Sample records for cliffs

  1. Cliff : the automatized zipper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baharom, M.Z.; Toeters, M.J.; Delbressine, F.L.M.; Bangaru, C.; Feijs, L.M.G.


    It is our strong believe that fashion - more specifically apparel - can support us so much more in our daily life than it currently does. The Cliff project takes the opportunity to create a generic automatized zipper. It is a response to the struggle by elderly, people with physical disability, and

  2. Cliffs at Gruchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Middleton


    Full Text Available Downward from Gruchy, past its wind-wrenched elm,The path drops under pastures to a cliffWhere outcrop boulder-stones glint blue and iron,Breaking above great sweeps of sea and sky.Below the rocks, rowing in close to shoreThe fishermen, no bigger than the gullsThat turn above them crying at their catch,Glide over green and lavender to sand.Outside the scene, a higher, flatter rockProvided the perspective for these stonesThat point toward the horizon’s shining line,Insight’s limitless limit bo...

  3. Dynamics of a cliff top dune (United States)

    Rasmussen, K. R.


    Morphological changes during more than 100 years have been investigated for a cliff-top dune complex at Rubjerg at the Danish North Sea coast. Here the lower 50 m of the cliff front is composed of Pleistocene steeply inclined floes of silt and clay with coarse sand in between which gives it a saw-tooth appearance. On top of this the dunes are found for several kilometres along the coastline. Due to erosion by the North Sea the cliff has retreated about 120 m between approximately 1880 and 1970 as indicated from two national surveys, and recent GPS-surveys indicate that erosion is continuing at a similar rate. Nevertheless the cliff top dune complex has survived, but its morphology has undergone some changed. The old maps indicate that around 1880 the dune complex was composed of several up to about 20 m high dunes streamlined in the East-West direction which is parallel to the prevailing wind direction. When protective planting started during the first half of the 20th Century the cliff top dunes gradually merged together forming a narrow, tall ridge parallel to the shore line with the highest part reaching about 90 m near 1970. In 1993 the highest points along the ridge was almost 95 m high, but then the protective planting was considerably reduced and recent annual GPS-surveys indicate that the dunes respond quickly to this by changing their morphology towards the original appearance. It is remarkable that despite the mass wasting caused by the constant erosion of the cliff front the dunes have remained more or less intact. Theoretical studies of hill flow indicate given the proper geometry of the cliff then suspension of even coarse grains can be a very effective agent for carrying sand from the exposed parts of the cliff front to and beyond the cliff-top. Mostly the sand grains are deposited within some hundred meters downwind of the cliff dune while silt is often carried more than 10 km inland. Field observations indicate that where the dislodged floes and

  4. Update on Simulating Ice-Cliff Failure (United States)

    Parizek, B. R.; Christianson, K. A.; Alley, R. B.; Voytenko, D.; Vankova, I.; Dixon, T. H.; Walker, R. T.; Holland, D.


    Using a 2D full-Stokes diagnostic ice-flow model and engineering and glaciological failure criteria, we simulate the limiting physical conditions for rapid structural failure of subaerial ice cliffs. Previously, using a higher-order flowline model, we reported that the threshold height, in crevassed ice and/or under favorable conditions for hydrofracture or crack lubrication, may be only slightly above the 100-m maximum observed today and that under well-drained or low-melt conditions, mechanically-competent ice supports cliff heights up to 220 m (with a likely range of 180-275 m) before ultimately succumbing to tensional and compressive failure along a listric surface. However, proximal to calving fronts, bridging effects lead to variations in vertical normal stress from the background glaciostatic stress state that give rise to the along-flow gradients in vertical shear stress that are included within a full-Stokes momentum balance. When including all flowline stresses within the physics core, diagnostic solutions continue to support our earlier findings that slumping failure ultimately limits the upper bound for cliff heights. Shear failure still requires low cohesive strength, tensile failure leads to deeper dry-crevasse propagation (albeit, less than halfway through the cliff), and compressive failure drops the threshold height for triggering rapid ice-front retreat via slumping to 200 m (145-280 m).

  5. Ice-Cliff Failure via Retrogressive Slumping (United States)

    Parizek, B. R.; Christianson, K.; Alley, R. B.; Voytenko, D.; Vankova, I.; Dixon, T. H.; Holland, D.


    The magnitude and rate of future sea-level rise from warming-induced ice-sheet shrinkage remain notably uncertain. Removal of most of an ice sheet by surface melting alone requires centuries to millennia. Oceanic warming may accelerate loss by removing buttressing ice shelves and thereby speeding flow of non-floating ice into the ocean, but, until recently, modeled timescales for major dynamic ice-sheet shrinkage were centuries or longer. Beyond certain thresholds, however, observations show that warming removes floating ice shelves, leaving grounded ice cliffs from which icebergs break off directly. Cliffs higher than some limit experience rapid structural failure. Recent parameterization of this process in a comprehensive ice-flow model produced much faster sea-level rise from future rapid warming than in previous modeling studies, through formation and retreat of tall ice cliffs. Fully physical representations of this process are not yet available, however. Here, we use modeling guided by terrestrial radar data from Helheim Glacier, Greenland to show that cliffs will fail by slumping and trigger rapid retreat at a threshold height that, in crevassed ice with surface melting, may be only slightly above the 100-m maximum observed today, but may be roughly twice that (180-275 m) in mechanically-competent ice under well-drained or low-melt conditions.

  6. 76 FR 1469 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2... (United States)


    ... Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2 Environmental Assessment... Plant, LLC, the licensee, for operation of the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2... Impact Statement for License Renewal of Nuclear Plants, Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant (NUREG-1437...

  7. 75 FR 66802 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2... (United States)


    ... Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2; Notice of Withdrawal of...) has granted the request of Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC, the licensee, to withdraw its... for the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2, located in Calvert County, MD. The...

  8. Predicting coastal cliff erosion using a Bayesian probabilistic model (United States)

    Hapke, Cheryl J.; Plant, Nathaniel G.


    Regional coastal cliff retreat is difficult to model due to the episodic nature of failures and the along-shore variability of retreat events. There is a growing demand, however, for predictive models that can be used to forecast areas vulnerable to coastal erosion hazards. Increasingly, probabilistic models are being employed that require data sets of high temporal density to define the joint probability density function that relates forcing variables (e.g. wave conditions) and initial conditions (e.g. cliff geometry) to erosion events. In this study we use a multi-parameter Bayesian network to investigate correlations between key variables that control and influence variations in cliff retreat processes. The network uses Bayesian statistical methods to estimate event probabilities using existing observations. Within this framework, we forecast the spatial distribution of cliff retreat along two stretches of cliffed coast in Southern California. The input parameters are the height and slope of the cliff, a descriptor of material strength based on the dominant cliff-forming lithology, and the long-term cliff erosion rate that represents prior behavior. The model is forced using predicted wave impact hours. Results demonstrate that the Bayesian approach is well-suited to the forward modeling of coastal cliff retreat, with the correct outcomes forecast in 70–90% of the modeled transects. The model also performs well in identifying specific locations of high cliff erosion, thus providing a foundation for hazard mapping. This approach can be employed to predict cliff erosion at time-scales ranging from storm events to the impacts of sea-level rise at the century-scale.

  9. Methods for excluding cliff swallows from nesting on highway structures. (United States)


    Cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) are colonially breeding migratory birds that frequently nest on highway : structures. Protected by the Migratory Bird Treaty Act of 1918, nesting control methods cannot harm swallows or active : nests. This c...

  10. Decadal-scale coastal cliff retreat in southern and central California (United States)

    Young, Adam P.


    Airborne LiDAR data collected in 1998 and 2009-2010 were used to measure coastal cliff erosion and retreat between the Mexico/California border and Bodega Head, California. Cliff erosion was detected along 44% of the 595 km of shoreline evaluated, while the remaining cliffs were relatively stable. The mean cliff top retreat rate was 0.12 m/yr, while mean retreat averaged over the entire cliff face was 0.04 m/yr. The maximum cliff top and face retreat rates were 4.2 and 3.8 m/yr, respectively. Historical ( 1930s to 1998) and recent retreat rates were significantly inversely correlated for areas with large historical or recent cliff retreat, such that locations with elevated historical retreat had low levels of recent retreat and locations with elevated recent retreat were preceded by low rates of historical retreat. The strength of this inverse correlation increased with cliff change magnitudes up to r2 of 0.91 for cliff top retreat rates > 2.9 m/yr. Mean recent retreat rates were 52-83% lower than mean historical retreat rates. Although beaches can protect cliffs against wave-driven erosion, cliffs fronted by beaches retreated 49% more than cliffs without beaches. On average, unarmored cliff faces retreated 0.05 m/yr between 1998 and 2009-2010, about three times faster than artificially armored cliffs. Alongshore metrics of wave-cliff impact, precipitation, and cliff hardness were generally not well correlated with recent cliff changes. A cliff hazard metric is used to detect cliff steepening and areas prone to future cliff top failures.

  11. Resistivity tomography of Pointe du Hoc cliffs for stability assessment (United States)

    Udphuay, S.; Everett, M. E.; Warden, R.


    Pointe du Hoc WWII battlefield overlooking the English Channel in western Normandy, France, is an important cultural resource, being an integral component of the June 6 1944 D-Day invasion. Two major buildings, the forward observation post (OP) and Col. Rudder's command post (RCP), are now perched perilously close to the cliff's edge owing to six decades of cliff retreat. Geophysical surveys were carried out in March 2008 to investigate the risk of cliff failure and to inform possible geotechnical remediation strategies with a final goal toward re-opening the observation post that is now closed to visitors. The geophysical surveying is accomplished by high-resolution resistivity tomography, conducted in extreme topography and in the midst of dense cultural clutter. The results of the OP tomography indicate that the highest mass movement hazard is associated with the marine caverns at the base of the cliff at the point of strongest wave attack. These caverns occupy the future site of a sea arch which will threaten the OP building. There is a high probability of a soil wedge failure on the east facing cliff edge close to the OP building. Such a failure could damage or destroy the building. The possibility of a sudden catastrophic failure along any one of these fractures cannot be ruled out. The greatest risk at the RCP site, which is under less immediate threat, is associated with soil wedge failures at the top of the cliffs.

  12. Activity of southeastern bats along sandstone cliffs used for rock climbing (United States)

    Loeb, Susan C.; Jodice, Patrick G. R.


    Bats in the eastern U.S. are facing numerous threats and many species are in decline. Although several species of bats commonly roost in cliffs, little is known about use of cliffs for foraging and roosting. Because rock climbing is a rapidly growing sport and may cause disturbance to bats, our objectives were to examine use of cliff habitats by bats and to assess the effects of climbing on their activity. We used radio-telemetry to track small-footed bats (Myotis leibii) to day roosts, and Anabat SD2 detectors to compare bat activity between climbed and unclimbed areas of regularly climbed cliff faces, and between climbed and unclimbed cliffs. Four adult male small-footed bats were tracked to nine day roosts, all of which were in various types of crevices including five cliff face roosts (three on climbed and two on unclimbed faces). Bat activity was high along climbed cliffs and did not differ between climbed and unclimbed areas of climbed cliffs. In contrast, overall bat activity was significantly higher along climbed cliffs than unclimbed cliffs; species richness did not differ between climbed and unclimbed cliffs or areas. Lower activity along unclimbed cliffs may have been related to lower cliff heights and more clutter along these cliff faces. Due to limited access to unclimbed cliffs of comparable size to climbed cliffs, we could not thoroughly test the effects of climbing on bat foraging and roosting activity. However, the high overall use of climbed and unclimbed cliff faces for foraging and commuting that we observed suggests that cliffs may be important habitat for a number of bat species. Additional research on bats' use of cliff faces will improve our understanding of the factors that affect their use of this habitat including the impacts of climbing.

  13. Modeling the Long-Term Evolution of Supraglacial Ice Cliffs on Himalayan Debris-Covered Glaciers (United States)

    Buri, P.; Miles, E. S.; Steiner, J. F.; Ragettli, S.; Pellicciotti, F.


    Supraglacial ice cliffs are present on debris-covered glaciers worldwide and provide the only direct atmosphere-ice interface over the lower sections of these glaciers. Low albedo and high longwave emissions from surrounding debris cause very high melt rates, accounting for a significant portion of total glacier mass loss. As a result, ice cliffs affect glacier downwasting and mass balance. Additionally, and in contrast to the debris-covered ice, high melt at cliffs turns them into dynamic features, directly affecting glacier surface evolution. While conceptual ideas about the formation, evolution and collapse of ice cliffs exist, their life cycles have never been thoroughly documented. Based on observations obtained from high-resolution aerial and terrestrial images analyzed with Structure-from-Motion and with data from automatic weather stations on two glaciers in the Nepalese Himalaya, we simulate the evolution of selected ice cliffs over several seasons using a new physically-based model of cliff backwasting. The 3D model calculates the energy-balance at the cliff scale and includes the cliff interaction with supraglacial ponds and reburial by debris. We consider cliffs of different shape, orientation and slope, and we show that backwasting leads to a variety of evolution typologies, with cliffs that maintain a constant, self-similar geometry, cliffs that grow laterally and cliffs that disappear through slope shallowing and debris melt-out. Most cliffs persist over several seasons. The presence of a pond appears to be the key control for cliffs to survive, while east and west facing cliffs grow because of higher radiation receipts. We use the model to test the hypothesis that south-facing cliffs do not survive. We show that most south-facing cliffs demise after one melt season on both glaciers, because of high input of solar radiation exceeding the longwave radiation receipt. For north facing features, the longwave radiation receipts at lower cliff sections

  14. Recent progress in understanding activity cliffs and their utility in medicinal chemistry. (United States)

    Stumpfe, Dagmar; Hu, Ye; Dimova, Dilyana; Bajorath, Jürgen


    The activity cliff concept is of high relevance for medicinal chemistry. Recent studies are discussed that have further refined our understanding of activity cliffs and suggested different ways of exploiting activity cliff information. These include alternative approaches to define and classify activity cliffs in two and three dimensions, data mining investigations to systematically detect all possible activity cliffs, the introduction of computational methods to predict activity cliffs, and studies designed to explore activity cliff progression in medicinal chemistry. The discussion of these studies is complemented with new findings revealing the frequency of activity cliff formation when different molecular representations are used and the distribution of activity cliffs across different targets. Taken together, the results have a number of implications for the practice of medicinal chemistry.

  15. A grid-based model of backwasting of supraglacial ice cliffs over debris-covered glaciers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buri, Pascal; Pellicciotti, Francesca; Steiner, Jakob F|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/119338653; Miles, Evan S.; Immerzeel, Wouter W|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/290472113


    Ice cliffs might be partly responsible for the high mass losses of debris-covered glaciers in the Hindu Kush-Karakoram-Himalaya region. The few existing models of cliff backwasting are point-scale models applied at few locations or assume cliffs to be planes with constant slope and aspect, a major

  16. Stability analysis of chalk sea cliffs using UAV photogrammetry (United States)

    Barlow, John; Gilham, Jamie


    Cliff erosion and instability poses a significant hazard to communities and infrastructure located is coastal areas. We use point cloud and spectral data derived from close range digital photogrammetry to assess the stability of chalk sea cliffs located at Telscombe, UK. Data captured from an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) were used to generate dense point clouds for a 712 m section of cliff face which ranges from 20 to 49 m in height. Generated models fitted our ground control network within a standard error of 0.03 m. Structural features such as joints, bedding planes, and faults were manually mapped and are consistent with results from other studies that have been conducted using direct measurement in the field. Kinematic analysis of these data was used to identify the primary modes of failure at the site. Our results indicate that wedge failure is by far the most likely mode of slope instability. An analysis of sequential surveys taken from the summer of 2016 to the winter of 2017 indicate several large failures have occurred at the site. We establish the volume of failure through change detection between sequential data sets and use back analysis to determine the strength of shear surfaces for each failure. Our results show that data capture through UAV photogrammetry can provide useful information for slope stability analysis over long sections of cliff. The use of this technology offers significant benefits in equipment costs and field time over existing methods.

  17. Hydroids from submarine cliffs near Arthur Harbour, Palmer Archipelago, Antarctica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervoort, W.


    At the instigation of Dr. Joel W. Hedgpeth, Resident Director, Marine Science Center, Oregon State University, Newport, Oregon, U.S.A., I studied samples of hydroids, collected by Dr. John C. McCain and Dr. William E. Stout from submarine cliffs in the region around Palmer Station, Antarctica. The

  18. A physically based 3-D model of ice cliff evolution over debris-covered glaciers (United States)

    Buri, Pascal; Miles, Evan S.; Steiner, Jakob F.; Immerzeel, Walter W.; Wagnon, Patrick; Pellicciotti, Francesca


    We use high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) from unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) surveys to document the evolution of four ice cliffs on the debris-covered tongue of Lirung Glacier, Nepal, over one ablation season. Observations show that out of four cliffs, three different patterns of evolution emerge: (i) reclining cliffs that flatten during the ablation season; (ii) stable cliffs that maintain a self-similar geometry; and (iii) growing cliffs, expanding laterally. We use the insights from this unique data set to develop a 3-D model of cliff backwasting and evolution that is validated against observations and an independent data set of volume losses. The model includes ablation at the cliff surface driven by energy exchange with the atmosphere, reburial of cliff cells by surrounding debris, and the effect of adjacent ponds. The cliff geometry is updated monthly to account for the modifications induced by each of those processes. Model results indicate that a major factor affecting the survival of steep cliffs is the coupling with ponded water at its base, which prevents progressive flattening and possible disappearance of a cliff. The radial growth observed at one cliff is explained by higher receipts of longwave and shortwave radiation, calculated taking into account atmospheric fluxes, shading, and the emission of longwave radiation from debris surfaces. The model is a clear step forward compared to existing static approaches that calculate atmospheric melt over an invariant cliff geometry and can be used for long-term simulations of cliff evolution and to test existing hypotheses about cliffs' survival.

  19. Lidar-Based Rock-Fall Hazard Characterization of Cliffs (United States)

    Collins, Brian D.; Greg M.Stock,


    Rock falls from cliffs and other steep slopes present numerous challenges for detailed geological characterization. In steep terrain, rock-fall source areas are both dangerous and difficult to access, severely limiting the ability to make detailed structural and volumetric measurements necessary for hazard assessment. Airborne and terrestrial lidar survey methods can provide high-resolution data needed for volumetric, structural, and deformation analyses of rock falls, potentially making these analyses straightforward and routine. However, specific methods to collect, process, and analyze lidar data of steep cliffs are needed to maximize analytical accuracy and efficiency. This paper presents observations showing how lidar data sets should be collected, filtered, registered, and georeferenced to tailor their use in rock fall characterization. Additional observations concerning surface model construction, volumetric calculations, and deformation analysis are also provided.

  20. Time budget of South African cliff swallows during breeding

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of time by the South African cliff swallow was determined and use of energy calculated by using equations for predicting standard metabolic rate and the cost of flight. The highest daily energy expenditur.e was during the feeding of nestlings when 9,22 h were spent foraging. The cost of 127 kJ for building a nest is ...

  1. What controls the survival of ice cliffs on debris-covered glaciers? An investigation into the aspect-dependent evolution of supraglacial cliffs in the Nepalese Himalaya (United States)

    Pellicciotti, F.; Buri, P.


    Supraglacial ice cliffs exist on debris-covered glaciers worldwide, but despite increasing evidence of their important role in the surface melt of debris-covered glaciers, their role and importance at the glacier scale is still little understood. Acting as windows of energy transfer through the debris, they can contribute to very large glacier mass losses. Their abundance and life cycle might thus explain the anomalous behavior of much higher than expected mass losses of the debris-covered glaciers of High Mountain Asia, a controversial finding of recent research in a region where glaciers are highly relevant as water sources for millions of people downstream. Cliffs' evolution in time and distribution in space will determine their total contribution to the mass balance of glaciers, but while spatial distribution has been recently inferred from remote sensing studies, their temporal evolution is largely unknown. Here, we make use of recent advancements in our ability to model these complex features and use a novel 3D numerical model of cliff backwasting and very high resolution topographic data to show that supraglacial ice cliffs existence is controlled by aspect. Because of lack of observed south-facing cliffs, we rotate north-facing cliff systems observed in high detail over the debris-covered Lirung glacier, in the Nepalese Himalaya, towards southerly aspects and use the model coupled to the very high resolution topography to simulate the continuous evolution of selected cliffs over one melt season. Cliffs facing south (in the Northern Hemisphere) do not survive the duration of an ablation season and disappear within few weeks to few months due to very strong solar radiation receipts. Our model shows a progressive, continuous flattening of southerly facing cliffs, which is a result of their vertical gradient of incoming solar radiation. We also show that there is a clear range of aspects (northwest to northeast) that allows cliff survival because of energy and

  2. A pliocene cliff-line around the Giza Pyramids Plateau, Egypt


    Aigner, Thomas


    Aigner, T., 1983. A Pliocene cliff-line around the Giza Pyramids Plateau, Egypt. Palaeogeogr., Palaeoclimatol., Palaeoecol., 4 2 : 313—322. Escarpments bordering the Giza Pyramids Plateau represent the cliff-line of a Pliocene transgression up the pre-Nile ("Eonile") Valley. Geomorphologically, a limestone cliff can be distinguished from a slip-block shore associated with a distinct fining-up sequence. Differences in bedrock lithology and in structure (Joint pattern, faults) are morphogen...

  3. Chiral Cliffs: Investigating the Influence of Chirality on Binding Affinity. (United States)

    Schneider, Nadine; Lewis, Richard A; Fechner, Nikolas; Ertl, Peter


    Chirality is understood by many as a binary concept: a molecule is either chiral or it is not. In terms of the action of a structure on polarized light, this is indeed true. When examined through the prism of molecular recognition, the answer becomes more nuanced. In this work, we investigated chiral behavior on protein-ligand binding: when does chirality make a difference in binding activity? Chirality is a property of the 3D structure, so recognition also requires an appreciation of the conformation. In many situations, the bioactive conformation is undefined. We set out to address this by defining and using several novel 2D descriptors to capture general characteristic features of the chiral center. Using machine-learning methods, we built different predictive models to estimate if a chiral pair (a set of two enantiomers) might exhibit a chiral cliff in a binding assay. A set of about 3800 chiral pairs extracted from the ChEMBL23 database was used to train and test our models. By achieving an accuracy of up to 75 %, our models provide good performance in discriminating chiral cliffs from non-cliffs. More importantly, we were able to derive some simple guidelines for when one can reasonably use a racemate and when an enantiopure compound is needed in an assay. We critically discuss our results and show detailed examples of using our guidelines. Along with this publication we provide our dataset, our novel descriptors, and the Python code to rebuild the predictive models. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Nature of short-period microtremors on the cliff-like ground. 3; Gakechi kinbo no tanshuki bido . 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiguma, T; Matsuzawa, H [Saitama University, Saitama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    Vibration characteristics were investigated of the ground in the vicinity of a cliff-like sharp slope. Short-period microtremors were observed in the vicinity of an artificially made cliff-like test ground, height 8m and inclination 90{degree}, and a natural cliff, height approximately 9m and inclination approximately 35{degree}. The artificial cliff was reinforced by a virtually vertical retaining wall of concrete, and the ground was prepared for testing with a belt approximately 20m wide and 50m long along the cliff face. All the vibration components were simultaneously measured at measuring spots that were located 5-40m apart from the cliff end and orientated perpendicular to the cliff face. It was then found that in case of artificial cliff there is a conspicuous 3.1Hz prevalent ground vibration in the component squarely meeting the cliff face, that the prevalent ground vibration is not particularly great near the cliff end because the retaining wall and the ground are artificially prepared, that there is no influence of the cliff-like ground in the ground vibration parallel to or vertical along the cliff face, and that in case of natural ground there are no vibration characteristic proper to a cliff-like ground in any of the vibration components. 3 refs., 7 figs.

  5. Sediment contribution from coastal-cliff erosion into the Nile's littoral cell and its significance to cliff-retreat mitigation efforts (United States)

    Katz, Oded; Mushkin, Amit; Crouvi, Onn; Alter, Samuel; Shemesh, Ran


    In 2013 the government of Israel initiated a national mitigation program aimed to prevent further collapse and retreat of the country's coastal cliffs, which occur along the northern termination of the Niles's littoral cell (NLC) in the eastern Mediterranean. The goals of this large-scale program are to protect infrastructure and property proximal to the cliff and to conduct long-term maintenance and monitoring of this highly dynamic and sensitive land-sea interface that spans 40 km of Israel's coast line. Here, we examine the possible impact of proposed cliff retreat mitigation efforts on long-shore sediment transport (LST) and coastal dynamics in the region. We used airborne LiDAR spanning a 9-year period between 2006 and 2015 to quantify the annual contribution of sediment eroded from a 20-km-long segment of Israel's coastal cliffs into the NLC. Our measurements reveal 282±85*103 m3 of sediment eroded from the cliff and delivered into the NLC during the studied period. Considering our study area comprises 50% of Israel's sea cliffs we infer an average contribution rate of 30,000-60,000 m^3/yr of cliff-derived sediment into the NLC prior to the planned broad-scale implementation of cliff-retreat mitigation measures. Previous studies report an average net LST flux of 80,000 - 90,000 m3 that reaches the northern termination of the NLC at Haifa Bay annually. Thus, our results suggest that Israel's actively eroding coastal cliffs are primary contributors (40-80%) to the LST budget along the northern termination of the NLC. It therefore appears that successful implementation of the coastal-cliff protection program along Israel's coastline will result in a significant sand deficit, which may drive LST in this part of the NLC out of its 'background' state. In the likely case that the energy/currents driving LST do not change, a possible outcome of this sediment deficit could be increased beach erosion along Israel's coast line to make up for the lost volumes of cliff

  6. Signaling change during a crisis : Refining conditions for the glass cliff

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulich, Clara; Lorenzi-Cioldi, Fabio; Iacoviello, Vincenzo; Faniko, Klea; Ryan, Michelle K.


    Research into the glass cliff indicates that adverse company circumstances, compared to favorable ones, increase the likelihood of women to be appointed in leadership positions. Study 1 refined the conditions under which a glass cliff occurs by demonstrating a preference for a female leader when a

  7. 77 FR 34093 - License Renewal for Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC's (United States)


    ... Nuclear Power Plant, LLC's AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Environmental assessment and... Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI) at the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant site near Lusby... Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC (CCNPP) submitted an application to the NRC to renew NRC License SNM-2505...

  8. Modelling ice-cliff backwasting on a debris-covered glacier in the Nepalese Himalaya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steiner, Jakob F.; Pellicciotti, Francesca; Buri, Pascal; Miles, Evan S.; Immerzeel, Walter W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/290472113; Reid, Tim D.


    Ice cliffs have been identified as a reason for higher ablation rates on debris-covered glaciers than are implied by the insulation effects of the debris. This study aims to improve our understanding of cliff backwasting, and the role of radiative fluxes in particular. An energy-balance model is

  9. A physically based 3-D model of ice cliff evolution over debris-covered glaciers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buri, Pascal; Miles, Evan S.; Steiner, J.F.; Immerzeel, W.W.; Wagnon, Patrick; Pellicciotti, Francesca


    We use high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) from unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) surveys to document the evolution of four ice cliffs on the debris-covered tongue of Lirung Glacier, Nepal, over one ablation season. Observations show that out of four cliffs, three different patterns of

  10. Processes and mechanisms governing hard rock cliff erosion in western Brittany, France (United States)

    Laute, Katja; Letortu, Pauline; Le Dantec, Nicolas


    The evolution of rocky coasts is controlled by the interplay between subaerial, marine as well as biological processes, and the geological context. In times of ongoing climate change it is difficult to predict how these erosional landscapes will respond for example to anticipated sea-level rise or to an increase in storminess. However, it can be expected that changes in the morphodynamics of rocky coasts will have a noticeable effect on society and infrastructure. Recent studies have proven that monitoring cliff micro-seismic ground motion has been very effective in exploring both marine and atmospheric actions on coastal cliffs. But only few studies have focused so far on the effects of wave loading and water circulation (runoff, infiltration, water table variations) on cliff stability and subsequent erosion, considering the interaction between subaerial and marine processes. This project focuses on the identification and quantification of environmental controls on hard rock cliff erosion with an emphasis on discriminating the relative contributions of subaerial and marine processes. We aim at relating different sources of mechanical stress (e.g. wave loading, direct wave impact, hydrostatic pressure, thermal expansion) to cliff-scale strain (cliff-top swaying and shaking) and micro-fracturing (generation, expansion and contraction of micro-cracks) with the objective to unravel and discriminate triggering mechanisms of cliff failure. A four-month monitoring field experiment during the winter period (February-May) of 2017 is carried out at a cliff face located in Porsmilin beach (western Brittany, France). The selected cliff section is exposed to Atlantic swell from the south/southwest with a significant wave height of ca. 1.5 m on average and, reaching up to 4 m during storm events. The cliff rises ca. 20 m above the beach and is mainly formed of orthogneiss with intrusions of granodiorite. The entire cliff is highly fractured and altered, which can promote slope

  11. The national assessment of shoreline change: a GIS compilation of vector cliff edges and associated cliff erosion data for the California coast (United States)

    Hapke, Cheryl; Reid, David; Borrelli, Mark


    The U.S. Geological Survey has generated a comprehensive data clearinghouse of digital vector cliff edges and associated rates of cliff retreat along the open-ocean California coast. These data, which are presented herein, were compiled as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Assessment of Shoreline Change Project. Cliff erosion is a chronic problem along many coastlines of the United States. As coastal populations continue to grow and community infrastructures are threatened by erosion, there is increased demand for accurate information including rates and trends of coastal cliff retreat. There is also a critical need for these data to be consistent from one region to another. One objective of this work is to a develop standard, repeatable methodology for mapping and analyzing cliff edge retreat so that periodic, systematic, and internally consistent updates of cliff edge position and associated rates of erosion can be made at a national scale. This data compilation for open-ocean cliff edges for the California coast is a separate, yet related study to Hapke and others, 2006 documenting shoreline change along sandy shorelines of the California coast, which is itself one in a series that includes the Gulf of Mexico and the Southeast Atlantic coast (Morton and others, 2004; Morton and Miller, 2005). Future reports and data compilations will include coverage of the Northeast U.S., the Great Lakes, Hawaii and Alaska. Cliff edge change is determined by comparing the positions of one historical cliff edge digitized from maps with a modern cliff edge derived from topographic LIDAR (light detection and ranging) surveys. Historical cliff edges for the California coast represent the 1920s-1930s time-period; the most recent cliff edge was delineated using data collected between 1998 and 2002. End-point rate calculations were used to evaluate rates of erosion between the two cliff edges. Please refer to our full report on cliff edge erosion along the California

  12. Aspect controls the survival of ice cliffs on debris-covered glaciers. (United States)

    Buri, Pascal; Pellicciotti, Francesca


    Supraglacial ice cliffs exist on debris-covered glaciers worldwide, but despite their importance as melt hot spots, their life cycle is little understood. Early field observations had advanced a hypothesis of survival of north-facing and disappearance of south-facing cliffs, which is central for predicting the contribution of cliffs to total glacier mass losses. Their role as windows of energy transfer suggests they may explain the anomalously high mass losses of debris-covered glaciers in High Mountain Asia (HMA) despite the insulating debris, currently at the center of a debated controversy. We use a 3D model of cliff evolution coupled to very high-resolution topographic data to demonstrate that ice cliffs facing south (in the Northern Hemisphere) disappear within a few months due to enhanced solar radiation receipts and that aspect is the key control on cliffs evolution. We reproduce continuous flattening of south-facing cliffs, a result of their vertical gradient of incoming solar radiation and sky view factor. Our results establish that only north-facing cliffs are recurrent features and thus stable contributors to the melting of debris-covered glaciers. Satellite observations and mass balance modeling confirms that few south-facing cliffs of small size exist on the glaciers of Langtang, and their contribution to the glacier volume losses is very small ([Formula: see text]1%). This has major implications for the mass balance of HMA debris-covered glaciers as it provides the basis for new parameterizations of cliff evolution and distribution to constrain volume losses in a region where glaciers are highly relevant as water sources for millions of people.

  13. Management perspective of the Alloy 600 issue at Calvert Cliffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    In response to the question posed in the agenda regarding this presentation, let it be known at the onset that the impact of the pressurizer nozzle primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) on Calvert Cliffs was gigantic. It reached all levels of the Company management, including the Board of Directors. The investigation and repair cost over $20 million without any consideration for replacement power or consequential lost work by those who were involved in the repairs to the pressurizer. It occupied the attention of management and was a major ingredient to most decision processes for about eight months. It caused organizational modifications, capital commitments, and major resource reallocation. It became the focal point around which much of the site work revolved for approximately 6 months (until the repair process was well in hand and other issues prevailed). I will try and describe the impact it had on management, the ingredients used to reach certain important decisions and the concerns that influenced the decisions

  14. Patent cliff mitigation strategies: giving new life to blockbusters. (United States)

    Kakkar, Ashish Kumar


    With several blockbuster drugs on the brink of another significant patent expiry cliff, innovator pharmaceutical firms are at risk of losing billions of dollars in sales to generic competition. With issues such as staggering R&D costs, reduced productivity and increasing governmental emphasis on pharmacoeconomics, timely planning and implementation of product lifecycle management strategies is becoming indispensable. A variety of strategies designed to mitigate the post-patent expiry revenue loss exist. These approaches range from fairly straightforward measures, such as strategic price cuts and launching own or authorized generics, to complex and lengthy ones, such as new formulations and indications that require companies to reinvent their pharmaceuticals. As patent expiries loom and product pipelines continue to remain thin, proactive planning for generic entry will be critical for pharma companies to drive growth and earnings in a sustainable manner.

  15. Survey on Cosmogenic 26Al in Lewis Cliff Meteorites (United States)

    Welten, K. C.; Alderliesten, C.; Lindner, L.


    INTRODUCTION: We have embarked upon a ^26Al gamma-ray survey of meteorites selected from about 2000 samples recently recovered from the Lewis Cliff Ice Fields (84 degrees 18'S/161 degrees 20'E). Due to its 705-ka half-life ^26Al can be used for estimating terrestrial ages and thus contribute to further characterization of Antarctic meteorites in addition to their classification and thermoluminescence (TL) properties. The ^26Al survey is also useful for identifying meteorites with unusual exposure histories, which merit additional measurements of cosmogenic radionuclides (by AMS) and noble gases. In addition, it provides clues on possible pairings. METHOD: Low-level gamma-ray spectroscopy is well suited for ^26Al survey work, since bulk meteorite samples can be measured routinely and nondestructively without any previous sample preparation. The required size of the samples (30-500 g) makes the method relatively independent of depth effects and compositional inhomogeneities. The use of a high-resolution GeLi detector also allows the determination of the natural ^40K activity and thus the K content of the samples, which can be used as an additional pairing criterion for ordinary chondrites. Also ^137Cs, a fall-out surface contamination [1], is simultaneously measured; low values may be characteristic for meteorites recently fallen or released from the ablating ice. For the detector an efficiency calibration curve has been made that adequately accounts for differences in size and shape of the meteorite samples. RESULTS and DISCUSSION: TERRESTRIAL AGES: So far, we have measured over 30 Lewis Cliff equilibrated H and L chondrites, collected from widely differing locations. Normalized to L-chondrite composition, the ^26Al contents range from 27 to 110 dpm/kg with peaks around 43 and 53 dpm/kg. This bimodal ^26Al distribution is reminiscent of that observed for Allan Hills ordinary chondrites [2]. Tentative terrestrial ages, calculated on the basis of ^26Al saturation

  16. Modelling Coastal Cliff Recession Based on the GIM-DDD Method (United States)

    Gong, Bin; Wang, Shanyong; Sloan, Scott William; Sheng, Daichao; Tang, Chun'an


    The unpredictable and instantaneous collapse behaviour of coastal rocky cliffs may cause damage that extends significantly beyond the area of failure. Gravitational movements that occur during coastal cliff recession involve two major stages: the small deformation stage and the large displacement stage. In this paper, a method of simulating the entire progressive failure process of coastal rocky cliffs is developed based on the gravity increase method (GIM), the rock failure process analysis method and the discontinuous deformation analysis method, and it is referred to as the GIM-DDD method. The small deformation stage, which includes crack initiation, propagation and coalescence processes, and the large displacement stage, which includes block translation and rotation processes during the rocky cliff collapse, are modelled using the GIM-DDD method. In addition, acoustic emissions, stress field variations, crack propagation and failure mode characteristics are further analysed to provide insights that can be used to predict, prevent and minimize potential economic losses and casualties. The calculation and analytical results are consistent with previous studies, which indicate that the developed method provides an effective and reliable approach for performing rocky cliff stability evaluations and coastal cliff recession analyses and has considerable potential for improving the safety and protection of seaside cliff areas.

  17. Pleistocene coastal sedimentation in the north cliffs of Colonia del Sacramento

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goso, C.; Perea, D.; Corona, A.; Mesa, V.


    This work is about the cliffs and the sucession of sandy and gravelly sediments in the north of Colonia city. The results obtained by thermoluminescence dating in sandy samples belong to the Quaternary period

  18. Cliff Richard hakkab veini tootma. Marilyn Manson avab isikliku kunstinäituse

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Cliff Richardi Portugali viinamarjaistandusest pärinevast veinist "Vida Nova". 20. septembril avab oma albumit "The Golden Age Of Grotesque" lõpetav laulja Marilyn Manson oma esimese kunstinäituse Los Angeleses Hollywoodis

  19. Development of Waterfall Cliff Face: An Implication from Multitemporal High-definition Topographic Data (United States)

    Hayakawa, Y. S.; Obanawa, H.


    Bedrock knickpoints (waterfalls) often act as erosional front in bedrock rivers, whose geomorphological processes are various. In waterfalls with vertical cliffs, both fluvial erosion and mass movement are feasible to form the landscape. Although morphological changes of such steep cliffs are sometimes visually observed, quantitative and precise measurements of their spatiotemporal distribution have been limited due to poor accessibility to such cliffs. For the clarification of geomorphological processes in such cliffs, multi-temporal mapping of the cliff face at a high resolution can be advantaged by short-range remote sensing approaches. Here we carry out multi-temporal terrestrial laser scanning (TLS), as well as structure-from-motion multi-view stereo (SfM-MVS) photogrammetry based on unmanned aerial system (UAS) for accurate topographic mapping of cliffs around a waterfall. The study site is Kegon Falls in central Japan, having a vertical drop of surface water from top of its overhanging cliff and groundwater outflows from its lower portions. The bedrock consists of alternate layers of jointed andesite lava and conglomerates. The latest major rockfall in 1986 caused approximately 8-m recession of the waterfall lip. Three-dimensional changes of the rock surface were detected by multi-temporal measurements by TLS over years, showing the portions of small rockfalls and surface lowering in the bedrock. Erosion was frequently observed in relatively weak the conglomerates layer, whereas small rockfalls were often found in the andesite layers. Wider areas of the waterfall and cliff were also measured by UAS-based SfM-MVS photogrammetry, improving the mapping quality of the cliff morphology. Point clouds are also projected on a vertical plane to generate a digital elevation model (DEM), and cross-sectional profiles extracted from the DEM indicate the presence of a distinct, 5-10-m deep depression in the cliff face. This appears to have been formed by freeze-thaw and

  20. Final Environmental Assessment to Renovate Fourth Cliff Recreational Area at Hanscom Air Force Base, Massachusetts (United States)


    Renovate Fourth Cliff Recreational Annex Grading and topography changes may be necessary to design an appropriate drainage system at the site...goals: 1) Increase safety for personnel and patrons at the site; 2) Provide protection of the exposed cliff face from rainwater runoff; 3) followed. Drainage design must meet Massachusetts Stormwater Management Standards, as well as comply with the Federal Clean Water Act. Solid

  1. Nature of short-period microtremors on the cliff-like ground. Part 4; Gakechi kinbo no tanshuki bido. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiguma, T; Yoshiike, T [Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan). School of Science and Engineering


    Microtremors were measured on the cliff-like ground with a height about 10 m, to examine the vibration characteristics. Test field-1 near Akabane, Kita-ku, Tokyo is located in a part of Musashino plateau covered with Kanto loam on its surface, and has relatively sound ground. Test field-2 at Machida is located in the western part of Tama hills, and also has Kanto loam on its surface. For the cliff-like ground with inclined angle 70{degree} at Akabane, remarkably predominant frequency 3.2 Hz was observed for the microtremors in the direction perpendicular to the cliff surface. However, this predominant vibration did not become larger due to the damping effects of the reinforcement walls near the end of cliff and the large trees on the cliff. Influence of the cliff-like ground was scarcely observed in the microtremors spectrum in both the directions parallel and vertical to the cliff-surface. From the observation of microtremors with short period on the cliff-like ground with inclined angle around 32{degree} at Machida, influence of cliff-like ground was not observed in the microtremors spectrum in all of the vibrating directions perpendicular, parallel and vertical to the cliff surface. 3 refs., 10 figs.

  2. ORAM-SENTINEL development at Calvert Cliffs. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Baltimore Gas and Electric, in cooperation with EPRI, has installed ORAM-SENTINEL trademark software at Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant. This software incorporates models of the safety and support systems that are used to display the defense-in-depth present in the plant and a quantitative assessment of plant risks during proposed on-line maintenance. During 1997, Baltimore Gas and Electric personnel became familiar with the formal computerized Safety Assessment process associated with on-line and outage maintenance. The report describes the motivation for and the development of ORAM-SENTINEL software. It describes generation of Safety Function Assessment Trees and Plant Transient Assessment Trees and their use in evaluating the level of defense-in-depth of key plant safety functions and plant susceptibility to critical transient events. To show decreasing safety conditions, their results are displayed by color indicators ranging from green through yellow and orange to red. The report describes use of the Calvert Probabilistic Safety Assessment with ORAM-SENTINEL code to calculate an instantaneous core damage frequency and the criteria by which this frequency is translated to a color indicator

  3. Cliff-edge model of obstetric selection in humans. (United States)

    Mitteroecker, Philipp; Huttegger, Simon M; Fischer, Barbara; Pavlicev, Mihaela


    The strikingly high incidence of obstructed labor due to the disproportion of fetal size and the mother's pelvic dimensions has puzzled evolutionary scientists for decades. Here we propose that these high rates are a direct consequence of the distinct characteristics of human obstetric selection. Neonatal size relative to the birth-relevant maternal dimensions is highly variable and positively associated with reproductive success until it reaches a critical value, beyond which natural delivery becomes impossible. As a consequence, the symmetric phenotype distribution cannot match the highly asymmetric, cliff-edged fitness distribution well: The optimal phenotype distribution that maximizes population mean fitness entails a fraction of individuals falling beyond the "fitness edge" (i.e., those with fetopelvic disproportion). Using a simple mathematical model, we show that weak directional selection for a large neonate, a narrow pelvic canal, or both is sufficient to account for the considerable incidence of fetopelvic disproportion. Based on this model, we predict that the regular use of Caesarean sections throughout the last decades has led to an evolutionary increase of fetopelvic disproportion rates by 10 to 20%.

  4. [Ecological basis of epiphytic Dendrobium officinale growth on cliff]. (United States)

    Liu, Xiu-Juan; Zhu, Yan; Si, Jin-Ping; Wu, Ling-Shang; Cheng, Xue-Liang


    In order to make Dendrobium officinale return to the nature, the temperature and humidity in whole days of the built rock model with different slopes and aspects in the natural distribution of wild D. officinale in Tianmu Mountain were recorded by MH-WS01 automatic recorder. The results showed that the slope has a significant impact on the extreme temperature on the surface of the rocks. In summer, the extreme temperature on the surface of horizontal or soft rock can reach to 69.4 ℃, while the temperatures were lower than 50 ℃ on the vertical rock. In winter, the temperatures on the surface of vertical rock were higher and the low temperature duration was shorter than those on the horizontal or soft rock. Also, the humidity of the rocks was significantly influenced by the slope. The monthly average humidity on the surface of vertical rock was above 80%RH. Furthermore, the aspect had a significant impact on the temperature and humidity on the surface of the rocks, but had no significant effect on the daily mean temperature and extreme temperature on the surface of vertical rock. Therefore, the slope affects the survival of D. officinale by affecting the extreme temperature of rocks and affects the growth of D. officinale by affecting the humidity. The choice of slope is the key to the success of cliff epiphytic cultivation for D. officinale. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  5. Improved dust handling at Inco's Copper Cliff smelter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutton, A.; Warner, A.E.M.; Humphris, M.J.


    The Cooper Cliff Smelter Complex comprises three major production departments - a Nickel Smelter for the processing of nickel concentrated to a low iron, nickel - copper sulphide (Bessemer) matte; a Matte Processing plant for the separation of matte sulphides and the production of market nickel oxides and refinery feeds and a Copper Smelter to process copper concentrates to blister copper. Annual production is currently -114,000 tonnes of copper as blister and -110,000 tonnes of nickel. The nickel concentrate (11-13% Ni, 2-3% Cu) is roasted in multi-hearth roasters, smelted in oxy-fuel fired reverberatory furnaces to a 30-35% CuNiCo matte and converted to Bessemer matte (75% CuNiCo) in Peirce-Smith converters. The Bessemer matte is slow cooled and crushed for subsequent separation by mineral dressing techniques in the Matte Processing plant into nickel (sulphide and metallic) concentrates and a copper (chalcocite) concentrate. Nickel sulphides are further processed in fluid bed reactors to oxide market product or refinery feedstock. The copper concentrate (29-30% Cu, 0.9% No.) is dried in fluid bed driers, smelted to a 40-50% copper matte in an Inco oxygen flash furnace and converted to blister copper in Peirce-Smith converters. The chalcocite concentrate from the matte separation stage is flash converted to a semi-blister (3-4% S, 4-5% Ni) and then finished to lighter conventionally. A schematic process flowsheet of the Smelter Complex is shown in this paper

  6. The water erosion processes in the retreat erosive of cliff on soft rocks in the province of Cadiz (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rendon Aragon, J. J.; Gracia Prieto, F. J.; Rio Rodriguez, L. del


    The littoral cliffs on soft materials of the Atlantic Cadiz coast show an important activity of the fresh water erosion processes, sometimes even more significant than the marine erosion processes. The connection of the lower cliffs with sandy beaches favours aeolian sand invasion, which fills previous rills and reduces the water erosion intensity by increasing infiltration. Cliff retreat and rill erosion measurement by using erosion sticks has shown very variables values, most of them higher than the estimated error of the employed methods. This indicates the existence of other factors influencing the distribution of water erosion processes along these cliffs, which have to be studied through different techniques. (Author) 5 refs.

  7. Regional Scale Sea Cliff Hazard Assessment at Sintra and Cascais Counties, Western Coast of Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Marques


    Full Text Available Mass movements of different types and sizes are the main processes of sea cliff evolution, being a considerable natural hazard, the assessment of which is a relevant issue in terms of human loss prevention and land use regulations. To predict the occurrence of future failures affecting the cliff top in slow retreating cliffs, a study was made using the logistic regression statistical method, a set of predisposing factors mainly related with geology (lithology, structure, faults, geomorphology (maximum, mean and standard variation of slope angle, height, aspect, curvatures, toe protection and near offshore mean annual wave power, which were correlated with an aerial photo interpretation based inventory of cliff failures occurred in a 63 years period (1947–2010. The susceptibility model was validated against the inventory data using standard Receiver Operator Curves, which provided area under the curve (AUC values higher than 0.8. In spite of the room for improvement of cliff failure inventories and predisposing factors to be used in these types of studies, namely those related to the rock mass strength and wave power nearshore, the results obtained indicate that the proposed approach is an effective contribution for objective and quantitative hazard assessment.

  8. A model ensemble for projecting multi‐decadal coastal cliff retreat during the 21st century (United States)

    Limber, Patrick; Barnard, Patrick; Vitousek, Sean; Erikson, Li


    Sea cliff retreat rates are expected to accelerate with rising sea levels during the 21st century. Here we develop an approach for a multi‐model ensemble that efficiently projects time‐averaged sea cliff retreat over multi‐decadal time scales and large (>50 km) spatial scales. The ensemble consists of five simple 1‐D models adapted from the literature that relate sea cliff retreat to wave impacts, sea level rise (SLR), historical cliff behavior, and cross‐shore profile geometry. Ensemble predictions are based on Monte Carlo simulations of each individual model, which account for the uncertainty of model parameters. The consensus of the individual models also weights uncertainty, such that uncertainty is greater when predictions from different models do not agree. A calibrated, but unvalidated, ensemble was applied to the 475 km‐long coastline of Southern California (USA), with 4 SLR scenarios of 0.5, 0.93, 1.5, and 2 m by 2100. Results suggest that future retreat rates could increase relative to mean historical rates by more than two‐fold for the higher SLR scenarios, causing an average total land loss of 19 – 41 m by 2100. However, model uncertainty ranges from +/‐ 5 – 15 m, reflecting the inherent difficulties of projecting cliff retreat over multiple decades. To enhance ensemble performance, future work could include weighting each model by its skill in matching observations in different morphological settings

  9. A floral survey of cliff habitats along Bull Run at Manassas National Battlefield Park, Virginia, 2014 (United States)

    Stroh, Esther D.; Struckhoff, Matthew A.; Grabner, Keith W.


    Isolated patches of native vegetation in human-modified landscapes are important reservoirs of biological diversity because they may be the only places in which rare or native species can persist. Manassas National Battlefield Park, Virginia, is an island embedded in a matrix of intensively modified lands; it is becoming increasingly isolated due to growth of the greater Washington, D.C. area. A series of cliffs along Bull Run support an eastern white pine community disjunct from its more typical range in the Appalachian Mountains. Cliffs frequently support vegetation communities that differ from surrounding habitat. In this ecological context, the cliffs along Bull Run are islands of specialized habitat within an island of natural and semi-natural communities (the park), surrounded by a human-dominated landscape. A floral survey of these cliffs was a top priority identified by the National Park Service National Capital Region via the National Resource Preservation Program; in 2014, we completed a floral survey of 11 cliffs in the park. We recorded 282 species in 194 genera and 83 families, including 23 newly documented species for the park.

  10. Modelling the contribution of supraglacial ice cliffs to the mass-balance of glaciers in the Langtang catchment, Nepalese Himalaya (United States)

    Buri, P.; Steiner, J. F.; Miles, E.; Ragettli, S.; Pellicciotti, F.


    Supraglacial cliffs are typical surface features of debris-covered glaciers worldwide, affecting surface evolution, and mass balance by providing a direct ice-atmosphere interface where melt rates can be very high. As a result, ice cliffs act as windows of energy transfer from the atmosphere to the ice, and enhance melt and mass losses of otherwise insulated ice. However, their contribution to glacier mass balance has never been quantified at the glacier scale, and all inference has been obtained from upscaling results of point-scale models or observations at select individual cliffs. Here we use a 3D, physically-based backwasting model to estimate the volume losses associated with the melting and backwasting of supraglacial ice cliffs for the entire debris-covered glacier area of the Langtang catchment. We estimate mass losses for the 2014 melt season and compare them to recent values of glacier mass balance determined from geodetic and numerical modelling approached. Cliff outlines and topography are derived from high-resolution stereo SPOT6-imagery from April 2014. Meteorological data to force the model are provided by automatic weather stations on- and off-glacier within the valley. The model simulates ice cliff backwasting by considering the cliff-atmosphere energy-balance, reburial by debris and the effects of adjacent ponds. In the melt season of 2014, cliffs' distribution and patterns of mass losses vary considerably from glacier to glacier, and we relate rates of volume loss to both glaciers' and cliffs' characteristics. Only cliffs with a northerly aspect account for substantial losses. Uncertainty in our estimates is due to the quality of the stereo DEM, uncertainties in the cliff delineation and the fact that we use a conservative approach to cliff delineation and discard very small cliffs and those for which uncertainty in topography is high. Despite these uncertainties, our work presents the first estimate of the importance of supraglacial ice-cliffs

  11. Wave-flume experiments of soft-rock cliff erosion under monochromatic waves (United States)

    Regard, Vincent; Astruc, Dominique; Caplain, Bastien


    We investigate how cliffs erode under wave attack. Rocky coast erosion works through cycles, each one corresponding to three successive phases: (i) notch creation at cliff toe by mechanical action of waves, (ii) cliff fracturation leading to collapse, and (iii) evacuation of scree aprons by waves and currents. We performed experiments in a 5m x 14cm x 25cm wave flume (15 cm water depth) to investigate how waves are eroding a rocky coast. The cliff is made of wet sand and models a relatively soft rock. We used 3 different grain size (D50 = 0.28-0.41-0.48 mm), changing the cliff rheology. Waves are monochromatic; their height and period differ for the various experiments. Actual wave parameters are estimated by capacitive probes located offshore. The experiments are monitored by two video cameras both on the side and above the flume. Pictures are taken at a rate of 1Hz during the first 4h and then the rate is decreased to 0.1Hz till the end of experiment (about 1 day). The monitoring ensure a confident characterization of experiments in terms of waves (surf similarity parameter ξ and the incident wave energy flux F) and in terms of sediment (Dean number Ω and Shields number θb at breakers). Experiments begin by an initial phase of quick cliff retreat. Then the system evolves with slower cliff retreat. We focus on bottom morphology which we characterize in function of wave forcing (ξ, F). We show that the bottom morphology mainly depends on ξ. For our reference sediment (Dm = 0.41 mm), we observed: (i) surging breakers on a steep terrace (type T1) for ξ > 0.65; (ii)collapsing breakers on a bared profile attached to the inner platform (type T2) for 0.55< ξ <0.6; (iii) spilling breakers on gentle terrace (type T3) for F < 1.3 W/m and 0.55< ξ <0.6. Another bottom morphology, type T4, displays two sub-systems, an outer system with a double-bar profile where breaking waves are plunging, and an inner system with a T1, T2 or T3 profile. Some of these bottom

  12. Assessing species habitat using Google Street View: a case study of cliff-nesting vultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro P Olea

    Full Text Available The assessment of a species' habitat is a crucial issue in ecology and conservation. While the collection of habitat data has been boosted by the availability of remote sensing technologies, certain habitat types have yet to be collected through costly, on-ground surveys, limiting study over large areas. Cliffs are ecosystems that provide habitat for a rich biodiversity, especially raptors. Because of their principally vertical structure, however, cliffs are not easy to study by remote sensing technologies, posing a challenge for many researches and managers working with cliff-related biodiversity. We explore the feasibility of Google Street View, a freely available on-line tool, to remotely identify and assess the nesting habitat of two cliff-nesting vultures (the griffon vulture and the globally endangered Egyptian vulture in northwestern Spain. Two main usefulness of Google Street View to ecologists and conservation biologists were evaluated: i remotely identifying a species' potential habitat and ii extracting fine-scale habitat information. Google Street View imagery covered 49% (1,907 km of the roads of our study area (7,000 km². The potential visibility covered by on-ground surveys was significantly greater (mean: 97.4% than that of Google Street View (48.1%. However, incorporating Google Street View to the vulture's habitat survey would save, on average, 36% in time and 49.5% in funds with respect to the on-ground survey only. The ability of Google Street View to identify cliffs (overall accuracy = 100% outperformed the classification maps derived from digital elevation models (DEMs (62-95%. Nonetheless, high-performance DEM maps may be useful to compensate Google Street View coverage limitations. Through Google Street View we could examine 66% of the vultures' nesting-cliffs existing in the study area (n = 148: 64% from griffon vultures and 65% from Egyptian vultures. It also allowed us the extraction of fine-scale features of

  13. Evolution of elevated containment temperatures at Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branch, R.D. Jr.


    In this paper the author describes the events which caused Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant engineers to recognize a need for monitoring of ambient temperatures within containment. The early attempts at temperature monitoring programs are discussed and critiqued. Primary failings of these early programs included a failure to collect temperature data under a variety of external conditions and a lack of quality assurance to make the data useful for design change. From these early attempts Calvert Cliffs developed a new, extensive temperature monitoring program designed to collect data over a two-year period. The author outlines the planned temperature monitoring program and discusses its expected results

  14. A theropod dinosaur embryo and the affinities of the flaming cliffs dinosaur eggs. (United States)

    Norell, M A; Clark, J M; Demberelyin, D; Rhinchen, B; Chiappe, L M; Davidson, A R; McKenna, M C; Altangerel, P; Novacek, M J


    An embryonic skeleton of a nonavian theropod dinosaur was found preserved in an egg from Upper Cretaceous rocks in the Gobi Desert of Mongolia. Cranial features identify the embryo as a member of Oviraptoridae. Two embryo-sized skulls of dromaeosaurids, similar to that of Velociraptor, were also recovered in the nest. The eggshell microstructure is similar to that of ratite birds and is of a type common in the Djadokhta Formation at the Flaming Cliffs (Bayn Dzak). Discovery of a nest of such eggs at the Flaming Cliffs in 1923, beneath the Oviraptor philoceratops holotype, suggests that this dinosaur may have been a brooding adult.

  15. Soft-Cliff Retreat, Self-Organized Critical Phenomena in the Limit of Predictability? (United States)

    Paredes, Carlos; Godoy, Clara; Castedo, Ricardo


    The coastal erosion along the world's coastlines is a natural process that occurs through the actions of marine and subaerial physico-chemical phenomena, waves, tides, and currents. The development of cliff erosion predictive models is limited due to the complex interactions between environmental processes and material properties over a wide range of temporal and spatial scales. As a result of this erosive action, gravity driven mass movements occur and the coastline moves inland. Like other studied earth natural and synthetically modelled phenomena characterized as self-organized critical (SOC), the recession of the cliff has a seemingly random, sporadic behavior, with a wide range of yearly recession rate values probabilistically distributed by a power-law. Usually, SOC systems are defined by a number of scaling features in the size distribution of its parameters and on its spatial and/or temporal pattern. Particularly, some previous studies of derived parameters from slope movements catalogues, have allowed detecting certain SOC features in this phenomenon, which also shares the recession of cliffs. Due to the complexity of the phenomenon and, as for other natural processes, there is no definitive model of recession of coastal cliffs. In this work, various analysis techniques have been applied to identify SOC features in the distribution and pattern to a particular case: the Holderness shoreline. This coast is a great case study to use when examining coastal processes and the structures associated with them. It is one of World's fastest eroding coastlines (2 m/yr in average, max observed 22 m/yr). Cliffs, ranging from 2 m up to 35 m in height, and made up of glacial tills, mainly compose this coast. It is this soft boulder clay that is being rapidly eroded and where coastline recession measurements have been recorded by the Cliff Erosion Monitoring Program (East Riding of Yorkshire Council, UK). The original database has been filtered by grouping contiguous

  16. Assessing species habitat using Google Street View: a case study of cliff-nesting vultures. (United States)

    Olea, Pedro P; Mateo-Tomás, Patricia


    The assessment of a species' habitat is a crucial issue in ecology and conservation. While the collection of habitat data has been boosted by the availability of remote sensing technologies, certain habitat types have yet to be collected through costly, on-ground surveys, limiting study over large areas. Cliffs are ecosystems that provide habitat for a rich biodiversity, especially raptors. Because of their principally vertical structure, however, cliffs are not easy to study by remote sensing technologies, posing a challenge for many researches and managers working with cliff-related biodiversity. We explore the feasibility of Google Street View, a freely available on-line tool, to remotely identify and assess the nesting habitat of two cliff-nesting vultures (the griffon vulture and the globally endangered Egyptian vulture) in northwestern Spain. Two main usefulness of Google Street View to ecologists and conservation biologists were evaluated: i) remotely identifying a species' potential habitat and ii) extracting fine-scale habitat information. Google Street View imagery covered 49% (1,907 km) of the roads of our study area (7,000 km²). The potential visibility covered by on-ground surveys was significantly greater (mean: 97.4%) than that of Google Street View (48.1%). However, incorporating Google Street View to the vulture's habitat survey would save, on average, 36% in time and 49.5% in funds with respect to the on-ground survey only. The ability of Google Street View to identify cliffs (overall accuracy = 100%) outperformed the classification maps derived from digital elevation models (DEMs) (62-95%). Nonetheless, high-performance DEM maps may be useful to compensate Google Street View coverage limitations. Through Google Street View we could examine 66% of the vultures' nesting-cliffs existing in the study area (n = 148): 64% from griffon vultures and 65% from Egyptian vultures. It also allowed us the extraction of fine-scale features of cliffs

  17. 78 FR 64004 - Notice of Intent To Collect Fees on Public Lands in the Red Cliffs National Conservation Area... (United States)


    ... To Collect Fees on Public Lands in the Red Cliffs National Conservation Area, Washington County, UT... Intent to Collect Fees on Public Lands in the Red Cliffs National Conservation Area, Washington County, UT, which contained erroneous information regarding the use of the America the Beautiful passes at...

  18. 78 FR 4467 - UniStar Nuclear Energy, Combined License Application for Calvert Cliffs Power Plant, Unit 3... (United States)


    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. 52-016; NRC-2008-0250] UniStar Nuclear Energy, Combined License Application for Calvert Cliffs Power Plant, Unit 3, Exemption 1.0 Background UniStar Nuclear Energy (UNE), on behalf of Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Project, LLC and UniStar Nuclear Operating Services...

  19. Main factors determining bioerosion patterns on rocky cliffs in a drowned valley estuary in the Colombian Pacific (Eastern Tropical Pacific) (United States)

    Cobo-Viveros, Alba Marina; Cantera-Kintz, Jaime Ricardo


    Bioerosion is an important process that destroys coastal rocks in the tropics. However, the rates at which this process occurs, the organisms involved, and the dynamics of rocky cliffs in tropical latitudes have been less studied than in temperate and subtropical latitudes. To contribute to the knowledge of the bioerosion process in rocky cliffs on the Pacific coast of Colombia (Eastern Tropical Pacific) we compared: 1) boring volume, 2) grain size distribution of the rocks, and 3) rock porosity, across three tidal zones of two cliffs with different wave exposure; these factors were related to the bioeroding community found. We observed that cliffs that were not exposed to wave action (IC, internal cliffs) exhibited high percentages of clays in their grain size composition, and a greater porosity (47.62%) and perforation (15.86%) than exposed cliffs (EC, external cliffs). However, IC also exhibited less diversity and abundance of bioeroding species (22 species and 314 individuals, respectively) compared to the values found in EC (41.11%, 14.34%, 32 and 491, respectively). The most abundant bioeroders were Petrolisthes zacae in IC and Pachygrapsus transversus in EC. Our findings show that the tidal zone is the common factor controlling bioerosion on both cliffs; in addition to the abundance of bioeroders on IC and the number of bioeroding species on EC. The integration of geology, sedimentology, and biology allows us to obtain a more comprehensive view of the patterns and trends in the process of bioerosion.

  20. 75 FR 25876 - Notice of Intent To Prepare Resource Management Plans for the Beaver Dam Wash and Red Cliffs... (United States)


    ... Intent To Prepare Resource Management Plans for the Beaver Dam Wash and Red Cliffs National Conservation... Environmental Impact Statement, Utah AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of intent..., intends to prepare Resource Management Plans (RMP) for the Beaver Dam Wash and the Red Cliffs National...

  1. 33 CFR 165.505 - Security Zone; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Chesapeake Bay, Calvert County, Maryland. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security Zone; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Chesapeake Bay, Calvert County, Maryland. 165.505 Section 165.505 Navigation and... Areas Fifth Coast Guard District § 165.505 Security Zone; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Chesapeake...

  2. Quantifying volume loss from ice cliffs on debris-covered glaciers using high-resolution terrestrial and aerial photogrammetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brun, Fanny; Buri, Pascal; Miles, Evan S.; Wagnon, Patrick; Steiner, J.F.; Berthier, Etienne; Ragettli, S.; Kraaijenbrink, P.D.A.; Immerzeel, W.W.; Pellicciotti, Francesca

    Mass losses originating from supraglacial ice cliffs at the lower tongues of debris-covered glaciers are a potentially large component of the mass balance, but have rarely been quantified. In this study, we develop a method to estimate ice cliff volume losses based on high-resolution topographic

  3. A grid-based Model for Backwasting at supraglacial Ice Cliffs on a debris-covered Glacier (United States)

    Buri, P.; Steiner, J. F.; Pellicciotti, F.; Miles, E. S.; Immerzeel, W.


    In the Himalaya, debris-covered glaciers cover significant portions of the glacierised area. Their behaviour is not entirely understood, but they seem to experience strong mass losses in direct contradiction with the insulating effect of debris. A characteristic most debris-covered glaciers share is the appearance of cliffs and lakes on their surface. These supraglacial features play a role in surface evolution, dynamics and downwasting of debris-covered glaciers but their actual effects have not been quantified at the glacier scale. Numerous measurements of radiative fluxes at the cliff surface, detailed survey of cliffs geometry and ablation have been conducted on the debris-covered Lirung Glacier, Nepalese Himalayas. We used four 20cm-resolution DEMs obtained from UAV flights to represent the glacier surface to a very detailed degree. As the debris remains stable on slopes up to 30°, ice cliffs show inclinations above this threshold and were clearly represented in the DEMs. Direct measurements and a point-scale cliff-backwasting model have showed that melt patterns over a single cliff are highly variable across and along the ice surface due to non-uniform geometry, varying inclination, aspect and terrain view factors. Variability in observed ablation was large also among cliffs. We therefore developed an energy balance model with a gridded representation of the cliff to understand the melt behaviour at the cliff scale. Previous models assumed the cliff to be a plane with a constant slope and aspect, and extrapolation of melt rates to the glacier scale based on this assumption might be erroneous. Using a grid-based approach allows representation of real inclined areas of the cliff. The detailed surface from the UAV-DEM was taken as initial condition for the model. The model was in close agreement with ablation measurements at numerous stakes located on 3 cliffs. Results show very high variability both along the cliffs' elevation and extension. These cannot be

  4. Investigating ice cliff evolution and contribution to glacier mass-balance using a physically-based dynamic model (United States)

    Buri, Pascal; Miles, Evan; Ragettli, Silvan; Brun, Fanny; Steiner, Jakob; Pellicciotti, Francesca


    Supraglacial cliffs are a surface feature typical of debris-covered glaciers, affecting surface evolution, glacier downwasting and mass balance by providing a direct ice-atmosphere interface. As a result, melt rates can be very high and ice cliffs may account for a significant portion of the total glacier mass loss. However, their contribution to glacier mass balance has rarely been quantified through physically-based models. Most cliff energy balance models are point scale models which calculate energy fluxes at individual cliff locations. Results from the only grid based model to date accurately reflect energy fluxes and cliff melt, but modelled backwasting patterns are in some cases unrealistic, as the distribution of melt rates would lead to progressive shallowing and disappearance of cliffs. Based on a unique multitemporal dataset of cliff topography and backwasting obtained from high-resolution terrestrial and aerial Structure-from-Motion analysis on Lirung Glacier in Nepal, it is apparent that cliffs exhibit a range of behaviours but most do not rapidly disappear. The patterns of evolution cannot be explained satisfactorily by atmospheric melt alone, and are moderated by the presence of supraglacial ponds at the base of cliffs and by cliff reburial with debris. Here, we document the distinct patterns of evolution including disappearance, growth and stability. We then use these observations to improve the grid-based energy balance model, implementing periodic updates of the cliff geometry resulting from modelled melt perpendicular to the ice surface. Based on a slope threshold, pixels can be reburied by debris or become debris-free. The effect of ponds are taken into account through enhanced melt rates in horizontal direction on pixels selected based on an algorithm considering distance to the water surface, slope and lake level. We use the dynamic model to first study the evolution of selected cliffs for which accurate, high resolution DEMs are available

  5. Experimental infection of cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) with varying doses of West Nile virus (United States)

    Oesterle, P.T.; Nemeth, N.M.; VanDalen, Kaci K.; Sullivan, H.; Bentler, K.T.; Young, G.R.; McLean, R.G.; Clark, L.; Smeraski, C.; Hall, Jeffrey S.


    Cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) were inoculated with differing doses of West Nile virus (WNV) to evaluate their potential role as reservoir hosts in nature. Swallows often nest in large colonies in habitats and months associated with high mosquito abundance and early WNV transmission in North America. Additionally, cliff swallow diet consists of insects, including mosquitoes, leading to an additional potential route of WNV infection. The average peak viremia titer among infected cliff swallows was 106.3 plaque-forming units (PFU)/mL serum and the reservoir competence index was 0.34. There was no correlation between dose and probability of becoming infected or viremia peak and duration. Oral shedding was detected from 2 to 14 days post-inoculation with an average peak titer of 1044 PFU/swab. These results suggest that cliff swallows are competent reservoir hosts of WNV and therefore, they may play a role in early seasonal amplification and maintenance of WNV. Copyright ?? 2009 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  6. Time budget of South African cliff swallows during breeding | Earlé ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of time by the South African cliff swallow was determined and use of energy calculated by using equations for predicting standard metabolic rate and the cost of flight. The highest daily energy expenditure was during the feeding of nestlings when 9,22 h were spent foraging. The cost of 127 kJ for building a nest is ...

  7. The glass cliff: when and why women are selected as leaders in crisis contexts. (United States)

    Bruckmüller, Susanne; Branscombe, Nyla R


    The glass cliff refers to women being more likely to rise to positions of organizational leadership in times of crisis than in times of success, and men being more likely to achieve those positions in prosperous times. We examine the role that (a) a gendered history of leadership and (b) stereotypes about gender and leadership play in creating the glass cliff. In Expt 1, participants who read about a company with a male history of leadership selected a male future leader for a successful organization, but chose a female future leader in times of crisis. This interaction--between company performance and gender of the preferred future leader--was eliminated for a counter-stereotypic history of female leadership. In Expt 2, stereotypically male attributes were most predictive of leader selection in a successful organization, while stereotypically female attributes were most predictive in times of crisis. Differences in the endorsement of these stereotypes, in particular with regard to the ascription of lower stereotypically female attributes to the male candidate mediated the glass cliff effect. Overall, results suggest that stereotypes about male leadership may be more important for the glass cliff effect than stereotypes about women and leadership.

  8. Degrees of Consciousness in the Communication of Actions and Events on the Visual Cliff. No. 58. (United States)

    Bierschenk, Bernhard

    The consciousness of dizygotic twins in their communication of actions and events as seen in the visual cliff pictures published by E. J. Gibson and R. D. Walk (1960) was studied in Sweden. In the process of communication, many different state spaces are generated. The methodology demonstrates that ecological and biophysical properties of language…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. B. Dewez


    Full Text Available Cliff collapse poses a serious hazard to infrastructure and passers-by. Obtaining information such as magnitude-frequency relationship for a specific site is of great help to adapt appropriate mitigation measures. While it is possible to monitor hundreds-of-meter-long cliff sites with ground based techniques (e.g. lidar or photogrammetry, it is both time consuming and scientifically limiting to focus on short cliff sections. In the project SUAVE, we sought to investigate whether an octocopter UAV photogrammetric survey would perform sufficiently well in order to repeatedly survey cliff face geometry and derive rock fall inventories amenable to probabilistic rock fall hazard computation. An experiment was therefore run on a well-studied site of the chalk coast of Normandy, in Mesnil Val, along the English Channel (Northern France. Two campaigns were organized in January and June 2015 which surveyed about 60 ha of coastline, including the 80-m-high cliff face, the chalk platform at its foot, and the hinterland in a matter of 4 hours from start to finish. To conform with UAV regulations, the flight was flown in 3 legs for a total of about 30 minutes in the air. A total of 868 and 1106 photos were respectively shot with a Sony NEX 7 with fixed focal 16mm. Three lines of sight were combined: horizontal shots for cliff face imaging, 45°-oblique views to tie plateau/platform photos with cliff face images, and regular vertical shots. Photogrammetrically derived dense point clouds were produced with Agisoft Photoscan at ultra-high density (median density is 1 point every 1.7cm. Point cloud density proved a critical parameter to reproduce faithfully the chalk face’s geometry. Tuning down the density parameter to “high” or “medium”, though efficient from a computational point of view, generated artefacts along chalk bed edges (i.e. smoothing the sharp gradient and ultimately creating ghost volumes when computing cloud to cloud differences. Yet

  10. Means of Slope Retreat on the Na Pali Cliffs, Kauai, Hawaii (United States)

    Osborn, G.; Sheardown, A.; Blay, C.


    The spectacular, 500 to 600 m high, deeply grooved escarpment referred to as the Na Pali cliffs, on the northwest coast of Kauai, requires a substrate competent enough to hold up high steep cliffs yet erodible enough to allow generation of wide, deep grooves. These opposing tendencies are afforded by weathering of originally strong basalt that keeps pace with erosion. The fluted cliffs maintain a rather consistent slope angle, generally 50-60°, whether they are close to the shoreline or have retreated some distance from it, indicating that the slopes are retreating parallel to themselves. Previous literature promotes groundwater sapping or waterfall-plunge-pool erosion as the chief means of valley-head retreat, but there is no evidence that either concept provides a general explanation for retreat of the fluted cliffs. The eroding cliffs maintain steepness because as much rock is eroded at the base as at the top, and transported sediment is washed completely out of the gully system. The thin-bedded basalts exposed in the steep flutes are decomposed into irregularly alternating fine sediment of low to moderate cohesion and thoroughly fractured beds or lenses of solid but chemically weathered rock, and covered with a veneer of sparse grass. Erosion proceeds by episodic removal of thin grass-covered surficial sheets of the weathering products. Some of this process may be facilitated by shallow mass movement, but probably most of the work is done by overland and channelized flow during intense rainstorms. The Na Pali coast experiences one-hour rainfalls of 2-2.5 inches (1 year recurrence interval) and 5-6 inches (100 year recurrence interval); experiments by others on basaltic soils in Molokai suggest such rain is more than enough to generate erosion-inducing overland flow. Between the deep grooves and the shoreline are slopes with lesser drainage densities and lesser slope angles. The rocks here are not distinguished from the rocks above in previous literature, and

  11. Slope, Scarp and Sea Cliff Instability Susceptibility Mapping for Planning Regulations in Almada County, Portugal (United States)

    Marques, Fernando; Queiroz, Sónia; Gouveia, Luís; Vasconcelos, Manuel


    In Portugal, the modifications introduced in 2008 and 2012 in the National Ecological Reserve law (REN) included the mandatory study of slope instability, including slopes, natural scarps, and sea cliffs, at municipal or regional scale, with the purpose of avoiding the use of hazardous zones with buildings and other structures. The law also indicates specific methods to perform these studies, with different approaches for slope instability, natural scarps and sea cliffs. The methods used to produce the maps required by REN law, with modifications and improvements to the law specified methods, were applied to the 71 km2 territory of Almada County, and included: 1) Slope instability mapping using the statistically based Information Value method validated with the landslide inventory using ROC curves, which provided an AAC=0.964, with the higher susceptibility zones which cover at least 80% of the landslides of the inventory to be included in REN map. The map was object of a generalization process to overcome the inconveniences of the use of a pixel based approach. 2) Natural scarp mapping including setback areas near the top, defined according to the law and setback areas near the toe defined by the application of the shadow angle calibrated with the major rockfalls which occurred in the study area; 3) Sea cliffs mapping including two levels of setback zones near the top, and one setback zone at the cliffs toe, which were based on systematic inventories of cliff failures occurred between 1947 and 2010 in a large scale regional littoral monitoring project. In the paper are described the methods used and the results obtained in this study, which correspond to the final maps of areas to include in REN. The results obtained in this study may be considered as an example of good practice of the municipal authorities in terms of solid, technical and scientifically supported regulation definitions, hazard prevention and safe and sustainable land use management.

  12. Detection of morphological changes in cliff face surrounding a waterfall using terrestrial laser scanning and unmanned aerial system (United States)

    Hayakawa, Yuichi S.; Obanawa, Hiroyuki


    Waterfall or bedrock knickpoint appears as an erosional front in bedrock rivers forming deep v-shaped valley downstream. Following the rapid fluvial erosion of waterfall, rockfalls and gravita-tional collapses often occur in surrounding steep cliffs. Although morphological changes of such steep cliffs are sometimes visually observed, quantitative and precise measurements of their spatio-temporal distribution have been limited due to the difficulties in direct access to such cliffs if with classical measurement methods. However, for the clarification of geomorphological processes oc-curring in the cliffs, multi-temporal mapping of the cliff face at a high resolution is necessary. Re-mote sensing approaches are therefore suitable for the topographic measurements and detection of changes in such inaccessible cliffs. To achieve accurate topographic mapping of cliffs around a wa-terfall, here we perform multi-temporal terrestrial laser scanning (TLS), as well as structure-from-motion multi-view stereo (SfM-MVS) photogrammetry based on unmanned aerial system (UAS). The study site is Kegon Falls in central Japan, having a vertical drop of surface water from top of its overhanging cliff, as well as groundwater outflows from its lower portions. The bedrock is composed of alternate layers of andesite lava and conglomerates. Minor rockfalls in the cliffs are often ob-served by local people. The latest major rockfall occurred in 1986, causing ca. 8-m upstream propa-gation of the waterfall lip. This provides a good opportunity to examine the changes in the surround-ing cliffs following the waterfall recession. Multi-time point clouds were obtained by TLS measure-ment over years, and the three-dimensional changes of the rock surface were detected, uncovering the locus of small rockfalls and gully developments. Erosion seems particularly frequent in relatively weak the conglomerates layer, whereas small rockfalls seems to have occurred in the andesite layers. Also, shadows in the

  13. Implementation of a Geographical Information System. GIS, in the Natural National Park, Cliffs of Cali

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapata Pardo, Maria Victoria; Martinez Zarate, Camilo; Gonzalez, Carlos A


    The objective of this project was to generate a tool to improve the handling, conservation and administration of the Park National Natural - Cliffs of Cali, belonging to the Special Administrative Unit of the System of Natural National Parks, UAESPNN, of the Ministry of the Environment. With this purpose it was implemented a System of Geographical Information, GIS, like methodological model. The GIS; Cliffs of Cali used a database relational, developed with the software ACCESS t m, compatible with the used GIS Arc/INFO t m and Arc/View t m (for work station). The data space accessed to the database were those of topography, hydrology, areas of life, geology, limit, fronts, to zone with handling ends, precipitation, indigenous occupation and municipalities; it contain related alphanumeric information, administrative, socioeconomic handling and physique among others

  14. Quantitative assessment of diffuse rock fall hazard along a cliff foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Hantz


    Full Text Available Many works have shown that the relation between rock fall frequency and volume is well fitted by a power law. Based on this relation, a new method is presented which allows estimating the fall frequency and probability for a wall section in a homogenous cliff, considering all possible rock fall volumes. The hazard for an element located at the foot of the cliff, with a minimal energy, is also estimated. The method has been applied to an itinerary, for which the human risk has also been estimated. Rock fall inventories featuring the location, date, and volume of the falls and the dimensions of the fallen compartments (width, length, and thickness are needed for better estimating of hazard and risk.

  15. Assessing recreation impacts to cliffs in Shenandoah National Park: Integrating visitor observation with trail and recreation site measurements (United States)

    Wood, K.T.; Lawson, S.R.; Marion, J.L.


    The rock outcrops and cliffs of Shenandoah National Park provide habitat for several rare and endangered plant and animal species, including the federally endangered Shenandoah Salamander (Plethodon shenandoah; Ludwig et al., 1993). The location of the well-known park tour road, Skyline Drive, along the ridgeline provides exceptional access to many outcrops and cliffs throughout the park for a large number of the park?s 1.2 million annual visitors. Consequently, visitor use of cliff areas has led to natural resource impacts, including marked decreases in size and vigor of known rare plant populations. Despite the clear ecological value and potential threats to the natural resources at cliff areas, managers possess little information on visitor use of cliff sites and presently have no formal planning document to guide management. Thus, a park wide study of cliff sites was initiated during the 2005 visitor use season. As part of this research effort, our study used an integrative approach to study recreational use and visitor-caused resource impacts at one of the more heavily visited cliff sites in the park: Little Stony Man Cliffs (LSMC). In particular, this study integrated data from resource impact measurements and visitor use observation to help assess the effects of recreational use on the natural resources of LSMC. Procedures derived from campsite and trail impact studies were used to measure and characterize the amount of visitor-caused resource impacts on LSMC (Marion & Leung, 2001; Marion, 1995). Visitor use observations were conducted on top of LSMC to document and characterize the type and amount of recreational use the cliffs receive and the behaviors of recreationists that may contribute to cliff-top resource impacts. Resource impact measurement data show trampling disturbance present at LSMC, characterized by vegetation loss, exposed soil, and root exposure. Documentation of informal trails, soil erosion, tree damage, and tree stumps provide further

  16. First find of serpentinite in the cliffs of the Heracleian Peninsula of Southwestern Crimea (United States)

    Demina, L. I.; Promyslova, M. Yu.; Koronovskii, N. V.; Tzarev, V. V.


    This paper reports on the geological position and composition of serpentinite and serpentinitized peridotite, which we were the first to find in the cliffs of the southern part of the Heracleian Peninsula of Southwestern Crimea. In combination with pillow lava, gabbro, fragments of parallel dikes, and jasper, these rocks form an ophiolite association, which formerly belonged to the ancient crust of a back-arc basin that had reached the spreading stage of development.

  17. Probing the Hypothesis of SAR Continuity Restoration by the Removal of Activity Cliffs Generators in QSAR. (United States)

    Cruz-Monteagudo, Maykel; Medina-Franco, José L; Perera-Sardiña, Yunier; Borges, Fernanda; Tejera, Eduardo; Paz-Y-Miño, Cesar; Pérez-Castillo, Yunierkis; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Aminael; Contreras-Posada, Zuleidys; Cordeiro, M Natália D S


    In this work we report the first attempt to study the effect of activity cliffs over the generalization ability of machine learning (ML) based QSAR classifiers, using as study case a previously reported diverse and noisy dataset focused on drug induced liver injury (DILI) and more than 40 ML classification algorithms. Here, the hypothesis of structure-activity relationship (SAR) continuity restoration by activity cliffs removal is tested as a potential solution to overcome such limitation. Previously, a parallelism was established between activity cliffs generators (ACGs) and instances that should be misclassified (ISMs), a related concept from the field of machine learning. Based on this concept we comparatively studied the classification performance of multiple machine learning classifiers as well as the consensus classifier derived from predictive classifiers obtained from training sets including or excluding ACGs. The influence of the removal of ACGs from the training set over the virtual screening performance was also studied for the respective consensus classifiers algorithms. In general terms, the removal of the ACGs from the training process slightly decreased the overall accuracy of the ML classifiers and multi-classifiers, improving their sensitivity (the weakest feature of ML classifiers trained with ACGs) but decreasing their specificity. Although these results do not support a positive effect of the removal of ACGs over the classification performance of ML classifiers, the "balancing effect" of ACG removal demonstrated to positively influence the virtual screening performance of multi-classifiers based on valid base ML classifiers. Specially, the early recognition ability was significantly favored after ACGs removal. The results presented and discussed in this work represent the first step towards the application of a remedial solution to the activity cliffs problem in QSAR studies.

  18. House Restaurant at The Cliff House Sample Tasting Dinner Menu 2017


    House Restaurant at the Cliff House


    Our award winning, Michelin star restaurant at The Cliff House Hotel, Ireland, brings foodies from all over the world to this seaside village in West Waterford. Both our main House Restaurant as well as our easy, unpretentious bar food honour the great Irish produce of Waterford, Cork and the Irish Sea. House Restaurant operates for dinner Wednesday - Saturday inclusive in Winter and Tuesday - Saturday inclusive in Summer, opening Sunday nights on bank holiday weekends. Bar Restaurant is o...

  19. Borax in the supraglacial moraine of the Lewis Cliff, Buckley Island quadrangle--first Antarctic occurrence (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, J.J.; Muhs, D.R.


    During the 1987-1988 austral summer field season, membersof the south party of the antarctic search for meteorites south-ern team* working in the Lewis Cliff/Colbert Hills region dis-covered several areas of unusual mineralization within theLewis Cliff ice tongue and its associated moraine field (figure1). The Lewis Cliff ice tongue (84°15'S 161°25'E) is a meteorite-stranding surface of ablating blue ice, about 2.3 by 7.0 kilo-meters, bounded on the west by the Lewis Cliff, on the northand northeast by a large supraglacial moraine, and on the eastby the Colbert Hills. To the south it opens to the Walcott Névé.Because it is a meteorite-stranding surface, the major component of ice motion in the area is believed to be vertical(Whillans and Cassidy 1983). The presence of Thule-Baffinmoraines at the northern terminus of the blue ice tends tosupport the hypothesis that the area underlying the moraineis essentially stagnant and that ice arriving from the south ispiling up against it. Areas containing mineral deposits werefound within the moraine field to the north and east of theblue ice margin and also along the east margins of the blue iceitself. Subsequent X-ray diffraction analyses of these depositshave shown that they are composed predominantly of nah-colite (NaHCO3), trona [Na3(CO3)(HCO3) · 2H20], borax[Na2B405(OH)4 · 8H20], and a new hexagonal hydrous sulfatespecies. This paper reports the details of the borax occurrence,because it is the first known on the continent.

  20. Terrestrial ages of ordinary chondrites from the lewis cliff stranding area, East Antarctica (United States)

    Welten, K. C.; Lindner, L.; Alderliesten, C.; van der Borg, K.


    We determined terrestrial ages of ordinary chondrites from the Lewis Cliff stranding area, East Antarctica, on the basis of the concentrations of cosmogenic 10Be (t1/2 = 1.51 Ma), 26Al (t1/2 = 0.705 Ma) and 36Cl (t1/2 = 0.301 Ma). After an initial 26Al -ray survey of 91 meteorites suggested that many have terrestrial ages larger than 0.1 Ma, we selected 62 meteorites for 10Be and 26Al measurements by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and measured 36Cl in twelve of those. Low terrestrial ages (Ma) were found for about 60% of the meteorites, whereas all others have ages between 0.1 and 0.5 Ma, except for one exceptional age of >2 Ma (Welten et al., 1997). Our major conclusions are: (1) The Lewis Cliff H-chondrites show similar ages as those from the Allan Hills Ice-fields, but the L-chondrites are about a factor of two younger than those from Allan Hills, which indicates that Lewis Cliff is a younger stranding area. (2) The terrestrial age distributions at different parts of the Lewis Cliff stranding area generally agree with simple meteorite concentration models, although differences in weathering rate may also play a role. (3) We confirm that meteorites with natural thermoluminescence (TL) levels >80 krad are associated with low terrestrial ages (Benoit et al., 1992), but conclude that natural TL levels <80 krad can not be used to calculate the terrestrial age of a meteorite. Natural TL levels do seem useful to estimate relative terrestrial ages of large groups of meteorites and to determine differences in surface exposure age of paired meteorite fragments. (4) Of the 62 meteorites measured with AMS, 31 were assigned to eleven different pairing groups, mainly on the basis of their cosmogenic nuclide record. The meteorites are estimated to represent between 42 and 52 distinct falls.

  1. Ice Cliff Backwasting over debris-covered Glaciers - Insights into their Formation and Development based on new Measurements and a point-scale Model (United States)

    Steiner, J. F.; Pellicciotti, F.; Buri, P.; Miles, E. S.; Reid, T. D.; Immerzeel, W.


    The presence of ice cliffs has been identified as one possible reason for relatively high overall ablation rates on debris covered glaciers. Few measurements exist for such cliffs and their formation and evolution processes are still poorly understood. On Lirung Glacier, in the Nepalese Himalayas, numerous cliffs were monitored for two consecutive years in the pre- and post-monsoon season. Slope varied between 30° and full vertical faces. Backwasting rates were highly variable depending on slope and aspect of the location on the cliff. Only a physically based energy balance model can reproduce this heterogeneity and provide insights into the importance of atmospheric forcing and cliff characteristics on their melt. Building on two previous studies such a model was developed. It was improved with measurements of radiative fluxes perpendicular to the cliff and by applying a high resolution DEM of the surrounding topography to estimate shading and radiative fluxes incident to the cliff including longwave radiation emitted by surrounding debris. We obtain a considerable reduction in incoming shortwave radiation for north-oriented cliffs compared to horizontal measurements, and significant incident longwave component that varies with height on the cliffs. Melt rates are highly variable in time and space for the cliff. While maximum values of up to 8 cm/day are reached during monsoon, melt rates in the post-monsoon season are considerably lower than in the pre-monsoon season. Nighttime refreezing processes during this period also played an important role. Apart from topography, cliff backwasting is extremely sensitive to albedo of the ice surface, reaching values as low as 0.05. Measurements of surface temperature and wind on the cliff further improved the understanding of outgoing radiation and turbulent fluxes. Once validated against stakes readings, the model was used to explain the presence and persistence of cliffs over Lirung glacier. We show that only North

  2. EPRI tailored collaboration 3 Calvert Cliffs cost and volume reduction program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigsby, M.D.; Watson, B.A.


    Baltimore Gas ampersand Electric's (BGE) Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant (CCNPP) is a two unit PWR located approximately 60 miles south of Baltimore, Maryland on the Chesapeake Bay. Both units are of Combustion Engineering design, Unit 1 began commercial operation is 1975 and Unit 2 in 1978. BGE contracted with EPRI to participate in the industry initiative to reduce low-level waste volumes with the expectation to: (1) Reduce O ampersand M costs through LLRW reduction by lowering the volume requiring processing, transportation, and storage/disposal. (2) Manage responsibility available resources; i.e., material, equipment, personnel, etc., through segregation. decontamination, recycling and worker awareness. (3) Improve Calvert Cliff's positive image in the community by minimizing the impact on the environment through generating less LLRW. Baltimore Gas ampersand Electric is committed to effective management of low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) at the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant. Established Nuclear Program Policies and Procedures support CCNPP's commitment to minimizing generation of low-level radioactive waste (LLRW). Since the mid 1980's, CCNPP has made progress in reducing the volume of LLRW generated and disposed. EPRI's onsite assessment and subsequent assistance pointed out several areas for improvement

  3. Climate change-driven cliff and beach evolution at decadal to centennial time scales (United States)

    Erikson, Li; O'Neill, Andrea; Barnard, Patrick; Vitousek, Sean; Limber, Patrick


    Here we develop a computationally efficient method that evolves cross-shore profiles of sand beaches with or without cliffs along natural and urban coastal environments and across expansive geographic areas at decadal to centennial time-scales driven by 21st century climate change projections. The model requires projected sea level rise rates, extrema of nearshore wave conditions, bluff recession and shoreline change rates, and cross-shore profiles representing present-day conditions. The model is applied to the ~470-km long coast of the Southern California Bight, USA, using recently available projected nearshore waves and bluff recession and shoreline change rates. The results indicate that eroded cliff material, from unarmored cliffs, contribute 11% to 26% to the total sediment budget. Historical beach nourishment rates will need to increase by more than 30% for a 0.25 m sea level rise (~2044) and by at least 75% by the year 2100 for a 1 m sea level rise, if evolution of the shoreline is to keep pace with rising sea levels.

  4. The effect of weather on morphometric traits of juvenile cliff swallows (United States)

    Roche, Erin A.; Brown, Mary Bomberger; Brown, Charles R.


    Episodes of food deprivation may change how nestling birds allocate energy to the growth of skeletal and feather morphological traits during development. Cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) are colonial, insectivorous birds that regularly experience brief periods of severe weather-induced food deprivation during the nesting season which may affect offspring development. We investigated how annual variation in timing of rearing and weather were associated with length of wing and tail, skeletal traits, and body mass in juvenile cliff swallows reared in southwestern Nebraska during 2001–2006. As predicted under conditions of food deprivation, nestling skeletal and feather measurements were generally smaller in cooler years. However, variability explained by weather was small, suggesting that morphometric traits of juvenile cliff swallows were not highly sensitive to weather conditions experienced during this study. Measurements of juvenile morphological traits were positively correlated with measurements taken as adults, meaning that any variation among juveniles in response to rearing conditions showed evidence of persisting into a bird’s first breeding season. Our results show that body size in this species is phenotypically plastic and influenced, in part, by weather variables.

  5. Cliffs and quarries in the eastern coast of the Favignana island (Sicily, Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falconi, Luca; Peloso, Alessandro; Screpanti Tatì, Angelo; Verrubbi, Vladimiro


    Favignana Island (Sicily, Italy) is a historical and environmental attraction site frequented by tourists especially during the long warm season of the year. Over several centuries the sea cliffs constituted by calcareous sandstone outcropping in the east side of the island have been exploited for the production of building stone. Currently the quarries used for the rock extraction as well as the natural cliffs are undergoing extensive erosional and gravitational processes. Besides putting at risk the safety of the people attending the area, the widespread rock falls are likely to threaten sites of great historical and anthropological value that, once destroyed, can no longer be reconstructed. The rock mass quality assessment and slope displacements monitoring of cliffs were conducted with the aim of identifying the most active areas and providing support to the local authorities in the implementation of effective and sustainable mitigation measures. If adequate measures are taken in the future, operators and users of the tourist circuit will have the opportunity to enjoy these amazing sites with a lower landslide risk [it

  6. The visual cliff's forgotten menagerie: rats, goats, babies, and myth-making in the history of psychology. (United States)

    Rodkey, Elissa N


    Eleanor Gibson and Richard Walk's famous visual cliff experiment is one of psychology's classic studies, included in most introductory textbooks. Yet the famous version which centers on babies is actually a simplification, the result of disciplinary myth-making. In fact the visual cliff's first subjects were rats, and a wide range of animals were tested on the cliff, including chicks, turtles, lambs, kid goats, pigs, kittens, dogs, and monkeys. The visual cliff experiment was more accurately a series of experiments, employing varying methods and a changing apparatus, modified to test different species. This paper focuses on the initial, nonhuman subjects of the visual cliff, resituating the study in its original experimental logic, connecting it to the history of comparative psychology, Gibson's interest in comparative psychology, as well as gender-based discrimination. Recovering the visual cliff's forgotten menagerie helps to counter the romanticization of experimentation by focusing on the role of extrascientific factors, chance, complexity, and uncertainty in the experimental process. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Nature of short-period microtremors on the cliff-like ground. part 6; Gakechi kinbo no tanshuki bido. 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiguma, T; Kimura, Y [Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan). School of Science and Engineering; Yasui, [Toda Corp., Tokyo, (Japan)


    Short-period microtremors were observed on the cliff-like ground to discuss vibration characteristics of the ground. It is known that damage of an earthquake becomes especially serious in the vicinity of the cliff-like ground with steep slopes. The present investigation has performed observations on short-period microtremors in two cliff-like grounds, one with a height of about 17 m and an inclination angle of about 55 degrees, and another with a height of 11 m and an inclination angle of about 60 degrees. The areas of the investigation are the Musashino tableland of the Pleistocene era covered by the Kanto loam bed, and the Oritate area (a farm land) with the cliff-like ground which has been formed as a result of erosion of a river terrace consisted of a gravel bed. The observation was carried out with nine moving coil type vibration converters having a natural period of one second installed for horizontal movements and seven converters installed for vertical movements. The result of the investigation revealed that, at the Musashino tableland, no noticeable influence of the cliff-like ground was recognized in the short-period microtremors; at the Oritate area, the spectra of the horizontal movements vary largely with vibrating directions; and the cliff effect can be seen in microtremors with frequencies from 5 Hz to 9 Hz. 5 refs., 9 figs.

  8. Wave Shape and Impact Pressure Measurements at a Rock Coast Cliff (United States)

    Varley, S. J.; Rosser, N. J.; Brain, M.; Vann Jones, E. C.


    Rock coast research focuses largely on wave behaviour across beaches and shore platforms but rarely considers direct wave interaction with cliffs. Hydraulic action is one of the most important drivers of erosion along rock coasts. The magnitude of wave impact pressure has been shown by numerical and laboratory studies to be related to the wave shape. In deep water, a structure is only subjected to the hydrostatic pressure due to the oscillating clapotis. Dynamic pressures, related to the wave celerity, are exerted in shallower water when the wave is breaking at the point of impact; very high magnitude, short duration shock pressures are theorised to occur when the approaching wavefront is vertical. As such, wave shape may directly influence the potential of the impact to weaken rock and cause erosion. Measurements of impact pressure at coastal cliffs are limited, and the occurrence and influence of this phenomenon is currently poorly constrained. To address this, we have undertaken a field monitoring study on the magnitude and vertical distribution of wave impact pressures at the rocky, macro-tidal coastline of Staithes, North Yorkshire, UK. A series of piezo-resistive pressure transducers and a camera were installed at the base of the cliff during low tide. Transducers were deployed vertically up the cliff face and aligned shore-normal to capture the variation in static and dynamic pressure with height during a full spring tidal cycle. Five minute bursts of 5 kHz pressure readings and 4 Hz wave imaging were sampled every 30 minutes for six hours during high tide. Pressure measurements were then compensated for temperature and combined with wave imaging to produce a pressure time series and qualitative wave shape category for each wave impact. Results indicate the presence of a non-linear relationship between pressure impact magnitude, the occurrence of shock pressures, wave shape and tidal stage, and suggest that breaker type on impact (and controls thereof) may

  9. Evaluation of the dynamics of change of shore cliff located in the vicinity of Pleśna village in the period 2006-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czesław Suchocki


    Full Text Available Climate changes on our planet contribute to the rise in the average level of the seas, oceans, and a greater number of storms. It causes an increasing process of the sea abrasion on the cliffs. The paper presents the research, which determines the rate of retreat of the cliff shore fragment located in the vicinity of Pleśna village. The cliff displacements, which are the effect of erosive factors, were analysed on the basis of observations made in the years 2006-2015. Terrestrial laser scanning technology was applied to periodic measurements of the cliff. In the studies, the methodology of cliff shores monitoring was used, which was the result of five-year research performed by the staff of the Department of Geodesy Technical University of Koszalin. Keywords: abrasion, cliff, terrestrial laser scanner

  10. Long-term cliff retreat and erosion hotspots along the central shores of the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary (United States)

    Moore, Laura J.; Griggs, Gary B.


    Quantification of cliff retreat rates for the southern half of Santa Cruz County, CA, USA, located within the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary, using the softcopy/geographic information system (GIS) methodology results in average cliff retreat rates of 7–15 cm/yr between 1953 and 1994. The coastal dunes at the southern end of Santa Cruz County migrate seaward and landward through time and display net accretion between 1953 and 1994, which is partially due to development. In addition, three critically eroding segments of coastline with high average erosion rates ranging from 20 to 63 cm/yr are identified as erosion ‘hotspots’. These locations include: Opal Cliffs, Depot Hill and Manresa. Although cliff retreat is episodic, spatially variable at the scale of meters, and the factors affecting cliff retreat vary along the Santa Cruz County coastline, there is a compensation between factors affecting retreat such that over the long-term the coastline maintains a relatively smooth configuration. The softcopy/GIS methodology significantly reduces errors inherent in the calculation of retreat rates in high-relief areas (e.g. erosion rates generated in this study are generally correct to within 10 cm) by removing errors due to relief displacement. Although the resulting root mean squared error for erosion rates is relatively small, simple projections of past erosion rates are inadequate to provide predictions of future cliff position. Improved predictions can be made for individual coastal segments by using a mean erosion rate and the standard deviation as guides to future cliff behavior in combination with an understanding of processes acting along the coastal segments in question. This methodology can be applied on any high-relief coast where retreat rates can be measured.

  11. Hot spring deposits on a cliff face: A case study from Jifei, Yunnan Province, China (United States)

    Jones, Brian; Peng, Xiaotong


    A cliff face in the Jifei karst area, southwest China, is covered by a spectacular succession of precipitates that formed from the hot spring water that once flowed down its surface. This layered succession is formed of aragonite layers that are formed largely of “fountain dendrites”, calcite layers that are formed mostly of “cone dendrites”, and microlaminated layers that contain numerous microbes and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). Many of the aragonite crystals are hollow due to preferential dissolution of their cores. The calcite cone dendrites are commonly covered with biofilms, reticulate Si-Mg coatings, and other precipitates. The microbial layers include dodecahedral calcite crystals and accessory minerals that include opal-A, amorphous Si-Mg coatings, trona, barite, potassium sulfate crystals, mirabillite, and gaylussite. Interpretation of the δ18O(calcite) and δ18O(aragonite) indicates precipitation from water with a temperature of 54 to 66 °C. The active hot spring at the top of the cliff presently ejects water at a temperature of 65 °C. Layers, 1 mm to 6 cm thick, record temporal changes in the fluids from which the precipitates formed. This succession is not, however, formed of recurring cycles that can be linked to diurnal or seasonal changes in the local climate. Indeed, it appears that the climatic contrast between the wet season and the dry season had little impact on precipitation from the spring waters that flowed down the cliff face. Integration of currently available evidence suggests that the primary driving force was aperiodic changes in the CO2 content of the spring waters because that seems to be the prime control on the saturation levels that underpinned precipitation of the calcite and aragonite as well as the dissolution of the aragonite. Such variations in the CO2 content of the spring water were probably due to changes that took place in the subterranean plumbing system of the spring.

  12. Combined rock slope stability and shallow landslide susceptibility assessment of the Jasmund cliff area (Rügen Island, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Günther


    Full Text Available In this contribution we evaluated both the structurally-controlled failure susceptibility of the fractured Cretaceous chalk rocks and the topographically-controlled shallow landslide susceptibility of the overlying glacial sediments for the Jasmund cliff area on Rügen Island, Germany. We employed a combined methodology involving spatially distributed kinematical rock slope failure testing with tectonic fabric data, and both physically- and inventory-based shallow landslide susceptibility analysis. The rock slope failure susceptibility model identifies areas of recent cliff collapses, confirming its value in predicting the locations of future failures. The model reveals that toppling is the most important failure type in the Cretaceous chalk rocks of the area. The shallow landslide susceptibility analysis involves a physically-based slope stability evaluation which utilizes material strength and hydraulic conductivity data, and a bivariate landslide susceptibility analysis exploiting landslide inventory data and thematic information on ground conditioning factors. Both models show reasonable success rates when evaluated with the available inventory data, and an attempt was made to combine the individual models to prepare a map displaying both terrain instability and landslide susceptibility. This combination highlights unstable cliff portions lacking discrete landslide areas as well as cliff sections highly affected by past landslide events. Through a spatial integration of the rock slope failure susceptibility model with the combined shallow landslide assessment we produced a comprehensive landslide susceptibility map for the Jasmund cliff area.

  13. Cliff stability assessment using electrical resistivity tomography at the historic WWII D-Day invasion site, Pointe du Hoc, France (United States)

    Everett, M. E.; Udphuay, S.; Warden, R.


    The 1944 D-Day invasion site at Pointe du Hoc, Normandy, France is an important WWII battlefield and cultural resource but is at risk from chalk cliff collapse. The American Battle Monuments Commission tasked us to evaluate the geohazard to the observation post and other cliff-side buildings of historical significance. Geophysical multi-electrode resistivity profiling is used to study cliff stability and the condition of the observation- post foundations. Preliminary 2-D geological interpretations are provided of individual profiles. The copious steel, concrete and void spaces at the site renders hydrogeological interpretation challenging but tractable. The cliff face appears to be relatively intact and well-drained. Several routes taken by groundwater into fractures within the chalk were identified mainly on the western side of the site. The eastern side is drier and somewhat sheltered from the Atlantic storms but may contain large void spaces that could efficiently transmit groundwater flow during heavy precipitation events, thereby imperiling the major antiaircraft gun emplacement occupied by Col. Rudder in the early days of the Allied invasion. The forward German observation post perched close to the sea stack, which now hosts the U.S. Ranger memorial, may be moving with the soil and not securely anchored to bedrock. A complex failure mechanism is identified as a combination of groundwater dissolution of the fractured chalk and sea wave attack at the cliff base.

  14. A cliff edge evaluation for CANDU-6 beyond design basis accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S.M.; Kho, D.W., E-mail: [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yi, S.D.; Kang, S.H.; Kim, S.R. [Nuclear Engineering Service and Solution Co., Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    The condition of nuclear power plant in the event of station black out (SBO) accompanying large-scale natural disaster exceeding design basis accident (DBA) was evaluated. Additional scenarios were added to the evaluation to review capability of the plant to endure different conditions with different actions. The analysis resulted that the key action required from the operator was to ensure the opening of main steam safety valves (MSSVs) in the secondary side and of motor-operated valves for high pressure injection of Emergency Core Cooling System (HPECCS) to mitigate accidents or extend the cliff edge. (author)

  15. Thermal monitoring of a granitic exfoliation sheet and cliff in Yosemite Valley, California (USA) (United States)

    Guerin, Antoine; Matasci, Battista; Collins, Brian D.; Stock, Greg M.; Derron, Marc-Henri; Jaboyedoff, Michel


    In recent years, new remote sensing techniques such as Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS) and Infrared Thermography (IRT) have been used in parallel for rock weathering and weakness detection in slope stability analysis. Nevertheless, the effects of thermal stresses on rock face deformation are still poorly quantified, especially for steep and inaccessible cliffs. To better understand how daily temperature fluctuations influence the behavior of exfoliation joints (i.e., fractures separating exfoliation sheets), we monitored a granitic exfoliation sheet in detail using TLS and IRT over a several day period and also compiled a single TLS-IRT thermal panorama of a larger nearby granitic cliff composed of hundreds to thousands of similar exfoliation sheets. The exfoliation sheet had been previously instrumented for 3.5 years beginning in May 2010 using crackmeters and temperature sensors (Collins and Stock, 2010 and 2012), thereby providing an important baseline to compare our IRT measurements. For several consecutive days, a series of infrared thermal images (collected every 20 min.) of the exfoliation flake (19 m by 4 m by 0.1 m) was taken with a long range IRISYS IRI 4040 thermal imager, as well as several ground-based LiDAR scans, collected at 4 mm point spacing. These pictures were draped on the TLS triangular meshes to quantify the lateral propagation of temperature during the warming and cooling periods. The evolution of vertical and horizontal temperature profiles was also investigated. Results show that the sheet edge undergoes the most significant temperature changes and that warming takes place from the inside part to the border of the flake; conversely cooling takes place from the outside-inwards. Furthermore, the comparison of point clouds indicates a maximum crack aperture of over 1 cm occurring in the afternoon (12:00 to 15:00), when temperatures are at their maximum. The thermal panoramic image of the cliff (600 m wide by 300 m tall) was created using over

  16. A numerical study of tsunami wave impact and run-up on coastal cliffs using a CIP-based model (United States)

    Zhao, Xizeng; Chen, Yong; Huang, Zhenhua; Hu, Zijun; Gao, Yangyang


    There is a general lack of understanding of tsunami wave interaction with complex geographies, especially the process of inundation. Numerical simulations are performed to understand the effects of several factors on tsunami wave impact and run-up in the presence of gentle submarine slopes and coastal cliffs, using an in-house code, a constrained interpolation profile (CIP)-based model. The model employs a high-order finite difference method, the CIP method, as the flow solver; utilizes a VOF-type method, the tangent of hyperbola for interface capturing/slope weighting (THINC/SW) scheme, to capture the free surface; and treats the solid boundary by an immersed boundary method. A series of incident waves are arranged to interact with varying coastal geographies. Numerical results are compared with experimental data and good agreement is obtained. The influences of gentle submarine slope, coastal cliff and incident wave height are discussed. It is found that the tsunami amplification factor varying with incident wave is affected by gradient of cliff slope, and the critical value is about 45°. The run-up on a toe-erosion cliff is smaller than that on a normal cliff. The run-up is also related to the length of a gentle submarine slope with a critical value of about 2.292 m in the present model for most cases. The impact pressure on the cliff is extremely large and concentrated, and the backflow effect is non-negligible. Results of our work are highly precise and helpful in inverting tsunami source and forecasting disaster.

  17. Asymmetric crack propagation near waterfall cliff and its influence on the waterfall lip shape (United States)

    Vastola, G.


    By means of Finite Element Method (FEM) calculations and fatigue fracture mechanics analysis, we show that crack propagation in bedrocks close to the waterfall cliff is preferential towards the cliff face rather than upstream the river. Based on this effect, we derive the corresponding expression for the velocity of recession vr of the waterfall lip, and find that vr has a quadratic dependence on the hydrostatic pressure. Quantitatively, this erosion mechanism generates recession rates of the order of ~cm-dm/y, consistent with the recession rates of well-known waterfalls. We enclose our expression for vr into a growth model to investigate the time evolution of a waterfall lip subject to this erosional mechanism. Because of the dependence on hydrostatic pressure, the shape of the waterfall is influenced by the transverse profile of the river that generates the waterfall. If the river has a transverse concavity, the waterfall evolves a curved shape. Evolution for the case of meanders with asymmetric transverse profile is also given.

  18. Rockfalls in cliffs surrounding waterfall revealed by high-definition topographic measurements (United States)

    Hayakawa, Y. S.; Obanawa, H.


    Bedrock rivers of volcanic terrain often comprise numerous knickpoints. Erosion of bedrock at knickpoints is an essential process of fluvial dissection of volcanic landforms, which also affects the deformations of surrounding slopes. However, short term (less than decadal) changes in bedrock landforms have often been limited to examine in a spatiotemporal framework. Here we use terrestrial laser scanning and SfM-MVS photogrammetry to detect recent annual changes in the morphology of cliffs surrounding a waterfall (Kegon Falls) on jointed andesite lava and conglomerates. The amount of bedrock deformation caused by small rockfalls and surface lowering are assessed in volume, which often appears in a relatively lower portion of the cliff. Such the changes are supposed to be affected by the enhanced supply of water and weathering following the latest major rockfall in 1986 which caused 8-m recession of the waterfall lip. The three-dimensional point cloud data is also utilized to construct a 3D model using cardboards, which is useful for understanding the topography and its changes of the waterfall as educational resources.

  19. Vascular Plant and Vertebrate Inventory of Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument (United States)

    Powell, Brian F.; Albrecht, Eric W.; Halvorson, William L.; Schmidt, Cecilia A.; Docherty, Kathleen; Anning, Pamela


    Executive Summary This report summarizes the results of the first comprehensive biological inventory of Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument (NM) in western New Mexico. This project was part of a larger effort to inventory plants and vertebrates in eight National Park Service units in Arizona and New Mexico. Our surveys address many of the objectives that were set forth in the monument's natural resource management plan almost 20 years ago, but until this effort, those goals were never accomplished. From 2001 to 2003 we surveyed for vascular plants and vertebrates (amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals) at Gila Cliff Dwellings NM to document presence of species within the boundaries of the monument. For all taxonomic groups that we studied, we collected 'incidental' sightings on U.S. Forest Service lands adjacent to the monument, and in a few cases we did formal surveys on those lands. Because we used repeatable study designs and standardized field techniques, these inventories can serve as the first step in a biological monitoring program for Gila Cliff Dwellings NM and surrounding lands. We recorded 552 species at Gila Cliff Dwellings NM and the surrounding lands (Table 1). We found no non-native species of reptiles, birds, or mammals, one non-native amphibian (American bullfrog), and 33 non-native plants. Particularly on lands adjacent to the monument we found that the American bullfrog was very abundant, which is a cause for significant management concern. Species of non-native plants that are of management concern include red brome, bufflegrass, and cheatgrass. For a park unit of its size and geographic location, we found the plant and vertebrate communities to be fairly diverse; for each taxonomic group we found representative species from a wide range of taxonomic orders and/or families. The monument's geographic location, with influences from the Rocky Mountain, Chihuahuan Desert, and Madrean ecological provinces, plays an important role in determining

  20. Mine and prospect map of the Vermilion Cliffs-Paria Canyon Instant Study Area and adjacent wilderness areas, Coconino County, Arizona, and Kane County, Utah (United States)

    Lane, Michael


    Vermilion Cliffs-Paria Canyon Instant Study Area and adjacent wilderness areas are mostly in Coconino County Ariz., but extend into Kane County, Utah. The area studied in this report encompasses about 560 mi2 (1,450 km2). The study area includes the established Paria Canyon Primitive and Vermilion Cliffs Natural Areas between U.S. Highways 89 and 89A.

  1. Influence in Times of Crisis : How Social and Financial Resources Affect Men's and Women's Evaluations of Glass-Cliff Positions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rink, Floor; Ryan, Michelle K.; Stoker, Janka I.


    In two scenario-based studies, we found that women and men evaluate glass-cliff positions (i.e., precarious leadership positions at organizations in crisis) differently depending on the social and financial resources available. Female and male participants evaluated a hypothetical leadership

  2. Thermal Modeling of NUHOMS HSM-15 and HSM-1 Storage Modules at Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Station ISFSI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suffield, Sarah R.; Fort, James A.; Adkins, Harold E.; Cuta, Judith M.; Collins, Brian A.; Siciliano, Edward R.


    As part of the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign of the Department of Energy (DOE), visual inspections and temperature measurements were performed on two storage modules in the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Station’s Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI). Detailed thermal models models were developed to obtain realistic temperature predictions for actual storage systems, in contrast to conservative and bounding design basis calculations.

  3. Influence in Times of Crisis : How Social and Financial Resources Affect Men's and Women's Evaluations of Glass-Cliff Positions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rink, Floor; Ryan, Michelle K.; Stoker, Janka I.

    In two scenario-based studies, we found that women and men evaluate glass-cliff positions (i.e., precarious leadership positions at organizations in crisis) differently depending on the social and financial resources available. Female and male participants evaluated a hypothetical leadership

  4. Think Crisis-Think Female : The Glass Cliff and Contextual Variation in the Think Manager-Think Male Stereotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ryan, Michelle K.; Haslam, S. Alexander; Hersby, Mette D.; Bongiorno, Renata

    The "think manager think male" (TMTM) association underlies many gender inequalities in the workplace. However, research into the "glass cliff" has demonstrated that the suitability of male and female managers varies as a function of company performance such that in times of poor performance people

  5. 76 FR 81994 - UniStar Nuclear Energy; Combined License Application for Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit... (United States)


    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. 52-016; NRC-2008-0250] UniStar Nuclear Energy; Combined License Application for Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 3; Exemption 1.0 Background: UniStar Nuclear Energy (UNE) submitted to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC or the Commission ) a...

  6. 77 FR 10784 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Notice of Withdrawal of Application for Amendment to... (United States)


    ... Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Notice of Withdrawal of Application for Amendment to Facility Operating License... Nuclear Power Plant, LLC, the licensee, to withdraw its application dated October 25, 2010, for a proposed amendment to Renewed Facility Operating License Nos. DPR-53 and DPR-69 for the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Plant...

  7. Reactions to the glass cliff - Gender differences in the explanations for the precariousness of women's leadership positions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ryan, M.K.; Haslam, S.A.; Postmes, T.


    Purpose - This paper aims to investigate the phenomenon of the glass cliff, whereby women are more likely than men to be placed in precarious leadership positions. Men's and women's reactions to this subtle form of gender discrimination are examined, the identity processes involved, and the

  8. Politics and the Glass Cliff: Evidence that Women Are Preferentially Selected to Contest Hard-to-Win Seats (United States)

    Ryan, Michelle K.; Haslam, S. Alexander; Kulich, Clara


    Recent archival and experimental research has revealed that women are more likely than men to be appointed to leadership positions when an organization is in crisis. As a result, women often confront a "glass cliff" in which their position as leader is precarious. Our first archival study examined the 2005 UK general election and found…

  9. The potential of low-cost RPAS for multi-view reconstruction of rock cliffs (United States)

    Ettore Guccione, Davide; Thoeni, Klaus; Santise, Marina; Giacomini, Anna; Roncella, Riccardo; Forlani, Gianfranco


    RPAS, also known as drones or UAVs, have been used in military applications for many years. Nevertheless, the technology has become accessible to everyone only in recent years (Westoby et al., 2012; Nex and Remondino, 2014). Electric multirotor helicopters or multicopters have become one of the most exciting developments and several off-the-shelf platforms (including camera) are now available. In particular, RPAS can provide 3D models of sub-vertical rock faces, which for instance are needed for rockfall hazard assessments along road cuts and very steep mountains. The current work investigates the potential of two low-cost off-the-shelf quadcopters equipped with digital cameras for multi-view reconstruction of sub-vertical rock cliffs. The two platforms used are a DJI Phantom 1 (P1) equipped with a Gopro Hero 3+ (12MP) and a DJI Phantom 3 Professional (P3). The latter comes with an integrated 12MP camera mounted on a 3-axis gimbal. Both platforms cost less than 1.500€ including camera. The study area is a small rock cliff near the Callaghan Campus of the University of Newcastle (Thoeni et al., 2014). The wall is partly smooth with some evident geological features such as non-persistent joints and sharp edges. Several flights were performed with both cameras set in time-lapse mode. Hence, images were taken automatically but the flights were performed manually since the investigated rock face is very irregular which required adjusting the yaw and roll for optimal coverage since the flights were performed very close to the cliff face. The digital images were processed with a commercial SfM software package. Thereby, several processing options and camera networks were investigated in order to define the most accurate configuration. Firstly, the difference between the use of coded ground control targets versus natural features was studied. Coded targets generally provide the best accuracy but they need to be placed on the surface which is not always possible as rock

  10. Pressurized thermal shock evaluation of the Calvert Cliffs Unit 1 Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, L [ed.


    An evaluation of the risk to the Calvert Cliffs Unit 1 nuclear power plant due to pressurized thermal shock (PTS) has been completed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) with the assistance of several other organizations. This evaluation was part of a Nuclear Regulatory Commission program designed to study the PTS risk to three nuclear plants, the other two plants being Oconee Unit 1 and H.B. Robinson Unit 2. The specific objectives of the program were to (1) provide a best estimate of the frequency of a through-the-wall crack in the pressure vessel at each of the three plants, together with the uncertainty in the estimated frequency and its sensitivity to the variables used in the evaluation; (2) determine the dominant overcooling sequences contributing to the estimated frequency and the associated failures in the plant systems or in operator actions; and (3) evaluate the effectiveness of potential corrective measures.

  11. Rationalization of activity cliffs of a sulfonamide inhibitor of DNA methyltransferases with induced-fit docking. (United States)

    Medina-Franco, José L; Méndez-Lucio, Oscar; Yoo, Jakyung


    Inhibitors of human DNA methyltransferases (DNMT) are of increasing interest to develop novel epi-drugs for the treatment of cancer and other diseases. As the number of compounds with reported DNMT inhibition is increasing, molecular docking is shedding light to elucidate their mechanism of action and further interpret structure-activity relationships. Herein, we present a structure-based rationalization of the activity of SW155246, a distinct sulfonamide compound recently reported as an inhibitor of human DNMT1 obtained from high-throughput screening. We used flexible and induce-fit docking to develop a binding model of SW155246 with a crystallographic structure of human DNMT1. Results were in excellent agreement with experimental information providing a three-dimensional structural interpretation of 'activity cliffs', e.g., analogues of SW155246 with a high structural similarity to the sulfonamide compound, but with no activity in the enzymatic assay.

  12. Pressurized thermal shock evaluation of the Calvert Cliffs Unit 1 Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, L.


    An evaluation of the risk to the Calvert Cliffs Unit 1 nuclear power plant due to pressurized thermal shock (PTS) has been completed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) with the assistance of several other organizations. This evaluation was part of a Nuclear Regulatory Commission program designed to study the PTS risk to three nuclear plants, the other two plants being Oconee Unit 1 and H.B. Robinson Unit 2. The specific objectives of the program were to (1) provide a best estimate of the frequency of a through-the-wall crack in the pressure vessel at each of the three plants, together with the uncertainty in the estimated frequency and its sensitivity to the variables used in the evaluation; (2) determine the dominant overcooling sequences contributing to the estimated frequency and the associated failures in the plant systems or in operator actions; and (3) evaluate the effectiveness of potential corrective measures

  13. Rock mechanics investigations of structural stability in the Bulli seam at West Cliff Colliery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaggar, F


    Rock mechanics investigations were conducted at West Cliff colliery to obtain rock properties and stress measurements and study the stability of mining structures. The roof and floor were drilled in order to obtain core for rock testing and lump samples of coal were collected in order to measure the coal properties. Absolute stress measurements were obtained using CSIR cells. The strata were sufficiently uniform and competent to overcore the emplaced cells. Testing revealed that the rocks were better than average for coal measure sedimentary strata and the stresses indicated the existence of a moderately high horizontal stress field. The coal is of average strength only with some marked variation relating to the very banded nature of the seam. Finite element analyses showed that the rectangular roadways driven using roof bolts and timber supports were stable and adequately stable by an indicative factor of safety of about l.5.

  14. Edge modulation of electronics and transport properties of cliff-edge phosphorene nanoribbons (United States)

    Guo, Caixia; Wang, Tianxing; Xia, Congxin; Liu, Yufang


    Based on the first-principles calculations, we study the electronic structures and transport properties of cliff-like edge phosphorene nanoribbons (CPNRs), considering different types of edge passivation. The band structures of bare CPNRs possess the metallic features; while hydrogen (H), fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl) and oxygen (O) atoms-passivated CPNRs are semiconductor materials, and the band gap values monotonically decrease when the ribbon width increases. Moreover, the H and F-passivated CPNRs exhibit the direct band gap characteristics, while the Cl and O-passivated cases show the features of indirect band gap. In addition, the edge passivated CPNRs are more energetically stable than bare edge case. Meanwhile, our results also show that the transport properties of the CPNRs can be obviously influenced by the different edge passivation.

  15. Detection probability of gyrfalcons and other cliff-nesting raptors during aerial surveys in Alaska (United States)

    Booms, Travis L.; Fuller, Mark R.; Schempf, Philip F.; McCaffery, Brian J.; Lindberg, Mark S.; Watson, Richard T.; Cade, Tom J.; Fuller, Mark; Hunt, Grainger; Potapov, Eugene


    Assessing the status of Gyrfalcons (Falco rusticolus) and other cliffnesting raptors as the Arctic climate changes often requires aerial surveys of their breeding habitats. Because traditional, count-based surveys that do not adjust for differing detection probabilities can provide faulty inference about population status (Link and Sauer 1998, Thompson 2002), it will be important to incorporate measures of detection probability into survey methods whenever possible. To evaluate the feasibility of this, we conducted repeated aerial surveys for breeding cliff-nesting raptors on the Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge (YDNWR) in western Alaska to estimate detection probabilities of Gyrfalcons, Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), Rough-legged Hawks (Buteo lagopus), and also Common Ravens (Corvus corax). Using the program PRESENCE, we modeled detection histories of each species based on single species occupancy modeling following MacKenzie et al. (2002, 2006). We used different observers during four helicopter replicate surveys in the Kilbuck Mountains and five fixed-wing replicate surveys in the Ingakslugwat Hills (hereafter called Volcanoes) near Bethel, Alaska. We used the following terms and definitions throughout: Survey Site: site of a nest used previously by a raptor and marked with a GPS-obtained latitude and longitude accurate to within 20 m. All GPS locations were obtained in prior years from a helicopter hovering approximately 10?20 m from a nest. The site was considered occupied if a bird or an egg was detected within approximately 500 m of the nest and this area served as our sampling unit. When multiple historical nests were located on a single cliff, we used only one GPS location to locate the survey site. Detection probability (p): the probability of a species being detected at a site given the site is occupied. Occupancy (?): the probability that the species of interest is present at a site during the survey period. A site was considered occupied if the

  16. Reactor pressure vessel life cycle management at the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doroshuk, B.W.; Bowman, M.E.; Henry, S.A.; Pavinich, W.A.; Lapides, M.E.


    Life Cycle Management (LCM) seeks to manage the aging process of important systems, structures, and components during licensed operation. The goal of Baltimore Gas and Electric Company's (BG and E) Life Cycle Management Program is to assure attainment of 40 years of operation and to preserve the option of an additional 20 years of operation for the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant (CCNPP). Since the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) has been identified as one of the most critical components with regard to long-term operation of a nuclear power plant, BG and E initiated actions to manage life limiting or aging issues for the CCNPP RPVs. To achieve long-term operation, technical RPV issues must be effectively managed. This paper describes methods BG and E uses for managing RPV age-related degradation. (author)

  17. Extreme Wave Runup over the Steep Rocky Cliffs of Banneg Island, France (United States)

    Ardhuin, F.; Dodet, G.; Leckler, F.; Suanez, S.; Filipot, J. F.


    Ocean waves are constantly shaping coastal morphology. When storm waves are combined with high water levels, the wave runup can reach unexpected elevations and become a threat for coastal populations, through dike overtopping, dune breaching or accelerated coastline erosion. Therefore, the wave runup has been largely investigated over the last decades for its key importance in coastal engineering and risk management. Although the strongly nonlinear nature of swash flows prevented theoreticians and modellers from accurately predicting its kinematics, numerous laboratory and field studies provided a means for establishing wave runup empirical formula, which are now commonly used in engineering practice. However, most of the field studies only concerned gently sloping sand beaches, and run-up formula have barely been validated against field observations in steep rocky environments, where data are still very sparse. This study presents water elevation data acquired with pressure sensors solidly fixed to the bedrock of Banneg Island, France, during winter 2013/14. Offshore wave parameters and water levels were also measured during this winter and recorded storm events with Hm0 up to 9 m in spring tide conditions, which caused flooding and boulder transports across the island. A methodology to infer R2% from the local pressure measurements was implemented. The 4-month time-series of run-up measurements at the top and at the bottom of subvertical cliff profiles (with slopes ranging from 20% to 30%) were compared with offshore wave parameters and revealed a strong dependence of R2% to the Hunt parameter (ξ.Hm0). Several period parameters based on the spectral moments were also tested to compute ξ and the best correlations were obtained with T(m0,-1). Finally, the exceptional run-up values (up to 8 m) measured at the cliff top during the major storms allowed to test the validity of existing run-up formula for a range of conditions that exceeds any other observations, to

  18. The 50s cliff: a decline in perceptuo-motor learning, not a deficit in visual motion perception. (United States)

    Ren, Jie; Huang, Shaochen; Zhang, Jiancheng; Zhu, Qin; Wilson, Andrew D; Snapp-Childs, Winona; Bingham, Geoffrey P


    Previously, we measured perceptuo-motor learning rates across the lifespan and found a sudden drop in learning rates between ages 50 and 60, called the "50s cliff." The task was a unimanual visual rhythmic coordination task in which participants used a joystick to oscillate one dot in a display in coordination with another dot oscillated by a computer. Participants learned to produce a coordination with a 90° relative phase relation between the dots. Learning rates for participants over 60 were half those of younger participants. Given existing evidence for visual motion perception deficits in people over 60 and the role of visual motion perception in the coordination task, it remained unclear whether the 50s cliff reflected onset of this deficit or a genuine decline in perceptuo-motor learning. The current work addressed this question. Two groups of 12 participants in each of four age ranges (20s, 50s, 60s, 70s) learned to perform a bimanual coordination of 90° relative phase. One group trained with only haptic information and the other group with both haptic and visual information about relative phase. Both groups were tested in both information conditions at baseline and post-test. If the 50s cliff was caused by an age dependent deficit in visual motion perception, then older participants in the visual group should have exhibited less learning than those in the haptic group, which should not exhibit the 50s cliff, and older participants in both groups should have performed less well when tested with visual information. Neither of these expectations was confirmed by the results, so we concluded that the 50s cliff reflects a genuine decline in perceptuo-motor learning with aging, not the onset of a deficit in visual motion perception.

  19. Giving perspective to cliff exposures with ground penetrating radar: Devonian lacustrine shore zone architecture (United States)

    Andrews, Steven; Moreau, Julien; Archer, Stuart


    The orbitally-controlled cyclic lacustrine successions of the Middle Devonian in Northern Scotland contains repeated developments of shore zone sandstones. However, due to the cliff-forming nature of the succession and the attitude of the sections through these sandstones, interpretation of this facies has been problematic. To better understand the shore zone systems, we carried out very high resolution sedimentary logging and constructed photo-panels which were combined with high resolution GPR profiling (250 MHz). To ensure close ties between the sedimentary logs and the GPR data, the cliffs were accessed using rope access techniques while GPR grids were shot directly above. The profiles were shot mainly in the strike direction of what was thought to be the shore elongation every 5-10 m and every 20-30 m in the dip direction. Shore zone systems of 3 different sequences have been imaged for a total of 1155 m of GPR profile collected. This configuration has allowed 3D visualisation of the architecture of the shore zone systems and, in combination with detailed sedimentology, provided insights into the generation of the dynamic shore zone environments. The coastal cliffs of northern Scotland expose sedimentary cycles on average 16-m-thick which record deep lake, perennial lake and playa environments. The shore zone deposits reach 2 to 3.5 m in thickness. Loading and discrete channel forms are recognised in both the GPR data and sedimentary logs through the lower portion of the lake shore zone successions. Up-section the sandstone beds appear to become amalgamated forming subtle low angle accretionary bar complexes which although visible in outcrop, after careful investigation, can be fully visualised and examined in the GPR data. The 3D visualisation allowed mapping the architecture and distribution of the bars . The orientation of these features, recognised from the survey, is consistent with extensive palaeocurrent measurements from oscillation ripples. Further

  20. Reactor vessel assessment and the development of a reactor vessel life extension program for Calvert Cliffs Units One and Two

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, B.; Hijeck, P.J.


    A study has been undertaken to provide a general assessment of the life extension capabilities for the Calvert Cliffs Units One and Two reactor pressure vessels. The purpose of the study is to assess the general life extension capabilities for the Calvert Cliffs reactor pressure vessels based upon an extension and variation of the Surry pilot plant life extension study. This assessment provided a detailed reactor vessel surveillance program for plant life extension along with a hierarchy of specific tasks necessary for attaining maximum useful life. The assessment identified a number of critical issues which may impact life attainment and extension along with potential solutions to address these issues to ensure the life extension option is not precluded

  1. Ground-based LiDAR application to characterize sea cliff instability processes along a densely populated coastline in Southern Italy (United States)

    Esposito, Giuseppe; Semaan, Fouad; Salvini, Riccardo; Troise, Claudia; Somma, Renato; Matano, Fabio; Sacchi, Marco


    Sea cliff retreatment along the coastline of the Campi Flegrei volcanic area (Southern Italy) is becoming a threat for public and private structures due to the massive urbanization occurred in the last few decades. In this area, geological features of the outcropping rocks represent one of the most important factors conditioning the sea cliff retreatment. In fact, pyroclastic deposits formed by pumices, scoria, ashes and lapilli are arranged in weakly to moderately welded layers of variable thicknesses, resulting very erodible and prone to landslide processes. Available methods to evaluate topographic changes and retreat rates of sea cliffs include a variety of geomatic techniques, like terrestrial and aerial photogrammetry and LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging). By means of such techniques, it is in fact possible to obtain high resolution topography of sea cliffs and perform multi-temporal change detection analysis. In this contribution, we present an application of Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS or ground-based LiDAR) aimed to identify and quantify instability processes acting along the Torrefumo coastal cliff, in the Campi Flegrei area. Specifically, we acquired a series of 3D point clouds on the years 2013 and 2016, and compared them through a cloud-to-cloud distance computation. Furthermore, a statistical analysis was applied to the change detection results. In this way, an inventory of the cliff failures occurred along the Torrefumo cliff in the 2013-2016 time span was created, as well as the spatial and volumetric distribution of these failures was evaluated. The volumetric analysis shows that large collapses occurred rarely, whereas the spatial analysis shows that the majority of failures occurred in the middle and upper parts of the cliff face. Results also show that both rock fall and surficial erosion processes contribute to the cliff retreatment, acting in turn according to the geological properties of the involved pyroclastic deposits. The presented

  2. Elemental composition of Chesapeake Bay oyster Crassostrea virginica in the vicinity of Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrilas, M.; Munno, F.J.


    The stable element composition of the American oyster Crassostrea virginica collected between June 1978 and August 1983 in the Chesapeake Bay in the vicinity of Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant was analyzed by neutron activation. The minimum, maximum and the mean values of the elemental concentrations are given. The seasonal effect and the linear correlation between elements entering the oyster composition are shown. 7 references, 1 figure, 4 tables

  3. Characterization of Joint Sets Through UAV Photogrammetry on Sedimentary Rock Sea Cliffs and Abrasion Platforms in Northern Taiwan (United States)

    Hsieh, P. C.; LU, A.; Yeh, C. H.; Huang, W. K.; Lin, H. H.; Lin, M. L.


    Rockfall hazards are very common in obsequent slope and oblique slope. In the coastal area of northern Taiwan, many sea cliffs are formed by obsequent slope and oblique slope. A famous case of rockfall failure happened on Aug. 31, 2013, a 150-ton rock block fell on the highway in Badouzi, Keelung, during a high intensity rainfall event which was caused by Typhoon No.15 (Kong-rey). To reduce this kind of rockfall hazard, it is important to characterize discontinuous planes in the bedrock because rock blocks are mainly divided from bedrock by two or more sets of discontinuous planes including joint planes and the bedding plane. For doing characterization of those fracture patterns of joint sets, it is necessary to do detailed field investigations. However, the survey of discontinuous planes, especially joint sets, are usually difficult and cannot get enough characterization data about joint sets. The first reason is that doing field investigations on the surface of sea cliffs is very dangerous and difficult for engineers or geologists to approach the upper part of outcrop. The second reason is the complexity of joint sets. In Badouzi area, each cliff is constituted by many different layers such as sandstone, shale, or alternations of sandstone and shale, and each layer has different fracture pattern of joint sets. In this study, we use UAV photogrammetry as a solution of these difficulties. UAV photogrammetry can produce a high-resolution digital surface model (DSM), orthophoto, and anaglyph of sea cliffs and abrasion platforms. Than we use self-developed geoprocessing toolsets to auto-trace joint planes with DSM data and produce fracture pattern of joint sets semi-automatically and systematically. Our method can provide basic information for rock mass rating on rock slope stability and rockfall hazards evaluation.

  4. Cliff´s Delta Calculator: A non-parametric effect size program for two groups of observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Macbeth


    Full Text Available The Cliff´s Delta statistic is an effect size measure that quantifies the amount of difference between two non-parametric variables beyond p-values interpretation. This measure can be understood as a useful complementary analysis for the corresponding hypothesis testing. During the last two decades the use of effect size measures has been strongly encouraged by methodologists and leading institutions of behavioral sciences. The aim of this contribution is to introduce the Cliff´s Delta Calculator software that performs such analysis and offers some interpretation tips. Differences and similarities with the parametric case are analysed and illustrated. The implementation of this free program is fully described and compared with other calculators. Alternative algorithmic approaches are mathematically analysed and a basic linear algebra proof of its equivalence is formally presented. Two worked examples in cognitive psychology are commented. A visual interpretation of Cliff´s Delta is suggested. Availability, installation and applications of the program are presented and discussed.

  5. Changing the culture at Calvert Cliffs to focus on root cause analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edelman, G.M.


    In the previous decade, the industry has made a significant investment in technical training and procedure revisions. However, many in the industry remain reactive to emergent issues with a frustrating lack of results. This paper will share with the industry an ongoing program at Calvert Cliffs to develop a culture for problem prevention/problem solving. The approach forming the basis for this focus is Kepner-Tregoe's Problem/Decision Analysis process. Rather than individually targeted training or attitude awareness, the approach here was to integrate the process into work systems and jobs, and train to specific roles. In this manner, skills learned are consistently applied, clearly documentable, and positively supported. To date, the program has resulted in millions of dollars saved and at least 15 days outage time prevented, and has identified several opportunities to revise functional relationships to best focus on results. The clear lesson here is that change and continuous improvement can best occur when results and roles are defined and trained to at the organizational level in addition to the individual task level

  6. Socio-economic impacts of nuclear generating stations: Calvert Cliffs case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, J.


    This report documents a case study of the socio-economic impacts of the construction and operation of the Calvert Cliffs nuclear power station. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socio-economic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period 1980 to 1981. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socio-economic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined

  7. Molecular characterization and geological microenvironment of a microbial community inhabiting weathered receding shale cliffs. (United States)

    Cockell, Charles S; Pybus, David; Olsson-Francis, Karen; Kelly, Laura; Petley, David; Rosser, Nick; Howard, Kieren; Mosselmans, Fred


    Shales play an important role in many earth system processes including coastal erosion, and they form the foundations of many engineering structures. The geobiology of the interior of pyrite-containing receding shale cliffs on the coast of northeast England was examined. The surface of the weathered shales was characterised by a thin layer of disordered authigenic iron oxyhydroxides and localised acicular, platy and aggregated gypsum, which was characterised by Raman spectroscopy, XAS and SEM. These chemical changes are likely to play an important role in causing rock weakening along fractures at the micron scale, which ultimately lead to coastal retreat at the larger scale. The surface of the shale hosts a novel, low-diversity microbial community. The bacterial community was dominated by Proteobacteria, with phylotypes closely associating with Methylocella and other members of the γ-subdivision. The second largest phylogenetic group corresponded to Nitrospira. The archaeal 16S rRNA phylotypes were dominated by a single group of sequences that matched phylotypes reported from South African gold mines and possessed ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) genes. Both the phylogenetic and the mineral data show that acidic microenvironments play an important role in shale weathering, but the shale has a higher microbial diversity than previously described pyritic acid mine drainage sites. The presence of a potentially biogeochemically active microbial population on the rock surface suggests that microorganisms may contribute to early events of shale degradation and coastal erosion.

  8. Mark-recapture and behavioral ecology: a case study of Cliff Swallows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown, C. R.


    Full Text Available Mark–recapture and the statistical analysis methods associated with it offer great potential for investigating fitness components associated with particular behavioral traits. However, few behavioral ecologists have used these techniques. We illustrate the insights that have come from a long–term mark–recapture study of social behavior in Cliff Swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota. The number of transient swallows passing through a colony per hour increased with colony size and was responsible in part for increased rates of ectoparasite introduction from outside the group into the larger colonies. Annual survival probabilities of males engaging in extra–pair copulation attempts were lower than those of males not seen to commit extra–pair copulations, suggesting that males who engage in this behavior may be inferior individuals and that females do not benefit from copulating with them. Females engaging in intraspecific brood parasitism had higher annual survival probabilities than ones either parasitized by others or not known to be either hosts or parasites. This suggests that parasitic females are high–quality birds and that brood parasitism is an effective reproductive tactic for increasing their fitness. By estimating first–year survival of chicks, we found that a clutch size of 4 eggs is often the most productive, on average, as measured by recruitment of offspring as breeders, although birds laying the more uncommon clutch size of 5 fledge more young on average. This helps to explain the observed clutch–size distribution in which clutch size 4 is the most commonly produced.

  9. Self-SALP/self-assessment at Calvert Cliffs nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pieringer, P.; Slider, J.E.


    In recent years, utilities have undertaken various forms of self-assessment. These methods have as their goal early detection of weaknesses in plan performance to permit timely corrective action. Ideally, self-assessment methods identify problems at a lower threshold than do outside agencies, such as the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO). One of the more popular methods of self-assessment has been the self-SALP (systematic assessment of licensee performance). This method emulates the procedures of the NRC's SALP to render a subjective, overall assessment of performance. The experience of Baltimore Gas and Electric Company (BG and E) in applying self-SALP methods at its Calvert Cliffs nuclear power plant (CCNPP) provides insights useful to other utilities considering use of self-SALP methods. The factors leading to BG and E's decision to use a different approach may help others evaluate their self-assessment choices. This paper summarizes BG and E's experience with self-SALP methods and describes the methods that will be used to evaluate performance in the future

  10. Microaneurysms detection with the radon cliff operator in retinal fundus images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giancardo, Luca [ORNL; Meriaudeau, Fabrice [ORNL; Karnowski, Thomas Paul [ORNL; Tobin Jr, Kenneth William [ORNL; Li, Yaquin [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Chaum, Edward [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)


    Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) is one of the leading causes of blindness in the industrialized world. Early detection is the key in providing effective treatment. However, the current number of trained eye care specialists is inadequate to screen the increasing number of diabetic patients. In recent years, automated and semi-automated systems to detect DR with color fundus images have been developed with encouraging, but not fully satisfactory results. In this study we present the initial results of a new technique for the detection and localization of microaneurysms, an early sign of DR. The algorithm is based on three steps: candidates selection, the actual microaneurysms detection and a final probability evaluation. We introduce the new Radon Cliff operator which is our main contribution to the field. Making use of the Radon transform, the operator is able to detect single noisy Gaussian-like circular structures regardless of their size or strength. The advantages over existing microaneurysms detectors are manifold: the size of the lesions can be unknown, it automatically distinguishes lesions from the vasculature and it provides a fair approach to microaneurysm localization even without post-processing the candidates with machine learning techniques, facilitating the training phase. The algorithm is evaluated on a publicly available dataset from the Retinopathy Online Challenge.

  11. Performance of Deep and Shallow Neural Networks, the Universal Approximation Theorem, Activity Cliffs, and QSAR. (United States)

    Winkler, David A; Le, Tu C


    Neural networks have generated valuable Quantitative Structure-Activity/Property Relationships (QSAR/QSPR) models for a wide variety of small molecules and materials properties. They have grown in sophistication and many of their initial problems have been overcome by modern mathematical techniques. QSAR studies have almost always used so-called "shallow" neural networks in which there is a single hidden layer between the input and output layers. Recently, a new and potentially paradigm-shifting type of neural network based on Deep Learning has appeared. Deep learning methods have generated impressive improvements in image and voice recognition, and are now being applied to QSAR and QSAR modelling. This paper describes the differences in approach between deep and shallow neural networks, compares their abilities to predict the properties of test sets for 15 large drug data sets (the kaggle set), discusses the results in terms of the Universal Approximation theorem for neural networks, and describes how DNN may ameliorate or remove troublesome "activity cliffs" in QSAR data sets. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Microaneurysms detection with the radon cliff operator in retinal fundus images (United States)

    Giancardo, Luca; Mériaudeau, Fabrice; Karnowski, Thomas P.; Tobin, Kenneth W.; Li, Yaqin; Chaum, Edward


    Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) is one of the leading causes of blindness in the industrialized world. Early detection is the key in providing effective treatment. However, the current number of trained eye care specialists is inadequate to screen the increasing number of diabetic patients. In recent years, automated and semi-automated systems to detect DR with color fundus images have been developed with encouraging, but not fully satisfactory results. In this study we present the initial results of a new technique for the detection and localization of microaneurysms, an early sign of DR. The algorithm is based on three steps: candidates selection, the actual microaneurysms detection and a final probability evaluation. We introduce the new Radon Cliff operator which is our main contribution to the field. Making use of the Radon transform, the operator is able to detect single noisy Gaussian-like circular structures regardless of their size or strength. The advantages over existing microaneurysms detectors are manifold: the size of the lesions can be unknown, it automatically distinguishes lesions from the vasculature and it provides a fair approach to microaneurysm localization even without post-processing the candidates with machine learning techniques, facilitating the training phase. The algorithm is evaluated on a publicly available dataset from the Retinopathy Online Challenge.

  13. Review of thermal-hydraulic calculations for Calvert Cliffs and H.B. Robinson PTS study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, J.H.; Yuelys-Miksis, C.; Rohatgi, U.S.


    Thermal-hydraulic transient calculations performed by LANL using the TRAC-PF1 code and by INEL using the RELAP5 code for the USNRC pressurized thermal shock (PTS) study of the Calvert Cliffs and H.B. Robinson Nuclear Power Plants have been reviewed at BNL including the input decks and steady state calculations. Furthermore, six transients for each plant have been selected for the in-depth review. Simple hand calculations based on the mass and energy balances of the entire reactor system, have been performed to predict the temperature and pressure of the reactor system, and the results have been compared with those obtained by the code calculation. In general, the temperatures and pressures of the primary system calculated by the codes have been very reasonable. The secondary pressures calculated by TRAC appear to indicate that the codes have some difficulty with the condensation model and further work is needed to assess the code calculation of the U-tube steam generator pressure when the cold auxiliary feedwater is introduced to the steam generator. However, it is not expected that this uncertainty would affect the transient calculations significantly

  14. Lipid residues preserved in sheltered bedrock features at Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument, New Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tammy Buonasera


    Bedrock features represent various economic, social, and symbolic aspects of past societies, but have historically received little study, particularly in North America. Fortunately, new techniques for analyzing spatial configurations, use-wear, and organic residues are beginning to unlock more of the interpretive potential of these features. Though preliminary in nature, the present study contributes to this trend by documenting an application of lipid analysis to bedrock features in a dry rockshelter. Results of this initial application indicate that bedrock features in dry rockshelters may provide especially favorable conditions for the preservation and interpretation of ancient organic residues. Abundant lipids, comparable to concentrations present in some pottery sherds, were extracted from a bedrock grinding surface at Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Though the lipids were highly oxidized, degradation products indicative of former unsaturated fatty acids were retained. Comparisons to experimentally aged residues, and absence of a known biomarker for maize, indicate that the bulk of the lipids preserved in the milling surface probably derive from processing an oily nut or seed resource, and not from processing maize. Substantially lower amounts of lipids were recovered from a small, blackened cupule. It is hypothesized that some portion of the lipids in the blackened cupule was deposited from condensed smoke of cooking and heating fires in the caves. Potential for the preservation of organic residues in similar sheltered bedrock contexts is discussed, and a practical method for sampling bedrock features in the field is described.

  15. Life and death of ice cliffs and lakes on debris covered glaciers - insights from a new dataset from the Nepalese Himalaya (United States)

    Steiner, Jakob; Buri, Pascal; Miles, Evan; Ragettli, Silvan; Pellicciotti, Francesca


    Numerous studies suggest that supraglacial ice cliffs and lakes could be one contributing factor to relatively high overall ablation rates on debris covered glaciers. While some studies have quantified backwasting rates, developments over the larger scale have not yet been assessed. Field work and earlier studies during three seasons in the Langtang catchment in the Nepalese Himalaya has given some insights into how these landforms develop, from initial emergence to persistence and disappearance. From 6 sets of concurrent high-resolution satellite imagery and DEMs between 2006 and 2015 and an additional image from 1974, we assembled an extensive dataset of these landforms on all glaciers in the catchment, including nearly 4000 individual lakes and cliffs. We show that ice cliffs appear in combination with lakes or without and there are lakes that are not bordered by a cliff. Numbers vary strongly between seasons, especially as lakes show strong seasonal variability. There are furthermore different types of cliff forms - circular, lateral and longitudinal - that give an indication of their formation process. Circular cliffs form with either collapsing subglacial channels or overdeepenings caused by water accumulating on the surface, while lateral cliffs are likely associated with underlying crevasses. Some of the cliff and lake systems remain at the same location on-glacier over a number of years, while most move with the whole glacier body down valley. From the DEMs determine preferential slopes and expositions of the cliffs in the catchment which have been shown to be essential aspects in explaining the backwasting process. In combination with field observations from one glacier, where most of these types were present, we can infer development processes of a number of systems over the whole catchment. It is also apparent that densities of these landforms vary greatly over the glacier surface, which can be explained with velocities or underlying bed topography in

  16. Parent–offspring resemblance in colony-specific adult survival of cliff swallows (United States)

    Brown, Charles R.; Roche, Erin A.; Brown, Mary Bomberger


    Survival is a key component of fitness. Species that occupy discrete breeding colonies with different characteristics are often exposed to varying costs and benefits associated with group size or environmental conditions, and survival is an integrative net measure of these effects. We investigated the extent to which survival probability of adult (≥1-year old) cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) occupying different colonies resembled that of their parental cohort and thus whether the natal colony had long-term effects on individuals. Individuals were cross-fostered between colonies soon after hatching and their presence as breeders monitored at colonies in the western Nebraska study area for the subsequent decade. Colony-specific adult survival probabilities of offspring born and reared in the same colony, and those cross-fostered away from their natal colony soon after birth, were positively and significantly related to subsequent adult survival of the parental cohort from the natal colony. This result held when controlling for the effect of natal colony size and the age composition of the parental cohort. In contrast, colony-specific adult survival of offspring cross-fostered to a site was unrelated to that of their foster parent cohort or to the cohort of non-fostered offspring with whom they were reared. Adult survival at a colony varied inversely with fecundity, as measured by mean brood size, providing evidence for a survival–fecundity trade-off in this species. The results suggest some heritable variation in adult survival, likely maintained by negative correlations between fitness components. The study provides additional evidence that colonies represent non-random collections of individuals.

  17. Antarctic Mirabilite Mounds as Mars Analogs: The Lewis Cliffs Ice Tongue Revisited (United States)

    Socki, Richard A.; Sun, Tao; Niles, Paul B.; Harvey, Ralph P.; Bish, David L.; Tonui, Eric


    It has been proposed, based on geomorphic and geochemical arguments, that subsurface water has played an important role in the history of water on the planet Mars [1]. Subsurface water, if present, could provide a protected and long lived environment for potential life. Discovery of gullies [2] and recurring slopes [3] on Mars suggest the potential for subsurface liquid water or brines. Recent attention has also focused on small (the mid to high latitudes on the surface of Mars which may be caused by eruptions of subsurface fluids [4, 5]. We have identified massive but highly localized Na-sulfate deposits (mirabilite mounds, Na2SO4 .10H2O) that may be derived from subsurface fluids and may provide insight into the processes associated with subsurface fluids on Mars. The mounds are found on the end moraine of the Lewis Cliffs Ice Tongue (LCIT) [6] in the Transantarctic Mountains, Antarctica, and are potential terrestrial analogs for mounds observed on the martian surface. The following characteristics distinguish LCIT evaporite mounds from other evaporite mounds found in Antarctic coastal environments and/or the McMurdo Dry Valleys: (1) much greater distance from the open ocean (approx.500 km); (2) higher elevation (approx.2200 meters); and (3) colder average annual temperature (average annual temperature = -30 C for LCIT [7] vs. 20 C at sea level in the McMurdo region [8]. Furthermore, the recent detection of subsurface water ice (inferred as debris-covered glacial ice) by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter [9] supports the use of an Antarctic glacial environment, particularly with respect to the mirabilite deposits described in this work, as an ideal terrestrial analog for understanding the geochemistry associated with near-surface martian processes. S and O isotopic compositions.

  18. Pre-failure behaviour of an unstable limestone cliff from displacement and seismic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-L. Got


    Full Text Available We monitored the displacement and seismic activity of an unstable vertical rock slice in a natural limestone cliff of the southeast Vercors massif, southeast France, during the months preceding its collapse. Displacement measurements showed an average acceleration of the movement of its top, with clear increases in the displacement velocity and in the discrete seismic event production rate during periods where temperature falls, with more activity when rainfall or frost occurs. Crises of discrete seismic events produce high amplitudes in periodograms, but do not change the high frequency base noise level rate. We infer that these crises express the critical crack growth induced by water weakening (from water vapor condensation or rain of the rock strength rather than to a rapid change in applied stresses. Seismic noise analysis showed a steady increase in the high frequency base noise level and the emergence of spectral modes in the signal recorded by the sensor installed on the unstable rock slice during the weeks preceding the collapse. High frequency seismic noise base level seems to represent subcritical crack growth. It is a smooth and robust parameter whose variations are related to generalized changes in the rupture process. Drop of the seismic noise amplitude was concomitant with the emergence of spectral modes – that are compatible with high-order eigenmodes of the unstable rock slice – during the later stages of its instability. Seismic noise analysis, especially high frequency base noise level analysis may complement that of inverse displacement velocity in early-warning approaches when strong displacement fluctuations occur.

  19. The water erosion processes in the retreat erosive of cliff on soft rocks in the province of Cadiz (Spain); Los procesos de erosion hidrica en el retroceso erosivo de acantilados sobre rocas blandas en la provincia de Cadiz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rendon Aragon, J. J.; Gracia Prieto, F. J.; Rio Rodriguez, L. del


    The littoral cliffs on soft materials of the Atlantic Cadiz coast show an important activity of the fresh water erosion processes, sometimes even more significant than the marine erosion processes. The connection of the lower cliffs with sandy beaches favours aeolian sand invasion, which fills previous rills and reduces the water erosion intensity by increasing infiltration. Cliff retreat and rill erosion measurement by using erosion sticks has shown very variables values, most of them higher than the estimated error of the employed methods. This indicates the existence of other factors influencing the distribution of water erosion processes along these cliffs, which have to be studied through different techniques. (Author) 5 refs.

  20. Mobile Laser Scanning along Dieppe coastal cliffs: reliability of the acquired point clouds applied to rockfall assessments (United States)

    Michoud, Clément; Carrea, Dario; Augereau, Emmanuel; Cancouët, Romain; Costa, Stéphane; Davidson, Robert; Delacourt, Chirstophe; Derron, Marc-Henri; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Letortu, Pauline; Maquaire, Olivier


    Dieppe coastal cliffs, in Normandy, France, are mainly formed by sub-horizontal deposits of chalk and flintstone. Largely destabilized by an intense weathering and the Channel sea erosion, small and large rockfalls are regularly observed and contribute to retrogressive cliff processes. During autumn 2012, cliff and intertidal topographies have been acquired with a Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS) and a Mobile Laser Scanner (MLS), coupled with seafloor bathymetries realized with a multibeam echosounder (MBES). MLS is a recent development of laser scanning based on the same theoretical principles of aerial LiDAR, but using smaller, cheaper and portable devices. The MLS system, which is composed by an accurate dynamic positioning and orientation (INS) devices and a long range LiDAR, is mounted on a marine vessel; it is then possible to quickly acquire in motion georeferenced LiDAR point clouds with a resolution of about 15 cm. For example, it takes about 1 h to scan of shoreline of 2 km long. MLS is becoming a promising technique supporting erosion and rockfall assessments along the shores of lakes, fjords or seas. In this study, the MLS system used to acquire cliffs and intertidal areas of the Cap d'Ailly was composed by the INS Applanix POS-MV 320 V4 and the LiDAR Optech Ilirs LR. On the same day, three MLS scans with large overlaps (J1, J21 and J3) have been performed at ranges from 600 m at 4 knots (low tide) up to 200 m at 2.2 knots (up tide) with a calm sea at 2.5 Beaufort (small wavelets). Mean scan resolutions go from 26 cm for far scan (J1) to about 8.1 cm for close scan (J3). Moreover, one TLS point cloud on this test site has been acquired with a mean resolution of about 2.3 cm, using a Riegl LMS Z390i. In order to quantify the reliability of the methodology, comparisons between scans have been realized with the software Polyworks™, calculating shortest distances between points of one cloud and the interpolated surface of the reference point cloud. A Mat

  1. Coastal cliffs, rock-slope failures and Late Quaternary transgressions of the Black Sea along southern Crimea (United States)

    Pánek, Tomáš; Lenart, Jan; Hradecký, Jan; Hercman, Helena; Braucher, Règis; Šilhán, Karel; Škarpich, Václav


    Rock-slope failures represent a significant hazard along global coastlines, but their chronology remains poorly documented. Here, we focus on the geomorphology and chronology of giant rockslides affecting the Crimean Mountains along the Black Sea coast. Geomorphic evidence suggests that high (>100 m) limestone cliffs flanking the southern slopes of the Crimean Mountains are scarps of rockslides nested within larger deep-seated gravitational slope deformations (DSGSDs). Such pervasive slope failures originated due to lateral spreading of intensively faulted Late Jurassic carbonate blocks moving atop weak/plastic Late Triassic flysch and tuff layers. By introducing a dating strategy relying on the combination of the uranium-thorium dating (U-Th) of exposed calcareous speleothems covering the landslide scarps with the 36Cl exposure dating of rock walls, we are able to approximate the time interval between the origin of incipient crevices and the final collapse of limestone blocks that exposed the cliff faces. For the three representative large-scale rockslides between the towns of Foros and Yalta, the initiation of the DSGSDs as evidenced by the widening of crevices and the onset of speleothem accumulation was >300 ka BP, but the recent cliff morphology along the coast is the result of Late Pleistocene/Holocene failures spanning ∼20-0.5 ka BP. The exposures of rockslide scarps occurred mostly at ∼20-15, ∼8, ∼5-4 and ∼2-0.5 ka, which substantially coincide with the last major Black Sea transgressions and/or more humid Holocene intervals. Our study suggests that before ultimate fast and/or catastrophic slope failures, the relaxation of rock massifs correlative with karstification, cracks opening, and incipient sliding lasted on the order of 104-105 years. Rapid Late Glacial/Holocene transgressions of the Black Sea likely represented the last impulse for the collapse of limestone blocks and the origin of giant rockslides, simultaneously affecting the majority

  2. Coastal cliff geometry derived from structure-from-motion photogrammetry at Stara Ba\\vska, Krk Island, Croatia (United States)

    Ružić, Igor; Marović, Ivan; Benac, Čedomir; Ilić, Suzana


    The aim of this study was to examine the capability of structure-from-motion photogrammetry in defining the geometry of cliffs and undercuts in rocks of complex geomorphology. A case site was chosen along pocket beaches near the village of Stara Ba\\vska on the Adriatic Sea island of Krk, Gulf of Kvarner, Croatia, where cliff erosion of 5 m in breccias was identified by comparison of aerial photographs from 1960 and 2004. The 3D point cloud was derived from approx. 800 photos taken on 9 January 2014 by a single camera from various elevations and angles, and processed using the online software ReCap (Autodesk). Data acquisition was found to be quick and the method easy to implement. The difference between the georeferenced 3D cloud points and an RTK-GPS survey was 7 cm, i.e. within the limits of RTK-GPS precision. Quantifying the spatial variation in undercut geometries revealed that the deepest and largest (17 m3) undercut was in the south-eastern sector of the beach. Reconstructing the detailed geomorphology of this 3.8-m-deep undercut convincingly demonstrates the high efficiency of the method. Such assessments of spatiotemporal changes in undercut and overhang volumes can prove useful for evaluations of cliff erosion risk. Coupled with the low cost and relatively simple application, this is evidently an attractive technique for meaningful geotechnical and coastal engineering monitoring in the future on the island of Krk and, for that matter, also on other Adriatic islands and in similar settings worldwide.

  3. 3-D Resistivity Tomography for Cliff Stability Study at the D-Day Pointe du Hoc Historic Site in Normandy, France (United States)

    Udphuay, S.; Everett, M. E.; Guenther, T.; Warden, R. R.


    The D-Day invasion site at Pointe du Hoc in Normandy, France is one of the most important World War II battlefields. The site remains today a valuable historic cultural resource. However the site is vulnerable to cliff collapses that could endanger the observation post building and U.S. Ranger memorial located just landward of the sea stack, and an anti-aircraft gun emplacement, Col. Rudder's command post, located on the cliff edge about 200 m east of the observation post. A 3-D resistivity tomography incorporating extreme topography is used in this study to provide a detailed site stability assessment with special attention to these two buildings. Multi-electrode resistivity measurements were made across the cliff face and along the top of the cliff around the two at-risk buildings to map major subsurface fracture zones and void spaces that could indicate possible accumulations and pathways of groundwater. The ingress of acidic groundwater through the underlying carbonate formations enlarges pre-existing tectonic fractures via limestone dissolution and weakens the overall structural integrity of the cliff. The achieved 3-D resistivity tomograms provide diagnostic subsurface resistivity distributions. Resistive zones associated with subsurface void spaces have been located. These void spaces constitute a stability geohazard as they become significant drainage routes during and after periods of heavy rainfalls.

  4. Influence in times of crisis: how social and financial resources affect men's and women's evaluations of glass-cliff positions. (United States)

    Rink, Floor; Ryan, Michelle K; Stoker, Janka I


    In two scenario-based studies, we found that women and men evaluate glass-cliff positions (i.e., precarious leadership positions at organizations in crisis) differently depending on the social and financial resources available. Female and male participants evaluated a hypothetical leadership position in which they would have both social and financial resources, financial resources but no social resources, or social resources but no financial resources. Women evaluated the position without social resources most negatively, whereas men evaluated the position without financial resources most negatively. In study 2, we found that women and men considered different issues when evaluating these leadership positions. Women's evaluations and expected levels of influence as leaders depended on the degree to which they expected to be accepted by subordinates. In contrast, men's evaluations and expected levels of acceptance by subordinates depended on the degree to which they expected to be influential in the position. Our findings have implications for the understanding of the glass-cliff phenomenon and gendered leadership stereotypes.

  5. Experiments to investigate direct containment heating phenomena with scaled models of the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchat, T.K.; Pilch, M.M.; Allen, M.D.


    The Surtsey Test Facility is used to perform scaled experiments simulating High Pressure Melt Ejection accidents in a nuclear power plant (NPP). The experiments investigate the effects of direct containment heating (DCH) on the containment load. The results from Zion and Surry experiments can be extrapolated to other Westinghouse plants, but predicted containment loads cannot be generalized to all Combustion Engineering (CE) plants. Five CE plants have melt dispersal flow paths which circumvent the main mitigation of containment compartmentalization in most Westinghouse PWRs. Calvert Cliff-like plant geometries and the impact of codispersed water were addressed as part of the DCH issue resolution. Integral effects tests were performed with a scale model of the Calvert Cliffs NPP inside the Surtsey test vessel. The experiments investigated the effects of codispersal of water, steam, and molten core stimulant materials on DCH loads under prototypic accident conditions and plant configurations. The results indicated that large amounts of coejected water reduced the DCH load by a small amount. Large amounts of debris were dispersed from the cavity to the upper dome (via the annular gap). 22 refs., 84 figs., 30 tabs

  6. Slope mass movements on rocky sea-cliffs: A power-law distributed natural hazard on the Barlavento Coast, Algarve, Portugal (United States)

    Teixeira, Sebastião Braz


    The coast of the Central Algarve, Portugal, is dominated by sea-cliffs, cut on Miocene calcarenites; here, the main coastal geologic hazards result from the conflict between human occupation and sea-cliff recession. The evolution of this rocky coast occurs through an intermittent and discontinuous series of slope mass movements, along a 46 km cliff front. For the last 30 years, the increase of tourism occupation has amplified the risks to both people and buildings. In the last decade we have seen several accidents caused by cliff failure, which killed or wounded people and destroyed several buildings. The definition of buffer zones limited by hazard lines parallel to the cliff edge, where land use is restricted, is a widely used and effective preventive measure for mitigating risk. Rocky coasts typically show a slow cliff evolution. The process of gathering statistically significant field inventories of mass movements is, thus, very long. Although mass movement catalogues provide fundamental information on sea cliff evolution patterns and are an outstanding tool in hazard assessment, published data sets are still rare. In this work, we use two inventories of mass movement width, recorded on sea cliffs cut on Miocene calcarenites: a nine year long continuous field inventory (1995-2004) with 140 recorded events, and a 44 year long catalogue based on comparative analysis of aerial photographs (1947-1991), that includes 177 events. The cumulative frequency-width distributions of both data sets fit, above a critical width value corresponding to the threshold of full completeness of the inventories, to power-law distributions. The knowledge of the limits of the catalogues enabled the construction of a 53 year long record inventory over the range of mean width ⩾3 m ( n=167 events) and maximum width ⩾4 m ( n=155 events). The data assembled corresponds to a partial series and was converted to a return period-size distribution. Both return period-width distributions

  7. Calculation of the rockwall recession rate of a limestone cliff, affected by rockfalls, using cosmogenic chlorine-36. Case study of the Montsec Range (Eastern Pyrenees, Spain) (United States)

    Domènech, Guillem; Corominas, Jordi; Mavrouli, Olga; Merchel, Silke; Abellán, Antonio; Pavetich, Stefan; Rugel, Georg


    Cliff erosion may be a major problem in settled areas affecting populations and producing economic and ecological losses. In this paper we present a procedure to calculate the long-term retreat rate of a cliff affected by rockfalls in the Montsec Range, Eastern Pyrenees (Spain). It is composed of low, densely fractured limestones; and the rockwall is affected by rockfalls of different sizes. The rockfall scars are clearly distinguishable by their regular boundaries and by their orange colour, which contrast with the greyish old reference surface (S0) of the cliff face. We have dated different stepped surfaces of the rockwall, including S0, using cosmogenic 36Cl. The total amount of material released by rockfall activity was calculated using a high definition point cloud of the slope face obtained with a terrestrial laser scanner (TLS). The present rockwall surface has been subtracted from the reconstructed old cliff surface. This has allowed the calculation of the total volume released by rockfalls and of the retreat rate. The latter ranges from 0.31 to 0.37 mm·a- 1. This value is of the same order of magnitude as that obtained by other researchers in neighbouring regions in Spain, having similar geology and affected by rockfalls.

  8. Three-dimensional resistivity tomography in extreme coastal terrain amidst dense cultural signals: application to cliff stability assessment at the historic D-Day site (United States)

    Udphuay, Suwimon; Günther, Thomas; Everett, Mark E.; Warden, Robert R.; Briaud, Jean-Louis


    Pointe du Hoc overlooking the English Channel in Normandy, France was host to one of the most important military engagements of World War II but is vulnerable to cliff collapses that threaten important German fortifications including the forward observation post (OP) and Rudder's command post. The objective of this study is to apply advanced 3-D resistivity tomography towards a detailed site stability assessment with special attention to the two at-risk buildings. 3-D resistivity tomography data sets at Pointe du Hoc in the presence of extreme topography and dense cultural clutter have been successfully acquired, inverted and interpreted. A cliff stability hazard assessment scheme has been designed in which regions of high resistivity are interpreted as zones of open, dry fractures with a moderate mass movement potential. Regions of low resistivity are zones of wet, clay-filled fractures with a high mass movement potential. The OP tomography results indicate that the highest mass movement hazard appears to be associated with the marine caverns at the base of the cliff that are positioned at the point of strongest wave attack. These caverns likely occupy the future site of development of a sea arch that will threaten the OP building. The mass movement potential at the Rudder's command post area is low to moderate. The greatest risk there is associated with soil wedge failures at the top of the cliffs.

  9. Dry calving processes at the ice cliff of an antarctic local glacier: the study case of Strandline Glacier (Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica) (United States)

    Smiraglia, C.; Motta, M.; Vassena, G.; Diolaiuti, G.


    In Antartic coastal area, where the ice sheet and the large outlet glaciers do not reach the sea and where some rugged mountain chains are often present, many small glaciers can be found. They are the so called local or alpine type glaciers, which have their terminus ground-based such as the real alpine glaciers and rarely reach the main valley floors. They are practically isolated and independent from the supply flowing down from the plateau and their mass balance is mainly controlled by sublimation and aeolic erosion and accumulation. The glaciers closer to the coast are submitted to the melting as well, and when the terminus is cliff-shaped they are also affected by dry calving. The most known and studied Antarctic local glaciers are placed in the Dry Valleys region (Chinn, 1985), but this kind of glaciers is also diffused all along the Northern Victoria Land coastal region (Chinn and others, 1989). Since the first Italian Antarctic expedition (1985), many studies have been carried out on this type of glaciers, which can be usefull for detailed mass balance evaluations and for obtaining information about the effects of the present climatic dynamics on the Antarctic coastal environment (Baroni and Orombelli, 1987; Baroni and others, 1995; Meneghel, 1999; Vassena and others., 2001). The Strandline Glacier (74 41 S; 164 07 E), in particular is a small alpine glacier (0,79 kmq) on the coast of Terra Nova Bay, Northern Victoria Land; it is a cold glacier where accumulation and ablation basins are mainly controlled by wind processes. Its terminus forms in the central part a grounded ice cliff about 30 m high, about 130 m far from the sea. On that glacier mass balance, surface velocity and calving rate were measured. During the southern summer season 2000-2001 many topographycal profiles of the ice cliff were surveyed by using both classical topographical and glaciological methods (total station and stakes) and GPS technique. It was so possible to detect the short term

  10. Analysis of Samples Collected from the Surface of Interim Storage Canisters at Calvert Cliffs in June 2017: Revision 01.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, Charles R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schindelholz, Eric John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    In June 2017, dust and salt samples were collected from the surface of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) dry storage canisters at the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant. The samples were delivered to Sandia National laboratories for analysis. Two types of samples were collected: filter-backed Scotch-Brite TM pads were used to collect dry dust samples for characterization of salt and dust morphologies and distributions; and Saltsmart TM test strips were used to collect soluble salts for determining salt surface loadings per unit area. After collection, the samples were sealed into plastic sleeves for shipping. Condensation within the sleeves containing the Scotch-Brite TM samples remobilized the salts, rendering them ineffective for the intended purpose, and also led to mold growth, further compromising the samples; for these reasons, the samples were not analyzed. The SaltSmart TM samples were unaffected and were analyzed by ion chromatography for major anions and cations. The results of those analyses are presented here.

  11. Detection probability of cliff-nesting raptors during helicopter and fixed-wing aircraft surveys in western Alaska (United States)

    Booms, T.L.; Schempf, P.F.; McCaffery, B.J.; Lindberg, M.S.; Fuller, M.R.


    We conducted repeated aerial surveys for breeding cliff-nesting raptors on the Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge (YDNWR) in western Alaska to estimate detection probabilities of Gyrfalcons (Falco rusticolus), Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), Rough-legged Hawks (Buteo lagopus), and also Common Ravens (Corvus corax). Using the program PRESENCE, we modeled detection histories of each species based on single species occupancy modeling. We used different observers during four helicopter replicate surveys in the Kilbuck Mountains and five fixed-wing replicate surveys in the Ingakslugwat Hills near Bethel, AK. During helicopter surveys, Gyrfalcons had the highest detection probability estimate (p^;p^ 0.79; SE 0.05), followed by Golden Eagles (p^=0.68; SE 0.05), Common Ravens (p^=0.45; SE 0.17), and Rough-legged Hawks (p^=0.10; SE 0.11). Detection probabilities from fixed-wing aircraft in the Ingakslugwat Hills were similar to those from the helicopter in the Kilbuck Mountains for Gyrfalcons and Golden Eagles, but were higher for Common Ravens (p^=0.85; SE 0.06) and Rough-legged Hawks (p^=0.42; SE 0.07). Fixed-wing aircraft provided detection probability estimates and SEs in the Ingakslugwat Hills similar to or better than those from helicopter surveys in the Kilbucks and should be considered for future cliff-nesting raptor surveys where safe, low-altitude flight is possible. Overall, detection probability varied by observer experience and in some cases, by study area/aircraft type.

  12. New techniques to measure cliff change from historical oblique aerial photographs and structure-from-motion photogrammetry (United States)

    Warrick, Jonathan; Ritchie, Andy; Adelman, Gabrielle; Adelman, Ken; Limber, Patrick W.


    Oblique aerial photograph surveys are commonly used to document coastal landscapes. Here it is shown that adequate overlap may exist in these photographic records to develop topographic models with Structure-from-Motion (SfM) photogrammetric techniques. Using photographs of Fort Funston, California, from the California Coastal Records Project, imagery were combined with ground control points in a four-dimensional analysis that produced topographic point clouds of the study area’s cliffs for 5 years spanning 2002 to 2010. Uncertainty was assessed by comparing point clouds with airborne LIDAR data, and these uncertainties were related to the number and spatial distribution of ground control points used in the SfM analyses. With six or more ground control points, the root mean squared errors between the SfM and LIDAR data were less than 0.30 m (minimum 1⁄4 0.18 m), and the mean systematic error was less than 0.10 m. The SfM results had several benefits over traditional airborne LIDAR in that they included point coverage on vertical- to-overhanging sections of the cliff and resulted in 10–100 times greater point densities. Time series of the SfM results revealed topographic changes, including landslides, rock falls, and the erosion of landslide talus along the Fort Funston beach. Thus, it was concluded that SfM photogrammetric techniques with historical oblique photographs allow for the extraction of useful quantitative information for mapping coastal topography and measuring coastal change. The new techniques presented here are likely applicable to many photograph collections and problems in the earth sciences.

  13. Isopach map of interval between top of the Pictured Cliffs Sandstone and the Huerfanito Bentonite bed of the Lewis Shale, La Plata County, Colorado, and Rio Arriba and San Juan counties, New Mexico (United States)

    Sandberg, D.T.


    This thickness map of a Late Cretaceous interval in the northwestern part of the San Juan Basin is part of a study of the relationship between ancient shore 1ines and coal-forming swamps during the filial regression of the Cretaceous epicontinental sea. The top of the thickness interval is the top of the Pictured Cliffs Sands tone. The base of the interval is a thin time marker, the Huerfanito Bentonite Bed of the Lewis Shale. The interval includes all of the Pictured Cliffs Sandstone and the upper part of the Lewis Shale. The northwest boundary of the map area is the outcrop of the Pictured Cliffs Sandstone and the Lewis Shale.

  14. Hydrogeology of the Pictured Cliffs Sandstone in the San Juan structural basin, New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, and Utah (United States)

    Dam, William L.; Kernodle, J.M.; Thorn, C.R.; Levings, G.W.; Craigg, S.D.


    This report is one in a series resulting from the U.S. Geological Survey's Regional Aquifer System Analysis (RASA) study of the San Juan structural basin that began in October 1984. The purposes of the study (Welder, 1986) are to: (1) Define and evaluate the aquifer system; (2) assess the effects of past, present, and potential ground-water use on aquifers and streams, and (3) determine the availability and quality of ground water. Previous reports in this series describe the hydrogeology of the Dakota Sandstone (Craigg and others, 1989), Gallup Sandstone (Kernodle and others, 1989), Morrison Formation (Dam and others, 1990), Point Lookout Sandstone (Craigg and others, 1990), Kirtland Shale and Fruitland Formation (Kernodle and others, 1990), Menefee Formation (Levings and others, 1990), Cliff House Sandstone (Thorn and others, 1990), and Ojo Alamo Sandstone (Thorn and others, 1990) in the San Juan structural basin. This report summarizes information on the geology and the occurrence and quality of water in the Pictured Cliffs Sandstone, one of the primary water-bearing units in the regional aquifer system. Data used in this report were collected during the RASA study or derived from existing records in the U.S. Geological Survey's computerized National Water Information System (NWIS) data base, the Petroleum Information Corporation's data base, and the Dwight's ENERGYDATA Inc. BRIN database. Although all data available for the Pictured Cliffs Sandstone were considered in formulating the discussions in the text, not all those data could be plotted on the illustrations. The San Juan structural basin in New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, and Utah has an area of about 21,600 square miles (fig. 1). The structural basin is about 140 miles wide and about 200 miles long. The study area is that part of the structural basin that contains rocks of Triassic and younger age; therefore, the study area is less extensive than the structural basin. Triassic through Tertiary

  15. Cooldown to residual heat removal entry conditions using atmospheric dump valves and auxiliary pressurizer spray following a loss-of-offsite power at Calvert Cliffs, Unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenks, R.P.


    An investigation of cooldown using atmospheric dump valves (ADVs) and auxiliary pressurizer spray (APS) following loss-of-offsite power at Calvert Cliffs-1 showed residual heat removal entry conditions could not be reached with the plant ADVs alone. Use of APS with the plant ADVs enhanced depressurization, but still provided insufficient cooldown. Effective cooldown and depressurization was shown to occur when rated steady state flow through the ADVs was increased by a factor of four. 6 refs., 30 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Occurrence of Morphological and Anatomical Adaptive Traits in Young and Adult Plants of the Rare Mediterranean Cliff Species Primula palinuri Petagna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica De Micco


    Full Text Available Cliffs worldwide are known to be reservoirs of relict biodiversity. Despite the presence of harsh abiotic conditions, large endemic floras live in such environments. Primula palinuri Petagna is a rare endemic plant species, surviving on cliff sites along a few kilometres of the Tyrrhenian coast in southern Italy. This species is declared at risk of extinction due to human impact on the coastal areas in question. Population surveys have shown that most of the plants are old individuals, while seedlings and plants at early stages of development are rare. We followed the growth of P. palinuri plants from seed germination to the adult phase and analysed the morphoanatomical traits of plants at all stages of development. Our results showed that the pressure of cliff environmental factors has been selected for seasonal habitus and structural adaptive traits in this species. The main morphoanatomical modifications are suberized cell layers and accumulation of phenolic compounds in cell structures. These features are strictly related to regulation of water uptake and storage as well as defence from predation. However, we found them well established only in adult plants and not in juvenile individuals. These findings contribute to explain the rare recruitment of the present relict populations, identifying some of the biological traits which result in species vulnerability.

  17. Occurrence of morphological and anatomical adaptive traits in young and adult plants of the rare Mediterranean cliff species Primula palinuri Petagna. (United States)

    De Micco, Veronica; Aronne, Giovanna


    Cliffs worldwide are known to be reservoirs of relict biodiversity. Despite the presence of harsh abiotic conditions, large endemic floras live in such environments. Primula palinuri Petagna is a rare endemic plant species, surviving on cliff sites along a few kilometres of the Tyrrhenian coast in southern Italy. This species is declared at risk of extinction due to human impact on the coastal areas in question. Population surveys have shown that most of the plants are old individuals, while seedlings and plants at early stages of development are rare. We followed the growth of P. palinuri plants from seed germination to the adult phase and analysed the morphoanatomical traits of plants at all stages of development. Our results showed that the pressure of cliff environmental factors has been selected for seasonal habitus and structural adaptive traits in this species. The main morphoanatomical modifications are suberized cell layers and accumulation of phenolic compounds in cell structures. These features are strictly related to regulation of water uptake and storage as well as defence from predation. However, we found them well established only in adult plants and not in juvenile individuals. These findings contribute to explain the rare recruitment of the present relict populations, identifying some of the biological traits which result in species vulnerability.

  18. Think crisis-think female: the glass cliff and contextual variation in the think manager-think male stereotype. (United States)

    Ryan, Michelle K; Haslam, S Alexander; Hersby, Mette D; Bongiorno, Renata


    The "think manager-think male" (TMTM) association underlies many gender inequalities in the workplace. However, research into the "glass cliff" has demonstrated that the suitability of male and female managers varies as a function of company performance such that in times of poor performance people may "think female" (Ryan & Haslam, 2005, 2007). Three studies examined gender and managerial stereotypes in the context of companies that are doing well or doing badly. Study 1 reproduced TMTM associations for descriptions of managers of successful companies but demonstrated a reversal for managers of unsuccessful companies. Study 2 examined the prescriptive nature of these stereotypes. No TMTM relationship was found for ideal managers of successful companies, but ideal managers of unsuccessful companies were associated with the female stereotype. Study 3 suggested that women may be favored in times of poor performance, not because they are expected to improve the situation, but because they are seen to be good people managers and can take the blame for organizational failure. Together, the studies illustrate the importance of context as a moderator of the TMTM association. Practical and theoretical implications for gender discrimination in the workplace are discussed.

  19. Rock cliffs hazard analysis based on remote geostructural surveys: The Campione del Garda case study (Lake Garda, Northern Italy) (United States)

    Ferrero, A. M.; Migliazza, M.; Roncella, R.; Segalini, A.


    The town of Campione del Garda (located on the west coast of Lake Garda) and its access road have been historically subject to rockfall phenomena with risk for public security in several areas of the coast. This paper presents a study devoted to the determination of risk for coastal cliffs and the design of mitigation measures. Our study was based on statistical rockfall analysis performed with a commercial code and on stability analysis of rock slopes based on the key block method. Hazard from block kinematics and rock-slope failure are coupled by applying the Rockfall Hazard Assessment Procedure (RHAP). Because of the huge dimensions of the slope, its morphology and the geostructural survey were particularly complicated and demanding. For these reasons, noncontact measurement methods, based on aerial photogrammetry by helicopter, were adopted. A special software program, developed by the authors, was applied for discontinuity identification and for their orientation measurements. The potentially of aerial photogrammetic survey in rock mechanic application and its improvement in the rock mass knowledge is analysed in the article.

  20. Cliffs versus plains: Can ROSINA/COPS and OSIRIS data of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in autumn 2014 constrain inhomogeneous outgassing? (United States)

    Marschall, R.; Mottola, S.; Su, C. C.; Liao, Y.; Rubin, M.; Wu, J. S.; Thomas, N.; Altwegg, K.; Sierks, H.; Ip, W.-H.; Keller, H. U.; Knollenberg, J.; Kührt, E.; Lai, I. L.; Skorov, Y.; Jorda, L.; Preusker, F.; Scholten, F.; Vincent, J.-B.; Osiris Team; Rosina Team


    Context. This paper describes the modelling of gas and dust data acquired in the period August to October 2014 from the European Space Agency's Rosetta spacecraft when it was in close proximity to the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Aims: With our 3D gas and dust comae models this work attempts to test the hypothesis that cliff activity on comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko can solely account for the local gas density data observed by the Rosetta Orbiter Spectrometer for Ion and Neutral Analysis (ROSINA) and the dust brightnesses seen by the Optical, Spectroscopic, and Infrared Remote Imaging System (OSIRIS) in the considered time span. Methods: The model uses a previously developed shape model of the nucleus. From this, the water sublimation rates and gas temperatures at the surface are computed. The gas expansion is modelled with a 3D Direct Simulation Monte Carlo algorithm. A dust drag algorithm is then used to compute dust volume number densities in the coma, which are then converted to brightnesses using Mie theory and a line-of-sight integration. Furthermore we have studied the impact of topographic re-radiation on the models. Results: We show that gas activity from only cliff areas produces a fit to the ROSINA/COPS data that is as statistically good as a purely insolation-driven model. In contrast, pure cliff activity does not reproduce the dust brightness observed by OSIRIS and can thus be ruled out. On the other hand, gas activity from the Hapi region in addition to cliff activity produces a statistically better fit to the ROSINA/COPS data than purely insolation-driven outgassing and also fits the OSIRIS observations rather well. We found that topographic re-radiation does not contribute significantly to the sublimation behaviour of H2O but plays an important role in how the gas flux interacts with the irregular shape of the nucleus. Conclusions: We demonstrate that fits to the observations are non-unique. We can conclude however that gas and dust

  1. Hydrogeology of the Cliff House Sandstone in the San Juan structural basin, New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona and Utah (United States)

    Thorn, Conde R.; Levings, G.W.; Craigg, S.D.; Dam, W.L.; Kernodle, J.M.


    This report is one in a series resulting from the U.S. Geological Survey's Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (RASA) study of the San Juan structural basin that began in October 1984. Previous reports in the series describe the hydrogeology of the Dakota Sandstone (Craigg and others, 1989), Point Lookout Sandstone (Craigg and others, 1990), Morrison Formation (Dam and others, 1990), Gallup Sandstone (Kernodle and others, 1989), and Menefee Formation (Levings and others, 1990) in the San Juan structural basin. The purposes of the RASA (Welder, 1986) are to: (1) Define and evaluate the aquifer system; (2) assess the effects of past, present, and potential ground-water use on aquifers and streams; and (3) determine the availability and quality of ground water. This report summarizes information on the geology and the occurrence and quality of water in the Cliff House Sandstone, one of the primary water-bearing units in the regional aquifer system. Data used in this report were collected during the study or were derived from existing records in the U.S. Geological Survey's computerized National Water Information System (NWIS) data base, the Petroleum Information Corporation's data base, and the Dwight's ENERGYDATA Inc. BRIN data base. Although all data available for the Cliff House Sandstone were considered in formulating the discussions in the text, not all those data could be plotted on the illustrations. The San Juan structural basin is in New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, and Utah and has an area of about 21,600 square miles (fig. 1). The structural basin is about 140 miles wide and about 200 miles long. The study area is that part of the structural basin that contains rocks of Triassic or younger age and, therefore, is less extensive than the structural basin. Triassic through Tertiary sedimentary rocks are emphasized in this study because the major aquifers in the basin are present in these rocks. The study area is about 140 miles wide (about the same as the

  2. Integration of ambient seismic noise monitoring, displacement and meteorological measurements to infer the temperature-controlled long-term evolution of a complex prone-to-fall cliff (United States)

    Colombero, C.; Baillet, L.; Comina, C.; Jongmans, D.; Larose, E.; Valentin, J.; Vinciguerra, S.


    Monitoring the temporal evolution of resonance frequencies and velocity changes detected from ambient seismic noise recordings can help in recognizing reversible and irreversible modifications within unstable rock volumes. With this aim, the long-term ambient seismic noise data set acquired at the potentially unstable cliff of Madonna delSasso (NW Italian Alps) was analysed in this study, using both spectral analysis and cross-correlation techniques. Noise results were integrated and compared with direct displacement measurements and meteorological data, to understand the long-term evolution of the cliff. No irreversible modifications in the stability of the site were detected over the monitored period. Conversely, daily and seasonal air temperature fluctuations were found to control resonance frequency values, amplitudes and directivities and to induce reversible velocity changes within the fractured rock mass. The immediate modification in the noise parameters due to temperature fluctuations was interpreted as the result of rock mass thermal expansion and contraction, inducing variations in the contact stiffness along the fractures isolating two unstable compartments. Differences with previous case studies were highlighted in the long-term evolution of noise spectral amplitudes and directivities, due to the complex 3-D fracture setting of the site and to the combined effects of the two unstable compartments.

  3. Long-term benthic monitoring programs near the Morgantown and Calvert Cliffs power plants - third annual report. Volume 1. Text. Annual report, July 1982-June 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, A.F.; Hiegel, M.H.; Shaughnessy, A.T.; Stroup, C.F.; Ross, E.A.


    Macrobenthos and physical/chemical factors known to affect their abundance were monitored near the Calvert Cliffs nuclear power plant on the mainstem of the Chesapeake Bay between 1971 and 1982. These data, along with data collected near the Morgantown power plant on the Potomac between 1980 and 1983, were used to quantify the variation in macrobenthos due to natural spatial patterns, seasonal dynamics, year-to-year fluctuations in abundance, and power plant operations, as well as to determine if long-term trends in populations or communities occurred. Macrobenthic community structure was persistent over the 11 years within bounds determined chiefly by year-to-year variation in salinity and dissolved oxygen concentration. Most of the species responded to changes in salinity by predictable increases or decreases in abundance

  4. Long-term benthic monitoring programs near the Morgantown and Calvert Cliffs power plants - third annual report. Volume 2. Appendices. Annual report, July 1982-June 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, A.F.; Hiegel, M.H.; Shaughnessy, A.T.; Stroup, C.F.; Ross, E.A.


    Macrobenthos and physical/chemical factors known to affect their abundance were monitored near the Calvert Cliffs nuclear power plant on the mainstem of the Chesapeake Bay between 1971 and 1982. These data, along with data collected near the Morgantown power plant on the Potomac between 1980 and 1983, were used to quantify the variation in macrobenthos due to natural spatial patterns, seasonal dynamics, year-to-year fluctuations in abundance, and power plant operations, as well as to determine if long-term trends in populations or communities occurred. Macrobenthic community structure was persistent over the 11 years within bounds determined chiefly by year-to-year variation in salinity and dissolved oxygen concentration. Most of the species responded to changes in salinity by predictable increases or decreases in abundance

  5. Anatomy of extremely thin marine sequences landward of a passive-margin hinge zone: Neogene Calvert Cliffs succession, Maryland, U.S.A.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kidwell, S.M. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Geophysical Sciences


    Detailed examination of Neogene strata in cliffs 25--35 m high along the western shore of Chesapeake Bay, Maryland, reveals the complexity of the surviving record of siliciclastic sequences {approximately}150 km inland of the structural hinge zone of the Atlantic passive margin. Previous study of the lower to middle Miocene Calvert (Plum Point Member) and Choptank Formations documented a series of third-order sequences 7--10 m thick in which lowstand deposits are entirely lacking, transgressive tracts comprise a mosaic of condensed bioclastic facies, and regressive (highstand) tracts are present but partially truncated by the next sequence boundary; smaller-scale (fourth-order) cyclic units could not be resolved. Together, these sequences constitute the transgressive and early highstand tracts of a larger (second-order Miocene) composite sequence. The present paper documents stratigraphic relations higher in the Calvert Cliffs succession, including the upper Miocene St. Marys Formation, which represents late highstand marine deposits of the Miocene second-order sequence, and younger Neogene fluvial and tidal-inlet deposits representing incised-valley deposits of the succeeding second-order cycle. The St. Marys Formation consists of a series of tabular units 2--5 m thick, each with an exclusively transgressive array of facies and bounded by stranding surfaces of abrupt shallowing. These units, which are opposite to the flooding-surface-bounded regressive facies arrays of model parasequences, are best characterized as shaved sequences in which only the transgressive tract survives, and are stacked into larger transgressive, highstand, and forced-regression sets.

  6. Knickpoint formation, rapid propagation, and landscape response following coastal cliff retreat at last-interglacial sea-level highstand: Kaua'i, Hawai'i (United States)

    Lamb, Michael; Mackey, Ben; Scheingross, Joel; Farley, Ken


    The propagation of knickpoints through a landscape is recognized as a highly efficient mechanism of channel incision, and exerts a first-order control in communicating changes in base level throughout a landscape. However, few settings allow reconstruction of the long-term rate of knickpoint retreat. Here, we use cosmogenic 3He exposure dating of olivine within basalt to document the retreat rate of a waterfall in Ka'ula'ula Valley, a small catchment on the Na Pali coast of Kaua'i, Hawai'i. We constrained the exposure age of 18 features (in-channel boulders, stable boulders on terraces, and in-channel bedrock) along the length of the channel that allow us to discriminate between models of knickpoint propagation. Cosmogenic exposure ages are oldest near the coast (120 ka) and systematically decrease with upstream distance towards the waterfall (waterfall has migrated 4 km up valley over the past 120 ka at an average rate of 33 mm/yr. Steady-state vertical erosion appears to dominate upstream of the waterfall, where the channel has incised ~100 m into the original surface of the shield volcano. Our results indicate the lateral rate of knickpoint retreat exceeds rates of vertical channel incision by three orders of magnitude, and that knickpoints may be the primary driver of relief generation in Hawaiian catchments. Submarine landslides have been proposed as the cause of knickpoints in Kaua'i streams; however, the bathymetry off the northwest Kaua'i coast lacks evidence for large submarine flank collapse. Alternatively, we propose substantial cliff erosion during the last interglacial sea-level highstand generated a waterfall at the coast, which has subsequently propagated inland. Superimposing Kaua'i's subsidence history and Pleistocene sea level fluctuations indicate that the only time waves could have eroded cliffs at Ka'ula'ula Valley's entrance over the past 1.5 Ma was during the last interglacial, ~130-120 ka. Knickpoint generation during sea level high stands

  7. FIB preparation of a NiO Wedge-Lamella and STEM X-ray microanalysis for the determination of the experimental k(O-Ni) Cliff-Lorimer coefficient. (United States)

    Armigliato, Aldo; Frabboni, Stefano; Gazzadi, Gian Carlo; Rosa, Rodolfo


    A method for the fabrication of a wedge-shaped thin NiO lamella by focused ion beam is reported. The starting sample is an oxidized bulk single crystalline, oriented, Ni commercial standard. The lamella is employed for the determination, by analytical electron microscopy at 200 kV of the experimental k(O-Ni) Cliff-Lorimer (G. Cliff & G.W. Lorimer, J Microsc 103, 203-207, 1975) coefficient, according to the extrapolation method by Van Cappellen (E. Van Cappellen, Microsc Microstruct Microanal 1, 1-22, 1990). The result thus obtained is compared to the theoretical k(O-Ni) values either implemented into the commercial software for X-ray microanalysis quantification of the scanning transmission electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectrometry equipment or calculated by the Monte Carlo method. Significant differences among the three values are found. This confirms that for a reliable quantification of binary alloys containing light elements, the choice of the Cliff-Lorimer coefficients is crucial and experimental values are recommended.

  8. Honeycomb development on Alexander Island, glacial history of George VI Sound and palaeoclimatic implications (Two Step Cliffs/Mars Oasis, W Antarctica) (United States)

    André, Marie-Françoise; Hall, Kevin


    Analysis of three generations of glacial deposits and of a range of geomorphic features including widespread honeycombs and tafonis at Two Step Cliffs/Mars Oasis (71°52‧S, 68°15‧W) provides new insights into the geomorphological evolution of West Antarctica, with special respect to alveolar weathering. At Two Step Terrace, indicators of the inherited character of cavernous weathering were found, such as 97% non-flaking and varnished backwalls, and 80% tafoni floors that are till-covered and/or sealed by lithobiontic coatings. Based on the NE predominant aspect of the alveolized boulder faces, tafoni initiation is attributed to coastal salt spray weathering by halite coming from the George VI Sound during the 6.5 ka BP open water period. The present-day activity of these inherited cavities is restricted to roof flaking attributed to a combination of processes involving thermal stresses. This 6.5 ka BP phase of coastal alveolization is the first step of a six-stage Holocene geomorphological scenario that includes alternatively phases of glacial advance or stationing, and phases of vegetal colonization and/or rock weathering and aeolian abrasion on the deglaciated outcrops. This geomorphic scenario is tentatively correlated with the available palaeoenvironmental record in the Antarctic Peninsula region, with two potential geomorphic indicators of the Holocene Optimum being identified: (1) clusters of centimetric honeycombs facing the sound (marine optimum at 6.5 ka BP); (2) salmon-pink lithobiontic coatings preserved inside cavities and at the boulder surface (terrestrial optimum at 4 3 ka BP).

  9. River response to climate and sea level changes during the Late Saalian/Early Eemian in northern Poland – a case study of meandering river deposits in the Chłapowo cliff section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moskalewicz Damian


    Full Text Available Fluvial sediments in the Chłapowo cliff section were studied in order to reconstruct their palaeoflow conditions and stratigraphical position. Lithofacies, textural and palaeohydraulic analyses as well as luminescence dating were performed so as to achieve the aim of study. Sedimentary successions were identified as a record of point bar cycles. The fluvial environment probably functioned during the latest Saalian, shortly after the retreat of the Scandinavian Ice Sheet. Discharge outflow was directed to the northwest. The river used the older fluvioglacial valley and probably was directly connected to the Eem Sea. Good preservation and strong aggradation of point-bar cycles were related to a rapid relative base level rise. The meandering river sediments recognised showed responses to climate and sea level changes as illustrated by stratigraphical, morphological and sedimentological features of the strata described. The present study also revealed several insights into proper interpretation of meandering fluvial successions, in which the most important were: specific lithofacies assemblage of GSt (St, Sp → Sl → SFrc → Fm (SFr and related architectural elements: channel/sandy bedforms CH/SB → lateral accretion deposits LA → floodplain fines with crevasse splays FF (CS; upward-fining grain size and decreasing content of denser heavy minerals; estimated low-energy flow regime with a mean depth of 1.6–3.3 m, a Froude number of 0.2–0.4 and a sinuosity of 1.5.

  10. Observations of debris flows at Chalk Cliffs, Colorado, USA: Part 1, in-situ measurements of flow dynamics, tracer particle movement and video imagery from the summer of 2009 (United States)

    McCoy, Scott W.; Coe, Jeffrey A.; Kean, Jason W.; Tucker, Greg E.; Staley, Dennis M.; Wasklewicz, Thad A.


    Debris flows initiated by surface-water runoff during short duration, moderate- to high-intensity rainfall are common in steep, rocky, and sparsely vegetated terrain. Yet large uncertainties remain about the potential for a flow to grow through entrainment of loose debris, which make formulation of accurate mechanical models of debris-flow routing difficult. Using a combination of in situ measurements of debris flow dynamics, video imagery, tracer rocks implanted with passive integrated transponders (PIT) and pre- and post-flow 2-cm resolution digital terrain models (terrain data presented in a companion paper by STALEY et alii, 2011), we investigated the entrainment and transport response of debris flows at Chalk Cliffs, CO, USA. Four monitored events during the summer of 2009 all initiated from surface-water runoff, generally less than an hour after the first measurable rain. Despite reach-scale morphology that remained relatively constant, the four flow events displayed a range of responses, from long-runout flows that entrained significant amounts of channel sediment and dammed the main-stem river, to smaller, short-runout flows that were primarily depositional in the upper basin. Tracer-rock travel-distance distributions for these events were bimodal; particles either remained immobile or they travelled the entire length of the catchment. The long-runout, large-entrainment flow differed from the other smaller flows by the following controlling factors: peak 10-minute rain intensity; duration of significant flow in the channel; and to a lesser extent, peak surge depth and velocity. Our growing database of natural debris-flow events can be used to develop linkages between observed debris-flow transport and entrainment responses and the controlling rainstorm characteristics and flow properties.

  11. Uranium enrichment: heading for a cliff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, C.


    Thanks to drastic cost cutting in the past 2 years, US enrichment plants now have the lowest cost production in the world, but US prices are still higher than those of overseas competitors because the business is paying for past mistakes. The most serious difficulty is that the Department of Energy (DOE), which owns and operates the US enrichment enterprise, is paying more than $500 million a year to the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for electricity it once thought it would need but no longer requires. Another is that billions of dollars were spent in the 1970s and early 1980s to build new capacity that is now not needed. As a result, the enrichment enterprise has accumulated a debt to the US Treasury that the General Accounting Office (GAO) estimates at $8.8 billion. This paper presents the background and current debate in Congress about the difficulties facing the enrichment industry. In the midst of this debate over the future of the enterprise, the development of the next generation of enrichment technology is being placed in jeopardy. Known as atomic vapor laser isotope separation, or AVLIS, the process was viewed as the key to the long-term competitiveness of US enrichment. As the federal deficit mounted, however, funding for the AVLIS program was cut back and the timetable was stretched out. The US enrichment program has reached the point at which Congress will be forced to make some politically difficult decisions

  12. Funding Survival Toolkit: 3 Fiscal Cliff Myths, Debunked (United States)

    House, Jenny


    In the face of annual budget deficits, sequestration means automatic, across-the-board spending cuts to all federal agencies. This drastic step allows Congress to limit the size of the budget and gives it the right to make mandatory cuts if the cost of running the government exceeds the cap. On March 1, we all watched as Congress was unable to…

  13. Specificity of learning: why infants fall over a veritable cliff. (United States)

    Adolph, K E


    Nine-month-old infants were tested at the precipice of safe and risky gaps in the surface of support. Their reaching and avoidance responses were compared in two postures, an experienced sitting posture and a less familiar crawling posture. The babies avoided reaching over risky gaps in the sitting posture but fell into risky gaps while attempting to reach in the crawling posture. This dissociation between developmental changes in posture suggests that (a) each postural milestone represents a different, modularly organized control system and (b) infants' adaptive avoidance responses are based on information about their postural stability relative to the gap size. Moreover, the results belie previous accounts suggesting that avoidance of a disparity in depth of the ground surface depends on general knowledge such as fear of heights, associations between depth information and falling, or knowledge that the body cannot be supported in empty space.

  14. Uncovering activity cliff generators using distribution of SALI values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L. Medina-Franco


    Full Text Available Los acantilados de actividad se definen como compuestos con alta similitud estructural, pero también con altadiferencia en potencia. Estos compuestos tienen un impacto significativo en la optimización de líderes en químicamedicinal y en aplicaciones computacionales, como el desarrollo de modelos predictivos y en la selección demoléculas de referencia en búsquedas basadas en similitud molecular. Por lo tanto, es de gran relevancia laidentificación de compuestos altamente asociados con los acantilados como por ejemplo los “generadores deacantilados de actividad”. En este trabajo se reportan la identificación de acantilados de actividad y las relacionesestructura-actividad de un grupo de 289 compuestos obtenidos por síntesis química que han sido evaluados a travésde una proteína quinasa reguladora de receptores acoplados a proteínas-G. Para considerar la información demúltiples representaciones estructurales, se empleó el promedio del índice SALI (Structure-Activity Landscape Indexy se discuten también fragmentos estructurales responsables de la actividad biológica.

  15. Nickel, copper and cobalt coalescence in copper cliff converter slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf A.


    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation is to assess the effect of various additives on coalescence of nickel, copper and cobalt from slags generated during nickel extraction. The analyzed fluxes were silica and lime while examined reductants were pig iron, ferrosilicon and copper-silicon compound. Slag was settled at the different holding temperatures for various times in conditions that simulated the industrial environment. The newly formed matte and slag were characterized by their chemical composition and morphology. Silica flux generated higher partition coefficients for nickel and copper than the addition of lime. Additives used as reducing agents had higher valuable metal recovery rates and corresponding partition coefficients than fluxes. Microstructural studies showed that slag formed after adding reductants consisted of primarily fayalite, with some minute traces of magnetite as the secondary phase. Addition of 5 wt% of pig iron, ferrosilicon and copper-silicon alloys favored the formation of a metallized matte which increased Cu, Ni and Co recoveries. Addition of copper-silicon alloys with low silicon content was efficient in copper recovery but coalescence of the other metals was low. Slag treated with the ferrosilicon facilitated the highest cobalt recovery while copper-silicon alloys with silicon content above 10 wt% resulted in high coalescence of nickel and copper, 87 % and 72 % respectively.

  16. Conservation status and community structure of cliff-nesting raptors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nesting raptor and raven populations resident in the mountains of the Cape Peninsula, South Africa. We also assess the conservation value of these populations to inform the future management of the newly-established Table Mountain National ...

  17. Geophysical monitoring of coastal erosion and cliff retreat of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Monitoring of the coastal zone is necessary to assess its vulnerability and help formulate coastal management plans. A predetermined stretch of beach along the northern rim of False Bay known locally as Monwabisi Beach was chosen to compare different monitoring techniques and from the data acquired, see if accurate ...

  18. Geophysical monitoring of coastal erosion and cliff retreat of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    affected by deep ocean swells generated from the southwest and south ... system where a GPS antenna height is used to define the shape of shore perpendicular transects. In ... data from these devices were acquired and processed using Qinsy and Fledermaus software. .... long period swells with a shallow wave base.

  19. Wind farms threaten southern Africa's cliff-nesting vultures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    active selection for ridge tops and upper slopes), and that both species generally fly at heights within the rotor-sweep of a typical, modern wind turbine. We constructed a population viability model using actual population data from the area presently ...

  20. The retirement cliff: Power plant lives and their policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rode, David C.; Fischbeck, Paul S.; Páez, Antonio R.


    This paper examines more than a century of U.S. power plant additions and retirements in conjunction with several decades of utility capital investment data. While policy analyses often invoke assumptions of power plant book life, relatively little analysis has focused on the physical life of power-generating assets. The average age of the U.S. generator fleet has increased significantly over time despite continued investment, in part because more recent investment has tended to focus on shorter-lived assets. This may be due in part to risk-averse power sector investors and lenders responding rationally to regulatory uncertainty in a deregulated market environment. Power plant retirement trends suggest that the pace of retirements will increase significantly in the decade after 2030 for most reasonable estimates of physical life. These capital investment trends have important consequences for carbon policy and highlight the importance of including consideration of the longer term—particularly when evaluating more significant decarbonization policies. - Highlights: • Many policy analyses neglect the physical lives of power plants. • A large database of U.S. power plant additions and retirements is examined. • The average age of power plants has steadily increased despite growing investment. • Long-term CO 2 reduction strategies are challenged by increases in plant retirements.

  1. From Red Cliffs to Chosin: The Chinese Way of War (United States)


    Thinking, (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2004), 1. 30 Thomas Cleary, trans., The Essential Tao: An Initiation into the Heart of Taoism Through...oversight methods that enabled fuller use of the land and greater food production, expanded industry and trade, and more effective conscription and...and trans. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1976. Cleary, Thomas, trans. The Essential Tao: An Initiation into the Heart of Taoism Through

  2. 76 FR 39908 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2... (United States)


    ... electronic submission through the NRC E-filing system. Requests for a hearing and petitions for leave to... participating under 10 CFR 2.315(c), must be filed in accordance with the NRC E-Filing rule (72 FR 49139, August 28, 2007). The E-Filing process requires participants to submit and serve all adjudicatory documents...

  3. 76 FR 4391 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC, Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2... (United States)


    ... rate of energy release, hydrogen generation, and cladding oxidation from the metal/water reaction shall... uranium oxide pellets within cylindrical zircaloy or ZIRLO cladding must be provided with an emergency... fuel design consists of low enriched uranium oxide fuel within M5 zirconium alloy cladding. Since the...

  4. 77 FR 47121 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and 2... (United States)


    ... for Nuclear Power Plant Personnel,'' endorses the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) report NEI 06-11...(c)(25). Pursuant to 10 CFR 51.22(b), no environmental impact statement or environmental assessment... hereafter in effect. The facility consists of two pressurized-water reactors (PWRs) located in Calvert...

  5. Stability analysis of waterfall cliff face at Niagara Falls: An implication to erosional mechanism of waterfall


    Hayakawa, Yuichi S.; Matsukura, Yukinori


    Although recession of waterfalls or knickpoints in bedrock rivers is a common geomorphological process, detailed mechanics of waterfall recession has only been examined in a few cases. Caprock recession model at Niagara Falls, in which gravitational collapse of caprock induced by undercutting notch plays a significant role, has been one of the well-known models describing the waterfall erosion, but the validity of the model has hardly been examined in a quantitative context. Here we assess th...

  6. Devonian lacustrine shore zone architecture: giving perspective to cliff exposures with ground penetrating radar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrews, Steven D.; Moreau, Julien; Archer, Stuart

    . Some of these may have occurr­­­ed subaqueously as small scale turbidity flows. High resolution fluctuations in lake level resulted in periodic short lived reworking events along the lake margin which produced amalgamated sands which formed low relief bars. Shore zone reworking is likely to have...

  7. Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and 2. Annual operating report: January--December 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Unit 1 successfully completed its first core cycle with unit availability of 95.2 percent. Saltwater leakage into the condenser continues to be a problem. Unit 2 achieved initial criticality November 30 and was initially paralleled to the Baltimore system on December 7. Information is presented concerning operations, specifications, maintenance, shutdowns and power reduction, and personnel exposures

  8. 76 FR 22935 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation; Notice of... (United States)


    ... accordance with the NRC E-Filing rule (72 FR 49139, August 28, 2007). The E-Filing process requires... requirements of E-Filing, at least ten (10) days prior to the filing deadline, the participant should contact... may attempt to use other software not listed on the Web site, but should note that the NRC's E-Filing...

  9. 75 FR 60147 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation; Notice of... (United States)


    ... NRC E-Filing rule, which the NRC promulgated on August 28, 2007 (72 FR 49139). All documents filed in... submission of a request for hearing or petition to intervene, must be filed in accordance with the E-Filing rule. The E-Filing rule requires participants to submit and serve all adjudicatory documents over the...

  10. Proterozoic microbial reef complexes and associated hydrothermal mineralizations in the Banfora Cliffs, Burkina Faso (United States)

    Álvaro, J. Javier; Vizcaïno, Daniel


    The Proterozoic Guena-Souroukoundinga Formation of the Mopti arm (Gourma Aulacogen, southerm Taoudeni Basin) consists of a shale-dominated succession, up to 200 m thick, with scattered microbial reef complexes. Quarry exposures of the Tiara reef complex allow reconstruction of a transect across back-reef peritidal laminites, reef margin and peri-reef ooidal shoals, and fore-reef slope strata. Microbial carbonate productivity nucleated on isolated palaeohighs during transgression, whereas its end was controlled by two tectonically induced drowning pulses that led to the successive record of onlapping kerogenous limestones and pelagic shales. Reef carbonates are crosscut by fractures and fissures occluded by hydrothermal mineralizations, which are related to the rifting activity of the Gourma Aulacogen. The Tiara reef complex is similar to other Proterozoic reefs in being composed nearly entirely of stromatolites, although calcimicrobial (filamentous) and thromboid textures are locally abundant, which contrast with their scarcity or absence in coeval stable-platform microbial reefs of the northern Taoudeni Basin.

  11. The Road to Bribery and Corruption : Slippery Slope or Steep Cliff?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Köbis, Nils C.; van Prooijen, Jan Willem; Righetti, Francesca; Van Lange, Paul A.M.


    Major forms of corruption constitute a strong threat to the functioning of societies. The most frequent explanation of how severe corruption emerges is the slippery-slope metaphor—the notion that corruption occurs gradually. While having widespread theoretical and intuitive appeal, this notion has

  12. Low-level dry active waste management planning for Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, C.N.; Feizollani, F.; Jarboe, Th.B.


    To offset the rising cost of low-level radioactive waste disposal and to provide contingency measures for disposal space unavailability after January 1, 1986, Baltimore Gas and Electric (BG and E) has undertake efforts to establish a long-term waste management program. This plan, which was developed after detailed study of a number of options, consists of four elements: management of dry active wastes; implementation of 10CFR61 requirements; storage of process wastes; and enhancement of liquid/solid waste systems and equipment performance. Each element was scheduled for implementation in accordance with an established set of priorities. Accordingly, detailed engineering for implementation of the first two elements was initiated in December of 1982. This paper focuses on BGandE's experience in implementation of the first element o the program, i.e., the management of dry active waste (DAW). DAW is managed by providing a new buildin dedicated to its handling, processing, volume-reduction, and storage. This building, which is equipped with state-of-the-art decontamination and processing techniques, allows for implementation of waste minimization and for interim storage of DAW in a safe and cost effective manner

  13. Recent Atmospheric Deposition and its Effects on Sandstone Cliffs in Bohemian Switzerland National Park, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vařilová, Z.; Navrátil, Tomáš; Dobešová, Irena


    Roč. 220, 1/4 (2011), s. 117-130 ISSN 0049-6979 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : acid deposition * sandstone percolates * chemical weathering * salt efflorescence * Black Triangle * aluminum * sulfates Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 1.625, year: 2011

  14. Radiation exposure management systems at Baltimore Gas and Electric's Clavert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stallings, G.B.


    This paper documents how BGE has moved from traditional passive dosimetry methods to using the latest electronic systems supported by fully computerized access control and dose record management. One of the cornerstones of these developments is the Electronic Personal Dosemeter (EPD), manufactured by Siemens in the UK. (author)

  15. Ensemble estimates reveal a complex hydroclimatic sensitivity of pine growth at Carpathian cliff sites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Büntgen, U.; Kaczka, R. J.; Trnka, Miroslav; Rigling, A.


    Roč. 160, July 2012 (2012), s. 100-109 ISSN 0168-1923 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.4.31.0056 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : climate variability * dendroclimatology * dendroecology * drought * Tatra Mountains * Tree rings Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.421, year: 2012

  16. Beyond the cliff of creativity: a novel key to Bipolar Disorder and creativity. (United States)

    Ricciardiello, Luciana; Fornaro, Pantaleo


    How brain processes translate into creativity is still an unsolved puzzle in science. Although a number of conceptual models of creativity has been proposed to date, the exact nature of the process is still unknown. Recent findings support the idea that creativity may reside upon a continuum with psychopathology. If creativity is meant as "the capability of generating novel and appropriate ideas to solve problems", the missing pieces of the puzzle might be nested in the link between creativity and Bipolar Disorder. The existence of such a link is widely accepted by the Scientific Community. What still remains unknown is the nature of this link. An unconventional perspective is adopted during the investigation. Starting from the observation that depression in Bipolar Disorder might possibly trace back to ancient survival strategies in extreme climatic conditions - i.e. hibernation - the paper analyses old and recent findings in different disciplines: paleo-anthropology, information technology, neurobiology. Hints from the related research fields are linked together. The unified framework that emerges, still as a set of hypotheses, is reported in the conclusions. A novel key of interpretation of both creativity and Bipolar Disorder is thus provided. The core result is that normal people, creative individuals and patients affected by Bipolar Disorder share the same mind mechanism for problem-solving. The mechanism consists of two specific components, which are described in detail in the paper. Dysfunctions in brain myelination, making signal interference possible, hold a big role. The conclusions of the paper are in agreement with reports by patients affected by Bipolar Disorder concerning their subjective experience during mania, which is traditionally described as prone to creativity. To make readers aware of such an experience, a synthesis was elaborated by the first author, in the unusual shape of a short story. The short story is the narrative version of a real diary of a real patient, tutored by the second author. The short story is available to readers on request. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Beyond the Glass Ceiling : The Glass Cliff and Its Lessons for Organizational Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruckmueller, Susanne; Ryan, Michelle K.; Rink, Floor; Haslam, S. Alexander

    It has been almost 30 years since the metaphor of the glass ceiling was coined to describe the often subtle, but very real, barriers that women face as they try to climb the organizational hierarchy. Here we review evidence for a relatively new form of gender discriminationcaptured by the metaphor

  18. New Techniques for Monitoring and Analyzing the Stability of Steep Cliffs against Rock Falls


    Fujii, Yoshiaki; Maeda, S; Sugawara, T; Kodama, N; Miyashita, N


    Mechanisms of joint opening leading to the formation of unstable rock blocks, such as thermal deformation, water-mineral reaction, pore pressure, freeze-thaw cycle, intrusion of wood roots etc. have been more or less clarified; however, the triggering mechanisms of rock falls remain to be elucidated. The problems which prevent the understanding of the mechanisms are (1) difficulty in installation of sensors to very unstable rock blocks, (2) thermoelastic deformation of sensors and attachments...

  19. Limestone cliff - face and cave use by wild ring-tailed lemurs ( Lemur ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... FP Cuozzo, IA Youssouf Jacky, KD Fish, M LaFleur, LAL Ravelohasindrazana, JF Ravoavy ... This work is documenting newly discovered behaviors by this species. ... variation and increasing threats to this endangered primate species.

  20. Seeing the History of the Earth in the Cliffs at Møn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedin, Gry


    During the first part of the nineteenth century, geologists developed a history of the earth so different from that accepted in previous centuries that it encouraged a rethinking of the relationship between man and nature. In this article I will argue that painters followed these changes closely ...

  1. Modeling the evolution of natural cliffs subject to weathering. 1, Limit analysis approach


    Utili, Stefano; Crosta, Giovanni B.


    Retrogressive landsliding evolution of natural slopes subjected to weathering has been modeled by assuming Mohr-Coulomb material behavior and by using an analytical method. The case of weathering-limited slope conditions, with complete erosion of the accumulated debris, has been modeled. The limit analysis upper-bound method is used to study slope instability induced by a homogeneous decrease of material strength in space and time. The only assumption required in the model concerns the degree...

  2. Coastal archaeological heritage in relation to geomorphology of cliffs, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mascarenhas, A.

    plateau, steep seaward slopes, sparse vegetation, sandy beach on sea side and rocky base on river side, a latcnte peninsula Undulating plateau, abrupt gradients, pre- Cambnan quartzites and dolerite dykes found at the base Rlver bank, latente slopes... Minor erosion along open sea Loose boulders indicate presence of erosion (Tiracol estuary) Eros~on nohced along rocky river bank (Chapora estuary) Intense wave activity proved by sea arches, caves and terraces Riverine regime Eroslve activity...

  3. Quantitative study of a rapidly weathering overhang developed in an artificially wetted sandstone cliff

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bruthans, J.; Filippi, Michal; Schweigstillová, Jana; Řihošek, J.


    Roč. 42, č. 5 (2017), s. 711-723 ISSN 0197-9337 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-28040S Institutional support: RVO:67985831 ; RVO:67985891 Keywords : sandstone overhang * retreat * frost weathering * erosion rate * stress Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy; DB - Geology ; Mineralogy (USMH-B) OBOR OECD: Geology; Geology (USMH-B) Impact factor: 3.697, year: 2016

  4. The Graduation Cliff: Improving the Post-School Outcomes of Students with Disabilities. Summary Report (United States)

    McFadden, Erica Skogebo; Daugherty, David B.; Lee, Sang Eun; Fisher, Kim W.; Hack, Anthony; Spyra, Ed


    There is a federal movement to improve student outcomes targeting some of these predictors in several recently launched initiatives, but where does Arizona stand? What are we currently doing to move the needle, and what do we still need to do? This report prepared for the Arizona Developmental Disabilities Planning Council has two objectives: (1)…

  5. The Graduation Cliff: Improving the Post-School Outcomes of Students with Disabilities (United States)

    McFadden, Erica Skogebo; Daugherty, David B.; Lee, Sang Eun; Fisher, Kim W.; Hack, Anthony


    There is a federal movement to improve student outcomes targeting some of these predictors in several recently launched initiatives, but where does Arizona stand? What are we currently doing to move the needle, and what do we still need to do? This report prepared for the Arizona Developmental Disabilities Planning Council has two objectives: (1)…

  6. Patent cliff and strategic switch: exploring strategic design possibilities in the pharmaceutical industry. (United States)

    Song, Chie Hoon; Han, Jeung-Whan


    Extending the period of the market exclusivity and responding properly to the recent agglomeration of patent expiries are pivotal to the success of pharmaceutical companies. Declining R&D productivity, rising costs of commercialization, near-term patent expirations for many top-selling drugs are forcing companies to adopt new systems to introduce innovative products to market and to focus on strategies that increase the returns from the existing product portfolio. This systematic review explores various strategic and tactical management approaches by synthesizing the relevant literature and practical examples on patent expiration strategies. It further discusses how the mix of competition policies and strategic instruments can be used to maintain declining revenue streams from the blockbuster business model of the pharmaceutical industry. The review provides a comprehensive overview of the research on various strategies, offers both theoretical and practical guidelines for strategy transformation that companies can use to prolong the market exclusivity, and identifies knowledge gaps that needed to be addressed in order to improve efficiency in policy design.

  7. A Better State of War: Surmounting the Ethical Cliff in Cyber Warfare (United States)


    humanistic , interpersonal context. The report states “The cyberspace environment that we seek rewards innovation and empowers individuals; it connects...considerations are secondary to existential threats. When disagreements arise, international norms and laws establish guiding principles for the

  8. The Road to Bribery and Corruption: Slippery Slope or Steep Cliff?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Köbis, N.C.; van Prooijen, J.W.; Righetti, F.; Van Lange, P.A.M.

    Major forms of corruption constitute a strong threat to the functioning of societies. The most frequent explanation of how severe corruption emerges is the slippery-slope metaphor—the notion that corruption occurs gradually. While having widespread theoretical and intuitive appeal, this notion has

  9. Patent cliff and strategic switch: exploring strategic design possibilities in the pharmaceutical industry


    Song, Chie Hoon; Han, Jeung-Whan


    Extending the period of the market exclusivity and responding properly to the recent agglomeration of patent expiries are pivotal to the success of pharmaceutical companies. Declining R&D productivity, rising costs of commercialization, near-term patent expirations for many top-selling drugs are forcing companies to adopt new systems to introduce innovative products to market and to focus on strategies that increase the returns from the existing product portfolio. This systematic review explo...

  10. Paluel: the production of James Bay on the Cliffs of the Pays de Caux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fridman, G.


    The main characteristics concerning the confinement enclosure, the reactor vessel, the fuel used, the primary pumps, the steam generator and the first 1300 MW turbogenerator are reviewed; some comparisons with the 900 MW reactors are made. The design of the cooling system constitutes one of the original features of the installations. A glimpse of the work site, the largest in the world at the present time, is given. Concurrently, the EDF is preparing the infrastructures for training the operational personnel of the new 1300 MW unit. The Paluel site is one of the first where the procedure called''large site'' has been applied in order to build in good time the equipment making it possible to provide the site workers and their families with living conditions as close as possible to those of the remainder of the population. To conclude the question of the investment is tackled. By the end of 1985, the 5200 MW of Paluel (4 units of 1300 MW) will be generating from 30 to 35 billion kWh, as much as James bay [fr

  11. Rationalization of Activity Cliffs of a Sulfonamide Inhibitor of DNA Methyltransferases with Induced-Fit Docking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L. Medina-Franco


    Full Text Available Inhibitors of human DNA methyltransferases (DNMT are of increasing interest to develop novel epi-drugs for the treatment of cancer and other diseases. As the number of compounds with reported DNMT inhibition is increasing, molecular docking is shedding light to elucidate their mechanism of action and further interpret structure–activity relationships. Herein, we present a structure-based rationalization of the activity of SW155246, a distinct sulfonamide compound recently reported as an inhibitor of human DNMT1 obtained from high-throughput screening. We used flexible and induce-fit docking to develop a binding model of SW155246 with a crystallographic structure of human DNMT1. Results were in excellent agreement with experimental information providing a three-dimensional structural interpretation of ‘activity cliffs’, e.g., analogues of SW155246 with a high structural similarity to the sulfonamide compound, but with no activity in the enzymatic assay.

  12. Variation and diversity of spider assemblages along a thermal gradient in scree slopes and adjacent cliffs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Růžička, Vlastimil; Zacharda, Miloslav


    Roč. 58, č. 2 (2010), s. 361-369 ISSN 1505-2249 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/06/1236 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508; CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : biodiversity * microclimate * rock wall Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.542, year: 2010

  13. Confessions of a Communications Junkie: Cliff Notes From the Science-Practice Interface (United States)

    Moser, S. C.


    Graduate education in the sciences is - among other things - about learning a foreign language. Proficiency in disciplinary jargon and a strange sort of eloquence in speaking English without being understood by anyone outside one's small 'country of expertise' are among the requirements for entry into academe. Until very recently, the ability to translate one's quirky knowledge back into common language was not part of entraining scientists. Yet, increasingly, the interested public, policy-makers and resource managers, not to speak of science funders, demand that scientists illustrate that their science has societal relevance. Moreover, the urgency of several complex societal and environmental problems puts the onus on scientists to work with experts in other disciplines. This means that the ability to communicate effectively with those outside one's own disciplinary home is rapidly becoming an essential qualification of a 'good' scientist. My own journey from a disciplinary boundary crosser, to hobby communicator, to professional translator of science into English, to alumnae of various media trainings and Aldo Leopold Leadership Fellow, to researcher of the science-practice interface and expert in communication for social change will form the basis of this talk. It weaves together personal experience with scientific insights on why scientists should, why many don't, and how they could interact more effectively with members of a 'different tribe.'

  14. A Fiscal Cliff: The Current U.S. Federal Budget, Potential Cuts, and Impacts on Science Funding (United States)

    Uhlenbrock, K. M.; Landau, E. A.; Hankin, E. R.


    As lawmakers on Capitol Hill face challenges to reach an agreement on how to cut the deficit while growing the economy, scientists must join the discussion and outline the serious impacts cuts to federal science programs will have on our society. Consistent and sustained federal science funding (discretionary spending) is an ever increasing struggle with the rising costs of mandatory spending and decrease in revenues. In 2011 Congress passed the Budget Control Act, which will require automatic across-the-board cuts, known as sequestration, and will take effect on 2 January 2013. Estimated cuts of $1.2 trillion and discretionary spending caps set at Fiscal Year 2012 levels will trigger non-defense program cuts of 9.8% in the first year as reported by the Congressional Research Service. Funding from non-defense program agencies such as NSF, NASA, DOE, NOAA, USGS, and others drive science and technological innovation, support public safety, create jobs, educate generations of scientists, stimulate the economy, protect our environment, and enrich lives. With non-defense discretionary programs representing less than one-fifth of the federal budget, severe cuts to these programs will not alleviate our deficit, but instead restrict our growth.

  15. Kindia (Pavetteae, Rubiaceae, a new cliff-dwelling genus with chemically profiled colleter exudate from Mt Gangan, Republic of Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Cheek


    Full Text Available A new genus Kindia (Pavetteae, Rubiaceae is described with a single species, Kindia gangan, based on collections made in 2016 during botanical exploration of Mt Gangan, Kindia, Republic of Guinea in West Africa. The Mt Gangan area is known for its many endemic species including the only native non-neotropical Bromeliaceae Pitcairnia feliciana. Kindia is the fourth endemic vascular plant genus to be described from Guinea. Based on chloroplast sequence data, the genus is part of Clade II of tribe Pavetteae. In this clade, it is sister to Leptactina sensu lato (including Coleactina and Dictyandra. K. gangan is distinguished from Leptactina s.l. by the combination of the following characters: its epilithic habit; several-flowered axillary inflorescences; distinct calyx tube as long as the lobes; a infundibular-campanulate corolla tube with narrow proximal section widening abruptly to the broad distal section; presence of a dense hair band near base of the corolla tube; anthers and style deeply included, reaching about mid-height of the corolla tube; anthers lacking connective appendages and with sub-basal insertion; pollen type 1; pollen presenter (style head winged and glabrous (smooth and usually hairy in Leptactina; orange colleters producing a vivid red exudate, which encircle the hypanthium, and occur inside the calyx and stipules. Kindia is a subshrub that appears restricted to bare, vertical rock faces of sandstone. Fruit dispersal and pollination by bats is postulated. Here, it is assessed as Endangered EN D1 using the 2012 IUCN standard. High resolution LC-MS/MS analysis revealed over 40 triterpenoid compounds in the colleter exudate, including those assigned to the cycloartane class. Triterpenoids are of interest for their diverse chemical structures, varied biological activities, and potential therapeutic value.

  16. A Cliff Hanger: How America's Public Schools Continue to Feel the Impact of the Economic Downturn. Report of Findings (United States)

    Ellerson, Noelle M.


    This study is the seventh in a series of studies conducted by the American Association of School Administrators on the impact of the economic downturn on schools. AASA launched the series in fall 2008 in response to state budget shortfalls, federal buy-outs and interventions, and a series of additional events characterizing a slowing, stagnant…

  17. 3-D Surface Visualization of pH Titration "Topos": Equivalence Point Cliffs, Dilution Ramps, and Buffer Plateaus (United States)

    Smith, Garon C.; Hossain, Md Mainul; MacCarthy, Patrick


    3-D topographic surfaces ("topos") can be generated to visualize how pH behaves during titration and dilution procedures. The surfaces are constructed by plotting computed pH values above a composition grid with volume of base added in one direction and overall system dilution on the other. What emerge are surface features that…

  18. Are fractured cliffs the source of cometary dust jets? Insights from OSIRIS/Rosetta at 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko


    Vincent J. B.; Oklay N.; Pajola M.; Hoefner S.; Sierks H.; Hu X.; Barbieri C.; Lamy P. L.; Rodrigo R.; Koschny D.; Rickman H.; Keller H. U.; A'Hearn M. F.; Barucci M. A.; Bertaux J. L.


    Dust jets, i.e. fuzzy collimated streams of cometary material arising from the nucleus, have been observed in-situ on all comets since the Giotto mission flew by comet 1P/Halley in 1986. Yet their formation mechanism remains unknown. Several solutions have been proposed, from localized physical mechanisms on the surface/sub-surface (see review in Belton (2010)) to purely dynamical processes involving the focusing of gas flows by the local topography (Crifo et al. 2002). While the latter seems...

  19. Confronting Decision Cliffs: Diagnostic Assessment of Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithms' Performance for Addressing Uncertain Environmental Thresholds (United States)

    Ward, V. L.; Singh, R.; Reed, P. M.; Keller, K.


    As water resources problems typically involve several stakeholders with conflicting objectives, multi-objective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs) are now key tools for understanding management tradeoffs. Given the growing complexity of water planning problems, it is important to establish if an algorithm can consistently perform well on a given class of problems. This knowledge allows the decision analyst to focus on eliciting and evaluating appropriate problem formulations. This study proposes a multi-objective adaptation of the classic environmental economics "Lake Problem" as a computationally simple but mathematically challenging MOEA benchmarking problem. The lake problem abstracts a fictional town on a lake which hopes to maximize its economic benefit without degrading the lake's water quality to a eutrophic (polluted) state through excessive phosphorus loading. The problem poses the challenge of maintaining economic activity while confronting the uncertainty of potentially crossing a nonlinear and potentially irreversible pollution threshold beyond which the lake is eutrophic. Objectives for optimization are maximizing economic benefit from lake pollution, maximizing water quality, maximizing the reliability of remaining below the environmental threshold, and minimizing the probability that the town will have to drastically change pollution policies in any given year. The multi-objective formulation incorporates uncertainty with a stochastic phosphorus inflow abstracting non-point source pollution. We performed comprehensive diagnostics using 6 algorithms: Borg, MOEAD, eMOEA, eNSGAII, GDE3, and NSGAII to ascertain their controllability, reliability, efficiency, and effectiveness. The lake problem abstracts elements of many current water resources and climate related management applications where there is the potential for crossing irreversible, nonlinear thresholds. We show that many modern MOEAs can fail on this test problem, indicating its suitability as a useful and nontrivial benchmarking problem.

  20. 78 FR 49292 - Northshore Mining Company, a Subsidiary of Cliffs Natural Resources, Including On-Site Leased... (United States)


    ... Gang Staffing Babbitt, Minnesota; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker... the subject firm. New information from the company shows that workers at the Babbitt, Minnesota... taconite pellets. The Silver Bay, Minnesota and the Babbitt, Minnesota locations experienced worker...

  1. 77 FR 1748 - Atomic Safety and Licensing Board; Calvert Cliffs 3 Nuclear Project, LLC, and UniStar Nuclear... (United States)


    ... under represents potential contributions of wind and solar power, the combination alternative depends... Judge Ronald M. Spritzer, Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Panel, Mail Stop T-3F23, U.S. Nuclear..., Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Panel, Mail Stop T-3F23, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Fax: (301...

  2. Habitone analysis of quaking aspen in the Utah Book Cliffs: Effects of site water demand and conifer cover (United States)

    Joseph O. Sexton; R. Douglas Ramsey; Dale L. Bartos


    Quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) is the most widely distributed tree species in North America, but its presence is declining across much of the Western United States. Aspen decline is complex, but results largely from two factors widely divergent in temporal scale: (1) Holocene climatic drying of the region has led to water limitation of aspen seedling...

  3. Glass Cliffs, Queen Bees, and the Snow-Woman Effect: Persistent Barriers to Women's Leadership in the Academy (United States)

    Pasquerella, Lynn; Clauss-Ehlers, Caroline S.


    By outlining some of the familiar and persistent barriers to women's leadership at the highest administrative levels within colleges and universities, the authors want to open a conversation about how to accelerate the type of change embodied by Ronald Takaki's notion of a "different mirror." Developing this notion, Takaki asks,…

  4. Sequence and facies architecture of the upper Blackhawk Formation and the Lower Castlegate Sandstone (Upper Cretaceous), Book Cliffs, Utah, USA (United States)

    Yoshida, S.


    High-frequency stratigraphic sequences that comprise the Desert Member of the Blackhawk Formation, the Lower Castlegate Sandstone, and the Buck Tongue in the Green River area of Utah display changes in sequence architecture from marine deposits to marginal marine deposits to an entirely nonmarine section. Facies and sequence architecture differ above and below the regionally extensive Castlegate sequence boundary, which separates two low-frequency (106-year cyclicity) sequences. Below this surface, high-frequency sequences are identified and interpreted as comprising the highstand systems tract of the low-frequency Blackhawk sequence. Each high-frequency sequence has a local incised valley system on top of the wave-dominated delta, and coastal plain to shallow marine deposits are preserved. Above the Castlegate sequence boundary, in contrast, a regionally extensive sheet sandstone of fluvial to estuarine origin with laterally continuous internal erosional surfaces occurs. These deposits above the Castlegate sequence boundary are interpreted as the late lowstand to early transgressive systems tracts of the low-frequency Castlegate sequence. The base-level changes that generated both the low- and high-frequency sequences are attributed to crustal response to fluctuations in compressive intraplate stress on two different time scales. The low-frequency stratigraphic sequences are attributed to changes in the long-term regional subsidence rate and regional tilting of foreland basin fill. High-frequency sequences probably reflect the response of anisotropic basement to tectonism. Sequence architecture changes rapidly across the faulted margin of the underlying Paleozoic Paradox Basin. The high-frequency sequences are deeply eroded and stack above the Paradox Basin, but display less relief and become conformable updip. These features indicate that the area above the Paradox Basin was more prone to vertical structural movements during formation of the Blackhawk-Lower Castlegate succession.

  5. Knickpoint formation and landscape response following coastal cliff retreat at last-interglacial sea-level highstand: Kaua';i, Hawai';i (Invited) (United States)

    Lamb, M. P.; Mackey, B. H.; Farley, K. A.; Scheingross, J. S.


    The upstream propagation of knickpoints is an important mechanism for channel incision and communicates changes in climate, sea level and tectonics throughout a landscape. Here, we use cosmogenic 3He exposure dating to document the retreat rate of a waterfall in Ka'ula'ula Valley, Kaua';i, Hawai';i, an often-used site for knickpoint-erosion modeling. Exposure ages of terraces are oldest near the coast (120 ka) and systematically decrease with upstream distance towards the waterfall (waterfall migrated 4 km over the past 120 ka at an average rate of 33 mm/yr. Upstream of the knickpoint, cosmogenic nuclide concentrations in channel are approximately uniform and indicate steady-state vertical erosion at a rate of ~0.03 mm/yr. Field observations and topographic analyses suggest that waterfall retreat is dominated by block toppling, with sediment transport below the waterfall actively occurring by debris flows. Knickpoint initiation was previously attributed to a submarine landslide ca. 4 Ma; however, our dating results, bathymetric analysis, and landscape-evolution modeling support knickpoint generation by wave-induced seacliff erosion during the last interglacial sea-level high stand. We illustrate that knickpoint generation during sea-level high stands, as opposed to the typical case of sea-level fall, is an important relief-generating mechanism on steep coasts with stable or subsiding coasts, and likely drives transient pulses of significant source-to-sink sediment flux.

  6. 13th Annual Conference on the Foundations of Nanoscience (FNANO 2016) Held in Snowbird Cliff Lodge, Snowbird, Utah, April 11-14, 2016 (United States)


    DNA origami behaviour under tension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194 Megan Engel, Flavio Romano, Thomas Ouldridge, Ard Louis and...Fig. 2d) and a narrow distribution of conductances (Fig. 2e; mean of 1.62 ± 0.09 nS, n = 100). The pore is also ohmic in behaviour (Supplementary Fig...oxidizer couples, Al/CuO is particularly interesting because of its high potential energy, tunable reactivity, its ability to produce gas at high

  7. Stratigraphic cross section of measured sections and drill holes of the Neslan Formation and adjacent formations, Book Cliffs Area, Colorado and Utah (United States)

    Kirshbaum, Mark A.; Spear, Brianne D.


    This study updates a stratigraphic cross section published as plate 2 in Kirschbaum and Hettinger (2004) Digital Data Series 69-G ( The datum is a marine/tidal ravinement surface within the Cozzette Sandstone Member of the Iles Formation and the Thompson Canyon Sandstone and Sulphur Canyon Sandstone Beds of the Neslen Formation. One of the cores shown was included on the original cross section, and new core descriptions have been added to the upper part of the cored interval. A new core description (S178) is included in this report. Cores are stored in the U.S. Geological Survey Core Research Facility at the Denver Federal Center, Colorado. The following information has also been added to help define the stratigraphic framework: 1) At least five claystones interpreted as altered volcanic ashes have been identified and may give future workers a correlation tool within the largely continental section. 2) Thickness and general geometry of the Sego Sandstone, Buck Tongue of the Mancos Shale, and Castlegate Sandstone have been added to provide additional stratigraphic context. 3) The geometry in the Sego Sandstone, Buck Tongue of the Mancos Shale, and Castlegate Sandstone has been added to provide additional stratigraphic context. 4) Ammonite collections are from Gill and Hail. The zone of Didymoceras nebrascense projected into the East Salt Wash area is based on correlation of the flooding surface at the base of the Cozzette Member to this point as shown in Kirschbaum and Hettinger. 5) A leaf locality of the Denver Museum of Nature and Science is shown in its approximate stratigraphic position near Thompson Canyon. 6) A dinosaur locality of the Natural History Museum of Utah is shown in the Horse Canyon area measured section at the stratigraphic position where it was extracted.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin YAŞAR


    Full Text Available Kiralık Konak is the work of Yakup Kadri in which he intensively deals with westernization phenomenon. In the work, the destruction that the phenomenon causes in the society and family is attributed to the mansion of Naim Efendi, who symbolizes the tradition and the oldness, and Seniha‟s personality, who represents “malicious European style”. The way that European cultural values, which begin to affect the country with the Ottoman Reform Movement, are reflected to the protagonist Seniha and her friends are remarkable. Seniha is the 1920s version of the European style types who misunderstand the westernization. A lot of studies have been conducted on analysis of Seniha‟s actions. In this study, rather than the analysis, the reasons that have driven the heroine to have a European style have been examined in detail and holistic conclusions have been reached. Kiralık Konak, Yakup Kadri‟nin batılılaşma olgusunu en yoğun olarak işlediği yapıtıdır. Yapıtta bu olgunun toplumda ve ailede oluşturduğu yıkıntı, geleneği ve eskiyi temsil eden Naim Efendi‟nin konağına ve „hain alafrangalık‟ı simgeleyen Seniha‟nın şahsınaindirgenir. Tanzimat ile beraber ülkeye girmeye başlayan Avrupai kültür göstergelerinin romanın protagonisti Seniha‟nın ve arkadaş çevresine yansıma biçimi dikkatlere sunulur. Seniha, batılılaşmayı yanlış algılayan alafranga tiplerin bin dokuz yüz yirmilerdeki sürümüdür. Seniha‟nın edimlerinin tespitine yönelik birçok araştırma yapılmıştır. Bu çalışmada, tespitten öte kahramanı „alafrangalılık‟a iten sebepler detaylı bir biçimde irdelenerek bütünsel sonuçlara varılmıştır.

  9. Mineral resource potential map of the Vermilion Cliffs-Paria Canyon instant study area, Coconino County, Arizona, and Kane County, Utah (United States)

    Bush, Alfred L.; Lane, Michael


    In general, the mineral potential of the study area is low; in the past the area has yielded only several hundred tons of uranium ore, and there have been a number of unsuccessful efforts to produce gold.

  10. March 2003 Lidar Point Data of Southern California Coastline: Dana Point to Point La Jolla (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains lidar point data (Geodetic Coordinates) from a strip of Southern California coastline (including water, beach, cliffs, and top of cliffs) from...

  11. April 2004 Lidar Point Data of Southern California Coastline: Dana Point to Point La Jolla (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains lidar point data (Geodetic Coordinates) from a strip of Southern California coastline (including water, beach, cliffs, and top of cliffs) from...

  12. October 2005 Lidar Point Data of Southern California Coastline: Long Beach to US/Mexican Border (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains lidar point data (UTM, Zone 11) from a strip of Southern California coastline (including water, beach, cliffs, and top of cliffs) from Long...

  13. December 2002 Lidar Point Data of Southern California Coastline: Dana Point to Point La Jolla (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains lidar point data (latitude and longitude) from a strip of Southern California coastline (including water, beach, cliffs, and top of cliffs)...

  14. April 2005 Lidar Point Data of Southern California Coastline: Long Beach to US/Mexican Border (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains lidar point data (latitude/longitude) from a strip of Southern California coastline (including water, beach, cliffs, and top of cliffs) from...

  15. October 2003 Lidar Point Data of Southern California Coastline: Newport Beach to US/Mexican Border (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains lidar point data (Geodetic Coordinates) from a strip of Southern California coastline (including water, beach, cliffs, and top of cliffs) from...

  16. March 2006 Lidar Point Data of Southern California Coastline: Long Beach to US/Mexican Border (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains lidar point data (Geodetic Coordinates) from a strip of Southern California coastline (including water, beach, cliffs, and top of cliffs) from...

  17. September 2004 Lidar Point Data of Southern California Coastline: Long Beach to US/Mexican Border (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains lidar point data (Geodetic Coordinates) from a strip of Southern California coastline (including water, beach, cliffs, and top of cliffs) from...

  18. May 2002 Lidar Point Data of Southern California Coastline: Dana Point to Point La Jolla (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains lidar point data from a strip of Southern California coastline (including water, beach, cliffs, and top of cliffs) from Dana Point to Point La...

  19. September 2002 Lidar Point Data of Southern California Coastline: Dana Point to Point La Jolla (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains lidar point data from a strip of Southern California coastline (including water, beach, cliffs, and top of cliffs) from Dana Point to Point La...

  20. Lithological responses to sea erosion along selected coastlines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mabel Anim

    This makes it vulnerable to all forms of natural hazards such as landslides, ... The SCAPE model of cliff retreat and cliff-top recession which has been linked to a new flexible GIS ..... ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry & Remote Sensing,.

  1. 76 FR 14060 - Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Indian Affairs... (United States)


    ... rooms, 10 grinding bins, a tower, and toeholds), archeological context, dendrochronology, and a physical... on architectural features (cliff dwelling), archeological context, dendrochronology, and a physical...

  2. ARACMO: Advanced Regolith Anchoring for Cable-assisted Mobility, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To enable future robotic exploration systems to have greater mobility capabilities on difficult terrain such as craters, cliffs, gullies, and skylights, Tethers...

  3. Sample of Artistic Description of Sapiential Warfare——Discussion about the artistic description of sapiential warfare in The War of the Red Cliff%智斗艺术描写的典范——谈"赤壁之战"的智斗艺术描写

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)




  4. An analysis of bones and other materials collected by Cape Vultures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We compared bones and non-faunal items collected by Cape Vultures at the Blouberg and Kransberg colonies. Bones from the base of the nesting cliffs were on average longer than those from the crops and stomachs of birds. Bones from the Blouberg cliff base were on average shorter than those from the Kransberg.

  5. Measuring Information Glut: Applying Systems Thinking to the Problem of E-mail Overload (United States)


    136 Albert Bandura , Social Learning Theory (Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1977), 22. 137... Bandura , Albert . Social Learning Theory. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1977. Bessler, Manuel. Civil...Infoglut,” 16. 32 David S Alberts , John J Garstka, and Frederick P. Stein, Network Centric Warfare: Developing and Leveraging Information Superiority

  6. CrossTalk: The Journal of Defense Software Engineering. Volume 21, Number 1 (United States)


    Javascript, PHP, Atlas) are indeed popular tools of today for Web applications. Such languages have all the pedagogical defaults that we ascribe to to a cliff. He wants to stand on the edge of the cliff and catch any kids who fall over. In my version of this fantasy, I see infor- mation

  7. Social resources at a time of crisis : How gender stereotypes inform gendered leader evaluations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rink, Floor; Ryan, Michelle K.; Stoker, Janka I.

    Research suggests that women are more likely than men to be selected for leadership positions when organizations are in a performance crisis, a phenomenon labeled the glass cliff. Two scenario studies demonstrate that the glass-cliff effect is attenuated when organizational stakeholders support the

  8. Wolfcampian brachiopods from the Bird Spring Group, Wamp Spring area, Las Vegas Range, Clark County, Nevada ( USA). (United States)

    Mills, P.C.; Langenheim, R.L.


    The Wamp Spring section of the Bird Spring Group is subdivided into a basal platy limestone member, lower cliff-forming member, and upper cliff-forming member. Triticites, Schwagerina, and Schubertella kingi in the platy limestone member indicate an early Wolfcampian age. Schwagerina, Schubertella kingi, and a distinctive assemblage of brachiopods, similar to the West Texas fauna, indicate that the upper cliff-forming member is late Wolfcampian. The lower cliff-forming member is tentatively assigned to the middle Wolfcampian. The Wamp Spring sequence correlates temporally with the BSe 'formation' of the Bird Spring Group. The fossil-rich upper cliff-forming limestone member includes the new species Pontisia boodi, Crurithyris wampensis, and Calliprotonia(?) n. sp. A, as well as Hustedia culcitula, Crenispirifer(?) sp., Cenorhynchia(?) sp., Kutorginella(?) sp., marginiferids, lyssacine hexactinellid sponges, pleurotomarid and bellerophontid gastropods, cidaroid echinoids, rugose corals, cylindrical cryptostome bryozoans, and nuculids. -from Authors

  9. E-book Trial Using Handheld Devices Yields Mixed Reactions from Public Library Staff and Users in Essex County, UK. A review of: Dearnley, James, Cliff McKnight, and Anne Morris. “Electronic Book Usage in Public Libraries: A Study of User and Staff Reactions to a PDA-based Collection.” Journal of Librarianship and Information Science 36.4 (December 2004: 175‐82.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Hall


    Full Text Available Objective - To assess e-book delivery on handheld devices provided to public library patrons, particularly housebound or visually impaired patrons and the users of a mobile library. Design - Product trial with a post-trial questionnaire for patrons and a post-trial focus group discussion among participating library staff. Setting - Mid-to-large size public library system in the United Kingdom. Subjects - 23 patrons participated; the number of library staff participating is not identified. Although the target population initially identified was housebound people, patrons reliant on the mobile library, and visually impaired people, the project team determined that it did not have sufficient funds to upgrade the PDAs to be compatible woth their preferred software for the visually impaired, and therefore this group was eliminated from the study. Lack of funds was also cited as a factor in the team being unable to provide assistive technology for those users suffering from arthritis, though this group was not excluded from the study. Just over half the patrons were aged 60+, and more than half were female. Two patrons self-identified as housebound. Methods - e-books were downloaded onto Hewlett Packard iPAQ 1910 Pdas by library staff and were loaned to participants between Janualry and April 2004. Although the authors of the study state that "creating staff champions was an important objective in this project" (p.176, it is unclear whether staff were screened for positive attitude towards e-Books. Prior to the trial, staff members were provided with training and orientation, and participants were asked for their font sna d reading preferences. Suport for participating patrons was available from staff or via an accompanying user manual, e-mail, or telephone help line. In a questionnaire adminsitered following the trial, participants were asked to respond to questions on the functionality of the handheld devices and e-book formats, positive and negative reactions to reading from the devices, and differences in the reading experience using the PDA as oopsed to a book. A group discussion with p[articipating library staff was held in April of 2004. The feedback from both groups was compared. Main results - Patrons: The devices were generally found to be usable, with a few exceptions; one patron with arthritis had difficulty operating the device and another developed hand cramps. Positive reactions regarding the vovelty of using the devices, portability (the ability to store several books on one small device and readability (the ability to customize font size and to read in low light conditions were offset by frustration with low battery life, small screen size, limits on usage (i.e. not to be used in the bath, difficulty paging back and forth ('getting lost on the iPAQ', and the inferior sensation of using a PDA as opposed to the 'tactile' quantity of books. In addtion, some patrons voiced fears that e-books might supplant paper books and libraries themselves. In all, thirteen patrons indicated that the e-books had some advantages over books, while eighteen found that there were aspects of using e-books that they disliked compared to books. Staff: The staff shared some concerns with the users, identifying portability as a strength and low battery life (including the need to reformat devices after batteries ran out as a weakness. In addition, some staff felt that some patrons preferred e-book format for books on sensitive topcs, as they provided more privacy in borrowing. Other staff concerns included the potential for users loading other software on the devices and the (presumably in the case of a full roll-out where users would download their own e-books from home lack of a broadband connection for some users. Conclusions - This study should be read as a case study of a trial of the Adobe Book and Palm e-book formats in Hewlett Packard iPAQ 1910 Pdas amongst a small group pf public library (primarily mobile library patrons. While the findings generally indicated that both staff and users found the technology tooo problematic to be adopted, the trial was confined to hardware and software specified. Furthermore, since the sample surveyed was small and not randomly selected, it would be difficult to apply the study's findings to the larger population (exact number not specified in the study of housebound and mobile library users of the Essex County system. For those who are considering the introduction of similar technology in a public library setting, the final report on the larger project of which this study was a part is available on the British Library website:

  10. Plaadid / Heidi Purga

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Purga, Heidy, 1975-


    Uutest heliplaatidest Gwen Stefani "The Sweet Escape", Errors "How Clean Is Your Acid House?", Cliff Richard "Two's Company", Jay-Z "Kingdom Come", Incubus "Light Grenades", Pogo Kreiner & Vienna Sound Orchestra "E"Magic Flute", Freddie Cruger "Soul Search"

  11. 77 FR 23501 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Sheboygan County Historical Museum, Sheboygan, WI (United States)


    ... Community in the State of Minnesota; Red Cliff Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians of Wisconsin; Sac & Fox Nation of Missouri in Kansas and Nebraska; Sac & Fox Nation, Oklahoma; Sac & Fox Tribe of the...

  12. 76 FR 19078 - Energy Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment: Publication of the Petition for... (United States)


    ... projects because of the great advantages they offer. Thus, MEUS respectfully requests that DOE grant a... and GM. LG Electronics U.S.A., Inc., 1000 Sylvan Ave, Englewood Cliffs, NJ 07632, Attn: Johnson...

  13. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jul 16, 2016 ... inherited old distant memories generations after generations and will also leave .... mountains, deep cliffs and pleasing spring ... The vertical, horizontal, slant and cursive lines as well as metaphor and crypto processing are.

  14. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    May 15, 2016 ... magical, his detailed descriptions, cliff hangers, use of symbolisms and shifting .... translators and tutors . and was able to acquire the playwriting style of ... decent folks who had filled both government jobs and were popular ...

  15. Heliplaat ja jõulukuu kingikott / Immo Mihkelson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mihkelson, Immo, 1959-


    Jõulukingiks sobilikest heliplaatidest Rod Stewart "The Greatest American Songbook", Cliff Richard "Platinum Collection", Frank Sinatra "Duets and Duets II", Bryan Adams "Anthology", Savage GArden "Truly madly Completely", Dire Straits & Mark Knopfler "Private Investigations"

  16. The subantarctic Prince Edward Islands are globally important ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    (Vulnerable) has increased significantly, making Prince Edward Island equal with Marion Island as supporting ... 3 Marine & Coastal Management, Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism, ... breeding on inaccessible cliff areas were estimated by ...... Penguin Conservation Assessment and Management Plan.

  17. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MA Meÿer, PB Best, MD Anderson-Reade, G Cliff, SFJ Dudley, SP Kirkman ... in numbers of crowned cormorants in South Africa, with information on diet, Abstract ... boops along the Algerian coast (southwestern Mediterranean Sea), Abstract.

  18. Morphogenetic controls on the distribution of the littoral placers along central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gujar, A.R.

    in more fluvial erosion, however, overall sediment input is low due to the lithological variations along their courses. Headlands and plunging cliffs favour the sediment deposition by impeding the long shore drift and the sediments passing headlands enter...

  19. 78 FR 62529 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Agave... (United States)


    ... nutrient-rich, but only a small fraction of the total phosphate and potassium is readily available. These... seems to provide an ecological niche for A. eggersiana. Once the species gets established on cliff areas...

  20. 75 FR 65261 - Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act; Public Accommodation (United States)


    ... Condominium Ass'n, 2005 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 41601 (November 22, 2005) (condominium buildings may be covered as... characteristics normally associated with a hotel, motel, or inn); Thompson v. Sand Cliffs Owners Ass'n, Inc., 1998...

  1. 78 FR 64009 - Certain Optical Disc Drives, Components Thereof, and Products Containing the Same; Institution of... (United States)


    ... Cliffs, NJ 07632. Nintendo Co., Ltd., 11-1 Hokotate-cho, Kamitoba, Minami-ku, Kyoto 601- 8501, Japan. Nintendo of America, Inc., 4600 150th Avenue NE, Redmond, WA 98052- 5113. Panasonic Corp., 1006, Oaza...

  2. 78 FR 11677 - Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Apache-Sitgreaves... (United States)


    ..., and architecture indicate affiliation of Upland Mogollon sites with historic and present-day Puebloan... objects are present. Based on material culture, architecture, and site organization, Cosper Cliff Dwelling...

  3. Shores of the central west coast of India - a case study using remote sensing data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wagle, B.G.

    Geomorphological studies along the Central West Coast of India extending between Bombay to Goa, have been undertaken, using aerial photographs and LANDSAT imagery. Coastal features like active and abandoned cliffs, spits, bars, beach rock, beach...

  4. Process-response coastal-recession model and its application to the Holderness coast (UK); Modelo proceso-respuesta de recesion de acantilados por variacion del nivel del mar. Aplicacion en la Costa de Holderness (Reino Unido)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castedo, R.; Paredes, C.; Fernandez, M.; Vega, R. de la


    At the moment the development of predictive cliff-erosion models is limited from a geomorphologic perspective due to the complex interactions existing between coupled processes acting over wide scales of time and space. Current models incorporate a probabilistic framework in order to simulate coastal recession events or cliff failure and tend to assess the effects of climate change through changes in the mean sea lea level. According to this procedure, the resulting simulations of cliffs with different behaviours might produce identical annual retreat characteristics even if their potential response to changing environments may not be the same. Thus, a new process-response model is developed to incorporate the behavioural characteristics of cohesive clay coasts with a protective talus wedge under erosive processes. To this end, the model incorporates dynamic marine processes such as variations in mean sea level, tides and waves together with cliff evolution in the shape of erosion, cliff failure and the formation of foot talus deposits. Cliff erosion is calculated on the basis of sea-level changes, wave incidence, shore platform slope and the uniaxial compressive strength of the rock over each tidal cycle. After each cycle the geomechanical stability against topple movement of the cliff face is evaluated and in the event of failure, a talus wedge is formed. The model has been corroborated by an assessment of profile evolution at various locations along a rapidly retreating area on the coast of Holderness in the UK. The results represent an important step-forward in linking material properties to cliff recession processes and the subsequent long-term coastal response in the face of changing sea-level conditions. (Author) 72 refs.

  5. Historical Lessons to Avoid a Hollow Force (United States)


    cliff.” The fiscal cliff would have increased taxes by ending the temporary payroll tax cuts and rolled back the...Oaks, Calif: Sage Publications, 2006, 27. 63 Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, “William J. Clinton: Address Before a Joint Session of Congress on...34Bear any Burden? John F. Kennedy and Nuclear Weapons." Sage Public Administration Abstracts 26, no. 3 (1999). Naval War College (U.S.). Strategy

  6. Foundations of Effective Influence Operations: A Framework for Enhancing Army Capabilities (United States)


    most useful analogues for understanding how marketing principles can benefit influence operations. Case Study of Influence in advertising and Marketing ...1998, pp. 167–197. Kotler , Philip, Marketing Management: Analysis, Planning, Implementation, and Control, 8th ed., Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice...York: W. W. Norton & Co., 1961. Lilien, Gary L., Philip Kotler , and K. Sridhar Moorthy, Marketing Models, Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1992

  7. Using Parametric Cost Models to Estimate Engineering and Installation Costs of Selected Electronic Communications Systems (United States)


    NC: SAS Institute Inc., 1991. 2. Horngren , Charles T. And George Foster. Cost Accounting : A Managerial Emphasis. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey...34 Office of the DoD Comptroller, Washington DC. 20. Horngren , Charles T. And George Foster. Cost Accounting : A Managerial Emphasis. Englewood Cliffs NJ...establish revolving funds as a means to more effectively control the cost of work performed by DoD support activities. In the 1950’ s and 1960’ s

  8. Efficacy of a Meal-Replacement Program for Promoting Blood Lipid Changes and Weight and Body Fat Loss in US Army Soldiers (United States)


    meal-replace- ent program (Slim-Fast Plan, Unilever , Englewood Cliffs, J) and were provided with all meal-replacement products nd snack bars (Slim-Fast...Optima, Unilever ). This group ill be referred to as “meal replacers” throughout the arti- le. Meal replacers were provided with calorie-controlled eal...snack bars (Slim-Fast Optima, Unilever , Englewood Cliffs, NJ).eficiencies in recording, including incomplete item de- t 70 February 2010 Volume 110 Number

  9. Zooming in and out: Scale dependence of extrinsic and intrinsic factors affecting salt marsh erosion (United States)

    Wang, Heng; van der Wal, Daphne; Li, Xiangyu; van Belzen, Jim; Herman, Peter M. J.; Hu, Zhan; Ge, Zhenming; Zhang, Liquan; Bouma, Tjeerd J.


    Salt marshes are valuable ecosystems that provide important ecosystem services. Given the global scale of marsh loss due to climate change and coastal squeeze, there is a pressing need to identify the critical extrinsic (wind exposure and foreshore morphology) and intrinsic factors (soil and vegetation properties) affecting the erosion of salt marsh edges. In this study, we quantified rates of cliff lateral retreat (i.e., the eroding edge of a salt marsh plateau) using a time series of aerial photographs taken over four salt marsh sites in the Westerschelde estuary, the Netherlands. In addition, we experimentally quantified the erodibility of sediment cores collected from the marsh edge of these four marshes using wave tanks. Our results revealed the following: (i) at the large scale, wind exposure and the presence of pioneer vegetation in front of the cliff were the key factors governing cliff retreat rates; (ii) at the intermediate scale, foreshore morphology was partially related to cliff retreat; (iii) at the local scale, the erodibility of the sediment itself at the marsh edge played a large role in determining the cliff retreat rate; and (iv) at the mesocosm scale, cliff erodibility was determined by soil properties and belowground root biomass. Thus, both extrinsic and intrinsic factors determined the fate of the salt marsh but at different scales. Our study highlights the importance of understanding the scale dependence of the factors driving the evolution of salt marsh landscapes.

  10. Coastal knickpoints and the competition between fluvial and wave-driven erosion on rocky coastlines (United States)

    Limber, Patrick; Barnard, Patrick


    Active margin coastlines are distinguished by rock erosion that acts in two different directions: waves erode the coast horizontally or landwards, a process that creates sea cliffs; and rivers and streams erode the landscape vertically via channel incision. The relative rates of each process exert a dominant control on coastline morphology. Using a model of river channel incision and sea-cliff retreat, we explore how terrestrial and marine erosion compete to shape coastal topography, and specifically what conditions encourage the development of coastal knickpoints (i.e., a river or stream channels that end at a raised sea-cliff edge). We then compare results to actual landscapes. Model results and observations show that coastal knickpoint development is strongly dependent on drainage basin area, where knickpoints typically occur in drainage basins smaller than 5 × 105–6 × 106 m2, as well as channel geometry and sea-cliff retreat rate. In our study area, coastal knickpoints with persistent flow (waterfalls) are uncommon and form only within a small morphological window when 1) drainage basin area is large enough to sustain steady stream discharge, but not large enough to out-compete sea-cliff formation, 2) sea-cliff retreat is rapid, and 3) channel concavity is low so that channel slopes at the coast are high. This particular geomorphic combination can sustain sea-cliff formation even when streams tap into larger drainage basins with greater discharge and more stream power, and provides an initial explanation of why persistent coastal waterfalls are, along many coastlines, relatively rare features.

  11. Coastal knickpoints and the competition between fluvial and wave-driven erosion on rocky coastlines (United States)

    Limber, Patrick W.; Barnard, Patrick L.


    Active margin coastlines are distinguished by rock erosion that acts in two different directions: waves erode the coast horizontally or landwards, a process that creates sea cliffs; and rivers and streams erode the landscape vertically via channel incision. The relative rates of each process exert a dominant control on coastline morphology. Using a model of river channel incision and sea-cliff retreat, we explore how terrestrial and marine erosion compete to shape coastal topography, and specifically what conditions encourage the development of coastal knickpoints (i.e., a river or stream channels that end at a raised sea-cliff edge). We then compare results to actual landscapes. Model results and observations show that coastal knickpoint development is strongly dependent on drainage basin area, where knickpoints typically occur in drainage basins smaller than 5 × 105-6 × 106 m2, as well as channel geometry and sea-cliff retreat rate. In our study area, coastal knickpoints with persistent flow (waterfalls) are uncommon and form only within a small morphological window when 1) drainage basin area is large enough to sustain steady stream discharge, but not large enough to out-compete sea-cliff formation, 2) sea-cliff retreat is rapid, and 3) channel concavity is low so that channel slopes at the coast are high. This particular geomorphic combination can sustain sea-cliff formation even when streams tap into larger drainage basins with greater discharge and more stream power, and provides an initial explanation of why persistent coastal waterfalls are, along many coastlines, relatively rare features.

  12. Conspecific reproductive success and breeding habitat selection: Implications for the study of coloniality (United States)

    Danchin, E.; Boulinier, T.; Massot, M.


    Habitat selection is a crucial process in the life cycle of animals because it can affect most components of fitness. It has been proposed that some animals cue on the reproductive success of conspecifics to select breeding habitats. We tested this hypothesis with demographic and behavioral data from a 17-yr study of the Black-legged Kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla), a cliff-nesting seabird. As the hypothesis assumes, the Black-legged Kittiwake nesting environment was patchy, and the relative quality of the different patches (i.e., breeding cliffs) varied in time. The average reproductive success of the breeders of a given cliff was predictable from one year to the next, but this predictability faded after several years. The dynamic nature of cliff quality in the long term is partly explained by the autocorrelation of the prevalence of an ectoparasite that influences reproductive success. As predicted by the performance-based conspecific attraction hypothesis, the reproductive success of current breeders on a given cliff was predictive of the reproductive success of new recruits on the cliff in the following year. Breeders tended to recruit to the previous year's most productive cliffs and to emigrate from the least productive ones. Consequently, the dynamics of breeder numbers on the cliffs were explained by local reproductive success on a year-to-year basis. Because, on average, young Black-legged Kittiwakes first breed when 4 yr old, such a relationship probably results from individual choices based on the assessment of previous-year local quality. When breeders changed breeding cliffs between years, they selected cliffs of per capita higher reproductive success. Furthermore, after accounting for the potential effects of age and sex as well as between-year variations, the effect of individual breeding performance on breeding dispersal was strongly influenced by the average reproductive success of other breeders on the same cliff. Individual breeding performance did

  13. Superstorms at the end of the Last Interglacial (MIS 5e)? Modeling paleo waves and the transport of giant boulders. (United States)

    Rovere, Alessio; Harris, Daniel; Casella, Elisa; Lorscheid, Thomas; Stocchi, Paolo; Nandasena, Napayalage; Sandstrom, Michael; D'Andrea, William; Dyer, Blake; Raymo, Maureen


    We present the results of high-resolution field surveys and wave models along the cliffs of the northern part of the Island of Eleuthera, Bahamas. Previous studies have proposed that cliff top mega-boulders were emplaced at the end of the Last Interglacial (MIS 5e, 128-116 ka) by giant swells caused by super-storms that find no counterpart in the Holocene (including historical times). Our results suggest that these boulders could have instead been transported from the cliff face to the top of the cliff by a storm analogous to the 1991 'Perfect Storm', if sea level during MIS 5e sea was more than 4 meters higher than today. We remark that the data-model approach used here is essential to interpreting the geologic evidence of extreme storms during past warm periods, which in turn, is an important tool for predicting the intensity of extreme storm events in future climates. Our results indicate that even without an increase in storm intensity, cliffs and hard coastal barriers might be subject to significant increases wave-generated stresses under conditions of sea levels modestly higher than present.

  14. The Role of Source Material in Basin Sedimentation, as Illustrated within Eureka Valley, Death Valley National Park, CA. (United States)

    Lawson, M. J.; Yin, A.; Rhodes, E. J.


    Steep landscapes are known to provide sediment to sink regions, but often petrological factors can dominate basin sedimentation. Within Eureka Valley, in northwestern Death Valley National Park, normal faulting has exposed a steep cliff face on the western margin of the Last Chance range with four kilometers of vertical relief from the valley floor and an angle of repose of nearly 38 degrees. The cliff face is composed of Cambrian limestone and dolomite, including the Bonanza King, Carrara and Wood Canyon formations. Interacting with local normal faulting, these units preferentially break off the cliff face in coherent blocks, which result in landslide deposits rather than as finer grained material found within the basin. The valley is well known for a large sand dune, which derives its sediment from distal sources to the north, instead of from the adjacent Last Chance Range cliff face. During the Holocene, sediment is sourced primary from the northerly Willow Wash and Cucomungo canyon, a relatively small drainage (less than 80 km2) within the Sylvan Mountains. Within this drainage, the Jurassic quartz monzonite of Beer Creek is heavily fractured due to motion of the Fish Valley Lake - Death Valley fault zone. Thus, the quartz monzonite is more easily eroded than the well-consolidated limestone and dolomite that forms the Last Change Range cliff face. As well, the resultant eroded material is smaller grained, and thus more easily transported than the limestone. Consequently, this work highlights an excellent example of the strong influence that source material can have on basin sedimentation.

  15. A Framework for Seismic Design of Items in Safety-Critical Facilities for Implementing a Risk-Informed Defense-in-Depth-Based Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuya Itoi


    Full Text Available Recently, especially after the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku earthquake and the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, the need for treating residual risks and cliff-edge effects in safety-critical facilities has been widely recognized as an extremely important issue. In this article, the sophistication of seismic designs in safety-critical facilities is discussed from the viewpoint of mitigating the consequences of accidents, such as the avoidance of cliff-edge effects. For this purpose, the implementation of a risk-informed defense-in-depth-based framework is proposed in this study. A basic framework that utilizes diversity in the dynamic characteristics of items and also provides additional seismic margin to items important for safety when needed is proposed to prevent common cause failure and to avoid cliff-edge effects as far as practicable. The proposed method is demonstrated to be effective using an example calculation.

  16. Evaluation of host rocks and background lithologies as secondary contributors to the uranium and rare-earth element source-term at the Needle's Eye natural analogue site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyslop, E.K.


    HMIP has a research programme investigating some naturally radioactive sites in the UK as geochemical analogues of radionuclide migration. The objective is to test thermodynamic database and computer codes used for modelling radionuclide migration under environmental conditions. This report describes a study of the distributions of uranium (U) and the rare-earth elements (REE) in the vicinity of pitchblende veins outcropping in the cliff at Needle's Eye on the Solway Coats, SW Scotland. This report improves the information available on the secondary source-terms of U and REE. The minerals in the country rocks are thought to be supplying only minor amounts of these elements to the groundwaters flowing into the Merse silts within the detailed study area close to the mineralisation in the cliff. The pitchblende veins are the principal source-term for U migrating into the Merse silts at the foot of the cliff. (author)

  17. Operational power reactor health physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, B.A.


    Operational Health Physics can be comprised of a multitude of organizations, both corporate and at the plant sites. The following discussion centers around Baltimore Gas and Electric's (BG and E) Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, located in Lusby, Maryland. Calvert Cliffs is a twin Combustion Engineering 825 MWe pressurized water reactor site with Unit I having a General electric turbine-generator and Unit II having a Westinghouse turbine-generator. Having just completed each Unit's ten-year Inservice Inspection and Refueling Outge, a total of 20 reactor years operating health physics experience have been accumulated at Calvert Cliffs. Because BG and E has only one nuclear site most health physics functions are performed at the plant site. This is also true for the other BG and E nuclear related organizations, such as Engineering and Quality Assurance. Utilities with multiple plant sites have corporate health physics entity usually providing oversight to the various plant programs

  18. Calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Zandy, Bernard V


    We take great notes-and make learning a snap When it comes to pinpointing the stuff you really need to know, nobody does it better than CliffsNotes. This fast, effective tutorial helps you master core Calculus concepts-from functions, limits, and derivatives to differentials, integration, and definite integrals- and get the best possible grade. At CliffsNotes, we're dedicated to helping you do your best, no matter how challenging the subject. Our authors are veteran teachers and talented writers who know how to cut to the chase- and zero in on the essential information you need to succeed.

  19. Strategic Analysis for the MER Cape Verde Approach (United States)

    Gaines, Daniel; Belluta, Paolo; Herman, Jennifer; Hwang, Pauline; Mukai, Ryan; Porter, Dan; Jones, Byron; Wood, Eric; Grotzinger, John; Edgar, Lauren; hide


    The Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has recently completed a two year campaign studying Victoria Crater. The campaign culminated in a close approach of Cape Verde in order to acquire high resolution imagery of the exposed stratigraphy in the cliff face. The close approach to Cape Verde provided significant challenges for every subsystem of the rover as the rover needed to traverse difficult, uncharacterised terrain and approach a cliff face with the potential of blocking out solar energy and communications with Earth. In this paper we describe the strategic analyses performed by the science and engineering teams so that we could successfully achieve the science objectives while keeping the rover safe.

  20. Spanish I

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez, Jill


    CliffsQuickReview course guides cover the essentials of your toughest classes. Get a firm grip on core concepts and key material, and test your newfound knowledge with review questions. CliffsQuickReview Spanish I is meant to provide all the foundations of basic Spanish pronunciation, spelling, and sentence construction. Spanish grammar is systematically explained in its most simplistic way, so there's no need for any prerequisite before beginning this ""review"" of the equivalent of two years of high school Spanish. As you work your way through this review, you'll be ready to tackle such conc

  1. Explicit, Implicit, and Subjective Rating Measures of Situation Awareness in a Monitoring Task (United States)


    range of the subjects’ weapon (referred to as "envelope sensitivity" and calculated as A’ see Macmillan and Creelman , 1990). In his experiment...1982). Design and analysis: A researchers handbook. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Macmillan, N. A., and Creelman , C. D. (1990). Response

  2. Cold-water coral mounds on the Pen Duick Escarpment, Gulf of Cadiz: The MiCROSYSTEMS project approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Rooij, D.; Blamart, D.; De Mol, L.; Mienis, F.; Pirlet, H.; Wehrmann, L. M.; Barbieri, R.; Maignien, L.; Templer, S. P.; de Haas, H.; Hebbeln, D.; Frank, N.; Larmagnat, S.; Stadnitskaia, A.; Stivaletta, N.; van Weering, T.; Zhang, Y.; Hamoumi, N.; Cnudde, V.; Duyck, P.; Henriet, J.-P.; The MiCROSYSTEMS MD 169 Shipboard Party


    Here we present a case study of three cold-water coral mounds in a juvenile growth stage on top of the Pen Duick Escarpment in the Gulf of Cadiz; Alpha, Beta and Gamma mounds. Although cold-water corals are a common feature on the adjacent cliffs, mud volcanoes and open slope, no actual living

  3. 76 FR 50669 - Safety Zones; Eleventh Coast Guard District Annual Fireworks Events (United States)


    ... a 1,000-foot radius upon commencement of the fireworks display. 2. LA County Dept of Beach and... navigable waters of the Sea Cliff State Beach Pier. 27. Rio Vista Bass Derby Fireworks Sponsor Rio Vista... feet off Rio Vista, CA waterfront. Regulated Area 100-foot radius around the fireworks launch barge...

  4. 76 FR 30584 - Safety Zones; Eleventh Coast Guard District Annual Fireworks Events (United States)


    .... 2. LA County Dept of Beach and Harbors 4th of July Fireworks Sponsor Los Angeles, CA County Dept of... waters of the Sea Cliff State Beach Pier. 27. Rio Vista Bass Derby Fireworks Sponsor Rio Vista Chamber of... Vista, CA waterfront. Regulated Area 100-foot radius around the fireworks launch barge during the...

  5. International Conference on Control and Estimation of Distributed Parameter Systems: Nonlinear Phenomena Held in Vorau, Austria on July 18-24, 1993 (United States)


    p( ini1. IC’ cawN( w ovi Ac’ iii (2. 10) is 1’(’lav by(’ a ) MI ii lly 11 ifrill’ e’lii t’i( Cliff lenIit-itill op"I ’ Patto of ti I I’C’( 1 11( wc l

  6. 75 FR 26313 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX BX, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness... (United States)


    ... other things, expand the number of classes included in the Penny Pilot Program over four successive... Cliffs Natural Resources Inc. LDK LDK Solar Co Ltd. ZION Zions Bancorporation. SPG Simon Property Group... the following methods: Electronic Comments Use the Commission's Internet comment form ( http://www.sec...

  7. Bird observations in Severnaya Zemlya, Siberia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de ext. Korte, J.; Volkov, A.E; Gavrilo, M.V

    Fieldwork in different parts of Severnaya Zemlya in 1985, 1991, 1992 and 1993 and aerial surveys in 1994 revealed a limited bird fauna with a total of 17 breeding species. The most numerous breeding birds are cliff-nesting seabirds, comprising little auk (Alle alle), 10 000-80 000 pairs; kittiwake

  8. genetic diversity of microsatellit

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    with inhabit inland dry gypsum soils, coastal cliffs and salt marshes (Palacios .... Twenty microsatellite loci generated a total of 117 alleles in the 102 samples of 6 .... self-incompatibility is thought to take important part in the maintenance of the ...

  9. 75 FR 4882 - Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on EPR; Notice of Meeting (United States)


    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee On Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on EPR; Notice of Meeting The ACRS U.S. Evolutionary Power Reactor (EPR) Subcommittee will hold a... with Open Items concerning the U.S. EPR Design Certification (DCD) Application and the Calvert Cliffs...

  10. During-Treatment Outcomes among Female Methamphetamine-Using Offenders in Prison-Based Treatments (United States)

    Rowan-Szal, Grace A.; Joe, George W.; Simpson, D. Dwayne; Greener, Jack M.; Vance, Jerry


    An increasingly important treatment group is the expanding population of methamphetamine-using female offenders. This study focused on women methamphetamine-using offenders (n = 359) who were treated either in a modified therapeutic community (TC) program ("Clean Lifestyle is Freedom Forever" [CLIFF]-TC: n = 234) designed for non-violent offenders…

  11. A Place to Stay: Building Green (United States)

    Deal, Walter F.


    Shelter has been a concern of humans and animals alike for the millennia. Animals, through their natural instincts, build nests and shelters to meet their needs for protection against predators and seasonal changes in the weather. Early humans sought shelter in caves and cliff dwellings and later began to design and build shelters based on the…

  12. Caloplaca subalpina and C. thracopontica, two new saxicolous species from the Caloplaca cerina group (Teloschistales)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vondrák, Jan; Šoun, Jaroslav; Hrouzek, Pavel


    Caloplaca subalpina Vondrák, Šoun & Palice and C. thracopontica Vondrák & Šoun are described here as new to science. The former is a sorediate, often sterile, saxicolous species inhabiting subalpine base-rich overhanging rocks in European mountains; the latter grows on maritime cliffs of the Black...

  13. 76 FR 45077 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Ipomopsis... (United States)


    ...: (1) Over most land, there will be warmer and fewer cold days and nights, and warmer and more frequent hot days and nights; (2) areas affected by drought will increase; and (3) the frequency of warm spells... oil shale cliffs of the Parachute Creek Member and the Lower Part of the Green River Formation at...

  14. 78 FR 59825 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; States of Michigan and Minnesota... (United States)


    ... identify the close of a state's public comment period as the cut-off point after which newly ``available..., we point out that Cliffs fails to cite the full text of CAA section 110(c)(1), which states that EPA... space constraints, reliability, and operating problems. The ability to secure vendor guarantees is also...

  15. Mercury's shifting, rolling past


    Trulove, Susan


    Patterns of scalloped-edged cliffs or lobate scarps on Mercury's surface are thrust faults that are consistent with the planet shrinking and cooling with time. However, compression occurred in the planet's early history and Mariner 10 images revealed decades ago that lobate scarps are among the youngest features on Mercury. Why don't we find more evidence of older compressive features?

  16. Examining the Structure of Vocational Interests in Turkey in the Context of the Personal Globe Model (United States)

    Vardarli, Bade; Özyürek, Ragip; Wilkins-Yel, Kerrie G.; Tracey, Terence J. G.


    The structural validity of the Personal Globe Inventory-Short (PGI-S: Tracey in J Vocat Behavi 76:1-15, 2010) was examined in a Turkish sample of high school and university students. The PGI-S measures eight basic interest scales, Holland's ("Making vocational choice," Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, 1997) six types, Prediger's ("J…

  17. Piram island: Pirates Fort in the Gulf of Khambat

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Bhatt, B.K.

    ARCHAEOLOGY No.5, 2008 111 Fig. 2: Remains of walls in Cliff Section. Piram Island The island is uninhabited except for a few personal who man the lighthouse. However, fishermen and occasionally a few tourists visit the island. The Periplus of the Erythaean...

  18. USMC ISR: Preparing for the A2AD Threat (United States)


    includes the oil, gas and electricity market segments” (Hagestad 2012, 37). In January 2014, Dr. Roger Cliff, a senior fellow at the Atlantic you call your mother, power your home, and even land your plane. New Scientist 209, no. 2803 (March): 44-47. Academic Search Complete EBSCOhost

  19. Tufted puffins (Fratercula cirrhata) respond to predation danger during colony approach flights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Addison, B.; Ydenberg, R.C.; Smith, B.D.


    In spite of their putative importance in the evolution of certain traits (e.g., nocturnality, coloniality, cliff nesting), the effects of aerial predators on behavior of adult seabirds at colonies have been poorly investigated. We hypothesized that Tufted Puffins (Fratercula cirrhata) respond to

  20. VULTURE NEWS 55.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Sep 2, 2006 ... area in eastern Mali (Rondeau et al. in prep), along with the Gandamia colony of Gourma, Mali – once the largest in West Africa (Elósegui 1975) that is now virtually abandoned (Rondeau &. Thiollay 2004, Thiollay 2006), there is no overpopulation, nor lack of suitable cliffs, to explain the tree-nesting ...

  1. 75 FR 52369 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Wisconsin Historical Society, Museum Division, Madison, WI (United States)


    ... member Indian tribes (Bad River Band of the Lake Superior Tribe of Chippewa Indians of the Bad River... Alliance and the Wisconsin Inter-tribal Repatriation Committee indicated that the Bad River Band of the Lake Superior Tribe of Chippewa Indians of the Bad River Reservation, Wisconsin, and Red Cliff Band of...

  2. Displacement responses of a mysticete, an odontocete, and a phocid seal to construction-related vessel traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderwald, P.; Brandecker, A.; Coleman, M.; Collins, C.; Denniston, H.; Haberlin, M.D.; O’Donovan, M.; Pinfield, R.; Visser, F.; Walshe, L.


    Marine construction works often lead to temporary increases in vessel traffic, which, in addition to the construction activity itself, contribute to underwater ambient noise in the affected area and increase the risk of vessel collision for marine mammals. Using a 3 yr data set of cliff-based

  3. Galerie Chotkovy silnice v Praze - stabilitní problém

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koudelka, Petr; Koudelka, T.


    Roč. 2008, č. 2 (2008), s. 12-16 ISSN 0012-5520 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA103/08/1617 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20710524 Keywords : non-linear stability problem * heterogeneous rock cliff * advanced numerical analysis * slow displacements Subject RIV: JN - Civil Engineering

  4. Comparing confidence intervals for Goodman and Kruskal’s gamma coefficient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ark, L.A.; van Aert, R.C.M.


    This study was motivated by the question which type of confidence interval (CI) one should use to summarize sample variance of Goodman and Kruskal's coefficient gamma. In a Monte-Carlo study, we investigated the coverage and computation time of the Goodman–Kruskal CI, the Cliff-consistent CI, the

  5. Comparing confidence intervals for Goodman and Kruskal's gamma coefficient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ark, L.A.; van Aert, R.C.M.


    This study was motivated by the question which type of confidence interval (CI) one should use to summarize sample variance of Goodman and Kruskal's coefficient gamma. In a Monte-Carlo study, we investigated the coverage and computation time of the Goodman-Kruskal CI, the Cliff-consistent CI, the

  6. 77 FR 5820 - Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf Offshore Massachusetts-Call for... (United States)


    ... submitting such information as a separate attachment. Treatment of confidential information is addressed in... the cliffs, changes to sediment transport, and impacts to grey seal breeding areas (Muskeget being... and pursue measures to minimize and fully mitigate impacts to tribal cultural, wildlife, water and...


    My career started with Cliff Dahm at the University of New Mexico. The western United States had been experiencing a new “gold rush” using cyanide to mine previously unextractable, low-grade ore and we studied the potential to stimulate native cyanide-degrading micro...

  8. Molecular Mechanics with an Array Processor. (United States)


    34 to be submritted. 40 B. W. Kernrihan and D M Ritchie, The CPm guniw.g Language, Prentice- Hall. Eaglewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1978. 60 D. J. Adams , in...1400 Washington Avenue Ban e o Albany, New York 12203 La J la, California 92093 Dr. Rank Loos Professor C. A. Ansell Latuna Research Laboratory

  9. Self-destruction by multiple methods during a single episode: a case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Three different methods of suicide were apparent in this instance: hanging, leaping down the cliff and drowning as was evidenced by the autopsy and positive diatom test. The complexity of this case was the planned protection against the failure of one method employed to commit suicide. The methods used were ...

  10. First records of two species of mammals in the Huachuca Mountains: results of ecological stewardship at Fort Huachuca (United States)

    Ronnie Sidner; H. Sheridan Stone


    We report the first voucher of the cliff chipmunk (Neotamias dorsalis) and observations of Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) from the Huachuca Mountains, Arizona, where these species had not been documented. While presence of T. brasiliensis was expected on Fort Huachuca, N. dorsalis was a surprise after a century...

  11. 76 FR 5399 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest (United States)


    ... Seoul, Korea; LG Electronics U.S.A., Inc. of Englewood Cliffs, NJ; SANYO Electric Co. Ltd., of Osaka, Japan; SANYO North America Corp. of San Diego, CA; TCL Corp. of Guangdong Province, China; TTE... economy, the production of like or directly competitive articles in the United States, or United States...

  12. Eleanor Gibsonová (*7.12.1910 - +30.12.2002)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šikl, Radovan


    Roč. 47, č. 2 (2003), s. 97-104 ISSN 0009-062X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK9058117 Keywords : perceptual development * visual cliff * affordance Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 0.232, year: 2003

  13. The Navy’s Quality Journey: Operational Implementation of TQL (United States)


    training. Dr. Kaoru Ishikawa "Guide to Ouality Control" "QC begins with education and ends with education. To implement TQC, we need to carry out...York: McGraw-Hill, 1986. 20. Ishikawa , Kaoru . What is Total Qualit Control? Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1985. 21. Ishikawa , Kaoru

  14. Introduction to Financial Management for Foreign Military Staff Officers (United States)


    House: New York, 1986. 5. Ishikawa , Kaoru . What is Total Quality Control? The Japanese Way. Prentice-Hall: Englewood Cliffs, NJ., 1985. 6. Juran, J. M...the key to process improvement is the infinite human potential of an organization’s people." 5 [ Ishikawa , 85) 6. Processes, not people, are the root

  15. Intelligent Help in the LOCATE Workspace Layout Tool (United States)


    LOCATE’s basic design and analysis features; • commercialising the application; • expanding the groundwork for tracking actions and goals at the interface...Muraida, D.J. (Eds.) (1993). Automating instructional design: Concepts and issues. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Educational Technology Publications

  16. Studies of nucleus-nucleus collisions with a schematic liquid-drop model and one-body dissipation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donangelo, R; Canto, L F


    The inclusion of an asymmetry friction term into the dissipation function of the schematic model of nuclear collisions due to WJ Swiatecki is found to change some of the earlier predictions of the model, in particular the scaling relation for the extra-push and extra-extra-push energies and the existence of a cliff phenomenon. (orig.).

  17. Southern African Linguistics and Applied Language Studies - Vol 27 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The design and use of 'alternate' assessments of academic literacy as selection mechanisms in higher education · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Alan Cliff, Monique Hanslo. ...

  18. African Journal of Marine Science - Vol 27, No 3 (2005)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sharks caught in the protective gill nets off KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. 11. The scalloped hammerhead shark Sphyrna lewini (Griffith and Smith) · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. P de Bruyn, SFJ Dudley, G Cliff, MJ Smale, 517-528 ...

  19. Geophysical investigations off Vijaydurg bay, Maharashtra, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gujar, A.R.; Rajamanickam, G.V.; Ramana, M.V.

    Bathymetry of the bay indicates a smooth gradient in the sandy zone while steep gradient is marked off cliffs and headlands. In general, the results of the wave action have been seen by the presence of undulation to the level of 3 m in sand covered...

  20. 75 FR 2163 - Constellation Energy; Notice of Docketing of Special Nuclear Material License SNM-2505 Amendment... (United States)


    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. 72-8; NRC-2010-0011] Constellation Energy; Notice of Docketing of Special Nuclear Material License SNM-2505 Amendment Application for the Calvert Cliffs... Constellation Energy (Constellation) to amend its Special Nuclear Material License No. SNM-2505, under the...

  1. Benthic O2 exchange across hard-bottom substrates quantified by eddy correlation in a sub-Arctic fjord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glud, Ronnie N.; Berg, Peter; Hume, Andrew


    to 27 mmol O2 m–2 d–1, which per unit area is similar to the pelagic gross production of the central fjord. Carbon fixed by benthic diatoms and coralline red algae was efficiently recycled by microbes or grazed by the abundant epifauna. (3) A vertical cliff covered with sea cucumbers also revealed high...

  2. The Happiest Day of the Year Is June 23

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Feeling happier than usual this particular Friday?You should be,according to the analyses of a scholar at a British university. Cliff Arnall of Cardiff University has analysed such factors as outdoor activities, nature,social interaction, childhood memories,

  3. 44 CFR 63.17 - Procedures and data requirements for imminent collapse certifications by States. (United States)


    ... forth. (i) Top edge of bluff (cliff top). (ii) Top edge of escarpment on an eroding dune (i.e., a nearly vertical erosional cut at the seaward face of the dune). The normal high tide should be near the toe of the... high bluff or dune and not accessible from the water side, the top edge of the bluff or dune will be...

  4. Community-managed conservation efforts at Tsingy Mahaloka ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    conservation action plan (2013–2016), and can allow rural communities to (i) secure ... needs tourists; this has proven to be a problem for KOFAMA and the Tsingy ... limestone cliffs rising 80–100 metres above a flat coastal plain), a ... Indian Ocean e-Ink .... President of KOFAMA and the regional Peace Corps volunteer, the.

  5. An activity canyon characterization of the pharmacological topography


    Kulkarni, Varsha S.; Wild, David J.


    Background Highly chemically similar drugs usually possess similar biological activities, but sometimes, small changes in chemistry can result in a large difference in biological effects. Chemically similar drug pairs that show extreme deviations in activity represent distinctive drug interactions having important implications. These associations between chemical and biological similarity are studied as discontinuities in activity landscapes. Particularly, activity cliffs are quantified by th...

  6. The Humansdorp Cape Griffon Site

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Figure 1. The cliff north-west of the town of Humansdorp, Eastern Cape, South Africa, where a small group of Cape Griffons Gyps coprotheres roosted, and reportedly bred, until the end of the. 19 th century. The trees seen in the picture are all alien, invasive, black wattles Acacia mearnsii. (Photo: A Boshoff).

  7. Individual Attitudes and Social Influences on College Students' Intent to Participate in Study Abroad Programs (United States)

    Wang, Liz C.; Gault, John; Christ, Paul; Diggin, Patricia A.


    Participation in study abroad programs (SAPs) is widely viewed as offering important professional and personal benefits for college students. This study applies the "Theory of Reasoned Action" [Ajzen, I., & Fishbein, M. (1980) and "Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior," Englewood Cliffs, NJ:…

  8. Predicting Achievement, Distress, and Retention among Lower-Income Latino Youth (United States)

    Close, Wendy; Solberg, Scott


    This study used structural equation modeling to evaluate whether a combination of social cognitive and self-determination theories [Bandura, A. (1986). "Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory." Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall; Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1987). The support of autonomy and the control of behavior.…

  9. 26 - 30 Kutama

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    wood popularly known as white rot. Wood and root rot basidiomycetes are occasional problem in desert plants including cliff rose, Canotia (Canotia holacantha) e.t.c (P.D.P, 2011). Also cacti which have a large amount of solid wood tissues may be invaded and decayed by wood rotting basidiomycetes (Uno et al., 2008).

  10. 76 FR 81992 - PPL Bell Bend, LLC; Combined License Application for Bell Bend Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption (United States)


    ... License Application for Bell Bend Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption 1.0 Background PPL Bell Bend, LLC... for Nuclear Power Plants.'' This reactor is to be identified as Bell Bend Nuclear Power Plant (BBNPP... based upon the U.S. EPR reference COL (RCOL) application for UniStar's Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power...

  11. 76 FR 54495 - In the Matter of Certain Mobile Telephones and Modems; Notice of a Commission Determination Not... (United States)


    ... domestic industry. The Commission's notice of investigation named the following respondents: LG Electronics, Inc. of South Korea; LG Electronics USA, Inc. of Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey; and LG Electronics... Sony Corporation of Japan. 76 FR 5824-25. The complaint alleges violations of section 337 of the Tariff...

  12. Cape Vulture Gyps coprotheres caught in gin trap

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    its right foot fly into its nest situated on a cliff face and containing a large chick. The chain used to tether the trap to the ground could be clearly seen dangling below the flying bird. We have no way of knowing whether the deployment of this trap was accidental or intentional relative to its having caught a Cape Vulture.

  13. Sõber raamat

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Raamatukaupluses EURO Publications pakutavate raamatute tutvustus. James Davidson, The Complete Home Lightning Book, 1997 Inglismaa ; Candace Ord Manroe. Uncluttered : Storage Room by Room ; Ruth Pretty. The Ultimate Interior Designer, Inglismaa 1997 ; Judith ja Martin Miller. Period Finishes and Effects, Londoni 1992 ; Suzanne Slesin, Stafford Cliff, Daniel Rozensztroch. Spanish Style, esmatrükk 1990.

  14. 40 CFR 61.141 - Definitions. (United States)


    .... Information on glove-bag installation, equipment and supplies, and work practices is contained in the... (or owner or operator under common control). Leak-tight means that solids or liquids cannot escape or... such as cliffs, lakes or other large bodies of water, deep and wide ravines, and mountains. Remoteness...

  15. The Distributed Air Wing (United States)


    Accepted by: Cliff Whitcomb Robert Dell Systems Engineering Department Operations Research Department LCDR Vincent Naccarato, USN ME5 Joong... Malaysia allow EAB access. .............................191  Figure 89.  Case 4, all countries except Vietnam allow EAB access...range. .............195  Figure 93.  Case 8, all countries except Malaysia and Indonesia allow EABs ................196  Figure 94.  Probability of

  16. High occurrence of extra-pair partnerships and homosexuality in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Cape Vulture Gyps coprotheres is an Endangered colonial cliff-nesting species that is typically cited as monogamous. Observations of wild Cape Vulture colonies note extra-pair breeding activities but homosexual activity has never been confirmed. Observations of breeding behaviours within a captive colony were ...

  17. Microbiological studies on genital infections in slaughtered ewes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jan 15, 2014 ... sunshine of 7-9 hours/day and relative humidity of. 19-78%, which remains ... were studied against a panel of eleven antimicrobial agents namely: Amoxycillin .... Prentice- Hall Int. Inc., Englewood. Cliffs, New Jersey-USA.

  18. An astronomical time scale for the Maastrichtian at the Zumaia and Sopelana sections (Basque country, northern Spain)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batenburg, Sietske J.; Gale, Andy S.; Sprovieri, Mario


    The rhythmically bedded limestone–marl alternations in the coastal cliffs of Sopelana and Zumaia in the Basque country, northern Spain, permit testing and refining of existing Maastrichtian chronologies (latest Cretaceous). The recently established astronomical time scale for the late Maastrichtian...

  19. Hybrid digital-analog video transmission in wireless multicast and multiple-input multiple-output system (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Lin, Xiaocheng; Fan, Nianfei; Zhang, Lin


    Wireless video multicast has become one of the key technologies in wireless applications. But the main challenge of conventional wireless video multicast, i.e., the cliff effect, remains unsolved. To overcome the cliff effect, a hybrid digital-analog (HDA) video transmission framework based on SoftCast, which transmits the digital bitstream with the quantization residuals, is proposed. With an effective power allocation algorithm and appropriate parameter settings, the residual gains can be maximized; meanwhile, the digital bitstream can assure transmission of a basic video to the multicast receiver group. In the multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system, since nonuniform noise interference on different antennas can be regarded as the cliff effect problem, ParCast, which is a variation of SoftCast, is also applied to video transmission to solve it. The HDA scheme with corresponding power allocation algorithms is also applied to improve video performance. Simulations show that the proposed HDA scheme can overcome the cliff effect completely with the transmission of residuals. What is more, it outperforms the compared WSVC scheme by more than 2 dB when transmitting under the same bandwidth, and it can further improve performance by nearly 8 dB in MIMO when compared with the ParCast scheme.

  20. Sizing for ethnicity in multi-cultural societies: development of size

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    biggest complaint concerning apparel products, ... aimed to develop size specifications for young ... study of South African women has never been ... measurement difference between two adjacent .... sizes according to current industry practice. A ..... Comparison of body shape between USA ... Englewood Cliffs, New. Jersey.

  1. Motivating the Notion of Generic Design within Information Processing Theory: the Design Problem Space (United States)


    company or a social welfare policy for a state. On this account, anyone dissatisfied with existing states of affairs and attempting to transform them into...Norman Cliff Dipartimento di Psicologia Department of Psychology Via della Pergola 48 Univ. of So. California 50121 Firenze Los Angeles, CA 90089-1061

  2. Unexpected effects of climate change on the predation of Antarctic petrels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franeker, van J.A.; Creuwels, J.C.S.; Veer, van der W.; Cleland, S.; Robertson, G.


    Antarctic petrels Thalassoica antarctica on Ardery Island, Antarctica (66°S, 110°E), experienced major reductions in breeding success and breeder survival over four seasons between 1984/85 and 1996/97. In 1996 the reason was revealed. A large snowdrift covered part of the study colony on the cliffs.

  3. Rapid 3-D analysis of rockfalls (United States)

    Stock, Greg M.; Guerin, A.; Avdievitch, Nikita N.; Collins, Brian D.; Jaboyedoff, Michel


    Recent fatal and damaging rockfalls in Yosemite National Park indicate the need for rapid response data collection methods to inform public safety and assist with management response. Here we show the use of multiple-platform remote sensing methods to rapidly capture pertinent data needed to inform management and the public following a several large rockfalls from El Capitan cliff in Yosemite Valley, California.

  4. Visible Languages for Program Visualization (United States)


    formatting conventions. One paper [ Miara . Mussel- man, Navarro & Schneiderman, 1983] includes a review of a num- ber of human factors experiments...82,302-311. Martin, J. & McClure, C. (1985). Diagramming techniques for analysts and programmers. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc. Miara

  5. A Study to Identify the Transitional Training Needs for United States Army Medical Residents (United States)


    Books Kotler , Philip, and Roberta Clarke. Marketing for Health Care Organizations. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall, 1987. Runyon, Richard P., and...8217 and most can benefit from instruction in administrative principles and practices during residency" (444). A focus began to turn toward residency...leadership development, office communi-ations, professional and legal obligations, Rawls 8 and practice marketing . Because these newly trained physicians

  6. Environmental Assessment of Demolition Activities at Dover Air Force Base, Delaware (United States)


    Setophaga ruticilla), broad- winged hawk (Buteo platypterus), cliff swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota), bank swallow ( Riparia riparia ), black vulture...Explosive safety-quantity distance (QD) zones are designated areas designed to safeguard the base population and civilian community from potential...explosions. These clear zones include the area within a safety arc surrounding an explosive storage facility. The QD zones at Dover AFB encompass

  7. 78 FR 21408 - Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Indian Affairs... (United States)


    ... unidentified organic items. Prior to the beginning of a University of Denver archeology field school project at..., a kiva, and a pithouse located on one side of a crevice overlooked by a cliff. The architecture is... preponderance of evidence, including archeology, architecture, material culture, oral traditions, and expert...

  8. The Communications of Influence through Technology-Enabled Media (United States)


    meaning, communication, action, and contextual structures, resources, or frameworks-such as those discussed in Blumer’s (1969) symbolic interactionism or...Blumer, H. (1969). Symbolic interactionism : Perspective and method. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Brass, D. J., & Burkhardt, M. E. (1993...and Interaction ................................................................ 42 3. Symbolic Exchange of Influence Messages

  9. VULTURE NEWS 55.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Sep 2, 2006 ... to scan the hills with binoculars. To my shock, just 20 feet away, I found myself looking into the ruby eyes of a condor. It was perched on the brink of a cliff, just beyond a guard rail, overlooking. Sea Lion Cove and the Pacific Ocean. The condor stared straight at me as if wondering when I might be ready for.

  10. Constrained by available raptor hosts and islands : density-dependent reproductive success in red-breasted geese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prop, J; Quinn, JL

    In this paper we aim to explain the distribution of red-breasted geese Branta ruficollis over different nesting habitats. To be safe from land predators red-breasted goose colonies were restricted to i) islands on rivers, ii) cliffs with peregrine falcons Falco peregrinus, and iii) the close

  11. Trace fossils from the eocene Lillebælt clay formation, Røsnæs Peninsula, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jan Kresten; Milàn, Jesper; Mesfun, Daniel


    A cliff exposure of the Eocene Lillebælt Clay Formation, on the Røsnæs peninsula of Zealand, Denmark, has yielded a diverse trace-fossil assemblage. The trace fossils are described formally for the first time and assigned to Phymatoderma melvillensis, unnamed clusters of small burrows, Ophiomorpha...

  12. A Cost Model for Air Force Institute of Technology Programs. (United States)


    Patterson AFB OH, September 1977. ADA 047662. 16. Horngren , Charles T. Cost Accounting , A Managerial Emphasis. Englewood Cliffs NJ: Prentice Hall, Inc...25 S . Categorical Breakdown of AFIT Cost Matrix ....... .................. . 26 6. Elemental Breakdown of AFIT Direct Cost Category...maximum use of existing data sources such as the Air Force Accounting System for Operations. Justification for Research In past years, cost studies

  13. Environmental Impact Study of the Northern Section of the Upper Mississippi River. Pool 5. (United States)


    commercially valuable tree species: silver maple (Acer saccharinum), American elm (Ulmus americana), slippery elm (Ulmus rubrea), green ash (Fraxinus...this division is generally birch, elm , and cotton wood, all the cliffs being bordered by cedars. The navigation, as far as the Iowa River is good, but

  14. 77 FR 16278 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards: Notice of Meeting (United States)


    ..., 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland. Thursday, April 12, 2012, Conference Room T2-B1, 11545....: Selected Chapters of the Safety Evaluation Report (SER) with Open Items Associated with the Calvert Cliffs... chapters of the NRC staff's Safety Evaluation Report (SER) with open items associated with the Calvert...

  15. 78 FR 70078 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards; Notice of Meeting (United States)


    ... Pike, Rockville, Maryland. Wednesday, December 4, 2013, Conference Room T2-B1, 11545 Rockville Pike....: Selected Chapters of the Safety Evaluation Report (SER) With Open Items Associated With the Calvert Cliffs...)(4).] 10:45 a.m.-12:45 p.m.: Topical Report and Selected Chapters of the Safety Evaluation Reports...

  16. Mexico and Trilateral Air Defense, Is NORAD the Answer? (United States)


    invading force in at Chapultepec Castle, or El Castillo . Defying a superior force, the heroic six embraced death by leaping from a cliff while wrapped in a...Museums in Mexico City sensationalize perceptions of US aggression. At the entrance to Mexico City’s Chapultepec Park is a daunting monument called Niños

  17. An Outcrop-based Detailed Geological Model to Test Automated Interpretation of Seismic Inversion Results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feng, R.; Sharma, S.; Luthi, S.M.; Gisolf, A.


    Previously, Tetyukhina et al. (2014) developed a geological and petrophysical model based on the Book Cliffs outcrops that contained eight lithotypes. For reservoir modelling purposes, this model is judged to be too coarse because in the same lithotype it contains reservoir and non-reservoir

  18. Science and design revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, Per; Kroes, Peter


    In 2012, Robert Farrell and Cliff Hooker published a paper in Design Studies, arguing against the conventional science–design distinction. Finding their position highly controversial, we opposed it in a paper of our own, to which Farrell and Hooker have now responded with a defence of their view...

  19. Bio-inspired Composites, a de novo Approach to the Conceptualization, Design and Synthesis of Tough Mesoscale Structures with Simple Building Blocks (United States)


    Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall. xviii, 556 p. [107] M. E. Gurtin, E. Fried, and L. Anand, The mechanics and thermodynamics of continua2010, New...industry towards the latter. Assembly Autom, 2003, 23, 4. [121] D. Dimitrov, K. Schreve, and N. de Beer , Advances in three dimensional printing

  20. Testing the application of quartz and feldspar luminescence dating to MIS 5 Japanese marine deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiel, Christine; Tsukamoto, Sumiko; Tokuyasu, Kayoko


    The applicability of both quartz and feldspar luminescence dating was tested on twenty-five samples from a marine succession now forming a coastal cliff at Oga Peninsula, Honshu Island, Japan. The quartz optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) signal shows thermal instability and linear modulated...

  1. Reducing Rockfall Risk in Yosemite National Park (United States)

    Stock, Greg M.; Collins, Brian D.


    Yosemite National Park preserves some of the world's most spectacular geological scenery, including icons such as Half Dome and El Capitan. The glacially sculpted granite walls of Yosemite Valley attract 4 million visitors a year, but rockfalls from these cliffs pose substantial hazards (Figure 1).

  2. Improving Citizen Preparedness Through Employee Disaster Preparedness Promotion in the Workplace (United States)


    35 influence change. The selected theories include: the social cognitive theory ( Bandura ), the theory of planned...process approach (Schwarzer). Social cognitive theory (SCT) is based on the assumption that that learning , behavior, and environment have a dynamic and...91 Albert Bandura , Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory (Englewood Cliffs, NJ

  3. Ethical Leadership: A Factor in Mission Readiness (United States)


    Bandura , A. (1971). Social learning theory . Morristown, NJ: General Learning Press. Bandura , A. (1986... Social foundations for thought and action: A social cognitive theory . Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Bandura , A. (1991). Social cognitive theory ...conceptualized moral thinking as a process of information integration. Social cognitive and social information processing theories explain

  4. Developing a Model for Assigning Senior Officers in the Brazilian Air Force (United States)


    Bandura , Albert. 1977. Social Learning Theory . Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice- Hall. Black, Gene. 2014. “Surface Warfare Officer Community Brief...1982, 565) use social learning theory to justify the model. According to this theory , human behavior can be explained in terms of “continuous...DRIVERS ......................................................................... 21 A. THEORY OF WORK PERFORMANCE

  5. Developing and Testing a Self-Regulated Learning Assessment Methodology Combined with Virtual-Patient Simulation in Medical Education (United States)


    Educational Psychologist, 40, 199-209. Bandura , A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory . Englewood Cliffs, NJ...Hemmer, & Artino, 2013 for an overview), we focus primarily on social -cognitive theoretical principles and frameworks ( Bandura , 1986; Zimmerman, 2000...On a general level, social -cognitive theory emphasizes a proactive, agentic perspective of human functioning whereby individuals seek out

  6. African Journal of Marine Science - Vol 34, No 2 (2012)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of protective shark nets on sea turtles in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, 1981–2008 · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. W Brazier, R Nel, G Cliff, S Dudley ...

  7. Services Supply Chain in the Department of Defense: A Comparison of Acquisition Management Practices in the Army, Navy, and Air Force (United States)


    characteristics also lead to differences in the marketing of services ( Lovelock , 1992; Hutt & Speh, 1998). Given these differences in the production and...Press. Lovelock , C. H. (1992). Are services really different? In C. H. Lovelock (Ed.), Managing services (2nd ed., pp. 1-8). Englewood Cliffs, NJ

  8. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 117; Issue 5. Volume 117, Issue 5. October 2008, pages 537-645. pp 537-551. The High Deccan duricrusts of India and their significance for the 'laterite' issue · Cliff D Ollier Hetu C Sheth · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. In the Deccan region of western India ...

  9. Constructing bald eagle nests with natural materials (United States)

    T. G. Grubb


    A technique for using natural materials to build artificial nests for bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and other raptors is detailed. Properly constructed nests are as permanently secured to the nest tree or cliff substrate as any eagle-built nest or human-made platform. Construction normally requires about three hours and at least two people. This technique is...

  10. Holocene Evolution of Incised Coastal Channels on the Isle of Wight, UK: Interpretation via Numerical Simulation. (United States)

    Leyland, J.; Darby, S. E.


    Incised coastal channels are found in numerous locations around the world where the shoreline morphology consists of cliffs. The incised coastal channels found on the Isle of Wight, UK, are known locally as `Chines' and debouche (up to 45m) through the soft cliffs of the south west coast, maintaining steep side walls subject to deep-seated mass wasting. These canyons offer sheltered locations and bare substrate, providing habitat for plant (Philonotis marchica, Anthoceros punctatos) and invertebrate (Psen atratinus, Baris analis, Melitaea cinxi) species of international importance. The base level of the Chines is highly dynamic, with episodes of sea cliff erosion causing the rejuvenation of the channel network. Consequently a key factor in Chine evolution is the relative balance between rates of cliff retreat and headwards incision caused by knickpoint migration. Specifically, there is concern that if contemporary coastal retreat rates are higher than the corresponding rates of knickpoint recession, there will be long-term a reduction in the overall extent of the Chines and their associated habitats. In an attempt to provide a long-term context for these issues, in this poster we explore the Holocene erosional history of the Chines using a numerical landscape evolution model. The model includes a stochastic cliff recession function that controls the position of the outlet boundary. Knickpoint recession rates are simulated using a detachment-limited channel erosion law wherein erosion rate is a power function of drainage area and stream gradient with model parameters defined using empirically- derived data. Simulations are undertaken for a range of imposed boundary conditions representing different scenarios of long-term cliff retreat forced by Holocene sea-level rise, plausible scenarios corresponding to cases where simulated and observed Chine and landscape forms match. The study provides an example of how a landscape evolution model could be used to reconstruct

  11. Baltic Sea coastal erosion; a case study from the Jastrzębia Góra region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uścinowicz Grzegorz


    Full Text Available The coastline in the Jastrzębia Góra area can be divided into three major zones of general importance: a beach and barrier section, a cliff section, and a section protected by a heavy hydrotechnical construction. These areas are characterised by a diverse geology and origin, and hence different vulnerability to erosion. In addition, observations have demonstrated a different pace of erosion within each zone. Based on the results obtained by remote sensing methods (analysis of aerial photographs and maps, it has been determined that the coastline in the barrier area, i.e., to the west of Jastrzębia Góra, moved landwards by about 130 m, in a period of 100 years, and 80 m over about 50 years. A smaller displacement of the shoreline could be observed within the cliff. Between the middle of the twentieth and the start of the twenty-first centuries the shore retreated by about 25 m. However, in recent years, an active landslide has led to the displacement of the uppermost part of the cliff locally up to 25 m. Another issue is, functioning since 2000, a heavy hydrotechnical construction which has been built in order to protect the most active part of the cliff. The construction is not stable and its western part, over a distance of 50 m, has moved almost 2 m vertically downwards and c. 2.5 m horizontally towards the sea in the past two years. This illustrates that the erosional factor does not comprise only marine abrasion, but also involves land-based processes determined by geology and hydrogeology. Changes in the shoreline at the beach and barrier part are constantly conditioned by rising sea levels, the slightly sloping profile of the sea floor and low elevation values of the backshore and dune areas. Cliffs are destroyed by mass wasting and repetitive storm surges that are responsible for the removal of the colluvium which protects the coast from adverse wave effects. Presumably, mass movements combined with groundwater outflow from the cliff

  12. Rockfall failure mechanisms in Yosemite Valley, California (USA) (United States)

    Matasci, Battista; Guerin, Antoine; Carrea, Dario; Stock, Greg M.; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Collins, Brian


    Rockfall hazard is especially high in Yosemite Valley, with tens of rockfalls inventoried every year. A rockfall on 5 October 2013 from Ahwiyah Point consisted of a volume of 740 cubic meters and occurred within the perimeter of a larger event on 28 March 2009 that released 25'400 cubic meters of rock (Zimmer et al., 2012). In both events (2009 and 2013), the initial rockfall volumes dislodged a second one approximately equivalent in size by impacting the cliff below the source area during the fall. Rock fragments of up to several cubic meters were deposited on the talus slope, damaging a heavily used and recently reconstructed hiking path. We performed extensive mapping of structural features for several cliffs of Yosemite Valley to improve the assessment of the most susceptible rockfall areas. In particular we mapped and characterized the main brittle structures, the exfoliation joints and the failure mechanisms of the past rockfalls. Several failure mechanisms exist in Yosemite including the propagation of brittle structures that may lead to tensile, planar sliding, wedge sliding or toppling failures. Frequently, topographically-parallel exfoliation joints and topographically-oblique discontinuities coexist, resulting in complex failures. We also developed a methodology to examine how the distribution of joints within the cliff faces of Yosemite Valley affects overall stability with respect to the identified failure mechanisms. For these analyses, we used terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) to collect high resolution point clouds of the vertical and overhanging rock faces throughout the Valley. This provided the necessary 3D data to identify the main joint sets, perform spacing and trace length measurements, and calculate volumes of previous and potential rockfalls. We integrated this information with stability calculations to identify the likely failure mechanisms for each area of cliff and to obtain the number of potential failures per square meter of cliff face

  13. Immune responses of a native and an invasive bird to Buggy Creek Virus (Togaviridae: Alphavirus and its arthropod vector, the swallow bug (Oeciacus vicarius.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol A Fassbinder-Orth

    Full Text Available Invasive species often display different patterns of parasite burden and virulence compared to their native counterparts. These differences may be the result of variability in host-parasite co-evolutionary relationships, the occurrence of novel host-parasite encounters, or possibly innate differences in physiological responses to infection between invasive and native hosts. Here we examine the adaptive, humoral immune responses of a resistant, native bird and a susceptible, invasive bird to an arbovirus (Buggy Creek virus; Togaviridae: Alphavirus and its ectoparasitic arthropod vector (the swallow bug; Oeciacus vicarius. Swallow bugs parasitize the native, colonially nesting cliff swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota and the introduced house sparrow (Passer domesticus that occupies nests in cliff swallow colonies. We measured levels of BCRV-specific and swallow bug-specific IgY levels before nesting (prior to swallow bug exposure and after nesting (after swallow bug exposure in house sparrows and cliff swallows in western Nebraska. Levels of BCRV-specific IgY increased significantly following nesting in the house sparrow but not in the cliff swallow. Additionally, house sparrows displayed consistently higher levels of swallow bug-specific antibodies both before and after nesting compared to cliff swallows. The higher levels of BCRV and swallow bug specific antibodies detected in house sparrows may be reflective of significant differences in both antiviral and anti-ectoparasite immune responses that exist between these two avian species. To our knowledge, this is the first study to compare the macro- and microparasite-specific immune responses of an invasive and a native avian host exposed to the same parasites.

  14. Seasonal shifts in body temperature and use of microhabitats by Galapagos land iguanas (Conolophus pallidus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, K.; Tracy, C.R.; Porter, W.P.


    Seasonal differences in the body temperatures (T/sub b/) of free-ranging Galapagos land iguanas (Conolophus pallidus) were detected by temperature sensitive telemetry transmitters. Midday T/sub b/'s of iguanas average 4.4/sup 0/C lower in the Garua (cool) season than in the Hot season. Measured T/sub b/'s and those predicted from biophysical models permitted the following conclusions: (1) lower T/sub b/'s during the Garua season represent an active shift in thermoregulation by the iguanas rather than a passive result of a cooler season; (2) the average midday T/sub b/ selected by the iguanas in either season is the T/sub b/ that allows maintenance of a constant T/sub b/ for the longest possible portion of the day; (3) by exploiting the warmer microclimate created by a cliff face, the iguanas are able to maintain a constant T/sub b/ for a full hour longer than they could elsewhere in their home range. Census data demonstrated that the iguanas exploited the warmer microclimate created by the cliff extensively during the Garua season, and the cliff face was visited by the iguanas relatively infrequently during the Hot season. Thus, the exploitation of the microclimate created by the cliff results in seasonal differences in the pattern of space utilization within the home ranges of the iguanas. Within the Garua season the iguanas moved away from the cliff more often on sunny days than during cloudy days. It is concluded that the physical environment is an important determinant of patterns of space utilization both within and between seasons.

  15. Diversity of chasmophytes in the vascular flora of Greece: floristic analysis and phytogeographical patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panitsa Maria


    Full Text Available Cliffs are among the environments with the most adverse conditions for living organisms because of the limited availability of soil, moisture, and nutrients, and owing to the harsh conditions of exposure. They constitute shelters for rare, endemic, and range-restricted plant taxa. A main database has been prepared which includes vascular plant taxa that are obligate or facultative chasmophytes and also contains information about their life form, chorology, protection status, occurrence in more than 135 places such as cliffs, gorges, or open rocky habitats, and their geographical distribution in the 13 phytogeographical regions of Greece based on available floristic, vegetation, and phytosociological literature and on the authors' own collections and observations. The paper presents an analysis of the total diversity of cliff plant species, as well as the diversity of obligate chasmophytic plant species, endemics, and range-restricted taxa, in addition to the results of studying the distribution patterns of different subsets of plant taxa in the different phytogeographical regions of Greece. Hemicryptophytes and chamaephytes are the dominant life forms of the chasmophytic taxa. Among 935 species and subspecies registered, 476 are obligate chasmophytes, of which the majority are Greek endemics. Hierarchical cluster analysis of different subsets of plant taxa revealed affinities of the cliff flora of different phytogeographical regions. Additionally, 15 chasmophytic taxa mentioned in Annexes II, IV, and V of EEC Directive 92/43 belong to the cliff flora, of which 10 are obligate chasmophytes and nine have a priority for protection. Eighteen taxa are included in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, of which four are critically endangered (CR, seven are vulnerable (VU, and three are endangered (EN. The distinct correlation between endemism and chasmophytic ecology is emphasized, since a detailed understanding of the local distribution and

  16. Statistical analysis of rockfall volume distributions: Implications for rockfall dynamics (United States)

    Dussauge, Carine; Grasso, Jean-Robert; Helmstetter, AgnèS.


    We analyze the volume distribution of natural rockfalls on different geological settings (i.e., calcareous cliffs in the French Alps, Grenoble area, and granite Yosemite cliffs, California Sierra) and different volume ranges (i.e., regional and worldwide catalogs). Contrary to previous studies that included several types of landslides, we restrict our analysis to rockfall sources which originated on subvertical cliffs. For the three data sets, we find that the rockfall volumes follow a power law distribution with a similar exponent value, within error bars. This power law distribution was also proposed for rockfall volumes that occurred along road cuts. All these results argue for a recurrent power law distribution of rockfall volumes on subvertical cliffs, for a large range of rockfall sizes (102-1010 m3), regardless of the geological settings and of the preexisting geometry of fracture patterns that are drastically different on the three studied areas. The power law distribution for rockfall volumes could emerge from two types of processes. First, the observed power law distribution of rockfall volumes is similar to the one reported for both fragmentation experiments and fragmentation models. This argues for the geometry of rock mass fragment sizes to possibly control the rockfall volumes. This way neither cascade nor avalanche processes would influence the rockfall volume distribution. Second, without any requirement of scale-invariant quenched heterogeneity patterns, the rock mass dynamics can arise from avalanche processes driven by fluctuations of the rock mass properties, e.g., cohesion or friction angle. This model may also explain the power law distribution reported for landslides involving unconsolidated materials. We find that the exponent values of rockfall volume on subvertical cliffs, 0.5 ± 0.2, is significantly smaller than the 1.2 ± 0.3 value reported for mixed landslide types. This change of exponents can be driven by the material strength, which

  17. Obsidian hydration dates glacial loading? (United States)

    Friedman, I; Pierce, K L; Obradovich, J D; Long, W D


    Three different groups of hydration rinds have been measured on thin sections of obsidian from Obsidian Cliff, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. The average thickness of the thickest (oldest) group of hydration rinds is 16.3 micrometers and can be related to the original emplacement of the flow 176,000 years ago (potassium-argon age). In addition to these original surfaces, most thin sections show cracks and surfaces which have average hydration rind thicknesses of 14.5 and 7.9 micrometers. These later two hydration rinds compare closely in thickness with those on obsidian pebbles in the Bull Lake and Pinedale terminal moraines in the West Yellowstone Basin, which are 14 to 15 and 7 to 8 micrometers thick, respectively. The later cracks are thought to have been formed by glacial loading during the Bull Lake and Pinedale glaciations, when an estimated 800 meters of ice covered the Obsidian Cliff flow.

  18. Vehicle-borne survey techniques for background radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minato, Susumu


    This paper presented methods for converting count rates measured inside cars and trains in the natural environment into outdoor terrestrial gamma-ray dose rates. First, (1) the method of calibration for a survey meter is described to be applicable to various geological terrains. Next, the regression formulas were acquired experimentally to correct (2) the shielding effects of cars and trains, and (3) the influence of pavements and ballasts. Furthermore, (4) a new method for removing interfering radiation components emitted from cliffs and tunnels was proposed, and the errors in the calculations were evaluated with numerical experiments. In addition, the degree of influence from the cliff was represented with the angle of elevation subtended to the detector. For the items (2)-(4), in particular, it could be explained with simple models that those methods are reasonable. The method for evaluating simply and accurately cosmic-ray dose rates by means of a portable barometer was also described. (author)

  19. Locomotion and physical development in rats treated with ionizing radiation in utero

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaman, M.S.; Hupp, E.W.; Lancaster, F.E.


    Effects of ionizing radiation on the emergence of locomotor skill, and physical development were studied in laboratory rats (Fisher F-344 inbred strain). Rats were treated with 3 different doses of radiation (150 rad, 15 rad, and 6.8 rad) delivered on the 20th day of prenatal life. Results indicated that relatively moderate (15 rad) to high (150 rad) doses of radiation had effects on certain locomotion and physical development parameters. Exposure to 150 rad delayed pivoting, cliff-avoidance, upper jaw tooth eruption, and decreased body weights. Other parameters, such as negative geotaxis, eye opening, and lower jaw tooth eruption were marginally delayed in the 150 rad treated animals. Exposure to 15 rad delayed pivoting and cliff-avoidance

  20. Matched molecular pair-based data sets for computer-aided medicinal chemistry [v1; ref status: indexed,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Hu


    Full Text Available Matched molecular pairs (MMPs are widely used in medicinal chemistry to study changes in compound properties including biological activity, which are associated with well-defined structural modifications. Herein we describe up-to-date versions of three MMP-based data sets that have originated from in-house research projects. These data sets include activity cliffs, structure-activity relationship (SAR transfer series, and second generation MMPs based upon retrosynthetic rules. The data sets have in common that they have been derived from compounds included in the latest release of the ChEMBL database for which high-confidence activity data are available. Thus, the activity data associated with MMP-based activity cliffs, SAR transfer series, and retrosynthetic MMPs cover the entire spectrum of current pharmaceutical targets. Our data sets are made freely available to the scientific community.

  1. Matched molecular pair-based data sets for computer-aided medicinal chemistry (United States)

    Bajorath, Jürgen


    Matched molecular pairs (MMPs) are widely used in medicinal chemistry to study changes in compound properties including biological activity, which are associated with well-defined structural modifications. Herein we describe up-to-date versions of three MMP-based data sets that have originated from in-house research projects. These data sets include activity cliffs, structure-activity relationship (SAR) transfer series, and second generation MMPs based upon retrosynthetic rules. The data sets have in common that they have been derived from compounds included in the ChEMBL database (release 17) for which high-confidence activity data are available. Thus, the activity data associated with MMP-based activity cliffs, SAR transfer series, and retrosynthetic MMPs cover the entire spectrum of current pharmaceutical targets. Our data sets are made freely available to the scientific community. PMID:24627802

  2. Organic geochemistry of petroleum seepages within the Jurassic Bencliff Grit, Osmington Mills, Dorset, UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, D.F.; Farrimond, P. [University of Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom). Fossil Fuels and Environmental Geochemistry; Hindle, A.D. [Egdon Resources (UK) Ltd., Odiham (United Kingdom)


    Occurrences of oil within the Bencliff Grit at Osmington Mills were studied through an integration of organic geochemistry and a consideration of the geological setting. Oil-stained sandstones dominate the cliff outcrop with localized regions of particularly concentrated oil impregnation. A second 'live' seep of oil occurs where the Bencliff Grit beds pass below high tide level at Bran Point. Organic geochemical analyses showed both oils to be at least moderately biodegraded, with the oils in the cliff outcrop showing enrichment in polar constituents compared with the active seep. Multivariate statistical analysis of the molecular composition identified an enrichment in diasterane biomarkers in the oils of the live seep; this difference is ascribed to source and/or maturity differences. The oil within the outcrop is considered to represent the residual staining of an unroofed oil field, whilst the live seepage at Bran Point represents a migration pathway towards the eroded anticline. (Author)

  3. Wave energy fluxes and multi-decadal shoreline changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kabuth, Alina Kristin; Kroon, Aart


    Spatial patterns of multidecadal shoreline changes in two microtidal, low-energetic embayments of southern Zealand, Denmark, were investigated by using the directional distribution of wave energy fluxes. The sites include a barrier island system attached to moraine bluffs, and a recurved spit...... variability of directional distributions of wave energy fluxes furthermore outlined potential sediment sources and sinks for the evolution of the barrier island system and for the evolution of the recurved spit....... adjacent to a cliff coast. The barrier island system is characterized by cross-shore translation and by an alignment of the barrier alongshore alternating directions of barrier-spit progradation in a bidirectional wave field. The recurved spit adjacent to the cliff coast experienced shoreline rotation...

  4. Use of advanced inspection technology during the ISI of a US-RPV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buxbaum, S R; Pond, R B [Baltimore Gas and Electric Co., MD (United States); Stone, R M


    The Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) maintains a unique place among nuclear steam supply system components because its failure is unacceptable. The assumption of incredibility of vessel failure is a US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) requirement of plant design and operation. Therefore, accurate detection and characterization of vessel flaws are essential. In order to meet the needs for improved pressure vessel inspection, EPRI assisted in the development of the Ultrasonic Data Recording and Processing System (UDRPS). The EPRI NDE Center has supported the transfer to industry through demonstration and documentation of the original system capability and by assisting utilities in their initial applications. Baltimore Gas and Electric (BG and E) purchased a second generation UDRPS and has used the system during the 10 year ISI at the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2. This presentation deals with the BG and E applications and the EPRI NDE Center support provided before and during the Calvert Cliffs ISI applications. (author).

  5. Vertical motion of the lithosphere - From the erosion of rocky coastlines to geo-dynamics via dating with Beryllium-10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regard, V.


    This thesis for the 'accreditation to conduct researches' diploma consists of four chapters: 1) the geo-dynamics of subduction zones, 2) the geo-morphology of rocky coastlines, 3) Be 10 - dating and methodology, and 4) the formation of marine or river terraces. The Be 10 dating method is based on the production of Be 10 in the soil by the neutrons forming the most part of the cosmic ray cascade when this cascade reaches the earth surface. By measuring the concentration of Be 10 in a soil sample and according to some assumptions, we can deduce how long a particular surface has been exposed. This method is used here to determine when a particular deposit was made and as a consequence to determine the long-term time evolution of the withdrawal of a cliff by dating samples taken on the terrace at the base of the cliff. (A.C.)

  6. Army Profession: How Effective Leadership Reinforces an Ethos of Trust (United States)


    34 Won-Woo Park and Sangyun Kim, “The Need of Leader-Subordinate Reciprocal Dyadic Trust to Build the Subordinate’s Trust in the...Behavior: Communication and Understanding in Relationships, eds. A. G. Athos and J. J. Gabarro (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1978), 290-303...the trust recommendations were senior Army leader strategic communication programs, trust development in doctrine, and making trust a topic for all

  7. Diversity of Snakes in Rajegwesi Tourism Area, Meru Betiri National Park


    Hakim, Luchman; Raharjo, Aji Dharma


    Rajegwesi tourism area is one of the significant tourism areas in Meru Betiri National Park, East Java, Indonesia. The area rich in term of biodiversity which are potential for developed as natural tourism attraction.  The aim of this study is to identify snakes species diversity and its distribution in Rajegwesi tourism area. Field survey was done in Rajegwesi area, namely swamps forest, residential area, rice fields, agriculture area (babatan), resort area, and Plengkang cliff. This study f...

  8. Environmental Impact Statement for the Modernization and Enhancement of Ranges, Airspace, and Training Areas in the Joint Pacific Alaska Range Complex in Alaska. Volume 2 - Appendices A through L (United States)


    Spenard Road, Anchorage, Alaska. Tuesday , January 18, 2011:6:30-8:30 p.m., Caribou Hotel, Mile 186.5 Grand Highway, Glenallen, Alaska. Wednesday...Highway, Healy, Alaska. Tuesday , january 25, 2011:6:30-8:30 p.m., Swiss Alaska Inn, 22056 South F Street, Talkeetna, Alaska. Wednesday, january...Board of Fisheries Mel Morris , Board Member, Alaska Board of Fisheries Mike Smith, Board Member, Alaska Board of Fisheries Cliff Judkins, Chair

  9. The Bril (De Bril) (United States)


    instructies betreffende de uitvoering en controleert de uitvoering. 3 Standaardisatie van werkprocessen. De inhoud van bet werk is beschreven ( IKEA ...R., Bolt6, B., & Jones, D. G. (2003). Designing for Situation Awareness: An Approach to User-Centered Design . London: Taylor & Francis. Endsley, M... design of work teams. In J. W. Lorsch (Ed.), Handbook of organizational behavior (pp. 315-342). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Harrison, M.A. (1990

  10. Africa’s Oil Coast: How the Region’s Strategic Importance May Cause Operational Challenges for AFRICOM as Currently Constructed (United States)


    Applications (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hill, 1990), 4. 10Richard L. Daft , Organization Theory and Design, 7th ed. (Cincinnati, OH: South...the researcher referenced several of Mary Jo Hatch’s design templates. Figure 2. An Open System and its Subsystems Source: Richard L. Daft ...and improve horizontal and vertical information flow throughout their environment. Richard Daft and Mary Jo Hatch’s frameworks provided the

  11. When Will We Ever Learn? The After Action Review, Lessons Learned and the Next Steps in Training and Educating the Homeland Security Enterprise for the 21st Century (United States)


    such as emergent learning , experiential learning , and sense-making. It then ties these theories and concepts together into an emergency learning ...edition, loc. 3409–3414. 107 David Kolb , Experiential Learning : Experience as the Source of Learning and Development (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice...shows us that our theory needs developing again. And the process continues. Fundamental in the Kolb model is the role of action in any learning

  12. Leader Responses to Collective Failure, and Maintenance of Group Integration, Task Motivation, Compliance, and Leader Endorsement (United States)


    be found in Kolb , D. A., Rubin, 1. M., and McIntyre, J. M., Organizational Psychology: An Experiential * Avyroach (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: member would have 10 minutes to examine and learn the steps involved in building the second model. During this 10 minute period, group members...necessarily yield increased compliance. -57- REFERENCES Cartwright, D., & Zander, A. (Eds.). Group dynamics: Research and theory (3rd ed.). Evanston, Ill

  13. Teaching Strategy: Challenge and Response (United States)


    David A. Kolb , Experiential Learning : Experience as the Source of Learning and Development, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1984. 30. For “messes...2004, pp. 24-26. 17. George E. Hein, “Constructivist Learning Theory ,” Institute for Inquiry, 2007, available from www.exploratorium-edu/ ifi...appraisal models to assist students in the learning process. In addition, Figure 3. … a theory … based largely on an expanded synthesis of what

  14. Analysis and Lessons from General Galvez’s West Florida Campaign during the American Revolutionary War (United States)


    able to win the hearts of the people with fairness and good governance. He made progress for the province by agreeing to a free trade policy with both...and the lack of support from the governor was the reason why the operations stalled . Gálvez had sent Lieutenant Colonel Miró to expedite the...ineffectiveness from Red Cliffs Fort. As a consequence, the Spanish forces could cross the sand bar of the bay. Later, once the campaign was over

  15. Detection of decadal shoreline changes along Dhamara and Maipura coast, Odisha, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    ManiMurali, R.; Dhiman, R.; Jayakumar, S.; Ilangovan, D.; Vethamony, P.

    activities in the area. Keywords: Remote sensing; Erosion; Accretion; Odisha coast; DSAS. 1. INTRODUCTION The coastline of India comprises of variety of habitats and ecosystems such as sandy and rocky beaches, cliffs, water and lagoons to bays.... These changes are attributed to construction of artificial barriers like breakwater, jetties, etc. (Nayak, 1992). The rising number of coastal disasters along the world’s coastlines throws light on the need for better and more efficient methodologies...

  16. Building a Culture of Excellence within the DeWitt Health Care Network (United States)


    Kuczmarski, T. D. (1995). Values-based leadership. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, Inc. Lee, F. (2004). If Disney ran your hospital: 9 Vi...strange world of organizataions. New York, NY. The Free Press Mohr, J.W. (1998). Measuring meaning structures. Annual Review of Sociology, Vol. 24...licensing fee is charged when the instrument is used by a company or by consulting firms to generate revenues . At least two different alternatives exist

  17. Health Care Marketing at Keller Army Community Hospital West Point, New York (United States)


    p. 58 3 Robin S.E. MacStravic, "Market Research In Ambulatory Care," Journal of Ambulatory Care Management 4 (May, 1981), 37. 41bid. 5 "Should We... Kotler , Philip. Marketing for Nonprofit Organizations. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1975. MacStravic, Robin E. Marketing Health Care. Germantown...they react to complaints, outside stimuli, or higher headquarters rather than take a proactive marketing approach to management . This study seeks to

  18. F-16 MMC Strafe in Mountainous Terrain (United States)


    angle strafe TTPs are the same as high-angle strafe in regards to roll-in, airspeed, burst length and recovery G, but differ in depression angle (10...sheer rock faces near 90 degrees straight up. It is highly unlikely that strafe would be called upon against the extremes of a 90-degree sheer cliff...or that a target could establish itself on such a rock face, so, for the purpose of this analysis, it was disregarded. Based on research conducted

  19. Total Quality Management Implementation: Selected Readings (United States)


    Investigation of the Method of Accumulation Analysis by George Box and Stephen Jones. A discussion of Taguchi’s method for analyzing ordered categorical data. 1...P., Quality Control for Management, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Grant E L and Leavenworth. R.S. Statistical Quahtu Control, Mc- Cliffs, NJ., 1967. Graw ... Stephen A. Maguire, Ingalis Shipbuiiding which, in turn, improve the ability to anticipate productio: It is ei-couraging to see full-scale application

  20. The footprint of urban heat island effect in China (United States)

    Decheng Zhou; Shuqing Zhao; Liangxia Zhang; Ge Sun; Yongqiang Liu


    Urban heat island (UHI) is one major anthropogenic modification to the Earth system that transcends its physical boundary. Using MODIS data from 2003 to 2012, we showed that the UHI effect decayed exponentially toward rural areas for majority of the 32 Chinese cities. We found an obvious urban/ rural temperature “cliff”, and estimated that the footprint of UHI effect (...

  1. Managing Supply Chain Disruptions (United States)


    to be negatively associated with innovativeness (Hage & Aiken, 1969; Moch & Morse, 1977; Rogers, 1995; Russell & Hoag, 2004). The range of new...processes, or innovations ( Moch & Morse, 1977). Grover (1993) adds that decreased autonomy of organizational components and the bounded perspective of...Structuring of Organizations: A Synthesis of the Research. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall. Moch , M. K. & Morse, E. V. (1977). Size

  2. Proceedings: NATO CCMS (Committee on the Challenges of Modern Society) Seminar Blue Book 159, Preservation of Flora and Fauna in Military Training Areas Held in Soesterberg, Netherlands on 28-30 November 1984 (United States)


    CONSERVATION MEASURES AND CULTIVATION ON MILITARY TRAINING AREAS... .o...o......, ..... **.. 99 Ulrich V. Coler PROTECTION OF SPECIES AND BIOTOPES ON MTAs.o...stone cliffs. The climate is coastal and there are very few species of beast and bird of prey. Most of the land side is cultivated for agricultural or...experimentations, trainings, etc.) and the checks carried out and going on at present on waste waters from the ecotoxicological point of view, are

  3. Formal Transformations from Graphically-Based Object-Oriented Representations to Theory-Based Specifications (United States)


    for Software Synthesis." KBSE 󈨡. IEEE, 1993. 51. Kang, Kyo C., et al. Feature-Oriented Domain Analysis ( FODA ) Feasibility Study. Technical Report...Algebra. New York, NY: Chelsea Publishing Company , 1993. 72. Martin, James. Principles of Object-Oriented Analysis and Design. Englewood Cliffs, New...and usefulness in domain analysis and modeling. Rumbaugh uses three distinct views to describe a domain: (1) the object model describes structural

  4. Narcissism and Toxic Leaders (United States)


    Psychology 36, (1978): 635-42; Albert Bandura , “Moral Disengagement in the Perpetration of Inhumanities,” Personality and Social Psychology Review, (3)3...1999): 193-209; Albert Bandura , Self- Efficacy: The Exercise of Control (New York: Freeman, 1997); Albert Bandura , Social Foundations of Thought and...Action: A Social Cognition Theory (Englewood Cliffs, NH: Prentice Hall, 1986). 9. Bandura , “Moral Disengagement in the Perpetration of Inhumanities

  5. Information and Communications Technology (ICT) Assessment Teams for First Responders in Humanitarian Assistance/Disaster Relief (HA/DR) Missions (United States)


    Assessment, Disaster Relief, Disaster Zone Access 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 123 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF REPORT Unclassified 18...local cellular carrier- pricing schedule as many offer data plans that have restrictions to the amount of traffic allowed before being bandwidth...Sanitizer Razor & spare blades Sewing kit Water bottle (2+, filled) PowerBar/CliffBar/other snacks Baby Wipes Insect repellent Sunglasses Spare

  6. Měkkýši navrhované PR Údolí Vrchlice u Kutné Hory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Juřičková


    Full Text Available This paper brings the first malacological research of the proposal nature reserve Vrchlice Valley (Central Bohemia, Czech Republic after hundred years. Altogether, 44 mollusc species have been recorded in a very diverse mosaic of floodplain forests, cliffs and meadows. Rare or locally important species Vertigo pusilla, Semilimax semilimax, Daudebardia rufa, Isognomostoma isognomostomos, Oxyloma elegans, Vitrea crystallina and Laciniaria plicata were recorded in the area of the reserve.

  7. Ship Production Symposium Held in Arlington, Virginia on September 13-15, 1989 (The National Shipbuilding Research Program) (United States)


    1986. 4. Kaoru Ishikawa , What is Total quality control? The Japanese way, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1985. 22-1o No. 23 C o m b i n...Y. Ichinose presented a paper which disclosed how standards, including flexible standards, were organized and employed by Ishikawa - jima-Harima Heavy...result by sorting out and relating the causes. The cause-and- effect diagram, sometimes called an “ Ishikawa diagram” after the Japanese professor that

  8. Acquisition for the Future: Imagination, Innovation, and Implementation. Research and Reality: Closing the Gap (United States)


    Ishikawa , Kaoru ; What is high (self perceived) Total Quality Control?; probability of their The Japanese Way; achievement. Customer Prentice Hall, 1985...34 Program Manager, September/October, 1990 pp 16-22. 2. Ishikawa , Kaoru What is Total Quality Control? - The Japanese Way (Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey...the precursors to customer-supplier quality theories of W. Edwards agreement? (4) What is the Deming, Joseph Juran, Kaoru nature of the behavioral

  9. National Computer Security Conference (15th) held in Baltimore, Maryland on October 13-16, 1992. Volume 1: Proceedings (United States)


    Institute training (and retraining). Kaoru Ishikawa stated "Quality Control beqins with education and ends with education." (2) The same can be said... Ishikawa , Kaoru , What Is Total Quality Control? The Japanese Way, Prentice-Hall, Inc, Englewood Cliff, NJ, 1985, pg 13. 71 should be data oriented...Massachusetts Institute of Technology Center for Advanced Engineering Study, Cambridge, Mass, 1989. 2. Ishikawa , Kaoru , What Is Total Quality

  10. The Subject Matter of Process Improvement: A Topic and Reference Source for Software Engineering Educators and Trainers. (United States)


    Random House Business Division, 1986. Ishikawa , Kaoru . What is Total Quality Control?: The Japanese Way. En- glewood Cliffs, NJ: drawing attention to the vital few truly important problems. Cause-and-effect diagrams. Also called fishbone and Ishikawa diagrams due to their...February 1994. 5.2 The Seeds [Aguayo 91] [Crosby 79] [Crosby 92] [Deming 86] [Fellers 92] [Gitlow 87] [Gluckman 93] [Imai 86] [ Ishikawa 85] [Juran

  11. Index of International Publications in Aerospace Medicine (United States)


    University, 1974. Gerathewohl ST. Principles of Bioastronautics. Englewood Cliffs, NJ, USA: Prentice-Hall, 1963. Gibson DC. Commercial Space Tourism ...College of Sports Medicine, 1996. Jenkins M. Human-Rating Requirements. Houston, TX, USA: Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 1998. Johnson B, May GL...USA: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000. Spencer J, Rugg KL. Space Tourism : Do You Want to Go? Burlington, Canada: Apogee Books, 2004. Stahle J

  12. Sound / Märt Milter

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Milter, Märt


    Uute plaatide Rolling Stones "No Security", Spiritualized "Live At The Royal Albert Hall", Kelly family "From Their Hearts", Arnold "Hillside Album", Joe Cocker "Greatest Hits", OST "Acid House", Songs from Andrew Lloyd Webber and Jim Steinmans "Whistle Down The Wind", The Weather Girls "PuttinÒn The Hits", Cliff Richard "Real As I Wanna Be", Folkmill "Topelt rosin", SIG "Sig 20v. Juhla-EP", "Motown Celebrates Sinatra", John Lee Hooker "Best Of Friends"

  13. Micro paleontology of Camacho, Raigon and Libertad formations in San Jose department in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Silva, J.


    Camacho, Raigon and Libertad formations of Miocene to Pleistocene age, are rich in microfossils as showed by recent studies of samples coming from cliffs at San Jose department, at Rio de la Plata shore and from Borehole N 1394/4 (DINAMIGE) which was made near to Kiyu resort. The microfossils are integrated by foraminiferids, diatoms, ostracods, silicophitoliths and uniaxial sponge spicles. By means of paleontologic analysis we can reach to a much clear definition of the geological evolution of the area

  14. Disparities in Minority Promotion Rates: A Total Quality Approach (United States)


    UCL - p + 3 x.’ { p ( I - p) / n data, The statistical theory of logistic regression is beyond the scope of this report. Several computer statistical ... Statistics . Richard D. Irwin, Inc., Homewood IL: 1986. Feagin, J. R., Discrimination 4merican style: Institutional racism and sexism . Englewood Cliffs...current year data and the previous three years. Data for fiscal year One purpose of this project is to provide a statistical 1987, 1988, 1989, 1990, and

  15. The Archaeology and History of Lake Ray Roberts. Volume 1. Cultural Resources Survey. (United States)


    the survey have rendered the information they contain through the recording process and should be determined ineligible for further study. Fifty-five...clay features were actually human hearths ( Heizer and Brooks 1965), and the possibility that the Clovis point was planted ( Heizer 1974). Recent research...15:157-172. Hart, John Fraser 1976 The look of the land. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey. * 9-5 Heizer , R.F. 1974 Some thoughts on hoaxes

  16. Nuclear Geoplosics Sourcebook. Volume IV. Part II. Empirical Analysis of Nuclear and High-Explosive Cratering and Ejecta (United States)


    to over 10 feet, overlying the fluvial Kayenta sandstone. Tha upper several feet of the Kayenta formation con- sisted of a ’transitional zone of...weathered sandstone. The Kayenta sandstone is a very competent sandsto,,e forming the caprock for the cliffs and the monoliths in the nearby Colorado...National Monument. The surface alluvial soil and weathered Kayenta sandstone in the test area site normally contain 3 to 5 percent water by weight. For

  17. Национальная программа восстановления сокола-сапсана в штате Вермонт (США): результаты исследований 2005 г


    Фоули, М.; Вольфорт, К.; Фассио, С.; Бладгетт, Д.


    Introduction Peregrine Falcon populations have been closely monitored since the post World War II pesticide-induced decline. Due to the indiscriminate use of DDT, the peregrine was extirpated as an eastern breeding species by the midto late 1960s (Berger et al. 1969; Fyfe et al. 1976). In 1970 the last observation of a wild adult at a northeastern nesting cliff occurred at Vermont's Mount Pisgah (Spofford 1975). The Peregrine Fund, Inc. initiated an intensive captive breeding and release (hac...

  18. The key role of shared participation in changing occupational self-efficacy through stress management courses


    Füllemann, Désirée; Jenny, Gregor J; Brauchli, Rebecca; Bauer, Georg F


    This study is the first that longitudinally examined change in occupational self-efficacy (OSE) through individual and shared participation in occupational stress management courses (SMC). Applying the framework of social cognitive theory (Bandura, 1986, Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall), we assumed that participation in SMC facilitates OSE perceptions. We further assumed that the psychosocial environment promotes change ...

  19. Performance Envelopes and Optimal Appropriateness Measurement. (United States)


    20370 Dr. Hans Crombag University of Leyden Mr. Raymond E. Christal Education Research Center AFHRL/MOE Boerhaavelaan 2 Brooks AFB, TX 78235 2334 EN... Leyden The NETHERLANDS Dr. Norman Cliff Department of Psychology CTB/McGraw-Hill Library Univ. of So. California 2500 Garden Road University Park...Psychology Dr William Montague University of Western Australia NPRDC Code 13 Nedlands W.A. 6009 San Diego, CA 92152 AUSTRALIA Ms. Kathleen Moreno Dr

  20. Deciding to be Violent: The Perceived Utility of Abusive Behavior in Marriage (United States)


    Psychology . 61, 40-50. Bandura., A (1977). Socialleaming theoD’. Englewood Cliffs., NJ: Prentice-Hall. Barlow , D. H., Hays., S. C., &; Nelson, R.O. (1984...negative intent to wife behavior: The attributions ofmaritally violent versus nonviolent men. Journal of Abnormal Psychology , 102, 206-211. Holtzworth...may arise from such copyright violation. -1 /;l-_. RaJid’ail Clifford Nedegaard Department ofMedical and Clinical Psychology Uniformed Services

  1. Nouveau regard sur la caractérisation sédimentologique et géochimique d’une série mixte “siliciclastique-carbonate” (la formation des Calcaires à Alvéolines, Bassin de Graus-Tremp, Espagne)


    Hamon , Youri; Deschamps , Rémi; Joseph , Philippe; Garcia , Daniel; Chanvry , Emmanuelle


    International audience; This article is a first attempt of combining sedimentological analysis and geochemical systematics of the Alveolina Limestone Formation as a tool to identify the major stratigraphic surfaces, and to improve the sequence stratigraphy interpretation. This formation is Early Eocene in age and crops out in several well-exposed cliffs in the Serraduy – Roda de Isabena area (Graus-Tremp basin, NE Spain). Within this succession, nineteen carbonate and siliciclastic facies hav...

  2. Organizational Learning in the Development of Doctrine in the U.S. Army, 1976-1986: A Historically-Based Study (United States)


    Kotler , P. & Armstrong , G. (1991). Principles of Marketing. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Kotler , P., Fahey, L. & Jatusripitak, S. (1985). quality management (Garvin, 1991), or the goal of customer orientation (Peters, 1984), or a better marketing focus ( Kotler , 1985), and other...another to produce a product that benefits society. Kotler 117 (1991) defines this a societal marketing. The implication for the military and national

  3. Physician Acceptance of Gateway to Care at Irwin Army Community Hospital (United States)


    frontier cavalry post once commanded by General George Armstrong Custer. Today it is the home of almost 20,000 soldiers of the Big Red One, First Infantry...especially important for the future. Physicians, as key "players" in healthcare organizations, are also key to the success of Gateway to Care. Kotler and...research (3rd ed.). New York: Holt. Physician Acceptance 32 Kotler , P., & Clarke, R. (1987). Marketing for health care organizations. Englewood Cliffs

  4. A Study of Civilian Registered Nurse Recruitment at Madigan Army Medical Center, Tacoma, Washington. (United States)


    34 May, 1981, "Nurse, Where Are You?" Judy Armstrong . 5 1nitial Report and Preliminary Recommendations, National Commission on Nursing (September 1981...Interview with Ms. R. Marsh, Staffing Specialist, Force Develop- ment Division, Madigan Army Medical Center, Tacoma, WA (Dec 81) 20Philip Kotler ...Marketing Management. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, Inc., 1980. Kotler , Philip. Marketing for Nonprofit Institutions. Englewood Cliffs, N.D.: Prentice-Hall

  5. Marketing Analysis and Strategy for a Small Business in the Beekeeping Industry. (United States)


    segment has opportunities associated with it that may be profitably 2Philip Kotler , " Marketing Management: Analysis, Planning, and Control," Prentice...I I I162 I I BIBLIOGRAPHY IB Abel, Derek and John Hammond. Strategic Market Planning. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice- Hall, Inc., 1979. Kotler ...11I’ISTATIOY I I I I MARKETING ANALYSIS AND STRATEGY FOR A SMALL IBUSINESS IN THE BEEKEEPING INDUSTRY I III APPROVED: Acoession For DDC TABUn mounced or

  6. On the marine fauna of the Anglesey coast adjacent to Wylfa power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamber, R.N.


    The findings of recent surveys of the marine fauna in the vicinity of Wylfa Power Station are collated and discussed in the context of previous studies on the biota of this coast. The surveys included a study of the mussel populations of the north Anglesey coast, general surveys of rocky shore and beach habitats and of Cemlyn Beach and Lagoon and a detailed quantification of cliff-dwelling species from which those influenced by the cooling water have been identified. (author)

  7. Estimating population size of a nocturnal burrow-nesting seabird using acoustic monitoring and habitat mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Oppel


    Full Text Available Population size assessments for nocturnal burrow-nesting seabirds are logistically challenging because these species are active in colonies only during darkness and often nest on remote islands where manual inspections of breeding burrows are not feasible. Many seabird species are highly vocal, and recent technological innovations now make it possible to record and quantify vocal activity in seabird colonies. Here we test the hypothesis that remotely recorded vocal activity in Cory’s shearwater (Calonectris borealis breeding colonies in the North Atlantic increases with nest density, and combined this relationship with cliff habitat mapping to estimate the population size of Cory’s shearwaters on the island of Corvo (Azores. We deployed acoustic recording devices in 9 Cory’s shearwater colonies of known size to establish a relationship between vocal activity and local nest density (slope = 1.07, R2 = 0.86, p < 0.001. We used this relationship to predict the nest density in various cliff habitat types and produced a habitat map of breeding cliffs to extrapolate nest density around the island of Corvo. The mean predicted nest density on Corvo ranged from 6.6 (2.1–16.2 to 27.8 (19.5–36.4 nests/ha. Extrapolation of habitat-specific nest densities across the cliff area of Corvo resulted in an estimate of 6326 Cory’s shearwater nests (95% confidence interval: 3735–10,524. This population size estimate is similar to previous assessments, but is too imprecise to detect moderate changes in population size over time. While estimating absolute population size from acoustic recordings may not be sufficiently precise, the strong positive relationship that we found between local nest density and recorded calling rate indicates that passive acoustic monitoring may be useful to document relative changes in seabird populations over time.

  8. An Exploratory Study of the Use of an Inexpensive Cordless Telephone as a Part of a Data Communications Link. (United States)


    BJ, p. 3. 15. Brabb, GJ, p.5 - 8. 16. Kotler , Ps Principles of Marketing , Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1980, p. 49. 17. Whittemore, BJ, p...15). Utility is defined as the abilityj to satisfyj a need or desire. The marketing discipline recognizes the four categories of utilityj Since information posesses the characteristics of goods in the market place and data is the raw material from which information is derived, it is

  9. A Study to Establish Baseline Data on the Retiree Population’s Perceptions of Access and Health Care Delivered through Outpatient Services at Ireland Army Community Hospital (United States)


    common household products, there are many ideas and principles that are used in marketing consumer products that can be applied to primary health care...Design & Analysis, Chicago: Free Press, 1955. Kotler , Phillip., Marketing for Nonprofit Organizations, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc., recapture ’the retiree population around IACH, Ft. Knox, KY. and to implement a marketing strategy which would attempt to recapture a portion of

  10. Motivation Modeling: Influencing Subordinate Motivation and Organizational Effectiveness. (United States)


    William Morrow, Inc., 1985. E’luner , Herbert. Symbolic Interactionism : Perspective and Method. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1969. Bothwell...individuals are active and observing who profit from the experiences of others and store these observations symbolically for future use and regulate...Burns, J.M. Leadership. NY: Harper and iow, 1978. Purke, Kenneth. Language as Symbolic Action. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1969. Byrne

  11. Some Thoughts (and Afterthoughts) on Context, Interpretation, and Organization Theory. (United States)


    viewpoint can be cast as symbolic interactionism (Blumer, 1969) but it is a viewpoint with many variations (Rock, 1979). 1 seek my own intellectual models in... Symbolic interactionism : Perspective and method. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1969. Burrell, G. and Morgan, G. Sociological paradigms and...making of symbolic interactionism . London: Macmillan, 1979. Salancik, G.R. and Pfeffer, J. An examination of need satisfaction models of job attitudes

  12. A Framework for Integrating Cultural Factors in Military Modeling and Simulation (United States)


    Symbolic Interactionism : Perspective and Method. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, Prentice-Hall. Bonner, J. T. (1980). The Evolution of Culture in...cultural factors. The framework includes the impacts of cultural perception of information-such as interpretation of signs, signals and symbols . This...for Cultural Factors in Organizational Model .................... 23 5.3 Signs, Signals, and Symbols : The Impacts on the Cultural Perception of

  13. Environmental Assessment of a Central Heating Plant. (United States)


    be critical for wildlife productivity. Nutrient content differs by plant species and vegetative part. Many interactions in the biotic community are...deposits which begin in the Cliffs Ridge area and run west to Negaunee. Concentrations of uranium which have higher readings than background can be found...manganese, aluminium , zinc and selen- ium (Ref. 10). kny effect on the ground-water quality would likely in- volve an increase in one or more of these

  14. Begonia hosensis (sect. Reichenheimia, Begoniaceae, a new species from Sarawak, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che-Wei Lin


    Full Text Available Begonia hosensis, a new species of sect. Reichenheimia from Sarawak, Malaysia is here described and illustrated. Begonia hosensis resembles B. andersonii, differing in the stipule prominently keeled and female flower 5- (vs. 4- tepaled. Ecologically, the two species are also separable: B. hosensis occurs on granitic cliffs ca. 400 km east of Kuching, the only known locality of B. andersonii, a limestone species.

  15. A Cost Simulation Tool for Estimating the Cost of Operating Government Owned and Operated Ships (United States)


    Horngren , C.T., Foster, G., Datar, S.M., Cost Accounting : A Management Emphasis, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1994 IBM Corporation, A Graphical...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A COST SIMULATION TOOL FOR 5. FUNDING NUMBERS ESTIMATING THE COST OF OPERATING GOVERNMENT OWNED AND OPERATED SHIPS 6. AUTHOR( S ...normally does not present a problem to the accounting department. The final category, the cost of operating the government owned and operated ships is

  16. The Effect of Activity-Based Costing on Logistics Management (United States)


    Accounting Horizons, Vol. 6, No. 3, September 1992, pp. 1-13. 38. Cooper, Robin and Robert S . Kaplan, The Design of Cost Management Systems...Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1991. 370 39. Cooper, Robin and Robert S . Kaplan, "How Cost Accounting Distorts Product Costs ," Management Accounting ... Cost /Management Accounting ," Management Accounting , Vol. 72, No. 4, pp. 48- 52. 58. Foster, George and Charles T. Horngren , "Flexible

  17. Acquisition Review Quarterly (ARQ): Volume 1, Number 1, Winter 1994 (United States)


    OH. Horngren , C. T., & Foster, G. (1991). Cost Accounting , a Managerial Emphasis (7th ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ. Moniison, D. C. (1901, March). Deep...1), or are predicted to occur for the duration of their cost account ( s ) as planned on Work Package Planning Sheets (WPPS). The Narrative dealing with similar business situations. Research 19- COST OVERRUN OPTIMISM: Fact or Fiction Major David S . Christensen, USAF "Wheii idken to

  18. Accounting for Veterans’ Educational Assistance Benefits (United States)


    today’s accounting records. It represents a deferred compensation S earned for present employment. If this cost is omitted from financial statements...that would provide a quantitative basis from which to allocate earned educational benefits as a current employment cost . Pension S accounting ...September 1967, pp. 37-51. 32. Horngren , C.T., Cost Accounting : A Managerial Emphasis, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, Prentice-Hall, inc., 1972. 33. Matz, A

  19. Would GAAP - Based Accounting Practices Improve Financial Management and Decision-Making in the Department of Defense? (United States)


    was in complete compliance with the act. 6 U. S . General Accounting Office. Manaaina the Cost of Government: Building an Effective Financial Management...34 Journal of Accountancy , April 1987, 58-70. 10 7. S . General Accounting Office. Managing the Cost of Government: Building and Effective Financial...N. J.: Prentice-Hall, 1981. pp. 62-64. 111 Ibid., pp. 63. 112 Horngren , Charles T. Cost Accounting : A Managerial EEmRhsi, 5th ed., Englewood Cliffs

  20. Cost Reporting at a Navy Branch Clinic (United States)


    John Wiley & Sons, 1991. 15 Horngren , Charles, Cost Accounting -=A Managerial Emphasis, 5th Edition, Prentice Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1982...traditionally reported under a partial cost reporting system. By applying basic principles of managerial accounting , a full cost reporting system is...traditionally reported under a partial cost reporting system. By applying basic principles of managerial accounting , a proposed full cost reporting

  1. An Examination of Energy Considerations in the Product Acquisition Process. (United States)


    benefits derived (Fisher, 1970; Horngren , 1977). This chapter will examine the many areas where energy costs can be accounted for to provide...overhead cost pool ( Horngren , 1977). The allocation of energy costs involved in the distribution of the documents depends upon the accounting system...Corporation, December 1970. Horngren , Charles T. Cost Accounting - A Managerial Emphasis. Englewood Cliffs NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1977. 67 / 4 Kinder

  2. An Evaluation of the WSSC (Weapon System Support Cost) Cost Allocation Algorithms. II. Installation Support. (United States)


    S XX3OXX, or XX37XX is found. As a result, the following two host-financed tenant support accounts currently will be treated as unit operations costs ... Horngren , Cost Accounting : A Managerial Emphasis, Prentice-Hall Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1972. 10. D. B. Levine and J. M. Jondrow, "The...WSSC COST ALLOCATION Technical Report ~ALGORITHMS II: INSTALLATION SUPPORT 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR( S ) 9. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER

  3. An Analysis of Information Structure and Optimal Transfer Pricing decision Rules for Decentralized Firms (United States)


    Inventories and Work Force, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey (1960). Horngren , C. T. Cost Accounting : A Managerial Emphasis, Fourth Edition...achieved/received by virtue of AFIT performing the research. Can you estimate what this research would have cost if it had been accomplished under...future potential, or other value of this research. Please use the bottom part of this questionnaire for your statement( s ). NAME GRADE POSITION

  4. Analysis of Cost Growth and Cost Composition in the Defense Aerospace Industry (United States)


    Making. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc., 1977. 16. Horngren , Charles T. Cost Accounting , A Managerial Emphasis. Englewood Cliffs NJ: Prentice...58 7. Scatter Plot of Cost /DL Hour Ratio, Data Set C ................ .................. 59 8. Scatter Plot of Cost /DL S Ratio, Data Set...C 62 9. Scatter Plot of Cost /DL S Ratio, Then-Year Dollars ................... .................... 63 10. Scatter Plot of OH/TC Ratio, Data Set C

  5. Life-Cycle Costs of Alternative ICBM Second Stage Designs (United States)


    of Logistics, Air Force Institute of Technology (AU), Wright-Patterson AFB OH, 1992. 34. Horngren , Charles T. and George Foster. Cost Accounting ; A...Managerial Emphasis (Sixth Edition). Englewood Cliffs NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1987. 35. Horngren , Charles T. and George Foster. Cost Accounting ; A...our research. We would also like to thank those involved with the 1991 Small ICBM Operations and Support cost estimate. Your assistance with the O& S

  6. Economic Analysis Model Evaluation for Technology Modernization Programs. (United States)


    Press, 1967. 14. Horngren , Charles T. Cost Accounting : A Managerial Emphasis. Englewood Cliffs, NJ, Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1977. 15. Kirchoff, Robert C...accordance with Cost Accounting Standards Board (CASB) and Internal Revenue Service (IRS) regulations. 8. Estimated savings were based on 1388 total...invest- ments will lower contractor profit. 5. Cost of money - The Cost Accounting Standard Board (CAS 414) allows a percent of the cost of investing

  7. Cost Overrun Optimism: Fact or Fiction (United States)


    Base, OH. Homgren, C. T. (1990). In G. Foster (Ed.), Cost accounting : A managerial emphasis (7th ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Morrison... Accounting Office. Gansler, J. S. (1989). Affording defense. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. Heise, S. R. (1991). A review of cost performance index...Image designed by Diane Fleischer Cost Overrun Optimism: FACT or FICTION? Maj David D. Christensen, USAF Program managers are advocates by

  8. Monitorização da força da ondulação na base da arriba (Pessegueiro, SW Portugal. Primeiros resultados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Neves


    Full Text Available MEASUREMENT OF THE WAVE FORCE AT THE CLIFF BASE (PESSEGUEIRO, SW PORTUGAL. FIRST RESULTS. In this article the characteristicsof a new wave force sensor (EWIN are briefly described. This instrument was bolted to the shore platform of Pessegueiro on a first trial experience in Portugal. The maximum wave force records are also analysed in correlation with the wave climate accured in these occasions.

  9. Dinosaur tracks in Lower Jurassic coastal plain sediments (Sose Bugt Member, Rønne Formation) on Bornholm, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Lars B; Milàn, Jesper; Pedersen, Gunver K


    Fluvial palaeochannels of coastal plain sediments of the Lower Jurassic Sose Bugt Member of the Rønne Formation exposed in the coastal cliffs at Sose Bugt, Bornholm, contain abundant dinosaur or other large vertebrate tracks in the form of deformation structures exposed in vertical section...... track. Contemporary Upper Triassic – Lower Jurassic strata from southern Sweden and Poland contain a diverse track fauna, supporting our interpretation. This is the earliest evidence of dinosaur activity in Denmark....

  10. Potential effects of environmental contaminants on P450 aromatase activity and DNA damage in swallows from the Rio Grande and Somerville, Texas (United States)

    Sitzlar, M.A.; Mora, M.A.; Fleming, J.G.W.; Bazer, F.W.; Bickham, J.W.; Matson, C.W.


    Cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) and cave swallows (P. fulva) were sampled during the breeding season at several locations in the Rio Grande, Texas, to evaluate the potential effects of environmental contaminants on P450 aromatase activity in brain and gonads and DNA damage in blood cells. The tritiated water-release aromatase assay was used to measure aromatase activity and flow cytometry was used to measure DNA damage in nucleated blood cells. There were no significant differences in brain and gonadal aromatase activities or in estimates of DNA damage (HPCV values) among cave swallow colonies from the Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) and Somerville. However, both brain and gonadal aromatase activities were significantly higher (P male cliff swallows from Laredo than in those from Somerville. Also, DNA damage estimates were significantly higher (P males and females combined) from Laredo than in those from Somerville. Contaminants of current high use in the LRGV, such as atrazine, and some of the highly persistent organochlorines, such as toxaphene and DDE, could be potentially associated with modulation of aromatase activity in avian tissues. Previous studies have indicated possible DNA damage in cliff swallows. We did not observe any differences in aromatase activity or DNA damage in cave swallows that could be associated with contaminant exposure. Also, the differences in aromatase activity and DNA damage between male cliff swallows from Laredo and Somerville could not be explained by contaminants measured at each site in previous studies. Our study provides baseline information on brain and gonadal aromatase activity in swallows that could be useful in future studies. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  11. Models and Estimation Procedures for the Analysis of Subjects-by-Items Data Arrays. (United States)


    Conclusions and recommendations The usefulness of Tukey’s model for model-based psychological testing is probably greatest for analyses of responses which are...22314 National Institute of Education Attn: TC 1200 19th Street NW Washington, DC 20208 Dr. William Graham Testing Directorate 1 Dr. Lorraine D. Eyde ...Educational Testing Service 1 Dr. Norman Cliff Princeton, NJ 08450 Dept. of Psychology Univ. of So. California 1 Dr. Ina Bilodeau University Park

  12. Rockfall-induced impact force causing a debris flow on a volcanoclastic soil slope: a case study in southern Italy (United States)

    Budetta, P.


    On 10 January 2003, a rockfall of approximately 10 m3 affected a cliff some 25 m high located along the northern slopes of Mt. St. Angelo (Nocera Inferiore, province of Salerno) in the southern Italian region of Campania. The impact of boulders on the lower sector of the slope, along which detrital-pyroclastic soils outcrop, triggered a small channelled debris flow of about 500 m3. Fortunately, no damage nor victims resulted from the landslide. Several marks of the impacts were observed at the cliff toe and outside the collapsed area, and the volumes of some fallen boulders were subsequently measured. By means of in-situ surveys, it was possible to reconstruct the cliff's geo-structural layout in detail. A rockfall back-analysis was subsequently performed along seven critical profiles of the entire slope (surface area of about 4000 m2). The results of this numerical modelling using the lumped-mass method were then used to map the kinetic iso-energy curves. In the triggering area of the debris flow, for a falling boulder of 1 m3, the mean kinetic energy was estimated at 120 kJ, this value being equivalent to an impact force, on an inclined surface, of some 800 kN. After landing, due to the locally high slope gradient (about 45°), and low angle of trajectory at impact (about 23°), some boulders slid down the slope as far as the endpoints. The maximum depth of penetration into the ground by a sliding block was estimated at about 16 cm. Very likely, owing to the high impact force of boulders on the saturated soil slope outcropping at the cliff base, the debris flow was triggered under undrained loading conditions. Initial failure was characterized by a translational slide involving a limited, almost elliptical area where the pyroclastic cover shows greater thickness in comparison with the surrounding areas.

  13. Development of a Multilevel Prevention Program for Improved Relationship Functioning in Active Duty Military Members (United States)


    8: 345-79. 7. Bandura A: Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social and Cognitive Theory . Englewood Cliffs, NJ, Prentice Hall, 1986. 8...Some of you may have experienced the end of the romantic relationship you were in prior to your deployment). We’re interested in learning what have...practices and discipline (e.g., what is cor­ rect child behavior, how to respond to misbehavior) and the need to learn how to constructively

  14. Potential Implications of Changes in ChalleNGe Admission Criteria: A Literature Review (United States)


    psychologists focused on developing so-called social learning theories — theories that account for how humans behave in complex social situations. In particular...Psychology Series. Edited by Gary D. Phye. San Diego, CA: Academic Press. [7] Bandura , Albert. 1986. Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social ...Cognitive Theory . Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc. [8] Deming, David J. 2015. The Growing Importance of Social Skills in the Labor Market

  15. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the Military Suicide Attitudes Questionnaire (MSAQ) (United States)


    257-65 6. Bandura A. 1986. Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social Cogntive Theory . Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall 7. Batterham PJ...Observational learning is also tied to attitude formation and behaviors (6). This theory suggests that attitudes may be formed based on observing the...which supported the link between attitudes and actions with the inclusion of social norms into the relationship (30). Later, this theory was

  16. Check valve slam waterhammer in piping systems equipped with multiple parallel pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sponsel, J.; Bird, E.; Zarechnak, A.


    The low pressure safety injection system at the calvert cliff's plant is designed to provide cooling water to the reactor in the event of a postulated accident and for reactor cool-down and decay heat removal during normal maintenance and refueling. This system experienced repeated damage to the axial piping supports on the pump section and the discharge headers due to the check valve phenomenon. To determine the cause, testing was performed in both the LPSI and CCW systems

  17. Mariana Islands-Hyperspectral Airborne Remote Environmental Sensing Experiment 2010 (United States)


    In some places along the strand, coconut palms (Cocos nucifera) were the dominant plant and the litter which has fallen year after year, posed San Jose, Tinian’s largest village, in order to survey several beaches, the limestone cliffs, and a variety of plant species. The Tinian coastline...thrives on sandy soils and is highly tolerant of salinity. Cordia subcordata niyoron Strand Small (1-7m) tree found along the beach and on

  18. Marta maailm / Marta Vaarik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaarik, Marta, 1987-


    Riigikogu liige Evelin Sepp käis sir Elton Johni kontserdil 15. sept. Saku Suurhallis. Poplaulja Mike Emelai on kaalus alla võtnud. Riigikogu liige Enn Eesmaa esineb Cliff Richardi looga "Don't Forget To Catch Me" 4. okt. Eesti Vähiliidu korraldataval heategevuskontserdil. "Tantsud tähtedega" saates paarina võistlevad laulja Koit Toome ja tantsija Kerttu Tänav käisid Elton Johni kontserdil

  19. Radiological effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    Environmental monitoring in the vicinity of the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant has been shown the radiation dose to the public from plant operation to be quite small. Calculations from the reported release rates yield 0.2 mrem whole body dose and 0.6 mrem skin dose for the calendar quarter of maximum release. Radioactivity discharges to the Chesapeake Bay have resulted in detectable concentrations of /sup 110m/Ag, 58 Co, and 60 Co in sediments and shellfish. The area yielding samples with detectable concentrations of plant effluents extends for roughly six miles up and down the western shore, with maximum values found at the plant discharge area. The radiation dose to an individual eating 29 doz oysters and 15 doz crabs (5 kg of each) taken from the plant discharge area would be about 4/1000 mrem whole body dose and 0.2 mrem gastrointestinal tract dose (about 0.007% and 0.5% of the applicable guidelines, respectively.) Comparison of these power plant-induced doses with the fluctuations in natural radiation dose already experienced by the public indicates that the power plant effects are insignificant. The natural variations are tens of times greater than the maximum doses resulting from Calvert Cliffs Power Plant. Although operations to date provide an insufficient basis to predict radiological impact of the Calvert Cliffs Plant over its operational lifetime, available data indicate that the plant should continue to operate with insignificant radiological impact, well within all applicable guidelines

  20. Slope stability and rockfall assessment of volcanic tuffs using RPAS with 2-D FEM slope modelling (United States)

    Török, Ákos; Barsi, Árpád; Bögöly, Gyula; Lovas, Tamás; Somogyi, Árpád; Görög, Péter


    Steep, hardly accessible cliffs of rhyolite tuff in NE Hungary are prone to rockfalls, endangering visitors of a castle. Remote sensing techniques were employed to obtain data on terrain morphology and to provide slope geometry for assessing the stability of these rock walls. A RPAS (Remotely Piloted Aircraft System) was used to collect images which were processed by Pix4D mapper (structure from motion technology) to generate a point cloud and mesh. The georeferencing was made by Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) with the use of seven ground control points. The obtained digital surface model (DSM) was processed (vegetation removal) and the derived digital terrain model (DTM) allowed cross sections to be drawn and a joint system to be detected. Joint and discontinuity system was also verified by field measurements. On-site tests as well as laboratory tests provided additional engineering geological data for slope modelling. Stability of cliffs was assessed by 2-D FEM (finite element method). Global analyses of cross sections show that weak intercalating tuff layers may serve as potential slip surfaces. However, at present the greatest hazard is related to planar failure along ENE-WSW joints and to wedge failure. The paper demonstrates that RPAS is a rapid and useful tool for generating a reliable terrain model of hardly accessible cliff faces. It also emphasizes the efficiency of RPAS in rockfall hazard assessment in comparison with other remote sensing techniques such as terrestrial laser scanning (TLS).

  1. Mummy Lake: An unroofed ceremonial structure within a large-scale ritual landscape (United States)

    Benson, Larry V.; Griffin, Eleanor R.; Stein, J.R.; Friedman, R. A.; Andrae, S. W.


    The structure at Mesa Verde National Park known historically as Mummy Lake and more recently as Far View Reservoir is not part of a water collection, impoundment, or redistribution system. We offer an alternative explanation for the function of Mummy Lake. We suggest that it is an unroofed ceremonial structure, and that it serves as an essential component of a Chacoan ritual landscape. A wide constructed avenue articulates Mummy Lake with Far View House and Pipe Shrine House. The avenue continues southward for approximately 6 km where it apparently divides connecting with Spruce Tree House and Sun Temple/Cliff Palace. The avenue has previously been interpreted as an irrigation ditch fed by water impounded at Mummy Lake; however, it conforms in every respect to alignments described as Chacoan roads. Tree-ring dates indicate that the construction of Spruce Tree House and Cliff Palace began about A.D. 1225, roughly coincident with the abandonment of the Far View community. This pattern of periodically relocating the focus of an Anasazi community by retiring existing ritual structures and linking them to newly constructed facilities by means of broad avenues was first documented by Fowler and Stein (1992) in Manuelito Canyon, New Mexico. Periods of intense drought appear to have contributed to the relocation of prehistoric Native Americans from the Far View group to Cliff Palace/Spruce Tree House in the mid-13th century and eventually to the abandonment of all Anasazi communities in southwestern Colorado in the late-13th century.

  2. Geology of Isla de Mona, Puerto Rico (United States)

    Frank, E.F.; Wicks, Carol M.; Mylroie, J.; Troester, J.; Alexander, E.C.; Carew, J.L.


    Isla de Mona is a carbonate island located in the Mona Passage 68 km west of Puerto Rico. The tectonically uplifted island is 12 km by 5 km, with an area of 55 km2, and forms a raised flat-topped platform or meseta. The meseta tilts gently to the south and is bounded by near vertical cliffs on all sides. These cliffs rise from 80 m above sea level on the north to 20 m above the sea on the southern coast. Along the southwestern and western side of the island a three- to six-meter-high Pleistocene fossil reef abuts the base of the cliff to form a narrow coastal plain. The meseta itself consists of two Mio-Pliocene carbonate units, the lower Isla de Mona Dolomite and the upper Lirio Limestone. Numerous karst features, including a series of flank margin caves primarily developed at the Lirio Limestone/Isla de Mona Dolomite contact, literally ring the periphery of the island.

  3. Ecological effects of nuclear steam electric station operations on estuarine systems. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihursky, J.A.


    This report summarizes the findings of studies of the impact of the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant on the aquatic biota of Chesapeake Bay. Physical findings show that the typical radial extent of influence of the discharge on the physical and chemical environment of the Bay is rather limited (< 2 km). This suggestion is bolstered by findings of phytoplankton and zooplankton studies: when effects were noted at all, they only appeared at sampling stations nearest (within 2 km of) the discharge. Also, direct entrainment effects on these groups were either small (in the case of phytoplankton) or species-specific (in the case of zooplankton). Benthos showed mixed responses to plant operations - the populations of some species were enhanced, one species was adversely affected, and others were unaffected. The major plant effect on the benthos was due to habitat resource enrichment, and the consequence was higher standing stocks (e.g., more food for fish) in the affected area. Direct plant effects on finfish are dominated by impingement. Mortality as a result of impingement, for many species, tends to be moderate to slight. Effects as a result of entrainment of eggs and larvae are limited because the Calvert Cliffs area is not a major spawning location for any species. In sum, the Calvert Cliffs plant appears to have a limited effect on the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem. 180 references, 6 figures, 18 tables

  4. Evidence from cosmic ray exposure (CRE) dating for the existence of a pre-Minoan caldera on Santorini, Greece (United States)

    Athanassas, C. D.; Bourlès, D. L.; Braucher, R.; Druitt, T. H.; Nomikou, P.; Léanni, L.


    Cosmic ray exposure (CRE) dating was performed on the caldera cliffs of Santorini with the aim of detecting cliff segments predating the Minoan eruption (17th century BCE). The methodology involved the determination of in situ-produced cosmogenic 36Cl concentration in basaltic-to-rhyodacitic whole rocks cropping out in the cliffs. After the samples were processed following the chemical protocol of 36Cl preparation for silicate rocks, 36Cl concentrations were measured by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Important challenges during the implementation procedure were related to large amounts of radiogenic 36Cl, complex modeling of inherited 36Cl, and dominance of the thermal and epithermal (low-energy) neutron capture production pathway. Nevertheless, quantitative assessments on the basis of the contribution of the low-energy neutron capture pathway percent to the total production rate validated the calculated CRE dates. Current CRE ages demonstrate that an ancient caldera existed on pre-Minoan Santorini, occupying at least the northern half of the modern-day caldera.

  5. The variability and controls of rock strength along rocky coasts of central Spitsbergen, High Arctic (United States)

    Strzelecki, Mateusz Czesław


    This paper presents the results of the Schmidt Hammer Rock Tests (SHRTs) across a range of rocky coastal landforms. Northern Billefjorden (central Spitsbergen), represents typical High Arctic microtidal fjord environment. Sheltered location and prolonged sea-ice conditions limit wave action. Coastal cliffs, shore platforms and skerries are developed in various rock types including limestone, sandstone, anhydrite/gypsum, dolomite and metamorphic outcrops. SHRT demonstrated a broad variety of relationships between rock strength and distance from shoreline, presence of sediment cover, distribution of snow patches and icefoot, and accumulations of seaweed and driftwood. In general, rock cliff surfaces were the most resistant in their lower and middle zones, that are thermally insulated by thick winter snowdrifts. More exposed cliff tops were fractured and weathered. The differences in rock strength observed along the shore platforms were highly dependent on thickness of sediment cover and shoreline configuration promoting stronger rock surfaces in areas exposed to the longest wave fetch and washed from gravel deposits. Rock strength of skerry islands is influenced by tidal action controlling the duration of tide inundation and movement of sea-ice scratching boulder surfaces. The results presented in this paper emphasize the richness of rock coast geomorphology and processes operating in High Arctic settings.

  6. Slope stability and rockfall assessment of volcanic tuffs using RPAS with 2-D FEM slope modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Á. Török


    Full Text Available Steep, hardly accessible cliffs of rhyolite tuff in NE Hungary are prone to rockfalls, endangering visitors of a castle. Remote sensing techniques were employed to obtain data on terrain morphology and to provide slope geometry for assessing the stability of these rock walls. A RPAS (Remotely Piloted Aircraft System was used to collect images which were processed by Pix4D mapper (structure from motion technology to generate a point cloud and mesh. The georeferencing was made by Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS with the use of seven ground control points. The obtained digital surface model (DSM was processed (vegetation removal and the derived digital terrain model (DTM allowed cross sections to be drawn and a joint system to be detected. Joint and discontinuity system was also verified by field measurements. On-site tests as well as laboratory tests provided additional engineering geological data for slope modelling. Stability of cliffs was assessed by 2-D FEM (finite element method. Global analyses of cross sections show that weak intercalating tuff layers may serve as potential slip surfaces. However, at present the greatest hazard is related to planar failure along ENE–WSW joints and to wedge failure. The paper demonstrates that RPAS is a rapid and useful tool for generating a reliable terrain model of hardly accessible cliff faces. It also emphasizes the efficiency of RPAS in rockfall hazard assessment in comparison with other remote sensing techniques such as terrestrial laser scanning (TLS.

  7. Assessing rockfall susceptibility in steep and overhanging slopes using three-dimensional analysis of failure mechanisms (United States)

    Matasci, Battista; Stock, Greg M.; Jaboyedoff, Michael; Carrea, Dario; Collins, Brian D.; Guérin, Antoine; Matasci, G.; Ravanel, L.


    Rockfalls strongly influence the evolution of steep rocky landscapes and represent a significant hazard in mountainous areas. Defining the most probable future rockfall source areas is of primary importance for both geomorphological investigations and hazard assessment. Thus, a need exists to understand which areas of a steep cliff are more likely to be affected by a rockfall. An important analytical gap exists between regional rockfall susceptibility studies and block-specific geomechanical calculations. Here we present methods for quantifying rockfall susceptibility at the cliff scale, which is suitable for sub-regional hazard assessment (hundreds to thousands of square meters). Our methods use three-dimensional point clouds acquired by terrestrial laser scanning to quantify the fracture patterns and compute failure mechanisms for planar, wedge, and toppling failures on vertical and overhanging rock walls. As a part of this work, we developed a rockfall susceptibility index for each type of failure mechanism according to the interaction between the discontinuities and the local cliff orientation. The susceptibility for slope parallel exfoliation-type failures, which are generally hard to identify, is partly captured by planar and toppling susceptibility indexes. We tested the methods for detecting the most susceptible rockfall source areas on two famously steep landscapes, Yosemite Valley (California, USA) and the Drus in the Mont-Blanc massif (France). Our rockfall susceptibility models show good correspondence with active rockfall sources. The methods offer new tools for investigating rockfall hazard and improving our understanding of rockfall processes.

  8. National uranium resource evaluation: Williams quadrangle, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neill, A.J.; Nystrom, R.J.; Thiede, D.S.


    Geologic environments of the Williams Quadrangle, Arizona, were evaluated for uranium favorability by means of literature research, uranium-occurrence investigation and other surface studies, subsurface studies, aerial radiometric data, hydrogeochemical data, and rock-sample analytic data. Favorability criteria are those of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program. Three geologic environments are favorable for uranium: the Tertiary fluvial rocks of the Colorado Plateau where they unconformably overlie impermeable bed rock (for channel-controlled peneconcordant deposits); collapse breccia pipes in Paleozoic strata of the Colorado Plateau (for vein-type deposits in sedimentary rocks); and Precambrian crystalline rocks of the Hualapai, Peacock, and Aquarius Mountains, and Cottonwood and Grand Wash Cliffs (for magmatic-hydrothermal deposits). Unfavorable geologic environments are: Tertiary and Quaternary volcanic rocks, Tertiary and Quaternary sedimentary rocks of the Colorado Plateau, nearly all Paleozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary rocks, and the Precambrian-Cambrian unconformity of the Grand Wash Cliffs area. Tertiary rocks in Cenozoic basins and Precambrian crystalline rocks in the Grand Canyon region and in parts of the Aquarius Mountains and Cottonwood and Grand Wash Cliffs are unevaluated

  9. Obituary: Clifford G. Toner (1959-2009) (United States)

    Hill, Frank


    Cliff Toner passed away unexpectedly at home in Tucson, Arizona on March 29, 2009. For most of his career, Cliff was involved with the Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG), a facility of the National Solar Observatory in Tucson, Arizona. GONG is a set of instruments around the world to observe the inside of the sun using the sound that is trapped below the solar surface. This science is called helioseismology. Cliff Toner was born on December 8, 1959 in New Westminster, British Columbia near the western coast of Canada. After receiving his B.Sc. in Physics & Astronomy at the University of British Columbia at Vancouver in 1981, he headed east to the University of Western Ontario in London. His graduate school period was spent in collaboration with David F. Gray, with whom he received both an M.Sc. in Astronomy in 1984, and a Ph.D. in Astronomy in 1988. Toner actually wrote two theses at UWO, one on "Line Asymmetries in F, G, and K Supergiants and Bright Giants" for his M.Sc., and the other on "The Time Variability of Spectral Line Asymmetries and Equivalent Widths for the G8 Dwarf ? Boo A: Evidence for a Starpatch" for his Ph.D. After graduate school, Cliff Toner left the cool climate of Canada in 1988 and accepted a postdoctoral position in the warmer temperatures of Hawai'i at the Institute for Astronomy located at the University of Hawai'i in Honolulu. There he worked primarily with Barry LaBonte. At first, he continued his work on ? Boo A, but he became interested in the sun and helioseismology. This led to the discovery of halos of enhanced high-frequency acoustic power surrounding solar active regions (Ap.J. 415, 847). At the end of his post-doc, Cliff Toner was hired by the GONG project as a Data Scientist in 1991. He quickly tackled the problem of merging the data from the six GONG sites, which was the major data reduction challenge facing GONG at the time. In parallel, he and Stuart Jefferies developed an algorithm to measure the radii of full-disk solar

  10. Development of a HEC-RAS temperature model for the North Santiam River, northwestern Oregon (United States)

    Stonewall, Adam J.; Buccola, Norman L.


    A one-dimensional, unsteady streamflow and temperature model (HEC-RAS) of the North Santiam and Santiam Rivers was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey to be used in conjunction with previously developed two-dimensional hydrodynamic water-quality models (CE-QUAL-W2) of Detroit and Big Cliff Lakes upstream of the study area. In conjunction with the output from the previously developed models, the HEC-RAS model can simulate streamflows and temperatures within acceptable limits (mean error [bias] near zero; typical streamflow errors less than 5 percent; typical water temperature errors less than 1.0 °C) for the length of the North Santiam River downstream of Big Cliff Dam under a series of potential future conditions in which dam structures and/or dam operations are modified to improve temperature conditions for threatened and endangered fish. Although a two-dimensional (longitudinal, vertical) CE-QUAL-W2 model for the North Santiam and Santiam Rivers downstream of Big Cliff Dam exists, that model proved unstable under highly variable flow conditions. The one-dimensional HEC-RAS model documented in this report can better simulate cross-sectional-averaged stream temperatures under a wide range of flow conditions.

  11. A utility perspective on radiation worker access control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, B.A.; Goff, T.E.


    Based on an evaluation of the current commercial Radiation Worker Access Control Software Systems, Baltimore Gas and Electric Company has elected to design and develop a site specific access control and accountability system for the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant. The vendor provided systems allow for radiation worker access control based on training and external exposure records and authorizations. These systems do not afford internal exposure control until after bioassay measurements or maximum permissible concentration-hours are tabulated. The vendor provided systems allow for data trending for ALARA purposes, but each software package must be modified to meet site specific requirements. Unlike the commercial systems, the Calvert Cliffs Radiological Controls and Accountability System (RCAS) will provide radiation worker exposure control, both internal and external. The RCAS is designed to fulfill the requirements by integrating the existing Radiation Safety, Dosemetry, and Training data bases with a comprehensive radiological surveillance program. Prior to each worker's entry into the Radiological Control Area; his training and qualifications, radiation exposure history and authorization, will be compared with administrative controls, such as radiation work permits, and respiratory protection requirements and the radiological conditions in the work area. The RCAS, a computer based applied health physics access control system is described as it is presently configured for development. The mechanisms for enhancing worker internal and external exposure controls are discussed. Proposed data application to both the Calvert Cliffs ALARA and outage planning programs is included

  12. Ground penetrating radar and seismic refraction investigation of fracture patterns in the basalt of Lucky Peak near Boise, Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dougherty, M.E.; Hudson, W.K.; Kay, S.E.; Vincent, R.J.


    In hard rock environments, fluid flow and basement integrity are often controlled by the degree and connectivity of fracturing on an outcrop scale, rather than strictly by laboratory values of the permeability and competence of the matrix rock. Therefore, in many cases it is important to have a subsurface image of fracture characteristics of rock units in addition to an image of gross rock type. Fortunately, within a single rock type, many physical properties on outcrop scale are greatly influenced by fracturing, and changes in these physical properties should be detectable through the innovative use of geophysical methods. Work presented here is an attempt to use surface geophysical methods to delineate areas within a basalt flow which display different fracture characteristics and which have different electrical and seismic properties. The Basalt of Luck Peak is an intracanyon basalt flow exposed in cliffs around Lucky Peak Reservoir and in a terrace downstream from Lucky Peak Dam near Boise, Idaho. Visible in the face of the terrace below Lucky Peak Dam are the colonnade and entablature structures characteristic of differential cooling rates within basalt flows. Exposure of structural units within the cliff face is used to ground truth results from ground penetrating radar (GPR) and seismic refraction data collected along a line running perpendicular and away from the top edge of the cliff. 19 refs., 6 figs

  13. Coastal erosion as a source of mercury into the marine environment along the Polish Baltic shore. (United States)

    Bełdowska, Magdalena; Jędruch, Agnieszka; Łęczyński, Leszek; Saniewska, Dominika; Kwasigroch, Urszula


    The climate changes in recent years in the southern Baltic have been resulting in an increased frequency of natural extreme phenomena (i.e. storms, floods) and intensification of abrasion processes, which leads to introduction of large amounts of sedimentary deposits into the marine environment. The aim of this study was to determine the mercury load introduced to the Baltic Sea with deposits crumbling off the cliffs-parts of the coast that are the most exposed to abrasion. The studies were carried out close to five cliffs located on the Polish coast in the years 2011-2014. The results show that coastal erosion could be an important Hg source into the marine environment. This process is the third most important route, after riverine and precipitation input, by which Hg may enter the Gulf of Gdańsk. In the Hg budget in the gulf, the load caused by erosion (14.3 kg a(-1)) accounted for 80 % of the wet deposition and was 50 % higher than the amount of mercury introduced with dry deposition. Although the Hg concentration in the cliff deposits was similar to the natural background, due to their large mass, this problem could be significant. In addition, the preliminary studies on the impact of coastal erosion on the Hg level in the marine ecosystem have shown that this process may be one of the Hg sources into the trophic chain.

  14. Dynamics of a recovering Arctic bird population: the importance of climate, density dependence, and site quality (United States)

    Bruggeman, Jason E.; Swem, Ted; Andersen, David E.; Kennedy, Patricia L.; Nigro, Debora A.


    Intrinsic and extrinsic factors affect vital rates and population-level processes, and understanding these factors is paramount to devising successful management plans for wildlife species. For example, birds time migration in response, in part, to local and broadscale climate fluctuations to initiate breeding upon arrival to nesting territories, and prolonged inclement weather early in the breeding season can inhibit egg-laying and reduce productivity. Also, density-dependent regulation occurs in raptor populations, as territory size is related to resource availability. Arctic Peregrine Falcons (Falco peregrinus tundrius; hereafter Arctic peregrine) have a limited and northern breeding distribution, including the Colville River Special Area (CRSA) in the National Petroleum Reserve–Alaska, USA. We quantified influences of climate, topography, nest productivity, prey habitat, density dependence, and interspecific competition affecting Arctic peregrines in the CRSA by applying the Dail-Madsen model to estimate abundance and vital rates of adults on nesting cliffs from 1981 through 2002. Arctic peregrine abundance increased throughout the 1980s, which spanned the population's recovery from DDT-induced reproductive failure, until exhibiting a stationary trend in the 1990s. Apparent survival rate (i.e., emigration; death) was negatively correlated with the number of adult Arctic peregrines on the cliff the previous year, suggesting effects of density-dependent population regulation. Apparent survival and arrival rates (i.e., immigration; recruitment) were higher during years with earlier snowmelt and milder winters, and apparent survival was positively correlated with nesting season maximum daily temperature. Arrival rate was positively correlated with average Arctic peregrine productivity along a cliff segment from the previous year and initial abundance was positively correlated with cliff height. Higher cliffs with documented higher productivity (presumably

  15. Application of topography survey on the green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) conservation (United States)

    Fan, Yuan-Yu; Lo, Liu-Chih; Peng, Kuan-Chieh


    Taiwan is located in the Western Pacific monsoon region, typhoon is one of the common natural disasters. Taiwan is hit by typhoons 6 times on average each year, and 2016 have 5. Typhoon not only caused the loss of nature environment in Taiwan but also decreased the endangered species- green sea turtle's breeding success rate. In Wangan island, Penghu, green sea turtle nesting beach's slop is too steep to form the dune cliff, block the way which green sea turtle should nesting above the vegetation line. Nesting under the dune cliff is disturbed easily by the swell from typhoon, Leading to the whole nest was emptied or hatching rate decreased due to water content changed. In order to reduce the threat of typhoon on the green sea turtle, and promote the success of green sea turtle reproduction, we used LiDAR(Light Detection And Ranging) to monitor the topographic change of the green sea turtle nesting habitat and compare the invasion and deposition of the green sea turtle nests before and after the occurrence of typhoons. The results showed that the breeding success rate before the typhoon (2016/09/12) was 93%, which was not affected by the swell. The breeding success rate at the higher position after the typhoon was 95%, and under the dune cliff, 10 nests reproduction failed due to the swell changing the sand layer thickness. The production of dune cliffs is formed by the roots of coastal sand-fixation plants. In the past, the residents collected the coastal plants for fuel, after collecting, sparse vegetation is good to form the flat beach, and to promote green sea turtle nesting on the higher position from the disturbance of typhoon. In the future, to protect the success of green sea turtle's reproduction, should increase the human intervention that disturb the nesting beach's vegetation appropriately, Or cutting the roots directly to reduce the dune cliffs before the nesting season, help the green sea turtle nesting in a higher beach, improve the green sea turtle

  16. Geologic map of the Tuba City 30' x 60' quadrangle, Coconino County, northern Arizona (United States)

    Billingsley, George H.; Stoffer, Philip W.; Priest, Susan S.


    The Tuba City 30’ x 60’ quadrangle encompasses approximately 5,018 km² (1,920 mi²) within Coconino County, northern Arizona. It is characterized by nearly flat lying to gently dipping sequences of Paleozoic and Mesozoic strata that overly tilted Precambrian strata or metasedimentary and igneous rocks that are exposed at the bottom of Grand Canyon. The Paleozoic rock sequences from Cambrian to Permian age are exposed in the walls of Grand Canyon, Marble Canyon, and Little Colorado River Gorge. Mesozoic sedimentary rocks are exposed in the eastern half of the quadrangle where resistant sandstone units form cliffs, escarpments, mesas, and local plateaus. A few Miocene volcanic dikes intrude Mesozoic rocks southwest, northwest, and northeast of Tuba City, and Pleistocene volcanic rocks representing the northernmost extent of the San Francisco Volcanic Field are present at the south-central edge of the quadrangle. Quaternary deposits mantle much of the Mesozoic rocks in the eastern half of the quadrangle and are sparsely scattered in the western half. Principal folds are the north-south-trending, east-dipping Echo Cliffs Monocline and the East Kaibab Monocline. The East Kaibab Monocline elevates the Kaibab, Walhalla, and Coconino Plateaus and parts of Grand Canyon. Grand Canyon erosion has exposed the Butte Fault beneath the east Kaibab Monocline, providing a window into the structural complexity of monoclines in this part of the Colorado Plateau. Rocks of Permian and Triassic age form the surface bedrock of Marble Plateau and House Rock Valley between the East Kaibab and Echo Cliffs Monoclines. The Echo Cliffs Monocline forms a structural boundary between the Marble Plateau to the west and the Kaibito and Moenkopi Plateaus to the east. Jurassic rocks of the Kaibito and Moenkopi Plateaus are largely mantled by extensive eolian sand deposits. A small part of the northeast-dipping Red Lake Monocline is present in the northeast corner of the quadrangle. A broad and

  17. Geologic Map of the House Rock Valley Area, Coconino County, Northern Arizona (United States)

    Billingsley, George H.; Priest, Susan S.


    This geologic map is a cooperative effort of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Bureau of Land Management, the National Park Service, and the U.S. Forest Service to provide a geologic database for resource management officials and visitor information services. This map was produced in response to information needs related to a proposed withdrawal of three segregated land areas near Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona, from new hard rock mining activity. House Rock Valley was designated as the east parcel of the segregated lands near the Grand Canyon. This map was needed to provide connectivity for the geologic framework of the Grand Canyon segregated land areas. This geologic map of the House Rock Valley area encompasses approximately 280 mi2 (85.4 km2) within Coconino County, northern Arizona, and is bounded by longitude 111 degrees 37'30' to 112 degrees 05' W. and latitude 36 degrees 30' to 36 degrees 50' N. The map area is in the eastern part of the Arizona Strip, which lies within the southern Colorado Plateaus geologic province (herein Colorado Plateau). The Arizona Strip is the part of Arizona lying north of the Colorado River. The map is bound on the east by the Colorado River in Marble Canyon within Grand Canyon National Park and Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, on the south and west by the Kaibab National Forest and Grand Canyon National Game Preserve, and on the north by the Vermilion Cliffs Natural Area, the Paria Canyon Vermilion Cliffs Wilderness Area, and the Vermilion Cliffs National Monument. House Rock State Buffalo Ranch also bounds the southern edge of the map area. The Bureau of Land Management Arizona Field Office in St. George, Utah, manages public lands of the Vermilion Cliffs Natural Area, Paria Canyon - Vermilion Cliffs Wilderness and Vermilion Cliffs National Monument. The North Kaibab Ranger District in Fredonia, Arizona, manages U.S. Forest Service land along the west edge of the map area and House Rock State Buffalo Ranch


    Suarez-Plascencia, C.; Delgado-Argote, L. A.; Nunez-Cornu, F. J.


    The Metropolitan Area of Guadalajara (MAG) was built over pumice deposits generated during Quaternary activity in the Sierra la Primavera, that covered a thick sequence of basaltic, dacitic, rhyolitic lava flows, ignimbrites and fluvial-lacustrine deposits. The most complete stratigraphic section is observed in different sections of the Rio Grande de Santiago cliff, located north of the city. Five distinctive geoforms were identified: 1) the cliff of the Rio Grande de Santiago (CRGS) is a tectonic erosive depression with average depth of 500 m and 3.5 km width. Structurally, in the San Gaspar zone, south of the union of Verde river with Santiago river, we identified normal faults with left-lateral motion and oriented 191°/89° on basaltic lavas. In the Colimilla dam, 1297 meters above sea level, we observed lateral faulting with normal component (267°/81°) where jumps as high as 30 m were observed. Lava flows are sheared parallel to the Verde river. In the Puente Arcediano zone, where the base of the sequence is apparent, faults have a dominant orientation of 188°/75° on andesitic flows, whereas on pumice ignimbrites they show a shearing with a direction of 92°/84° parallel to the Verde river. 2) The Sierra la Primavera, to the southwest of MAG is a caldera formed by a series of domes, flows, and pyroclastic deposits with rhyolitic composition. 3) The southern Guadalajara volcanic chain system, which is formed by several volcanic cones and flows of basaltic-andesitic composition and Plio-Pleistocene age, oriented NW-SE, developed over the San Gaspar ignimbrite (4.8 m.a.). 4) Los Colomos and Alcalde-Barranquitas cliff system, which form dendrite networks developed on pumice deposits, where most of the cliffs were deep and narrow. The origin of the cliffs might be associated with observed faults or fracture zones in the CRGS. 5) Wavy plains of Atemajac and Tesistán valleys, which are characterized by hills and wide plains. The system of cliffs controlled the

  19. Correlation between thermal gradient and flexure-type deformation as a potential trigger for exfoliation-related rock falls (Invited) (United States)

    Collins, B. D.; Stock, G. M.


    Stress-induced exfoliation of granitic rocks is an important means by which cliffs deform and subsequently erode. During exfoliation, fractures are formed, and when exposed in cliff faces, are susceptible to subsequent rock falls. This is the case in Yosemite National Park, California, where exfoliation continues to play a primary role in cliff evolution. In Yosemite, numerous mechanisms are inferred to trigger rock falls; nevertheless, many rock falls have no recognized triggers. As a result, several potential, but as yet unquantified, triggering mechanisms have been proposed. One of these, thermally induced flexure, wherein solar radiation and temperature variation drives cumulative deformation of partially detached rock flakes, has the potential to explain several recent rock falls in Yosemite. We explore this potential mechanism by quantifying the deformation, temperature, and solar radiation exposure of a near-vertical rock flake in Yosemite Valley. The flake, 14 m tall, 4 m wide and 12 cm thick, receives direct sunlight during most of the day. Whereas the flake is attached to the cliff face at its bottom and top, the sides are detached from the cliff by a 10 cm wide crack on one side, tapering to a 1 cm wide crack on the opposite side. Instrumentation consists of three custom-designed crackmeters placed between the flake and the adjacent cliff face, three air temperature sensors located behind the flake, and three dual air temperature-light sensors located on the outside surface of the flake. Nearby relative humidity and barometric pressure sensors complete the instrumentation. Five-minute interval data from spring - fall 2010 indicate the flake undergoes maximum deformation at mid-span between attachment points and that it deforms from both diurnal and climatic temperature fluctuations. Recorded maximum deformations, measured perpendicular to crack orientation, are 1 cm diurnally and nearly 1.5 cm (including diurnal effect) over a 5-day period of cooler

  20. Tritium migration at the Gasbuggy site: Evaluation of possible hydrologic pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, J.; Mihevc, T.; Lyles, B.


    An underground nuclear test named Gasbuggy was conducted in northwestern New Mexico in 1967. Subsequent groundwater monitoring in an overlying aquifer by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency revealed increasing levels of tritium in monitoring well EPNG 10-36, located 132 m from the test, suggesting migration of contaminants from the nuclear cavity. There are three basic scenarios that could explain the occurrence of tritium in well 10-36: (1) introduction of tritium into the well from the land surface, (2) migration of tritium through the Ojo Alamo Formation, and (3) migration through the Pictured Cliffs Formation. The two subsurface transport scenarios were evaluated with a travel time analysis. In one, transport occurs to the Ojo Alamo sandstone either up the emplacement hole or through fractures created by the blast, and then laterally through the aquifer to the monitoring well. In the other, lateral transport occurs through fractures in the underlying Pictured Cliffs detonation horizon and then migrates up the monitoring well through plugged casing connecting the two formations. The travel time analysis indicates that the hydraulic conductivity measured in the Ojo Alamo Formation is too low for lateral transport to account for the observed arrival of tritium at the monitoring well. This suggests transport either through fractures intersecting the Ojo Alamo close to well EPNG 10-36, or through fractures in the Pictured Cliffs and up through the bottom plug in the well. The transport scenarios were investigated using hydrologic logging techniques and sampling at the monitoring well, with the fieldwork conducted after the removal of a string of 0.05-m-diameter tubing that had previously provided the only monitoring access

  1. Robustness studies of ignition targets for the National Ignition Facility in two dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, Daniel S.; Haan, Steven W.; Salmonson, Jay D.


    Inertial confinement fusion capsules are critically dependent on the integrity of their hot spots to ignite. At the time of ignition, only a certain fractional perturbation of the nominally spherical hot spot boundary can be tolerated and the capsule still achieve ignition. The degree to which the expected hot spot perturbation in any given capsule design is less than this maximum tolerable perturbation is a measure of the ignition margin or robustness of that design. Moreover, since there will inevitably be uncertainties in the initial character and implosion dynamics of any given capsule, all of which can contribute to the eventual hot spot perturbation, quantifying the robustness of that capsule against a range of parameter variations is an important consideration in the capsule design. Here, the robustness of the 300 eV indirect drive target design for the National Ignition Facility [Lindl et al., Phys. Plasmas 11, 339 (2004)] is studied in the parameter space of inner ice roughness, implosion velocity, and capsule scale. A suite of 2000 two-dimensional simulations, run with the radiation hydrodynamics code LASNEX, is used as the data base for the study. For each scale, an ignition region in the two remaining variables is identified and the ignition cliff is mapped. In accordance with the theoretical arguments of Levedahl and Lindl [Nucl. Fusion 37, 165 (1997)] and Kishony and Shvarts [Phys. Plasmas 8, 4925 (2001)], the location of this cliff is fitted to a power law of the capsule implosion velocity and scale. It is found that the cliff can be quite well represented in this power law form, and, using this scaling law, an assessment of the overall (one- and two-dimensional) ignition margin of the design can be made. The effect on the ignition margin of an increase or decrease in the density of the target fill gas is also assessed

  2. Paleoseismic and Paleogeographic Reconstruction of the Central Coastal of Ecuador: Insights from Quaternary Geological Data for the Jaramijó bay area (United States)

    Chunga, K.; Maurizio, M.; Garces, D.; Quiñonez, M. F.; Peña, G. E.


    Late Holocene sequences of loose to weakly consolidated sand and clay sediments intercalated with volcanic-ash layers (particles transported by fall-out), are outcrops on a sea cliff in the Jaramijó bay area (situated 7 km away in the East direction from Manta city, Manabí, at the middle section of Ecuador's Pacific coastline). The main geomorphologic feature in the site is the wave-cut beach platform permanently exposed at the lowest tides and an 18 m-high coastal cliff retreat with an estimated rate of ca. 2.5 meter/year (Chunga, 2014). One of the most remarkable geoarchaeological evidences found in this outcrop, it is the remains of two large bones (ie., radius and radial) of the human forearm of ca. 800 years ago (with archaeological vestiges of the Manteña culture) covered by a 8 to 25 cm-thick volcanic ash layer, stratigraphically at the top, an erosive contact with chaotic deposition of medium to fine-grained sand which indicates a potential tsunami deposit. Moreover, several volcanic ash and lahar layers are well distinguished on the sea cliff, which are associated with pyroclastic products transported as lahars from the Quilotoa and Cotopaxi, Pululahua volcanic structures (northern Andes in Ecuador) situated at a distance between of 150-190 kilometers (Mothes and Hall, 2008; Usselman, 2006). It is not excluded that previous pre-Columbian cultures also have been displaced in the last 2,000 years by disastrous geological events such as subduction earthquakes, local tsunami and volcanic lahar-ash deposits. All of these stratigraphic and palaeoseismologic features will allow us to understand the catastrophic geological events that abruptly shaped the landscape, furthermore, to investigate the changes of moderate to high Late Holocene progradation rates of the Jaramijó bay coastline.

  3. High-resolution three-dimensional imaging and analysis of rock falls in Yosemite valley, California (United States)

    Stock, Gregory M.; Bawden, G.W.; Green, J.K.; Hanson, E.; Downing, G.; Collins, B.D.; Bond, S.; Leslar, M.


    We present quantitative analyses of recent large rock falls in Yosemite Valley, California, using integrated high-resolution imaging techniques. Rock falls commonly occur from the glacially sculpted granitic walls of Yosemite Valley, modifying this iconic landscape but also posing signifi cant potential hazards and risks. Two large rock falls occurred from the cliff beneath Glacier Point in eastern Yosemite Valley on 7 and 8 October 2008, causing minor injuries and damaging structures in a developed area. We used a combination of gigapixel photography, airborne laser scanning (ALS) data, and ground-based terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) data to characterize the rock-fall detachment surface and adjacent cliff area, quantify the rock-fall volume, evaluate the geologic structure that contributed to failure, and assess the likely failure mode. We merged the ALS and TLS data to resolve the complex, vertical to overhanging topography of the Glacier Point area in three dimensions, and integrated these data with gigapixel photographs to fully image the cliff face in high resolution. Three-dimensional analysis of repeat TLS data reveals that the cumulative failure consisted of a near-planar rock slab with a maximum length of 69.0 m, a mean thickness of 2.1 m, a detachment surface area of 2750 m2, and a volume of 5663 ?? 36 m3. Failure occurred along a surfaceparallel, vertically oriented sheeting joint in a clear example of granitic exfoliation. Stress concentration at crack tips likely propagated fractures through the partially attached slab, leading to failure. Our results demonstrate the utility of high-resolution imaging techniques for quantifying far-range (>1 km) rock falls occurring from the largely inaccessible, vertical rock faces of Yosemite Valley, and for providing highly accurate and precise data needed for rock-fall hazard assessment. ?? 2011 Geological Society of America.

  4. Landslide Tsunami Hazard in Madeira Island, NE Atlantic - Numerical Simulation of the 4 March 1930 Tsunami (United States)

    Omira, R.; Baptista, M. A.; Quartau, R.; Ramalho, M. I.


    Madeira, the main Island of the Madeira Archipelago with an area of 728 km2, is a North East Atlantic volcanic Island highly susceptible to cliff instability. Historical records contain accounts of a number of mass-wasting events along the Island, namely in 1969, 1804, 1929 and 1930. Collapses of cliffs are major hazards in oceanic Islands as they involve relatively large volumes of material, generating fast running debris avalanches, and even cause destructive tsunamis when entering the sea. On March 4th, 1930, a sector of the Cape Girão cliff, located in the southern shore of Madeira Island, collapsed into the sea and generated an 8 m tsunami wave height. The landslide-induced tsunami propagated along Madeirás south coast and flooded the Vigário beach, 200-300 m of inundation extent, causing 20 casualties. In this study, we investigate the 1930 subaerial landslide-induced tsunami and its impact on the nearest coasts using numerical modelling. We first reconstruct the pre-event morphology of the area, and then simulate the initial movement of the sliding mass, the propagation of the tsunami wave and the inundation of the coast. We use a multi-layer numerical model, in which the lower layer represents the deformable slide, assumed to be a visco-plastic fluid, and bounded above by air, in the subaerial motion phase, and by seawater governed by shallow water equations. The results of the simulation are compared with the historical descriptions of the event to calibrate the numerical model and evaluate the coastal impact of a similar event in present-day coastline configuration of the Island. This work is supported by FCT- project UID/GEO/50019/2013 - Instituto Dom Luiz and by TROYO project.

  5. High-Resolution Monitoring of Himalayan Glacier Dynamics Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (United States)

    Immerzeel, W.; Kraaijenbrink, P. D. A.; Shea, J.; Shrestha, A. B.; Pellicciotti, F.; Bierkens, M. F.; de Jong, S. M.


    Himalayan glacier tongues are commonly debris covered and play an important role in modulating the glacier response to climate . However, they remain relatively unstudied because of the inaccessibility of the terrain and the difficulties in field work caused by the thick debris mantles. Observations of debris-covered glaciers are therefore limited to point locations and airborne remote sensing may bridge the gap between scarce, point field observations and coarse resolution space-borne remote sensing. In this study we deploy an Unmanned Airborne Vehicle (UAV) on two debris covered glaciers in the Nepalese Himalayas: the Lirung and Langtang glacier during four field campaigns in 2013 and 2014. Based on stereo-imaging and the structure for motion algorithm we derive highly detailed ortho-mosaics and digital elevation models (DEMs), which we geometrically correct using differential GPS observations collected in the field. Based on DEM differencing and manual feature tracking we derive the mass loss and the surface velocity of the glacier at a high spatial resolution and accuracy. We also assess spatiotemporal changes in supra-glacial lakes and ice cliffs based on the imagery. On average, mass loss is limited and the surface velocity is very small. However, the spatial variability of melt rates is very high, and ice cliffs and supra-glacial ponds show mass losses that can be an order of magnitude higher than the average. We suggest that future research should focus on the interaction between supra-glacial ponds, ice cliffs and englacial hydrology to further understand the dynamics of debris-covered glaciers. Finally, we conclude that UAV deployment has large potential in glaciology and it represents a substantial advancement over methods currently applied in studying glacier surface features.

  6. Detecting Slow Deformation Signals Preceding Dynamic Failure: A New Strategy For The Mitigation Of Natural Hazards (SAFER) (United States)

    Vinciguerra, S.; Colombero, C.; Comina, C.; Umili, G.


    Rock slope monitoring is a major aim in territorial risk assessment and mitigation. The use of "site specific" microseismic monitoring systems can allow to detect pre-failure signals in unstable sectors within the rock mass and to predict the possible acceleration to the failure. To this aim multi-scale geophysical methods can provide a unique tool for an high-resolution imaging of the internal structure of the rock mass and constraints on the physical state of the medium. We present here a cross-hole seismic tomography survey coupled with laboratory ultrasonic velocity measurements and determination of physical properties on rock samples to characterize the damaged and potentially unstable granitic cliff of Madonna del Sasso (NW, Italy). Results allowed to achieve two main advances, in terms of obtaining: i) a lithological interpretation of the velocity field obtained at the site, ii) a systematic correlation of the measured velocities with physical properties (density and porosity) and macroscopic features of the granite (weathering and anisotropy) of the cliff. A microseismic monitoring system developed by the University of Turin/Compagnia San Paolo, consisting of a network of 4 triaxial geophones (4.5 Hz) connected to a 12-channel data logger, has been deployed on the unstable granitic cliff. More than 2000 events with different waveforms, duration and frequency content were recorded between November 2013 and July 2014. By inspecting the acquired events we identified the key parameters for a reliable distinction among the nature of each signal, i.e. the signal shape (in terms of amplitude, duration, kurtosis) and the frequency content (maximum frequency content and frequency distribution). Four main classes of recorded signals can be recognised: microseismic events, regional earthquakes, electrical noises and calibration signals, and unclassified events (probably grouping rockfalls, quarry blasts, other anthropic and natural sources of seismic noise).

  7. Cryo-conditioned rocky coast systems: A case study from Wilczekodden, Svalbard. (United States)

    Strzelecki, M C; Kasprzak, M; Lim, M; Swirad, Z M; Jaskólski, M; Pawłowski, Ł; Modzel, P


    This paper presents the results of an investigation into the processes controlling development of a cryo-conditioned rock coast system in Hornsund, Svalbard. A suite of nested geomorphological and geophysical methods have been applied to characterise the functioning of rock cliffs and shore platforms influenced by lithological control and geomorphic processes driven by polar coast environments. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) surveys have been used to investigate permafrost control on rock coast dynamics and reveal the strong interaction with marine processes in High Arctic coastal settings. Schmidt hammer rock tests, demonstrated strong spatial control on the degree of rock weathering (rock strength) along High Arctic rock coasts. Elevation controlled geomorphic zones are identified and linked to distinct processes and mechanisms, transitioning from peak hardness values at the ice foot through the wave and storm dominated scour zones to the lowest values on the cliff tops, where the effects of periglacial weathering dominate. Observations of rock surface change using a traversing micro-erosion meter (TMEM) indicate that significant changes in erosion rates occur at the junction between the shore platform and the cliff toe, where rock erosion is facilitated by frequent wetting and drying and operation of nivation and sea ice processes (formation and melting of snow patches and icefoot complexes). The results are synthesised to propose a new conceptual model of High Arctic rock coast systems, with the aim of contributing towards a unifying concept of cold region landscape evolution and providing direction for future research regarding the state of polar rock coasts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Fracturing mapping and rockfall susceptibility assessment in Yosemite Valley (California, USA) (United States)

    Matasci, B.; Carrea, D.; Jaboyedoff, M.; Stock, G. M.; Collins, B. D.; Putnam, R.


    In Yosemite Valley rockfall hazard and risk are high due to the presence of tall, steep granitic cliffs and to the large number of visitors. The main information needed to assess rockfall hazard is the location of the most probable rockfall source areas and the establishment of the frequency of activity from these areas. Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) has been widely deployed to collect very accurate point clouds of vertical and overhanging rock faces. This provided the necessary data to identify the main joint sets, perform spacing and trace length measurements, identify the failure mechanisms and calculate rockfalls volumes. The presence of surface parallel sheeting or exfoliation joints is widespread in the granitic faces of Yosemite Valley, contributing significantly to the occurrence of rockfalls. Thus, through TLS, sheeting joints have been mapped and characterized in 3D. Rock type is another important parameter that must be constrained to identify potential rockfall sources. Therefore, we have focused on the precise mapping of the vertical geologic limits in the field, on high resolution photographs and on the basis of the intensity value associated to TLS point clouds. A methodology has been developed to carry out kinematic tests on full 3D TLS point clouds, taking into account for each joint set the orientation, spacing and persistence measured on the TLS data. The areas of a cliff with the highest density of potential failure mechanisms are shown to be the most susceptible to rockfalls. These advances in remote sensing methods provide new tools to locate the most probable future rockfall sources and provide key elements needed to evaluate the potential rockfall hazard of the cliffs in Yosemite Valley and elsewhere. 3D rockfall susceptibility mapping.

  9. An open source GIS-based tool to integrate the fragmentation mechanism in rockfall propagation (United States)

    Matas, Gerard; Lantada, Nieves; Gili, Josep A.; Corominas, Jordi


    Rockfalls are frequent instability processes in road cuts, open pit mines and quarries, steep slopes and cliffs. Even though the stability of rock slopes can be determined using analytical approaches, the assessment of large rock cliffs require simplifying assumptions due to the difficulty of working with a large amount of joints, the scattering of both the orientations and strength parameters. The attitude and persistency of joints within the rock mass define the size of kinematically unstable rock volumes. Furthermore the rock block will eventually split in several fragments during its propagation downhill due its impact with the ground surface. Knowledge of the size, energy, trajectory… of each block resulting from fragmentation is critical in determining the vulnerability of buildings and protection structures. The objective of this contribution is to present a simple and open source tool to simulate the fragmentation mechanism in rockfall propagation models and in the calculation of impact energies. This tool includes common modes of motion for falling boulders based on the previous literature. The final tool is being implemented in a GIS (Geographic Information Systems) using open source Python programming. The tool under development will be simple, modular, compatible with any GIS environment, open source, able to model rockfalls phenomena correctly. It could be used in any area susceptible to rockfalls with a previous adjustment of the parameters. After the adjustment of the model parameters to a given area, a simulation could be performed to obtain maps of kinetic energy, frequency, stopping density and passing heights. This GIS-based tool and the analysis of the fragmentation laws using data collected from recent rockfall have being developed within the RockRisk Project (2014-2016). This project is funded by the Spanish Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad and entitled "Rockfalls in cliffs: risk quantification and its prevention"(BIA2013-42582-P).

  10. Sun River (24CA74): A Stratified Pelican Lake and Oxbow Occupation Site near Great Falls, Montana. (United States)


    artifacts from 24CA74 are consistently of a dark, homogeneous variety probably derived from the Obsidian Cliffs in Yellowstone National Park (Davis...pollen columns from a pond on the east side of Yellowstone Park, Wyoming, place the Altithermal from 9,000 to 4,500 years ago. At Waterton Lakes National...of a wolf’s upper third molar (carnassial) (Fig. 4-12a). This tooth fragment is of interest because it could be interpreted as evidence of wolves

  11. Evaluation and Repair of War-Damaged Port Facilities. Report 3. Concepts for Expedient War-Damage Repair of Pier and Wharf Decking (United States)


    td I CM e «) I <!• I O IS to SB 00 u 0...lööw^^^^^^WC^^I«^,^^^^ rr a-. iT. •’_ ^, rL ••_ »^^ ^’_ ■■_ iT^ . TD $ ii O H m oc so v/ O x O & L < •< 7 li . CM ^ §Q ^ x Z t...INNOVATION SESSION EXPEDIENT PORT REPAIR NAVAL CIVIL ENGINEERING LABORATORY 25 June 1985 ATTENDEES: Duane Davis, NAVCIVENGRLAB L53 Cliff

  12. Earnings management under price regulation. Empirical evidence from the Spanish electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill-de-Albornoz, Belen; Illueca, Manuel


    This paper analyses the effect of price regulation on the accounting policy of Spanish electricity companies over the period 1991-2001. As predicted by the political costs hypothesis (Watts and Zimmerman, 1986) (Watts, R.L., Zimmerman, J.L. 1986. Positive accounting theory, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ), managers artificially reduce reported earnings when the government establishes tariff increases. In this way, companies attempt to diminish their political visibility and counteract social outcry arising from the government's decision. Several abnormal accruals models existent in the literature are used to obtain a proxy for managerial accounting discretion on earnings

  13. Wind Shear Modeling for Aircraft Hazard Definition. (United States)


    should give a valid representation of most terminal areas. For air- ports located near unusual terrain features such as mountains or cliffs...A ( IP+t—1 , 11, 2 )—A(1~~+i— 1 , 10,2) )/u1~ lJd L J U INt)r. ~AA (1. O ALEA )* (1. O — b E L A ) $ L )X X ( 1, 1) +bE.Lu *C 1.0 ALd~A )*L)XX (1

  14. Rockfall-induced impact force causing a debris flow on a volcanoclastic soil slope: a case study in southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Budetta


    Full Text Available On 10 January 2003, a rockfall of approximately 10 m3 affected a cliff some 25 m high located along the northern slopes of Mt. St. Angelo (Nocera Inferiore, province of Salerno in the southern Italian region of Campania. The impact of boulders on the lower sector of the slope, along which detrital-pyroclastic soils outcrop, triggered a small channelled debris flow of about 500 m3. Fortunately, no damage nor victims resulted from the landslide. Several marks of the impacts were observed at the cliff toe and outside the collapsed area, and the volumes of some fallen boulders were subsequently measured. By means of in-situ surveys, it was possible to reconstruct the cliff's geo-structural layout in detail. A rockfall back-analysis was subsequently performed along seven critical profiles of the entire slope (surface area of about 4000 m2. The results of this numerical modelling using the lumped-mass method were then used to map the kinetic iso-energy curves. In the triggering area of the debris flow, for a falling boulder of 1 m3, the mean kinetic energy was estimated at 120 kJ, this value being equivalent to an impact force, on an inclined surface, of some 800 kN. After landing, due to the locally high slope gradient (about 45°, and low angle of trajectory at impact (about 23°, some boulders slid down the slope as far as the endpoints. The maximum depth of penetration into the ground by a sliding block was estimated at about 16 cm. Very likely, owing to the high impact force of boulders on the saturated soil slope outcropping at the cliff base, the debris flow was triggered under undrained loading conditions. Initial failure was characterized by a translational slide involving a limited, almost elliptical area where the pyroclastic cover shows greater thickness in comparison with the surrounding areas.

  15. Monitoring Inter- and Intra-Seasonal Dynamics of Rapidly Degrading Ice-Rich Permafrost Riverbanks in the Lena Delta with TerraSAR-X Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Stettner


    Full Text Available Arctic warming is leading to substantial changes to permafrost including rapid degradation of ice and ice-rich coasts and riverbanks. In this study, we present and evaluate a high spatiotemporal resolution three-year time series of X-Band microwave satellite data from the TerraSAR-X (TSX satellite to quantify cliff-top erosion (CTE of an ice-rich permafrost riverbank in the central Lena Delta. We apply a threshold on TSX backscatter images and automatically extract cliff-top lines to derive intra- and inter-annual CTE. In order to examine the drivers of erosion we statistically compare CTE with climatic baseline data using linear mixed models and analysis of variance (ANOVA. Our evaluation of TSX-derived CTE against annual optical-derived CTE and seasonal in situ measurements showed good agreement between all three datasets. We observed continuous erosion from June to September in 2014 and 2015 with no significant seasonality across the thawing season. We found the highest net annual cliff-top erosion of 6.9 m in 2014, in accordance with above-average mean temperatures and thawing degree days as well as low precipitation. We found high net annual erosion and erosion variability in 2015 associated with moderate mean temperatures but above average precipitation. According to linear mixed models, climate parameters alone could not explain intra-seasonal erosional patterns and additional factors such as ground ice content likely drive the observed erosion. Finally, mean backscatter intensity on the cliff surface decreased from −5.29 to −6.69 dB from 2013 to 2015, respectively, likely resulting from changes in surface geometry and properties that could be connected to partial slope stabilization. Overall, we conclude that X-Band backscatter time series can successfully be used to complement optical remote sensing and in situ monitoring of rapid tundra permafrost erosion at riverbanks and coasts by reliably providing information about intra

  16. The paradigm shift to an “open” model in drug development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Au


    Full Text Available The rising cost of healthcare, the rising cost for drug development, the patent cliff for Big pharma, shorter patent protection, decrease reimbursement, and the recession have made it more difficult for the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industry to develop drugs. Due to the unsustainable amount of time and money in developing a drug that will have a significant return on investment (ROI it has become hard to sustain a robust pipeline. The industry is transforming its business model to meet these challenges. In essence a paradigm shift is occurring; the old “closed” model is giving way to a new “open” business model.

  17. ActionScript Developer's Guide to PureMVC

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, Cliff


    Gain hands-on experience with PureMVC, the popular open source framework for developing maintainable applications with a Model-View-Controller architecture. In this concise guide, PureMVC creator Cliff Hall teaches the fundamentals of PureMVC development by walking you through the construction of a complete non-trivial Adobe AIR application. Through clear explanations and numerous ActionScript code examples, you'll learn best practices for using the framework's classes in your day-to-day work. Discover how PureMVC enables you to focus on the purpose and scope of your application, while the f

  18. Deploying scanning lidars at coastal sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Courtney, Michael; Simon, Elliot

    that the most desirable sites are away from sand dunes and with some significant elevation above the sea surface, such as at the top of a cliff. Coastal planning restrictions in Denmark are quite restrictive and it was important to allow sufficient time to obtain permission from the relevant authorities....... At the same time, with our particular application, the authorities and land owners were quite favourably inclined to give permission to temporary installations in support of wind energy research. The report concludes with the final positions and a pictorial description of the three RUNE scanning lidars....

  19. Effects of Naloxone on Stress and Performance (United States)


    sixth honey sveep boaGt bu::::hel chalk cloci-: pri lll:e juicy unfold motor duke con !’ide scorn foWld route cliff socf:et moou locket syrup four...duchecs jostle coerce vcni~on vigil impetus resound tonic hyciene elude duplex diverse vital z.ellith poem gristle shre\\ld cough crct1.rny eagle...l:eener closed do cile profess IDllrine tutor gopher ethics chemist entice instep lyrical cured flourish scope mildew porter sleigh initial clique

  20. Volatile constituents of Dianthus rupicola Biv. from Sicily: activity against microorganisms affecting cellulosic objects. (United States)

    Casiglia, Simona; Bruno, Maurizio; Senatore, Felice


    Dianthus rupicola Biv. (cliffs carnation) is a camephytic, suffruticous, perennial plant growing up to 40 cm high. The plant is widespread in Sicily and neighbouring islands (Egadi, Lampedusa, Lipari) and in some areas of southern Italy. GC and GC-MS analyses of the essential oil distilled from the flowers showed the presence of 66 components. Its composition is characterised by the high content of thymol and carvacrol derivatives. A good antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus and Bacillussubtilis, both infesting cellulosic historical material, was shown, whereas the antioxidant capacity was determined to be quite poor.