observations

    OpenAIRE

    Guillermo Macbeth; Eugenia Razumiejczyk; Rubén Daniel Ledesma

    2011-01-01

    The Cliff´s Delta statistic is an effect size measure that quantifies the amount of difference between two non-parametric variables beyond p-values interpretation. This measure can be understood as a useful complementary analysis for the corresponding hypothesis testing. During the last two decades the use of effect size measures has been strongly encouraged by methodologists and leading institutions of behavioral sciences. The aim of this contribution is to introduce the Cliff´s Delta Calcul...

  3. Implementation of a Geographical Information System. GIS, in the Natural National Park, Cliffs of Cali

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this project was to generate a tool to improve the handling, conservation and administration of the Park National Natural - Cliffs of Cali, belonging to the Special Administrative Unit of the System of Natural National Parks, UAESPNN, of the Ministry of the Environment. With this purpose it was implemented a System of Geographical Information, GIS, like methodological model. The GIS; Cliffs of Cali used a database relational, developed with the software ACCESS tm, compatible with the used GIS Arc/INFO tm and Arc/View tm (for work station). The data space accessed to the database were those of topography, hydrology, areas of life, geology, limit, fronts, to zone with handling ends, precipitation, indigenous occupation and municipalities; it contain related alphanumeric information, administrative, socioeconomic handling and physique among others

  4. Cliff swallows Petrochelidon pyrrhonota as bioindicators of environmental mercury, Cache Creek Watershed, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hothem, R.L.; Trejo, B.S.; Bauer, M.L.; Crayon, J.J.

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate mercury (Hg) and other element exposure in cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota), eggs were collected from 16 sites within the mining-impacted Cache Creek watershed, Colusa, Lake, and Yolo counties, California, USA, in 1997-1998. Nestlings were collected from seven sites in 1998. Geometric mean total Hg (THg) concentrations ranged from 0.013 to 0.208 ??g/g wet weight (ww) in cliff swallow eggs and from 0.047 to 0.347 ??g/g ww in nestlings. Mercury detected in eggs generally followed the spatial distribution of Hg in the watershed based on proximity to both anthropogenic and natural sources. Mean Hg concentrations in samples of eggs and nestlings collected from sites near Hg sources were up to five and seven times higher, respectively, than in samples from reference sites within the watershed. Concentrations of other detected elements, including aluminum, beryllium, boron, calcium, manganese, strontium, and vanadium, were more frequently elevated at sites near Hg sources. Overall, Hg concentrations in eggs from Cache Creek were lower than those reported in eggs of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) from highly contaminated locations in North America. Total Hg concentrations were lower in all Cache Creek egg samples than adverse effects levels established for other species. Total Hg concentrations in bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) and foothill yellow-legged frogs (Rana boylii) collected from 10 of the study sites were both positively correlated with THg concentrations in cliff swallow eggs. Our data suggest that cliff swallows are reliable bioindicators of environmental Hg. ?? Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007.

  5. Coastal changes in historic times – linking offshore bathymetry changes and cliff recession in Suffolk

    OpenAIRE

    Brooks, Susan M.

    2010-01-01

    Executive summary: The coastline of Suffolk, UK has the fastest rate of contemporary recession in the UK, reaching 5 m a-1 locally. Along this coastline historical recession has continued for as long as there is archival data (old maps, Admiralty Charts, anecdotes, diaries, parish records, OS maps, aerial photographs, elevation/bathymetric surveying). There has been much interest focussed on Dunwich (the site of lost churches and historic buildings – once a thriving port) while other cliff...

  6. Sea cliff erosion in the eastern part of the North Aegean coastline, Northern Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xeidakis, George S; Delimani, P K; Skias, S G

    2006-01-01

    The coastal zone is an area where many human activities are taking place. Erosion of the coast obstructs, in various ways, these activities creating occasionally serious socioeconomic and environmental problems. In this paper the coastal erosion problems encountered in the eastern Greek part of the North Aegean Sea Coast, a stretch of about 51 km long adjacent to the city of Alexandroupolis, are discussed. Given the observed type and location of erosion and other sea-action phenomena, the coast under study is divided in two parts/stretches. The western stretch, where the city of Alexandroupolis is presently extending, presents, mainly, cliff erosion problems and retreat of the coastline, very serious in some sections; whereas, the eastern stretch (to the east of the city) exhibits deposition and progression seawards due to the abundance of sediments supplied by Evros river delta. A classification of the coastline according to its relief, geologic material, erosion characteristics and rate, slope failure phenomena as well as the wave energy potential, is presented together with suggestions for case-appropriate mitigation and protection measures regarding the coastal erosion problems. The paper is focusing on the cliff erosion phenomena, since varying in height coastal cliffs made of soft rocks, cover the major part of the investigated coastline (western stretch).

  7. Reconstructing 3D coastal cliffs from airborne oblique photographs without ground control points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewez, T. J. B.

    2014-05-01

    Coastal cliff collapse hazard assessment requires measuring cliff face topography at regular intervals. Terrestrial laser scanner techniques have proven useful so far but are expensive to use either through purchasing the equipment or through survey subcontracting. In addition, terrestrial laser surveys take time which is sometimes incompatible with the time during with the beach is accessible at low-tide. By comparison, structure from motion techniques (SFM) are much less costly to implement, and if airborne, acquisition of several kilometers of coastline can be done in a matter of minutes. In this paper, the potential of GPS-tagged oblique airborne photographs and SFM techniques is examined to reconstruct chalk cliff dense 3D point clouds without Ground Control Points (GCP). The focus is put on comparing the relative 3D point of views reconstructed by Visual SFM with their synchronous Solmeta Geotagger Pro2 GPS locations using robust estimators. With a set of 568 oblique photos, shot from the open door of an airplane with a triplet of synchronized Nikon D7000, GPS and SFM-determined view point coordinates converge to X: ±31.5 m; Y: ±39.7 m; Z: ±13.0 m (LE66). Uncertainty in GPS position affects the model scale, angular attitude of the reference frame (the shoreline ends up tilted by 2°) and absolute positioning. Ground Control Points cannot be avoided to orient such models.

  8. Processes and rates of rock fragment displacement on cliffs and scree slopes in an amba landscape, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyssen, J.; Poesen, J.; Moeyersons, J.; Deckers, J.; Haile, Mitiku

    2006-11-01

    Distinct rock fragment displacements occur on the ambas, or structurally determined stepped mountains of the Northern Ethiopian Highlands. This paper describes the rock fragment detachment from cliffs by rockfall, quantifies its annual rate, and identifies factors controlling rock fragment movement on the scree slopes. It further presents a conceptual model explaining rock fragment cover at the soil surface in these landscapes. In the May Zegzeg catchment (Dogu'a Tembien district, Tigray), rockfall from cliffs and rock fragment movement on debris slopes by runoff and livestock trampling were monitored over a 4-year period (1998-2001). Rockfall and rock fragment transport mainly induced by livestock trampling appear to be important geomorphic processes. Along a 1500-m long section of the Amba Aradam sandstone cliff, at least 80 t of rocks are detached yearly and fall over a mean vertical distance of 24 m resulting in a mean annual cliff retreat rate of 0.37 mm y - 1 . Yearly unit rock fragment transport rates on scree slopes ranged between 23.1 and 37.9 kg m - 1 y - 1 . This process is virtually stopped when exclosures are established. Corresponding mean rock fragment transport coefficients K are 32-69 kg m - 1 y - 1 on rangeland but only 3.9 kg m - 1 y - 1 in densely vegetated exclosures. A conceptual model indicates that besides rockfall from cliffs and argillipedoturbation, all factors and processes of rock fragment redistribution in the study area are of anthropogenic origin.

  9. Radiological survey results at 12 Cliff Street, Beverly, Massachusetts (VB010)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), a team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducted a radiological survey at 12 Cliff Street, Beverly, Massachusetts. The survey was performed in May 1991. The purpose of the survey was to determine if uranium dust from work performed under government contract at the former Ventron facility had migrated off-site to neighboring areas. The survey included a surface gamma scan and the collection of soil samples for radionuclide analyses. Results of the survey demonstrated no radionuclide concentrations or radiation measurements in excess of the DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program guidelines

  10. Radiological survey results at 13 Cliff Street, Beverly, Massachusetts (VB015)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), a team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducted a radiological survey at 13 Cliff Street, Beverly, Massachusetts. The survey was performed in May 1991. The purpose of the survey was to determine if uranium from work performed under government contract at the former Ventron facility had migrated off-site to neighboring areas. The survey included a surface gamma scan, a beta-gamma scan of paved areas, and the collection of soil samples for radionuclide analyses. Results of the survey demonstrated no radionuclide concentrations or radiation measurements in excess of the DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program guidelines

  11. Radiological survey results at 14 Cliff Street, Beverly, Massachusetts (VB011)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), a team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducted a radiological survey at 14 Cliff Street, Beverly, Massachusetts. The survey was performed in May 1991. The purpose of the survey was to determine if uranium dust from work performed under government contract at the former Ventron facility had migrated off-site to neighboring areas. The survey included a surface gamma scan and the collection of soil samples for radionuclide analyses. Results of the survey demonstrated no radionuclide concentrations or radiation measurements in excess of the DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program guidelines

  12. Radiological survey results at 20 Cliff Street, Beverly, Massachusetts (VB013)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), a team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducted a radiological survey at 20 Cliff Street, Beverly, Massachusetts. The survey was performed in May 1991. The purpose of the survey was to determine if uranium dust from work performed under government contract at the former Ventron facility had migrated off-site to neighboring areas. The survey included a surface gamma scan and the collection of soil samples for radionuclide analyses. Results of the survey demonstrated no radionuclide concentrations or radiation measurements in excess of the DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program guidelines

  13. Radiological survey results at 2 Cliff Street, Beverly, Massachusetts (VB007)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), a team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducted a radiological survey at 2 Cliff Street, Beverly, Massachusetts. The survey was performed in May 1991. The purpose of the survey was to determine if uranium dust from work performed under government contract at the former Ventron facility had migrated off-site to neighboring areas. The survey included a surface gamma scan and the collection of soil samples for radionuclide analyses. Results of the survey demonstrated no radionuclide concentrations or radiation measurements in excess of the DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program guidelines

  14. Radiological survey results at 10 Cliff Street, Beverly, Massachusetts (VB021)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), a team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducted a radiological survey at 10 Cliff Street, Beverly, Massachusetts. The survey was performed in May 1991. The purpose of the survey was to determine if uranium from work performed under government contract at the former Ventron facility had migrated off-site to neighboring areas. The survey included a surface gamma scan, a beta-gamma scan of paved areas, and the collection of soil samples for radionuclide analyses.Results of the survey demonstrated no radionuclide concentrations or radiation measurements in excess of the DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program guidelines

  15. Radiological survey results at 18 Cliff Street, Beverly, Massachusetts (VB012)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), a team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducted a radiological survey at 18 Cliff Street, Beverly, Massachusetts. The survey was performed in May 1991. The purpose of the survey was to determine if uranium dust from work performed under government contract at the former Ventron facility had migrated off-site to neighboring areas. The survey included a surface gamma scan and the collection of soil samples for radionuclide analyses. Results of the survey demonstrated no radionuclide concentrations or radiation measurements in excess of the DOE mannerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program guidelines

  16. Radiological survey results at 9 Cliff Street, Beverly, Massachusetts (VB017)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), a team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducted a radiological survey at 9 Cliff Street, Beverly, Massachusetts. The survey was performed in May 1991. The purpose of the survey was to determine if uranium from work performed under government contract at the former Ventron facility had migrated off-site to neighboring areas. The survey included a surface gamma scan and the collection of soil samples for radionuclide analyses. Results of the survey demonstrated no radionuclide concentrations or radiation measurements in excess of the DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program guidelines

  17. Radiological survey results at 15 Cliff Street, Beverly, Massachusetts (VB014)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), a team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducted a radiological survey at 15 Cliff Street, Beverly, Massachusetts. The survey was performed in May 1991. The purpose of the survey was to determine if uranium dust from work performed under government contract at the former Ventron facility had migrated off-site to neighboring areas. The survey included a surface gamma scan and the collection of soil samples for radionuclide analyses. Results of the survey demonstrated no radionuclide concentrations or radiation measurements in excess of the DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program guidelines

  18. Brief communication"Estimating rockfall frequency in a mountain limestone cliff using terrestrial laser scanner"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Guerin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Using terrestrial laser scanner, 344 rockfalls larger than 0.05 m3 have been detected for a period of 1180 days, in a thinly bedded limestone cliff of width 750 m and height 200 m. The complementary cumulative distribution of the rockfall volume is well fitted by a power law, with an exponent b of 0.75 ± 0.04. In order to compare the rockfall frequencies in different geological contexts, a rockfall activity parameter has been defined, which is the number of rockfalls larger than 1 m3, which occur per century and per hm2.

  19. Film Review: Red cliff%影评:《赤壁》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ 1 As the first film to re-create the 208 A.D. Battle of Chibi, themost famous military feat in Chinese history, John Woo's "RedCliff" is a Pan-Asian project with the word "monumental" written allover it. The 140-minute first half that opened across major Asianterritories is only a prelude that provides the beams and columns forthe narrative framework, but with a few decisive and spot-on actionspectacles, it sufficiently kindles expectations for the climactic clash inupcoming Part 2.

  20. Processes and rate of retreat of the clay and sandstone sea cliffs of the northern Boulonnais (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Guillaume

    2006-01-01

    Retreat of the clay and sandstone cliffs of the northern Boulonnais (France) has been quantified using stereophotogrammetry. The low retreat rate of this coastal strip — 0.08 m/yr between 1939 and 2003 — is far less than that encountered on chalk and clay-chalk cliffs of either side of the Channel, and even less than a previous estimate of 0.17 m/yr regularly quoted in management studies. The retreat rate is closely related to shore platform morphology and dynamics. The shore platform presents 1) a steeply sloping ramp due to the accumulation of flat calcareous megaclasts that reduce marine erosion; 2) upstanding bare platform surfaces, related to tectonic deformation; and 3) thick platform-beaches trapped in troughs. In all three cases, the reflective behaviour of the nearshore protects the cliff foot from the incoming waves. Two critical eroding segments are the result of changes in the platform sedimentary budget. Around Cran Poulet, and between Plage de la Sirène and Pointe de la Courte Dune, the retreat rate is up to 0.25 and 0.15 m/yr, respectively. At Cran Poulet, recession has been facilitated by the extraction of pebble for more than half a century, whereas erosion of the beach at la Sirène is probably linked to severe erosion of the coastline in the adjacent Wissant Bay. Mass movements on the cliff face are essentially shallow-seated translational slides along with small debris falls and mudflows. The instability of the Argiles de Châtillon is greatly diminished by their sandy and silty texture and by the presence of interstratified solid shelly limestone beds that allow steep slopes to develop in rather weak material. The 'vertical erosion antecedent' is the erosional mode of the cliff, and its reduced efficiency explains the slow recession of the cliff. This study will help to determine the long term evolution of the Boulonnais coast.

  1. Uranophane at the Silver Cliff Mine Near Lusk, Niobrara County, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilmarth, V.R.; Johnson, D.H.

    1952-05-01

    In 1950, the U.S. Geological Survey studied a uranium deposit, previously exploited, at the Silver Cliff mine near Lusk, Wyoming. The deposit consists primarily of uranophane that occurs as fracture fillings and small replacement pockets in faulted and fractured quartzite of Cambrian (?) age. The country rock in the vicinity of the mine is schist of pre-Cambrian age intruded by pegmatite dikes and unconformably overlain by flat-lying Cambrian (?) quartzite. The mine is at the southern end of the Lusk Dome, a local structure probably related to the Hartville uplift. In the immediate vicinity of the mine, this dome is cut by the Silver Cliff fault, which is a north-trneding high-angle reverse fault approximately 1,200 feet in length with a stratigraphic throw of 70 feet. The fractured quartzite has been the locus for the deposition of uranophane, metatorbernite, pitchblende, calcite, native silver, native copper, chalcocite, azurite, malachite, chrysocolla, and cuprite. The fault was probably mineralized throughout its length, but owing to erosion the mineralized zone is now discontinuous. The principal ore body is about 800 feet long. The width and depth of the mineralized zone are not accurately known but are at least 20 feet and 60 feet, respectively. The uranium content of material sampled in the mine ranges from 0.001 to 0.23 percent uranium, whereas dump samples range from 0.076 to 3.39 percent uranium.

  2. Molecular Phylogeny of the Cliff Ferns (Woodsiaceae: Polypodiales) with a Proposed Infrageneric Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yizhen; Wei, Ran; Zhang, Xianchun; Xiang, Qiaoping

    2015-01-01

    The cliff fern family Woodsiaceae has experienced frequent taxonomic changes at the familial and generic ranks since its establishment. The bulk of its species were placed in Woodsia, while Cheilanthopsis, Hymenocystis, Physematium, and Protowoodsia are segregates recognized by some authors. Phylogenetic relationships among the genera of Woodsiaceae remain unclear because of the extreme morphological diversity and inadequate taxon sampling in phylogenetic studies to date. In this study, we carry out comprehensive phylogenetic analyses of Woodsiaceae using molecular evidence from four chloroplast DNA markers (atpA, matK, rbcL and trnL-F) and covering over half the currently recognized species. Our results show three main clades in Woodsiaceae corresponding to Physematium (clade I), Cheilanthopsis-Protowoodsia (clade II) and Woodsia s.s. (clade III). In the interest of preserving monophyly and taxonomic stability, a broadly defined Woodsia including the other segregates is proposed, which is characterized by the distinctive indument and inferior indusia. Therefore, we present a new subgeneric classification of the redefined Woodsia based on phylogenetic and ancestral state reconstructions to better reflect the morphological variation, geographic distribution pattern, and evolutionary history of the genus. Our analyses of the cytological character evolution support multiple aneuploidy events that have resulted in the reduction of chromosome base number from 41 to 33, 37, 38, 39 and 40 during the evolutionary history of the cliff ferns.

  3. Vascular Plant and Vertebrate Inventory of Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Brian F.; Albrecht, Eric W.; Halvorson, William L.; Schmidt, Cecilia A.; Docherty, Kathleen; Anning, Pamela

    2006-01-01

    Executive Summary This report summarizes the results of the first comprehensive biological inventory of Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument (NM) in western New Mexico. This project was part of a larger effort to inventory plants and vertebrates in eight National Park Service units in Arizona and New Mexico. Our surveys address many of the objectives that were set forth in the monument's natural resource management plan almost 20 years ago, but until this effort, those goals were never accomplished. From 2001 to 2003 we surveyed for vascular plants and vertebrates (amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals) at Gila Cliff Dwellings NM to document presence of species within the boundaries of the monument. For all taxonomic groups that we studied, we collected 'incidental' sightings on U.S. Forest Service lands adjacent to the monument, and in a few cases we did formal surveys on those lands. Because we used repeatable study designs and standardized field techniques, these inventories can serve as the first step in a biological monitoring program for Gila Cliff Dwellings NM and surrounding lands. We recorded 552 species at Gila Cliff Dwellings NM and the surrounding lands (Table 1). We found no non-native species of reptiles, birds, or mammals, one non-native amphibian (American bullfrog), and 33 non-native plants. Particularly on lands adjacent to the monument we found that the American bullfrog was very abundant, which is a cause for significant management concern. Species of non-native plants that are of management concern include red brome, bufflegrass, and cheatgrass. For a park unit of its size and geographic location, we found the plant and vertebrate communities to be fairly diverse; for each taxonomic group we found representative species from a wide range of taxonomic orders and/or families. The monument's geographic location, with influences from the Rocky Mountain, Chihuahuan Desert, and Madrean ecological provinces, plays an important role in determining

  4. Analysis of sea cliff slope stability integrating traditional geomechanical surveys and remote sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Martino

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available An integrated approach to the geomechanical characterization of coastal sea cliffs was demonstrated at Mt. Pucci (Gargano promontory, Southern Italy by performing direct traditional geomechanical and remote geostructural investigations via Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS. The consistency of the integrated techniques allowed us to achieve a comprehensive and affordable characterization of the main joint sets on the sea cliff slope. The observed joint sets were observed to evaluate the susceptibility of the slope to rock falls by attributing safety factors (SFs to the topple- and wedge-prone rock blocks under three triggering conditions: (a filling with static water, (b seismic action, and (c weathering of joint surfaces. The results of the susceptibility analysis for the topple-prone blocks show that the critical height of water filling of the joint is up to 50 cm and that the critical pseudo-static acceleration values vary in the range of 0.16–0.3 g depending on the block geometry and slope face orientation. For the wedge blocks, the critical height of water filling of the joint is generally up to several centimeters, and the critical pseudo-static acceleration values vary in the range of 0.05–0.8 g depending on the block geometry and slope face orientation. Moreover, the unstable conditions of the blocks due to weathering generally represent 60% of the joint degradation of the intact rock. The combined action of weathering and static water fill was also considered, resulting in a significant decrease of the SFs. Specifically, unstable conditions are associated with water levels lower than 47% of the water levels observed in intact joints, even if less than 60% of the weathering is attributed to the joints. Furthermore, remote survey analyses via Thermal InfraRed Camera and Terrestrial SAR Interferometry (TInSAR were performed to evaluate the role of the surveyed joint sets in inducing instabilities in the Mt. Pucci sea cliff. The results of

  5. Reactions to the glass cliff - Gender differences in the explanations for the precariousness of women's leadership positions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ryan, M.K.; Haslam, S.A.; Postmes, T.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - This paper aims to investigate the phenomenon of the glass cliff, whereby women are more likely than men to be placed in precarious leadership positions. Men's and women's reactions to this subtle form of gender discrimination are examined, the identity processes involved, and the implicat

  6. Think Crisis-Think Female : The Glass Cliff and Contextual Variation in the Think Manager-Think Male Stereotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ryan, Michelle K.; Haslam, S. Alexander; Hersby, Mette D.; Bongiorno, Renata

    2011-01-01

    The "think manager think male" (TMTM) association underlies many gender inequalities in the workplace. However, research into the "glass cliff" has demonstrated that the suitability of male and female managers varies as a function of company performance such that in times of poor performance people

  7. Influence in Times of Crisis : How Social and Financial Resources Affect Men's and Women's Evaluations of Glass-Cliff Positions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rink, Floor; Ryan, Michelle K.; Stoker, Janka I.

    2012-01-01

    In two scenario-based studies, we found that women and men evaluate glass-cliff positions (i.e., precarious leadership positions at organizations in crisis) differently depending on the social and financial resources available. Female and male participants evaluated a hypothetical leadership positio

  8. Structural interpretation of activity cliffs revealed by systematic analysis of structure-activity relationships in analog series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisay, Mihiret T; Peltason, Lisa; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2009-10-01

    Discontinuity in structure-activity relationships (SARs) is caused by so-called activity cliffs and represents one of the major caveats in SAR modeling and lead optimization. At activity cliffs, small structural modifications of compounds lead to substantial differences in potency that are essentially unpredictable using quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) methods. In order to better understand SAR discontinuity at the molecular level of detail, we have analyzed different compound series in combinatorial analog graphs and determined substitution patterns that introduce activity cliffs of varying magnitude. So identified SAR determinants were then analyzed on the basis of complex crystal structures to enable a structural interpretation of SAR discontinuity and underlying activity cliffs. In some instances, SAR discontinuity detected within analog series could be well rationalized on the basis of structural data, whereas in others a structural explanation was not possible. This reflects the intrinsic complexity of small molecule SARs and suggests that the analysis of short-range receptor-ligand interactions seen in X-ray structures is insufficient to comprehensively account for SAR discontinuity. However, in other cases, SAR information extracted from ligands was incomplete but could be deduced taking X-ray data into account. Thus, taken together, these findings illustrate the complementarity of ligand-based SAR analysis and structural information. PMID:19761254

  9. Thermal Modeling of NUHOMS HSM-15 and HSM-1 Storage Modules at Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Station ISFSI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suffield, Sarah R.; Fort, James A.; Adkins, Harold E.; Cuta, Judith M.; Collins, Brian A.; Siciliano, Edward R.

    2012-10-01

    As part of the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign of the Department of Energy (DOE), visual inspections and temperature measurements were performed on two storage modules in the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Station’s Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI). Detailed thermal models models were developed to obtain realistic temperature predictions for actual storage systems, in contrast to conservative and bounding design basis calculations.

  10. Cliff top habitats provide important alternative feeding resources for wading birds of conservation importance wintering on non-estuarine coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnell, Julie; Hull, Susan L.

    2014-02-01

    Rocky shores and beaches are important over-wintering areas for non-estuarine waders but have rarely been studied. We examined cliff top habitat use by 6 species of wader over 75 km of coast to assess their potential value as alternative feeding sites to rocky and sandy shores. Both the regional and local survey showed that waders occurred on golf courses and recreational grasslands in higher frequencies than expected but arable and pasture use was lower than expected. We also compared local wader densities on rocky and sandy shores, pastures, golf courses, caravan parks and recreational grasslands over two winters. Sanderling predominantly fed on the beach whereas Oystercatcher, Dunlin, Turnstone and Redshank numbers significantly increased on golf courses and recreational grasslands over the winter period, with pasture being rarely used. General linear models were used to relate environmental factors to the presence and absence of each species on the cliff top habitats. Redshank was the only species that showed a higher probability of occurrence on cliff top habitats at high tide whereas the probability of Turnstone, Oystercatcher and Redshank occurring increased as temperatures declined. Using core sampling, we determined that invertebrate richness and abundance was significantly higher on the recreational grasslands and golf courses than on the pasture or the beach. Our data demonstrated that cliff top habitats are important alternative feeding areas for over-wintering waders in areas where the intertidal is bounded by cliffs. Current management creates short sward, open field habitats with a diverse and abundant invertebrate food supply exploited by waders. Any alterations to the land use of these areas should be carefully considered by planning authorities in light of the fact that they support species that are of conservation concern.

  11. Pressurized thermal shock evaluation of the Calvert Cliffs Unit 1 Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, L [ed.

    1985-09-01

    An evaluation of the risk to the Calvert Cliffs Unit 1 nuclear power plant due to pressurized thermal shock (PTS) has been completed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) with the assistance of several other organizations. This evaluation was part of a Nuclear Regulatory Commission program designed to study the PTS risk to three nuclear plants, the other two plants being Oconee Unit 1 and H.B. Robinson Unit 2. The specific objectives of the program were to (1) provide a best estimate of the frequency of a through-the-wall crack in the pressure vessel at each of the three plants, together with the uncertainty in the estimated frequency and its sensitivity to the variables used in the evaluation; (2) determine the dominant overcooling sequences contributing to the estimated frequency and the associated failures in the plant systems or in operator actions; and (3) evaluate the effectiveness of potential corrective measures.

  12. The potential of low-cost RPAS for multi-view reconstruction of rock cliffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettore Guccione, Davide; Thoeni, Klaus; Santise, Marina; Giacomini, Anna; Roncella, Riccardo; Forlani, Gianfranco

    2016-04-01

    RPAS, also known as drones or UAVs, have been used in military applications for many years. Nevertheless, the technology has become accessible to everyone only in recent years (Westoby et al., 2012; Nex and Remondino, 2014). Electric multirotor helicopters or multicopters have become one of the most exciting developments and several off-the-shelf platforms (including camera) are now available. In particular, RPAS can provide 3D models of sub-vertical rock faces, which for instance are needed for rockfall hazard assessments along road cuts and very steep mountains. The current work investigates the potential of two low-cost off-the-shelf quadcopters equipped with digital cameras for multi-view reconstruction of sub-vertical rock cliffs. The two platforms used are a DJI Phantom 1 (P1) equipped with a Gopro Hero 3+ (12MP) and a DJI Phantom 3 Professional (P3). The latter comes with an integrated 12MP camera mounted on a 3-axis gimbal. Both platforms cost less than 1.500€ including camera. The study area is a small rock cliff near the Callaghan Campus of the University of Newcastle (Thoeni et al., 2014). The wall is partly smooth with some evident geological features such as non-persistent joints and sharp edges. Several flights were performed with both cameras set in time-lapse mode. Hence, images were taken automatically but the flights were performed manually since the investigated rock face is very irregular which required adjusting the yaw and roll for optimal coverage since the flights were performed very close to the cliff face. The digital images were processed with a commercial SfM software package. Thereby, several processing options and camera networks were investigated in order to define the most accurate configuration. Firstly, the difference between the use of coded ground control targets versus natural features was studied. Coded targets generally provide the best accuracy but they need to be placed on the surface which is not always possible as rock

  13. Pressurized thermal shock evaluation of the Calvert Cliffs Unit 1 Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An evaluation of the risk to the Calvert Cliffs Unit 1 nuclear power plant due to pressurized thermal shock (PTS) has been completed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) with the assistance of several other organizations. This evaluation was part of a Nuclear Regulatory Commission program designed to study the PTS risk to three nuclear plants, the other two plants being Oconee Unit 1 and H.B. Robinson Unit 2. The specific objectives of the program were to (1) provide a best estimate of the frequency of a through-the-wall crack in the pressure vessel at each of the three plants, together with the uncertainty in the estimated frequency and its sensitivity to the variables used in the evaluation; (2) determine the dominant overcooling sequences contributing to the estimated frequency and the associated failures in the plant systems or in operator actions; and (3) evaluate the effectiveness of potential corrective measures

  14. Radiological survey results at 30 Cliff Street, Beverly, Massachusetts (VB022)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), a team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducted a radiological survey at 30 Cliff Street, Beverly, Massachusetts. The survey was performed in May 1991. The purpose of the survey was to determine if uranium from work performed under government contract at the former Ventron facility had migrated off-site to neighboring areas. The survey included a surface gamma scan, a beta-gamma scan of paved areas, and the collection of soil samples for radionuclide analyses. Results of the survey demonstrated no radionuclide concentrations or radiation measurements in excess of the DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program guidelines. The radionuclide distributions were not significantly different from typical background levels in the Beverly, Massachusetts, area

  15. The neglect of cliff instability can underestimate warming period melting in Antarctic ice sheet models

    CERN Document Server

    Ruckert, Kelsey L; Pollard, Dave; Guan, Yawen; Wong, Tony E; Forest, Chris E; Keller, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    The response of the Antarctic ice sheet (AIS) to changing climate forcings is an important driver of sea-level changes. Anthropogenic climate changes may drive a sizeable AIS tipping point response with subsequent increases in coastal flooding risks. Many studies analyzing flood risks use simple models to project the future responses of AIS and its sea-level contributions. These analyses have provided important new insights, but they are often silent on the effects of potentially important processes such as Marine Ice Sheet Instability (MISI) or Marine Ice Cliff Instability (MICI). These approximations can be well justified and result in more parsimonious and transparent model structures. This raises the question how this approximation impacts hindcasts and projections. Here, we calibrate a previously published AIS model, which neglects the effects of MICI, using a combination of observational constraints and a Bayesian inversion method. Specifically, we approximate the effects of missing MICI by comparing ou...

  16. Chemical Constituents of the Rare Cliff Plant Oresitrophe rupifraga and Their Antineuroinflammatory Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xi-Ying; Xiong, Juan; Liu, Xin-Hua; Hu, Jin-Feng

    2016-08-01

    Four new (1 - 4) and thirteen known (5 - 17) compounds were isolated from a rare cliff plant, Oresitrophe rupifraga. Based on spectroscopic evidence, the new structures were established to be [(2S,3R,4R)-4-(4-methoxybenzyl)-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-tetrahydrofuran-3-yl]methanol (1), (3α)-23-(acetyloxy)-3-hydroxyolean-12-en-29-oic acid (2), 3α,23-(isopropylidenedioxy)olean-12-en-29-oic acid (3, artifact of isolation), and (3β,15β)-3-hydroxycholest-5-en-15-yl β-d-glucopyranoside (4), respectively. Among the isolates, compounds 1, 4, epieudesmin (7), and 1-O-(9Z,12Z,15Z-octadecatrienoyl)glycerol (17) were found to show significant antineuroinflammatory effects by inhibiting the NO production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine BV-2 microglial cells, with IC50 values of 7.21, 9.39, 4.96, and 8.51 μm, respectively.

  17. Role of shore platforms on coastal cliffs protection in Algarve (South Portugal): First approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Selma; Moura, Delminda; Ferreira, Óscar; Pacheco, André; Matias, Ana; Veiga-Pires, Cristina; Jacob, José

    2010-05-01

    The complex interaction between morphogenetic processes acting on rocky coasts and substrate characteristics difficult the assessment of its evolution at different time scales. In opposition to other coastal environments such as beaches, where variations on substrate's attributes are constrained to a few possibilities, rocky coasts expose substrates having large amount of variables, among them, lithology, mechanical and chemical strength, density and orientation of faults and joints and, rocks' texture and structure (e.g., Trenhaile, 2003). Waves represent the most important energetic source on coastal areas and, abrasion, hammer effect and air compression in rocks discontinuities are the main mechanisms responsible for mechanical weathering induced by wave impact (e.g., Trenhaile, 1987, Sunamura, 1992). Shore platforms are the most conspicuous testimony of rocky cliffs recession. However, as shore platforms widen, cliffs foot rests out of the direct influence of breaking waves when sea level rise is slower than cliff retreat. Shore platforms have been reported as protective features against marine erosion by dissipating waves energy, its efficacy depending on height and slope (e.g., Porter et al., 2009; Trenhaile, 2010). The main objective of this work is to determine the role of shore platforms on cliffs protection at the Algarve (South Portugal) as monitored in two coastal sectors differently exposed to dominant waves. Coastal cliffs in the study area expose Miocene carbonate rocks with vertical facies variation between sub horizontal layers of calcarenites and siltstones, which represents a favourable geological context to the shore platform development. Waves height and period was measured along 12 months during spring tides and in some storm events by using pressure transducers. For that, pressure transducers were fixed into the rock in two coastal sectors positioned in both places at similar heights above mean sea level respectively for outer and inner edges

  18. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 projections of coastal cliff retreat due to 21st century sea-level rise

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Summary: This dataset contains projections of coastal cliff-retreat rates and positions for future scenarios of sea-level rise (SLR). Projections were made using...

  19. Sea-cliff erosion as a function of beach changes and extreme wave runup during the 1997-1998 El Nino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallenger, A.H., Jr.; Krabill, W.; Brock, J.; Swift, R.; Manizade, S.; Stockdon, H.

    2002-01-01

    Over time scales of hundreds to thousands of years, the net longshore sand transport direction along the central California coast has been driven to the south by North Pacific winter swell. In contrast, during the El Nin??o winter of 1997-1998, comparisons of before and after airborne lidar surveys showed sand was transported from south to north and accumulated on the south sides of resistant headlands bordering pocket beaches. This resulted in significant beach erosion at the south ends of pocket beaches and deposition in the north ends. Coincident with the south-to-north redistribution of sand, shoreline morphology became prominently cuspate with longshore wavelengths of 400-700 m. The width and elevation of beaches were least where maximum shoreline erosion occurred, preferentially exposing cliffs to wave attack. The resulting erosional hotspots typically were located in the embayments of giant cusps in the southern end of the pocket beaches. The observed magnitude of sea cliff retreat, which reached 14 m, varied with the number of hours that extreme wave runup exceeded certain thresholds representing the protective capacity of the beach during the El Nin??o winter. A threshold representing the width of the beach performed better than a threshold representing the elevation of the beach. The magnitude of cliff erosion can be scaled using a simple model based on the cross-shore distance that extreme wave runup exceeded the pre-winter cliff position. Cliff erosion appears to be a balance between terrestrial mass wasting processes, which tend to decrease the cliff slope, and wave attack, which removes debris and erodes the cliff base increasing the cliff slope. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Occurrence of Morphological and Anatomical Adaptive Traits in Young and Adult Plants of the Rare Mediterranean Cliff Species Primula palinuri Petagna

    OpenAIRE

    Veronica De Micco; Giovanna Aronne

    2012-01-01

    Cliffs worldwide are known to be reservoirs of relict biodiversity. Despite the presence of harsh abiotic conditions, large endemic floras live in such environments. Primula palinuri Petagna is a rare endemic plant species, surviving on cliff sites along a few kilometres of the Tyrrhenian coast in southern Italy. This species is declared at risk of extinction due to human impact on the coastal areas in question. Population surveys have shown that most of the plants are old individuals, while ...

  1. In Situ Raman Spectra from the SeaCliff Hydrothermal Field (Gorda Ridge)

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, S. N.; Dunk, R. M.; Brewer, P. G.; Peltzer, E. T.; Sherman, A. D.; Freeman, J. J.

    2004-12-01

    MBARI's in situ laser Raman spectrometer (DORISS - Deep Ocean Raman In Situ Spectrometer) was deployed at the SeaCliff Hydrothermal Field on the Gorda Ridge in July 2004. The first in situ Raman spectra of hydrothermal minerals and high-temperature fluid venting from the seafloor were obtained. These spectra are analyzed and compared to laboratory measurements of samples collected from the site. Laser Raman spectroscopy is a proven, powerful geochemical technique for analyzing the chemical composition and molecular structure of solids, liquids, and gases. During an expedition to Gorda Ridge on the R/V Western Flyer in July 2004, DORISS was deployed successfully by the ROV Tiburon at hydrothermal vents on the seafloor ( ˜2700 m depth). Data were collected from hydrothermal fluids, chimney minerals (e.g., anhydrite and barite), and bacterial mats using two types of sampling optics: an immersion optic, and a non-contact optic. To collect spectra from opaque mineral samples, a precision underwater positioner (PUP) was used to position the DORISS probe head. PUP is a stand-alone, three degree-of-freedom positioner capable of moving the DORISS probe head with a precision of 0.1 mm (required by the small focal volume of the sampling optic). Raman spectra were collected of ˜300° C vent fluids with both sampling optics. The Raman spectrum of seawater contains bands from the bending ( ˜1640 cm-1) and stretching (3000-3700 cm-1) vibrational modes of the water molecule and a small peak from the S-O stretch of the sulfate ion ( ˜981 cm-1). Compared to ˜2° C ambient seawater, vent fluid spectra show changes in the intensity ratios of the water bands due to the elevated temperature, and the sulfate peak is reduced. Additional components of hydrothermal fluid are present in such low concentrations that it is difficult to detect them with the current Raman system. The chimneys in the SeaCliff field are primarily anhydrite, and debris in the area also contains barite. We were

  2. Cliff´s Delta Calculator: A non-parametric effect size program for two groups of observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Macbeth

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The Cliff´s Delta statistic is an effect size measure that quantifies the amount of difference between two non-parametric variables beyond p-values interpretation. This measure can be understood as a useful complementary analysis for the corresponding hypothesis testing. During the last two decades the use of effect size measures has been strongly encouraged by methodologists and leading institutions of behavioral sciences. The aim of this contribution is to introduce the Cliff´s Delta Calculator software that performs such analysis and offers some interpretation tips. Differences and similarities with the parametric case are analysed and illustrated. The implementation of this free program is fully described and compared with other calculators. Alternative algorithmic approaches are mathematically analysed and a basic linear algebra proof of its equivalence is formally presented. Two worked examples in cognitive psychology are commented. A visual interpretation of Cliff´s Delta is suggested. Availability, installation and applications of the program are presented and discussed.

  3. Molecular characterization and geological microenvironment of a microbial community inhabiting weathered receding shale cliffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockell, Charles S; Pybus, David; Olsson-Francis, Karen; Kelly, Laura; Petley, David; Rosser, Nick; Howard, Kieren; Mosselmans, Fred

    2011-01-01

    Shales play an important role in many earth system processes including coastal erosion, and they form the foundations of many engineering structures. The geobiology of the interior of pyrite-containing receding shale cliffs on the coast of northeast England was examined. The surface of the weathered shales was characterised by a thin layer of disordered authigenic iron oxyhydroxides and localised acicular, platy and aggregated gypsum, which was characterised by Raman spectroscopy, XAS and SEM. These chemical changes are likely to play an important role in causing rock weakening along fractures at the micron scale, which ultimately lead to coastal retreat at the larger scale. The surface of the shale hosts a novel, low-diversity microbial community. The bacterial community was dominated by Proteobacteria, with phylotypes closely associating with Methylocella and other members of the γ-subdivision. The second largest phylogenetic group corresponded to Nitrospira. The archaeal 16S rRNA phylotypes were dominated by a single group of sequences that matched phylotypes reported from South African gold mines and possessed ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) genes. Both the phylogenetic and the mineral data show that acidic microenvironments play an important role in shale weathering, but the shale has a higher microbial diversity than previously described pyritic acid mine drainage sites. The presence of a potentially biogeochemically active microbial population on the rock surface suggests that microorganisms may contribute to early events of shale degradation and coastal erosion. PMID:20683587

  4. Modeling Block Failure in Vertical Cliffs of Arctic Coasts Underlain by Permafrost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, W. H.

    2004-12-01

    Arctic coasts lie at the interface between terrestrial systems dominated by permafrost, and marine systems that are characterized by long periods of ice cover and short periods of open water when wave action and storm activity are important. Permafrost, sea ice and wind-wave conditions are driven by regional and local climate forcing and interact in such a way that a change in one produces feedbacks affecting the other two. However, under predicted climate change scenarios of warming, increased storm activity and sea level rise will profoundly affect all three leading to potentially devastating rates of coastal erosion and permafrost degradation. Permafrost coasts are subject to complex erosional processes, however one of the most poorly understood but probably most important is block failure. Thermo-abrasional falls or block collapses provide the most spectacular form of coastal recession in permafrost areas. This study provides computational models for block failure mechanisms and investigates the relative contribution of horizontal thermo-erosional niches and ice wedges to block failure of permafrost cliffs fronted by a beach.

  5. Replacement steam generators for Calvert Cliffs, Oconee and future replacement design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the completion of steam generators presently being fabricated, a total of forty replacement steam generators will have been built for fourteen reactor units located at ten reactor sites. This represents approximately $1 billion of manufacture excluding installation costs. Replacement steam generator work began with the initiation of the Millstone 2 steam generator replacement program for Northeast Utilities in 1989. Manufacture is presently underway on replacement recirculating steam generators for Calvert Cliffs Units 1 and 2 plants of Constellation Nuclear (OEM Combustion Engineering) and the once-through steam generators for the Oconee 1, 2 and 3 plants of Duke Power (OEM Babcock and Wilcox). These two sites are the first and second respectively to have applied for and received approval for a life extension of 20 years beyond their original operating license. The application and granting of these license extensions reflects a major change in the nuclear industry over the recent past. The attitude to nuclear power has changed from a relatively defensive strategy to a much more optimistic agenda of utility reorganization, purchase of well performing older plants, replacement of aging components, plant refurbishment, and upgrades and applications for license extension. Possible new plants are also being considered. The paper discusses specific features, attributes, performance and operating experience with replacement steam generators (RSGs) both in service and under construction. Industry issues and design features applicable to future replacement steam generators are also reviewed. (author)

  6. Microaneurysms detection with the radon cliff operator in retinal fundus images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giancardo, Luca [ORNL; Meriaudeau, Fabrice [ORNL; Karnowski, Thomas Paul [ORNL; Tobin Jr, Kenneth William [ORNL; Li, Yaquin [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Chaum, Edward [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2010-01-01

    Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) is one of the leading causes of blindness in the industrialized world. Early detection is the key in providing effective treatment. However, the current number of trained eye care specialists is inadequate to screen the increasing number of diabetic patients. In recent years, automated and semi-automated systems to detect DR with color fundus images have been developed with encouraging, but not fully satisfactory results. In this study we present the initial results of a new technique for the detection and localization of microaneurysms, an early sign of DR. The algorithm is based on three steps: candidates selection, the actual microaneurysms detection and a final probability evaluation. We introduce the new Radon Cliff operator which is our main contribution to the field. Making use of the Radon transform, the operator is able to detect single noisy Gaussian-like circular structures regardless of their size or strength. The advantages over existing microaneurysms detectors are manifold: the size of the lesions can be unknown, it automatically distinguishes lesions from the vasculature and it provides a fair approach to microaneurysm localization even without post-processing the candidates with machine learning techniques, facilitating the training phase. The algorithm is evaluated on a publicly available dataset from the Retinopathy Online Challenge.

  7. Comprehensive knowledge base of two- and three-dimensional activity cliffs for medicinal and computational chemistry [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/5ir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Hu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Activity cliffs are formed by pairs or groups of structurally similar or analogous active compounds with large differences in potency. They can be defined in two or three dimensions by comparing graph-based molecular representations or compound binding modes, respectively. Through systematic analysis of publicly available compound activity data and ligand-target X-ray structures we have in a series of studies determined all currently available two- and three-dimensional activity cliffs (2D- and 3D-cliffs, respectively. Furthermore, we have systematically searched for 2D extensions of 3D-cliffs. Herein, we specify different categories of activity cliffs we have explored and introduce an open access data deposition in ZENODO (doi: 10.5281/zenodo.18490 that makes the entire knowledge base of current activity cliffs freely available in an organized form.

  8. The water erosion processes in the retreat erosive of cliff on soft rocks in the province of Cadiz (Spain); Los procesos de erosion hidrica en el retroceso erosivo de acantilados sobre rocas blandas en la provincia de Cadiz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rendon Aragon, J. J.; Gracia Prieto, F. J.; Rio Rodriguez, L. del

    2009-07-01

    The littoral cliffs on soft materials of the Atlantic Cadiz coast show an important activity of the fresh water erosion processes, sometimes even more significant than the marine erosion processes. The connection of the lower cliffs with sandy beaches favours aeolian sand invasion, which fills previous rills and reduces the water erosion intensity by increasing infiltration. Cliff retreat and rill erosion measurement by using erosion sticks has shown very variables values, most of them higher than the estimated error of the employed methods. This indicates the existence of other factors influencing the distribution of water erosion processes along these cliffs, which have to be studied through different techniques. (Author) 5 refs.

  9. A contribution for predicting Tsunami inundation induced by rock fall along the Gaeta cliff (Central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Manna, P.; Vittori, E.; Comerci, V.; Amanti, M.; Cesi, C.

    2009-04-01

    Many sectors of Italian coasts are characterized by tall scarps, close to large or pocket beaches that display ramp shape with moderate to low acclivity profile. During the summer, all these beaches are densely populated by sunbathers. Moreover, Italian coastal areas are often intensely urbanized even at a short distance from the sea and very close to sea level. Being cliffs often affected by gravity processes, the impact on the water of a falling volume of rock, depending on size and height of fall, may represent a potential source of tsunami-type hazard for adjacent beaches and boats. In this work we present an attempt to evaluate the run-up and ingression values in the Serapo beach (Gaeta, Tyrrhenian Sea coast of Central Italy) of an anomalous wave induced by a potential rock fall along the contiguous more than 100 meters high limestone cliff (the so-called Montagna Spaccata, "cleft mountain"). Detailed geological and geomorphological field analyses are being carried out, including geomechanical analyses and geodetic monitoring, in order to recognize the sectors with the most critical stability conditions. Preliminarily, the major potential volume of instable block and its most likely kinematics have been estimated with the purpose of characterizing the rock fall process. The first water rise produced by the impact of the rock on the sea surface has been estimated according to two approaches: a) the Murty (2003) equation, that gives the relation between water elevation and volume of fallen material; b) the Glasstone and Dolan method (Hills & Mader, 1997), comparing the carbonate rock fall to a meteoritic impact on the sea surface. The rockfall kinematics suggests that the Glasstone and Dolan equation, despite it was developed for a different environment, is better applicable than Murty's (valid for slides) to the case under discussion. On the basis of the Green's law (1837) we defined the shoaling component of the run-up values. Our results show that the impact

  10. Population genetics of self-incompatibility in a clade of relict cliff-dwelling plant species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Jose L.; Brennan, Adrian C.; Mejías, José A.

    2016-01-01

    The mating systems of species in small or fragmented populations impact upon their persistence. Small self-incompatible (SI) populations risk losing S allele diversity, responsible for the SI response, by drift thereby limiting mate availability and leading to population decline or SI system breakdown. But populations of relict and/or endemic species have resisted these demographic conditions over long periods suggesting their mating systems have adapted. To address a lack of empirical data on this topic, we studied the SI systems of three relict cliff-dwelling species of Sonchus section Pustulati (Asteraceae): S. masguindalii, S. fragilis and S. pustulatus in the western Mediterranean region. We performed controlled pollinations within and between individuals to measure index of SI (ISI) expression and identify S alleles in multiple population samples. Sonchus masguindalii and S. pustulatus showed strong SI (ISI = 0.6–1.0) compared to S. fragilis (ISI = 0.1–0.7). Just five S alleles were estimated for Spanish S. pustulatus and a moderate 11-15 S alleles for Moroccan S. pustulatus and S. fragilis, respectively. The fact that autonomous fruit set was generally improved by active self-pollination in self-compatible S. fragilis suggests that individuals with weak SI can show a wide range of outcrossing levels dependent on the degree of self or outcross pollen that pollinators bear. We conclude that frequent S allele dominance interactions that mask the incompatibility interactions of recessive S alleles leading to higher mate availability and partial breakdown of SI leading to mixed mating, both contribute to reproductive resilience in this group. PMID:27154621

  11. Population genetics of self-incompatibility in a clade of relict cliff-dwelling plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Jose L; Brennan, Adrian C; Mejías, José A

    2016-01-01

    The mating systems of species in small or fragmented populations impact upon their persistence. Small self-incompatible (SI) populations risk losing S allele diversity, responsible for the SI response, by drift thereby limiting mate availability and leading to population decline or SI system breakdown. But populations of relict and/or endemic species have resisted these demographic conditions over long periods suggesting their mating systems have adapted. To address a lack of empirical data on this topic, we studied the SI systems of three relict cliff-dwelling species of Sonchus section Pustulati (Asteraceae): S. masguindalii, S. fragilis and S. pustulatus in the western Mediterranean region. We performed controlled pollinations within and between individuals to measure index of SI (ISI) expression and identify S alleles in multiple population samples. Sonchus masguindalii and S. pustulatus showed strong SI (ISI = 0.6-1.0) compared to S. fragilis (ISI = 0.1-0.7). Just five S alleles were estimated for Spanish S. pustulatus and a moderate 11-15 S alleles for Moroccan S. pustulatus and S. fragilis, respectively. The fact that autonomous fruit set was generally improved by active self-pollination in self-compatible S. fragilis suggests that individuals with weak SI can show a wide range of outcrossing levels dependent on the degree of self or outcross pollen that pollinators bear. We conclude that frequent S allele dominance interactions that mask the incompatibility interactions of recessive S alleles leading to higher mate availability and partial breakdown of SI leading to mixed mating, both contribute to reproductive resilience in this group.

  12. Pre-failure behaviour of an unstable limestone cliff from displacement and seismic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-L. Got

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We monitored the displacement and seismic activity of an unstable vertical rock slice in a natural limestone cliff of the southeast Vercors massif, southeast France, during the months preceding its collapse. Displacement measurements showed an average acceleration of the movement of its top, with clear increases in the displacement velocity and in the discrete seismic event production rate during periods where temperature falls, with more activity when rainfall or frost occurs. Crises of discrete seismic events produce high amplitudes in periodograms, but do not change the high frequency base noise level rate. We infer that these crises express the critical crack growth induced by water weakening (from water vapor condensation or rain of the rock strength rather than to a rapid change in applied stresses. Seismic noise analysis showed a steady increase in the high frequency base noise level and the emergence of spectral modes in the signal recorded by the sensor installed on the unstable rock slice during the weeks preceding the collapse. High frequency seismic noise base level seems to represent subcritical crack growth. It is a smooth and robust parameter whose variations are related to generalized changes in the rupture process. Drop of the seismic noise amplitude was concomitant with the emergence of spectral modes – that are compatible with high-order eigenmodes of the unstable rock slice – during the later stages of its instability. Seismic noise analysis, especially high frequency base noise level analysis may complement that of inverse displacement velocity in early-warning approaches when strong displacement fluctuations occur.

  13. Migration of the Ganga River and development of cliffs in the Varanasi region, India during the late Quaternary: Role of active tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, U. K.; Srivastava, P.; Singh, I. B.

    2012-10-01

    The lithofacies constitution of unconsolidated sediments exposed in Ramnagar cliff indicates sedimentation in sinuous channels, associated flood plain areas and ponds that were developed within the Ganga River valley. The Khadar surface represents a raised river valley terrace into which the main river channel along with its narrow floodplain is incised. Ramnagar cliff section has revealed a variety of deformation structures that indicate repeated tectonic activity in the area. Important tectonic features exposed by the cliff section are reverse faults, folds, cracks filled with sparry calcite and soft sediment structures indicating liquefaction of sediments affected by faulting and folding. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating of sediments and field relationships of tectonic elements indicate that the Ganga River migrated near to Varanasi 40 ka following a tectonic event in the area. Since then, it meandered freely within its valley until 7 ka when another tectonic event took place and Ramnagar cliff was raised to its present heights. The cliff surface was degraded by gulling activity for about 4000 years before it was occupied by man at around 3000 years BP.

  14. 3-D Resistivity Tomography for Cliff Stability Study at the D-Day Pointe du Hoc Historic Site in Normandy, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udphuay, S.; Everett, M. E.; Guenther, T.; Warden, R. R.

    2007-12-01

    The D-Day invasion site at Pointe du Hoc in Normandy, France is one of the most important World War II battlefields. The site remains today a valuable historic cultural resource. However the site is vulnerable to cliff collapses that could endanger the observation post building and U.S. Ranger memorial located just landward of the sea stack, and an anti-aircraft gun emplacement, Col. Rudder's command post, located on the cliff edge about 200 m east of the observation post. A 3-D resistivity tomography incorporating extreme topography is used in this study to provide a detailed site stability assessment with special attention to these two buildings. Multi-electrode resistivity measurements were made across the cliff face and along the top of the cliff around the two at-risk buildings to map major subsurface fracture zones and void spaces that could indicate possible accumulations and pathways of groundwater. The ingress of acidic groundwater through the underlying carbonate formations enlarges pre-existing tectonic fractures via limestone dissolution and weakens the overall structural integrity of the cliff. The achieved 3-D resistivity tomograms provide diagnostic subsurface resistivity distributions. Resistive zones associated with subsurface void spaces have been located. These void spaces constitute a stability geohazard as they become significant drainage routes during and after periods of heavy rainfalls.

  15. Mobile Laser Scanning along Dieppe coastal cliffs: reliability of the acquired point clouds applied to rockfall assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michoud, Clément; Carrea, Dario; Augereau, Emmanuel; Cancouët, Romain; Costa, Stéphane; Davidson, Robert; Delacourt, Chirstophe; Derron, Marc-Henri; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Letortu, Pauline; Maquaire, Olivier

    2013-04-01

    Dieppe coastal cliffs, in Normandy, France, are mainly formed by sub-horizontal deposits of chalk and flintstone. Largely destabilized by an intense weathering and the Channel sea erosion, small and large rockfalls are regularly observed and contribute to retrogressive cliff processes. During autumn 2012, cliff and intertidal topographies have been acquired with a Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS) and a Mobile Laser Scanner (MLS), coupled with seafloor bathymetries realized with a multibeam echosounder (MBES). MLS is a recent development of laser scanning based on the same theoretical principles of aerial LiDAR, but using smaller, cheaper and portable devices. The MLS system, which is composed by an accurate dynamic positioning and orientation (INS) devices and a long range LiDAR, is mounted on a marine vessel; it is then possible to quickly acquire in motion georeferenced LiDAR point clouds with a resolution of about 15 cm. For example, it takes about 1 h to scan of shoreline of 2 km long. MLS is becoming a promising technique supporting erosion and rockfall assessments along the shores of lakes, fjords or seas. In this study, the MLS system used to acquire cliffs and intertidal areas of the Cap d'Ailly was composed by the INS Applanix POS-MV 320 V4 and the LiDAR Optech Ilirs LR. On the same day, three MLS scans with large overlaps (J1, J21 and J3) have been performed at ranges from 600 m at 4 knots (low tide) up to 200 m at 2.2 knots (up tide) with a calm sea at 2.5 Beaufort (small wavelets). Mean scan resolutions go from 26 cm for far scan (J1) to about 8.1 cm for close scan (J3). Moreover, one TLS point cloud on this test site has been acquired with a mean resolution of about 2.3 cm, using a Riegl LMS Z390i. In order to quantify the reliability of the methodology, comparisons between scans have been realized with the software Polyworks™, calculating shortest distances between points of one cloud and the interpolated surface of the reference point cloud. A Mat

  16. Coastal cliff geometry derived from structure-from-motion photogrammetry at Stara Ba\\vska, Krk Island, Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ružić, Igor; Marović, Ivan; Benac, Čedomir; Ilić, Suzana

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the capability of structure-from-motion photogrammetry in defining the geometry of cliffs and undercuts in rocks of complex geomorphology. A case site was chosen along pocket beaches near the village of Stara Ba\\vska on the Adriatic Sea island of Krk, Gulf of Kvarner, Croatia, where cliff erosion of 5 m in breccias was identified by comparison of aerial photographs from 1960 and 2004. The 3D point cloud was derived from approx. 800 photos taken on 9 January 2014 by a single camera from various elevations and angles, and processed using the online software ReCap (Autodesk). Data acquisition was found to be quick and the method easy to implement. The difference between the georeferenced 3D cloud points and an RTK-GPS survey was 7 cm, i.e. within the limits of RTK-GPS precision. Quantifying the spatial variation in undercut geometries revealed that the deepest and largest (17 m3) undercut was in the south-eastern sector of the beach. Reconstructing the detailed geomorphology of this 3.8-m-deep undercut convincingly demonstrates the high efficiency of the method. Such assessments of spatiotemporal changes in undercut and overhang volumes can prove useful for evaluations of cliff erosion risk. Coupled with the low cost and relatively simple application, this is evidently an attractive technique for meaningful geotechnical and coastal engineering monitoring in the future on the island of Krk and, for that matter, also on other Adriatic islands and in similar settings worldwide.

  17. Experimental study of turbulent supercritical open channel water flow as applied to the CLiFF concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental study of turbulent open channel water flows was conducted that simulated basic features of the flow of molten salt in the convective liquid flow first-wall (CLiFF) concept, which is a part of the Advanced Power Extraction (APEX) study. Unlike many other studies of open channel flows, the present one concentrates on a supercritical flow regime, in which surface waviness and wave-turbulence interaction are the most important processes that determine the heat transfer rate in CLiFF flows. The current study covers the Reynolds number and Froude number range of 1x104-6x104 and 150-250, respectively, with a fixed chute inclination angle of 30 deg. . The statistical characteristics of the wavy interface were obtained with an ultrasound transducer. A spectral analysis of the oscillating flow thickness shows that a major part of the spectrum is presented by long finite-amplitude waves (f=10-50 Hz), which carry a significant part of the volumetric flux. Based on dye technique observations, short waves are mostly responsible for mixing the liquid at the surface. The surface waviness can be characterized by a parameter built through the mean flow thickness, h, and its standard deviation (S.D.), σ, as 0.5σ/h, which is almost constant, 0.1, in all experiments. The mean flow thickness variations are predicted well with the 'K-ε' model of turbulence [Int. J. Eng. Sci. 40/6 (2002) 693], but the fluctuations are not resolved. Thermal images of the free surface measured by an infrared (IR) camera are very non-uniform and show the 'strike' structures in the form of elongated strips of 'hotter' and 'cooler' liquid. The present observations are the first steps to better understanding and quantitative predictions of liquid wall flows in the CLiFF design

  18. Cliff collapses in the Alps, some fundamentals and a case study. Mineralogical aspects of the 1991 Randa Rockfall (Wallis, Switzerland)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thelin, P.; Girod, F. [Lausanne Univ., Lausanne (Switzerland). Institut de Mineralogie et de Geochimie

    2000-07-01

    The study of risks related to geochemical contamination of soil, water and atmosphere caused by the human activity seems to have become the priority as far as the environment is concerned. However among many other challenges which Earth Sciences must take up at the end of the 20. century, research into natural risks needs to be made a priority. Among the latter, in addition to the volcanic and seismic risks, the instability of hills lopes, potentially leading to landslides and cliff collapses, is to be considered with the greatest attention, in particular in the context of climatic reheating and excessive deforestation.

  19. Application of an LWR operator information systems analysis to the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant-Unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the formulation and demonstration of a method to help utilities achieve their objectives of nuclear plant safety and economy. Called The Integrated Approach to Economic and Safe Nuclear Power Production, it is a framework for showing how plant equipment and personnel work together in successful nuclear operations. It is being applied to the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant Unit 1 to evaluate the current plant information systems and, should it appear to be desirable, to identify potential cost-beneficial improvements to plant information systems

  20. Injury Severity Score based estimation of height of fall in bus rolling down the cliff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radojevic, Nemanja; Curovic, Ivana; Atanasijevic, Tatjana; Lazovic, Ranko

    2015-08-01

    A case of bus rollover into the canyon, 40 m down the road, with 47 occupants out of which 18 were fatally injured, was used to compute the Injury Severity Score (ISS) for each passengers as well as the equivalent free fall for this particular accident, to be compared to the height of fall as estimated by the Lau's model based on ISS, resulting the conclusion whether Lau's model and the computation of ISS can be considered reliable to estimate the height of fall in any other case. Dealing with this, we would be also able to assess a protective potential of the bus on occupants while it falls from the height. By using classic energy-related mechanical formulas the presented rollover down the cliff has been transferred into a corresponding free fall from the height (10 m). ISS for each passenger has been used to establish height bands of the corresponding free fall. The analysis of the presented case showed that only 30% of bus passengers sustained injuries similar to the injuries expected in the fall from height in the range of 10-20 m. The chances to be non-severely injured as a consequence of the fall in a bus is 43%, but still remains a very high chance (27%) to sustain injures more severe than expected for the equivalent free fall from height out of a vehicle. Moreover, eight passengers sustained pulmonary detraction which is characteristic of the fall above 40 m. The conclusion is that this mathematical computing for transferring one way of motion into another one may be useful for any other event similar to the fall from height and further usage of Lau's modules. Also, estimated severity of the injuries expressed through ISS can be merely an approximating indicator of the height of the fall of the bus, so ISS is not able to estimate the exact height. Finally, in majority of cases the protective potential of the bus may preserve from severe body damage, but the mortality rate still stands on a very high level.

  1. Experiments to investigate direct containment heating phenomena with scaled models of the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Surtsey Test Facility is used to perform scaled experiments simulating High Pressure Melt Ejection accidents in a nuclear power plant (NPP). The experiments investigate the effects of direct containment heating (DCH) on the containment load. The results from Zion and Surry experiments can be extrapolated to other Westinghouse plants, but predicted containment loads cannot be generalized to all Combustion Engineering (CE) plants. Five CE plants have melt dispersal flow paths which circumvent the main mitigation of containment compartmentalization in most Westinghouse PWRs. Calvert Cliff-like plant geometries and the impact of codispersed water were addressed as part of the DCH issue resolution. Integral effects tests were performed with a scale model of the Calvert Cliffs NPP inside the Surtsey test vessel. The experiments investigated the effects of codispersal of water, steam, and molten core stimulant materials on DCH loads under prototypic accident conditions and plant configurations. The results indicated that large amounts of coejected water reduced the DCH load by a small amount. Large amounts of debris were dispersed from the cavity to the upper dome (via the annular gap). 22 refs., 84 figs., 30 tabs

  2. Influence in times of crisis: how social and financial resources affect men's and women's evaluations of glass-cliff positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rink, Floor; Ryan, Michelle K; Stoker, Janka I

    2012-01-01

    In two scenario-based studies, we found that women and men evaluate glass-cliff positions (i.e., precarious leadership positions at organizations in crisis) differently depending on the social and financial resources available. Female and male participants evaluated a hypothetical leadership position in which they would have both social and financial resources, financial resources but no social resources, or social resources but no financial resources. Women evaluated the position without social resources most negatively, whereas men evaluated the position without financial resources most negatively. In study 2, we found that women and men considered different issues when evaluating these leadership positions. Women's evaluations and expected levels of influence as leaders depended on the degree to which they expected to be accepted by subordinates. In contrast, men's evaluations and expected levels of acceptance by subordinates depended on the degree to which they expected to be influential in the position. Our findings have implications for the understanding of the glass-cliff phenomenon and gendered leadership stereotypes.

  3. Experiments to investigate direct containment heating phenomena with scaled models of the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchat, T.K.; Pilch, M.M.; Allen, M.D.

    1997-02-01

    The Surtsey Test Facility is used to perform scaled experiments simulating High Pressure Melt Ejection accidents in a nuclear power plant (NPP). The experiments investigate the effects of direct containment heating (DCH) on the containment load. The results from Zion and Surry experiments can be extrapolated to other Westinghouse plants, but predicted containment loads cannot be generalized to all Combustion Engineering (CE) plants. Five CE plants have melt dispersal flow paths which circumvent the main mitigation of containment compartmentalization in most Westinghouse PWRs. Calvert Cliff-like plant geometries and the impact of codispersed water were addressed as part of the DCH issue resolution. Integral effects tests were performed with a scale model of the Calvert Cliffs NPP inside the Surtsey test vessel. The experiments investigated the effects of codispersal of water, steam, and molten core stimulant materials on DCH loads under prototypic accident conditions and plant configurations. The results indicated that large amounts of coejected water reduced the DCH load by a small amount. Large amounts of debris were dispersed from the cavity to the upper dome (via the annular gap). 22 refs., 84 figs., 30 tabs.

  4. High frequency seismic monitoring of debris flows at Chalk Cliffs (CO), USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coviello, Velio; Kean, Jason; Smith, Joel; Coe, Jeffrey; Arattano, Massimo; McCoy, Scott

    2015-04-01

    A growing number of studies adopt passive seismic monitoring techniques to investigate slope instabilities and landslide processes. These techniques are attractive and convenient because large areas can be monitored from a safe distance. This is particularly true when the phenomena under investigation are rapid and infrequent mass movements like debris flows. Different types of devices are used to monitor debris flow processes, but among them ground vibration detectors (GVDs) present several, specific advantages that encourage their use. These advantages include: (i) the possibility to be installed outside the channel bed, (ii) the high adaptability to different and harsh field conditions, and (iii) the capability to detect the debris flow front arrival tens of seconds earlier than contact and stage sensors. Ground vibration data can provide relevant information on the dynamics of debris flows such as timing and velocity of the main surges. However, the processing of the raw seismic signal is usually needed, both to obtain a more effective representation of waveforms and to decrease the amount of data that need to be recorded and analyzed. With this objective, the methods of Amplitude and Impulses are commonly adopted to transform the raw signal to a 1-Hz signal that allows for a more useful representation of the phenomenon. In that way, peaks and other features become more visible and comparable with data obtained from other monitoring devices. In this work, we present the first debris flows seismic recordings gathered in the Chalk Cliffs instrumented basin, central Colorado, USA. In May 2014, two 4.5-Hz, three-axial geophones were installed in the upper part of the catchment. Seismic data are sampled at 333 Hz and then recorded by a standalone recording unit. One geophone is directly installed on bedrock, the other one mounted on a 1-m boulder partially buried in colluvium. This latter sensor integrates a heavily instrumented cross-section consisting of a 225 cm2

  5. From grazing marks to collapsed cliffs - intertidal bioerosion on all scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kázmér, Miklós; Taboroši, Danko; Hsieh, Meng-Long; Shafeea Leman, Mohd; Aziz Ali, Che; Roslan Mohamed, Kamal; Choowong, Montri

    2014-05-01

    Rocky shores - particularly in limestone areas of tropical, subtropical, and some temperate regions - are subject to intense bioerosion. Detailed field studies along the Gulf of Siam and the Andaman coast of Thailand, Langkawi Islands of Malaysia, southern Java and Bali in Indonesia, Palau Islands, and Okinawa revealed the presence of rich populations of bioeroding organisms in the intertidal zone. Molluscs capable of damaging rock (the chiton Acanthopleura, limpets, and whelks) leave grazing traces as they feed on bacterial and algal biofilms and chasmolithic and endolithic microorganisms. Boring sponges (Entobia), bivalves (Gastrochaenolites and others), boring sipunculid worms (Caulostrepsis), and sea urchins (Echinometra) drill deeper to hide from predators beneath the rock surface. Individually, members of these taxa leave marks ranging from sub-millimetre to the metre scale, but collectively, their erosion creates marine notches, several-metres-deep features extending between low and high tide marks. When cliffs overhanging these notches collapse, landscape-scale scars are left behind. The various bioeroders display a clear vertical zonation between low and high tide. These are dictated by environmental stress, food availability, competition, and predation. Typical inhabitants of present-day zones include - from top to bottom - littorinid snails, patellid limpets, chitons, boring bivalves, and boring sea urchins. Each organism leaves a characteristic mark in the bedrock. Trace fossils found in the 'wrong place' - either too high or too low compared to the present-day occurrence of the animals - suggest changes in relative sea level. Similarly, sea level changes are suggested by the presence of compound markings produced through overprinting by organisms that live in different ecological zones. Preservation and obliteration of traces depends on the rates of sea level change and coastal denudation. Morphology of bioerosional markings and their vertical zonation

  6. Sources of Sulfate Found in Mounds and Lakes at the Lewis Cliffs Ice Tongue, Transantarctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socki, Richard; Sun, Tao; Harvey, Ralph P.; Bish, David L.; Tonui, Eric; Bao, Huiming; Niles, Paul B.

    2012-01-01

    Massive but highly localized Na-sulfate mounds (mirabilite, Na2SO4.10H2O) have been found at the terminal moraine of the Lewis Cliffs Ice Tongue (LCIT), Antarctica. (Sigma)34S and (Sigma)18O values of LCIT mirabilite range from +48.8 to +49.3% (CDT), and -16.6 to -17.1% (V-SMOW), respectively, while (Delta)17O average -0.37% (V-SMOW). LCIT mirabilite mounds are isotopically different from other mirabilite mounds found in coastal regions of Antarctica, which have isotope values close to seawater compositions. (Sigma)18O and (Delta)17O values suggest the incorporation of isotopically light glacial water. Data point to initial sulfate formation in an anoxic water body, either as a stratified anoxic deep lake on the surface, a sub-glacial water reservoir, or a sub-glacial lake. Several surface lakes of varying size are also present within this region of the LCIT, and in some cases are adjacent to the mirabilite mounds. O and D isotope compositions of surface lakes confirm they are derived from a mixture of glacial ice and snow that underwent moderate evaporation. (Sigma)18O and (Sigma)D (V-SMOW) values of snow, ice, and lake water range from -64.2 to -29.7%, and -456.0 to -231.7%, respectively. However, the isotope chemistry of these surface lakes is extremely different from the mounds. Dissolved SO4-2 (Sigma)34S and (Sigma)18O values range from +12.0 to +20.0% and -12.8 to -22.2% (the most negative (Sigma)18O of terrestrial sulfate ever reported), respectively, with sulfate (Delta)17O ranging from +0.93 to 2.24%. Ion chromatography data show that lake water is fresh to brackish in origin, with TDS less than 1500 ppm, and sulfate concentration less than 431 ppm. Isotope and chemical data suggest that these lakes are unlikely the source of the mirabilite mounds. We suggest that lake water sulfate is potentially composed of a mixture of atmospheric sulfate and minor components of sulfate of weathering origin, much like the sulfate in the polar plateau soils of the Mc

  7. The outcrop and area underlain by the Upper Cretaceous Drip Tank Mb. of the Straight Cliffs Fm. in the Kaiparowits Plateau study area, southern Utah (kaikdtg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a polygon file of the outcrop and area underlain by the Drip Tank Mb. of the Straight Cliffs Fm. (Upper Cretaceous) east of 112 degrees of longitude in the...

  8. Landslides: Geomorphology and Sea Cliff Hazard Potential, Santa Barbara - Isla Vista, California J.F. Klath and E.A. Keller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klath, J. F.; Keller, E. A.

    2015-12-01

    Coastal areas are often characterized by high population densities in an ever changing, dynamic environment. The world's coasts are often dominated by steeply sloping sea cliffs, the morphology of which reflects rock type, wave erosion, and surface erosion, as well as human activities such changing vegetation, urban runoff, and construction of coastal defenses. The Santa Barbara and Goleta area, with over 17 km of sea cliffs and beaches, extends from Santa Barbara Point west to the hamlet of Isla Vista. A deeper understanding of the local geology and the physical processes generating slope failure and, thus, landward cliff retreat is important for general public safety, as well as future development and planning. Our research objective includes assessment of landslide hazard potential through investigation of previous landslides and how these events relate to various physical variables and characteristics within the surrounding bedrock. How does landslide frequency, volume, and type relate to varying local bedrock and structure? Two geologic formations dominate the sea cliffs of the Santa Barbara area: Monterey shale (upper, middle, and lower) and Monterey Sisquoc shale. Geology varies from hard cemented shale and diatomaceous, low specific gravity shale to compaction shale. Variations in landslide characteristics are linked closely to the geology of a specific site that affects how easily rock units are weathered and eroded by wave erosion, naturally occurring oil and water seeps, burnt shale events, and landslide type and frequency on steeply dipped bedding planes/daylighting beds. Naturally occurring features linked to human processes often weaken bedrock and, thus, increase the likelihood of landslides. We categorize landslide frequency, type, and triggers; location of beach access, drainage pipes, and water; and oil and tar seeps in order to develop suggestions to minimize landslide potential. Lastly, using previously published erosion cliff retreat rates and

  9. Isopach map of interval between top of the Pictured Cliffs Sandstone and the Huerfanito Bentonite bed of the Lewis Shale, La Plata County, Colorado, and Rio Arriba and San Juan counties, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, D.T.

    1986-01-01

    This thickness map of a Late Cretaceous interval in the northwestern part of the San Juan Basin is part of a study of the relationship between ancient shore 1ines and coal-forming swamps during the filial regression of the Cretaceous epicontinental sea. The top of the thickness interval is the top of the Pictured Cliffs Sands tone. The base of the interval is a thin time marker, the Huerfanito Bentonite Bed of the Lewis Shale. The interval includes all of the Pictured Cliffs Sandstone and the upper part of the Lewis Shale. The northwest boundary of the map area is the outcrop of the Pictured Cliffs Sandstone and the Lewis Shale.

  10. Geologic map of the Gila Hot Springs 7.5' quadrangle and the Cliff Dwellings National Monument, Catron and Grant Counties, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratté, James C.; Gaskill, David L.; Chappell, James R.

    2014-01-01

    The Gila Hot Springs quadrangle is of geologic interest with respect to four major features, which are: 1)\tThe caves of the Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument 2)\tThe hot springs associated with the faults of the Gila Hot Springs graben 3)\tThe Alum Mountain rhyolite dome and eruptive center 4)\tA proposed segment of the southeastern wall of the Gila Cliff Dwellings caldera The Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument consists of two tracts. The caves that were inhabited by the Mogollon people in the 14th century are in the main tract near the mouth of Cliff Dweller Canyon in the Little Turkey Park 7.5' quadrangle adjoining the northwest corner of the Gila Hot Springs quadrangle. The second tract includes the Cliff Dwellings National Monument Visitor Center at the confluence of the West and Middle Forks of the Gila River in the northwest corner of the Gila Hot Springs quadrangle. Both quadrangles are within the Gila National Forest and the Gila Wilderness except for a narrow corridor that provides access to the National Monument and the small ranching and residential community at Gila Center in the Gila River valley. The caves in Cliff Dweller Canyon were developed in the Gila Conglomerate of probable Miocene? and Pleistocene? age in this area by processes of lateral corrosion and spring sapping along the creek in Cliff Dweller Canyon. The hot springs in the Gila River valley are localized along faults in the deepest part of the Gila Hot Springs graben, which cuts diagonally northwest-southeast across the central part of the quadrangle. Some of the springs provide domestic hot water for space heating and agriculture in the Gila River valley and represent a possible thermal resource for development at the Cliff Dwellings National Monument. The Alum Mountain rhyolite dome and eruptive center in the southwestern part of the quadrangle is a colorful area of altered and mineralized rocks that is satellitic to the larger Copperas Canyon eruptive center, both being

  11. Hydrogeology of the Pictured Cliffs Sandstone in the San Juan structural basin, New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, and Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dam, William L.; Kernodle, J.M.; Thorn, C.R.; Levings, G.W.; Craigg, S.D.

    1990-01-01

    This report is one in a series resulting from the U.S. Geological Survey's Regional Aquifer System Analysis (RASA) study of the San Juan structural basin that began in October 1984. The purposes of the study (Welder, 1986) are to: (1) Define and evaluate the aquifer system; (2) assess the effects of past, present, and potential ground-water use on aquifers and streams, and (3) determine the availability and quality of ground water. Previous reports in this series describe the hydrogeology of the Dakota Sandstone (Craigg and others, 1989), Gallup Sandstone (Kernodle and others, 1989), Morrison Formation (Dam and others, 1990), Point Lookout Sandstone (Craigg and others, 1990), Kirtland Shale and Fruitland Formation (Kernodle and others, 1990), Menefee Formation (Levings and others, 1990), Cliff House Sandstone (Thorn and others, 1990), and Ojo Alamo Sandstone (Thorn and others, 1990) in the San Juan structural basin. This report summarizes information on the geology and the occurrence and quality of water in the Pictured Cliffs Sandstone, one of the primary water-bearing units in the regional aquifer system. Data used in this report were collected during the RASA study or derived from existing records in the U.S. Geological Survey's computerized National Water Information System (NWIS) data base, the Petroleum Information Corporation's data base, and the Dwight's ENERGYDATA Inc. BRIN database. Although all data available for the Pictured Cliffs Sandstone were considered in formulating the discussions in the text, not all those data could be plotted on the illustrations. The San Juan structural basin in New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, and Utah has an area of about 21,600 square miles (fig. 1). The structural basin is about 140 miles wide and about 200 miles long. The study area is that part of the structural basin that contains rocks of Triassic and younger age; therefore, the study area is less extensive than the structural basin. Triassic through Tertiary

  12. Accurate 3D point cloud comparison and volumetric change analysis of Terrestrial Laser Scan data in a hard rock coastal cliff environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earlie, C. S.; Masselink, G.; Russell, P.; Shail, R.; Kingston, K.

    2013-12-01

    Our understanding of the evolution of hard rock coastlines is limited due to the episodic nature and ';slow' rate at which changes occur. High-resolution surveying techniques, such as Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS), have just begun to be adopted as a method of obtaining detailed point cloud data to monitor topographical changes over short periods of time (weeks to months). However, the difficulties involved in comparing consecutive point cloud data sets in a complex three-dimensional plane, such as occlusion due to surface roughness and positioning of data capture point as a result of a consistently changing environment (a beach profile), mean that comparing data sets can lead to errors in the region of 10 - 20 cm. Meshing techniques are often used for point cloud data analysis for simple surfaces, but in surfaces such as rocky cliff faces, this technique has been found to be ineffective. Recession rates of hard rock coastlines in the UK are typically determined using aerial photography or airborne LiDAR data, yet the detail of the important changes occurring to the cliff face and toe are missed using such techniques. In this study we apply an algorithm (M3C2 - Multiscale Model to Model Cloud Comparison), initially developed for analysing fluvial morphological change, that directly compares point to point cloud data using surface normals that are consistent with surface roughness and measure the change that occurs along the normal direction (Lague et al., 2013). The surfaces changes are analysed using a set of user defined scales based on surface roughness and registration error. Once the correct parameters are defined, the volumetric cliff face changes are calculated by integrating the mean distance between the point clouds. The analysis has been undertaken at two hard rock sites identified for their active erosion located on the UK's south west peninsular at Porthleven in south west Cornwall and Godrevy in north Cornwall. Alongside TLS point cloud data, in

  13. A Comparison Of The Wind Spectrum According To Different Methods - An Original Project Of A Building On A Cliff In Gdynia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zielińska M.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents numerical simulations of the dynamic wind loads on the structure of a building designed on a cliff in Gdynia. The results obtained from the two methods: Davenport’s and Karman’s are compared. The results allowed a comparison of the two methods, and they provided an answer to the question how a construction, designed in such an unusual condition of a cliff behaves under the influence of the gusting wind. The wind spectrum is presented and compared in both directions: of the X-axis and of the Y-axis. The dynamic calculations are carried out in the Abaqus software. The conducted numerical analyses compare the displacements in two points - at half height of the building and at the top - obtained by the two methods.

  14. Occurrence of morphological and anatomical adaptive traits in young and adult plants of the rare Mediterranean cliff species Primula palinuri Petagna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Micco, Veronica; Aronne, Giovanna

    2012-01-01

    Cliffs worldwide are known to be reservoirs of relict biodiversity. Despite the presence of harsh abiotic conditions, large endemic floras live in such environments. Primula palinuri Petagna is a rare endemic plant species, surviving on cliff sites along a few kilometres of the Tyrrhenian coast in southern Italy. This species is declared at risk of extinction due to human impact on the coastal areas in question. Population surveys have shown that most of the plants are old individuals, while seedlings and plants at early stages of development are rare. We followed the growth of P. palinuri plants from seed germination to the adult phase and analysed the morphoanatomical traits of plants at all stages of development. Our results showed that the pressure of cliff environmental factors has been selected for seasonal habitus and structural adaptive traits in this species. The main morphoanatomical modifications are suberized cell layers and accumulation of phenolic compounds in cell structures. These features are strictly related to regulation of water uptake and storage as well as defence from predation. However, we found them well established only in adult plants and not in juvenile individuals. These findings contribute to explain the rare recruitment of the present relict populations, identifying some of the biological traits which result in species vulnerability. PMID:22666127

  15. Occurrence of Morphological and Anatomical Adaptive Traits in Young and Adult Plants of the Rare Mediterranean Cliff Species Primula palinuri Petagna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica De Micco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cliffs worldwide are known to be reservoirs of relict biodiversity. Despite the presence of harsh abiotic conditions, large endemic floras live in such environments. Primula palinuri Petagna is a rare endemic plant species, surviving on cliff sites along a few kilometres of the Tyrrhenian coast in southern Italy. This species is declared at risk of extinction due to human impact on the coastal areas in question. Population surveys have shown that most of the plants are old individuals, while seedlings and plants at early stages of development are rare. We followed the growth of P. palinuri plants from seed germination to the adult phase and analysed the morphoanatomical traits of plants at all stages of development. Our results showed that the pressure of cliff environmental factors has been selected for seasonal habitus and structural adaptive traits in this species. The main morphoanatomical modifications are suberized cell layers and accumulation of phenolic compounds in cell structures. These features are strictly related to regulation of water uptake and storage as well as defence from predation. However, we found them well established only in adult plants and not in juvenile individuals. These findings contribute to explain the rare recruitment of the present relict populations, identifying some of the biological traits which result in species vulnerability.

  16. Rock cliffs hazard analysis based on remote geostructural surveys: The Campione del Garda case study (Lake Garda, Northern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, A. M.; Migliazza, M.; Roncella, R.; Segalini, A.

    2011-02-01

    The town of Campione del Garda (located on the west coast of Lake Garda) and its access road have been historically subject to rockfall phenomena with risk for public security in several areas of the coast. This paper presents a study devoted to the determination of risk for coastal cliffs and the design of mitigation measures. Our study was based on statistical rockfall analysis performed with a commercial code and on stability analysis of rock slopes based on the key block method. Hazard from block kinematics and rock-slope failure are coupled by applying the Rockfall Hazard Assessment Procedure (RHAP). Because of the huge dimensions of the slope, its morphology and the geostructural survey were particularly complicated and demanding. For these reasons, noncontact measurement methods, based on aerial photogrammetry by helicopter, were adopted. A special software program, developed by the authors, was applied for discontinuity identification and for their orientation measurements. The potentially of aerial photogrammetic survey in rock mechanic application and its improvement in the rock mass knowledge is analysed in the article.

  17. Think crisis-think female: the glass cliff and contextual variation in the think manager-think male stereotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Michelle K; Haslam, S Alexander; Hersby, Mette D; Bongiorno, Renata

    2011-05-01

    The "think manager-think male" (TMTM) association underlies many gender inequalities in the workplace. However, research into the "glass cliff" has demonstrated that the suitability of male and female managers varies as a function of company performance such that in times of poor performance people may "think female" (Ryan & Haslam, 2005, 2007). Three studies examined gender and managerial stereotypes in the context of companies that are doing well or doing badly. Study 1 reproduced TMTM associations for descriptions of managers of successful companies but demonstrated a reversal for managers of unsuccessful companies. Study 2 examined the prescriptive nature of these stereotypes. No TMTM relationship was found for ideal managers of successful companies, but ideal managers of unsuccessful companies were associated with the female stereotype. Study 3 suggested that women may be favored in times of poor performance, not because they are expected to improve the situation, but because they are seen to be good people managers and can take the blame for organizational failure. Together, the studies illustrate the importance of context as a moderator of the TMTM association. Practical and theoretical implications for gender discrimination in the workplace are discussed. PMID:21171729

  18. A localized corrosion assessment of 6% molybdenum stainless steel condenser tubing at the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A condition assessment was performed on the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant Unit 1 Main Steam Condenser 6% molybdenum stainless steel tubing. This work consisted of eddy current (EC) examination, in-situ visual examination of tubes, and destructive analysis of pulled tubes. The assessment objectives were as follows: to determine the tubing degradation mechanism, to render the condenser leak-tight, to identify methods of improving condenser life management, and to develop a basis for projecting the remaining condenser life. Once the corrosion mechanism was identified, seawater corrosion tests were performed on UNS N08366 and N08367 tubing using vinyl sleeves, Type 316 stainless compression fittings, and epoxy paint as crevice formers. Based on eddy current examination results, greater than 95% of the 49,500 tubes in the condenser had no detectable degradation. Over 1,200 tubes were plugged with either eddy current indications measuring greater than 60% wall loss or with obstructions. One waterbox (11A) contained 52% of all eddy current indications with over half of these in one section (B). Destructive analysis of pulled tubes revealed crevice corrosion, a form of localized corrosion that initiated under deposits. This type of corrosion occurred most often and had the deepest penetration in the weld seam. This was attributed to molybdenum and chromium segregation in the as-welded tubes and to deleterious secondary phases formed during weld solidification

  19. Hydrogeology of the Cliff House Sandstone in the San Juan structural basin, New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona and Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, Conde R.; Levings, G.W.; Craigg, S.D.; Dam, W.L.; Kernodle, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    This report is one in a series resulting from the U.S. Geological Survey's Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (RASA) study of the San Juan structural basin that began in October 1984. Previous reports in the series describe the hydrogeology of the Dakota Sandstone (Craigg and others, 1989), Point Lookout Sandstone (Craigg and others, 1990), Morrison Formation (Dam and others, 1990), Gallup Sandstone (Kernodle and others, 1989), and Menefee Formation (Levings and others, 1990) in the San Juan structural basin. The purposes of the RASA (Welder, 1986) are to: (1) Define and evaluate the aquifer system; (2) assess the effects of past, present, and potential ground-water use on aquifers and streams; and (3) determine the availability and quality of ground water. This report summarizes information on the geology and the occurrence and quality of water in the Cliff House Sandstone, one of the primary water-bearing units in the regional aquifer system. Data used in this report were collected during the study or were derived from existing records in the U.S. Geological Survey's computerized National Water Information System (NWIS) data base, the Petroleum Information Corporation's data base, and the Dwight's ENERGYDATA Inc. BRIN data base. Although all data available for the Cliff House Sandstone were considered in formulating the discussions in the text, not all those data could be plotted on the illustrations. The San Juan structural basin is in New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, and Utah and has an area of about 21,600 square miles (fig. 1). The structural basin is about 140 miles wide and about 200 miles long. The study area is that part of the structural basin that contains rocks of Triassic or younger age and, therefore, is less extensive than the structural basin. Triassic through Tertiary sedimentary rocks are emphasized in this study because the major aquifers in the basin are present in these rocks. The study area is about 140 miles wide (about the same as the

  20. Application of laser scanning and opto-electronic devices for monitoring cliff instability in the Campi Flegrei coastal area: the Coroglio case study ( Napoli, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somma, R.; Caputo, T.; Esposito, G.; Marino, E.; Matano, F.; Carlino, S.; Iuliano, S.; Sacchi, M.; Troise, C.; De Natale, G.

    2013-12-01

    This study introduces a Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) application for the landslides monitoring and its experiment in Gulf of Pozzuoli coastal area (Italy). This area is a part of the Campi Flegrei volcanic district, one of the major volcanic risk zones of the world, with more than 300.000 people and a lot of infrastructures concentrated within it. The cliffs consist of very erodible volcanoclastic lithologies as same as tuffs and ignimbrites, affected by the erosive action of both sea and meteorological agents, very high erosion rate. Furthermore, in this area the bradyseismic phenomenon occurred too, producing differential displacement and fracturing. The Coroglio test site was chosen taking into account cliff's geological and geomorphological properties, as well as aspect, fractures, lithology, and elements at risk located upslope or downslope: The Coroglio site is characterized by lithified upper member of the NYT with stratified, wavy-to-planar alternations of coarse-grained, disorganized, matrix-supported layers, thinly-laminated discontinuous beds and massive, even fine ash layers. The accuracy of the technique used reaches a detailed level in landslide monitoring which allows this methodology to be complementary to the monitoring by setup a geodetic deformation monitoring network. With this aim we have firstly reconstructed a 3D model of the investigated cliff with the use of dedicated softwares and successively analyzed the main lithological, structural and geomorphologic elements related to cliff instability processes. What is possible to confirm after this first study, can be here resumed: (1) These tests were designed to set-up landslide monitoring in highly urbanised areas such as the Campi Flegrei; they are very important sites with a well-established road network, which can be affected by landslide phenomena as occurred in the past causing either traffic interruption and damage to infrastructures insisting along the landslides fronts. (2) In the

  1. Seismic response analysis of a tuff cliff by an effective stress non-linear 2D model approach: an example in Sorrento Peninsula, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Fiore, V.; Angelino, A.; Buonocunto, F. P.; Rapolla, A.; Tarallo, D.

    2009-04-01

    We present a model to describe the behavior of a tuff cliff under the dynamic stress considering a law reference input motion. The studied area is located in the Sorrento Peninsula, a major Quaternary morpho-structural unit of the western flank of Southern Apennines. The peninsula forms a narrow and elevated mountain range (up to 1444 m) that separates two major embayments of the eastern Tyrrhenian margin and is characterized by a carbonate bedrock capped by pyroclastic deposits (i.e. "Campania Ignimbrite"), originated from the Campi Flegrei volcanic district. The occurrence of steep slopes and the high relief energy of the area, along with the marine erosion at the base of the coastal cliff creates favorable conditions for the occurrence of a generalized instability of the slopes that is manifested by tuff rock falls as prevailing landslide phenomena. These events are highly dangerous because of the sudden detachments of conspicuous volumes of rocks with high speed, especially when the rock fall initiates in the upper part of the slopes. Prediction of such landslides is difficult if not accompanied by accurate hydrogeologic and geotechnical monitoring and assessment. The geometry of our model is represented by a tuff cliff of 48 m height, covered by a 8 m thick volcaniclastic layer. At the base of the tuff cliff marine sand deposits occur. The geotechnical parameters used for the analysis were selected from the literature. We have used an effective stress non-linear 2D model to determine the dynamic stress field of our model. The effective stress non-linear algorithm uses the Direct Integration Method to compute the motion and excess pore-water pressures arising from inertial forces at user-defined time steps. The seismic response analysis was performed using the field shear stress generated by synthetic 1-30 Hz band-limited accelerogram. The finite elements mesh considered for the test problem was established by 395 element and 401 nodal point. Our results show a

  2. Stream of Consciousness and Symbolism, the“Magic”Used by Heming-way to Characterize Harry as A Dying Man on the Cliff of Kilimanjaro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蓝清珂

    2016-01-01

    The Snows of Kilimanjaro was written in the 20th century when the realism was still the main stream in the field of litera-ture. However, Hemingway broke the cocoon of realism and flew into a new literary kingdom—modernism, where many new theories such as stream of consciousness and archetypal symbol blossomed and were used in literature. This paper mainly ana-lyzed how stream of consciousness and symbolism were used in the Snows of Kilimanjaro to characterize Harry as a dying man on the cliff of Kilimanjaro.

  3. Edge of a cliff

    CERN Document Server

    Shimizu, Yusuke

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the neutrino flavor structures in the Occam's razor approach for the Dirac neutrino mass matrices. We assume that the charged lepton mass matrix takes a diagonal base, while the right-handed Majorana neutrino mass matrix is also diagonal and we consider nine patterns of the four zero textures for the Dirac neutrinos mass matrices. We numerically analyze the left-handed Majorana neutrino mass matrices for nine patterns of the Dirac neutrino mass matrices and we found two interesting patterns where both normal and inverted neutrino mass hierarchies can be realized. We also found if the neutrino mass is normal hierarchy, this scenario will be likely to be excluded by the measurements of the Dirac CP violating phase in the T2K and NO$\

  4. Study of cliff activity dominating the gas and dust comae of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko during the early phase of the Rosetta mission using ROSINA/COPS and OSIRIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschall, Raphael; Su, Cheng-Chin; Liao, Ying; Rubin, Martin; Wu, Jong-Shinn; Thomas, Nicolas; altwegg, kathrin; Sierks, Holger; OSIRIS, ROSINA

    2016-10-01

    The study by [1] has proposed the idea that the cometary dust jets in the northern hemisphere of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko arise mainly from rough cliff like terrain. Using our 3D gas and dust dynamics coma model [2] we have run simulations targeting the question whether areas with high gravitational slopes alone can indeed account for both the ROSINA/COPS and the OSIRIS data obtained for mid August to end October 2014.The basis of our simulations is the shape model "SHAP4S" of [3]. Surface temperatures have been defined using a simple 1-D thermal model (including insolation, shadowing, thermal emission, sublimation but neglecting conduction) computed for each facet of the shape model allowing a consistent and known description of the gas flux and its initial temperature. In a next step we use the DSMC program PDSC++ [4] to calculate the gas properties in 3D space. The gas solution can be compared with the in situ measurements by ROSINA/COPS. In a subsequent step dust particles are introduced into the gas flow to determine dust densities and with a column integrator and Mie theory dust brightnesses that can be compared to OSIRIS data.To examine cliff activity we have divided the surface into two sets. One with gravitational slopes larger than 30° which we call cliffs and one with slopes less than 30° which we shall call plains. We have set up two models, "cliff only" and "plains only" where the respective set of areas are active and the others inert. The outgassing areas are assumed to be purely insolation driven. The "cliffs only" model is a statistically equally good fit to the ROSINA/COPS data as the global insolation driven model presented in [2]. The "plains only" model on the other hand is statistically inferior to the "cliffs only" model. We found in [2] that increased activity in the Hapi region (called inhomogeneous model) of the comet improves the fit of the gas results significantly. We can show in this study that a "cliffs + Hapi" model fits the

  5. The identification of the pigments used to paint statues of Feixiange Cliff in China in late 19th century by micro-Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Pu-jun; Huang, Wei; Jianhua-Wang; Zhao, Gang; Wang, Xiao-ling

    2010-11-01

    The application of micro-Raman spectroscopy (μ-RS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) to the research of pigments collected from Statues of Feixiange Cliff No. 67 and No. 69 niche of Tang Dynasty in China is reported. Five kinds of pigments were found in the experimental data, including black (carbon), white (gypsum + quartz), blue (lapis lazuli) and green (Paris green + Barium sulphate). After synthesized in 1814, Paris green was reported for a large import as a light and bright green pigment to paint architectures in China from the late 19th century. The analyzed blue pigment demonstrated the similar Raman spectra to the Lâjvardina blue glazed ceramics, which indicated lapis lazuli was an artificial product. This confirmed the painting of Feixiange Cliff in the early Republic of China as the historical record, and also reveals that some pigments were imported from abroad.

  6. 论藏东吐蕃摩崖造像与吐蕃高僧益西央%On Cliff Carvings in East Tibet from the Tubo Dynasty and Yishi Yang, a Tibetan Monk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍巍

    2015-01-01

    Some cliff carvings of the Tubo dynasty have been discovered in the east part of the Qinghai-Tibet pla⁃teau in recent years, among which there are three locations of cliff carvings with explicit records of the organizer of the cliff carving, Yishi Yang (ye-shes-dbyang), a Tibetan monk of the Tubo dynasty. It becomes a key clue for us to comprehend the new archaeological material. Based on the understanding of the inscription found at the three locations and some relevant records in Dunhuang literature, this article explores the life of Yishi Yang so as to know the exact time and the religious background of the cliff carvings.%近年来在青藏高原东麓相继发现了一批吐蕃时期的摩崖造像,其中有三处造像地点都明确记载了造像的组织者为吐蕃高僧益西央(ye-shes-dbyang),这是我们理解这批新发现考古材料关键性的线索之一。文章通过对三处造像题记的解读并结合敦煌出土古藏文文献,探讨吐蕃高僧益西央的生平事迹,进而更为深刻地理解藏东吐蕃摩崖造像产生的时代与宗教背景。

  7. Geologic controls on transgressive-regressive cycles in the upper Pictured Cliffs sandstone and coal geometry in the lower Fruitland Formation, Northern San Juan Basin, New Mexico and Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrose, W.A.; Ayers, W.B. [University of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2007-08-15

    Three upper Pictured Cliffs Sandstone tongues in the northern part of the San Juan Basin record high-frequency transgressive episodes during the Late Cretaceous and are inferred to have been caused by eustatic sea level rise coincident with differential subsidence. Outcrop and subsurface studies show that each tongue is an amalgamated barrier strand-plain unit up to 100 ft (30 m) thick. Upper Pictured Cliffs barrier strand-plain sandstones underlie and bound thickest Fruitland coal seams on the seaward side. Controls on Fruitland coal-seam thickness and continuity are a function of local facies distribution in a coastal-plain setting, shoreline positions related to transgressive-regressive cycles, and basin subsidence. During periods of relative sea level rise, the Pictured Cliffs shoreline was temporarily stabilized, allowing thick, coastal-plain peats to accumulate. Although some coal seams in the lower Fruitland tongue override abandoned Pictured Cliffs shoreline deposits, many pinch out against them. Differences in the degree of continuity of these coal seams relative to coeval shoreline sandstones are attributed to either differential subsidence in the northern part of the basin, multiple episodes of sea level rise, local variations in accommodation and progradation, stabilization of the shoreline by aggrading peat deposits, or a combination of these factors. Fruitland coalbed methane resources and productivity are partly controlled by coal-seam thickness; other important factors include thermal maturity, fracturing, and overpressuring. The dominant production trend occurs in the northern part of the basin and is oriented northwestward, coinciding with the greatest Fruitland net coal thickness.

  8. Several Grottos at the Southern Foot of Taihang Mountains and Cliff Rock Inscriptions and other Related Issues%太行山南麓几处石窟与摩崖石刻及相关问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭建设

    2012-01-01

    位于太行山南麓的河南省焦作市,佛教历史源远流长,基础深厚,在北魏隋唐时期,是平城与洛都、洛阳与邺城的重要通道。该地区青天河摩崖线刻观音经像、悬谷山太平寺石窟及摩崖造像和石佛滩摩崖石刻造像三处佛教遗迹,有珍贵的史料价值,对研究西域和中原佛教艺术的融合与交流有着重要的意义。%Jiaozuo City, located at the southern foot of Taihang Mountains in Henan Province, has a long history and deep foundation of Buddhism. During the Northern Wei, Sui and Tang dynasties, here was an important transportation channel between Ping Cheng and Luo Du, Luoyang and Ye Cheng. Its three most famous Buddhist relics, namely the cliff rock inscriptions of Guanyin Scripture in Qingtianhe, the Taiping Temple grottos and cliff rock statues in Xuangu Mountain, the cliff rock inscriptions and statues in Shifo Beach, have significant historical

  9. Quantifying structural controls of rockfall activity on alpine limestone cliffs: a LiDAR-based geological approach in the Wetterstein Mountains, Bavarian Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Benjamin; Krautblatter, Michael

    2016-04-01

    smaller than TLS effective resolution (0.01 to 0.1 m³ at 400 to 800 m range) using an inverse power law function. However, the effect of secondary and primary rockfall on the results is still subject of discussion. Also, locally unique stress fields and the history of local rock slope evolution is an issue. Here we have chosen a well-established test site to (i) systematically analyse the structural geological imprint on rockfall activity in limestone cliffs and (ii) to validate the explanatory power of the incomplete rockfall size coverage of TLS at sites with frequent small fragmental rockfall. Krautblatter, M., Moser, M., Schrott L., Wolf, J. & Morche, D., 2012. Significance of rockfall magnitude and carbonate dissolution for rock slope erosion and geomorphic work on Alpine limestone cliffs (Reintal, German Alps). In: Geomorphology, 167-168: 1-14. DOI:10.1016/j.geomorph.2012.04.007

  10. Rockslide susceptibility and hazard assessment for mitigation works design along vertical rocky cliffs: workflow proposal based on a real case-study conducted in Sacco (Campania), Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignalosa, Antonio; Di Crescenzo, Giuseppe; Marino, Ermanno; Terracciano, Rosario; Santo, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    The work here presented concerns a case study in which a complete multidisciplinary workflow has been applied for an extensive assessment of the rockslide susceptibility and hazard in a common scenario such as a vertical and fractured rocky cliffs. The studied area is located in a high-relief zone in Southern Italy (Sacco, Salerno, Campania), characterized by wide vertical rocky cliffs formed by tectonized thick successions of shallow-water limestones. The study concerned the following phases: a) topographic surveying integrating of 3d laser scanning, photogrammetry and GNSS; b) gelogical surveying, characterization of single instabilities and geomecanichal surveying, conducted by geologists rock climbers; c) processing of 3d data and reconstruction of high resolution geometrical models; d) structural and geomechanical analyses; e) data filing in a GIS-based spatial database; f) geo-statistical and spatial analyses and mapping of the whole set of data; g) 3D rockfall analysis; The main goals of the study have been a) to set-up an investigation method to achieve a complete and thorough characterization of the slope stability conditions and b) to provide a detailed base for an accurate definition of the reinforcement and mitigation systems. For this purposes the most up-to-date methods of field surveying, remote sensing, 3d modelling and geospatial data analysis have been integrated in a systematic workflow, accounting of the economic sustainability of the whole project. A novel integrated approach have been applied both fusing deterministic and statistical surveying methods. This approach enabled to deal with the wide extension of the studied area (near to 200.000 m2), without compromising an high accuracy of the results. The deterministic phase, based on a field characterization of single instabilities and their further analyses on 3d models, has been applied for delineating the peculiarity of each single feature. The statistical approach, based on geostructural

  11. Impacts of mine subsidence on the strata and hydrology of river valleys/management guidelines for undermining cliffs gorges and river systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur Waddington

    2002-06-01

    Prior to commencement of this project, there had been considerable concern about the impacts of mining on creeks and rivers in the Hunter Valley, water storage reservoirs in the Southern Coalfield, escarpments and cliffs in the Southern and Western Coalfields and the Cataract River Gorge, at Tower Colliery. Numerous longwall extractions have already been completed and many more longwalls are planned beneath creeks, river valleys, gorges and clifflines in the NSW Coalfields. Indeed, the topography makes it virtually impossible to avoid such features. All of the current coal mining operations in the Southern Coalfield, and most of those that are planned in future, are taking place in areas of steep topography and are likely to have some impact on creeks, river valleys, gorges, clifflines and associated infrastructure. The research work was undertaken by a multi-disciplinary team included surveys and monitoring of ground movements, geological investigations and hydrological studies, rock classification and testing and in situ stress measurements; numerical modelling and development of numerically based predictive methods; design and construction of a physical scaled model that can be used to illustrate the underlying mechanisms of strata movements for a range of different mining scenarios. This report includes a literature review and comprehensive discussion on the findings that have arisen from the empirical studies, the numerical modelling work and the physical modelling facility. The research work has provided new insights into the mechanisms involved as creeks, river valleys, gorges and clifflines are undermined and has resulted in new methods for the prediction and assessment of subsidence impacts. The final output from the research project will be a management information handbook, to assist coal mining companies that are planning to mine in areas of steep topography.

  12. High Genetic Diversity and Insignificant Interspecific Differentiation in Opisthopappus Shih, an Endangered Cliff Genus Endemic to the Taihang Mountains of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongmin Guo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Opisthopappus Shih is endemic to the Taihang Mountains, China. It grows in the crevice of cliffs and is in fragmented distribution. This genus consists of two species, namely, O. taihangensis (Ling Shih and O. longilobus Shih, which are both endangered plants in China. This study adopted intersimple sequence repeat markers (ISSR to analyze the genetic diversity and genetic structure from different levels (genus, species, and population in this genus. A total of 253 loci were obtained from 27 primers, 230 of which were polymorphic loci with a proportion of polymorphic bands (PPB of up to 90.91% at genus level. At species level, both O. taihangensis (PPB=90.12%, H=0.1842, and I=0.289 and O. longilobus (PPB=95.21%, H=0.2226, and I=0.3542 have high genetic diversity. Their respective genetic variation mostly existed within the population. And genetic variation in O. longilobus (84.95% was higher than that in O. taihangensis (80.45%. A certain genetic differentiation among populations in O. taihangensis was found (Gst=0.2740, Φst=0.196 and genetic differentiation in O. longilobus was very small (Gst=0.1034, Φst=0.151. Gene flow in different degrees (Nm=1.325 and 4.336, resp. and mating system can form the existing genetic structures of these two species. Furthermore, genetic differentiation coefficient (Gst=0.0453 between species and the clustering result based on the genetic distance showed that interspecific differentiation between O. taihangensis and O. longilobus was not significant and could occur lately.

  13. Wildlife and Wildlife Habitat Loss Assessment at Detroit Big Cliff Dam and Reservoir Project, North Santiam River, Oregon, 1985 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noyes, J.H.

    1985-02-01

    A habitat based assessment was conducted of the US Army Corps of Engineers' Detroit/Big Cliff Dam and Reservoir Project (Detroit Project) on the North Santiam River, Oregon, to determine losses or gains resulting from the development and operation of the hydroelectric-related components of the project. Preconstruction, postconstruction, and recent vegetation cover types at the project site were mapped based on aerial photographs from 1939, 1956, and 1979, respectively. Vegetation cover types were identified within the affected area and acreages of each type at each time period were determined. Ten wildlife target species were selected to represent a cross-section of species groups affected by the project. An interagency team evaluated the suitability of the habitat to support the target species at each time period. An evaluation procedure which accounted for both the quantity and quality of habitat was used to aid in assessing impacts resulting from the project. The Detroit Project extensively altered or affected 6324 acres of land and river in the North Santiam River drainage. Impacts to wildlife centered around the loss of 1,608 acres of conifer forest and 620 acres of riparian habitat. Impacts resulting from the Detroit Project included the loss of winter range for black-tailed deer and Roosevelt elk, and the loss of year-round habitat for deer, river otter, beaver, ruffed grouse, pileated woodpecker, spotted owl, and many other wildlife species. Bald eagle and osprey were benefited by an increase in foraging habitat. The potential of the affected area to support wildlife was greatly altered as a result of the Detroit Project. Losses or gains in the potential of the habitat to support wildlife will exist over the life of the project.

  14. A Study on the Main Functional Regions Space Governance to Circumvent the Environment Cliff%主体功能区空间管治规避环境悬崖研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜黎明; 孙晓雅

    2016-01-01

    Environmental cliff is the geographical space, in which the environmental risk accumulates for a long time. As a result, the environmental capacity drops steeply, the environmental issues outbreak, the en⁃vironmental system�s ability of self⁃repairing and self⁃restoring suffers from devastating destruction and the pop⁃ulation carrying capacity of the environment is almost zero. Environmental cliff is the result of long⁃term im⁃proper exploitation and over exploitation in the special space, and its reality is that the regional economic soci⁃ety is unsustainable development. Environmental cliff is the problem of human civilization, the problem of space, also the selection problem of economic and social development model, and it forced the human produc⁃tion and lifestyle to change and the social transformation and development to take place. With the differentiated supply of people's livelihood to guide the population flow and rational behavior choice, with the differentiated land policy to control the type and intensity of the regional economic activity and with the differentiated envi⁃ronmental protection policies to eliminate the existing risk of environmental cliff, the main functional regions'space governance constructs the triune hedging mechanism of environmental cliff, including environmental risk dispersion, the incremental control and stock solution of environmental problem.%环境悬崖是环境风险长时期积累,环境容量陡然下降,环境问题集中爆发,环境系统的自我修复、恢复能力遭受毁灭性破坏,环境的人口承载能力近乎为零的地理空间。环境悬崖是特定空间长时期不当开发、过度开发的结果,现实表现为区域经济社会不可持续发展。环境悬崖是人类的文明问题,也是一个空间问题,还是一个经济社会发展模式选择问题;环境悬崖倒逼人类生产生活方式转变,倒逼社会转型发展。主体功能区空间管治

  15. Excavation of Cliff-side Tombs in Three Gorges Reservoir Construction Area within Fengjie County,Chongqing%重庆奉节县三峡工程库区崖墓的清理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吉林大学边疆考古研究中心

    2004-01-01

    In 1994, 20 cliff-side tombs were excavated at Santang and Tuoban villages in Fengjie County, Chongqing. They are small-sized single-chambered pits mostly with a tomb-passage, a rectangular chamber and, in some cases, a niche, except for Tomb 7 at Tuoban village, which has double passages and double chambers. No coffins were found. The tombs are mostly robbed. The unearthed objects include mainly pottery, and also bronzes, porcelain, iron artifacts and a number of copper coins.The burials belong to five stages: the middle Eastern Han, late Eastern Han, early Shu Han, final years of the Western Jin to the beginning of the Eastern Jin, and the earlier Southern Dynasties period. Between these phases distinct changes are not seen in tomb form, but distinctive features occur in the aspect of funeral objects.

  16. River response to climate and sea level changes during the Late Saalian/Early Eemian in northern Poland - a case study of meandering river deposits in the Chłapowo cliff section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskalewicz, Damian; Sokołowski, Robert J.; Fedorowicz, Stanisław

    2016-03-01

    Fluvial sediments in the Chłapowo cliff section were studied in order to reconstruct their palaeoflow conditions and stratigraphical position. Lithofacies, textural and palaeohydraulic analyses as well as luminescence dating were performed so as to achieve the aim of study. Sedimentary successions were identified as a record of point bar cycles. The fluvial environment probably functioned during the latest Saalian, shortly after the retreat of the Scandinavian Ice Sheet. Discharge outflow was directed to the northwest. The river used the older fluvioglacial valley and probably was directly connected to the Eem Sea. Good preservation and strong aggradation of point-bar cycles were related to a rapid relative base level rise. The meandering river sediments recognised showed responses to climate and sea level changes as illustrated by stratigraphical, morphological and sedimentological features of the strata described. The present study also revealed several insights into proper interpretation of meandering fluvial successions, in which the most important were: specific lithofacies assemblage of GSt (St, Sp) → Sl → SFrc → Fm (SFr) and related architectural elements: channel/sandy bedforms CH/SB → lateral accretion deposits LA → floodplain fines with crevasse splays FF (CS); upward-fining grain size and decreasing content of denser heavy minerals; estimated low-energy flow regime with a mean depth of 1.6-3.3 m, a Froude number of 0.2-0.4 and a sinuosity of 1.5.

  17. River response to climate and sea level changes during the Late Saalian/Early Eemian in northern Poland – a case study of meandering river deposits in the Chłapowo cliff section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moskalewicz Damian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Fluvial sediments in the Chłapowo cliff section were studied in order to reconstruct their palaeoflow conditions and stratigraphical position. Lithofacies, textural and palaeohydraulic analyses as well as luminescence dating were performed so as to achieve the aim of study. Sedimentary successions were identified as a record of point bar cycles. The fluvial environment probably functioned during the latest Saalian, shortly after the retreat of the Scandinavian Ice Sheet. Discharge outflow was directed to the northwest. The river used the older fluvioglacial valley and probably was directly connected to the Eem Sea. Good preservation and strong aggradation of point-bar cycles were related to a rapid relative base level rise. The meandering river sediments recognised showed responses to climate and sea level changes as illustrated by stratigraphical, morphological and sedimentological features of the strata described. The present study also revealed several insights into proper interpretation of meandering fluvial successions, in which the most important were: specific lithofacies assemblage of GSt (St, Sp → Sl → SFrc → Fm (SFr and related architectural elements: channel/sandy bedforms CH/SB → lateral accretion deposits LA → floodplain fines with crevasse splays FF (CS; upward-fining grain size and decreasing content of denser heavy minerals; estimated low-energy flow regime with a mean depth of 1.6–3.3 m, a Froude number of 0.2–0.4 and a sinuosity of 1.5.

  18. A View from the Sea-cliff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Hope Bussey

    Intended for college teachers and students of Anglo-Saxon literature, this paper provides an overview of the sophisticated poetic devices used by the "Beowulf" poet. The paper examines how old English words for color range in hues in a way that modern English words do not, and how these words for color are used in "Beowulf." The paper also…

  19. Nutrientes (K, P, Ca, Na, Mg e Fe) em sedimentos (solos aluviais) e cultivares (feijão e milho) de praias e barrancos de rios de água branca: a bacia do purus no estado do Acre, Brasil Nutrients in sediment (alluvial soils) and cultivates (bean and corn) developed in beaches and cliffs found along loam water: the purus basin in state Acre, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Milta Mariane da Mata Martins; Marcondes Lima da Costa

    2009-01-01

    The present research highlights the macronutrient abundance in the sediments of beaches and cliffs and cultivates in the river Purus and flowing, southwest of Amazon. The concentrations found in leaves and bean seeds and corn leaves reflect the mineralogical and chemical nature of those rich sediments in K2O and Na2O, which are formed by smectite, illite and K-feldspar. The factors of transfer of the elements in the corn leaves and bean (Ca>K>Na) and bean seeds (Na>K>Ca) demonstrate that the ...

  20. (长江下游)废弃采石场石壁植被自然恢复序列及景观重建探索%The Restoration Sequence of Natural Vegetation on the Cliffs of Abandoned Quarries and Study on the Landscape Reconstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    全威; 唐岱; 许晓岗

    2013-01-01

    运用生态演替理论,采用“空间替代时间”的方法,对长江下游地区的15个废弃采石场石壁上的自然植被进行了调查研究.本次调查的植物共有48科94种,其中乔木17科27种,灌木2l科33种,草本24科43种,藤本/攀援植物9科12种.研究的废弃采石场石壁的植被演替开始于裸露岩石,属于原生演替,恢复序列为裸岩→先锋草本群落→草灌群落→简单的复合群落→高级复合群落.在恢复植物景观方面,可以选择一些有观赏价值的优势树种,在演替时间较长的样地中适当增加一些常绿树种.%Ecological succession theory and the technique of bartering space for time were applied in this research,a summary of the data and conclusions in the prophase thesis was made,and some further investigations and analysis of soil nature and vegetation in the cliff of two other quarries located in the lower Yangtze valley were also made.Investigation results are as follows:1.There were 94 species in 48families in this investigation.Among them,arbor accounted for 17 families and 21 species,frutex for 21 families and 33 species,herbage for 24 families and 43 species,and liana for 9 families and 12 species.2.The succession of the cliffs in the abandoned quarries is primary successional sequence and it strated from the bare rocks.The restoration sequence is:Bare Stones→ Pioneer Herbage Communities→Herbage and Shrub Communities→ Simple Compound Communities→ Climax Communities.3.In the area of the plant landscape reconstruction,we can choose dominant tree species which have ornamental value and add some evergreen species in the quarries with the succession for a long time.

  1. The CEO of Novartis on growing after a patent cliff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Joseph

    2012-12-01

    When Joseph Jimenez joined Novartis, in 2007, the company was facing a big challenge: Its blockbuster drug Diovan, which accounted for more than 20% of the pharmaceutical division's revenue, would lose its U.S. patent in 2012. His senior executives had some ideas for offsetting the loss-about 100 of them. From that list they chose three on which to focus: (1) The division invested significantly in testing Afinitor (a treatment for renal cell carcinoma that was nearly ready for market) in breast cancer. (2) It set up Novartis China Commercial University to screen, hire, and train several hundred salespeople for rapid expansion in high-growth markets. (3) It began to transition to an outcomes-based approach to selling medicine by offering to screen patients for responsiveness to new drugs before they're prescribed. Five years later, Jimenez writes, those efforts are beginning to pay off: Revenue is expected to remain stable even as Diovan gives way to generics. PMID:23227577

  2. Funding Survival Toolkit: 3 Fiscal Cliff Myths, Debunked

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    In the face of annual budget deficits, sequestration means automatic, across-the-board spending cuts to all federal agencies. This drastic step allows Congress to limit the size of the budget and gives it the right to make mandatory cuts if the cost of running the government exceeds the cap. On March 1, we all watched as Congress was unable to…

  3. The International Adoption Cliff: Do Child Human Rights Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Bartholet, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    This revised speech characterizes the dramatic decline in international adoption since 2004 as a major child human rights tragedy, deliberately created by governmental and NGO policy-makers. It contrasts U.S. human rights policy imposing sanctions for the violation of adult human rights, to U.S. failure to act in the face of child human rights violations. It calls for a change in U.S. policy that would: (1)Hold countries accountable for the human rights violations inherent in their shutdown...

  4. Golden Peaks and Perilous Cliffs: Rethinking Ohio's Teacher Pension System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costrell, Robert M.; Podgursky, Michael

    2007-01-01

    In response to a journalist inquiry regarding research on funding of Ohio's teacher retirement system and its effect on school district finances, this analysis by the Thomas B. Fordham Institute points to serious questions and profound concerns about the health of Ohio's teacher pension system, and that similar time bombs may be ticking in other…

  5. STEMdex: CliffsNotes for Education and Public Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolone, L.; Nichols-Yehling, M.; Brinkworth, C.; Hurt, R. L.; Llamas, J.; Squires, G. K.; Wenger, M.; Martin, A.

    2014-07-01

    We present a new resource for the astronomy education community, with the goal of improving our community's knowledge and understanding of the educational research pertinent to our work. STEMdex will be a searchable database of summaries of peer-reviewed education papers, written by educators and researchers, and posted for the entire community to use. While we know we should base our EPO work on a solid research foundation, many people have limited time when it comes to staying on top of the literature. STEMdex aims to reduce that workload. Our database will summarize papers across the astronomy education spectrum, including formal and informal education, outreach, pedagogy, evaluation, and other topics.

  6. Cliff nesting raptors of the Kisaralik River, western Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — For three consecutive years (1977 - 79), about 79 km (49 mi) of Alaskan river canyons were surveyed for raptors by helicopter. Occupation of eight breeding...

  7. Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  8. Specificity of learning: why infants fall over a veritable cliff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolph, K E

    2000-07-01

    Nine-month-old infants were tested at the precipice of safe and risky gaps in the surface of support. Their reaching and avoidance responses were compared in two postures, an experienced sitting posture and a less familiar crawling posture. The babies avoided reaching over risky gaps in the sitting posture but fell into risky gaps while attempting to reach in the crawling posture. This dissociation between developmental changes in posture suggests that (a) each postural milestone represents a different, modularly organized control system and (b) infants' adaptive avoidance responses are based on information about their postural stability relative to the gap size. Moreover, the results belie previous accounts suggesting that avoidance of a disparity in depth of the ground surface depends on general knowledge such as fear of heights, associations between depth information and falling, or knowledge that the body cannot be supported in empty space.

  9. The End of an Era...Falling off a Cliff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmuda, Allison

    2010-01-01

    This article is an adaptation of a speech, "Leading the Transformation of Education for the 21st-Century," given by Allison Zmuda at the American Library Association National Conference in Washington D.C. on June 26, 2010, for the American Association of School Librarian's President's Program. In her speech, Allison poses a challenge to school…

  10. CliffsNotes Algebra II QuickReview

    CERN Document Server

    Kohn, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Delivers the appropriate amount of expert coverage on Algebra II topics for consumers who need a supplement to a standard Algebra II text; who need to prepare for exams; or who need to brush up on the fundamentals of Algebra II; Chapter Check-In gives readers an overview of what they'll learn in the chapter; Chapter Check-Out reviews the chapter to enforce the items learned and help with comprehension; Review section is a summary test on all chapter topics in the book -- great tool for teachers and students; Resource Center directs reader to additional information available for the subject suc

  11. Extreme wave run-up on a vertical cliff

    CERN Document Server

    Carbone, Francesco; Dudley, John M; Dias, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Wave impact and run-up onto vertical obstacles are among the most important phenomena which must be taken into account in the design of coastal structures. From linear wave theory, we know that the wave amplitude on a vertical wall is twice the incident wave amplitude with weakly nonlinear theories bringing small corrections to this result. In this present study, however, we show that certain simple wave groups may produce much higher run-ups than previously predicted, with particular incident wave frequencies resulting in run up heights exceeding the initial wave amplitude by a factor of 5, suggesting that the notion of the design wave used in coastal structure design may need to be revisited. The results presented in this study can be considered as a note of caution for practitioners, on one side, and as a challenging novel material for theoreticians who work in the field of extreme wave - coastal structure interaction.

  12. 76 FR 4391 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC, Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... reactors,'' requires, among other items, that `` ach boiling or pressurized light-water nuclear power... 50, Appendix K, make no provisions for use of fuel rods clad in a material other than zircaloy or... licensee requested an exemption in order to use M5 advanced alloy for fuel rod cladding and other...

  13. 赤壁之战与电影《赤壁》%The Battle of Red Cliffs & the Movie of "Red Cliffs"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈伯俊

    2008-01-01

    本文综合史料,概述了历史上的赤壁之战的几个主要问题.在此基础上,对电影,肯定其为观众提供视觉大餐的成绩和传播中华传统文化的努力;对其在理解历史的高度、人物性格把握、情节设置等方面存在的若干缺陷,则予以实事求是的评析.

  14. Is Managing Academics "Women's Work"? Exploring the Glass Cliff in Higher Education Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Sweden is among the countries with the highest per cent of women university Vice Chancellors in Europe. In "She Figures 2012" the average proportion of female Vice Chancellors in the 27 European Union countries is estimated to be 10 per cent. In Sweden the number is much higher: 43 per cent. Swedish higher education management has…

  15. Comparative study of static and dynamic parameters of rock for the Xishan Rock Cliff Statue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin JIANG; Jin-zhong SUN

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasonic wave testing was applied to investigate the quality and weathering status of rock specimens obtained in two borings situated in the Xishan Buddha rock slope in Taiyuan,China.This paper pays special attention to the distribution of bulk density,dynamic parameters and static parameters of rock specimens as well as the relationship between static and dynamic parameters.The results illustrate that the distribution of both parameters is identical along the depth of two drilled holes in the rock slope.When the hole depth increases,the density of rock mass,saturated compression strength and static elastic modulus,dynamic elastic modulus and wave velocity also show increase tendency.The weathering degree in the rock mass ranging from the surface of cliffto the depth of 2.5 m is the highest while the rock mass is unsalted and more rigid when the depth is larger than 3.0 m.The relationship between dynamic elastic modulus,sonic wave velocity and horizontal depth indicates that dynamic elastic modulus is more sensitive than sonic wave velocity.Conversely,by comparing quantity relationship between static elastic modulus and sonic wave velocity,it is found that the composition of rock has a great influence on the relationship between static and dynamic parameters,that is,inequality of rock composition will lead to dispersion and abnormality of the distribution of static and dynamic parameters.

  16. Insights on WWW-based geoscience teaching: Climbing the first year learning cliff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberson, Michelle N.; Johnson, Mark; Bevier, Mary Lou; Russell, J. Kelly

    1997-06-01

    In early 1995, The University of British Columbia Department of Geological Sciences (now Earth and Ocean Sciences) initiated a project that explored the effectiveness of the World Wide Web as a teaching and learning medium. Four decisions made at the onset of the project have guided the department's educational technology plan: (1) over 90% of funding recieved from educational technology grants was committed towards personnel; (2) materials developed are modular in design; (3) a data-base approach was taken to resource development; and (4) a strong commitment to student involvement in courseware development. The project comprised development of a web site for an existing core course: Geology 202, Introduction to Petrology. The web site is a gateway to course information, content, resources, exercises, and several searchable data-bases (images, petrologic definitions, and minerals in thin section). Material was developed on either an IBM or UNIX machine, ported to a UNIX platform, and is accessed using the Netscape browser. The resources consist primarily of HTML files or CGI scripts with associated text, images, sound, digital movies, and animations. Students access the web site from the departmental student computer facility, from home or a computer station in the petrology laboratory. Results of a survey of the Geol 202 students indicate that they found the majority of the resources useful, and the site is being expanded. The Geology 202 project had a "trickle-up" effect throughout the department: prior to this project, there was minimal use of Internet resources in lower-level geology courses. By the end of the 1996-1997 academic year, we anticipate that at least 17 Earth and Ocean Science courses will have a WWW site for one or all of the following uses: (1) presenting basic information; (2) accessing lecture images; (3) providing a jumping-off point for exploring related WWW sites; (4) conducting on-line exercises; and/or (5) providing a communications forum for students and faculty via a Hypernews group. Url http://www.science.ubc.ca/

  17. Beyond the Glass Ceiling : The Glass Cliff and Its Lessons for Organizational Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruckmueller, Susanne; Ryan, Michelle K.; Rink, Floor; Haslam, S. Alexander

    2014-01-01

    It has been almost 30 years since the metaphor of the glass ceiling was coined to describe the often subtle, but very real, barriers that women face as they try to climb the organizational hierarchy. Here we review evidence for a relatively new form of gender discriminationcaptured by the metaphor o

  18. Stability analysis of waterfall cliff face at Niagara Falls: An implication to erosional mechanism of waterfall

    OpenAIRE

    Hayakawa, Yuichi S.; Matsukura, Yukinori

    2010-01-01

    Although recession of waterfalls or knickpoints in bedrock rivers is a common geomorphological process, detailed mechanics of waterfall recession has only been examined in a few cases. Caprock recession model at Niagara Falls, in which gravitational collapse of caprock induced by undercutting notch plays a significant role, has been one of the well-known models describing the waterfall erosion, but the validity of the model has hardly been examined in a quantitative context. Here we assess th...

  19. Beyond the cliff of creativity: a novel key to Bipolar Disorder and creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardiello, Luciana; Fornaro, Pantaleo

    2013-05-01

    How brain processes translate into creativity is still an unsolved puzzle in science. Although a number of conceptual models of creativity has been proposed to date, the exact nature of the process is still unknown. Recent findings support the idea that creativity may reside upon a continuum with psychopathology. If creativity is meant as "the capability of generating novel and appropriate ideas to solve problems", the missing pieces of the puzzle might be nested in the link between creativity and Bipolar Disorder. The existence of such a link is widely accepted by the Scientific Community. What still remains unknown is the nature of this link. An unconventional perspective is adopted during the investigation. Starting from the observation that depression in Bipolar Disorder might possibly trace back to ancient survival strategies in extreme climatic conditions - i.e. hibernation - the paper analyses old and recent findings in different disciplines: paleo-anthropology, information technology, neurobiology. Hints from the related research fields are linked together. The unified framework that emerges, still as a set of hypotheses, is reported in the conclusions. A novel key of interpretation of both creativity and Bipolar Disorder is thus provided. The core result is that normal people, creative individuals and patients affected by Bipolar Disorder share the same mind mechanism for problem-solving. The mechanism consists of two specific components, which are described in detail in the paper. Dysfunctions in brain myelination, making signal interference possible, hold a big role. The conclusions of the paper are in agreement with reports by patients affected by Bipolar Disorder concerning their subjective experience during mania, which is traditionally described as prone to creativity. To make readers aware of such an experience, a synthesis was elaborated by the first author, in the unusual shape of a short story. The short story is the narrative version of a real diary of a real patient, tutored by the second author. The short story is available to readers on request. PMID:23452643

  20. Devonian lacustrine shore zone architecture: giving perspective to cliff exposures with ground penetrating radar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrews, Steven D.; Moreau, Julien; Archer, Stuart

    Lake margin sedimentary systems have been the subject of only limited study. The orbitally controlled cyclic lacustrine successions of the Middle Old Red Sandstone of Northern Scotland contains repeated developments of shore zone sandstones and thus provides an ideal location for the study of the...

  1. Patent cliff and strategic switch: exploring strategic design possibilities in the pharmaceutical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chie Hoon; Han, Jeung-Whan

    2016-01-01

    Extending the period of the market exclusivity and responding properly to the recent agglomeration of patent expiries are pivotal to the success of pharmaceutical companies. Declining R&D productivity, rising costs of commercialization, near-term patent expirations for many top-selling drugs are forcing companies to adopt new systems to introduce innovative products to market and to focus on strategies that increase the returns from the existing product portfolio. This systematic review explores various strategic and tactical management approaches by synthesizing the relevant literature and practical examples on patent expiration strategies. It further discusses how the mix of competition policies and strategic instruments can be used to maintain declining revenue streams from the blockbuster business model of the pharmaceutical industry. The review provides a comprehensive overview of the research on various strategies, offers both theoretical and practical guidelines for strategy transformation that companies can use to prolong the market exclusivity, and identifies knowledge gaps that needed to be addressed in order to improve efficiency in policy design. PMID:27347468

  2. Rationalization of Activity Cliffs of a Sulfonamide Inhibitor of DNA Methyltransferases with Induced-Fit Docking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L. Medina-Franco

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Inhibitors of human DNA methyltransferases (DNMT are of increasing interest to develop novel epi-drugs for the treatment of cancer and other diseases. As the number of compounds with reported DNMT inhibition is increasing, molecular docking is shedding light to elucidate their mechanism of action and further interpret structure–activity relationships. Herein, we present a structure-based rationalization of the activity of SW155246, a distinct sulfonamide compound recently reported as an inhibitor of human DNMT1 obtained from high-throughput screening. We used flexible and induce-fit docking to develop a binding model of SW155246 with a crystallographic structure of human DNMT1. Results were in excellent agreement with experimental information providing a three-dimensional structural interpretation of ‘activity cliffs’, e.g., analogues of SW155246 with a high structural similarity to the sulfonamide compound, but with no activity in the enzymatic assay.

  3. Radiation exposure management systems at Baltimore Gas and Electric`s Clavert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stallings, G.B. [Baltimore Gas and Electric Co., Lusby, MD (United States). Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant; Fletcher, R.J. [Siemens Environmental Systems Ltd. (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-31

    This paper documents how BGE has moved from traditional passive dosimetry methods to using the latest electronic systems supported by fully computerized access control and dose record management. One of the cornerstones of these developments is the Electronic Personal Dosemeter (EPD), manufactured by Siemens in the UK. (author).

  4. A survey for cliff-nesting birds of prey along the Noatak River, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The primary objective of the study was to locate peregrine falcon nesting sites and to locate nest sites of other raptor species and assess their location in...

  5. Young Guillemots (Uria lomvia) Leaving Their Arctic Breeding Cliffs : A Daily Rhythm in Numbers and Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daan, Serge; Tinbergen, Joost

    1979-01-01

    At three weeks of age young Brunnichs' Guillemots (Uria lomvia) jump from their breeding ledges to reach the sea. Some don't glide far enough and drop on the slopes under the colony. These birds struggle on down the slope on foot and are especially vulnerable to predation at this time. The circadian

  6. Antarctic Mirabilite Mounds as Mars Analogs: The Lewis Cliffs Ice Tongue Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socki, Richard A.; Sun, Tao; Niles, Paul B.; Harvey, Ralph P.; Bish, David L.; Tonui, Eric

    2012-01-01

    It has been proposed, based on geomorphic and geochemical arguments, that subsurface water has played an important role in the history of water on the planet Mars [1]. Subsurface water, if present, could provide a protected and long lived environment for potential life. Discovery of gullies [2] and recurring slopes [3] on Mars suggest the potential for subsurface liquid water or brines. Recent attention has also focused on small (Tongue (LCIT) [6] in the Transantarctic Mountains, Antarctica, and are potential terrestrial analogs for mounds observed on the martian surface. The following characteristics distinguish LCIT evaporite mounds from other evaporite mounds found in Antarctic coastal environments and/or the McMurdo Dry Valleys: (1) much greater distance from the open ocean (approx.500 km); (2) higher elevation (approx.2200 meters); and (3) colder average annual temperature (average annual temperature = -30 C for LCIT [7] vs. 20 C at sea level in the McMurdo region [8]. Furthermore, the recent detection of subsurface water ice (inferred as debris-covered glacial ice) by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter [9] supports the use of an Antarctic glacial environment, particularly with respect to the mirabilite deposits described in this work, as an ideal terrestrial analog for understanding the geochemistry associated with near-surface martian processes. S and O isotopic compositions.

  7. Walking the Cliff's Edge: The "New Nation's" Rhetoric of Resistance in Apartheid South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabold, Bryan

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the rhetoric of resistance used by South African anti-apartheid journalists to expose the links between the apartheid government and death squads. By utilizing allusions, repetition, and a concept I refer to as "subversive enthymemes," these journalists managed to reveal publicly information about death squad activity in a…

  8. Coastal archaeological heritage in relation to geomorphology of cliffs, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mascarenhas, A.

    -made heritage that offers immense tourism potential is of primary concern. This aspect needs due consideration. Multiple uses of the coastal zone triggers competition and conflicts among human uses. Another aspect of discord is the antagonism between...

  9. Confessions of a Communications Junkie: Cliff Notes From the Science-Practice Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, S. C.

    2006-12-01

    Graduate education in the sciences is - among other things - about learning a foreign language. Proficiency in disciplinary jargon and a strange sort of eloquence in speaking English without being understood by anyone outside one's small 'country of expertise' are among the requirements for entry into academe. Until very recently, the ability to translate one's quirky knowledge back into common language was not part of entraining scientists. Yet, increasingly, the interested public, policy-makers and resource managers, not to speak of science funders, demand that scientists illustrate that their science has societal relevance. Moreover, the urgency of several complex societal and environmental problems puts the onus on scientists to work with experts in other disciplines. This means that the ability to communicate effectively with those outside one's own disciplinary home is rapidly becoming an essential qualification of a 'good' scientist. My own journey from a disciplinary boundary crosser, to hobby communicator, to professional translator of science into English, to alumnae of various media trainings and Aldo Leopold Leadership Fellow, to researcher of the science-practice interface and expert in communication for social change will form the basis of this talk. It weaves together personal experience with scientific insights on why scientists should, why many don't, and how they could interact more effectively with members of a 'different tribe.'

  10. Are fractured cliffs the source of cometary dust jets ? Insights from OSIRIS/Rosetta at 67P

    CERN Document Server

    Vincent, J -B; Pajola, M; Höfner, S; Sierks, H; Hu, X; Barbieri, C; Lamy, P L; Rodrigo, R; Koschny, D; Rickman, H; Keller, H U; A'Hearn, M F; Barucci, M A; Bertaux, J -L; Bertini, I; Besse, S; Bodewits, D; Cremonese, G; Da Deppo, V; Davidsson, B; Debei, S; De Cecco, M; El-Maarry, M R; Fornasier, S; Fulle, M; Groussin, O; Gutiérrez, P J; Gutiérrez-Marquez, P; Güttler, C; Hofmann, M; Hviid, S F; Ip, W -H; Jorda, L; Knollenberg, J; Kovacs, G; Kramm, J -R; Kührt, E; Küppers, M; Lara, L M; Lazzarin, M; Lin, Z -Y; Lowry, S; Marzari, F; Massironi, M; Moreno, F; Mottola, S; Naletto, G; Preusker, F; Scholten, F; Shi, X; Thomas, N; Toth, I; Tubiana, C

    2015-01-01

    Dust jets, i.e. fuzzy collimated streams of cometary material arising from the nucleus, have been observed in-situ on all comets since the Giotto mission flew by comet 1P/Halley in 1986. Yet their formation mechanism remains unknown. Several solutions have been proposed, from localized physical mechanisms on the surface/sub-surface (see review in Belton (2010)) to purely dynamical processes involving the focusing of gas flows by the local topography (Crifo et al. 2002). While the latter seems to be responsible for the larger features, high resolution imagery has shown that broad streams are composed of many smaller features (a few meters wide) that connect directly to the nucleus surface. We monitored these jets at high resolution and over several months to understand what are the physical processes driving their formation, and how this affects the surface. Using many images of the same areas with different viewing angles, we performed a 3-dimensional reconstruction of collimated jets, and linked them precise...

  11. Comparative genetic structure between Sedum ussuriense and S. kamtschaticum (Crassulaceae), two stonecrops co-occurring on rocky cliffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Mi Yoon; López-Pujol, Jordi; Chung, Myong Gi

    2014-06-01

    • Premise of the study: Geographic isolation due to discontinuities of suitable habitat may have significant effects on the genetic structure of plant populations. Even within a few kilometers, physical barriers to gene flow may lead to considerable genetic differentiation among populations.• Methods: Sedum ussuriense is a boreal species that in Korea occurs only in four valleys separated by mountain ranges in Juwangsan National Park and its vicinity (a range of ∼15 km). Its congener S. kamtschaticum, by contrast, co-occurs in the four valleys but also on the intervening mountains. Using 12 allozyme loci, we comparatively assessed genetic variability and structure in 12 population pairs of the two stonecrops.• Key results: While we found high and comparable levels of within-population genetic variation for the two species, among-population divergence was significantly higher in S. ussuriense (FST = 0.261 vs. FST = 0.165). Sedum ussuriense also showed a much higher percentage of among-valley variation (19%) than S. kamtschaticum (4%).• Conclusions: High levels of genetic diversity in the two Sedum species are consistent with the previous hypothesis that mountains of the Korean Peninsula served as glacial refugia for many boreal species. Given that the two congeners have similar life-history traits, the lower among-population differentiation in S. kamtschaticum is attributable to its higher abundance and more continuous distribution in the study area. This study confirms the central role of geographic isolation in the genetic structure of plant species even at very small scales. PMID:24907251

  12. Cliff and Rocky may not have won the Grand Challenge, but they out-performed peer competitors

    OpenAIRE

    Crumbley, Liz

    2005-01-01

    The official results of the DARPA Grand Challenge autonomous vehicle race through the Mojave Desert are in and, although the two Virginia Tech vehicles did not win the $2 million prize or even complete the 132-mile course, they out-performed all other vehicles developed by purely academic teams.

  13. Cliffs Minerals, Inc. Eastern Gas Shales Project, Ohio No. 6 series: Gallia County. Phase II report. Preliminary laboratory results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-01

    The US Department of Energy is funding a research and development program entitled the Eastern Gas Shales Project designed to increase commercial production of natural gas in the eastern United States from Middle and Upper Devonian Shales. On September 28, 1978 the Department of Energy entered into a cooperative agreement with Mitchell Energy Corporation to explore Devonian shale gas potential in Gallia County, Ohio. Objectives of the cost-sharing contract were the following: (1) to select locations for a series of five wells to be drilled around the periphery of a possible gas reservoir in Gallia County, Ohio; (2) to drill, core, log, case, fracture, clean up, and test each well, and to monitor production from the wells for a five-year period. This report summarizes the procedures and results of core characterization work performed at the Eastern Gas Shales Project Core Laboratory on core retrieved from the Gallia County EGSP wells, designated OH No. 6/1, OH No. 6/2, OH No. 6/3, OH No. 6/4, and OH No. 6/5. Characterization work performed includes photographic logs, fracture logs, measurements of core color variation, and stratigraphic interpretation of the cored intervals. In addition the following tests were performed by Michigan Technological University to obtain the following data: directional ultrasonic velocity; directional tensile strength, strength in point load; trends of microfractures; and hydraulic fracturing characteristics.

  14. A Fiscal Cliff: The Current U.S. Federal Budget, Potential Cuts, and Impacts on Science Funding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlenbrock, K. M.; Landau, E. A.; Hankin, E. R.

    2012-12-01

    As lawmakers on Capitol Hill face challenges to reach an agreement on how to cut the deficit while growing the economy, scientists must join the discussion and outline the serious impacts cuts to federal science programs will have on our society. Consistent and sustained federal science funding (discretionary spending) is an ever increasing struggle with the rising costs of mandatory spending and decrease in revenues. In 2011 Congress passed the Budget Control Act, which will require automatic across-the-board cuts, known as sequestration, and will take effect on 2 January 2013. Estimated cuts of $1.2 trillion and discretionary spending caps set at Fiscal Year 2012 levels will trigger non-defense program cuts of 9.8% in the first year as reported by the Congressional Research Service. Funding from non-defense program agencies such as NSF, NASA, DOE, NOAA, USGS, and others drive science and technological innovation, support public safety, create jobs, educate generations of scientists, stimulate the economy, protect our environment, and enrich lives. With non-defense discretionary programs representing less than one-fifth of the federal budget, severe cuts to these programs will not alleviate our deficit, but instead restrict our growth.

  15. 76 FR 81994 - UniStar Nuclear Energy; Combined License Application for Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... Commission (NRC or the Commission ) a Combined License (COL) Application for a single unit of AREVA NP's U.S... Calvert County, Maryland. The CCNPP3 COL application incorporates by reference AREVA NP's application for a Standard Design Certification for the U.S. EPR. The NRC docketed the CCNPP3 COL application...

  16. Evolution of Feature-­Oriented Software: How to Stay on Course and Avoid the Cliffs of Modularity Drift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olszak, Andrzej; Lazarova-Molnar, Sanja; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2014-01-01

    With time software systems easily become obsolete if not updated to reflect the ever-changing needs of their users. This update process is far from trivial as each feature is not necessarily captured by a single module, but rather scattered across a number of different modules. The situation is f...

  17. 3-D Surface Visualization of pH Titration "Topos": Equivalence Point Cliffs, Dilution Ramps, and Buffer Plateaus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Garon C.; Hossain, Md Mainul; MacCarthy, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    3-D topographic surfaces ("topos") can be generated to visualize how pH behaves during titration and dilution procedures. The surfaces are constructed by plotting computed pH values above a composition grid with volume of base added in one direction and overall system dilution on the other. What emerge are surface features that…

  18. Synergic use of satellite and ground based remote sensing methods for monitoring the San Leo rock cliff (Northern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frodella, William; Ciampalini, Andrea; Gigli, Giovanni; Lombardi, Luca; Raspini, Federico; Nocentini, Massimiliano; Scardigli, Cosimo; Casagli, Nicola

    2016-07-01

    The historic town of San Leo (Emilia Romagna Region, northern Italy) is located on top of an isolated rock massif above the Marecchia River valley hillside. On February 27th 2014, a northeastern sector of the massif collapsed; minor structural damages were reported in the town and a few buildings were evacuated as a precautionary measure. Although no fatalities occurred and the San Leo cultural heritage suffered no damage, minor rock fall events kept taking place on the newly formed rock wall, worsening this hazardous situation. In this framework, a monitoring system based on remote sensing techniques, such as radar interferometry (both spaceborne and ground-based) and terrestrial laser scanning, was planned in order to monitor the ground deformation of the investigated area and to evaluate the residual risk. In this paper the main outlines of a 1-year monitoring activity are described, including a pre-event analysis of possible landslide precursors and a post-event analysis of the displacements of both the collapse-affected rock wall sector and the rock fall deposits.

  19. Lherzolitic Martian meteorites Allan Hills 77005, Lewis Cliff 88516 and Yamato-793605: Major and minor element zoning in pyroxene and plagioclase glass

    OpenAIRE

    Mikouch,Takashi/Miyamoto,Masamichi

    2000-01-01

    Three lherzolitic Martian meteorites (ALH77005,LEW88516 and Y-793605) show very similar petrography and mineralogy. They consist of the poikilitic and non-poikilitic (interstitial) areas that are heterogeneous on a cm-scale. A detailed electron microprobe analysis of pyroxene and plagioclase glass from these meteorites gives characteristic distributions of major and minor elements. It is striking that pyroxene and plagioclase glass in all three meteorites have nearly identical zoning patterns...

  20. Isopachs of the interval between the top of the Huerfanito Bentonite Bed and the top of the Pictured Cliffs Sandstone, San Juan Basin (sjbhintg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This shapefile and coverage depicts the thickness of the interval between the top of the Huerfanito Bentonite bed in the Lewis Shale and the top of the Pictured...

  1. SENİHA: A YOUNG GIRL ROLLING DOWN THE CLIFF SENİHA: UÇURUMUN DİBİNE YUVARLANAN BİR GENÇ KIZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin YAŞAR

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Kiralık Konak is the work of Yakup Kadri in which he intensively deals with westernization phenomenon. In the work, the destruction that the phenomenon causes in the society and family is attributed to the mansion of Naim Efendi, who symbolizes the tradition and the oldness, and Seniha‟s personality, who represents “malicious European style”. The way that European cultural values, which begin to affect the country with the Ottoman Reform Movement, are reflected to the protagonist Seniha and her friends are remarkable. Seniha is the 1920s version of the European style types who misunderstand the westernization. A lot of studies have been conducted on analysis of Seniha‟s actions. In this study, rather than the analysis, the reasons that have driven the heroine to have a European style have been examined in detail and holistic conclusions have been reached. Kiralık Konak, Yakup Kadri‟nin batılılaşma olgusunu en yoğun olarak işlediği yapıtıdır. Yapıtta bu olgunun toplumda ve ailede oluşturduğu yıkıntı, geleneği ve eskiyi temsil eden Naim Efendi‟nin konağına ve „hain alafrangalık‟ı simgeleyen Seniha‟nın şahsınaindirgenir. Tanzimat ile beraber ülkeye girmeye başlayan Avrupai kültür göstergelerinin romanın protagonisti Seniha‟nın ve arkadaş çevresine yansıma biçimi dikkatlere sunulur. Seniha, batılılaşmayı yanlış algılayan alafranga tiplerin bin dokuz yüz yirmilerdeki sürümüdür. Seniha‟nın edimlerinin tespitine yönelik birçok araştırma yapılmıştır. Bu çalışmada, tespitten öte kahramanı „alafrangalılık‟a iten sebepler detaylı bir biçimde irdelenerek bütünsel sonuçlara varılmıştır.

  2. Models for the distribution of quaking aspen in geographic and potential evapotranspiration spaces relevant to the Book Cliffs (Utah), 2000-2002

    OpenAIRE

    Sexton, Joseph O.

    2003-01-01

    Quaking aspen is the most widely distributed tree species in North America and an asset to sociological, ecological, and hydrological land values in the western United States. In recognition of these values, land managers seek means to oppose a regional decline of aspen in the Intermountain West—a decline apparently in progress since the close of the Pleistocene and driven by climate change, fire suppression, and increasing ungulate densities. One location of special relevance to this decline...

  3. 78 FR 33121 - Staff Requirements-SECY-12-0168-Calvert Cliffs 3 Nuclear Project, LLC & UniStar Nuclear Operating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ... in their comment submission. Your request should state that the NRC does not routinely edit comment... is likely due to the increased globalization of economic activity and associated added complexity of... government. Moreover, the NRC may not, in any event, issue a license to any person within the United...

  4. 攀岩力量训练方法初探%The Methods of Strength Exercises in the Cliff- Climbing sports

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶磊; 廖志刚; 邓毅洲

    2003-01-01

    通过文献资料法研究和探讨了攀岩运动力量训练的方法,指出在力量训练的过程中应紧密结合攀岩运动的实际需要,循序渐进,有所针对的采取各种有效手缎,在训练的过程中要不断追求肌力与体重的最大比例,并提出几点建议.

  5. Isopachs of the combined thickness of the Calico and A-sequences of the Straight Cliffs Formation in the Kaiparowits Plateau study area, southern Utah (kjhthk*g)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a polygon coverage of isopachs of the combined thickness of the Calico and A-sequences in the Kaiparowits Plateau study area. The outside polygon defines...

  6. May 2002 Lidar Point Data of Southern California Coastline: Dana Point to Point La Jolla

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains lidar point data from a strip of Southern California coastline (including water, beach, cliffs, and top of cliffs) from Dana Point to Point...

  7. April 2004 Lidar Point Data of Southern California Coastline: Dana Point to Point La Jolla

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains lidar point data (Geodetic Coordinates) from a strip of Southern California coastline (including water, beach, cliffs, and top of cliffs)...

  8. March 2006 Lidar Point Data of Southern California Coastline: Long Beach to US/Mexican Border

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains lidar point data (Geodetic Coordinates) from a strip of Southern California coastline (including water, beach, cliffs, and top of cliffs)...

  9. December 2002 Lidar Point Data of Southern California Coastline: Dana Point to Point La Jolla

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains lidar point data (latitude and longitude) from a strip of Southern California coastline (including water, beach, cliffs, and top of cliffs)...

  10. April 2005 Lidar Point Data of Southern California Coastline: Long Beach to US/Mexican Border

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains lidar point data (latitude/longitude) from a strip of Southern California coastline (including water, beach, cliffs, and top of cliffs) from...

  11. September 2002 Lidar Point Data of Southern California Coastline: Dana Point to Point La Jolla

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains lidar point data from a strip of Southern California coastline (including water, beach, cliffs, and top of cliffs) from Dana Point to Point...

  12. October 2003 Lidar Point Data of Southern California Coastline: Newport Beach to US/Mexican Border

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains lidar point data (Geodetic Coordinates) from a strip of Southern California coastline (including water, beach, cliffs, and top of cliffs)...

  13. March 2003 Lidar Point Data of Southern California Coastline: Dana Point to Point La Jolla

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains lidar point data (Geodetic Coordinates) from a strip of Southern California coastline (including water, beach, cliffs, and top of cliffs)...

  14. 我国医药企业对专利悬崖期的药品仿制策略初探%Preliminary study on strategy of generics during patent cliff in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申团结; 黄泰康

    2014-01-01

    专利悬崖期的到来为我国医药企业带来了巨大的商机,与此同时,我国医药企业也将面临更多关于仿制技术、市场占有竞争、市场话语权以及多项或者后续专利的潜在风险等方面的挑战.本文结合国内企业实际情况及市场状况,对如何应对专利悬崖期的问题与策略进行了探讨,提出了系统制定仿制计划,抢占时间制高点的建议,从研发、生产以及营销环节的整合和协调着手,提供了我国医药企业在针对专利悬崖期的药品仿制各个环节的应对策略.

  15. Probing into Side-cliff Craze Weld Repair Craft of 395B Shovel%395B铲斗侧壁开裂焊接修复工艺的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫明; 乔宝元

    2005-01-01

    针对铲斗侧壁开裂原因进行分析,并确定了修复方案.详细介绍了焊接过程中的焊接工艺和要求,从而为铲斗的开裂修复提供了宝贵的经验和数据,具有一定经济效益.

  16. 简析西汉崖洞墓的防盗设施%A preliminary investigation of anti-robbery establishments in the cliff tombs of the West Han Dynasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵赟

    2009-01-01

    汉代王陵防盗设施形式多样,较为全面.本文根据已公布的考古资料,结合历史文献对已发掘的西汉崖洞墓防盗设施略作探讨,以展见西汉诸侯王对墓葬修建的重视.

  17. Integrative Paths to the Past: Paleoanthropological Advances in Honor of F. Clark Howell, edited by Robert S. Corrnccini and Russell L. Ciochon, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1994.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela R. Willoughby

    1995-11-01

    Full Text Available F. Clark Howell retired from the faculty of the University of California at Berkeley in 1991. At Berkeley, and earlier while at the University of Chicago, he was responsible for training a number of specialists in human biocultural evolution, or palaeoanthropology. In fact, Howell is credited with developing the concept of palaeoanthropology (and defining the term itself; he certainly created the framework for this integrated, multi-disciplinary approach to human evolution. For his retirement, former students and colleagues collaborated to produce this volume. Some of the papers were presented at a one day symposium reviewing the highlights of Howell's career along with current research directions in palaeoanthropology. It took place during the annual meeting of the American Anthropological Association held in San Francisco in 1992. Bowell's long time colleague J. Desmond Clark gave the distinguished lecture at the same meeting. During his career, Howell directed excavations at Isimilain Tanzania, as well as Torralba and Ambrona in Spain (all extensive Acheulean localities, but is best known for his work west of the Omo River in southern Ethiopia. It was there during the 1960s and 1970s that he developed the methods and approaches which would come to characterize the best of palaeoanthropological research.

  18. 清代龙袍上海水山崖纹的特征及其演变规律%Characteristics and evolution of wave-cliff patterns on dragon robes during Qing dynasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丹丹; 梁惠娥; 邢乐

    2014-01-01

    海水山崖纹作为显示古代王宫贵族地位的一种重要符号,被广泛应用在清代龙袍上.为进一步丰富清代服饰纹样的研究,并为服饰文物的断代提供一定的依据,通过对清代各个时期龙袍资料的整理与分析,阐述了清代龙袍上海水山崖纹所具有的特征.并通过对海水山崖纹各个细节进行统计与归纳,总结了清代龙袍上海水山崖纹在演变过程中呈现的规律.研究发现,随着时间的变化,清代龙袍上的海水山崖纹样大致呈现出,由早期朴素简约到中期华贵富丽,最终趋于精细规整的规律.

  19. 续貂并非皆狗尾——电影《赤壁》剀谈%The Renewed Sables Are Not All the Dog Tails——Analysis of the Movie Red Cliff

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何婧雅; 谢丽娟

    2010-01-01

    电影既是一部商业电影,也是一部特殊的续作.它以独特的影视方式,对既为历史真实的赤壁大战,又作为中描写得最为出色的"赤壁大战"进行了全新的阐释与解读.既有商业大片本身所追求的娱乐性,也不乏从"三国题材"本身所挖掘的众多新内蕴.在"三国"系列中,该片应该占有一席之地.

  20. 76 FR 31977 - Public Land Order No. 7768; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6861; Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ... necessary to continue protection of Rattler Gulch Limestone Cliffs Area of Critical Environmental Concern... Gulch Limestone Cliffs Area of Critical ] Environmental Concern. The withdrawal extended by this order... Rattler Gulch Limestone Cliffs Area of Critical Environmental Concern, is hereby extended for...

  1. Social resources at a time of crisis : How gender stereotypes inform gendered leader evaluations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rink, Floor; Ryan, Michelle K.; Stoker, Janka I.

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that women are more likely than men to be selected for leadership positions when organizations are in a performance crisis, a phenomenon labeled the glass cliff. Two scenario studies demonstrate that the glass-cliff effect is attenuated when organizational stakeholders support the

  2. An Uncommon Cottage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Scott

    2008-01-01

    This article features the Cliffs Cottage, a "showcase home" at Furman University which demonstrates the use of green technology in residential building and teaches about sustainability. Custom-built for the shelter-magazine dreams of "Southern Living," a sponsor of the home, the house seems better suited for a tony subdivision. The Cliffs Cottage…

  3. Wildlife Species, RockyMountainElk-This dataset represents Rocky Mountain elk use areas in Utah as determined by wildlife biologists during 2001. With an update from the Book Cliffs in 2003. A maintenance update January 2004., Published in 2004, 1:100000 (1in=8333ft) scale, State of Utah Automated Geographic Reference Center.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Wildlife Species dataset, published at 1:100000 (1in=8333ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Observation information as of 2004. It is described...

  4. Disentangle plume-induced anisotropy in the velocity field in buoyancy-driven turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Quan

    2011-01-01

    We present a method of disentangling the anisotropies produced by the cliff structures in turbulent velocity field and test it in the system of turbulent Rayleigh-B\\'{e}nard (RB) convection. It is found that in the RB system the cliff structures in the velocity field are generated by thermal plumes. These cliff structures induce asymmetry in the velocity increments, which leads us to consider the plus and minus velocity structure functions (VSF). The plus velocity increments exclude cliff structures, while the minus ones include them. Our results show that the scaling exponents of the plus VSFs are in excellent agreement with those predicted for homogeneous and isotropic turbulence (HIT), whereas those of the minus VSFs exhibit significant deviations from HIT expectations in places where thermal plumes abound. These results demonstrate that plus and minus VSFs can be used to quantitatively study the effect of cliff structures in the velocity field and to effectively disentangle the associated anisotropies cau...

  5. 75 FR 38169 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment and Request for Public Scoping Comments...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... sensitive park resources, Tribal concerns, and tourism patterns. The FAA and NPS are now inviting the public... Mexico State University Library. Painted Cliffs Welcome Center. Painted Desert Visitor Center....

  6. Plaadid / Heidi Purga

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Purga, Heidy, 1975-

    2006-01-01

    Uutest heliplaatidest Gwen Stefani "The Sweet Escape", Errors "How Clean Is Your Acid House?", Cliff Richard "Two's Company", Jay-Z "Kingdom Come", Incubus "Light Grenades", Pogo Kreiner & Vienna Sound Orchestra "E"Magic Flute", Freddie Cruger "Soul Search"

  7. Celiac Disease and Gluten-Free Diet Videos

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Quote Clark Kolterman Quote Cliff Hauck Quote Dean E. Cling Quote Diane Eve Paley Quote Gary Powers ... P Sullivan Quote William A. Locke Quote William E. Morris Quote Search Symptoms and Systems Symptoms Diagnosis ...

  8. A coverage that differentiates between areas where the total Calico and A-sequence coal-bearing interval is preserved and where the coal-bearing strata are partially eroded in the Kaiparowits Plateau, southern Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a polygon coverage that represents areas underlain by the coal-bearing Calico and A-sequences of the Straight Cliffs Formation east of 112 degrees of...

  9. The Indian coastline: Processes and landforms.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mukhopadhyay, R.; Karisiddaiah, S.M.

    . In comparison, the west coast is more indented with rocky headlands, intervening sandy bays and multiple estuaries. Cliffs and associated features are relatively more common. A large saline marshland and lagoon-barrier complexes (kayals) are some...

  10. 77 FR 59655 - Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Walnut...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    ... Tribes.'' History and Description of the Remains In 1932, human remains representing a minimum of one... contiguous cliff dwelling. Based on the ceramic assemblage recovered from the site, NA739 is dated to...

  11. Mampang Yumco: Mother of All Rivers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    The Mapang Yumco Lake is famed as the “Mother of All Rivers”. In the absence of wind and waves, the vast lake surface is like a mirror reflecting the blue sky, white clouds, snowy peaks and steep cliffs.

  12. 78 FR 64009 - Certain Optical Disc Drives, Components Thereof, and Products Containing the Same; Institution of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... U.S.A., Inc., 1000 Sylvan Avenue, Englewood Cliffs, NJ 07632. Nintendo Co., Ltd., 11-1 Hokotate-cho, Kamitoba, Minami-ku, Kyoto 601- 8501, Japan. Nintendo of America, Inc., 4600 150th Avenue NE, Redmond,...

  13. Detailed structure of heat island phenomena from moving observations from electric tram-cars in Metropolitan Tokyo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Shuji

    In this study, the detailed horizontal structure, i.e. cliffs and plateaux of the heat island of the Metropolitan Tokyo area is investigated. According to Oke (1977), cliff is steep temperature gradient at the rural/urban boundary and plateau is a steady but weaker horizontal gradient of increasing temperature towards the city center. However, these features are not always evident, e.g. large city like Tokyo. To elucidate such aspects, moving observations of the horizontal distribution of air temperature from electric trains of the transportation network of Metropolitan Tokyo during late evening or early morning were thus conducted. In total, 16 railroad lines were used for the moving observations. The observations were done in two phases for sectional and horizontal distributions. Results show that three cliffs exist in the heat island of Metropolitan Tokyo, although the location of these cliffs should be taken into consideration for urban planning or urban redevelopment.

  14. Shores of the central west coast of India - a case study using remote sensing data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wagle, B.G.

    ridges, littoral terraces, dunes, tidal flats etc. have been described and demarcated. Ground truth have been collected for all the features identified from remote sensing data. The coast, with abandoned cliffs, littoral terraces, beach ridges, tidal...

  15. 76 FR 48180 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-08

    ..., Jct. of AL 14 & Webb Rd., Marion, 11000566 ARIZONA Maricopa County Silk Stocking Neighborhood Historic... Ave., Sea Cliff, 11000597 House at 52 Frost Mill Road, 52 Frost Mill Rd., Mill Neck, 11000598...

  16. Heliplaat ja jõulukuu kingikott / Immo Mihkelson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mihkelson, Immo, 1959-

    2005-01-01

    Jõulukingiks sobilikest heliplaatidest Rod Stewart "The Greatest American Songbook", Cliff Richard "Platinum Collection", Frank Sinatra "Duets and Duets II", Bryan Adams "Anthology", Savage GArden "Truly madly Completely", Dire Straits & Mark Knopfler "Private Investigations"

  17. Strategic analysis for the MER Cape Verde approach

    OpenAIRE

    Gaines, Daniel; Belluta, Paolo; Herman, Jennifer; Hwang, Pauline; Mukai, Ryan; Porter, Dan; Jones, Byron; Wood, Eric; Grotzinger, John; Edgar, Lauren; Hayes, Alex; Hare, Trent; Squyres, Steve

    2009-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has recently completed a two year campaign studying Victoria Crater. The campaign culminated in a close approach of Cape Verde in order to acquire high resolution imagery of the exposed stratigraphy in the cliff face. The close approach to Cape Verde provided significant challenges for every subsystem of the rover as the rover needed to traverse difficult, un-characterised terrain and approach a cliff face with the potential of blocking out solar energy ...

  18. Extreme Reproduction and Survival of a True Cliffhanger: The Endangered Plant Borderea chouardii (Dioscoreaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    García, María B.; Xavier Espadaler; Jens M Olesen

    2012-01-01

    Cliff sides are extreme habitats, often sheltering a rich and unique flora. One example is the dioecious herb Bordereachouardii (Dioscoreaceae), which is a Tertiary, tropical relict, occurring only on two adjacent vertical cliffs in the world. Westudied its reproductive biology, which in some aspects is extreme, especially the unusual double mutualistic role of ants asboth pollinators and dispersers. We made a 2-year pollination census and four years of seed-dispersal experiments,recording fl...

  19. Assessment of rockfall hazard on the steep-high slopes: Ermenek (Karaman, Turkey)

    OpenAIRE

    Taga, Hidayet; Zorlu, Kıvanç

    2016-01-01

    Ermenek is one of the curious settlement areas because of its topographical features in Karaman (Turkey). The city is located in northern side of the very steep cliffs formed byjointed limestone which are suddenly increased from 1250 m to 1850 m. Moreover, these cliffs having almost 90° slope dip are the main rockfall source areas due to their lithologicalcharacteristics, climatic effects and engineering properties of rock units. Up to now, depending on rockfall events, almost 50...

  20. Climber Reaches Mountain Top

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    AT the recent China National Cliff Climbing Invitational Tournament, I first came to know Yang Lihong, the cliff climber. Her well-proportioned figure demonstrates a powerful explosive force attacking the surface. She sticks firmly to the rock as her limbs move rhythmically in search of new support points. Her black ponytail waves with every forceful movement of her body. Rock climbing is relatively new as a

  1. Process-response coastal-recession model and its application to the Holderness coast (UK); Modelo proceso-respuesta de recesion de acantilados por variacion del nivel del mar. Aplicacion en la Costa de Holderness (Reino Unido)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castedo, R.; Paredes, C.; Fernandez, M.; Vega, R. de la

    2012-11-01

    At the moment the development of predictive cliff-erosion models is limited from a geomorphologic perspective due to the complex interactions existing between coupled processes acting over wide scales of time and space. Current models incorporate a probabilistic framework in order to simulate coastal recession events or cliff failure and tend to assess the effects of climate change through changes in the mean sea lea level. According to this procedure, the resulting simulations of cliffs with different behaviours might produce identical annual retreat characteristics even if their potential response to changing environments may not be the same. Thus, a new process-response model is developed to incorporate the behavioural characteristics of cohesive clay coasts with a protective talus wedge under erosive processes. To this end, the model incorporates dynamic marine processes such as variations in mean sea level, tides and waves together with cliff evolution in the shape of erosion, cliff failure and the formation of foot talus deposits. Cliff erosion is calculated on the basis of sea-level changes, wave incidence, shore platform slope and the uniaxial compressive strength of the rock over each tidal cycle. After each cycle the geomechanical stability against topple movement of the cliff face is evaluated and in the event of failure, a talus wedge is formed. The model has been corroborated by an assessment of profile evolution at various locations along a rapidly retreating area on the coast of Holderness in the UK. The results represent an important step-forward in linking material properties to cliff recession processes and the subsequent long-term coastal response in the face of changing sea-level conditions. (Author) 72 refs.

  2. E-book Trial Using Handheld Devices Yields Mixed Reactions from Public Library Staff and Users in Essex County, UK. A review of: Dearnley, James, Cliff McKnight, and Anne Morris. “Electronic Book Usage in Public Libraries: A Study of User and Staff Reactions to a PDA-based Collection.” Journal of Librarianship and Information Science 36.4 (December 2004: 175‐82.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Hall

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective - To assess e-book delivery on handheld devices provided to public library patrons, particularly housebound or visually impaired patrons and the users of a mobile library. Design - Product trial with a post-trial questionnaire for patrons and a post-trial focus group discussion among participating library staff. Setting - Mid-to-large size public library system in the United Kingdom. Subjects - 23 patrons participated; the number of library staff participating is not identified. Although the target population initially identified was housebound people, patrons reliant on the mobile library, and visually impaired people, the project team determined that it did not have sufficient funds to upgrade the PDAs to be compatible woth their preferred software for the visually impaired, and therefore this group was eliminated from the study. Lack of funds was also cited as a factor in the team being unable to provide assistive technology for those users suffering from arthritis, though this group was not excluded from the study. Just over half the patrons were aged 60+, and more than half were female. Two patrons self-identified as housebound. Methods - e-books were downloaded onto Hewlett Packard iPAQ 1910 Pdas by library staff and were loaned to participants between Janualry and April 2004. Although the authors of the study state that "creating staff champions was an important objective in this project" (p.176, it is unclear whether staff were screened for positive attitude towards e-Books. Prior to the trial, staff members were provided with training and orientation, and participants were asked for their font sna d reading preferences. Suport for participating patrons was available from staff or via an accompanying user manual, e-mail, or telephone help line. In a questionnaire adminsitered following the trial, participants were asked to respond to questions on the functionality of the handheld devices and e-book formats, positive and negative reactions to reading from the devices, and differences in the reading experience using the PDA as oopsed to a book. A group discussion with p[articipating library staff was held in April of 2004. The feedback from both groups was compared. Main results - Patrons: The devices were generally found to be usable, with a few exceptions; one patron with arthritis had difficulty operating the device and another developed hand cramps. Positive reactions regarding the vovelty of using the devices, portability (the ability to store several books on one small device and readability (the ability to customize font size and to read in low light conditions were offset by frustration with low battery life, small screen size, limits on usage (i.e. not to be used in the bath, difficulty paging back and forth ('getting lost on the iPAQ', and the inferior sensation of using a PDA as opposed to the 'tactile' quantity of books. In addtion, some patrons voiced fears that e-books might supplant paper books and libraries themselves. In all, thirteen patrons indicated that the e-books had some advantages over books, while eighteen found that there were aspects of using e-books that they disliked compared to books. Staff: The staff shared some concerns with the users, identifying portability as a strength and low battery life (including the need to reformat devices after batteries ran out as a weakness. In addition, some staff felt that some patrons preferred e-book format for books on sensitive topcs, as they provided more privacy in borrowing. Other staff concerns included the potential for users loading other software on the devices and the (presumably in the case of a full roll-out where users would download their own e-books from home lack of a broadband connection for some users. Conclusions - This study should be read as a case study of a trial of the Adobe Book and Palm e-book formats in Hewlett Packard iPAQ 1910 Pdas amongst a small group pf public library (primarily mobile library patrons. While the findings generally indicated that both staff and users found the technology t

  3. Geomorphic Analysis of Boulder Volumes and Surface Roughness Along Talus Slopes in Yosemite Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, K.; Stock, G. M.; Finnegan, N. J.

    2015-12-01

    Talus slopes in Yosemite Valley, California, are a rich archive of rock fall processes occurring since deglaciation (~ 15 ka). The valley is an ideal natural laboratory for investigating rock fall processes because the cliffs display a wide range of heights, steepnesses, orientations, and granitic lithologies. We measured the spatial distribution of boulder volumes on rock fall-dominated talus slopes along 10 transects at 8 locations in Yosemite Valley. Boulder volumes span 6 orders of magnitude, from 0.003 to 3000 m3. As expected, boulder volumes increase non-linearly downslope, with the largest boulders located at or beyond the base of talus slopes. Boulder volumes are smaller below cliffs composed of more mafic lithologies, likely reflecting the greater fracture density in those cliffs. Moderately tall cliffs (400-550 m) tend to produce larger boulders than the tallest and shortest cliffs. Using airborne lidar data, we calculated talus surface roughness and found modest increases in roughness as a function of downslope distance, likely related to the downslope increase in boulder volume. By quantifying the spatial distribution of boulder volumes, our results can be used to improve future assessments of rockfall hazard adjacent to talus slopes.

  4. Rock fall simulation at Timpanogos Cave National Monument, American Fork Canyon, Utah, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harp, Edwin L.; Dart, Richard L.; Reichenbach, Paola

    2011-01-01

    Rock fall from limestone cliffs at Timpanogos Cave National Monument in American Fork Canyon east of Provo, Utah, is a common occurrence. The cave is located in limestone cliffs high on the southern side of the canyon. One fatality in 1933 led to the construction of rock fall shelters at the cave entrance and exit in 1976. Numerous rock fall incidents, including a near miss in 2000 in the vicinity of the trail below the cave exit, have led to a decision to extend the shelter at the cave exit to protect visitors from these ongoing rock fall events initiating from cliffs immediately above the cave exit. Three-dimensional rock fall simulations from sources at the top of these cliffs have provided data from which to assess the spatial frequencies and velocities of rock falls from the cliffs and to constrain the design of protective measures to reduce the rock fall hazard. Results from the rock fall simulations are consistent with the spatial patterns of rock fall impacts that have been observed at the cave exit site.

  5. Evidence from cosmic-ray exposure dating based on 36Cl for the pre-Minoan caldera on Santorini, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanassas, Constantin; Bourlès, Didier; Braucher, Regis; Druitt, Tim; Nomikou, Paraskevi; Léanni, Laetitia

    2016-04-01

    The physiography of Santorini prior to the Minoan (Late Bronze Age) eruption (17th century BCE) is of great archaeological interest, given the importance of Santorini as a commercial centre and port in the Minoan empire. However, the paleogeography of the pre-Minoan caldera has been a point of controversy: Heiken and McCoy (1984) advocated the existence, in the southern part of the present-day caldera, of a pre-existing caldera formed during the 172 ka Lower Pumice eruption, whereas Druitt and Francaviglia (1992), based on the presence of in situ plinian pumice from the Minoan eruption adhering to the modern cliff, conceived the pre-Minoan (22 ka) caldera as having occupied much of the northern basin of the present-day caldera. With the goal of settling the debate we performed cosmic ray exposure dating employing in situ-produced cosmogenic 36Cl to date different generations of caldera cliffs at Santorini, and hence to identify those cliffs predating the Minoan eruption. Our methodology involved the determination of the in situ-produced cosmogenic 36Cl in basaltic and andesitic rocks cropping out in the cliffs. The samples returned 36Cl CRE ages consistent with previously published field mapping of cliff populations based on geomorphological and stratigraphic arguments (Druitt and Francaviglia 1992), suggesting that much of the present cliff line of northern Santorini predated the Minoan eruption, or was superficially modified by landslips and rockfalls during that eruption. The 36Cl CRE ages enable us to better define the paleogeography of the pre-Minoan caldera. References [1] Druitt, T. H. and Francaviglia, V.1992. Caldera formation on Santorini and the physiography of the islands in the Late Bronze Age. Bulletin of Volcanology 54, 484-493. [2] Heiken G and McCoy F (1984) Caldera development during the Minoan eruption, Thira, Cyclades, Greece. Journal of Geophysical Research: 89 (B10), 8841-8862.

  6. Strategic Analysis for the MER Cape Verde Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Daniel; Belluta, Paolo; Herman, Jennifer; Hwang, Pauline; Mukai, Ryan; Porter, Dan; Jones, Byron; Wood, Eric; Grotzinger, John; Edgar, Lauren; Hayes, Alex; Hare, Trent; Squyres, Steve

    2009-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has recently completed a two year campaign studying Victoria Crater. The campaign culminated in a close approach of Cape Verde in order to acquire high resolution imagery of the exposed stratigraphy in the cliff face. The close approach to Cape Verde provided significant challenges for every subsystem of the rover as the rover needed to traverse difficult, uncharacterised terrain and approach a cliff face with the potential of blocking out solar energy and communications with Earth. In this paper we describe the strategic analyses performed by the science and engineering teams so that we could successfully achieve the science objectives while keeping the rover safe.

  7. Time a traveler's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Pickover, Clifford A

    1998-01-01

    ""Bucky Fuller thought big,"" Wired magazine recently noted, ""Arthur C. Clarke thinks big, but Cliff Pickover outdoes them both."" In his newest book, Cliff Pickover outdoes even himself, probing a mystery that has baffled mystics, philosophers, and scientists throughout history--What is the nature of time? In Time: A Traveler's Guide, Pickover takes readers to the forefront of science as he illuminates the most mysterious phenomenon in the universe--time itself. Is time travel possible? Is time real? Does it flow in one direction only? Does it have a beginning and an end? What is eternity? P

  8. Calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Zandy, Bernard V

    2003-01-01

    We take great notes-and make learning a snap When it comes to pinpointing the stuff you really need to know, nobody does it better than CliffsNotes. This fast, effective tutorial helps you master core Calculus concepts-from functions, limits, and derivatives to differentials, integration, and definite integrals- and get the best possible grade. At CliffsNotes, we're dedicated to helping you do your best, no matter how challenging the subject. Our authors are veteran teachers and talented writers who know how to cut to the chase- and zero in on the essential information you need to succeed.

  9. A Meltwater Pool Discovered in Tianshan Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ On an expedition to northwest China's Glacier 1 in the TianshanMountains, a research team led by Prof. Li Zhongqin from the CAS Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute found a 15-meter-long, 4-meterhigh ice cliff in the northwest of the source area on the glacier top. To their surprise, the south-facing ice cliff overlooked an approximately 30-m2 pool sprawling on the glacial sheet. The experts say the pool is at least 1.5 m deep and formed by the summer melt.

  10. Strategic analysis for the MER Cape Verde approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, D.; Belluta, P.; Herman, J.; Hwang, P.; Mukai, R.; Porter, D.; Jones, B.; Wood, E.; Grotzinger, J.; Edgar, L.; Hayes, A.; Hare, T.; Squyres, S.

    2009-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has recently completed a two year campaign studying Victoria Crater. The campaign culminated in a close approach of Cape Verde in order to acquire high resolution imagery of the exposed stratigraphy in the cliff face. The close approach to Cape Verde provided significant challenges for every subsystem of the rover as the rover needed to traverse difficult, uncharacterised terrain and approach a cliff face with the potential of blocking out solar energy and communications with Earth. In this paper we describe the strategic analyses performed by the science and engineering teams so that we could successfully achieve the science objectives while keeping the rover safe. ??2009 IEEE.

  11. Terrestrial Laser Scanner for assessing rockfall susceptibility in the Cilento rocky coast (Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorrentino, Valerio; Matasci, Battista; Abellan, Antonio; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Marino, Ermanno; Pignalosa, Antonio; Santo, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    Rockfalls and other types of landslides are the dominant processes causing a retreat of sea cliffs. The coastal areas constitute an important tourist attraction and a large number of people rest beneath the cliffs on a daily basis, considerably increasing the risk associated to rockfalls. We present an approach to assess rockfall susceptibility at the cliff scale based on terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) point clouds. The test area is a coastal cliff situated in the southern part of the Cilento (Centola Municipality, Campania Region), in which a natural arch was formed. This cliff is constituted by heavy fractured carbonate rock mass with a strong structural control. In June 2015 TLS data were acquired with long-range scanner RIEGL VZ1000®. The structural analysis of the cliff was performed in the field and using Coltop 3D software on the point cloud. As a result, 10 discontinuity sets (joint, faults and bedding planes) were individuated and the different characteristics such as orientation, spacing and persistence were measured. The kinematically unstable areas were highlighted using a script that computes an index of susceptibility to rockfalls based on the spatial distribution of failure mechanisms. The susceptibility index computation is based on the average surface that every joint set (or combinations of two joint sets in the case of wedge failure) forms on the topography according to its spacing, trace length, and incidence angle. This susceptibility index also depends on the steepness of the joint set (or of the intersection line in the case of wedge failure). As a result the most important discontinuity sets in terms of potential planar failure, wedge failure and toppling were individuated and an assessment of rockfall susceptibility at the cliff scale was achieved. Results show that the kinematically feasible failures are not equally distributed along the cliff but concentrated on certain areas. The most susceptible areas for planar failure are related to

  12. Spanish I

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez, Jill

    2001-01-01

    CliffsQuickReview course guides cover the essentials of your toughest classes. Get a firm grip on core concepts and key material, and test your newfound knowledge with review questions. CliffsQuickReview Spanish I is meant to provide all the foundations of basic Spanish pronunciation, spelling, and sentence construction. Spanish grammar is systematically explained in its most simplistic way, so there's no need for any prerequisite before beginning this ""review"" of the equivalent of two years of high school Spanish. As you work your way through this review, you'll be ready to tackle such conc

  13. Sõber raamat

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1997-01-01

    Raamatukaupluses EURO Publications pakutavate raamatute tutvustus. James Davidson, The Complete Home Lightning Book, 1997 Inglismaa ; Candace Ord Manroe. Uncluttered : Storage Room by Room ; Ruth Pretty. The Ultimate Interior Designer, Inglismaa 1997 ; Judith ja Martin Miller. Period Finishes and Effects, Londoni 1992 ; Suzanne Slesin, Stafford Cliff, Daniel Rozensztroch. Spanish Style, esmatrükk 1990.

  14. 77 FR 515 - Certain Portable Communication Devices; Receipt of Amended Complaint; Solicitation of Comments...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-05

    ... Electronics Co., Ltd. of South Korea; Samsung Electronics America, Inc. of Ridgefield Park, New Jersey... importation of certain portable communication devices. The complaint names Research In Motion Ltd. of Canada... Electronics, Inc. of South Korea; LG Electronics U.S.A. Inc. of Englewood Cliffs, NJ; LG Electronics...

  15. Individual Attitudes and Social Influences on College Students' Intent to Participate in Study Abroad Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liz C.; Gault, John; Christ, Paul; Diggin, Patricia A.

    2016-01-01

    Participation in study abroad programs (SAPs) is widely viewed as offering important professional and personal benefits for college students. This study applies the "Theory of Reasoned Action" [Ajzen, I., & Fishbein, M. (1980) and "Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior," Englewood Cliffs, NJ:…

  16. Tufted puffins (Fratercula cirrhata) respond to predation danger during colony approach flights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Addison, B.; Ydenberg, R.C.; Smith, B.D.

    2007-01-01

    In spite of their putative importance in the evolution of certain traits (e.g., nocturnality, coloniality, cliff nesting), the effects of aerial predators on behavior of adult seabirds at colonies have been poorly investigated. We hypothesized that Tufted Puffins (Fratercula cirrhata) respond to dan

  17. Saving Whales and Dolphins through Petroglyphs and Activist Artworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jaehan

    2013-01-01

    Whaling emerged in ancient times, when whales served as a source of food, fuel, and other everyday resources that were vital for human civilizations. Prehistoric images of whales are found on rocks in a few areas throughout the world, most notably the famous petroglyphs at the Bangudae cliffs in Ulsan, South Korea, which depict whales and other…

  18. Cold-water coral mounds on the Pen Duick Escarpment, Gulf of Cadiz: The MiCROSYSTEMS project approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Rooij, D.; Blamart, D.; De Mol, L.; Mienis, F.; Pirlet, H.; Wehrmann, L. M.; Barbieri, R.; Maignien, L.; Templer, S. P.; de Haas, H.; Hebbeln, D.; Frank, N.; Larmagnat, S.; Stadnitskaia, A.; Stivaletta, N.; van Weering, T.; Zhang, Y.; Hamoumi, N.; Cnudde, V.; Duyck, P.; Henriet, J.-P.; The MiCROSYSTEMS MD 169 Shipboard Party

    2011-01-01

    Here we present a case study of three cold-water coral mounds in a juvenile growth stage on top of the Pen Duick Escarpment in the Gulf of Cadiz; Alpha, Beta and Gamma mounds. Although cold-water corals are a common feature on the adjacent cliffs, mud volcanoes and open slope, no actual living cold-

  19. Mercury's shifting, rolling past

    OpenAIRE

    Trulove, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Patterns of scalloped-edged cliffs or lobate scarps on Mercury's surface are thrust faults that are consistent with the planet shrinking and cooling with time. However, compression occurred in the planet's early history and Mariner 10 images revealed decades ago that lobate scarps are among the youngest features on Mercury. Why don't we find more evidence of older compressive features?

  20. Do Modes of Thinking Predict Career Interest Types among Chinese University Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-fang; Fan, Weiqiao

    2007-01-01

    This study had two objectives. The preliminary objective was to further test the psychometric properties of the short-version self-directed search that was intended to be a brief research tool for measuring Holland [Holland, J. L. (1973). "Making vocational choices: A theory of careers." Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall; Holland, J. L. (1994).…

  1. Local Tsunami Hazard In The Marquesas Islands (french Polynesia) : Numerical Modeling of The 1999 Fatu Hiva Landslide and Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert, H.; Schindelé, F.; Heinrich, P.; Piatanesi, A.; Okal, E. A.

    In French Polynesia, the Marquesas Islands are particularly prone to amplification of tsunamis generated at the Pacific Rim, due to relatively mild submarine slopes and to large open bays not protected by any coral reef. These islands are also threatened by local tsunamis, as shown by the recent 1999 event on Fatu Hiva. On September 13, 1999, Omoa Bay was struck by 2 to 5 m high water waves: several buildings, among them the school, were flooded and destroyed but no lives were lost. Observations gath- ered during a post-event survey revealed the recent collapse into the sea of a 300x300 m, at least 20-m thick, cliff located 5 km southeast of Omoa. This cliff failure most certainly triggered the tsunami waves since the cliff was reported intact 45 min earlier. We simulate the tsunami generation due to a subaerial landslide, using a finite- difference model assimilating the landslide to a flow of granular material. Numerical modeling shows that a 0.0024-km3 landslide located in the presumed source area ac- counts well for the tsunami waves reported in Omoa Bay. We show that the striking amplification observed in Omoa Bay is related to the trapping of waves due to the shallow submarine shelf surrounding the island. These results stress the local tsunami hazard that should be taken into account in the natural hazard assessment and mitiga- tion of the area, where historical cliff collapses can be observed and should happen again.

  2. Plastic mistaken for prey by a colony-breeding Eleonora's falcon (Falco eleonorae) in the Mediterranean Sea, revealed by camera-trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Ronny; Torjussen, Cathrine S; Jones, Dean W; Tsimpidis, Thodoris; Miliou, Anastasia

    2016-05-15

    Discarded plastic is known to be harmful for marine animals through ingestion and entanglement. Here we report the first documentation of Eleonora's falcons providing plastic waste to dependent nestlings. Eleonora's falcons breed colonially on sea cliffs and islets in areas of the Mediterranean Sea and the Canary Islands in which they normally feed their nestlings exclusively with small migratory birds. PMID:26971232

  3. Virginia Tech qualifies two vehicles for $2 million DARPA Grand Challenge race

    OpenAIRE

    Crumbley, Liz

    2005-01-01

    Two Virginia Tech engineering teams are among only 40 in the nation to qualify for the 2005 DARPA Grand Challenge autonomous vehicle competition, which offers a cash prize of $2 million. In addition, Virginia Tech is one of only two competitors to qualify two vehicles -- "Rocky" and "Cliff" -- for the race across the Mojave Desert on Oct. 8.

  4. Lessons Carved in Stone:Basics of Buddhism at Sichuan's Dazu Rock Carvings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mike Meyer

    2001-01-01

    @@ Part I DAZU, SICHUAN PROVINCE "See the hungry devil? He eat the man!"the guide exclaimed, holding his charge in rapt attention atop Baoding Shan (Treasure Peak Mountain). He pointed to the Image of Six Ways of Transmigration,a carving of a towering demon that jutted from the cliff's face.

  5. 77 FR 31379 - Hart Mountain National Antelope Refuge, Lake County, OR; Draft Comprehensive Conservation Plan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ... in a series of rugged cliffs, steep slopes, and knife- like ridges. The eastern slope descends.... Grazing. In the Refuge's 1994 management plan, livestock grazing was evaluated and found incompatible with... Determination. Pursuant to this policy, we have reevaluated the use of livestock grazing on Hart...

  6. TOURISM INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Shapotou Tourism Zone Located southeast of the Tengger Desert,20 km from Zhongwei City in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region,the Shapotou Tourism Zone borders the Yellow River,and features a unique landscape combining water and sand.Huge waves,precipi- tous cliffs and an oasis in the seas of sand make

  7. Middle to late Pleistocene coastal deposits of Alghero, northwest Sardinia (Italy)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreucci, S; Clemmensen, L; Murray, A.S.;

    2010-01-01

    subdivision of the succession in four unconformity-bounded units (U2, U3a, U3b, U4). Unit U2 of penultimate glacial stage (MIS 6; ca. 150 ka) is composed of dune deposits formed intermittently along rocky coastal areas under strong wind conditions. Subunit U3a is composed of cliff-bounded gravelly dominated...

  8. A novel Antarctic microbial endolithic community within gypsum crusts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Kevin A; Lawley, Blair

    2003-07-01

    A novel endolithic microbial habitat is described from a climatically extreme site at Two Step Cliffs, Alexander Island, Antarctic Peninsula (71 degrees 54'S, 68 degrees 13'W). Small endolithic colonies (endolithic communities are less extensive than those of the Dry Valleys, continental Antarctica, probably owing to only recent deglaciation (<7000 year ago). PMID:12823188

  9. 78 FR 15051 - Investigations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ... America Inc. and SolarWorld Americas (TA-W-82,484A) (Company). 82485 Nestle Nutrition (State/One- St... (Company). ] 82472 Deutsch, TE Connectivity Tullahoma, TN 02/19/13 02/18/13 (Company). 82473 Cliffs Natural.../13 02/13/13 Stop). 82476 SuperValu Inc. (Company).... Pleasant Prairie, WI... 02/19/13 02/15/13...

  10. 76 FR 30968 - In the Matter of Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices, Products Containing Same, and Methods...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ...- confidential documents filed in connection with this investigation are or will be available for inspection... Taiwan; Haier America Trading LLC, of New York, New York; Haier Group Company of China; LG Electronics Inc. of South Korea; LG Electronics U.S.A., Inc. of Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey; SANYO Electric...

  11. 77 FR 77092 - Certain Devices for Improving Uniformity Used in a Backlight Module and Components Thereof and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... documents filed in connection with this investigation are or will be available for inspection during... (collectively ``ITRI''). 76 FR 56796-97 (Sept. 14, 2011). The complaint alleges violations of section 337 in the... Electronics, Inc. of Seoul, Republic of South Korea; and LG Electronics, U.S.A., Inc. of Englewood Cliffs,...

  12. 76 FR 58840 - In the Matter of Certain Display Devices, Including Digital Televisions and Monitors II; Notice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-22

    ...- confidential documents filed in connection with this investigation are or will be available for inspection... Sony Corporation of Tokyo, Japan (``Sony''). 76 FR 13432 (Mar. 11, 2011). The complaint alleged... Electronics, Inc. of Seoul, Korea, and LG Electronics U.S.A., Inc. of Englewood Cliffs, New...

  13. 77 FR 34285 - Safety Zone; 2012 Ironman U.S. Championship Swim, Hudson River, Fort Lee, NJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not plan now to... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; 2012 Ironman U.S. Championship Swim, Hudson... vicinity of Englewood Cliffs and Fort Lee, NJ for the 2012 Ironman U.S. Championship swim event....

  14. Studying geometric structures in meso-scale flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos H. Halios

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Geometric shapes of coherent structures such as ramp or cliff like signals, step changes and waves, are commonly observed in meteorological temporal series and dominate the turbulent energy and mass exchange between the atmospheric surface layer and the layers above, and also relate with low-dimensional chaotic systems. In this work a simple linear technique to extract geometrical shapes has been applied at a dataset which was obtained at a location experiencing a number of different mesoscale modes. It was found that the temperature field appears much better organized than the wind field, and that cliff-ramp structures are dominant in the temperature time series. The occurrence of structural shapes was related with the dominant flow patterns and the status of the flow field. Temperature positive cliff-ramps and ramp-cliffs appear mainly during night time and under weak flow field, while temperature step and sine structures do not show a clear preference for the period of day, flow or temperature pattern. Uniformly stable, weak flow conditions dominate across all the wind speed structures. A detailed analysis of the flow field during two case studies revealed that structural shapes might be part of larger flow structures, such as a sea-breeze front or down-slope winds. During stagnant conditions structural shapes that were associated with deceleration of the flow were observed, whilst during ventilation conditions shapes related with the acceleration of the flow.

  15. What if We Made Fewer Ph.D.'s?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassuto, Leonard

    2012-01-01

    Whenever a discussion opens about nonacademic employment for Ph.D.s, it is not long before someone suggests reducing graduate-school admissions. "The market for full-time scholars has fallen off a cliff lately," this argument goes, "so why not just train fewer of them?" The strategy to reduce the number of Ph.D. students recurs in those…

  16. The Razor’s Edge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mei; Xinyu

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. economy faces deeper problems, though immediate danger subsided As if watching a replay of the fight over the U.S. national debt ceiling in 2011, the crisis billed as the "fiscal cliff" ended up with a last-minute compromise between thetwo major political parties of the United States.

  17. Constrained by available raptor hosts and islands : density-dependent reproductive success in red-breasted geese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prop, J; Quinn, JL

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we aim to explain the distribution of red-breasted geese Branta ruficollis over different nesting habitats. To be safe from land predators red-breasted goose colonies were restricted to i) islands on rivers, ii) cliffs with peregrine falcons Falco peregrinus, and iii) the close proximi

  18. Basic illustrated knots for the outdoors

    CERN Document Server

    Jacobson, Cliff

    2008-01-01

    Cliff Jacobson is one of North America's most respected outdoors writers and wilderness canoe guides. His experiences as a professional outfitter and canoeing consultant have resulted in more than a dozen top-selling books on camping, canoeing, navigation, and outdoor skills.

  19. Back From the Brink

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A Chinese biologist works tirelessly to save an endangered species of monkey After a loud blast set off by villagers quarrying stones, a white-headed langur popped its head out of the tree canopy at the foot of a towering limestone cliff.

  20. Stable isotope stratigraphy of ice cores and the age of the last eruption at Mount Melbourne, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deuterium/hydrogen analysis of two snow profiles on Mount Melbourne and the Campbell Glacier, northern Victoria Land, Antarctica, indicate snow accumulation rates of 0.5-2.2 m/a. From the depth of burial of ash layers in ice cliffs at Mt Melbourne it is estimated that the last major eruption was between 1862 and 1922. (auth)

  1. MICROBIAL ECOLOGY OF POLLUTION ABATEMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    My career started with Cliff Dahm at the University of New Mexico. The western United States had been experiencing a new “gold rush” using cyanide to mine previously unextractable, low-grade ore and we studied the potential to stimulate native cyanide-degrading micro...

  2. Community Structure and Survival of Tertiary Relict Thuja sutchuenensis (Cupressaceae in the Subtropical Daba Mountains, Southwestern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy Q Tang

    Full Text Available A rare coniferous Tertiary relict tree species, Thuja sutchuenensis Franch, has survived in the Daba Mountains of southwestern China. It was almost eliminated by logging during the past century. We measured size and age structures and interpreted regeneration dynamics of stands of the species in a variety of topographic contexts and community associations. Forest communities containing T. sutchuenensis were of three types: (1 the Thuja community dominated by T. sutchuenensis, growing on cliffs; (2 the Thuja-Quercus-Cyclobalanopsis community dominated by T. sutchuenensis, Quercus engleriana and Cyclobalanopsis oxyodon, along with Fagus engleriana and Carpinus fargesiana, on steep slopes; (3 the Thuja-Tsuga-Quercus community dominated by T. sutchuenensis, Tsuga chinensis, and Quercus spinosa, on crest ridges. The established seedlings/saplings were found in limestone crevices, on scarred cliff-faces, cliff-edges, fallen logs, canopy gaps and forest margins. The radial growth rate was 0.5-1.1 mm per year. Its growth forms were distorted. It had strong sprouting ability after disturbances. The T. sutchuenensis population thrives on cliffs where there is little competition from other species because of harsh conditions and rockslide disturbances. It is shade-intolerant but stress-tolerant. Its regeneration has depended on natural disturbances.

  3. Community Structure and Survival of Tertiary Relict Thuja sutchuenensis (Cupressaceae) in the Subtropical Daba Mountains, Southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Cindy Q; Yang, Yongchuan; Ohsawa, Masahiko; Momohara, Arata; Yi, Si-Rong; Robertson, Kevin; Song, Kun; Zhang, Shi-Qiang; He, Long-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    A rare coniferous Tertiary relict tree species, Thuja sutchuenensis Franch, has survived in the Daba Mountains of southwestern China. It was almost eliminated by logging during the past century. We measured size and age structures and interpreted regeneration dynamics of stands of the species in a variety of topographic contexts and community associations. Forest communities containing T. sutchuenensis were of three types: (1) the Thuja community dominated by T. sutchuenensis, growing on cliffs; (2) the Thuja-Quercus-Cyclobalanopsis community dominated by T. sutchuenensis, Quercus engleriana and Cyclobalanopsis oxyodon, along with Fagus engleriana and Carpinus fargesiana, on steep slopes; (3) the Thuja-Tsuga-Quercus community dominated by T. sutchuenensis, Tsuga chinensis, and Quercus spinosa, on crest ridges. The established seedlings/saplings were found in limestone crevices, on scarred cliff-faces, cliff-edges, fallen logs, canopy gaps and forest margins. The radial growth rate was 0.5-1.1 mm per year. Its growth forms were distorted. It had strong sprouting ability after disturbances. The T. sutchuenensis population thrives on cliffs where there is little competition from other species because of harsh conditions and rockslide disturbances. It is shade-intolerant but stress-tolerant. Its regeneration has depended on natural disturbances. PMID:25928845

  4. Back From the Brink

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG YUANKAI

    2010-01-01

    @@ After a loud blast set off by villag-ers quarrying stones, a white-headed langur popped its head out of the tree canopy at the foot of a towering limestone cliff. Its eyes seemed to be filled with terror and sadness.

  5. Clifford Malcolm: Glimpses of His South African Legacy of Hope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govender, Nadaraj; Ramsuran, Anitha; Dhunpath, Rubby

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews the contributions of Cliff Malcolm while in South Africa during the period 1997-2005. It focuses on his contribution to the fields of science education, teacher education, learner-centered education, transformational outcomes-based education and HIV/AIDS education. In this paper we provide snapshots of his work as an academic,…

  6. 49 CFR Appendix F to Subchapter B... - Commercial Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... definitions is identical to the text of 49 CFR Part 1048, revised as of October 1, 1975, which is no longer in... Street to its junction with Brush Hill Road, thence southerly along Brush Hill Road to its junction with..., including points on such boundaries. (d) The municipalities of Carbon Cliff, Silvis, East Moline,...

  7. 75 FR 68618 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-08

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... the Red Cliff Band of Lake Superior Chippewas (``Tribe'') and the State of Wisconsin Gaming Compact of... CONTACT: Paula L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

  8. PEOPLE/POINTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Wooing Movie GoersAfter 16 years directing Hollywood movies, John Woo Yu-sen is back with an ambitious historical epic titled Red Cliff. The world premiere was held at the Memorial of Marquis Zhuge Liang, a major char- acter in the blockbuster film,

  9. Testing the application of quartz and feldspar luminescence dating to MIS 5 Japanese marine deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiel, Christine; Tsukamoto, Sumiko; Tokuyasu, Kayoko;

    2015-01-01

    The applicability of both quartz and feldspar luminescence dating was tested on twenty-five samples from a marine succession now forming a coastal cliff at Oga Peninsula, Honshu Island, Japan. The quartz optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) signal shows thermal instability and linear modulated...

  10. 75 FR 2163 - Constellation Energy; Notice of Docketing of Special Nuclear Material License SNM-2505 Amendment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-14

    ... COMMISSION Constellation Energy; Notice of Docketing of Special Nuclear Material License SNM-2505 Amendment Application for the Calvert Cliffs Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory.... Introduction The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC or Commission) is considering an application...

  11. Baltic Sea coastal erosion; a case study from the Jastrzębia Góra region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uścinowicz Grzegorz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The coastline in the Jastrzębia Góra area can be divided into three major zones of general importance: a beach and barrier section, a cliff section, and a section protected by a heavy hydrotechnical construction. These areas are characterised by a diverse geology and origin, and hence different vulnerability to erosion. In addition, observations have demonstrated a different pace of erosion within each zone. Based on the results obtained by remote sensing methods (analysis of aerial photographs and maps, it has been determined that the coastline in the barrier area, i.e., to the west of Jastrzębia Góra, moved landwards by about 130 m, in a period of 100 years, and 80 m over about 50 years. A smaller displacement of the shoreline could be observed within the cliff. Between the middle of the twentieth and the start of the twenty-first centuries the shore retreated by about 25 m. However, in recent years, an active landslide has led to the displacement of the uppermost part of the cliff locally up to 25 m. Another issue is, functioning since 2000, a heavy hydrotechnical construction which has been built in order to protect the most active part of the cliff. The construction is not stable and its western part, over a distance of 50 m, has moved almost 2 m vertically downwards and c. 2.5 m horizontally towards the sea in the past two years. This illustrates that the erosional factor does not comprise only marine abrasion, but also involves land-based processes determined by geology and hydrogeology. Changes in the shoreline at the beach and barrier part are constantly conditioned by rising sea levels, the slightly sloping profile of the sea floor and low elevation values of the backshore and dune areas. Cliffs are destroyed by mass wasting and repetitive storm surges that are responsible for the removal of the colluvium which protects the coast from adverse wave effects. Presumably, mass movements combined with groundwater outflow from the cliff

  12. Baltic Sea coastal erosion; a case study from the Jastrzębia Góra region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uścinowicz, Grzegorz; Kramarska, Regina; Kaulbarsz, Dorota; Jurys, Leszek; Frydel, Jerzy; Przezdziecki, Piotr; Jegliński, Wojciech

    2014-12-01

    The coastline in the Jastrzębia Góra area can be divided into three major zones of general importance: a beach and barrier section, a cliff section, and a section protected by a heavy hydrotechnical construction. These areas are characterised by a diverse geology and origin, and hence different vulnerability to erosion. In addition, observations have demonstrated a different pace of erosion within each zone. Based on the results obtained by remote sensing methods (analysis of aerial photographs and maps), it has been determined that the coastline in the barrier area, i.e., to the west of Jastrzębia Góra, moved landwards by about 130 m, in a period of 100 years, and 80 m over about 50 years. A smaller displacement of the shoreline could be observed within the cliff. Between the middle of the twentieth and the start of the twenty-first centuries the shore retreated by about 25 m. However, in recent years, an active landslide has led to the displacement of the uppermost part of the cliff locally up to 25 m. Another issue is, functioning since 2000, a heavy hydrotechnical construction which has been built in order to protect the most active part of the cliff. The construction is not stable and its western part, over a distance of 50 m, has moved almost 2 m vertically downwards and c. 2.5 m horizontally towards the sea in the past two years. This illustrates that the erosional factor does not comprise only marine abrasion, but also involves land-based processes determined by geology and hydrogeology. Changes in the shoreline at the beach and barrier part are constantly conditioned by rising sea levels, the slightly sloping profile of the sea floor and low elevation values of the backshore and dune areas. Cliffs are destroyed by mass wasting and repetitive storm surges that are responsible for the removal of the colluvium which protects the coast from adverse wave effects. Presumably, mass movements combined with groundwater outflow from the cliff, plus sea abrasion

  13. Holocene Evolution of Incised Coastal Channels on the Isle of Wight, UK: Interpretation via Numerical Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyland, J.; Darby, S. E.

    2006-12-01

    Incised coastal channels are found in numerous locations around the world where the shoreline morphology consists of cliffs. The incised coastal channels found on the Isle of Wight, UK, are known locally as `Chines' and debouche (up to 45m) through the soft cliffs of the south west coast, maintaining steep side walls subject to deep-seated mass wasting. These canyons offer sheltered locations and bare substrate, providing habitat for plant (Philonotis marchica, Anthoceros punctatos) and invertebrate (Psen atratinus, Baris analis, Melitaea cinxi) species of international importance. The base level of the Chines is highly dynamic, with episodes of sea cliff erosion causing the rejuvenation of the channel network. Consequently a key factor in Chine evolution is the relative balance between rates of cliff retreat and headwards incision caused by knickpoint migration. Specifically, there is concern that if contemporary coastal retreat rates are higher than the corresponding rates of knickpoint recession, there will be long-term a reduction in the overall extent of the Chines and their associated habitats. In an attempt to provide a long-term context for these issues, in this poster we explore the Holocene erosional history of the Chines using a numerical landscape evolution model. The model includes a stochastic cliff recession function that controls the position of the outlet boundary. Knickpoint recession rates are simulated using a detachment-limited channel erosion law wherein erosion rate is a power function of drainage area and stream gradient with model parameters defined using empirically- derived data. Simulations are undertaken for a range of imposed boundary conditions representing different scenarios of long-term cliff retreat forced by Holocene sea-level rise, plausible scenarios corresponding to cases where simulated and observed Chine and landscape forms match. The study provides an example of how a landscape evolution model could be used to reconstruct

  14. Modeling rocky coastline evolution and equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limber, P. W.; Murray, A. B.

    2010-12-01

    Many of the world’s rocky coastlines exhibit planform roughness in the form of alternating headlands and embayments. Along cliffed coasts, it is often assumed that headlands consist of rock that is more resistant to wave attack than in neighboring bays, because of either structural or lithologic variations. Bays would then retreat landward faster than headlands, creating the undulating planform profiles characteristic of a rocky coastal landscape. While the interplay between alongshore rock strength and nearshore wave energy is, in some circumstances, a fundamental control on coastline shape, beach sediment is also important. Laboratory experiments and field observations have shown that beach sediment, in small volumes, can act as an abrasive tool to encourage sea cliff retreat. In large volumes, though, sediment discourages wave attack on the cliff face, acting as a protective barrier. This nonlinearity suggests a means for headland persistence, even without alongshore variations in rock strength: bare-rock headlands could retreat more slowly than, or at the same rate as, neighboring sediment-filled embayments because of alongshore variations in the availability of beach sediment. Accordingly, nearshore sediment dynamics (i.e. sediment production from sea cliff retreat and alongshore sediment transport) could promote the development of autogenic planform geometry. To explore these ideas, we present numerical and analytical modeling of large-scale (> one kilometer) and long-term (millennial-scale) planform rocky coastline evolution, in which sediment is supplied by both sea cliff erosion and coastal rivers and is distributed by alongshore sediment transport. We also compare model predictions with real landscapes. Previously, our modeling exercises focused on a basic rocky coastline configuration where lithologically-homogeneous sea cliffs supplied all beach sediment and maintained a constant alongshore height. Results showed that 1) an equilibrium alongshore

  15. Unraveling the dynamics that scale cross-shore headland relief on rocky coastlines: 1. Model development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limber, Patrick W.; Brad Murray, A.; Adams, Peter N.; Goldstein, Evan B.

    2014-04-01

    We have developed an exploratory model of plan view, millennial-scale headland and bay evolution on rocky coastlines. Cross-shore coastline relief, or amplitude, arises from alongshore differences in sea cliff lithology, where durable, erosion-resistant rocks protrude seaward as headlands and weaker rocks retreat landward as bays. The model is built around two concurrent negative feedbacks that control headland amplitude: (1) wave energy convergence and divergence at headlands and bays, respectively, that increases in intensity as cross-shore amplitude grows and (2) the combined processes of beach sediment production by sea cliff erosion, distribution of sediment to bays by waves, and beach accumulation that buffers sea cliffs from wave attack and limits further sea cliff retreat. Paired with the coastline relief model is a numerical wave transformation model that explores how wave energy is distributed along an embayed coastline. The two models are linked through genetic programming, a machine learning technique that parses wave model results into a tractable input for the coastline model. Using a pool of 4800 wave model simulations, genetic programming yields a function that relates breaking wave power density to cross-shore headland amplitude, offshore wave height, approach angle, and period. The goal of the coastline model is to make simple, but fundamental, scaling arguments on how different variables (such as sea cliff height and composition) affect the equilibrium cross-shore relief of headland and bays. The model's generality highlights the key feedbacks involved in coastline evolution and allows its equations (and model behaviors) to be easily modified by future users.

  16. Dynamic rock fragmentation: thresholds for long runout rock avalanches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.T. Bowman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic fragmentation of rock within rock avalanches is examined using the fragmentation concepts introduced by Grady and co-workers. The analyses use typical material values for weak chalk and limestone in order to determine theoretical strain rate thresholds for dynamic fragmentation and resulting fragment sizes. These are found to compare favourably with data obtained from field observations of long runout rock avalanches and chalk cliff collapses in spite of the simplicity of the approach used. The results provide insight as to the energy requirements to develop long runout behaviour and hence may help to explain the observed similarities between large rock avalanches and much smaller scale chalk cliff collapses as seen in Europe.

  17. Controlled quantum secure direct communication by entanglement distillation or generalized measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Xiaoqian

    2016-05-01

    We propose two controlled quantum secure communication schemes by entanglement distillation or generalized measurement. The sender Alice, the receiver Bob and the controllers David and Cliff take part in the whole schemes. The supervisors David and Cliff can control the information transmitted from Alice to Bob by adjusting the local measurement angles θ _4 and θ _3. Bob can verify his secret information by classical one-way function after communication. The average amount of information is analyzed and compared for these two methods by MATLAB. The generalized measurement is a better scheme. Our schemes are secure against some well-known attacks because classical encryption and decoy states are used to ensure the security of the classical channel and the quantum channel.

  18. Surface flow visualisation over forward facing steps with varying yaw angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many Australian wind farms are located near escarpments and cliffs where flow separation occurs. An absence of literature addressing the effect of wind direction over cliffs have motivated surface shear stress visualisations on forward facing steps at yaw angles between 0° and 50°. These visualisations have been conducted in the Monash University 450 kW wind tunnel. Mean reattachment lengths were measured and shown to vary as a function of the boundary layer thickness to step height ratio and the yaw angle. Vortices shed off the crest of the step induced surface shear stresses on the top surface of the step. The orientation of these shear stresses varied linearly with the yaw angle. Three-dimensional structures of different forms were also observed. At zero yaw angle the flow converged at points along the crest. At high yaw angles distinct sections of misaligned flow were observed downstream of the reattachment line, indicating a spatial periodicity in shedding

  19. Extreme reproduction and survival of a true cliffhanger: the endangered plant, Borderea chouardii (Dioscoreaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García, M. B.; Espadaler, Xavier; Olesen, Jens Mogens

    2012-01-01

    Cliff sides are extreme habitats, often sheltering a rich and unique flora. One example is the dioecious herb Borderea chouardii (Dioscoreaceae), which is a Tertiary, tropical relict, occurring only on two adjacent vertical cliffs in the world. We studied its reproductive biology, which in some...... aspects is extreme, especially the unusual double mutualistic role of ants as both pollinators and dispersers. We made a 2-year pollination census and four years of seed-dispersal experiments, recording flower visitors and dispersal rates. Fruit and seed set, self-sowing of seeds, seedling recruitment......, and fate of seedlings from seeds sowed by different agents were scored over a period of 17 years. The ants Lasius grandis and L. cinereus were the main pollinators, whereas another ant Pheidole pallidula dispersed seeds. Thus ants functioned as double mutualists. Two thirds of all new seedlings came from...

  20. Seismic architecture of the Chalk Group from onshore reflection data in eastern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreau, Julien; Anderskouv, Kresten; Boldreel, Lars Ole;

    The Upper Cretaceous-Danian chalk is well exposed in the 14 km long coastal cliff of Stevns Klint (eastern Denmark). The cliff is a world renowned for its spectacular exposure of the Cretaceous-Palaeogene boundary. Based on regional geological knowledge of the field and cores, the characteristics...... but the succession has been uplifted of c. 1 km. The main fracture patterns are associated with the recent unloading of the ice, opening shallow horizontal fractures. Subvertical fracturation affects also the Chalk and contribute to most of the permeability. Observation of the seismic reflection profiles shows...... intensive fracturing association with local folds and offsets of reflections reaching 20 metres. The seismic signal is particularly damaged by swarms of fractures which resemble flower structures or polygonal fracture networks. Even if some of the fracture swarms seem to reach the Earth's surface, most...

  1. 3D Terrestrial LiDAR data classification of complex natural scenes using a multi-scale dimensionality criterion: applications in geomorphology

    CERN Document Server

    Brodu, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    3D point clouds of natural environments relevant to geomorphology problems (rivers, cliffs...) often require to classify the data into elementary relevant classes. A typical example is the separation of riparian vegetation from soil in fluvial environments, the distinction between fresh surfaces and rockfall in cliff environments, or more generally the classification of surfaces according to their morphology (ripples, grain size...). Natural surfaces are very heterogeneous and their distinctive properties are seldom defined at a unique scale. We have thus defined a multi-scale measure of the point cloud dimensionality around each point. The dimensionality characterizes the local 3D organization of the point cloud and varies from being 1D (points set along a line) to really taking all 3D volume, at each scale. We present the technique and illustrate its efficiency in separating riparian vegetation from ground and classifying a mountain stream in vegetation, rock, gravel and water surface. The superiority of th...

  2. Pengaruh Kemampuan Pegawai, dan Kepuasan Masyarakat terhadap Kualitas Pelayanan Kesehatan Puskesmas Pasar Gambir Tebing Tinggi Kota

    OpenAIRE

    Hasibuan, Rizki Syahwani

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to determine whether there is a significant effect on the ability of employees , and people's satisfaction with the quality of health care and to know how much influence these partially or simultaneously . The research was conducted in Puskesmas Pasar Gambir High Cliff State . The method used in this research is descriptive method using survey. The collection of data and information held by the field study through questionnaires as research tools were distributed to patient...

  3. Echoes from Si gang lih: Burao Yilu's 'Moon Mountain'

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Bender (Preface)

    2011-01-01

    Wa poet Burao Yilu's utilization of myth, ritual, and folk customs in representing the Wa ethnic group in the poem 'Moon Mountain' is discussed. Negative stereotypes of the Wa, an indigenous people of southwestern Yunnan Province, China, include the now forbidden practice of headhunting. By referencing the origin myth 'Si gang lih' and evoking images of ancient cliff paintings, rituals, and agricultural practices, Burao offers a nuanced view of Wa culture while affirming deep-rooted aspects o...

  4. Turnpike Horizons for Production Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Gerald L. Thompson; Sethi, Suresh P.

    1980-01-01

    A quadratic model for production-inventory planning was made famous by Holt, Modigliani, Muth, and Simon in 1960 in (Holt, C. C., F. Modigliani, J. F. Muth, H. A. Simon. 1960. Planning Production, Inventories, and Work Force. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey.), especially for its application to a paint factory. A discrete control version of a related quadratic production-inventory model was studied by Kleindorfer, Kriebel, Thompson, and Kleindorfer in (Kleindorfer, P. R., C. H. Kri...

  5. Biosimilars: Company Strategies to Capture Value from the Biologics Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Leonardo Martínez-Hurtado

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Patents for several biologic blockbusters will expire in the next few years. The arrival of biosimilars, the biologic equivalent of chemical generics, will have an impact on the current biopharmaceuticals market. Five core capabilities have been identified as paramount for those companies aiming to enter the biosimilars market: research and development, manufacturing, supporting activities, marketing, and lobbying. Understanding the importance of each of these capabilities will be key to maximising the value generated from the biologics patent cliff.

  6. JIT supply chain; an investigation through general system theory

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, O P; Vikas kumar; Dixit Garg

    2013-01-01

    This paper explains theoretical approach of the four theories of General system Theory (GST) developed by Yourdon (1989) [Yourdon, E. (1989). Modern Structured Analysis. Yourdon Press, Prentice-Hall International, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey. Senge] while applying it in information technology and subsequently used by caddy (2007) [Caddy I.N., & Helou, M.M. (2007). Supply chains and their management: Application of general systems theory. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 14, 319–32...

  7. Analysis of space-borne data for coastal zone information extraction of Goa Coast, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kunte, P.D.; Wagle, B.G.

    coastal zone, which may have long-term economic consequences. Interactions between various natural processes and man-made activities are important factors in the coastal area. Marine scientists and coastal engineers recognize the coastal zone as a... ~" 1_1_1 0 2 Km ~ART Laterite mesas m Wave-cut terraces I~ Exposed rock Inselberg 1]dal river River terraces cliff "tidal flat ~1 Old tidal flat [~] Channel bar Beach Active dunes Stabilized dunes I~ Beach ridges I Salt...

  8. The Matrix Reloads%《黑客帝国》续集

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JESS CAGLE; 胡小兵

    2003-01-01

    @@ When we last visited the Matrix, computers had taken over the planet and imprisoned the human race in a computer-generated "reality". Keanu Reeves played Neo, a hacker5 turned superhero recruited to save his fellow man, and the movie ended with him literally taking flight6 It was a cliff-hanger7 that might as well have been subtitled "Watch for the sequel, coming soon to a theater near you - that is, if this thing makes any money."

  9. Influence of tectonic folding on rockfall susceptibility, American Fork Canyon, Utah, USA

    OpenAIRE

    J. A. Coe; Harp, E. L.

    2007-01-01

    International audience We examine rockfall susceptibility of folded strata in the Sevier fold-thrust belt exposed in American Fork Canyon in north-central Utah. Large-scale geologic mapping, talus production data, rock-mass-quality measurements, and historical rockfall data indicate that rockfall susceptibility is correlated with limb dip and curvature of the folded, cliff-forming Mississippian limestones. On fold limbs, rockfall susceptibility increases as dip increases. This relation is ...

  10. Analisis Faktor – Faktor Yang Mempengaruhi Kinerja Sistem Informasi Akuntansi ( Studi Kasus Pada Ptpn Iii Rambutan Tebing Tinggi Sumatera Utara )

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana

    2016-01-01

    ANALYSIS OF FACTORS AFFECTING THE PERFORMANCE OF ACCOUNTING INFORMATION SYSTEM (CASE STUDY ON HIGH CLIFFS PTPN III RAMBUTAN NORTH SUMATRA) This study aimed to examine the effect of variable user involvement in decision-SIA, the capabilities of the personnel system, top management support, formalization of information systems development, education and training programs, the location of departments, affect the performance of accounting information systems. This study is based on the c...

  11. 《史前一万年》影片概况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ 片名:10000 B.C. 译名:史前一万年 导演:罗兰·艾默里奇 Roland Emmefidl 主演:史蒂文·斯崔特 Steven Strait 卡米拉·贝勒 Camilla Belle 克利夫·柯蒂斯 Cliff Curtis 摄影:犹利·斯特格 配乐:哈罗德·科洛瑟托马斯·万德

  12. Dinosaur tracks in Lower Jurassic coastal plain sediments (Sose Bugt Member, Rønne Formation) on Bornholm, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Lars B; Milàn, Jesper; Pedersen, Gunver K;

    2014-01-01

    Fluvial palaeochannels of coastal plain sediments of the Lower Jurassic Sose Bugt Member of the Rønne Formation exposed in the coastal cliffs at Sose Bugt, Bornholm, contain abundant dinosaur or other large vertebrate tracks in the form of deformation structures exposed in vertical section...... track. Contemporary Upper Triassic – Lower Jurassic strata from southern Sweden and Poland contain a diverse track fauna, supporting our interpretation. This is the earliest evidence of dinosaur activity in Denmark....

  13. During-treatment Outcomes among Female Methamphetamine-Using Offenders in Prison-based Treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Rowan-Szal, Grace A.; Joe, George W.; SIMPSON, D. DWAYNE; Greener, Jack M.; Vance, Jerry

    2009-01-01

    An increasingly important treatment group is the expanding population of methamphetamine-using female offenders. This study focused on women methamphetamine-using offenders (n = 359) who were treated either in a modified TC program (CLIFF-TC: n = 234) designed for non-violent offenders with significant impairment from methamphetamine use or the standard “outpatient” treatment (OTP: n = 125). All participants were assessed on motivation, psychological and social functioning, and treatment enga...

  14. Group size and nest spacing affect Buggy Creek virus (Togaviridae: Alphavirus infection in nestling house sparrows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie A O'Brien

    Full Text Available The transmission of parasites and pathogens among vertebrates often depends on host population size, host species diversity, and the extent of crowding among potential hosts, but little is known about how these variables apply to most vector-borne pathogens such as the arboviruses (arthropod-borne viruses. Buggy Creek virus (BCRV; Togaviridae: Alphavirus is an RNA arbovirus transmitted by the swallow bug (Oeciacus vicarius to the cliff swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota and the introduced house sparrow (Passer domesticus that has recently invaded swallow nesting colonies. The virus has little impact on cliff swallows, but house sparrows are seriously affected by BCRV. For house sparrows occupying swallow nesting colonies in western Nebraska, USA, the prevalence of BCRV in nestling sparrows increased with sparrow colony size at a site but decreased with the number of cliff swallows present. If one nestling in a nest was infected with the virus, there was a greater likelihood that one or more of its nest-mates would also be infected than nestlings chosen at random. The closer a nest was to another nest containing infected nestlings, the greater the likelihood that some of the nestlings in the focal nest would be BCRV-positive. These results illustrate that BCRV represents a cost of coloniality for a vertebrate host (the house sparrow, perhaps the first such demonstration for an arbovirus, and that virus infection is spatially clustered within nests and within colonies. The decreased incidence of BCRV in sparrows as cliff swallows at a site increased reflects the "dilution effect," in which virus transmission is reduced when a vector switches to feeding on a less competent vertebrate host.

  15. Group size and nest spacing affect Buggy Creek virus (Togaviridae: Alphavirus) infection in nestling house sparrows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Valerie A; Brown, Charles R

    2011-01-01

    The transmission of parasites and pathogens among vertebrates often depends on host population size, host species diversity, and the extent of crowding among potential hosts, but little is known about how these variables apply to most vector-borne pathogens such as the arboviruses (arthropod-borne viruses). Buggy Creek virus (BCRV; Togaviridae: Alphavirus) is an RNA arbovirus transmitted by the swallow bug (Oeciacus vicarius) to the cliff swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) and the introduced house sparrow (Passer domesticus) that has recently invaded swallow nesting colonies. The virus has little impact on cliff swallows, but house sparrows are seriously affected by BCRV. For house sparrows occupying swallow nesting colonies in western Nebraska, USA, the prevalence of BCRV in nestling sparrows increased with sparrow colony size at a site but decreased with the number of cliff swallows present. If one nestling in a nest was infected with the virus, there was a greater likelihood that one or more of its nest-mates would also be infected than nestlings chosen at random. The closer a nest was to another nest containing infected nestlings, the greater the likelihood that some of the nestlings in the focal nest would be BCRV-positive. These results illustrate that BCRV represents a cost of coloniality for a vertebrate host (the house sparrow), perhaps the first such demonstration for an arbovirus, and that virus infection is spatially clustered within nests and within colonies. The decreased incidence of BCRV in sparrows as cliff swallows at a site increased reflects the "dilution effect," in which virus transmission is reduced when a vector switches to feeding on a less competent vertebrate host.

  16. Tufted puffins (Fratercula cirrhata) respond to predation danger during colony approach flights

    OpenAIRE

    Addison, B.; Ydenberg, R.C.; Smith, B. D.

    2007-01-01

    In spite of their putative importance in the evolution of certain traits (e.g., nocturnality, coloniality, cliff nesting), the effects of aerial predators on behavior of adult seabirds at colonies have been poorly investigated. We hypothesized that Tufted Puffins (Fratercula cirrhata) respond to danger posed by aerial predators by modifying their behavior to mitigate danger. We observed Tufted Puffins making repeated colony fly-ins and departures and characterized (1) the timing of this behav...

  17. Stone Lakes Virus (Family Togaviridae, Genus Alphavirus), a Variant of Fort Morgan Virus Isolated From Swallow Bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) West of the Continental Divide

    OpenAIRE

    Brault, Aaron C; Armijos, M. Veronica; Wheeler, Sarah; Wright, Stan; Fang, Ying; Langevin, Stanley; Reisen, William K.

    2009-01-01

    Multiple isolates of an alphaviruses within the western equine encephalomyelitis-serocomplex that were related closely to Ft. Morgan and its variant Buggy Creek virus were made from swallow bugs, Oeciacus vicarius Horvath (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), collected from cliff swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) nests at the Stone Lakes National Wildlife Refuge, Sacramento County, CA, during the summers of 2005 and 2006. This virus (hereafter Stone Lakes virus, family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus, STLV)...

  18. Science and design: identical twins?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, Per; Kroes, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Recently, Robert Farrell and Cliff Hooker opposed the conventional view that ‘design and science are distinct types of intellectual study and production’, claiming that science and design ‘are not different in kind’, and explicitly challenging proponents of the conventional view to ‘provide expli......, explaining why we find them unconvincing. We then propose a plausible conception of design versus science, and offer several arguments for considering design and science distinct, albeit related, concepts....

  19. Landslide hazard, monitoring and conservation strategy for the safeguard of Vardzia Byzantine monastery complex, Georgia

    OpenAIRE

    Margottini, Claudio; Corominas Dulcet, Jordi; Crosta, Giovanni Battista; Frattini, Paolo; Gigli, Giovanni; Giordan, Daniele; Iwasaky, Ioshinori; Lollino, Giorgio; Scavia, Claudio; Marinos, Paul; A. Manconi; Sonessa, A.; Spizzichino, Danielle; Vacheishvili, N.; Antidze, N.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports preliminary results of a feasibility project developed in cooperation with National Agency for Cultural Heritage Preservation of Georgia, and aimed at envisaging the stability conditions of the Vardzia monastery slope (rupestrian city cave in the south-western Georgia). The aim is the implementation of a low-impact monitoring system together with long-term mitigation/conservation policies. A field analysis was conducted to reconstruct geometry of the rocky cliff, characteri...

  20. On the marine fauna of the Anglesey coast adjacent to Wylfa power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The findings of recent surveys of the marine fauna in the vicinity of Wylfa Power Station are collated and discussed in the context of previous studies on the biota of this coast. The surveys included a study of the mussel populations of the north Anglesey coast, general surveys of rocky shore and beach habitats and of Cemlyn Beach and Lagoon and a detailed quantification of cliff-dwelling species from which those influenced by the cooling water have been identified. (author)

  1. Měkkýši navrhované PR Údolí Vrchlice u Kutné Hory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Juřičková

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper brings the first malacological research of the proposal nature reserve Vrchlice Valley (Central Bohemia, Czech Republic after hundred years. Altogether, 44 mollusc species have been recorded in a very diverse mosaic of floodplain forests, cliffs and meadows. Rare or locally important species Vertigo pusilla, Semilimax semilimax, Daudebardia rufa, Isognomostoma isognomostomos, Oxyloma elegans, Vitrea crystallina and Laciniaria plicata were recorded in the area of the reserve.

  2. Provenance study of Pliocene–Pleistocene sands based on ancient detrital zircons (Alvalade basin, SW Iberian Atlantic Coast)

    OpenAIRE

    Albardeiro, Luis; Pereira, M. Francisco; Gama, Cristina; Chichorro, Martim; Hofmann, Mandy; Linnemann, Ulf

    2014-01-01

    Pliocene–Pleistocene sand of the Alvalade basinwas taken fromthe sea-cliffs of SWIberia coast for a provenance study using radiometric dating. The U–Pb ages obtained revealed a wide interval ranging from Cretaceous to Archean, with predominance of Paleozoic, Neoproterozoic and Cretaceous zircon ages. Cretaceous ages interpreted to indicate a Sines Massif provenance are dominant in sands close to Cape Sines but are absent in sand sampled 12 km north. Carboniferous ages younger than...

  3. Geological garden in the neighborhood of Budapest, Hungary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Janos Haas; Géza Hámor

    2001-01-01

    @@ IntroductionMore than a hundred million year history of the Mesozoic evolution of the Tethys is recorded in the layers of the Kálvária (Calvary) Hill at Tata, a town 70 km northwest of Budapest, between the Gerecse and Vértes Mountains. On the ruins of a medieval church, located on the top of a projecting cliff, a chapel as well as calvary monuments were built in the 18th century lending the name of the hill.

  4. Reptiles escamosos (Squamata) del Pleistoceno Medio del Norte de la ciudad de Mar del Plata (provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina)

    OpenAIRE

    Santiago Brizuela; Marcos M. Cenizo; Daniel A. Tassara

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we describe two fossil remains of squamate reptiles found in Middle Pleistocene outcrops at the northern marine cliffs of the city of Mar del Plata (Buenos Aires province). The specimens were found forming a taphocenosis with remains of other microvertebrates (amphibians, mammals and birds). The reptiles recognized in the association are represented by remains of an undetermined colubrid, and the anguid Ophiodes sp. This latter finding represents the first fossil record for th...

  5. They've Got Your Number

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DOROTHY; TECKLENBURG

    2006-01-01

    Iexpected a lovely Chinese vacation spot, where a happy family rents a boat or basks on a sandy beach. The guidebook didn't mention stepping off a cliff with absolutely nothing below. It didn't matter that at Yanxihu Lake, no one we met spoke any English. We quickly learned the magic word: piao, meaning ticket. I'm feeling pretty good about knowing

  6. Federal R&D Funding: Trends and Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, K. S.

    2014-12-01

    Between sequestration, shutdowns, and budget "cliffs," the federal budget process has experienced many challenges in recent years. Budgets for research and development (R&D) have mirrored these larger fiscal constraints. Over the past decade, many agencies and programs have seen flat or declining budgets, particularly when inflation is considered. This talk will examine recent geoscience R&D funding in the historical context and examine projections of future science funding in the framework of the Budget Control Act and other initiatives.

  7. Exploring Innovative & Open Educational Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Shaffer, Clifford; Jantzen, Benjamin C.; Mahin, Bruce; Walz, Anita R.

    2014-01-01

    Panelists include: Dr. Clifford Shaffer, Professor of Computer Science, Virginia Tech Dr. Benjamin Jantzen, Asst. Professor Philosophy, Virginia Tech Dr. Bruce Mahin, Professor of Composition and Music Theory, Radford University The Multimedia tour will showcase innovative and open educational resources from Virginia Tech, Radford, and beyond. Panel themes will be further explored in the after-panel hands-on workshop. URLs for two of the live demos: http://algoviz.org (Cliff Shaffer) https://...

  8. "Fiscal Traps and Macro Policy after the Eurozone Crisis"

    OpenAIRE

    Hannsgen, Greg; Papadimitriou, Dimitri B.

    2012-01-01

    The United States must make a fundamental choice in its economic policy in the next few months, a choice that will shape the US economy for years to come. Pundits and policymakers are divided over how to address what is widely referred to as the "fiscal cliff", a combination of tax increases and spending cuts that will further weaken the domestic economy. Will the United States continue its current, misguided, policy of implementing European-style austerity measures, and the economic contract...

  9. Automated visual surveillance of a population of nesting seabirds

    OpenAIRE

    Qing, Chunmei; Dickinson, Patrick; Lawson, Shaun; Freeman, Robin

    2011-01-01

    Seabird populations are a valuable and accessible indicator of marine health: population changes have been linked with fish stock levels, climate change, and pollution. Understanding the development of particular colonies requires detailed data, but manual collection methods are labour intensive and error prone. Our work is concerned with development of computer vision algorithms to support autonomous visual monitoring of cliff-nesting nesting seabirds, and collection of behavioural data on a...

  10. Organizational-economic mechanism of transfer of innovation Urals (for example, "Rural tourism"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Latysheva

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to questions of organizational and economic mechanisms of transfer of innovation and improvement of the Urals this process means "rural tourism." This paper draws attention to the training of rural specialists. The authors explain the principles and means of the transfer of innovation on the example of the "Marin cliff." Just show that government, business and science, interacting, can improve the competitiveness of agriculture and successfully carried out import of agricultural products.

  11. Factors Influencing Nest Site Selection, Breeding Density and Breeding Success in the Bearded Vulture (Gypaetus barbatus)

    OpenAIRE

    Donázar, José A.; Hiraldo, F.; Bustamante, Javier

    1993-01-01

    1. We examined the nest site selection, breeding density and breeding success in the bearded vulture Gypaetus barbatus in relation to physiography, climate, land-use and degree of human disturbance. The study area was in the Pyrenean Cordillera, Spain, where the largest European population of this species occurs. Univariate analyses and Generalized Linear Models were employed. 2. Models correctly classified the 78% of the cliffs analysed (occupied by be...

  12. Population dynamics and spatial distribution of Griffon Vultures (Gyps fulvus) Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Beest, van, I.; Bremer, van den, L.; Boer; Heitkonig, I.M.A.; Monteiro, A.E.

    2008-01-01

    The global decrease of vulture populations has been attributed to several factors, such as food availability, poisoning, human disturbance, or habitat suitability. We studied the effect of factors that vary both spatially and temporally on the nest site distribution of the Griffon Vulture Gyps fulvus in northeast Portugal, and influence the population dynamics of these cliff-dwelling birds. Several demographic parameters were studied in the field, and the age structure of the population was d...

  13. Geomorphological hazard and tourist vulnerability along Portofino Park trails (Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Brandolini, P.; F. Faccini; Piccazzo, M.

    2006-01-01

    International audience The many trails existing in the coastal area of Portofino Promontory are used by tourists for trekking or as pathways to small villages and beaches. The aim of this paper is to define geomorphological hazard and tourist vulnerability in this area, within the framework of the management and planning of hiking activities in Portofino Natural Park. In particular, processes triggered by gravity, running waters and wave motion, affecting the slopes and the cliff, are con...

  14. Central Asian drug trafficking dilemma

    OpenAIRE

    McGowen, Richard S.

    2003-01-01

    Tajikistan, a state that is completely landlocked, consists of very rough terrain that is comprised of mountains, cliffs and glaciers. There are very few transportation links through the area that gives Tajikistan limited access to neighboring countries. Security problems resulting from the increasing flow of narcotics illegally smuggled across the 1200 km Tajikistan- Afghanistan border have become critical in understanding the nature of political instability within Central Asia. This thesis ...

  15. Sport Psychology. Theories and Applications for Performance, Health and Humanity.

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This congress proceedings volume includes all abstracts submitted to the 14th European Congress of Sport Psychology of the European Federation of Sport Psychology FEPSAC that have been accepted by the scientific evaluation committee. Content: six keynote lectures, Panteleimon ("Paddy") Ekkekakis: Escape from Cognitivism: Exercise as Hedonic Experience; Sergio Lara-Bercial and Cliff Mallett: Serial Winning Coaches – Vision, People and Environment; Kari Fasting: Sexual Harassment and Abuse in S...

  16. MANAGEMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL RISKS IN COASTAL AREAS

    OpenAIRE

    M. Caprioli; R. Trizzino; R. Pagliarulo; Scarano, M; F. Mazzone; A. Scognamiglio

    2015-01-01

    The present work deals with the assessment and management of environmental risk conditions in a typical costal area of Southern Italy. This area, located in the Salento peninsula, is subject to recurrent widespread instability phenomena due to the presence of steep rocky cliffs. Along the coast there are numerous beach resorts that are very crowded in the summer season. The environmental hazard deriving from the possible rock falls is unacceptably high for the people safety. Moreover, the lan...

  17. Estimating population size of a nocturnal burrow-nesting seabird using acoustic monitoring and habitat mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Oppel

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Population size assessments for nocturnal burrow-nesting seabirds are logistically challenging because these species are active in colonies only during darkness and often nest on remote islands where manual inspections of breeding burrows are not feasible. Many seabird species are highly vocal, and recent technological innovations now make it possible to record and quantify vocal activity in seabird colonies. Here we test the hypothesis that remotely recorded vocal activity in Cory’s shearwater (Calonectris borealis breeding colonies in the North Atlantic increases with nest density, and combined this relationship with cliff habitat mapping to estimate the population size of Cory’s shearwaters on the island of Corvo (Azores. We deployed acoustic recording devices in 9 Cory’s shearwater colonies of known size to establish a relationship between vocal activity and local nest density (slope = 1.07, R2 = 0.86, p < 0.001. We used this relationship to predict the nest density in various cliff habitat types and produced a habitat map of breeding cliffs to extrapolate nest density around the island of Corvo. The mean predicted nest density on Corvo ranged from 6.6 (2.1–16.2 to 27.8 (19.5–36.4 nests/ha. Extrapolation of habitat-specific nest densities across the cliff area of Corvo resulted in an estimate of 6326 Cory’s shearwater nests (95% confidence interval: 3735–10,524. This population size estimate is similar to previous assessments, but is too imprecise to detect moderate changes in population size over time. While estimating absolute population size from acoustic recordings may not be sufficiently precise, the strong positive relationship that we found between local nest density and recorded calling rate indicates that passive acoustic monitoring may be useful to document relative changes in seabird populations over time.

  18. Marta maailm / Marta Vaarik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaarik, Marta, 1987-

    2007-01-01

    Riigikogu liige Evelin Sepp käis sir Elton Johni kontserdil 15. sept. Saku Suurhallis. Poplaulja Mike Emelai on kaalus alla võtnud. Riigikogu liige Enn Eesmaa esineb Cliff Richardi looga "Don't Forget To Catch Me" 4. okt. Eesti Vähiliidu korraldataval heategevuskontserdil. "Tantsud tähtedega" saates paarina võistlevad laulja Koit Toome ja tantsija Kerttu Tänav käisid Elton Johni kontserdil

  19. COASTLINE EXTRACTION IN VHR IMAGERY USING MATHEMATICAL MORPHOLOGY WITH SPATIAL AND SPECTRAL KNOWLEDGE

    OpenAIRE

    Puissant, Anne; Lefèvre, Sébastien; Weber, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we are dealing with the problem of coastline extraction in Very High Resolution (VHR) multispectral images (Quickbird) on the Normandy Coast (France). Locating precisely the coastline is a crucial task in the context of coastal resource management and planning. In VHR imagery, some details on coastal zone become visible and the coastline definition depends on the geomorphologic context. According to the type of coastal units (sandy beach, wetlands, dune, cliff), several defin...

  20. Sound / Märt Milter

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Milter, Märt

    1998-01-01

    Uute plaatide Rolling Stones "No Security", Spiritualized "Live At The Royal Albert Hall", Kelly family "From Their Hearts", Arnold "Hillside Album", Joe Cocker "Greatest Hits", OST "Acid House", Songs from Andrew Lloyd Webber and Jim Steinmans "Whistle Down The Wind", The Weather Girls "PuttinÒn The Hits", Cliff Richard "Real As I Wanna Be", Folkmill "Topelt rosin", SIG "Sig 20v. Juhla-EP", "Motown Celebrates Sinatra", John Lee Hooker "Best Of Friends"

  1. Spatial and temporal variability of the evaporation duct in the Gulf of Aden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available An evaporation duct climatology is constructed for the Gulf of Aden using a 31-year high-resolution data set from the climate reanalysis product National Centers for Environmental Prediction Climate Forecast System Reanalysis. The climatology reveals spatio-temporal heterogeneity in the evaporation duct height (EDH regulated by the strong interplay between the seasonal monsoon reversals and the related atmospheric and oceanic responses. It also reveals that the Gulf of Aden exhibits a special EDH distribution that is distinct from the adjacent Arabian Sea when the south-west monsoon dominates the gulf. Under these conditions, the EDH of the entire gulf is significantly higher than that of the adjoining Arabian Sea. A cliff-style EDH drop (referred to as the EDH cliff forms at the mouth of the Gulf of Aden. Furthermore, the influence of the EDH cliff on marine radar was investigated using a ray-optics method. Based on the analysis, it was found that the local EDH significantly affects the radar detection ability beneath the evaporation duct for ships sailing in the Gulf of Aden.

  2. Evidence from cosmic ray exposure (CRE) dating for the existence of a pre-Minoan caldera on Santorini, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanassas, C. D.; Bourlès, D. L.; Braucher, R.; Druitt, T. H.; Nomikou, P.; Léanni, L.

    2016-05-01

    Cosmic ray exposure (CRE) dating was performed on the caldera cliffs of Santorini with the aim of detecting cliff segments predating the Minoan eruption (17th century BCE). The methodology involved the determination of in situ-produced cosmogenic 36Cl concentration in basaltic-to-rhyodacitic whole rocks cropping out in the cliffs. After the samples were processed following the chemical protocol of 36Cl preparation for silicate rocks, 36Cl concentrations were measured by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Important challenges during the implementation procedure were related to large amounts of radiogenic 36Cl, complex modeling of inherited 36Cl, and dominance of the thermal and epithermal (low-energy) neutron capture production pathway. Nevertheless, quantitative assessments on the basis of the contribution of the low-energy neutron capture pathway percent to the total production rate validated the calculated CRE dates. Current CRE ages demonstrate that an ancient caldera existed on pre-Minoan Santorini, occupying at least the northern half of the modern-day caldera.

  3. Distribution and behaviour of passerines around peregrine Falco peregrinus eyries in western Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meese, R.J.; Fuller, M.R.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the distribution and behavior of passerine birds within 1 km of Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus eyries in western Greenland. Passerine populations were censused in 1983 around six cliffs occupied by nesting Peregrines and at six sites on the open tundra, and in 1984 at two unoccupied sites suitable for Peregrine nesting. Four passerine species accounted for over 90% of birds seen. Within 400 m of Peregrine occupied cliffs, three species, Lapland Longspur Calcarius lapponicus. Northern Wheatear Oenanthe oenanthe, and Common Redpoll Carduelisflammea, were found in lower than average abundance while the fourth, Snow Bunting Plectrophenax nivalis, was found in increased abundance. Our indirect tests suggest that Peregrine presence, rather than direct predation, was responsible for the distributions of the first three species. The Snow Bunting, however, behaviourally adapts to Peregrine presence in order to exploit nesting habitat available at the cliff base. These results contrast strongly with those reported by other Arctic workers, where increased abundances of potential prey were observed in close proximity to nesting Peregrines.

  4. Stone Lakes virus (family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus), a variant of Fort Morgan virus isolated from swallow bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) west of the Continental Divide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brault, Aaron C; Armijos, M Veronica; Wheeler, Sarah; Wright, Stan; Fang, Ying; Langevin, Stanley; Reisen, William K

    2009-09-01

    Multiple isolates of an alphaviruses within the western equine encephalomyelitis-serocomplex that were related closely to Ft. Morgan and its variant Buggy Creek virus were made from swallow bugs, Oeciacus vicarius Horvath (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), collected from cliff swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) nests at the Stone Lakes National Wildlife Refuge, Sacramento County, CA, during the summers of 2005 and 2006. This virus (hereafter Stone Lakes virus, family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus, STLV) was the first record of this viral group west of the Continental Divide. STLV replicated well in Vero and other vertebrate cell cultures but failed to replicate in C6/36 cells or infect Culex tarsalis Coquillett mosquitoes. STLV failed to produce elevated viremias in adult chickens or house sparrows and was weakly immunogenic. In addition, STLV was not isolated from cliff swallow nestlings nor was antibody detected in adults collected at mist nets. We suggest that STL and related swallow bug viruses may be primarily infections of cimicids that are maintained and amplified either by vertical or nonviremic transmission and that cliff swallows may primarily be important as a bloodmeal source for the bugs rather than as an amplification host for the viruses. PMID:19769055

  5. Coastal erosion as a source of mercury into the marine environment along the Polish Baltic shore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bełdowska, Magdalena; Jędruch, Agnieszka; Łęczyński, Leszek; Saniewska, Dominika; Kwasigroch, Urszula

    2016-08-01

    The climate changes in recent years in the southern Baltic have been resulting in an increased frequency of natural extreme phenomena (i.e. storms, floods) and intensification of abrasion processes, which leads to introduction of large amounts of sedimentary deposits into the marine environment. The aim of this study was to determine the mercury load introduced to the Baltic Sea with deposits crumbling off the cliffs-parts of the coast that are the most exposed to abrasion. The studies were carried out close to five cliffs located on the Polish coast in the years 2011-2014. The results show that coastal erosion could be an important Hg source into the marine environment. This process is the third most important route, after riverine and precipitation input, by which Hg may enter the Gulf of Gdańsk. In the Hg budget in the gulf, the load caused by erosion (14.3 kg a(-1)) accounted for 80 % of the wet deposition and was 50 % higher than the amount of mercury introduced with dry deposition. Although the Hg concentration in the cliff deposits was similar to the natural background, due to their large mass, this problem could be significant. In addition, the preliminary studies on the impact of coastal erosion on the Hg level in the marine ecosystem have shown that this process may be one of the Hg sources into the trophic chain.

  6. Atmospheric flow measurements using the PIV and HWA techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Bassi Marinho Pires

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Alcântara Space Center (ASC is the Brazilian gate to the space where rockets of different sizes are launched. At ASC there is a relative topographical variation, coastal cliff, which modifies the atmospheric boundary layer characteristics and can cause interference for operations of rockets. In the present work, a simplified model (mock-up was studied in a wind tunnel. A scale factor of 1:1000 was used and the atmospheric flow was measured using the hot wire anemometer (HWA and particle image velocimetry (PIV techniques. Using of HWA it was possible to calculate values of average wind speed and fluctuations in a set of points of the section of tests that representing the region of the ASC. Through these measures, other meteorological parameters that represent the atmospheric flow, such as the friction velocity (u*, the roughness length (z0 from the logarithmic profile and the alpha exponent (ɑ of the power law were calculated. With the use of the PIV´s technique, the streamlines and the vorticity fields were obtained and it was noticed that the vorticity generated downwind of the coastal cliff has a strong turbulence (vorticities around 2000 sˉ¹. A rectangular building (simulating the mobile integration tower was inserted at the mock-up and the downwind turbulence was similar to the one generated by the coastal cliff.

  7. Coastal erosion as a source of mercury into the marine environment along the Polish Baltic shore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bełdowska, Magdalena; Jędruch, Agnieszka; Łęczyński, Leszek; Saniewska, Dominika; Kwasigroch, Urszula

    2016-08-01

    The climate changes in recent years in the southern Baltic have been resulting in an increased frequency of natural extreme phenomena (i.e. storms, floods) and intensification of abrasion processes, which leads to introduction of large amounts of sedimentary deposits into the marine environment. The aim of this study was to determine the mercury load introduced to the Baltic Sea with deposits crumbling off the cliffs-parts of the coast that are the most exposed to abrasion. The studies were carried out close to five cliffs located on the Polish coast in the years 2011-2014. The results show that coastal erosion could be an important Hg source into the marine environment. This process is the third most important route, after riverine and precipitation input, by which Hg may enter the Gulf of Gdańsk. In the Hg budget in the gulf, the load caused by erosion (14.3 kg a(-1)) accounted for 80 % of the wet deposition and was 50 % higher than the amount of mercury introduced with dry deposition. Although the Hg concentration in the cliff deposits was similar to the natural background, due to their large mass, this problem could be significant. In addition, the preliminary studies on the impact of coastal erosion on the Hg level in the marine ecosystem have shown that this process may be one of the Hg sources into the trophic chain. PMID:27164873

  8. Ecological effects of nuclear steam electric station operations on estuarine systems. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the findings of studies of the impact of the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant on the aquatic biota of Chesapeake Bay. Physical findings show that the typical radial extent of influence of the discharge on the physical and chemical environment of the Bay is rather limited (< 2 km). This suggestion is bolstered by findings of phytoplankton and zooplankton studies: when effects were noted at all, they only appeared at sampling stations nearest (within 2 km of) the discharge. Also, direct entrainment effects on these groups were either small (in the case of phytoplankton) or species-specific (in the case of zooplankton). Benthos showed mixed responses to plant operations - the populations of some species were enhanced, one species was adversely affected, and others were unaffected. The major plant effect on the benthos was due to habitat resource enrichment, and the consequence was higher standing stocks (e.g., more food for fish) in the affected area. Direct plant effects on finfish are dominated by impingement. Mortality as a result of impingement, for many species, tends to be moderate to slight. Effects as a result of entrainment of eggs and larvae are limited because the Calvert Cliffs area is not a major spawning location for any species. In sum, the Calvert Cliffs plant appears to have a limited effect on the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem. 180 references, 6 figures, 18 tables

  9. Investigations of the Origin of the Magnetic Remanence in Late Pleistocene Lacustrine Sediments in the Mono Basin, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, N.; Corley, A. D.

    2015-12-01

    In the Mono Basin, CA, fine sand, silt, and volcanic ash deposited in Pleistocene Lake Russell is exposed on the margin of Mono Lake, and on Paoha Island in the lake. The silt records the Mono Lake Excursion (MLE: Denham and Cox, 1971) and several tens of thousands of years of paleomagnetic secular variation (PSV: Denham and Cox, 1971; Liddicoat, 1976; Lund et al., 1988). The sediment is believed to be an accurate recorder of PSV because the MLE has the same signal at widely separated localities in the basin (Denham, 1974; Liddicoat and Coe, 1979; Liddicoat, 1992) with the exception at wave-cut cliffs on the southeast side of the lake (Coe and Liddicoat, 1994). Magnetite, titanomagnetite, and titanomaghemite are present in the sediment (Denham and Cox, 1971; Liddicoat, 1976; Liddicoat and Coe, 1979), which is glacial flour from the adjacent Sierra Nevada (Lajoie, 1968). X-rays of the sediment and lineation measurements show patterns of normal bedding with layers aligned such that the minimum axes are within 5-10 degrees of normal bedding, with 10 percent foliation and 1 percent lineation (Coe and Liddicoat, 1994). We explore reasons for the difference in part of the PSV record at the wave-cut cliffs beyond the interpretation of Coe and Liddicoat (1994) that paleomagnetic field strength is a controlling factor. Possibilities include the sedimentation rate - at localities on the margin of Mono Lake the rate is about 60 percent less than at the wave-cut cliffs - and lithology of the sediment. At Mill Creek on the northwest side of Mono Lake, the non-magnetic sediment fraction is coarser-grained than at the wave-cut cliffs by a factor of about two, and there is a similar difference in the total inorganic carbon (TIC) percentage by weight for the two localities. (Spokowski et al., 2011) Studies of the sediment at two localities in the basin where the Hilina Pali Excursion (Teanby et al., 2002) might be recorded (Wilson Creek and South Shore Cliffs; Liddicoat and Coe

  10. Dynamics of a recovering Arctic bird population: the importance of climate, density dependence, and site quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruggeman, Jason E; Swem, Ted; Andersen, David E; Kennedy, Patricia L; Nigro, Debora

    2015-10-01

    Intrinsic and extrinsic factors affect vital rates and population-level processes, and understanding these factors is paramount to devising successful management plans for wildlife species. For example, birds time migration in response, in part, to local and broadscale climate fluctuations to initiate breeding upon arrival to nesting territories, and prolonged inclement weather early in the breeding season can inhibit egg-laying and reduce productivity. Also, density-dependent regulation occurs in raptor populations, as territory size is related to resource availability. Arctic Peregrine Falcons (Falco peregrinus tundrius; hereafter Arctic peregrine) have a limited and northern breeding distribution, including the Colville River Special Area (CRSA) in the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska, USA. We quantified influences of climate, topography, nest productivity, prey habitat, density dependence, and interspecific competition affecting Arctic peregrines in the CRSA by applying the Dail-Madsen model to estimate abundance and vital rates of adults on nesting cliffs from 1981 through 2002. Arctic peregrine abundance increased throughout the 1980s, which spanned the population's recovery from DDT-induced reproductive failure, until exhibiting a stationary trend in the 1990s. Apparent survival rate (i.e., emigration; death) was negatively correlated with the number of adult Arctic peregrines on the cliff the previous year, suggesting effects of density-dependent population regulation. Apparent survival and arrival rates (i.e., immigration; recruitment) were higher during years with earlier snowmelt and milder winters, and apparent survival was positively correlated with nesting season maximum daily temperature. Arrival rate was positively correlated with average Arctic peregrine productivity along a cliff segment from the previous year and initial abundance was positively correlated with cliff height. Higher cliffs with documented higher productivity (presumably

  11. GEOLOGICAL-GEOMORPHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF THE REGION OF GUADALAJARA, MEXICO AND ITS RELATION WITH SUBSIDENCE HAZARDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Plascencia, C.; Delgado-Argote, L. A.; Nunez-Cornu, F. J.

    2009-12-01

    The Metropolitan Area of Guadalajara (MAG) was built over pumice deposits generated during Quaternary activity in the Sierra la Primavera, that covered a thick sequence of basaltic, dacitic, rhyolitic lava flows, ignimbrites and fluvial-lacustrine deposits. The most complete stratigraphic section is observed in different sections of the Rio Grande de Santiago cliff, located north of the city. Five distinctive geoforms were identified: 1) the cliff of the Rio Grande de Santiago (CRGS) is a tectonic erosive depression with average depth of 500 m and 3.5 km width. Structurally, in the San Gaspar zone, south of the union of Verde river with Santiago river, we identified normal faults with left-lateral motion and oriented 191°/89° on basaltic lavas. In the Colimilla dam, 1297 meters above sea level, we observed lateral faulting with normal component (267°/81°) where jumps as high as 30 m were observed. Lava flows are sheared parallel to the Verde river. In the Puente Arcediano zone, where the base of the sequence is apparent, faults have a dominant orientation of 188°/75° on andesitic flows, whereas on pumice ignimbrites they show a shearing with a direction of 92°/84° parallel to the Verde river. 2) The Sierra la Primavera, to the southwest of MAG is a caldera formed by a series of domes, flows, and pyroclastic deposits with rhyolitic composition. 3) The southern Guadalajara volcanic chain system, which is formed by several volcanic cones and flows of basaltic-andesitic composition and Plio-Pleistocene age, oriented NW-SE, developed over the San Gaspar ignimbrite (4.8 m.a.). 4) Los Colomos and Alcalde-Barranquitas cliff system, which form dendrite networks developed on pumice deposits, where most of the cliffs were deep and narrow. The origin of the cliffs might be associated with observed faults or fracture zones in the CRGS. 5) Wavy plains of Atemajac and Tesistán valleys, which are characterized by hills and wide plains. The system of cliffs controlled the

  12. Sand sources and transport pathways for the San Francisco Bay coastal system, based on X-ray diffraction mineralogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, James R.; Mizell, Kira; Barnard, Patrick L.

    2013-01-01

    The mineralogical compositions of 119 samples collected from throughout the San Francisco Bay coastal system, including bayfloor and seafloor, area beaches, cliff outcrops, and major drainages, were determined using X-ray diffraction (XRD). Comparison of the mineral concentrations and application of statistical cluster analysis of XRD spectra allowed for the determination of provenances and transport pathways. The use of XRD mineral identifications provides semi-quantitative compositions needed for comparisons of beach and offshore sands with potential cliff and river sources, but the innovative cluster analysis of XRD diffraction spectra provides a unique visualization of how groups of samples within the San Francisco Bay coastal system are related so that sand-sized sediment transport pathways can be inferred. The main vector for sediment transport as defined by the XRD analysis is from San Francisco Bay to the outer coast, where the sand then accumulates on the ebb tidal delta and also moves alongshore. This mineralogical link defines a critical pathway because large volumes of sediment have been removed from the Bay over the last century via channel dredging, aggregate mining, and borrow pit mining, with comparable volumes of erosion from the ebb tidal delta over the same period, in addition to high rates of shoreline retreat along the adjacent, open-coast beaches. Therefore, while previously only a temporal relationship was established, the transport pathway defined by mineralogical and geochemical tracers support the link between anthropogenic activities in the Bay and widespread erosion outside the Bay. The XRD results also establish the regional and local importance of sediment derived from cliff erosion, as well as both proximal and distal fluvial sources. This research is an important contribution to a broader provenance study aimed at identifying the driving forces for widespread geomorphic change in a heavily urbanized coastal-estuarine system.

  13. The impact of drought and air pollution on metal profiles in peat cores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souter, Laura; Watmough, Shaun A

    2016-01-15

    Peat cores have long been used to reconstruct atmospheric metal deposition; however, debate remains regarding how well historical depositional patterns are preserved in peat. This study examined peat cores sampled from 14 peatlands in the Sudbury region of Ontario, Canada, which has a well-documented history of acid and metal deposition. Copper (Cu) and lead (Pb) concentrations within individual peat cores were strongly correlated and were elevated in the upper 10 cm, especially in the sites closest to the main Copper Cliff smelter. In contrast, nickel (Ni) and cobalt (Co) concentrations were often elevated at depths greater than 10 cm, indicating much greater post-depositional movement of these metals compared with Cu and Pb. Post-depositional movement of metals is supported by the observation that Ni and Co concentrations in peat pore water increased by approximately 530 and 960% for Ni and Co, respectively between spring and summer due to drought-induced acidification, but there was much less change in Cu concentration. Sphagnum cover and (210)Pb activity measured at 10 cm at the 14 sites significantly increased with distance from Copper Cliff, and the surface peat von Post score decreased with distance from Copper Cliff, indicating the rate of peat formation increases with distance from Sudbury presumably as a result of improved Sphagnum survival. This study shows that the ability of peat to preserve deposition histories of some metals is strongly affected by drought-induced post-depositional movement and that loss of Sphagnum due to air pollution impairs the rate of peat formation, further affecting metal profiles in peatlands. PMID:26473705

  14. Research on Yazhou culture brand building and itsDevelopment%崖州文化品牌塑造及其发展研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭文静

    2015-01-01

    崖州是三亚历史上的称谓,其古城历代为州郡治所,迄今已有千余年。崖州地处我国最南边陲,扼海上丝绸之路要冲。其文化内涵呈现四个方面的特性:汉黎民族文化的融汇;基于海上丝绸之路的中外文化交汇;中原文化与天涯文化的交汇;多元宗教思想的影响,并由此形成其品牌特征。崖州文化积淀深厚,但随着崖州地名的消失,崖州文化及品牌也存在承载与发展之惑。%Cliff is the history of Sanya city as its title,the county seat,so far,more than a thousand years. The state is located in the southernmost border of China,the maritime Silk Road hub choke. Its cultural connotation has four characteristics:the fusion of Han Li ethnic culture;based on the Silk Road on the sea in Chinese culture and foreign cultures;intersection of the culture of central plain and the limits of the earth;the influence of religious pluralism,and thus the formation of its brand identity. Ya,profound cultural accumulation,but with the names of the cliff cliff disappear,culture and brand are bearing and development.

  15. The impact of drought and air pollution on metal profiles in peat cores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souter, Laura; Watmough, Shaun A

    2016-01-15

    Peat cores have long been used to reconstruct atmospheric metal deposition; however, debate remains regarding how well historical depositional patterns are preserved in peat. This study examined peat cores sampled from 14 peatlands in the Sudbury region of Ontario, Canada, which has a well-documented history of acid and metal deposition. Copper (Cu) and lead (Pb) concentrations within individual peat cores were strongly correlated and were elevated in the upper 10 cm, especially in the sites closest to the main Copper Cliff smelter. In contrast, nickel (Ni) and cobalt (Co) concentrations were often elevated at depths greater than 10 cm, indicating much greater post-depositional movement of these metals compared with Cu and Pb. Post-depositional movement of metals is supported by the observation that Ni and Co concentrations in peat pore water increased by approximately 530 and 960% for Ni and Co, respectively between spring and summer due to drought-induced acidification, but there was much less change in Cu concentration. Sphagnum cover and (210)Pb activity measured at 10 cm at the 14 sites significantly increased with distance from Copper Cliff, and the surface peat von Post score decreased with distance from Copper Cliff, indicating the rate of peat formation increases with distance from Sudbury presumably as a result of improved Sphagnum survival. This study shows that the ability of peat to preserve deposition histories of some metals is strongly affected by drought-induced post-depositional movement and that loss of Sphagnum due to air pollution impairs the rate of peat formation, further affecting metal profiles in peatlands.

  16. 阿里岩画中的原始法鼓考%A Research on Primordial Buddhistic Drum appeared in Petrous Picture around Ngari Prefecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦虎三

    2015-01-01

    在阿里地区,有不少反映苯教早期活动的岩画,其中塔康巴岩画点与任姆栋岩画中物左手抓执“圆形物”应为“单面抓执式皮鼓”。通过将之与多种少数民族皮鼓以及其他区“单面抓执式皮鼓”典型特质的比较研究,有助于我们了解苯教早期的活动形态,同时可以见苯教原始法鼓的源流与演化路径。%In Ngari Prefecture,there are quite a few cliff paintings that reflect the early activities of bon the original religion,among which there are Takangba cliff painting and Renmudong cliff painting.In the two paintings,the “round objects” held in the left hand of the figures are proved as “single-side rabbing leather drum” by this article.To compare it with various kinds of leather drums of the ethnic minority and “single-side grabbing leather drum” in other areas in their typical,we could understand etter about the early activities of the original religion,and get a glimpse of the source and evolution ath of the ancient Dharma drums of Bon,the original religion.

  17. Detecting Slow Deformation Signals Preceding Dynamic Failure: A New Strategy For The Mitigation Of Natural Hazards (SAFER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinciguerra, S.; Colombero, C.; Comina, C.; Umili, G.

    2015-12-01

    Rock slope monitoring is a major aim in territorial risk assessment and mitigation. The use of "site specific" microseismic monitoring systems can allow to detect pre-failure signals in unstable sectors within the rock mass and to predict the possible acceleration to the failure. To this aim multi-scale geophysical methods can provide a unique tool for an high-resolution imaging of the internal structure of the rock mass and constraints on the physical state of the medium. We present here a cross-hole seismic tomography survey coupled with laboratory ultrasonic velocity measurements and determination of physical properties on rock samples to characterize the damaged and potentially unstable granitic cliff of Madonna del Sasso (NW, Italy). Results allowed to achieve two main advances, in terms of obtaining: i) a lithological interpretation of the velocity field obtained at the site, ii) a systematic correlation of the measured velocities with physical properties (density and porosity) and macroscopic features of the granite (weathering and anisotropy) of the cliff. A microseismic monitoring system developed by the University of Turin/Compagnia San Paolo, consisting of a network of 4 triaxial geophones (4.5 Hz) connected to a 12-channel data logger, has been deployed on the unstable granitic cliff. More than 2000 events with different waveforms, duration and frequency content were recorded between November 2013 and July 2014. By inspecting the acquired events we identified the key parameters for a reliable distinction among the nature of each signal, i.e. the signal shape (in terms of amplitude, duration, kurtosis) and the frequency content (maximum frequency content and frequency distribution). Four main classes of recorded signals can be recognised: microseismic events, regional earthquakes, electrical noises and calibration signals, and unclassified events (probably grouping rockfalls, quarry blasts, other anthropic and natural sources of seismic noise).

  18. A 150-year record of coastline dynamics within a sediment cell: Eastern England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montreuil, Anne-Lise; Bullard, Joanna E.

    2012-12-01

    Coastal sediment cells reflect processes operating at a range of scales, but it is the medium spatial and temporal scales (decades to centuries) that are of greatest interest for coastal management. This paper focuses on coastline position change within a single sediment cell over 150 years where the geomorphology includes cliffs, beaches and saltmarshes. The focus is the east coast of England from Flamborough Head to Gibraltar Point. Although the updrift sector of this sediment cell has been studied for well over a century, the downdrift sector has attracted significantly less attention. Using topographic profiles, bathymetric profiles, aerial photographs and historical maps we mapped coastline erosion and accretion using the Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) and calculated volumetric changes for different morphometric units. Rapid erosion of the updrift Holderness cliffs has been counterbalanced with accretion on beaches along the downdrift Lincolnshire coast. The amount of accretion in Lincolnshire corresponds to around 29% of the volume of sediment eroded from Holderness. Much of the eroded cliff material is likely to be deposited temporarily into nearshore and offshore sand banks before being redistributed by cross-shore currents. An exploration of storm surge impact on long-term erosion and accretion rates showed no clear relationship between storm surge frequency and change in coastline position, however this may be in part due to the relative timing of storm occurrence and data acquisition. The Jenkinson daily weather type classification was found to be a reasonable proxy for the occurrence of strong onshore winds which may offer scope for further investigation of the role of forcing factors over time periods beyond the length of the meteorological and tidal station records. Winter North Atlantic Oscillation phase was not a good indicator of storminess on the east coast of England but may be a useful proxy for quiescence.

  19. Unraveling the dynamics that scale cross-shore headland relief on rocky coastlines: 2. Model predictions and initial tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limber, Patrick W.; Murray, A. Brad

    2014-04-01

    We explore the behavior of a theoretical model of cross-shore headland relief caused by alongshore differences in lithology and rock strength on rocky coastlines. Results address the question of why some rocky coasts exhibit frequent headland and embayment sequences while others evolve to a flat, smooth, and sandy configuration. Main model predictions are that cross-shore headland amplitude is inversely proportional to beach sediment supply and the strength of wave energy convergence and divergence along the headland and bay, and proportional to the alongshore embayment length (or distance between headlands) and the difference between headland and bay rock strength. The coastline's initial physical properties (sea cliff height, composition, etc.) largely determine whether headlands will be persistent or transient landscape features. Model timescales over which the headland and bay reach steady state amplitude, or disappear to a flat coastline, range from 120 to 175,000 years depending on how close the initial amplitude is to steady state. In many cases, the coastline must evolve over several sea level highstands in order to reach equilibrium. A characteristic timescale (independent of initial conditions) shows that the coastline evolves most rapidly when: wave focusing is stronger; sea cliff rock is weaker or retreats faster in a given wave climate; the sea cliff retreat rate decreases rapidly as a function of beach width (i.e., the beach is very effective at dampening wave energy); and the coastline is sediment rich. Comparisons to nature suggest that our model is qualitatively capturing general rocky coastline dynamics and that modeled headland amplitudes are consistent with observed amplitudes.

  20. Hazards in the coastal karst of Balai (NW Sardinia, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna, Laura; Uda, Michele; Pascucci, Vincenzo

    2016-04-01

    The coastal karst area of Balai headland is located in the central part of the Gulf of Asinara (North-West Sardinia, Italy) near the city of Porto Torres, comprised between the homonymous harbour and Platamona beach. This karst plateau has a monocline geometry truncated by the coastal escarpment, up to 40 m-high, that in the last decades has been affected by slope instability related to human activities and/or climate change. The area is characterised by a flat morphology constituted of Miocene limestone gently dipping towards the North-West. Its altitude ranges from 0 to 50 m asl. The 3 km-long cliff is locally interrupted by some small gravelly coves. Along the longitudinal profile of the headland, three main morphological steps have been identified at 15, 8 and 6.5 m asl. They represent past wave cut platforms. The shoreline is well marked and the coves cut into the land up to 50 m in length, perpendicularly to the coast. They follow the direction of a series of parallel NE-facing fractures. The modern tidal notch is well exposed along the carbonate cliff at the present sea level. Along the limestone cliff, notch development is amplified by mixing of sea and fresh water coming from submerged springs. Moreover, this marine erosion feature is a good sea level marker in microtidal conditions, such as Mediterranean Sea, and an indicator of tectonic stability, of the Sardinian microplate. In some coves, two generations of fossil notches have been observed at 6.5 m asl and -1 m bsl, respectively, along with lithophaga boreholes up to 8 m asl. Both indicate the past eustatic conditions. All these geomorphic features make Balai promontory an interesting geological spot for studying past sea level fluctuations and present slope movements, trying to distinguish hazards due to climate change from those directly related to anthropogenic forces such as wave-induced damage due to waterborne navigation.

  1. Paleoseismic and Paleogeographic Reconstruction of the Central Coastal of Ecuador: Insights from Quaternary Geological Data for the Jaramijó bay area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunga, K.; Maurizio, M.; Garces, D.; Quiñonez, M. F.; Peña, G. E.

    2015-12-01

    Late Holocene sequences of loose to weakly consolidated sand and clay sediments intercalated with volcanic-ash layers (particles transported by fall-out), are outcrops on a sea cliff in the Jaramijó bay area (situated 7 km away in the East direction from Manta city, Manabí, at the middle section of Ecuador's Pacific coastline). The main geomorphologic feature in the site is the wave-cut beach platform permanently exposed at the lowest tides and an 18 m-high coastal cliff retreat with an estimated rate of ca. 2.5 meter/year (Chunga, 2014). One of the most remarkable geoarchaeological evidences found in this outcrop, it is the remains of two large bones (ie., radius and radial) of the human forearm of ca. 800 years ago (with archaeological vestiges of the Manteña culture) covered by a 8 to 25 cm-thick volcanic ash layer, stratigraphically at the top, an erosive contact with chaotic deposition of medium to fine-grained sand which indicates a potential tsunami deposit. Moreover, several volcanic ash and lahar layers are well distinguished on the sea cliff, which are associated with pyroclastic products transported as lahars from the Quilotoa and Cotopaxi, Pululahua volcanic structures (northern Andes in Ecuador) situated at a distance between of 150-190 kilometers (Mothes and Hall, 2008; Usselman, 2006). It is not excluded that previous pre-Columbian cultures also have been displaced in the last 2,000 years by disastrous geological events such as subduction earthquakes, local tsunami and volcanic lahar-ash deposits. All of these stratigraphic and palaeoseismologic features will allow us to understand the catastrophic geological events that abruptly shaped the landscape, furthermore, to investigate the changes of moderate to high Late Holocene progradation rates of the Jaramijó bay coastline.

  2. An exploratory numerical model of rocky shore profile evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Hironori; Dickson, Mark E.; Kench, Paul S.

    2016-09-01

    Rocky shores occur along much of the world's coastline and include a wide range of coastal morphologies, such as intertidal shore platforms. Considerable research effort has been placed on trying to understand developmental processes on rocky shores, but progress has been forestalled because these landscapes develop slowly and preserve little evidence of evolution through time. This paper presents a new exploratory numerical model developed to study long-term shore profile evolution on rock coasts. The model purposely considers only a limited number of processes, each represented in a highly abstracted way. Despite these simplifications, the model exhibits a large range of emergent shore profile shapes. This behavior is enabled both by broader spatial representation of the driving erosion forces and the flexibility provided by a grid discretization scheme. Initial model testing shows the development of varied rocky profile geometries, ranging from steep plunging cliffs, cliffs with narrow benches, and cliffs with a variety of shore platform shapes. Most of the model geometries are similar to those observed in the field, and model behavior is robust and internally consistent across a relatively large parameter space. This paper provides a detailed description of the new model and its subsequent testing. Emphasis is placed on comparison of model results with published field observations in which morphometric relationships are described between shore platform gradient and tidal range, and platform elevation and platform width. The model adequately simulates these morphometric relationships, while retaining its ability to simulate a wide range of profile shapes. The simplicity of process representations, and the limited number of processes implemented, means that model outputs can be interpreted reasonably easily. Hence, an opportunity is now provided, following the testing described in this paper, to use the model to systematically investigate the broader controlling

  3. Stability of Molasse: TLS for structural analysis in the valley of Gotteron-Fribourg, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Hammouda, Mariam; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Derron, Marc Henri; Bouaziz, Samir; Mazotti, Benoit

    2016-04-01

    The marine molasses of Fribourg (Switzerland) is an area where the cliff collapses and rockfalls are quite frequent and difficult to predict due to this particular lithology, a poorly consolidated greywacke. Because of some recent rockfall events, the situation became critical especially in the valley of Gotteron where a big block has slightly moved down and might destroy a house in case of rupture. The cliff made of jointed sandstone and thin layers of clay and siltstone presents many fractures, joints and massive cross bedding surfaces which increases the possibility of slab failure. This paper presents a detailed structural analysis of the cliff and the identification of the potential failure mechanisms. The methodology is about combining field observation and terrestrial LiDAR scanning point cloud in order to assess the stability of potential slope instabilities of molasses. Three LiDAR scans were done i) to extract discontinuity families depending to the dip and the dip direction of joints and ii) to run kinematic tests in order to identify responsible sets for each potential failure mechanisms. Raw point clouds were processed using IMAlign module of Polyworks and CloudCompare software. The structural analysis based on COLTOP 3D (Jaboyedoff et al. 2007) allowed the identification of four discontinuity sets that were not measured in the field. Two different failure mechanisms have been identified as critical: i) planar sliding which is the main responsible mechanism of the present fallen block and ii) wedge sliding. The planar sliding is defined by the discontinuity sets J1 and J5 with a direction parallel to the slope and with a steep dip angle. The wedges, defined by couples of discontinuity sets, contribute to increase cracks' opening and to the detachment of slabs. The use of TLS combined with field survey provides us a first interpretation of instabilities and a very promising structural analysis.

  4. An open source GIS-based tool to integrate the fragmentation mechanism in rockfall propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matas, Gerard; Lantada, Nieves; Gili, Josep A.; Corominas, Jordi

    2015-04-01

    Rockfalls are frequent instability processes in road cuts, open pit mines and quarries, steep slopes and cliffs. Even though the stability of rock slopes can be determined using analytical approaches, the assessment of large rock cliffs require simplifying assumptions due to the difficulty of working with a large amount of joints, the scattering of both the orientations and strength parameters. The attitude and persistency of joints within the rock mass define the size of kinematically unstable rock volumes. Furthermore the rock block will eventually split in several fragments during its propagation downhill due its impact with the ground surface. Knowledge of the size, energy, trajectory… of each block resulting from fragmentation is critical in determining the vulnerability of buildings and protection structures. The objective of this contribution is to present a simple and open source tool to simulate the fragmentation mechanism in rockfall propagation models and in the calculation of impact energies. This tool includes common modes of motion for falling boulders based on the previous literature. The final tool is being implemented in a GIS (Geographic Information Systems) using open source Python programming. The tool under development will be simple, modular, compatible with any GIS environment, open source, able to model rockfalls phenomena correctly. It could be used in any area susceptible to rockfalls with a previous adjustment of the parameters. After the adjustment of the model parameters to a given area, a simulation could be performed to obtain maps of kinetic energy, frequency, stopping density and passing heights. This GIS-based tool and the analysis of the fragmentation laws using data collected from recent rockfall have being developed within the RockRisk Project (2014-2016). This project is funded by the Spanish Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad and entitled "Rockfalls in cliffs: risk quantification and its prevention"(BIA2013-42582-P).

  5. Site selection and nest survival of the Bar-Headed Goose (Anser indicus) on the Mongolian Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batbayar, Nyambayar; Takekawa, John Y.; Natsagdorj, Tseveenmyadag; Spragens, Kyle A.; Xiao, Xiamgming

    2014-01-01

    Waterbirds breeding on the Mongolian Plateau in Central Asia must find suitable wetland areas for nesting in a semiarid region characterized by highly variable water conditions. The first systematic nesting study of a waterbird dependent on this region for breeding was conducted on the Bar-headed Goose (Anser indicus). The purpose of this study was to document Bar-headed Goose nesting locations, characterize nests and nesting strategies, and estimate daily nest survival (n = 235 nests) from eight areas of west-central Mongolia across three summers (2009–2011) using a modified Mayfield estimator. Bar-headed Goose daily nest survival ranged from 0.94 to 0.98, with a 3-year average nest success of 42.6% during incubation. Bar-headed Geese were found to primarily nest on isolated pond and lake islands as previously reported, but were also documented regularly, though less frequently, along rocky cliffs in several regions of west-central Mongolia. Daily nest survival was higher for cliff nests than for island nests. Information-theoretic models indicated that nest survival decreased with nest age and varied annually with changing environmental conditions. Results of this study suggest that while Bar-headed Geese primarily rely on nesting island sites these sites may be more susceptible to anthropogenic disturbance and predation events influenced by seasonal variation in environmental conditions, and that higher daily nest survival values documented for the less frequent cliff nest strategy may provide an important alternative strategy during poor island nest success years. Thus, conservation efforts for this and other waterbird species in the semiarid region should be focused on conserving nesting islands and protecting them from disturbance in areas of high livestock densities experiencing a rapidly warming climate.

  6. Late Quaternary lake-level changes of Lake El'gygytgyn, NE Siberia

    OpenAIRE

    Juschus, O.; Pavlov, M.; G. Schwamborn; Preusser, F.; Fedorov, G.; Melles, M.

    2011-01-01

    Lake El'gygytgyn is situated in a 3.6 Ma old impact crater in northeastern Siberia. Presented here is a reconstruction of the Quaternary lake-level history as derived from sediment cores from the southern lake shelf. There, a cliff-like bench 10 m below the modern water level has been investigated. Deep-water sediments on the shelf indicate high lake levels during a warm Mid-Pleistocene period. One period with low lake level prior to Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage (MIS) 3 has been identified, fo...

  7. Echoes from Si gang lih: Burao Yilu's 'Moon Mountain'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Bender

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Wa poet Burao Yilu's utilization of myth, ritual, and folk customs in representing the Wa ethnic group in the poem 'Moon Mountain' is discussed. Negative stereotypes of the Wa, an indigenous people of southwestern Yunnan Province, China, include the now forbidden practice of headhunting. By referencing the origin myth 'Si gang lih' and evoking images of ancient cliff paintings, rituals, and agricultural practices, Burao offers a nuanced view of Wa culture while affirming deep-rooted aspects of the Wa worldview. As a literary work, 'Moon Mountain' is an example of the Chinese language (Sinophone poetry being produced by ethnic minority writers in southwest China today.

  8. ’He descended legs-upwards‘: Position and motion in Tzeltal frog stories

    OpenAIRE

    P Brown

    2000-01-01

    How are events framed in narrative? Speakers of English (a 'satellite-framed' language), when 'reading' Mercer Mayer's wordless picture book 'Frog, Where Are You?', find the story self-evident: a boy has a dog and a pet frog; the frog escapes and runs away; the boy and dog look for it across hill and dale, through woods and over a cliff, until they find it and return home with a baby frog child of the original pet frog. In Tzeltal, as spoken in a Mayan community in southern Mexico, the story ...

  9. Position and motion in Tzeltal frog stories: The acquisition of narrative style

    OpenAIRE

    P Brown

    2004-01-01

    How are events framed in narrative? Speakers of English (a 'satellite-framed' language), when 'reading' Mercer Mayer's wordless picture book 'Frog, Where Are You?', find the story self-evident: a boy has a dog and a pet frog; the frog escapes and runs away; the boy and dog look for it across hill and dale, through woods and over a cliff, until they find it and return home with a baby frog child of the original pet frog. In Tzeltal, as spoken in a Mayan community in southern Mexico, the story ...

  10. 2003年十勝沖地震(MJMA 8.0)発生直後に樽前火山で起きた高感度カメラで明るく見える現象

    OpenAIRE

    寺田, 暁彦; 中川, 光弘; 大島, 弘光; 青山, 裕; 神山, 裕幸

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the authors describe remarkable thermo-activities especially at the fumaroles B on the southwestern cliff of the summit dome on Tarumae volcano, which unusually occurred soon after the Tokachi-oki erathquake that took place on Sep. 26 2003 (MJMA 8.0). The unusual thermoactivities include (1) increase in gas flux, (2) weak glow witnessed by the high-sensitive camera in the nighttime with positions moving night by night, and (3) ash ejection of about 24m^3. Since the high-sensiti...

  11. Earnings management under price regulation. Empirical evidence from the Spanish electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyses the effect of price regulation on the accounting policy of Spanish electricity companies over the period 1991-2001. As predicted by the political costs hypothesis (Watts and Zimmerman, 1986) (Watts, R.L., Zimmerman, J.L. 1986. Positive accounting theory, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ), managers artificially reduce reported earnings when the government establishes tariff increases. In this way, companies attempt to diminish their political visibility and counteract social outcry arising from the government's decision. Several abnormal accruals models existent in the literature are used to obtain a proxy for managerial accounting discretion on earnings

  12. Earnings management under price regulation: empirical evidence from the Spanish electricity industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill-de-Albornoz, B. [Universitat Jaume I, Castellon (Spain). Dept. of Finance and Accounting; Illueca, M. [Universitat Jaume I, Castellon (Spain). Dept. of Finance and Accounting; Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Economicas, Valencia (Spain)

    2005-03-01

    This paper analyses the effect of price regulation on the accounting policy of Spanish electricity companies over the period 1991-2001. As predicted by the political costs hypothesis (Watts and Zimmerman, 1986) [Watts, R.L., Zimmerman, J.L. 1986. Positive accounting theory, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ], managers artificially reduce reported earnings when the government establishes tariff increases. In this way, companies attempt to diminish their political visibility and counteract social outcry arising from the government's decision. Several abnormal accruals models existent in the literature are used to obtain a proxy for managerial accounting discretion on earnings. (author)

  13. Earnings management under price regulation. Empirical evidence from the Spanish electricity industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill-de-Albornoz, Belen; Illueca, Manuel [Department of Finance and Accounting, Universitat Jaume I, Campus del Riu Sec, 12081, Castellon (Spain)

    2005-03-15

    This paper analyses the effect of price regulation on the accounting policy of Spanish electricity companies over the period 1991-2001. As predicted by the political costs hypothesis (Watts and Zimmerman, 1986) [Watts, R.L., Zimmerman, J.L. 1986. Positive accounting theory, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ], managers artificially reduce reported earnings when the government establishes tariff increases. In this way, companies attempt to diminish their political visibility and counteract social outcry arising from the government's decision. Several abnormal accruals models existent in the literature are used to obtain a proxy for managerial accounting discretion on earnings.

  14. Lessons Carved in Stone: Basics of Buddhism at Sichuan's Dazu Rock Carvings Part Ⅱ%大足石刻

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ The thing is, even with the carvings to yourself, there's still too much to appreciate in one visit. The figures choke the cliff face, telling stories on salvation via animated figures tinted in rosy ochre,plum, lapis lazuli and gold leaf. I began with Sakyamuni's Filial Piety, 68 statues which depicted the prince's devout attention to his parents and self-sacrifice through such acts as nourishing them by cutting off a slice of his own flesh and offering his eye as medicine when his father fell ill.

  15. ActionScript Developer's Guide to PureMVC

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, Cliff

    2011-01-01

    Gain hands-on experience with PureMVC, the popular open source framework for developing maintainable applications with a Model-View-Controller architecture. In this concise guide, PureMVC creator Cliff Hall teaches the fundamentals of PureMVC development by walking you through the construction of a complete non-trivial Adobe AIR application. Through clear explanations and numerous ActionScript code examples, you'll learn best practices for using the framework's classes in your day-to-day work. Discover how PureMVC enables you to focus on the purpose and scope of your application, while the f

  16. A story about distributions of dimensions and locations of boulders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager

    2006-01-01

    for making a bored tunnel through the till deposit. Geographical universality was discovered through the statistical analysis of observations of boulder coordinates and dimension measures from wide spread cliff beach locations. One conclusion is that the joint size distribution up to some degree of modeling...... distribution. Moreover, these ratios are independent of the maximal dimension. The random point field structure of the boulder coordinates as isolated points or as clusters of points makes Poisson fields reasonable modeling candidates for the fields of both single points and cluster points. The cluster size...

  17. ATLAS Virtual Visit-Grantham-27-09-2014

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    Uniquely commissioned for the Gravity Fields Festival, the CERN Live exhibition is all about the world’s biggest experiment, the Large Hadron Collider. The Gravity Fields Festival celebrates South Lincolnshire as the home of Sir Isaac Newton and is a mix of science, arts and heritage events. As part of the festival, the Science and Technology Facilities Council has supported an exhibition which includes live events and speakers from the Large Hadron Collider, live links with CERN and an exhibition. CERN Live is curated by Dr Harry Cliff.

  18. The origin of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dvorak, John [University of Hawaii' s Institute for Astronomy (United States)

    2011-05-15

    I first stepped through the doorway of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory in 1976, and I was impressed by what I saw: A dozen people working out of a stone-and-metal building perched at the edge of a high cliff with a spectacular view of a vast volcanic plain. Their primary purpose was to monitor the island's two active volcanoes, Kilauea and Mauna Loa. I joined them, working for six weeks as a volunteer and then, years later, as a staff scientist. That gave me several chances to ask how the observatory had started.

  19. Obituary: Clifford G. Toner (1959-2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Frank

    2011-12-01

    Cliff Toner passed away unexpectedly at home in Tucson, Arizona on March 29, 2009. For most of his career, Cliff was involved with the Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG), a facility of the National Solar Observatory in Tucson, Arizona. GONG is a set of instruments around the world to observe the inside of the sun using the sound that is trapped below the solar surface. This science is called helioseismology. Cliff Toner was born on December 8, 1959 in New Westminster, British Columbia near the western coast of Canada. After receiving his B.Sc. in Physics & Astronomy at the University of British Columbia at Vancouver in 1981, he headed east to the University of Western Ontario in London. His graduate school period was spent in collaboration with David F. Gray, with whom he received both an M.Sc. in Astronomy in 1984, and a Ph.D. in Astronomy in 1988. Toner actually wrote two theses at UWO, one on "Line Asymmetries in F, G, and K Supergiants and Bright Giants" for his M.Sc., and the other on "The Time Variability of Spectral Line Asymmetries and Equivalent Widths for the G8 Dwarf ? Boo A: Evidence for a Starpatch" for his Ph.D. After graduate school, Cliff Toner left the cool climate of Canada in 1988 and accepted a postdoctoral position in the warmer temperatures of Hawai'i at the Institute for Astronomy located at the University of Hawai'i in Honolulu. There he worked primarily with Barry LaBonte. At first, he continued his work on ? Boo A, but he became interested in the sun and helioseismology. This led to the discovery of halos of enhanced high-frequency acoustic power surrounding solar active regions (Ap.J. 415, 847). At the end of his post-doc, Cliff Toner was hired by the GONG project as a Data Scientist in 1991. He quickly tackled the problem of merging the data from the six GONG sites, which was the major data reduction challenge facing GONG at the time. In parallel, he and Stuart Jefferies developed an algorithm to measure the radii of full-disk solar

  20. Variaciones de color y contenido de CaCO3 en los pares margacaliza del Maastrichtiense superior y Eoceno inferior en Sopelana (Arco Vasco): reflejo de cambios paleoambientales

    OpenAIRE

    Iridoy, Peru .; Zudaire, Saioa; Azaguirre, Maddi; Dorronsoro, Ane; Olano, Galder; Beriain, Eneko; Usarbarrena, Ariane; Elorza, Javier

    2010-01-01

    The Sopelana sea-cliff exposes marl-limestone couplets from the Upper Maastrichtian (MS1 and MS2 sections) and the Lower Eocene (EI section), in the deep Basque Arc domain. The high-resolution analysis (% CaCO3) of the MS1 couplets confirms a complex behaviour with strong compositional contrast vs. a more regular MS2 couplets. This may be due to a drastic environmental change (long humid and rainy alternating to drier periods) towards dominant humid and rainy periods, with a minor...

  1. The last glacial cycles in East Greenland, an overVIew

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funder, Svend Visby

    1994-01-01

    Marine, fluvial and glacigcnc sediments exposed in coastal cliffs and stream-cllt sections in East Greenland between latitudes 69° and 78°N display a record of Quaternary climatic and environmental change going back to prc-SaaJian times (> 240 ka), but with main emphasis on the last interglacial...... ( ~ Eemian) the advection of warm Atlantic water was higher than during the Holocene, and the terrestrial flora and insect faullas show that summer temperatures were 3-4"C higher than during the Holocene optimum. There is no unambiguous evidence for cooling in the sediments from this interval. Later...

  2. Impact of climate change on zooplankton communities, seabird populations and arctic terrestrial ecosystem—A scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stempniewicz, Lech; Błachowiak-Samołyk, Katarzyna; Węsławski, Jan M.

    2007-11-01

    Many arctic terrestrial ecosystems suffer from a permanent deficiency of nutrients. Marine birds that forage at sea and breed on land can transport organic matter from the sea to land, and thus help to initiate and sustain terrestrial ecosystems. This organic matter initiates the emergence of local tundra communities, increasing primary and secondary production and species diversity. Climate change will influence ocean circulation and the hydrologic regime, which will consequently lead to a restructuring of zooplankton communities between cold arctic waters, with a dominance of large zooplankton species, and Atlantic waters in which small species predominate. The dominance of large zooplankton favours plankton-eating seabirds, such as the little auk ( Alle alle), while the presence of small zooplankton redirects the food chain to plankton-eating fish, up through to fish-eating birds (e.g., guillemots Uria sp.). Thus, in regions where the two water masses compete for dominance, such as in the Barents Sea, plankton-eating birds should dominate the avifauna in cold periods and recess in warmer periods, when fish-eaters should prevail. Therefore under future anthropogenic climate scenarios, there could be serious consequences for the structure and functioning of the terrestrial part of arctic ecosystems, due in part to changes in the arctic marine avifauna. Large colonies of plankton-eating little auks are located on mild mountain slopes, usually a few kilometres from the shore, whereas colonies of fish-eating guillemots are situated on rocky cliffs at the coast. The impact of guillemots on the terrestrial ecosystems is therefore much smaller than for little auks because of the rapid washing-out to sea of the guano deposited on the seabird cliffs. These characteristics of seabird nesting sites dramatically limit the range of occurrence of ornithogenic soils, and the accompanying flora and fauna, to locations where talus-breeding species occur. As a result of climate

  3. Devastating tsunami inspires efforts to reduce future tsunami destruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockridge, P.A.

    1987-01-01

    The beacon from landmark Scotch Cap lighthouse pierced the moonless night of April 1, 1946, in Alaska's remote Aleutain Island chain. In the reinforced concrete lighthouse, five men were engaged in various support operations connected with the maintenance of the 80,000 candlepower beam. Perched atop a building constructed 5 years earlier on a bluff 32 feet above sea level, the proud new light rose a total of 92 feet above the swirling restless seas. On a cliff behind the lighthouse, a second building housed the Coast Guard radio-direction-finding station. 

  4. CRISIS FOCUS:Into the Abyss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The United States,facing its deepest financial crisis since the Great Depression,has spared no efforts to save its economy from falling off a cliff.But its federal bailout program has appeared flawed given the country’s mounting fiscal deficits.Will the government’s rescue efforts be a panacea for the ailing markets?Will the U.S. economy drift into a prolonged recession?Dong Yuping,a researcher at the Institute of Finance and Banking under Chinese Academy of Social Sciences,discussed these issues in a recent article in China Finance magazine.Excerpts follow:

  5. 3D visualisation of a Jurassic oolitic system with GPR data, Isle of Portland (UK)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreau, Julien; Hansen, Trine Lykke; Nielsen, Lars

    The Isle of Portland shows exposure of uppermost Jurassic oolitic carbonate all along its coast and within several inland quarries. The exposure quality is very high with a potential 3D control. The site has a potential to understand the 3D architecture and the sedimentary dynamic of an oolitic...... some preliminary field observations, we have decided to shoot an extensive GPR survey of the same stratigraphic interval (The Portland Freestone). With a total of 85 GPR profiles, we have produced grids on top of most of the coastal cliffs and quarry faces. We have encountered 3 main architectures, 2-m...

  6. A 10,500 Sequence of Bird Remains from the Southern Boreal Forest Region of Western Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Driver, Jonathan C.; Keith A. Hobson

    1992-01-01

    The prehistoric avian fauna from the Charlie Lake Cave site, Peace River District, British Columbia, spans the last 10 500 years and includes birds from eleven orders. Prior to about 10 000 B.P. the fauna is sparse and the most common species is Cliff Swallow (Hirundopyrrhonota), which probably nested at the site. The avian fauna from 10 000 B.P. to the present is dominated by wetland associated birds (mainly grebes and ducks) of the same species found in the area today and is consistent with...

  7. Safety analysis and code development for nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Annual safety research report, JFY 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear library of the MVP-ORBURN, a Monte Carlo burnup code for burnup credit applications, was updated to the JENDL-4.0. The test analysis was performed using the selected post irradiation experiment data from the SFCOMPO database. The selected samples were: Takahama unit 3 (14 samples), Calvert Cliffs No.1 (9 samples), Fukushima-Daini unit 2 (14 samples), and H. B. Robinson unit 2 (6 samples). The preliminary results showed significant improvement in the Am and Cm densities compared with the previous version JENDL-3.3: This result partly agrees with the main conclusions obtained from the pre-analysis by JAEA. (author)

  8. From ooze to sedimentary rock, the first diagenetic processes affecting the chalk of eastern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreau, Julien; Boussaha, Myriam; Nielsen, Lars;

    -resolution seismic reflection profiles, high-resolution wireline logs and sedimentological data from a fully cored borehole, and field information from quarry and coastal cliff exposures were taken to inform about early diagenetic features. This integrated approach for the first time enabled placing different...... fractures), stylolites and fluid escape structures can be studied using outcrop and core data. The spatial relationship between stylolites and fractures suggests pressure solution as trigger for shear failure that in turn led to the initiation of the polygonal fault system. Early diagenetic structures...... in chalk sedimentary rocks....

  9. An Analysis on Heathcliff’s Inhumanity in the Wuthering Heights

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    符欣

    2015-01-01

    In the Wuthering Heights, Heathcliff is a main and controversial figure. Different critics comment on him from many different aspects. Nevertheless, this thesis focuses on the inhumanity of Heathcliff. Through a detailed analysis of the process and the cruel way of Heathcliff’s revenge which bring serious sufferings to the two big families of the Earnshaws and the Lintons and their descendants, readers will come to understand that Heathcliff is a man without humanity. Readers will also realize that Heath⁃cliff is as savage as a ghost. Moreover, Heathcliff symbolizes a Hell;wherever he goes, there is darkness and unhappiness because of his inhumanity.

  10. Reptiles escamosos (Squamata del Pleistoceno Medio del Norte de la ciudad de Mar del Plata (provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Brizuela

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we describe two fossil remains of squamate reptiles found in Middle Pleistocene outcrops at the northern marine cliffs of the city of Mar del Plata (Buenos Aires province. The specimens were found forming a taphocenosis with remains of other microvertebrates (amphibians, mammals and birds. The reptiles recognized in the association are represented by remains of an undetermined colubrid, and the anguid Ophiodes sp. This latter finding represents the first fossil record for the family Anguidae exhumed in Argentina.

  11. Tourism Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Wudang Mountain Wudang Mountain, called Taihe Mountain or Xianshi Mountain in the past, is located near the city of Danjiangkou in central China’s Hubei Province. Wudang Mountain is both a famous scenic spot and a renowned Taoist shrine. The ancient architectural complex on the mountain was listed by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization in 1994 as a World Cultural Heritage Site. The natural scenery of Wudang Mountain is magnificent, tinged with some fantastically serene and charming touches. Major scenic spots include 72 peaks, 36 cliffs and 24 streams. Tianzhu Peak, the

  12. Unustatuid eurolaulude tipp-10. Naine nagu Eurovisioon / Olavi Pihlamägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pihlamägi, Olavi, 1949-

    2008-01-01

    Eurovisiooni lauludest: Austria 1976 Waterloo & Robisnon "My Little Word" (5. koht), Suurbritannia 1972 The New Seekers "Beg, Steal or Borrow" (2. koht), Jugoslaavia 1983 Daniel "Dzuli (Julie)" (4. koht), Cliff Richard "Power To All Our Friends (3. koht)", Luksemburg 1967 Vicky Leandros "L'Amour Est Bleu" (4. koht), Holland 1974 Mouth & McNeal "I See A Star" (3. koht), Soome 1969 Jarkko & Laura "Kuin silloin ennen" (12. koht), Saksamaa 1981 Lena Valaitis "Johnny Blue", Saksamaa Katja Ebstein "Diese Welt" (3. koht), Luksemburg 1980 "Le Papa pinquin" (10. koht). Heli Läätsa lauldud eesti keelde kaverdatud eurolauludest

  13. 天堂波多黎各%A Puerto Rican Paradise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael Blanding

    2005-01-01

    @@ Standing on the white sands of Red Beach,it's hard to believe that US Navy bombers ever droned over the surf on their way to drop explosives nearby.The beach,a semicircle (半圆形) of stark cliffs and swaying palms surrounding a sparkling azure sea, is as perfect a picture of paradise as the wallpaper in a 1970s rumpus (喧闹) room. Silence is broken only by the murmurs of a dozen or so families lolling (懒洋洋地倚靠)on the sand,an unbelievably low population for a beach touted(吹捧) as one of the best in the Caribbean.

  14. A study of the reactivation of landsliding at Barton-on-Sea, Hampshire, following stabilisation works in the 1960s

    OpenAIRE

    Garvey, Phil

    2007-01-01

    The mostly clay cliffs of Barton-on-Sea, Hampshire, comprise inhomogeneous strata of the Bracklesham, Barton and Headon Hill Formations, overlain unconformably by Plateau Gravels, and have a long history of erosion and instability. Heavily-engineered stabilisation works involving a 1,500m-long sheet-piled wall and cut-off drain were installed in the 1960s but a number of catastrophic failures of the wall have occurred at locations along the Barton frontage since then. This report is concerned...

  15. Sylvatic triatominae of the phyllosoma complex (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) around the community of Carrillo Puerto, Nayarit, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magallón-Gastélum, E; Lozano-Kasten, F; Flores-Pérez, A; Bosseno, M F; Brenière, S F

    2001-09-01

    Research on domestic and sylvatic triatomines within the community of Carrillo Puerto and neighboring areas of Nayarit, Mexico, documented that Triatoma longipennis (Usinger) and Triatoma picturata (Usinger) were infected with Trypanosoma cruzi (L.) in both habitats. T. picturata was the predominant species in both habitats. Mouse baited-traps increased the effectiveness of collecting sylvatic triatomines, which were difficult to sample by inspecting habitats such as burrows, caves, and cliffs. The colonization of sylvatic and peridomestic habitats by Triatoma, the occurrence of high rates of infection with T. cruzi and the possibility that bugs move between habitats may require modification of current control strategies in Mexico.

  16. Volatile constituents of Dianthus rupicola Biv. from Sicily: activity against microorganisms affecting cellulosic objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casiglia, Simona; Bruno, Maurizio; Senatore, Felice

    2014-01-01

    Dianthus rupicola Biv. (cliffs carnation) is a camephytic, suffruticous, perennial plant growing up to 40 cm high. The plant is widespread in Sicily and neighbouring islands (Egadi, Lampedusa, Lipari) and in some areas of southern Italy. GC and GC-MS analyses of the essential oil distilled from the flowers showed the presence of 66 components. Its composition is characterised by the high content of thymol and carvacrol derivatives. A good antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus and Bacillussubtilis, both infesting cellulosic historical material, was shown, whereas the antioxidant capacity was determined to be quite poor.

  17. Deploying scanning lidars at coastal sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Courtney, Michael; Simon, Elliot

    This report presents the concept of scanning lidars placed at coastal sites in order to measure the near-coastal (offshore) wind resource. In particular, the site requirements for such scanning lidars are examined in the context of the siting choices made for the RUNE project. It is seen...... that the most desirable sites are away from sand dunes and with some significant elevation above the sea surface, such as at the top of a cliff. Coastal planning restrictions in Denmark are quite restrictive and it was important to allow sufficient time to obtain permission from the relevant authorities...

  18. Balance Game

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    China has acted swiftly and resolutely to recover the brisk economic growth it has enjoyed in the past five years. But growth is not everything. Analysts fret that the government’s spending spree may complicate the country’s efforts to edge toward a consumption-driven economy. What should we do to prevent the economy from falling off a cliff and at the same time switch the mix of growth from exports and investment to consumption? Yu Yongding, Director of the Institute of World Economics and Politics at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, discussed this issue in an inter- view with China Securities Journal. Excerpts follow:

  19. Praxis II mathematics content knowledge test (0061)

    CERN Document Server

    McCune, Ennis Donice

    2007-01-01

    Your guide to a higher score on the Praxis II?: Mathematics Content Knowledge Test (0061) Why CliffsTestPrep Guides? Go with the name you know and trust Get the information you need--fast! Written by test-prep specialists About the contents: Introduction * Overview of the exam * How to use this book * Proven study strategies and test-taking tips Part I: Subject Review * Focused review of all exam topics: arithmetic and basic algebra, geometry, trigonometry, analytic geometry, functions and their graphs, calculus, probability and statistics, discrete mathematics, linear algebra, compute

  20. Trillions thriving in the emerging information ecology

    CERN Document Server

    Lucas, Peter; McManus, Mickey

    2012-01-01

    We are facing a future of unbounded complexity. Whether that complexity is harnessed to build a world that is safe, pleasant, humane, and profitable, or whether it causes us to careen off a cliff into an abyss of mind-numbing junk is an open question. The challenges and opportunities-technical, business, and human-that this technological sea change will bring are without precedent. Entire industries will be born and others will be laid to ruin as our society navigates this journey. There are already many more computing devices in the world than there are people. In a few more years, their n

  1. Reduced interface recombination in Cu2ZnSnS4 solar cells with atomic layer deposition Zn1-xSnxO buffer layers

    OpenAIRE

    Platzer-Björkman, Charlotte; Frisk, Christoper; Larsen, Jes; Ericson, Tove; Li, Shuyi; Scragg, Jonathan; Keller, Jan; Larsson, Fredrik; Törndahl, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) solar cells typically include a CdS buffer layer in between the CZTS and ZnO front contact. For sulfide CZTS, with a bandgap around 1.5 eV, the band alignment between CZTS and CdS is not ideal ("cliff-like"), which enhances interface recombination. In this work, we show how a Zn1-xSnxOy (ZTO) buffer layer can replace CdS, resulting in improved open circuit voltages (V-oc) for CZTS devices. The ZTO is deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD), with a process previously develo...

  2. Mars Stratigraphy Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budney, C. J.; Miller, S. L.; Cutts, J. A.

    2000-01-01

    The Mars Stratigraphy Mission lands a rover on the surface of Mars which descends down a cliff in Valles Marineris to study the stratigraphy. The rover carries a unique complement of instruments to analyze and age-date materials encountered during descent past 2 km of strata. The science objective for the Mars Stratigraphy Mission is to identify the geologic history of the layered deposits in the Valles Marineris region of Mars. This includes constraining the time interval for formation of these deposits by measuring the ages of various layers and determining the origin of the deposits (volcanic or sedimentary) by measuring their composition and imaging their morphology.

  3. Science and design revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, Per; Kroes, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, Robert Farrell and Cliff Hooker published a paper in Design Studies, arguing against the conventional science–design distinction. Finding their position highly controversial, we opposed it in a paper of our own, to which Farrell and Hooker have now responded with a defence of their view....... On request from the Editors, we seek in this paper to round off the dispute. We see it not so much in terms of who was right or wrong about what, as in terms of where our opponents and we may have been talking past each other. We also sum up some insights that the dispute has brought forward, while...

  4. Rockfall source characterization at high rock walls in complex geological settings by photogrammetry, structural analysis and DFN techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agliardi, Federico; Riva, Federico; Galletti, Laura; Zanchi, Andrea; Crosta, Giovanni B.

    2016-04-01

    Rockfall quantitative risk analysis in areas impended by high, subvertical cliffs remains a challenge, due to the difficult definition of potential rockfall sources, event magnitude scenarios and related probabilities. For this reasons, rockfall analyses traditionally focus on modelling the runout component of rockfall processes, whereas rock-fall source identification, mapping and characterization (block size distribution and susceptibility) are over-simplified in most practical applications, especially when structurally complex rock masses are involved. We integrated field and remote survey and rock mass modelling techniques to characterize rock masses and detect rockfall source in complex geo-structural settings. We focused on a test site located at Valmadrera, near Lecco (Southern Alps, Italy), where cliffs up to 600 m high impend on a narrow strip of Lake Como shore. The massive carbonates forming the cliff (Dolomia Principale Fm), normally characterized by brittle structural associations due to their high strength and stiffness, are here involved in an ENE-trending, S-verging kilometre-scale syncline. Brittle mechanisms associated to folding strongly controlled the nature of discontinuities (bedding slip, strike-slip faults, tensile fractures) and their attributes (spacing and size), as well as the spatial variability of bedding attitude and fracture intensity, with individual block sizes up to 15 m3. We carried out a high-resolution terrestrial photogrammetric survey from distances ranging from 1500 m (11 camera stations from the opposite lake shore, 265 pictures) to 150 m (28 camera stations along N-S directed boat routes, 200 pictures), using RTK GNSS measurements for camera station geo-referencing. Data processing by Structure-from-Motion techniques resulted in detailed long-range (1500 m) and medium-range (150 to 800 m) point clouds covering the entire slope with maximum surface point densities exceeding 50 pts/m2. Point clouds allowed a detailed

  5. Status of Indirect Drive ICF Experiments on the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the quest to demonstrate Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) ignition of deuterium-tritium (DT) filled capsules and propagating thermonuclear burn with net energy gain (fusion energy/laser energy >1), recent experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) have shown progress towards increasing capsule hot spot temperature (Tion>5 keV) and fusion neutron yield (~1016), while achieving ~2x yield amplification by alpha particle deposition. At the same time a performance cliff was reached, resulting in lower fusion yields than expected as the implosion velocity was increased. Ongoing studies of the hohlraum and capsule physics are attempting to disseminate possible causes for this performance ceiling.

  6. Simulations of a hypothetical temperature control structure at Detroit Dam on the North Santiam River, northwestern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccola, Norman L.; Stonewall, Adam J.; Rounds, Stewart A.

    2015-01-01

    Water temperature models of Detroit Lake, Big Cliff Lake, and the North Santiam River in northwestern Oregon were used to assess the potential for a hypothetical structure with variable intake elevations and an internal connection to power turbines at Detroit Dam (scenario SlidingWeir) to release more natural, pre-dam temperatures year round. This hypothetical structure improved outflow temperature control from Detroit Dam while meeting minimum dry-season release rates and lake levels specified by the rule curve specified for Detroit Lake.

  7. Can we still hear the Cro-magnon man?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puech, Pierre-Francois; Puech, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    This paper is an essay to connect with the stone Age coastal hunters who sheltered 28,000 years ago in the caves of today's italian Mediterranean sea shore cliffs. We have focused on the archaeological Gravettian layer in the Cavillon cave from Grimaldi occupied by Cro Magnons (informal name for Anatomically Modern Humans of the European Upper Paleolithic), which demonstrates the technical skills of the phase. Cro Magnons, like Neanderthals, were seasonally nomadic; however, the diversity of the resources exploited within the territory along the Grimaldi sea coast suggests a longer term site within which a complex symbolic culture developed. PMID:23560760

  8. On the glaciology of Edgeøya and Barentsøya, Svalbard

    OpenAIRE

    Dowdeswell, Julian A.; Bamber, Jonathan L.

    1995-01-01

    The ice masses on Edgeøya and Barentsøya are the least well known in Svalbard. The islands are 42-47% ice covered with the largest ice cap, Edgeøyjøkulen, 1365 km2 in area. The tidewater ice cliffs of eastern Edgeøya are over 80 km long and produce small tabular icebergs. Several of the ice-cap outlet glaciers on Edgeøya and Barentsøya are known to surge, and different drainage basins within the ice caps behave as dynamically separate units. Terminus advances during surging have punctuated mo...

  9. ORONYMS IN SERBIAN MEDIEVAL CHARTERS: THEIR MEMORIAL IN FUNCTION OF THE BORDER AREA ENTITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Снежана Божанић

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Relief is one of the most important and influential elements of the environment. All forms of the Earth's surface, i.e. its roughness and plane surfaces predetermine the type and forms of borders in a space. Mountains, hills, and mountain peaks, head, ridges, cliffs, rocks, steep slopes, headlands, valleys and pastures have a border role. Oronyms are clear, precise, easily visible, immobile, permanent borders, which exist under the same or similar name since the Middle Ages to the present day.

  10. Growth responses of endomycorrhizal onions in unsterilized coal waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, A.G. (Goulburn College of Advanced Education, Goulburn, NSW (Australia). Science Dept.)

    1981-01-01

    The effects of the widespread vesicular-arbuscular (VA) endophytes, on growth of onions were compared in unsterilized coal washery waste from the Coal-Cliff Collieries in the Illawarra region of New South Wales. Mycorrhizal onions were significantly larger (P {lt}0.05), with respect to all the growth measurements than NM controls. Different VA endophytes had quantitatively different effects on the growth. Among widespread species G. mosseae was the most efficient at stimulating plant growth. The possible role of VA mycorrhizas in plant colonization of coal spoil areas is discussed. 32 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  11. Fission Track Method to Date Fault Activity —As Exemplified by the Three Gorges Dam Area of the Yangtze River Valley,CHina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张峰; 翟鹏济; 等

    2000-01-01

    The Xiannushan and Jiuwanxi are the two major fracture belts adjacent to the Three Gorges Dam Site,ALpatites are selected from fracture clay and fracutre-cliff rock in the fracture belts and examined with the fission track dating method.Our study shows that the Xiannushan and Jiuwanxi fracture belts wer tectonically active at 0.60±0.04 Ma and 0.29±0.04Ma ago,respectively,Their ages are close to those obtained by the U-series method.

  12. トロイアの木馬に関する覚え書き

    OpenAIRE

    平山, 晃司

    2010-01-01

    In the debate about how to deal with the wooden horse, the Trojans are divided into three groups: one insists that it should be dedicated to Athena, another wants it to be burnt down or broken in pieces with an ax, while yet another suggests that they should throw it down from the cliffs. It may seem strange that the opinions of those who object to the first idea should split up in this way. Hurling it down from a precipice is a well attested form of disposing of a scapegoat; and the Trojan h...

  13. Recognizing Cultural Image and Symbol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘娜; 崔春燕

    2008-01-01

    When we live in a particular country.we automatically become exposed and accustomed to a range of images and symbol embedded in songs and pictures,places and customs.These images and symbols include famous people in the culture,and architectural and landscape features such as the White House in Washington and the White Cliffs of Dover.Familiarity with these images helps students to feel more confident and to become fluent.In this sense.some points will be covered.

  14. The origin of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I first stepped through the doorway of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory in 1976, and I was impressed by what I saw: A dozen people working out of a stone-and-metal building perched at the edge of a high cliff with a spectacular view of a vast volcanic plain. Their primary purpose was to monitor the island's two active volcanoes, Kilauea and Mauna Loa. I joined them, working for six weeks as a volunteer and then, years later, as a staff scientist. That gave me several chances to ask how the observatory had started.

  15. Annual report for 2004 wild horse research and field activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, Jason; Singer, Francis J.; Zeigenfuss, Linda; Coates-Markle, Linda

    2005-01-01

    The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and U.S. Geological Survey-Biological Resources Discipline (USGS/BRD) continued wild horse research in 2004, investigating the strategic research elements of fertility control and population estimation. Fertility control research was focused on the individual-based porcine zonae pellucid (PZP) field trials at the Pryor Mountain Wild Horse Range (WHR), Little Rock Cliffs WHR, and McCullough Peaks Wild Horse Management Area (WHMA). Aerial population estimation research was conducted on a number of western wild horse herds to test different survey techniques as applied to various habitat types and population sizes.

  16. 3D Modelling of Inaccessible Areas using UAV-based Aerial Photography and Structure from Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obanawa, Hiroyuki; Hayakawa, Yuichi; Gomez, Christopher

    2014-05-01

    In hardly accessible areas, the collection of 3D point-clouds using TLS (Terrestrial Laser Scanner) can be very challenging, while airborne equivalent would not give a correct account of subvertical features and concave geometries like caves. To solve such problem, the authors have experimented an aerial photography based SfM (Structure from Motion) technique on a 'peninsular-rock' surrounded on three sides by the sea at a Pacific coast in eastern Japan. The research was carried out using UAS (Unmanned Aerial System) combined with a commercial small UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) carrying a compact camera. The UAV is a DJI PHANTOM: the UAV has four rotors (quadcopter), it has a weight of 1000 g, a payload of 400 g and a maximum flight time of 15 minutes. The camera is a GoPro 'HERO3 Black Edition': resolution 12 million pixels; weight 74 g; and 0.5 sec. interval-shot. The 3D model has been constructed by digital photogrammetry using a commercial SfM software, Agisoft PhotoScan Professional®, which can generate sparse and dense point-clouds, from which polygonal models and orthophotographs can be calculated. Using the 'flight-log' and/or GCPs (Ground Control Points), the software can generate digital surface model. As a result, high-resolution aerial orthophotographs and a 3D model were obtained. The results have shown that it was possible to survey the sea cliff and the wave cut-bench, which are unobservable from land side. In details, we could observe the complexity of the sea cliff that is nearly vertical as a whole while slightly overhanging over the thinner base. The wave cut bench is nearly flat and develops extensively at the base of the cliff. Although there are some evidences of small rockfalls at the upper part of the cliff, there is no evidence of very recent activity, because no fallen rock exists on the wave cut bench. This system has several merits: firstly lower cost than the existing measuring methods such as manned-flight survey and aerial laser

  17. An Empirical-Conceptual Model for the Formation and Evolution of Incised Coastal Channels: The `Chines' of the Isle of Wight, England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyland, J.; Darby, S. E.

    2005-12-01

    Incised channels are features of disturbed landscapes that are found in all morphoclimatic regions, operating at a range of spatial and temporal scales. Coastal incised channels can be found at various locations around the world where the shoreline morphology consists of cliffs. The channels can cut through a range of cliff materials although the depth of incision may be limited by the erodibility of the lithology. The incised channels that are the focus of this study flow into the sea along the southern coast of the Isle of Wight, which is located close to the southern English shore. This coastline consists of soft cliffs varying in height from 15m to 100m and which are rapidly retreating at rates of up to 2m a-1 due to a combination of wave erosion and landslides. River channels that debouche through these cliffs, which are known locally as `Chines', are deeply (in places 45m) incised and side-wall collapse is a common process. The combination of deep incision (which provides a sheltered environment) and unstable side-wall surfaces provide habitats that support a range of diverse and rare flora (Philonotis marchica, Anthoceros punctatos) and fauna (Psen atratinus, Baris analis, Melitaea cinxi). Understanding the geomorphic evolution of these features is, therefore, of considerable interest from the point of view of the long term management of biodiversity. The Isle of Wight Chines can be considered unusual in that their formation is associated with shoreline encroachment during a period of rising sea-level, whereas most existing models of incised fluvial channel evolution emphasise base-level lowering at a location that is fixed in space. A conceptual model of the sequential stages of morphological evolution within the Chines has been developed by applying a space for time substitution method using empirical data gathered from Chine channel surveys. The model is linked to a theory of Chine growth or decay that is based on analysing the relative balance between

  18. Optically stimulated luminescence dating of large storm events in Northern Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerville, A. A.; Hansom, J. D.; Sanderson, D. C. W.; Housley, R. A.

    2003-05-01

    Climate changes over the Holocene have directly impacted on both coastal processes and human use of coastal areas. This paper presents results from the dating of wind blown sand deposits collected from coastal and archaeological sites in Northern Scotland. Archaeological remains are frequently found interspersed with sand deposits and represent distinct periods of occupation of settlement sites within the local landscapes. In some cases storm events sufficiently inundate the sites with sand to result in periodic abandonment. Storm events can also have dramatic results on adjacent rock coastlines, with storm boulder ridges emplaced by large waves, burying sand deposits on cliff-top sites. Work has been undertaken using a quartz SAR protocol to date sand deposition at two archaeological sites in Orkney and a cliff-top site in Shetland. These dates provide chronological information, which help to construct regional chronologies of climatic instability and environmental change and allow the SAR-OSL method to be assessed as an accurate sediment dating tool in this context.

  19. Time - A Traveler's Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickover, Clifford A.

    1999-09-01

    "Bucky Fuller thought big," Wired magazine recently noted, "Arthur C. Clarke thinks big, but Cliff Pickover outdoes them both." In his newest book, Cliff Pickover outdoes even himself, probing a mystery that has baffled mystics, philosophers, and scientists throughout history--What is the nature of time?In Time: A Traveler's Guide , Pickover takes readers to the forefront of science as he illuminates the most mysterious phenomenon in the universe--time itself. Is time travel possible? Is time real? Does it flow in one direction only? Does it have a beginning and an end? What is eternity? Pickover's book offers a stimulating blend of Chopin, philosophy, Einstein, and modern physics, spiced with diverting side-trips to such topics as the history of clocks, the nature of free will, and the reason gold glitters. Numerous diagrams ensure readers will have no trouble following along.By the time we finish this book, we understand a wide variety of scientific concepts pertaining to time. And most important, we will understand that time travel is, indeed, possible.

  20. Precambrian Chuar source rock play: An exploration case history in southern Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uphoff, T.L. [BHP Petroleum, Houston, TX (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Source rock potential of the Upper Proterozoic Chuar Group, specifically the Walcott Member of the Kwagunt Formation, provides the basis for a petroleum play in southern Utah. Analyses of Chuar black shales from outcrops in the Grand Canyon show total organic carbon values of 3-9%, hydrogen indices up to 255, and maximum maturity within the oil window. Modeling indicates a potential 150 mi{sup 2} (400 km{sup 2}) area with a minimum generative potential of 2700 MBO{sup *}. Chuar source rocks are proposed as one part of a petroleum system that includes reservoirs in the Cambrian Tapeats Sandstone and seal in the overlying Bright Angel Shale. Prospective structures include anticlines of Laramide age not drilled through the Tapeats interval. One such structure is the Circle Cliffs uplift, which exhibits an area under closure of 9000 mi{sup 2} (2300 km{sup 2}) at the top of the Devonian. In 1994, BHP Petroleum drilled the 28-1 Federal well on the Circle Cliffs structure. The well logged 142 ft (43 m) of Tapeats porosity (>7%) and flowed CO{sub 2} gas at rates up to 5.0 Mcf{sup *} per day. Analysis of bitumen in the reservoir indicated an earlier hydrocarbon charge and suggested a new oil type for the region.

  1. Spatial pattern of denudation in a lithologically controlled sub-tropical flat landscape: Insights from the Kimberley region, NW Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazes, Gaël; Fink, David; Codilean, Alexandru T.; Fülöp, Réka-Hajnalka

    2016-04-01

    The Kimberley region, northwest Australia, is well known for its expansive and diverse collection of prehistorical aboriginal rock art that potentially dates back to 40,000 years ago. The region is characterized by a tropical, semi-arid climate with a monsoonal rainfall distribution and a flat landscape interrupted by massive sandstone mesas and deeply incised bedrock river gorges. In order to constrain the chronology of the rock art it is necessary to quantify the spatial and temporal dimensions of landscape evolution. We report cosmogenic 10Be and 26Al concentrations in modern fluvial sediment collected from 27 catchments with areas spanning several orders of magnitude (13.6 -- 13,900 km2). All catchments are characterized by a very low topographic gradient (average basin slopes world, despite the strong climatic seasonality of the region. Our measured denudation rates exhibit a strong correlation with topographic gradient, which in the overall flat landscapes of the Kimberley, is controlled by the prevailing sandstone bedrock lithology and the presence of numerous escarpments adjacent to the river channels. We present a modelling approach that makes use of the 26Al/10Be ratio in the fluvial sediments as a source tracer (ie escarpment cliffs, river channels, plateau bedrocks), and use this to explore the control and retreat rate of the eroding escarpment cliffs in order to provide information on the spatial distribution of denudation in the landscape. We acknowledge field-work support from the Kimberly Foundation Australia.

  2. Isolation of Novel Extreme-Tolerant Cyanobacteria from a Rock-Dwelling Microbial Community by Using Exposure to Low Earth Orbit▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson-Francis, Karen; de la Torre, Rosa; Cockell, Charles S.

    2010-01-01

    Many cyanobacteria are known to tolerate environmental extremes. Motivated by an interest in selecting cyanobacteria for applications in space, we launched rocks from a limestone cliff in Beer, Devon, United Kingdom, containing an epilithic and endolithic rock-dwelling community of cyanobacteria into low Earth orbit (LEO) at a height of approximately 300 kilometers. The community was exposed for 10 days to isolate cyanobacteria that can survive exposure to the extreme radiation and desiccating conditions associated with space. Culture-independent (16S rRNA) and culture-dependent methods showed that the cyanobacterial community was composed of Pleurocapsales, Oscillatoriales, and Chroococcales. A single cyanobacterium, a previously uncharacterized extremophile, was isolated after exposure to LEO. We were able to isolate the cyanobacterium from the limestone cliff after exposing the rock-dwelling community to desiccation and vacuum (0.7 × 10−3 kPa) in the laboratory. The ability of the organism to survive the conditions in space may be linked to the formation of dense colonies. These experiments show how extreme environmental conditions, including space, can be used to select for novel microorganisms. Furthermore, it improves our knowledge of environmental tolerances of extremophilic rock-dwelling cyanobacteria. PMID:20154120

  3. Detailed rock failure susceptibility mapping in steep rocky coasts by means of non-contact geostructural surveys: the case study of the Tigullio Gulf (Eastern Liguria, Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. De Vita

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an engineering geological analysis for the assessment of the rock failure susceptibility of a high, steep, rocky coast was developed by means of non-contact geostructural surveys. The methodology was applied to a 6-km coastal cliff located in the Gulf of Tigullio (Northern Tyrrhenian Sea between Rapallo and Chiavari.

    The method is based on the geostructural characterisation of outcropping rock masses through meso- and macroscale stereoscopic analyses of digital photos that were taken continuously from a known distance from the coastline. The results of the method were verified through direct surveys of accessible sample areas. The rock failure susceptibility of the coastal sector was assessed by analysing the fundamental rock slope mechanisms of instability and the results were implemented into a Geographic Information System (GIS.

    The proposed method is useful for rock failure susceptibility assessments in high, steep, rocky coastal areas, where accessibility is limited due to cliffs or steep slopes. Moreover, the method can be applied to private properties or any other area where a complete and systematic analysis of rock mass structural features cannot be achieved.

    Compared to direct surveys and to other non-contact methods based on digital terrestrial photogrammetry, the proposed procedure provided good quality data of the structural features of the rock mass at a low cost. Therefore, the method could be applied to similar coastal areas with a high risk of rock failure occurrence.

  4. Preliminary development of an integrated approach to the evaluation of pressurized thermal shock as applied to the Oconee Unit 1 Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An evaluation of the risk to the Oconee-1 nuclear plant due to pressurized thermal shock (PTS) has been Completed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This evaluaion was part of a Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) program designed to study the PTS risk to three nuclear plants: Oconee-1, a Babcock and Wilco reactor plant owned and operated by Duke Power Company; Calvert Cliffs-1, a Combustion Engineering reactor plant owned and operated by Baltimore Gas and Electric company; and H.B. Robinson-2, a Westinghouse reactor plant owned and operated by Carolina Power and Light Company. Studies of Calvert Cliffs-1 and H.B. Robinson-2 are still underway. The specific objectives of the Oconee-1 study were to: (1) provide a best estimate of the probability of a through-the-wall crack (TWC) occurring in the reactor pressure vessel as a result of PTS; (2) determine dominant accident sequences, plant features, operator and control actions and uncertainty in the PTS risk; and (3) evaluate effectiveness of potential corrective measures

  5. Opportunity's 'Olympia' Panorama

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Opportunity's 'Olympia' Panorama (QTVR) This view from the panoramic camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows an outcrop called 'Olympia' along the northwestern margin of 'Erebus' crater. The view spans about 120 degrees from side to side, generally looking southward. The outcrop exposes a broad expanse of sulfate-rich sedimentary rocks. The rocks were formed predominantly from windblown sediments, but some also formed in environmental conditions from damp to under shallow surface water. After taking the images that were combined into this view, Opportunity drove along along a path between sand dunes to the upper left side of the image, where a cliff in the background can be seen. This is a cliff is known as the 'Mogollon Rim.' Researchers expect it to expose more than 1 meter (3 feet) of new strata. These strata may represent the highest level observed yet by Opportunity. The image is an approximately true-color rendering generated using the panoramic camera's 750-nanometer, 530-nanometer and 430-nanometer filters.

  6. Damage due to Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake and related subsurface conditions in Toyonaka City; Hanshin/Awaji Daishinsai ni okeru Toyonakashi no higai to jiban

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinozaki, W.; Tanimura, K. [Construction Project Consultant Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan); Takada, N. [Osaka City Univ., Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-02-01

    In spite of the fact that Toyonaka City in Osaka Prefecture is away from the seismic center by about 50 km, the number of houses completely or partially destroyed was as large as 10,000, and a maximum of about 3000 people had lived refuge lives. Toyonaka City topographically comprises an alluvial plain on the south of the Sone terraced cliff extending from east to west in the central part of the same city, and the undulating Senri hills on the north of the terraced cliff. In the substantially whole area of the alluvial plain, the wooden houses and some medium-storied ferro-concrete buildings were damaged, and, in the western inclined part of the hilly area, houses and housing lands were suffered from the earthquake. Underground buried facilities, such as waterworks and sewage were also damaged in substantially the same areas in which houses were destructed. This paper summarizes the relation between the distribution of seismic destruction and the ground and topographical conditions, correlating the results of the investigation into the earthquake disaster which was conducted by Toyonaka City with the ground diagram of the same city. It is considered that the damage by the earthquake was enlarged by not only the weak alluvial layers and loose fill-up ground but also the seismic motion amplified by the generally called `waterside focusing effect` of the hills extending toward the seismic center. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Ground motions on rocky, cliffed, and sandy shorelines generated by ocean waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Adam P.; Guza, Robert T.; Dickson, Mark E.; O'Reilly, William C.; Flick, Reinhard E.

    2013-12-01

    We compare ground motions observed within about 100 m of the waterline on eight sites located on shorelines with different morphologies (rock slope, cliff, and sand beaches). At all sites, local ocean waves generated ground motions in the frequency band 0.01-40 Hz. Between about 0.01 and 0.1 Hz, foreshore loading and gravitational attraction from ocean swell and infragravity waves drive coherent, in-phase ground flexing motions mostly oriented cross-shore that decay inland. At higher frequencies between 0.5 and 40 Hz, breaking ocean waves and wave-rock impacts cause ground shaking. Overall, seismic spectral shapes were generally consistent across shoreline sites and usually within a few orders of magnitude despite the diverse range of settings. However, specific site response varied and was influenced by a combination of tide level, incident wave energy, site morphology, ground composition, and signal decay. Flexing and shaking increased with incident wave energy and was often tidally modulated, consistent with a local generation source. Flexing magnitudes were usually larger than shaking, and flexing displacements of several mm were observed during relatively large incident wave conditions (Hs 4-5 m). Comparison with traffic noise and earthquakes illustrate the relative significance of local ocean-generated signals in coastal seismic data. Seismic observations are not a simple proxy for wave-cliff interaction.

  8. Fabrication of a polymer-metal combined atomic force microscopy probe for coarse food surface imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyen-Wook; Muramatsu, Hiroshi; Kwon, Young-Soo

    2013-05-01

    We fabricated a polymer-metal combined atomic force microscopy (AFM) probe by two steps; a polymeric resin was used at first step, and a metal-ion was used at second step which needs more fabricating time than the resin. At first step, we fabricated a cylindrical base on to a commercial cantilever. At second step, we fabricated a conical probe on to the fabricated cylindrical base. To make the conical probe composed with silver, a 0.2 M aqueous solution of silver nitrate (AgNO3) was used. A 50 microm length polymeric-metallic hybrid tip has been fabricated to observe large bio and food samples. Generally, the AFM images of bio/food samples show cliff-like sharp patters in vertical. However, the AFM image by fabricated long tip shows clear structure of each brown rice flours. As most of commercial tips have three-angular pyramidal, the scanned results should be influenced by the lateral face of the three-angular pyramid, which results in cliff-like images. Because the sample size is large, the side area of the sample was adversely affected by the pyramidal structure during imaging. This problem may be resolved by designing conical structure tips. As the conical structure has no edge, the AFM image becomes clear. The fabricated tip has conical structure, and a clear AFM image was achieved. PMID:23858900

  9. Computer analysis of sound recordings from two Anasazi sites in northwestern New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loose, Richard

    2002-11-01

    Sound recordings were made at a natural outdoor amphitheater in Chaco Canyon and in a reconstructed great kiva at Aztec Ruins. Recordings included computer-generated tones and swept sine waves, classical concert flute, Native American flute, conch shell trumpet, and prerecorded music. Recording equipment included analog tape deck, digital minidisk recorder, and direct digital recording to a laptop computer disk. Microphones and geophones were used as transducers. The natural amphitheater lies between the ruins of Pueblo Bonito and Chetro Ketl. It is a semicircular arc in a sandstone cliff measuring 500 ft. wide and 75 ft. high. The radius of the arc was verified with aerial photography, and an acoustic ray trace was generated using cad software. The arc is in an overhanging cliff face and brings distant sounds to a line focus. Along this line, there are unusual acoustic effects at conjugate foci. Time history analysis of recordings from both sites showed that a 60-dB reverb decay lasted from 1.8 to 2.0 s, nearly ideal for public performances of music. Echoes from the amphitheater were perceived to be upshifted in pitch, but this was not seen in FFT analysis. Geophones placed on the floor of the great kiva showed a resonance at 95 Hz.

  10. Coastal vulnerability assessment of Point Reyes National Seashore (PORE) to sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendleton, Elizabeth A.; Thieler, E. Robert; Williams, S. Jeffress

    2006-01-01

    A coastal vulnerability index (CVI) was used to map the relative vulnerability of the coast to future sea-level rise within Point Reyes National Seashore in Northern California. The CVI ranks the following in terms of their physical contribution to sea-level rise-related coastal change: geomorphology, regional coastal slope, rate of relative sea-level rise, historical shoreline change rates, mean tidal range and mean significant wave height. The rankings for each input variable were combined and an index value calculated for 1-minute grid cells covering the park. The CVI highlights those regions where the physical effects of sea-level rise might be the greatest. This approach combines the coastal system's susceptibility to change with its natural ability to adapt to changing environmental conditions, yielding a quantitative, although relative, measure of the park's natural vulnerability to the effects of sea-level rise. The CVI provides an objective technique for evaluation and long-term planning by scientists and park managers. Point Reyes National Seashore consists of sand and gravel beaches, rock cliffs, sand dune cliffs, and pocket beaches. The areas within Point Reyes that are likely to be most vulnerable to sea-level rise are areas of unconsolidated sediment where the coastal slope is lowest and wave energy is high.

  11. Origin of the springs of Costa Verde beach in Lima Peru

    CERN Document Server

    Rojas, Ruben; Mamani, Enoc; Maguina, Jose; Montoya, Eduardo; Baltuano, Oscar; Bedregal, Patricia; Coria, Lucy; Guerra, Alcides; Justo, Santiago; Churasacari, Tania

    2013-01-01

    This paper tries to determine the origin of springs on the Costa Verde beach, located in the district of Barranco, Miraflores and Magdalena, province of Lima, Peru. These springs emerge near the shoreline, from the lower layers of a 80 meter high cliff. They have survived the process of urbanization of agricultural land, started in the early 70, which decreased the water table aquifer of Lima, and wiped the water leaks from the cliffs. To identify the source of the springs, isotopic, physical, chemical and bacteriological analysis was carried out for samples from five springs. The isotopic concentrations in waters from Costa Verde springs are depleted compared to those obtained for Lima aquifer waters, which is recharged by infiltration of the Rimac River. The measured values of those concentrations suggest that water from the Costa Verde springs should come from a direct recharge in the upper and middle basin, due to infiltration of rainfall or the river at an altitude of about 3600 m. Conductivity and tempe...

  12. Reproducing under a warming climate: long winter flowering and extended flower longevity in the only Mediterranean and maritime Primula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronne, G; Buonanno, M; De Micco, V

    2015-03-01

    Under the pressure of global warming, general expectations of species migration and evolution of adaptive traits should always be confirmed with species-specific studies. Within this framework, some species can be used as study systems to predict possible consequences of global warming also on other relatives. Unlike its mountain congeneric, Primula palinuri Petagn. has endured all the climatic fluctuations since the Pleistocene, while surviving on Mediterranean coastal cliffs. The aim of this work was to investigate the possible evolution of reproductive biological and ecological traits in P. palinuri adaptation to a warmer environment. Data showed that flowering starts in mid-winter; single flowers remain open for over a month, changing from pendulous to erect. The number of insects visiting flowers of P. palinuri increases during the flowering season, and pollination reduces flower longevity. Overall, the best pollen performances, in terms of viability and germinability, occur at winter temperatures, while pollinator activity prolongs flowering until spring. Moreover, extended longevity of single flowers optimises reproductive success. Both phenotypic plasticity and selective processes might have occurred in P. palinuri. However, we found that reproductive traits of the only Mediterranean Primula remain more associated with cold mountain habitats than warm coastal cliffs. Given the rapid trend of climate warming, migration and new adaptive processes in P. palinuri are unlikely. Response to past climate warming of P. palinuri provides useful indications for future scenarios in other Primula species.

  13. The necessity of sample quality assessment in {sup 14}C AMS dating: The case of Cova des Pas (Menorca - Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strydonck, Mark Van, E-mail: mark.vanstrydonck@kikirpa.b [Royal Institute for Cultural Heritage, Jubelpark 1, B-1000 Brussels (Belgium); Boudin, Mathieu [Royal Institute for Cultural Heritage, Jubelpark 1, B-1000 Brussels (Belgium); Guerrero Ayuso, Victor M.; Calvo, Manuel [Universidad de las Islas Baleares, Edifici Ramon Llull, C. Valldemossa km 7.5, E-07071 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Fullola, Josep M.; Angeles Petit, M. [Seminari d' Estudis i Recerques Prehistoriques (S.E.R.P.), Dept. of Prehistory, Ancient History and Archaeology, University of Barcelona Montalegre St. 6, E-08001 Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-04-15

    The Cova des Pas cave is a karstic cave in the cliffs of the Barranc (canyon) de Trebaluger. It is a small cave only 6.5 m deep, 4.5 m wide and 1.7 m high. Yet more than 70 burials, in foetal position, from the Early Iron Age were found in this small cave. The conservation of the archaeological remains was very unusual. Not only wood, ropes and other plant material was found, but also remains of body tissue, hair and leather. In spite of the remarkable preservation of the bodies and artefacts, the state of conservation of the bone material was very bad. The bones contained little and heavily deteriorated collagen and the organic plant material was very fragile. The special environmental conditions of the cave are the cause of these unusual preservation conditions. Although the cave is situated in a limestone cliff, the soil of the cave is very acid. Unexpectedly bad sample quality seemed to be the major drawback for AMS radiocarbon dating on hair, wood, ropes and bone collagen, as well as on bio-apatite.

  14. Isolation of novel extreme-tolerant cyanobacteria from a rock-dwelling microbial community by using exposure to low Earth orbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson-Francis, Karen; de la Torre, Rosa; Cockell, Charles S

    2010-04-01

    Many cyanobacteria are known to tolerate environmental extremes. Motivated by an interest in selecting cyanobacteria for applications in space, we launched rocks from a limestone cliff in Beer, Devon, United Kingdom, containing an epilithic and endolithic rock-dwelling community of cyanobacteria into low Earth orbit (LEO) at a height of approximately 300 kilometers. The community was exposed for 10 days to isolate cyanobacteria that can survive exposure to the extreme radiation and desiccating conditions associated with space. Culture-independent (16S rRNA) and culture-dependent methods showed that the cyanobacterial community was composed of Pleurocapsales, Oscillatoriales, and Chroococcales. A single cyanobacterium, a previously uncharacterized extremophile, was isolated after exposure to LEO. We were able to isolate the cyanobacterium from the limestone cliff after exposing the rock-dwelling community to desiccation and vacuum (0.7 x 10(-3) kPa) in the laboratory. The ability of the organism to survive the conditions in space may be linked to the formation of dense colonies. These experiments show how extreme environmental conditions, including space, can be used to select for novel microorganisms. Furthermore, it improves our knowledge of environmental tolerances of extremophilic rock-dwelling cyanobacteria. PMID:20154120

  15. Recent deep-seated coastal landsliding at San Onofre State Beach, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Adam P.

    2015-01-01

    Airborne LiDAR collected during the period 1998-2010 and differential GPS surveys conducted over 2008-2013 show recent reactivation and movement of a large deep-seated coastal landslide at San Onofre State Beach, San Diego County, California. The overall slide complex extends about 700 m alongshore, 150 m inland, and an unknown distance offshore. Differencing digital elevation models and tracking field monuments (benchmarks) provide time series of quantitative topographic landslide changes and new insight in to the slide motion sequences and mechanics. The slide contains several distinct primary and secondary regions moving and deforming at different rates. Primary slide motion includes slow seaward translational motion, rotational slipping, and upward offshore movement. Secondary processes of basal wave erosion and new inland cliffline failures contribute to primary landslide destabilization. The landslide exhibits lithologic and structural controls, is driven by a combination of marine and subaerial processes, influences local beach morphology, and deviates from typical southern California coastal cliff processes which mostly involve shallow landslides and topples. Large-scale, cross-shore slide rotation has recently created new nearshore reefs. Eroded cliff sediments provide a local beach sand source and probably influence local nearshore ecosystems. All known time periods of major historical landslide activity were preceded by elevated seasonal rainfall and analysis suggests elevated rainfall generated primary slide motion as opposed to wave action. As of spring 2013, landslide activity has slowed, but continued positive feedbacks including toe removal by wave activity suggest that future landsliding will probably threaten coastal infrastructure.

  16. The evolution of empathy and women’s precarious leadership appointments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John G. Vongas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Glass cliffs describe situations in which women are promoted to executive roles in declining organizations. To explain them, some authors suggest that people tend to think crisis-think female. However, the root cause of this association remains elusive. Using several subfields of evolutionary theory, we argue that biology and culture have shaped the perception of women as being more empathic than men and, consequently, as capable of quelling certain crises. Some crises are more intense than others and, whereas some brew within organizations, others originate from the external environment. We therefore propose that women will be selected to lead whenever a crisis is minimal to moderate and stems primarily from within the organization. Men, on the other hand, will be chosen as leaders whenever the crisis threatens the very existence of the firm and its source is an external threat. Leadership is a highly stressful experience, and even more so when leaders must scale glass cliffs. It is imperative that we understand what gives rise to them not only because they place women and potentially other minorities in positions where the likelihood of failure is high, but also because they help propagate stereotypes that undermine their true leadership ability.

  17. Combining scales in habitat models to improve conservation planning in an endangered vulture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo-Tomás, Patricia; Olea, Pedro P.

    2009-07-01

    Predictive modelling of species' distributions has been successfully applied in conservation ecology, but effective conservation requires predictive and accurate models. The combination of different scales to build habitat models might improve their predictive ability and hence their usefulness for conservation, but this approach has rarely been evaluated. We developed habitat-occupancy models combining scales from nest-site to landscape for a key population at the northwestern edge of the distribution of the globally endangered Egyptian vulture ( Neophron percnopterus). We used generalised linear models (GLM) and an information-theoretic approach to identify the best combination of scales and resolutions for explaining occurrence. Those models that combined nest-site and landscape scales improved the predictive ability compared with the scale-specific ones. The best combined model had a very high predictive ability when used against an independent dataset (92% correct classifications). Egyptian vultures preferred to nest in caves with vegetation at the entrance that were situated at the base of long cliffs, provided that these cliffs are embedded within low-lying, heterogeneous areas with little topographic irregularity and with little human disturbance. The density of sheep around the nest positively influenced Egyptian vulture presence. Conservation of the studied population should focus on minimising human disturbance and on promoting sustainable development through conservation of traditional pastoralism. Our findings highlight the importance of developing region-specific multiscale models in order to design effective conservation strategies. The approach described here may be applied similarly in other populations and species.

  18. Vascular Plant and Vertebrate Inventory of Montezuma Castle National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Cecilia A.; Drost, Charles A.; Halvorson, William Lee

    2006-01-01

    Executive Summary We summarize past inventory efforts for vascular plants and vertebrates at Montezuma Castle National Monument (NM) in Arizona. We used data from previous research to compile complete species lists for the monument and to assess inventory completeness. There have been 784 species recorded at Montezuma Castle NM, of which 85 (11%) are non-native. In each taxon-specific chapter we highlight areas of resources that contributed to species richness or unique species for the monument. Of particular importance are Montezuma Well and Beaver and Wet Beaver creeks and the surrounding riparian vegetation, which are responsible for the monument having one of the highest numbers of bird species in the Sonoran Desert Network of park units. Beaver Creek is also home to populations of federally-listed fish species of concern. Other important resources include the cliffs along the creeks and around Montezuma Well (for cliff and cave roosting bats). Based on the review of past studies, we believe the inventory for most taxa is nearly complete, though some rare or elusive species will be added with additional survey effort. We recommend additional inventory, monitoring and research studies.

  19. The location of uranium in source rocks and sites of secondary deposition at the Needle's Eye natural analogue site, Dumfries and Galloway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The British Geological Survey has been conducting a coordinated research programme at the natural analogue site of Needle's Eye at Southwick on the Solway coast in south-west Scotland. This study of a naturally radioactive geochemical system has been carried out with the aim of improving our confidence in using predictive models of radionuclide migration in the geosphere. This report describes results of integrated mineralogical techniques which have been applied to the study of both the source-term and sites of secondary accumulation of uranium. Pitchblende in a polymetallic-carbonate breccia vein exposed in ancient sea-cliffs is the main source of labile uranium although other uranium-bearing minerals present in the granodiorite and hornfelsed siltstone host-rocks present probable ancillary leachable sites. In keeping with the complex chemistry of the primary sulphide-rich mineralization, a large variety of secondary U minerals has been recorded among which arsenates and hydrous silicates appear to predominate. Uranium transported in groundwaters draining the cliffs has accumulated in organic-rich estuarine/intertidal mudflat sediments of Quaternary age. Charged particle track registration techniques have demonstrated convincingly the effectiveness of humified organic matter in retarding uranium transport and, coupled with scanning electron microscopy, have indicated the important role of living plants and bacteria in uranium uptake and concentration. Computer codes used: CHEMVAL; CHEMTARD 5 figs.; 64 plates; 37 refs

  20. Anxiety behavior is reduced, and physical growth is improved in the progeny of rat dams that consumed lipids from goat milk: an elevated plus maze analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Juliana K B; de Melo, Ana P R; Medeiros, Maria C; Queiroga, Rita C R E; Bomfim, Marcos A D; Santiago, Elaine C A; Guedes, Rubem C A

    2013-09-27

    The goat milk contains conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), which can influence physical growth and brain development. This study investigated the impact of a diet containing goat milk fat (GMF) on physical parameters of gestating (G) and/or lactating (L) rat dams, and their progeny's physical growth, and anxiety behavior. In the dams, body weight was evaluated during gestation and lactation. Maternal physical parameters, thoracic and abdominal circumference and liver weight were measured at weaning. In the progeny, indicators of somatic development, and consolidation of reflex responses (palm grasp, righting, free-fall righting, vibrissa placing, auditory startle response, negative geotaxis and cliff avoidance) were determined. Anxiety behavior was tested on the elevated plus maze (EPM). Compared to the controls, GMF-pups presented higher body weight and tail length at days 18 and 21 (groups G+L and L). In the L-group, cliff avoidance and free-fall righting responses were respectively delayed, and accelerated. Fur appearance was anticipated in G+L pups. On postnatal day 35, the EPM responses of the G group indicated less anxiety than in the controls. Data show developmental and behavioral modifications in the progeny of dams fed the GMF-rich diet consumed during gestation and lactation, suggesting the involvement of CLA in such effects.

  1. A Seamless, High-Resolution, Coastal Digital Elevation Model (DEM) for Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Hoover, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    A seamless, 3-meter digital elevation model (DEM) was constructed for the entire Southern California coastal zone, extending 473 km from Point Conception to the Mexican border. The goal was to integrate the most recent, high-resolution datasets available (for example, Light Detection and Ranging (Lidar) topography, multibeam and single beam sonar bathymetry, and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (IfSAR) topography) into a continuous surface from at least the 20-m isobath to the 20-m elevation contour. This dataset was produced to provide critical boundary conditions (bathymetry and topography) for a modeling effort designed to predict the impacts of severe winter storms on the Southern California coast (Barnard and others, 2009). The hazards model, run in real-time or with prescribed scenarios, incorporates atmospheric information (wind and pressure fields) with a suite of state-of-the-art physical process models (tide, surge, and wave) to enable detailed prediction of water levels, run-up, wave heights, and currents. Research-grade predictions of coastal flooding, inundation, erosion, and cliff failure are also included. The DEM was constructed to define the general shape of nearshore, beach and cliff surfaces as accurately as possible, with less emphasis on the detailed variations in elevation inland of the coast and on bathymetry inside harbors. As a result this DEM should not be used for navigation purposes.

  2. Rockfall triggering by cyclic thermal stressing of exfoliation fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Brian; Stock, Greg M.

    2016-01-01

    Exfoliation of rock deteriorates cliffs through the formation and subsequent opening of fractures, which in turn can lead to potentially hazardous rockfalls. Although a number of mechanisms are known to trigger rockfalls, many rockfalls occur during periods when likely triggers such as precipitation, seismic activity and freezing conditions are absent. It has been suggested that these enigmatic rockfalls may occur due to solar heating of rock surfaces, which can cause outward expansion. Here we use data from 3.5 years of field monitoring of an exfoliating granite cliff in Yosemite National Park in California, USA, to assess the magnitude and temporal pattern of thermally induced rock deformation. From a thermodynamic analysis, we find that daily, seasonal and annual temperature variations are sufficient to drive cyclic and cumulative opening of fractures. Application of fracture theory suggests that these changes can lead to further fracture propagation and the consequent detachment of rock. Our data indicate that the warmest times of the day and year are particularly conducive to triggering rockfalls, and that cyclic thermal forcing may enhance the efficacy of other, more typical rockfall triggers.

  3. Fluctuating survival selection explains variation in avian group size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Charles B.; Brown, Mary Bomberger; Roche, Erin A.; O'brien, Valerie A; Page, Catherine E.

    2016-01-01

    Most animal groups vary extensively in size. Because individuals in certain sizes of groups often have higher apparent fitness than those in other groups, why wide group size variation persists in most populations remains unexplained. We used a 30-y mark–recapture study of colonially breeding cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) to show that the survival advantages of different colony sizes fluctuated among years. Colony size was under both stabilizing and directional selection in different years, and reversals in the sign of directional selection regularly occurred. Directional selection was predicted in part by drought conditions: birds in larger colonies tended to be favored in cooler and wetter years, and birds in smaller colonies in hotter and drier years. Oscillating selection on colony size likely reflected annual differences in food availability and the consequent importance of information transfer, and/or the level of ectoparasitism, with the net benefit of sociality varying under these different conditions. Averaged across years, there was no net directional change in selection on colony size. The wide range in cliff swallow group size is probably maintained by fluctuating survival selection and represents the first case, to our knowledge, in which fitness advantages of different group sizes regularly oscillate over time in a natural vertebrate population.

  4. Coastal Erosion Along the West Coast of the Taiwan Strait and It's Influencing Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jianhui; CAI Feng; QI Hongshuai; LEI Gang; CAO Lihua

    2011-01-01

    Based on the field surveys and repeated cross-profile observations combined with the comparison of many years' topographic maps, this study shows the spatial variability and varying patterns of coastal erosion along the west coast of the Taiwan Strait. Regional differentiation in the Meso-Cenozoic coastal tectonics determined the irregular coastline and geological background for large-scale coastal erosion distribution. The intensity of coastal erosion on the west side of the Taiwan Strait is mild in the northern region, severe in the central region and modest in the southern region. The beaches along the coast are mainly backed by dunes, seawalls or cliffs. The dunes and beaches show periodic erosion and recovery along the coast adjacent to river mouths, while persistent retreat of frontal dunes and beaches tends to occur in other areas. The beach erosion occurs mainly in front of seawalls. Due to the low strength of the unconsolidated sediment the soft cliffs suffer the severest coastline recession. Sea level rise and river sediment discharge reduction are main causes of coastal erosion. Storm surge is common in the studied area and plays an important role in the progress of coastal erosion. Human activities including coastal constructions and sand mining also tend to interfere strongly with the balance of sediment budget in some coastal cells.

  5. Rockfall triggering by cyclic thermal stressing of exfoliation fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Brian D.; Stock, Greg M.

    2016-05-01

    Exfoliation of rock deteriorates cliffs through the formation and subsequent opening of fractures, which in turn can lead to potentially hazardous rockfalls. Although a number of mechanisms are known to trigger rockfalls, many rockfalls occur during periods when likely triggers such as precipitation, seismic activity and freezing conditions are absent. It has been suggested that these enigmatic rockfalls may occur due to solar heating of rock surfaces, which can cause outward expansion. Here we use data from 3.5 years of field monitoring of an exfoliating granite cliff in Yosemite National Park in California, USA, to assess the magnitude and temporal pattern of thermally induced rock deformation. From a thermodynamic analysis, we find that daily, seasonal and annual temperature variations are sufficient to drive cyclic and cumulative opening of fractures. Application of fracture theory suggests that these changes can lead to further fracture propagation and the consequent detachment of rock. Our data indicate that the warmest times of the day and year are particularly conducive to triggering rockfalls, and that cyclic thermal forcing may enhance the efficacy of other, more typical rockfall triggers.

  6. Radiocarbon dating of the Peruvian Chachapoya/Inca site at the Laguna de los Condores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: An archaeological site with several funerary houses built in the cliffs of the Laguna de los Condores by the Chachapoya people was discovered in 1997 in the cloud forest at a sea level of 2500 m in the Amazonas/San Martin area in Peru. The Chachapoya people and their culture is not fully understood until now and some myths entwine around the origin of that South American ancient civilisation. The Chachapoya are described as people of warriors, which were finally subdued by the Incas. A typical characteristic of their culture is the special burial of their dead in funeral bundles containing the remains of the bodies. At the Laguna de los Condores more that 200 mummies have been found and transferred to Leymebamba. During the rescue work of the mummies, which were in danger to be destroyed by looters, it turned out that two different burial patterns could be detected. It is assumed, that after conquering of the Chachapoyas, the Inca people took over also the burial cliff houses and used it for their own burials. The Incas themselves were subdued by the Spanish Conquistadors in 1532 AD. In order to shed light on the transition from the Chachapoya to the Inka dominance, which is connected with the history of the Laguna de los Condores funeral site, a multidisciplinary project between archaeologists, anthropologists and physicists has been started. VERA contributes to this project with several radiocarbon dates of archaeological objects and of the mummies from this Chachapoya/Inca site. (author)

  7. TopCAT-Topographical Compartment Analysis Tool to analyze seacliff and beach change in GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Michael J.; Young, Adam P.; Ashford, Scott A.

    2012-08-01

    This paper discusses the development of a new GIS extension named the Topographic Compartment Analysis Tool (TopCAT), which compares sequential digital elevation models (DEMs) and provides a quantitative and statistical analysis of the alongshore topographical change. TopCAT was specifically designed for the morphological analysis of seacliffs and beaches but may be applied to other elongated features which experience topographical change, such as stream beds, river banks, coastal dunes, etc. To demonstrate the capabilities of TopCAT two case studies are presented herein. The first case examines coastal cliff retreat for a 500 m section in Del Mar, California and shows that large failures comprised a large portion of the total eroded volume and the average retreat rate does not provide a good estimate of local maximum cliff retreat. The second case investigates the alongshore volumetric beach sand change caused by hurricane Bonnie (1998) for an 85 km section in the Cape Hatteras National Seashore, North Carolina. The results compare well (generally within 6%) with previous investigations. These case studies highlight additional information gained through performing a detailed, discretized analysis using TopCAT.

  8. Geothermal Progress Monitor. Report No. 18

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The near-term challenges of the US geothermal industry and its long-range potential are dominant themes in this issue of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Geothermal Progress Monitor which summarizes calendar-year 1996 events in geothermal development. Competition is seen as an antidote to current problems and a cornerstone of the future. Thus, industry's cost-cutting strategies needed to increase the competitiveness of geothermal energy in world markets are examined. For example, a major challenge facing the US industry today is that the sales contracts of independent producers have reached, or soon will, the critical stage when the prices utilities must pay them drop precipitously, aptly called the cliff. However, Thomas R. Mason, President and CEO of CalEnergy told the DOE 1996 Geothermal Program Review XIV audience that while some of his company's plants have ''gone over the cliff, the world is not coming to an end.'' With the imposition of severe cost-cutting strategies, he said, ''these plants remain profitable... although they have to be run with fewer people and less availability.'' The Technology Development section of the newsletter discusses enhancements to TOUGH2, the general purpose fluid and heat flow simulator and the analysis of drill cores from The Geysers, but the emphasis is on advanced drilling technologies.

  9. Dynamic characteristics of a coastal area of lateral spreading using ambient noise time series - Anchor Bay, Malta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galea, Pauline; D'Amico, Sebastiano; Farrugia, Daniela

    2013-04-01

    Anchor Bay and surrounding regions are located on the northwest coast of the island of Malta, Central Mediterranean. The area is characterized by a coastal cliff environment having an outcropping layer of hard coralline limestone (UCL) resting on a thick (up to 50m) layer of clays and marls (Blue Clay, BC). This configuration gives rise to a number of processes leading to coastal instability, in particular lateral spreading phenomena and rock falls. Previous and ongoing studies have identified both lateral spreading rates and vertical motions of up to 27mm per year (Mantovani et al, 2012). The area is an interesting natural laboratory as coastal detachment processes in a number of different stages can be identified and are easily accessible. We investigate the site dynamic characteristics of this study area by recording ambient noise time series (20 minutes long) at over 20 points, over an area of 0.07 km2, using a portable 3-component seismograph (Tromino ) The time series are processed to give both horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio graphs (HVSR) as well as frequency-dependent polarisation analysis as proposed by Burjanek (2011, 2012). The HVSR graphs illustrate and quantify aspects of site resonance effects due both to underlying geology as well as to mechanical resonance of partly or wholly detached boulders or blocks. The polarization diagrams indicate predominant directions of vibrational effects. Results from this study show an unambiguous distinction between the behavior of "stable" areas, away from the cliff edges, the region of the unstable cliff edge and the actual rockfall areas. Stable regions are characterized by a single and pronounced HVSR resonance peak at around 1.5Hz that are characteristic of all other areas in the Maltese islands having the same underlying geological sequence, while HVSR curves closer to the cliff edge show more complex responses at higher frequencies characteristic of the dynamic behavior of individual detached blocks

  10. A new rapid method for rockfall energies and distances estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomini, Anna; Ferrari, Federica; Thoeni, Klaus; Lambert, Cedric

    2016-04-01

    Rockfalls are characterized by long travel distances and significant energies. Over the last decades, three main methods have been proposed in the literature to assess the rockfall runout: empirical, process-based and GIS-based methods (Dorren, 2003). Process-based methods take into account the physics of rockfall by simulating the motion of a falling rock along a slope and they are generally based on a probabilistic rockfall modelling approach that allows for taking into account the uncertainties associated with the rockfall phenomenon. Their application has the advantage of evaluating the energies, bounce heights and distances along the path of a falling block, hence providing valuable information for the design of mitigation measures (Agliardi et al., 2009), however, the implementation of rockfall simulations can be time-consuming and data-demanding. This work focuses on the development of a new methodology for estimating the expected kinetic energies and distances of the first impact at the base of a rock cliff, subject to the conditions that the geometry of the cliff and the properties of the representative block are known. The method is based on an extensive two-dimensional sensitivity analysis, conducted by means of kinematic simulations based on probabilistic modelling of two-dimensional rockfall trajectories (Ferrari et al., 2016). To take into account for the uncertainty associated with the estimation of the input parameters, the study was based on 78400 rockfall scenarios performed by systematically varying the input parameters that are likely to affect the block trajectory, its energy and distance at the base of the rock wall. The variation of the geometry of the rock cliff (in terms of height and slope angle), the roughness of the rock surface and the properties of the outcropping material were considered. A simplified and idealized rock wall geometry was adopted. The analysis of the results allowed finding empirical laws that relate impact energies

  11. Obtaining magnitude-cumulative frequency curves from rockfall scar size distribution using cosmogenic chlorine-36 in the Montsec area (Eastern Pyrenees, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domènech, Guillem; Mavrouli, Olga; Corominas, Jordi; Abellán, Antonio; Merchel, Silke; Pavetich, Stefan; Rugel, Georg

    2015-04-01

    Magnitude-cumulative frequency (MCF) relations are commonly used components for assessing the rockfall hazard using databases of recorded events. However, in some cases, data are lacking or incomplete. To overcome this restriction, the volume distribution of the rockfall scars has been used instead. The latter may yield the temporal probability of occurrence if the time span required to generate the scars is known. The Montsec range, located in the Eastern Pyrenees, Spain, was chosen as a pilot study area for investigating MCF distributions. This cliff, which is composed of limestones from Upper Cretaceous age, shows distinct evidences of rockfall activity, including large recent rockfall scars. These areas are identifiable by their orange colour, which contrasts in front of the greyish old stable (reference) surface of the cliff face. We present a procedure to obtain the MCF of the rockfall scars by dating an old reference cliff surface and measuring the total volume released since then. The reference cliff surface was dated using the terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide (TCN) chlorine-36 (Merchel et al., 2013). We used the Rockfall Scar Size Distribution (RSSD) obtained in Domènech et al. (2014) that considers several rockfall pattern scenarios. Scenario 1 allows for, mostly, large rockfall scar volumes, scenario 2 considers smaller occurrences and scenario 3 suggests that rockfall scars can be the result of one or several rockfall events, and thus contemplating a wider range of scar volumes. The main steps of the methodology are: a) Obtaining the RSSD, b) Volume calculation of material lost, c) Calculation of time (T0) elapsed for the cliff to retreat (age of the old reference surface), and d) generation of the MCF curve from the RSSD. A total volume of material lost of 78900 m3 was obtained as well as an elapsed period of time of 15350 years. The MCF curves for different rockfall scenarios are found to be well fitted by a power law with exponents -1.7, -1.1 and -1

  12. An integrated management tool for rockfall evaluation along transportation corridors: the ParaChute research project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloutier, Catherine; Locat, Jacques; Mayers, Mélanie; Noël, François; Turmel, Dominique; Jacob, Chantal; Dorval, Pierre; Bossé, François; Gionet, Pierre; Jaboyedoff, Michel

    2016-04-01

    Rockfall is a significant hazard along linear infrastructures due to the presence of natural and man-made rock slopes. Knowing where the problematic rockfalls source areas are is of primary importance to properly manage and mitigate the risk associated to rockfall along linear infrastructures. The aim of the ParaChute research project is to integrate various technologies into a workflow for rockfall characterization for such infrastructures, using a 220 km-long railroad as the study site which is located on Québec's North Shore, Canada. The objectives of this 3-year project which started in 2014 are: (1) to optimize the use of terrestrial, mobile and airborne laser scanners data into terrain analysis, structural geology analysis and rockfall susceptibility rating, (2) to further develop the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) for photogrammetry applied to rock cliff characterization, and (3) to integrate rockfall simulation studies into a rock slope classification system similar to the Rockfall Hazard Rating System. Firstly, based on laser scanner data and aerial photographs, the morpho-structural features of the terrain (genetic material, landform, drainage, etc.) are mapped. The result can be used to assess all types of mass movements. Secondly, to guide field work and decrease uncertainty of various parameters, systematic rockfall simulations and a first structural analysis are made from point clouds acquired by mobile and airborne laser scanner. The simulation results are used to recognize the rock slopes that have potentially problematic rockfall paths, meaning they could reach the linear infrastructure. Other rock slopes are not included in the inventory. Field work is carried out to validate and complete the rock slopes characterization previously made from remote sensing technique. Because some or parts of cliffs are not visible or accessible from the railroad, we are currently developing the use of photogrammetry by UAV in order to complete the

  13. Dusk Lighting of Layered Textures in 'Cape Verde'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Full-shade lighting in the late Martian afternoon helps make details visible in this view of the layered cliff face of the 'Cape Verde' promontory making up part of the rim of Victoria Crater in the Meridiani Planum region of equatorial Mars. NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its panoramic camera (Pancam) to shoot the dozens of individual images that have been combined into this mosaic. Opportunity was inside Victoria Crater and near the base of the cliff when it took these images on the 1,579th and 1,580th Martian days, or sols, of the mission (July 2 and 3, 2008). Photographing the promontory from this position in Victoria Crater presented challenges for the rover team. The geometry was such that Cape Verde was between the rover and the sun, which could cause a range of negative effects, from glinting off Pancam's dusty lenses to shadowing on the cliff face. The team's solution was to take the images for this mosaic just after the sun disappeared behind the crater rim, at about 5:30 p.m. local solar time. The atmosphere was still lit, but no direct sunlight was illuminating the wall of Cape Verde. The result is a high-resolution view of Cape Verde in relatively uniform diffuse sky lighting across the scene. Pancam used a clear filter for taking the images for this mosaic. Capturing images in low-light situations was one of the main motivations for including the clear filter among the camera's assortment of filters available for use. The face of Cape Verde is about 6 meters (20 feet) tall. Victoria Crater, at about 800 meters (one-half mile) wide, is the largest and deepest crater that Opportunity has visited. It sits more than 5 kilometers (almost 4 miles) away from Opportunity's Eagle Crater landing site. Researchers sent Opportunity into Victoria Crater to study the rock layers exposed inside. The textures seen in the rock layers of Cape Verde suggest that the exposed layers were originally deposited by wind.

  14. Active and passive seismic methods for characterization and monitoring of unstable rock masses: field surveys, laboratory tests and modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombero, Chiara; Baillet, Laurent; Comina, Cesare; Jongmans, Denis; Vinciguerra, Sergio

    2016-04-01

    Appropriate characterization and monitoring of potentially unstable rock masses may provide a better knowledge of the active processes and help to forecast the evolution to failure. Among the available geophysical methods, active seismic surveys are often suitable to infer the internal structure and the fracturing conditions of the unstable body. For monitoring purposes, although remote-sensing techniques and in-situ geotechnical measurements are successfully tested on landslides, they may not be suitable to early forecast sudden rapid rockslides. Passive seismic monitoring can help for this purpose. Detection, classification and localization of microseismic events within the prone-to-fall rock mass can provide information about the incipient failure of internal rock bridges. Acceleration to failure can be detected from an increasing microseismic event rate. The latter can be compared with meteorological data to understand the external factors controlling stability. On the other hand, seismic noise recorded on prone-to-fall rock slopes shows that the temporal variations in spectral content and correlation of ambient vibrations can be related to both reversible and irreversible changes within the rock mass. We present the results of the active and passive seismic data acquired at the potentially unstable granitic cliff of Madonna del Sasso (NW Italy). Down-hole tests, surface refraction and cross-hole tomography were carried out for the characterization of the fracturing state of the site. Field surveys were implemented with laboratory determination of physico-mechanical properties on rock samples and measurements of the ultrasonic pulse velocity. This multi-scale approach led to a lithological interpretation of the seismic velocity field obtained at the site and to a systematic correlation of the measured velocities with physical properties (density and porosity) and macroscopic features of the granitic cliff (fracturing, weathering and anisotropy). Continuous

  15. Cenozoic incision history of the Little Colorado River and its role in carving Grand Canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlstrom, K. E.

    2015-12-01

    Multi-stage incision/denudation history for the southwestern Colorado Plateau involved: carving of 70-30 Ma Laramide paleotopography controlled by strike valleys at the base of retreating cliffs, 25-15 Ma incision of an East Kaibab paleovalley that cut to about half the modern depth of eastern Grand Canyon, and 5-6 Ma integration of the Colorado River (CR) through Grand Canyon. A synthesis of Little Colorado River (LCR) incision history informs aspects of each episode. Refined evidence for the first two episodes is from new thermochronology modeling that shows post-Laramide NE cliff retreat and a 35-25 Ma LCR paleovalley that flowed NW across the Kaibab uplift. Next was 16-14 Ma playa/ marsh deposition of Lower Bidahochi Formation, 13-8 Ma non-deposition, and 6-8 fluvial upper Bidahochi Formation with base level defined by Hopi Buttes maars. Little denudation in the LCR valley from 16 to 6 Ma is documented by similar elevations of 16 and 6 Ma paleo baselevels. The third pulse of regional incision/denudation was associated with integration of the CR across the Vermillion Cliffs after 5-6 Ma. Earliest integration reoccupied the East Kaibab paleocanyon, inferred from thermochronology to have been at ~1500-1700 m elevation at 15 Ma. Topographically inverted dated basalt mesas in the LCR headwater region show steady incision of 43 m/Ma since 6 Ma. New 2 Ma sanidine ages for Crooked Ridge and Blue Point ash show ~100 m/Ma differential incision across the LCR knickpoint over the last ~ 2 Ma: ~400 m (~200 m/Ma) at the confluence, 400-500 m (200-250 m/Ma) at the projected confluence of Crooked Ridge and the LCR, 220 m (110 m/Ma) for topographically inverted basalt mesas in LCR tributaries in the central reaches, and 116-204 m (61-43 m/Ma) in the headwaters. Headwater uplift of the Rocky Mountains likely facilitated CR integration; post-2 Ma differential incision in the LCR may reflect a combination of regional mantle-driven epeirogenic uplift and additional mantle

  16. Gasbuggy Site Assessment and Risk Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-03-01

    The Gasbuggy site is in northern New Mexico in the San Juan Basin, Rio Arriba County (Figure 1-1). The Gasbuggy experiment was designed to evaluate the use of a nuclear detonation to enhance natural gas production from the Pictured Cliffs Formation, a tight, gas-bearing sandstone formation. The 29-kiloton-yield nuclear device was placed in a 17.5-inch wellbore at 4,240 feet (ft) below ground surface (bgs), approximately 40 ft below the Pictured Cliffs/Lewis shale contact, in an attempt to force the cavity/chimney formed by the detonation up into the Pictured Cliffs Sandstone. The test was conducted below the southwest quarter of Section 36, Township 29 North, Range 4 West, New Mexico Principal Meridian. The device was detonated on December 10, 1967, creating a 335-ft-high chimney above the detonation point and a cavity 160 ft in diameter. The gas produced from GB-ER (the emplacement and reentry well) during the post-detonation production tests was radioactive and diluted, primarily by carbon dioxide. After 2 years, the energy content of the gas had recovered to 80 percent of the value of gas in conventionally developed wells in the area. There is currently no technology capable of remediating deep underground nuclear detonation cavities and chimneys. Consequently, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) must continue to manage the Gasbuggy site to ensure that no inadvertent intrusion into the residual contamination occurs. DOE has complete control over the 1/4 section (160 acres) containing the shot cavity, and no drilling is permitted on that property. However, oil and gas leases are on the surrounding land. Therefore, the most likely route of intrusion and potential exposure would be through contaminated natural gas or contaminated water migrating into a producing natural gas well outside the immediate vicinity of ground zero. The purpose of this report is to describe the current site conditions and evaluate the potential health risks posed by the most plausible

  17. What if the power-law model did not apply for the prediction of very large rockfall events?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohmer, J.; Dewez, T.

    2012-04-01

    Extreme events are of primary importance for risk management in a variety of natural phenomena, and more particularly for landslides and rockfalls, because they might be associated with huge losses. Numerous research works have addressed this problem based on the same paradigm: if events exhibit the same statistical properties across a broad range of sizes, the probability of extreme events can be evaluated by extrapolating the frequency-size distribution. Considering landslides' areas or rockfalls' volumes, the frequency distribution has been found to be heavy-tailed and the well-known power law distribution has been proposed to model it. Yet, the vision of very large extreme event (catastrophic) frequency being an extrapolation of the power laws fitted on small and intermediate events has been challenged in various contexts, in particular by Sornette and co-authors, who proposed viewing such catastrophic events as "outliers" from the power-law model, i.e. they deviate by an abnormal large distance from the extrapolated prediction. In this study, we address such an issue considering a rockfall inventory, containing >8500 events spanning 8 orders of magnitudes of volume and collated from 2.5 years of high-accuracy repeated terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) surveys on a coastal chalk cliff in Normandy (France). This inventory contains a particularly large event of 70,949 m3 which occurred some time between February 1 and 7 April 2008. It is the second largest cliff failure reported in Normandy, and is larger than those collated in historical cliff failure inventories across various geological and geomorphological coastal settings. Is this event an outlier of the power-law volume-frequency distribution ? And if so, why? This largest event recorded appears to stand out of the rest of the sample. We use it to revisit the techniques to fit power-law distribution with robust techniques (robust weighted maximum likelihood estimator), rarely used in rockfall studies, and

  18. Meteorological conditions, physiochemical properties, thermal-oxygen stratification, water overturn and water balance of Lake Gardno on Wolin Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tylkowski Jacek

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The main research problem of the paper is aimed at determining the proper functioning of Lake Gardno within the period 2012-2014 considered as hydrological years in reference to the physiochemical properties of its waters, water balance, thermal regime and water overturn. Lake Gardno is a representative of non-run-off lake geo-eco-systems; it is situated within the Southern Baltic Sea Coastland at the cliff shore of Wolin Island. The paper analyses how weather conditions affect the specifics of water supplies provided to the lake and seasonal dynamics of its waters, their chemical, thermal and aerobic properties. It also specifies their overturn and balance with a particular emphasis on their supplies together with fog deposits.

  19. [CLIMBING HIGHER--COMMON INJURIES IN ROCK CLIMBERS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, Dafna; Constantin, Naama; Or, Omer

    2016-06-01

    Rock climbing is becoming an increasingly popular sport in Israel with more and more climbing walls being built in the cities and new routes being traced on cliffs around the country. Our account describes the case of a 15 years old climber with chronic pain (without trauma) in the 3rd finger of the right hand. A stress fracture, involving the proximal interphalangeal joint (SH3) of the middle phalanx, was diagnosed. The fracture healed following two months of rest with gradual return to activity. As this sport becomes more common, there is an increasing need for knowledge about the characteristic injuries, their diagnosis and treatment. Although considered an extreme sport, most of the injuries are overuse injuries, mainly to the upper limbs. Finger flexor tendon pulley rupture being one of the most common. Diagnosis is based on history, physical examination and ultrasonography. Conservative treatment is successful for most injuries, while more complicated cases require surgical intervention. PMID:27544986

  20. Preliminary results of Aruba wind resource assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guda, M.H. [Fundashon Antiyano Pa Energia, Curacao (Netherlands Antilles)

    1996-12-31

    As part of a project to assess the possibilities for wind energy utilitization in the Dutch Antilles islands, windspeed and -direction data were collected in Aruba for two years, from March 1992 to February 1994. Five sites that were estimated to be representative for the islands` wind regimes, were monitored during this period: two sites on the windward coast, one east and one west; two inland sites, again one east and one west, and one site topping the cliffs overlooking the eastern windward coast. Additionally, twenty years worth of data were analyzed for the reference site at the airport, which is in the middle part of the island, on the leeward coast. Correlation calculations between these data and the data for the project sites were performed, in order to establish a methodology for estimating the long-term behavior of the wind regimes at these sites. 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Stopping computer crimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1989-01-01

    Two new books about intrusions and computer viruses remind us that attacks against our computers on networks are the actions of human beings. Cliff Stoll's book about the hacker who spent a year, beginning in Aug. 1986, attempting to use the Lawrence Berkeley Computer as a stepping-stone for access to military secrets is a spy thriller that illustrates the weaknesses of our password systems and the difficulties in compiling evidence against a hacker engaged in espionage. Pamela Kane's book about viruses that attack IBM PC's shows that viruses are the modern version of the old problem of a Trojan horse attack. It discusses the most famous viruses and their countermeasures, and it comes with a floppy disk of utility programs that will disinfect your PC and thwart future attack.

  2. Sin, Samsara and Self-Salvation:an Interpretation of the Film Triangle from the Perspective of Archetypal Criticism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝玉龙

    2015-01-01

    In the light of the knowledge that literature is the direct mimesis of other literary works and indirect mimesis of myths while film is the direct mimesis of other forms of arts and indirect mimesis of literary works, the present paper extends the feasibili⁃ty of Northrop Frye’s archetypal theories into the interpretation of films. The film Triangle (2007) is a fascinating and successful thriller characterized by its legion psychological puzzles and enigmatic plots. Through probing into this cliff-hanging film from the perspective of archetypal criticism, focusing on its displaced archetypal structure, motif and image, the paper exposes the“myth”of this film–a metaphorical and symbolical revelation of“sin”“samsara”and“self-salvation”, which in turn, proves that the fun⁃damental sameness of literature and filmable arts is the literariness derived from archetypal myths.

  3. Lessons in Nuclear Safety, Panel on Integration of People and Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinkston, David [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-02-24

    Four slides present a historical perspective on the evolution of nuclear safety, a description of systemic misalignment (available resources do not match expectations, demographic cliff developing, promulgation of increased expectations and new requirements proceeds unabated), and needs facing nuclear safety (financial stability, operational stability, and succession planning). The following conclusions are stated under the heading "Nuclear Safety - 'The System'": the current universe of requirements is too large for the resource pool available; the current universe of requirements has too many different sources of interpretation; there are so many indicators that it’s hard to know what is leading (or important); and the net result can come to defy integrated comprehension at the worker level.

  4. Archaeology. Sedimentary DNA from a submerged site reveals wheat in the British Isles 8000 years ago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Oliver; Momber, Garry; Bates, Richard; Garwood, Paul; Fitch, Simon; Pallen, Mark; Gaffney, Vincent; Allaby, Robin G

    2015-02-27

    The Mesolithic-to-Neolithic transition marked the time when a hunter-gatherer economy gave way to agriculture, coinciding with rising sea levels. Bouldnor Cliff, is a submarine archaeological site off the Isle of Wight in the United Kingdom that has a well-preserved Mesolithic paleosol dated to 8000 years before the present. We analyzed a core obtained from sealed sediments, combining evidence from microgeomorphology and microfossils with sedimentary ancient DNA (sedaDNA) analyses to reconstruct floral and faunal changes during the occupation of this site, before it was submerged. In agreement with palynological analyses, the sedaDNA sequences suggest a mixed habitat of oak forest and herbaceous plants. However, they also provide evidence of wheat 2000 years earlier than mainland Britain and 400 years earlier than proximate European sites. These results suggest that sophisticated social networks linked the Neolithic front in southern Europe to the Mesolithic peoples of northern Europe.

  5. JIT supply chain; an investigation through general system theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O P Mishra

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper explains theoretical approach of the four theories of General system Theory (GST developed by Yourdon (1989 [Yourdon, E. (1989. Modern Structured Analysis. Yourdon Press, Prentice-Hall International, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey. Senge] while applying it in information technology and subsequently used by caddy (2007 [Caddy I.N., & Helou, M.M. (2007. Supply chains and their management: Application of general systems theory. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 14, 319–327.] in field of supply chain and management. JIT philosophy in core activities of supply chain i.e. procurement, production processes, and logistics are discussed through general system theory. The growing structure of the supply chain poses the implication restrictions and requires a heavy support system, many times a compromise is done while implementing JIT. The study would be useful to understand the general trends generated naturally regarding the adoption of the JIT philosophy in the supply chain.

  6. Apologising and the Montenegrin cultural script

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavica Perovic

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the representation of the speech act of apology through cultural scri pts. The research has been done on a corpus of students’ responses gathered through an interview of the Discourse Completion Task (DCT type. The speech act of apology is analysed within the politeness theory originated by Brown and Levinson (1987 and the category of ‘ face ’ . The complexity and specificity of this speech act in Montenegrin led us to establish six semantic components of apologizing for which we devised cultural scripts. Furthermore, two broad categories of apologies were identified: non - verbal and verbal which we labelled ‘ to do is to say ’ and ‘ to say is to do ’ respectively, which further resulted in the creation of two master scripts. The analysis in this paper relies heavily on the idea of cultural scripts developed by Anna Wierzbicka and Cliff G oddard, executed through the semantic primes of Natural Semantic Metalanguage (NSM.

  7. Birds on a wire: empirical studies of flocking dyna-mics in linear aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Elliott; Fulton, Andrew; Rosenthal, Lee; Kane, Suzanne Amador

    2014-03-01

    The dynamics of avian flocking is difficult to study because of the transient, highly mobile and unpredictable nature of bird flocks. However, birds often form clusters when perched on wires and fences, offering a stable platform for studying the formation, internal structure and dynamics of these approximately one-dimensional flocks. Previous studies have examined the distribution of the distances between birds perched on wires, but not the time-dependence of this behavior. We present results from a video study of cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) perched on power lines in Sierra Valley, California. Phenomena studied include how the interbird distance distribution varies as a function of time, what factors influence the addition of further birds to an existing cluster, how the distribution evolves in response to perturbations, and typical timescales for the observed behaviors.

  8. Tikutõmbeid kottpimedas galeriis = Striking matches in a pitch-dark gallery : [luuletused] / Artur Alliksaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alliksaar, Artur, 1923-1966

    2001-01-01

    Tekst eesti ja inglise k. A. Alliksaare lühibiograafia eesti ja inglise k. lk. 55. Sisu: Tikutõmbeid kottpimedas galeriis = Striking matches in a pitch-dark gallery ; "Olen määratusuur mets..." = "I am infinitely vast forest..." ; "Olen koredate külgedega kalju..." = "I am rough-sided cliff..." ; "Olen meri, millel puudub äär..." = "I am sea that knows no bounds..." ; "Liikumine on niivõrd liitunud mu loomusega..." = "Movement is so much part of me..." ; "Ma ei söandaks öelda, et olen rikas..." = "I would not claim that I am rich..." ; Pöördehetk = Turning point ; Kuigi on nii palju lilli... = Though there are so many flowers ; Antidolorosum

  9. Sustainable tourism and natural resources management in small islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present issue reports the results obtained through the activities dedicated to the Management of Natural Resources of Sicily Eco-innovation Project, focused on sustainable tourism. Both studies and interventions were carried out between 2012 and 2015 in collaboration with the City Council and the Marine Protected Area of Egadi Islands, within the islets of Egadi Archipelago (few kilometres offshore of the Sicilian west coast). The study area is characterised by many ecological and naturalistic assets, particularly in the underwater environment, where a very high biodiversity is present thanks to the location and its particular hydrologic conditions. Here, the seabed has an irregular morphology with many cliffs, outcrops, sand banks and submarine valleys. It is a natural laboratory where the seasonal anthropic pressure is strongly related to tourism, leisure and professional/illegal fishing, pollution related to urbanisation (more intense in the Island of Favignana); all activities highly impacting the marine ecosystem and main threat for biological resources

  10. The Cabri installation - INB 24. Additional safety assessment with respect to the accident which occurred in the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a presentation of some characteristics of the Cabri base nuclear installation located in Cadarache (brief description, buildings, operation), this document reports the identification of cliff-edge effect risks and of critical structures and equipment. Then, it addresses the different risks: earthquake (installation sizing and compliance, margin assessment for the different structures and equipment), external flooding (installation sizing and compliance, margin assessment in relationship with the different flooding origins), other extreme natural events (extreme meteorological conditions related to flooding, earthquake exceeding the design level), and loss of external or internal electric supplies and of cooling systems. The next parts address severe accident management (means and organization for crisis management, robustness of available means), and subcontracting conditions and practices

  11. The Murang'a landslide, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, T. C.; Nyambok, I. O.

    1993-04-01

    On 15 May 1991, a landslide occurred at Gacharage Village in the Murang'a District of Kenya; it buried a house near the toe of a cliff, killing all eight residents in their sleep. The principal determining factors of the slide were a high, mechanically unstable slope of deeply weathered volcanic soil and a high sorption capacity of the surface soil layer. The slide was triggered by rapid saturation of the soil following a heavy downpour. Based on field investigations and laboratory studies, this paper discusses the physical properties and environmental factors that affected slope stability at Murang'a. It also points out the economic and social impact of landslides in the region and suggests remedial measures.

  12. Status of Indirect Drive ICF Experiments on the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewald, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-03-21

    In the quest to demonstrate Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) ignition of deuterium-tritium (DT) filled capsules and propagating thermonuclear burn with net energy gain (fusion energy/laser energy >1), recent experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) have shown progress towards increasing capsule hot spot temperature (Tion>5 keV) and fusion neutron yield (~1016), while achieving ~2x yield amplification by alpha particle deposition. At the same time a performance cliff was reached, resulting in lower fusion yields than expected as the implosion velocity was increased. Ongoing studies of the hohlraum and capsule physics are attempting to disseminate possible causes for this performance ceiling.

  13. Geomorphic expression of late Quaternary sea level changes along the southern Saurashtra coast, western India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nilesh Bhatt; Uday Bhonde

    2006-08-01

    Geomorphic expression of land-sea interaction is preserved in the form of abandoned cliffs, marine terraces,shore platforms and marine notches along the southern Saurashtra coast. These features have been used to ascertain the magnitude of sea level changes during late Quaternary.Notch morphology and associated biological encrustation have been used to estimate the magnitude and duration of palaeo-sea strands.Marine notches and other erosive features occurring between 12 and 15 m above the present Biological Mean Sea Level (BMSL) are attributed to the last interglacial corresponding to the Marine Isotopic Stage 5 (MIS-5). However,6 to 9 m upliftment of the coastal fringe is attributed to this sea level.The second major high sea strand was identified during the mid-Holocene when the sea rose 2 m above the present level.Notches corresponding to this high sea level are recorded 4 to 5 m above the present BMSL.

  14. The Effect Analysis of Topography on the Spectrum Properties of Anti-Plane Movement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong Mianshui; Li Xiaojun

    2008-01-01

    An explicit finite difference method is performed to evaluate the significance of topography effects on the seismic response of viscoelastic sites. The real accelerograms and hell-shape impulse wavelets, slope angle of cliff and angle of incidence on the spectrum property of the incoming waves are all discussed in detail. The conclusions show that the presence of topographic factors and the direction of the incident waves not only significantly affect the peak ground acceleration of a site, but also affect the spectrum properties of the incoming waves,and the effect on the direction of the incident waves is especially remarkable. The study also finds that it is reasonable to analyse spectrum properties with the input of impulse wavelets in the finite element simulation of wave motion.

  15. Geomorphological hazard and tourist vulnerability along Portofino Park trails (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Brandolini

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The many trails existing in the coastal area of Portofino Promontory are used by tourists for trekking or as pathways to small villages and beaches. The aim of this paper is to define geomorphological hazard and tourist vulnerability in this area, within the framework of the management and planning of hiking activities in Portofino Natural Park. In particular, processes triggered by gravity, running waters and wave motion, affecting the slopes and the cliff, are considered. The typology of the trails and trail maintenance are also taken into account in relation to weather conditions that can make the excursion routes dangerous for tourists. In conclusion, an operative model is applied for the definition of possible risk scenarios. This model is founded on an inventory and the quantification of geomorphological hazards and tourist vulnerability, in comparison with trail rescue data. The model can be applied to other environments and tourist areas.

  16. Experimental evidence of vocal recognition in young and adult black-legged kittiwakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulard, Hervé; Aubin, T.; White, J.F.; Hatch, Shyla A.; Danchin, E.

    2008-01-01

    Individual recognition is required in most social interactions, and its presence has been confirmed in many species. In birds, vocal cues appear to be a major component of recognition. Curiously, vocal recognition seems absent or limited in some highly social species such as the black-legged kittiwake, Rissa tridactyla. Using playback experiments, we found that kittiwake chicks recognized their parents vocally, this capacity being detectable as early as 20 days after hatching, the youngest age tested. Mates also recognized each other's long calls. Some birds reacted to their partner's voice when only a part of the long call was played back. Nevertheless, only about a third of the tested birds reacted to their mate's or parents' call and we were unable to detect recognition among neighbours. We discuss the low reactivity of kittiwakes in relation to their cliff-nesting habit and compare our results with evidence of vocal recognition in other larids. ?? 2008 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  17. The effects of cognitive development and age on elementary students' science achievement for structured inductive and semi-deductive inquiry strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yore, Larry D.

    This study explored Morine and Morine's (Discovery: A challenge to teachers. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1973) assumptions regarding age and cognitive development of learners successfully utilizing two types of inquiry, specifically structured inductive and semi-deductive. Two groups of elementary school students from grades one, three and five were individually assessed on six conservation tasks and a multiplicative classification task. The two groups were instructed on two different science topics utilizing different inquiry strategies. Achievement data from topic specific tests were analyzed by an ANOVA technique. The results indicated that age made a significant difference on achievement for both inquiry strategies. The significant contributions were due to the differences between grade one and grades three and five. The differences between grade three and grade five were not significant. The effect of cognitive development was more noticeable in the less structured semi-deductive strategy in which four conservation tasks and the multiplicative classification tasks were significant.

  18. Bartlit Residence%传统石材的新篇章--巴特里特住宅

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lake/Flato architects,Inc.; 史洪

    2006-01-01

    @@ 松堡崖(Cliffs at Castle Pines)是美国科罗拉多州一个自然风光别样美丽的地方.它位于海拔约6400英尺的山脊上,从这个位置可以俯视南到派克峰(Pike's Peak),北至朗氏峰(Long's Peak)的整个弗朗特山脉(Front Range)以及山谷中的河床.基地裸露的花岗岩之间,生长着蓬得罗萨松(PonderosaPine)和胭脂栎,还有一些本土的奇花野草,形成了基地脆弱的自然生态环境.

  19. Morphological and Molecular Phylogenetic Data Reveal a New Species of Primula (Primulaceae) from Hunan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuan; Yu, Xun-Lin; Hu, Chi-Ming; Hao, Gang

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Primulaceae, Primula undulifolia, is described from the hilly area of Hunan province in south-central China. Its morphology and distributional range suggest that it is allied to P. kwangtungensis, both adapted to subtropical climate, having contiguous distribution and similar habitat, growing on shady and moist cliffs. Petioles, scapes and pedicels of them are densely covered with rusty multicellular hairs, but the new species can be easily distinguished by its smaller flowers and narrowly oblong leaves with undulate margins. Molecular phylogenetic analysis based on four DNA markers (ITS, matK, trnL-F and rps16) confirmed the new species as an independent lineage and constitutes a main clade together with P. kwangtungensis, P. kweichouensis, P. wangii and P. hunanensis of Primula sect. Carolinella. PMID:27579832

  20. INB 101 - Orphee reactor. Additional safety assessment with respect to the accident which occurred in the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a presentation of some characteristics of the Orphee installation (buildings, reactor, circuits, integrated experimental devices, venting systems, electricity supply and distribution systems, reactor command and control and protection means, operation), this document reports the identification of cliff-edge risks and of critical structures and equipment. Then, it addresses the different risks: earthquake (installation sizing and compliance, margin assessment for the different structures and equipment), flooding (installation sizing, margin assessment), other extreme natural events (tempests, rainfalls, extreme earthquake inducing flooding), loss of electric supplies and of cooling systems. The next parts address the organization of severe accident management (exercises, available means, influence of other installations, confinement integrity after fuel damage) and subcontracting practices