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Sample records for cleft affected offspring

  1. Maternal genes and facial clefts in offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jugessur, Astanand; Shi, Min; Gjessing, Håkon Kristian

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fetal conditions can in principle be affected by the mother's genotype working through the prenatal environment. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Genotypes for 1536 SNPs in 357 cleft candidate genes were available from a previous analysis in which we focused on fetal gene effects [1]. ...

  2. The maternal homocysteine pathway is influenced by riboflavin intake and MTHFR polymorphisms without affecting the risk of orofacial clefts in the offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujkovic, M; Steegers, E A; van Meurs, J; Yazdanpanah, N; van Rooij, I A; Uitterlinden, A G; Steegers-Theunissen, R P

    2010-03-01

    Riboflavin is a cofactor for the 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) enzyme involved in the homocysteine pathway. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of maternal riboflavin intake and two MTHFR polymorphisms (677C>T; Ala222Val and 1298A>C; Glu429Ala substitutions) on the biomarkers of the homocysteine pathway, and investigate the risk of having offspring with an orofacial cleft (OFC). In a case-control study design, dietary riboflavin intake and the MTHFR 677C>T and 1298A>C polymorphisms were evaluated in 123 OFC and 108 control mothers by using food frequency questionnaires and blood samples. Homocysteine (tHcy), folate and vitamin B12 concentrations in blood were analyzed in 70 cases and 68 controls. Linear and logistic regression analyses were applied. At 14 months postpartum riboflavin intake and MTHFR 677C>T and 1298A>C genotypes were not significantly different between cases and controls. The 677TT genotype showed lower folate concentrations compared to C-allele carriers with a mean difference of 2.8 nmol/l in serum and 174 nmol/l in red blood cell (both P's=0.01). Every mg per day increase of dietary riboflavin intake was positively associated with increase in vitamin B12 concentration by 52.1% (Priboflavin-adjusted MTHFR 677TT and 1298CC genotypes showed a trend toward an increasing risk for OFC, adjusted odds ratio 1.7 (confidence interval (95% CI), 0.7-4.5) and 1.6 (95% CI, 0.7-4.2), respectively. Maternal riboflavin intake is significantly associated with biomarkers of the homocysteine pathway, with the strongest effects in MTHFR 677TT homozygotes. The maternal risk of having OFC offspring, however, is not associated with dietary riboflavin intake.

  3. Maternal Nutritional Status and the Risk for Orofacial Cleft Offspring in Humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krapels, I.P.C.; Rooij, van I.A.L.M.; Ocké, M.C.; West, C.E.; Horst, van der C.M.A.M.; Steegers-Theunissen, R.P.M.

    2004-01-01

    Periconceptional folate and folic acid intake prevents orofacial clefts (OFC) in the offspring. It has been suggested that other nutrients also play a role. We investigated the preconceptional intake of macronutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, fiber, and cholesterol), vitamins (vitamin A,

  4. Maternal nutritional status and the risk for orofacial cleft offspring in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krapels, Ingrid P. C.; van Rooij, Iris A. L. M.; Ocké, Marga C.; West, Clive E.; van der Horst, Chantal M. A. M.; Steegers-Theunissen, Régine P. M.

    2004-01-01

    Periconceptional folate and folic acid intake prevents orofacial clefts (OFC) in the offspring. It has been suggested that other nutrients also play a role. We investigated the preconceptional intake of macronutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, fiber, and cholesterol), vitamins (vitamin A,

  5. Maternal nutritional status and the risk for orofacial cleft offspring in humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krapels, I.P.C.; Rooij, I.A.L.M. van; Ocke, M.C.; West, C.E.; Horst, C.M. van der; Steegers-Theunissen, R.P.M.

    2004-01-01

    Periconceptional folate and folic acid intake prevents orofacial clefts (OFC) in the offspring. It has been suggested that other nutrients also play a role. We investigated the preconceptional intake of macronutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, fiber, and cholesterol), vitamins (vitamin A,

  6. A study on the cephalometric similarity between parents and offspring in cleft lip with or without palate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Su Beom; Lee, Un Gyeong; Na, Seung Mog; Koh, Kwang Joon

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether any similarity existed in craniofacial morphology between parents and offspring in cleft lip with or without cleft palate. Thirty three measurements of the various regions of cranium and face were obtained from lateral cephalometric radiograms in 28 families comprising 28 fathers, 28 mothers and 28 cleft patients. The measurements of cleft patients compared with those of their fathers, mothers and midparents. The obtained results were as follows: 1. There were similar measurements between the cleft patients and their fathers; ramal height (Ar-Go), mandibular angle (angle MP-RP). 2. There were similar measurements between the cleft patients and their mothers; cranial base angle (angle NSBa), relation of maxilla to the cranial base (angle SNA), relation of maxilla to the cranial base(soft tissue: ?BaN S n), angle of inferior border of mandible (angle SNL-MP ) and convexity of nose apex (soft tissue: angle N P rnPog ) . 3. There were similar measurements between the cleft patients and their midparents; ramal height (Ar-Go), cranial base angle (angle NSBa), relation of maxilla to the cranial base (soft tissue: angle BaN S n), Y axis angle (angle NSGn) and mandibular angle (angle MP-RP). 4. There was no similar measurements between the cleft patients and their fathers and mothers simultaneously

  7. A study on the cephalometric similarity between parents and offspring in cleft lip with or without palate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Su Beom; Lee, Un Gyeong; Na, Seung Mog; Koh, Kwang Joon [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Chonbuk National University, Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether any similarity existed in craniofacial morphology between parents and offspring in cleft lip with or without cleft palate. Thirty three measurements of the various regions of cranium and face were obtained from lateral cephalometric radiograms in 28 families comprising 28 fathers, 28 mothers and 28 cleft patients. The measurements of cleft patients compared with those of their fathers, mothers and midparents. The obtained results were as follows: 1. There were similar measurements between the cleft patients and their fathers; ramal height (Ar-Go), mandibular angle (angle MP-RP). 2. There were similar measurements between the cleft patients and their mothers; cranial base angle (angle NSBa), relation of maxilla to the cranial base (angle SNA), relation of maxilla to the cranial base(soft tissue: ?BaN{sup S}n), angle of inferior border of mandible (angle SNL-MP) and convexity of nose apex (soft tissue: angle N'PrnPog'). 3. There were similar measurements between the cleft patients and their midparents; ramal height (Ar-Go), cranial base angle (angle NSBa), relation of maxilla to the cranial base (soft tissue: angle BaN{sup S}n), Y axis angle (angle NSGn) and mandibular angle (angle MP-RP). 4. There was no similar measurements between the cleft patients and their fathers and mothers simultaneously

  8. Maternal bereavement in the antenatal period and oral cleft in the offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingstrup, K G; Liang, H; Olsen, Jørn

    2013-01-01

    did not have the opportunity to adjust for intake of folic acid and use of anti-depressant; however, analysis in a subset of the data showed no difference in these intakes between exposed and unexposed mothers. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: With this study we add a large-scale human cohort study...... registers in Denmark from 1978 to 2008. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: Our final study population consisted of 1 771 663 children. Of these 35 118 (2%) were born to mothers who experienced bereavement in the exposure window from 1 year before pregnancy to the end of the first trimester. MAIN...... to a sudden death, the risk of oral cleft in the offspring was higher (OR: 1.76, 95% CI: 1.06; 2.94). Losing a relative in the time period before pregnancy and during the first trimester showed a tendency to an increased risk. The risk increase was 77% when the mother was bereaved due to sudden death...

  9. Use of corticosteroids in early pregnancy is not associated with risk of oral clefts and other congenital malformations in offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay Bjørn, Anne-Mette; Ehrenstein, Vera; Hundborg, Heidi Holmager

    2012-01-01

    Corticosteroids are commonly used to treat inflammatory diseases. There is conflicting evidence regarding the association of corticosteroid use in pregnancy and congenital malformations in offspring. We conducted a prevalence study of 83,043 primiparous women who gave birth to a live-born singleton...... in northern Denmark, in 1999-2009. Through medical registries, we identified prescriptions for corticosteroids, congenital malformations, and covariates. Furthermore, we summarized the literature on this topic. Overall, 1449 women (1.7%) used inhaled or oral corticosteroids from 30 days before conception...... throughout the first trimester. Oral cleft in the offspring was recorded for 1 of the users (0.08%) and 145 of the nonusers (0.2%), prevalence odds ratio (OR) 0.47 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.07-3.34]. The prevalence OR for congenital malformations overall was 1.02 (95% CI, 0.79-1.32). According...

  10. Glutamate neurotransmission is affected in prenatally stressed offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adrover, Ezequiela; Pallarés, Maria Eugenia; Baier, Carlos Javier

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that male adult offspring of stressed mothers exhibited higher levels of ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors than control rats. These offspring also showed long-lasting astroglial hypertrophy and a reduced dendritic arborization with syn......Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that male adult offspring of stressed mothers exhibited higher levels of ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors than control rats. These offspring also showed long-lasting astroglial hypertrophy and a reduced dendritic arborization...... with synaptic loss. Since metabolism of glutamate is dependent on interactions between neurons and surrounding astroglia, our results suggest that glutamate neurotransmitter pathways might be impaired in the brain of prenatally stressed rats. To study the effect of prenatal stress on the metabolism...... was not affected it was found that prenatal stress (PS) changed the expression of the transporters, thus, producing a higher level of vesicular vGluT-1 in the frontal cortex (FCx) and elevated levels of GLT1 protein and messenger RNA in the hippocampus (HPC) of adult male PS offspring. We also observed increased...

  11. Cleft Lip and Cleft Palate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... refers to a cleft in the lip only accounting for 20 percent of all clefts. What causes ... malformation of the upper airway can affect the function of the Eustachian tube and increase the possibility ...

  12. Levels of maternal care in dogs affect adult offspring temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foyer, Pernilla; Wilsson, Erik; Jensen, Per

    2016-01-13

    Dog puppies are born in a state of large neural immaturity; therefore, the nervous system is sensitive to environmental influences early in life. In primates and rodents, early experiences, such as maternal care, have been shown to have profound and lasting effects on the later behaviour and physiology of offspring. We hypothesised that this would also be the case for dogs with important implications for the breeding of working dogs. In the present study, variation in the mother-offspring interactions of German Shepherd dogs within the Swedish breeding program for military working dogs was studied by video recording 22 mothers with their litters during the first three weeks postpartum. The aim was to classify mothers with respect to their level of maternal care and to investigate the effect of this care on pup behaviour in a standardised temperament test carried out at approximately 18 months of age. The results show that females differed consistently in their level of maternal care, which significantly affected the adult behaviour of the offspring, mainly with respect to behaviours classified as Physical and Social Engagement, as well as Aggression. Taking maternal quality into account in breeding programs may therefore improve the process of selecting working dogs.

  13. Does brood size manipulation affect later competitive behaviour of offspring?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    deKogel, CH

    Data from several field experiments support the existence of a trade-off between number and quality of offspring. However, long term effects of brood size on fitness related traits of offspring have been a relatively neglected area of research. In a laboratory experiment the effect of manipulated

  14. High-fat diet reprograms the epigenome of rat spermatozoa and transgenerationally affects metabolism of the offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais de Castro Barbosa

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: Our results provide insight into mechanisms by which HFD transgenerationally reprograms the epigenome of sperm cells, thereby affecting metabolic tissues of offspring throughout two generations.

  15. Cleft Lip and Cleft Palate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... health conditions > Cleft lip and cleft palate Cleft lip and cleft palate E-mail to a friend Please fill in ... repair cleft lip and palate. What are cleft lip and cleft palate? Cleft lip is a birth defect in which ...

  16. Osteopontin, osteocalcin, and osteoprotegerin expression in human tissue affected by cleft lip and palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smane L.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cleft lip and palate (CLP is a common congenital anomaly with a complex etiology which has not been elucidated yet. This study investigated whether expression of osteopontin (OPN, osteoprotegerin (OPG, and osteocalcin (OC, which are essential for the normal craniofacial bone remodelling, is not regulated in children with CLP. Alveolar bone tissue samples were obtained from patients with complete bilateral (CB CLP (n = 14 during corrective plastic surgery and unaffected control subjects (n = 9. OPN, OPG, and OC expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry, and data were analyzed with the Mann-Whitney test. OPN expression was observed only sporadically in the alveolar bone of 3 patients, in contrast to the control group (z = −2.962; P < 0.003. The number of OPG-positive bone cells varied from occasional to moderate, in contrast to the control group (z = −2.247; P = 0.025. OC-positive osteocytes were present in moderate to numerous numbers in both patients and controls, with no significant difference between them (z = −1.356; P < 0.175. The prominent expression of OC characteristic for CBCLP affected hard tissue indicates a high potential of bone mineralization. Few OPG-positive osteocytes in the bone tissue implicate the disregulation of osteoclast differentiation, maturation, and activity, but few OPN-containing cells may prove the common disregulation of bone remodelling during cleft morphopathogenesis.

  17. Pre-pregnancy maternal overweight and obesity increase the risk for affective disorders in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, M; Zubrick, S R; Pennell, C E; Van Lieshout, R J; Jacoby, P; Beilin, L J; Mori, T A; Stanley, F J; Newnham, J P; Oddy, W H

    2013-02-01

    Maternal pre-pregnancy obesity has been linked with an increased risk for negative emotionality and inattentiveness in offspring in early childhood. The aim of this study was to examine the association between maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and the development of affective problems (dysthymic disorder, major depressive disorder) throughout childhood and adolescence. In the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study, 2900 women provided data on their pre-pregnancy weight, and height measurements were taken at 18 weeks of gestation. BMI was calculated and categorized using standardized methods. Live-born children (n = 2868) were followed up at ages 5, 8, 10, 14 and 17 years using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-oriented scales of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL/4-18). Longitudinal models were applied to assess the relationships between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and affective problems from age 5 through 17. There was a higher risk of affective problems between the ages of 5 and 17 years among children of women who were overweight and obese compared with the offspring of women in the healthy pre-pregnancy weight range (BMI 18.5-24.99) after adjustment for confounders, including paternal BMI. Maternal pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity may be implicated in the development of affective problems, including depression, in their offspring later in life.

  18. New insights into parental effects and toxicity: Mate availability and diet in the parental environment affect offspring responses to contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plautz, Stephanie C.; Funkhouser, Meghan A.; Salice, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    Parental effects manifest as alterations in offspring phenotype resulting from the parental phenotype and/or parental environment. We evaluated the effects of parental diet quality and mating strategy on the toxicant tolerance of offspring in Biomphalaria glabrata snails. We raised snails either individually (self-fertilizing) or in groups of three (outcrossing) on a diet of uncooked lettuce, fish food, cooked lettuce, or cooked lettuce plus fish food. We then exposed their offspring to cadmium and malathion challenges. Cadmium tolerance varied with parental diet and was greater in the offspring of outcrossing snails than self-fertilizing snails. Malathion tolerance was not affected by parental diet but was greater in the offspring of outcrossing snails. These results indicate that offspring responses to stressors are heavily influenced by parental experience, but may depend on the specific stressor and the mechanism of action and/or detoxification. -- Highlights: •We reared parental snails either alone or in groups and fed them one of four diets. •We exposed their juvenile offspring to cadmium and malathion survival challenges. •Outcrossing increased toxicant tolerance of juveniles compared to self-fertilizing. •Parental diet affected juvenile offspring tolerance to cadmium but not malathion. •Toxicant characteristics likely influenced parental effects on toxicant tolerance. -- Both parental diet composition and mating strategy can significantly alter the toxicant tolerance of offspring, and toxicant characteristics likely influence the probability of parental effects

  19. Patterns of Cleft Lip and Cleft Palate in Northern Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoor Khan

    2012-04-01

    Results: A total of 159 patients of cleft lip and cleft palate deformities were included in the study, having a mean age of 3.5+6.59 years and containing 59.1% males and 40.9% females with a ratio of 1.4:1. A cleft lip with palate, cleft palate and cleft lip were found in 51.6%, 31.4% and 17% of cases, respectively. Left-sided clefts were most common in the cleft lip with palate and the isolated cleft lip deformity. A cleft lip with palate was a male dominant variety (62.8% of cases, while in the cleft palate variety, the dominant gender was female. In 61.6% of cases, the parent had a consanguineous relationship. In 21.4% of cases, family history was positive for the cleft lip/palate. Other congenital anomalies were associated in 10.7% of cases. Conclusion: Cleft deformities of the lip and palate affect the male population more than females with cleft lips, in association with a cleft palate being the most common anomaly. Females are mainly affected by an isolated cleft palate. The high prevalence of these deformities in consanguineous marriages emphasizes educating people. The lower number of patients from distant distracts of Northern Pakistan calls for the attention of the health department. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2012; 1(2.000: 63-70

  20. Maternal protein restriction affects gene expression and enzyme activity of intestinal disaccharidases in adult rat offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinheiro, D.F.; Pacheco, P.D.G.; Alvarenga, P.V.; Buratini, J. Jr; Castilho, A.C.S.; Lima, P.F.; Sartori, D.R.S.; Vicentini-Paulino, M.L.M.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the consequences of intrauterine protein restriction on the gastrointestinal tract and particularly on the gene expression and activity of intestinal disaccharidases in the adult offspring. Wistar rat dams were fed isocaloric diets containing 6% protein (restricted, n = 8) or 17% protein (control, n = 8) throughout gestation. Male offspring (n = 5-8 in each group) were evaluated at 3 or 16 weeks of age. Maternal protein restriction during pregnancy produced offspring with growth restriction from birth (5.7 ± 0.1 vs 6.3 ± 0.1 g; mean ± SE) to weaning (42.4 ± 1.3 vs 49.1 ± 1.6 g), although at 16 weeks of age their body weight was similar to control (421.7 ± 8.9 and 428.5 ± 8.5 g). Maternal protein restriction also increased lactase activity in the proximal (0.23 ± 0.02 vs 0.15 ± 0.02), medial (0.30 ± 0.06 vs 0.14 ± 0.01) and distal (0.43 ± 0.07 vs 0.07 ± 0.02 U·g -1 ·min -1 ) small intestine, and mRNA lactase abundance in the proximal intestine (7.96 ± 1.11 vs 2.38 ± 0.47 relative units) of 3-week-old offspring rats. In addition, maternal protein restriction increased sucrase activity (1.20 ± 0.02 vs 0.91 ± 0.02 U·g -1 ·min -1 ) and sucrase mRNA abundance (4.48 ± 0.51 vs 1.95 ± 0.17 relative units) in the duodenum of 16-week-old rats. In conclusion, the present study shows for the first time that intrauterine protein restriction affects gene expression of intestinal enzymes in offspring

  1. Handling missing data in transmission disequilibrium test in nuclear families with one affected offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulhan Bourget

    Full Text Available The Transmission Disequilibrium Test (TDT compares frequencies of transmission of two alleles from heterozygote parents to an affected offspring. This test requires all genotypes to be known from all members of the nuclear families. However, obtaining all genotypes in a study might not be possible for some families, in which case, a data set results in missing genotypes. There are many techniques of handling missing genotypes in parents but only a few in offspring. The robust TDT (rTDT is one of the methods that handles missing genotypes for all members of nuclear families [with one affected offspring]. Even though all family members can be imputed, the rTDT is a conservative test with low power. We propose a new method, Mendelian Inheritance TDT (MITDT-ONE, that controls type I error and has high power. The MITDT-ONE uses Mendelian Inheritance properties, and takes population frequencies of the disease allele and marker allele into account in the rTDT method. One of the advantages of using the MITDT-ONE is that the MITDT-ONE can identify additional significant genes that are not found by the rTDT. We demonstrate the performances of both tests along with Sib-TDT (S-TDT in Monte Carlo simulation studies. Moreover, we apply our method to the type 1 diabetes data from the Warren families in the United Kingdom to identify significant genes that are related to type 1 diabetes.

  2. Dysfunctional family environment in affected versus unaffected offspring of parents with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Guilherme S; Moreira, Carolina R L; Kleinman, Ana; Nader, Edmir C G P; Gomes, Bernardo Carramão; Teixeira, Ana Maria A; Rocca, Cristiana C Almeida; Nicoletti, Mark; Soares, Jair C; Busatto, Geraldo F; Lafer, Beny; Caetano, Sheila C

    2013-11-01

    Children of parents with bipolar disorder (BD) are at heightened risk for developing mood and other psychiatric disorders. We proposed to evaluate the environment of families with at least one parent with BD type I (BDF) with affected offspring (aBDF) and unaffected offspring (uBDF) compared with control families without a history of DSM-IV Axis I disorder (CF). We used the Family Environment Scale (FES) to evaluate 47 BDF (aBDF + uBDF) and 30 CF. Parents were assessed through the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I). Diagnosis of the offspring was determined through the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children/Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL) interview. There were statistically significant differences between aBDF, uBDF and CF in cohesion (p = 0.003), intellectual-cultural orientation (p = 0.01), active-recreational orientation (p = 0.007), conflict (p = 0.001), control (p = 0.01), moral-religious emphasis (p = 0.01) and organization (p = 0.001). The aBDF showed higher levels of control (p = 0.02) when compared to the uBDF. Families with a BD parent presented more dysfunctional interactions among members. Moreover, the presence of BD or other psychiatric disorders in the offspring of parents with BD is associated with higher levels of control. These results highlight the relevance of psychosocial interventions to improve resilience and family interactions.

  3. Autoantibodies to folate receptor alpha during early pregnancy and risk of oral clefts in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Camilla; Pedersen, Dorthe Almind; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether IgG and IgM autoantibodies to folate receptor alpha (FRalpha) in pregnant women are associated with an increased risk of oral cleft-affected offspring. A case-control study nested in the prospective Danish National Birth Cohort (100,418 pregnan...

  4. The role of negative maternal affective states and infant temperament in early interactions between infants with cleft lip and their mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montirosso, Rosario; Fedeli, Claudia; Murray, Lynne; Morandi, Francesco; Brusati, Roberto; Perego, Guenda Ghezzi; Borgatti, Renato

    2012-03-01

    The study examined the early interaction between mothers and their infants with cleft lip, assessing the role of maternal affective state and expressiveness and differences in infant temperament. Mother-infant interactions were assessed in 25 2-month-old infants with cleft lip and 25 age-matched healthy infants. Self-report and behavioral observations were used to assess maternal depressive symptoms and expressions. Mothers rated infant temperament. Infants with cleft lip were less engaged and their mothers showed more difficulty in interaction than control group dyads. Mothers of infants with cleft lip displayed more negative affectivity, but did not report more self-rated depressive symptoms than control group mothers. No group differences were found in infant temperament. In order to support the mother's experience and facilitate her ongoing parental role, findings highlight the importance of identifying maternal negative affectivity during early interactions, even when they seem have little awareness of their depressive symptoms.

  5. Maternal intraguild predation risk affects offspring anti-predator behavior and learning in mites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiter, Michael; Schausberger, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Predation risk is a strong selective force shaping prey morphology, life history and behavior. Anti-predator behaviors may be innate, learned or both but little is known about the transgenerational behavioral effects of maternally experienced predation risk. We examined intraguild predation (IGP) risk-induced maternal effects on offspring anti-predator behavior, including learning, in the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis. We exposed predatory mite mothers during egg production to presence or absence of the IG predator Amblyseius andersoni and assessed whether maternal stress affects the anti-predator behavior, including larval learning ability, of their offspring as protonymphs. Protonymphs emerging from stressed or unstressed mothers, and having experienced IGP risk as larvae or not, were subjected to choice situations with and without IG predator traces. Predator-experienced protonymphs from stressed mothers were the least active and acted the boldest in site choice towards predator cues. We argue that the attenuated response of the protonymphs to predator traces alone represents optimized risk management because no immediate risk existed. Such behavioral adjustment could reduce the inherent fitness costs of anti-predator behaviors. Overall, our study suggests that P. persimilis mothers experiencing IGP risk may prime their offspring to behave more optimally in IGP environments. PMID:26449645

  6. High-salt diets during pregnancy affected fetal and offspring renal renin-angiotensin system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Caiping; Liu, Rong; Bo, Le; Chen, Ningjing; Li, Shigang; Xia, Shuixiu; Chen, Jie; Li, Dawei; Zhang, Lubo; Xu, Zhice

    2013-07-01

    Intrauterine environments are related to fetal renal development and postnatal health. Influence of salty diets during pregnancy on renal functions and renin-angiotensin system (RAS) was determined in the ovine fetuses and offspring. Pregnant ewes were fed high-salt diet (HSD) or normal-salt diet (NSD) for 2 months during middle-to-late gestation. Fetal renal functions, plasma hormones, and mRNA and protein expressions of the key elements of renal RAS were measured in the fetuses and offspring. Fetal renal excretion of sodium was increased while urine volume decreased in the HSD group. Fetal blood urea nitrogen was increased, while kidney weight:body weight ratio decreased in the HSD group. The altered ratio was also observed in the offspring aged 15 and 90 days. Maternal and fetal plasma antidiuretic hormone was elevated without changes in plasma renin activity and Ang I levels, while plasma Ang II was decreased. The key elements of local renal RAS, including angiotensinogen, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), ACE2, AT1, and AT2 receptor expression in both mRNA and protein, except renin, were altered following maternal high salt intake. The results suggest that high intake of salt during pregnancy affected fetal renal development associated with an altered expression of the renal key elements of RAS, some alterations of fetal origins remained after birth as possible risks in developing renal or cardiovascular diseases.

  7. Maternal enrichment affects prenatal hippocampal proliferation and open-field behaviors in female offspring mice.

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    Maruoka, Takashi; Kodomari, Ikuko; Yamauchi, Rena; Wada, Etsuko; Wada, Keiji

    2009-04-17

    The maternal environment is thought to be important for fetal brain development. However, the effects of maternal environment are not fully understood. Here, we investigated whether enrichment of the maternal environment can influence prenatal brain development and postnatal behaviors in mice. An enriched environment is a housing condition with several objects such as a running wheel, tube and ladder, which are thought to increase sensory, cognitive and motor stimulation in rodents compared with standard housing conditions. First, we measured the number of BrdU-positive cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of fetuses from pregnant dams housed in an enriched environment. Our results revealed that maternal enrichment influences cell proliferation in the hippocampus of female, but not male, fetuses. Second, we used the open-field test to investigate postnatal behaviors in the offspring of dams housed in the enriched environment during pregnancy. We found that maternal enrichment significantly affects the locomotor activity and time spent in the center of the open-field in female, but not male, offspring. These results indicate that maternal enrichment influences prenatal brain development and postnatal behaviors in female offspring.

  8. Metformin Treatment Does Not Affect Testicular Size in Offspring Born to Mothers with Gestational Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tertti, Kristiina; Toppari, Jorma; Virtanen, Helena E; Sadov, Sergey; Rönnemaa, Tapani

    2016-01-01

    Studies in rodents suggest that metformin treatment during pregnancy may have harmful effects on testicular development in offspring. Our aim was to determine whether metformin treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) affects testicular size in male offspring. We compared the testicular size in prepubertal boys born to mothers who participated in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing metformin with insulin in the treatment of GDM. Twenty-five (42.4% of invited) and 27 (52.9% of invited) boys whose mothers had been treated with metformin or insulin, respectively, participated in the study. Testicular size was measured by a ruler, an orchidometer, and by ultrasonography at the age of 33 to 85 months. The mean age of the boys was 60 months at the time of examination, and did not differ between the metformin and insulin group (p = 0.88). There was no difference in testicular size between the boys in the two groups (p always ≥ 0.40), and there were no significant differences in height, weight, BMI, BMI z-score, or waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) between the boys in the groups. Prepubertal testicular size did not differ between offspring born to metformin-treated mothers and those born to insulin-treated mothers.

  9. Long-term influences of parental divorce on offspring affective disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, Amy; Thompson, Ellen J; Gaysina, Darya

    2017-08-15

    The prevalence of divorce in Western countries has increased in recent decades. However, there is no recent systematic review and/or meta-analysis of studies testing for long-term effects of parental divorce on offspring affective disorders. The present study conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies published since 1980 testing for the association between parental divorce and offspring depression and anxiety in adulthood. PUBMED, Science Direct, Medline, PsychInfo, and PsychArticles databases were searched for eligible studies. Random-effect meta-analyses were used to synthesize effect sizes and to test whether associations of parental divorce with offspring affective disorders differed among three publication periods (i.e., before 1996, 1996-2005, 2006-2015). In total, 29 studies were eligible for the systematic review, and 18 studies were included in the meta-analyses (depression: n=21,581; anxiety: n=2472). There was significant association between parental divorce and offspring depression (OR=1.56; 95%CI [1.31, 1.86]), but not anxiety (OR=1.16; 95%CI [0.98, 1.38]). The effect of parental divorce on offspring depression was not weaker in the reports published in more recent decades. There is limited research in relation to offspring anxiety in adulthood. Parental divorce is associated with an increased risk of adult offspring depression, with no indication of the effect being weaker in recent publications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Maternal protein restriction affects gene expression and enzyme activity of intestinal disaccharidases in adult rat offspring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro, D.F.; Pacheco, P.D.G.; Alvarenga, P.V.; Buratini, J. Jr; Castilho, A.C.S.; Lima, P.F.; Sartori, D.R.S.; Vicentini-Paulino, M.L.M. [Departamento de Fisiologia, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2013-03-15

    This study investigated the consequences of intrauterine protein restriction on the gastrointestinal tract and particularly on the gene expression and activity of intestinal disaccharidases in the adult offspring. Wistar rat dams were fed isocaloric diets containing 6% protein (restricted, n = 8) or 17% protein (control, n = 8) throughout gestation. Male offspring (n = 5-8 in each group) were evaluated at 3 or 16 weeks of age. Maternal protein restriction during pregnancy produced offspring with growth restriction from birth (5.7 ± 0.1 vs 6.3 ± 0.1 g; mean ± SE) to weaning (42.4 ± 1.3 vs 49.1 ± 1.6 g), although at 16 weeks of age their body weight was similar to control (421.7 ± 8.9 and 428.5 ± 8.5 g). Maternal protein restriction also increased lactase activity in the proximal (0.23 ± 0.02 vs 0.15 ± 0.02), medial (0.30 ± 0.06 vs 0.14 ± 0.01) and distal (0.43 ± 0.07 vs 0.07 ± 0.02 U·g{sup -1}·min{sup -1}) small intestine, and mRNA lactase abundance in the proximal intestine (7.96 ± 1.11 vs 2.38 ± 0.47 relative units) of 3-week-old offspring rats. In addition, maternal protein restriction increased sucrase activity (1.20 ± 0.02 vs 0.91 ± 0.02 U·g{sup -1}·min{sup -1}) and sucrase mRNA abundance (4.48 ± 0.51 vs 1.95 ± 0.17 relative units) in the duodenum of 16-week-old rats. In conclusion, the present study shows for the first time that intrauterine protein restriction affects gene expression of intestinal enzymes in offspring.

  11. Perinatal exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate affects glucose metabolism in adult offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hin T Wan

    Full Text Available Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs are globally present in the environment and are widely distributed in human populations and wildlife. The chemicals are ubiquitous in human body fluids and have a long serum elimination half-life. The notorious member of PFAAs, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS is prioritized as a global concerning chemical at the Stockholm Convention in 2009, due to its harmful effects in mammals and aquatic organisms. PFOS is known to affect lipid metabolism in adults and was found to be able to cross human placenta. However the effects of in utero exposure to the susceptibility of metabolic disorders in offspring have not yet been elucidated. In this study, pregnant CD-1 mice (F0 were fed with 0, 0.3 or 3 mg PFOS/kg body weight/day in corn oil by oral gavage daily throughout gestational and lactation periods. We investigated the immediate effects of perinatal exposure to PFOS on glucose metabolism in both maternal and offspring after weaning (PND 21. To determine if the perinatal exposure predisposes the risk for metabolic disorder to the offspring, weaned animals without further PFOS exposure, were fed with either standard or high-fat diet until PND 63. Fasting glucose and insulin levels were measured while HOMA-IR index and glucose AUCs were reported. Our data illustrated the first time the effects of the environmental equivalent dose of PFOS exposure on the disturbance of glucose metabolism in F1 pups and F1 adults at PND 21 and 63, respectively. Although the biological effects of PFOS on the elevated levels of fasting serum glucose and insulin levels were observed in both pups and adults of F1, the phenotypes of insulin resistance and glucose intolerance were only evident in the F1 adults. The effects were exacerbated under HFD, highlighting the synergistic action at postnatal growth on the development of metabolic disorders.

  12. Parental prey selection affects risk-taking behaviour and spatial learning in avian offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Kathryn E; Ramsay, Scot L; Donaldson, Christine; Adam, Aileen

    2007-10-22

    Early nutrition shapes life history. Parents should, therefore, provide a diet that will optimize the nutrient intake of their offspring. In a number of passerines, there is an often observed, but unexplained, peak in spider provisioning during chick development. We show that the proportion of spiders in the diet of nestling blue tits, Cyanistes caeruleus, varies significantly with the age of chicks but is unrelated to the timing of breeding or spider availability. Moreover, this parental prey selection supplies nestlings with high levels of taurine particularly at younger ages. This amino acid is known to be both vital and limiting for mammalian development and consequently found in high concentrations in placenta and milk. Based on the known roles of taurine in mammalian brain development and function, we then asked whether by supplying taurine-rich spiders, avian parents influence the stress responsiveness and cognitive function of their offspring. To test this, we provided wild blue tit nestlings with either a taurine supplement or control treatment once daily from the ages of 2-14 days. Then pairs of size- and sex-matched siblings were brought into captivity for behavioural testing. We found that juveniles that had received additional taurine as neonates took significantly greater risks when investigating novel objects than controls. Taurine birds were also more successful at a spatial learning task than controls. Additionally, those individuals that succeeded at a spatial learning task had shown intermediate levels of risk taking. Non-learners were generally very risk-averse controls. Early diet therefore has downstream impacts on behavioural characteristics that could affect fitness via foraging and competitive performance. Fine-scale prey selection is a mechanism by which parents can manipulate the behavioural phenotype of offspring.

  13. Maternal postpartum learned helplessness (LH) affects maternal care by dams and responses to the LH test in adolescent offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurata, Akiko; Morinobu, Shigeru; Fuchikami, Manabu; Yamamoto, Shigeto; Yamawaki, Shigeto

    2009-06-01

    It is known that the early environment affects the mental development of rodent and human offspring. However, it is not known specifically whether a postpartum depressive state influences the depressive state in offspring. Using learned helplessness (LH) in rats as an animal model of depression, we examined the influence of maternal postpartum LH on responses to the LH test of offspring. Dam rats were judged as LH or non-helpless (nLH) on postnatal days (PN) 2-3, and maternal behavior was recorded during PN2-14. On PN 45-46, offspring were subjected to the LH test. Plasma corticosterone (CORT) levels, hippocampal levels of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA were measured before and after the LH test in offspring. Active nursing in LH dams was significantly lower than that in nLH dams. Susceptibility to LH in the offspring of LH dams was significantly higher than in those of nLH dams, and was negatively correlated with active nursing by LH dams. The GR mRNA levels before and after the LH test were lower in the offspring of LH dams than in those of nLH dams, and the reduced basal GR mRNA and protein might have resulted in the higher CORT response after the LH test. There was no significant difference in BDNF mRNA in the offspring of LH and nLH dams. These findings suggest that early postpartum LH decreased active nursing and increased depression-like behavior in the adolescent offspring via dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.

  14. High-fat diet reprograms the epigenome of rat spermatozoa and transgenerationally affects metabolism of the offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Castro Barbosa, Thais; Ingerslev, Lars R; Alm, Petter S

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Chronic and high consumption of fat constitutes an environmental stress that leads to metabolic diseases. We hypothesized that high-fat diet (HFD) transgenerationally remodels the epigenome of spermatozoa and metabolism of the offspring. METHODS: F0-male rats fed either HFD or chow diet......1 male offspring showed common DNA methylation and small non-coding RNA expression signatures. Altered expression of sperm miRNA let-7c was passed down to metabolic tissues of the offspring, inducing a transcriptomic shift of the let-7c predicted targets. CONCLUSION: Our results provide insight...... into mechanisms by which HFD transgenerationally reprograms the epigenome of sperm cells, thereby affecting metabolic tissues of offspring throughout two generations....

  15. Transplacental and early life exposure to inorganic arsenic affected development and behavior in offspring rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xi, Shuhua; Jin, Yaping; Sun, Guifan [China Medical University, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, College of Public Health, Shenyang, Liaoning (China); Sun, Wenjuan; Wang, Fengzhi [Shenyang Medical College, Department of Preventive Medicine, Shenyang, Liaoning (China)

    2009-06-15

    To evaluate the developmental neurotoxicity of arsenic in offspring rats by transplacental and early life exposure to sodium arsenite in drinking water, the pregnant rats or lactating dams, and weaned pups were given free access to drinking water, which contained arsenic at concentrations of 0, 10, 50, 100 mg/L from GD 6 until PND 42. A battery of physical and behavioral tests was applied to evaluate the functional outcome of pups. Pups in arsenic exposed groups weighed less than controls throughout lactation and weaning. Body weight of 10, 50 and 100 mg/L arsenic exposed groups decreased significantly on PND 42, 16 and 12, respectively. Physical development (pinna unfolding, fur appearance, incisor eruption, or eye opening) in pups displayed no significant differences between control and arsenic treated groups. The number of incidences within the 100 mg/L arsenic treated group, in tail hung, auditory startle and visual placing showed significant decrease compared to the control group (p<0.05). In square water maze test, the trained numbers to finish the trials successfully in 50 and 100 mg/L arsenic exposed groups increased remarkably compared to control group, and there was a dose-related increase (p<0.01) observed. Taken together, these data show that exposure of inorganic arsenite to pregnant dams and offspring pups at levels up to 100 mg/L in drinking water may affect their learning and memory functions and neuromotor reflex. (orig.)

  16. Preconception Prebiotic and Sitagliptin Treatment in Obese Rats Affects Pregnancy Outcomes and Offspring Microbiota, Adiposity, and Glycemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol A. Dennison

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Maternal obesity is associated with increased risk of pregnancy complications and greater risk of obesity in offspring, but studies designed to examine preconception weight loss are limited. The objective of this study was to determine if a combined dietary [oligofructose (OFS] and pharmacological (sitagliptin preconception intervention could mitigate poor pregnancy outcomes associated with maternal obesity and improve offspring metabolic health and gut microbiota composition. Diet-induced obese female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to one of four intervention groups for 8 weeks: (1 Obese-Control (consumed control diet during intervention; (2 Obese-OFS (10% OFS diet; (3 Obese-S (sitagliptin drug; (4 Obese-OFS + S (combination treatment. Two reference groups were also included: (5 Obese-HFS (untreated obese consumed high fat/sucrose diet throughout study; (6 Lean-Control (lean reference group that were never obese and consumed control diet throughout. Offspring consumed control diet until 11 weeks of age followed by HFS diet until 17 weeks of age. The Obese-OFS + S rats lost weight during the intervention phase whereas the OFS and S treatments attenuated weight gain compared with Obese-HFS (p < 0.05. Gestational weight gain was lowest in Obese-OFS + S rats and highest in Obese-HFS rats (p < 0.05. Prepregnancy intervention did not affect reproductive parameters but did affect pregnancy outcomes including litter size. Male Obese-OFS offspring had significantly lower percent body fat than Obese-HFS at 17 weeks. Female Obese-S and Obese-OFS offspring had significantly lower fasting glucose at 17 weeks compared with Obese-Control and Obese-HFS. Clostridium cluster XI was higher in Obese-HFS and Obese-S dams at birth compared with all other groups. Dams with an adverse pregnancy outcome had significantly lower (p = 0.035 Lactobacillus spp. compared with dams with normal or small litters. At weaning, male offspring

  17. Residential Agricultural Pesticide Exposures and Risk of Neural Tube Defects and Orofacial Clefts Among Offspring in the San Joaquin Valley of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Carmichael, Suzan L.; Roberts, Eric M.; Kegley, Susan E.; Padula, Amy M.; English, Paul B.; Shaw, Gary M.

    2014-01-01

    We examined whether early gestational exposures to pesticides were associated with an increased risk of anencephaly, spina bifida, cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CLP), or cleft palate only. We used population-based data along with detailed information from maternal interviews. Exposure estimates were based on residential proximity to agricultural pesticide applications during early pregnancy. The study population derived from the San Joaquin Valley, California (1997–2006). Analyses included 73 cases with anencephaly, 123 with spina bifida, 277 with CLP, and 117 with cleft palate only in addition to 785 controls. A total of 38% of the subjects were exposed to 52 chemical groups and 257 specific chemicals. There were relatively few elevated odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals that excluded 1 after adjustment for relevant covariates. Those chemical groups included petroleum derivatives for anencephaly, hydroxybenzonitrile herbicides for spina bifida, and 2,6-dinitroaniline herbicides and dithiocarbamates-methyl isothiocyanate for CLP. The specific chemicals included 2,4-D dimethylamine salt, methomyl, imidacloprid, and α-(para-nonylphenyl)-ω-hydroxypoly(oxyethylene) phosphate ester for anencephaly; the herbicide bromoxynil octanoate for spina bifida; and trifluralin and maneb for CLP. Adjusted odds ratios ranged from 1.6 to 5.1. Given that such odds ratios might have arisen by chance because of the number of comparisons, our study showed a general lack of association between a range of agricultural pesticide exposures and risks of selected birth defects. PMID:24553680

  18. Maternal Rat Diabetes Mellitus Deleteriously Affects Insulin Sensitivity and Beta-Cell Function in the Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Baset M. Aref

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to assess the effect of maternal diabetes in rats on serum glucose and insulin concentrations, insulin resistance, histological architecture of pancreas and glycogen content in liver of offspring. The pregnant rat females were allocated into two main groups: normal control group and streptozotocin-induced diabetic group. After birth, the surviving offspring were subjected to biochemical and histological examination immediately after delivery and at the end of the 1st and 2nd postnatal weeks. In comparison with the offspring of normal control dams, the fasting serum glucose level of offspring of diabetic mothers was significantly increased at the end of the 1st and 2nd postnatal weeks. Serum insulin level of offspring of diabetic dams was significantly higher at birth and decreased significantly during the following 2 postnatal weeks, while in normal rat offspring, it was significantly increased with progress of time. HOMA Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR was significantly increased in the offspring of diabetic dams at birth and after 1 week than in normal rat offspring, while HOMA insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IS was significantly decreased. HOMA beta-cell function was significantly decreased at all-time intervals in offspring of diabetic dams. At birth, islets of Langerhans as well as beta cells in offspring of diabetic dams were hypertrophied. The cells constituting islets seemed to have a high division rate. However, beta-cells were degenerated during the following 2 post-natal weeks and smaller insulin secreting cells predominated. Vacuolation and necrosis of the islets of Langerhans were also observed throughout the experimental period. The carbohydrate content in liver of offspring of diabetic dams was at all-time intervals lower than that in control. The granule distribution was more random. Overall, the preexisting maternal diabetes leads to glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, and impaired insulin sensitivity and

  19. Parental and embryonic experiences with predation risk affect prey offspring behaviour and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donelan, Sarah C; Trussell, Geoffrey C

    2018-03-14

    Because phenotypic plasticity can operate both within and between generations, phenotypic outcomes are often shaped by a complex history of environmental signals. For example, parental and embryonic experiences with predation risk can both independently and interactively influence prey offspring traits early in their life. Parental and embryonic risk experiences can also independently shape offspring phenotypes throughout an offspring's ontogeny, but the persistence of their interactive effects throughout offspring ontogeny is unknown. We examined the effects of parental and embryonic experiences with predation risk on the response of 1-year-old prey (the carnivorous snail, Nucella lapillus ) offspring to current predation risk. We found that parental and embryonic risk experiences had largely independent effects on offspring performance and that these effects were context dependent. Parental experience with risk had strong impacts on multiple offspring traits in the presence of current risk that generally improved offspring performance under risk, but embryonic risk experience had relatively weaker effects and only operated in the absence of current risk to reduce offspring growth. These results illustrate that past environmental experiences can dynamically shape organism phenotypes across ontogeny and that attention to these effects is key to a better understanding of predator/prey dynamics in natural systems. © 2018 The Author(s).

  20. Maternal creatine supplementation affects the morpho-functional development of hippocampal neurons in rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartini, S; Lattanzi, D; Ambrogini, P; Di Palma, M; Galati, C; Savelli, D; Polidori, E; Calcabrini, C; Rocchi, M B L; Sestili, P; Cuppini, R

    2016-01-15

    Creatine supplementation has been shown to protect neurons from oxidative damage due to its antioxidant and ergogenic functions. These features have led to the hypothesis of creatine supplementation use during pregnancy as prophylactic treatment to prevent CNS damage, such as hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Unfortunately, very little is known on the effects of creatine supplementation during neuron differentiation, while in vitro studies revealed an influence on neuron excitability, leaving the possibility of creatine supplementation during the CNS development an open question. Using a multiple approach, we studied the hippocampal neuron morphological and functional development in neonatal rats born by dams supplemented with 1% creatine in drinking water during pregnancy. CA1 pyramidal neurons of supplemented newborn rats showed enhanced dendritic tree development, increased LTP maintenance, larger evoked-synaptic responses, and higher intrinsic excitability in comparison to controls. Moreover, a faster repolarizing phase of action potential with the appearance of a hyperpolarization were recorded in neurons of the creatine-treated group. Consistently, CA1 neurons of creatine exposed pups exhibited a higher maximum firing frequency than controls. In summary, we found that creatine supplementation during pregnancy positively affects morphological and electrophysiological development of CA1 neurons in offspring rats, increasing neuronal excitability. Altogether, these findings emphasize the need to evaluate the benefits and the safety of maternal intake of creatine in humans. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Offspring caregivers' depression affected by intergenerational disagreements on preferred living arrangement for the elderly: A phenomena with Chinese characteristic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lihua; Zhang, Jie; Ma, Wei; Sha, Xiaojuan; Yi, Xiangren; Zhang, Bingyin; Wang, Chunping; Wang, Shumei

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore whether the depression of offspring caregivers can be affected by the intergenerational disagreements on preferred living arrangements for the elderly, and the extent of this influence. A total of 875 participants from five urban neighborhoods were investigated in a cross-sectional survey in Jinan, China. Depressive symptoms were assessed by the Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS). Multiple stratification was performed based on participants' characteristics, then generalized linear models (GLM) were used to adjust confounding factor and analyze the effect of the intergenerational disagreements on depressive symptoms among participants with different characteristics. The intergenerational disagreements on preferred living arrangements for the elderly greatly impact on offspring caregivers' depressive symptoms. Especially in the following two situations: (1) in the case of older adults were relatively independent and offspring caregivers had to co-reside with older adults against their own will, the max mean difference on the depression measures was up to 10.603 (pcare older adults against their own will, the max mean difference on the depression measures was up to 8.937 (pelderly have negative effect on offspring caregivers' depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Clutch frequency affects the offspring size-number trade-off in lizards.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies of lizards have shown that offspring size cannot be altered by manipulating clutch size in species with a high clutch frequency. This raises a question of whether clutch frequency has a key role in influencing the offspring size-number trade-off in lizards.To test the hypothesis that females reproducing more frequently are less likely to tradeoff offspring size against offspring number, we applied the follicle ablation technique to female Eremias argus (Lacertidae from Handan (HD and Gonghe (GH, the two populations that differ in clutch frequency. Follicle ablation resulted in enlargement of egg size in GH females, but not in HD females. GH females switched from producing a larger number of smaller eggs in the first clutch to a smaller number of larger eggs in the second clutch; HD females showed a similar pattern of seasonal shifts in egg size, but kept clutch size constant between the first two clutches. Thus, the egg size-number trade-off was evident in GH females, but not in HD females.As HD females (mean  = 3.1 clutches per year reproduce more frequently than do GH females (mean  = 1.6 clutches per year, our data therefore validate the hypothesis tested. Our data also provide an inference that maximization of maternal fitness could be achieved in females by diverting a large enough, rather than a higher-than-usual, fraction of the available energy to individual offspring in a given reproductive episode.

  3. Psychological issues in cleft lip and cleft palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousa Avinash

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Vocational and social issues affect rehabilitation and development of patients with cleft lip and cleft palate. However, psychological problems like lowered self esteem and difficulties in social interaction have also been noted in them. Not many pediatric reconstructive surgery teams have a psychiatrist on their panel. It is likely that psychological problems are higher in incidence than literature actually suggests. Hence it is very essential that such cases are identified by the surgical team to maximize positive outcome of surgery and rehabilitation. This study discusses psychological issues revolving around cleft lip and cleft palate along with lacunae in many psychological research studies.

  4. Maternal Risk Factors Associated with Cleft Lip with or without Cleft Palate: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Barrera, Catalina; Mezarobba, Naiara

    2016-01-01

    Disruptions in the development of the nasal and oral structures lead to cleft palate and cleft lip. There are many different factors that can affect this development such as genetic, mechanical traumas or teratogeny. The oral clefts are one of the most common birth defects worldwide affecting approximately 1 in 700 to 1000 children. The development of oral clefts is multifactorial and affect a significant portion of the population. The study results showed that smoking is the risk factor most...

  5. Local offspring density and sex ratio affect sex allocation in the great tit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michler, Stephanie P. M.; Nicolaus, Marion; van der Velde, Marco; Radersma, Reinder; Ubels, Richard; Both, Christiaan; Komdeur, Jan; Tinbergen, Joost M.

    2013-01-01

    The expected fitness gain for offspring of a given sex may depend on local population sex ratio and density. Knowing the influence of such social factors on brood sex ratios may contribute considerably to the understanding of sex allocation in higher vertebrates. For 3 consecutive years, we

  6. Gestational weight gain by reduced brain melanocortin activity affects offspring energy balance in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinsbroek, A. C. M.; van Dijk, G.

    Introduction: Excessive gestational body weight gain of mothers may predispose offspring towards obesity and metabolic derangements. It is difficult to discern the effects of maternal obesogenic factors-such as diet and/or thrifty genetic predisposition-from gestational weight gain per se. Methods:

  7. Postnatal treatment factors affecting craniofacial morphology of unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) patients in a Japanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, M K; Iida, J; Sato, Y; Kajii, Takashi S

    2013-12-01

    We have evaluated the craniofacial morphology of Japanese patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) and assessed the various postnatal factors that affect it. Lateral cephalograms of 140 subjects (mean (SD) aged 7 (2) years) with UCLP were taken before orthodontic treatment. Surgeons from Hokkaido University Hospital had done the primary operations. The craniofacial morphology was assessed by angular and linear cephalometric measurements. Cheiloplasty, palatoplasty, and preoperative orthopaedic treatment were chosen as postnatal factors. To compare the assessments of the postnatal factors, we made angular and linear cephalometric measurements for each subject and converted them into Z scores in relation to the mean (SD) of the two variables. Subjects treated by the modified Millard cheiloplasty had larger sella-nasion-point A (SNA) and nasion-point A-pogonion (NA-POG) measurements than subjects treated by the modified Millard with a vomer flap cheiloplasty. Two-stage palatoplasty showed consistently better craniofacial morphology than the other palatoplasty. Subjects who had preoperative orthopaedic treatment with a Hotz plate had significantly larger upper incisor/sella-nasion (U1-SN) measurements than who had no preoperative orthopaedic treatment or an active plate. We conclude that in subjects treated by a modified Millard type of cheiloplasty, a two-stage palatoplasty, and a Hotz plate there were fewer adverse effects on craniofacial morphology. Copyright © 2012 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Risk of emotional disorder in offspring of depressed parents : Gender differences in the effect of a second emotionally affected parent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landman-Peeters, K.M.; Ormel, J.; van Sonderen, E.L.; den Boer, J.A.; Minderaa, R.B.; Hartman, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    In offspring of depressed parents a second parent with emotional problems is likely to increase risk of emotional disorder. This effect may however differ between sons and daughters and between offspring of depressed fathers and offspring of depressed mothers. In adolescent and young-adult offspring

  9. Parental prey selection affects risk-taking behaviour and spatial learning in avian offspring

    OpenAIRE

    Arnold, Kathryn E; Ramsay, Scot L; Donaldson, Christine; Adam, Aileen

    2007-01-01

    Early nutrition shapes life history. Parents should, therefore, provide a diet that will optimize the nutrient intake of their offspring. In a number of passerines, there is an often observed, but unexplained, peak in spider provisioning during chick development. We show that the proportion of spiders in the diet of nestling blue tits, Cyanistes caeruleus, varies significantly with the age of chicks but is unrelated to the timing of breeding or spider availability. Moreover, this parental pre...

  10. Maternal condition and previous reproduction interact to affect offspring sex in a wild mammal

    OpenAIRE

    Douhard, Mathieu; Festa-Bianchet, Marco; Pelletier, Fanie

    2016-01-01

    Trivers and Willard proposed that offspring sex ratio should vary with maternal condition when condition, meant as maternal capacity to care, has different fitness consequences for sons and daughters. In polygynous and dimorphic species, mothers in good condition should preferentially produce sons, whereas mothers in poor condition should produce more daughters. Despite its logical appeal, support for this hypothesis has been inconsistent. Sex-ratio variation may be influenced by additional f...

  11. Implications of advancing paternal age: does it affect offspring school performance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna C Svensson

    Full Text Available Average paternal age is increasing in many high income countries, but the implications of this demographic shift for child health and welfare are poorly understood. There is equivocal evidence that children of older fathers are at increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders and reduced IQ. We therefore report here on the relationship between paternal age and a composite indicator of scholastic achievement during adolescence, i.e. compulsory school leaving grades, among recent birth cohorts in Stockholm County where delayed paternity is notably common. We performed a record-linkage study comprising all individuals in Stockholm County who finished 9 years of compulsory school from 2000 through 2007 (n = 155,875. Data on school leaving grades and parental characteristics were retrieved from administrative and health service registers and analyzed using multiple linear regression. Advancing paternal age at birth was not associated with a decrease in school leaving grades in adolescent offspring. After adjustment for year of graduation, maternal age and parental education, country of birth and parental mental health service use, offspring of fathers aged 50 years or older had on average 0.3 (95% CI -3.8, 4.4 points higher grades than those of fathers aged 30-34 years. In conclusion, advancing paternal age is not associated with poorer school performance in adolescence. Adverse effects of delayed paternity on offspring cognitive function, if any, may be counterbalanced by other potential advantages for children born to older fathers.

  12. Male rank affects reproductive success and offspring performance in bank voles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruczek, Małgorzata; Zatorska, Magdalena

    2008-07-05

    Laboratory studies reveal that in several rodent species the females prefer dominant males as mating partners. Here we investigate the correlation between males' social rank and their reproductive success. Similar numbers of females mating with relatively more dominant or relatively more subordinate males produced a litter, and parturition took place 19-21 days after mating. Relatively more dominant males tended to sire more pups than did relatively more subordinates, but the mean number of offspring per litter did not differ significantly between the two groups. Significantly more pups fathered by relatively more dominant males survived to weaning than those sired by relatively more subordinate fathers. Dominance had a long-term effect on the reproductive activity of the offspring: their rate of sexual maturation was increased. In pups sired by a relatively more dominant father, the uteruses of females, and the testes and accessory sex glands of males, were significantly heavier than those of offspring born to relatively more subordinate males. Our results suggest that social rank is an important determinant of the reproductive success of bank vole males.

  13. Mother-Offspring Relations: Prey Quality and Maternal Size Affect Egg Size of an Acariphagous Lady Beetle in Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric W. Riddick

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated mother-offspring relations in a lady beetle Stethorus punctillum Weise that utilizes spider mites as prey. Our objectives were to determine if (1 prey quality affects egg size, (2 maternal size correlates with egg size, and (3 egg size affects hatching success. We fed predators spider mites Tetranychus urticae Koch from lima bean Phaseolus lunatus L. foliage in the laboratory. Mothers of unknown body size offered high rather than low quality spider mites since birth produced larger eggs. Mothers of known body size offered only high quality spider mites, produced eggs of variable size, but mean egg size correlated positively with hind femur length. Mothers laid their eggs singly, rather than in batches, and eggs were large relative to femur size. Egg size did not affect hatch success; mean hatch rate exceeded 95% regardless of egg size. In conclusion, the quality of prey consumed by S. punctillum mothers while in the larval stage can affect their size as adults and, consequently, the size of their eggs. The behavior of laying eggs singly, the positive relationship between maternal size and mean egg size, and the high rate of egg hatch suggest that S. punctillum mothers invest heavily in offspring.

  14. Facts about Cleft Lip and Cleft Palate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information For… Media Policy Makers Facts about Cleft Lip and Cleft Palate Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... can make referrals to cleft/craniofacial treatment teams. Cleft Lip & Palate Foundation of Smiles Cleft Lip & Palate Foundation of ...

  15. Maternal postpartum corticosterone and fluoxetine differentially affect adult male and female offspring on anxiety-like behavior, stress reactivity, and hippocampal neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobinath, Aarthi R; Workman, Joanna L; Chow, Carmen; Lieblich, Stephanie E; Galea, Liisa A M

    2016-02-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) affects approximately 15% of mothers, disrupts maternal care, and can represent a form of early life adversity for the developing offspring. Intriguingly, male and female offspring are differentially vulnerable to the effects of PPD. Antidepressants, such as fluoxetine, are commonly prescribed for treating PPD. However, fluoxetine can reach offspring via breast milk, raising serious concerns regarding the long-term consequences of infant exposure to fluoxetine. The goal of this study was to examine the long-term effects of maternal postpartum corticosterone (CORT, a model of postpartum stress/depression) and concurrent maternal postpartum fluoxetine on behavioral, endocrine, and neural measures in adult male and female offspring. Female Sprague-Dawley dams were treated daily with either CORT or oil and fluoxetine or saline from postnatal days 2-23, and offspring were weaned and left undisturbed until adulthood. Here we show that maternal postpartum fluoxetine increased anxiety-like behavior and impaired hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis negative feedback in adult male, but not female, offspring. Furthermore, maternal postpartum fluoxetine increased the density of immature neurons (doublecortin-expressing) in the hippocampus of adult male offspring but decreased the density of immature neurons in adult female offspring. Maternal postpartum CORT blunted HPA axis negative feedback in males and tended to increase density of immature neurons in males but decreased it in females. These results indicate that maternal postpartum CORT and fluoxetine can have long-lasting effects on anxiety-like behavior, HPA axis negative feedback, and adult hippocampal neurogenesis and that adult male and female offspring are differentially affected by these maternal manipulations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Cleft Lip and Cleft Palate--What to Know and Who Can Help

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apel, Laura

    2008-01-01

    Craniofacial defects such as cleft lip and cleft palate are among the most common of all birth defects in the United States, with one in every 600 newborns affected. Cleft lip and/or palate can occur as an isolated condition or may be one component of an inherited disease or syndrome. Dealing with the condition is an extremely difficult and…

  17. Maternal condition and previous reproduction interact to affect offspring sex in a wild mammal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douhard, Mathieu; Festa-Bianchet, Marco; Pelletier, Fanie

    2016-08-01

    Trivers and Willard proposed that offspring sex ratio should vary with maternal condition when condition, meant as maternal capacity to care, has different fitness consequences for sons and daughters. In polygynous and dimorphic species, mothers in good condition should preferentially produce sons, whereas mothers in poor condition should produce more daughters. Despite its logical appeal, support for this hypothesis has been inconsistent. Sex-ratio variation may be influenced by additional factors, such as environmental conditions and previous reproduction, which are often ignored in empirical studies. We analysed 39 years of data on bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) that fit all the assumptions of the Trivers-Willard hypothesis. Production of sons increased with maternal condition only for mothers that weaned a son the previous year. This relationship likely reflects a mother's ability to bear the higher reproductive costs of sons. The interaction between maternal condition and previous weaning success on the probability of producing a son was independent of the positive effect of paternal reproductive success. Maternal and paternal effects accounted for similar proportions of the variance in offspring sex. Maternal reproductive history should be considered in addition to current condition in studies of sex allocation. © 2016 The Author(s).

  18. Fructose intake during gestation and lactation differentially affects the expression of hippocampal neurosteroidogenic enzymes in rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Genki; Munetsuna, Eiji; Yamada, Hiroya; Ando, Yoshitaka; Yamazaki, Mirai; Murase, Yuri; Kondo, Kanako; Ishikawa, Hiroaki; Teradaira, Ryoji; Suzuki, Koji; Ohashi, Koji

    2017-02-01

    Neurosteroids, steroidal hormones synthesized de novo from cholesterol within the brain, stimulate hippocampal functions such as neuron protection and synapse formation. Previously, we examined the effect of maternal fructose on the transcriptional regulation of neurosteroidogenic enzymes. We found that the mRNA expression level of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR), cytochrome P450(11β), 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD), and 17β-HSD was altered. However, we could not determine whether maternal fructose intake played a role in the gestation or lactation period because the dam rats were fed fructose solution during both periods. Thus, in this study, we analyzed the hippocampi of the offspring of dams fed fructose during the gestation or lactation period. Maternal fructose consumption during either the gestation or lactation period did not affect the mRNA levels of StAR, P450(17α), 11β-HSD-2, and 17β-HSD-1. PBR expression was down-regulated, even when rats consumed fructose during the lactation period only, while fructose consumption during gestation tended to activate the expression of P450(11β)-2. We found that maternal fructose intake during gestation and lactation differentially affected the expression of hippocampal neurosteroidogenic enzymes in the offspring.

  19. Submucous Clefts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find Local Cleft/Craniofacial Specialists Booklets & Factsheets College Scholarships School-Age Support Resources Connections Conference View More… ... for speech problems, middle ear disease, and swallowing difficulties. However, there are some individuals with a submucous ...

  20. Prevalence and Parental Risk Factors for Speech Disability Associated with Cleft Palate in Chinese Children—A National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Chunfeng; Wang, Zhenjie; He, Ping; Guo, Chao; Chen, Gong; Zheng, Xiaoying

    2016-01-01

    Although the prevalence of oral clefts in China is among the highest worldwide, little is known about the prevalence of speech disability associated with cleft palate in Chinese children. The data for this study were collected from the Second China National Sample Survey on Disability, and identification of speech disability associated with cleft palate was based on consensus manuals. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A weighted number of 112,070 disabled children affected by cleft palate were identified, yielding a prevalence of 3.45 per 10,000 children (95% CI: 3.19–3.71). A history of speech disability in the mother (OR = 20.266, 95% CI 5.788–70.959, p cleft palate in the offspring. Our results showed that maternal speech disability, older paternal child-bearing age, and lower levels of parental education were independent risk factors for speech disability associated with cleft palate for children in China. These findings may have important implications for health disparities and prevention. PMID:27886104

  1. Carbamazepine-exposure during gestation and lactation affects pubertal onset and spermatic parameters in male pubertal offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andretta, Rhayza Roberta; Okada, Fatima Kazue; Paccola, Camila Cicconi; Stumpp, Taiza; de Oliva, Samara Urban; Miraglia, Sandra M

    2014-04-01

    Carbamazepine (CBZ) is an anti-epileptic drug that acts on Leydig cells, affecting steroidogenesis and causes fetal malformation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of CBZ on male sexual maturation and other male parameters. Rat dams were treated with CBZ during pregnancy and breastfeeding. The anogenital distance (AGD) and the anogenital index (AGI) were obtained. Testicular descent and preputial separation were also evaluated. The offspring was euthanized at PND 41 and 63. The accessory glands were weighed and the testes were collected for histopathological, morphometric and sterological analyses. The numerical density of Leydig cells and hormone dosage were obtained. CBZ caused an increase of AGI and a delay of testicular descent and of preputial separation. CBZ also caused a decrease of testosterone level and of sperm count and an increase of abnormal sperm. These results indicate that CBZ delays puberty onset and affects steroidogenesis and sperm quality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Selective Seed Abortion Affects the Performance of the Offspring in Bauhinia ungulata

    Science.gov (United States)

    MENA-ALÍ, JORGE I.; ROCHA, OSCAR J.

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims Under the microgametophytic competition hypothesis, a non-random pattern of seed abortion is expected, in which only the most vigorous seeds reach maturity. In a previous study, it was found that Bauhinia ungulata (Fabaceae) exhibits a pattern of seed abortion dependent on the position of the ovule within the ovary; ovules located in the stylar half of the fruit, close to the point of entry of pollen tubes to the ovary, have a low probability of seed abortion, whereas ovules in the basal half of the fruit are aborted with a high probability. • Methods A series of experimental fruits was generated, in which ovules from either the stylar (treatments 1 and 2) or the basal (treatments 3 and 4) half of fruits were destroyed, to evaluate whether these patterns of selective seed abortion have an effect on the vigour of the offspring in B. ungulata. • Key Results Only 53 % of the seed from control fruits germinated. Seed set in fruits from treatments 1 and 2 showed a significantly lower (33–43 %) percentage of germination; the germination of seeds from fruits in treatments 3 and 4 (49–51 %) did not differ from control seeds. In addition, it was found that the differences in vigour of the offspring are not random with respect to the position of the ovule in the pod. • Conclusions The overall performance of the seeds correlated with their likelihood of maturation. Seeds located at the basal half of the treatment fruits showed lower values of vigour than seeds located on the stylar half. The differences were more marked for early measures of fitness. PMID:15749749

  3. The offspring of epileptic mother.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamer, S K; Misra, S; Jaiswal, S

    1996-01-01

    The offspring of an epileptic mother is an issue-currently getting attention because of its several implications. A complex interaction between epilepsy during pregnancy and its adverse impact on foetus, labor, neonate, congenital malformation, psychosocial and medico-social concern and treatment challenges of such cases is increasingly being realised. Some of the significant observations has been reviewed extensively in this article. Maternal epilepsy is likely to adversely affect the off-spring at its various stages of development amounting to increased morbidity and mortality. Increased seizure frequency during pregnancy with resultant increased risk is well documented but its mechanism is poorly understood. Low apgar score, increased still birth rates (1.3 to 14%) in offspring of epileptic mother (OEM) is reported. So also, the neonatal and perinatal deaths are twice more common in OEMS than normal control. Small for dates, and prematurity in OEM is reported to be 7 to 10% and 4-11% respectively. Adverse impact on labor and delivery like preclampsia, abruptio placentae, polyhydramnios, assisted delivery, cesarean section and IUGR poses particular challenges to the obstetrician. Pediatrician's alertness is needed to anticipate and deal with the bleeding manifestation due to deficiency of Vit-K dependent clotting factors and various anticonvulsant drug (AED) withdrawal symptoms. Significant risk of developing congenital malformation is the result of epilepsy perse and the AED used during pregnancy. AED exposure leads to other distinct clinical syndromes, the orofacial clefts and cardiac anomalies being the commonest manifestation. Epilepsy in mother but not in father has significant adverse impact. Management strategies in the context of available observation has been discussed.

  4. Psychological issues in cleft lip and cleft palate

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa Avinash; Devare Shibani; Ghanshani Jyoti

    2009-01-01

    Vocational and social issues affect rehabilitation and development of patients with cleft lip and cleft palate. However, psychological problems like lowered self esteem and difficulties in social interaction have also been noted in them. Not many pediatric reconstructive surgery teams have a psychiatrist on their panel. It is likely that psychological problems are higher in incidence than literature actually suggests. Hence it is very essential that such cases are identified by the surgical t...

  5. Cleft Lip and Palate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleft lip and cleft palate are birth defects that occur when a baby's lip or mouth do not form properly. They happen early during ... A baby can have a cleft lip, a cleft palate, or both. A cleft lip happens if the ...

  6. Risk of Oral Clefts in Twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grosen, Dorthe; Bille, Camilla; Petersen, Inge

    2011-01-01

    and heritability. Twins (207 affected/130,710) and singletons (7766 affected/4,798,526) born from 1936 through 2004 in Denmark were ascertained by linkage among the Danish Facial Cleft Database, the Danish Twin Registry, and the Civil Registration System. We computed oral cleft prevalence and prevalence proportion...

  7. Nasal Airway Dysfunction in Children with Cleft Lip and Cleft Palate: Results of a Cross-Sectional Population-Based Study, with Anatomical and Surgical Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobol, Danielle L; Allori, Alexander C; Carlson, Anna R; Pien, Irene J; Watkins, Stephanie E; Aylsworth, Arthur S; Meyer, Robert E; Pimenta, Luiz A; Strauss, Ronald P; Ramsey, Barry L; Raynor, Eileen; Marcus, Jeffrey R

    2016-12-01

    The aesthetic aspects of the cleft lip nasal deformity have been appreciated for over a century, but the functional implications have remained largely underappreciated or misunderstood. This study describes the frequency and severity of nasal obstructive symptoms among children with cleft lip and/or cleft palate, addressing the hypotheses that age, cleft type, and severity are associated with the development of nasal obstructive symptoms. Children with nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or cleft palate and a comparison group of unaffected children born from 1997 to 2003 were identified through the North Carolina Birth Defects Monitoring Program and birth certificates. Nasal airway obstruction was measured using the validated Nasal Obstruction Symptom Evaluation scale. The survey was completed by parental proxy for 176 children with cleft lip and/or cleft palate and 333 unaffected children. Nasal obstructive symptoms were more frequently reported in cleft lip with cleft palate compared with unaffected children (p cleft lip with or without alveolus and isolated cleft palate were not statistically different from unaffected children. Patients with unilateral cleft lip with cleft palate were found to be more severely affected than bilateral cases. Nasal obstruction was observed in early childhood, although severity worsened in adolescence. This population-based study reports a high prevalence of nasal obstructive symptoms in children with cleft lip and/or cleft palate based on type and severity of the cleft. The authors encourage cleft teams to consider using this or similar screening methods to identify which children may benefit from functional rhinoplasty. Risk, I.

  8. Maternal folate depletion and high-fat feeding from weaning affects DNA methylation and DNA repair in brain of adult offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langie, Sabine A S; Achterfeldt, Sebastian; Gorniak, Joanna P; Halley-Hogg, Kirstin J A; Oxley, David; van Schooten, Frederik J; Godschalk, Roger W L; McKay, Jill A; Mathers, John C

    2013-08-01

    The mechanisms through which environmental and dietary factors modulate DNA repair are still unclear but may include dysregulation of gene expression due to altered epigenetic markings. In a mouse model, we investigated the effect of maternal folate depletion during pregnancy and lactation, and high-fat feeding from weaning, on base excision repair (BER) and DNA methylation and expression of selected BER-related genes in the brain of adult offspring. While folate depletion did not affect BER activity of the mothers, BER increased in the offspring at weaning (P=0.052). In the long term, as observed in 6-mo-old offspring, the double insult, i.e., maternal low-folate supply and high-fat feeding from weaning, decreased BER activity significantly in the cortex, cerebellum, hippocampus, and subcortical regions (P≤0.017). This fall in BER activity was associated with small changes in methylation or expression of BER-related genes. Maternal folate depletion led to slightly increased oxidative DNA damage levels in subcortical regions of adult offspring, which may increase sensitivity to oxidative stress and predispose to neurological disorders. In summary, our data suggest that low-folate supply during early life may leave an epigenetic mark that can predispose the offspring to further dietary insults, causing adverse effects during adult life.

  9. Prevalence of dental anomalies in children with cleft lip and unilateral and bilateral cleft lip and palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rullo, R; Festa, V M; Rullo, R; Addabbo, F; Chiodini, P; Vitale, M; Perillo, L

    2015-09-01

    To examine the prevalence of different types of dental anomalies in children with nonsyndromic cleft lip, unilateral cleft lip-palate, and bilateral cleft lip-palate. A sample of 90 patients (aged 4-20 years) affected by isolated cleft lip, unilateral and bilateral cleft lip and palate was examined. Cleft patients were classified into one of three groups according to cleft type: (1) Unilateral Cleft Lip-Palate, (2) Bilateral Cleft Lip-Palate, and (3) Cleft Lip. Intraoral exams, panoramic radiographs and dental casts, were used to analyse the prevalence of the various dental anomalies included in this study. There were no statistically significant differences between patients with cleft lip, unilateral cleft lip and palate and bilateral cleft lip and palate. The congenital absence of the cleft-side lateral incisor was observed in 40% of the sample, and a total of 30% patients showed supernumerary teeth at the incisors region. Second premolar agenesis was found in 4.4% of patients, whereas in 18.9% of the sample there was an ectopic dental eruption. Lateral or central incisors rotation was noted in 31.1% of the sample, while shape anomaly, lateral incisor microdontia, and enamel hypoplasia were detected respectively in 25.6%, 5.6% and 18.9% of cleft patients. High prevalence of different dental anomalies in children with cleft lip and unilateral and bilateral cleft lip and palate has been confirmed. This study, in particular, shows the presence of ectopic and rotated teeth in the cleft area.

  10. Paraoxonase 1 polymorphisms and haplotypes and the risk for having offspring affected with spina bifida in Southeast Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Herrera, Lizbeth; Martín Cerda-Flores, Ricardo; Luna-Rivero, Marianne; Canto-Herrera, Jorge; Pinto-Escalante, Doris; Perez-Herrera, Norma; Quintanilla-Vega, Betzabet

    2010-11-01

    Spina bifida (SB) is a common congenital malformation in Southeast Mexico. Parents of children with SB reside in areas with frequent pesticide spraying or have agriculture activities, suggesting potential exposure to pesticides. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is the responsible enzyme for deactivation of organophosphates (OP) in the central nervous system. Polymorphisms of PON1 genes influence the catalytic activity and plasma protein level of the enzyme, therefore, genotypic characterization of PON1 gene represents a potential predictor for susceptibility to OP-related effects. The frequency of PON1 haplotypes and polymorphisms (-108CT, L55M, and Q192R) were determined in this study. A case-control study was performed to evaluate the risk for having offspring affected by SB in 152 cases and 160 control parents. Polymorphisms were determined by PCR amplification and restriction fragment length polymorphism and Real Time-PCR. Odds ratios and confidence interval 95% were estimated. Genotype frequencies for the three PON1 polymorphisms were distributed according to Hardy-Weinberg expectations (p > 0.05) and were significantly different between cases and controls (p Mexico. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Paternal investment and status-related child outcomes: timing of father's death affects offspring success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenk, Mary K; Scelza, Brooke A

    2012-09-01

    Recent work in human behavioural ecology has suggested that analyses focusing on early childhood may underestimate the importance of paternal investment to child outcomes since such investment may not become crucial until adolescence or beyond. This may be especially important in societies with a heritable component to status, as later investment by fathers may be more strongly related to a child's adult status than early forms of parental investment that affect child survival and child health. In such circumstances, the death or absence of a father may have profoundly negative effects on the adult outcomes of his children that cannot be easily compensated for by the investment of mothers or other relatives. This proposition is tested using a multigenerational dataset from Bangalore, India, containing information on paternal mortality as well as several child outcomes dependent on parental investment during adolescence and young adulthood. The paper examines the effects of paternal death, and the timing of paternal death, on a child's education, adult income, age at marriage and the amount spent on his or her marriage, along with similar characteristics of spouses. Results indicate that a father's death has a negative impact on child outcomes, and that, in contrast to some findings in the literature on father absence, the effects of paternal death are strongest for children who lose their father in late childhood or adolescence.

  12. Epiphysical clefts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brent Harrison, R.; Keats, T.E.

    1980-01-01

    Defects or clefts may be seen in the growing epiphysis and are usually observed just before puberty. The basal epiphysis of the proximal phalanx of the great toe is the most common site but similar defects have been observed in a numer of other epiphyseso At least some of these defects develop within a single normal appearing epiphysis and are not associated with signs or symptoms suggestive of fracture. The mechanism of formation of these defects is not clear. The defects probably close spontaneously some-time around late puberty. (orig.) [de

  13. Is the Performance of a Specialist Herbivore Affected by Female Choices and the Adaptability of the Offspring?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarcísio Visintin da Silva Galdino

    Full Text Available The performance of herbivorous insects is related to the locations of defenses and nutrients found in the different plant organs on which they feed. In this context, the females of herbivorous insect species select certain parts of the plant where their offspring can develop well. In addition, their offspring can adapt to plant defenses. A system where these ecological relationships can be studied occurs in the specialist herbivore, Tuta absoluta, on tomato plants. In our experiments we evaluated: (i the performance of the herbivore T. absoluta in relation to the tomato plant parts on which their offspring had fed, (ii the spatial distribution of the insect stages on the plant canopy and (iii the larval resistance to starvation and their walking speed at different instar stages. We found that the T. absoluta females preferred to lay their eggs in the tomato plant parts where their offspring had greater chances of success. We verified that the T. absoluta females laid their eggs on both sides of the leaves to better exploit resources. We also observed that the older larvae (3rd and 4th instars moved to the most nutritious parts of the plant, thus increasing their performance. The T. absoluta females and offspring (larvae were capable of identifying plant sites where their chances of better performance were higher. Additionally, their offspring (larvae spread across the plant to better exploit the available plant nutrients. These behavioral strategies of T. absoluta facilitate improvement in their performance after acquiring better resources, which help reduce their mortality by preventing the stimulation of plant defense compounds and the action of natural enemies.

  14. Group housing during gestation affects the behaviour of sows and the physiological indices of offspring piglets at weaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to compare the behaviour of sows in stalls and group housing systems, and the physiological indices of their offspring, 28 sows were randomly distributed into 2 systems with 16 sows in stalls, and the other 12 sows were divided into 3 groups with 4 sows per pen. The area per sow in stalls a...

  15. A qualitative study of psychosocial factors affecting expecting mothers who choose to continue a cleft lip and/or palate pregnancy to term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yueh-Tzu; Chao, Yu-Mei Yu; Shiao, Judith Shu-Chu

    2013-03-01

    Prenatal detection of cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P) leads to high rates of induced termination of pregnancy. There has been little research in Taiwan done on the psychosocial factors affecting those who decide to continue their CL/P pregnancy. This study identified the principal psychosocial factors that affect expecting mothers who chose to continue their CL/P pregnancy to term. Purposive sampling recruited expecting mothers with CL/P-diagnosed fetuses. Recruiting took place between May 2000 and March 2002 at a tertiary referral hospital in Taipei, Taiwan. Those who had decided to continue their pregnancy to term were asked to participate. Researchers obtained oral informed consent to be interviewed during the week following CL/P diagnosis. Interviews for each participant were completed within a 2-week period. All information was given to the interviewees in written and verbal forms before providing their written informed consent to participate. The five major themes central to participant experiences included (1) loss of self-value as a mother, (2) blaming the mother, (3) indecision about whether to continue the pregnancy, (4) anxiety triggered by insufficient information, and (5) burden of care and concerns about potential disadvantaged status. Significant psychological distress was identified among participants following their fetus' CL/P diagnosis. It was encouraging to learn that all participants told researchers in postpartum interviews that they did not regret the decision to take their child to term.

  16. Cleft Palate Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... craniofacial journeys. Read the press release here. American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association 1504 East Franklin Street, Suite 102 ... order bottles Order ACPA publications © Copyright 2017 American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association. Website by Mixer Creative Follow us ...

  17. Branchial cleft cyst encircling the hypoglossal nerve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Kristin L.; Spears, Carol; Kenady, Daniel E.

    2013-01-01

    Branchial cleft anomalies are a common cause of lateral neck masses and may present with infection, cyst enlargement or fistulas. They may affect any of the nearby neck structures, causing compressive symptoms or vessel thrombosis. We present a case of a branchial cleft cyst in a 10-year-old boy who had been present for 1year. At the time of operation, the cyst was found to completely envelop the hypoglossal nerve. While reports of hypoglossal nerve palsies due to external compression from cysts are known, we believe this to be the first report of direct nerve involvement by a branchial cleft cyst. PMID:24963902

  18. Clefting of the Alveolus: Emphasizing the Distinction from Cleft Palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtz, Nicholas; Sidman, James; Block, William

    2016-05-01

    Oral clefting is one of the most common significant fetal abnormalities. Cleft lip and cleft palate have drastically different clinical ramifications and management from one another. A cleft of the alveolus (with or without cleft lip) can confuse the diagnostic picture and lead to a false assumption of cleft palate. The cleft alveolus should be viewed on the spectrum of cleft lip rather than be associated with cleft palate. This is made evident by understanding the embryological development of the midface and relevant terminology. Cleft alveolus carries significantly different clinical implications and treatment options than that of cleft palate. Accurately distinguishing cleft alveolus from cleft palate is crucial for appropriate discussions regarding the patient's care. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  19. The maternal homocysteine pathway is influenced by riboflavin intake and MTHFR polymorphisms without affecting the risk of orofacial clefts in the offspring.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vujkovic, M.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Meurs, J. van; Yazdanpanah, N.; Rooij, I.A.L.M. van; Uitterlinden, A.G.; Steegers-Theunissen, R.P.M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Riboflavin is a cofactor for the 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) enzyme involved in the homocysteine pathway. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of maternal riboflavin intake and two MTHFR polymorphisms (677C>T; Ala222Val and 1298A>C;

  20. Maternal stress and diet may influence affective behavior and stress-response in offspring via epigenetic regulation of central peptidergic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsell, Annika; Nätt, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    It has been shown that maternal stress and malnutrition, or experience of other adverse events, during the perinatal period may alter susceptibility in the adult offspring in a time-of-exposure dependent manner. The mechanism underlying this may be epigenetic in nature. Here, we summarize some recent findings on the effects on gene-regulation following maternal malnutrition, focusing on epigenetic regulation of peptidergic activity. Numerous neuropeptides within the central nervous system are crucial components in regulation of homeostatic energy-balance, as well as affective health (i.e. health events related to affective disorders, psychiatric disorders also referred to as mood disorders). It is becoming evident that expression, and function, of these neuropeptides can be regulated via epigenetic mechanisms during fetal development, thereby contributing to the development of the adult phenotype and, possibly, modulating disease susceptibility. Here, we focus on two such neuropeptides, neuropeptide Y (NPY) and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), both involved in regulation of endocrine function, energy homeostasis, as well as affective health. While a number of published studies indicate the involvement of epigenetic mechanisms in CRH-dependent regulation of the offspring adult phenotype, NPY has been much less studied in this context and needs further work.

  1. Parental genetic diversity of brown trout (Salmo trutta m. fario) brood stock affects offspring susceptibility to whirling disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eszterbauer, Edit; Forró, Barbara; Tolnai, Zoltán; Guti, Csaba Ferenc; Zsigmond, Gergely; Hoitsy, György; Kallert, Dennis Marc

    2015-03-03

    Whirling disease, caused by the myxozoan parasite Myxobolus cerebralis, has high economical and ecological importance worldwide. Susceptibility to the disease varies considerably among salmonid species. In brown trout (Salmo trutta) the infection is usually subclinical with low mortality, which increases the risk of parasite dissemination, especially when farm fish are used for stocking natural habitats. The influence of intraspecific genetic differences (especially the level of homozygosity) on susceptibility is unknown. Therefore, we examined the possible correlations between parental genetic diversity and offspring susceptibility of brown trout stocks to whirling disease. Two brown trout brood stocks from a German and a Hungarian fish farm were genetically characterized using microsatellite and lineage-specific genetic markers. The individual inbreeding coefficient f and pairwise relatedness factor r were estimated based on eight microsatellite markers. Brood stock populations were divided into groups according to low and high f and r value estimates and subjected to selective fertilization. The offspring from these separate groups were exposed to M. cerebralis actinospores, and the infection prevalence and intensity was measured and statistically analysed. The analysis of phylogeographic lineage heritage revealed high heterogeneity in the Hungarian brood stock since > 50% of individuals were Atlantic-Danubian hybrids, while only pure Atlantic-descending specimens were detected in the German population. Based on f msat and r msat estimations, classified non-inbred (NIB), inbred (IB) and a group of closely related fish (REL) were created. The susceptibility of their offspring varied considerably. Although there was no significant difference in the prevalence of M. cerebralis infection, the mean intensity of infection differed significantly between NIB and IB groups. In REL and IB groups, a high variability was observed in infection intensity. No external

  2. Group housing during gestation affects the behaviour of sows and the physiological indices of offspring at weaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Q; Sun, Q; Wang, G; Zhou, B; Lu, M; Marchant-Forde, J N; Yang, X; Zhao, R

    2014-07-01

    To compare the behaviour of sows and the physiological indices of their offspring in stall and group-housing systems, 28 sows were randomly distributed into two systems with 16 sows in stalls, and the other 12 sows were divided into three groups with four sows per pen. The area per sow in stalls and groups was 1.2 and 2.5 m2, respectively. Back fat depth of the sow was measured. Salivary cortisol concentration of the sows, colostrum composition and piglets' serum biochemical indicators were evaluated. The behaviour of the sows, including agonistic behaviour, non-agonistic social behaviour, stereotypical behaviour and other behaviours at weeks 2, 9 and 14 of pregnancy were analysed. The results showed no differences in the back fat depth of sows. Colostrum protein, triglyceride, triiodothyronine, thyroxine and prolactin concentrations in the whey also demonstrated no significant differences between the two housing systems. Salivary cortisol concentration was significantly higher in the sows housed in groups than the sows in stalls. The concentrations of serum total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol were significantly higher in the offspring of sows housed in groups (P=0.006 and 0.005, respectively). The GLM procedure for repeated measures analysis showed the frequency of drinking, and non-agonistic social behaviour was significantly higher in the sows housed in groups than the sows in stalls; yet the frequency of agonistic and sham chewing demonstrated the opposite direction. The duration of standing was significantly longer in the sows housed in groups, but the sitting and stereotypical behaviour duration were significantly shorter compared with the sows in stalls. These results indicated that group housing has no obvious influence on the colostrum composition of sows; however, it was better for sows to express their non-agonistic social behaviour and reduce the frequency of agonistic behaviour and stereotypical behaviour. Meanwhile, group

  3. Cleft palate with/without cleft lip in French children: radiographic evaluation of prevalence, location and coexistence of dental anomalies inside and outside cleft region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangione, Francesca; Nguyen, Laure; Foumou, Nathalie; Bocquet, Emmanuelle; Dursun, Elisabeth

    2018-03-01

    Prevalence of dental anomalies in cleft patients is higher than that in general population. The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of dental anomalies and their coexistence in French children with cleft and, then, to investigate the relation between the dental anomalies and the cleft type. Seventy-four non-syndromic cleft patients (6-16 years old) from Lille Regional University and Mondor-Chenevier Hospitals (France) were included. Clefts were classified as right/left unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP), bilateral cleft lip and palate (BCLP) and cleft palate (CP). Dental anomalies were investigated on panoramic radiographs and categorized as agenesis, supernumerary teeth, incisor rotations, impacted canines and shape anomalies. Prevalence and gender distribution of dental anomalies, mean number of affected teeth per patient, agenesis occurrence and location, and coexistence of dental anomalies were analysed by cleft type. 96.0% of patients presented at least one dental anomaly (agenesis 83.8%, incisor rotations 25.7%, shape anomalies 21.6%, impacted canines 18.9%, supernumerary teeth 8.1%). BCLP patients had a higher number of affected teeth, and left UCLP patients had a higher one compared to right UCLP patients. Distribution of inside (45.3%) and outside (54.7%) cleft region agenesis was similar. Adjacent (31.8%) and not adjacent (33.3%) combined dental anomalies were often encountered. Dental anomalies were localized inside as well as outside cleft region and were often associated with each other. BCLP patients were more affected. Early radiographic evaluation allows a comprehensive diagnosis of inside and outside cleft region anomalies, required for the multidisciplinary dental treatment.

  4. Cleft Palate; A Multidiscipline Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Richard B., Ed.

    Nineteen articles present a multidisciplinary approach to the management of facial clefts. The following subjects are discussed: the history of cleft lip and cleft palate surgery; cogenital defects; classification; the operation of a cleft palate clinic; physical examination of newborns with cleft lip and/or palate; nursing care; anesthesia;…

  5. Bilateral cleft lip nasal deformity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Arun

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral cleft lip nose deformity is a multi-factorial and complex deformity which tends to aggravate with growth of the child, if not attended surgically. The goals of primary bilateral cleft lip nose surgery are, closure of the nasal floor and sill, lengthening of the columella, repositioning of the alar base, achieving nasal tip projection, repositioning of the lower lateral cartilages, and reorienting the nares from horizontal to oblique position. The multiplicity of procedures in the literature for correction of this deformity alludes to the fact that no single procedure is entirely effective. The timing for surgical intervention and its extent varies considerably. Early surgery on cartilage may adversely affect growth and development; at the same time, allowing the cartilage to grow in an abnormal position and contributing to aggravation of deformity. Some surgeons advocate correction of deformity at an early age. However, others like the cartilages to grow and mature before going in for surgery. With peer pressure also becoming an important consideration during the teens, the current trend is towards early intervention. There is no unanimity in the extent of nasal dissection to be done at the time of primary lip repair. While many perform limited nasal dissection for the fear of growth retardation, others opt for full cartilage correction at the time of primary surgery itself. The value of naso-alveolar moulding (NAM too is not universally accepted and has now more opponents than proponents. Also most centres in the developing world have neither the personnel nor the facilities for the same. The secondary cleft nasal deformity is variable and is affected by the extent of the original abnormality, any prior surgeries performed and alteration due to nasal growth. This article reviews the currently popular methods for correction of nasal deformity associated with bilateral cleft lip, it′s management both at the time of cleft lip repair

  6. Unilateral Cleft Hand with Cleft Foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Asif Nazir; Bhat, Yasmeen J.; Ahmed, Sheikh Mushtaq; Nazir, Abid

    2009-01-01

    Congenital anomalies of the hand form an important class of congenital malformations. They have a huge functional importance because of the part played by the hand in the daily activities of a person. The deformities also have significant cosmetic significance and may also be associated with other anomalies. Amongst the congenital anomalies, central deficiency or cleft hand is relatively rare. The association of cleft foot with cleft hand is an even more rare occurance. We present a case report of a 6 year old child, born of a non-consanginous marriage, having congenital central deficiency of ipsilateral hand and foot. PMID:21475543

  7. Dental anomalies inside the cleft region in individuals with nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá, Jamile; Araújo, Luana; Guimarães, Laís; Maranhão, Samário; Lopes, Gabriela; Medrado, Alena; Coletta, Ricardo; Reis, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCL±P) present high frequency of dental anomalies, which may represent complicating factors for dental treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of dental anomalies inside cleft area in a group of Brazilians with NSCL±P. Retrospective analysis of 178 panoramic radiographs of patients aged from 12 to 45 years old and without history of tooth extraction or orthodontic treatment was performed. Association between cleft type and the prevalence of dental anomalies was assessed by chi-square test with a significance level set at p≤ 0.05. Dental anomalies were found in 88.2% (n=157) of the patients. Tooth agenesis (47.1%), giroversion (20%) and microdontia (15.5%) were the most common anomalies. Individuals with unilateral complete cleft lip and palate (CLP, pdental anomalies inside cleft region in NSCL±P patients, and further demonstrated that patients with unilateral complete CLP and bilateral incomplete CLP were frequently more affected by dental anomalies. Moreover, our results demonstrate that dental anomalies should be considered during dental treatment planning of individuals affected by NSCL±P.

  8. Maternal Obesity, Overweight and Gestational Diabetes Affect the Offspring Neurodevelopment at 6 and 18 Months of Age--A Follow Up from the PREOBE Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J Torres-Espinola

    Full Text Available Brain development in fetal life and early infancy is critical to determine lifelong performance in various neuropsychological domains. Metabolic pathologies such as overweight, obesity, and gestational diabetes in pregnant women are prevalent and increasing risk factors that may adversely affect long-term brain development in their offspring.The objective of this research was to investigate the influence of maternal metabolic pathologies on the neurodevelopment of the offspring at 6 and 18 months of life.This was a prospective case-control study of 331 mother- and child pairs from Granada, Spain. The mothers were included during pregnancy into four groups according to their pre-gestational body mass index and their gestational diabetes status; overweight (n:56, obese (n:64, gestational diabetic (n:79, and healthy normal weight controls (n:132. At 6 months and 18 months we assessed the children with the Bayley III scales of neurodevelopment.At 6 months (n=215, we found significant group differences in cognition composite language, and expressive language. Post hoc test revealed unexpectedly higher scores in the obese group compared to the normal weight group and a similar trend in overweight and diabetic group. The effects on language remained significant after adjusting for confounders with an adjusted odds ratio for a value above median in composite language score of 3.3 (95% CI: 1.1, 10.0; p=0.035 for children of obese mothers. At 18 month (n=197, the offspring born to obese mothers had lost five points in language composite scores and the previous differences in language and cognition was replaced by a suggestive trend of lower gross motor scores in the overweight, obese, and diabetic groups.Infants of obese mothers had a temporary accelerated development of cognition and language, followed by a rapid deceleration until 18 months of age, particularly of language scores. This novel observation prompts further confirmative studies to explore

  9. Maternal in utero exposure to the endocrine disruptor di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate affects the blood pressure of adult male offspring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez–Arguelles, D.B. [The Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); McIntosh, M.; Rohlicek, C.V. [The Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Department of Pediatrics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Culty, M. [The Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Pharmacology and Therapeutics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Zirkin, B.R. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Papadopoulos, V., E-mail: vassilios.papadopoulos@mcgill.ca [The Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Pharmacology and Therapeutics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is used industrially to add flexibility to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) polymers and is ubiquitously found in the environment, with evidence of prenatal, perinatal and early infant exposure in humans. In utero exposure to DEHP decreases circulating testosterone levels in the adult rat. In addition, DEHP reduces the expression of the angiotensin II receptors in the adrenal gland, resulting in decreased circulating aldosterone levels. The latter may have important effects on water and electrolyte balance as well as systemic arterial blood pressure. Therefore, we determined the effects of in utero exposure to DEHP on systemic arterial blood pressure in the young (2 month-old) and older (6.5 month-old) adult rats. Sprague-Dawley pregnant dams were exposed from gestational day 14 until birth to 300 mg DEHP/kg/day. Blood pressure, heart rate, and activity data were collected using an intra-aortal transmitter in the male offspring at postnatal day (PND) 60 and PND200. A low (0.01%) and high-salt (8%) diet was used to challenge the animals at PND200. In utero exposure to DEHP resulted in reduced activity at PND60. At PND200, systolic and diastolic systemic arterial pressures as well as activity were reduced in response to DEHP exposure. This is the first evidence showing that in utero exposure to DEHP has cardiovascular and behavioral effects in the adult male offspring. Highlights: ► In utero exposure to 300 mg DEHP/kg/day decreases activity at postnatal day 60. ► In utero exposure to DEHP decreases aldosterone levels at postnatal day 200. ► In utero exposure to DEHP decreases systolic blood pressure at postnatal day 200. ► An 8% salt diet recovers the decreased blood pressure at postnatal day 200.

  10. Prevalence of Dental Anomalies in Patients With Nonsyndromic Cleft Lip and/or Palate in a Brazilian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranaiba, Lívia Máris Ribeiro; Coletta, Ricardo D; Swerts, Mário Sérgio Oliveira; Quintino, Rafaela Pacífico; de Barros, Letízia Monteiro; Martelli-Júnior, Hercílio

    2013-07-01

    Objective : Many studies have demonstrated a high frequency of dental anomalies in patients with cleft lip and/or palate. Because dental anomalies may complicate dental treatment, we investigated the prevalence of dental anomalies in a group of Brazilian patients with nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate. Design, Participants, Setting : Retrospective analysis was performed using clinical records of 296 patients aged between 12 and 30 years with repaired nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate without history of tooth extraction and orthodontic treatment. Associations between oral clefts and presence of dental anomalies outside the cleft area were investigated. Results : Dental anomalies were identified in 39.9% of the nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate patients, and tooth agenesis (47.5%), impacted tooth (13.1%), and microdontia (12.7%) were the most common anomalies. Cleft lip patients were less affected by dental anomalies compared with cleft palate or cleft lip and palate patients (p  =  .057). Specifically, patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate were significantly more affected by dental anomalies than those with bilateral cleft lip and palate (p  =  .00002), and individuals with unilateral complete cleft lip and palate (p  =  .002) and complete cleft palate (p  =  .01) were significantly more affected by tooth agenesis than other cleft types. Agenesis of the premolars (p  =  .043) and maxillary lateral incisors (p  =  .03) were significantly more frequent in patients with unilateral complete cleft lip and palate. Conclusions : The present study revealed a high frequency of dental anomalies in nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate patients and further demonstrated that patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate were frequently more affected by dental anomalies than those with bilateral cleft lip and palate. Moreover, our results demonstrate that dental anomalies should be considered during dental treatment planning for

  11. Cleft lip and palate review: Epidemiology, risk factors, quality of life, and importance of classifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laureen Supit

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Cleft lip with or without cleft palate is the most occurring craniofacial anomaly in human, resulting from a complex etiology involving multiple genetic and environmental factors. The defect carries lifelong morbidity and economic burden. Children with clefts will require continuous medical interventions for at least the first 18 years of life, affecting many aspects of their lives. The extent and complexity of clefts vary infinitely, later determining individual management and outcome. Identification and classification play significant roles in initial assessment of these unique cleft cases, which affect options for following correctional attempts. Some classifications even allow measurement of progress after anatomical repositioning, and success rate after surgical repairs. The challenge of developing one such widely inclusive classification is discussed. (Med J Indones 2008; 17: 226-39Keywords: Cleft lip, cleft palate, congenital anomaly, cleft  classfications

  12. Antenatal determinants of oro-facial clefts in Southern Nigeria | Omo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: Cleft lip with or without cleft palate, is the most common serious congenital anomaly that affects the orofacial regions. The management and care of the cleft patient constitutes a substantial proportion of the workload of the Nigerian maxillofacial surgeon and allied specialties. Yet, there are no specific ...

  13. The concentration of plasma metabolites varies throughout reproduction and affects offspring number in wild brown trout (Salmo trutta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthey, Zoé; Freychet, Marine; Manicki, Aurélie; Herman, Alexandre; Lepais, Olivier; Panserat, Stéphane; Elosegi, Arturo; Tentelier, Cédric; Labonne, Jacques

    2015-06-01

    In wild populations, measuring energy invested in the reproduction and disentangling investment in gametes versus investment in reproductive behavior (such as intrasexual competition or intersexual preference) remain challenging. In this study, we investigated the energy expenditure in brown trout reproductive behavior by using two proxies: variation in weight and variation of plasma metabolites involved in energy production, over the course of reproductive season in a semi natural experimental river. We estimated overall reproductive success using genetic assignment at the end of the reproductive season. Results show that triglycerides and free fatty acid concentrations vary negatively during reproduction, while amino-acids and glucose concentrations remain stable. Decrease in triglyceride and free fatty acid concentrations during reproduction is not related to initial concentration levels or to weight variation. Both metabolite concentration variations and weight variations are correlated to the number of offspring produced, which could indicate that gametic and behavioral reproductive investments substantially contribute to reproductive success in wild brown trout. This study opens a path to further investigate variations in reproductive investment in wild populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Age affects the expression of maternal care and subsequent behavioural development of offspring in a precocial bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florent Pittet

    Full Text Available Variations of breeding success with age have been studied largely in iteroparous species and particularly in birds: survival of offspring increases with parental age until senescence. Nevertheless, these results are from observations of free-living individuals and therefore, it remains impossible to determine whether these variations result from parental investment or efficiency or both, and whether these variations occur during the prenatal or the postnatal stage or during both. Our study aimed first, to determine whether age had an impact on the expression of maternal breeding care by comparing inexperienced female birds of two different ages, and second, to define how these potential differences impact chicks' growth and behavioural development. We made 22 2-month-old and 22 8-month-old female Japanese quail foster 1-day-old chicks. We observed their maternal behaviour until the chicks were 11 days old and then tested these chicks after separation from their mothers. Several behavioural tests estimated their fearfulness and their sociality. We observed first that a longer induction was required for young females to express maternal behaviour. Subsequently as many young females as elder females expressed maternal behaviour, but young females warmed chicks less, expressed less covering postures and rejected their chicks more. Chicks brooded by elder females presented higher growth rates and more fearfulness and sociality. Our results reveal that maternal investment increased with age independently of maternal experience, suggesting modification of hormone levels implied in maternal behaviour. Isolated effects of maternal experience should now be assessed in females of the same age. In addition, our results show, for first time in birds, that variations in maternal care directly induce important differences in the behavioural development of chicks. Finally, our results confirm that Japanese quail remains a great laboratory model of avian

  15. Attitudes of pregnant women and mothers of children with orofacial clefts toward prenatal diagnosis of nonsyndromic orofacial clefts in a semiurban set-up in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poornima Kadagad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the attitudes of pregnant women and mothers of children with orofacial clefts toward prenatal diagnosis of clefts and elective termination of pregnancy, and to investigate their opinion about who makes reproductive decisions in the family. Design: Two hundred subjects were included in the study prospectively regarding hypothetical prenatal ultrasound diagnosis of clefts. Setting: The study was done in a private tertiary care institution and a teaching hospital. Subjects/Participants: One hundred pregnant women consulting the Obstetrics department and 100 mothers of children with orofacial clefts in the Cleft and Craniofacial Unit were selected. Materials and Methods: Group I subjects were interviewed using a questionnaire and were shown preoperative and postoperative pictures of children treated for cleft lip and palate. Group II subjects were interviewed using a questionnaire. Results: Only 3% of Group I subjects and 2% of Group II opined that they would choose the elective termination of pregnancy if the fetus was diagnosed with a cleft on an ultrasound scan. In Group II, 70% subjects wished to have known about pregnancy affected with cleft prenatally and 96% said they would definitely avail ultrasound scans to determine pregnancy affected by clefts in future. Conclusions: Majority of the respondents from both the groups chose to continue with the pregnancy affected with a cleft when questioned regarding hypothetical prenatal ultrasound diagnosis of the cleft.

  16. Attitudes of pregnant women and mothers of children with orofacial clefts toward prenatal diagnosis of nonsyndromic orofacial clefts in a semiurban set-up in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadagad, Poornima; Pinto, Pascal; Powar, Rajesh

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the attitudes of pregnant women and mothers of children with orofacial clefts toward prenatal diagnosis of clefts and elective termination of pregnancy, and to investigate their opinion about who makes reproductive decisions in the family. Design: Two hundred subjects were included in the study prospectively regarding hypothetical prenatal ultrasound diagnosis of clefts. Setting: The study was done in a private tertiary care institution and a teaching hospital. Subjects/Participants: One hundred pregnant women consulting the Obstetrics department and 100 mothers of children with orofacial clefts in the Cleft and Craniofacial Unit were selected. Materials and Methods: Group I subjects were interviewed using a questionnaire and were shown preoperative and postoperative pictures of children treated for cleft lip and palate. Group II subjects were interviewed using a questionnaire. Results: Only 3% of Group I subjects and 2% of Group II opined that they would choose the elective termination of pregnancy if the fetus was diagnosed with a cleft on an ultrasound scan. In Group II, 70% subjects wished to have known about pregnancy affected with cleft prenatally and 96% said they would definitely avail ultrasound scans to determine pregnancy affected by clefts in future. Conclusions: Majority of the respondents from both the groups chose to continue with the pregnancy affected with a cleft when questioned regarding hypothetical prenatal ultrasound diagnosis of the cleft. PMID:22279286

  17. Spectrum of Dental Phenotypes in Nonsyndromic Orofacial Clefting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, B J; Cooper, M E; Vieira, A R; Weinberg, S M; Resick, J M; Nidey, N L; Wehby, G L; Marazita, M L; Moreno Uribe, L M

    2015-07-01

    Children with oral clefts show a wide range of dental anomalies, adding complexity to understanding the phenotypic spectrum of orofacial clefting. The evidence is mixed, however, on whether the prevalence of dental anomalies is elevated in unaffected relatives and is mostly based on small samples. In the largest international cohort to date of children with nonsyndromic clefts, their relatives, and controls, this study characterizes the spectrum of cleft-related dental anomalies and evaluates whether families with clefting have a significantly higher risk for such anomalies compared with the general population. A total of 3,811 individuals were included: 660 cases with clefts, 1,922 unaffected relatives, and 1,229 controls. Dental anomalies were identified from in-person dental exams or intraoral photographs, and case-control differences were tested using χ(2) statistics. Cases had higher rates of dental anomalies in the maxillary arch than did controls for primary (21% vs. 4%, P = 3 × 10(-8)) and permanent dentitions (51% vs. 8%, P = 4 × 10(-62)) but not in the mandible. Dental anomalies were more prevalent in cleft lip with cleft palate than other cleft types. More anomalies were seen in the ipsilateral side of the cleft. Agenesis and tooth displacements were the most common dental anomalies found in case probands for primary and permanent dentitions. Compared with controls, unaffected siblings (10% vs. 2%, P = 0.003) and parents (13% vs. 7%, P = 0.001) showed a trend for increased anomalies of the maxillary permanent dentition. Yet, these differences were nonsignificant after multiple-testing correction, suggesting genetic heterogeneity in some families carrying susceptibility to both overt clefts and dental anomalies. Collectively, the findings suggest that most affected families do not have higher genetic risk for dental anomalies than the general population and that the higher prevalence of anomalies in cases is primarily a physical consequence of the

  18. Cleft Lip and Palate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cleft Lip or Cleft Palate Print en español Labio leporino y paladar hendido Tilt your head back a bit and look in the mirror. Do you see the way your nose connects to your upper lip? Now open your mouth. Do you see the ...

  19. Cleft lip and palate repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002979.htm Cleft lip and palate repair To use the sharing features on this ... Cheiloplasty; Cleft rhinoplasty; Palatoplasty; Tip rhinoplasty Patient Instructions Cleft lip and palate repair - discharge Images Cleft lip repair - series References ...

  20. [A retrospective study of orthodontic treatment of children with clefts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brin, I; Bar-Abudi, R; Abed, Y; Ben-Bassat, Y; Harari, D; Zilberman, Y

    2003-04-01

    To evaluate the population of cleft patients treated in a Department of Orthodontics and the types of treatment modalities provided. Demographic, cleft related and treatment related data existing in the patients' files were supplemented by questionnaires. Comparisons were conducted among 3 cleft groups: cleft lip (CL), cleft lip and palate (CLP) and cleft palate (CP). The response rate was 36% (n = 152). The distribution of the patients in the 3 cleft groups, the sidedness, the male predominance and association with additional anomalies were similar to the reports in the literature. Most of the patients were the 3rd born (or more) and were of normal birth weight. Consanguity in the cleft families was at least 2.5 times more prevalent than that of the Israeli population and 30% reported on additional cleft in the family. Low birth weight and additional anomalies were found mainly in the CP group. Orthodontic involvement spanned 3 developmental periods: immediate postnatal presurgical treatment, phase I between the ages 6-8 years and full orthodontic treatment at a later age. Up to the age of 5 years only one lip operation was performed for 60% of the lip-affected children and one palate operation for 65% of the palate affected patients. 1. The distribution of the various cleft-related parameters in this retrospective study was similar to the findings in the literature. 2. The high prevalence of additional anomalies found emphasizes the need for a thorough examination of the cleft babies. 3. Orthodontic treatment was rendered in one and two phase protocols in addition to immediate postnatal pre-surgical intervention.

  1. Involvement of apoptotic cell death and cell cycle perturbation in retinoic acid-induced cleft palate in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okano, Junko; Suzuki, Shigehiko; Shiota, Kohei

    2007-01-01

    Retinoic acid (RA), a metabolite of vitamin A, plays a key role in a variety of biological processes and is essential for normal embryonic development. On the other hand, exogenous RA could cause cleft palate in offspring when it is given to pregnant animals at either the early or late phases of palatogenesis, but the pathogenetic mechanism of cleft palate caused by excess RA remains not fully elucidated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of excess of RA on early palatogenesis in mouse fetuses and analyze the teratogenic mechanism, especially at the stage prior to palatal shelf elevation. We gave all-trans RA (100 mg/kg) orally to E11.5 ICR pregnant mice and observed the changes occurring in the palatal shelves of their fetuses. It was found that apoptotic cell death increased not only in the epithelium of the palatal shelves but also in the tongue primordium, which might affect tongue withdrawal movement during palatogenesis and impair the horizontal elevation of palatal shelves. In addition, RA was found to prevent the G 1 /S progression of palatal mesenchymal cells through upregulation of p21 Cip1 , leading to Rb hypophospholylation. Thus, RA appears to cause G 1 arrest in palatal mesenchymal cells in a similar manner as in various cancer and embryonic cells. It is likely that apoptotic cell death and cell cycle disruption are involved in cleft palate formation induced by RA

  2. Chronic maternal low-protein diet in mice affects anxiety, night-time energy expenditure and sleep patterns, but not circadian rhythm in male offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offspring of murine dams chronically fed a protein-restricted diet have an increased risk for metabolic and neurobehavioral disorders. Previously we showed that adult offspring, developmentally exposed to a chronic maternal low-protein (MLP) diet, had lower body and hind-leg muscle weights and decre...

  3. Orofacial clefts, parental cigarette smoking, and transforming growth factor-alpha gene variants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, G.M.; Wasserman, C.R.; O`Malley, C.D. [California Birth Defects Monitoring Program, Emeryville, CA (United States)] [and others

    1996-03-01

    Results of studies determine whether women who smoke during early pregnancy are at increased risk of delivering infants with orofacial clefts have been mixed, and recently a gene-environment interaction between maternal smoking, transforming growth factor-alpha (TGFa), and clefting has been reported. Using a large population-based case-control study, we investigated whether parental periconceptional cigarette smoking was associated with an increased risk for having offspring with orofacial clefts. We also investigated the influence of genetic variation of the TGFa locus on the relation between smoking and clefting. Parental smoking information was obtained from telephone interviews with mothers of 731 (84.7% of eligible) orofacial cleft case infants and with mothers of 734 (78.2%) nonmalformed control infants. DNA was obtained from newborn screening blood spots and genotyped for the allelic variants of TGFa. We found that risks associated with maternal smoking were most elevated for isolated cleft lip with or without cleft palate, (odds ratio 2.1 [95% confidence interval 1.3-3.6]) and for isolated cleft palate (odds ratio 2.2 [1.1-4.5]) when mothers smoked {ge} 20 cigarrettes/d. These risks for white infants ranged from 3-fold to 11-fold across phenotypic groups. Paternal smoking was not associated with clefting among the offspring of nonsmoking mothers, and passive smoke exposures were associated with at most slightly increased risks. This study offers evidence that the risk for orofacial clefting in infants may be influenced by maternal smoke exposures alone as well as in combination (gene-environment interaction) with the presence of the uncommon TGFa allele. 56 refs., 5 tabs.

  4. Hepatic expression of the GH/JAK/STAT/IGF pathway, acute-phase response signalling and complement system are affected in mouse offspring by prenatal and early postnatal exposure to maternal high-protein diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanselow, Jens; Kucia, Marzena; Langhammer, Martina; Koczan, Dirk; Rehfeldt, Charlotte; Metges, Cornelia C

    2011-12-01

    Effects of pre- and early postnatal exposure to maternal high-protein diets are not well understood. Transcription profiling was performed in male mouse offspring exposed to maternal high-protein diet during pregnancy and/or lactation to identify affected hepatic molecular pathways. Dams were fed isoenergetic diets with control (20% w/w) or high protein levels (40%). The hepatic expression profiles were evaluated by differential microarray analysis 3 days (d3) and 3 weeks (d21) after birth. Offspring from three different high-protein dietary groups, HP (d3, high-protein diet during pregnancy), HPHP (d21, high-protein diet during pregnancy and lactation) and CHP (d21, control diet during pregnancy and high-protein diet during lactation), were compared with age-matched offspring from dams fed control diet. Offspring body and liver mass of all high-protein groups were decreased. Prenatal high-protein diet affected hepatic expression of genes mapping to the acute response/complement system and the GH/JAK/STAT/IGF signalling pathways. Maternal exposure to high-protein diet during lactation affected hepatic gene expression of the same pathways but additionally affected genes mapping to protein, fatty acid, hexose and pyruvate metabolism. (1) Genes of the acute response/complement system and GH/JAK/STAT/IGF pathways were down-regulated in offspring of dams exposed to high-protein diets during pregnancy and/or lactation. (2) Genes related to nutrient and energy metabolism, however, were only affected when high-protein diet was administered during lactation. (3) Modulation of the GH/JAK/STAT/IGF pathway might be responsible for reduced body and liver masses by maternal high-protein diet.

  5. Declarative verbal memory impairments in middle-aged women who are caregivers of offspring with autism spectrum disorders: The role of negative affect and testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Martínez, A; González-Bono, E; Salvador, A; Moya-Albiol, L

    2016-01-01

    Caring for offspring diagnosed with a chronic psychological disorder such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is used in research as a model of chronic stress. This chronic stress has been reported to have deleterious effects on caregivers' cognition, particularly in verbal declarative memory. Moreover, such cognitive decline may be mediated by testosterone (T) levels and negative affect, understood as depressive mood together with high anxiety and anger. This study aimed to compare declarative memory function in middle-aged women who were caregivers for individuals with ASD (n = 24; mean age = 45) and female controls (n = 22; mean age = 45), using a standardised memory test (Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test). It also sought to examine the role of care recipient characteristics, negative mood and T levels in memory impairments. ASD caregivers were highly sensitive to proactive interference and verbal forgetting. In addition, they had higher negative affect and T levels, both of which have been associated with poorer verbal memory performance. Moreover, the number of years of caregiving affected memory performance and negative affect, especially, in terms of anger feelings. On the other hand, T levels in caregivers had a curvilinear relationship with verbal memory performance; that is, increases in T were associated with improvements in verbal memory performance up to a certain point, but subsequently, memory performance decreased with increasing T. Chronic stress may produce disturbances in mood and hormonal levels, which in turn might increase the likelihood of developing declarative memory impairments although caregivers do not show a generalised decline in memory. These findings should be taken into account for understanding the impact of cognitive impairments on the ability to provide optimal caregiving.

  6. Oblique lip-alveolar banding in patients with cleft lip and palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, S; Bütow, K-W

    2015-04-01

    We report an oblique lip-alveolar band, a rare banding of soft tissue that involves the lip and alveolus, which we have found in five patients with cleft lip and palate (0.2%), compared with an incidence of the Simonartz lip-lip band of 5.7%). To our knowledge this has not been reported previously. In two patients the bands affected the cleft lip and alveolus bilaterally, with or without the palatal cleft, and in three the bands were unilateral cleft lip and alveolus with or without the palatal cleft. Copyright © 2015 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Early correction of septum JJ deformity in unilateral cleft lip-cleft palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morselli, Paolo G; Pinto, Valentina; Negosanti, Luca; Firinu, Antonella; Fabbri, Erich

    2012-09-01

    The treatment of patients affected by unilateral cleft lip-cleft palate is based on a multistage procedure of surgical and nonsurgical treatments in accordance with the different types of deformity. Over time, the surgical approach for the correction of a nasal deformity in a cleft lip-cleft palate has changed notably and the protocol of treatment has evolved continuously. Not touching the cleft lip nose in the primary repair was dogmatic in the past, even though this meant severe functional, aesthetic, and psychological problems for the child. McComb reported a new technique for placement of the alar cartilage during lip repair. The positive results of this new approach proved that the early correction of the alar cartilage anomaly is essential for harmonious facial growth with stable results and without discomfort for the child. The authors applied the same principles used for the treatment of the alar cartilage for correction of the septum deformity, introducing a primary rhinoseptoplasty during the cheiloplasty. The authors compared two groups: group A, which underwent septoplasty during cleft lip repair; and group B, which did not. After the anthropometric evaluation of the two groups, the authors observed better symmetry regarding nasal shape, correct growth of the nose, and a strong reduction of the nasal deformity in the patients who underwent primary JJ septum deformity correction. The authors can assume that, similar to the alar cartilage, the septum can be repositioned during the primary surgery, without causing growth anomaly, improving the morphologic/functional results.

  8. Skull thickness in patients with clefts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arntsen, T; Kjaer, I; Sonnesen, L

    2010-01-01

    The purpose was to analyze skull thickness in incomplete cleft lip (CL), cleft palate (CP), and combined cleft lip and palate (UCLP).......The purpose was to analyze skull thickness in incomplete cleft lip (CL), cleft palate (CP), and combined cleft lip and palate (UCLP)....

  9. Novel ETHE1 mutation in a carrier couple having prior offspring affected with ethylmalonic encephalopathy: Genetic analysis, clinical management and reproductive outcome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, David J

    2010-03-01

    Ethylmalonic encephalopathy (EE) is an autosomally recessive inherited disorder with a relentlessly progressive decline in neurological function, usually fatal by the age of ten. It is characterised by generalised hypotonia, psychomotor regression, spastic tetraparesis, dystonia, seizures and, eventually, global neurological failure. Approximately 50 reports have been published worldwide describing this devastating disease, most involving patients of Mediterranean or Arab origin. The fundamental defect in EE likely involves the impairment of a mitochondrial sulphur dioxygenase coded by the ETHE1 gene responsible for the catabolism of sulphide, which subsequently accumulates to toxic levels. A diagnosis of EE should initiate careful genetic evaluation and counselling, particularly if the parents intend to have additional offspring. The present report describes the diagnosis of EE in a reproductive endocrinology context, where both members of a non-consanguineous couple were confirmed to be carriers of an identical A↷G mutation. This previously unknown mutation at nucleotide position c.494 resulted in an amino acid substitution, p.Asp165Gly. Although consideration was given to in vitro fertilisation, embryo biopsy and single gene pre-implantation genetic diagnosis, the couple decided to first utilise a less aggressive therapeutic approach with donor sperm insemination. Pregnancy with a low risk of EE was indeed achieved; however, the infant was affected with a different anomaly (hypoplastic left heart). As this case demonstrates, prior to the initiation of fertility therapy, genetic analysis may be used to provide a confirmatory diagnosis when EE is suspected.

  10. Offspring Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric T. Steiner

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Parental aggression, that is, offspring protection aggression, can be viewed as a type of parental investment. Most mammalian males do not exhibit parental investment and therefore exhibit little, if any, parental aggression. Men demonstrate parental investment, and are typically more physically aggressive than women, but parental physical aggression in humans has been largely unexplored. The current study examined potential sex differences in estimates of parental physical aggression involving hypothetical situations, while controlling for general physical aggression. A self-report measure was administered to 217 students from a western U.S. university (55 male nonparents, 50 female nonparents, 54 fathers, and 58 mothers. Male nonparents reported higher parental physical aggression than female nonparents, but there was no difference between mothers and fathers. The results are interpreted in light of ancestral effects of sexual selection and proximal effects of sex differences in testosterone, risk taking, and fear aversion.

  11. A multi-ethnic genome-wide association study identifies novel loci for non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate on 2p24.2, 17q23 and 19q13

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leslie, Elizabeth J; Carlson, Jenna C; Shaffer, John R

    2016-01-01

    Orofacial clefts (OFCs), which include non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P), are among the most common birth defects in humans, affecting approximately 1 in 700 newborns. CL/P is phenotypically heterogeneous and has a complex etiology caused by genetic and environmental fac...

  12. Cleft Lip and Palate Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The experts in face, mouth and jaw surgery. Cleft Lip / Palate and Craniofacial Surgery This type of surgery is ... the carefully orchestrated, multiple-stage correctional program for cleft lip and palate patients. The goal is to help restore the ...

  13. Hypertelorism and orofacial clefting revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weinberg, Seth M.; Leslie, Elizabeth J.; Hecht, Jacqueline T.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Since the 1960s, multiple studies have reported a tendency toward hypertelorism in individuals with nonsyndromic orofacial clefts (OFCs). However, the association between specific cleft types and increased interorbital distance has been inconsistent. Using threedimensional (3D) surface...

  14. Feeding interventions for growth and development in infants with cleft lip, cleft palate or cleft lip and palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessell, Alyson; Hooper, Lee; Shaw, William C; Reilly, Sheena; Reid, Julie; Glenny, Anne-Marie

    2011-02-16

    Cleft lip and cleft palate are common birth defects, affecting about one baby of every 700 born. Feeding these babies is an immediate concern and there is evidence of delay in growth of children with a cleft as compared to those without clefting. In an effort to combat reduced weight for height, a variety of advice and devices are recommended to aid feeding of babies with clefts. This review aims to assess the effects of these feeding interventions in babies with cleft lip and/or palate on growth, development and parental satisfaction. The following electronic databases were searched: the Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register (to 27 October 2010), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2010, Issue 4), MEDLINE via OVID (1950 to 27 October 2010), EMBASE via OVID (1980 to 27 October 2010), PsycINFO via OVID (1950 to 27 October 2010) and CINAHL via EBSCO (1980 to 27 October 2010). Attempts were made to identify both unpublished and ongoing studies. There was no restriction with regard to language of publication. Studies were included if they were randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of feeding interventions for babies born with cleft lip, cleft palate or cleft lip and palate up to the age of 6 months (from term). Studies were assessed for relevance independently and in duplicate. All studies meeting the inclusion criteria were data extracted and assessed for validity independently by each member of the review team. Authors were contacted for clarification or missing information whenever possible. Five RCTs with a total of 292 babies, were included in the review. Comparisons made within the RCTs were squeezable versus rigid feeding bottles (two studies), breastfeeding versus spoon-feeding (one study) and maxillary plate versus no plate (two studies). No statistically significant differences were shown for any of the primary outcomes when comparing bottle types, although squeezable bottles were less likely to require

  15. The characteristics and distribution of dental anomalies in patients with cleft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ting-Ting; Chen, Philip K T; Lo, Lun-Jou; Cheng, Min-Chi; Ko, Ellen Wen-Ching

    2011-01-01

    Dental anomalies associated with different severities of cleft lip and palate have been rarely reported. This retrospective study investigates the characteristics of dental anomalies associated with different types of cleft, and compares the dental anomaly traits based on sex and severity of cleft. Cleft patients born in 1995 with qualified diagnostic records from 7 to 11 years were included for evaluation. Records were retrieved from database of Chang Gung Craniofacial Center, including panoramic radiographs and intraoral photographs. In total, 196 patients with complete records were included in the evaluation. This study compares the dental anomalies associated with each type of cleft. The frequency of dental anomalies in the maxillary incisor area in the cleft palate (CP) group (20%) was significantly lower than that in other groups. The frequency of missing maxillary lateral incisors (MLIs) increased as the cleft severity increased. Supernumerary teeth and missing lower incisors exhibited the opposite trend. No sexual dimorphism appeared in terms of the frequencies of peg laterals and missing MLIs. The distribution patterns of missing MLIs and peg laterals in males, but not in females, were consistent for the three types of unilateral clefts. Regarding the characteristics of dental anomalies among the three unilateral clefts, missing MLIs, supernumerary teeth, and missing lower incisors were found to be related to cleft severity. The maxillary lateral incisor was the most affected tooth in the cleft area. The frequency of missing MLIs and peg laterals was not sexual dimorphic, but the distribution pattern was different between the sexes.

  16. Soft tissue nasal asymmetry as an indicator of orofacial cleft predisposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Charles; Miller, Steven F; Roosenboom, Jasmien

    2018-01-01

    The biological relatives of offspring with nonsyndromic orofacial clefts have been shown to exhibit distinctive facial features, including excess asymmetry, which are hypothesized to indicate the presence of genetic risk factors. The significance of excess soft tissue nasal asymmetry in at-risk r...

  17. Strategy for Nasal Reconstruction in Atypical Facial Clefts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouad M. Ghareeb, FRCS, MD

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Summary:. It is difficult to put forward a strategy for the treatment of nasal clefts due to the rarity and diversity of anatomical aberrations of these cases contrary to the common nasal affection in cleft lip and palate patients, which differ in severity rather than differing in the morbid anatomy. This simple strategy for correction of these nasal clefts will hopefully help surgeons to achieve better results. In the mean time I intended to describe the morbid anatomy of these cases by choosing examples of each morbid anatomy.

  18. A cross-sectional analysis of the prevalence of tooth agenesis and structural dental anomalies in association with cleft type in non-syndromic oral cleft patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantonis, Dimitrios; Alexandropoulos, Alexandros; Konstantoni, Nikoleta; Nassika, Maria

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of tooth agenesis, microdontia, and tooth malformation among non-syndromic oral cleft patients and their potential association with cleft type and gender. Intraoral records and radiographs of 154 patients (97 males and 57 females) were examined. The variables assessed were tooth agenesis, microdontia, dental malformations, and cleft types. The statistics included chi-square and Fisher's exact tests as well as logistic regression to assess any mutual effects of gender and cleft type on the dental variables. Tooth agenesis occurred in 50% of the sample and microdontia in 18%. Non-statistically significant odds ratios for the association of gender and cleft type with tooth agenesis were obtained. Tooth agenesis was substantially higher at the unilateral right CL + P and the bilateral CL + P in quadrant 1 and at the unilateral left CL + P and bilateral CL + P in quadrant 2. It was also higher, at the isolated cleft palate (CP) in quadrants 3 and 4. These results were attributed to teeth 22 (31.8%) and 12 (21.6%) in the maxilla and to teeth 35 (6.1%) and 45 (5.4%) in the mandible. In unilateral CL + P patients, the cleft quadrant that presented tooth agenesis was associated with the side of the cleft. Interdisciplinary treatment of the oral cleft patients should take into consideration the high prevalence of tooth agenesis and their association with the different cleft types. The most frequently affected teeth by cleft are by far the upper lateral incisors. Results indicate that tooth agenesis appears to be a genetically controlled anomaly related to the orofacial cleft development through various genetic links and not caused by the cleft disruptive process.

  19. Repeated in utero and lactational 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin exposure affects male gonads in offspring, leading to sex ratio changes in F2 progeny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Masahiko; Tamura, Masashi; Yamashita, Junko; Suzuki, Chinatsu; Tomita, Takako

    2005-01-01

    The effects of in utero and lactational 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on the reproductive system of male rat offspring (F 1 ) and the sex ratio of the subsequent generation (F 2 ) were examined. Female Holtzman rats were gavaged with an initial loading dose of 400 ng/kg TCDD prior to mating, followed by weekly maintenance doses of 80 ng/kg during mating, pregnancy, and the lactation period. Maternal exposure to TCDD had no significant effects on fetus/pup (F 1 ) mortality, litter size, or sex ratio on gestation day (GD) 20 or postnatal day (PND) 2. The TCDD concentration in maternal livers and adipose tissue on GD20 was 1.21 and 1.81 ng/kg, respectively, and decreased at weaning to 0.72 in the liver and 0.84 in the adipose tissue. In contrast, the TCDD concentration in pup livers was 1.32 ng/kg on PND2 and increased to 1.80 ng/kg at weaning. Ventral prostate weight of male offspring was significantly decreased by TCDD exposure on PND28 and 120 compared with that of controls. Weight of the testes, cauda epididymides, and seminal vesicle, and sperm number in the cauda epididymis were not changed by TCDD exposure at PND120. TCDD- or vehicle-exposed male offspring were mated with unexposed females. The sex ratio (percentage of male pups) of F 2 offspring was significantly reduced in the TCDD-exposed group compared with controls. These results suggest that in utero and lactational TCDD exposures affect the development of male gonads in offspring (F 1 ), leading to changes in the sex ratio of the subsequent generation (F 2 )

  20. Branchial Cleft Cyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahata, Vaishali

    2016-01-01

    Branchial cleft cyst, sinuses, and fistulae are among the most commonly encountered congenital anomalies in pediatric otolaryngic practice. They can present difficulty in diagnosis and surgical management. Here, I report a case of 14-year-old boy who presented with asymptomatic, congenital swelling located just below the jawline in the lateral part of the neck. The lesion was excised surgically. Histopathology showed the cyst lined by squamous as well as columnar ciliated epithelium, which was a characteristic finding of branchial cleft cyst. The aim of presenting this case is its rarity. PMID:27904209

  1. Branchial cleft cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaishali Nahata

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Branchial cleft cyst, sinuses, and fistulae are among the most commonly encountered congenital anomalies in pediatric otolaryngic practice. They can present difficulty in diagnosis and surgical management. Here, I report a case of 14-year-old boy who presented with asymptomatic, congenital swelling located just below the jawline in the lateral part of the neck. The lesion was excised surgically. Histopathology showed the cyst lined by squamous as well as columnar ciliated epithelium, which was a characteristic finding of branchial cleft cyst. The aim of presenting this case is its rarity.

  2. Branchial Cleft Cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahata, Vaishali

    2016-01-01

    Branchial cleft cyst, sinuses, and fistulae are among the most commonly encountered congenital anomalies in pediatric otolaryngic practice. They can present difficulty in diagnosis and surgical management. Here, I report a case of 14-year-old boy who presented with asymptomatic, congenital swelling located just below the jawline in the lateral part of the neck. The lesion was excised surgically. Histopathology showed the cyst lined by squamous as well as columnar ciliated epithelium, which was a characteristic finding of branchial cleft cyst. The aim of presenting this case is its rarity.

  3. Cleft lip and palate: series of unusual clinical cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranaíba, Lívia Máris Ribeiro; Miranda, Roseli Teixeira de; Martelli, Daniella Reis Barbosa; Bonan, Paulo Rogério Ferreti; Almeida, Hudson de; Orsi Júnior, Julian Miranda; Martelli Júnior, Hercílio

    2010-01-01

    Cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P) represent the most common congenital anomalies of the face, corresponding to approximately 65% of all malformations of the craniofacial region. to describe unusual clinical cases of non-syndromic CL/P (CL/PNS), diagnosed in a reference service in Minas Gerais, Brazil, and correlate these alterations with possible risk factors. we carried out a retrospective study, between the years of 1992 and the 1st half of 2009, from medical records. Among the 778 cases of CL/PNS diagnosed in the period of 17 years, 5 (0.64%) were unusual CL/PNS, and all patients were male. It was found that among the 5 patients, 2 had incomplete right cleft lip with incomplete cleft palate, 2 were affected by left incomplete cleft lip and incomplete cleft palate, and 1 had a cleft lip and palate associated with complete right cleft palate. Risk factors such as consanguinity, maternal smoking and alcohol consumption, medication usage during pregnancy, history of abortion and/or stillbirths and maternal diseases were not associated with unusual CL/PNS. This study described 5 unusual cases of CL/PNS in a Brazilian population; no associations with the risk factors analyzed were seen. It also confirmed the unusualness of the prevalence of such alterations.

  4. Chronic Maternal Low-Protein Diet in Mice Affects Anxiety, Night-Time Energy Expenditure and Sleep Patterns, but Not Circadian Rhythm in Male Offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy F Crossland

    Full Text Available Offspring of murine dams chronically fed a protein-restricted diet have an increased risk for metabolic and neurobehavioral disorders. Previously we showed that adult offspring, developmentally exposed to a chronic maternal low-protein (MLP diet, had lower body and hind-leg muscle weights and decreased liver enzyme serum levels. We conducted energy expenditure, neurobehavioral and circadian rhythm assays in male offspring to examine mechanisms for the body-weight phenotype and assess neurodevelopmental implications of MLP exposure. C57BL/6J dams were fed a protein restricted (8%protein, MLP or a control protein (20% protein, C diet from four weeks before mating until weaning of offspring. Male offspring were weaned to standard rodent diet (20% protein and single-housed until 8-12 weeks of age. We examined body composition, food intake, energy expenditure, spontaneous rearing activity and sleep patterns and performed behavioral assays for anxiety (open field activity, elevated plus maze [EPM], light/dark exploration, depression (tail suspension and forced swim test, sociability (three-chamber, repetitive (marble burying, learning and memory (fear conditioning, and circadian behavior (wheel-running activity during light-dark and constant dark cycles. We also measured circadian gene expression in hypothalamus and liver at different Zeitgeber times (ZT. Male offspring from separate MLP exposed dams had significantly greater body fat (P = 0.03, less energy expenditure (P = 0.004, less rearing activity (P = 0.04 and a greater number of night-time rest/sleep bouts (P = 0.03 compared to control. MLP offspring displayed greater anxiety-like behavior in the EPM (P<0.01 but had no learning and memory deficit in fear-conditioning assay (P = 0.02. There was an effect of time on Per1, Per 2 and Clock circadian gene expression in the hypothalamus but not on circadian behavior. Thus, transplacental and early developmental exposure of dams to chronic MLP reduces

  5. The Prevalence of Cleft Lip and Cleft Palate and Related Risk Factors among Iranian Children from 2000 to 2016: a Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arman Jafari

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundCleft lip and cleft palate (also, known as or facial clefts, are amongst the most common congenital deformities affecting the jaw and face as well as the most common defects associated with lip and palate. Thus, the current study was an attempt to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of or facial clefts in Iranian children.Materials and Methods:The present study, was conducted through a systematic search for articles recorded in the internal database (SID, IranMedex and Magiran, and external authoritative databases (Google scholar, PubMed, Science Direct, MEDLINE, CINAHL and EMBASE using the keywords including "cleft lip", "Iranian", "cleft palate", and "children" from 2000 to 2016. Then, 61 articles were collected. 47 studies with associated incidence or prevalence of cleft lip and cleft palate were included.Results:According to the findings of the review of the studies conducted in Iran, it is revealed that the prevalence of cleft lip and cleft palate was from 0.78 to 2.14 in Iranian children. It was revealed that several factors contributing to the development of this disorder consist of Family history ( P< 0.001, Antibiotics, ( P< 0.001, Stress in the first trimester of pregnancy (P=0.048, BMI before pregnancy (P=0.036 Seasonal factors (P= 0.03, and Consanguineous marriage (P=0.02.ConclusionAccording to the results of the present study, the prevalence of cleft lip and cleft palate is high in Iran in comparison with international studies. Furthermore, the prevalence of this disorder is reported to be higher in males than females. Therefore, it is recommended arrange the practical programs in order to help parents eliminate or diminish the factors that affect the prevalence of this disorder and complications.

  6. Cognitive function in adult offspring of women with Type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Tine Dalsgaard; Mortensen, E L; Schmidt, L

    2011-01-01

    Maternal diabetes may affect offspring cognitive function. The objective of the study was to evaluate cognitive function and potential predictors hereof in adult offspring of women with Type 1 diabetes.......Maternal diabetes may affect offspring cognitive function. The objective of the study was to evaluate cognitive function and potential predictors hereof in adult offspring of women with Type 1 diabetes....

  7. Neuroembryology and functional anatomy of craniofacial clefts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewings Ember

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The master plan of all vertebrate embryos is based on neuroanatomy. The embryo can be anatomically divided into discrete units called neuromeres so that each carries unique genetic traits. Embryonic neural crest cells arising from each neuromere induce development of nerves and concomitant arteries and support the development of specific craniofacial tissues or developmental fields. Fields are assembled upon each other in a programmed spatiotemporal order. Abnormalities in one field can affect the shape and position of developing adjacent fields. Craniofacial clefts represent states of excess or deficiency within and between specific developmental fields. The neuromeric organization of the embryo is the common denominator for understanding normal anatomy and pathology of the head and neck. Tessier′s observational cleft classification system can be redefined using neuroanatomic embryology. Reassessment of Tessier′s empiric observations demonstrates a more rational rearrangement of cleft zones, particularly near the midline. Neuromeric theory is also a means to understand and define other common craniofacial problems. Cleft palate, encephaloceles, craniosynostosis and cranial base defects may be analyzed in the same way.

  8. Cleft Lip and Palate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from surgery, coping with speech problems, or improving self-esteem. Some teens join support groups or online forums where they can talk to other people who were born with cleft lip or palate. Reviewed by: Rupal Christine Gupta, MD Date reviewed: ...

  9. Branchial cleft anomalies: CT evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seok, Eul Hye; Park, Chan Sup [College of Medicine, Inha University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-04-15

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the CT findings of a variety of branchial cleft anomalies in the head and neck area. We reviewed the CT findings of 16 patients with neck lesion pathologically proved as branchial cleft anomalies. There were two first and 12 second branchial cleft cysts, one first and one second branchial cleft sinuses. Two cases of first branchial cleft cysts were manifested as thin-walled, cystic masses at auricular area. One first branchial cleft sinus was an external opening type and manifested as an ill-defined, enhancing solid lesion at posterior auricular area. All 12 cases of second branchial cleft cysts demonstrated a typical location, displacing the sternocleidomastoid muscle posteriorly, the carotid artery and internal jugular vein complex medially and the submandibular gland anteriorly. Eight cases of second branchial cleft cysts were seen as fluid-filled, round or ovoid-shaped cysts, and 3 cases of them were seen as irregular-shaped cysts. In one case, suppurative adenopathy with loss of soft tissue planes around the cyst was observed. One case of second branchial cleft sinus was manifested as a tubular-shaped, enhancing lesion at submental area and containing external opening site draining into the anterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle. We conclude that CT provides important diagnostic and therapeutic information in patients with a neck mass believed to be a branchial cleft anomaly, as it can differentiate various forms of the branchial anomalies by their characteristic location and shape.

  10. Branchial cleft anomalies: CT evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seok, Eul Hye; Park, Chan Sup

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the CT findings of a variety of branchial cleft anomalies in the head and neck area. We reviewed the CT findings of 16 patients with neck lesion pathologically proved as branchial cleft anomalies. There were two first and 12 second branchial cleft cysts, one first and one second branchial cleft sinuses. Two cases of first branchial cleft cysts were manifested as thin-walled, cystic masses at auricular area. One first branchial cleft sinus was an external opening type and manifested as an ill-defined, enhancing solid lesion at posterior auricular area. All 12 cases of second branchial cleft cysts demonstrated a typical location, displacing the sternocleidomastoid muscle posteriorly, the carotid artery and internal jugular vein complex medially and the submandibular gland anteriorly. Eight cases of second branchial cleft cysts were seen as fluid-filled, round or ovoid-shaped cysts, and 3 cases of them were seen as irregular-shaped cysts. In one case, suppurative adenopathy with loss of soft tissue planes around the cyst was observed. One case of second branchial cleft sinus was manifested as a tubular-shaped, enhancing lesion at submental area and containing external opening site draining into the anterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle. We conclude that CT provides important diagnostic and therapeutic information in patients with a neck mass believed to be a branchial cleft anomaly, as it can differentiate various forms of the branchial anomalies by their characteristic location and shape

  11. Ankyloglossia with cleft lip: A rare case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jangid, Kritika; Alexander, Aurelian Jovita; Jayakumar, Nadathur Doraiswamy; Varghese, Sheeja; Ramani, Pratibha

    2015-01-01

    Ankyloglossia or tongue-tie is a congenital anomaly affecting the tongue, which is characterized by thick, short lingual frenulum. This condition causes many difficulties such as limited tongue protrusion, breastfeeding difficulties, speech impairment and lack of self-confidence. It is very rarely associated with any other congenital craniofacial disorders such as cleft lip, X-linked cleft palate, Van der Woude syndrome, Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome, Orofacial digital syndrome, Beckwith Weidman syndrome or Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome. This article presents a rare case of ankyloglossia associated with cleft lip treated with diode laser in a 12-year-old Indian boy who had undergone surgical correction of associated cleft lip soon after birth. Correction of ankyloglossia at a young age would lead to enhanced phonetics, improved oral hygiene, and overall personality development. PMID:26941523

  12. Ankyloglossia with cleft lip: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kritika Jangid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ankyloglossia or tongue-tie is a congenital anomaly affecting the tongue, which is characterized by thick, short lingual frenulum. This condition causes many difficulties such as limited tongue protrusion, breastfeeding difficulties, speech impairment and lack of self-confidence. It is very rarely associated with any other congenital craniofacial disorders such as cleft lip, X-linked cleft palate, Van der Woude syndrome, Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome, Orofacial digital syndrome, Beckwith Weidman syndrome or Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome. This article presents a rare case of ankyloglossia associated with cleft lip treated with diode laser in a 12-year-old Indian boy who had undergone surgical correction of associated cleft lip soon after birth. Correction of ankyloglossia at a young age would lead to enhanced phonetics, improved oral hygiene, and overall personality development.

  13. The Cleft Aesthetic Rating Scale for 18-Year-Old Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate Patients: A Tool for Nasolabial Aesthetics Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, F J; Mosmuller, D G M; de Vet, H C W; Mouës, C M; Breugem, C C; van der Molen, A B Mink; Don Griot, J P W

    2018-01-01

    Objective To develop a reliable and easy-to-use method to assess the nasolabial appearance of 18-year-old patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate (CLP). Design Retrospective analysis of nasolabial aesthetics using a 5-point ordinal scale and newly developed photographic reference scale: the Cleft Aesthetic Rating Scale (CARS). Three cleft surgeons and 20 medical students scored the nasolabial appearance on standardized frontal photographs. Setting VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam. Patients Inclusion criteria: 18-year-old patients, unilateral cleft lip and palate, available photograph of the frontal view. history of facial trauma, congenital syndromes affecting facial appearance. Eighty photographs were available for scoring. Main Outcome Measures The interobserver and intraobserver reliability of the CARS for 18-year-old patients when used by cleft surgeons and medical students. Results The interobserver reliability for the nose and lip together was 0.64 for the cleft surgeons and 0.61 for the medical students. There was an intraobserver reliability of 0.75 and 0.78 from the surgeons and students, respectively, on the nose and lip together. No significant difference was found between the cleft surgeons and medical students in the way they scored the nose ( P = 0.22) and lip ( P = 0.72). Conclusions The Cleft Aesthetic Rating Scale for 18-year-old patients has a substantial overall estimated reliability when the average score is taken from three or more cleft surgeons or medical students assessing the nasolabial aesthetics of CLP patients.

  14. Transmission/disequilibrium tests incorporating unaffected offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinyu Wei

    Full Text Available We propose a new method for family-based tests of association and linkage called transmission/disequilibrium tests incorporating unaffected offspring (TDTU. This new approach, constructed based on transmission/disequilibrium tests for quantitative traits (QTDT, provides a natural extension of the transmission/disequilibrium test (TDT to utilize transmission information from heterozygous parents to their unaffected offspring as well as the affected offspring from ascertained nuclear families. TDTU can be used in various study designs and can accommodate all types of independent nuclear families with at least one affected offspring. When the study sample contains only case-parent trios, the TDTU is equivalent to TDT. Informative-transmission disequilibrium test (i-TDT and generalized disequilibrium test(GDT are another two methods that can use information of both unaffected offspring and affected offspring. In contract to i-TDT and GDT, the test statistic of TDTU is simpler and more explicit, and can be implemented more easily. Through computer simulations, we demonstrate that power of the TDTU is slightly higher compared to i-TDT and GDT. All the three methods are more powerful than method that uses affected offspring only, suggesting that unaffected siblings also provide information about linkage and association.

  15. Exposure to a Highly Caloric Palatable Diet during the Perinatal Period Affects the Expression of the Endogenous Cannabinoid System in the Brain, Liver and Adipose Tissue of Adult Rat Offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Ramírez-López

    Full Text Available Recent studies have linked gestational exposure to highly caloric diets with a disrupted endogenous cannabinoid system (ECS. In the present study, we have extended these studies by analyzing the impact of the exposure to a palatable diet during gestation and lactation on a the adult expression of endocannabinoid-related behaviors, b the metabolic profile of adult offspring and c the mRNA expression of the signaling machinery of the ECS in the hypothalamus, the liver and the adipose tissue of adult offspring of both sexes. Exposure to a palatable diet resulted in a sex-dimorphic and perinatal diet specific feeding behaviors, including the differential response to the inhibitory effects of the cannabinoid receptor inverse agonist AM251, b features of metabolic syndrome including increased adiposity, hyperleptinemia, hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia and c tissue and sex-specific changes in the expression of both CB1 and CB2 receptors and in that of the endocannabinoid-degrading enzymes FAAH and MAGL, being the adipose tissue the most affected organ analyzed. Since the effects were observed in adult animals that were weaned while consuming a normal diet, the present results indicate that the ECS is one of the targets of maternal programming of the offspring energy expenditure. These results clearly indicate that the maternal diet has long-term effects on the development of pups through multiple alterations of signaling homeostatic pathways that include the ECS. The potential relevance of these alterations for the current obesity epidemic is discussed.

  16. Maternal Aerobic Exercise during Pregnancy Can Increase Spatial Learning by Affecting Leptin Expression on Offspring's Early and Late Period in Life Depending on Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayfer Dayi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Maternal exercise during pregnancy has been suggested to exert beneficial effects on brain functions of the offspring. Leptin is an adipocytokine which is secreted from adipose tissues and has positive effects on learning, memory, and synaptic plasticity. In this study, pregnant rats were moderately exercised and we observed the effects of this aerobic exercise on their prepubertal and adult offsprings' spatial learning, hippocampal neurogenesis, and expression of leptin. All the pups whose mothers exercised during pregnancy learned the platform earlier and spent longer time in the target quadrant. Their thigmotaxis times were shorter than those measured in the control group. It is shown that hippocampal CA1, CA3 neuron numbers increased in both prepubertal and adult pups, in addition that GD neuron numbers increased in adult pups. Leptin receptor expression significantly increased in the prepubertal male, adult male, and adult female pups. In our study, maternal running during pregnancy resulted in significant increase in the expression of leptin receptor but not in prepubertal female pups, enhanced hippocampal cell survival, and improved learning memory capability in prepubertal and adult rat pups, as compared to the control group. In conclusion, maternal exercise during pregnancy may regulate spatial plasticity in the hippocampus of the offspring by increasing the expression of leptin.

  17. Schizencephaly/congenital cerebral clefts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, H.; Naidich, T.P.

    1987-01-01

    Schizencephaly (from the Greek meaning ''split brain''), is a term developed in the 1940s to explain symmetric clefts in the brain seen at autopsy in children with histories of severe neurologic defects. Use of the term has been expanded to include a variety of cerebral clefts. A review of the experience at Children's Memorial Hospital as well as case materials made available to the authors are presented, including CT, MR imaging, and US findings. Theories of etiology and pathogenesis of these congenital clefts, associated anomalies, and the spectrum of appearance of these clefts are discussed

  18. The effects of oral clefts on hospital use throughout the lifespan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wehby George L

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oral clefts are one of the most common birth defects worldwide. They require multiple healthcare interventions and add significant burden on the health and quality of life of affected individuals. However, not much is known about the long term effects of oral clefts on health and healthcare use of affected individuals. In this study, we evaluate the effects of oral clefts on hospital use throughout the lifespan. Methods We estimate two-part regression models for hospital admission and length of stay for several age groups up to 68 years of age. The study employs unique secondary population-based data from several administrative inpatient, civil registration, demographic and labor market databases for 7,670 individuals born with oral clefts between 1936 and 2002 in Denmark, and 220,113 individuals without oral clefts from a 5% random sample of the total birth population from 1936 to 2002. Results Oral clefts significantly increase hospital use for most ages below 60 years by up to 233% for children ages 0-10 years and 16% for middle age adults. The more severe cleft forms (cleft lip with palate have significantly larger effects on hospitalizations than less severe forms. Conclusions The results suggest that individuals with oral clefts have higher hospitalization risks than the general population throughout most of the lifespan.

  19. The Effect of Cleft Lip and Palate, and the Timing of Lip Repair on Mother-Infant Interactions and Infant Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Lynne; Hentges, Francoise; Hill, Jonathan; Karpf, Janne; Mistry, Beejal; Kreutz, Marianne; Woodall, Peter; Moss, Tony; Goodacre, Tim

    2008-01-01

    Background: Children with cleft lip and palate are at risk for psychological problems. Difficulties in mother-child interactions may be relevant, and could be affected by the timing of lip repair. Method: We assessed cognitive development, behaviour problems, and attachment in 94 infants with cleft lip (with and without cleft palate) and 96…

  20. Branchial Cleft Anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhail, Neil; Mustard, Robert A.

    1966-01-01

    The embryology, anatomy and pathology of branchial cleft anomalies are discussed and 87 cases reviewed. The most frequent anomaly was branchial cleft cyst, of which there were 77 cases. Treatment in all cases consisted of complete excision. There were five cases of external branchial sinus and five cases of complete branchial fistula. Sinograms were helpful in demonstrating these lesions. Excision presented little difficulty. No proved case of branchiogenic carcinoma has been found in the Toronto General Hospital. Five cases are described in which the original diagnosis was branchiogenic carcinoma—in four of these a primary tumour has already been found. The authors believe that the diagnosis of branchiogenic carcinoma should never be accepted until repeated examinations over a period of at least five years have failed to reveal a primary tumour. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5 PMID:5901161

  1. Branchial Cleft Cyst

    OpenAIRE

    Nahata, Vaishali

    2016-01-01

    Branchial cleft cyst, sinuses, and fistulae are among the most commonly encountered congenital anomalies in pediatric otolaryngic practice. They can present difficulty in diagnosis and surgical management. Here, I report a case of 14-year-old boy who presented with asymptomatic, congenital swelling located just below the jawline in the lateral part of the neck. The lesion was excised surgically. Histopathology showed the cyst lined by squamous as well as columnar ciliated epithelium, which wa...

  2. Clefting in pumpkin balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baginski, F.; Schur, W.

    NASA's effort to develop a large payload, high altitude, long duration balloon, the Ultra Long Duration Balloon, focuses on a pumpkin shape super-pressure design. It has been observed that a pumpkin balloon may be unable to pressurize into the desired cyclically symmetric equilibrium configuration, settling into a distorted, undesired stable state instead. Hoop stress considerations in the pumpkin design leads to choosing the lowest possible bulge radius, while robust deployment is favored by a large bulge radius. Some qualitative understanding of design aspects on undesired equilibria in pumpkin balloons has been obtained via small-scale balloon testing. Poorly deploying balloons have clefts, but most gores away from the cleft deploy uniformly. In this paper, we present models for pumpkin balloons with clefts. Long term success of the pumpkin balloon for NASA requires a thorough understanding of the phenomenon of multiple stable equilibria and means for quantitative assessment of measures that prevent their occurrence. This paper attempts to determine numerical thresholds of design parameters that distinguish between properly deploying designs and improperly deploying designs by analytically investigating designs in the vicinity of criticality. Design elements which may trigger the onset undesired equilibria and remedial measures that ensure deployment are discussed.

  3. Augmentation Rhinoplasty in Cleft Lip Nasal Deformity: Preliminary Patients’ Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William H. C. Tiong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The correction of cleft lip nasal deformity is challenging and there have been numerous methods described in the literature with little demonstrated technical superiority of one over another. The common clinical issues associated with cleft lip nasal deformity are its lack of symmetry, alar collapse on the affected side, obtuse nasal labial angle, short nasal length, loss of tip definition, and altered columella show among others. We carried out augmentation of cleft lip rhinoplasties with rib graft in 16 patients over the one-year study period. Each of these patients was reviewed and given questionnaire before and after surgery to evaluate their response on the outcome to the approach. Preoperatively, nasal asymmetry is the main complaint (14/16, 87.5% among our series of patients. Postoperatively, 12 (75% patients out of the 16 reported significant improvement in their nasal symmetry with the other four marginal. All patients reported excellent nasal projection postoperatively with good nasal tip definition. Our series of patients reported overall good satisfaction outcome and will recommend this procedure to other patients with cleft lip nasal deformity. In conclusion, augmentation of cleft lip rhinoplasty can be employed to achieve perceivable and satisfactory outcome in patients with cleft lip nasal deformity.

  4. Prenatal prochloraz treatment significantly increases pregnancy length and reduces offspring weight but does not affect social-olfactory memory in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dmytriyeva, Oksana; Klementiev, Boris; Berezin, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Metabolites of the commonly used imidazole fungicide prochloraz are androgen receptor antagonists. They have been shown to block androgen-driven development and compromise reproductive function. We tested the effect of prochloraz on cognitive behavior following exposure to this fungicide during...... the perinatal period. Pregnant Wistar rats were administered a 200mg/kg dose of prochloraz on gestational day (GD) 7, GD11, and GD15. The social recognition test (SRT) was performed on 7-week-old male rat offspring. We found an increase in pregnancy length and a significantly reduced pup weight on PND15 and PND...

  5. Asyndromic Bilateral Transverse Facial Cleft

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-04-23

    of this atypical cleft is unknown although the frequency ... on Tuesday, April 23, 2013, IP: 41.132.185.55] || Click here to download free Android application for this journal ... Facial cleft remains a source of social anxiety and in the past has lead ...

  6. Genetic determinants of facial clefting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jugessur, Astanand; Shi, Min; Gjessing, Håkon Kristian

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Facial clefts are common birth defects with a strong genetic component. To identify fetal genetic risk factors for clefting, 1536 SNPs in 357 candidate genes were genotyped in two population-based samples from Scandinavia (Norway: 562 case-parent and 592 control-parent triads; Denmark...

  7. CLEFT PALATE. FOUNDATIONS OF SPEECH PATHOLOGY SERIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    RUTHERFORD, DAVID; WESTLAKE, HAROLD

    DESIGNED TO PROVIDE AN ESSENTIAL CORE OF INFORMATION, THIS BOOK TREATS NORMAL AND ABNORMAL DEVELOPMENT, STRUCTURE, AND FUNCTION OF THE LIPS AND PALATE AND THEIR RELATIONSHIPS TO CLEFT LIP AND CLEFT PALATE SPEECH. PROBLEMS OF PERSONAL AND SOCIAL ADJUSTMENT, HEARING, AND SPEECH IN CLEFT LIP OR CLEFT PALATE INDIVIDUALS ARE DISCUSSED. NASAL RESONANCE…

  8. Presurgical Nasal Molding With a Nasal Spring in Patients With Mild-to-Moderate Nasal Deformity With Incomplete Unilateral Cleft Lip With or Without Cleft Palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanchitlertkajorn, Supakit

    2018-01-01

    Traditional nasoalveolar molding (NAM) requires steep learning curve for clinicians and significant compliance from parents. Nasal springs have been developed by the author to simplify presurgical nasal molding. This article presents the design, construction, and application of the spring. The treatment goal is to improve nasal deformity prior to primary repair in infants born with incomplete unilateral cleft lip with or without cleft palate. The design, fabrication, and utility of the nasal spring are described. The spring has a simpler design and construction compared to a traditional NAM appliance. Two patients with incomplete unilateral cleft lip with and without cleft palate are presented. The spring is constructed and delivered. The active arm of the spring can be 3-dimensionally (3-D) adjusted to mold the alar cartilage of the affected nostril. The spring does not require an oral plate for adherence as a traditional NAM appliance does, hence an oral impression is not needed. The spring is easy for clinicians to adjust. It also requires less compliance by parents. Main Outcome Measures/Results: The presurgical molding achieved by the use of a nasal spring improved surgical nasolabial aesthetic outcomes. The nasal springs are effective in reducing the initial cleft nasal deformity. This facilitates primary surgical cleft lip and nose correction and improves surgical outcomes in patients with incomplete unilateral cleft lip with or without cleft palate.

  9. Dermatoglyphics and Cheiloscopy as Key Tools in Resolving the Genetic Correlation of Inheritance Patterns in Cleft Lip and Palate Patients: An Assessment of 160 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Priyankar; Nathani, Dipesh B

    2017-09-01

      The objective of this study was to correlate dermatoglyphics and cheiloscopy with genetic inheritance in cleft lip and cleft palate patients.   This was a case-control study to look for asymmetry in finger and lip print patterns. All of the participants were divided into two equal groups (40 mothers and 40 fathers in each group). The data were analyzed by three evaluators who were blind to the study to avoid any chances of error.   A sample of 160 sporadic participants were identified and evaluated. Group A was composed of 80 healthy parents not affected by cleft lip and cleft palate but had at least one child born with nonsyndromic cleft. Group B consisted of 80 healthy parents not affected by cleft lip and cleft palate and had healthy children without cleft lip and cleft palate.   Main outcome measures were marked dermatoglyphic asymmetry and specific lip print pattern in the study group.   We found marked asymmetry in various fingerprints and specific type II and type III lip print in the study group when compared with the control group. It was observed that groove count on the lip was significantly more frequent in study group parents.   Our study determined that there is a significant correlation between increased dermatoglyphic asymmetry and specific type II and type III lip print pattern in parents of children born with cleft. This could act as an important screening marker for the prediction of cleft lip and cleft palate inheritance.

  10. Surgical management of cleft lip in pedo-patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taware, C P; Kulkarni, S R

    1991-01-01

    The Present article describes in short etiology of cleft lip and cleft palate. With this in-born defect, patient develops crucial problems with feeding, phonation, overall growth and development of affected and allied soft and hard tissue structures. This in turn results in deformity and asymmetry which is going to affect functional requirements as well as aesthetic outlook. Hence it really becomes mandatory to correct this defect surgically as early as possible, at stipulated timings so as to avoid present and future anticipated problems.

  11. First branchial cleft anomaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Fallouji, M. A.; Butler, M. F.

    1983-01-01

    A 15-year-old girl presented with a cystic swelling since birth behind the ramus of the right mandible and diagnosed clinically as a dermoid cyst. Surgical exploration, however, showed that it was closely related to the external auditory canal, with an extension running medially behind the parotid gland and ending in the bony middle ear. The facial nerve was closely related to the deep part of the cyst. Such an anatomical position indicates that this was a first branchial cleft anomaly. Surgical excision of the cyst was performed. PMID:6622327

  12. Early invitation to food and/or multiple micronutrient supplementation in pregnancy does not affect body composition in offspring at 54 months: follow-up of the MINIMat randomised trial, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ashraful Islam; Kabir, Iqbal; Hawkesworth, Sophie; Ekström, Eva-Charlotte; Arifeen, Shams; Frongillo, Edward A; Persson, Lars Åke

    2015-07-01

    Growth patterns in early life are associated with later health. The effect of nutrition during in utero development on later body composition is unclear. We evaluated whether prenatal early invitation to food and/or multiple micronutrient supplementation (MMS) in pregnancy has an effect on offspring body composition at 54 months of age. In Maternal and Infant Nutrition Interventions in Matlab trial (ISRCTN16581394) in Bangladesh, 4436 pregnant women were randomised into six equally sized groups: double-masked supplementation with capsules of either 30 mg Fe and 400 μg folic acid, or 60 mg Fe and 400 μg folic acid, or MMS (15 micronutrients), was combined with a randomised early invitation (around 9 weeks) or a usual invitation (around 20 weeks) to start food supplementation (608 kcal 6 days per week). At 54 months, the body composition of the offspring was assessed by leg-to-leg bioelectrical impedance analysis. Of the 3267 live singletons with birth anthropometry, 2290 children were measured at 54 months, representing 70% of the live births. There was no interaction between the food and micronutrient supplementation on body composition outcomes. There were no significant differences in a range of anthropometric and body composition measurements, including weight, height, mid-upper arm circumference, head circumference, skinfold thickness, and fat mass and fat-free mass between the different prenatal food and micronutrient groups using an intention-to-treat analysis. This analysis shows that early invitation to food supplementation and MMS provided to rural Bangladeshi women during pregnancy did not affect offspring body composition at 54 months of age. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Facial tissue depths in children with cleft lip and palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starbuck, John M; Ghoneima, Ahmed; Kula, Katherine

    2015-03-01

    Cleft lip and palate (CLP) is a craniofacial malformation affecting more than seven million people worldwide that results in defects of the hard palate, teeth, maxilla, nasal spine and floor, and maxillodental asymmetry. CLP facial soft-tissue depth (FSTD) values have never been published. The purpose of this research is to report CLP FSTD values and compare them to previously published FSTD values for normal children. Thirty-eight FSTDs were measured on cone beam computed tomography images of CLP children (n = 86; 7-17 years). MANOVA and ANOVA tests determined whether cleft type, age, sex, and bone graft surgical status affect tissue depths. Both cleft type (unilateral/bilateral) and age influence FSTDs. CLP FSTDs exhibit patterns of variation that differ from normal children, particularly around the oronasal regions of the face. These differences should be taken into account when facial reconstructions of children with CLP are created. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  14. Causal attributions of cleft lip and palate across cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mednick, Lauren; Snyder, Julie; Schook, Carolyn; Blood, Emily A; Brown, Shan-Estelle; Weatherley-White, R C A

    2013-11-01

    Objective : To describe and compare the causal beliefs associated with cleft lips and/or palates across several different countries. Design : Cross-sectional survey. Setting : Operation Smile surgery screenings in six developing countries. Participants : Two hundred seventy-nine adult patients and parents of children with cleft lips and/or palates in Kenya, Russia, Cambodia, India, Egypt, and Peru. Interventions : In person interviews were conducted with interpreters. Main Outcome Measure : As part of a larger study, a semistructured questionnaire was created to explore cleft perceptions, belief systems that affect these perceptions, and social reactions to individuals with clefts. Results : Causal attributions were grouped by category (environment, self-blame, supernatural, chance, unknown, or other) and type of locus of control (external, internal, or unknown). Results indicate significant difference by country for both causal attribution category (P < .001) and type (P < .001). This difference was maintained in multivariate analyses, which controlled for differences by demographic variables between countries. Conclusions : This study provides evidence that causal attributions for clefts are influenced by culture. As harmful beliefs about cause may continue to impact affected individuals and their families even after a repair, it is insufficient to provide surgical care alone. Care of the entire person must include attempts to change misinformed cultural beliefs through educating the broader community.

  15. Cleft lip and Palate: A 30-year Epidemiologic Study in North-East of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Kianifar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cleft lip and palate are among the most common congenital anomalies worldwide. This study was conducted in order to explore the incidence and related factors of cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P among live births in Mashhad, North-Eastern Iran.   Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, records of 28,519 infants born between March 1982 and March 2011 at three major hospitals in Mashhad were screened for oral clefts. Clinical and demographic factors relating to diagnosed cases, including birth date, gender, birth weight, maternal age, number of pregnancies, type and side of cleft and presence of other congenital anomalies were recorded for analysis.   Results: The overall incidence of CL/P was 1.9 per 1,000 live births. Cleft lip associated with cleft palate (CLP was the most prevalent type of cleft (50%, followed by isolated cleft lip         (35.2% and isolated cleft palate (14.8%. A total of 92.6% of oral clefts were bilateral and 5.5% were located on the right side. In addition, clefts were found to be more common in male than female births (male/female ratio=2.3. The rate of associated congenital anomalies in CL/P newborns was 37%. No significant differences were observed in the incidence of oral clefts across three decades of study; except for CLP which was significantly more prevalent between 2002–2011 (P=0.027. There were no significant differences with regard to season of birth, associated anomalies or maternal age of affected newborns in the three time periods of the study. Furthermore, maternal age and number of pregnancies were not significantly different among the three types of cleft (P=0.43 and P=0.91, respectively. Although the mean birth weight of patients affected with isolated cleft palate was considerably lower than that of the other two types of cleft, the difference was not statistically significant (P=0.05.    Conclusion:  This study indicates a frequency of CL/P close to the findings

  16. Prenatal prochloraz treatment significantly increases pregnancy length and reduces offspring weight but does not affect social-olfactory memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmytriyeva, Oksana; Klementiev, Boris; Berezin, Vladimir; Bock, Elisabeth

    2013-07-01

    Metabolites of the commonly used imidazole fungicide prochloraz are androgen receptor antagonists. They have been shown to block androgen-driven development and compromise reproductive function. We tested the effect of prochloraz on cognitive behavior following exposure to this fungicide during the perinatal period. Pregnant Wistar rats were administered a 200 mg/kg dose of prochloraz on gestational day (GD) 7, GD11, and GD15. The social recognition test (SRT) was performed on 7-week-old male rat offspring. We found an increase in pregnancy length and a significantly reduced pup weight on PND15 and PND40 but no effect of prenatal prochloraz exposure on social investigation or acquisition of social-olfactory memory. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Primary dentition status and treatment needs of children with cleft lip and/or palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankola Anil

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the primary dentition status and treatment needs in children with cleft lip, cleft palate and or both. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was done through oral examination on a sample of 83, 2-5 years old cleft lip/palate children (46 boys and 37 girls. A self-designed questionnaire to obtain pertinent data related to level of education of parents and infant-feeding practices was used for recording the data while examining the children. Majority of cleft affected children had dental caries experience and required different types of treatment. The result of this study shows that: (1 all age groups of cleft affected children had dental caries experience, (2 children with primary type of cleft had less dental caries prevalence than children with cleft of secondary or combination type ( P < 0.05, (3 treatment needs due to caries were more in combination type of cleft compared to primary and secondary.

  18. Antagonistic parent-offspring co-adaptation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Kölliker

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In species across taxa, offspring have means to influence parental investment (PI. PI thus evolves as an interacting phenotype and indirect genetic effects may strongly affect the co-evolutionary dynamics of offspring and parental behaviors. Evolutionary theory focused on explaining how exaggerated offspring solicitation can be understood as resolution of parent-offspring conflict, but the evolutionary origin and diversification of different forms of family interactions remains unclear.In contrast to previous theory that largely uses a static approach to predict how "offspring individuals" and "parental individuals" should interact given conflict over PI, we present a dynamic theoretical framework of antagonistic selection on the PI individuals obtain/take as offspring and the PI they provide as parents to maximize individual lifetime reproductive success; we analyze a deterministic and a stochastic version of this dynamic framework. We show that a zone for equivalent co-adaptation outcomes exists in which stable levels of PI can evolve and be maintained despite fast strategy transitions and ongoing co-evolutionary dynamics. Under antagonistic co-adaptation, cost-free solicitation can evolve as an adaptation to emerging preferences in parents.We show that antagonistic selection across the offspring and parental life-stage of individuals favors co-adapted offspring and parental behavior within a zone of equivalent outcomes. This antagonistic parent-offspring co-adaptation does not require solicitation to be costly, allows for rapid divergence and evolutionary novelty and potentially explains the origin and diversification of the observed provisioning forms in family life.

  19. Oral Clefts and Academic Performance in Adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Nicola G; Pedersen, Dorthe A; Pedersen, Jacob K

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:   Early life exposure to anesthesia and surgery is suspected to associate with cognitive impairment later in life. We compared academic achievement among adolescents with cleft lip only (CL), cleft palate only (CP), and cleft lip and cleft palate (CLP) with a noncleft control group to ......:   Oral cleft type rather than number and timing of anesthesia and operations associate to poorer academic performance. Although a potential neurotoxic effect due to anesthetic agents is not reflected in the data, it cannot be completely excluded.......OBJECTIVE:   Early life exposure to anesthesia and surgery is suspected to associate with cognitive impairment later in life. We compared academic achievement among adolescents with cleft lip only (CL), cleft palate only (CP), and cleft lip and cleft palate (CLP) with a noncleft control group...

  20. Maternal exposure to ozone and PM{sub 2.5} and the prevalence of orofacial clefts in four U.S. states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Ying, E-mail: yzhou2@cdc.gov [Environmental Health Tracking Branch, Division of Environmental Hazards and Health Effects, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States); Gilboa, Suzanne M. [Birth Defects Branch, Division of Congenital and Developmental Disorders, National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States); Herdt, Michele L. [New York State Department of Health, Center for Environmental Health, Albany, NY (United States); State University of New York at Albany, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Rensselaer, NY (United States); Lupo, Philip J. [Baylor College of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Section of Hematology-Oncology, Houston, TX (United States); Flanders, W. Dana [Department of Epidemiology, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Liu, Yang [Department of Environmental Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Shin, Mikyong [Environmental Health Tracking Branch, Division of Environmental Hazards and Health Effects, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States); Canfield, Mark A. [Birth Defects Epidemiology and Surveillance Branch, Texas Department of State Health Services, Austin, TX (United States); Kirby, Russell S. [Department of Community and Family Health, College of Public Health, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States)

    2017-02-15

    Background: While there is some evidence that maternal exposure to ambient air pollution is associated with orofacial clefts in offspring, the epidemiologic studies have been largely equivocal. We evaluated whether maternal exposure to elevated county-level ambient fine particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 µm (PM{sub 2.5}) and ozone during early gestation was associated with a higher prevalence of orofacial clefts. Methods: Birth data consisting of 4.7 million births from 2001 to 2007 were obtained from National Birth Defects Prevention Network for four states — Arizona, Florida, New York (excluding New York City), and Texas. The air pollution exposure assessment for gestational weeks 5–10 was based on county-level average concentrations of PM{sub 2.5} and ozone data generated using a Bayesian fusion model available through CDC's Environmental Public Health Tracking Network. Two outcomes were analyzed separately: cleft lip with or without cleft palate, cleft palate alone. In logistic regression analyses, we adjusted for factors that were suspected confounders or modifiers of the association between the prevalence of orofacial clefts and air pollution, i.e., infant sex, race-ethnicity, maternal education, smoking status during pregnancy, whether this was mother's first baby, maternal age. Results: Each 10 µg/m{sup 3} increase in PM{sub 2.5} concentration was significantly associated with cleft palate alone (OR =1.43, 95% CI: 1.11–1.86). There was no significant association between PM{sub 2.5} concentration and cleft lip with or without cleft palate. No associations were observed between ozone exposure and the two outcomes of orofacial clefts. Conclusions: Our study suggests that PM{sub 2.5} significantly increased the risk of cleft palate alone, but did not change the incidence of cleft lip with or without palate. Ozone levels did not correlate with incidence of orofacial clefts. - Highlights: • This is a large study with about 4

  1. Maternal exposure to ozone and PM2.5 and the prevalence of orofacial clefts in four U.S. states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Ying; Gilboa, Suzanne M.; Herdt, Michele L.; Lupo, Philip J.; Flanders, W. Dana; Liu, Yang; Shin, Mikyong; Canfield, Mark A.; Kirby, Russell S.

    2017-01-01

    Background: While there is some evidence that maternal exposure to ambient air pollution is associated with orofacial clefts in offspring, the epidemiologic studies have been largely equivocal. We evaluated whether maternal exposure to elevated county-level ambient fine particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 µm (PM 2.5 ) and ozone during early gestation was associated with a higher prevalence of orofacial clefts. Methods: Birth data consisting of 4.7 million births from 2001 to 2007 were obtained from National Birth Defects Prevention Network for four states — Arizona, Florida, New York (excluding New York City), and Texas. The air pollution exposure assessment for gestational weeks 5–10 was based on county-level average concentrations of PM 2.5 and ozone data generated using a Bayesian fusion model available through CDC's Environmental Public Health Tracking Network. Two outcomes were analyzed separately: cleft lip with or without cleft palate, cleft palate alone. In logistic regression analyses, we adjusted for factors that were suspected confounders or modifiers of the association between the prevalence of orofacial clefts and air pollution, i.e., infant sex, race-ethnicity, maternal education, smoking status during pregnancy, whether this was mother's first baby, maternal age. Results: Each 10 µg/m 3 increase in PM 2.5 concentration was significantly associated with cleft palate alone (OR =1.43, 95% CI: 1.11–1.86). There was no significant association between PM 2.5 concentration and cleft lip with or without cleft palate. No associations were observed between ozone exposure and the two outcomes of orofacial clefts. Conclusions: Our study suggests that PM 2.5 significantly increased the risk of cleft palate alone, but did not change the incidence of cleft lip with or without palate. Ozone levels did not correlate with incidence of orofacial clefts. - Highlights: • This is a large study with about 4.7 million births and 7000

  2. Can the amount of digestible undegraded protein offered to ewes during late pregnancy affect the performance and immune response of their offspring to gastrointestinal nematodes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastiano, Rocco S; Sweeney, Torres; Good, Barbara; Hanrahan, James P; Keady, Timothy W J

    2017-03-15

    Maternal nutrition during pregnancy is a major environmental influence on foetal development with consequent effects on postnatal performance. We hypothesised that the level of intake of digestible undegraded protein (DUP) by the dam in late pregnancy would impact on the effectiveness of the immune response by offspring to gastrointestinal nematode infection. Eighty-five twin/triplet-bearing ewes, which were indoors from mid-pregnancy, were randomly assigned to 4 treatment groups for the final 6 weeks of pregnancy. Treatments were silage plus one of two iso-energetic and iso-nitrogenous concentrates (differing in DUP concentration; 29 and 94g/kg DM) offered at one of two feed levels (18/30 and 24/35kg in total for twin/triplet-bearing ewes, respectively). Ewes with triplets had one lamb removed at birth so that all ewes nursed 2 lambs when put to pasture as one flock in a 5-paddock rotational grazing system; all lambs were slaughtered after 29 weeks. Faecal egg count (FEC) and levels of serum IgA and IgE specific for Teladorsagia circumcincta were assessed for all lambs at various time points between 10 weeks of age and slaughter. Animal performance (live weight, live-weight gain, carcass weight) was recorded for all lambs. Worm burden at slaughter was determined for a sample of 12 lambs from each treatment. Nematodirus spp. FEC, 'other strongyles' FEC, and serum IgA and IgE specific for T. circumcincta were unaffected either by the concentration of DUP in the concentrate or by the level of concentrate offered to ewes in late pregnancy (P>0.1). Likewise, the dietary regime of the dams had no effect on lamb performance (P>0.1). It is concluded that increasing the DUP intake of ewes in late pregnancy had no effect on the immune response of their offspring to gastrointestinal nematode infection acquired through grazing naturally infected pasture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Cleft deformities (lip and palate)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dell

    hospital between February 2008 and February 2009, seventeen neonates presented with ..... are low necessitating very large sample sizes often limited by resources. ... Bianco-Davila F: Incidence of cleft lip and palate in northeast of Mexico.

  4. Cone Beam Computed Tomographic Evaluation of Mandibular Asymmetry in Patients with Cleft Lip and Palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paknahad, Maryam; Shahidi, Shoaleh; Bahrampour, Ehsan; Beladi, Amir Saied; Khojastepour, Leila

    2018-01-01

    Objective The purpose of the present study was to compare mandibular vertical asymmetry in patients with unilateral and bilateral cleft lip and palate and subjects with normal occlusion. Materials and Methods Cone beam computed tomography scans of three groups consisting of 20 patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate, 20 patients affected by bilateral cleft lip and palate, and a control group of 20 subjects with normal occlusion were analyzed for this study. Condylar, ramal, and condylar plus ramal asymmetry indices were measured for all subjects using the method of Habets et al. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests were used to determine any significant differences between the groups for all indices at the 95% level of confidence. Results There were no significant differences regarding sex for all mandibular asymmetry indices in all three groups. All Asymmetry indices (condylar, ramal, and condylar plus ramal asymmetry) were significantly higher in the unilateral cleft group compared with the other two groups. Conclusion Cone beam computed tomography images showed that patients with cleft lip and palate suffered from mandibular asymmetry. Subjects with unilateral cleft lip and palate had a more asymmetric mandible compared with the bilateral cleft lip and palate and control groups. Therefore, the mandible appears to be the leading factor in facial asymmetry in subjects with unilateral cleft lip and palate.

  5. Initial counselling for cleft lip and palate: parents' evaluation, needs and expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuttenberger, J; Ohmer, J N; Polska, E

    2010-03-01

    During the first counselling after the birth of a child with cleft lip and palate (CLP) information about the malformation should be delivered and a long-standing relationship between the cleft team and the affected family must be established. The present study was conducted to evaluate the parents' experiences, needs and expectations with this first consultation. A questionnaire was sent to 105 parents at the cleft clinic, which could be answered anonymously. It collected demographic data, data on the parents' pre-existing level of information and the parents' assessment of the counselling at the cleft centre. Seventy percent of the questionnaires were returned. In 16% the clefts were diagnosed prenatally, in 32% there were relatives with clefts. Seventy-one percent of the parents received detailed counselling, 89% of which occurred in the first week. The parents requested that information about surgery (80%), feeding the child (63%) and the aetiology of clefts (44%) should be given. The quality of the consultation was rated very good or good by 87% of families. This study confirms the importance of initial counselling for CLP. The exceptional psychological situation of the family has to be considered and a close collaboration between cleft centre and maternity hospitals is mandatory.

  6. Common dental anomalies in cleft lip and palate patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Sanjida; Alam, Mohammad Khursheed

    2015-01-01

    Cleft lip and palate (CLP) is the most common orofacial congenital malformation in live births. CLP can occur individually or in combination with other congenital deformities. Affected patients experience a number of dental, aesthetic, speech, hearing, and psychological complications and have a higher incidence of severe dental conditions. The purpose of this study is to characterise the different types of dental anomalies that are frequently associated with CLP patients based on a literature survey. By literature survey, this study characterises the different types of dental anomalies that are frequently associated with cleft lip and palate patients. Common dental anomalies associated with CLP are supernumerary tooth, congenitally missing tooth, delayed tooth development, morphological anomalies in both deciduous and permanent dentition, delayed eruption of permanent maxillary incisors, microdontia, and abnormal tooth number. The incidence of certain dental anomalies is strongly correlated with Cleft lip and palate, a finding that is consistent with previous studies.

  7. Nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate: New BCL3 information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amos, C.; Hecht, J.T. [Univ. of Texas Medical School, Houston, TX (United States); Gasser, D. [Univ. of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    1996-09-01

    We did not previously provide LOD scores for linkage assuming heterogeneity, as suggested by Ott for the linkage analysis of cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) and BCL3, ApoC2, and D19S178 in the paper by Stein et al. The results from analysis using the HOMOG program, allowing for heterogeneity under the reduced penetrance model, gave a maximum LOD score of 1.85 for ApoC2, 0.41 for BCL3, 0.03 for D19S178, and 1.72 for multipoint analysis in the interval. For the affecteds-only model, the values are 1.96 for ApoC2, 0.41 for BCL3, 0.01 for D19S178, and 1.44 for the multipoint analysis. 8 refs.

  8. Secondary bone grafting for alveolar cleft in children with cleft lip or cleft lip and palate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, J.; Li, C.; Zhang, Q.; Wu, G.; Deacon, S.A.; Chen, J.; Hu, H.; Zou, S.; Ye, Q.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Secondary alveolar bone grafting has been widely used to reconstruct alveolar cleft. However, there is still some controversy. OBJECTIVES: To compare the effectiveness and safety of different secondary bone grafting methods. SEARCH STRATEGY: The final electronic and handsearches were

  9. The "Double" Tessier 7 Cleft: An Unusual Presentation of a Transverse Facial Cleft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raveendran, Janani A; Chao, Jerry W; Rogers, Gary F; Boyajian, Michael J

    2018-07-01

    Congenital macrostomia, or Tessier number 7 cleft, is a rare craniofacial anomaly. We present a unique patient with bilateral macrostomia that consisted of a "double" transverse cleft on the left side and a single transverse cleft on the right side. A staged reconstructive approach was used to repair the "double" left-sided clefts. This staged technique produced a satisfactory aesthetic and functional outcome.

  10. Bright Promise for Your Child with Cleft Lip and Cleft Palate. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Eugene T.; Berlin, Asa J.

    Intended for parents of children with cleft lip and cleft palate, the booklet provides an overview of the condition. Addressed are the following topics (sample subtopics in parentheses): prenatal development and birth defects (facial development); possible causes of cleft lip/cleft palate (common misconceptions, genetic factors, environmental…

  11. Cues of maternal condition influence offspring selfishness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Janine W Y; Lucas, Christophe; Kölliker, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of parent-offspring communication was mostly studied from the perspective of parents responding to begging signals conveying information about offspring condition. Parents should respond to begging because of the differential fitness returns obtained from their investment in offspring that differ in condition. For analogous reasons, offspring should adjust their behavior to cues/signals of parental condition: parents that differ in condition pay differential costs of care and, hence, should provide different amounts of food. In this study, we experimentally tested in the European earwig (Forficula auricularia) if cues of maternal condition affect offspring behavior in terms of sibling cannibalism. We experimentally manipulated female condition by providing them with different amounts of food, kept nymph condition constant, allowed for nymph exposure to chemical maternal cues over extended time, quantified nymph survival (deaths being due to cannibalism) and extracted and analyzed the females' cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC). Nymph survival was significantly affected by chemical cues of maternal condition, and this effect depended on the timing of breeding. Cues of poor maternal condition enhanced nymph survival in early broods, but reduced nymph survival in late broods, and vice versa for cues of good condition. Furthermore, female condition affected the quantitative composition of their CHC profile which in turn predicted nymph survival patterns. Thus, earwig offspring are sensitive to chemical cues of maternal condition and nymphs from early and late broods show opposite reactions to the same chemical cues. Together with former evidence on maternal sensitivities to condition-dependent nymph chemical cues, our study shows context-dependent reciprocal information exchange about condition between earwig mothers and their offspring, potentially mediated by cuticular hydrocarbons.

  12. Cues of maternal condition influence offspring selfishness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine W Y Wong

    Full Text Available The evolution of parent-offspring communication was mostly studied from the perspective of parents responding to begging signals conveying information about offspring condition. Parents should respond to begging because of the differential fitness returns obtained from their investment in offspring that differ in condition. For analogous reasons, offspring should adjust their behavior to cues/signals of parental condition: parents that differ in condition pay differential costs of care and, hence, should provide different amounts of food. In this study, we experimentally tested in the European earwig (Forficula auricularia if cues of maternal condition affect offspring behavior in terms of sibling cannibalism. We experimentally manipulated female condition by providing them with different amounts of food, kept nymph condition constant, allowed for nymph exposure to chemical maternal cues over extended time, quantified nymph survival (deaths being due to cannibalism and extracted and analyzed the females' cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC. Nymph survival was significantly affected by chemical cues of maternal condition, and this effect depended on the timing of breeding. Cues of poor maternal condition enhanced nymph survival in early broods, but reduced nymph survival in late broods, and vice versa for cues of good condition. Furthermore, female condition affected the quantitative composition of their CHC profile which in turn predicted nymph survival patterns. Thus, earwig offspring are sensitive to chemical cues of maternal condition and nymphs from early and late broods show opposite reactions to the same chemical cues. Together with former evidence on maternal sensitivities to condition-dependent nymph chemical cues, our study shows context-dependent reciprocal information exchange about condition between earwig mothers and their offspring, potentially mediated by cuticular hydrocarbons.

  13. Esthetic evaluation of the facial profile in rehabilitated adults with complete bilateral cleft lip and palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari Júnior, Flávio Mauro; Ayub, Priscila Vaz; Capelozza Filho, Leopoldino; Pereira Lauris, José Roberto; Garib, Daniela Gamba

    2015-01-01

    To assess the facial esthetics of patients with complete bilateral cleft lip and palate, and to compare the judgment of raters related and unrelated to cleft care. The sample comprised 23 adult patients (7 women and 16 men) with a mean age of 26.1 years, rehabilitated at a single center. Standardized photographs of the right and left facial profile were taken of each patient and subjectively evaluated by 25 examiners: 5 orthodontists and 5 plastic surgeons with expertise in oral cleft rehabilitation, 5 orthodontists and 5 plastic surgeons without expertise in oral cleft rehabilitation, and 5 laypersons. The facial profiles were classified into 3 categories: esthetically unpleasant, esthetically acceptable, and esthetically pleasant. Intraexaminer and interexaminer agreements were evaluated with the Spearman correlation coefficient and Kendall coefficient of concordance. The differences between rater categories were analyzed using the Student-Newman-Keuls test (with P esthetically acceptable. Orthodontists and plastic surgeons related to oral cleft rehabilitation gave the best scores to the facial profiles, followed by layperson examiners and by orthodontists and plastic surgeons unrelated to oral cleft rehabilitation. The middle third of the face, the nose, and the upper lip were frequently pointed out as contributors to the esthetic impairment. The facial profile of rehabilitated adult patients with complete bilateral cleft lip and palate was considered esthetically acceptable because of morphologic limitations in the structures affected by the cleft. Laypersons and professionals unrelated to oral cleft rehabilitation seem to be more critical regarding facial esthetics than professionals involved with cleft rehabilitation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Maxillary sinus volumes of patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdur, Omer; Ucar, Faruk Izzet; Sekerci, Ahmet Ercan; Celikoglu, Mevlut; Buyuk, Suleyman Kutalmıs

    2015-10-01

    Studies about maxillary sinuses of cleft lip-palate patients have increased since sinusitis is commonly observed in these patients. It is evident that maxillary sinus will be morphologically affected in these patients. And anatomic differences may be a cause or at least a contributor of sinusitis. The aim of this study was to compare maxillary sinus volumes of the non-syndromic patients with unilateral cleft lip-palate and control group by using Cone-Beam computed tomography. Tomography scans of 44 unilateral cleft lip-palate patients (18 right and 26 left) with age and gender matched 45 control patients were evaluated for the study. The images used in the study were part of the diagnostic records collected due to dental treatment needs. All tomographs were obtained in supine position by using Cone-Beam computed tomography (NewTom 5G, QR, Verona, Italy). The patient-specific Hounsfield values were set to include the largest amount of voxels in the sinuses volume calculation individually. All data were measured in mm(3). There was no statistically difference between the gender and age distributions of the groups. No statistically significant difference was found on the cleft and non-cleft side, the right and left side of the unilateral cleft lip-palate patients and the control group (P>0.05). For the inter group comparison, mean maxillary sinus volumes volume of unilateral cleft lip-palate patients (9894.55±4171.44mm(3)) was statistically smaller than the control group (11,977.90±4484.93mm(3)) (Pcleft lip-palate patients when compared with the healthy control group. No difference was found on the cleft, non-cleft side and the right-left side of the unilateral cleft lip-palate patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Cleft Lip – A Comprehensive Review

    OpenAIRE

    Shkoukani, Mahdi A.; Chen, Michael; Vong, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Orofacial clefts comprise a range of congenital deformities and are the most common head and neck congenital malformation. Clefting has significant psychological and socio- economic effects on patient quality of life and require a multidisciplinary team approach for management. The complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors play a significant role in the incidence and cause of clefting. In this review, the embryology, classification, epidemiology, and etiology of cleft lip ar...

  16. Identification of Isthmin 1 as a Novel Clefting and Craniofacial Patterning Gene in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansdon, Lisa A; Darbro, Benjamin W; Petrin, Aline L; Hulstrand, Alissa M; Standley, Jennifer M; Brouillette, Rachel B; Long, Abby; Mansilla, M Adela; Cornell, Robert A; Murray, Jeffrey C; Houston, Douglas W; Manak, J Robert

    2018-01-01

    Orofacial clefts are one of the most common birth defects, affecting 1-2 per 1000 births, and have a complex etiology. High-resolution array-based comparative genomic hybridization has increased the ability to detect copy number variants (CNVs) that can be causative for complex diseases such as cleft lip and/or palate. Utilizing this technique on 97 nonsyndromic cleft lip and palate cases and 43 cases with cleft palate only, we identified a heterozygous deletion of Isthmin 1 in one affected case, as well as a deletion in a second case that removes putative 3' regulatory information. Isthmin 1 is a strong candidate for clefting, as it is expressed in orofacial structures derived from the first branchial arch and is also in the same "synexpression group" as fibroblast growth factor 8 and sprouty RTK signaling antagonist 1a and 2 , all of which have been associated with clefting. CNVs affecting Isthmin 1 are exceedingly rare in control populations, and Isthmin 1 scores as a likely haploinsufficiency locus. Confirming its role in craniofacial development, knockdown or clustered randomly interspaced short palindromic repeats/Cas9-generated mutation of isthmin 1 in Xenopus laevis resulted in mild to severe craniofacial dysmorphologies, with several individuals presenting with median clefts. Moreover, knockdown of isthmin 1 produced decreased expression of LIM homeobox 8 , itself a gene associated with clefting, in regions of the face that pattern the maxilla. Our study demonstrates a successful pipeline from CNV identification of a candidate gene to functional validation in a vertebrate model system, and reveals Isthmin 1 as both a new human clefting locus as well as a key craniofacial patterning gene. Copyright © 2018 by the Genetics Society of America.

  17. The effect of cleft lip on adults' responses to faces: cross-species findings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine E Parsons

    Full Text Available Cleft lip and palate is the most common of the congenital conditions affecting the face and cranial bones and is associated with a raised risk of difficulties in infant-caregiver interaction; the reasons for such difficulties are not fully understood. Here, we report two experiments designed to explore how adults respond to infant faces with and without cleft lip, using behavioural measures of attractiveness appraisal ('liking' and willingness to work to view or remove the images ('wanting'. We found that infants with cleft lip were rated as less attractive and were viewed for shorter durations than healthy infants, an effect that was particularly apparent where the cleft lip was severe. Women rated the infant faces as more attractive than men did, but there were no differences in men and women's viewing times of these faces. In a second experiment, we found that the presence of a cleft lip in domestic animals affected adults' 'liking' and 'wanting' responses in a comparable way to that seen for human infants. Adults' responses were also remarkably similar for images of infants and animals with cleft lip, although no gender difference in attractiveness ratings or viewing times emerged for animals. We suggest that the presence of a cleft lip can substantially change the way in which adults respond to human and animal faces. Furthermore, women may respond in different ways to men when asked to appraise infant attractiveness, despite the fact that men and women 'want' to view images of infants for similar durations.

  18. Cleft Lip and Palate: An Experience of a Developing Center in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abulezz, Tarek A

    2017-11-01

    Cleft lip and palate is the most common congenital anomaly in the head and neck region. These clefts are not just a distortion of the normal appearance, but they may impose a major influence on the whole patient's life, both functionally and psychologically. Clefts affect feeding, teething, hearing, speech, and social communication. The incidence of cleft lip and palate is variable in different countries and different communities. The surgical correction of cleft lip and palate went through many evolutions, but still there is no single universal protocol of repair; however, many European countries have adopted national protocols and have established cleft centers for the management and follow up of affected population. In this study, the problem of cleft lip and palate in the area of upper Egypt was presented through the records of patients admitted to the Department of Plastic Surgery at the Sohag University Hospital in a 15-year period (2001-2015). A total number of 1318 patients, who were admitted and had been operated upon in our department, were included in this study. The majority of patients presented to the department with a primary disease, yet 14.7% (194 patients) of them were first presented for a secondary interference after being operated upon elsewhere. A total number of 1923 surgical procedures were performed.

  19. Unusual case of cleft hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahasrabudhe Parag

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of a six-year-old male child with cleft hand deformity involving the dominant right hand. It was a rare case of atypical cleft hand with no missing tissue but cleft extending to metacarpal level and associated hypoplasia of thumb and index finger. As per Manske′s classification of cleft hand our patient belongs to the Class III variety. There was associated malposition of the index finger with absence of first web space and syndactly of thumb and index finger at the metacarpal level. A modified Snow-Littler procedure was planned. The surgical plan involved closure of cleft, release of thumb and index finger syndactly and reconstruction of the first web space. The functional outcome was good considering hypoplasia of the index finger and thumb. Depending upon the function of the thumb tendon transfers can be planned to augment thumb function at a later date along with correction of rotational deformities of the index and middle finger.

  20. Cleft Lip and Cleft Palate Surgery: Malpractice Litigation Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justin, Grant A; Brietzke, Scott E

    2017-01-01

      This study examined malpractice claims related to cleft lip and cleft palate surgery to identify common allegations and injuries and reviewed financial outcomes.   The WestlawNext legal database was analyzed for all malpractice lawsuits and settlements related to the surgical repair of cleft lip and palate.   Inclusion criteria included patients undergoing surgical repair of a primary cleft lip or palate or revision for complications of previous surgery. Data evaluated included patient demographics, type of operation performed, plaintiff allegation, nature of injury, and litigation outcomes.   A total of 36 cases were identified, with 12 unique cases from 1981 to 2006 meeting the inclusion criteria. Six cases (50%) were decided by a jury and six by settlement. Five cases involved complications related to the specific surgery, and the other seven were associated with any surgery and perioperative care of children and adults. Cleft palate repair (50%) was the most frequently litigated surgery. Postoperative negligent supervision was the most common allegation (42%) and resulted in a payout in each case (mean = $3,126,032). Death (42%) and brain injury (25%) were the most frequent injuries reported. Financial awards were made in nine cases (after adjusting for inflation, mean = $2,470,552, range = $0 to $7,704,585). The awards were significantly larger for brain injury than other outcomes ($4,675,395 versus $1,368,131 after adjusting for inflation, P = .0101).   Malpractice litigation regarding cleft lip and palate surgery is uncommon. However, significant financial awards involving perioperative brain injury have been reported.

  1. [Double second branchial cleft anomaly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Fernández, Noelia; Mallea-Cañizares, Ismael; Fernández-Julián, Enrique; De La Fuente-Arjona, Luís; Marco-Algarra, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    Second branchial cleft anomalies are the most common of this type of neck masses. They can be classified in four types (Bailey/Proctor classification) according to their location. Type II is the most common, and related to vital neck structures such as the carotid artery and jugular vein. Cysts are the most frequent among them. Management consists of surgical excision of the cyst and tract by cervicotomy to avoid recurrence. We present an extremely rare case of a 32-year-old male who presented a sudden appearance of a right lateral neck mass that was identified by an image study as a double branchial cleft cyst. A review of simultaneous branchial cleft cyst in the literature is also made. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  2. [Surgical correction of cleft palate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, F T; Pavia Noble, A; Soriano Padilla, F; Soto Miranda, A; Medellín Rodríguez, A

    1990-04-01

    This study presents a statistical review of corrective surgery for cleft palate, based on cases treated at the maxillo-facial surgery units of the Pediatrics Hospital of the Centro Médico Nacional and at Centro Médico La Raza of the National Institute of Social Security of Mexico, over a five-year period. Interdisciplinary management as performed at the Cleft-Palate Clinic, in an integrated approach involving specialists in maxillo-facial surgery, maxillar orthopedics, genetics, social work and mental hygiene, pursuing to reestablish the stomatological and psychological functions of children afflicted by cleft palate, is amply described. The frequency and classification of the various techniques practiced in that service are described, as well as surgical statistics for 188 patients, which include a total of 256 palate surgeries performed from March 1984 to March 1989, applying three different techniques and proposing a combination of them in a single surgical time, in order to avoid complementary surgery.

  3. Do consanguineous parents of a child affected by an autosomal recessive disease have more DNA identical-by-descent than similarly-related parents with healthy offspring? Design of a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornel Martina C

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The offspring of consanguineous relations have an increased risk of congenital/genetic disorders and early mortality. Consanguineous couples and their offspring account for approximately 10% of the global population. The increased risk for congenital/genetic disorders is most marked for autosomal recessive disorders and depends on the degree of relatedness of the parents. For children of first cousins the increased risk is 2-4%. For individual couples, however, the extra risk can vary from zero to 25% or higher, with only a minority of these couples having an increased risk of at least 25%. It is currently not possible to differentiate between high-and low-risk couples. The quantity of DNA identical-by-descent between couples with the same degree of relatedness shows a remarkable variation. Here we hypothesize that consanguineous partners with children affected by an autosomal recessive disease have more DNA identical-by-descent than similarly-related partners who have only healthy children. The aim of the study is thus to establish whether the amount of DNA identical-by-descent in consanguineous parents of children with an autosomal recessive disease is indeed different from its proportion in consanguineous parents who have healthy children only. Methods/Design This project is designed as a case-control study. Cases are defined as consanguineous couples with one or more children with an autosomal recessive disorder and controls as consanguineous couples with at least three healthy children and no affected child. We aim to include 100 case couples and 100 control couples. Control couples are matched by restricting the search to the same family, clan or ethnic origin as the case couple. Genome-wide SNP arrays will be used to test our hypothesis. Discussion This study contains a new approach to risk assessment in consanguineous couples. There is no previous study on the amount of DNA identical-by-descent in consanguineous

  4. Surgical treatment of cleft lip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus Domingues Miachon

    Full Text Available We performed a systematic review of the literature on the surgical treatment of cleft lip, emphasizing the prevalence, complications associated with the treatment and the points of disagreement between authors. We conducted a literature cross-sectional search that analyzed publications in books, articles and on the databases SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online, PubMed, of the National Center for Biotechnology Information. We conclude that: 1 the severity of the cleft will indicate the technique presenting more advantages; 2 the different approaches indicate that there is no consensus on the optimal technique; and 3 the surgeon experience contributes to choosing the best option.

  5. Primary unilateral cleft lip repair

    OpenAIRE

    Adenwalla, H. S.; Narayanan, P. V.

    2009-01-01

    The unilateral cleft lip is a complex deformity. Surgical correction has evolved from a straight repair through triangular and quadrilateral repairs to the Rotation Advancement Technique of Millard. The latter is the technique followed at our centre for all unilateral cleft lip patients. We operate on these at five to six months of age, do not use pre-surgical orthodontics, and follow a protocol to produce a notch-free vermillion. This is easy to follow even for trainees. We also perform clos...

  6. Rating Nasolabial Aesthetics in Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate Patients: Cropped Versus Full-Face Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwirtz, Roderic M F; Mulder, Frans J; Mosmuller, David G M; Tan, Robin A; Maal, Thomas J; Prahl, Charlotte; de Vet, Henrica C W; Don Griot, J Peter W

    2018-05-01

    To determine if cropping facial images affects nasolabial aesthetics assessments in unilateral cleft lip patients and to evaluate the effect of facial attractiveness on nasolabial evaluation. Two cleft surgeons and one cleft orthodontist assessed standardized frontal photographs 4 times; nasolabial aesthetics were rated on cropped and full-face images using the Cleft Aesthetic Rating Scale, and total facial attractiveness was rated on full-face images with and without the nasolabial area blurred using a 5-point Likert scale. Cleft Palate Craniofacial Unit of a University Medical Center. Inclusion criteria: nonsyndromic unilateral cleft lip and an available frontal view photograph around 10 years of age. a history of facial trauma and an incomplete cleft. Eighty-one photographs were available for assessment. Differences in mean CARS scores between cropped versus full-face photographs and attractive versus unattractive rated patients were evaluated by paired t test. Nasolabial aesthetics are scored more negatively on full-face photographs compared to cropped photographs, regardless of facial attractiveness. (Mean CARS score, nose: cropped = 2.8, full-face = 3.0, P lip: cropped = 2.4, full-face = 2.7, P lip: cropped = 2.6, full-face = 2.8, P < .001). Aesthetic outcomes of the nasolabial area are assessed significantly more positively when using cropped images compared to full-face images. For this reason, cropping images, revealing the nasolabial area only, is recommended for aesthetical assessments.

  7. Prenatal Maternal Substance Use and Offspring Outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizink, A.C.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence from both human and preclinical studies seems to indicate that maternal smoking, alcohol drinking, or other drug use during pregnancy can affect offspring outcomes. It also suggests that maternal substance use during pregnancy is a major preventable cause of adverse infant outcomes.

  8. Ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia clefting syndrome (EEC syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koul, Monika; Dwivedi, Rahul; Upadhyay, Vinod

    2014-01-01

    Ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia- clefting syndrome (also k/a. split hand- split foot malformation /split hand-split foot ectodermal dysplasia- cleft syndrome/ectodermal dysplasia cleft lip/cleft palate syndrome) a rare form of ectodermal dysplasia, is an autosomal dominant disorder inherited as a genetic trait and characterized by a triad of (i) ectrodactyly, (ii) ectodermal dysplasia and, (iii) & facial clefts.

  9. Ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia clefting syndrome (EEC syndrome)

    OpenAIRE

    Koul, Monika; Dwivedi, Rahul; Upadhyay, Vinod

    2014-01-01

    Ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia- clefting syndrome (also k/a. split hand- split foot malformation /split hand-split foot ectodermal dysplasia- cleft syndrome/ectodermal dysplasia cleft lip/cleft palate syndrome) a rare form of ectodermal dysplasia, is an autosomal dominant disorder inherited as a genetic trait and characterized by a triad of (i) ectrodactyly, (ii) ectodermal dysplasia and, (iii) & facial clefts.

  10. Incidence of Cleft Lip and Palate in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dreise, Marieke; Galiwango, George; Hodges, Andrew

    Objective: The purpose of the study was to estimate the need for resources for cleft repairs in Uganda by determining the overall incidence of oral-facial clefts and the ratio of isolated cleft lip to isolated cleft palate to cleft lip and palate. Design: A 1-year prospective study was implemented

  11. Parental psychiatric hospitalisation and offspring schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Mortensen, Erik L; Reinisch, June M

    2009-01-01

    The risk of schizophrenia has been linked with a family history of schizophrenia and less strongly with other psychiatric disorders in family members. Using data from the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort and from the Danish Psychiatric Case Register, we studied the relationship between offspring risk...... of schizophrenia and a range of psychotic and non-psychotic psychiatric diagnoses in parents. Psychiatric admission data after 1969 were available for 7047 cohort members born between 1959 and 1961, and for 7006 mothers and 6993 fathers. Univariate analysis showed that neurosis, alcohol and substance dependence...... in both parents were associated with elevated risk of offspring schizophrenia; in addition, maternal schizophrenia, affective disorder and personality disorder were associated with elevated risk. Controlling for parental age, parental social status, and parental psychiatric co-diagnosis, offspring risk...

  12. Width and elevation of the palatal shelves in unoperated unilateral and bilateral cleft lip and palate patients in the permanent dentition.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Latief, B.S.; Lekkas, K.C.; Schols, J.G.J.H.; Fudalej, P.S.; Kuijpers, M.A.R.

    2012-01-01

    Patients with cleft left lip and palate (CLP) normally require extensive surgery from an early age up to the end of adolescence. These surgeries affect the growth of the maxillofacial complex. The degree to which the cleft itself affects growth of the maxillofacial complex remains poorly understood.

  13. Plant and Animal Reproductive Strategies: Lessons from Offspring Size and Number Tradeoffs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. G. Srikanta Dani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The tradeoff between offspring size and number is ubiquitous and manifestly similar in plants and animals despite fundamental differences between the evolutionary histories of these two major life forms. Fecundity (offspring number primarily affects parental fitness, while offspring size underpins the fitness of parents and offspring. We provide an overview of theoretical models dealing with offspring size and fitness relationships. We follow that with a detailed examination of life-history constraints and environmental effects on offspring size and number, separately in plants and animals. The emphasis is on seed plants, but we endeavor to also summarize information from distinct animal groups—insects, fishes, reptiles, birds, and mammals. Furthermore, we analyse genetic controls on offspring size and number in two model organisms—Arabidopsis and Drosophila. Despite the deep evolutionary divergence between plants and animals, we find four trends in reproductive strategy that are common to both lineages: (i offspring size is generally less variable than offspring number, (ii offspring size increases with increasing parent body size, (iii maternal genes restrict offspring size and increase offspring numbers, while zygotic genes act to increase offspring size; such parent-offspring conflicts are enhanced when there is sibling rivalry, and (iv variation in offspring size increases under sub-optimal (harsh environmental conditions. The most salient difference between plants and animals is that the latter tend to produce larger (fewer offspring under sub-optimal conditions while seed plants invest in smaller (many seeds, suggesting that maternal genetic control over offspring size increases in plants but decreases in animals with parental care. The time is ripe for greater experimental exploration of genetic controls on reproductive allocation and parent-offspring conflicts in plants and animals under sub-optimal (harsh environments.

  14. Orthognathic surgery in cleft patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, John H; Nish, Iain; Daskalogiannakis, John

    2012-03-01

    After studying this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Identify the skeletal changes in the cleft patient that necessitate surgery. 2. Describe the orthodontic principles that precede surgical treatment. 3. Demonstrate the surgical principles involved in cleft orthognathic surgery and how to avoid common pitfalls particular to cleft orthognathic surgery. 4. Anticipate when dentoalveolar distraction can help in the treatment of problems not easily treated with conventional orthognathic techniques. This CME article covers the basic multidisciplinary approach to the treatment of patients requiring a combined orthodontic orthognathic approach to their skeletally based malocclusion. The dentoskeletal abnormalities are described for these patients, as are the fundamental orthodontic principles in the presurgical treatment of these patients. The basic surgical principles are discussed in general, and the reader is provided with advice on avoiding common pitfalls. Specific attention is given to the more recent advances in dentoalveolar distraction in cases of large defects that would have been difficult to treat using conventional orthognathic surgery. Videos are provided to illustrate the general principles in treating the cleft orthognathic patient and to illustrate the treatment of large defects using dentoalveolar distraction.

  15. Simulating clefts in pumpkin balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baginski, Frank; Brakke, Kenneth

    2010-02-01

    The geometry of a large axisymmetric balloon with positive differential pressure, such as a sphere, leads to very high film stresses. These stresses can be significantly reduced by using a tendon re-enforced lobed pumpkin-like shape. A number of schemes have been proposed to achieve a cyclically symmetric pumpkin shape, including the constant bulge angle (CBA) design, the constant bulge radius (CBR) design, CBA/CBR hybrids, and NASA’s recent constant stress (CS) design. Utilizing a hybrid CBA/CBR pumpkin design, Flight 555-NT in June 2006 formed an S-cleft and was unable to fully deploy. In order to better understand the S-cleft phenomenon, a series of inflation tests involving four 27-m diameter 200-gore pumpkin balloons were conducted in 2007. One of the test vehicles was a 1/3-scale mockup of the Flight 555-NT balloon. Using an inflation procedure intended to mimic ascent, the 1/3-scale mockup developed an S-cleft feature strikingly similar to the one observed in Flight 555-NT. Our analysis of the 1/3-scale mockup found it to be unstable. We compute asymmetric equilibrium configurations of this balloon, including shapes with an S-cleft feature.

  16. Clinical Study of Second Branchial Cleft Anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Yoon, Tae Mi; Lee, Joon Kyoo; Lim, Sang Chul

    2018-03-30

    The objective of this study was to review the clinical characteristics and surgical treatment outcomes of second branchial cleft anomalies, and to evaluate the usefulness and accuracy of preoperative fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in the diagnosis of branchial cleft cysts. A retrospective chart review was performed at Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital from January 2010 to December 2016. Among 25 patients with second branchial cleft anomalies, in 23 patients (92.0%), these anomalies presented as cysts, and in the remaining 2 patients (8.0%), these anomalies presented as fistulas. Fine-needle aspiration cytology had a diagnostic sensitivity of 100%, a positive-predictive value of 100%, and accuracy of 100% for diagnosing second branchial cleft cyst. All patients of second branchial cleft anomalies were treated surgically under general anesthesia. No recurrence of second branchial cleft anomalies was observed. Branchial cleft cysts were the most common type of second branchial cleft anomalies. Preoperative FNAC is a useful and accurate method for preoperative evaluation of branchial cleft cysts. Surgical excision of second branchial cleft anomalies is the treatment of choice without any complications and with no recurrence.

  17. The second branchial cleft fistula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddalozzo, John; Rastatter, Jeffrey C; Dreyfuss, Heath F; Jaffar, Reema; Bhushan, Bharat

    2012-07-01

    To review the surgical anatomy and histopathology of second branchial cleft fistulae. Retrospective study of patients treated for second branchial cleft fistulae at a tertiary care pediatric hospital. The senior author noted anatomic and histologic features of second branchial cleft fistulae, not previously described. Tertiary care children's hospital. Retrospective examination of 28 patients was conducted who were operated upon for second branchial cleft fistula. Data collected included age at surgery, initial presentation, imaging characteristics prior to surgery, laterality of the fistula tract, pathology results and follow-up data. Twenty-eight patients met the criteria for inclusion. Three patients (11%) had bilateral fistulae. 11 (39%) were male and 17 (61%) were female. 23 (74.2%) tracts were lined with ciliated columnar epithelium, 3 (9.7%) had cuboidal epithelium, and 5 (16.7%) had squamous epithelium. Nineteen (61.3%) tracts contained salivary tissue. Of the unilateral fistula tracts, 25 (100%) were on the right side. Of the 3 patients with bilateral lesions, 2 (66%) had associated branchio-oto-renal syndrome (BORS). Second branchial cleft fistulae are rare. They are usually right-sided. If bilateral fistulae are present, one should consider an underlying genetic disorder. The histology of the fistulae mostly demonstrates ciliated columnar epithelium with the majority of specimens showing salivary tissue. There is a clear association with the internal jugular vein (IJV). Dissection should continue until superior to the hyoid bone, ensuring near complete surgical dissection and less risk of recurrence. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Genome wide study of maternal and parent-of-origin effects on the etiology of orofacial clefts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Min; Murray, Jeffrey C; Marazita, Mary L; Munger, Ronald G; Ruczinski, Ingo; Hetmanski, Jacqueline B; Wu, Tao; Murray, Tanda; Redett, Richard J; Wilcox, Allen J; Lie, Rolv T; Jabs, Ethylin Wang; Wu-Chou, Yah Huei; Chen, Philip K; Wang, Hong; Ye, Xiaoqian; Yeow, Vincent; Chong, Samuel S; Shi, Bing; Christensen, Kaare; Scott, Alan F; Patel, Poorav; Cheah, Felicia; Beaty, Terri H

    2013-01-01

    We performed a genome wide association analysis of maternally-mediated genetic effects and parent-of-origin effects on risk of orofacial clefting using over 2,000 case-parent triads collected through an international cleft consortium. We used log-linear regression models to test individual SNPs. For SNPs with a p-value <10−5 for maternal genotypic effects, we also applied a haplotype-based method, TRIMM, to extract potential information from clusters of correlated SNPs. None of the SNPs were significant at the genome wide level. Our results suggest neither maternal genome nor parent of origin effects play major roles in the etiology of orofacial clefting in our sample. This finding is consistent with previous genetic studies and recent population-based cohort studies in Norway and Denmark, which showed no apparent difference between mother-to-offspring and father-to-offspring recurrence of clefting. We, however, cannot completely rule out maternal genome or parent of origin effects as risk factors because very small effects might not be detectable with our sample size, they may influence risk through interactions with environmental exposures or may act through a more complex network of interacting genes. Thus the most promising SNPs identified by this study may still be worth further investigation. PMID:22419666

  19. Dental Care for a Child with Cleft Lip and Palate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Donor Spotlight Fundraising Ideas Vehicle Donation Volunteer Efforts Dental Care for a Child with Cleft Lip and ... submenu What We Do Cleft & Craniofacial Educational Materials Dental Care for a Child with Cleft Lip and ...

  20. Treatment for Adults (with Cleft Lip and Palate)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... here What treatment is available for adults with cleft lip and palate? Treatments currently available to infants and children with cleft lip and palate are also available to adults with clefts. Although ...

  1. The Association study of nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Navya

    2016-11-25

    Nov 25, 2016 ... These authors contributed equally to this work. .... individuals without a family history of orofacial clefts or other major congenital defects. ..... Wehby G. L., Cassell C. H. 2010 The impact of orofacial clefts on quality of life and.

  2. Caries prevalence and enamel defects in 5- and 10-year-old children with cleft lip and/or palate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundell, Anna Lena; Nilsson, Anna-Karin; Ullbro, Christer

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of dental caries and enamel defects in 5- and 10-year-old Swedish children with cleft lip and/or palate (CL(P)) in comparison to non-cleft controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study group consisted of 139 children with CL(P) (80 subjects aged 5 years and 59...... aged 10 years) and 313 age-matched non-cleft controls. All children were examined by one of two calibrated examiners. Caries was scored according to the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS-II) and enamel defects as presence and frequency of hypoplasia and hypomineralization...... prevalence of enamel defects was found in CL(P) children of both age groups and anterior permanent teeth were most commonly affected. CONCLUSIONS: Preschool children with cleft lip and/or palate seem to have more caries in the primary dentition than age-matched non-cleft controls. Enamel defects were more...

  3. Maternal and postnatal high-fat diets with high ?6:?3 ratios affect the reproductive performance of male offspring in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianconi, S; Stutz, G; Solís, M R; Martini, A C; Vincenti, L M; Ponzio, M F; Luque, E; Avendaño, C; Quiroga, P; Santillán, M E

    2018-05-24

    High-fat diets (HFDs) are an acknowledged risk factor for male subfertility, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study we compared the effects of two HFDs with different ω6:ω3 ratios, one enriched with soy oil (SOD; ω6:ω3=9.62) and another enriched with sunflower oil (SFOD; ω6:ω3=51.55), with those of a commercial diet (CD; ω6:ω3=19.87), supplied from pregnancy to adulthood, on morphometric parameters and reproductive performance in adult male mice (recommended ω6:ω3 for rodents=1-6). Bodyweight was significantly higher in the SFOD than CD group, and relative testicular weight was significantly lower in the SFOD than the other two groups. SFOD altered sperm performance: it reduced sperm viability (mean±s.e.m.; 76.00±1.35% vs 82.50±1.45% and 80.63±1.00% in the SFOD vs CD and SOD groups respectively; P<0.05) and increased the percentage of immature spermatozoa (71.88±7.17% vs 51.38±5.87% and 48.00±5.72% in the SFOD vs CD and SOD groups respectively; P<0.05). The epididymal ω6:ω3 ratio was higher in the SFOD versus CD and SOD groups, whereas the unsaturation index was higher in the SOD and SFOD groups than in CD group. Sperm membrane integrity was diminished in both the SOD and SFOD groups, but there was no difference in sperm reactive oxygen species production in these two groups compared with the CD group. The fertilisation rate was lower in the SFOD compared with the CD and SOD groups. In conclusion, although both HFDs affected sperm quality, the fertilising ability was more altered by the excessive dietary ω6:ω3 ratio than by the net ω6 content.

  4. Three-dimensional morphology of first molars in relation to ethnicity and the occurrence of cleft lip and palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echtermeyer, Sandra; Metelmann, Philine H; Hemprich, Alexander; Dannhauer, Karl-Heinz; Krey, Karl-Friedrich

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to describe morphological peculiarities of maxillary and mandibular first molars in Europeans, Asians and Europeans with cleft lip and palate. Reflex microscopy was used to obtain three-dimensional morphometric landmarks from 40 models (11 Europeans and 13 Asians without cleft lip and palate, 16 Europeans with unilateral cleft lip and palate). The cases were examined using traditional morphometry and geometric morphometry, and visualized using thin-plate splines. Classic morphometry showed no right/left differences in the study groups and no significant differences with regard to the cleft side in patients with cleft lip and palate. In Asians, a significantly greater mesiodistal width was found. Geometric morphometry showed an enlarged centroid size in Asians (maxilla and mandible). In cleft patients, the cleft site did not appear to impact the morphology of first molars. Unilateral clefting did not affect the size and shape of molars; however, characteristic ethnicity-based differences were in fact identified. The results are relevant for orthodontic treatment with preadjusted appliances, and prosthetic CAD/CAM restorations.

  5. FOXE1 Association with both Isolated Cleft Lip with or without Cleft Palate; and Isolated Cleft Palate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreno, Lina M; Mansilla, Maria Adela; Bullard, Steve A

    2009-01-01

    Nonsyndromic orofacial clefts are a common complex birth defect caused by genetic and environmental factors and/or their interactions. A previous genome-wide linkage scan discovered a novel locus for cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) at 9q22-q33. To identify the etiologic gene, we......) and rs4460498 (p=6.51E-12) were located inside a 70Kb high LD block containing FOXE1. Association signals for Caucasians and Asians clustered 5' and 3' of FOXE1, respectively. Isolated cleft palate (CP) was also associated indicating that FOXE1 plays a role in two phenotypes thought to be genetically...

  6. Maxillary dental anomalies in patients with cleft lip and palate: a cone beam computed tomography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celikoglu, M; Buyuk, S K; Sekerci, A E; Cantekin, K; Candirli, C

    2015-01-01

    To compare the frequency of maxillary dental anomalies in patients affected by unilateral (UCLP) and bilateral (BCLP) cleft lip with palate and to determine whether statistical differences were present or not between cleft and normal sides in UCLP group by using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). In addition, the frequency of those dental anomalies was compared with previous studies presenting the same population without cleft Study Design: Fifty non-syndromic patients affected by UCLP (28 patients) and BCLP (22 patients) were selected for analysis of dental anomalies by means of CBCT. The frequency of maxillary dental anomalies including tooth agenesis, microdontia of lateral incisor, ectopic eruption and impaction of canine and supernumerary tooth were examined. Pearson chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were performed for statistical comparisons. All patients affected by UCLP and BCLP were found to have at least one maxillary dental anomaly. The most frequently observed dental anomaly was tooth agenesis (92.5% and 86.4%, respectively) in UCLP and BCLP groups. Tooth agenesis and canine impaction were observed more commonly in the cleft side (75.0% and 35.7%, respectively) than in the normal side (57.1% and 14.3%, respectively) in UCLP group (p≯0.05). All dental anomalies were found to be higher in both cleft groups than in general populations not affected by cleft. Since patients affected by UCLP and BCLP had at least one dental anomaly and higher dental anomaly frequency as compared to patients without cleft, those patients should be examined carefully prior to orthodontic treatment.

  7. Fetal genetic risk of isolated cleft lip only versus isolated cleft lip and palate: A subphenotype analysis using two population-based studies of orofacial clefts in scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jugessur, Astanand; Shi, Min; Gjessing, Håkon Kristian

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cleft lip only (CLO) and cleft lip and palate (CLP) are commonly regarded as variants of the same defect and are traditionally combined to form the single group of cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) prior to analysis. However, recent data have suggested that at least a subg...

  8. Complex life cycles and offspring provisioning in marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Dustin J; Keough, Michael J

    2006-10-01

    Offspring size can have pervasive effects throughout an organism's life history. Mothers can make either a few large or many small offspring, and the balance between these extremes is determined by the relationship between offspring size and performance. This relationship in turn is thought to be determined by the offspring's environment. Recently, it has become clear that events in one life-history stage can strongly affect performance in another. Given these strong carryover effects, we asked whether events in the larval phase can change the relationship between offspring size and performance in the adult phase. We manipulated the length of the larval period in the bryozoan Bugula neritina and then examined the relationship between offspring size and various parameters of adult performance under field conditions. We found that despite the adult stage being outplanted into identical conditions, different offspring sizes were predicted to be optimal, depending on the experience of those adults as larvae. This work highlights the fact that the strong phenotypic links between life-history stages may result in optimal offspring size being highly unpredictable for organisms with complex life cycles.

  9. Face facts: Genes, environment, and clefts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, J.C. [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City IA (United States)

    1995-08-01

    Cleft lip and/or palate provides an ideal, albeit complex, model for the study of human developmental anomalies. Clefting disorders show a mix of well-defined syndromic causes (many with single-gene or environmental etiologies) coupled with their more common presentation in the nonsyndromic form. This summary presents some insight into the genetic causes of, etiology of and animal models for cleft lip and/or palate. 79 refs.

  10. Cleft lip and cleft palate relationship with familial marriage: a study in 136 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azimi C

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Clefts of the lip and palate are one of the most common congenital birth anomalies. Genetic factors play a great role in the etiology of them and the high percentage of the consanguineous marriage of the parents of the affected persons is one of the reasons. These defects not only make abnormal changes on appearance of the neonate, but also make a lot of stress and psychological problems for the patients and their families. Study on the prevalence of clefts, their risk factors and also genetic counseling for affected persons and their families can be a guideline for general population and probably reduce these anomalies over the generations."n"nMethods: Patients referred to the Department of Genetics, Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran, Iran were studied. A total of 7374 pedigrees of all the patients admitted to the Department, were studied during 2002-2005 and 99 pedigrees with the patients with cleft lip± palate or isolated cleft palate were separated. The total number of cases among these 99 pedigrees was 136. The effects of consanguineous marriage, positive family history and sex were investigated among cases."n"nResults: 70.8% of patients with syndromic clefts and 58.7% of patients with nonsyndromic CL

  11. Improving Informed Consent for Cleft Palate Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-07

    Cleft Palate; Jaw Abnormalities; Maxillofacial Abnormalities; Mouth Abnormalities; Congenital Abnormalities; Jaw Diseases; Musculoskeletal Diseases; Craniofacial Abnormalities; Musculoskeletal Abnormalities; Stomatognathic Diseases; Stomatognathic System Abnormalities

  12. Evidence-Based Medicine: Cleft Palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Albert S

    2017-01-01

    After studying this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Describe the incidence of cleft palate and risk factors associated with development of an orofacial cleft. 2. Understand differences among several techniques to repair clefts of both the hard and soft palates. 3. Discuss risk factors for development of postoperative fistulas, velopharyngeal insufficiency, and facial growth problems. 4. Establish a treatment plan for individualized care of a cleft palate patient. Orofacial clefts are the most common congenital malformations of the head and neck region, and approximately three-quarters of these patients have some form of cleft palate deformity. Cleft palate repair is generally performed in children between 6 and 12 months of age. The goals of palate repair are to minimize the occurrence of fistulas, establish a normal velopharyngeal mechanism, and optimize facial growth. This Maintenance of Certification review discusses the incidence and epidemiology associated with cleft palate deformity and specifics associated with patient care, including analgesia, surgical repair techniques, and complications associated with repair of the cleft palate.

  13. Influence of lip closure on alveolar cleft width in patients with cleft lip and palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmelzle Rainer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The influence of surgery on growth and stability after treatment in patients with cleft lip and palate are topics still under discussion. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of early lip closure on the width of the alveolar cleft using dental casts. Methods A total of 44 clefts were investigated using plaster casts, 30 unilateral and 7 bilateral clefts. All infants received a passive molding plate a few days after birth. The age at the time of closure of the lip was 2.1 month in average (range 1-6 months. Plaster casts were obtained at the following stages: shortly after birth, prior to lip closure, prior to soft palate closure. We determined the width of the alveolar cleft before lip closure and prior to soft palate closure measuring the alveolar cleft width from the most lateral point of the premaxilla/anterior segment to the most medial point of the smaller segment. Results After lip closure 15 clefts presented with a width of 0 mm, meaning that the mucosa of the segments was almost touching one another. 19 clefts showed a width of up to 2 mm and 10 clefts were still over 2 mm wide. This means a reduction of 0% in 5 clefts, of 1-50% in 6 clefts, of 51-99% in 19 clefts, and of 100% in 14 clefts. Conclusions Early lip closure reduces alveolar cleft width. In most cases our aim of a remaining cleft width of 2 mm or less can be achieved. These are promising conditions for primary alveolar bone grafting to restore the dental bony arch.

  14. Naloxone treatment alters gene expression in the mesolimbic reward system in 'junk food' exposed offspring in a sex-specific manner but does not affect food preferences in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugusheff, J R; Ong, Z Y; Muhlhausler, B S

    2014-06-22

    We have previously reported that the opioid receptor blocker, naloxone, is less effective in reducing palatable food intake in offspring exposed to a maternal cafeteria diet during the perinatal period, implicating a desensitization of the central opioid pathway in the programming of food preferences. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of a maternal cafeteria diet and naloxone treatment on the development of the mesolimbic reward pathway and food choices in adulthood. We measured mRNA expression of key components of the reward pathway (mu-opioid receptor, proenkephalin, tyrosine hydroxylase, D1 and D2 receptors and the dopamine active transporter (DAT)) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and ventral tegmental area (VTA) of the offspring of control and cafeteria fed (JF) dams at weaning and after a 10-day naloxone treatment post-weaning and determined food preferences in adulthood in the remaining offspring. Naloxone treatment decreased the expression of DAT by 8.2 fold in female control offspring but increased it by 4.3 fold in female offspring of JF dams relative to the saline-injected reference groups. Proenkephalin mRNA expression was higher in the NAc of female JF offspring compared to controls, independent of naloxone treatment (Pfood preferences in adulthood in either control or JF offspring. These data indicate that prenatal exposure to a cafeteria diet alters the impact of opioid signaling blockade in the early post-weaning period on gene expression in the central reward pathway in a sex specific manner, but that these changes in gene expression do not appear to have any persistent impact on food preferences in adulthood. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Health Status Among Adults Born With an Oral Cleft in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Erik; Haaland, Øystein A; Feragen, Kristin B; Filip, Charles; Vindenes, Hallvard A; Moster, Dag; Lie, Rolv T; Sivertsen, Åse

    2016-11-01

    Parents regularly express concern about long-term health outcomes for children who are born with an oral cleft. To assess whether oral clefts affect the health and ability to work of young adults. A population-based cohort study was conducted on all individuals born in Norway between calendar years 1967 and 1992 (n = 1 490 401). All patients treated for clefts in Norway during the study period were invited to participate (n = 2860). This study used population-based, long-term follow-up data from national registries to focus on the future health outcomes of individuals with cleft and no additional chronic medical conditions or congenital anomalies. A total of 523 individuals were excluded from the study cohort because they declined participation, could not be reached by mail, or had birth defects other than clefts. The final cohort, consisting of 2337 cases with isolated clefts and 1 413 819 unaffected individuals, was followed up until December 31, 2010, using compulsory national registries and clinical data. Data analysis was conducted from February 13, 2014, to April 18, 2016. Oral clefts. Death, intellectual disability, schizophrenia, mood affective disorders, anxiety disorders, autism spectrum disorders, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, severe learning disability, cerebral palsy, epilepsy, muscle or skeletal disorders, trauma, and episodes of reduced health. Of 2860 individuals born with an oral cleft, 2337 were included in the analysis; of these, 1401 were male (59.9%). Mean (SD) age in 2010 was 30.6 (7.7) years. Compared with unaffected individuals, no increased risks were found regarding morbidity or mortality among persons with isolated cleft lip only. Among individuals with isolated cleft lip and cleft palate, increased risks of intellectual disability (relative risk [RR], 2.2; 95% CI, 1.2-4.1) and cerebral palsy (RR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.1-6.2) were found. Individuals with isolated cleft palate (ie, without cleft lip) had increased mortality

  16. Laryngo-tracheo-oesophageal clefts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leboulanger Nicolas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A laryngo-tracheo-esophageal cleft (LC is a congenital malformation characterized by an abnormal, posterior, sagittal communication between the larynx and the pharynx, possibly extending downward between the trachea and the esophagus. The estimated annual incidence of LC is 1/10,000 to 1/20,000 live births, accounting for 0.2% to 1.5% of congenital malformations of the larynx. These incidence rates may however be underestimated due to difficulty in diagnosing minor forms and a high mortality rate in severe forms. A slightly higher incidence has been reported in boys than in girls. No specific geographic distribution has been found. Depending on the severity of the malformation, patients may present with stridor, hoarse cry, swallowing difficulties, aspirations, cough, dyspnea and cyanosis through to early respiratory distress. Five types of laryngo-tracheo-esophageal cleft have been described based on the downward extension of the cleft, which typically correlates with the severity of symptoms: Type 0 laryngo-tracheo-esophageal cleft to Type 4 laryngo-tracheo-esophageal cleft. LC is often associated with other congenital abnormalities/anomalies (16% to 68%, mainly involving the gastro-intestinal tract, which include laryngomalacia, tracheo-bronchial dyskinesia, tracheo-bronchomalacia (mostly in types 3 and 4, and gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD. The syndromes most frequently associated with an LC are Opitz/BBB syndrome, Pallister Hall syndrome, VACTERL/VATER association, and CHARGE syndrome. Laryngeal clefts result from failure of fusion of the posterior cricoid lamina and abnormal development of the tracheo-esophageal septum. The causes of the embryological developmental anomalies leading to LC are not known but are thought to be multifactorial. LC appears to be mostly sporadic although some familial cases with suspected autosomal dominant transmission have been reported. The age of diagnosis depends mainly on the severity of

  17. Laryngo-tracheo-oesophageal clefts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    A laryngo-tracheo-esophageal cleft (LC) is a congenital malformation characterized by an abnormal, posterior, sagittal communication between the larynx and the pharynx, possibly extending downward between the trachea and the esophagus. The estimated annual incidence of LC is 1/10,000 to 1/20,000 live births, accounting for 0.2% to 1.5% of congenital malformations of the larynx. These incidence rates may however be underestimated due to difficulty in diagnosing minor forms and a high mortality rate in severe forms. A slightly higher incidence has been reported in boys than in girls. No specific geographic distribution has been found. Depending on the severity of the malformation, patients may present with stridor, hoarse cry, swallowing difficulties, aspirations, cough, dyspnea and cyanosis through to early respiratory distress. Five types of laryngo-tracheo-esophageal cleft have been described based on the downward extension of the cleft, which typically correlates with the severity of symptoms: Type 0 laryngo-tracheo-esophageal cleft to Type 4 laryngo-tracheo-esophageal cleft. LC is often associated with other congenital abnormalities/anomalies (16% to 68%), mainly involving the gastro-intestinal tract, which include laryngomalacia, tracheo-bronchial dyskinesia, tracheo-bronchomalacia (mostly in types 3 and 4), and gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD). The syndromes most frequently associated with an LC are Opitz/BBB syndrome, Pallister Hall syndrome, VACTERL/VATER association, and CHARGE syndrome. Laryngeal clefts result from failure of fusion of the posterior cricoid lamina and abnormal development of the tracheo-esophageal septum. The causes of the embryological developmental anomalies leading to LC are not known but are thought to be multifactorial. LC appears to be mostly sporadic although some familial cases with suspected autosomal dominant transmission have been reported. The age of diagnosis depends mainly on the severity of the clinical symptoms and

  18. Primary unilateral cleft lip repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adenwalla, H S; Narayanan, P V

    2009-10-01

    The unilateral cleft lip is a complex deformity. Surgical correction has evolved from a straight repair through triangular and quadrilateral repairs to the Rotation Advancement Technique of Millard. The latter is the technique followed at our centre for all unilateral cleft lip patients. We operate on these at five to six months of age, do not use pre-surgical orthodontics, and follow a protocol to produce a notch-free vermillion. This is easy to follow even for trainees. We also perform closed alar dissection and extensive primary septoplasty in all these patients. This has improved the overall result and has no long-term deleterious effect on the growth of the nose or of the maxilla. Other refinements have been used for prevention of a high-riding nostril, and correction of the vestibular web.

  19. Primary unilateral cleft lip repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adenwalla H

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The unilateral cleft lip is a complex deformity. Surgical correction has evolved from a straight repair through triangular and quadrilateral repairs to the Rotation Advancement Technique of Millard. The latter is the technique followed at our centre for all unilateral cleft lip patients. We operate on these at five to six months of age, do not use pre-surgical orthodontics, and follow a protocol to produce a notch-free vermillion. This is easy to follow even for trainees. We also perform closed alar dissection and extensive primary septoplasty in all these patients. This has improved the overall result and has no long-term deleterious effect on the growth of the nose or of the maxilla. Other refinements have been used for prevention of a high-riding nostril, and correction of the vestibular web.

  20. Supplementation of Mice with Specific Nondigestible Oligosaccharides during Pregnancy or Lactation Leads to Diminished Sensitization and Allergy in the Female Offspring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogenkamp, Astrid; Knippels, Leon M J; Garssen, Johan; van Esch, Betty C A M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The maternal environment and early life exposure affect immune development in offspring. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether development of food allergy in offspring is affected by supplementing pregnant or lactating sensitized or nonsensitized mice with a mixture of nondigestible

  1. [Suture simulator - Cleft palate surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devinck, F; Riot, S; Qassemyar, A; Belkhou, A; Wolber, A; Martinot Duquennoy, V; Guerreschi, P

    2017-04-01

    Cleft palate requires surgery in the first years of life, furthermore repairing anatomically the soft and hard palate is complex on a surgical level because of the fine tissues and the local intraoral configuration. It is valuable to train first on simulators before going to the operating room. However, there is no material dedicated to learning how to perform intraoral sutures in cleft palate surgery. We made one, in an artisanal manner, in order to practice before the real surgical gesture. The simulator was designed based on precise anatomical data. A steel pipe, fixed on a rigid base represented the oral cavity. An adapted split spoon represented the palate. All pieces could be removed in order to apply a hydrocellular dressing before training for sutures. Our simulator was tested by 3 senior surgeons in our department in close to real-life conditions in order to evaluate its anatomical accuracy. It is valuable to have a simulator to train on cleft palate sutures within teaching university hospitals that manage this pathology. Our simulator has a very low cost, it is easy to make and is anatomically accurate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Six years analysis of cleft palate in a university hospital center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahvash M

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Cleft palate is a congenital condition that occurs with the incidence rate of one out of 2000 births. This anomaly produces intraoral pressure changes (increase or decrease, can cause speech, sucking and feeding problems of involved patient. On the other hand, if cleft palate is associated with cleft of the lip or alveolar area, growth and alignment of teeth may change the appearance of the patient and affect the psychologic and occupational future of the patient. Eustatian tube malfunction in involved neonates increase. Many procedures are used to repair the cleft palate and correction of palatal muscles which are: 1 Von Langenbeck (18.5%. 2 Veau-Wardil-Kilner (72.5%. 3 Double opposing Z-Plasty (9%. In this research the demographic criteria of patients including age of the patient at operation rime (mean age 30.14 months, city of residence, family history of cleft palate (12.4%, familial relation of parents (15.2%, associated anomalies, complete or incomplete lesion, weight of patients at the time of surgery (mean 11.28 Kg, hemoglobin (11.3 mg/dl, complications, otitis media and the side of cleft palate are studied in 178 admitted patients to Imam General Hospital between 1989 and 1995.

  3. Short mandible - a possible risk factor for cleft palate with/without a cleft lip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Nuno Vibe; Darvann, Tron Andre; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2014-01-01

    Structured Abstract Objectives To estimate the influence of a short mandible on the risk of developing a cleft palate with/without a cleft lip (CP). Setting and sample population The retrospective sample consisted of 115 2-month-old Danish infants with CP, and 70 control infants with unilateral...... the risk of having a cleft palate. Results The mean mandibular length in the group with CP was about 4mm shorter than in the control group. Odds ratio (OR) was calculated to be 0.58 (95% confidence interval 0.48-0.68), implying that an individual's risk of cleft palate with/without a cleft lip increases...... about 50% per mm decrease in mandibular length. Conclusions A special facial type including a short mandible is a possible risk factor for cleft palate, and it was found that the risk of cleft palate increases 58% per mm decreases in mandibular length....

  4. Paternal care in a fish: epigenetics and fitness enhancing effects on offspring anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGhee, Katie E; Bell, Alison M

    2014-11-07

    In many animals, including humans, interactions with caring parents can have long-lasting effects on offspring sensitivity to stressors. However, whether these parental effects impact offspring fitness in nature is often unclear. In addition, despite evidence that maternal care can influence offspring behaviour via epigenetic alterations to the genome, it remains unclear whether paternal care has similar effects. Here, we show in three-spined sticklebacks, a fish in which fathers are the sole provider of offspring care, that the direct care provided by fathers affects offspring anxiety and the potential for epigenetic alterations to the offspring genome. We find that families are differentially vulnerable to early stress and fathers can compensate for this differential sensitivity with the quality of their care. This variation in paternal care is also linked to the expression in offspring brains of a DNA methyltransferase (Dnmt3a) responsible for de novo methylation. We show that these paternal effects are potentially adaptive and anxious offspring are unlikely to survive an encounter with a predator. By supplying offspring care, fathers reduce offspring anxiety thereby increasing the survival of their offspring-not in the traditional sense through resource provisioning but through an epigenetic effect on offspring behavioural development. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  5. Maternal occupational risk factors for oral clefts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorente, C; Cordier, S; Bergeret, A; De Walle, HEK; Goujard, J; Ayme, S; Knill-Jones, R; Calzolari, E

    Objectives This study investigated the role of maternal exposures at work during pregnancy in the occurrence of oral clefts. Methods The occupational exposures of 851 women (100 mothers of babies with oral clefts and 751 mothers of healthy referents) who worked during the first trimester of

  6. An undescribed first branchial cleft anomaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockey, Jason Gabriel; John, D Gareth; Herbetko, John

    2003-06-01

    A variant of a type 2 first branchial cleft anomaly, in which accessory ossicles were found, is described. There follows a discussion of the classification of first branchial cleft abnormalities and how this particular case falls outside the standard classification. CT scanning is mentioned as the investigation that is most useful for defining these abnormalities.

  7. Dating brittle tectonic movements with cleft monazite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berger, Alfons; Gnos, E.; Janots, E.

    2013-01-01

    stress axis, which is characteristic for strike slip deformation. The inferred stress situation is consistent with observed kinematics and the opening of such clefts. Therefore, the investigated monazite-bearing cleft formed at the end of D2 and/or D3, and dextral movements along NNW dipping planes...

  8. Long-term effects of oral clefts on health care utilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Saaby; Wehby, George L; Pedersen, Dorthe Almind

    2015-01-01

    clefts use more health services than their unaffected siblings. Additional results show that the effects are driven primarily by congenital malformation-related hospitalizations and intake of anti-infectives. Although the absolute differences in most health care utilization diminish over time, affected......Oral clefts are among the most common birth defects affecting thousands of newborns each year, but little is known about their potential long-term consequences. In this paper, we explore the impact of oral clefts on health care utilization over most of the lifespan. To account for time...... individuals have slightly higher utilization of some health care services in adulthood (particularly for diseases of the nervous and respiratory system). These results have important implications for affected individuals, their families, and their health professionals....

  9. Maxillary distraction in patients with cleft deformity using a rigid external distraction device: a pilot study on the distraction ratio of the maxilla to the device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Kiyoshi; Sato, Masaru; Omura, Ken

    2004-01-01

    We examined the ratio between actual maxillary distraction and the distraction of the rigid external distraction device (Rigid external distraction (RED) system) used for maxillary distraction in patients with a cleft deformity. Twelve patients were examined. The amount of maxillary advancement was measured on lateral cephalograms and divided by the activation amount on the RED system. The value obtained was represented as the distraction ratio of the maxilla to the system. The mean ratio in 10 patients with complete cleft lip, palate, and alveolus (complete cleft) was 0.24. However, the ratios in two patients with cleft lip and alveolus or soft cleft palate (incomplete cleft) were considerably higher than the mean ratios in patients with complete cleft. When the maxilla is distracted in patients with complete cleft using the RED system, the amount of activation on the system needs to be about four times the amount of planned maxillary distraction. However, the distraction ratio may be affected by the type of cleft.

  10. Cleft lip and palate surgery in children: Anaesthetic considerations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The Care of cleft patients is very challenging. Team cleft care is usually lacking in many developing countries due to shortage of qualified manpower. This study is aimed at highlighting anaesthetic challenges in the management of cleft in children. Patients and Methods: This was a study of cleft lip and palate ...

  11. X-linked genes and risk of orofacial clefts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jugessur, Astanand; Skare, Øivind; Lie, Rolv T

    2012-01-01

    Orofacial clefts are common birth defects of complex etiology, with an excess of males among babies with cleft lip and palate, and an excess of females among those with cleft palate only. Although genes on the X chromosome have been implicated in clefting, there has been no association analysis...

  12. Genome-wide meta-analyses of nonsyndromic orofacial clefts identify novel associations between FOXE1 and all orofacial clefts, and TP63 and cleft lip with or without cleft palate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leslie, Elizabeth J.; Carlson, Jenna C.; Shaffer, John R.

    2017-01-01

    Nonsyndromic orofacial clefts (OFCs) are a heterogeneous group of common craniofacial birth defects with complex etiologies that include genetic and environmental risk factors. OFCs are commonly categorized as cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) and cleft palate alone (CP), which have h...

  13. Ambulatory cleft lip surgery: A value analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arneja, Jugpal S; Mitton, Craig

    2013-01-01

    Socialized health systems face fiscal constraints due to a limited supply of resources and few reliable ways to control patient demand. Some form of prioritization must occur as to what services to offer and which programs to fund. A data-driven approach to decision making that incorporates outcomes, including safety and quality, in the setting of fiscal prudence is required. A value model championed by Michael Porter encompasses these parameters, in which value is defined as outcomes divided by cost. To assess ambulatory cleft lip surgery from a quality and safety perspective, and to assess the costs associated with ambulatory cleft lip surgery in North America. Conclusions will be drawn as to how the overall value of cleft lip surgery may be enhanced. A value analysis of published articles related to ambulatory cleft lip repair over the past 30 years was performed to determine what percentage of patients would be candidates for ambulatory cleft lip repair from a quality and safety perspective. An economic model was constructed based on costs associated with the inpatient stay related to cleft lip repair. On analysis of the published reports in the literature, a minority (28%) of patients are currently discharged in an ambulatory fashion following cleft lip repair. Further analysis suggests that 88.9% of patients would be safe candidates for same-day discharge. From an economic perspective, the mean cost per patient for the overnight admission component of ambulatory cleft surgery to the health care system in the United States was USD$2,390 and $1,800 in Canada. The present analysis reviewed germane publications over a 30-year period, ultimately suggesting that ambulatory cleft lip surgery results in preservation of quality and safety metrics for most patients. The financial model illustrates a potential cost saving through the adoption of such a practice change. For appropriately selected patients, ambulatory cleft surgery enhances overall health care value.

  14. Family Functions and Life Quality of Parents of Children With Cleft Lip and Palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Belma I; Gülşen, Ayşe; Tirank, Şadiye B; Findikçioğlu, Kemal; Uzuner, F Deniz; Tutar, Hakan; Üçüncü, Neslihan

    2018-05-15

    This study was designed to identify variables affecting family functions and life quality of parents with cleft lip and/or palate children. Family Assesment Scale (FAS) and short form of World Health Organization quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF-TR) were used to measure family functions and life quality of parents. Questionnaire Forms were given to 146 parents: 74 having cleft lip and/or palate children (cleft-group), and the other 72 with healthy children (control-group). Parents were divided into 3 subgroups according to children's age as 0 to 6, 7 to 12, and 13 to 18 years. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to evaluate differences between the groups. Behavior of cleft patients' parents was found to be problematic in behavioral control, required attention and role areas at 0 to 6 years, required attention area at ages 7 to 12 and 13 to 18 years. When compared to control group, significant differences were detected in required attention at ages 0 to 6 years, problem-solving, and communication areas at 7 to 12 years. Findings of life quality were found to be over medium level in physical, social, psychological and environmental areas in cleft group at all age groups; however, life quality was found better in control group in physical, psychological, and social subtests at age 13 to 18 years. Cleft children influence family functions in behavioral control, required attention and role areas at early childhood, and continue to affect required attention through adolescence. Also social, physical, and psychological fields of life quality were found lower in cleft parents compared to control group at adolescence.

  15. Dimensions of the cleft nasal airway in adults: a comparison with subjects without cleft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hairfield, W M; Warren, D W

    1989-01-01

    The prevalence of mouthbreathing among individuals with cleft lip and palate is significantly higher than in the normal population. This has been attributed to nasal deformities that tend to reduce nasal airway size. The purpose of the present study was to determine how a heterogeneous adult group with cleft lip and palate differs in terms of nasal airway cross-sectional area from an adult group without cleft during the inspiratory and expiratory phases of breathing. The pressure-flow technique was used to estimate nasal airway size in 15 adults without cleft (15 years or older) and 37 adults with cleft lip, cleft palate, or both. Mean areas and standard deviations for subjects without cleft were 0.63 cm2 +/- 0.17 during inspiration and 0.56 cm2 +/- 0.14 during expiration. This difference is statistically significant (p less than 0.01). Mean areas and standard deviations for all subjects with cleft were 0.37 cm2 +/- 0.18 during inspiration and 0.40 cm2 +/- 0.20 during expiration. This difference is not statistically significant (p greater than 0.15). Twenty-two of the subjects with cleft had nasal areas considered to be impaired (below 0.40 cm2) as compared with only three of the subjects without cleft. A two factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) demonstrated that area changes during respiration are different for subjects with and without cleft (p less than 0.005), and that cleft nasal areas are smaller than noncleft areas for both phases of breathing (p less than 0.001). Inspiratory-expiratory differences between subjects with and without cleft are probably the result of developmental defects, reparative surgery or both.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Exposure to a highly caloric palatable diet during pregestational and gestational periods affects hypothalamic and hippocampal endocannabinoid levels at birth and induces adiposity and anxiety-like behaviors in male rat offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa eRamírez-López

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to unbalanced diets during pre-gestational and gestational periods may result in long-term alterations in metabolism and behavior. The contribution of the endocannabinoid system to these long-term adaptive responses is unknown. In the present study, we investigated the impact of female rat exposure to a hypercaloric-hypoproteic palatable diet during pre-gestational, gestational and lactational periods on the development of male offspring. In addition, the hypothalamic and hippocampal endocannabinoid contents at birth and the behavioral performance in adulthood were investigated. Exposure to a palatable diet resulted in low weight offspring who exhibited low hypothalamic contents of arachidonic acid and the two major endocannabinoids (anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol at birth. Palmitoylethanolamide, but not oleoylethanolamide, also decreased. Additionally, pups from palatable diet-fed dams displayed lower levels of anandamide and palmitoylethanolamide in the hippocampus. The low-weight male offspring, born from palatable diet exposed mothers, gained less weight during lactation and, although they recovered weight during the post-weaning period, they developed abdominal adiposity in adulthood. These animals exhibited anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus-maze and open field test and a low preference for a chocolate diet in a food preference test, indicating that maternal exposure to a hypercaloric diet induces long-term behavioral alterations in male offspring. These results suggest that maternal diet alterations in the function of the endogenous cannabinoid system can mediate the observed phenotype of the offspring, since both hypothalamic and hippocampal endocannabinoids regulate feeding, metabolic adaptions to caloric diets, learning, memory and emotions.

  17. Endoscope-assisted approach to excision of branchial cleft cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Stephanie E; Paul, Benjamin C; Brumm, John D; Fritz, Mark; Fang, Yixin; Myssiorek, David

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe an endoscope-assisted surgical technique for the excision of branchial cleft cysts and compare it to the standard approach. Retrospective case series review. Twenty-seven cases described as branchial cleft excisions performed by a single surgeon at one academic medical center were identified between 2007 and 2014. Twenty-five cases (8 endoscopic, 17 standard approach) were included in the study. Cases were excluded if final pathology was malignant. Patient charts were reviewed, and two techniques were compared through analysis of incision size, operative time, and surgical outcomes. This study showed that the length of incision required for the endoscopic approach (mean = 2.13 ± 0.23) was significantly less than that of the standard approach (mean = 4.10 ± 1.46, P = 0.008) despite the fact that there was no significant difference in cyst size between the two groups (P = 0.09). The other variables examined, including operative time and surgical outcomes, were not significantly different between the two groups. This transcervical endoscope-assisted approach to branchial cleft cyst excision is a viable option for uncomplicated cases. It provides better cosmetic results than the standard approach and does not negatively affect outcomes, increase operative time, or result in recurrence. 4. Laryngoscope, 126:1339-1342, 2016. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  18. A cohort study of recurrence patterns among more than 54,000 relatives of oral cleft cases in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grosen, Dorthe; Chevrier, Cécile; Skytthe, Axel

    2010-01-01

    degree relatives. RESULTS: For cleft lip and palate probands we observed recurrence risks for first, second, and third degree relatives of respectively 3.5% (95% CI 3.1% to 4.0%), 0.8% (95% CI 0.6% to 1.0%), and 0.6% (95% CI 0.4% to 0.8%). Individuals affected by the most severe oral cleft had...

  19. Safe sleeping positions: practice and policy for babies with cleft palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Karen; Bruce, Iain A; Bannister, Patricia; Callery, Peter

    2017-05-01

    Guidance recommends 'back to sleep' positioning for infants from birth in order to reduce the risk of sudden infant death. Exceptions have been made for babies with severe respiratory difficulties where lateral positioning may be recommended, although uncertainty exists for other conditions affecting the upper airway structures, such as cleft palate. This paper presents research of (i) current advice on sleep positioning provided to parents of infants with cleft palate in the UK; and (ii) decision making by clinical nurse specialists when advising parents of infants with cleft palate. A qualitative descriptive study used data from a national survey with clinical nurse specialists from 12 regional cleft centres in the UK to investigate current practice. Data were collected using semi-structured telephone interviews and analysed using content analysis. Over half the regional centres used lateral sleep positioning based on clinical judgement of the infants' respiratory effort and upper airway obstruction. Assessment relied upon clinical judgement augmented by a range of clinical indicators, such as measures of oxygen saturation, heart rate and respiration. Specialist practitioners face a clinical dilemma between adhering to standard 'back to sleep' guidance and responding to clinical assessment of respiratory effort for infants with cleft palate. In the absence of clear evidence, specialist centres rely on clinical judgement regarding respiratory problems to identify what they believe is the most appropriate sleeping position for infants with cleft palate. Further research is needed to determine the best sleep position for an infant with cleft palate. What is Known • Supine sleep positioning reduces the risk of sudden infant death in new born infants. • There is uncertainty about the benefits or risks of lateral sleep positioning for infants with upper airway restrictions arising from cleft palate. What is New • Variability exists in the information

  20. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF TOOTH DECAY IN YOUNG CHILDREN WITH CLEFT LIP AND PALATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana-Gabriela HALIŢCHI

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Evaluation of the extension of caries risk and incidence of decays of temporary teeth in children with cleft lip and palate. Materials and methods. The study was conducted on a sample of 64 children with various types of cleft lip and palate (31 children with unilateral cleft lip and palate, 18 children with bilateral cleft lip and palate, 5 children with cleft lip and 10 children with cleft palate, aged between 3 and 6 years, investigated in the Orthodontics Clinic of „Apollonia” University. The tooth surfaces were examined with the probe and the mirror, incipient caries and tooth decay with manifest cavities detectable by probing being identified. The gingival status was examined, whichever the inflammatory signs from the free gingival margin and papillae. Oral hygiene was rated by the presence/absence of dental biofilm after examining the buccal and lingual surfaces of the teeth. Statistical analysis was based on the non-parametric Pearson correlation, frequency analysis and linear regression method for determining the functional interrelationships between variables. Results and discussion. In children with cleft lip and palate, the highest incidence of caries occurs on the upper deciduous central incisors and first molars. Carious lesions of the central and lateral incisors tend to increase and decrease in frequency symmetrically and have a strong causal relationship. In 80.6% of cases, the decay of central incisors causes caries on the lateral incisors. Mean number of teeth affected by caries in temporary dentition at ages between 4-6 years is 7.27. The average ratio of dmft is 8.6136, a quite higher value, compared with the normal values registered in normal children, evidencing a faster and more rapid development of dental caries. Poor oral hygiene is associated with cleft and number of caries. It seems that the parents of children with cleft lip and palate have difficulties in implementing an effective brushing technique, given

  1. Aspiration pneumonia in patients with cleft palate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Hun; Choi, Yo Won; Jeon, Seok Chol; Park, Choong Ki; Uhm, Ki Il [Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-03-01

    To assess the incidence of aspiration pneumonia in infants with cleft palate and to compare the incidence between complete and incomplete types of cleft palate. A review of medical records revealed 100 infants who had undergone initial surgery to repair cleft palate in our hospital during a recent three-year period. Aspiration pneumonia was defined as the coexistence of pneumonia at chest radiography with a history of frequent choking during feeding. The anatomic distribution of aspiration pneumonia was analyzed, and the incidences of aspiration pneumonia in infants with complete and incomplete cleft palate were compared. Among 100 children, aspiration pneumonia was found in 35 (35%). Those with complete and incomplete cleft palate showed similar incidences of the condition (27 of 70 [39%] vs 8 of 30 [27%], p=0.36). Pneumonia was most commonly seen in the left lower lobe (11 of 35), followed by the right upper and lower lobes. Aspiration pneumonia is frequently associated with infants with cleft palate. There is no statistical difference in the incidence of aspiration pneumonia between the complete and the incomplete cleft palate group.

  2. Aspiration pneumonia in patients with cleft palate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Hun; Choi, Yo Won; Jeon, Seok Chol; Park, Choong Ki; Uhm, Ki Il

    2003-01-01

    To assess the incidence of aspiration pneumonia in infants with cleft palate and to compare the incidence between complete and incomplete types of cleft palate. A review of medical records revealed 100 infants who had undergone initial surgery to repair cleft palate in our hospital during a recent three-year period. Aspiration pneumonia was defined as the coexistence of pneumonia at chest radiography with a history of frequent choking during feeding. The anatomic distribution of aspiration pneumonia was analyzed, and the incidences of aspiration pneumonia in infants with complete and incomplete cleft palate were compared. Among 100 children, aspiration pneumonia was found in 35 (35%). Those with complete and incomplete cleft palate showed similar incidences of the condition (27 of 70 [39%] vs 8 of 30 [27%], p=0.36). Pneumonia was most commonly seen in the left lower lobe (11 of 35), followed by the right upper and lower lobes. Aspiration pneumonia is frequently associated with infants with cleft palate. There is no statistical difference in the incidence of aspiration pneumonia between the complete and the incomplete cleft palate group

  3. Implementing the Brazilian Database on Orofacial Clefts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Lopes Monlleó

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. High-quality clinical and genetic descriptions are crucial to improve knowledge of orofacial clefts and support specific healthcare polices. The objective of this study is to discuss the potential and perspectives of the Brazilian Database on Orofacial Clefts. Methods. From 2008 to 2010, clinical and familial information on 370 subjects was collected by geneticists in eight different services. Data was centrally processed using an international system for case classification and coding. Results. Cleft lip with cleft palate amounted to 198 (53.5%, cleft palate to 99 (26.8%, and cleft lip to 73 (19.7% cases. Parental consanguinity was present in 5.7% and familial history of cleft was present in 26.3% subjects. Rate of associated major plus minor defects was 48% and syndromic cases amounted to 25% of the samples. Conclusions. Overall results corroborate the literature. Adopted tools are user friendly and could be incorporated into routine patient care. The BDOC exemplifies a network for clinical and genetic research. The data may be useful to develop and improve personalized treatment, family planning, and healthcare policies. This experience should be of interest for geneticists, laboratory-based researchers, and clinicians entrusted with OC worldwide.

  4. Surgical repair of large cyclodialysis clefts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Jacob B; Davis, Garvin H; Bell, Nicholas P; Feldman, Robert M; Blieden, Lauren S

    2017-05-11

    To describe a new surgical technique to effectively close large (>180 degrees) cyclodialysis clefts. Our method involves the use of procedures commonly associated with repair of retinal detachment and complex cataract extraction: phacoemulsification with placement of a capsular tension ring followed by pars plana vitrectomy and gas tamponade with light cryotherapy. We also used anterior segment optical coherence tomography (OCT) as a noninvasive mechanism to determine the extent of the clefts and compared those results with ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) and gonioscopy. This technique was used to repair large cyclodialysis clefts in 4 eyes. All 4 eyes had resolution of hypotony and improvement of visual acuity. One patient had an intraocular pressure spike requiring further surgical intervention. Anterior segment OCT imaging in all 4 patients showed a more extensive cleft than UBM or gonioscopy. This technique is effective in repairing large cyclodialysis clefts. Anterior segment OCT more accurately predicted the extent of each cleft, while UBM and gonioscopy both underestimated the size of the cleft.

  5. Maternal residential proximity to chlorinated solvent emissions and birth defects in offspring: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brender, Jean D; Shinde, Mayura U; Zhan, F Benjamin; Gong, Xi; Langlois, Peter H

    2014-11-19

    Some studies have noted an association between maternal occupational exposures to chlorinated solvents and birth defects in offspring, but data are lacking on the potential impact of industrial air emissions of these solvents on birth defects. With data from the Texas Birth Defects Registry for births occurring in 1996-2008, we examined the relation between maternal residential proximity to industrial air releases of chlorinated solvents and birth defects in offspring of 60,613 case-mothers and 244,927 control-mothers. Maternal residential exposures to solvent emissions were estimated with metrics that took into account residential distances to industrial sources and annual amounts of chemicals released. Logistic regression was used to generate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the associations between residential proximity to emissions of 14 chlorinated solvents and selected birth defects, including neural tube, oral cleft, limb deficiency, and congenital heart defects. All risk estimates were adjusted for year of delivery and maternal age, education, race/ethnicity, and public health region of residence. Relative to exposure risk values of 0, neural tube defects were associated with maternal residential exposures (exposure risk values >0) to several types of chlorinated solvents, most notably carbon tetrachloride (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.42, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.09, 1.86); chloroform (aOR 1.40, 95% CI 1.04, 1.87); ethyl chloride (aOR 1.39, 95% CI 1.08, 1.79); 1,1,2-trichloroethane (aOR 1.56, 95% CI 1.11, 2.18); and 1,2,3-trichloropropane (aOR 1.49, 95% CI 1.08, 2.06). Significant associations were also noted between a few chlorinated solvents and oral cleft, limb deficiency, and congenital heart defects. We observed stronger associations between some emissions and neural tube, oral cleft, and heart defects in offspring of mothers 35 years or older, such as spina bifida with carbon tetrachloride (aOR 2.49, 95% CI 1.09, 5.72), cleft palate

  6. Cleft lip and palate in context: Learning from, and adding to, the sociological literature on long-term conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abualfaraj, Raed; Daly, Blanaid; McDonald, Fraser; Scambler, Sasha

    2018-07-01

    Cleft lip and palate is a common congenital anomaly affecting males and females. While there is psychological research on cleft lip and palate, there is relatively little research exploring the social context of cleft lip and palate and the experiences of living with the condition on a daily basis. Drawing on common themes emerging from sociological work which have explored the experiences of people living with long-term conditions (uncertainty, social relations, self-esteem and self-image and biomedical concerns), we argue that these themes can be used to help elucidate the experiences of people living with cleft lip and palate. Within this framework, the findings of a qualitative study exploring the experiences of people living with cleft lip and palate are presented. The results suggest that all four themes can be found within the accounts of people living with cleft lip and palate, and there are many commonalities between the experiences of these people and those living with other long-term conditions. Conversely there are interesting areas of divergence. Unlike most long-term conditions, cleft lip and palate is not degenerative and treatment means symptoms will reduce over time. This is reflected in narratives around 'normality' as the endpoint of the care pathway. In addition, prenatal diagnosis means that the vast majority of participants within this study were born into, and grew up within, the care pathway. This has implications for the way in which cleft lip and palate is understood and the provision of information, relationships with members of the care team over time and the temporal and contextualised impact of cleft lip and palate on social relations and the self.

  7. Cleft lip and/or palate genetic conditioning – is MMP2 gene polymorphism important for thisdefect development?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Zalewska-Ziob

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cleft lip/palate is one of the most common congenital malformations. In Poland, approximately 500 children with an orofacial cleft are born every year. Matrix metalloproteinases are involved in periodontal tissue remodelling and degradation. Polymorphisms in the promoter region of the MMP2 gene may affect transcription and activity of the protein produced by this gene. The aim of the study was to examine 1306 C/T MMP2 gene promoter polymorphisms in the group of children with cleft lip/palate and in the control group as well as to determine the frequency of individual genotypes in different types of orofacial clefts. Material and methods: The study was conducted in the group of 150 children with cleft lip/palate and 102 children without an orofacial cleft. Genomic DNA was obtained from oral mucosa epithelium. The MMP2 gene promoter polymorphism was genotyped by tetra-primer ARMS-PCR. Results: There are no significant differences in the frequency of individual alleles in different types of orofacial clefts. The occurrence of the CC genotype was significantly higher in the group with cleft lip and palate than in the healthy group (p = 0.005. Conclusion: Determining the polymorphism of matrix metalloproteinase gene promoter sequence can contribute to the elucidation of cleft lip/palate aetiopathogenesis.

  8. Affect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cetinic, M.; Diamanti, J.; Szeman, I.; Blacker, S.; Sully, J.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter historicizes four divergent but historically contemporaneous genres of affect theory – romantic, realist, speculative, and materialist. While critics credited with the turn to affect in the 1990s wrote largely in the wake of poststructuralism from the perspective of gender and queer

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging of cleft palate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naito, Yasushi; Tasaka, Yasuyuki; Honjo, Iwao; Nishimura, Kazumasa; Nakano, Yoshihisa

    1987-03-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the nasopharynx and the eustachian tube was performed in five patients with cleft palate and compared with the results of those without this anomaly. Various degrees of deformity of the eustachian tube cartilage were found in cleft palate patients. The levator veli palatini muscles were situated more laterally in cleft palate patients than in normal subjects. Also, changes in the position of these muscles after palatoplasty were clearly depicted by MRI. Besides several autopsy reports, this is the first demonstration of the characteristic anomaly around the eustachian tube by a non-invasive method.

  10. Australian children with cleft palate achieve age-appropriate speech by 5 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacon, Antonia; Parkin, Melissa; Broome, Kate; Purcell, Alison

    2017-12-01

    Children with cleft palate demonstrate atypical speech sound development, which can influence their intelligibility, literacy and learning. There is limited documentation regarding how speech sound errors change over time in cleft palate speech and the effect that these errors have upon mono-versus polysyllabic word production. The objective of this study was to examine the phonetic and phonological speech skills of children with cleft palate at ages 3 and 5. A cross-sectional observational design was used. Eligible participants were aged 3 or 5 years with a repaired cleft palate. The Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology (DEAP) Articulation subtest and a non-standardised list of mono- and polysyllabic words were administered once for each child. The Profile of Phonology (PROPH) was used to analyse each child's speech. N = 51 children with cleft palate participated in the study. Three-year-old children with cleft palate produced significantly more speech errors than their typically-developing peers, but no difference was apparent at 5 years. The 5-year-olds demonstrated greater phonetic and phonological accuracy than the 3-year-old children. Polysyllabic words were more affected by errors than monosyllables in the 3-year-old group only. Children with cleft palate are prone to phonetic and phonological speech errors in their preschool years. Most of these speech errors approximate typically-developing children by 5 years. At 3 years, word shape has an influence upon phonological speech accuracy. Speech pathology intervention is indicated to support the intelligibility of these children from their earliest stages of development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Perceptual Speech Assessment after Maxillary Advancement Osteotomy in Patients with a Repaired Cleft Lip and Palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok-Kwun Kim

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundMaxillary hypoplasia refers to a deficiency in the growth of the maxilla commonly seen in patients with a repaired cleft palate. Those who develop maxillary hypoplasia can be offered a repositioning of the maxilla to a functional and esthetic position. Velopharyngeal dysfunction is one of the important problems affecting speech after maxillary advancement surgery. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of maxillary advancement on repaired cleft palate patients without preoperative deterioration in speech compared with non-cleft palate patients.MethodsEighteen patients underwent Le Fort I osteotomy between 2005 and 2011. One patient was excluded due to preoperative deterioration in speech. Eight repaired cleft palate patients belonged to group A, and 9 non-cleft palate patients belonged to group B. Speech assessments were performed preoperatively and postoperatively by using a speech screening protocol that consisted of a list of single words designed by Ok-Ran Jung. Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to determine if there were significant differences between the preoperative and postoperative outcomes in each group A and B. And Mann-Whitney U test was used to determine if there were significant differences in the change of score between groups A and B.ResultsNo patients had any noticeable change in speech production on perceptual assessment after maxillary advancement in our study. Furthermore, there were no significant differences between groups A and B.ConclusionsRepaired cleft palate patients without preoperative velopharyngeal dysfunction would not have greater risk of deterioration of velopharyngeal function after maxillary advancement compared to non-cleft palate patients.

  12. Perceptual speech assessment after maxillary advancement osteotomy in patients with a repaired cleft lip and palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seok-Kwun; Kim, Ju-Chan; Moon, Ju-Bong; Lee, Keun-Cheol

    2012-05-01

    Maxillary hypoplasia refers to a deficiency in the growth of the maxilla commonly seen in patients with a repaired cleft palate. Those who develop maxillary hypoplasia can be offered a repositioning of the maxilla to a functional and esthetic position. Velopharyngeal dysfunction is one of the important problems affecting speech after maxillary advancement surgery. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of maxillary advancement on repaired cleft palate patients without preoperative deterioration in speech compared with non-cleft palate patients. Eighteen patients underwent Le Fort I osteotomy between 2005 and 2011. One patient was excluded due to preoperative deterioration in speech. Eight repaired cleft palate patients belonged to group A, and 9 non-cleft palate patients belonged to group B. Speech assessments were performed preoperatively and postoperatively by using a speech screening protocol that consisted of a list of single words designed by Ok-Ran Jung. Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to determine if there were significant differences between the preoperative and postoperative outcomes in each group A and B. And Mann-Whitney U test was used to determine if there were significant differences in the change of score between groups A and B. No patients had any noticeable change in speech production on perceptual assessment after maxillary advancement in our study. Furthermore, there were no significant differences between groups A and B. Repaired cleft palate patients without preoperative velopharyngeal dysfunction would not have greater risk of deterioration of velopharyngeal function after maxillary advancement compared to non-cleft palate patients.

  13. Preoperative Cleft Lip Measurements and Maxillary Growth in Patients With Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonarakis, Gregory S; Tompson, Bryan D; Fisher, David M

    2016-11-01

    Maxillary growth in patients with cleft lip and palate is highly variable. The authors' aim was to investigate associations between preoperative cleft lip measurements and maxillary growth determined cephalometrically in patients with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate (cUCLP). Retrospective cross-sectional study. Children with cUCLP. Preoperative cleft lip measurements were made at the time of primary cheiloplasty and available for each patient. Maxillary growth was evaluated on lateral cephalometric radiographs taken prior to any orthodontic treatment and alveolar bone grafting (8.5 ± 0.7 years). The presence of associations between preoperative cleft lip measurements and cephalometric measures of maxillary growth was determined using regression analyses. In the 58 patients included in the study, the cleft lateral lip element was deficient in height in 90% and in transverse width in 81% of patients. There was an inverse correlation between cleft lateral lip height and transverse width with a β coefficient of -0.382 (P = .003). Patients with a more deficient cleft lateral lip height displayed a shorter maxillary length (β coefficient = 0.336; P = .010), a less protruded maxilla (β coefficient = .334; P = .008), and a shorter anterior maxillary height (β coefficient = 0.306; P = .020) than those with a less deficient cleft lateral lip height. Patients with cUCLP present with varying degrees of lateral lip hypoplasia. Preoperative measures of lateral lip deficiency are related to later observed deficiencies of maxillary length, protrusion, and height.

  14. Prevalence of cleft lip and cleft palate in rural north-central guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matute, Jorge; Lydick, Elaine A; Torres, Olga R; Owen, Karen K; Jacobsen, Kathryn H

    2015-05-01

    To estimate the number of new cases of cleft lip and cleft palate in the department (state) of Alta Verapaz, Guatemala, in 2012. Cross-sectional survey of midwives from communities identified through a two-stage cluster-sampling process. Midwives were asked how many babies they had delivered in the past year and how many of those newborns had various types of birth defects, as illustrated in pictures. Indigenous Mayan communities in rural north-central Guatemala. Midwives (n = 129) who had delivered babies in the previous year. Reports of babies born with cleft lip and cleft palate. A 1-year prevalence rate of 18.9 per 10,000 for cleft lip and 4.7 per 10,000 for cleft palate was estimated for Alta Verapaz. None of the cases of cleft lip also had cleft palate. The indigenous communities in north-central Guatemala might have a relatively high cleft lip prevalence rate compared with the global average.

  15. Comparison of dental arch dimensions in models of preschool children with cleft lip/palate repaired by means of surgery alone versus controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burhan, Ahmad S; Nawaya, Fehmieh R

    2016-09-01

    Cleft lip and palate (CLP) anomaly is one of the most prevalent congenital defects causing disturbances of dental arch dimensions. This study aimed at investigating differences in these dimensions between preschool children with cleft lip/palate and a matched control group representing healthy individuals with normal occlusion (NO). The sample of this cross-sectional analytical study consisted of 108 plaster models of children aged from 4 to 5.5 years. They were divided into five groups: the cleft lip group, the cleft palate (CP) group, the unilateral cleft lip and palate group, the bilateral cleft lip and palate group, and the NO group. The NO group was used as a control group. All cleft-affected children were treated only with surgery. Dental arch length and widths were measured. The dental arch dimensions of the cleft lip group were nearly similar to those in the controls. Moreover, the mandibular transverse widths of the CP group were close to those in the controls. However, the mandibular arch length and all maxillary dimensions of the CP group were smaller than those in the controls. In the unilateral cleft lip and palate group, the arch lengths in both jaws and the maxillary transverse widths were smaller than those in the controls, whereas the mandibular transverse widths were similar to those in the controls. In the bilateral cleft lip and palate group, the arch lengths in both jaws were close to those in the controls, but both arches were narrower than those in the controls. The various types of CLP were found to be associated with differences in most maxillary and some mandibular arch dimensions. These data can be used for cleft patient counseling and treatment planning.

  16. Risk of oral clefts in children born to mothers taking Topamax (topiramate)Risk of Oral Clefts (Cleft Lip and/or ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drug Safety and Availability FDA Drug Safety Communication: Risk of oral clefts in children born to mothers ... data that show that there is an increased risk for the development of cleft lip and/or ...

  17. Invasive cervical resorption and the oro-facial cleft patient: a review and case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mahony, A; McNamara, C; Ireland, A; Sandy, J; Puryer, J

    2017-05-12

    Introduction Invasive cervical resorption (ICR) has an unknown aetiology, yet it exhibits very aggressive behaviour compared with typical external root resorption, posing a high risk of tooth loss.Aim To investigate the number of patients at the Dublin Cleft Prosthodontic Department with an oro-facial cleft who experienced ICR and to identify any possible aetiological factors.Materials and method A retrospective investigation of all oro-facial cleft patients treated at the Dublin Cleft Prosthodontic Department, St James's Hospital, Dublin. All patients' clinical and radiological records were reviewed. Patients where tooth loss became inevitable due to Class 4 ICR were analysed.Results From 588 oro-facial cleft patients, 14 (2.38%) patients with ICR were identified. Of these eight (57%) were female and six (43%) were male. Mean age at diagnosis was 28 years (range = 16-49 years). Cleft type: six (42.1%) unilateral cleft lip and palate, eight (57.9%) bilateral cleft lip and palate. Seventeen ICR affected teeth in total, with eleven (65%) maxillary central incisors, two (12%) maxillary lateral incisors, four (23%) maxillary canines, and one (7%) central, lateral and canine affected. Some, (N = 10, 71.4%) presented with ICR resulting in immediate tooth loss. Other patients (N = 4, 28.6%) developed ICR during or following prosthodontic treatment at the Cleft Centre. Tooth loss for this cohort, though not immediate, was inevitable. All had undergone fixed orthodontic appliance treatment and twelve had received dento-alveolar bone grafts. A number (N = 7, 50%) had undergone osteotomy, two (14%) had received night guard vital dental whitening and one had a history of trauma.Conclusions ICR, given its aggressive nature and ill-understood aetiology, poses significant treatment challenges. The most severe form of ICR (Class 4) leads inevitably to tooth loss. The slow-moderate progression of ICR may explain the late presentation found in this study, reinforcing the importance

  18. Multivariate analysis on unilateral cleft lip and palate treatment outcome by EUROCRAN index: A retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yew, Ching Ching; Alam, Mohammad Khursheed; Rahman, Shaifulizan Abdul

    2016-10-01

    This study is to evaluate the dental arch relationship and palatal morphology of unilateral cleft lip and palate patients by using EUROCRAN index, and to assess the factors that affect them using multivariate statistical analysis. A total of one hundred and seven patients from age five to twelve years old with non-syndromic unilateral cleft lip and palate were included in the study. These patients have received cheiloplasty and one stage palatoplasty surgery but yet to receive alveolar bone grafting procedure. Five assessors trained in the use of the EUROCRAN index underwent calibration exercise and ranked the dental arch relationships and palatal morphology of the patients' study models. For intra-rater agreement, the examiners scored the models twice, with two weeks interval in between sessions. Variable factors of the patients were collected and they included gender, site, type and, family history of unilateral cleft lip and palate; absence of lateral incisor on cleft side, cheiloplasty and palatoplasty technique used. Associations between various factors and dental arch relationships were assessed using logistic regression analysis. Dental arch relationship among unilateral cleft lip and palate in local population had relatively worse scoring than other parts of the world. Crude logistics regression analysis did not demonstrate any significant associations among the various socio-demographic factors, cheiloplasty and palatoplasty techniques used with the dental arch relationship outcome. This study has limitations that might have affected the results, example: having multiple operators performing the surgeries and the inability to access the influence of underlying genetic predisposed cranio-facial variability. These may have substantial influence on the treatment outcome. The factors that can affect unilateral cleft lip and palate treatment outcome is multifactorial in nature and remained controversial in general. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All

  19. Evidence-based medicine: cleft palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chepla, Kyle J; Gosain, Arun K

    2013-12-01

    After reading this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Describe recent changes in treatment of cleft palate. 2. Compare the efficacy of different surgical treatments. 3. Assess their own knowledge of cleft palate repair. 4. Determine where further individual in-depth study and development are warranted. The Maintenance of Certification in Plastic Surgery series is designed to ensure professional development and measure continued competency within a specialty or subspecialty. The present article provides an evaluation of the interval studies regarding the management of cleft palate with a specific focus on craniofacial growth, speech outcomes, and obstructive sleep apnea since the last Maintenance of Certification in Plastic Surgery article on the subject published in 2010. This purpose of this article is to update plastic and craniomaxillofacial surgeons on recent changes in treatment of cleft palate, provide a means for accurate self-assessment, and guide further individual in-depth study and development.

  20. First branchial cleft anomalies: avoiding the misdiagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajeev; Sikka, Kapil; Sagar, Prem; Kakkar, Aanchal; Thakar, Alok

    2013-07-01

    First branchial cleft anomalies are a very rare entities accounting for less than 1 % of all branchial cleft malformations. They are often misdiagnosed for other cystic lesions occurring in parotid gland and inadequately treated (incision and drainage or incomplete excision) leading to multiple recurrences. We report a series of four patients who were previously operated (incision and drainage) for misdiagnosed first branchial cleft anomalies with subsequent recurrences. All patients underwent superficial parotidectomy with complete tract excision using facial nerve monitoring to prevent iatrogenic injury because of extensive fibrosis. We discuss the literature pertaining to first branchial cleft anomalies, their varied presentations and their relationship to facial nerve in parotid gland and importance of facial nerve monitoring in revision surgery.

  1. Cleft Lip and Palate (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Things That Help Feelings Expert Answers Q&A Movies & More for Teens Teens site Sitio para adolescentes ... spite of these and other social, psychological, and educational challenges, kids with clefts just want to be ...

  2. Management of Commonly Encountered Secondary Cleft Deformities of Face-A Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob John

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Orofacial clefts are one of the commonest congenital deformities occurring due to disturbances during the embryological formation, development and growth of orofacial region. The treatment of cleft deformities in the early period of life is mandatory to address the aesthetic, functional and psychological problems affecting the child. A considerable number of surgical modalities for definitive correction of unilateral and bilateral cleft lip, nose, and eyelid deformities have been reported over the past half century. After the initial cleft repair, there is a long period of dramatic growth. This powerful variable of growth may ultimately distort the immediate surgical result. Hence, the correction of secondary deformities plays a very important part in the care of these patients. In this article we are enlisting some simple techniques to correct the commonly encountered secondary cleft deformities of face that gave acceptable results to the patients. These corrective surgeries not only improved the function and aesthetics but also increased the confidence level, satisfaction and overall quality of life of the patient.

  3. Second branchial cleft cyst of the oropharynx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paik, Sang Hyun; Kim, Hyun Sook; Moon Seung Il; Choi, Yun Sun; Cho, Jae Min; Cho, Sung Bum; Yoon, Sook Ja; Kim, Dai Hong; Yoon, Yong Kyu

    2001-01-01

    We report a very rare type of second branchial cleft cyst located at the oropharynx, and include a review of the literature. CT scans of the neck revealed a homogeneous non-enhancing low-density mass in the right posterolateral mucosal wall of the oropharynx. Only the peripheral capsule of the mass was enhanced. The cyst was resected perorally and proved to be a type-IV second branchial cleft cyst

  4. Second branchial cleft cyst of the oropharynx

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paik, Sang Hyun; Kim, Hyun Sook; Moon Seung Il; Choi, Yun Sun; Cho, Jae Min; Cho, Sung Bum; Yoon, Sook Ja; Kim, Dai Hong; Yoon, Yong Kyu [Eulji Univ. School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-06-01

    We report a very rare type of second branchial cleft cyst located at the oropharynx, and include a review of the literature. CT scans of the neck revealed a homogeneous non-enhancing low-density mass in the right posterolateral mucosal wall of the oropharynx. Only the peripheral capsule of the mass was enhanced. The cyst was resected perorally and proved to be a type-IV second branchial cleft cyst.

  5. [Psychopathological Profiles of Offspring of Subjects with Bipolar Disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Esteban Uribe; Briceño, Paola Gutiérrez; Palacio, Juan David; García, Jenny

    2012-03-01

    Bipolar Disorder (BD) has a high heritability and is more prevalent in first-degree relatives with family history. This makes the bipolar offspring (BO) an ideal study group to evaluate the natural history and the prodromal symptoms of this disorder. The main psychopathological findings for this group in various studies are described in this review. Articles comparing the psychopathology of bipolar offspring to either the offspring of other psychiatric patients or the offspring of healthy controls were reviewed. The reviewed studies showed that the BO group had higher rates of affective disorders when compared to the offspring of other psychiatric patients or the offspring of healthy controls. The high prevalence of anxiety disorders, ADHD, and disruptive behavior disorders in this population suggest that such disorders could be considered prodromes of mood disorders. The group of BO had a significantly higher risk of developing a wide range of psychiatric disorders besides BD. More longitudinal studies are needed to characterize this population at risk for BD and to elucidate the risk factors in the progression of this disorder. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  6. Evidence, from family studies, for linkage disequilibrium between TGFA and a gene for nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Hongshu; Lee, A.; Gasser, D.L. [Univ. of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Sassani, R.; Bartlett, S.P. [Children`s Hospital of Philadelphia, PA (United States); Buetow, K.H. [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Hecht, J.T. [Univ. of Texas Medical School, Houston, TX (United States); Malcolm, S.; Winter, R.M.; Vintiner, G.M. [Univ. of London (United Kingdom)

    1994-11-01

    The inheritance of alleles of the transforming growth factor alpha (TGFA) locus has been studied in families affected with cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P), by using the transmission/disequilibrium test described by Spielman and colleagues. Only heterozygous parents with an affected child can be included in this test, but within such families a significantly greater frequency of C2 alleles were transmitted to affected children than would be expected by chance. There was no evidence that the total number of C2 alleles transmitted to affected and unaffected children differed significantly from random segregation. These data provide evidence from within families that a gene for susceptibility to CL/P is in significant linkage disequilibrium with the C2 allele of the TGFA locus. 30 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  7. A novel approach for prosthodontic management of patient with cleft of palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini Goyal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition is important in every stage of child development. A child born with cleft lip and palate may experience difficulties while feeding due to the lack of seal of the oral cavity due to incomplete facial and palatal structures. Difficulty in feeding leads to inadequate nutrition and affects the health. Children with cleft lip and palate need certain modifications to thrive and grow. Feeding difficulties should be assessed and intervened as early as possible, as they are an important aspect of multidisciplinary team approach in management and may have an impact on long-term outcome. This case report presents fabrication of feeding appliance in 6-month-old infant with cleft palate with ethylene vinyl acetate.

  8. Dental Anomalies in a Brazilian Cleft Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá, Jamile; Mariano, Lorena C; Canguçu, Daiane; Coutinho, Thaynara S L; Hoshi, Ryuichi; Medrado, Alena Peixoto; Martelli-Junior, Hercílio; Coletta, Ricardo D; Reis, Silvia R A

    2016-11-01

      The aim of this study was to radiographically investigate the prevalence of dental anomalies outside the cleft area in a group of Brazilian patients with nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate (NSCL/P).   A retrospective analysis of 207 panoramic radiographs of patients with NSCL/P aged 12 to 45 years without history of tooth extraction and orthodontic treatment was performed.   Dental anomalies were found in 75.4% of the patients, and tooth agenesis (29.2%) and supernumerary tooth (2.6%) were the most common anomalies. The risk of agenesis was higher among the individuals with cleft palate (CP) compared with individuals with cleft lip (CL) and cleft lip and palate (CLP) (agenesis: CP versus CL: odds ratio 6.27, 95% confidence interval 2.21-17.8, P = .0003; CP versus CLP: odds ratio 2.94; 95% confidence interval 1.27-6.81, P = .01). The frequency of dental agenesis was higher in patients with unilateral complete CLP (agenesis: P dental agenesis (P dental anomalies in patients with NSCL/P was higher than that reported in overall population. This study found preferential associations between dental anomalies and specific extensions of NSCL/P, suggesting that dental agenesis and ectopic tooth may be part of oral cleft subphenotypes.

  9. Use of Psychotropic Medications and Visits to Psychiatrists and Psychologists among Individuals with Nonsyndromic Oral Clefts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Dorthe Almind; Hageman, Ida; Wehby, George L

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Oral clefts (OCs) are among the most common congenital malformations and can have a large impact on the life of the affected individual. Research findings regarding the psychological and psychosocial consequences of OC are inconclusive. METHODS: Using Danish nationwide registers, we i...

  10. Oral strength in subjects with a unilateral cleft lip and palate.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Plettinck; K. Bettens; Anke Luyten; N. Roche; H. Vermeersch; K. Bonte; K. van Lierde

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Facial appearance and speech outcome may affect psychosocial functioning in girls and boys. Several studies reported dissatisfaction with facial appearance and more specifically the lip and mouth profile in children with cleft lip and palate (CLP). The purpose of this controlled study was

  11. [Orofacial closure defects: cleft lip and palate. A literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Casado, G H; Díaz Grávalos, G J

    2013-01-01

    Orofacial clefts are a common problem that can lead to significant healthcare use and costs, as well as suffering on the part of the affected individuals and families. There are several theories explaining their origin, but some of the findings are inconsistent. The most accepted theories involve a major genetic basis that could be modified by the presence of external agents. Understanding the underlying causes could help to prevent its occurrence, an area in which the family physician can play an important role. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  12. Cleft sidedness and congenitally missing teeth in patients with cleft lip and palate patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolreza Jamilian

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of cleft sidedness, and the number of congenitally missing teeth in regard to cleft type and gender. Methods The charts, models, radiographs, and intraoral photographs of 201 cleft patients including 131 males with the mean age of 12.3 ± 4 years and 70 females with the mean age of 12.6 ± 3.9 years were used for the study. T test, Chi-square, and binomial tests were used for assessment of the data. Results and conclusions One hundred forty-eight of the subjects suffered from cleft lip and palate followed by 41 subjects who suffered from cleft lip and alveolus. Chi-square test did not show any significant difference between the genders. Binomial test showed that left-sided cleft was more predominant in unilateral cleft lip and palate patients (P < 0.001. This study also showed that the upper lateral incisors were the most commonly missing teeth in the cleft area.

  13. Dental fear in children with a cleft lip and/or cleft Palate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogels, W.E.J.C.; Aartman, I.H.A.; Veerkamp, J.S.J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the level of dental fear in children with a cleft lip and/or palate, to compare this level with that of a normative group testing the hypothesis that children with a cleft lip and/or palate have a higher level of dental anxiety than children from the general population, and to

  14. Lower incidence of nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... In India, as in other parts of the world, nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCL±P) is a highly prevalent birth defect, its incidence in males being twice that in females. A case–control association study has been carried out with respect to homocysteine level and MTHFR C677T, A1298C and ...

  15. Prenatal polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, adiposity, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR γ methylation in offspring, grand-offspring mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhonghai Yan

    Full Text Available Greater levels of prenatal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH have been associated with childhood obesity in epidemiological studies. However, the underlying mechanisms are unclear.We hypothesized that prenatal PAH over-exposure during gestation would lead to weight gain and increased fat mass in offspring and grand-offspring mice. Further, we hypothesized that altered adipose gene expression and DNA methylation in genes important to adipocyte differentiation would be affected.Pregnant dams were exposed to a nebulized PAH mixture versus negative control aerosol 5 days a week, for 3 weeks. Body weight was recorded from postnatal day (PND 21 through PND60. Body composition, adipose cell size, gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR γ, CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBP α, cyclooxygenase (Cox-2, fatty acid synthase (FAS and adiponectin, and DNA methylation of PPAR γ, were assayed in both the offspring and grand-offspring adipose tissue.Offspring of dams exposed to greater PAH during gestation had increased weight, fat mass, as well as higher gene expression of PPAR γ, C/EBP α, Cox2, FAS and adiponectin and lower DNA methylation of PPAR γ. Similar differences in phenotype and DNA methylation extended through the grand-offspring mice.Greater prenatal PAH exposure was associated with increased weight, fat mass, adipose gene expression and epigenetic changes in progeny.

  16. The financial impact of unrepaired cleft lip and palate in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntz, Harlan R; Meier, Jeremy D

    2013-12-01

    There are over 96 million people in the Philippines. Close to 77 thousand persons in this country have orofacial clefting. We estimate nearly 64 thousand are unrepaired. Unemployment and underemployment because of the communication disorders associated with unrepaired clefts will affect family income and hence tax revenues. The purpose of this study is to understand the financial impact of unrepaired cleft lip and/or palate on families and identify how that would translate to the Philippine government in tax revenues. The incidence of orofacial cleft in the Philippines was estimated to be at least 1 in 750 people, with only 16% anticipated to be repaired under current conditions. Assuming a 21% unemployment rate in subjects with untreated clefts, and a tax rate of 6-12.4%, projected lost personal income and federal tax revenue was calculated. In 2012 alone the financial impact on the families may be as much as $US 73-88 million in lost revenue from unemployment and underemployment. This would cost the government between $8.0 and $9.8 million dollars in lost tax revenue. Over a 20 year period at least $US 1.7 billion dollars in family income would be affected costing the government at least $US 194 million in taxes. By appropriately caring for the cleft population tax revenues should increase substantially. The development of the infrastructure for surgical care of this problem would be costly but could be more than offset by revenues. Inattention to surgically correctable causes of communication disorders is not affordable. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Not All Clefts Are Created Equal: Patterns of Hospital-Based Care Use among Children with Cleft Lip and Palate within 4 Years of Initial Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligh, Cassandra A; Fox, Justin P; Swanson, Jordan; Yu, Jason W; Taylor, Jesse A

    2016-06-01

    This study compares hospital-based care and associated charges among children with cleft lip, cleft palate, or both, and identifies subgroups generating the greatest cumulative hospital charges. The authors conducted a retrospective cohort study of cleft lip, cleft palate, or cleft lip and palate who underwent initial surgery from 2006 to 2008 in four U.S. states. Primary outcome was hospital-based care-emergency, outpatient, inpatient-within 4 years of surgery. Regression models compared outcomes and classification tree analysis identified patients at risk for being in the highest quartile of cumulative hospital charges. The authors identified 4571 children with cleft lip (18.2 percent), cleft palate (39.2 percent), or cleft lip and palate (42.6 percent). Medical comorbidity was frequent across all groups, with feeding difficulty (cleft lip, 2.4 percent; cleft palate, 13.4 percent; cleft lip and palate, 6.0 percent; p cleft lip, 1.8 percent; cleft palate, 9.4 percent; cleft lip and palate, 3.6 percent; p cleft palate were most likely to return to the hospital (p cleft lip group, yet comparable among those with cleft palate and cleft lip and palate (p cleft palate cohort (cleft lip, $56,966; cleft palate, $106,090; cleft lip and palate, $91,263; p cleft lip versus cleft palate with or without cleft lip), and age at initial surgery were the most important factors associated with the highest quartile of cumulative hospital charges. Cleft lip and palate children experience a high rate of hospital-based care early in life, with degree of medical comorbidity being a significant burden. Understanding this relationship and associated needs may help deliver more efficient, patient-centered care.

  18. The Primary Care Pediatrician and the Care of Children With Cleft Lip and/or Cleft Palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Charlotte W; Jacob, Lisa S; Lehmann, Christoph U

    2017-05-01

    Orofacial clefts, specifically cleft lip and/or cleft palate (CL/P), are among the most common congenital anomalies. CL/P vary in their location and severity and comprise 3 overarching groups: cleft lip (CL), cleft lip with cleft palate (CLP), and cleft palate alone (CP). CL/P may be associated with one of many syndromes that could further complicate a child's needs. Care of patients with CL/P spans prenatal diagnosis into adulthood. The appropriate timing and order of specific cleft-related care are important factors for optimizing outcomes; however, care should be individualized to meet the specific needs of each patient and family. Children with CL/P should receive their specialty cleft-related care from a multidisciplinary cleft or craniofacial team with sufficient patient and surgical volume to promote successful outcomes. The primary care pediatrician at the child's medical home has an essential role in making a timely diagnosis and referral; providing ongoing health care maintenance, anticipatory guidance, and acute care; and functioning as an advocate for the patient and a liaison between the family and the craniofacial/cleft team. This document provides background on CL/P and multidisciplinary team care, information about typical timing and order of cleft-related care, and recommendations for cleft/craniofacial teams and primary care pediatricians in the care of children with CL/P. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  19. Effects of experimentally manipulated yolk thyroid hormone levels on offspring development in a wild bird species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruuskanen, Suvi; Darras, Veerle M; Visser, Marcel E; Groothuis, Antonius

    2016-01-01

    Maternal effects are a crucial mechanism in a wide array of taxa to generate phenotypic variation, thereby affecting offspring development and fitness. Maternally derived thyroid hormones (THs) are known to be essential for offspring development in mammalian and fish models, but have been largely

  20. Effects of experimentally manipulated yolk thyroid hormone levels on offspring development in a wild bird species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruuskanen, Suvi; Darras, Veerle M.; Visser, Marcel E.; Groothuis, Ton G.G.

    Abstract Maternal effects are a crucial mechanism in a wide array of taxa to generate phenotypic variation, thereby affecting offspring development and fitness. Maternally derived thyroid hormones (THs) are known to be essential for offspring development in mammalian and fish models, but have been

  1. Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in WNT genes with the risk of nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafighdoost, Houshang; Hashemi, Mohammad; Asadi, Hossein; Bahari, Gholamreza

    2018-01-22

    Nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate is a common congenital deformity worldwide with multifaceted etiology. Interaction of genes and environmental factors has been indicated to be related with susceptibility to nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate. Some WNT genes which are involved in craniofacial embryogenesis may play a key role in the pathogenesis of nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate. In the present study, we aimed to inspect the relationship between WNT3 (rs3809857 and rs9890413), WNT3A (rs752107 and rs3121310), and WNT10a rs201002930 (c.392 C>T) polymorphisms and nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate in an Iranian population. The present case-control study was carried out on 120 unrelated nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate patients and 112 healthy subjects. The variants were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. The findings suggest that the rs3809857 polymorphism significantly decreased the risk of nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate in codominant (odds ratio = 0.16, 95% confidence interval = 0.03-0.75, P = 0.020, TT vs GG), recessive (odds ratio = 0.16, 95% confidence interval = 0.03-0.72, P = 0.009, TT vs GG + GT) inheritance models. The rs9890413 variant marginally decreased the risk of nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate in codominant (odds ratio = 0.41, 95% confidence interval = 0.17-0.99, P = 0.047, AG vs AA) model. Regarding C392T variant, the findings revealed that this variant significantly decreased the risk of nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate in codominant (odds ratio = 0.24, 95% confidence interval = 0.10-0.58, P = 0.002, CT vs CC) and allele (odds ratio = 0.26, 95% confidence interval = 0.11-0.62, P = 0.002, T vs C) models. No significant association was observed between the rs752107 and rs3121310 variants

  2. Speech, Language, and Reading in 10-Year-Olds With Cleft: Associations With Teasing, Satisfaction With Speech, and Psychological Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feragen, Kristin Billaud; Særvold, Tone Kristin; Aukner, Ragnhild; Stock, Nicola Marie

    2017-03-01

      Despite the use of multidisciplinary services, little research has addressed issues involved in the care of those with cleft lip and/or palate across disciplines. The aim was to investigate associations between speech, language, reading, and reports of teasing, subjective satisfaction with speech, and psychological adjustment.   Cross-sectional data collected during routine, multidisciplinary assessments in a centralized treatment setting, including speech and language therapists and clinical psychologists.   Children with cleft with palatal involvement aged 10 years from three birth cohorts (N = 170) and their parents.   Speech: SVANTE-N. Language: Language 6-16 (sentence recall, serial recall, vocabulary, and phonological awareness). Reading: Word Chain Test and Reading Comprehension Test. Psychological measures: Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and extracts from the Satisfaction With Appearance Scale and Child Experience Questionnaire.   Reading skills were associated with self- and parent-reported psychological adjustment in the child. Subjective satisfaction with speech was associated with psychological adjustment, while not being consistently associated with speech therapists' assessments. Parent-reported teasing was found to be associated with lower levels of reading skills. Having a medical and/or psychological condition in addition to the cleft was found to affect speech, language, and reading significantly.   Cleft teams need to be aware of speech, language, and/or reading problems as potential indicators of psychological risk in children with cleft. This study highlights the importance of multiple reports (self, parent, and specialist) and a multidisciplinary approach to cleft care and research.

  3. Prevalence of orofacial clefts and risks for nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate in newborns at a university hospital from West Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona-Rivera, Jorge Román; Bobadilla-Morales, Lucina; Corona-Rivera, Alfredo; Peña-Padilla, Christian; Olvera-Molina, Sandra; Orozco-Martín, Miriam A; García-Cruz, Diana; Ríos-Flores, Izabel M; Gómez-Rodríguez, Brian Gabriel; Rivas-Soto, Gemma; Pérez-Molina, J Jesús

    2018-02-19

    We determined the overall prevalence of typical orofacial clefts and the potential risks for nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate in a university hospital from West México. For the prevalence, 227 liveborn infants with typical orofacial clefts were included from a total of 81,193 births occurred during the period 2009-2016 at the "Dr. Juan I. Menchaca" Civil Hospital of Guadalajara (Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico). To evaluate potential risks, a case-control study was conducted among 420 newborns, including only those 105 patients with nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (cases), and 315 infants without birth defects (controls). Data were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression analysis expressed as adjusted odds ratio with 95% confidence intervals . The overall prevalence for typical orofacial clefts was 28 per 10,000 (95% confidence interval: 24.3-31.6), or 1 per 358 live births. The mean values for the prepregnancy weight, antepartum weight, and pre-pregnancy body mass index were statistically higher among the mothers of cases. Infants with nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate had a significantly higher risk for previous history of any type of congenital anomaly (adjusted odds ratio: 2.7; 95% confidence interval: 1.4-5.1), history of a relative with cleft lip with or without cleft palate (adjusted odds ratio: 19.6; 95% confidence interval: 8.2-47.1), and first-trimester exposures to progestogens (adjusted odds ratio: 6.8; 95% CI 1.8-25.3), hyperthermia (adjusted odds ratio: 3.4; 95% confidence interval: 1.1-10.6), and common cold (adjusted odds ratio: 3.6; 95% confidence interval: 1.1-11.9). These risks could have contributed to explain the high prevalence of orofacial clefts in our region of Mexico, emphasizing that except for history of relatives with cleft lip with or without cleft palate, most are susceptible of modification. © 2018 Japanese Teratology Society.

  4. Midline nasal dermoid cyst with Tessier's 0 cleft

    OpenAIRE

    Guruprasad, Yadavalli; Chauhan, Dinesh Singh

    2014-01-01

    This is a rare anomaly of midline nasal dermoid cyst (NDC) along with Tessier's 0 cleft. Midline NDCs present most commonly result from aberrant embryological development, and most commonly give rise to bifid nasal deformity resulting in midline cleft of the nose. Craniofacial clefts are among the most disfiguring of all facial anomalies. They exist in a multitude of patterns and with varying degrees of severity. The bifid nose deformity is generally an indicator of Tessier number 0 cleft. We...

  5. Unusual extension of the first branchial cleft anomaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ada, Mehmet; Korkut, Nazim; Güvenç, M Güven; Acioğlu, Engin; Yilmaz, Süleyman; Cevikbaş, Uğur

    2006-03-01

    First branchial cleft is the only branchial structure that persists as the external ear canal, while all other clefts are resorbed. Incomplete obliteration and the degree of closure cause the varied types of first branchial cleft anomalies. They were classified based on the anatomical and histological features. We present an unusual type of first branchial cleft anomaly involving the external auditory canal, the middle ear and the nasopharynx through the eustachian tube.

  6. Clinical outcomes of primary palatoplasty in pre-school-aged cleft palate children in Srinagarind hospital: quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradubwong, Suteera; Mongkholthawornchai, Siriporn; Keawkhamsean, Natda; Patjanasoontorn, Niramol; Chowchuen, Bowornsilp

    2014-10-01

    Cleft lips and cleft palates are common congenital anomalies, which affects facial appearance, speech, hearing, teeth alignment and other structures. Craniofacial anomalies and speech disorders are crucial problems in the preschool-aged children (5-6 years old), when they start attending school and become more engaged in the community. This condition, which differentiates them from other students, can lead to teasing or mocking which can cause low-self esteem, an inferiority complex, andfoster bad relationships with friends. Missing class in order to receive treatment and other additional care can affect a student's learning, development and overall-quality of life. The purpose of this research was to study the quality of life in preschool-aged cleftpalate children and satisfaction with their level of speech. This was a retrospective, descriptive study. The data were collected by reviewing medical records of patients with cleft lip and cleft palate aged 5-6 years old who underwent operation and treatment with the Tawanchai Center at Srinagarind Hospital. There were 39patients in this study. Data collection was conducted for 5 months (June to October 2013). The research instruments were: (1) General Demographic Questionnaire, (2) Quality of Life Questionnaire with 5 Domains, and (3) the Satisfaction of Speech Questionnaire. The descriptive statistics, percentages and the standard deviation were analyzed in the present study. The findings revealedfamily information pertaining to CLP treatment and the impact it has on consumption, speech training, hearing test, development, dental treatment, communication skills, participation, referral treatment as well as the quality ofcoordinationfor advanced treatment. The present study revealed that all ofthe aforementioned criteria were met at a high level. Moreover the child's sickness had only a moderate impact on family life. In conclusion, the overall satisfaction was at a very high level. It was concluded that the

  7. Mothers' experiences when their infants were diagnosed with cleft ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traditionally the diagnosis of cleft lip and palate was made at birth or soon thereafter, but modern technology has led to the identification of cleft lip prenatally. The aim of this study was to describe 16 mothers' experiences of pre- and postnatal diagnosis of their infants' cleft lip and palate, and to develop clinical guidelines for ...

  8. Assessment of scar quality after cleft lip closure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frans, Franceline A.; van Zuijlen, Paul P. M.; Griot, J. P. W. Don; van der Horst, Chantal M. A. M.

    2012-01-01

    To assess scar quality after cleft lip repair. The linear scars of patients with cleft lip with or without cleft palate were evaluated in a prospective study using the Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale. Linear regression was performed to identify which scar characteristics were important

  9. Evaluation of Teeth Development in Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-23

    Feb 23, 2018 ... in patients with cleft lip and palate using medical software ... to be used in routine dental treatment and in particular the need to do more study. ... cleft palate/lip surgery were examined. ... segment from the “evaluate” tab of the program. Teeth .... cases of cleft palate or lip. ..... of maxillary canines: A CT study.

  10. Cleft Lip and Palate in CHARGE Syndrome: Phenotypic Features That Influence Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Kathryn V; Ganske, Ingrid M; Rottgers, Stephen A; Lim, So Young; Mulliken, John B

    2018-03-01

    Infants with syndromic cleft lip and/or cleft palate (CL/P) often require more complex care than their nonsyndromic counterparts. Our purpose was to (1) determine the prevalence of CL/P in patients with CHARGE syndrome and (2) highlight factors that affect management in this subset of children. This is a retrospective review from 1998 to 2016. Patients with CHARGE syndrome were diagnosed clinically and genetically. Prevalence of CL/P was determined and clinical details tabulated: phenotypic anomalies, cleft types, operative treatment, and results of repair. CHARGE syndrome was confirmed in 44 patients: 11 (25%) had cleft lip and palate and 1 had cleft palate only. Surgical treatment followed our usual protocols. Two patients with cardiac anomalies had prolonged recovery following surgical correction, necessitating palatal closure prior to nasolabial repair. One of these patients was too old for dentofacial orthopedics and underwent combined premaxillary setback and palatoplasty, prior to labial closure. Velopharyngeal insufficiency was frequent (n = 3/7). All patients had feeding difficulty and required a gastrostomy tube. All patients had neurosensory hearing loss; anomalies of the semicircular canals were frequent (n = 3/4). External auricular anomalies, colobomas, and cardiovascular anomalies were also common (n = 8/11). Other associated anomalies were choanal atresia (n = 4/11) and tracheoesophageal fistula (n = 2/11). CHARGE syndrome is an under-recognized genetic cause of cleft lip and palate. Hearing loss and speech and feeding difficulties often occur in these infants. Diagnosis can be delayed if the child presents with covert phenotypic features, such as chorioretinal colobomas, semicircular canal hypoplasia, and unilateral choanal atresia.

  11. Cleft palate caused by congenital teratoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veyssière, Alexis; Streit, Libor; Traoré, Hamady; Bénateau, Hervé

    2017-02-01

    A cleft palate results from incomplete fusion of the lateral palatine processes, the median nasal septum and the median palatine process. This case report describes a rare case of congenital teratoma originating from the nasal septum that may have interfered with the fusion of the palatal shelves during embryonic development, resulting in a cleft palate. An infant girl was born at 40 weeks of gestation weighing 3020 g with a complete cleft palate associated with a large central nasopharyngeal tumour. Computed tomography (CT) of the head showed a well defined mass of mixed density. The tumour was attached to the nasal septum in direct contact with the cleft palate. A biopsy confirmed the teratoma. Tumour resection was performed at 5 months, soft palate reconstruction at 7 months and hard palate closure at 14 months. There was no sign of local recurrence 1 year later. Most teratomas are benign and the prognosis is usually good. However, recurrence is not rare if germ cell carcinomatous foci are present within the teratoma. For these reasons, we advocate the use of a two-stage procedure in which closure of the cleft palate is postponed until histological examination confirms complete excision of the teratoma.

  12. Occlusal Classification in Relation to Original Cleft Width in Patients With Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Andrew H; Patel, Kamlesh B; Maschhoff, Clayton W; Huebener, Donald V; Skolnick, Gary B; Naidoo, Sybill D; Woo, Albert S

    2015-09-01

    To determine a correlation between the width of the cleft palate measured at the time of lip adhesion, definitive lip repair, and palatoplasty and the subsequent occlusal classification of patients born with unilateral cleft lip and palate. Retrospective, observational study. Referral, urban, children's hospital Participants : Dental models and records of 270 patients were analyzed. None. Angle occlusion classification. The mean age at which occlusal classification was determined was 11 ± 0.3 years. Of the children studies, 84 were diagnosed with Class I or II occlusion, 67 were diagnosed with Class III occlusion, and 119 were lost to follow up or transferred care. Mean cleft widths were significantly larger in subjects with Class III occlusion for all measures at time of lip adhesion and definitive lip repair (P cleft widths were significantly greater at the alveolus (P = .025) but not at the midportion of the hard palate (P = .35) or posterior hard palate (P = .10). Cleft widths from the lip through to the posterior hard palate are generally greater in children who are diagnosed with Class III occlusion later in life. Notably, the alveolar cleft width is significantly greater at each time point for patients who went on to develop Class III occlusion. There were no significant differences in cleft widths between patients diagnosed later with Class I and Class II occlusions.

  13. The effect of happiness training on self-esteem in the mothers of children with cleft lip and palate in Isfahan 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Hemati, Zeinab; Derakhshande, Fateme; Abbasi, Samira; Kiani, Davood

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Birth of a child with cleft lip and palate, as a crisis, can affect family relationships and interactions seriously and hence self-esteem in family members. The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of a happiness training program on self-esteem in the mothers of children with cleft lip and palate. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this quasi-experimental study, 64 mothers of children with cleft lip and palate referring to health-care team in the Isfahan University Medical...

  14. The Fetal Cleft palate: V. Elucidation of the Mechanism of Palatal Clefting in the Congenital Caprine Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maternal ingestion of Nicotiana glauca from gestation days 32 through 41 results in a high incidence of cleft palate in Spanish goats. This caprine cleft palate model was used to evaluate the temporal sequence of palatal shelf fusion throughout the period of cleft induction with the poisonous plant...

  15. A study on the dental anomalities and site of cleft associated with cleft lip and/or palate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eun Kyung; Ahn, Hyung Kyu

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate possible correlation between the dental anomalies and site of cleft in cleft lip and palate. In this study, 142 patients who had cleft lip and/or cleft palate were examined. The results are as follows. 1. The incidence of missing tooth was high in the permanent dentition as compared to the incidence in the deciduous dentition. 2. There was not much difference of incidence of supernumerary tooth between deciduous and permanent dentition in the group of patients who had cleft lip and jaw with or without cleft palate. 3. In the group of patients who had cleft lip and jaw with or without cleft palate, the frequency of incidence of cleft sides was higher in unilateral than bilateral cases. And, incidence of left sides was higher than right sides. 4. The type of cleft between central incisor and canine with missing lateral incisor was most frequent in permanent dentition and the type of cleft between central and lateral incisor was most frequent in deciduous dentition. 5. The type of cleft associated with tooth position in deciduous dentition was not almost the same in the succeeding permanent dentition.

  16. A study on the dental anomalities and site of cleft associated with cleft lip and/or palate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Kyung; Ahn, Hyung Kyu [Department of Oral Radiology, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1985-11-15

    The purpose of this study is to investigate possible correlation between the dental anomalies and site of cleft in cleft lip and palate. In this study, 142 patients who had cleft lip and/or cleft palate were examined. The results are as follows. 1. The incidence of missing tooth was high in the permanent dentition as compared to the incidence in the deciduous dentition. 2. There was not much difference of incidence of supernumerary tooth between deciduous and permanent dentition in the group of patients who had cleft lip and jaw with or without cleft palate. 3. In the group of patients who had cleft lip and jaw with or without cleft palate, the frequency of incidence of cleft sides was higher in unilateral than bilateral cases. And, incidence of left sides was higher than right sides. 4. The type of cleft between central incisor and canine with missing lateral incisor was most frequent in permanent dentition and the type of cleft between central and lateral incisor was most frequent in deciduous dentition. 5. The type of cleft associated with tooth position in deciduous dentition was not almost the same in the succeeding permanent dentition.

  17. Association studies of low-frequency coding variants in nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leslie, Elizabeth J; Carlson, Jenna C; Shaffer, John R

    2017-01-01

    Nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCL/P) is a group of common human birth defects with complex etiology. Although genome-wide association studies have successfully identified a number of risk loci, these loci only account for about 20% of the heritability of orofacial clefts. ...

  18. Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain, offspring DNA methylation and later offspring adiposity: findings from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Gemma C; Lawlor, Debbie A; Richmond, Rebecca C; Fraser, Abigail; Simpkin, Andrew; Suderman, Matthew; Shihab, Hashem A; Lyttleton, Oliver; McArdle, Wendy; Ring, Susan M; Gaunt, Tom R; Davey Smith, George; Relton, Caroline L

    2015-01-01

    Background: Evidence suggests that in utero exposure to undernutrition and overnutrition might affect adiposity in later life. Epigenetic modification is suggested as a plausible mediating mechanism. Methods: We used multivariable linear regression and a negative control design to examine offspring epigenome-wide DNA methylation in relation to maternal and offspring adiposity in 1018 participants. Results: Compared with neonatal offspring of normal weight mothers, 28 and 1621 CpG sites were differentially methylated in offspring of obese and underweight mothers, respectively [false discovert rate (FDR)-corrected P-value maternal obesity and underweight relate to. A positive association, where higher methylation is associated with a body mass index (BMI) outside the normal range, was seen at 78.6% of the sites associated with obesity and 87.9% of the sites associated with underweight. Associations of maternal obesity with offspring methylation were stronger than associations of paternal obesity, supporting an intrauterine mechanism. There were no consistent associations of gestational weight gain with offspring DNA methylation. In general, sites that were hypermethylated in association with maternal obesity or hypomethylated in association with maternal underweight tended to be positively associated with offspring adiposity, and sites hypomethylated in association with maternal obesity or hypermethylated in association with maternal underweight tended to be inversely associated with offspring adiposity. Conclusions: Our data suggest that both maternal obesity and, to a larger degree, underweight affect the neonatal epigenome via an intrauterine mechanism, but weight gain during pregnancy has little effect. We found some evidence that associations of maternal underweight with lower offspring adiposity and maternal obesity with greater offspring adiposity may be mediated via increased DNA methylation. PMID:25855720

  19. Pulmonary exposure to carbon black by inhalation or instillation in pregnant mice: Effects on liver DNA strand breaks in dams and offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jackson, Petra; Hougaard, Karin Sørig; Boisen, Anne Mette Zenner

    2011-01-01

    cells and liver, and in offspring liver. Persistent lung inflammation was observed in exposed mothers. Inhalation exposure induced more DNA strand breaks in the liver of mothers and their offspring, whereas intratracheal instillation did not. Neither inhalation nor instillation affected gestation...... and lactation. Maternal inhalation exposure to Printex 90-induced liver DNA damage in the mothers and the in utero exposed offspring....

  20. Assessing an avoidable and dispensable reoperative entity: Self-referred flawed cleft lip and palate repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroglou, Pericles; Tsimponis, Antonis; Goula, Olga-Christina; Demiri, Efterpi

    2015-01-01

    Cleft lip and palate (CLP) is comprised within the wide range of congenital deformities of the maxillofacial region with an overall incidence on the increase from 1:1000 to 1:700 live births thus being the most common congenital birth error. Failure of the lateral and medial nasal processes to fuse with the anterior extension of maxillary processes and of the palatal shelves between the 4th and 8th gestational week results in cleft lip and palate. Clefts include different types with variable severity, confirming the complexity and unpredictable expression of cleft modality and have a multifactorial aetiology. Functional impairment, aesthetic disturbances and psychosocial effects are common sequalae in patients with cleft lip and palate. The main long-term morbidity of this condition may include dysfunctional speech, impaired hearing and communication, as well as dental problems. These complications are followed by unfavourable surgical outcome and aesthetic appearance, which all seem to affect this group of patients significantly and have an impact significantly both quality of life and healthcare. Treatment requirements of cleft patients are multifactorial and a multi-disciplinary approach and intervention at multiple levels is necessary. Yet, in this country, resources available to parents and consistent publicity given to this issue and its treatment are still inadequate in spite of the introduction of "Centres of Excellence" and Unified Hospitalization Coding or DRG equivalents to optimize health management. The multi-disciplinary approach to cleft management has been a reality for over a century while cleft treatment protocols are still being evaluated in order to optimise standards of cleft care. According to relevant guidelines primary surgical management of lip and palate defects is performed during the first 3 to 9 months of life. Secondary operations in the form of revisional lip and nose procedures are performed at later stages aiming with an

  1. Habitat structure influences parent-offspring association in a social lizard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Botterill-James

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Parental care emerges as a result of an increase in the extent of interaction between parents and their offspring. These interactions can provide the foundation for the evolution of a range of complex parental behaviors. Therefore, fundamental to understanding the evolution of parental care is an understanding of the factors that promote this initial increase in parent-offspring association. Here, we used large outdoor enclosures to test how the spatial structure of high-quality habitat affects the occurrence of parent-offspring associations in a social lizard (Liopholis whitii. We found that the extent of parent-offspring association was higher when high-quality habitat was aggregated relative to when it was dispersed. This may be the result of greater competitive exclusion of adults and offspring from high quality crevices sites in the aggregated treatment compared to the dispersed treatment. Associating with parents had significant benefits for offspring growth and body condition but there were no concomitant effects on offspring survival. We did not find costs of parent-offspring association for parents in terms of increased harassment and loss of body condition. We discuss a number of potential mechanisms underlying these results. Regardless of mechanisms, our results suggest that habitat structure may shape the extent of parent-offspring association in L. whitti, and that highly aggregated habitats may set the stage for the diversification of more complex forms of care observed across closely related species.

  2. Bilateral optic disc pit with maculopathy in a patient with cleft lip and cleft palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisha Seth

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Optic disc pit (ODP is small, gray-white, oval depression found at the optic nerve head. It is a congenital defect that occurs due to imperfect closure of superior edge of the embryonic fissure. Cleft lip and palate are also congenital midline abnormalities occurring due to defect in the fusion of frontonasal prominence, maxillary prominence and mandibular prominence. There is only one case report describing the occurrence of ODP in a young patient with cleft lip and palate who also had basal encephalocele. We describe a 52-year-old patient with congenital cleft lip and palate with bilateral ODP with maculopathy but without any other midline abnormality.

  3. Paternal stress prior to conception alters DNA methylation and behaviour of developing rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mychasiuk, R; Harker, A; Ilnytskyy, S; Gibb, R

    2013-06-25

    Although there has been an abundance of research focused on offspring outcomes associated with maternal experiences, there has been limited examination of the relationship between paternal experiences and offspring brain development. As spermatogenesis is a continuous process, experiences that have the ability to alter epigenetic regulation in fathers may actually change developmental trajectories of offspring. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of paternal stress prior to conception on behaviour and the epigenome of both male and female developing rat offspring. Male Long-Evans rats were stressed for 27 consecutive days and then mated with control female rats. Early behaviour was tested in offspring using the negative geotaxis task and the open field. At P21 offspring were sacrificed and global DNA methylation levels in the hippocampus and frontal cortex were analysed. Paternal stress prior to conception altered behaviour of all offspring on the negative geotaxis task, delaying acquisition of the task. In addition, male offspring demonstrated a reduction in stress reactivity in the open field paradigm spending more time than expected in the centre of the open field. Paternal stress also altered DNA methylation patterns in offspring at P21, global methylation was reduced in the frontal cortex of female offspring, but increased in the hippocampus of both male and female offspring. The results from this study clearly demonstrate that paternal stress during spermatogenesis can influence offspring behaviour and DNA methylation patterns, and these affects occur in a sex-dependent manner. Development takes place in the centre of a complex interaction between maternal, paternal, and environmental influences, which combine to produce the various phenotypes and individual differences that we perceive. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Paternal Age Alters Social Development in Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janecka, Magdalena; Haworth, Claire M A; Ronald, Angelica; Krapohl, Eva; Happé, Francesca; Mill, Jonathan; Schalkwyk, Leonard C; Fernandes, Cathy; Reichenberg, Abraham; Rijsdijk, Frühling

    2017-05-01

    Advanced paternal age (APA) at conception has been linked with autism and schizophrenia in offspring, neurodevelopmental disorders that affect social functioning. The current study explored the effects of paternal age on social development in the general population. We used multilevel growth modeling to investigate APA effects on socioemotional development from early childhood until adolescence, as measured by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in the Twins Early Development Study (TEDS) sample. We also investigated genetic and environmental underpinnings of the paternal age effects on development, using the Additive genetics, Common environment, unique Environment (ACE) and gene-environment (GxE) models. In the general population, both very young and advanced paternal ages were associated with altered trajectory of social development (intercept: p = .01; slope: p = .03). No other behavioral domain was affected by either young or advanced age at fatherhood, suggesting specificity of paternal age effects. Increased importance of genetic factors in social development was recorded in the offspring of older but not very young fathers, suggesting distinct underpinnings of the paternal age effects at these two extremes. Our findings highlight that the APA-related deficits that lead to autism and schizophrenia are likely continuously distributed in the population. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Type II first branchial cleft anomaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mahdi, Akmam H; Al-Khurri, Luay E; Atto, Ghada Z; Dhaher, Ameer

    2013-01-01

    First branchial cleft anomaly is a rare disease of the head and neck. It accounts for less than 8% of all branchial abnormalities. It is classified into type I, which is thought to arise from the duplication of the membranous external ear canal and are composed of ectoderm only, and type II that have ectoderm and mesoderm. Because of its rarity, first branchial cleft anomaly is often misdiagnosed and results in inappropriate management. A 9-year-old girl presented to us with fistula in the submandibular region and discharge in the external ear. Under general anesthesia, complete surgical excision of the fistula tract was done through step-ladder approach, and the histopathologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of type II first branchial cleft anomaly.

  6. Relevance of the palatal protein kinase A pathway to the pathogenesis of cleft palate by secalonic acid D in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhulipala, Vamsidhara C.; Hanumegowda, Umesh M.; Balasubramanian, Ganesh; Reddy, Chada S.

    2004-01-01

    Secalonic acid-D (SAD) is a teratogenic mycotoxin inducing cleft palate (CP) in the offspring of the exposed mice by reducing palatal shelf size secondary to reduced proliferation of the palatal mesenchymal (PM) cells. Co-administration of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) reversed the CP-inducing effect of SAD. Although SAD has been shown to affect both protein kinases A (PKA) and C (PKC) pathways, the relevance of each of these pathways to its CP induction is unknown. The present studies were designed to test the hypothesis that the protective effect of DMSO is mediated by its specific reversal of the effect(s) of SAD on one of these two pathways using ELISA-based activity assays, Western blot analysis, electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA), and murine embryonic PM (MEPM) cell growth in culture. Within the PKA pathway, SAD inhibited the activity of the catalytic subunit of PKA and its migration into the nucleus, elevated phosphorylated cyclic AMP (cAMP) response element (CRE)-binding protein (pCREB) level, and reduced the binding of CREB to CRE. In the PKC pathway, SAD reduced the activity of PKC and the binding of transcription factors (TF) to 12-O-tetradecanoate-13 phorbol acetate-response element (TRE). SAD also inhibited MEPM cell growth and the expression of the CRE- and TRE-containing gene, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Reversal, by DMSO, of the effects of SAD on MEPM cell growth, on PCNA expression and on all components of the PKA, but not of PKC, pathway suggests that the perturbation of the PKA pathway by SAD is relevant to its induction of CP in mice

  7. Nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate: Evidence of linkage to BCL3 in 17 multigenerational families

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, J.; Hecht, T. [Univ. of Texas, Houston, TX (United States); Stal, S. [Texas Children`s Hospital, Houston, TX (United States)] [and others

    1995-08-01

    Nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) is a common craniofacial developmental defect. Recent segregation analyses have suggested that major genes play a role in the etiology of CL/P. Linkage to 22 candidate genes was tested in 11 multigenerational families with CL/P, and 21 of these candidates were excluded. APOC2, 19q13.1, which is linked to the proto-oncogene BCL3, gave suggestive evidence for linkage to CL/P. The study was expanded to include a total of 39 multigenerational CL/P families. Linkage was tested in all families, using anonymous marker, D19S178, and intragenic markers in BCL3 and APOC2. Linkage was tested under two models, autosomal dominant with reduced penetrance and affecteds-only model. Both models showed evidence of heterogeneity, with 43% of families linked at zero recombination to BCL3 when marker data from BCL3 and APOC2 were included. A maximum multipoint LOD score of 7.00 at BCL3 was found among the 17 families that had posterior probabilities {ge}50% in favor of linkage. The transmission disequilibrium test provided additional evidence for linkage with the 3 allele of BCL3 more often transmitted to affected children. These results suggest that BCL3, or a nearby gene, plays a role in the etiology of CL/P in some families. 39 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Kin competition within groups: the offspring depreciation hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, J; Sutherland, W J

    2002-12-22

    Where relatives compete for the same resources (kin competition) and each obtains an equal share, this can favour the evolution of elevated dispersal rates, such that most resource competition is among non-relatives. We show that this effect evaporates as among-sibling dominance increases to the point where the allocation of resources is maximally unequal. We restore a kin-competition effect on emigration rates from dominance-ranked family groups by showing that where siblings form queues to inherit the breeding positions, the length of the queue affects the fitness of all individuals by depreciating the rank of subsequent offspring. Incorporating this 'offspring depreciation' effect decreases optimal queue lengths, increases dispersal rates and explains the otherwise paradoxical use of sinks by cooperatively breeding birds in stable environments. The offspring depreciation effect also favours the evolution of small, but consistent, clutch sizes and high reproductive skew, but constrains the evolution of alloparenting.

  9. Maternal thyroid function in pregnancy may program offspring blood pressure, but not adiposity at 20 y of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytter, Dorte; Andersen, Stine L; Bech, Bodil H

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Experimental evidence exists indicating that maternal thyroid hormones during pregnancy may affect the metabolic set point and cardio-vascular function in the offspring. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between maternal thyroid function in week 30...... circumference. CONCLUSION: Maternal thyroid function during third trimester of pregnancy may affect long-term blood pressure in the offspring....

  10. Bilateral congenital lacrimal fistulas in an adult as part of ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-clefting syndrome: A rare anomaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Debangshu; Saha, Somnath; Basu, Sumit Kumar

    2015-10-01

    Ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia and clefting syndrome or "Lobster claw" deformity is a rare congenital anomaly that affects tissues of ectodermal and mesodermal origin. Nasolacrimal duct (NLD) obstruction with or without atresia of lacrimal passage is a common finding of such a syndrome. The authors report here even a rarer presentation of the syndrome which manifested as bilateral NLD obstruction and lacrimal fistula along with cleft lip and palate, syndactyly affecting all four limbs, mild mental retardation, otitis media, and sinusitis. Lacrimal duct obstruction and fistula were managed successfully with endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) which is a good alternative to lacrimal probing or open DCR in such a case.

  11. Bilateral congenital lacrimal fistulas in an adult as part of ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-clefting syndrome: A rare anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debangshu Ghosh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia and clefting syndrome or "Lobster claw" deformity is a rare congenital anomaly that affects tissues of ectodermal and mesodermal origin. Nasolacrimal duct (NLD obstruction with or without atresia of lacrimal passage is a common finding of such a syndrome. The authors report here even a rarer presentation of the syndrome which manifested as bilateral NLD obstruction and lacrimal fistula along with cleft lip and palate, syndactyly affecting all four limbs, mild mental retardation, otitis media, and sinusitis. Lacrimal duct obstruction and fistula were managed successfully with endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR which is a good alternative to lacrimal probing or open DCR in such a case.

  12. Parents' age and the risk of oral clefts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, C.; Skytthe, A.; Vach, W.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Some malformations are clearly associated with older maternal age, but the effect of older age of the father is less certain. The aim of this study is to determine the degree to which maternal age and paternal age independently influence the risk of having a child with oral clefts....... In a joint analysis, both maternal and paternal ages were associated with the risk of cleft lip with or without cleft palate, but the contribution of each was dependent on the age of the other parent. In the analysis of cleft palate only, the effect of maternal age disappeared, leaving only paternal age...... as a risk factor. CONCLUSION: Both high maternal age and high paternal age were associated with cleft lip with or without cleft palate. Higher paternal age but not maternal age increased the risk of cleft palate only....

  13. Genetic survey of a group of children with clefting: implications for genetic counseling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstee, Y.; Kors, N.; Hennekam, R. C.

    1993-01-01

    A cleft lip, cleft palate, or both are associated with a high frequency of other anomalies. This study gives an inventory of associated anomalies in a consecutive group of children (n = 36) with clefts, referred to a local multidisciplinary cleft team in the Netherlands. In 47.2% of cleft patients

  14. Hearing outcomes in patients with cleft lip/palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skuladottir, Hildur; Sivertsen, Ase; Assmus, Jorg; Remme, Asa Rommetveit; Dahlen, Marianne; Vindenes, Hallvard

    2015-03-01

    Objective : Children with cleft lip and palate or cleft palate only have a high incidence of conductive hearing loss from otitis media with effusion. Studies demonstrating longitudinal results are lacking. This study was undertaken to investigate long-term longitudinal hearing outcomes of children with cleft lip and/or cleft palate and cleft palate only. Design : Retrospective chart review. Setting : Clinical charts of patients born with cleft lip and palate or cleft palate only in 1985 to 1994 who were referred to the cleft team in Bergen, Norway. Study findings include 15 years of follow-up. Participants : The study population consisted of 317 children of whom 159 had nonsyndromic cleft lip and palate and 158 had nonsyndromic cleft palate. Main Outcome Measures : Pure tone average calculated from pure tone audiometry at ages 4, 6, and 15 years. Results : The median pure tone average significantly improved with increasing age. For the cleft lip and palate group, the median pure tone average at ages 4, 6, and 15 years was 16 dB hearing level (HL), 13 dB HL, and 9 dB HL, respectively (P ≤ .001). In the cleft palate group the median pure tone average at ages 4, 6, and 15 years was 15 dB HL, 12 dB HL, and 9 dB HL, respectively (P ≤ .001). There was no significant difference in the hearing levels between the two groups. Patients who had surgical closure of the palate at age 18 months had a significantly better pure tone average outcome at age 15 compared with patients who had surgery at 12 months. Conclusions : Hearing improves significantly from childhood to adolescence in patients with cleft lip and palate and cleft palate only.

  15. Lower lip deformity in patients with cleft and non-cleft Class III malocclusion before and after orthognathic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joo Seok; Koh, Kyung S; Choi, Jong Woo

    2015-10-01

    Orthognathic surgery does not yield the same cosmetic benefits in patients with Class III jaw deformities associated with clefts as for patients without clefts. Preoperative upper lip tightness caused by cleft lip repair may not fully explain this difference, suggesting that a lower lip deformity is present. The study compared the outcomes of orthognathic surgery in patients with cleft and non-cleft Class III malocclusion, focusing on lip relationship. The surgical records of 50 patients with Class III malocclusion, including 25 with and 25 without clefts, who had undergone orthognathic surgery, were retrospectively analyzed. Lateral cephalometric tracings, preoperatively and at 6 months postoperatively, were superimposed to analyze the soft tissue changes at seven reference points. At 6 months after surgery, there were no significant differences in skeletal location, whereas the soft tissues of the lower lip differed significantly between patients with and without cleft (p=0.002), indicating the persistence of a lower lip deformity in cleft patients. Moreover, the soft tissues of the lower lip receded in non-cleft patients and protruded in cleft patients after orthognathic surgery. Lower lip deformity and upper lip tightness may result in an unsatisfactory relationship between the upper and lower lips of patients with cleft-related jaw deformity after orthognathic surgery. Other factors were less important than the pathology of the lower lip. Copyright © 2015 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Fetal cleft lip with and without cleft palate: Comparison between MR imaging and US for prenatal diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Guangbin, E-mail: wgb7932596@hotmail.com [Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute, 324 Jingwu Road, Jinan, 250021 (China); Shan Ruiqin [Jinan Maternity and Child Care Hospital, Jinan (China); Zhao Lianxin; Zhu Xiangyu; Zhang Xinjuan [Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute, 324 Jingwu Road, Jinan, 250021 (China)

    2011-09-15

    Objective: To describe the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings of fetal CL/CP and evaluate its diagnostic value. Methods and materials: Twelve fetuses with CL/CP diagnosed by transabdominal US underwent MR imaging within 2 days of US. Half-Fourier acquisition single-shot turbo spin echo (HASTE) sequence on T2-weighted images was performed on sagittal, coronal, and axial planes anatomic to the fetuses during maternal breath holding. US and MR imaging findings were compared with final diagnoses obtained from post-natal physical examination or fetal autopsy. Results: Final diagnoses confirmed incomplete midline cleft lip (n = 1), unilateral cleft lip and palate (n = 7), bilateral cleft lip and palate (n = 1), midline cleft lip and palate (n = 3). US and MR imaging diagnosed all 12 fetuses with cleft lip and the laterality. 5 (45.5%) of 11 cleft palates were identified with US, 2 of 7 fetuses with unilateral cleft palate, 2 of 3 fetuses with midline cleft palate, and one fetus with bilateral cleft palate. On MR imaging, 10 (91%) of 11 cleft palates were correctly detected. One fetus with unilateral cleft palate was not detected. No false-positives occurred. Conclusion: MR imaging is valuable for diagnosis of fetal CL/CP. It can demonstrate additional findings and provide more information compared with US.

  17. Fetal cleft lip with and without cleft palate: Comparison between MR imaging and US for prenatal diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Guangbin; Shan Ruiqin; Zhao Lianxin; Zhu Xiangyu; Zhang Xinjuan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To describe the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings of fetal CL/CP and evaluate its diagnostic value. Methods and materials: Twelve fetuses with CL/CP diagnosed by transabdominal US underwent MR imaging within 2 days of US. Half-Fourier acquisition single-shot turbo spin echo (HASTE) sequence on T2-weighted images was performed on sagittal, coronal, and axial planes anatomic to the fetuses during maternal breath holding. US and MR imaging findings were compared with final diagnoses obtained from post-natal physical examination or fetal autopsy. Results: Final diagnoses confirmed incomplete midline cleft lip (n = 1), unilateral cleft lip and palate (n = 7), bilateral cleft lip and palate (n = 1), midline cleft lip and palate (n = 3). US and MR imaging diagnosed all 12 fetuses with cleft lip and the laterality. 5 (45.5%) of 11 cleft palates were identified with US, 2 of 7 fetuses with unilateral cleft palate, 2 of 3 fetuses with midline cleft palate, and one fetus with bilateral cleft palate. On MR imaging, 10 (91%) of 11 cleft palates were correctly detected. One fetus with unilateral cleft palate was not detected. No false-positives occurred. Conclusion: MR imaging is valuable for diagnosis of fetal CL/CP. It can demonstrate additional findings and provide more information compared with US.

  18. Isolated cleft palate requires different surgical protocols depending on cleft type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elander, Anna; Persson, Christina; Lilja, Jan; Mark, Hans

    2017-08-01

    A staged protocol for isolated cleft palate (CPO), comprising the early repair of the soft palate at 6 months and delayed repair of the eventual cleft in the hard palate until 4 years, designed to improve maxillary growth, was introduced. CPO is frequently associated with additional congenital conditions. The study evaluates this surgical protocol for clefts in the soft palate (CPS) and for clefts in the hard and soft palate (CPH), with or without additional malformation, regarding primary and secondary surgical interventions needed for cleft closure and for correction of velopharyngeal insufficiency until 10 years of age. Of 94 consecutive children with CPO, divided into four groups with (+) or without (-) additional malformations (CPS + or CPS - and CPH + or CPH-), hard palate repair was required in 53%, performed with small local flaps in 21% and with bilateral mucoperiosteal flaps in 32%. The total incidence of soft palate re-repair was 2% and the fistula repair of the hard palate was 5%. The total incidence of secondary velopharyngeal surgery was 17% until 10 years, varying from 0% for CPS - and 15% for CPH-, to 28% for CPS + and 30% for CPH+. The described staged protocol for repair of CPO is found to be safe in terms of perioperative surgical results, with comparatively low need for secondary interventions. Furthermore, the study indicates that the presence of a cleft in the hard palate and/or additional conditions have a negative impact on the development of the velopharyngeal function.

  19. Comparative Assessment of the Cleft Profile by Patients with Cleft Lip and Palate, Cleft Surgeons, and Lay People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Tian; Ma, Lian; Wang, Zhi

    2015-10-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to compare subjective assessments among patients with cleft lip and palate (CLP), cleft surgeons, and lay people regarding the soft tissue lateral profile of CLP patients. We also investigated the correlations between subjective assessments and photogrammetric measurements. A total of 150 CLP patients who wished to have treatment for their unattractive appearance were randomly selected. A standard lateral profile color photograph was taken. Panels of three cleft surgeons, ten CLP patients, and ten lay people were selected to be assessors. They rated nasal tip projection, nasolabial esthetics, upper and lower lip esthetics, and the profile for each photograph. Three angular measurements (nasal prominence angle, nasolabial angle, and lip angle) were measured for each photograph. Kendall's coefficient of concordance and logistic regression were used for statistical analysis. Kendall's coefficient of concordance of nasal tip projection, nasolabial esthetics, upper and lower lip esthetics, and the profile were 0.734, 0.683, 0.828, and 0.747, respectively (p lay people (p lay people have similar attitudes to the appearance of CLP patients. Upper and lower lip esthetics is associated with the assessment of the cleft profile that is provided by CLP patients, cleft surgeons, and lay people. In addition, nasal tip projection is another determining factor for lay people. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  20. [Hearing capacity and speech production in 417 children with facial cleft abnormalities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönweiler, R; Schönweiler, B; Schmelzeisen, R

    1994-11-01

    Children with cleft palates often suffer from chronic conductive hearing losses, delayed language acquisition and speech disorders. This study presents results of speech and language outcomes in relation to hearing function and types of palatal malformations found. 417 children with cleft palates were examined during followup evaluations that extended over several years. Disorders were studied as they affected the ears, nose and throat, audiometry and speech and language pathology. Children with isolated cleft lips were excluded. Among the total group, 8% had normal speech and language development while 92% had speech or language disorders. 80% of these latter children had hearing problems that predominantly consisted of fluctuating conductive hearing losses caused by otitis media with effusion. 5% had sensorineural hearing losses. Fifty-eight children (14%) with rhinolalia aperta were not improved by speech therapy and required velopharyngoplasties, using a cranial-based pharyngeal flap. Language skills did not depend on the type of cleft palate presents but on the frequency and amount of hearing loss found. Otomicroscopy and audiometric follow-ups with insertions of ventilation tubes were considered to be most important for language development in those children with repeated middle ear infections. Speech or language therapy was necessary in 49% of the children.

  1. Global oral health inequalities: challenges in the prevention and management of orofacial clefts and potential solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossey, P A; Shaw, W C; Munger, R G; Murray, J C; Murthy, J; Little, J

    2011-05-01

    The birth prevalence of orofacial clefts, one of the most common congenital anomalies, is approximately one in 700 live births, but varies with geography, ethnicity, and socio-economic status. There is a variation in infant mortality and access to care both between and within countries, so some clefts remain unrepaired into adulthood. Quality of care also varies, and even among repaired clefts there is residual deformity and morbidity that significantly affects some children. The two major issues in attempts to address these inequalities are (a) etiology/possibilities for prevention and (b) management and quality of care. For prevention, collaborative research efforts are required in developing countries, in line with the WHO approach to implement the recommendations of the 2008 Millennium Development Goals (www.un.org/millenniumgoals). This includes the "common risk factor" approach, which analyzes biological and social determinants of health alongside other chronic health problems such as diabetes and obesity, as outlined in the Marmot Health inequalities review (2008) (www.ucl.ac.uk/gheg/marmotreview). Simultaneously, orofacial cleft research should involve clinical researchers to identify inequalities in access to treatment and identify the best interventions for minimizing mortality and residual deformity. The future research agenda also requires engagement with implementation science to get research findings into practice.

  2. Oral strength in subjects with a unilateral cleft lip and palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lierde, Kristiane M; Bettens, Kim; Luyten, Anke; Plettinck, Janne; Bonte, Katrien; Vermeersch, Hubert; Roche, Nathalie

    2014-08-01

    Facial appearance and speech outcome may affect psychosocial functioning in girls and boys. Several studies reported dissatisfaction with facial appearance and more specifically the lip and mouth profile in children with cleft lip and palate (CLP). The purpose of this controlled study was to measure the tongue and lip strength and endurance in boys and girls with CLP. Twenty-five subjects (mean age: 10.6 years) with a unilateral CLP and a gender- and age- matched control group were selected. All subjects with an unilateral CLP consulted the same craniofacial team and had undergone an identical surgical procedure. Surgical procedure of the lip was performed using a modified Millard technique without primary nose correction at an average age of 5.5 months. The Iowa Oral Performance instrument was used to measure lip and tongue strength and tongue endurance. The results of the Iowa Oral Performance measurement showed no significant differences between the subjects with an unilateral cleft lip and palate and the age and gender matched control group without a cleft lip and palate. There is no significant differences regarding oral strength more specifically the lip and tongue strength and endurance between subjects with and without an unilateral cleft lip and palate. ENT specialists and speech pathologists must be aware of this aspect of the normal lip and tongue functions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Weight Gain in Children with Cleft Lip and Palate without Use of Palatal Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Freitas, Renato; Lopes-Grego, Andrey Bernardo; Dietrich, Helena Luiza Douat; Cerchiari, Natacha Regina de Moraes; Nakakogue, Tabatha; Tonocchi, Rita; Gabardo, Juarez; da Silva, Éder David Borges; Forte, Antonio Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Goals/Background. To evaluate children's growth in the first year of life, who have cleft palate and lip, without the use of palatal plates. Materials/Method. Chart review was conducted, retrospectively, in the Center for Integral Assistance of Cleft Lip and Palate (CAIF), in Brazil, between 2008 and 2009. Results for both genders were compared to the data published by the World Health Organization (WHO) regarding average weight gain in children during their first year of life. Results. Patients with syndromic diagnosis and with cleft classified as preforamen were excluded, resulting in a final number of 112 patients: 56 male and 56 female. Similar patterns were seen comparing the two genders. Although it was observed weight gain below the average until the 11th month in male patients and until 9 months in female patients, both genders remained at the 50th percentile (p50) and improved after the 4th month of age for boys and the 9th month of age for girls. Conclusion. Children with cleft palate weigh less than regular children during their first months of life. At the end of the first year, weight gain is similar comparing normal and affected children. However, factors that optimized weight gain included choosing the best treatment for each case, proper guidance, and multiprofessional integrated care. PMID:23304489

  4. Extent of palatal lengthening after cleft palate repair as a contributing factor to the speech outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Yong-Chan; Choi, Soo-Jong; Lee, Jae-Woo; Seo, Hyoung-Joon

    2015-03-01

    Operative techniques in performing cleft palate repair have gradually evolved to achieve better speech ability with its main focus on palatal lengthening and accurate approximation of the velar musculature. The authors doubted whether the extent of palatal lengthening would be directly proportional to the speech outcome. Patients with incomplete cleft palates who went into surgery before 18 months of age were intended for this study. Cases with associated syndromes, mental retardation, hearing loss, or presence of postoperative complications were excluded from the analysis. Palatal length was measured by the authors' devised method before and immediately after the cleft palate repair. Postoperative speech outcome was evaluated around 4 years by a definite pronunciation scoring system. Statistical analysis was carried out between the extent of palatal lengthening and the postoperative pronunciation score by Spearman correlation coefficient method. However, the authors could not find any significant correlation. Although the need for additional research on other variables affecting speech outcome is unequivocal, we carefully conclude that other intraoperative constituents such as accurate reapproximation of the velar musculature should be emphasized more in cleft palate repair rather than palatal lengthening itself.

  5. Patterns of orofacial clefting in the facial morphology of bats: a possible naturally occurring model of cleft palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, David J A; Teeling, Emma C; Puechmaille, Sébastien J; Finarelli, John A

    2016-11-01

    A normal feature of the facial anatomy of many species of bat is the presence of bony discontinuities or clefts, which bear a remarkable similarity to orofacial clefts that occur in humans as a congenital pathology. These clefts occur in two forms: a midline cleft between the two premaxillae (analogous to the rare midline craniofacial clefts in humans) and bilateral paramedian clefts between the premaxilla and the maxillae (analogous to the typical cleft lip and palate in humans). Here, we describe the distribution of orofacial clefting across major bat clades, exploring the relationship of the different patterns of clefting to feeding mode, development of the vomeronasal organ, development of the nasolacrimal duct and mode of emission of the echolocation call in different bat groups. We also present the results of detailed radiographic and soft tissue dissections of representative examples of the two types of cleft. The midline cleft has arisen independently multiple times in bat phylogeny, whereas the paramedian cleft has arisen once and is a synapomorphy uniting the Rhinolophidae and Hipposideridae. In all cases examined, the bony cleft is filled in by a robust fibrous membrane, continuous with the periosteum of the margins of the cleft. In the paramedian clefts, this membrane splits to enclose the premaxilla but forms a loose fold laterally between the premaxilla and maxilla, allowing the premaxilla and nose-leaf to pivot dorsoventrally in the sagittal plane under the action of facial muscles attached to the nasal cartilages. It is possible that this is a specific adaptation for echolocation and/or aerial insectivory. Given the shared embryological location of orofacial clefts in bats and humans, it is likely that aspects of the developmental control networks that produce cleft lip and palate in humans may also be implicated in the formation of these clefts as a normal feature in some bats. A better understanding of craniofacial development in bats with and

  6. Parental Reactions to Cleft Palate Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanpoelvoorde, Leah

    This literature review examines parental reactions following the birth of a cleft lip/palate child, focusing primarily on the mother's reactions. The research studies cited have explored such influences on maternal reactions as her feelings of lack of control over external forces and her feelings of guilt that the deformity was her fault. Delays…

  7. Thymic cyst: a fourth branchial cleft anomaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayan, Smriti; MacLean, Jonathan; Sommer, Doron

    2010-01-01

    We report a unique case of a fourth branchial cleft cyst found within the thymus of an adult patient. In the literature to date, there have been no reports of such a finding in the adult population. These anomalies can often cause recurrent acute suppurative thyroiditis or recurrent deep neck abscesses. Delay in recognizing the underlying etiology can lead to significant complications.

  8. Nasal Glial Heterotopia with Cleft Palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandna, Sudhir; Mehta, Milind A; Kulkarni, Abhishek Kishore

    2018-01-01

    Congenital midline nasal masses are rare anomalies of which nasal glial heterotopia represents an even rarer subset. We report a case of a 25-day-old male child with nasal glial heterotopia along with cleft palate suggesting embryonic fusion anomaly which was treated with excision and primary closure for nasal mass followed by palatal repair at later date.

  9. Nasal glial heterotopia with cleft palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir Chandna

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital midline nasal masses are rare anomalies of which nasal glial heterotopia represents an even rarer subset. We report a case of a 25-day-old male child with nasal glial heterotopia along with cleft palate suggesting embryonic fusion anomaly which was treated with excision and primary closure for nasal mass followed by palatal repair at later date.

  10. The Chechen it-cleft construction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komen, E.R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a biclausal construction in Chechen, arguing that it can be analyzed as an it-cleft. The construction consists of a main copula clause with a covert or pronominal subject, and a temporal complement that co-indexes with an adjunct position in a relative clause that does not form a

  11. Assessing the impact of nicotine dependence genes on the risk of facial clefts: An example of the use of national registry and biobank data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astanand Jugessur

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maternal smoking during pregnancy has consistently been associated with risk of facial clefts in offspring, although these studies cannot establish causation. The association between maternal smoking and clefting risk may be caused by genes that influence nicotine dependence and other risk behaviors. Gamma-aminobutyric acid B receptor 2 (GABBR2, dopa decarboxylase (DDC, and cholinergic receptor nicotinic alpha 4 (CHRNA4 are three examples of genes that have previously shown strong associations with nicotine dependence. Methods: We used a population-based sample of 377 case-parent triads of cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P and 762 control-parent triads from Norway (1996-2001 to investigate whether variants in GABBR2, DDC and CHRNA4 are associated with maternal first-trimester smoking and with clefting risk. We used HAPLIN (Gjessing et al. 2006, a statistical software tailored for family-based association tests, to perform haplotype-based analyses of 12 SNPs in these genes (rs10985765, rs1435252, rs3780422, rs2779562, and rs3750344 in GABBR2; rs2060762, rs3757472, rs1451371, rs3735273, and rs921451 in DDC; rs4522666 and rs1044393 in CHRNA4. Results: When analyzed one at a time, there was little evidence of association between any of the 12 SNPs and maternal first-trimester smoking. In haplotype analyses, however, one copy of the maternal G-G-c-G-c haplotype in DDC (SNP order as above was linked with smoking prevalence (odds ratio=1.5; 5% confidence interval: 1.0-2.1. This same haplotype also increased the risk of isolated CL/P in offspring by 1.5-fold with one copy and 2.4-fold with two copies (Ptrend=0.06. No statistically significant associations were detected with GABBR2 and CHRNA4. Conclusions: Despite strong associations previously reported between nicotine dependence and variants in GABBR2, DDC and CHRNA4, these genes were poor predictors of maternal first-trimester smoking in our data. The direct association of the

  12. Cranio-facial clefts in pre-hispanic America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marius-Nunez, A L; Wasiak, D T

    2015-10-01

    Among the representations of congenital malformations in Moche ceramic art, cranio-facial clefts have been portrayed in pottery found in Moche burials. These pottery vessels were used as domestic items during lifetime and funerary offerings upon death. The aim of this study was to examine archeological evidence for representations of cranio-facial cleft malformations in Moche vessels. Pottery depicting malformations of the midface in Moche collections in Lima-Peru were studied. The malformations portrayed on pottery were analyzed using the Tessier classification. Photographs were authorized by the Larco Museo.Three vessels were observed to have median cranio-facial dysraphia in association with midline cleft of the lower lip with cleft of the mandible. ML001489 portrays a median cranio-facial dysraphia with an orbital cleft and a midline cleft of the lower lip extending to the mandible. ML001514 represents a median facial dysraphia in association with an orbital facial cleft and a vertical orbital dystopia. ML001491 illustrates a median facial cleft with a soft tissue cleft. Three cases of midline, orbital and lateral facial clefts have been portrayed in Moche full-figure portrait vessels. They represent the earliest registries of congenital cranio-facial malformations in ancient Peru. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Correlations between initial cleft size and dental anomalies in unilateral cleft lip and palate patients after alveolar bone grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbari, Fatima; Reiser, Erika; Thor, Andreas; Hakelius, Malin; Nowinski, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine in individuals with unilateral cleft lip and palate the correlation between initial cleft size and dental anomalies, and the outcome of alveolar bone grafting. Methods A total of 67 consecutive patients with non-syndromic unilateral complete cleft lip and palate (UCLP) were included from the cleft lip and palate-craniofacial center, Uppsala University Hospital, Sweden. All patients were operated by the same surgeon and treated according to the Uppsala protocol entailing: lip plasty at 3 months, soft palate closure at 6 months, closure of the residual cleft in the hard palate at 2 years of age, and secondary alveolar bone grafting (SABG) prior to the eruption of the permanent canine. Cleft size was measured on dental casts obtained at the time of primary lip plasty. Dental anomalies were registered on radiographs and dental casts obtained before bone grafting. Alveolar bone height was evaluated with the Modified Bergland Index (mBI) at 1 and 10-year follow-up. Results Anterior cleft width correlated positively with enamel hypoplasia and rotation of the central incisor adjacent to the cleft. There was, however, no correlation between initial cleft width and alveolar bone height at either 1 or 10 years follow-up. Conclusions Wider clefts did not seem to have an impact on the success of secondary alveolar bone grafting but appeared to be associated with a higher degree of some dental anomalies. This finding may have implications for patient counseling and treatment planning.

  14. Current surgical practices in cleft care: cleft palate repair techniques and postoperative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzel, Evan B; Basile, Patrick; Koltz, Peter F; Marcus, Jeffrey R; Girotto, John A

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to objectively report practices commonly used in cleft palate repair in the United States. This study investigates current surgical techniques, postoperative care, and complication rates for cleft palate repair surgery. All 803 surgeon members of the American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association were sent online and/or paper surveys inquiring about their management of cleft palate patients. Three-hundred six surveys were received, a 38 percent response rate. This represented responses of surgeons from 100 percent of American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association registered cleft teams. Ninety-six percent of respondents perform a one-stage repair. Eighty-five percent of surgeons perform palate surgery when the patient is between 6 and 12 months of age. The most common one-stage repair techniques are the Bardach style (two flaps) with intravelar veloplasty and the Furlow palatoplasty. After surgery, 39 percent of surgeons discharge patients within 24 hours. Another 43 percent discharge patients within 48 hours. During postoperative management, 92 percent of respondents implement feeding restrictions. Eighty-five percent of physicians use arm restraints. Surgeons' self-reported complications rates are minimal: 54 percent report a fistula in less than 5 percent of cases. The reported need for secondary speech surgery varies widely. The majority of respondents repair clefts in one stage. The most frequently used repair techniques are the Furlow palatoplasty and the Bardach style with intravelar veloplasty. After surgery, the majority of surgeons discharge patients in 1 or 2 days, and nearly all surgeons implement feeding restrictions and the use of arm restraints. The varying feeding protocols are reviewed in this article.

  15. Definition of critical periods for Hedgehog pathway antagonist-induced holoprosencephaly, cleft lip, and cleft palate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galen W Heyne

    Full Text Available The Hedgehog (Hh signaling pathway mediates multiple spatiotemporally-specific aspects of brain and face development. Genetic and chemical disruptions of the pathway are known to result in an array of structural malformations, including holoprosencephaly (HPE, clefts of the lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P, and clefts of the secondary palate only (CPO. Here, we examined patterns of dysmorphology caused by acute, stage-specific Hh signaling inhibition. Timed-pregnant wildtype C57BL/6J mice were administered a single dose of the potent pathway antagonist vismodegib at discrete time points between gestational day (GD 7.0 and 10.0, an interval approximately corresponding to the 15th to 24th days of human gestation. The resultant pattern of facial and brain dysmorphology was dependent upon stage of exposure. Insult between GD7.0 and GD8.25 resulted in HPE, with peak incidence following exposure at GD7.5. Unilateral clefts of the lip extending into the primary palate were also observed, with peak incidence following exposure at GD8.875. Insult between GD9.0 and GD10.0 resulted in CPO and forelimb abnormalities. We have previously demonstrated that Hh antagonist-induced cleft lip results from deficiency of the medial nasal process and show here that CPO is associated with reduced growth of the maxillary-derived palatal shelves. By defining the critical periods for the induction of HPE, CL/P, and CPO with fine temporal resolution, these results provide a mechanism by which Hh pathway disruption can result in "non-syndromic" orofacial clefting, or HPE with or without co-occurring clefts. This study also establishes a novel and tractable mouse model of human craniofacial malformations using a single dose of a commercially available and pathway-specific drug.

  16. A genome-wide association study of cleft lip with and without cleft palate identifies risk variants near MAFB and ABCA4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beaty, Terri H; Murray, Jeffrey C; Marazita, Mary L

    2010-01-01

    Case-parent trios were used in a genome-wide association study of cleft lip with and without cleft palate. SNPs near two genes not previously associated with cleft lip with and without cleft palate (MAFB, most significant SNP rs13041247, with odds ratio (OR) per minor allele = 0.704, 95% CI 0.635...

  17. Risk and Protective Factors at Age 16: Psychological Adjustment in Children With a Cleft Lip and/or Palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feragen, Kristin Billaud; Stock, Nicola Marie; Kvalem, Ingela Lundin

    2015-09-01

    Explore psychological functioning in adolescents with a cleft at age 16 from a broad perspective, including cognitive, emotional, behavioral, appearance-related, and psychosocial adjustment. High-risk groups were identified within each area of adjustment to investigate whether vulnerable adolescents were found across domains or whether risk was limited to specific areas of adjustment. Cross-sectional data based on psychological assessments at age 16 (N = 857). The effect of gender, cleft visibility, and the presence of an additional condition were investigated on all outcome variables. Results were compared with large national samples. Hopkins Symptom Checklist, Harter Self-Perception Scale for Adolescents, Child Experience Questionnaire, and Satisfaction With Appearance scale. The main factor influencing psychological adjustment across domains was gender, with girls in general reporting more psychological problems, as seen in reference groups. The presence of an additional condition also negatively affected some of the measures. No support was found for cleft visibility as a risk factor except for dissatisfaction with appearance. Correlation analyses of risk groups seem to point to an association between social and emotional risk and between social risk and dissatisfaction with appearance. Associations between other domains were found to be weak. The results point to areas of both risk and strength in adolescents born with a cleft lip and/or palate. Future research should investigate how protective factors could counteract potential risk in adolescents with a cleft.

  18. Characterization of subtle brain abnormalities in a mouse model of Hedgehog pathway antagonist-induced cleft lip and palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipinski, Robert J; Holloway, Hunter T; O'Leary-Moore, Shonagh K; Ament, Jacob J; Pecevich, Stephen J; Cofer, Gary P; Budin, Francois; Everson, Joshua L; Johnson, G Allan; Sulik, Kathleen K

    2014-01-01

    Subtle behavioral and cognitive deficits have been documented in patient cohorts with orofacial clefts (OFCs). Recent neuroimaging studies argue that these traits are associated with structural brain abnormalities but have been limited to adolescent and adult populations where brain plasticity during infancy and childhood may be a confounding factor. Here, we employed high resolution magnetic resonance microscopy to examine primary brain morphology in a mouse model of OFCs. Transient in utero exposure to the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway antagonist cyclopamine resulted in a spectrum of facial dysmorphology, including unilateral and bilateral cleft lip and palate, cleft of the secondary palate only, and a non-cleft phenotype marked by midfacial hypoplasia. Relative to controls, cyclopamine-exposed fetuses exhibited volumetric differences in several brain regions, including hypoplasia of the pituitary gland and olfactory bulbs, hyperplasia of the forebrain septal region, and expansion of the third ventricle. However, in affected fetuses the corpus callosum was intact and normal division of the forebrain was observed. This argues that temporally-specific Hh signaling perturbation can result in typical appearing OFCs in the absence of holoprosencephaly--a condition classically associated with Hh pathway inhibition and frequently co-occurring with OFCs. Supporting the premise that some forms of OFCs co-occur with subtle brain malformations, these results provide a possible ontological basis for traits identified in clinical populations. They also argue in favor of future investigations into genetic and/or environmental modulation of the Hh pathway in the etiopathogenesis of orofacial clefting.

  19. Effects of among-offspring relatedness on the origins and evolution of parental care and filial cannibalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonsall, M B; Klug, H

    2011-06-01

    Parental care is expected to increase the likelihood of offspring survival at the cost of investment in future reproductive success. However, alternative parental behaviours, such as filial cannibalism, can decrease current reproductive success and consequently individual fitness. We evaluate the role of among-offspring relatedness on the evolution of parental care and filial cannibalism. Building on our previous work, we show how the evolution of care is influenced by the effect of among-offspring relatedness on both the strength of competition and filial cannibalism. When there is a positive relationship between among-offspring competition and relatedness, parental care will be favoured when among-offspring relatedness is relatively low, and the maintenance of both care and no-care strategies is expected. If the relationship between among-offspring competition and relatedness is negative, parental care is most strongly favoured when broods contain highly related offspring. Further, we highlight the range of conditions over which the level of this among-offspring relatedness can affect the co-occurrence of different care/no care and cannibalism/no cannibalism strategies. Coexistence of multiple strategies is independent of the effects of among-offspring relatedness on cannibalism but more likely when among-offspring relatedness and competition are positively associated. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2011 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  20. School absence and its effect on school performance for children born with orofacial clefts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Jane; Raynes-Greenow, Camille; Turner, Robin; Bower, Carol; Dodson, Alan; Hancock, Kirsten; Nassar, Natasha

    2017-07-17

    School absence is associated with lower performance on standardized tests. Children born with orofacial clefts (OFC) are likely to have more absence than children without OFC; however, school absence for children with OFC has not been quantified. We aimed to describe school absence and its relationship with school performance for children with and without OFC. Population-based record-linked cohort study of children (402 with OFC, 1789 without OFC) enrolled in schools in Western Australia, 2008 to 2012. We compared median school absence rates using Wilcoxon rank tests, and investigated the impact of school absence on standardized scores from reading, numeracy, and writing tests, using multivariable models fitted by generalized estimating equations. In Semester 1, at each primary school year level, children without OFC and children with cleft lip only or cleft palate only had similar median absence rates (approximately 1 week). Children with cleft lip and palate had significantly higher absence rates in Years 4 to 6 (between 1 and 2 weeks). During secondary school, median absence rates were higher (2 weeks) for all children, but not statistically different between children with and without OFC. Higher absence was significantly associated with lower standardized reading, numeracy, and writing scores. However, having a cleft of any type had little influence on the association between absence and test scores. School absence affected school performance for all children. Absence did not differentially disadvantage children born with OFC, suggesting current practices to identify and support children with OFC are minimizing effects of their absence on school performance. Birth Defects Research 109:1048-1056, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Sonographic detection of intrathyroidal branchial cleft cyst: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hye-Jeong; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Hong, Soon-Won [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-06-15

    We report here on an extremely rare case of an intrathyroidal branchial cleft cyst. Intrathyroidal branchial cleft cyst is rare disease entity and it nonspecific findings on sonography, so the diagnosis of the lesion is very difficult. However, during aspiration, if pus-like materials are aspirated from a thyroid cyst, we should consider the possibility of intrathyroidal branchial cleft cyst in the differential diagnosis.

  2. Sonographic detection of intrathyroidal branchial cleft cyst: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hye-Jeong; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Hong, Soon-Won

    2006-01-01

    We report here on an extremely rare case of an intrathyroidal branchial cleft cyst. Intrathyroidal branchial cleft cyst is rare disease entity and it nonspecific findings on sonography, so the diagnosis of the lesion is very difficult. However, during aspiration, if pus-like materials are aspirated from a thyroid cyst, we should consider the possibility of intrathyroidal branchial cleft cyst in the differential diagnosis

  3. Congenital heart defects in children with oral clefts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahvi H.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available   Background: Oral clefts are among the most common congenital anomalies. Infants with oral clefts often have other associated congenital defects, especially congenital heart defects. The reported incidences and the types of associated malformations and congenital heart defects vary between different studies. The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence of associated congenital heart defects in children with oral clefts. Methods: All infants with cleft lip and palate referred to the Children's Medical Center and Bahramy; the teaching Hospitals of the Tehran University of Medical Sciences from 1991 to 2005 were prospectively enrolled in this study group. All patients were examined and noted by an academic cleft team contain; a pediatrician and a pediatric surgeon, and received cardiac consultation and echocardiography by a pediatric cardiologist. non cardiac associated anomalies, still born and patients without echocardiography were excluded from the study.  Data including age, gender, exposure to contagions and high risk elements ,consanguinity and familial history of oral cleft, type of oral cleft, results of cardiac consultation and echocardiography and associated cardiac anomalies were cumulated and analyzed by SSPS version 13.5Results: Among the 284 infants with oral clefts, 162 were male (57% and 122 were female (43%. Seventy-nine patients (27.8% had cleft lip, 84 (29.5% had cleft palate and 121 (42.6% had both cleft lip and palate. Of all the patients, 21.1% had congenital heart defects. the most common type Of these congenital heart defects(28.3%  was atrial septal defect.Conclusions: For patients with cleft lip and palate, we recommend preoperative cardiac consultation, careful examination and routine echocardiography for associated cardiac anomalies, as well as appropriate management and prophylactic antibiotic therapy for those with associated congenital heart anomaly.

  4. MR findings of intravertebral vacuum cleft: Report of two cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sung Moon; Suh, Soo Jhi; Suh, Kyung Jin

    1994-01-01

    Intravertebral vacuum cleft in collapsed vertebra was considered as a typical finding of avascular necrosis. However, several authors reported some cases of intravertebral vacuum cleft in primary or secondary neoplasm, or in spondylitis emphasizing the differential diagnosis. MRI is known to be a useful diagnostic modality for differentiation between benign and malignanct conditions causing vertebral collapse. We report MRI findings of two cases with intravertebral vacuum cleft diagnosed as posttraumatic collapse with avascular necrosis on radiological and clinical bases

  5. MR findings of intravertebral vacuum cleft: Report of two cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sung Moon; Suh, Soo Jhi [School of Medicine, Keimyung University, Taegu (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Kyung Jin [College of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-07-15

    Intravertebral vacuum cleft in collapsed vertebra was considered as a typical finding of avascular necrosis. However, several authors reported some cases of intravertebral vacuum cleft in primary or secondary neoplasm, or in spondylitis emphasizing the differential diagnosis. MRI is known to be a useful diagnostic modality for differentiation between benign and malignanct conditions causing vertebral collapse. We report MRI findings of two cases with intravertebral vacuum cleft diagnosed as posttraumatic collapse with avascular necrosis on radiological and clinical bases.

  6. Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with ankylosis of temporomandibular joint and cleft palate: A rare presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Manisha; Pradhan, Gaurav; Gupta, Sunita; Kapoor, Seema

    2015-01-01

    The ectodermal dysplasias are a heterogenous group of diseases, which have one or more anomalies of the hair, teeth, nails, and sweat glands. Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) is the most common type and is usually transmitted as an X-linked recessive trait. It is characterized by classical triad of hypotrichosis, anhidrosis/hypohidrosis, and hypodontia/anodontia. Here, we describe an Indian boy affected with HED and rare features including ankylosis of temporomandibular joint and cleft palate. PMID:25684924

  7. Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with ankylosis of temporomandibular joint and cleft palate: A rare presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Goyal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The ectodermal dysplasias are a heterogenous group of diseases, which have one or more anomalies of the hair, teeth, nails, and sweat glands. Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED is the most common type and is usually transmitted as an X-linked recessive trait. It is characterized by classical triad of hypotrichosis, anhidrosis/hypohidrosis, and hypodontia/anodontia. Here, we describe an Indian boy affected with HED and rare features including ankylosis of temporomandibular joint and cleft palate.

  8. Hypothalamo-pituitary hormone insufficiency associated with cleft lip and palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roitman, A; Laron, Z

    1978-01-01

    Two male patients with congenital cleft lip and palate first seen at ages 10.2 and 21.5 years presented with typical signs of hypothalamic-interior pituitary hormone deficiencies. They were found to lack GH, LH, and FSH and to be partially deficient in TSH and ACTH. Several congenital defects may explain this rare syndrome affecting midline structures in the proximity of the maldeveloped palate, including Rathke's pouch, which migrates distally to develop into the anterior pituitary. PMID:747400

  9. The role of maternal behavior and offspring development in the survival of mountain goat kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Théoret-Gosselin, Rachel; Hamel, Sandra; Côté, Steeve D

    2015-05-01

    Studies on juvenile survival have mainly focused on the effects of environmental conditions and maternal traits. However, growing evidence indicates that the ability of parents to care for their young and the offspring developmental behaviors could be key determinants of their survival. We examined the relative influence of (1) environmental conditions, (2) offspring traits, (3) maternal traits, (4) maternal care behaviors, and (5) offspring developmental behaviors on kid survival to weaning and to 1 year old in mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus). Offspring development and maternal care directly affected offspring survival, and this more importantly than did environmental conditions and maternal traits. Frequency of play strongly increased survival before weaning. Greater maternal care increased offspring survival during winter, directly and indirectly through kid mass. Kid mass was also a major determinant of both summer and winter survival. Environmental conditions mainly influenced summer survival while maternal characteristics indirectly affected winter survival through an effect on kid mass. Behavioral adaptations of maternal care and offspring development to local selective pressures can lead to local adaptations and have greater implications in population dynamic studies than previously believed.

  10. Variations in Velopharyngeal Structure in Adults With Repaired Cleft Palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Jamie L; Kotlarek, Katelyn J; Sutton, Bradley P; Kuehn, David P; Jaskolka, Michael S; Fang, Xiangming; Point, Stuart W; Rauccio, Frank

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine differences in velopharyngeal structures between adults with repaired cleft palate and normal resonance and adults without cleft palate. Thirty-six English-speaking adults, including 6 adults (2 males and 4 females) with repaired cleft palate (M = 32.5 years of age, SD = 17.4 years) and 30 adults (15 males and 15 females) without cleft palate (M = 23.3 years of age, SD = 4.1 years), participated in the study. Fourteen velopharyngeal measures were obtained on magnetic resonance images and compared between groups (cleft and noncleft). After adjusting for body size and sex effects, there was a statistically significant difference between groups for 10 out of the 14 velopharyngeal measures. Compared to those without cleft palate, participants with repaired cleft palate had a significantly shorter hard palate height and length, shorter levator muscle length, shorter intravelar segment, more acute levator angles of origin, shorter and thinner velum, and greater pharyngeal depth. Although significant differences were evident in the cleft palate group, individuals displayed normal resonance. These findings suggest that a wide variability in velopharyngeal anatomy can occur in the presence of normal resonance, particularly for those with repaired cleft palate. Future research is needed to understand how anatomic variability impacts function, such as during speech.

  11. Branchial cleft anomalies and their mimics: computed tomographic evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harnsberger, H.R.; Mancuso, A.A.; Muraki, A.S.; Byrd, S.E.; Dillon, W.P.; Johnson, L.P.; Hanafee, W.N.

    1984-01-01

    A review was made of the clinical records and radiographic examinations of 38 patients with neck lesions clinically suspected of being branchial cleft anomalies. The impact of computed tomography in this sometimes confusing clinical picture was assessed and CT criteria for diagnosing branchial cleft anomalies (BCAs) and differentiating them from their mimics were identified. Seventeen branchial cleft anomalies and 21 BCA mimics were evaluated. A definitive CT diagnosis of second branchial cleft cysts based on characteristic morphology, location, and displacement of surrounding structures was possible in 80% of cases. CT was found to be the best radiographic examination in making a definitive diagnosis of BCA if a neck mass was present

  12. Ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-cleft lip and palate syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reema Sharma Dhar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-cleft (EEC syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the triad of ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia, and facial clefting along with some associated features. Presence of all the three major features in a single individual is extremely rare. We report a case of 4 year 11 months old child with EEC syndrome having ectodermal dysplasia-cleft lip and cleft palate and ectrodactyly with some associated features. Clinical features, diagnosis and role of a dentist in the multidisciplinary treatment approach have been elaborated in this case report.

  13. Ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-cleft lip and palate syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Reema Sharma; Bora, Amitava

    2014-01-01

    Ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-cleft (EEC) syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the triad of ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia, and facial clefting along with some associated features. Presence of all the three major features in a single individual is extremely rare. We report a case of 4 year 11 months old child with EEC syndrome having ectodermal dysplasia-cleft lip and cleft palate and ectrodactyly with some associated features. Clinical features, diagnosis and role of a dentist in the multidisciplinary treatment approach have been elaborated in this case report.

  14. The development of speech production in children with cleft palate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willadsen, Elisabeth; Chapman, Kathy

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to provide an overview of speech development of children with cleft palate +/- cleft lip. The chapter will begin with a discussion of the impact of clefting on speech. Next, we will provide a brief description of those factors impacting speech development...... for this population of children. Finally, research examining various aspects of speech development of infants and young children with cleft palate (birth to age five) will be reviewed. This final section will be organized by typical stages of speech sound development (e.g., prespeech, the early word stage...

  15. Changing lifestyles and oral clefts occurrence in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Camilla; Knudsen, Lisbeth B.; Christensen, Kaare

    2005-01-01

    ; furthermore, smoking among pregnant women decreased considerably. Design and settings There are few places in which ecological studies of oral clefts are possible. Denmark provides a particularly good setting for this kind of study, due to a high ascertainment and a centralized registration of cleft cases...... through the last 65 years. Participants Cleft occurrence in Denmark 1936 to 1987 has previously been reported. Here we extend the study to include all live-born children with oral clefts born in Denmark in 1988 throguh 2001. Among a total of 992,727 live births 1332 children with CL(P) were born during...

  16. Risk factors and comorbidities in Brazilian patients with orofacial clefts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heglayne Pereira Vital da Silva

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Considering that environmental risk factors substantially contribute to the etiology of orofacial clefts and that knowledge about the characteristics and comorbidities associated with oral clefts is fundamental to promoting better quality of life, this study aimed to describe the risk factors, main characteristics, and comorbidities of a group of patients with cleft lip and/or cleft palate (CL/P from Rio Grande do Norte (RN, Brazil. Data were obtained from 173 patients with CL/P using a form from the Brazilian database on Orofacial Clefts. Most patients were male with cleft lip and palate and had a normal size and weight at birth; presented few neonatal intercurrent events; and had anemia and respiratory and cardiovascular diseases as main associated comorbidities. They also required timely surgical rehabilitation and multidisciplinary care to stimulate their neuropsychomotor development. In addition, a high frequency of familial recurrence and of parental consanguinity was evidenced in the studied population, especially for the cleft lip and cleft palate type. Other relevant findings were the considerable maternal exposure to alcohol, infections, smoking, and hypertension, as well as low supplementation with vitamins and minerals and deliberate consumption of analgesics, antibiotics, and antihypertensives during pregnancy. Characterization of the CL/P patient profile is essential for the planning of health services and integration among the health professionals involved in the diagnosis and treatment of these malformations. Our results reinforce the need for additional research to confirm the association between environmental factors and the development of orofacial clefts.

  17. Rearing conditions determine offspring survival independent of egg quality : A cross-foster experiment with Oystercatchers Haematopus ostralegus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Pol, Martijn; Bakker, T; Saaltink, DJ; Verhulst, S; Saaltink, Dirk-Jan

    Variation in rearing conditions, due either to parental or to environmental quality, can result in offspring of different quality (e.g. body condition, immune function). However, evidence is accumulating that egg size and composition can also affect offspring quality. In Oystercatchers Haematopus

  18. A test of maternal programming of offspring stress response to predation risk in threespine sticklebacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mommer, Brett C; Bell, Alison M

    2013-10-02

    Non-genetic maternal effects are widespread across taxa and challenge our traditional understanding of inheritance. Maternal experience with predators, for example, can have lifelong consequences for offspring traits, including fitness. Previous work in threespine sticklebacks showed that females exposed to simulated predation risk produced eggs with higher cortisol content and offspring with altered anti-predator behavior. However, it is unknown whether this maternal effect is mediated via the offspring glucocorticoid stress response and if it is retained over the entire lifetime of offspring. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that maternal exposure to simulated predation risk has long-lasting effects on the cortisol response to simulated predation risk in stickleback offspring. We measured circulating concentrations of cortisol before (baseline), 15 min after, and 60 min after exposure to a simulated predation risk. We compared adult offspring of predator-exposed mothers and control mothers in two different social environments (alone or in a group). Relative to baseline, offspring plasma cortisol was highest 15 min after exposure to simulated predation risk and decreased after 60 min. Offspring of predator-exposed mothers differed in the cortisol response to simulated predation risk compared to offspring of control mothers. In general, females had higher cortisol than males, and fish in a group had lower cortisol than fish that were by themselves. The buffering effect of the social environment did not differ between maternal treatments or between males and females. Altogether the results show that while a mother's experience with simulated predation risk might affect the physiological response of her adult offspring to a predator, sex and social isolation have much larger effects on the stress response to predation risk in sticklebacks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Porcine induced pluripotent stem cells produce chimeric offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Franklin D; Terlouw, Steve L; Kwon, Dae Jin; Mumaw, Jennifer L; Dhara, Sujoy K; Hasneen, Kowser; Dobrinsky, John R; Stice, Steven L

    2010-08-01

    Ethical and moral issues rule out the use of human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) in chimera studies that would determine the full extent of their reprogrammed state, instead relying on less rigorous assays such as teratoma formation and differentiated cell types. To date, only mouse iPSC lines are known to be truly pluripotent. However, initial mouse iPSC lines failed to form chimeric offspring, but did generate teratomas and differentiated embryoid bodies, and thus these specific iPSC lines were not completely reprogrammed or truly pluripotent. Therefore, there is a need to address whether the reprogramming factors and process used eventually to generate chimeric mice are universal and sufficient to generate reprogrammed iPSC that contribute to chimeric offspring in additional species. Here we show that porcine mesenchymal stem cells transduced with 6 human reprogramming factors (POU5F1, SOX2, NANOG, KLF4, LIN28, and C-MYC) injected into preimplantation-stage embryos contributed to multiple tissue types spanning all 3 germ layers in 8 of 10 fetuses. The chimerism rate was high, 85.3% or 29 of 34 live offspring were chimeras based on skin and tail biopsies harvested from 2- to 5-day-old pigs. The creation of pluripotent porcine iPSCs capable of generating chimeric offspring introduces numerous opportunities to study the facets significantly affecting cell therapies, genetic engineering, and other aspects of stem cell and developmental biology.

  20. Consequences on offspring of abnormal function in ageing gametes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarín, J J; Pérez-Albalá, S; Cano, A

    2000-01-01

    The present review aims to analyse (i) the molecular, biochemical and cellular changes that accompany oocyte and sperm ageing in any of the internal or external environments where they can reside, and (ii) the consequences of the abnormal function in ageing gametes on pre- and post-implantation development and later life of offspring. This review also aims to propose and discuss cellular/molecular mechanisms framed within the 'free radical theory of ageing'. It appears that the ageing of gametes prior to fertilization may affect many molecular, biochemical and cellular pathways that may jeopardize not only pre- and post-implantation embryo/fetal development but also later life of offspring. Consequences of gamete ageing range from decreased vigour (with the concomitant decrease in intelligence, reproductive fitness and longevity) of apparently normal-looking offspring to severe congenital, epigenetic and/or genetic anomalies. All these effects may be easily prevented by efficient diffusion of both the potential risks of gamete ageing and the steps that should be taken by couples wishing to achieve pregnancy to guarantee a correct maturational synchronization of gametes at fertilization. Although in-vitro antioxidant therapy appears to protect from or retard the ageing process of gametes, it may not assure the total absence of negative effects on the resulting offspring.

  1. Paternal irradiation perturbs the expression of circadian genes in offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, Andre M.G.F.; Barber, Ruth C.; Dubrova, Yuri E.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We have analysed gene expression in the offspring of irradiated male mice. • CBA/Ca and BALB/c male mice were used in our study. • The pattern of gene expression was established in four tissues. • Expression of genes in involved in rhythmic process/circadian rhythm is compromised. • Our data may explain the phenomenon of transgenerational genomic instability. - Abstract: The circadian system represents a complex network which influences the timing of many biological processes. Recent studies have established that circadian alterations play an important role in the susceptibility to many human diseases, including cancer. Here we report that paternal irradiation in mice significantly affects the expression of genes involved in rhythmic processes in their first-generation offspring. Using microarrays, the patterns of gene expression were established for brain, kidney, liver and spleen samples from the non-exposed offspring of irradiated CBA/Ca and BALB/c male mice. The most over-represented categories among the genes differentially expressed in the offspring of control and irradiated males were those involved in rhythmic process, circadian rhythm and DNA-dependent regulation of transcription. The results of our study therefore provide a plausible explanation for the transgenerational effects of paternal irradiation, including increased transgenerational carcinogenesis described in other studies

  2. Paternal irradiation perturbs the expression of circadian genes in offspring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Andre M.G.F.; Barber, Ruth C.; Dubrova, Yuri E., E-mail: yed2@le.ac.uk

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • We have analysed gene expression in the offspring of irradiated male mice. • CBA/Ca and BALB/c male mice were used in our study. • The pattern of gene expression was established in four tissues. • Expression of genes in involved in rhythmic process/circadian rhythm is compromised. • Our data may explain the phenomenon of transgenerational genomic instability. - Abstract: The circadian system represents a complex network which influences the timing of many biological processes. Recent studies have established that circadian alterations play an important role in the susceptibility to many human diseases, including cancer. Here we report that paternal irradiation in mice significantly affects the expression of genes involved in rhythmic processes in their first-generation offspring. Using microarrays, the patterns of gene expression were established for brain, kidney, liver and spleen samples from the non-exposed offspring of irradiated CBA/Ca and BALB/c male mice. The most over-represented categories among the genes differentially expressed in the offspring of control and irradiated males were those involved in rhythmic process, circadian rhythm and DNA-dependent regulation of transcription. The results of our study therefore provide a plausible explanation for the transgenerational effects of paternal irradiation, including increased transgenerational carcinogenesis described in other studies.

  3. Maternal exposure to the holocaust and health complaints in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flory, Janine D; Bierer, Linda M; Yehuda, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    Although the link between chronic stress and the development of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases of adulthood has been known for some time, there is growing recognition that early environmental influences may result in developmental programming via epigenetic mechanisms, thereby affecting the developmental trajectory of disease progression. Previous studies support the idea that offspring of Holocaust survivors may have been subjected to early developmental programming. We evaluated the relationship between parental exposure to the Holocaust and self-reported health ratings and disorders made by their adult offspring (i.e., second generation Holocaust survivors). A total of 137 subjects were evaluated. Regression analyses demonstrated that maternal but not paternal exposure to the Holocaust was related to poorer subjective impressions of emotional and physical health. This relationship was diminished when the offspring's own level of trait anxiety was considered. Offspring with maternal, but not paternal, Holocaust exposure also reported greater use of psychotropic and other medications, including medications for the treatment of hypertension and lipid disorders. The mechanism linking these health outcomes and maternal exposure deserves further investigation, including the possibility that fetal or early developmental programming is involved.

  4. Offspring sex and parental health and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næss, Øyvind; Mortensen, Laust H.; Vikanes, Åse

    2017-01-01

    ) number of total boy and girl offspring, 2) sex of the first and second offspring and 3) proportion of boys to total number of offspring. A sub-cohort (n = 50,736 mothers, n = 44,794 fathers) from survey data was analysed for risk factors. Mothers had increased risk of total and cardiovascular mortality...... that was consistent across approaches: cardiovascular mortality of 1.07 (95% CI: 1.03-1.11) per boy (approach 2), 1.04 (1.01-1.07) if the first offspring was a boy, and 1.06 (1.01-1.10) if the first two offspring were boys (approach 3). We found that sex of offspring was not associated with total or cardiovascular...

  5. Intrasellar abscess simultaning a Rathke's cleft cyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, Toshihiko; Murakawa, Takatsugu; Iwai, Tomohiko; Hirata, Toshifumi; Sakai, Noboru

    1983-01-01

    Both symptomatic Rathke's cleft cyst and intrasellar abscess are exceedingly rare. We present a case of intrasellar abscess developed in a Rathke's cleft cyst. A 60-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with complaints of polyuria, polydipsia, headache, and remittent fever. On admission, his neurological and ophthalmological examination was normal. Panhypopituitarism was revealed by endocrine testing. Plain-skull X-ray films showed no abnormalities, but a CT scan showed a small cystic lesion with a ring-like enhancement in the sella turcica and paranasal sinusitis. Further sagittal reconstruction of the CT scan demonstrated that the diaphragma sellae protruded upwards and that the pituitary stalk was markedly enhanced and enlarged. After the sinusitis improved, transsphenoidal surgery was carried out. Approximately 1 ml of the purulent contents were aspirated from the intrasellar region. The postoperative course was uneventful. A histological examination of the abscess wall revealed a ciliated columnar epithelium and inflammatory-cell infiltration beneath the epithelium. (author)

  6. A study of nasal cavity volume in patients with cleft lip and palate by magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Kenichi

    1996-01-01

    Nasal cavity volume was studied in 11 patients with cleft lip and palate by magnetic resonance imaging. The areas of horizontal sections of the nasal cavity on the cleft and non-cleft sides were measured with the help of a personal computer and image analyzing software. Nasal cavity volume was determined by integrated volume calculation. The volume of each side was measured before and after cleft lip repair. Before cleft lip repair nasal cavity volume on the non-cleft side was larger than on the cleft side. However there was no significant difference in the volume of the cleft and non-cleft sides after cleft lip repair. (author)

  7. A study of nasal cavity volume in patients with cleft lip and palate by magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, Kenichi [Showa Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1996-02-01

    Nasal cavity volume was studied in 11 patients with cleft lip and palate by magnetic resonance imaging. The areas of horizontal sections of the nasal cavity on the cleft and non-cleft sides were measured with the help of a personal computer and image analyzing software. Nasal cavity volume was determined by integrated volume calculation. The volume of each side was measured before and after cleft lip repair. Before cleft lip repair nasal cavity volume on the non-cleft side was larger than on the cleft side. However there was no significant difference in the volume of the cleft and non-cleft sides after cleft lip repair. (author)

  8. Masculinization in Parents of Offspring With Autism Spectrum Disorders Could Be Involved in Comorbid ADHD Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Martínez, Ángel; Polderman, Tinca J C; González-Bono, Esperanza; Moya-Albiol, Luis

    2017-09-01

    People with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often have comorbid ADHD symptoms. ASD and ADHD are both associated with high intrauterine testosterone (T) levels. This study aims to investigate whether masculinization predicts inattention symptoms in parents, and in their ASD-affected offspring. The sample consisted of 32 parents with ASD-affected children (13 male, 19 female) and 32 offspring individuals (28 male, 4 female). Masculinization of parents was measured by 2D:4D finger ratio, and current T levels. Inattention in both parents and in their offspring was measured with behavior questionnaires. The results indicated that masculinized 2D:4D explains inattentive ADHD symptoms in ASD parents and in their offspring. These predictions are mediated by T and inattention symptoms of ASD parents, respectively. These findings suggest the existence of a masculinized endophenotype in ASD parents, which may be characterized by high attentional sensitivity to T effects.

  9. Fenda cervical mediana Midline cervical cleft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José V. Tagliarini

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available A fenda mediana congênita do pescoço é anomalia rara da parte ventral do pescoço. Em torno de 100 casos foram relatados na literatura, sendo o primeiro caso descrito por Bailey em 1924. Este defeito é relatado em associação com fenda mediana do lábio inferior, fenda da mandíbula e da língua, e hipoplasia de outras estruturas cervicais medianas. Acredita-se que seja uma malformação originada dos dois primeiros arcos branquiais. O tratamento da lesão consiste na excisão vertical da lesão e reparação do defeito resultante. A maioria dos autores recomenda evitar a reparação simples da lesão, preferindo a fechamento com a utilização de zetaplastia múltiplas, com o intuito de evitar fibrose e retração local. Neste artigo relatamos dois casos dessa anomalia e realizamos revisão bibliográfica.The midline cervical cleft is an unusual congenital anomaly of the ventral neck and fewer than 100 cases have been reported overall and the first described by Bailey in 1924. This anomaly is report in association with median cleft of lower lip, cleft mandible and tongue, and hypoplasia of other midline neck structures. Its considered an anomaly originated from the two first branchial arches. The treatment of this cleft is a vertical complete excision and a closure with multiple Z-plasty. Many authors recommend avoid linear closure and prefer multiple Z-plasty for evicted fibrosis and local retraction. In this paper we report 2 case of this anomaly and the literature is reviewed.

  10. Economic Valuation of the Global Burden of Cleft Disease Averted by a Large Cleft Charity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poenaru, Dan; Lin, Dan; Corlew, Scott

    2016-05-01

    This study attempts to quantify the burden of disease averted through the global surgical work of a large cleft charity, and estimate the economic impact of this effort over a 10-year period. Anonymized data of all primary cleft lip and cleft palate procedures in the Smile Train database were analyzed and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) calculated using country-specific life expectancy tables, established disability weights, and estimated success of surgery and residual disability probabilities; multiple age weighting and discounting permutations were included. Averted DALYs were calculated and gross national income (GNI) per capita was then multiplied by averted DALYs to estimate economic gains. 548,147 primary cleft procedures were performed in 83 countries between 2001 and 2011. 547,769 records contained complete data available for the study; 58 % were cleft lip and 42 % cleft palate. Averted DALYs ranged between 1.46 and 4.95 M. The mean economic impact ranged between USD 5510 and 50,634 per person. This corresponded to a global economic impact of between USD 3.0B and 27.7B USD, depending on the DALY and GNI values used. The estimated cost of providing these procedures based on an average reimbursement rate was USD 197M (0.7-6.6 % of the estimated impact). The immense economic gain realized through procedures focused on a small proportion of the surgical burden of disease highlights the importance and cost-effectiveness of surgical treatment globally. This methodology can be applied to evaluate interventions for other conditions, and for evidence-based health care resource allocation.

  11. Development and Evaluation of a Blog about Cleft Lip and Cleft Palate and Hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maximino, Luciana Paula; Zambonato, Ticiana Cristina de Freitas; Picolini-Pereira, Mirela Machado; Castro Corrêa, Camila de; Feniman, Mariza Ribeiro; Blasca, Wanderléia Quinhoneiro

    2018-01-01

    Introduction  Cleft lip and cleft palate can result in impairments in communication, specifically in hearing, making the use of technological resources such as blogs a fundamental guideline for health professionals. Objective  The aim of this study was to prepare and analyze the access to a blog about cleft lip and cleft palate and hearing as a pedagogical tool for health professionals. Methods  The first stage for the development of the blog was the selection of the content that would be addressed and the respective illustrations. The second stage was making the blog available through the WordPress platform, and the third stage included the evaluation of the blog, of the access to the WordPress statistical features, and of the quality of the blog through the Emory questionnaire, which was answered by 75 professionals. Results  The blog, titled "Fissure and Hearing", was developed with the architecture of a digital information environment containing a system of organization, navigation, labeling and search (first stage). The address hosting the blog was: http://fissuraeaudicao.wordpress.com (second stage). The result of the third stage included 56,269 views of the blog from different countries, and Brazil was the country with the highest viewing. Regarding the assessment by the Emory questionnaire, we found that for most of the major issues, the percentages obtained were or equal to 90%, while the analysis of the scales, navigation and structure presented the lowest scores. Conclusion  The blog was developed and enabled greater access to information available on the web about cleft lip and cleft palate and hearing.

  12. [Surgical treatment of first branchial cleft anomaly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Hongjun; Kong, Weijia; Gong, Shusheng; Wang, Jibao; Liu, Shiying; Shi, Hong

    2005-10-01

    To identify the clinical and anatomical presentations and to discuss the guidelines for surgical management of anomalies of the first branchial cleft. Twenty-one patients with first branchial cleft anomalies were treated in our department between January 1994 and December 2004, their clinical data were retrospectively analysed. Surgery was performed on all patients. Among them 13 were males and 8 females, ranging in age from 1.5 to 33 years with an average of 15 years. Anatomically, 3 types of first branchial cleft anomalies were identified: fistulas (n = 17), cysts (n = 2), and fistula combined with cyst (n = 2). Before definitive surgery, soma patients (n = 4) underwent incision and drainage for infection owing to the difficulties in diagnosing this anomaly. Methylthioninium Chloride was used in almost all cases for tracking the fistulous during operation. Wide exposure is necessary in many cases,and a standard parotidectomy incision allows adequate exposure of the anomaly and preservation of the facial nerve. Complete removal without complications depends on a good understanding of regional embryogenesis, an awareness of the different anatomical presentations, and a readiness to identify and protect the facial nerve during resection.

  13. Presurgical Unilateral Cleft Lip Anthropometrics and the Presence of Dental Anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonarakis, Gregory S; Fisher, David M

    2015-07-01

    To investigate associations between cleft lip anthropometrics and dental anomalies in the permanent dentition in unilateral cleft lip patients. Retrospective cross-sectional study. Children with unilateral clefts of the lip, with or without cleft palate. Anthropometric lip measurements, made immediately prior to lip repair, were available for each patient. The presence of dental anomalies in the permanent dentition was assessed radiographically. The presence of associations between anthropometric lip measurements and prevalence rates of different dental anomalies were determined using logistic regression analyses. In the 122 included patients, the cleft lateral lip element was deficient in height in 80% and in transverse length in 84% of patients. Patients with more deficient cleft side lateral lip height and less deficient cleft side lateral lip transverse length were more likely to present with cleft side maxillary lateral incisor agenesis. On the other hand, patients with a less deficient cleft side lateral lip height and more deficient cleft side lateral lip transverse length were more likely to present with a cleft side supernumerary maxillary lateral incisor. When looking only at incomplete clefts, the cleft side lateral lip transverse length deficiency was more predictive of the presence of supernumerary maxillary lateral incisors (P = .030), while for complete clefts, the cleft side lateral lip height deficiency was more predictive of the presence of maxillary lateral incisor agenesis (P = .035). In patients with unilateral clefts, cleft lip anthropometrics have a predictive role in determining the occurrence of dental anomalies.

  14. Descriptive study of cleft lip and palate related to individual, systemic and social factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Machado Ardenghi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Verify the types of fissures that most affect patients under 12 years of age, at the Facial Deformity Rehabilitation Center in São Paulo, and evaluate individual, systemic and social factors.Methods: A sample of 100 children and adolescents with cleft lip and palate were selected with the purpose of collecting data as regards sex, race, type of fissure and side affected, syndromes, sequences and associated malformations, presence of family history of fissure, and age of parents at the time of the child’s conception. The patients’ parents answered a previously validated questionnaire with closed questions to provide data as regards the socio-economic factor. All the information was stored in a database and submitted to descriptive statistical analysis. Results: 61% of population sample was of the male gender and 92% was of the white race. The incisive trans-foramen fissure was prevalent (62% and the unilateral fissures were most frequent (65.8%, and the left side was the most affected (44.3%. As regards systemic factors, 22% of the patients had syndromes or sequences; the most frequently associated syndrome was the Pierre Robin. Among the malformation associated with cleft lip and palate fissures, congenital heart diseases were prevalent (37.9%. Family recurrence of fissures was shown in only 23% of cases. The family nuclei were composed of married parents (84%, who had higher education (47% and worked full time (81%. Conclusion: There was greater frequency of the incisive trans-foramen fissure and greater occurrence in the male gender. Congenital heart diseases and the Pierre Robin sequence were the syndromes most frequently associated with cleft lip and palate. There was no family tendency towards cleft lip and palate fissures, and the majority of families were in a good socio-economic and educational condition.

  15. Geographical differences in maternal basking behaviour and offspring growth rate in a climatically widespread viviparous reptile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadby, Chloé D; Jones, Susan M; Wapstra, Erik

    2014-04-01

    In reptiles, the thermal environment during embryonic development affects offspring phenotypic traits and potentially offspring fitness. In viviparous species, mothers can potentially manipulate the embryonic thermal environment through their basking behaviour and, thus, may be able to manipulate offspring phenotype and increase offspring fitness. One way in which mothers can maximise offspring phenotype (and thus potentially affect offspring fitness) is by fine-tuning their basking behaviour to the environment in order to buffer the embryo from deleterious developmental temperatures. In widespread species, it is unclear whether populations that have evolved under different climatic conditions will exhibit different maternal behaviours and/or thermal effects on offspring phenotype. To test this, we provided extended or reduced basking opportunity to gravid spotted skinks (Niveoscincus ocellatus) and their offspring from two populations at the climatic extremes of the species' distribution. Gravid females fine-tuned their basking behaviour to the basking opportunity, which allowed them to buffer their embryos from potentially negative thermal effects. This fine-tuning of female basking behaviour appears to have led to the expression of geographical differences in basking behaviour, with females from the cold alpine regions being more opportunistic in their basking behaviour than females from the warmer regions. However, those differences in maternal behaviour did not preclude the evolution of geographic differences in thermal effects: offspring growth varied between populations, potentially suggesting local adaptation to basking conditions. Our results demonstrate that maternal effects and phenotypic plasticity can play a significant role in allowing species to cope in changing environmental conditions, which is particularly relevant in the context of climate change.

  16. ALTERNATIVE APPROACH IN THE TREATMENT OF A GINGIVAL CLEFT ASSOCIATED WITH LABIAL FRENULUM. A 3-YEAR FOLLOW-UP. (Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamen Kotsilkov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The term Gingival cleft refers to a fissure in the gingival tissues and is usually caused by traumatic oral hygiene, abnormal frenula, trauma from occlusion, orthodontic, or pierce related trauma. Gingival clefts are classified depending on the extent of the inclusion of the gingival thickness into red and white. The recommended treatment approach for the incomplete white clefts is the gingivectomy of the affected keratinized tissue followed by a coronally advanced flap for the root coveradge, while the complete white clefts are treated with a laterally moved, coronally advanced flap, or a free gingival graft procedure. OBJECTIVE: This report presents a case with a spontaneous healing of an incomplete gingival cleft associated with a maxillary labial frenulum after an alternative frenuloectomy approach. METHODS: M.G. (45 with a localized chronic periodontitis, an abnormal papillary maxillary frenulum and an incomplete white cleft on the marginal gingiva of the left central incisor. An alternative frenuloectomy approach combined with a free gingival graft was selected for the correction of the abnormal frenulum. RESULTS:On the sixth month after the surgical procedure an almost complete recovery of the gingival margin was observed.The result at the third year demonstrates a stable gingival margin with a complete tissue recovery. CONCLUSION: The applied combined surgical approach led to a complete gingival recovery of the incomplete white gingival cleft without the commonly used gingivectomy and CAF. Further research is recommended to clarify the adjunctive benefits of the FGG in patients with gingival clefts associated with abnormal frenula.

  17. Perinatal exposure to lead (Pb) induces ultrastructural and molecular alterations in synapses of rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gąssowska, Magdalena; Baranowska-Bosiacka, Irena; Moczydłowska, Joanna; Frontczak-Baniewicz, Małgorzata; Gewartowska, Magdalena; Strużyńska, Lidia; Gutowska, Izabela; Chlubek, Dariusz; Adamczyk, Agata

    2016-12-12

    Lead (Pb), environmentally abundant heavy-metal pollutant, is a strong toxicant for the developing central nervous system. Pb intoxication in children, even at low doses, is found to affect learning and memorizing, with devastating effects on cognitive function and intellectual development. However, the precise mechanism by which Pb impairs synaptic plasticity is not fully elucidated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of pre- and neonatal exposure to low dose of Pb (with Pb concentrations in whole blood below 10μg/dL) on the synaptic structure and the pre- and postsynaptic proteins expression in the developing rat brain. Furthermore, the level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was analyzed. Pregnant female Wistar rats received 0.1% lead acetate (PbAc) in drinking water from the first day of gestation until weaning of the offspring, while the control animals received drinking water. During the feeding of pups, mothers from the Pb-group were continuously receiving PbAc. Pups of both groups were weaned at postnatal day 21 and then until postnatal day 28 received only drinking water. 28-day old pups were sacrificed and the ultrastructural changes as well as expression of presynaptic (VAMP1/2, synaptophysin, synaptotagmin-1, SNAP25, syntaxin-1) and postsynaptic (PSD-95) proteins were analyzed in: forebrain cortex, cerebellum and hippocampus. Our data revealed that pre- and neonatal exposure to low dose of Pb promotes pathological changes in synapses, including nerve endings swelling, blurred and thickened synaptic cleft structure as well as enhanced density of synaptic vesicles in the presynaptic area. Moreover, synaptic mitochondria were elongated, swollen or shrunken in Pb-treated animals. These structural abnormalities were accompanied by decrease in the level of key synaptic proteins: synaptotagmin-1 in cerebellum, SNAP25 in hippocampus and syntaxin-1 in cerebellum and hippocampus. In turn, increased level of synaptophysin was

  18. Maternal care, mother-offspring aggregation and age-dependent coadaptation in the European earwig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Y; Kölliker, M

    2013-09-01

    Benefits and costs of parental care are expected to change with offspring development and lead to age-dependent coadaptation expressed as phenotypic (behavioural) matches between offspring age and parental reproductive stage. Parents and offspring interact repeatedly over time for the provision of parental care. Their behaviours should be accordingly adjusted to each other dynamically and adaptively, and the phenotypic match between offspring age and parental stage should stabilize the repeated behavioural interactions. In the European earwig (Forficula auricularia), maternal care is beneficial for offspring survival, but not vital, allowing us to investigate the extent to which the stability of mother-offspring aggregation is shaped by age-dependent coadaptation. In this study, we experimentally cross-fostered nymphs of different age classes (younger or older) between females in early or late reproductive stage to disrupt age-dependent coadaptation, thereby generating female-nymph dyads that were phenotypically matched or mismatched. The results revealed a higher stability in aggregation during the first larval instar when care is most intense, a steeper decline in aggregation tendency over developmental time and a reduced developmental rate in matched compared with mismatched families. Furthermore, nymph survival was positively correlated with female-nymph aggregation stability during the early stages when maternal care is most prevalent. These results support the hypothesis that age-related phenotypically plastic coadaptation affects family dynamics and offspring developmental rate. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2013 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  19. Effects of augmented corticosterone in painted turtle eggs on offspring development and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polich, Rebecca L; Bodensteiner, Brooke L; Adams, Clare I M; Janzen, Fredric J

    2018-01-01

    Maternal stressors can play an integral role in offspring development and ultimate behaviors in many vertebrates. Increased circulating stress avoidance hormones can be reflected in elevated concentrations in ova, thus providing a potential mechanism for maternal stress to be transmitted to offspring even in taxa without parental care. In this study, we assessed the potential impacts of augmented stress avoidance hormones on offspring development and anti-predator behaviors in a freshwater turtle, Chrysemys picta. We exposed C. picta eggs to biologically relevant amounts of the stress avoidance hormone, corticosterone, as a proxy for maternal stressors. We allowed the eggs to incubate in the field, then measured offspring phenotypes, conducted performance trials, and simulated nest emergence in a field experiment. Exogenous corticosterone reduced survivorship to hatch, but did not affect incubation duration, offspring size, overwinter survival, or size after hibernation. In performance trials, this hormone treatment reduced the frequency of righting, yet enhanced the righting speed of neonates. Regardless, these performance differences did not detectably alter survivorship in the nest emergence experiment. These results lend insight into the potential effects of maternal stress levels on offspring phenotypes, as well as the robustness of offspring fitness to altered levels of maternal stress in freshwater turtles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Transgenerational effects of stress exposure on offspring phenotypes in apomictic dandelion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koen J F Verhoeven

    Full Text Available Heritable epigenetic modulation of gene expression is a candidate mechanism to explain parental environmental effects on offspring phenotypes, but current evidence for environment-induced epigenetic changes that persist in offspring generations is scarce. In apomictic dandelions, exposure to various stresses was previously shown to heritably alter DNA methylation patterns. In this study we explore whether these induced changes are accompanied by heritable effects on offspring phenotypes. We observed effects of parental jasmonic acid treatment on offspring specific leaf area and on offspring interaction with a generalist herbivore; and of parental nutrient stress on offspring root-shoot biomass ratio, tissue P-content and leaf morphology. Some of the effects appeared to enhance offspring ability to cope with the same stresses that their parents experienced. Effects differed between apomictic genotypes and were not always consistently observed between different experiments, especially in the case of parental nutrient stress. While this context-dependency of the effects remains to be further clarified, the total set of results provides evidence for the existence of transgenerational effects in apomictic dandelions. Zebularine treatment affected the within-generation response to nutrient stress, pointing at a role of DNA methylation in phenotypic plasticity to nutrient environments. This study shows that stress exposure in apomictic dandelions can cause transgenerational phenotypic effects, in addition to previously demonstrated transgenerational DNA methylation effects.

  1. Transgenerational effects of stress exposure on offspring phenotypes in apomictic dandelion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, Koen J F; van Gurp, Thomas P

    2012-01-01

    Heritable epigenetic modulation of gene expression is a candidate mechanism to explain parental environmental effects on offspring phenotypes, but current evidence for environment-induced epigenetic changes that persist in offspring generations is scarce. In apomictic dandelions, exposure to various stresses was previously shown to heritably alter DNA methylation patterns. In this study we explore whether these induced changes are accompanied by heritable effects on offspring phenotypes. We observed effects of parental jasmonic acid treatment on offspring specific leaf area and on offspring interaction with a generalist herbivore; and of parental nutrient stress on offspring root-shoot biomass ratio, tissue P-content and leaf morphology. Some of the effects appeared to enhance offspring ability to cope with the same stresses that their parents experienced. Effects differed between apomictic genotypes and were not always consistently observed between different experiments, especially in the case of parental nutrient stress. While this context-dependency of the effects remains to be further clarified, the total set of results provides evidence for the existence of transgenerational effects in apomictic dandelions. Zebularine treatment affected the within-generation response to nutrient stress, pointing at a role of DNA methylation in phenotypic plasticity to nutrient environments. This study shows that stress exposure in apomictic dandelions can cause transgenerational phenotypic effects, in addition to previously demonstrated transgenerational DNA methylation effects.

  2. Pre- and/or postnatal protein restriction in rats impairs learning and motivation in male offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Castro, L A; Rodriguez, J S; Rodríguez-González, G L; Wimmer, R D; McDonald, T J; Larrea, F; Nathanielsz, P W; Zambrano, E

    2011-04-01

    Suboptimal developmental environments program offspring to lifelong health complications including affective and cognitive disorders. Little is known about the effects of suboptimal intra-uterine environments on associative learning and motivational behavior. We hypothesized that maternal isocaloric low protein diet during pregnancy and lactation would impair offspring associative learning and motivation as measured by operant conditioning and the progressive ratio task, respectively. Control mothers were fed 20% casein (C) and restricted mothers (R) 10% casein to provide four groups: CC, RR, CR, and RC (first letter pregnancy diet and second letter lactation diet), to evaluate effects of maternal diet on male offspring behavior. Impaired learning was observed during fixed ratio-1 operant conditioning in RC offspring that required more sessions to learn vs. the CC offspring (9.4±0.8 and 3.8±0.3 sessions, respectively, pmotivational effects during the progressive ratio test revealed less responding in the RR (48.1±17), CR (74.7±8.4), and RC (65.9±11.2) for positive reinforcement vs. the CC offspring (131.5±7.5, plearning and motivation behavior with the nutritional challenge in the prenatal period showing more vulnerability in offspring behavior. Copyright © 2010 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of the fistula risk associated with rotation palatoplasty and conventional palatoplasty for cleft palate repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahraman, Ahmet; Yuce, Serdar; Kocak, Omer Faruk; Canbaz, Yasin; Guner, Sukriye Ilkay; Atik, Bekir; Isik, Daghan

    2014-09-01

    The aims of the cleft palate repair techniques are to reduce the velopharyngeal insufficiency risk and oronasal fistula development to minimal levels without affecting the maxillofacial development. In this article, we present a retrospective study comparing the conventional palatoplasty techniques with the new technique of rotation palatoplasty for the risk of development of oronasal fistula. Of the 100 patients who were operated on because of cleft palate between the years 2002 and 2008, 12 patients had Furlow palatoplasty, and 88 patients received the Veau-Wardill-Kilner (V-Y pushback) operation (group C). A total of 67 patients who were operated on between 2008 and 2011 had rotation palatoplasty (group R). One hundred patients were men, and 67 were women. Among all the patient groups, 22.8% were classified as Veau 1, 24.6% were classified as Veau 2, 37.1% were classified as Veau 3, and 15.6% were classified as Veau 4. The rate of fistula was found to be 17.7% in all patients. Fistula development was found in 6% of the patients in group R (4/67) and in 18% of the patients in group C (18/100). The difference between group R and group C regarding the number of patients who developed fistula was statistically significant (P = 0.011). The Veau classification of the cleft palate affects the risk of fistula development, and the risk for fistula after rotation palatoplasty is lower than that associated with the V-Y pushback technique.

  4. Acoustic analysis of voice in children with cleft palate and velopharyngeal insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villafuerte-Gonzalez, Rocio; Valadez-Jimenez, Victor M; Hernandez-Lopez, Xochiquetzal; Ysunza, Pablo Antonio

    2015-07-01

    Acoustic analysis of voice can provide instrumental data concerning vocal abnormalities. These findings can be used for monitoring clinical course in cases of voice disorders. Cleft palate severely affects the structure of the vocal tract. Hence, voice quality can also be also affected. To study whether the main acoustic parameters of voice, including fundamental frequency, shimmer and jitter are significantly different in patients with a repaired cleft palate, as compared with normal children without speech, language and voice disorders. Fourteen patients with repaired unilateral cleft lip and palate and persistent or residual velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI) were studied. A control group was assembled with healthy volunteer subjects matched by age and gender. Hypernasality and nasal emission were perceptually assessed in patients with VPI. Size of the gap as assessed by videonasopharyngoscopy was classified in patients with VPI. Acoustic analysis of voice including Fundamental frequency (F0), shimmer and jitter were compared between patients with VPI and control subjects. F0 was significantly higher in male patients as compared with male controls. Shimmer was significantly higher in patients with VPI regardless of gender. Moreover, patients with moderate VPI showed a significantly higher shimmer perturbation, regardless of gender. Although future research regarding voice disorders in patients with VPI is needed, at the present time it seems reasonable to include strategies for voice therapy in the speech and language pathology intervention plan for patients with VPI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The impaired myocardial ischemic tolerance in adult offspring of diabetic pregnancy is restored by maternal melatonin treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ling; Zhao, Yi-Chao; Liang, Yan; Lin, Xian-Hua; Tan, Ya-Jing; Wu, Dan-Dan; Li, Xin-Zhu; Ye, Bo-Zhi; Kong, Fan-Qi; Sheng, Jian-Zhong; Huang, He-Feng

    2016-10-01

    Diabetic pregnancy, with ever increasing prevalence, adversely affects embryogenesis and increases vasculometabolic disorder risks in adult offspring. However, it remains poorly understood whether maternal diabetes increases the offspring's susceptibility to heart injuries in adulthood. In this study, we observed that cardiac function and structure were comparable between adult offspring born to diabetic mice and their counterparts born to nondiabetic mice at baseline. However, in response to myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MIR), diabetic mother offspring exhibited augmented infarct size, cardiac dysfunction, and myocardial apoptosis compared with control, in association with exaggerated activation of mitochondria- and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated apoptosis pathways and oxidative stress. Molecular analysis showed that the impaired myocardial ischemic tolerance in diabetic mother offspring was mainly attributable to blunted cardiac insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1/Akt signaling. Furthermore, the effect of maternal melatonin administration on offspring's response to MIR was determined, and the results indicated that melatonin treatment in diabetic dams during pregnancy significantly improved the tolerance to MIR injury in their offspring, via restoring cardiac IRS-1/Akt signaling. Taken together, these data suggest that maternal diabetes predisposes offspring to augmented MIR injury in adulthood, and maternal melatonin supplementation during diabetic pregnancy may hold promise for improving myocardial ischemic tolerance in the offspring. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Oxidative stress in mouse sperm impairs embryo development, fetal growth and alters adiposity and glucose regulation in female offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Lane

    Full Text Available Paternal health cues are able to program the health of the next generation however the mechanism for this transmission is unknown. Reactive oxygen species (ROS are increased in many paternal pathologies, some of which program offspring health, and are known to induce DNA damage and alter the methylation pattern of chromatin. We therefore investigated whether a chemically induced increase of ROS in sperm impairs embryo, pregnancy and offspring health. Mouse sperm was exposed to 1500 µM of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, which induced oxidative damage, however did not affect sperm motility or the ability to bind and fertilize an oocyte. Sperm treated with H2O2 delayed on-time development of subsequent embryos, decreased the ratio of inner cell mass cells (ICM in the resulting blastocyst and reduced implantation rates. Crown-rump length at day 18 of gestation was also reduced in offspring produced by H2O2 treated sperm. Female offspring from H2O2 treated sperm were smaller, became glucose intolerant and accumulated increased levels of adipose tissue compared to control female offspring. Interestingly male offspring phenotype was less severe with increases in fat depots only seen at 4 weeks of age, which was restored to that of control offspring later in life, demonstrating sex-specific impacts on offspring. This study implicates elevated sperm ROS concentrations, which are common to many paternal health pathologies, as a mediator of programming offspring for metabolic syndrome and obesity.

  7. Predictors of Positive Outcomes in Offspring of Depressed Parents and Non-depressed Parents Across 20 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdeli, Helen; Wickramaratne, Priya; Warner, Virginia; Mancini, Anthony; Weissman, Myrna

    2014-01-01

    Understanding differences in factors leading to positive outcomes in high-risk and low-risk offspring has important implications for preventive interventions. We identified variables predicting positive outcomes in a cohort of 235 offspring from 76 families in which one, both, or neither parent had major depressive disorder. Positive outcomes were termed resilient in offspring of depressed parents, and competent in offspring of non-depressed parents, and defined by two separate criteria: absence of psychiatric diagnosis and consistently high functioning at 2, 10, and 20 years follow-up. In offspring of depressed parents, easier temperament and higher self-esteem were associated with greater odds of resilient outcome defined by absence of diagnosis. Lower maternal overprotection, greater offspring self-esteem, and higher IQ were associated with greater odds of resilient outcome defined by consistently high functioning. Multivariate analysis indicated that resilient outcome defined by absence of diagnosis was best predicted by offspring self-esteem; resilient outcome defined by functioning was best predicted by maternal overprotection and self-esteem. Among offspring of non-depressed parents, greater family cohesion, easier temperament and higher self-esteem were associated with greater odds of offspring competent outcome defined by absence of diagnosis. Higher maternal affection and greater offspring self-esteem were associated with greater odds of competent outcome, defined by consistently high functioning. Multivariate analysis for each criterion indicated that competent outcome was best predicted by offspring self-esteem. As the most robust predictor of positive outcomes in offspring of depressed and non-depressed parents, self-esteem is an important target for youth preventive interventions. PMID:25374449

  8. Rare craniofacial clefts in Ibadan | Iyun | Nigerian Journal of Plastic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Congenital craniofacial clefts are anatomical distortions of the face and cranium with deficiencies of excess of tissue in a linear pattern. The exact incidence of craniofacial clefts is unknown because cases are rare and series tend to be small. The aim of this study is to document our experience with congenital ...

  9. Teaching Palatoplasty Using a High-Fidelity Cleft Palate Simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Homan; Podolsky, Dale J; Fisher, David M; Wong, Karen W; Lorenz, H Peter; Khosla, Rohit K; Drake, James M; Forrest, Christopher R

    2018-01-01

    Cleft palate repair is a challenging procedure for cleft surgeons to teach. A novel high-fidelity cleft palate simulator has been described for surgeon training. This study evaluates the simulator's effect on surgeon procedural confidence and palatoplasty knowledge among learners. Plastic surgery trainees attended a palatoplasty workshop consisting of a didactic session on cleft palate anatomy and repair followed by a simulation session. Participants completed a procedural confidence questionnaire and palatoplasty knowledge test immediately before and after the workshop. All participants reported significantly higher procedural confidence following the workshop (p cleft palate surgery experience had higher procedural confidence before (p cleft palate experience did not have higher mean baseline test scores than those with no experience (30 percent versus 28 percent; p > 0.05), but did have significantly higher scores after the workshop (61 percent versus 35 percent; p cleft palate simulator as a training tool to teach palatoplasty. Improved procedural confidence and knowledge were observed after a single session, with benefits seen among trainees both with and without previous cleft experience.

  10. COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATIVE TECHNIQUES FOR THE CHILD WITH A CLEFT PALATE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BENSEN, JACK F.; WHITE, FRAZER D.

    A MULTIDISCIPLINARY APPROACH TO CHILDREN WITH CLEFT PALATES IS DESCRIBED. THE SOUTH FLORIDA CLEFT PALATE CLINIC, REPRESENTING NINE PROFESSIONAL SPECIALTIES, MEETS WEEKLY TO SEE SIX OR SEVEN CASES. SPEECH PERFORMANCE IS RECORDED ON SIX DIAGNOSTIC, DATA COLLECTING FORMS WHICH PROVIDE A BASIS FOR RECORDING CLINICAL JUDGMENTS. PROGNOSIS AND…

  11. We can predict postpalatoplasty velopharyngeal insufficiency in cleft palate patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, Jacques E; Godbout, Audrey; Arteau-Gauthier, Isabelle; Lacour, Sophie; Abel, Kati; McConnell, Elisa-Maude

    2014-02-01

    To find an anatomical measurement of the cleft palate (or a calculated parameter) that predicts the occurrence of velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI) after palatal cleft repair. Retrospective cohort study. Charts were reviewed from cleft palate patients who underwent palatoplasty by the Von Langenbeck technique for isolated cleft palate or Bardach two-flap palatoplasty for cleft lip-palate. Seven anatomical cleft parameters were prospectively measured during the palatoplasty procedure. Three blinded speech-language pathologists retrospectively scored the clinically assessed VPI at 4 years of age. The recommendation of pharyngoplasty was also used as an indicator of VPI. From 1993 to 2008, 67 patients were enrolled in the study. The best predicting parameter was the ratio a/(30 - b1), in which a is defined as the posterior gap between the soft palate and the posterior pharyngeal wall and b1 is the width of the cleft at the hard palate level. An a/(30 - b1) ratio >0.7 to 0.8 is associated with a higher risk of developing VPI (relative risk = 2.2-5.1, sensitivity = 72%-81%, P cleft at the hard palate level and the posterior gap between the soft palate and the posterior pharyngeal wall were found to be the most significant parameters in predicting VPI. The best correlation was obtained with the ratio a/(30 - b1). 4. Copyright © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  12. THIRD BRANCHIAL CLEFT CYST PRESENTATION IN ADULTHOOD: A CASE REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Srinjeeta Garg; Yuvraj Patil; Karan Vayangankar; Adip Shetty; Haritosh Kamalakar Velankar

    2014-01-01

    Third branchial cleft cysts (BCCs) are rare entities that represent abnormal persistence of the branchial apparatus. Most cases of third branchial cleft cysts (BCCs) are diagnosed in childhood and show a marked preference for the left side. However, here we present this rare anomaly in a 40 year old female which presented as a fast growing swelling in adulthood.

  13. Management of cleft lip and palate in Nigeria: A survey ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Clefts of the lip and/or palate are the most common congenital craniofacial defects and second only to club foot among all congenital anomalies. The management of this condition is resource intensive due to the multidimensional needs. This survey was carried out to ascertain the current state of cleft ...

  14. Perioperative adverse airway events in cleft lip and palate repair ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Airway-related problems account for the majority of anaesthetic morbidity in paediatric anaesthesia, but more so for cleft lip and palate repair. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency, pattern, management and outcome of adverse airway events during the perioperative period in cleft lip and palate ...

  15. Transverse facial cleft: A series of 17 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L K Makhija

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Transverse facial cleft (Tessier type 7 or congenital macrostomia is a rare congenital anomaly seldom occurring alone and is frequently associated with deformities of the structures developing from the first and second branchial arches. The reported incidence of No. 7 cleft varies from 1 in 60,000 to 1 in 300,000 live births. Material and Methods: Seventeen patients of transeverse facial cleft who presented to us in last 5 years were included in the study. Their history regarding familial and environmental predispositions was recorded. The cases were analysed on basis of sex, laterality, severity, associated anomalies and were graded according to severity. They were operated by z plasty technique and were followed up for 2 years to look for effectiveness of the technique and its complications. Result: Out of the seventeen patients of transverse cleft, none had familial predilection or any environmental etiology like antenatal radiological exposure or intake of drugs of teratogenic potential. Most of the patients (9/17 were associated with hemifacial microsomia and 1 patient was associated with Treacher Colin′s Syndrome. Out of the 6 cases of Grade I clefts, 4 were isolated transverse clefts and of the 10 patients of Grade II clefts, 7 were associated with hemifacial microsomia. We encountered only one case of Grade III Transverse Cleft which was not only associated with hemifacial microsomia but also had cardiac anomaly. Out of the17 cases, 15 were operated and in most of them the outcome was satisfactory.

  16. The nose in children with unilateral cleft lip and palate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwoerd, C. D.; Mladina, R.; Nolst Trenité, G. J.; Pigott, R. W.

    1995-01-01

    Surgeons and orthodontists are still challenged to achieve 'better' noses for children with a unilateral cleft or lip, alveoulus and palate (UCLP). Various aspects are discussed: infant anatomy and later changes, developmental mechanics, cleft syndrome in animals with surgically produced facial

  17. Feeding Techniques for Children Who Have Cleft Lip and Palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Marsha Dunn

    This pamphlet on feeding techniques for children who have cleft lip and palate emphasizes the role of the parent as part of a team involving many specialists. The pamphlet begins with explanations of complete and incomplete separations of the lip, unilateral and bilateral cleft lips, corrective surgical procedures, etc. The importance of weight…

  18. Awareness, knowledge and attitude on cleft lip and palate among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-11-09

    Nov 9, 2012 ... negative beliefs and attitudes toward the condition. The objective of this ... Conclusion: There is need for increased public enlightenment/health education to increase awareness and subsequently ... The parent's feelings about their child's cleft defect ..... Gene/environment causes of cleft lip and/or palate.

  19. Presurgical cleft lip and palate orthopedics: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alzain I

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ibtesam Alzain,1 Waeil Batwa,2 Alex Cash,3 Zuhair A Murshid2 1Pediatric Dentistry, 2Orthodontic Department, Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 3Cleft Lip and Palate Orthodontics, Queen Victoria NHS Foundation Trust, South Thames Cleft Service, London, UK Abstract: Patients with cleft lip and/or palate go through a lifelong journey of multidisciplinary care, starting from before birth and extending until adulthood. Presurgical orthopedic (PSO treatment is one of the earliest stages of this care plan. In this paper we provide a review of the PSO treatment. This review should help general and specialist dentists to better understand the cleft patient care path and to be able to answer patient queries more efficiently. The objectives of this paper were to review the basic principles of PSO treatment, the various types of techniques used in this therapy, and the protocol followed, and to critically evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of some of these techniques. In conclusion, we believe that PSO treatment, specifically nasoalveolar molding, does help to approximate the segments of the cleft maxilla and does reduce the intersegment space in readiness for the surgical closure of cleft sites. However, what we remain unable to prove equivocally at this point is whether the reduction in the dimensions of the cleft presurgically and the manipulation of the nasal complex benefit our patients in the long term. Keywords: presurgical orthopedic, nasoalveolar molding, cleft lip and palate

  20. Smile Train: The ascendancy of cleft care in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Subodh

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Though India has an estimated population of one million untreated cleft patients, facilities for its treatment have been limited and are not evenly distributed across the country. Furthermore, a paucity of committed cleft surgeons in fewer hospitals to provide quality surgical treatment to these patients, poverty, illiteracy, superstitions and poor connectivity in some remote regions severely limit the chances of an average cleft lip patient born in India from receiving rational and effective comprehensive treatment for his/her malady. The Smile Train Project with its singular focus on cleft patients started its philanthropic activities in India in the year 2000. It made hospitals and included clefts surgeon equal partners in this programme and helped them treat as many cleft patients as they possibly could. The Project encouraged improvement of the training and infrastructure in various centres across the length and breadth of the region. The Project received an unprecedented success in terms of growth of number of centres, cleft surgeons and quantum of cleft patients reporting for treatment. The G S Memorial Hospital is one such partner hospital. It started innovative outreach programmes and took a holistic view of the needs of these patients and their families. With the support of the Smile Train, it has not only succeeded in providing treatment to more than 14,500 patients in 5 years, but has also devised innovative outreach programmes and seamlessly incorporated salient changes in the hospital system to suit the needs of the target population.

  1. The nose in children with unilateral cleft lip and palate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.D.A. Verwoerd (Carel); R. Mladina (R.); G.J. Nolst-Trenité (Gilbert J.); R.W. Pigott (R.)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractSurgeons and orthodontists are still challenged to achieve ‘better’ noses for children with a unilateral cleft or lip, alveolus and palate (UCLP). Various aspects are discussed: infant anatomy and later changes, developmental mechanics, cleft syndrome in animals with surgically produced

  2. Egg size and offspring quality: a meta-analysis in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krist, Miloš

    2011-08-01

    Parents affect offspring fitness by propagule size and quality, selection of oviposition site, quality of incubation, feeding of dependent young, and their defence against predators and parasites. Despite many case studies on each of these topics, this knowledge has not been rigorously integrated into individual parental care traits for any taxon. Consequently, we lack a comprehensive, quantitative assessment of how parental care modifies offspring phenotypes. This meta-analysis of 283 studies with 1805 correlations between egg size and offspring quality in birds is intended to fill this gap. The large sample size enabled testing of how the magnitude of the relationship between egg size and offspring quality depends on a number of variables. Egg size was positively related to nearly all studied offspring traits across all stages of the offspring life cycle. Not surprisingly, the relationship was strongest at hatching but persisted until the post-fledging stage. Morphological traits were the most closely related to egg size but significant relationships were also found with hatching success, chick survival, and growth rate. Non-significant effect sizes were found for egg fertility, chick immunity, behaviour, and life-history or sexual traits. Effect size did not depend on whether chicks were raised by their natural parents or were cross-fostered to other territories. Effect size did not depend on species-specific traits such as developmental mode, clutch size, and relative size of the egg, but was larger if tested in captive compared to wild populations and between rather than within broods. In sum, published studies support the view that egg size affects juvenile survival. There are very few studies that tested the relationship between egg size and the fecundity component of offspring fitness, and no studies on offspring survival as adults or on global fitness. More data are also needed for the relationships between egg size and offspring behavioural and

  3. Communicative abilities in toddlers and in early school age children with cleft palate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiter, Jolien S.; Korsten-Meijer, Astrid G. W.; Goorhuis-Brouwer, Siena M.

    Objectives: Evaluation of improvement in communicative abilities in children with nonsyndromic cleft palate. Methods: Longitudinal retrospective case history Study. Out of 117 children with cleft lip and/or cleft palate born in 1998, 1999 and 2000 and enrolled in the cleft palate team of the

  4. Craniofacial morphology in unoperated infants with isolated cleft palate. A cephalometric analysis in three projections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, N.V.; Kreiborg, S.; Jensen, B.L.

    58th Annual Meeting of the American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association, Minneapolis, Craniofacial morphology, unoperated infants, isolated cleft palate, cephalometric analysis, three projections......58th Annual Meeting of the American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association, Minneapolis, Craniofacial morphology, unoperated infants, isolated cleft palate, cephalometric analysis, three projections...

  5. Identification of 16q21 as a modifier of nonsyndromic orofacial cleft phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Jenna C; Standley, Jennifer; Petrin, Aline

    2017-01-01

    Orofacial clefts (OFCs) are common, complex birth defects with extremely heterogeneous phenotypic presentations. Two common subtypes-cleft lip alone (CL) and CL plus cleft palate (CLP)-are typically grouped into a single phenotype for genetic analysis (i.e., CL with or without cleft palate, CL/P)...

  6. Cross-linguistic perspectives on speech assessment in cleft palate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willadsen, Elisabeth; Henningsson, Gunilla

    2012-01-01

    . Finally, the influence of different languages on some aspects of language acquisition in young children with cleft palate is presented and discussed. Until recently, not much has been written about cross linguistic perspectives when dealing with cleft palate speech. Most literature about assessment......This chapter deals with cross linguistic perspectives that need to be taken into account when comparing speech assessment and speech outcome obtained from cleft palate speakers of different languages. Firstly, an overview of consonants and vowels vulnerable to the cleft condition is presented. Then......, consequences for assessment of cleft palate speech by native versus non-native speakers of a language are discussed, as well as the use of phonemic versus phonetic transcription in cross linguistic studies. Specific recommendations for the construction of speech samples in cross linguistic studies are given...

  7. Possible Estrogen Dependency in the Pathogenesis of Branchial Cleft Cysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan D. Raguse

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Even though branchial cleft cysts are currently accepted as a congenital anomaly, there is often a long delay until clinical presentation; branchial cleft cysts classically appear in the second to fourth decade of life. Our observation of their occurrence in three pregnant women encouraged us to contemplate a possible hormonal influence. Methods. Immunohistological analysis was performed for the evaluation of the estrogen receptor alpha (ERα in paraffin-embedded tissue specimens of 16 patients with a diagnosis of branchial cleft cyst, with three of them being pregnant. Results. Expression of ERα was detected within epithelial cells only in branchial cleft cysts in pregnant females; moreover, higher growth fractions (Ki-67/Mib1 were found. Conclusion. The fact that the estrogen receptor was expressed only in pregnant women, in contrast to 13 investigated cases, may suggest that the high level of estrogen in pregnancy is a possible explanation for the spontaneous growth of branchial cleft cysts.

  8. Possible Estrogen Dependency in the Pathogenesis of Branchial Cleft Cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raguse, Jan D; Anagnostopoulos, Ioannis; Doll, Christian; Heiland, Max; Jöhrens, Korinna

    2017-01-01

    Even though branchial cleft cysts are currently accepted as a congenital anomaly, there is often a long delay until clinical presentation; branchial cleft cysts classically appear in the second to fourth decade of life. Our observation of their occurrence in three pregnant women encouraged us to contemplate a possible hormonal influence. Immunohistological analysis was performed for the evaluation of the estrogen receptor alpha (ER α ) in paraffin-embedded tissue specimens of 16 patients with a diagnosis of branchial cleft cyst, with three of them being pregnant. Expression of ER α was detected within epithelial cells only in branchial cleft cysts in pregnant females; moreover, higher growth fractions (Ki-67/Mib1) were found. The fact that the estrogen receptor was expressed only in pregnant women, in contrast to 13 investigated cases, may suggest that the high level of estrogen in pregnancy is a possible explanation for the spontaneous growth of branchial cleft cysts.

  9. [Recurrent neck abscess due to a branchial cleft remnant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruijff, Schelto; Mastboom, Walter J; Vriens, Menno R; Sidhu, Stan B; Delbridge, Leigh W

    2013-01-01

    Abscesses arising from a third or fourth branchial cleft remnant are uncommon clinical entities and are often not recognised in a timely manner. In a 33-year-old female patient with a recurrent abscess in the left side of her neck, the cause turned out to be a fistula in the third branchial cleft remnant. She was treated initially with antibiotics and prednisone without adequate results. When the abscess was finally surgically drained, she became very ill and was admitted to the ICU with sepsis and multiple organ failure. She was discharged from hospital after six weeks. Four months later, a third-branchial cleft remnant was found during pharyngoscopy, immediately after which the cleft remnant fistula was excised and an ipsilateral hemi-thyroidectomy was performed. In young patients with recurring peri-thyroidal abscesses, a branchial cleft remnant should be considered a causative factor; this could avoid high morbidity and a delay in the appropriate treatment.

  10. Translation and cultural adaptation of the CLEFT-Q for use in Colombia, Chile, and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsangaris, Elena; Riff, Karen W Y Wong; Vargas, Federico; Aguilera, Mirta Palomares; Alarcón, Macarena Miranda; Cazalla, Asteria Albert; Thabane, Lehana; Thoma, Achilleas; Klassen, Anne F

    2017-11-28

    Cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P) is a common congenital craniofacial anomaly that may negatively affect an individual's appearance, health-related quality of life, or speech. In Spain, Colombia, and Chile the overall prevalence of CL/P ranges from 0.53 to 1.59 cases per 1000 live births. Currently, there is no patient-reported outcome (PRO) instrument that is specific for patients with CL/P. The CLEFT-Q is a new PRO instrument developed to measure outcomes of treatment in patients 8 to 29 years of age with CL/P. The aim of this study was to translate and culturally adapt the CLEFT-Q for use in Colombia, Chile, and Spain. The CLEFT-Q was translated from English to 3 Spanish language varieties (Colombian, Chilean, and Spanish (Spain)) and Catalan. Translation and cultural adaptation guidelines set forth by the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research were followed. The field- test version of the CLEFT-Q consisted of 13 scales (total 154 items) measuring appearance, health-related quality of life, and facial function. Forward translations revealed 10 (7%) items that were difficult to translate into Chilean, and back translations identified 34 (22%) and 21 (13%) items whose meaning differed from the English version in at least 1 of the 3 Spanish varieties and Catalan respectively. Twenty-one participants took part in cognitive debriefing interviews. Participants were recruited from plastic surgery centres in Bogotá, Colombia (n = 4), Santiago, Chile (n = 7), and Barcelona, Spain (n = 10). Most participants were males (n = 14, 67%) and were diagnosed with CL/P (n = 17, 81%). Participants reported difficulty understanding 1 item in the Colombian, 1 item in the Spanish (Spain), and 11 items from the Catalan version. Comparison of the 3 Spanish varieties revealed 61 (40%) of the 154 items whose wording differed across the 3 Spanish versions. Translation and cultural adaptation processes provided evidence of transferability of

  11. The Association study of nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Navya

    2016-11-25

    Nov 25, 2016 ... 12 Maternal and Children Metabolic-Genetic Key Laboratory, ... performed association analysis with NSCL/P in 504 cases and 455 healthy controls. Our ... GLI3 morphopathies have distinct clinical characteristics, the ..... Wehby G. L., Cassell C. H. 2010 The impact of orofacial clefts on quality of life and.

  12. Cleft lip with or without cleft palate and dermatoglyphic asymmetry: evaluation of a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiswanger, K; Cooper, M E; Weinberg, S M; Flodman, P; Keglovits, A Bundens; Liu, Y; Hu, D N; Melnick, M; Spence, M A; Marazita, M L

    2002-08-01

    To determine if Chinese individuals with non syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) display more dermatoglyphic asymmetry than unaffected relatives or controls. Case-control study with two control groups (genetically related and unrelated). A total of 500 CL/P probands from Shanghai, China, 421 unaffected relatives, and 66 controls of Chinese heritage. Finger and palm prints were collected, and pattern frequencies, total ridge counts (TRC), and atd angles were calculated. Asymmetry scores between right and left hands were defined for each of the three dermatoglyphic measures. Probands' asymmetry scores were compared statistically with the scores of unaffected relatives and controls. In general, the probands' asymmetry scores for TRC and atd angle did not differ significantly from the scores of either unaffected relatives or controls. However, probands with a positive family history of clefting showed significantly more asymmetry in their pattern types than either probands without a family history, unaffected relatives or controls. These results suggest that a unique genetic mechanism of developmental instability may obtain in CL/P individuals with a positive family history of clefting.

  13. #Cleft: The use of Social Media Amongst Parents of Infants with Clefts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khouri, Joseph S; McCheyne, Melisande J; Morrison, Clinton S

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Many societies and organizations are using social media to reach their target audience. The extent to which parents of patients with craniofacial anomalies use social media has yet to be determined. The goal of this study is to characterize and describe the use of social media by the parents of children with cleft lip and palate as it pertains to the care of their child. Materials and Methods Parents or guardian of all patients presenting for initial consultation regarding a child's congenital cleft anomaly were contacted by phone or mail to complete a survey regarding their use of social media vis-à-vis their child's cleft anomaly. Participants were asked to answer a 19-question survey. Results Thirty-two families were contacted and 25 surveys were completed. Ninety-two percent of respondents used social media to learn about their child's diagnosis. Facebook (76%) and blogs (24%) were the most commonly accessed social media outlets, followed by Instagram (8%). Education about the diagnosis and treatment of cleft pathology (87%) was the most common reason for accessing social media, followed by companionship and support (56%), and advice about perioperative care (52%). Almost half (43%) of parents used social media to obtain information on their caregiver and treatment team, and 26% of parents used information gained on social media to guide their decision on where to seek care. Conclusion Social media is a readily available resource, one that will certainly shape the experiences of our patients and families for years to come.

  14. Maternal peanut exposure during pregnancy and lactation reduces peanut allergy risk in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Expósito, Iván; Song, Ying; Järvinen, Kirsi M; Srivastava, Kamal; Li, Xiu-Min

    2009-11-01

    Maternal allergy is believed to be a risk factor for peanut allergy (PNA) in children. However, there is no direct evidence of maternal transmission of PNA susceptibility, and it is unknown whether maternal peanut exposure affects the development of PNA in offspring. To investigate the influence of maternal PNA on offspring reactions to the first peanut exposure, and whether maternal low-dose peanut exposure during pregnancy and lactation influences these reactions and peanut sensitization in a murine model. Five-week-old offspring of PNA C3H/HeJ mothers (PNA-Ms) were challenged intragastrically with peanut (first exposure), and reactions were determined. In a subset of the experiment, PNA-Ms were fed a low dose of peanut (PNA-M/PN) or not fed peanut (PNA-M/none) during pregnancy and lactation. Their 5-week-old offspring were challenged intragastrically with peanut, and reactions were determined. In another subset of the experiment, offspring of PNA-M/PN or PNA-M/none were sensitized with peanut intragastrically for 6 weeks, and serum peanut-specific antibodies were determined. PNA-M offspring exhibited anaphylactic reactions at first exposure to peanut that were associated with peanut-specific IgG(1) levels and prevented by a platelet activation factor antagonist. In a subset experiment, PNA-M/PN offspring showed significantly reduced first-exposure peanut reactions, increased IgG(2a), and reduced mitogen-stimulated splenocyte cytokine production compared with PNA-M/none offspring. In an additional experiment, PNA-M/PN offspring showed reduction of peanut-specific IgE to active peanut sensitization. We show for the first time maternal transmission of susceptibility to first-exposure peanut reactions and active peanut sensitization. Low-dose peanut exposure during pregnancy and lactation reduced this risk.

  15. Dental anomalies in different cleft groups related to neural crest developmental fields contributes to the understanding of cleft aetiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Louise Claudius; Kjær, Inger; Mølsted, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze dental deviations in three cleft groups and relate findings to embryological neural crest fields (frontonasal, maxillary, and palatal). The overall purpose was to evaluate how fields are involved in different cleft types. DESIGN: Retrospective audit of clinical photographs...

  16. Lateral cervical cleft: a previously unreported anomaly resulting from incomplete disappearance of the second pharyngeal (branchial) cleft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürsoy, M H; Gedikoğlu, G; Tanyel, F C

    1999-03-01

    The authors present a 2-year-old boy with a skin defect located in the right lateral side of the neck. They suggest the defect is a partial failure of disappearance of the second pharyngeal (branchial) cleft and propose a name of lateral cervical cleft.

  17. Craniofacial morphology in complete unilateral cleft lip and palate patients consecutively treated with 1-stage repair of the cleft.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fudalej, P.S.; Surowiec, Z.; Offert, B.; Dudkiewicz, Z.; Katsaros, C.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively evaluate the craniofacial morphology of children with a complete unilateral cleft lip and palate treated with a 1-stage simultaneous cleft repair performed in the first year of life. METHODS: Cephalograms and extraoral profile photographs of 61 consecutively treated

  18. Assessment of nostril symmetry after primary cleft rhinoplasty in patients with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reddy, S.G.; Devarakonda, V.; Reddy, RR

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the nostril symmetry following primary cleft rhinoplasty done with either a dorsal onlay or columellar strut graft in patients with non-syndromic complete unilateral cleft lip and palate. In this retrospective study 30 consecutive patients treated with autogenous

  19. Maxillary arch width in unoperated adult bilateral cleft lip and alveolus and complete bilateral cleft lip and palate.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Latief, B.S.; Lekkas, C.; Kuijpers, M.A.R.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study maxillary arch width in adult patients with bilateral cleft lip and alveolus (BCLA) or with complete bilateral cleft lip and palate (BCLP), who have not had any surgery. SETTING AND SAMPLING POPULATION: Eighteen patients with BCLA, 13 patients with BCLP, and 24 controls from

  20. Presurgical nasoalveolar moulding in unilateral cleft lip and palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Zuhaib

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Presurgical nasoalveolar moulding (PNAM is a non-surgical method of reshaping the cleft lip, alveolus, palate and the nose to minimize the severity of the cleft deformity, before primary cheiloplastyand palatoplasty. In this context, PNAM proves to be an invaluable asset in the management of unilateral cleft lip and palate. Aims: The study was conducted to evaluate the effi cacy of PNAM in the management of unilateral cleft lip and palate with the following objectives: (1 To assess and compare the degree of reduction in the size of cleft palate and alveolus (pre-PNAM and post-PNAM. (2 To evaluate and compare the improvement in columellar length and correction of columellar deviation (pre-PNAM and post-PNAM. (3 To assess the changes in the position of the alar base and the alar cartilages. Settings and Design: Prospective study. Subjects and Methods: A prospective study consisting of, which included 20 patients with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate was conducted. The age at the start of PNAM treatment of the infants ranged from 2 to 44 days of age reporting to our institute between December 2011 and August 2013. All the patients underwent PNAM therapy before primary cheiloplasty at 6 months of age; clinical parameters were assessed pre- and post-therapy using photographs and dental study models of the maxilla. Statistical Analysis Used: Student's t-test for paired comparisons. Results: Results of the study showed a promising reduction in the cleft size before the surgery, signifi cant improvement in nasal symmetry, including the columellar length on the cleft side. Conclusions: PNAM is a valuable adjunct to our surgical armamentarium in dealing with the challenges of primary closure of unilateral cleft lip and palate thereby enhancing the overall surgical outcome. The advantages of this method include the simplicity of the procedure and improving the quality of surgical repair, particularly in obtaining tension free muscle

  1. Parent-offspring conflict and the persistence of pregnancy-induced hypertension in modern humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartsteen, Birgitte Hollegaard; Byars, Sean Geoffrey; Lykke, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a major cause of perinatal mortality and disease affecting 5-10% of all pregnancies worldwide, but its etiology remains poorly understood despite considerable research effort. Parent-offspring conflict theory suggests that such hypertensive disorders of pregnancy may have evolved...... towards the end of pregnancy in order to explain why these disorders have not been removed by natural selection in our hunter-gatherer ancestors. We analyzed >750,000 live births in the Danish National Patient Registry and all registered medical diagnoses for up to 30 years after birth. We show...... that early PIH leading to improved postpartum survival and health represents a balanced compromise between the reproductive interests of parents and offspring, whereas later onset of PIH may reflect an unbalanced parent-offspring conflict at the detriment of maternal and offspring health....

  2. Maternal protein intake in pregnancy and offspring metabolic health at age 9-16 y

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maslova, Ekaterina; Hansen, Susanne; Grunnet, Louise Groth

    2017-01-01

    in free-living populations remains limited. Objective: We examined the association of protein intake in pregnancy with offspring metabolic health at age 9-16 y in a longitudinal cohort that oversampled pregnancies with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Design: Six hundred eight women with an index...... provide little support for an association of maternal protein intake in pregnancy with measures of offspring metabolic health. Further studies in larger cohorts are needed to determine whether low maternal protein intake in pregnancy may improve glucose homeostasis in GDM-exposed and male offspring....... pregnancy affected by gestational diabetes mellitus and 626 controls enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort were used for the analysis. Protein (total, animal, vegetable) intake was assessed by using a foodfrequency questionnaire in gestational week 25. The offspring underwent a clinical examination...

  3. The impact of maternal obesity during pregnancy on offspring immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Randall M; Messaoudi, Ilhem

    2015-12-15

    In the United States, approximately 64% of women of childbearing age are either overweight or obese. Maternal obesity during pregnancy is associated with a greater risk for adverse maternal-fetal outcomes. Adverse health outcomes for the offspring can persist into adulthood, increasing the incidence of several chronic conditions including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and asthma. Since these diseases have a significant inflammatory component, these observations are indicative of perturbation of the normal development and maturation of the immune system of the offspring in utero. This hypothesis is strongly supported by data from several rodent studies. Although the mechanisms of these perturbations are not fully understood, it is thought that increased placental inflammation due to obesity may directly affect neonatal development through alterations in nutrient transport. In this review we examine the impact of maternal obesity on the neonatal immune system, and potential mechanisms for the changes observed. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  4. Cause analysis, prevention, and treatment of postoperative restlessness after general anesthesia in children with cleft palate

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Hao; Mei, Xiao-Peng; Xu, Li-Xian

    2017-01-01

    Cleft palate is one of the most common congenital malformations of the oral and maxillofacial region, with an incidence rate of around 0.1%. Early surgical repair is the only method for treatment of a cleft lip and palate. However, because of the use of inhalation anesthesia in children and the physiological characteristics of the cleft palate itself combined with the particularities of cleft palate surgery, the incidence rate of postoperative emergence agitation (EA) in cleft palate surgery ...

  5. The occurrence of a branchial cleft cyst in the anterior mediastinum: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seong Hoon; Kim, Seong Hoon; Shin, Hyun Woong; Jo, Hyun Chul; Son, Mi Yung; Gong, Joon Hyuk

    2008-01-01

    Branchial cleft cysts and branchial anomalies develop from the branchial cleft apparatus that persists after fetal development. The most common anatomical site for the occurrence of branchial cleft cysts is in the cervical area, generally anterior to the sternomastoid muscle in the upper or middle portion of the neck. A mediastinal branchial cleft cyst is extremely rare and few cases have been reported. We report the case of branchial cleft cyst found in the anterior mediastinum with literature review

  6. The occurrence of a branchial cleft cyst in the anterior mediastinum: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Seong Hoon; Kim, Seong Hoon; Shin, Hyun Woong; Jo, Hyun Chul; Son, Mi Yung; Gong, Joon Hyuk [Daegu Fatima Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-08-15

    Branchial cleft cysts and branchial anomalies develop from the branchial cleft apparatus that persists after fetal development. The most common anatomical site for the occurrence of branchial cleft cysts is in the cervical area, generally anterior to the sternomastoid muscle in the upper or middle portion of the neck. A mediastinal branchial cleft cyst is extremely rare and few cases have been reported. We report the case of branchial cleft cyst found in the anterior mediastinum with literature review.

  7. The Epidemiology of Cleft Lip and Palate in Canada, 1998 to 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Jennifer L K; Oddone-Paolucci, Elizabeth; Harrop, Robertston A

    2015-07-01

    To examine the birth prevalence, gender distribution, and pattern of surgical intervention for clefts in Canada (1998 to 2007). Also to highlight the difficulties associated with studying the epidemiology of clefts using the current data collection mechanisms. Epidemiologic data acquired from the Canadian Institute for Health Information. Population-based study in Canada 1998 to 2007. All live births with an International Classification of Diseases (9th or 10th revision) diagnostic code for cleft palate or for cleft lip with or without cleft palate or with a surgical intervention code for repair of cleft lip or cleft palate. Birth prevalence, gender distribution, and pattern of surgical intervention. There were 3,015,325 live births in Canada (1998 to 2007). The mean birth prevalence was 0.82 per 1000 live births for cleft lip with or without cleft palate and 0.58 per 1000 live births for cleft palate. The birth prevalence of cleft lip with or without cleft palate was significantly higher in boys, with a stable boy to girl ratio of 1.75:1. Cleft palate was significantly greater in girls; however, the boy to girl ratio decreased from 0.97:1 in 1998 to 0.59:1 in 2007. The median age of repair in Canada from 1998 to 2007 was 4.7 months for cleft lip and 11.6 months for cleft palate. Thirty percent of patients underwent cleft palate repair after age 1. The birth prevalence of cleft palate and cleft lip with or without cleft palate is stable in Canada. An increasing birth prevalence of cleft palate in girls is suggested. The timing of surgical intervention is consistent with current standards. The challenges associated with collecting these data in Canada are discussed.

  8. Parental mental illness and eating disorders in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bould, Helen; Koupil, Ilona; Dalman, Christina; DeStavola, Bianca; Lewis, Glyn; Magnusson, Cecilia

    2015-05-01

    To investigate which parental mental illnesses are associated with eating disorders in their offspring. We used data from a record-linkage cohort study of 158,679 children aged 12-24 years at the end of follow-up, resident in Stockholm County from 2001 to 2007, to investigate whether different parental mental illnesses are risk factors for eating disorders in their offspring. The outcome measure was diagnosis of any eating disorder, either from an ICD or DSM-IV code, or inferred from an appointment at a specialist eating disorder clinic. Mental illness in parents is a risk factor for eating disorders in female offspring (Adjusted Hazard Ratio (AHR) 1.57 (95% CI 1.42, 1.92), p eating disorders is increased if there is a parental diagnosis of bipolar affective disorder (AHR 2.28 (95% CI 1.39, 3.72), p = 0.004), personality disorder (AHR 1.57 (95% CI 1.01, 2.44), p = 0.043) or anxiety/depression (AHR 1.57 (95% CI 1.32, 1.86), p disorder (AHR 1.25 (95% CI 0.74, 2.13), p = 0.40). There is no support for a relationship between parental substance misuse and eating disorders in children (AHR 1.08 (95% CI 0.82, 1.43), p = 0.57). Parental mental illness, specifically parental anxiety, depression, bipolar affective disorder, and personality disorders, are risk factors for eating disorders in their offspring. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. [Evaluation and treatment of children's laryngeal clefts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C; Tan, L T; Xu, Z M

    2018-01-07

    Objectives: To provide the experience about the diagnostic process and following management, and to discuss the outcome and predictors in children with laryngeal cleft (LC). Methods: A retrospective case study was conducted at an academic children's hospital. Thirty children were diagnosed as laryngeal cleft between January 2016 and April 2017.Airway evaluations were performed using both flexible and rigid endoscopy, and swallowing evaluations were performed using fiberoptic endoscopic examination of swallowing or modified barium swallow. Results: Of 30 cases, 18 were male and 12 were female, ranging in age from birth to 8 years. Two cases were diagnosed as type 0 LC, and they were offered thickened liquid without medication. Throughout follow-up, they remained asymptomatic and showed no respiratory complications. Nineteen children were diagnosed as type Ⅰ LC. Six of them were significantly improved by anti-reflux therapy and feeding instructions. Four children were concomitant with swallowing dysfunction and/or neuromuscular disorders, and they were given a tracheotomy and routine management. Another 4 children were submitted surgical repair when routine treatment failed, and their symptoms were relieved. Five children were concomitant with larygomalacia, and their symptoms were totally ameliorated by supraglottoplasty. Three children were diagnosed as type Ⅱ LC. Two of them received surgical repair and clinically improved, and the rest one was treated by anti-reflux therapy and still under follow-up. Three children were diagnosed as type Ⅲ LC. One of them was underwent surgical repair and clinically improved. Two children were tracheotomized and treated by anti-reflux therapy. Three cases were diagnosed as type Ⅳ LC at birth and no one survived. Conclusions: Laryngeal cleft is a rare congenital anomaly manifesting with a variety of symptoms, including swallowing disorder, aspirations, dyspnea, stridor and hoarseness. Diagnosis and treatment of laryngeal

  10. Quality of life in patients with cleft lip and palate after operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augsornwan, Darawan; Namedang, Sarakull; Pongpagatip, Sumalee; Surakunprapha, Palakorn

    2011-12-01

    Cleft lip and cleft palate are the most common craniofacial anomalies. Srinagarind Hospital has 150-200 cases each year. The operating process of care, requires continuity of care involving a multidisciplinary team. When the patients go to hospital for an operation they experience pain, limited activity and also food is very different from normal life. When attending school they suffer speech articulation problems and feel shy and isolated, which has a detrimental affect on their life style and quality of life. The main purpose of the study is to the present study quality of life in patients with cleft lip and palate after operation. The present study is descriptive research using qualitative and quantitative approaches. The studied population were patients age 8-18 years old who were admitted at 3C Ward and Outpatient Department, Srinagarind Hospital. 33 patients were interviewed for the quantitative approach. Guideline for in-depth interview with 15 patients were used for the qualitative approach. Quantitative data were analyzed and presented in frequency, percentage and standard deviation. The qualitative data were analyzed through content analysis. Patients consider their QOL is high level, but in detail they still worry about self concept psychological well-being. From indept interview patients would like to get further treatment to minimize their scar as soon as possible. Patients consider their quality of life as high level, but they would like to get further treatment.

  11. [Dental anomalies in Chinese children with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xin-xin; Li, Jing; Ge, Li-hong; Ma, Lian

    2011-05-01

    To investigate the prevalence of dental anomalies in Chinese children with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP). Dental histories and radiographs of 244 Chinese children with UCLP were collected. The diagnosis of dental anomalies was based on panoramic radiographs before alveolar bone grafting. All patients were over 8 years old. In the UCLP group, 66.8% of the patients was presented with hypodontia. The maxillary lateral incisors were the most common teeth affected, followed by maxillary second premolars, mandibular incisors and mandibular second premolars. A total of 33.6% the patients was presented with dental malformation, most were microdontic laterel incisors. A total of 4.9% the patients was presented with hyperdontia. The supernumerary teeth were more frequently found in the cleft region. The prevalence of missing maxillary lateral incisor in the noncleft side was statistically different between genders, which was higher in male (P dental anomalies. The prevalence of dental anomalies is higher in the UCLP patients than in the normal population. Dental anomalies occur more frequently on the cleft side than on the noncleft side.

  12. Assessing Angle's malocclusion among cleft lip and/or palate patients in Jammu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Akshay; Gupta, Anur; Bhardwaj, Amit; Vikram, S; Gomathi, Ajeetha; Singh, Karanprakash

    2016-04-01

    The study was conducted to examine the patients with abnormalities of cleft lip and/or palate and its association with different types of malocclusion. This descriptive study was done among 168 patients with abnormalities of cleft lip and/or palate. Angle's classification of malocclusion was applied for assessment of occlusion as Class I, Class II, and Class III. The types of oral clefts classification such as cleft lip unilateral and cleft lip bilateral, cleft palate (CP), unilateral cleft lip with palate (UCLP) and bilateral cleft lip with palate (BCLP) was considered. Chi-square test was applied to analyze the data at P clefts patients as cleft lip (81), CP (31), and both cleft lip and palate (53). The occurrence of unilateral cleft lip (44) was maximum among the sample followed by UCLP (39), and bilateral cleft lip (31). Maximum subjects with Class II (10.7%) and Class III (4.9%) malocclusion were seen with unilateral cleft lip deformities. None of the patients with UCLP had Class III malocclusion. Cleft lip was the most commonly observed deformity and high frequency of Class II and III malocclusion was evident. Therefore, patients with such abnormalities should be screened timely.

  13. Interspecific Interactions and the Scope for Parent-Offspring Conflict: High Mite Density Temporarily Changes the Trade-Off between Offspring Size and Number in the Burying Beetle, Nicrophorus vespilloides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ornela De Gasperin

    Full Text Available Parents have a limited amount of resources to invest in reproduction and commonly trade-off how much they invest in offspring size (or quality versus brood size. A negative relationship between offspring size and number has been shown in numerous taxa and it underpins evolutionary conflicts of interest between parents and their young. For example, previous work on vertebrates shows that selection favours mothers that produce more offspring, at the expense of individual offspring size, yet favours offspring that have relatively few siblings and therefore attain a greater size at independence. Here we analyse how this trade-off is temporarily affected by stochastic variation in the intensity of interspecific interactions. We examined the effect of the mite Poecilochirus carabi on the relationship between offspring size and number in the burying beetle, Nicrophorus vespilloides. We manipulated the initial number of mites in the reproductive event (by introducing either no mites, 4 mites, 10 mites, or 16 mites, and assessed the effect on the brood. We found a similar trade-off between offspring size and number in all treatments, except in the '16 mite' treatment where the correlation between offspring number and size flattened considerably. This effect arose because larvae in small broods failed to attain a high mass by dispersal. Our results show that variation in the intensity of interspecific interactions can temporarily change the strength of the trade-off between offspring size and number. In this study, high densities of mites prevented individual offspring from attaining their optimal weight, thus potentially temporarily biasing the outcome of parent-offspring conflict in favour of parents.

  14. Interspecific Interactions and the Scope for Parent-Offspring Conflict: High Mite Density Temporarily Changes the Trade-Off between Offspring Size and Number in the Burying Beetle, Nicrophorus vespilloides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gasperin, Ornela; Kilner, Rebecca M

    2016-01-01

    Parents have a limited amount of resources to invest in reproduction and commonly trade-off how much they invest in offspring size (or quality) versus brood size. A negative relationship between offspring size and number has been shown in numerous taxa and it underpins evolutionary conflicts of interest between parents and their young. For example, previous work on vertebrates shows that selection favours mothers that produce more offspring, at the expense of individual offspring size, yet favours offspring that have relatively few siblings and therefore attain a greater size at independence. Here we analyse how this trade-off is temporarily affected by stochastic variation in the intensity of interspecific interactions. We examined the effect of the mite Poecilochirus carabi on the relationship between offspring size and number in the burying beetle, Nicrophorus vespilloides. We manipulated the initial number of mites in the reproductive event (by introducing either no mites, 4 mites, 10 mites, or 16 mites), and assessed the effect on the brood. We found a similar trade-off between offspring size and number in all treatments, except in the '16 mite' treatment where the correlation between offspring number and size flattened considerably. This effect arose because larvae in small broods failed to attain a high mass by dispersal. Our results show that variation in the intensity of interspecific interactions can temporarily change the strength of the trade-off between offspring size and number. In this study, high densities of mites prevented individual offspring from attaining their optimal weight, thus potentially temporarily biasing the outcome of parent-offspring conflict in favour of parents.

  15. Trans-oral endoscopic partial adenoidectomy does not worsen the speech after cleft palate repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Aziz, Mosaad; Khalifa, Badawy; Shawky, Ahmed; Rashed, Mohammed; Naguib, Nader; Abdel-Hameed, Asmaa

    2016-01-01

    Adenoid hypertrophy may play a role in velopharyngeal closure especially in patients with palatal abnormality; adenoidectomy may lead to velopharyngeal insufficiency and hyper nasal speech. Patients with cleft palate even after repair should not undergo adenoidectomy unless absolutely needed, and in such situations, conservative or partial adenoidectomy is performed to avoid the occurrence of velopharyngeal insufficiency. Trans-oral endoscopic adenoidectomy enables the surgeon to inspect the velopharyngeal valve during the procedure. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of transoral endoscopic partial adenoidectomy on the speech of children with repaired cleft palate. Twenty children with repaired cleft palate underwent transoral endoscopic partial adenoidectomy to relieve their airway obstruction. The procedure was completely visualized with the use of a 70° 4mm nasal endoscope; the upper part of the adenoid was removed using adenoid curette and St. Claire Thompson forceps, while the lower part was retained to maintain the velopharyngeal competence. Preoperative and postoperative evaluation of speech was performed, subjectively by auditory perceptual assessment, and objectively by nasometric assessment. Speech was not adversely affected after surgery. The difference between preoperative and postoperative auditory perceptual assessment and nasalance scores for nasal and oral sentences was insignificant (p=0.231, 0.442, 0.118 respectively). Transoral endoscopic partial adenoidectomy is a safe method; it does not worsen the speech of repaired cleft palate patients. It enables the surgeon to strictly inspect the velopharyngeal valve during the procedure with better determination of the adenoidal part that may contribute in velopharyngeal closure. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  16. School performance for children with cleft lip and palate: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, J C; Raynes-Greenow, C; Turner, R; Bower, C; Dodson, A; Nicholls, W; Nassar, N

    2017-03-01

    Educational attainment is important in shaping young people's life prospects. To investigate whether being born with orofacial cleft (OFC) affects school performance, we compared school test results between children born with and without OFC. Using record-linked datasets, we conducted a population-based cohort study of children liveborn in Western Australia 1980-2010 with a diagnosis of OFC on the Register of Developmental Anomalies, and a random sample of 6603 children born without OFC. We compared odds ratios for meeting national minimum standards in five domains (reading, numeracy, writing, spelling, grammar and punctuation), and adjusted OR (aOR) for children with cleft lip only (CLO), cleft lip and palate (CL + P) and cleft palate only (CPO) for each domain. Results from two testing programs (WALNA and NAPLAN) were available for 3238 (89%) children expected to participate. Most met the national minimum standards. Compared with children without OFC, children with CPO were less likely to meet minimum standards for NAPLAN reading (aOR 0.57 [95%CI 0.34, 0.96]) grammar and punctuation (aOR 0.49 [95%CI 0.32, 0.76]), WALNA writing (aOR 0.66 [95%CI 0.47, 0.92]), and WALNA and NAPLAN numeracy (aOR 0.64 [95%CI 0.43, 0.95] and aOR 0.47 [95%CI 0.28, 0.82]), respectively. Children with CL + P had significantly lower odds for reaching the spelling standard in NAPLAN tests (aOR 0.52 [95%CI 0.29, 0.94]). Children with CLO had similar odds for reaching all minimum standards. Children born with OFC, particularly children with CPO, should be monitored to identify learning difficulties early, to enable intervention to maximize school attainment. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Children's Attitudes Toward Peers With Unintelligible Speech Associated With Cleft Lip and/or Palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alice; Gibbon, Fiona E; Spivey, Kimberley

    2017-05-01

      The objective of this study was to investigate whether reduced speech intelligibility in children with cleft palate affects social and personal attribute judgments made by typically developing children of different ages.   The study (1) measured the correlation between intelligibility scores of speech samples from children with cleft palate and social and personal attribute judgments made by typically developing children based on these samples and (2) compared the attitude judgments made by children of different ages. Participants   A total of 90 typically developing children, 30 in each of three age groups (7 to 8 years, 9 to 10 years, and 11 to 12 years).   Speech intelligibility scores and typically developing children's attitudes were measured using eight social and personal attributes on a three-point rating scale.   There was a significant correlation between the speech intelligibility scores and attitude judgments for a number of traits: "sick-healthy" as rated by the children aged 7 to 8 years, "no friends-friends" by the children aged 9 to 10 years, and "ugly-good looking" and "no friends-friends" by the children aged 11 to 12 years. Children aged 7 to 8 years gave significantly lower ratings for "mean-kind" but higher ratings for "shy-outgoing" when compared with the other two groups.   Typically developing children tended to make negative social and personal attribute judgments about children with cleft palate based solely on the intelligibility of their speech. Society, educators, and health professionals should work together to ensure that children with cleft palate are not stigmatized by their peers.

  18. Growth hormone deficiency in cleft lip and palate patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin AbdollahiFakhim

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Failure to thrive (FTT is relatively common among cleft patients, most commonly attributed to feeding problems during the first months of life. Close association between midline clefts and pituitary gland abnormalities prompted us to determine the frequency of growth hormone deficiency in cleft patients, which is easily treated. Methods: Any cleft patient with FTT was studied and when the patient’s height was under the 3rd percentile of normal, growth hormone was checked after clonidine administration. Growth hormone was checked before and 30, 60 and 90 minutes after clonidine use. Results: Of 670 patients with cleft lip or palate, 31 patients (4% had some kind of growth retardation according to weight, height or head circumstance. Eighteen patients were under the 3rd percentile of normal height. Growth hormone deficiency was detected in 8 patients out of 18 patients and overall frequency of growth hormone deficiency among cleft patients with growth retardation was 25.8% (8 out of 31. Seven patients of 8 were male whereas one was female and half of the patients were syndromic. Conclusion: Cleft patients have many problems with normal feeding and all kind of support should be provided to achieve near-normal feeding and they should be monitored for normal growth. Any patient with growth retardation, especially height decrease, should be assessed for growth hormone deficiency.

  19. First branchial cleft anomalies: otologic manifestations and treatment outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinn, Justin R; Purcell, Patricia L; Horn, David L; Sie, Kathleen C Y; Manning, Scott C

    2015-03-01

    This study describes the presentation of first branchial cleft anomalies and compares outcomes of first branchial cleft with other branchial cleft anomalies with attention to otologic findings. Case series with chart review. Pediatric tertiary care facility. Surgical databases were queried to identify children with branchial cleft anomalies. Descriptive analysis defined sample characteristics. Risk estimates were calculated using Fisher's exact test. Queries identified 126 subjects: 27 (21.4%) had first branchial cleft anomalies, 80 (63.4%) had second, and 19 (15.1%) had third or fourth. Children with first anomalies often presented with otologic complications, including otorrhea (22.2%), otitis media (25.9%), and cholesteatoma (14.8%). Of 80 children with second branchial cleft anomalies, only 3 (3.8%) had otitis. Compared with children with second anomalies, children with first anomalies had a greater risk of requiring primary incision and drainage: 16 (59.3%) vs 2 (2.5%) (relative risk [RR], 3.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.4-5; Pbranchial cleft anomalies often present with otologic complaints. They are at increased risk of persistent disease, particularly if anomalies lie medial to the facial nerve. They may require ear-specific surgery such as tympanoplasty. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2014.

  20. An unusual presentation of presentation of a branchial cleft cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vemula, Rahul; Greco, Gregory

    2012-05-01

    Branchial cleft cysts are congenital anomalies that arise from the aberrant embryological development of the branchial apparatus. The location of a branchial cleft cyst is determined by which branchial cleft failed to obliterate during embryological development, with the second branchial cleft cyst being the most commonly recognized lesion. Although the most common location for branchial cleft cysts is between the external auditory canal and the level of the clavicle, the literature does describe unusual locations. We present a case a 15-year-old boy who had an enlarging lesion on his back that had been present since birth. A presumptive radiologic diagnosis of lymphangioma circumscriptum was made. Upon excision of the lesion and pathologic examination, it was determined to be a branchial cleft cyst. The patient had an uneventful postoperative course, and no recurrence was noted after a 2-year follow-up. Our clinical report demonstrates a lesion on the posterior thorax that proved to be a branchial cleft cyst and should always be part of the differential diagnosis for soft tissue masses of the thorax.

  1. Nasal airway and septal variation in unilateral and bilateral cleft lip and palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starbuck, John M; Friel, Michael T; Ghoneima, Ahmed; Flores, Roberto L; Tholpady, Sunil; Kula, Katherine

    2014-10-01

    Cleft lip and palate (CLP) affects the dentoalveolar and nasolabial facial regions. Internal and external nasal dysmorphology may persist in individuals born with CLP despite surgical interventions. 7-18 year old individuals born with unilateral and bilateral CLP (n = 50) were retrospectively assessed using cone beam computed tomography. Anterior, middle, and posterior nasal airway volumes were measured on each facial side. Septal deviation was measured at the anterior and posterior nasal spine, and the midpoint between these two locations. Data were evaluated using principal components analysis (PCA), multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA), and post-hoc ANOVA tests. PCA results show partial separation in high dimensional space along PC1 (48.5% variance) based on age groups and partial separation along PC2 (29.8% variance) based on CLP type and septal deviation patterns. MANOVA results indicate that age (P = 0.007) and CLP type (P ≤ 0.001) significantly affect nasal airway volume and septal deviation. ANOVA results indicate that anterior nasal volume is significantly affected by age (P ≤ 0.001), whereas septal deviation patterns are significantly affected by CLP type (P ≤ 0.001). Age and CLP type affect nasal airway volume and septal deviation patterns. Nasal airway volumes tend to be reduced on the clefted sides of the face relative to non-clefted sides of the face. Nasal airway volumes tend to strongly increase with age, whereas septal deviation values tend to increase only slightly with age. These results suggest that functional nasal breathing may be impaired in individuals born with the unilateral and bilateral CLP deformity. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Cervical vertebral maturation of female children with orofacial clefts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ling; Li, Wei Ran

    2013-09-01

    Objective : To evaluate the skeletal maturation of girls with orofacial clefts using the cervical vertebral maturation method. Design : Case-control study. Setting : The School of Stomatology, Peking University. Patients : A total of 173 girls with cleft lip and/or palate from 8 to 16 years old were compared with 1038 age-matched girls without clefts. Results : In the 8- to 9-year-olds, most of the girls from both groups were in cervical stage 1. In the 14- to 15-year-olds and 15- to 16-year-olds, almost all the girls from both groups were in cervical stages 5 and 6, and most of the 15- to 16-year-old girls were in cervical stage 6. Differences existed in each year for 9- to 14-year-olds, which was confirmed by statistical analysis. After ordinal logistical regression of data from girls 9 to 14 years of age, girls of the same age in the non-cleft lip and/or palate group were associated with 1.559 times the odds of having achieved higher cervical stages than those in the cleft lip and/or palate group. Most girls without cleft lip and/or palate were in cervical stages 3 and 4 in the 11- to 12-year-olds; whereas, it was not so obvious in the girls with cleft lip and/or palate. By the age of 12, girls with cleft lip and/or palate had 2.667 times the risk of delayed cervical stage 3, and the 95% confidence interval for the odds ratio was 1.013 to 7.019. Conclusions : Girls with cleft lip and/or palate are at a higher risk of delayed pubertal growth.

  3. Perception of parents about the auditory attention skills of his kid with cleft lip and palate: retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mondelli, Maria Fernanda Capoani Garcia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To process and decode the acoustic stimulation are necessary cognitive and neurophysiological mechanisms. The hearing stimulation is influenced by cognitive factor from the highest levels, such as the memory, attention and learning. The sensory deprivation caused by hearing loss from the conductive type, frequently in population with cleft lip and palate, can affect many cognitive functions - among them the attention, besides harm the school performance, linguistic and interpersonal. Objective: Verify the perception of the parents of children with cleft lip and palate about the hearing attention of their kids. Method: Retrospective study of infants with any type of cleft lip and palate, without any genetic syndrome associate which parents answered a relevant questionnaire about the auditory attention skills. Results: 44 are from the male kind and 26 from the female kind, 35,71% of the answers were affirmative for the hearing loss and 71,43% to otologic infections. Conclusion: Most of the interviewed parents pointed at least one of the behaviors related to attention contained in the questionnaire, indicating that the presence of cleft lip and palate can be related to difficulties in hearing attention.

  4. Maternal intake of trans-unsaturated or interesterified fatty acids during pregnancy and lactation modifies mitochondrial bioenergetics in the liver of adult offspring in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Velasco, Patricia C; Chicaybam, Gustavo; Ramos-Filho, Dionizio M; Dos Santos, Raísa M A R; Mairink, Caroline; Sardinha, Fátima L C; El-Bacha, Tatiana; Galina, Antonio; Tavares-do-Carmo, Maria das Graças

    2017-07-01

    The quality of dietary lipids in the maternal diet can programme the offspring to diseases in later life. We investigated whether the maternal intake of palm oil or interesterified fat, substitutes for trans-unsaturated fatty acids (FA), induces metabolic changes in the adult offspring. During pregnancy and lactation, C57BL/6 female mice received normolipidic diets containing partially hydrogenated vegetable fat rich in trans-unsaturated fatty acids (TG), palm oil (PG), interesterified fat (IG) or soyabean oil (CG). After weaning, male offspring from all groups received the control diet until day 110. Plasma glucose and TAG and liver FA profiles were ascertained. Liver mitochondrial function was accessed with high-resolution respirometry by measuring VO2, fluorimetry for detection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production and mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake. The results showed that the IG offspring presented a 20 % increase in plasma glucose and both the IG and TG offspring presented a 2- and 1·9-fold increase in TAG, respectively, when compared with CG offspring. Liver MUFA and PUFA contents decreased in the TG and IG offspring when compared with CG offspring. Liver MUFA content also decreased in the PG offspring. These modifications in FA composition possibly affected liver mitochondrial function, as respiration was impaired in the TG offspring and H2O2 production was higher in the IG offspring. In addition, mitochondrial Ca2+ retention capacity was reduced by approximately 40 and 55 % in the TG and IG offspring, respectively. In conclusion, maternal consumption of trans-unsaturated and interesterified fat affected offspring health by compromising mitochondrial bioenergetics and lipid metabolism in the liver.

  5. Clinical photography among African cleft caregivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Babatunde Olaitan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this paper is to document the practice of photography among clinicians whose daily work depends and is influenced so much by medical photography. Materials and Methods: Questionnaires documenting the bio data, place of practice, and experience of cleft caregivers with clinical photography were distributed. Knowledge of rules guiding clinical photography and adherence to them were also asked. Types of camera used were documented and knowledge of the value of clinical photographs were also inquired. Results: Plastic surgeons constitute the highest proportion of 27 (38.6%, followed by Oral and Maxillofacial surgeons with 14 (20.0%. Twenty one (30.0% of the respondents always, 21 (30.0% often, 12 (17.1% frequently, while 9 respondents sometimes took photographs of their patients. Suggested uses of clinical photographs included training, 52 (74.3%, education, 51 (72.9%, medicolegal, 44 (62.9% and advertisement, 44 (62.9% among others. Twenty two (31.4% did not know that there were standard guidelines for taking clinical photographs. Twenty three (32.9% of them did not seek the consent of the patients before taking clinical photographs. Conclusion: While the practice of clinical photography is high among African cleft caregivers, there is a need for further education on the issues of standard rules and obtaining consent from patients.

  6. Modeling CMB lensing cross correlations with CLEFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modi, Chirag; White, Martin [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Vlah, Zvonimir, E-mail: modichirag@berkeley.edu, E-mail: mwhite@berkeley.edu, E-mail: zvlah@stanford.edu [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94306 (United States)

    2017-08-01

    A new generation of surveys will soon map large fractions of sky to ever greater depths and their science goals can be enhanced by exploiting cross correlations between them. In this paper we study cross correlations between the lensing of the CMB and biased tracers of large-scale structure at high z . We motivate the need for more sophisticated bias models for modeling increasingly biased tracers at these redshifts and propose the use of perturbation theories, specifically Convolution Lagrangian Effective Field Theory (CLEFT). Since such signals reside at large scales and redshifts, they can be well described by perturbative approaches. We compare our model with the current approach of using scale independent bias coupled with fitting functions for non-linear matter power spectra, showing that the latter will not be sufficient for upcoming surveys. We illustrate our ideas by estimating σ{sub 8} from the auto- and cross-spectra of mock surveys, finding that CLEFT returns accurate and unbiased results at high z . We discuss uncertainties due to the redshift distribution of the tracers, and several avenues for future development.

  7. Reproductive patterns among Danish women with oral clefts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yttri, Janne Elin; Christensen, Kaare; Knudsen, Lisbeth

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The aim of the study was to compare the reproduction pattern among Danish women born with isolated oral clefts with the Danish background population. Design and setting: A nationwide population based historic cohort-study based on three registers: The Danish Facial Cleft...... Register, The Danish Civil Registration System and the Fertility of Women and Couples Dataset. Participants: Through linkages of the registers, number of children and the exact age at childbirth of all Danish women born with an oral cleft during 1950 through 1988 (N=1,931) were obtained. These data were...

  8. Branchial cleft cyst: A case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavan, Surekha; Deshmukh, Revati; Karande, Prasad; Ingale, Yeshwant

    2014-01-01

    First branchial cleft anomaly is a rare disease of the head and neck. Because of its rarity, first branchial cleft anomaly is often misdiagnosed and results in inappropriate management. In this article, we present a case of type II first branchial cleft anomaly. A middle-aged woman who had suffered from swelling on lower jaw visited our department with the chief complaint of a swelling. She underwent complete excision of the lesion with preservation of the facial nerve. The patient recovered well and had no recurrence at 1-year of follow up.

  9. Third branchial cleft anomaly presenting as a retropharyngeal abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, R Y; Damrose, E J; Alavi, S; Maceri, D R; Shapiro, N L

    2000-08-31

    Branchial cleft anomalies are congenital developmental defects that typically present as a soft fluctuant mass or fistulous tract along the anterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle. However, branchial anomalies can manifest atypically, presenting diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Error or delay in diagnosis can lead to complications, recurrences, and even life-threatening emergencies. We describe a case of an infected branchial cleft cyst that progressed to a retropharyngeal abscess in a 5-week-old female patient. The clinical, radiographic, and histologic findings of this rare presentation of branchial cleft cyst are discussed.

  10. Duplicated facial nerve trunk with a first branchial cleft cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinson, Drew; Poteet, Perry; Bower, Charles

    2014-03-01

    First branchial cleft anomalies are rare and their various anatomical relationships to the facial nerve have been described. We encountered a 15-year-old female with a type II first branchial cleft cyst presenting as a right neck mass that we found during surgical excision to transverse two main facial nerve trunks. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a first branchial cleft anomaly in conjunction with a duplicated facial nerve trunk. © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  11. Cleft Palate Fistula Closure Utilizing Acellular Dermal Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emodi, Omri; Ginini, Jiriys George; van Aalst, John A; Shilo, Dekel; Naddaf, Raja; Aizenbud, Dror; Rachmiel, Adi

    2018-03-01

    Fistulas represent failure of cleft palate repair. Secondary and tertiary fistula repair is challenging, with high recurrence rates. In the present retrospective study, we review the efficacy of using acellular dermal matrix as an interposition layer for cleft palate fistula closure in 20 consecutive patients between 2013 and 2016. Complete fistula closure was obtained in 16 patients; 1 patient had asymptomatic recurrent fistula; 2 patients had partial closure with reduction of fistula size and minimal nasal regurgitation; 1 patient developed a recurrent fistula without changes in symptoms (success rate of 85%). We conclude that utilizing acellular dermal matrix for cleft palate fistula repair is safe and simple with a high success rate.

  12. The relationship between stressful life events and Axis I diagnoses among adolescent offspring of probands with bipolar and non-bipolar psychiatric disorders and healthy controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Lisa A.; Goldstein, Tina R.; Rooks, Brian T.; Hickey, Mary; Fan, Jie Yu; Merranko, John; Monk, Kelly; Diler, Rasim S.; Sakolsky, Dara J.; Hafeman, Daniella; Iyengar, Satish; Goldstein, Benjamin; Kupfer, David J.; Axelson, David; Brent, David A.; Birmaher, Boris

    2018-01-01

    Background Previous studies have explored the role of stressful life events in the development of mood disorders. We examined the frequency and nature of stressful life events as measured by the Stressful Life Events Scale(SLES) among three groups of adolescent offspring of probands: with bipolar(BD), with non-BD psychiatric disorders, and healthy control(HC). Furthermore, we examined the relationship between stressful life events and presence of DSM-IV Axis I disorders in these offspring. Stressful life events were characterized as dependent, independent, or uncertain (neither dependent or independent), and positive, negative, and neutral (neither positive or negative). Method Offspring of probands with BD aged 13–18 years(N=269), demographically-matched offspring of probands with non-BD Axis I disorders(N=88), and HC probands(N=81) from the Pittsburgh Bipolar Offspring Study were assessed from 2002–2007 with standardized instruments at intake. Probands completed the SLES for their offspring for life events within the prior year. Life events were evaluated with regard to current offspring Axis I diagnoses after adjusting for confounds. Results After adjusting for demographic and clinical between-group differences(in probands and offspring), offspring of BD probands had greater independent and neutral life events compared with HC offspring and greater number of more severe stressful life events than HC offspring, but not non-BD offspring. Offspring of BD probands with comorbid substance use disorder reported more independent stressful life events. Greater frequency and severity of stressful life events were associated with current Axis I disorder in offspring of both BD and non-BD affected probands regardless of dependency or valence. Greater frequency and severity of stressful life events were associated with greater current Axis I disorder in all offspring. Conclusions Offspring of BD probands have greater exposure to independent and neutral life events than

  13. Categorical and dimensional psychopathology in Dutch and US offspring of parents with bipolar disorder: A preliminary cross-national comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesman, Esther; Birmaher, Boris B; Goldstein, Benjamin I; Goldstein, Tina; Derks, Eske M; Vleeschouwer, Marloes; Hickey, Mary Beth; Axelson, David; Monk, Kelly; Diler, Rasim; Hafeman, Danella; Sakolsky, Dara J; Reichart, Catrien G; Wals, Marjolein; Verhulst, Frank C; Nolen, Willem A; Hillegers, Manon H J

    2016-11-15

    Accumulating evidence suggests cross-national differences in adults with bipolar disorder (BD), but also in the susceptibility of their offspring (bipolar offspring). This study aims to explore and clarify cross-national variation in the prevalence of categorical and dimensional psychopathology between bipolar offspring in the US and The Netherlands. We compared levels of psychopathology in offspring of the Pittsburgh Bipolar Offspring Study (n=224) and the Dutch Bipolar Offspring Study (n=136) (age 10-18). Categorical psychopathology was ascertained through interviews using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children (K-SADS-PL), dimensional psychopathology by parental reports using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Higher rates of categorical psychopathology were observed in the US versus the Dutch samples (66% versus 44%). We found no differences in the overall prevalence of mood disorders, including BD-I or -II, but more comorbidity in mood disorders in US versus Dutch offspring (80% versus 34%). The strongest predictors of categorical psychopathology were maternal BD (OR: 1.72, ppsychopathology based on CBCL reports. Preliminary measure of inter-site reliability. We found cross-national differences in prevalence of categorical diagnoses of non-mood disorders in bipolar offspring, but not in mood disorder diagnoses nor in parent-reported dimensional psychopathology. Cross-national variation was only partially explained by between-sample differences. Cultural and methodological explanations for these findings warrant further study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Categorical and dimensional psychopathology in Dutch and US offspring of parents with bipolar disorder: A preliminary cross-national comparison✩

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesman, Esther; Birmaher, Boris B.; Goldstein, Benjamin I.; Goldstein, Tina; Derks, Eske M.; Vleeschouwer, Marloes; Hickey, Mary Beth; Axelson, David; Monk, Kelly; Diler, Rasim; Hafeman, Danella; Sakolsky, Dara J.; Reichart, Catrien G.; Wals, Marjolein; Verhulst, Frank C.; Nolen, Willem A.; Hillegers, Manon H.J.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Accumulating evidence suggests cross-national differences in adults with bipolar disorder (BD), but also in the susceptibility of their offspring (bipolar offspring). This study aims to explore and clarify cross-national variation in the prevalence of categorical and dimensional psychopathology between bipolar offspring in the US and The Netherlands. Methods We compared levels of psychopathology in offspring of the Pittsburgh Bipolar Offspring Study (n=224) and the Dutch Bipolar Offspring Study (n=136) (age 10–18). Categorical psychopathology was ascertained through interviews using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children (K-SADS-PL), dimensional psychopathology by parental reports using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Results Higher rates of categorical psychopathology were observed in the US versus the Dutch samples (66% versus 44%). We found no differences in the overall prevalence of mood disorders, including BD-I or -II, but more comorbidity in mood disorders in US versus Dutch offspring (80% versus 34%). The strongest predictors of categorical psychopathology were maternal BD (OR: 1.72, ppsychopathology based on CBCL reports. Limitations Preliminary measure of inter-site reliability. Conclusions We found cross-national differences in prevalence of categorical diagnoses of non-mood disorders in bipolar offspring, but not in mood disorder diagnoses nor in parent-reported dimensional psychopathology. Cross-national variation was only partially explained by between-sample differences. Cultural and methodological explanations for these findings warrant further study. PMID:27423424

  15. Low folate and selenium in the mouse maternal diet alters liver gene expression patterns in the offspring after weaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Matthew P G; Bermingham, Emma N; Young, Wayne; Bassett, Shalome A; Hesketh, John E; Maciel-Dominguez, Anabel; McNabb, Warren C; Roy, Nicole C

    2015-05-08

    During pregnancy, selenium (Se) and folate requirements increase, with deficiencies linked to neural tube defects (folate) and DNA oxidation (Se). This study investigated the effect of a high-fat diet either supplemented with (diet H), or marginally deficient in (diet L), Se and folate. Pregnant female mice and their male offspring were assigned to one of four treatments: diet H during gestation, lactation and post-weaning; diet L during gestation, lactation and post-weaning; diet H during gestation and lactation but diet L fed to offspring post-weaning; or diet L during gestation and lactation followed by diet H fed to offspring post-weaning. Microarray and pathway analyses were performed using RNA from colon and liver of 12-week-old male offspring. Gene set enrichment analysis of liver gene expression showed that diet L affected several pathways including regulation of translation (protein biosynthesis), methyl group metabolism, and fatty acid metabolism; this effect was stronger when the diet was fed to mothers, rather than to offspring. No significant differences in individual gene expression were observed in colon but there were significant differences in cell cycle control pathways. In conclusion, a maternal low Se/folate diet during gestation and lactation has more effects on gene expression in offspring than the same diet fed to offspring post-weaning; low Se and folate in utero and during lactation thus has persistent metabolic effects in the offspring.

  16. Low Folate and Selenium in the Mouse Maternal Diet Alters Liver Gene Expression Patterns in the Offspring after Weaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew P.G. Barnett

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available During pregnancy, selenium (Se and folate requirements increase, with deficiencies linked to neural tube defects (folate and DNA oxidation (Se. This study investigated the effect of a high-fat diet either supplemented with (diet H, or marginally deficient in (diet L, Se and folate. Pregnant female mice and their male offspring were assigned to one of four treatments: diet H during gestation, lactation and post-weaning; diet L during gestation, lactation and post-weaning; diet H during gestation and lactation but diet L fed to offspring post-weaning; or diet L during gestation and lactation followed by diet H fed to offspring post-weaning. Microarray and pathway analyses were performed using RNA from colon and liver of 12-week-old male offspring. Gene set enrichment analysis of liver gene expression showed that diet L affected several pathways including regulation of translation (protein biosynthesis, methyl group metabolism, and fatty acid metabolism; this effect was stronger when the diet was fed to mothers, rather than to offspring. No significant differences in individual gene expression were observed in colon but there were significant differences in cell cycle control pathways. In conclusion, a maternal low Se/folate diet during gestation and lactation has more effects on gene expression in offspring than the same diet fed to offspring post-weaning; low Se and folate in utero and during lactation thus has persistent metabolic effects in the offspring.

  17. Differential hypothalamic leptin sensitivity in obese rat offspring exposed to maternal and postnatal intake of chocolate and soft drink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjaergaard, M; Nilsson, C; Secher, A; Kildegaard, J; Skovgaard, T; Nielsen, M O; Grove, K; Raun, K

    2017-01-16

    Intake of high-energy foods and maternal nutrient overload increases the risk of metabolic diseases in the progeny such as obesity and diabetes. We hypothesized that maternal and postnatal intake of chocolate and soft drink will affect leptin sensitivity and hypothalamic astrocyte morphology in adult rat offspring. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were fed ad libitum chow diet only (C) or with chocolate and high sucrose soft drink supplement (S). At birth, litter size was adjusted into 10 male offspring per mother. After weaning, offspring from both dietary groups were assigned to either S or C diet, giving four groups until the end of the experiment at 26 weeks of age. As expected, adult offspring fed the S diet post weaning became obese (body weight: Peffect of leptin than energy expenditure, suggesting differential programming of leptin sensitivity in ARC in SS offspring. Effects of the maternal S diet were normalized when offspring were fed a chow diet after weaning. Maternal intake of chocolate and soft drink had long-term consequences for the metabolic phenotype in the offspring if they continued on the S diet in postnatal life. These offspring displayed obesity despite lowered energy intake associated with alterations in hypothalamic leptin signalling.

  18. Open Pollinated Offspring for Producing Potatoes from True Seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golmirzaie, AM.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Open pollinated (OP offspring offers a cheap propagule for potato production from true seed (TPS. A series of trials in contrasting Peruvian locations including several generations derived by open pollination were carried out to determine the potential of OP for TPS. The results suggest that several generations of OP did not affect the performance of TPS for tuber characteristics. On average, F1 hybrids out-yielded first generation OP offspring, but tuber yield per plot of advanced OP generations (OP5 across locations did not differ significantly from that shown by F1 hybrids. It seems that the effect of potential inbreeding in early OP generations was absent in advanced OP generations, maybe due to selection of heterozygous parents in the preceding generations. Results from sequential harvests showed that initiation and bulking of tubers are slower in advanced generations of OP than in the first OP generation, particularly in the warm tropics. Nonetheless, some OP TPS did not differ significantly for tuber yield across generations, suggesting that farmers may grow commercially selected OP offspring.

  19. Centenarian offspring: a model for understanding longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balistreri, Carmela Rita; Candore, Giuseppina; Accardi, Giulia; Buffa, Silvio; Bulati, Matteo; Martorana, Adriana; Colonna-Romano, Giuseppina; Lio, Domenico; Caruso, Calogero

    2014-01-01

    A main objective of current medical research is to improve the life quality of elderly people as priority of the continuous increase of ageing population. This phenomenon implies several medical, economic and social problems because of dramatic increase in number of non autonomous individuals affected by various pathologies. Accordingly, the research interest is focused on understanding the biological mechanisms involved in determining the positive ageing phenotype, i.e. the centenarian phenotype. In achieving this goal the choice of an appropriate study models is fundamental. Centenarians have been used as an optimal model for successful ageing. However, this model shows several limitations, i.e. the selection of appropriate controls and the use itself of the centenarians as a suitable model for healthy ageing. Thus, the interest has been centered on centenarian offspring, healthy elderly people. They may represent a model for understanding exceptional longevity for the following reasons: they exhibit a protective genetic background, cardiovascular and immunological profile, as well as a reduced rate of cognitive decline than age-matched people without centenarian relatives. Several of these aspects are summarized in this review based on the literature and the results of our studies.

  20. Maternal Risk Factors Associated with the Development of Cleft Lip and Cleft Palate in Mexico: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo-Castro, Emmanuel; Acosta-Alfaro, Luis F; Guadron-Llanos, Alma M; Canizalez-Román, Adrian; Gonzalez-Ibarra, Fernando; Osuna-Ramírez, Ignacio; Murillo-Llanes, Joel

    2017-07-01

    Cleft lip and palate, the most common developmental deformity, is seen worldwide and the etiology involves a combination of genetic and environmental factors. The purpose of this study was to determine the maternal risk factors associated with the development of cleft lip and cleft palate. We conducted a case control study at the Women's Hospital in Culiacan, Mexico. Medical records were analyzed, including patients who delivered babies with and without cleft lip and cleft palate from January 2010 to December 2015. Multiple variables were analyzed, including gestational age, weight at birth, the use of folic acid and multivitamins during pregnancy, smoking, alcohol abuse, the use of recreational drugs, history of sexually transmitted infections, marital status, socioeconomic status, education, and nutritional status. We found that the maternal risk factors with the strongest association for the development of cleft lip and cleft palate were the following: patients who were not taking folic acid during pregnancy [OR 3.27, 95% CI 1.32-8.09], P=0.00; patients who were not taking vitamin supplementation during pregnancy [OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.19-7.27], P=0.02; smoking during pregnancy [OR 2.05, 95% CI 1.23-3.41], P=0.01; and alcohol abuse during pregnancy [OR 1.90, 95% CI 1.17-3.08], P=0.03. The main risk factors associated with the development of cleft lip and cleft palate in a Mexican population at the Women's hospital in Culiacan, Sinaloa, Mexico were smoking, alcohol abuse, and patients not taking folic acid and multivitamins during pregnancy.

  1. Cleft characteristics and treatment outcomes in hemifacial microsomia compared to non-syndromic cleft lip/palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dentino, K M; Valstar, A; Padwa, B L

    2016-06-01

    The goal of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of patients with hemifacial microsomia (HFM) and cleft lip/palate (CL/P), and to compare them to a historic cohort of patients with non-syndromic CL/P treated at the same centre. A retrospective review of patients with HFM and CL/P was performed; the main outcome measures assessed were cleft type/side, surgical outcome, midfacial retrusion, and speech. Twenty-six patients (13 male, 13 female; mean age 22.7±14.9, range 1-52 years) with cleft lip with/without cleft palate (CL±P) were identified: three with cleft lip (12%), two with cleft lip and alveolus and an intact secondary palate (8%), and 21 with cleft lip and palate (CLP) (81%; 15 unilateral and six bilateral). Four patients (19%) had a palatal fistula after palatoplasty. Twelve of 22 patients aged >5 years (55%) had midfacial retrusion and two (9%) required a pharyngeal flap for velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI). Fisher's exact test demonstrated a higher frequency of complete labial clefting (P=0.004), CLP (P=0.009), midfacial retrusion (P=0.0009), and postoperative palatal fistula (P=0.03) in HFM compared to non-syndromic CL±P. There was no difference in VPI prevalence. This study revealed that patients with HFM and CL±P have more severe forms of orofacial clefting than patients with non-syndromic CL±P. Patients with HFM and CL±P have more severe midfacial retrusion and a higher palatal fistula rate compared to patients with non-syndromic CL±P. Copyright © 2015 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessing Technical Performance and Determining the Learning Curve in Cleft Palate Surgery Using a High-Fidelity Cleft Palate Simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podolsky, Dale J; Fisher, David M; Wong Riff, Karen W; Szasz, Peter; Looi, Thomas; Drake, James M; Forrest, Christopher R

    2018-06-01

    This study assessed technical performance in cleft palate repair using a newly developed assessment tool and high-fidelity cleft palate simulator through a longitudinal simulation training exercise. Three residents performed five and one resident performed nine consecutive endoscopically recorded cleft palate repairs using a cleft palate simulator. Two fellows in pediatric plastic surgery and two expert cleft surgeons also performed recorded simulated repairs. The Cleft Palate Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skill (CLOSATS) and end-product scales were developed to assess performance. Two blinded cleft surgeons assessed the recordings and the final repairs using the CLOSATS, end-product scale, and a previously developed global rating scale. The average procedure-specific (CLOSATS), global rating, and end-product scores increased logarithmically after each successive simulation session for the residents. Reliability of the CLOSATS (average item intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), 0.85 ± 0.093) and global ratings (average item ICC, 0.91 ± 0.02) among the raters was high. Reliability of the end-product assessments was lower (average item ICC, 0.66 ± 0.15). Standard setting linear regression using an overall cutoff score of 7 of 10 corresponded to a pass score for the CLOSATS and the global score of 44 (maximum, 60) and 23 (maximum, 30), respectively. Using logarithmic best-fit curves, 6.3 simulation sessions are required to reach the minimum standard. A high-fidelity cleft palate simulator has been developed that improves technical performance in cleft palate repair. The simulator and technical assessment scores can be used to determine performance before operating on patients.

  3. Genetic determinants of facial clefting: analysis of 357 candidate genes using two national cleft studies from Scandinavia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astanand Jugessur

    Full Text Available Facial clefts are common birth defects with a strong genetic component. To identify fetal genetic risk factors for clefting, 1536 SNPs in 357 candidate genes were genotyped in two population-based samples from Scandinavia (Norway: 562 case-parent and 592 control-parent triads; Denmark: 235 case-parent triads.We used two complementary statistical methods, TRIMM and HAPLIN, to look for associations across these two national samples. TRIMM tests for association in each gene by using multi-SNP genotypes from case-parent triads directly without the need to infer haplotypes. HAPLIN on the other hand estimates the full haplotype distribution over a set of SNPs and estimates relative risks associated with each haplotype. For isolated cleft lip with or without cleft palate (I-CL/P, TRIMM and HAPLIN both identified significant associations with IRF6 and ADH1C in both populations, but only HAPLIN found an association with FGF12. For isolated cleft palate (I-CP, TRIMM found associations with ALX3, MKX, and PDGFC in both populations, but only the association with PDGFC was identified by HAPLIN. In addition, HAPLIN identified an association with ETV5 that was not detected by TRIMM.Strong associations with seven genes were replicated in the Scandinavian samples and our approach effectively replicated the strongest previously known association in clefting--with IRF6. Based on two national cleft cohorts of similar ancestry, two robust statistical methods and a large panel of SNPs in the most promising cleft candidate genes to date, this study identified a previously unknown association with clefting for ADH1C and provides additional candidates and analytic approaches to advance the field.

  4. Un Futuro Prometedor para su Nino con Labio Hendido y Paladar Hendido. Edicion Refundida (Bright Promise for Your Child with Cleft Lip and Cleft Palate. Revised Edition).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Eugene T.; Berlin, Asa J.

    The booklet, written in Spanish, is intended to help parents of babies with cleft lip and/or cleft palate. Topics covered include the sequence of prenatal development and the effects of birth defects, common misconceptions about what causes the conditions, possible hereditary and environmental causes, and what it means to have a cleft palate or a…

  5. Parent-offspring conflict and the persistence of pregnancy-induced hypertension in modern humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitte Hollegaard

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia is a major cause of perinatal mortality and disease affecting 5-10% of all pregnancies worldwide, but its etiology remains poorly understood despite considerable research effort. Parent-offspring conflict theory suggests that such hypertensive disorders of pregnancy may have evolved through the ability of fetal genes to increase maternal blood pressure as this enhances general nutrient supply. However, such mechanisms for inducing hypertension in pregnancy would need to incur sufficient offspring health benefits to compensate for the obvious risks for maternal and fetal health towards the end of pregnancy in order to explain why these disorders have not been removed by natural selection in our hunter-gatherer ancestors. We analyzed >750,000 live births in the Danish National Patient Registry and all registered medical diagnoses for up to 30 years after birth. We show that offspring exposed to pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH in trimester 1 had significantly reduced overall later-life disease risks, but increased risks when PIH exposure started or developed as preeclampsia in later trimesters. Similar patterns were found for first-year mortality. These results suggest that early PIH leading to improved postpartum survival and health represents a balanced compromise between the reproductive interests of parents and offspring, whereas later onset of PIH may reflect an unbalanced parent-offspring conflict at the detriment of maternal and offspring health.

  6. Cytoplasmic inheritance of parent-offspring cell structure in the clonal diatom Cyclotella meneghiniana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirokawa, Yuka; Shimada, Masakazu

    2016-11-16

    In cytoplasmic inheritance, structural states of a parent cell could be transmitted to offspring cells via two mechanisms. The first is referred to as the hangover of parent structure, where the structure itself remains and faithfully transmits within offspring cells; the second is structural inheritance, wherein the parent structure functions as a template for development of new offspring structure. We estimated to what extent the parent structure affects the development of offspring structure by structural inheritance, using a clone of the diatom Cyclotella meneghiniana The cell has two siliceous valves (a cell wall part at both cell poles): one is inherited from the parent and the other is newly formed. We estimated cytoplasmic heritability by comparing valve traits (central fultoportulae (CTFP), striae, central area, and cell diameter) of parent and new offspring valves, using single-cell isolation and valve labelling. Parent-offspring valve trait regressions showed that all traits, except CTFP, were significantly correlated. We formulated a quantitative genetic model considering the diatom inheritance system and revealed short-term rapid evolution compared with other inheritance systems. Diatom structural inheritance will have evolved to enable clonal populations to rapidly acquire and maintain suitable structures for temporal changes in environments and life-cycle stages. © 2016 The Author(s).

  7. Parental care mitigates carry-over effects of poor early conditions on offspring growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Sonya K.; Martin, Thomas E.

    2017-01-01

    Poor developmental conditions can have long-lasting negative effects on offspring phenotypes, but impacts often differ among species. Contrasting responses may reflect disparities in experimental protocols among single-species studies or inherent differences among species in their sensitivity to early conditions and/or ability to mitigate negative impacts. We used a common experimental protocol to assess and compare the role of parental care in mitigating effects of poor early conditions on offspring among 4 sympatric bird species in the wild. We experimentally induced low incubation temperatures and examined effects on embryonic developmental rates, hatching success, nestling growth rates, and parental responses. We examined the generality of these effects across 4 species that differ in their phylogenetic history, breeding ecology, and life histories. We found that cooling led to delayed hatching in all species, but carry-over effects on offspring differed among species. Parents of some but not all species increased their offspring provisioning rates in response to experimental cooling with critical benefits for offspring growth rates. Our study shows for the first time that species exhibit clear differences in the degree to which they are affected by poor early conditions. Observed differences among species demonstrate that parental care is a critical mechanism for mitigating potential negative effects on offspring and suggest that parental responses may be constrained to varying degrees by ecology and life histories.

  8. Paternal body mass index (BMI is associated with offspring intrauterine growth in a gender dependent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Peng Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Environmental alternations leading to fetal programming of cardiovascular diseases in later life have been attributed to maternal factors. However, animal studies showed that paternal obesity may program cardio-metabolic diseases in the offspring. In the current study we tested the hypothesis that paternal BMI may be associated with fetal growth. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed the relationship between paternal body mass index (BMI and birth weight, ultrasound parameters describing the newborn's body shape as well as parameters describing the newborns endocrine system such as cortisol, aldosterone, renin activity and fetal glycated serum protein in a birth cohort of 899 father/mother/child triplets. Since fetal programming is an offspring sex specific process, male and female offspring were analyzed separately. Multivariable regression analyses considering maternal BMI, paternal and maternal age, hypertension during pregnancy, maternal total glycated serum protein, parity and either gestational age (for birth weight or time of ultrasound investigation (for ultrasound parameters as confounding showed that paternal BMI is associated with growth of the male but not female offspring. Paternal BMI correlated with birth parameters of male offspring only: birth weight; biparietal diameter, head circumference; abdominal diameter, abdominal circumference; and pectoral diameter. Cortisol was likewise significantly correlated with paternal BMI in male newborns only. CONCLUSIONS: Paternal BMI affects growth of the male but not female offspring. Paternal BMI may thus represent a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases of male offspring in later life. It remains to be demonstrated whether this is linked to an offspring sex specific paternal programming of cortisol secretion.

  9. Effects of Offspring and Parental Inbreeding on Parent-Offspring Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattey, Sarah N; Richardson, Jon; Ratz, Tom; Smiseth, Per T

    2018-06-01

    There is mounting evidence that inbreeding can have complex effects on social interactions among inbred and outbred individuals. Here, we investigate effects of offspring and maternal inbreeding on parent-offspring communication in the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides. We find effects of the interaction between offspring and maternal inbreeding on maternal behavior. Outbred females provided more direct care toward inbred larvae, while inbred females provided similar levels of direct care toward inbred and outbred larvae. Furthermore, we find direct and indirect effects of offspring inbreeding on offspring begging and maternal behavior, respectively. Inbred larvae spent less time begging than outbred larvae, and (outbred) females provided more direct care and less indirect care toward inbred larvae. Finally, we find effects of the interaction between offspring and maternal inbreeding on larval body mass. Inbred and outbred offspring grew to a similar size when the female was outbred, while inbred offspring were of a smaller size when the female was inbred. Our results suggest that outbred females provided more care toward inbred offspring to compensate for their poor genetic quality. Our study advances our understanding of inbreeding by showing that inbreeding can have direct effects on the behavior of inbred individuals and indirect effects on the behavior of outbred individuals and that indirect effects on outbred individuals may in turn influence the fitness of inbred individuals.

  10. Swallowing function after laryngeal cleft repair: more than just fixing the cleft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Alexander J; de Alarcon, Alessandro; Tabangin, Meredith E; Miller, Claire K; Cotton, Robin T; Rutter, Michael J

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate and describe the swallowing function in children after laryngeal cleft repair. Ten-year (2002-2012) retrospective chart review. Academic tertiary care pediatric otolaryngology practice. Records of 60 children who had surgical repair of laryngeal cleft (ages 2 weeks-14 years) and postoperative functional endoscopic evaluation of swallowing or videofluoroscopic swallow studies were examined retrospectively. Twenty-nine children had one postoperative swallow evaluation, 19 children had two, 4 children had three, 5 children had four, and 3 children had five. Median time to the first evaluation was 10.8 weeks (interquartile range [IQR]: 36.5, 231). On the final swallow evaluation, 34 (57%) children demonstrated normal swallowing parameters, 12 (20%) children showed penetration, and 14 (23%) children showed aspiration. Forty-three (72%) children were able to take everything by mouth normally or with minor behavioral modifications, 11 (18%) children required thickened fluids, and six (10%) children were kept nil per os (NPO). Mean improvement on the penetration-aspiration (pen-asp) scale was 2.13. On multivariable analysis, neurodevelopmental issues and gastronomy tube use were associated with the need for NPO status. Despite a high rate of surgical success, a substantial minority of children have persistent swallowing dysfunction after laryngeal cleft repair. Swallowing dysfunction after repair is multifactorial and arises from concomitant neurologic, anatomic, or other comorbidities that contribute to oropharyngeal and pharyngeal dysphagia. Based on our results, we recommend a testing schedule for postoperative swallowing evaluations after cleft repair. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  11. Development and validation of the quality-of-life adolescent cleft questionnaire in patients with cleft lip and palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piombino, Pasquale; Ruggiero, Federica; Dell'Aversana Orabona, Giovanni; Scopelliti, Domenico; Bianchi, Alberto; De Simone, Federica; Carnevale, Nina; Brancati, Federica; Iengo, Maurizio; Grassia, Maria Gabriella; Cataldo, Rosanna; Califano, Luigi

    2014-09-01

    Only a few reports in the literature have described the use of specific instruments for assessing the quality of life in adolescents and young adults with cleft lip and palate (CLP). This condition markedly affects their lifestyle, even after surgical treatment. In the present study, we aimed to develop a quality-of-life assessment tool specifically designed for such patients with CLP. Our multidisciplinary team created a questionnaire focused on the physical, psychological, and social satisfaction of adolescents and young adults with CLP, which was adapted from 3 dimensions of the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey. The questionnaire was administered to a randomized sample of 40 adolescents and young adults (aged 16-24 years) with CLP who had completed treatment protocols and 40 (aged 16-24 years) who were not affected by CLP. The statistical results stated that the questionnaire had good reliability and validity; the Cronbach α coefficient was found to be 0.944. Moreover, factorial analysis confirmed the presence of 3 subscales that were the fundamental components of this questionnaire, which is consistent with the areas theoretically proposed and from which the items were designed and selected. Thus, we validated our novel questionnaire that was administered in the present study and proved its consistency. However, further investigations on a larger population would be useful to confirm these findings.

  12. Maternal high-fat diet intensifies the metabolic response to stress in male rat offspring

    OpenAIRE

    Karbaschi, Roxana; Zardooz, Homeira; Khodagholi, Fariba; Dargahi, Leila; Salimi, Mina; Rashidi, FatemehSadat

    2017-01-01

    Background The mother?s consumption of high-fat food can affect glucose metabolism and the hypothalamic?pituitary?adrenal axis responsiveness in the offspring and potentially affect the metabolic responses to stress as well. This study examines the effect of maternal high-fat diet on the expression of pancreatic glucose transporter 2 and the secretion of insulin in response to stress in offspring. Methods Female rats were randomly divided into normal and high-fat diet groups and were fed in a...

  13. Teenage parents and their offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, J

    1996-06-18

    Teenage parents are cast into adult roles before the role experimentation and identity development tasks of middle adolescence can be completed. Understanding the etiology of this social problem requires an ecological perspective encompassing individual characteristics, person-context variables, and societal factors such as race and social class. Risk factors identified in the literature on adolescent pregnancy in the US include: absence of a future orientation or aspirations, lack of assertiveness and interpersonal skills to control physical intimacy, low socioeconomic status and minority group membership, growing up in a single-parent family, a history of sexual abuse, five or more siblings, a sister or friend who became a teenage mother, lax parental supervision of dating and free time, low self-esteem, and dropping out or failing in school. The limited data on adolescent fathers suggest they have histories of substance use, delinquency, failure to graduate from high school, financial difficulty, and exposure to family violence. The offspring of adolescent parents show a higher incidence of developmental delays and mild mental retardation than children of adults and are at increased risk of child abuse and neglect. Teen parents raised in dysfunctional families tend to perpetuate destructive methods of child rearing and have unrealistic, age-inappropriate expectations for infants and toddlers. Teenage parents' lack of competence can be mitigated, however, by positive living arrangements, a supportive family of origin, peer support groups, quality child care, school-based services, and accurate information about parenting and child development.

  14. Danish holsteins favor bull offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Kirkeby, Carsten; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    2015-01-01

    In a previous study from 2014 it was found that US Holstein cows that gave birth to heifer calves produced more milk than cows having bull calves. We wanted to assess whether this is also true for Danish cattle. Data from 578 Danish Holstein herds were analysed with a mixed effect model and contr......In a previous study from 2014 it was found that US Holstein cows that gave birth to heifer calves produced more milk than cows having bull calves. We wanted to assess whether this is also true for Danish cattle. Data from 578 Danish Holstein herds were analysed with a mixed effect model...... and contrary to the findings in the US, we found that cows produced higher volumes of milk if they had a bull calf compared to a heifer calf. We found a significantly higher milk production of 0.28% in the first lactation period for cows giving birth to a bull calf, compared to a heifer calf. This difference...... was even higher when cows gave birth to another bull calf, so having two bull calves resulted in a difference of 0.52% in milk production compared to any other combination of sex of the offspring. Furthermore, we found that farmer assisted calvings were associated with a higher milk yield. Cows...

  15. Parents bereaved by offspring suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolton, James M; Au, Wendy; Leslie, William D

    2013-01-01

    OUTCOME MEASURES Mental and physical disorders, social factors, and treatment use. RESULTS Suicide bereavement was associated with an increased rate of depression (ARR, 2.14; 95% CI, 1.88-2.43), anxiety disorders (ARR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.24-1.60), and marital breakup (ARR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.13-1.23) in the 2...... years after the suicide of an offspring, as compared with the 2 years prior to the death. Suicide-bereaved and MVC-bereaved parents had very few differences on predeath to postdeath outcomes. Depression rate increases were greater for MVC-bereaved parents (19.9%) compared with suicide-bereaved parents...... (15.9%; P = .005), whereas suicide-bereaved parents had higher rate increases of hospitalization for mental illness (P = .049). Suicide-bereaved parents were more likely than their MVC-bereaved counterparts to have depression (ARR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.06-1.61), physical disorders (ARR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1...

  16. Parental age in relation to severity of clefting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Nuno Vibe; Darvann, Tron Andre; Kreiborg, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Lip and/or Palate (IC). Wilcoxon Rank-Sum test (5% significance level) was applied in order to test for group differences. Standard logistic regression was used in order to estimate the risk of developing CC relative to IC. Results. In the group with CC mean paternal age was 29.5+/-4.5 (1SD) years...... parental ages in the group with IC did not differ from normative population values during the same time period. Logistic regression showed for paternal age OR=1.1[1.04,1.16](Wald confidence limits); for maternal age 1.08[1.01,1.15]. Conclusions. The hypothesis was rejected. Parental age was significantly...... of cleft individuals, as well as to compare parental age in the cleft population with normative values of parental age. It was hypothesized that there was no difference in parental age between the cleft groups with incomplete and complete clefts, respectively. Methods/Descriptions. The consecutive non...

  17. Computational Embryology and Predictive Toxicology of Cleft Palate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capacity to model and simulate key events in developmental toxicity using computational systems biology and biological knowledge steps closer to hazard identification across the vast landscape of untested environmental chemicals. In this context, we chose cleft palate as a model ...

  18. Contemporary Approaches in the Repair of Alveolar Clefts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ufuk Tatli

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Cleft lip and palate is one of the most common craniofacial anomalies. The repair of the alveolar clefts is an important part of the treatment for patients with cleft lip and palate. The treatment concepts of alveolar bone grafting are still controversial. The corresponding controversial issues are; timing of alveolar bone grafting, graft materials, and timing of the orthodontic expansion. In the present article, aforementioned controversial issues and contemporary treatment modalities of the maxillary alveolar clefts were reviewed in the light of current literature. In conclusion, the most suitable time for alveolar bone grafting is mixed dentition period. Grafting procedure may be performed in the early or late phases of this period depending on some clinical features. Adjunct orthodontic expansion procedures should be performed before and/or after grafting depending on the patient's current features. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2014; 23(4.000: 563-574

  19. Management of Cleft Lip and Palate in Nigeria: A Survey

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-03-20

    Mar 20, 2017 ... Background: Clefts of the lip and/or palate are the most common congenital craniofacial ... in the number of surgeons, but the training, scope, and standard of care remain ... specialist fellowship qualifications, 6 others (8.6%).

  20. Maxillary distraction complications in cleft patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeblaoui, Y; Morand, B; Brix, M; Lebeau, J; Bettega, G

    2010-06-01

    Cleft lip and palate (CLP) patients often present with a class III malocclusion in connection with a three dimensional maxillary hypoplasia. Twenty-five to 60% of these patients need maxillary advancement. Two solutions are possible: orthognathic surgery and maxillary distraction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the complications of maxillary distraction in CLP patients. Data was collected from the records of patients treated in our surgery unit between 2000 and 2007. Among the eight patients (four male and four female), five presented with a bilateral CLP, two with a unilateral CLP, and one with a unilateral cleft lip associated to a soft palate cleft. The average age at surgery was 17 years. All underwent a Le Fort I osteotomy with a pterygomaxillary disjunction. An external distractor was used for the first two patients and an internal distractor for the six following patients. After a seven-day latency, activation was implemented at a rate of 1mm twice a day. The average period of consolidation was four months. Maxillary advancement ranged between 7 and 19mm, with an average of 12.6mm. The average follow-up was four years. Complications were noted in seven patients: one intra-operative hemorrhage, one avulsion of a tooth anchored at the pterygoid process during osteotomy, three cases of device dysfunction, two cases of significant pain during activation, one loosening of the orthodontic arch in an external system, two cases of labial ulceration, and one maxillary sinusitis due to migration of a wisdom tooth. Complications of maxillary distraction in CLP patients were very frequent. Most were related to the device and did not interfere with the final result. This must be taken into account when indicating distraction and choosing the device. Two types of complications can occur during distraction: those related to the osteotomy and those related to the device. The complications related to the osteotomy are linked to the cicatricial ground of previous

  1. [Maxillary distraction complications in cleft patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeblaoui, Y; Morand, B; Brix, M; Lebeau, J; Bettega, G

    2008-09-01

    Cleft lip and palate (CLP) patients often present with a class III malocclusion in connection with a three dimensional maxillary hypoplasia. Twenty-five to 60% of these patients require a maxillary advancement. Two solutions are possible: orthognathic surgery and maxillary distraction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the complications of the maxillary distraction in CLP patients. Data was collected from the records of patients treated at our Surgery Unit between 2000 and 2007. Among the eight patients (four male and four female), five presented a bilateral CLP, two a unilateral CLP and one a unilateral cleft lip associated to a soft palate cleft. The average age at surgery was 17 years old. All had a Le Fort I osteotomy with a pterygomaxillary disjunction. The first two patients had external distractors and the six following internal ones. After a seven-day latency, activation was led to the rate of 1mm per day twice. The period of consolidation was four months on average. The maxillary advancement varied between 7 and 19 mm with an average of 12.6mm. The average follow-up was four years. We encountered difficulties and/or complications in seven patients: one intraoperatively haemorrhage, one avulsion of a tooth fixed at the pterygoid process during the osteotomy, three device failures, two cases of significant pains during activation, one dissociation of the dental anchorage of an external system, two labial ulcerations and one maxillary sinusitis by migration of the 18. Difficulties of maxillary distraction in CLP patients are very frequent. The majority is related to the distractors and did not interfere with the final result. But this frequency must be taken into account in the indication and in the choice of the material. Two types of complications can occur during distraction: those related to the osteotomy and those related to the material. The complications related to the osteotomy are in connection with the cicatricial ground of the CLP. They are

  2. Evaluation of Stress Distribution of Mini Dental Implant-Supported Overdentures in Complete Cleft Palate Models: A Three-Dimensional Finite Element Analysis Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soğancı, Gökçe; Yazıcıoğlu, Hüseyin

    2016-01-01

    Mini dental implants could be an alternative treatment method for prosthetic treatment of edentulous cleft palate. The aim of this study was to analyze stress distribution around the cortical bone and different plans using a varied number of mini dental implants in edentulous unilateral complete cleft palates. Three edentulous maxillary models were modified to create unilateral complete cleft palates. Mini dental implants (2.4 × 15 mm) were located as two mini implants at the premolar region, four mini implants at the premolar and molar region, and six mini implants at the first premolar, second premolar, and first molar regions in the models, respectively. Mucosa, o-ring/ball attachments, and overdentures were simulated. Vertical and horizontal loads of 100 N were applied on both the right and left molar teeth of the overdenture for each model. Maximum and minimum principal stress values and the distribution at cortical bone around the implants and cleft palates were evaluated by finite element analysis. Stress values under vertical loads were lower than values under horizontal loadings for all models. Stress values were found to be lower in the first model than in the second and third models. The highest stress values were found around implants in the second model. The unilateral feature of a complete cleft pattern affected the stress distribution. Stresses occured mostly around implants when the overdenture was supported by six implants; however, the stress distribution around implants was low with two implants because of tissue support.

  3. A reproductive history of mothers with spina bifida offspring-a new look at old issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farley Thomas L

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spina bifida is a disorder of the cerebrospinal fluid system associated with failure of neural tube closure in the fetus. Reproductive history studies of mothers with spina bifida offspring have often been conducted shortly after the affected child's birth. In this study, a large group of community-based mothers were studied after most had completed their families. The aims were to present a more comprehensive reproductive history and to test several hypotheses regarding the nature of spina bifida. Methods Data from 271 mothers was collected by interview 18.3 mean years after the affected child's birth. Data analysis was by χ-square, Fisher exact test and t test with a p value less than 0.05 considered significant. Results Females made up 56.5% of affected offspring (probands and 53.1% of unaffected offspring. The spina bifida and anencephaly recurrence rate was 4.0%. The twinning rate was 8.6/1000 live births. 24.4% of mothers had a history of spontaneous abortion and the rate varied by pregnancy order from 87 to 185/1000 live births. Duration of pregnancies subsequent to probands was shorter for female than male probands. Mean birth weight of probands with high lesions exceeded those with low lesions. A spontaneous abortion preceded female probands more often than males as compared to live births. Affected males with high lesions conceived by white mothers were at greater risk to be spontaneously aborted. Previous inter-gestational interval for mothers with no history of spontaneous abortion was longer for probands than unaffected offspring but not for mothers with a history of spontaneous abortion. Conclusion Overall, and for every major subgroup of these mothers, more affected and unaffected female than male offspring were born. Differences by gender and lesion level among probands and between probands and unaffected offspring were consistent with an etiology of unknown genetic factors, hormonal and/or immune system

  4. Prevalence of cleft lip and palate among four provinces in the West and North-West of Iran

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    Nahid Jalilevand

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the most common anomalies in newborn infants is cleft lip and/or cleft palate (CL/P. In spite of several studies about the prevalence of this, no investigation evaluated this prevalence in the West and North-West of Iran. With due attention to different ethnic groups in this area, the aim of this study is to investigate whether the distribution of CL/P live births varies regionally in this area of Iran. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using hospital registry records to identify all children born with CL/P. The hospitals with a maternity unit were selected in the capital cities of four provinces in the West and North-West of Iran, East Azarbaijan, Kurdestan, Gilan, and Markazi. The population under study included all infants born alive from 2008 to 2012. Results: During the study period, 107,317 live births were registered in the hospitals with a maternity unit of four cities, and 52 infants (0.485/1000 live births were born with CL/P. The prevalence in Rasht, Arak, Sanandaj, and Tabriz cities was 0.557, 0.352, 0.503, and 0.559/1000 live births, respectively (P 0.05, whereas the prevalence of CL/P based on sex was statistically different among the four provinces (P < 0.05. Conclusion: This study shows regional variations in the birth prevalence of clefts and various cleft types. The different effects of gender on the birth prevalence of CL/P from city-to-city may be explained environmentally and/or by genetic factors affecting the development of oral clefts.

  5. Comparative Study of Folic Acid and α-Naphthoflavone on Reducing TCDD-Induced Cleft Palate in Fetal Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xingang; He, Xiaomeng; Zhang, Xuan; Liu, Cuiping; Wang, Chen; Qiu, Lin; Pu, Wei; Fu, Yuexian

    2017-03-01

      Tocompare the effect of folic acid (FA) and α-naphthoflavone on 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-induced cleft palate in fetal mice.   Pregnant mice were randomly divided into seven groups. The mice treated with corn oil were used as a negative control. The mice in the other six groups were given a single dose of 28 μg/kg TCDD on GD 10 by gavage. For FA treatment, TCDD-treated mice were also dosed with 5, 10, and 15 mg/kg FA on GD 10, while for α-naphthoflavone treatment, the mice received a single dose of 50 μg/kg or 5 mg/kg α-naphthoflavone on GD 10.   Fetal mice palates were imaged using light and scanning electron microscopy on GD 13.5, GD 14.5, and GD 15.5, and cleft palate were recorded on GD 17.5. The expression of guanosine diphosphate dissociation inhibitor (GDI) in fetal mice palate on GD 15.5 was examined by immunohistochemistry.   TCDD successfully induced cleft palate. Ten mg/ml FA and 5 mg/ml α-naphthoflavone significantly reduced TCDD-induced cleft palate. FA and α-naphthoflavone partly reduced TCDD-induced cleft palate but did not affect the expression of Rho GDI.   FA and α-naphthoflavone may reduce the generation of reactive oxygen species, inhibit MEE apoptosis through anti-oxidation, and increase filopodia and MEE movement. This may result in restoration of the ultrastructure of the palatal surface to a normal state, leading to the fusion and formation of complete palate in TCDD-treated fetal mice.

  6. Phonetic description of babbling in Danish toddlers born with and without unilateral cleft lip and palate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willadsen, Elisabeth; Albrechstn, Helle

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate prelinguistic vocalization sequences of 1-year-old children with and without cleft lip and palate. Design: Prospective study. Participants: Thirty-eight children born with unilateral cleft lip and palate and 36 control children born without clefts. The cleft children had...... of occurrence of nasal contoids and a smaller frequency of occurrence of alveolar contoids in the cleft group. Canonical babbling was achieved by most children in both groups, and no significant difference was found between the groups. Conclusions: Early closure of the soft palate seems to have a positive...... influence on the prelinguistic development of children with cleft palate....

  7. Congenital Palatal Fistula Associated with Submucous Cleft Palate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshete, Mekonen; Camison, Liliana; Abate, Fikre; Hailu, Taye; Demissie, Yohannes; Mohammed, Ibrahim; Butali, Azeez; Losken, H. Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although cleft lip and cleft palate are among the most common congenital malformations, the presence of an isolated congenital palatal fistula along with a submucous cleft is very rare. This appears as an oval-shaped, full-thickness fenestration in the palatal midline that does not fully extend anteriorly or posteriorly, accompanied by the findings of a submucous cleft. Because of the uncommon nature of this entity, there is controversy about its etiology, diagnosis, and management. Methods: Two cases of children with congenital palatal fistulae and a submucous cleft palate are presented who were treated in different settings by different surgeons. Cases are discussed along with a thorough review of the available literature. Results: Patient 1 presented at 4 years of age with “a hole in the palate” since birth and abnormal speech. His palatal fistula and submucous cleft were repaired with a modified von Langenbeck technique in Ethiopia. At a 2-year follow-up, the palate remained closed, but hypernasal speech persisted. Patient 2 was a 1-year-old presenting with failure to thrive and nasal regurgitation, who underwent a Furlow palatoplasty in the United States with good immediate results. She was unfortunately lost to follow-up. Conclusions: A congenital fenestration of the palate is rare. Reports reveal suboptimal speech at follow-up, despite various types of repair, especially when combined with a submucous cleft. Available literature suggests that repair should not focus on fistula closure only but instead on providing adequate palate length to provide good velopharyngeal function, as in any cleft palate repair. PMID:27014542

  8. [First branchial cleft cyst in nasopharynx: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-20

    We report a rare case of first branchial cleft cyst arising from the nasopharynx. A 47-year old woman with a six-month-history of right ear stuffy and hearing loss was studied. Electronic nasopharyngeal examination revealed a mass in the nasopharynx of this case. The tumor was removed endoscopically with endonasal approach. Postoperative pathological examination indicated that it was branchial cleft cyst. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery.

  9. The trochlear cleft: the ''black line'' of the trochlear trough

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wissman, Robert D.; Nepute, Joshua; Fischer, Nathaniel von; Radhakrishnan, Rupa; Hendry, Daniel; Ingalls, Jerrell; Kenter, Keith

    2012-01-01

    The ''cartilage black line sign'' is a recently described T2 dark cartilage lesion that we have identified appearing as a cleft in the trochlear trough. The purpose of our study was to define the MR imaging characteristics of a trochlear cleft, determine its incidence, and correlate the MR findings with arthroscopy. A total of 1,300 consecutive MR examinations of the knee were retrospectively reviewed by consensus of two fellowship-trained musculoskeletal radiologists. The MR imaging characteristics and location of a trochlear cleft were determined. Imaging results were compared to arthroscopy when available. Patient age and gender were compared to 25 randomly selected control patients without trochlear clefts. A total of 25 (1.9%) individuals (11 females and 14 males; age range 19-45 years; mean age 28 years) were diagnosed with a trochlear cleft. The control group consisted of 11 females and 14 males; age range 19-83 years; mean age 46 years. Mean cleft length was 7 mm (range 6-12 mm); cleft location was consistently in the lower trochlear trough. No full-thickness cartilage defects were identified in the eight individuals in whom arthroscopic correlation was available. A grade 2 cartilage lesion was identified in a single individual; another progressed from grade 0 to a full-thickness trochlear lesion over an 8-month interval. Eight individuals were athletes. No significant difference in gender was noted between the two groups, however, the study group was significantly younger p < 0.0001. A trochlear cleft is a rare finding in young active individuals. It most likely indicates an incomplete cartilage fissure which may rarely progress to a full-thickness defect. (orig.)

  10. A Relationship between nasolabial appearance and self-esteem in adolescent with repaired cleft lip and cleft palate at Khon Kaen University Cleft Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patjanasoontornm, Niramol; Wongniyom, Kusalapom; Pradubwong, Suteera; Piyavhakul, Navanant; Chowchuen, Bowornsilp

    2014-10-01

    To examine levels of self-esteem of adolescents with repaired cleft lip and cleft palate at Khon Kaen University Cleft Center and its correlation with nasolabial appearance. Across-sectional survey of 93 adolescents with repaired cleft lip and palate. A total nasolabial appearance score was 2.8 +/- 0.36 (fair to good). The mean of the total self-esteem score for all respondents was 20.11 +/- 3.27 (maximum 30). There was no-significant correlation between nasolabial appearance and self esteem (Pearson product-moment correlation coefficiency (r) = 0.18, p = 0.08. The self-esteem scores of good, fair and poor appearance were 20.5 +/- 0.98, 19.8 +/- 0.32, 19 +/- 2.09 respectively. The nasolabial appearance of repaired cleft lip and palate not be the only factor but other psychosocialfactors also may play a role in their self-esteem. The analysis of this study found no relationship between self-esteem and appearance.

  11. STRESS – THE RISK FACTOR IN THE LIP AND PALATE CLEFT DEVELOPMENT

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    Zorica Blazej

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Lip and palate cleft (cheilognathopalatoschisis is most often congenital defect that affects craniofacial region. It is characterized by a difficult clinical presentation.The etiology is multicausal and not yet fully understood. The examination of numerous etiological factors imposed the need to study the role of stress in the development of lip and palate cleft. This is all the more important for the socioeconomic factors that characterized our society in the last years, after bombardment, poverty, higher divorce rate, and more family violence. The aim of this paper was to establish the importance of stressful events and their role in the development of lip and palate cleft. The examination included children born from March 1999 (time of war in this area, till December 2003, as well as their mothers.The study group comprised 96 children with the lip and palate cleft anomaly, and the control one included 142 healthy children. The chosen examinees were not under the influence of other etiological factors, such as heritage. The examination was conducted using a questionnaire containing questions related to stressful situations in the first trimester of pregnancy. The questions were thus formed so as to be clear to mothers of different levels of education, without expert phrases,except in the cases where it was necessary. The statistical differences between the study and control group were determined using Pearson's χ2 test. In the first trimester, the mothers of the study group, in regard to the control group,statistically more often had fears or anxiety (p<0.01, disorganized emotional life(p<0.001, more often phychological harassment (p<0.001, and the presence of any kind of harassment (p<0.001. The presence of stress was also greater in the study group, on the significance borderline in relation to the control group.The stressful situations to which mothers of the study group were exposed are in correlation with the increase of the children

  12. A case report of brachial cleft cyst in the neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Mi; Choi, Soon Chul; Park, Tae Won; You, Dong Soo

    1993-01-01

    Branchial cleft cyst is the most common lateral neck cyst ; the vast majority are of the second branchial cleft origin. This presumably reflects the greater depth and longer persistence of the second cleft, compared with the first, third, and fourth clefts. We experienced a 49-year-old male whose chief complaint was a abnormal mass of the cleft parotid gland area and neck. As a result of careful analysis of clinical, radiological, and histopathological findings. We diagnosed it as a second branchial cleft cyst in the neck and obtained results as follows: 1. In clinical examination, there was a 10 X 15 cm sized, fluctuant painful mass in the left neck and parotid area. 2. In radiographic examination, a low echogenic mass with internal cystic change in the inferior parotid gland area was noted sonographically. Computed tomograph showed a 3 X 4 cm sized, well-defined cystic mass with heterogenous solid component in the anterior border of sternocleidomastoid muscle. MRI revealed 5 X 6 cm sized, well-marginated multiseparated mass in the same area. 3. In histopathological examination, lining of cyst was stratified squamous epithelium with typical lymph node pattern and inflammatory cell infiltration.

  13. A case report of brachial cleft cyst in the neck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Mi; Choi, Soon Chul; Park, Tae Won; You, Dong Soo [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-08-15

    Branchial cleft cyst is the most common lateral neck cyst ; the vast majority are of the second branchial cleft origin. This presumably reflects the greater depth and longer persistence of the second cleft, compared with the first, third, and fourth clefts. We experienced a 49-year-old male whose chief complaint was a abnormal mass of the cleft parotid gland area and neck. As a result of careful analysis of clinical, radiological, and histopathological findings. We diagnosed it as a second branchial cleft cyst in the neck and obtained results as follows: 1. In clinical examination, there was a 10 X 15 cm sized, fluctuant painful mass in the left neck and parotid area. 2. In radiographic examination, a low echogenic mass with internal cystic change in the inferior parotid gland area was noted sonographically. Computed tomograph showed a 3 X 4 cm sized, well-defined cystic mass with heterogenous solid component in the anterior border of sternocleidomastoid muscle. MRI revealed 5 X 6 cm sized, well-marginated multiseparated mass in the same area. 3. In histopathological examination, lining of cyst was stratified squamous epithelium with typical lymph node pattern and inflammatory cell infiltration.

  14. Early lexical characteristics of toddlers with cleft lip and palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin-Jones, Mary; Chapman, Kathy L

    2014-11-01

    Objective : To examine development of early expressive lexicons in toddlers with cleft palate to determine whether they differ from those of noncleft toddlers in terms of size and lexical selectivity. Design : Retrospective. Patients : A total of 37 toddlers with cleft palate and 22 noncleft toddlers. Main Outcome Measures : The groups were compared for size of expressive lexicon reported on the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory and the percentage of words beginning with obstruents and sonorants produced in a language sample. Differences between groups in the percentage of word initial consonants correct on the language sample were also examined. Results : Although expressive vocabulary was comparable at 13 months of age for both groups, size of the lexicon for the cleft group was significantly smaller than that for the noncleft group at 21 and 27 months of age. Toddlers with cleft palate produced significantly more words beginning with sonorants and fewer words beginning with obstruents in their spontaneous speech samples. They were also less accurate when producing word initial obstruents compared with the noncleft group. Conclusions : Toddlers with cleft palate demonstrate a slower rate of lexical development compared with their noncleft peers. The preference that toddlers with cleft palate demonstrate for words beginning with sonorants could suggest they are selecting words that begin with consonants that are easier for them to produce. An alternative explanation might be that because these children are less accurate in the production of obstruent consonants, listeners may not always identify obstruents when they occur.

  15. Comparing caries risk profiles between 5- and 10- year-old children with cleft lip and/or palate and non-cleft controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundell, Anna Lena; Ullbro, Christer; Marcusson, Agneta

    2015-01-01

    of cleft lip and/or palate (CL(P)) children with non-cleft controls in the same age using a computerized caries risk assessment model. METHODS: The study group consisted of 133 children with CL(P) (77 subjects aged 5 years and 56 aged 10 years) and 297 non-cleft controls (133 aged 5 years and 164 aged 10......BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested that children with oral clefts may have higher caries prevalence in comparison with non-cleft controls but the relative importance of the potential risk factors is not clear. The aim of this study was to compare the caries risk profiles in a group...

  16. Ophthalmic changes in cleft lip and palate

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    Luciano Sólia Násser

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The current study aimed to analyze through a literature review evidence of association between ocular changes and non-syndromic cleft lip and/or palate (NSCL/P. A literature review was carried out in accordance with the Cochrane Collaboration Group protocol. PubMed, Scopus, Academic Google and ISI Web of Science databases were systematically searched. A total of 16 studies were accessed, and three made up the final sample.All three studied ocular abnormalities in patients with NSCL/P.The articles found ocular abnormalities in 6.21%, 17.54% and 1.03% of patients respectively.The presence of ocular abnormalities in patients with NSCL/P was significant in this systematic review, but the articles all agreed that future studies should explore the possibility of a greater occurrence of ocular changes in individuals with NSCL/P.

  17. Computed tomography of Rathke's cleft cyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiokawa, Yoshiaki; Teramoto, Akira; Mayanagi, Yoshiaki; Hanamura, Tetsu; Noguchi, Makoto; Takakura, Kintomo.

    1986-01-01

    The computed tomography (CT) findings in six cases of Rathke's cleft cyst (RCC) were presented. According to the location of the RCC, we divided these cases into two types - the suprasellar type and the intrasellar type. The characteristic CT findings are as follows: SUPRASELLAR type 1. smooth, round mass, 2. various densities, 3. no enhancement, INTRASELLAR type 1. low-density area in the posterior sella turcica, 2. no enhancement, 3. suprasellar high-density mass; enhanced pituitary gland pushed up by the intrasellar RCC. As RCC are more common than was formerly suspected, this disease should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of a patient showing a non-enhancing, non-calcified sellar/suprasellar cyst on CT scans. (author)

  18. Computed tomography of Rathke's cleft cyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiokawa, Yoshiaki; Teramoto, Akira; Mayanagi, Yoshiaki; Hanamura, Tetsu; Noguchi, Makoto; Takakura, Kintomo

    1986-02-01

    The computed tomography (CT) findings in six cases of Rathke's cleft cyst (RCC) were presented. According to the location of the RCC, we divided these cases into two types - the suprasellar type and the intrasellar type. The characteristic CT findings are as follows: SUPRASELLAR type 1. smooth, round mass, 2. various densities, 3. no enhancement, INTRASELLAR type 1. low-density area in the posterior sella turcica, 2. no enhancement, 3. suprasellar high-density mass; enhanced pituitary gland pushed up by the intrasellar RCC. As RCC are more common than was formerly suspected, this disease should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of a patient showing a non-enhancing, non-calcified sellar/suprasellar cyst on CT scans.

  19. A comparative study of prelinguistic vocalizations in two groups of cleft toddlers and a non-cleft group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willadsen, Elisabeth; Enemark, Hans

    2000-01-01

    . The results of this investigation were compared to results previously reported for 19 children with cleft palate and 19 noncleft children at the age of 13 months. The children with clefts in that study received a two-stage palatal surgery. This surgical procedure was formerly used at our center and included...... children in the comparison group. Both groups of subjects with clefts had significantly fewer plosives in their contoid inventory than the noncleft group, and there was no difference regarding place of articulation between the group that received delayed closure of the hard palate and the noncleft group.......Objective: This study examined the prelinguistic contoid (consonant-like) inventories of 14 children with unilateral cleft lip and palate (C-UCLP) at 13 months of age. The children had received primary veloplasty at 7 months of age and closure of the hard palate was performed at 3–5 years...

  20. Paternal B vitamin intake is a determinant of growth, hepatic lipid metabolism and intestinal tumor volume in female Apc1638N mouse offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The importance of maternal nutrition to offspring health and risk of disease is well established. Emerging evidence suggests paternal diet may affect offspring health as well. Objective: In the current study we sought to determine whether modulating pre-conception paternal B vitamin inta...