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Sample records for clearance interval traffic signal cycle

  1. Comparison of Two Methods of Traffic Signal Design Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Liliana Alba Menéndez

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available To satisfy the traffic demand in intersections, with safety and efficiency it is common to use a signallike control device, such that the right of using the common space of the intersections is assignedalternatively to the currents of such traffic flow that they cross. In Cuba, for the calculation of the cyclelength and the phases of the signal the Method of Poisson is used, based on the probability ofrandom arrivals of vehicles to the access point, developed in the 50th century. Presently many countriesuse the Method developed by Webster in England during 60th century, based on empiric observationsthen and unto today has proven effective, where an optimal cycle length is calculated, that is minimumdelays and better levels of service.In this study several intersections in Havana with high levels ofcomplexity were studied, the cycle length and the intervals of green were calculated by each method,the parameters that define the quality of the operation were determined in each method. The resultwill be vital in the strategic planning as see fit the National Centre of Traffic Engineering in thedesigning of traffic lights, with efficiency in road traffic.

  2. Traffic Signal Using Smart Agent System

    OpenAIRE

    Cheonshik Kim; You S. Hong

    2008-01-01

    In this research, we propose an electro-sensitive traffic light using the smart agent algorithm to reduce traffic congestion and traffic accidents. The multi-agent system approach can provide a new and preferable solution. The proposed method adaptively controls the cycle of traffic signals even though the traffic volume varies. Consequently, we reduce the car waiting time and start-up delay time using fuzzy control of feedback data. In particular, we have designed and implemented a system to...

  3. Traffic Signal Using Smart Agent System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheonshik Kim

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, we propose an electro-sensitive traffic light using the smart agent algorithm to reduce traffic congestion and traffic accidents. The multi-agent system approach can provide a new and preferable solution. The proposed method adaptively controls the cycle of traffic signals even though the traffic volume varies. Consequently, we reduce the car waiting time and start-up delay time using fuzzy control of feedback data. In particular, we have designed and implemented a system to create optimum traffic signals in congested conditions. The effectiveness of this method was shown through simulation of multiple intersections.

  4. System and method for traffic signal timing estimation

    KAUST Repository

    Dumazert, Julien

    2015-12-30

    A method and system for estimating traffic signals. The method and system can include constructing trajectories of probe vehicles from GPS data emitted by the probe vehicles, estimating traffic signal cycles, combining the estimates, and computing the traffic signal timing by maximizing a scoring function based on the estimates. Estimating traffic signal cycles can be based on transition times of the probe vehicles starting after a traffic signal turns green.

  5. Distributed traffic signal control using fuzzy logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Stephen

    1992-01-01

    We present a distributed approach to traffic signal control, where the signal timing parameters at a given intersection are adjusted as functions of the local traffic condition and of the signal timing parameters at adjacent intersections. Thus, the signal timing parameters evolve dynamically using only local information to improve traffic flow. This distributed approach provides for a fault-tolerant, highly responsive traffic management system. The signal timing at an intersection is defined by three parameters: cycle time, phase split, and offset. We use fuzzy decision rules to adjust these three parameters based only on local information. The amount of change in the timing parameters during each cycle is limited to a small fraction of the current parameters to ensure smooth transition. We show the effectiveness of this method through simulation of the traffic flow in a network of controlled intersections.

  6. Autonomous Traffic Signal Control Model with Neural Network Analogy

    CERN Document Server

    Ohira, T

    1997-01-01

    We propose here an autonomous traffic signal control model based on analogy with neural networks. In this model, the length of cycle time period of traffic lights at each signal is autonomously adapted. We find a self-organizing collective behavior of such a model through simulation on a one-dimensional lattice model road: traffic congestion is greatly diffused when traffic signals have such autonomous adaptability with suitably tuned parameters. We also find that effectiveness of the system emerges through interactions between units and shows a threshold transition as a function of proportion of adaptive signals in the model.

  7. Traffic Signals in Motorcycle Dependent Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Do, Quoc Cuong

    2009-01-01

    Traffic signal control was first invented in 1868 in Great Britain. Then, it has quickly spread across many other countries, what are now usually developed countries. Therefore, during a long history of development, traffic signals usually have been dealing with traffic in which four-wheel vehicles play an important role in motorised traffic. However, as a result of an unequal development among countries, many Motorcycle Dependent Cities (MDCs) nowadays still exist mostly in the developing co...

  8. Light signals for road traffic control.

    OpenAIRE

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    Signals for road traffic control are a major constituent of the modern traffic scene, particularly in built-up areas. A vast amount of research has been executed in the last two decennia, resulting in a fairly generally accepted view on what the requirements for effective traffic lights are. For the French translation see B 19780

  9. A Two-Stage Fuzzy Logic Control Method of Traffic Signal Based on Traffic Urgency Degree

    OpenAIRE

    Yan Ge

    2014-01-01

    City intersection traffic signal control is an important method to improve the efficiency of road network and alleviate traffic congestion. This paper researches traffic signal fuzzy control method on a single intersection. A two-stage traffic signal control method based on traffic urgency degree is proposed according to two-stage fuzzy inference on single intersection. At the first stage, calculate traffic urgency degree for all red phases using traffic urgency evaluation module and select t...

  10. Scaling and memory in recurrence intervals of Internet traffic

    CERN Document Server

    Cai, Shi-Min; Zhou, Tao; Gu, Jun; Zhou, Pei-Ling

    2009-01-01

    By studying the statistics of recurrence intervals, $\\tau$, between volatilities of Internet traffic rate changes exceeding a certain threshold $q$, we find that the probability distribution functions, $P_{q}(\\tau)$, for both byte and packet flows, show scaling property as $P_{q}(\\tau)=\\frac{1}{\\overline{\\tau}}f(\\frac{\\tau}{\\overline{\\tau}})$. The scaling functions for both byte and packet flows obeys the same stretching exponential form, $f(x)=A\\texttt{exp}(-Bx^{\\beta})$, with $\\beta \\approx 0.45$. In addition, we detect a strong memory effect that a short (or long) recurrence interval tends to be followed by another short (or long) one. The detrended fluctuation analysis further demonstrates the presence of long-term correlation in recurrence intervals.

  11. Modelling of urban traffic networkof signalized intersections

    OpenAIRE

    Ocran, Abena Kwantwiwaa

    2013-01-01

    This report presents how traffic network of signalized intersection in a chosen urban area called Tema is synchronized. Using a modular approach, two different types of traffic intersection commonly found in an urban area were modelled i.e. a simple intersection and a complex intersection. A direct road, even though not an intersection, was also included in the modelling because it’s commonly found in an urban area plus it connects any two intersections. Each of these scenarios was modelled u...

  12. Traffic Incident Clearance Time and Arrival Time Prediction Based on Hazard Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang beibei Ji

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate prediction of incident duration is not only important information of Traffic Incident Management System, but also an effective input for travel time prediction. In this paper, the hazard based prediction models are developed for both incident clearance time and arrival time. The data are obtained from the Queensland Department of Transport and Main Roads’ STREAMS Incident Management System (SIMS for one year ending in November 2010. The best fitting distributions are drawn for both clearance and arrival time for 3 types of incident: crash, stationary vehicle, and hazard. The results show that Gamma, Log-logistic, and Weibull are the best fit for crash, stationary vehicle, and hazard incident, respectively. The obvious impact factors are given for crash clearance time and arrival time. The quantitative influences for crash and hazard incident are presented for both clearance and arrival. The model accuracy is analyzed at the end.

  13. Three-phase theory of city traffic: Moving synchronized flow patterns in under-saturated city traffic at signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerner, Boris S.

    2014-03-01

    Three-phase traffic flow theory of city traffic has been developed. Based on simulations of a stochastic microscopic traffic flow model, features of moving synchronized flow patterns (MSP) have been studied, which are responsible for a random time-delayed breakdown of a green-wave (GW) organized in a city. A possibility of GW control leading to the prevention of GW breakdown has been demonstrated. A diagram of traffic breakdown in under-saturated traffic (transition from under- to over-saturated city traffic) at the signal has been found; the diagram presents regions of the average arrival flow rate, within which traffic breakdown can occur, in dependence of parameters of the time-function of the arrival flow rate or/and signal parameters. Physical reasons for a crucial difference between results of classical theory of city traffic and three-phase theory are explained. In particular, we have found that under-saturated traffic at the signal can exist during a long time interval, when the average arrival flow rate is larger than the capacity of the classical theory; the classical capacity is equal to a minimum capacity in three-phase theory. Within a range of the average arrival flow rate between the minimum and maximum signal capacities, under-saturated traffic is in a metastable state with respect to traffic breakdown. We have distinguished the following possible causes for the metastability of under-saturated traffic: (i) The arrival flow rate during the green phase is larger than the saturation flow rate. (ii) The length of the upstream front of a queue at the signal is a finite value. (iii) The outflow rate from a MSP (the rate of MSP discharge) is larger than the saturation flow rate.

  14. Surface code—biophysical signals for apoptotic cell clearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biermann, Mona; Maueröder, Christian; Brauner, Jan M.; Chaurio, Ricardo; Janko, Christina; Herrmann, Martin; Muñoz, Luis E.

    2013-12-01

    Apoptotic cell death and the clearance of dying cells play an important and physiological role in embryonic development and normal tissue turnover. In contrast to necrosis, apoptosis proceeds in an anti-inflammatory manner. It is orchestrated by the timed release and/or exposure of so-called ‘find-me’, ‘eat me’ and ‘tolerate me’ signals. Mononuclear phagocytes are attracted by various ‘find-me’ signals, including proteins, nucleotides, and phospholipids released by the dying cell, whereas the involvement of granulocytes is prevented via ‘stay away’ signals. The exposure of anionic phospholipids like phosphatidylserine (PS) by apoptotic cells on the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane is one of the main ‘eat me’ signals. PS is recognized by a number of innate receptors as well as by soluble bridging molecules on the surface of phagocytes. Importantly, phagocytes are able to discriminate between viable and apoptotic cells both exposing PS. Due to cytoskeleton remodeling PS has a higher lateral mobility on the surfaces of apoptotic cells thereby promoting receptor clustering on the phagocyte. PS not only plays an important role in the engulfment process, but also acts as ‘tolerate me’ signal inducing the release of anti-inflammatory cytokines by phagocytes. An efficient and fast clearance of apoptotic cells is required to prevent secondary necrosis and leakage of intracellular danger signals into the surrounding tissue. Failure or prolongation of the clearance process leads to the release of intracellular antigens into the periphery provoking inflammation and development of systemic inflammatory autoimmune disease like systemic lupus erythematosus. Here we review the current findings concerning apoptosis-inducing pathways, important players of apoptotic cell recognition and clearance as well as the role of membrane remodeling in the engulfment of apoptotic cells by phagocytes.

  15. Surface code—biophysical signals for apoptotic cell clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apoptotic cell death and the clearance of dying cells play an important and physiological role in embryonic development and normal tissue turnover. In contrast to necrosis, apoptosis proceeds in an anti-inflammatory manner. It is orchestrated by the timed release and/or exposure of so-called ‘find-me’, ‘eat me’ and ‘tolerate me’ signals. Mononuclear phagocytes are attracted by various ‘find-me’ signals, including proteins, nucleotides, and phospholipids released by the dying cell, whereas the involvement of granulocytes is prevented via ‘stay away’ signals. The exposure of anionic phospholipids like phosphatidylserine (PS) by apoptotic cells on the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane is one of the main ‘eat me’ signals. PS is recognized by a number of innate receptors as well as by soluble bridging molecules on the surface of phagocytes. Importantly, phagocytes are able to discriminate between viable and apoptotic cells both exposing PS. Due to cytoskeleton remodeling PS has a higher lateral mobility on the surfaces of apoptotic cells thereby promoting receptor clustering on the phagocyte. PS not only plays an important role in the engulfment process, but also acts as ‘tolerate me’ signal inducing the release of anti-inflammatory cytokines by phagocytes. An efficient and fast clearance of apoptotic cells is required to prevent secondary necrosis and leakage of intracellular danger signals into the surrounding tissue. Failure or prolongation of the clearance process leads to the release of intracellular antigens into the periphery provoking inflammation and development of systemic inflammatory autoimmune disease like systemic lupus erythematosus. Here we review the current findings concerning apoptosis-inducing pathways, important players of apoptotic cell recognition and clearance as well as the role of membrane remodeling in the engulfment of apoptotic cells by phagocytes. (paper)

  16. Capacity Reliability of Signalized Intersections with Mixed Traffic Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xiaoming; SHAO Chunfu; LI Da; DONG Chunjiao

    2009-01-01

    The reliability of capacity of signalized intersections in mixed traffic conditions involving vehicles, bicycles, and pedestrians was investigated to complete the conventional, deterministic capacity calculations. Simulations using VISSIM provided estimates of capacity distributions, and demonstrated the effects of the analysis intervals on the distributions. With the random vehicle arrivals taken into account, a capacity reli-ability assessment method was given as a function. Assessments were also performed regarding the effects of the conflicting pedestrian and bicycle volumes on capacity reliability. The simulation indicates that the pe-destrians and bicycles result in greater random fluctuations of exclusive tuming lane capacities, but have less effect on the variability of shared lane capacities. Normal distributions can be used to model the capaci-ties for intervals not less than 10 min. At higher vehicular volumes, the capacity reliability is more sensitive to the mean and standard deviation of the pedestrian and bicycle volumes.

  17. Traffic breakdown at a signal: classical theory versus the three-phase theory of city traffic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Physical reasons for a crucial difference between the results of a three-phase theory developed recently (Kerner 2011 Phys. Rev. E 84 045102(R); 2013 Europhys. Lett. 102 28010; 2014 Physica A 397 76) and the classical theory are explained. Microscopic characteristics of traffic passing a traffic signal during the green signal phase and their dependence on the duration of the green phase have been found. It turns out that a moving synchronized flow pattern (MSP), which occurs in under-saturated traffic at the signal, causes ‘compression’ of traffic flow: the rate of MSP discharge can be considerably larger than the saturation flow rate of the classical traffic theory of city traffic. This leads to a considerably larger rate of traffic passing the signal in comparison with the saturation flow rate. This effect together with traffic behavior at the upstream queue front explains the metastability of under-saturated traffic with respect to a random time-delayed traffic breakdown. (paper)

  18. Traffic breakdown at a signal: classical theory versus the three-phase theory of city traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerner, Boris S.; Klenov, Sergey L.; Schreckenberg, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Physical reasons for a crucial difference between the results of a three-phase theory developed recently (Kerner 2011 Phys. Rev. E 84 045102(R); 2013 Europhys. Lett. 102 28010; 2014 Physica A 397 76) and the classical theory are explained. Microscopic characteristics of traffic passing a traffic signal during the green signal phase and their dependence on the duration of the green phase have been found. It turns out that a moving synchronized flow pattern (MSP), which occurs in under-saturated traffic at the signal, causes ‘compression’ of traffic flow: the rate of MSP discharge can be considerably larger than the saturation flow rate of the classical traffic theory of city traffic. This leads to a considerably larger rate of traffic passing the signal in comparison with the saturation flow rate. This effect together with traffic behavior at the upstream queue front explains the metastability of under-saturated traffic with respect to a random time-delayed traffic breakdown.

  19. Traffic signals - alternative method for emissions reduction; Liikennevaloillako paeaestoet alas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niittymaeki, J. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland)

    2001-07-01

    Traffic signalling is a process, which adapts to the prevailing traffic. The objective of traffic signalling is to direct traffic as safely as possible through a road junction. Other objectives are to maximize the road capacity, to clarify the traffic, and to effect the selection of routs. The target of design and timing of traffic signalling is to minimize the delays of the traffic. However, traffic signalling increases the emissions and fuel consumption. Traditionally the traffic adaptive control has been arranged on the basis of the extension principle, which means the extension of the green light as long as there is demand for the signal, however, only to a set maximum time. In practice the systems seeks an adequate distance in the traffic for cutting off the green light. New methods, such as mathematical optimization, fuzzy logic, neural networks and generic algorithms have been included traffic signalling. These new methods have proven to be 10-20% more efficient than the old ones. Results of the researches have shown that it is possible to achieve significant savings in social economy, including savings in fuels consumption and environmental impacts of the traffic, by development/renovation of traffic signalling. This article reviews the studies carried out in Finland on traffic signalling. A typical driving process through a signalized road junction: deceleration, idle running, acceleration and steady driving. The emissions of these phases differ from each other. Gasoline-fueled cars equipped with catalyst produces significantly more CO during idle running than in the other phases, and the HC content is highest during deceleration. On the other hand NO{sub x} formation is highest during acceleration. Formation of CO, HC and aldehydes is lowest during steady driving, and the formation of NO{sub x} during deceleration. CO and NO{sub x} emissions of diesel engines are highest during acceleration, and HC emissions during idle running. Total emissions of diesel

  20. Study of Truck Driver Behavior at Onset of Yellow Traffic Signal Indication for the Design of Yellow Times

    OpenAIRE

    Bryant, Craig William

    2014-01-01

    Traffic signal violations by drivers are a leading contributor to crashes at signalized intersections. The yellow indication is used to inform drivers of an upcoming change in the status of the traffic signal. Yellow-interval durations are currently calculated to provide dilemma zone protection for passenger cars. Due to differences in vehicle characteristics and driver characteristics, heavy trucks such as tractor-trailers behave differently at the onset of a yellow-indication. The resea...

  1. Increasing Market Penetration of LED Traffic Signals in New York State: Review of Articles and Information on LED Traffic Signals

    OpenAIRE

    Bullough, John D; Suozzo, Margaret

    2002-01-01

    A primary purpose of this review is to identify and summarize recently published information about the use and performance of light-emitting diode (LED) traffic signals. It consists of two sections: a synopsis of experiences of municipalities using LED traffic signals in 1999 and 2000, and a discussion of technical, economic and market issues surrounding the deployment of LED signals. This review includes articles and reports published in 1999 and 2000.

  2. Joint optimization traffic signal control for an urban arterial road

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yin-fei; CHEN Shu-ping

    2009-01-01

    This paper considers the optimal traffic signal setting for an urban arterial road. By introducing the concepts of synchronization rate and non-synchronization degree, a mathematical model is constructed and an optimization problem is posed. Then, a new iterative algorithm is developed to solve this optimal traffic control signal setting problem. Convergence properties for this iterative algorithm are established. Finally, a numerical example is solved to illustrate the effectiveness of the method.

  3. Assessing the impact of road traffic on cycling for leisure and cycling to work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wareham Nicholas J

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To explore the relationship between leisure and commuter cycling with objectively measured levels of road traffic and whether any relationship was affected by traffic levels directly outside of home or in local neighbourhood. Findings We conducted a secondary analysis of data from the UK European Prospective Investigation of Cancer (EPIC Norfolk cohort in 2009. We used a geographical information system (GIS and gender specific multivariate models to relate 13 927 participants' reported levels of cycling with an index of road traffic volume (Road Traffic Volume Index Score - RTVIS. RTVIS were calculated around each participants home, using four distance based buffers, (0.5 km, 1 km, 2 km and 3.2 km. Models were adjusted for age, social status, education, car access and deprivation. Both genders had similar decreases in leisure cycling as traffic volumes increased at greater distances from home (OR 0.42, (95% CI 0.32-0.52, p Conclusions Traffic volumes appear to have greater impact on leisure cycling than commuter cycling. Future research should investigate the importance of traffic on different types of cycling and include psychosocial correlates.

  4. An extended signal control strategy for urban network traffic flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fei; Tian, Fuli; Shi, Zhongke

    2016-03-01

    Traffic flow patterns are in general repeated on a daily or weekly basis. To improve the traffic conditions by using the inherent repeatability of traffic flow, a novel signal control strategy for urban networks was developed via iterative learning control (ILC) approach. Rigorous analysis shows that the proposed learning control method can guarantee the asymptotic convergence. The impacts of the ILC-based signal control strategy on the macroscopic fundamental diagram (MFD) were analyzed by simulations on a test road network. The results show that the proposed ILC strategy can evenly distribute the accumulation in the network and improve the network mobility.

  5. Development of an Interval Management Algorithm Using Ground Speed Feedback for Delayed Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmore, Bryan E.; Swieringa, Kurt A.; Underwood, Matthew C.; Abbott, Terence; Leonard, Robert D.

    2016-01-01

    One of the goals of NextGen is to enable frequent use of Optimized Profile Descents (OPD) for aircraft, even during periods of peak traffic demand. NASA is currently testing three new technologies that enable air traffic controllers to use speed adjustments to space aircraft during arrival and approach operations. This will allow an aircraft to remain close to their OPD. During the integration of these technologies, it was discovered that, due to a lack of accurate trajectory information for the leading aircraft, Interval Management aircraft were exhibiting poor behavior. NASA's Interval Management algorithm was modified to address the impact of inaccurate trajectory information and a series of studies were performed to assess the impact of this modification. These studies show that the modification provided some improvement when the Interval Management system lacked accurate trajectory information for the leading aircraft.

  6. Theory of self-organized traffic at light signal

    CERN Document Server

    Kerner, Boris S

    2012-01-01

    Based on numerical simulations of a three-phase traffic flow model, a probabilistic theory of traffic at the light signal is developed. We have found that very complex spatiotemporal self-organized phenomena determine features of city traffic. We have revealed that the breakdown of {\\it green wave} in a city is initiated by the emergence of a moving synchronized flow pattern (MSP) within the green wave. It turns out that a sequence of F$\\rightarrow$S$\\rightarrow$J transitions (F -- free flow, S -- synchronized flow, J -- moving queue) lead to traffic breakdown at the light signal. Both spontaneous and induced breakdowns of the green wave have been found. From a study of a variety of scenarios for arrival traffic, we have found that there are the infinite number of capacities of traffic at the light signal, which are in a capacity range between a minimum capacity and maximum capacity; each of the capacities gives a flow rate at which under-saturated traffic is in a metastable state with respect to the transiti...

  7. Flight Crew Responses to the Interval Management Alternative Clearances (IMAC) Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxley, Brian T.; Wilson, Sara R.; Swieringa, Kurt A.; Roper, Roy D.

    2016-01-01

    Interval Management Alternative Clearances (IMAC) was a human-in-the-loop simulation experiment conducted to explore the efficacy and acceptability of three IM operations: CAPTURE, CROSS, and MAINTAIN. Two weeks of data collection were conducted, with each week using twelve subject pilots and four subject controllers flying ten high-density arrival scenarios into the Denver International Airport. Overall, both the IM operations and procedures were rated very favorably by the flight crew in terms of acceptability, workload, and pilot head down time. However, several critical issues were identified requiring resolution prior to real-world implementation, including the high frequency of IM speed commands, IM speed commands requiring changes to aircraft configuration, and ambiguous IM cockpit displays that did not trigger the intended pilot reaction. The results from this experiment will be used to prepare for a flight test in 2017, and to support the development of an advanced IM concept of operations by the FAA (Federal Aviation Agency) and aviation industry.

  8. Traffic routes and signals for the tonoplast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrazzini, Emanuela; Komarova, Nataliya Y; Rentsch, Doris; Vitale, Alessandro

    2013-06-01

    Tonoplast, the membrane delimiting plant vacuoles, regulates ion, water and nutrient movement between the cytosol and the vacuolar lumen through the activity of its membrane proteins. Correct traffic of proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the tonoplast requires (i) approval by the ER quality control, (ii) motifs for exit from the ER and (iii) motifs that promote sorting to the tonoplast. Recent evidence suggests that this traffic follows different pathways that are protein-specific and could also reflect vacuole specialization for lytic or storage function. The routes can be distinguished based on their sensitivity to drugs such as brefeldin A and C834 as well as using mutant plants that are defective in adaptor proteins of vesicle coats, or dominant-negative mutants of Rab GTPases.

  9. Study on Signal Intersection Traffic Flow Characteristics in Ice Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Ouyang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available As the component of urban transportation network, the intersection is the main part of traffic accidents and the bottleneck of restricting the smoothness of the transportation system. There are signalized intersection and non-signalized intersection, and the former is the main form at the intersection. So the evaluation of the service level under ice and snowfall conditions is significant. In the paper, we analysis the basic parameter of intersection signal control and operating characteristics of straight, right turn, left turn traffic flow in ice and snow condition, and we propose a traffic delay time model. On this basis, according to the snowfall intensity and respectively to the lanes and the whole intersection traffic flow as the object of study, we study the average delay in signal intersection in normal weather, slight snow, heavy snow and blizzard. With snow and ice conditions as starting point, the paper calculates the traffic capacities of signalized intersection under various snow and ice conditions. We compare the results of the calculation model and the actual measurement results, finally get the conclusion: the average delay time model can better express the vehicle at signalized intersection, in which the maximum deviation is 16.73%, and only appear once, twice the maximum deviation is 13.58%, and calibrate the snow and cold weather delayed mixed model.

  10. Signal optimization in urban transports: TASEP with traffic lights

    CERN Document Server

    Arita, Chikashi; Santen, Ludger

    2016-01-01

    We consider the exclusion process on a ring with time-dependent defective bonds at which the hoping rate periodically switches between zero and one. This system models main roads in city traffics, intersecting with perpendicular streets. We explore basic properties of the system, in particular dependence of the vehicular flow on the parameters of signalization as well as the system size and the car density. We investigate various types of the spatial distribution of the vehicular density, and show existence of a shock profile. We also measure waiting time behind traffic lights, and examine its relationship with the traffic flow.

  11. Emergency vehicle traffic signal preemption system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachelder, Aaron D. (Inventor); Foster, Conrad F. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An emergency vehicle traffic light preemption system for preemption of traffic lights at an intersection to allow safe passage of emergency vehicles. The system includes a real-time status monitor of an intersection which is relayed to a control module for transmission to emergency vehicles as well as to a central dispatch office. The system also provides for audio warnings at an intersection to protect pedestrians who may not be in a position to see visual warnings or for various reasons cannot hear the approach of emergency vehicles. A transponder mounted on an emergency vehicle provides autonomous control so the vehicle operator can attend to getting to an emergency and not be concerned with the operation of the system. Activation of a priority-code (i.e. Code-3) situation provides communications with each intersection being approached by an emergency vehicle and indicates whether the intersection is preempted or if there is any conflict with other approaching emergency vehicles. On-board diagnostics handle various information including heading, speed, and acceleration sent to a control module which is transmitted to an intersection and which also simultaneously receives information regarding the status of an intersection. Real-time communications and operations software allow central and remote monitoring, logging, and command of intersections and vehicles.

  12. Acoustic Signal based Traffic Density State Estimation using SVM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Borkar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on the information present in cumulative acoustic signal acquired from a roadside-installed single microphone, this paper considers the problem of vehicular traffic density state estimation. The occurrence and mixture weightings of traffic noise signals (Tyre, Engine, Air Turbulence, Exhaust, and Honks etc are determined by the prevalent traffic density conditions on the road segment. In this work, we extract the short-term spectral envelope features of the cumulative acoustic signals using MFCC (Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficients. Support Vector Machines (SVM is used as classifier is used to model the traffic density state as Low (40 Km/h and above, Medium (20-40 Km/h, and Heavy (0-20 Km/h. For the developing geographies where the traffic is non-lane driven and chaotic, other techniques (magnetic loop detectors are inapplicable. SVM classifier with different kernels are used to classify the acoustic signal segments spanning duration of 20–40 s, which results in average classification accuracy of 96.67% for Quadratic kernel function and 98.33% for polynomial kernel function, when entire frames are considered for classification.

  13. Traffic flow model at fixed control signals with discrete service time distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucky I. Igbinosun

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Most of the models of road traffic flow at fixed-cycle controlled intersection assume stationary distributions and provide steady state results. The assumption that a constant number of vehicles can leave the system during the green phase is unrealistic in real life situations. A discrete time queuing model was developed to describe the operation of traffic flow at a road intersection with fixed-cycle signalized control and to account for the randomness in the number of vehicles that can leave the system. The results show the expected queue size in the system when the traffic is light and for a busy period, respectively. For the light period, when the traffic intensity is less than one, it takes a shorter green cycle time for vehicles to clear up than during high traffic intensity (the road junction is saturated. Increasing the number of cars that can leave the junction at the turn of the green phase reduces the number of cycle times before the queue is cleared.

  14. FL-FN-MOGA Based Traffic Signal Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏武; 张毅

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, a traffic signal control method based on fuzzy logic (FL), fuzzy-neuro (FN) and multi-objective genetic algorithms (MOGA) for an isolated four-approach intersection with through and left-turning movements is presented. This method has an adaptive signal timing ability, and can make adjustments to signal timing in response to observed changes. The "urgency degree" term, which can describe the different user's demand for green time is used in decision-making by which strategy of signal timing can be determined. Using a fuzzy logic controller, we can determine whether to extend or terminate the current signal phase and select the sequences of phases. In this paper, a method based on fuzzy-neuro can be used to predict traffic parameters used in fuzzy logic controller. The feasibility of using a multi-objective genetic algorithm (MOGA) to find a group of optimizing sets of parameters for fuzzy logic controller depending on different objects is also demonstrated. Simulation results show that the proposed methed is effecfive to adjust the signal timing in response to changing traffic conditions on a real-time basis, and the controller can produce lower vehicle delays and percentage of stopped vehicles than a traffic-actuated controller.

  15. Physiological responses to an acute bout of sprint interval cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freese, Eric C; Gist, Nicholas H; Cureton, Kirk J

    2013-10-01

    Sprint interval training has been shown to improve skeletal muscle oxidative capacity, V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, and health outcomes. However, the acute physiological responses to 4-7 maximal effort intervals have not been determined. To determine the V[Combining Dot Above]O2, cardiorespiratory responses, and energy expenditure during an acute bout of sprint interval cycling (SIC), health, college-aged subjects, 6 men and 6 women, completed 2 SIC sessions with at least 7 days between trials. Sprint interval cycling was performed on a cycle ergometer and involved a 5-minute warm-up followed by four 30-second all-out sprints with 4-minute active recovery. Peak oxygen uptake (ml·kg·min) during the 4 sprints were 35.3 ± 8.2, 38.8 ± 10.1, 38.8 ± 10.6, and 36.8 ± 9.3, and peak heart rate (b·min) were 164 ± 17, 172 ± 10, 177 ± 12, and 175 ± 22. We conclude that an acute bout of SIC elicits submaximal V[Combining Dot Above]O2 and cardiorespiratory responses during each interval that are above 80% of estimated maximal values. Although the duration of exercise in SIC is very short, the high level of V[Combining Dot Above]O2 and cardiorespiratory responses are sufficient to potentially elicit adaptations to training associated with elevated aerobic energy demand.

  16. Assessing the impact of road traffic on cycling for leisure and cycling to work

    OpenAIRE

    Wareham Nicholas J; Panter Jenna R; Foster Charlie E

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background To explore the relationship between leisure and commuter cycling with objectively measured levels of road traffic and whether any relationship was affected by traffic levels directly outside of home or in local neighbourhood. Findings We conducted a secondary analysis of data from the UK European Prospective Investigation of Cancer (EPIC) Norfolk cohort in 2009. We used a geographical information system (GIS) and gender specific multivariate models to relate 13 927 partici...

  17. The Use of Audible Traffic Signals in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, A. F.; Uslan, M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses audible traffic signals (ATS) and their use by visually impaired pedestrians in the United States and other countries. Areas of concern are noted, including the types of intersections at which ATS should be installed, the locations of poles and buttons for activating the system, and the specific type of device used.…

  18. Urban Intersection Traffic Signal Control Based on Fuzzy Logic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏武; 张毅; 张佐; 宋靖雁

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a fuzzy logic adaptive traffic signal control method for an isolated four-approach intersection with through and left-turning movements. In the proposed method, the fuzzy logic controller can make adjustments to signal timing in response to observed changes. The "urgency degree" term that can describe different user's demands for a green light is used in the fuzzy logic decision-making. In addition, a three-level fuzzy controller model decides whether to extend or terminate the current signal phase and the sequence of phases. Simulation results show that the fuzzy controller can adjust its signal timing in response to changing traffic conditions on a real-time basis and that the proposed fuzzy logic controller leads to less vehicle delays and a lower percentage of stopped vehicles.

  19. Infiuence of Bicycle Traffic on Capacity of Typical Signalized Intersection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xiaoming; SHAO Chunfu; YUE Hao

    2007-01-01

    Bicycle traffic has a significant effect on the capacity of signalized intersections. This paper divides the influence of bicyclists on vehicular flow into four types with the time durations estimated based on probability, shock wave, and gap acceptance theory. Vehicular saturation flow rate is predicted for various conditions on the basis of the speed-flow curve for the capacity of typical intersections influenced by bicycle traffic.The model overcomes the limitations of the Highway Capacity Manual (HCM, 2000) method for left-turns due to data collection, and takes into account the effect of trapped bicycles on the through vehicular traffic.The numerical results show that the left-turn and through capacities predicted by the model are lower than those of the HCM method. The right-turn capacity is close to that of the HCM method at Iow bicycle volumes and higher than that of the HCM method at high bicycle volumes.

  20. Research on Driver Behavior in Yellow Interval at Signalized Intersections

    OpenAIRE

    Zhaosheng Yang; Xiujuan Tian; Wei Wang; Xiyang Zhou; Hongmei Liang

    2014-01-01

    Vehicles are often caught in dilemma zone when they approach signalized intersections in yellow interval. The existence of dilemma zone which is significantly influenced by driver behavior seriously affects the efficiency and safety of intersections. This paper proposes the driver behavior models in yellow interval by logistic regression and fuzzy decision tree modeling, respectively, based on camera image data. Vehicle’s speed and distance to stop line are considered in logistic regression m...

  1. A comparative study of Macroscopic Fundamental Diagrams of urban road networks governed by different traffic signal systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Lele; de Gier, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Using a stochastic cellular automaton model for urban traffic flow, we study and compare Macroscopic Fundamental Diagrams (MFDs) of arterial road networks governed by different types of adaptive traffic signal systems. In particular, we simulate realistic signal systems that include signal linking and adaptive cycle times, and compare their performance against a network using highly adaptive self-organizing traffic signals. We find that for networks with time- independent boundary conditions, well-defined stationary MFDs are observed, whose shape depends on the particular signal system used, and also on the level of heterogeneity in the system. We find that the spatial heterogeneity of both density and flow provide important indicators of network performance. We also study networks with time-dependent boundary conditions, containing morning and afternoon peaks. In this case, intricate hysteresis loops are observed in the MFDs which are strongly correlated with the density heterogeneity. Our results show that ...

  2. Modeling Traffic Flow and Management at Un-signalized, Signalized and Roundabout Road Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kakooza

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic congestion continues to hinder economic and social development and also has a negative impact on the environment. A simple mathematical model is used to analyze the different types of road intersections in terms of their Performance in relation to managing traffic congestion and to establish the condition for stability of the road intersections after sufficiently longer periods of time (steady-state. In the analysis, single and double lane un-signalized, signalized and roundabout intersections are evaluated on the basis of their performance (expected number of vehicles and waiting time. Experimental scenarios are carefully designed to analyze the performance of the different types of intersections. It is noted that under light traffic, roundabout intersections perform better than un-signalized and signalized in terms of easing congestion. However under heavy traffic, signalized intersection perform better in terms of easing traffic congestion compared to un-signalized and roundabout intersections. It is further noted that for stability of a road intersection, the proportion of the time a road link stopping at an intersection is delayed should not exceed the utilization factor (the ratio of the arrival rate of vehicles to the product of number of service channels and service rate.

  3. Safety perceptions and behavior related to cycling in mixed traffic: A comparison between Brisbane and Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chataway, Elijah Steven; Kaplan, Sigal; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick;

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the differences in safety perceptions and reported behavior of cyclists in mixed traffic between an emerging cycling city (Brisbane, Australia) and an established cycling city (Copenhagen, Denmark). Perceptions and reported behavior were retrieved from a custom-designed web......-based survey administered among cyclists in the two cities. Elicited items concerned perceived risk of infrastructure layouts, fear of traffic, cycling while distracted, use of safety gear, cycling avoidance due to feeling unsafe, and avoidance to cycle in mixed traffic conditions. The data were analyzed...... with structural equation models. Results show that, in comparison with cyclists in Copenhagen, cyclists in Brisbane perceive mixed traffic infrastructure layouts as less safe, feel more fear of traffic, and are more likely to adopt cycling avoidance as a coping strategy. Results also show that cyclists...

  4. Traffic Congestion Evaluation and Signal Control Optimization Based on Wireless Sensor Networks: Model and Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the model and algorithms for traffic flow data monitoring and optimal traffic light control based on wireless sensor networks. Given the scenario that sensor nodes are sparsely deployed along the segments between signalized intersections, an analytical model is built using continuum traffic equation and develops the method to estimate traffic parameter with the scattered sensor data. Based on the traffic data and principle of traffic congestion formation, we introduce the congestion factor which can be used to evaluate the real-time traffic congestion status along the segment and to predict the subcritical state of traffic jams. The result is expected to support the timing phase optimization of traffic light control for the purpose of avoiding traffic congestion before its formation. We simulate the traffic monitoring based on the Mobile Century dataset and analyze the performance of traffic light control on VISSIM platform when congestion factor is introduced into the signal timing optimization model. The simulation result shows that this method can improve the spatial-temporal resolution of traffic data monitoring and evaluate traffic congestion status with high precision. It is helpful to remarkably alleviate urban traffic congestion and decrease the average traffic delays and maximum queue length.

  5. 平面交叉口的另一种交通信号控制%Traffic flow equilibrium saturation when the traffic signal control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雪佳; 秦敏

    2012-01-01

      建立可改变信号周期的交通流模型,利用最优控制理论和算法给出优化的信号配时控制策略,其结果与传统的信号配时设计非常接近。%  Establish may alter the signal cycle of the traffic flow model, using the optimal control theory and algorithm are presented to optimize the signal timing control strategy, the result with the traditional signal timing design is very close.

  6. Research on Driver Behavior in Yellow Interval at Signalized Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaosheng Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicles are often caught in dilemma zone when they approach signalized intersections in yellow interval. The existence of dilemma zone which is significantly influenced by driver behavior seriously affects the efficiency and safety of intersections. This paper proposes the driver behavior models in yellow interval by logistic regression and fuzzy decision tree modeling, respectively, based on camera image data. Vehicle’s speed and distance to stop line are considered in logistic regression model, which also brings in a dummy variable to describe installation of countdown timer display. Fuzzy decision tree model is generated by FID3 algorithm whose heuristic information is fuzzy information entropy based on membership functions. This paper concludes that fuzzy decision tree is more accurate to describe driver behavior at signalized intersection than logistic regression model.

  7. A Simulated System for Traffic Signal Management Based on Integrating GIS & WSN Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed S. Elmotelb

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic signals management systems (TSMS are traffic systems based on cameras, infrared sensors and satellite systems. Such systems have been lacking the ability of real-time data collection and support. This paper proposes a solution to the traffic signal management problem using combined techniques that combines both GIS information with WSN based techniques. This combination provide appropriate techniques and tools that will enhance the capabilities of traffic jam prevention, early detection, efficient surveillance, efficient spread control, and fast termination of possible hazards. Consequently, this work proposes a new methodology thrown merging WSN and GIS techniques to produce valuable information for traffic signals management systems purposes.

  8. Condition monitoring of valve clearance fault on a small four strokes petrol engine using vibration signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songpon Klinchaeam

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies condition monitoring technique of a small four strokes, single cylinder petrol engine using vibrationsignal analysis based on time domain, crank angle domain, and signal energy. Vibration signals are acquired from the cylinderhead of the engine and used to describe engine processes such as intake/exhaust valve operations, ignition process, andcombustion process. In this study, vibration signals have been applied to monitor various fault conditions in the engine suchas intake and exhaust valve clearance faults. Vibration signals acquired in time domain could be mapped onto crank angledomain using top dead center signal. Time domain techniques were used to analyze vibration signals so that the main eventsrelated to the engine operations could be described easily. Using energy analysis technique, all fault conditions could bealso identified. For future work, signal analysis techniques must be developed and the detected signals should be comparedwith other signals such as pressure signal in order to verify the accuracy of the results.

  9. Synaptic membrane rafts: traffic lights for local neurotrophin signalling?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara eZonta

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Lipid rafts, cholesterol and lipid rich microdomains, are believed to play important roles as platforms for the partitioning of transmembrane and synaptic proteins involved in synaptic signalling, plasticity and maintenance. There is increasing evidence of a physical interaction between post-synaptic densities and post-synaptic lipid rafts. Localization of proteins within lipid rafts is highly regulated, and therefore lipid rafts may function as traffic lights modulating and fine-tuning neuronal signalling. The tyrosine kinase neurotrophin receptors (Trk and the low-affinity p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR are enriched in neuronal lipid rafts together with the intermediates of downstream signalling pathways, suggesting a possible role of rafts in neurotrophin signalling. Moreover, neurotrophins and their receptors are involved in the regulation of cholesterol metabolism. Cholesterol is an important component of lipid rafts and its depletion leads to gradual loss of synapses, underscoring the importance of lipid rafts for proper neuronal function. Here, we review and discuss the idea that translocation of neurotrophin receptors in synaptic rafts may account for the selectivity of their transduced signals.

  10. The role of optimization to control traffic signals setting on capacity and flow at peak hours at intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pegah Jafari Haghighatpour

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Control the pre timing of traffic signals has many advantages because of its responsiveness to traffic demands, short cycles, and effective use of capacity leading to and recovering from oversaturation and amenability to aggressive transit priority. Traffic congestion in urban road and freeway networks leads to a strong degradation of the network infrastructure and accordingly reduced throughput, which can be countered via suitable control measures and strategies. Coordination between intersections in a central system increases capacity, appropriate traffic flow and reduce total delays of vehicles. Scats system has been installed in many world intersections, and many researchers have done about the advantages of it to decrease delays and travel times at intersection. SCATS is a modular system and development of this is possible. Now in Tehran's this system is used and traffic conditions matches on it. Traffic signal timing schedule gives in this system as default and although this system is capable of adapting to the moment traffic but in terms of super saturation and during peak hours due to the lack of optimization, default program around intersection has caused widespread congestion at intersection. In this paper, two intersections of East and West of Tehran have been selected, and in two different situations, the flow to capacity ratio of traffic signal timing has been investigated before and after optimization. Simulation by AIMSUN and optimization by SYNCHRO software is done. After optimization can be observed that if before the pre-defined schedule for SCATS, this plan for each intersection of the volume of traffic at peak hours has been optimized, a great reduction in delay and increase in capacity can be observed at intersections. For example, delay time reduction has been occurred about 14.77 in AM peak time and 12.65 in PM peak time at GOLBARG-DARDASHT intersection.

  11. Diurnal and Weekly Cycles in IPv6 Traffic

    OpenAIRE

    Strowes, Stephen D.

    2016-01-01

    IPv6 activity is commonly reported as a fraction of network traffic per day. Within this traffic, however, are daily and weekly characteristics, driven by non-uniform IPv6 deployment across ISPs and regions. This paper discusses some of the more apparent patterns we observe today.

  12. Traffic Signal Synchronization in the Saturated High-Density Grid Road Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojian Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Most existing traffic signal synchronization strategies do not perform well in the saturated high-density grid road network (HGRN. Traffic congestion often occurs in the saturated HGRN, and the mobility of the network is difficult to restore. In order to alleviate traffic congestion and to improve traffic efficiency in the network, the study proposes a regional traffic signal synchronization strategy, named the long green and long red (LGLR traffic signal synchronization strategy. The essence of the strategy is to control the formation and dissipation of queues and to maximize the efficiency of traffic flows at signalized intersections in the saturated HGRN. With this strategy, the same signal control timing plan is used at all signalized intersections in the HGRN, and the straight phase of the control timing plan has a long green time and a long red time. Therefore, continuous traffic flows can be maintained when vehicles travel, and traffic congestion can be alleviated when vehicles stop. Using the strategy, the LGLR traffic signal synchronization model is developed, with the objective of minimizing the number of stops. Finally, the simulation is executed to analyze the performance of the model by comparing it to other models, and the superiority of the LGLR model is evident in terms of delay, number of stops, queue length, and overall performance in the saturated HGRN.

  13. Traffic signal synchronization in the saturated high-density grid road network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaojian; Lu, Jian; Wang, Wei; Zhirui, Ye

    2015-01-01

    Most existing traffic signal synchronization strategies do not perform well in the saturated high-density grid road network (HGRN). Traffic congestion often occurs in the saturated HGRN, and the mobility of the network is difficult to restore. In order to alleviate traffic congestion and to improve traffic efficiency in the network, the study proposes a regional traffic signal synchronization strategy, named the long green and long red (LGLR) traffic signal synchronization strategy. The essence of the strategy is to control the formation and dissipation of queues and to maximize the efficiency of traffic flows at signalized intersections in the saturated HGRN. With this strategy, the same signal control timing plan is used at all signalized intersections in the HGRN, and the straight phase of the control timing plan has a long green time and a long red time. Therefore, continuous traffic flows can be maintained when vehicles travel, and traffic congestion can be alleviated when vehicles stop. Using the strategy, the LGLR traffic signal synchronization model is developed, with the objective of minimizing the number of stops. Finally, the simulation is executed to analyze the performance of the model by comparing it to other models, and the superiority of the LGLR model is evident in terms of delay, number of stops, queue length, and overall performance in the saturated HGRN.

  14. Novel P-Cycle protection strategy for asymmetric traffic in mesh optical networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin LI; Yunhua ZANG; Yu DENG; Shanguo HUANG; Wanyi GU

    2008-01-01

    A novel prefigured-cycle(P-Cycle)algorithm was proposed to improve the protection success ratio for asymmetric traffic in mesh optical networks.The proposed algorithm was simulated in a Pan-European COST239 network environment under an asymmetric dynamic traffic model.The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm has lower capacity redundancy and higher utilization rate of configured resources than traditional P-Cycle methods.Network performance can be improved when implementing this algorithm under single-link failure circumstances.The system behavior is analyzed under different traffic volumes and the configuration strategy is also investigated for the heavyload and light-load networks respectively.

  15. Alignment of R-R interval signals using the circadian heart rate rhythm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayraud, Nathalie T H; Manis, George

    2015-01-01

    R-R interval signals that come from different subjects are regularly aligned and averaged according to the horological starting time of the recordings. We argue that the horological time is a faulty alignment criterion and provide evidence in the form of a new alignment method. Our main motivation is that the human heart rate (HR) rhythm follows a circadian cycle, whose pattern can vary among different classes of people. We propose two novel alignment algorithms that consider the HR circadian rhythm, the Puzzle Piece Alignment Algorithm (PPA) and the Event Based Alignment Algorithm (EBA). First, we convert the R-R interval signal into a series of time windows and compute the mean HR per window. Then our algorithms search for matching circadian patterns to align the signals. We conduct experiments using R-R interval signals extracted from two databases in the Physionet Data Bank. Both algorithms are able to align the signals with respect to the circadian rhythmicity of HR. Furthermore, our findings confirm the presence of more than one pattern in the circadian HR rhythm. We suggest an automatic classification of signals according to the three most prominent patterns. PMID:26737009

  16. The Strongly Simple Cycles with Given Rotation Pairs of an Interval Map

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tai Xiang SUN; Hong Jian XI; Xiao Yan ZHANG

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce the notion of the strongly simple cycles with some rotation pair for interval maps and prove that, if an interval map has a cycle with given rotation pair, then it has a strongly simple cycle with the same rotation pair.

  17. A Dynamic Traffic Signal Timing Model and its Algorithm for Junction of Urban Road

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Yanguang; Cai, Hao

    2012-01-01

    As an important part of Intelligent Transportation System, the scientific traffic signal timing of junction can improve the efficiency of urban transport. This paper presents a novel dynamic traffic signal timing model. According to the characteristics of the model, hybrid chaotic quantum...... evolutionary algorithm, genetic algorithms and particle swarm optimization....

  18. Air Traffic Management Technology Demostration Phase 1 (ATD) Interval Management for Near-Term Operations Validation of Acceptability (IM-NOVA) Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibler, Jennifer L.; Wilson, Sara R.; Hubbs, Clay E.; Smail, James W.

    2015-01-01

    The Interval Management for Near-term Operations Validation of Acceptability (IM-NOVA) experiment was conducted at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center (LaRC) in support of the NASA Airspace Systems Program's Air Traffic Management Technology Demonstration-1 (ATD-1). ATD-1 is intended to showcase an integrated set of technologies that provide an efficient arrival solution for managing aircraft using Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) surveillance, navigation, procedures, and automation for both airborne and ground-based systems. The goal of the IMNOVA experiment was to assess if procedures outlined by the ATD-1 Concept of Operations were acceptable to and feasible for use by flight crews in a voice communications environment when used with a minimum set of Flight Deck-based Interval Management (FIM) equipment and a prototype crew interface. To investigate an integrated arrival solution using ground-based air traffic control tools and aircraft Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) tools, the LaRC FIM system and the Traffic Management Advisor with Terminal Metering and Controller Managed Spacing tools developed at the NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) were integrated into LaRC's Air Traffic Operations Laboratory (ATOL). Data were collected from 10 crews of current 757/767 pilots asked to fly a high-fidelity, fixed-based simulator during scenarios conducted within an airspace environment modeled on the Dallas-Fort Worth (DFW) Terminal Radar Approach Control area. The aircraft simulator was equipped with the Airborne Spacing for Terminal Area Routes (ASTAR) algorithm and a FIM crew interface consisting of electronic flight bags and ADS-B guidance displays. Researchers used "pseudo-pilot" stations to control 24 simulated aircraft that provided multiple air traffic flows into the DFW International Airport, and recently retired DFW air traffic controllers served as confederate Center, Feeder, Final

  19. [Weak signal detection in every heart cycle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, J; Xu, X; Gao, D; Shi, G

    2001-12-01

    In this article, a new approach is introduced to lowering the myo-electronic noise in weak ECG signals. We use artificial neural network to make the noise be white, and then we adopt an adaptive filter of which the reference signal is achieved by extracting from other ECG cycle. The outcome is the reduction of both white noise and non-white noise in ECG signal. Satisfactory results have been achieved by using this method in the experiment of late potential detection.

  20. A Proposed Model for Traffic Signal Preemption Using Global Positioning System (GPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil Mascarenhas

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A Traffic Signal Preemption system is an automated system that allows normal operation of traffic lights at automated signalized intersection s to be preempted. Preemption of signals is generally done to assist emergency vehicles, such a s ambulances, so that response times are reduced and right-of-way is provided in a smooth an d controlled manner. This paper proposes an innovative and cost-effective server-centric mod el to facilitate preemption using a simple mobile phone app which uses Global Positioning Syst em (GPS and a microcontroller which controls traffic signals.

  1. Loss of Acetylcholine Signaling Reduces Cell Clearance Deficiencies in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio M Pinto

    Full Text Available The ability to eliminate undesired cells by apoptosis is a key mechanism to maintain organismal health and homeostasis. Failure to clear apoptotic cells efficiently can cause autoimmune diseases in mammals. Genetic studies in Caenorhabditis elegans have greatly helped to decipher the regulation of apoptotic cell clearance. In this study, we show that the loss of levamisole-sensitive acetylcholine receptor, but not of a typical neuronal acetylcholine receptor causes a reduction in the number of persistent cell corpses in worms suffering from an engulfment deficiency. This reduction is not caused by impaired or delayed cell death but rather by a partial restoration of the cell clearance capacity. Mutants in acetylcholine turn-over elicit a similar phenotype, implying that acetylcholine signaling is the process responsible for these observations. Surprisingly, tissue specific RNAi suggests that UNC-38, a major component of the levamisole-sensitive receptor, functions in the dying germ cell to influence engulfment efficiency. Animals with loss of acetylcholine receptor exhibit a higher fraction of cell corpses positive for the "eat-me" signal phosphatidylserine. Our results suggest that modulation by ion channels of ion flow across plasma membrane in dying cells can influence the dynamics of phosphatidylserine exposure and thus clearance efficiency.

  2. Loss of Acetylcholine Signaling Reduces Cell Clearance Deficiencies in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Sérgio M; Almendinger, Johann; Cabello, Juan; Hengartner, Michael O

    2016-01-01

    The ability to eliminate undesired cells by apoptosis is a key mechanism to maintain organismal health and homeostasis. Failure to clear apoptotic cells efficiently can cause autoimmune diseases in mammals. Genetic studies in Caenorhabditis elegans have greatly helped to decipher the regulation of apoptotic cell clearance. In this study, we show that the loss of levamisole-sensitive acetylcholine receptor, but not of a typical neuronal acetylcholine receptor causes a reduction in the number of persistent cell corpses in worms suffering from an engulfment deficiency. This reduction is not caused by impaired or delayed cell death but rather by a partial restoration of the cell clearance capacity. Mutants in acetylcholine turn-over elicit a similar phenotype, implying that acetylcholine signaling is the process responsible for these observations. Surprisingly, tissue specific RNAi suggests that UNC-38, a major component of the levamisole-sensitive receptor, functions in the dying germ cell to influence engulfment efficiency. Animals with loss of acetylcholine receptor exhibit a higher fraction of cell corpses positive for the "eat-me" signal phosphatidylserine. Our results suggest that modulation by ion channels of ion flow across plasma membrane in dying cells can influence the dynamics of phosphatidylserine exposure and thus clearance efficiency.

  3. Thermodynamic efficiency of the cardiac cycle and irreversibility in the interbeat interval time series

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandro Muñoz-Diosdado; Gonzalo Gálvez-Coyt; Alejandro Alonso Martínez

    2010-01-01

    Cardiac cycle can be analyzed as a thermodynamic cycle, however, the inherent variability of this cycle implies that, although in the short term the cycle is quasi-reversible, in the long term is irreversible. This work discusses two important aspects of the cardiac cycle related with thermodynamic concepts: the calculation of the cycles efficiency and the quantification of the irreversibility of interbeat interval time series. The results show that there is a variability of cardiac eff...

  4. Effects of speed bottleneck on traffic flow with feedback control signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Kangli; Bi, Jiantao; Wu, Jianjun; Li, Shubin

    2016-09-01

    Various car-following models (CMs) have been developed to capture the complex characteristics of microscopic traffic flow, among which the coupled map CM can better reveal and reflect various phenomena of practical traffic flow. Capacity change at bottleneck contributes to high-density traffic flow upstream the bottleneck and contains very complex dynamic behavior. In this paper, we analyze the effect of speed bottleneck on the spatial-temporal evolution characteristics of traffic flow, and propose a method to reduce traffic congestion with the feedback control signal based on CM. Simulation results highlight the potential of using the feedback signal to control the stop-and-go wave and furthermore to alleviate the traffic congestion effectively.

  5. 10 CFR 431.224 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy consumption for traffic signal modules and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... consumption for traffic signal modules and pedestrian modules. 431.224 Section 431.224 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... measurement of energy consumption for traffic signal modules and pedestrian modules. (a) Scope. This section... traffic signal modules and pedestrian modules. For purposes of 10 CFR part 431 and EPCA, the...

  6. Model predictive control for hybrid vehicle ecological driving using traffic signal and road slope information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kaijiang YU; Junqi YANG; Daisuke YAMAGUCHI

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents development of a control system for ecological driving of a hybrid vehicle. Prediction using traffic signal and road slope information is considered to improve the fuel economy. It is assumed that the automobile receives traffic signal information from intelligent transportation systems (ITS). Model predictive control is used to calculate optimal vehicle control inputs using traffic signal and road slope information. The performance of the proposed method was analyzed through computer simulation results. Both the fuel economy and the driving profile are optimized using the proposed approach. It was observed that fuel economy was improved compared with driving of a typical human driving model.

  7. The RR interval spectrum, the ECG signal and aliasing

    CERN Document Server

    Gersten, A; Ronen, A; Cassuto, Y

    1999-01-01

    A reliable spectral analysis requires sampling rate at least twice as large as the frequency bound, otherwise the analysis will be unreliable and plagued with aliasing distortions. The RR samplings do not satisfy the above requirements and therefore their spectral analysis might be unreliable. In order to demonstrate the feasibility of aliasing in RR spectral analysis, we have done an experiment which have shown clearly how the aliasing was developed. In the experiments, one of us (A.G) had kept his high breathing rate constant with the aid of metronome for more than 5 minutes. The breathing rate was larger than one-half the heart rate. Very accurate results were obtained and the resulting aliasing well understood. To our best knowledge this is the first controlled experiment of this kind coducted on humans. We compared the RR spectral analysis with the spectrum of the ECG signals from which the RR intervals were extracted. In the significant for RR analysis frequencies (below one-half Hertz) significant diff...

  8. Results of active cycle of breathing techniques and conventional physiotherapy in mucociliary clearance in children with cystic fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Hristara-Papadopoulou, A; Tsanakas, J

    2007-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study is the comparison of the results of the appliance of two methods of respiratory physiotherapy; the active cycle of breathing techniques in drainage positions and the conventional physiotherapy, regarding their effects on mucociliary clearance in patients with cystic fibrosis.

  9. GPS Tracking System Coupled With Image Processing in Traffic Signals to Enhance Life Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Prabhakar k

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In modern and crowded traffic life, it becomes mandatory to save the human life by reaching the hospitalvery sooner than possible. This paper explains about the advancement in tracking the ambulance presenceamidst the traffic with the usage of GPS tracking system calculating the position of the ambulance from thetraffic signal which replaces the RF transmitter receiver circuitry. This paper also retains the use of theimage capturing technology available from the base paper (IMPACT OF IMAGE PROCESSING INSAVING THE HUMAN LIFE BY AUTOMATING TRAFFIC SIGNALS to identify the presence of theambulance, thereby changing the signalto green automatically in favour of ambulance

  10. An improved response surface methodology algorithm with an application to traffic signal optimization for urban networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, S.S.; Rathi, A.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Tew, J.D. [Consolidated Freightways, Inc., Portland, OR (United States). ISQ Dept.

    1995-12-31

    This paper illustrates the use of the simulation-optimization technique of response surface methodology (RSM) in traffic signal optimization of urban networks. It also quantifies the gains of using the common random number (CRN) variance reduction strategy in such an optimization procedure. An enhanced RSM algorithm which employs conjugate gradient search techniques and successive second-order models is presented instead of the conventional approach. An illustrative example using an urban traffic network exhibits the superiority of using the CRN strategy ovr direct simulation in performing traffic signal optimization. Relative performance of the two strategies is quantified with computational results using the total network-wide delay as the measure of effectivness.

  11. Symmetry breaking in optimal timing of traffic signals on an idealized two-way street

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panaggio, Mark J.; Ottino-Löffler, Bertand J.; Hu, Peiguang; Abrams, Daniel M.

    2013-09-01

    Simple physical models based on fluid mechanics have long been used to understand the flow of vehicular traffic on freeways; analytically tractable models of flow on an urban grid, however, have not been as extensively explored. In an ideal world, traffic signals would be timed such that consecutive lights turned green just as vehicles arrived, eliminating the need to stop at each block. Unfortunately, this “green-wave” scenario is generally unworkable due to frustration imposed by competing demands of traffic moving in different directions. Until now this has typically been resolved by numerical simulation and optimization. Here, we develop a theory for the flow in an idealized system consisting of a long two-way road with periodic intersections. We show that optimal signal timing can be understood analytically and that there are counterintuitive asymmetric solutions to this signal coordination problem. We further explore how these theoretical solutions degrade as traffic conditions vary and automotive density increases.

  12. Symmetry breaking in optimal timing of traffic signals on an idealized two-way street

    CERN Document Server

    Panaggio, Mark J; Hu, Peiguang; Abrams, Daniel M

    2013-01-01

    Simple physical models based on fluid mechanics have long been used to understand the flow of vehicular traffic on freeways; analytically tractable models of flow on an urban grid, however, have not been as extensively explored. In an ideal world, traffic signals would be timed such that consecutive lights turned green just as vehicles arrived, eliminating the need to stop at each block. Unfortunately, this "green wave" scenario is generally unworkable due to frustration imposed by competing demands of traffic moving in different directions. Until now this has typically been resolved by numerical simulation and optimization. Here, we develop a theory for the flow in an idealized system consisting of a long two-way road with periodic intersections. We show that optimal signal timing can be understood analytically and that there are counter-intuitive asymmetric solutions to this signal coordination problem. We further explore how these theoretical solutions degrade as traffic conditions vary and automotive dens...

  13. Road safety and bicycle usage impacts of unbundling vehicular and cycle traffic in Dutch urban networks.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, P. Heinen, E. Methorst, R. & Wegman, F.

    2015-01-01

    Bicycle-motor vehicle crashes are concentrated along distributor roads where cyclists are exposed to greater volumes of high-speed motorists than they would experience on access roads. This study examined the road safety impact of network-level separation of vehicular and cycle traffic in Dutch urba

  14. Road safety and bicycle usage impacts of unbundling vehicular and cycle traffic in Dutch urban networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, P.; Heinen, E.; Methorst, R.; Wegman, F.C.M.

    2013-01-01

    Bicycle-motor vehicle crashes are concentrated along distributor roads where cyclists are exposed to greater volumes of high-speed motorists than they would experience on access roads. This study examined the road safety impact of network-level separation of vehicular and cycle traffic in Dutch urba

  15. Pre-hospital care time intervals among victims of road traffic injuries in Iran. A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bigdeli Maryam

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Road traffic injuries (RTIs are a major public health problem, requiring concerted efforts both for their prevention and a reduction of their consequences. Timely arrival of the Emergency Medical Service (EMS at the crash scene followed by speedy victim transportation by trained personnel may reduce the RTIs' consequences. The first 60 minutes after injury occurrence - referred to as the "golden hour"- are vital for the saving of lives. The present study was designed to estimate the average of various time intervals occurring during the pre-hospital care process and to examine the differences between these time intervals as regards RTIs on urban and interurban roads. Method A retrospective cross-sectional study was designed and various time intervals in relation to pre-hospital care of RTIs identified in the ambulance dispatch centre in Urmia, Iran from 20 March 2005 to 20 March 2007. All cases which resulted in ambulance dispatches were reviewed and those that had complete data on time intervals were analyzed. Results In total, the cases of 2027 RTI victims were analysed. Of these, 61.5 % of the subjects were injured in city areas. The mean response time for city locations was 5.0 minutes, compared with 10.6 minutes for interurban road locations. The mean on-scene time on the interurban roads was longer than on city roads (9.2 vs. 6.1 minutes, p Conclusion The response, transport and total time intervals among EMS responding to RTI incidents were longer for interurban roads, compared to the city areas. More research should take place on needs-to and access-for EMS on city and interurban roads. The notification interval seems to be a hidden part of the post-crash events and indirectly affects the "golden hour" for victim management and it needs to be measured through the establishment of the surveillance systems.

  16. Overcoming the Pigou-Downs Paradox Using Advanced Traffic Signal Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowdur, S. C.; Rughooputh, S. D. D. V.

    2013-06-01

    Expansion of a road network has often been observed to cause more congestion and has led researchers to the formulation of traffic paradoxes such as the Pigou-Downs and the Braess paradoxes. In this paper, we present an application of advanced traffic signal control (ATSC) to overcome the Pigou-Downs paradox. Port Louis, the capital city of Mauritius is used to investigate the effect of using a harbor bridge to by-pass the city center. Using traffic cellular automata (TCA) simulations it has been shown how, if traffic is only gradually deviated along the by-pass, an overall longer travel time and decreased flux would result. By making use of ATSC, which involves traffic lights that sense the number of vehicles accumulated in the queue, better travel times and fluxes are achieved.

  17. Multi-Objective Optimization of Traffic Signal Timing for Oversaturated Intersection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For the purpose of improving the efficiency of traffic signal control for isolate intersection under oversaturated conditions, a multi-objective optimization algorithm for traffic signal control is proposed. Throughput maximum and average queue ratio minimum are selected as the optimization objectives of the traffic signal control under oversaturated condition. A simulation environment using VISSIM SCAPI was utilized to evaluate the convergence and the optimization results under various settings and traffic conditions. It is written by C++/CRL to connect the simulation software VISSIM and the proposed algorithm. The simulation results indicated that the signal timing plan generated by the proposed algorithm has good efficiency in managing the traffic flow at oversaturated intersection than the commonly utilized signal timing optimization software Synchro. The update frequency applied in the simulation environment was 120 s, and it can meet the requirements of signal timing plan update in real filed. Thus, the proposed algorithm has the capability of searching Pareto front of the multi-objective problem domain under both normal condition and over-saturated condition.

  18. Traffic Signals Control with Adaptive Fuzzy Controller in Urban Road Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yan; FAN Xiao-ping

    2008-01-01

    An adaptive fuzzy logic controller (AFC) is presented for the signal control of the urban traffic network.The AFC is composed of the signal control system-oriented control level and the signal controller-oriented fuzzy rules regulation level.The control level decides the signal tunings in an intersection with a fuzzy logic controller.The regulation level optimizes the fuzzy rules by the Adaptive Rule Module in AFC according to both the system performance index in current control period and the traffic flows in the last one.Consequently the system performances are improved.A weight coefficient controller (WCC) is also developed to describe the interactions of traffic flow among the adjacent intersections.So the AFC combined with the WCC can be applied in a road network for signal timings.Simulations of the AFC on a real traffic scenario have been conducted.Simulation results indicate that the adaptive controller for traffic control shows better performance than the actuated one.

  19. Multiobjective Traffic Signal Control Model for Intersection Based on Dynamic Turning Movements Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengpeng Jiao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The real-time traffic signal control for intersection requires dynamic turning movements as the basic input data. It is impossible to detect dynamic turning movements directly through current traffic surveillance systems, but dynamic origin-destination (O-D estimation can obtain it. However, the combined models of dynamic O-D estimation and real-time traffic signal control are rare in the literature. A framework for the multiobjective traffic signal control model for intersection based on dynamic O-D estimation (MSC-DODE is presented. A state-space model using Kalman filtering is first formulated to estimate the dynamic turning movements; then a revised sequential Kalman filtering algorithm is designed to solve the model, and the root mean square error and mean percentage error are used to evaluate the accuracy of estimated dynamic turning proportions. Furthermore, a multiobjective traffic signal control model is put forward to achieve real-time signal control parameters and evaluation indices. Finally, based on practical survey data, the evaluation indices from MSC-DODE are compared with those from Webster method. The actual and estimated turning movements are further input into MSC-DODE, respectively, and results are also compared. Case studies show that results of MSC-DODE are better than those of Webster method and are very close to unavailable actual values.

  20. Effect of display update interval, update type, and background on perception of aircraft separation on a cockpit display on traffic information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jago, S.; Baty, D.; Oconnor, S.; Palmer, E.

    1981-01-01

    The concept of a cockpit display of traffic information (CDTI) includes the integration of air traffic, navigation, and other pertinent information in a single electronic display in the cockpit. Concise display symbology was developed for use in later full-mission simulator evaluations of the CDTI concept. Experimental variables used included the update interval motion of the aircraft, the update type, (that is, whether the two aircraft were updated at the same update interval or not), the background (grid pattern or no background), and encounter type (straight or curved). Only the type of encounter affected performance.

  1. Life cycle cost optimization of biofuel supply chains under uncertainties based on interval linear programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Dong, Liang; Sun, Lu; Goodsite, Michael Evan; Tan, Shiyu; Dong, Lichun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a model for optimizing the life cycle cost of biofuel supply chain under uncertainties. Multiple agriculture zones, multiple transportation modes for the transport of grain and biofuel, multiple biofuel plants, and multiple market centers were considered in this model, and the price of the resources, the yield of grain and the market demands were regarded as interval numbers instead of constants. An interval linear programming was developed, and a method for solving interval linear programming was presented. An illustrative case was studied by the proposed model, and the results showed that the proposed model is feasible for designing biofuel supply chain under uncertainties. PMID:25827247

  2. From Cellular Attractor Selection to Adaptive Signal Control for Traffic Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Daxin; Zhou, Jianshan; Sheng, Zhengguo; Wang, Yunpeng; Ma, Jianming

    2016-03-01

    The management of varying traffic flows essentially depends on signal controls at intersections. However, design an optimal control that considers the dynamic nature of a traffic network and coordinates all intersections simultaneously in a centralized manner is computationally challenging. Inspired by the stable gene expressions of Escherichia coli in response to environmental changes, we explore the robustness and adaptability performance of signalized intersections by incorporating a biological mechanism in their control policies, specifically, the evolution of each intersection is induced by the dynamics governing an adaptive attractor selection in cells. We employ a mathematical model to capture such biological attractor selection and derive a generic, adaptive and distributed control algorithm which is capable of dynamically adapting signal operations for the entire dynamical traffic network. We show that the proposed scheme based on attractor selection can not only promote the balance of traffic loads on each link of the network but also allows the global network to accommodate dynamical traffic demands. Our work demonstrates the potential of bio-inspired intelligence emerging from cells and provides a deep understanding of adaptive attractor selection-based control formation that is useful to support the designs of adaptive optimization and control in other domains.

  3. Self-organization of traffic jams in cities: Effects of stochastic dynamics and signal periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Debashish; Schadschneider, Andreas

    1999-02-01

    We propose a cellular automata model for vehicular traffic in cities by combining (and appropriately modifying) ideas borrowed from the Biham-Middleton-Levine (BML) model of city traffic and the Nagel-Schreckenberg (NS) model of highway traffic. We demonstrate a phase transition from the ``free-flowing'' dynamical phase to the completely ``jammed'' phase at a vehicle density which depends on the time periods of the synchronized signals and the separation between them. The intrinsic stochasticity of the dynamics, which triggers the onset of jamming, is similar to that in the NS model, while the phenomenon of complete jamming through self-organization as well as the final jammed configurations are similar to those in the BML model. Using our model, we have made an investigation of the time dependence of the average speeds of the cars in the ``free-flowing'' phase as well as the dependence of flux and jamming on the time period of the signals.

  4. Traffic analysis and signal processing in optical packet switched networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjelde, Tina

    2002-01-01

    Gbit/s demultiplexing and 2x10 to 20 Gbit/s multiplexing. Lastly, the IWC’s capabilities as an optical logic gate for enabling more complex signal processing are demonstrated and four applications hereof are discussed. Logic OR and AND are verified in full at 10 Gbit/s using PRBS sequences coupled......, involving all-optical pattern recognition by bit-wise sampling at multiple wavelengths, optical identification of bit differences in data segments through a combination of logic XOR and AND, and all optical bit sequence replacement through logic OR and AND. The schemes enable important signal processing...

  5. Cellular metabolic and autophagic pathways: traffic control by redox signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, Matthew; Darley-Usmar, Victor; Zhang, Jianhua

    2013-10-01

    It has been established that the key metabolic pathways of glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation are intimately related to redox biology through control of cell signaling. Under physiological conditions glucose metabolism is linked to control of the NADH/NAD redox couple, as well as providing the major reductant, NADPH, for thiol-dependent antioxidant defenses. Retrograde signaling from the mitochondrion to the nucleus or cytosol controls cell growth and differentiation. Under pathological conditions mitochondria are targets for reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and are critical in controlling apoptotic cell death. At the interface of these metabolic pathways, the autophagy-lysosomal pathway functions to maintain mitochondrial quality and generally serves an important cytoprotective function. In this review we will discuss the autophagic response to reactive oxygen and nitrogen species that are generated from perturbations of cellular glucose metabolism and bioenergetic function.

  6. The Combined Effect of Signal Strength and Background Traffic Load on Speech Quality in IEEE 802.11 WLAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pocta

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with measurements of the combined effect of signal strength and background traffic load on speech quality in IEEE 802.11 WLAN. The ITU-T G.729AB encoding scheme is deployed in this study and the Distributed Internet Traffic Generator (D-ITG is used for the purpose of background traffic generation. The speech quality and background traffic load are assessed by means of the accomplished PESQ algorithm and Wireshark network analyzer, respectively. The results show that background traffic load has a bit higher impact on speech quality than signal strength when both effects are available together. Moreover, background traffic load also partially masks the impact of signal strength. The reasons for those findings are particularly discussed. The results also suggest some implications for designers of wireless networks providing VoIP service.

  7. Comparison of Cardiorespiratory and Metabolic Responses in Kettlebell High-Intensity Interval Training Versus Sprint Interval Cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Brian M; Kraemer, Robert R

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a novel exercise protocol we developed for kettlebell high-intensity interval training (KB-HIIT) by comparing the cardiorespiratory and metabolic responses to a standard sprint interval cycling (SIC) exercise protocol. Eight men volunteered for the study and completed 2 preliminary sessions, followed by two 12-minute sessions of KB-HIIT and SIC in a counterbalanced fashion. In the KB-HITT session, 3 circuits of 4 exercises were performed using a Tabata regimen. In the SIC session, three 30-second sprints were performed, with 4 minutes of recovery in between the first 2 sprints and 2.5 minutes of recovery after the last sprint. A within-subjects' design over multiple time points was used to compare oxygen consumption (V[Combining Dot Above]O2), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), tidal volume (TV), breathing frequency (f), minute ventilation (VE), caloric expenditure rate (kcal·min), and heart rate (HR) between the exercise protocols. Additionally, total caloric expenditure was compared. A significant group effect, time effect, and group × time interaction were found for V[Combining Dot Above]O2, RER, and TV, with V[Combining Dot Above]O2 being higher and TV and RER being lower in the KB-HIIT compared with the SIC. Only a significant time effect and group × time interaction were found for f, VE, kcal·min, and HR. Additionally, total caloric expenditure was found to be significantly higher during the KB-HIIT. The results of this study suggest that KB-HIIT may be more attractive and sustainable than SIC and can be effective in stimulating cardiorespiratory and metabolic responses that could improve health and aerobic performance. PMID:26360962

  8. Variation regularity of metal magnetic memory signals with inspecting time-interval and location

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Chun-yan; LI Wu-shen; DI Xin-jie; XUE Zhen-kui; BAI Shi-wu; LIU Fang-ming

    2007-01-01

    Influences of inspecting time-interval and location on varying behavior of metal magnetic memory (MMM) signals of defects were studied. Different areas in two precracked weldments were inspected at different time-intervals by type TSC-1M-4stress-concentration magnetic inspector to obtain MMM signals. Mechanisms of MMM signals varying behavior with inspecting time and space were analyzed and discussed respectively. It is found that MMM signals don't change with inspecting time-interval,since stress field and magnetic leakage field maintain unchanged at any time after welding. On the other hand, MMM signals differ greatly for different inspecting locations, because stress field and magnetic leakage field are unevenly distributed in defective ferromagnetic materials.

  9. 基于交通噪声分析的交通流状态识别方法%Traffic Flow State Identification Based on Traffic Noise Signals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗向龙

    2012-01-01

    A vehicle acoustic signal is composed of engine noise, tire noise, air turbulence noise and exhaust noise. Traffic noise signals mixture of multiple vehicles' acoustic signals is determined by the traffic state. Based on the analysis of the existing traffic state identification methods and vehicle sound characteristics, an identification method of the traffic flow state was proposed by using traffic noise signals. In accordance with the vehicle speed, traffic flow states were divided into the free flow, saturation flow and traffic jams. The spectrums of vehicle acoustic signals were analyzed for different traffic states, the normalized peak frequencies were as features, and different traffic flow states were recognized using support vector machine. The test results show that different traffic flow states can be correctly recognized with traffic noise signals with a high recognition accuracy.%车辆行驶时的声音主要由发动机噪声、轮胎噪声、空气涡流噪声、排气噪声组成,多个车辆构成的交通噪声取决于道路的交通流状态.在分析现有交通状态识别方法和车辆声音特性的基础上提出了一种利用交通噪声的交通状态识别方法.按照车速将交通流分为自由流、饱和流和交通拥堵3种状态,对不同交通流状态下的交通噪声信号进行谱分析,以归一化的峰值频率作为特征,用支持向量机对不同的交通流状态进行识别.试验结果表明,通过交通噪声能够正确识别不同的交通流状态,具有较高的识别精度.

  10. Traffic signal design and simulation for vulnerable road users safety and bus preemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Shih-Ching; Huang, Hsieh-Chu

    2015-01-01

    Mostly, pedestrian car accidents occurred at a signalized interaction is because pedestrians cannot across the intersection safely within the green light. From the viewpoint of pedestrian, there might have two reasons. The first one is pedestrians cannot speed up to across the intersection, such as the elders. The other reason is pedestrians do not sense that the signal phase is going to change and their right-of-way is going to be lost. Developing signal logic to protect pedestrian, who is crossing an intersection is the first purpose of this study. In addition, to improve the reliability and reduce delay of public transportation service is the second purpose. Therefore, bus preemption is also considered in the designed signal logic. In this study, the traffic data of the intersection of Chong-Qing North Road and Min-Zu West Road, Taipei, Taiwan, is employed to calibrate and validate the signal logic by simulation. VISSIM 5.20, which is a microscopic traffic simulation software, is employed to simulate the signal logic. From the simulated results, the signal logic presented in this study can protect pedestrians crossing the intersection successfully. The design of bus preemption can reduce the average delay. However, the pedestrian safety and bus preemption signal will influence the average delay of cars largely. Thus, whether applying the pedestrian safety and bus preemption signal logic to an intersection or not should be evaluated carefully.

  11. No exercise-induced increase in serum BDNF after cycling near a major traffic road.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, I; Jacobs, L; Nawrot, T S; de Geus, B; Torfs, R; Int Panis, L; Degraeuwe, B; Meeusen, R

    2011-08-15

    Commuting by bike has a clear health enhancing effect. Moreover, regular exercise is known to improve brain plasticity, which results in enhanced cognition and memory performance. Animal research has clearly shown that exercise upregulates brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF - a neurotrophine) enhancing brain plasticity. Studies in humans found an increase in serum BDNF concentration in response to an acute exercise bout. Recently, more evidence is emerging suggesting that exposure to air pollution (such as particulate matter (PM)) is higher in commuter cyclists compared to car drivers. Furthermore, exposure to PM is linked to negative neurological effects, such as neuroinflammation and cognitive decline. We carried-out a cross-over experiment to examine the acute effect of exercise on serum BDNF, and the potential effect-modification by exposure to traffic-related air pollution. Thirty eight physically fit, non-asthmatic volunteers (mean age: 43, 26% women) performed two cycling trials, one near a major traffic road (Antwerp Ring, R1, up to 260,000 vehicles per day) and one in an air-filtered room. The air-filtered room was created by reducing fine particles as well as ultrafine particles (UFP). PM10, PM2.5 and UFP were measured. The duration (∼20min) and intensity of cycling were kept the same for each volunteer for both cycling trials. Serum BDNF concentrations were measured before and 30min after each cycling trial. Average concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 were 64.9μg/m(3) and 24.6μg/m(3) in cycling near a major ring way, in contrast to 7.7μg/m(3) and 2.0μg/m(3) in the air-filtered room. Average concentrations of UFP were 28,180 particles/cm(3) along the road in contrast to 496 particles/cm(3) in the air-filtered room. As expected, exercise significantly increased serum BDNF concentration after cycling in the air-filtered room (+14.4%; p=0.02). In contrast, serum BDNF concentrations did not increase after cycling near the major traffic route (+0.5%; p

  12. No exercise-induced increase in serum BDNF after cycling near a major traffic road.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, I; Jacobs, L; Nawrot, T S; de Geus, B; Torfs, R; Int Panis, L; Degraeuwe, B; Meeusen, R

    2011-08-15

    Commuting by bike has a clear health enhancing effect. Moreover, regular exercise is known to improve brain plasticity, which results in enhanced cognition and memory performance. Animal research has clearly shown that exercise upregulates brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF - a neurotrophine) enhancing brain plasticity. Studies in humans found an increase in serum BDNF concentration in response to an acute exercise bout. Recently, more evidence is emerging suggesting that exposure to air pollution (such as particulate matter (PM)) is higher in commuter cyclists compared to car drivers. Furthermore, exposure to PM is linked to negative neurological effects, such as neuroinflammation and cognitive decline. We carried-out a cross-over experiment to examine the acute effect of exercise on serum BDNF, and the potential effect-modification by exposure to traffic-related air pollution. Thirty eight physically fit, non-asthmatic volunteers (mean age: 43, 26% women) performed two cycling trials, one near a major traffic road (Antwerp Ring, R1, up to 260,000 vehicles per day) and one in an air-filtered room. The air-filtered room was created by reducing fine particles as well as ultrafine particles (UFP). PM10, PM2.5 and UFP were measured. The duration (∼20min) and intensity of cycling were kept the same for each volunteer for both cycling trials. Serum BDNF concentrations were measured before and 30min after each cycling trial. Average concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 were 64.9μg/m(3) and 24.6μg/m(3) in cycling near a major ring way, in contrast to 7.7μg/m(3) and 2.0μg/m(3) in the air-filtered room. Average concentrations of UFP were 28,180 particles/cm(3) along the road in contrast to 496 particles/cm(3) in the air-filtered room. As expected, exercise significantly increased serum BDNF concentration after cycling in the air-filtered room (+14.4%; p=0.02). In contrast, serum BDNF concentrations did not increase after cycling near the major traffic route (+0.5%; p

  13. Study on Control Algorithm of Traffic Signals at Intersections Based on Optimizing Sub-area Traffic Flows%基于子区域交通流优化的交叉口信号控制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    臧利林; 朱文兴

    2012-01-01

    In order to reduce average delay time of passing vehicles and improve urban area traffic efficiency, considering actual geographical characteristics of intersections and sub-area traffic data, a control model for traffic signals at intersections was built based on optimizing sub-area traffic flows, and genetic algorithm was used to find out the optimal solution of the model. With traffic signals coordination of neighboring intersections considered, vehicle minimal delay time was chosen as the optimization object in the model. HCM2000 was adopted to calculate vehicle delay time and Robertson model was embedded in the optimization procedure, which ensured the proposed model to be feasible and effective. VC+ 3- 6. 0 software was applied to programm and calculate an optimal control plan for traffic signals at intersections. Finally, simulation by CORSIM was implemented to verifythe validity of the control plan. The results show that the proposed model can obtain better traffic efficiency than the coordination control method based on existing common cycle, and provides a new signal control idea at intersections for urban traffic.%为了减少车辆平均延误时间,提高城市区域交通通行效率,结合实际交叉口地理特征和区域交通流数据,建立了一种基于子区域交通流优化的交叉口信号控制模型,并应用遗传算法获得模型的最优解。在模型中,考虑相邻交叉口信号之间的协调,以车辆平均延误时间最小为优化目标,采用HCM2000延误计算方法,并在优化过程中嵌入Robertson车队离散模型,保证提出模型的可行性和有效性。在VC++6.0中编写程序,获得交叉口信号最优控制方案,最后通过CORSIM仿真证明该控制方案的优劣。结果表明:与现有基于共同周期的协调控制方法相比,所提出的模型能够获得更优的交通效益,为区域交通信号控制提供了一种新的思路。

  14. Characteristics of traffic flow at a non-signalized intersection in the framework of game theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hongqiang; Jia, Bin; Tian, Junfang; Yun, Lifen

    2014-12-01

    At a non-signalized intersection, some vehicles violate the traffic rules to pass the intersection as soon as possible. These behaviors may cause many traffic conflicts even traffic accidents. In this paper, a simulation model is proposed to research the effects of these behaviors at a non-signalized intersection. Vehicle’s movement is simulated by the cellular automaton (CA) model. The game theory is introduced for simulating the intersection dynamics. Two types of driver participate the game process: cooperator (C) and defector (D). The cooperator obey the traffic rules, but the defector does not. A transition process may occur when the cooperator is waiting before the intersection. The critical value of waiting time follows the Weibull distribution. One transition regime is found in the phase diagram. The simulation results illustrate the applicability of the proposed model and reveal a number of interesting insights into the intersection management, including that the existence of defectors is benefit for the capacity of intersection, but also reduce the safety of intersection.

  15. 面向长周期的交通状态反馈诱导策略%Traffic state feedback guidance strategy under long update intervals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺正冰; 关伟

    2013-01-01

      Update intervals for guidance strategies used in variable message signs have to be long due to limitations of detectors and display format of broadcasting guidance information. A guidance strategy is introduced based on the traffic state instead of travel time. A traffic state feedback guidance strategy is obtained by utilizing relative stability of traffic state. A hybrid strategy considering travel time and traffic state is proposed as a solution of conflict between time-varying demand and long intervals. Simulation results show that the traffic state feedback strategy is able to meet the practical requirement both in the stability and accuracy under long update intervals, and the hybrid strategy further improves the accuracy.%  受检测器和诱导信息板显示形式的限制,诱导信息更新周期通常较长。为此,根据备选路径交通状态而非行驶时间制定诱导策略,利用交通状态相对稳定的特点,进一步提出状态反馈诱导策略;为减少长周期与时变交通需求间的矛盾及其他误差,提出了状态与时间反馈策略相结合的混合策略。仿真实验表明,面对长周期时,状态反馈策略可以满足稳定性和准确性的双重要求,混合策略则进一步提高了诱导的准确性。

  16. Cell cycle and cell signal transduction in marine phytoplankton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jingwen; JIAO Nianzhi; CAI Huinong

    2006-01-01

    As unicellular phytoplankton, the growth of a marine phytoplankton population results directly from the completion of a cell cycle, therefore, cell-environment communication is an important way which involves signal transduction pathways to regulate cell cycle progression and contribute to growth, metabolism and primary production and respond to their surrounding environment in marine phytoplankton. Cyclin-CDK and CaM/Ca2+ are essentially key regulators in control of cell cycle and signal transduction pathway, which has important values on both basic research and applied biotechnology. This paper reviews progress made in this research field, which involves the identification and characterization of cyclins and cell signal transduction system, cell cycle control mechanisms in marine phytoplankton cells, cell cycle proteins as a marker of a terminal event to estimate the growth rate of phytoplankton at the species level, cell cycle-dependent toxin production of toxic algae and cell cycle progression regulated by environmental factors.

  17. Communication efficiency and congestion of signal traffic in large-scale brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mišić, Bratislav; Sporns, Olaf; McIntosh, Anthony R

    2014-01-01

    The complex connectivity of the cerebral cortex suggests that inter-regional communication is a primary function. Using computational modeling, we show that anatomical connectivity may be a major determinant for global information flow in brain networks. A macaque brain network was implemented as a communication network in which signal units flowed between grey matter nodes along white matter paths. Compared to degree-matched surrogate networks, information flow on the macaque brain network was characterized by higher loss rates, faster transit times and lower throughput, suggesting that neural connectivity may be optimized for speed rather than fidelity. Much of global communication was mediated by a "rich club" of hub regions: a sub-graph comprised of high-degree nodes that are more densely interconnected with each other than predicted by chance. First, macaque communication patterns most closely resembled those observed for a synthetic rich club network, but were less similar to those seen in a synthetic small world network, suggesting that the former is a more fundamental feature of brain network topology. Second, rich club regions attracted the most signal traffic and likewise, connections between rich club regions carried more traffic than connections between non-rich club regions. Third, a number of rich club regions were significantly under-congested, suggesting that macaque connectivity actively shapes information flow, funneling traffic towards some nodes and away from others. Together, our results indicate a critical role of the rich club of hub nodes in dynamic aspects of global brain communication.

  18. The QT interval and cycle length: the influence of atropine, hyoscine and exercise.

    OpenAIRE

    Staniforth, D H

    1983-01-01

    Twenty-seven healthy male subjects of mean age 24.3 +/- 4.0 years and mean weight 74.9 +/- 9.1 kg took part in an investigation to assess the most suitable correction for the QT interval as a function of cardiac cycle length. 547 sets of data points were generated. Atropine 0.6, 1.2 and 1.8 mg, and hyoscine 0.4 and 0.8 mg, and exercise on a bicycle ergometer at power levels of 50-250 watts together with post-exercise values were employed to obtain a range of heart rates. Simultaneous measurem...

  19. Operating regimes of signaling cycles: statics, dynamics, and noise filtering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Gomez-Uribe

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A ubiquitous building block of signaling pathways is a cycle of covalent modification (e.g., phosphorylation and dephosphorylation in MAPK cascades. Our paper explores the kind of information processing and filtering that can be accomplished by this simple biochemical circuit. Signaling cycles are particularly known for exhibiting a highly sigmoidal (ultrasensitive input-output characteristic in a certain steady-state regime. Here, we systematically study the cycle's steady-state behavior and its response to time-varying stimuli. We demonstrate that the cycle can actually operate in four different regimes, each with its specific input-output characteristics. These results are obtained using the total quasi-steady-state approximation, which is more generally valid than the typically used Michaelis-Menten approximation for enzymatic reactions. We invoke experimental data that suggest the possibility of signaling cycles operating in one of the new regimes. We then consider the cycle's dynamic behavior, which has so far been relatively neglected. We demonstrate that the intrinsic architecture of the cycles makes them act--in all four regimes--as tunable low-pass filters, filtering out high-frequency fluctuations or noise in signals and environmental cues. Moreover, the cutoff frequency can be adjusted by the cell. Numerical simulations show that our analytical results hold well even for noise of large amplitude. We suggest that noise filtering and tunability make signaling cycles versatile components of more elaborate cell-signaling pathways.

  20. Diagnostics of automatic compensators of valve clearance in combustion engine with the use of vibration signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymański, Grzegorz M.; Tomaszewski, Franciszek

    2016-02-01

    Dynamic development of internal combustion engines creates a need to adopt a strategy concerning operational use of these driving units based on the knowledge of their technical condition. The assessment of technical condition belongs to tasks of technical diagnostics. This article presents an analysis of issues concerning vibration diagnostics of automatic compensators of clearances in piston valves of combustion engine. Scientific experiments focused on delivering information necessary to create (and also to validate) diagnostic models enabling assessment of technical condition of those elements of combustion engine that are essential taking into account effectiveness and durability that were carried out and described here. On the basis of the worked out diagnostic model, the algorithm for assessment of the technical condition of automatic compensators of valve clearance was created.

  1. The Preventive Signaling Maintenance Crew Scheduling Problem for European Railway Traffic Management system (ERTMS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohammad Pour, Shahrzad; Stidsen, Thomas Jacob Riis; Rasmussen, Kourosh Marjani

    , the western part of Denmark. This case is particularly interesting, since the entire railway signalling system is currently being upgraded to the new European Railway Traffic Management System (ERTMS) standard. The new signals need continuous maintenance and in this article we plan the distribution of crew......A railway system is a large and complex infrastructure, which requires continuous maintenance in order to function correctly. Proper maintenance is critical but can also be costly. In this paper we consider the practical case of planning the preventive maintenance of railway signals in Jutland...... and also schedule their daily tasks. We formulate the problem as a multi depot vehicle routing problem with time windows and synchronization constraints, in a multi-day time schedule. We solve the problem for large realistic instances by introducing a constructive stage-wise algorithm. Experimental results...

  2. Solving a signalized traffic intersection problem with an hyperbolic penalty function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Teófilo; Monteiro, M. Teresa T.; Matias, João

    2012-09-01

    Mathematical Program with Complementarity Constraints (MPCC) finds many applications in fields such as engineering design, economic equilibrium and mathematical programming theory itself. A queueing system model resulting from a single signalized intersection regulated by pre-timed control in traffic network is considered. The model is formulated as an MPCC problem. A MATLAB implementation based on an hyperbolic penalty function is used to solve this practical problem, computing the total average waiting time of the vehicles in all queues and the green split allocation. The problem was codified in AMPL.

  3. Influence of Wilbraham-Gibbs Phenomenon on Digital Stochastic Measurement of EEG Signal Over an Interval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sovilj P.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Measurement methods, based on the approach named Digital Stochastic Measurement, have been introduced, and several prototype and small-series commercial instruments have been developed based on these methods. These methods have been mostly investigated for various types of stationary signals, but also for non-stationary signals. This paper presents, analyzes and discusses digital stochastic measurement of electroencephalography (EEG signal in the time domain, emphasizing the problem of influence of the Wilbraham-Gibbs phenomenon. The increase of measurement error, related to the Wilbraham-Gibbs phenomenon, is found. If the EEG signal is measured and measurement interval is 20 ms wide, the average maximal error relative to the range of input signal is 16.84 %. If the measurement interval is extended to 2s, the average maximal error relative to the range of input signal is significantly lowered - down to 1.37 %. Absolute errors are compared with the error limit recommended by Organisation Internationale de Métrologie Légale (OIML and with the quantization steps of the advanced EEG instruments with 24-bit A/D conversion

  4. Cycle-by-Cycle Queue Length Estimation for Signalized Intersections Using Multi-Source Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhongyu Wang; Qing Cai; Bing Wu; Yinhai Wang; Linbo Li

    2015-01-01

    In order to estimate vehicular queue length at signalized intersections accurately and overcome the shortcomings and restrictions of existing studies especially those based on shockwave theory, a new methodology is presented for estimating vehicular queue length using data from both point detectors and probe vehicles. The methodology applies the shockwave theory to model queue evolution over time and space. Using probe vehicle locations and times as well as point detector measured traffic states, analytical formulations for calculating the maximum and minimum ( residual) queue length are developed. The proposed methodology is verified using ground truth data collected from numerical experiments conducted in Shanghai, China. It is found that the methodology has a mean absolute percentage error of 17�09%, which is reasonably effective in estimating the queue length at traffic signalized intersections. Limitations of the proposed models and algorithms are also discussed in the paper.

  5. The invariance of current energy fourier spectrum of discrete real signals on finite intervals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponomarev V. A.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Digital spectral analysis of signals based on DFT has a number of advantages. However, the transition from analog to digital methods and techniques is accompanied by a number of undesirable effects. Signals in each subject area usually have their own specifics. Therefore, it is necessary to study these effects in applications of spectral Fourier analysis. Such research is important for three reasons. Firstly, DFT properties are accurate, have their own specificity and significantly differ from the properties of the Fourier transform of continuous signals. Secondly, signals in each subject area have their own specificity. Thirdly, researchers often have prevailing knowledge in some particular domain, rather than in the field of digital signal processing techniques. As a result, in practice, some of the processes and effects arising in applications of digital spectral analysis, unfortunately, escape the attention of researchers which can result in erroneous conclusions. The paper deals with the problems of measuring Fourier spectrum of signals in the base of discrete exponential functions. Methods and algorithms of sliding measurements of energy Fourier spectrum of signals on finite intervals were described. The invariance of current energy Fourier spectrum to moving discrete real signals (which are not periodic were investigated. The authors identify a new effect of digital spectral analysis — the effect of non-invariance of the current energy Fourier spectrum. Theoretical and practical results of analysis of invariance of current energy Fourier spectrum of tonal components are shown. The conducted studies allow us: — to see in a new light the measurement results on finite intervals of current Fourier spectrum and the current energy Fourier spectra of signals; give a numerical estimate of the non-invariance of the current energy Fourier spectrum of real tonal components. — to increase the effectiveness of digital spectral analysis in its

  6. Road crossing behavior under traffic light conflict: Modulating effects of green light duration and signal congruency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Florian; Haiduk, Michael; Boos, Moritz; Tinschert, Peter; Schwarze, Anke; Eggert, Frank

    2016-10-01

    A large number of pedestrians and cyclists regularly ignore the traffic lights to cross the road illegally. In a recent analysis, illegal road crossing behavior has been shown to be enhanced in the presence of incongruent stimulus configurations. Pedestrians and cyclists are more likely to cross against a red light when exposed to an irrelevant conflicting green light. Here, we present experimental and observational data on the factors moderating the risk associated with incongruent traffic lights. In an observational study, we demonstrated that the conflict-related increase in illegal crossing rates is reduced when pedestrian and cyclist green light periods are long. In a laboratory experiment, we manipulated the color of the irrelevant signals to expose participants to different degrees of incongruency. Results revealed that individuals' performance gradually varied as a function of incongruency, suggesting that the negative impact of a conflicting green light can be reduced by slightly adjusting its color. Our findings highlight that the observation of real-world behavior at intersections and the experimental analysis of psychological processes under controlled laboratory conditions can complement each other in identifying risk factors of risky road crossing behavior. Based on this combination, our study elaborates on promising measures to improve safety at signalized intersections. PMID:27474874

  7. A Model for Capacity Considering the Interference by Pedestrian Traffic at Signal Intersections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yixin Chen; Yulong He; Xiaoduan Sun

    2016-01-01

    The capacity is impacted badly by pedestrians’ violation behavior at signal intersections. In order to quantify the impact, the time⁃headway and the vehicular speed from start⁃up to reach the stable saturation flow with and without pedestrian traffic are used as the direct measurements. Using the statistical analysis, the time⁃headway of saturation flow is mainly affected by the position of pedestrians and the degree of pedestrians ’ influence is classified into four levels. Then the speed⁃time profile for the vehicular acceleration at each level is fitted by Curve Fitting Software. Based on the effect to the time⁃headway and acceleration time, the model of capacity influenced by pedestrians is established and the influence is quantified, which enriches the fundamental theory of traffic engineering. The result shows that the vehicular capacity can be decreased by 14%at the worst case ( level I ) . The conclusions obtained in this paper are valuable for better management of the signal intersection.

  8. A Simulation-Based Framework for the Cooperation of VMS Travel Guidance and Traffic Signal Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, both travel guidance systems and traffic signal control systems are quite common for urban traffic management. In order to achieve collaborative effect, different models had been proposed in the last two decades. In recent years, with the development of variable message sign (VMS technology, more and more VMS panels are installed on major arterials to provide highly visible and concise graphs or text messages to drivers, especially in developing countries. To discover drivers’ responses to VMS, we establish a drivers’ en route diversion model according to a stated-preference survey. Basically, we proposed a cooperative mechanism and systematic framework of VMS travel guidance and major arterials signal operations. And then a two-stage nested optimization problem is formulated. To solve this optimization problem, a simulation-based optimization method is adopted to optimize the cooperative strategies with TRANSIMS. The proposed method is applied to the real network of Tianjin City comprising of 30 nodes and 46 links. Simulations show that this new method could well improve the network condition by 26.3%. And analysis reveals that GA with nested dynamic programming is an effective technique to solve the optimization problem.

  9. 47 CFR 73.646 - Telecommunications Service on the Vertical Blanking Interval and in the Visual Signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Telecommunications Service on the Vertical Blanking Interval and in the Visual Signal. 73.646 Section 73.646 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS....646 Telecommunications Service on the Vertical Blanking Interval and in the Visual Signal....

  10. Signal transduction meets vesicle traffic: the software and hardware of GLUT4 translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klip, Amira; Sun, Yi; Chiu, Tim Ting; Foley, Kevin P

    2014-05-15

    Skeletal muscle is the major tissue disposing of dietary glucose, a function regulated by insulin-elicited signals that impart mobilization of GLUT4 glucose transporters to the plasma membrane. This phenomenon, also central to adipocyte biology, has been the subject of intense and productive research for decades. We focus on muscle cell studies scrutinizing insulin signals and vesicle traffic in a spatiotemporal manner. Using the analogy of an integrated circuit to approach the intersection between signal transduction and vesicle mobilization, we identify signaling relays ("software") that engage structural/mechanical elements ("hardware") to enact the rapid mobilization and incorporation of GLUT4 into the cell surface. We emphasize how insulin signal transduction switches from tyrosine through lipid and serine phosphorylation down to activation of small G proteins of the Rab and Rho families, describe key negative regulation step of Rab GTPases through the GTPase-activating protein activity of the Akt substrate of 160 kDa (AS160), and focus on the mechanical effectors engaged by Rabs 8A and 10 (the molecular motor myosin Va), and the Rho GTPase Rac1 (actin filament branching and severing through Arp2/3 and cofilin). Finally, we illustrate how actin filaments interact with myosin 1c and α-Actinin4 to promote vesicle tethering as preamble to fusion with the membrane.

  11. Coordinated control model of regional traffic signals%交通区域协调控制模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘芹; 徐建闽

    2012-01-01

    为提高交通区域通行效率,构建了适合各种交通状态的区域信号协调控制模型。以区域交叉口总排队车辆数与区域总输出车辆数为性能指标,考虑上下周期排队车辆数、各交叉口闭合相位差与有效绿灯时间,建立了模型约束条件。利用粒子群算法初始化有效绿灯时间与滞留车辆数,采用模拟退火算法求解有效绿灯时间,在不同交通状态下对某交叉口路网进行了仿真。仿真结果表明:与TRANSYT模型相比,低峰时段,采用本文模型排队车辆数降低了5.3%,区域总输出车辆数增加了5.5%;高峰时段,排队车辆数降低了17.9%,区域总输出车辆数增加了33.4%。交叉口的信号方案优化结果表明:与TRANSYT模型相比,采用本文模型时,各车道饱和度均降低,平均为1.8%,最大排队车辆数平均降低2.9%。分析结果表明:本文模型在各种交通状态下都是有效的,特别是在高峰状态下,控制效果优于TRANSYT模型。%In order to improve the traffic efficiency of traffic area, a coordinated control model of regional signals was constructed under all kinds of traffic conditions. The total queue vehicle number and the total output vehicle number of regional intersection were used as performance indexes of the model. The constraint conditions of the model were established by considering the variable relationship of the adjacent cycle queue vehicle numbers, closed phase difference of intersections and effective green time. The effective green time and waiting vehicle number were initialized by particle swarm algorithm. The effective green time was solved by simulated annealing algorithm. The road network of a certain intersection was simulated under different traffic states. Simulation result shows that the queue vehicle number reduces by 5.3% and the total output vehicle number of region increases by 5.5% in low peak period compared with the TRANSYT model. The queue vehicle number reduces by

  12. Condition monitoring of valve clearance fault on a small four strokes petrol engine using vibration signals

    OpenAIRE

    Songpon Klinchaeam; Pornchai Nivesrangsan

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies condition monitoring technique of a small four strokes, single cylinder petrol engine using vibrationsignal analysis based on time domain, crank angle domain, and signal energy. Vibration signals are acquired from the cylinderhead of the engine and used to describe engine processes such as intake/exhaust valve operations, ignition process, andcombustion process. In this study, vibration signals have been applied to monitor various fault conditions in the engine suchas intak...

  13. Theoretical modeling of a gas clearance phase regulation mechanism for a pneumatically-driven split-Stirling-cycle cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cun-quan; Zhong, Cheng

    2015-03-01

    The concept of a new type of pneumatically-driven split-Stirling-cycle cryocooler with clearance-phase-adjustor is proposed. In this implementation, the gap between the phase-adjusting part and the cylinder of the spring chamber is used, instead of dry friction acting on the pneumatically-driven rod to control motion damping of the displacer and to adjust the phase difference between the compression piston and displacer. It has the advantages of easy damping adjustment, low cost, and simplified manufacturing and assembly. A theoretical model has been established to simulate its dynamic performance. The linear compressor is modeled under adiabatic conditions, and the displacement of the compression piston is experimentally rectified. The working characteristics of the compressor motor and the principal losses of cooling, including regenerator inefficiency loss, solid conduction loss, shuttle loss, pump loss and radiation loss, are taken into account. The displacer motion was modeled as a single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) forced system. A set of governing equations can be solved numerically to simulate the cooler's performance. The simulation is useful for understanding the physical processes occurring in the cooler and for predicting the cooler's performance.

  14. Muscle oxygen changes following Sprint Interval Cycling training in elite field hockey players.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Jones

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of Sprint Interval Cycling (SIT on muscle oxygenation kinetics and performance during the 30-15 intermittent fitness test (IFT. Twenty-five women hockey players of Olympic standard were randomly selected into an experimental group (EXP and a control group (CON. The EXP group performed six additional SIT sessions over six weeks in addition to their normal training program. To explore the potential training-induced change, EXP subjects additionally completed 5 x 30s maximal intensity cycle testing before and after training. During these tests near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS measured parameters; oxyhaemoglobin + oxymyoglobin (HbO2+ MbO2, tissue deoxyhaemoglobin + deoxymyoglobin (HHb+HMb, total tissue haemoglobin (tHb and tissue oxygenation (TSI % were taken. In the EXP group (5.34 ± 0.14 to 5.50 ± 0.14 m.s(-1 but not the CON group (pre = 5.37 ± 0.27 to 5.39 ± 0.30 m.s(-1 significant changes were seen in the 30-15 IFT performance. EXP group also displayed significant post-training increases during the sprint cycling: ΔTSI (-7.59 ± 0.91 to -12.16 ± 2.70%; ΔHHb+HMb (35.68 ± 6.67 to 69.44 ± 26.48 μM.cm; and ΔHbO2+ MbO2 (-74.29 ± 13.82 to -109.36 ± 22.61 μM.cm. No significant differences were seen in ΔtHb (-45.81 ± 15.23 to -42.93 ± 16.24. NIRS is able to detect positive peripheral muscle oxygenation changes when used during a SIT protocol which has been shown to be an effective training modality within elite athletes.

  15. Fourier spectrum and phases for a signal in a finite interval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmont, Gérard; Dorville, Nicolas; Sahraoui, Fouad; Rezeau, Laurence

    2015-04-01

    When investigating the physics of turbulent media, as the solar wind or the magnetosheath plasmas, obtaining accurate Fourier spectra and phases is a crucial issue. For the different fields, the spectra allow in particular verifying whether one or several power laws can be determined in different frequency ranges. Accurate phases are necessary as well for all the "higher order statistics" studies in Fourier space, the coherence ones and for the polarization studies. Unfortunately, the Fourier analysis is not unique for a finite time interval of duration T: the frequencies lower than 1/T have a large influence on the result, which can hardly be controlled. This unknown "trend" has in particular the effect of introducing jumps at the edges of the interval, for the function under study itself, as well as for all its derivatives. The Fourier transform obtained directly by FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) is generally much influenced by these effects and cannot be used without care for wide band signals. The interference between the jumps and the signal itself provide in particular characteristic "hairs" on the spectrum, which are clearly visible on it with df≈1/T. These fluctuations are usually eliminated by smoothing the spectrum, or by averaging several successive spectra. Nevertheless, such treatments introduce uncertainties on the spectral laws (the phases being anyway completely lost). Windowing is also a method currently used to suppress or decrease the jumps, but it modifies the signal (the windowed trend has a spectrum, which is convolved with the searched one) and the phases are generally much altered. Here, we present a new data processing technique to circumvent these difficulties. It takes advantage of the fact that the signal is generally not unknown out of the interval under study: the complete signal is tapered to this interval of interest thanks to a new window function, sharp but not square. This window function is chosen such that the spectrum obtained

  16. Expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1 impairs viral clearance and exacerbates lung injury during influenza infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keer Sun

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS proteins are inducible feedback inhibitors of cytokine signaling. SOCS1-/- mice die within three weeks postnatally due to IFN-γ-induced hyperinflammation. Since it is well established that IFN-γ is dispensable for protection against influenza infection, we generated SOCS1-/-IFN-γ-/- mice to determine whether SOCS1 regulates antiviral immunity in vivo. Here we show that SOCS1-/-IFN-γ-/- mice exhibited significantly enhanced resistance to influenza infection, as evidenced by improved viral clearance, attenuated acute lung damage, and consequently increased survival rates compared to either IFN-γ-/- or WT animals. Enhanced viral clearance in SOCS1-/-IFN-γ-/- mice coincided with a rapid onset of adaptive immune responses during acute infection, while their reduced lung injury was associated with decreased inflammatory cell infiltration at the resolution phase of infection. We further determined the contribution of SOCS1-deficient T cells to antiviral immunity. Anti-CD4 antibody treatment of SOCS1-/-IFN-γ-/- mice had no significant effect on their enhanced resistance to influenza infection, while CD8+ splenocytes from SOCS1-/-IFN-γ-/- mice were sufficient to rescue RAG1-/- animals from an otherwise lethal infection. Surprisingly, despite their markedly reduced viral burdens, RAG1-/- mice reconstituted with SOCS1-/-IFN-γ-/- adaptive immune cells failed to ameliorate influenza-induced lung injury. In conclusion, in the absence of IFN-γ, the cytoplasmic protein SOCS1 not only inhibits adaptive antiviral immune responses but also exacerbates inflammatory lung damage. Importantly, these detrimental effects of SOCS1 are conveyed through discrete cell populations. Specifically, while SOCS1 expression in adaptive immune cells is sufficient to inhibit antiviral immunity, SOCS1 in innate/stromal cells is responsible for aggravated lung injury.

  17. Porphyromonas gingivalis manipulates complement and TLR signaling to uncouple bacterial clearance from inflammation and promote dysbiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maekawa, Tomoki; Krauss, Jennifer L.; Abe, Toshiharu; Jotwani, Ravi; Triantafilou, Martha; Triantafilou, Kathy; Hashim, Ahmed; Hoch, Shifra; Curtis, Michael A.; Nussbaum, Gabriel; Lambris, John D.; Hajishengallis, George

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Certain low-abundance bacterial species, such as the periodontitis-associated oral bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis can subvert host immunity to remodel a normally symbiotic microbiota into a dysbiotic, disease-provoking state. However, such pathogens also exploit inflammation to thrive in dysbiotic conditions. How these bacteria evade immunity while maintaining inflammation is unclear. As previously reported, P. gingivalis remodels the oral microbiota into a dysbiotic state by exploiting complement. Now we show that in neutrophils P. gingivalis disarms a host-protective TLR2-MyD88 pathway via proteasomal degradation of MyD88, whereas it activates an alternate TLR2-Mal-PI3K pathway. This alternate TLR2-Mal-PI3K pathway blocks phagocytosis, provides ‘bystander’ protection to otherwise susceptible bacteria, and promotes dysbiotic inflammation in vivo. This mechanism to disengage bacterial clearance from inflammation required an intimate crosstalk between TLR2 and the complement receptor C5aR, and can contribute to the persistence of microbial communities that drive dysbiotic diseases. PMID:24922578

  18. An RFID-Based Intelligent Vehicle Speed Controller Using Active Traffic Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshué Pérez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available These days, mass-produced vehicles benefit from research on Intelligent Transportation System (ITS. One prime example of ITS is vehicle Cruise Control (CC, which allows it to maintain a pre-defined reference speed, to economize on fuel or energy consumption, to avoid speeding fines, or to focus all of the driver’s attention on the steering of the vehicle. However, achieving efficient Cruise Control is not easy in roads or urban streets where sudden changes of the speed limit can happen, due to the presence of unexpected obstacles or maintenance work, causing, in inattentive drivers, traffic accidents. In this communication we present a new Infrastructure to Vehicles (I2V communication and control system for intelligent speed control, which is based upon Radio Frequency Identification (RFID technology for identification of traffic signals on the road, and high accuracy vehicle speed measurement with a Hall effect-based sensor. A fuzzy logic controller, based on sensor fusion of the information provided by the I2V infrastructure, allows the efficient adaptation of the speed of the vehicle to the circumstances of the road. The performance of the system is checked empirically, with promising results.

  19. Elicitation interval dependent spatiotemporal evolution of cortical spreading depression waves revealed by optical intrinsic signal imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shangbin; Gong, Hui; Zeng, Shaoqun; Luo, Qingming; Li, Pengcheng

    2007-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the variation of propagation patterns of successive cortical spreading depression (CSD) waves induced by K + or pinprick in rat cortex. In the K + induction group, 18 Sprague-Dawley rats under Î+/--chloralose/urethane anesthesia were used to elicit CSD by 1 M KCl solution in the frontal cortex. Optical intrinsic signal imaging (OISI) at an isosbestic point of hemoglobin (550 nm) was applied to examine regional cerebral blood volume (CBV) changes in the parieto-occipital cortex. In 6 of the 18 rats, OISI was performed in conjunction with DC potential recording of the cortex. The results of this group were reported previously. In the pinprick group, 6 rats were used to induce CSD by pinprick with 8 min interval, and the other 6 rats were pricked with 4 min. CBV changes during CSD appeared as repetitive propagation of wave-like hyperemia at a speed of 3.7+/-0.4 mm/min, which was characterized by a significant negative peak (-14.3+/-3.2%) in the reflectance signal. Except for the first CSD wave, the following waves don't spread fully in the observed cortex all the time and they might abort in the medial area. Independent on the stimulation of pinprick or K+, a short interval of the current CSD to the last CSD no more than 4 min would induce the current CSD be partially propagated. For the first time, the data reveals the time-varying propagation patterns of CSD waves might be affected by the interval between CSD waves. The results suggest that the propagation patterns of a series of CSD waves are time-varying in different regions of rat cortex, and the variation is related to the interval between CSD waves.

  20. Iterative Learning Control Approach for Signaling Split in Urban Traffic Networks with Macroscopic Fundamental Diagrams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Yan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent analysis of field experiments in cities revealed that a macroscopic fundamental diagram (MFD relating network outflow and network vehicle accumulation exists in the urban traffic networks. It has been further confirmed that an MFD is well defined if the network has regular network topology and homogeneous spatial distribution of vehicle accumulation. However, many real urban networks have different levels of heterogeneity in the spatial distribution of vehicle accumulation. In order to improve the mobility in heterogeneously congested networks, we propose an iterative learning control approach for signaling split, which aims at distributing the accumulation in the networks as homogeneously as possible and ensuring the networks have a larger outflow. The asymptotic convergence of the proposed approach is proved by rigorous analysis and the effectiveness is further demonstrated by extensive simulations.

  1. 路口交通流不均衡饱和时的交通信号控制%Traffic Flow Equilibrium Saturation in Traffic Signal Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雪佳

    2012-01-01

    Aiming at the existing intersection queue, and different directions of traffic flow is not balanced, queue length sum minimum sum of traffic flow model are built, and 2 kinds of optimization of signal timing control strategy are presented by using the optimal control theory and algorithms.%针对交叉路口存在排队车辆,且不同方向上的交通流不均衡,建立排队长度总和达到最小的交通流模型,利用最优控制理论和算法给出两种优化的信号配时控制策略。

  2. Minireview: recent developments in the regulation of glucose transporter-4 traffic: new signals, locations, and partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiki, Manabu; Klip, Amira

    2005-12-01

    Glucose transporter (GLUT) 4 is the major glucose transporter of muscle and adipose cells, exquisitely regulated by insulin through posttranslational events. Twenty years after the seminal observations that GLUT4 levels rapidly rise at the plasma membrane (PM) and drop in endomembranes in response to an acute insulin challenge, we are still mapping the intracellular traffic of the transporter and the regulatory events that insulin unleashes. Newly synthesized GLUT4 enters an insulin-responsive compartment aided by GGA2 (an Arf-binding protein). In cultured adipocytes and myocytes, GLUT4 concentrates in a perinuclear pole through participation of microtubules and the EHD1 Eps15 homology domain-containing protein 1. In the absence of stimuli, GLUT4 distributes between recycling endosomes and the insulin-responsive compartment. A handful of proteins that bind to GLUT4 appear to regulate its half-life (e.g. Ubc9) and tethering within endomembranes (e.g. TUG). Insulin-derived signals promote not only GLUT4 mobilization toward the PM but also its traffic between endosomal compartments and internalization from the PM. Class IA phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase plays a pivotal role at several steps of GLUT4 mobilization. The PI 3-kinase --> atypical PKC and --> Akt/PKB --> AS160 signaling cascades are major regulators of GLUT4 exocytosis aided by small GTPases. At the cell periphery, GLUT4-containing vesicles tether, dock, and fuse with the PM assisted by the exocyst complex followed by engagement of a soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) complex [with vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP)2 as the vesicular (v)-SNARE and soluble NSF-attachment protein (SNAP)23 and syntaxin4 as target (t)-SNAREs] regulated by the accessory proteins Munc18c, Synip and Tomosyn. Vesicle tethering and fusion are regulated by insulin through input from class IA PI 3-kinase. PMID:16150904

  3. Effects of acute sprint interval cycling and energy replacement on postprandial lipemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freese, Eric C; Levine, Ari S; Chapman, Donald P; Hausman, Dorothy B; Cureton, Kirk J

    2011-12-01

    High postprandial blood triglyceride (TG) levels increase cardiovascular disease risk. Exercise interventions may be effective in reducing postprandial blood TG. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of sprint interval cycling (SIC), with and without replacement of the energy deficit, on postprandial lipemia. In a repeated-measures crossover design, six men and six women participated in three trials, each taking place over 2 days. On the evening of the first day of each trial, the participants either did SIC without replacing the energy deficit (Ex-Def), did SIC and replaced the energy deficit (Ex-Bal), or did not exercise (control). SIC was performed on a cycle ergometer and involved four 30-s all-out sprints with 4-min active recovery. In the morning of day 2, responses to a high-fat meal were measured. Venous blood samples were collected in the fasted state and at 0, 30, 60, 120, and 180 min postprandial. There was a trend toward a reduction with treatment in fasting TG (P = 0.068), but no significant treatment effect for fasting insulin, glucose, nonesterified fatty acids, or betahydroxybutryrate (P > 0.05). The postprandial area under the curve (mmol·l(-1)·3 h(-1)) TG response was significantly lower in Ex-Def (21%, P = 0.006) and Ex-Bal (10%, P = 0.044) than in control, and significantly lower in Ex-Def (12%, P = 0.032) than in Ex-Bal. There was no treatment effect (P > 0.05) observed for area under the curve responses of insulin, glucose, nonesterified fatty acids, or betahydroxybutryrate. SIC reduces postprandial lipemia, but the energy deficit alone does not fully explain the decrease observed.

  4. Algorithm for automatic detection of the cardiovascular parameter PR-interval from LDV-velocity signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignanelli, Laura; Rembe, Christian

    2016-06-01

    Laser-Doppler-vibrometry (LDV) is broadly employed in mechanical engineering but it has been demonstrated by several researchers that the technique has also large potential in biomedical applications. In particular, the detection of several vital parameters (heart rate, heart rate variability, respiration period) is known as optical vibrocardiography - VBCG. Recent studies have demonstrated the possibility of a reliable detection of the PR-interval (time between atria and ventricle contractions) and classification of the different types of atrioventricular (AV) blocks from this velocity signals. In this work, an algorithm for the localization of the vibrations generated by atrial contraction for the detection of the PR-interval in VBCG acquired on the thorax is presented. The determination of the time point of a heart beat can be extracted easily because it generates an unambiguous maximal velocity peak in the time data. Extracting the contraction of the atrium is more challenging because it is a characteristic signature with an amplitude at the magnitude of the signal disturbances. We compare different approaches of a cost function for the determination of the time point of the atria-contraction signature as well as different optimization algorithms to find the correct PR-time.

  5. Tunable Signal Processing through a Kinase Control Cycle: the IKK Signaling Node

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar, Marcelo; Hoffmann, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The transcription factor NFκB, a key component of the immune system, shows intricate stimulus-specific temporal dynamics. Those dynamics are thought to play a role in controlling the physiological response to cytokines and pathogens. Biochemical evidence suggests that the NFκB inducing kinase, IKK, a signaling hub onto which many signaling pathways converge, is regulated via a regulatory cycle comprising a poised, an active, and an inactive state. We hypothesize that it operates as a modulator of signal dynamics, actively reshaping the signals generated at the receptor proximal level. Here we show that a regulatory cycle can function in at least three dynamical regimes, tunable by regulating a single kinetic parameter. In particular, the simplest three-state regulatory cycle can generate signals with two well-defined phases, each with distinct coding capabilities in terms of the information they can carry about the stimulus. We also demonstrate that such a kinase cycle can function as a signal categorizer classifying diverse incoming signals into outputs with a limited set of temporal activity profiles. Finally, we discuss the extension of the results to other regulatory motifs that could be understood in terms of the regimes of the three-state cycle. PMID:23823243

  6. 动态交通分配与信号控制的组合模型及算法研究%Research on Combined Dynamic Traffic Assignment and Signal Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    连爱萍; 高自友

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a generalized bi-level programming model of combined dynamic traffic assignment and traffic signal control, and especially analyzes a procedure for determining the equilibrium queuing delays on saturated links for dynamic network signal control satisfying the FIFO (first-in-first-out) rule. The chaotic optimal algorithm proposed in this paper can not only present the optimal signal settings, but also calculate, at each interval, the link inflow rates and outflow rates for the dynamic user optimal problem, and provide real-time information for the travelers. Finally, a numerical example is given to illustrate the application of the proposed model and solution algorithm,and comparison shows that this model has better system performance.

  7. Signals for the lysosome: a control center for cellular clearance and energy metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Settembre, Carmine; Fraldi, Alessandro; Medina, Diego L.; Ballabio, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    For a long time lysosomes were considered merely to be cellular “incinerators” involved in the degradation and recycling of cellular waste. However, there is now compelling evidence indicating that lysosomes have a much broader function and that they are involved in fundamental processes such as secretion, plasma membrane repair, signaling and energy metabolism. Furthermore, the essential role of lysosomes in the autophagic pathway puts these organelles at the crossroads of several cellular p...

  8. Integrin α PAT-2/CDC-42 signaling is required for muscle-mediated clearance of apoptotic cells in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Han Hsieh

    Full Text Available Clearance of apoptotic cells by engulfment plays an important role in the homeostasis and development of multicellular organisms. Despite the fact that the recognition of apoptotic cells by engulfment receptors is critical in inducing the engulfment process, the molecular mechanisms are still poorly understood. Here, we characterize a novel cell corpse engulfment pathway mediated by the integrin α subunit PAT-2 in Caenorhabditis elegans and show that it specifically functions in muscle-mediated engulfment during embryogenesis. Inactivation of pat-2 results in a defect in apoptotic cell internalization. The PAT-2 extracellular region binds to the surface of apoptotic cells in vivo, and the intracellular region may mediate signaling for engulfment. We identify essential roles of small GTPase CDC-42 and its activator UIG-1, a guanine-nucleotide exchange factor, in PAT-2-mediated cell corpse removal. PAT-2 and CDC-42 both function in muscle cells for apoptotic cell removal and are co-localized in growing muscle pseudopods around apoptotic cells. Our data suggest that PAT-2 functions through UIG-1 for CDC-42 activation, which in turn leads to cytoskeletal rearrangement and apoptotic cell internalization by muscle cells. Moreover, in contrast to PAT-2, the other integrin α subunit INA-1 and the engulfment receptor CED-1, which signal through the conserved signaling molecules CED-5 (DOCK180/CED-12 (ELMO or CED-6 (GULP respectively, preferentially act in epithelial cells to mediate cell corpse removal during mid-embryogenesis. Our results show that different engulfing cells utilize distinct repertoires of receptors for engulfment at the whole organism level.

  9. Generating clock signals for a cycle accurate, cycle reproducible FPGA based hardware accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaad, Sameth W.; Kapur, Mohit

    2016-01-05

    A method, system and computer program product are disclosed for generating clock signals for a cycle accurate FPGA based hardware accelerator used to simulate operations of a device-under-test (DUT). In one embodiment, the DUT includes multiple device clocks generating multiple device clock signals at multiple frequencies and at a defined frequency ratio; and the FPG hardware accelerator includes multiple accelerator clocks generating multiple accelerator clock signals to operate the FPGA hardware accelerator to simulate the operations of the DUT. In one embodiment, operations of the DUT are mapped to the FPGA hardware accelerator, and the accelerator clock signals are generated at multiple frequencies and at the defined frequency ratio of the frequencies of the multiple device clocks, to maintain cycle accuracy between the DUT and the FPGA hardware accelerator. In an embodiment, the FPGA hardware accelerator may be used to control the frequencies of the multiple device clocks.

  10. Ventricular Cycle Length Characteristics Estimative of Prolonged RR Interval during Atrial Fibrillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    CIACCIO, EDWARD J.; BIVIANO, ANGELO B.; GAMBHIR, ALOK; EINSTEIN, ANDREW J.; GARAN, HASAN

    2014-01-01

    Background When atrial fibrillation (AF) is incessant, imaging during a prolonged ventricular RR interval may improve image quality. It was hypothesized that long RR intervals could be predicted from preceding RR values. Methods From the PhysioNet database, electrocardiogram RR intervals were obtained from 74 persistent AF patients. An RR interval lengthened by at least 250 ms beyond the immediately preceding RR interval (termed T0 and T1, respectively) was considered prolonged. A two-parameter scatterplot was used to predict the occurrence of a prolonged interval T0. The scatterplot parameters were: (1) RR variability (RRv) estimated as the average second derivative from 10 previous pairs of RR differences, T13–T2, and (2) Tm–T1, the difference between Tm, the mean from T13 to T2, and T1. For each patient, scatterplots were constructed using preliminary data from the first hour. The ranges of parameters 1 and 2 were adjusted to maximize the proportion of prolonged RR intervals within range. These constraints were used for prediction of prolonged RR in test data collected during the second hour. Results The mean prolonged event was 1.0 seconds in duration. Actual prolonged events were identified with a mean positive predictive value (PPV) of 80% in the test set. PPV was >80% in 36 of 74 patients. An average of 10.8 prolonged RR intervals per 60 minutes was correctly identified. Conclusions A method was developed to predict prolonged RR intervals using two parameters and prior statistical sampling for each patient. This or similar methodology may help improve cardiac imaging in many longstanding persistent AF patients. PMID:23998759

  11. Game Theory Model of Traffic Participants within Amber Time at Signalized Intersection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Qi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The traffic light scheme is composed of red, green, and amber lights, and it has been defined clearly for the traffic access of red and green lights; however, the definition of that for the amber light is indistinct, which leads to the appearance of uncertainty factors and serious traffic conflicts during the amber light. At present, the traffic administrations are faced with the decision of whether to forbid passing or not during the amber light in the cities of China. On one hand, it will go against the purpose of setting amber lights if forbidding passing; on the other hand, it may lead to a mess of traffic flow running if not. And meanwhile the drivers are faced with the decision of passing the intersection or stopping during the amber light as well. So the decision-making behavior of traffic administrations and drivers can be converted into a double game model. And through quantification of their earnings in different choice conditions, the optimum decision-making plan under specific conditions could be solved via the Nash equilibrium solution concept. Thus the results will provide a basis for the formulation of the traffic management strategy.

  12. Game theory model of traffic participants within amber time at signalized intersection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Weiwei; Wen, Huiying; Fu, Chuanyun; Song, Mo

    2014-01-01

    The traffic light scheme is composed of red, green, and amber lights, and it has been defined clearly for the traffic access of red and green lights; however, the definition of that for the amber light is indistinct, which leads to the appearance of uncertainty factors and serious traffic conflicts during the amber light. At present, the traffic administrations are faced with the decision of whether to forbid passing or not during the amber light in the cities of China. On one hand, it will go against the purpose of setting amber lights if forbidding passing; on the other hand, it may lead to a mess of traffic flow running if not. And meanwhile the drivers are faced with the decision of passing the intersection or stopping during the amber light as well. So the decision-making behavior of traffic administrations and drivers can be converted into a double game model. And through quantification of their earnings in different choice conditions, the optimum decision-making plan under specific conditions could be solved via the Nash equilibrium solution concept. Thus the results will provide a basis for the formulation of the traffic management strategy. PMID:25580108

  13. Delay Estimates of Mixed Traffic Flow at Signalized Intersections in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Yuelong; WEI Zheng; CHENG Sihan; YAO Danya; ZHANG Yi; LI Li

    2009-01-01

    Two characteristics of Chinese mixed traffic invalidate the conventional queuing delay estimates for western countries. First, the driving characteristics of Chinese drivers lead to different delays even though the other conditions are the same. Second, urban traffic flow in China is often hindered by pedestrians at intersections, such that imported intelligent traffic control systems do not work appropriately. Typical delay estimates for Chinese conditions were obtained from data for over 500 vehicle queues in Beijing collected using charge coupled device (CCD) cameras. The results show that the delays mainly depend on the pro-portion and positions of heavy vehicles in the queue, as well as the start-up situations (with or without inter-ference). A simplified delay estimation model considers vehicle types and positions that compares well with the observed traffic delays.

  14. Effect of background region of interest and time-interval selection on glomerular filtration ratio estimation by percentage dose uptake of (99m)Tc-DTPA in comparison with (51)Cr-EDTA clearance in healthy cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debruyn, Katrien; Vandermeulen, Eva; Saunders, Jimmy H; Dobbeleir, André A; Ham, Hamphrey R; Peremans, Kathelijne

    2013-08-01

    Evaluation of glomerular function is a useful part of the diagnostic approach in animals suspected of having renal disease. Time-interval and background region of interest (bg ROI) selection are determining factors when calculating the glomerular filtration ratio (GFR) based on percentage uptake of (99m)technetium-labelled diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid ((99m)Tc-DTPA). Therefore, three different time intervals (60-120 s, 120-180 s, 60-180 s) and three different bg ROIs (C-shape, caudolateral, cranial + caudal) were investigated. In addition, global GFRs based on percentage dose uptake of (99m)Tc-DTPA for the different time-intervals and bg ROIs were compared with the global GFR based on (51)chromium-ethylene diaminic tetra-acetic acid ((51)Cr-EDTA) plasma clearance in nine healthy European domestic shorthair cats. Paired Student's t-tests and linear regression analysis were used to analyse the data. Different time intervals seemed to cause significant variation (P <0.01) in absolute GFR values, regardless of the choice of bg ROI. Significant differences (P <0.01) between bg ROIs were only observed in the 120-180s time interval between the C-shape and cranial + caudal bg ROI, and between the caudolateral and cranial + caudal bg ROI. The caudolateral bg ROI in the 60-180 s time interval showed the highest correlation coefficient (r = 0.882) between (99m)Tc-DTPA and (51)Cr-EDTA, although a significant difference (P <0.05) was present between both techniques. PMID:23349527

  15. Self-organized control of traffic signals based on reinforcement learning and genetic algorithm%基于再励学习和遗传算法的交通信号自组织控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧海涛; 杨煜普; 张文渊; 许晓鸣

    2000-01-01

    提出一种将再励学习与遗传算法相结合的遗传再励学习方法对交通信号进行自组织控制再励学习是针对每一个道路交叉口交通流的优化,修正每个信号灯周期的绿性比;而遗传算法产生局部学习过程的全局优化标准,即是修正信号灯周期的大小这种方法克服了现有的控制方法需要大量数据传输通讯、准确的交通模型等缺陷,将局部优化和全局优化统一起来通过计算机仿真实验表明了方法的有效性%A combination algorithm of reinforcement learning and genetic algorithm is proposed in this paper to self-organized control of the traffic signals.Reinforcement learning focuses on the optimization of an intersection traffic flow which modified the split of traffic signal cycle,while the genetic algorithm are intended to introduce a global optimization criterion to each of the local learning processes which modified the cycle itself of traffic signals.This method overcome the drawbacks in existing control methods such as huge data transfer and communication,accurately traffic model and so on,and unified the local optimization and global optimization.Through the computer simulation,the effectiveness of method is demonstated.

  16. The Impact of Continuous and Interval Cycle Exercise on Affect and Enjoyment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, Marcus W.; Greeley, Samuel J.; Collins, Larry H.

    2015-01-01

    Rates of physical activity remain low despite public health efforts. One form of physical activity that provides significant physiological benefit but has not been evaluated in terms of affective and enjoyment responses is interval exercise. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare affect and enjoyment assessed before, during, and after…

  17. Double cloprostenol administration during mid luteal phase of oestrous cycle does not modify the interoestrous interval in gilts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Mazzoni

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to test the effect of two vulva injections of D-cloprostenol on day 7, 9 and 10 of oestrous cycle on the duration of the interestrous interval in gilts. Following a pre-treatment oestrous cycle, 87 gilts were assigned to receive vulva injections of 75 μg D-cloprostenol at 08:00 and 14:00 h on day 7 (D7; n=30, day 9 (D9; n=29 or day 10 (D10; n=28 of their second observed oestrous cycle. Across the treatments, the duration of the oestrous cycle with D-cloprostenol treatment (19.1±0.1 d was not different from that of the previous oestrous cycle (20.1±0.4 days. Plasma progesterone concentrations were evaluated 6 h before and 24 and 72 h after D-cloprostenol treatment in the D9 group. Compared to pretreatment levels (9.6±0.4 ng/mL, plasma progesterone concentrations were reduced (P<0.05 at 24 h (6.3±1.0 ng/mL and 72 h after treatment but complete luteolysis did not occur. These data indicate that in gilts double vulva administration of D-cloprostenol is not able to induce a complete luteolisys and hence the duration of the oestrous cycle is not modified.

  18. Life cycle cost optimization of biofuel supply chains under uncertainties based on interval linear programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Dong, Liang; Sun, Lu;

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a model for optimizing the life cycle cost of biofuel supply chain under uncertainties. Multiple agriculture zones, multiple transportation modes for the transport of grain and biofuel, multiple biofuel plants, and multiple market centers were considered...... model, and the results showed that the proposed model is feasible for designing biofuel supply chain under uncertainties...

  19. A Life-Cycle Cost Estimating Methodology for NASA-Developed Air Traffic Control Decision Support Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianzhong Jay; Datta, Koushik; Landis, Michael R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a life-cycle cost (LCC) estimating methodology for air traffic control Decision Support Tools (DSTs) under development by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), using a combination of parametric, analogy, and expert opinion methods. There is no one standard methodology and technique that is used by NASA or by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) for LCC estimation of prospective Decision Support Tools. Some of the frequently used methodologies include bottom-up, analogy, top-down, parametric, expert judgement, and Parkinson's Law. The developed LCC estimating methodology can be visualized as a three-dimensional matrix where the three axes represent coverage, estimation, and timing. This paper focuses on the three characteristics of this methodology that correspond to the three axes.

  20. Traffic sounds and cycling safety : the use of electronic devices by cyclists and the quietness of hybrid and electric cars.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stelling-Konczak, A. Hagenzieker, M.P. & Wee, B. van

    2015-01-01

    The growing popularity of electric devices and the increasing number of hybrid and electric cars have recently raised concerns about the use of auditory signals by vulnerable road users. This paper consolidates current knowledge about the two trends in relation to cycling safety. Both a literature r

  1. Design and application of PLC in traffic signal lamp%PLC在交通信号灯中的设计与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷文斌

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses S7-200PLC as basic design components for the traffic signal lamp from two aspects of software design and hardware design of PLC traffic signal lamp and complete timing design and timing control chart of PLC traffic signal lamp and the PLC programming and the timing control design of PLC traffic signal. Finally, the article uses the traffic control of intersection in order to illustrate the realization process of the PLC traffic signal lamp control system.%  文章采用S7-200PLC做为交通信号灯设计的基本元件,从PLC交通信号灯硬件设计和PLC交通信号灯软件设计两方面着手,实现了PLC交通信号灯的时序设计以及时序控制图、实现了PLC编程设计、实现了PLC交通信号等的时序控制设计。最后,利用交叉路口交通控制来说明控制系统的PLC交通信号灯的实现过程。

  2. Genetic association study of QT interval highlights role for calcium signaling pathways in myocardial repolarization

    OpenAIRE

    Arking, Dan E; Sara L. Pulit; Crotti, Lia; van der Harst, Pim; Munroe, Patricia B; Koopmann, Tamara T.; Sotoodehnia, Nona; Rossin, Elizabeth J.; Morley, Michael; Wang, Xinchen; Johnson, Andrew D.; Lundby, Alicia; Gudbjartsson, Daníel F.; Noseworthy, Peter A.; Eijgelsheim, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The QT interval, an electrocardiographic measure reflecting myocardial repolarization, is a heritable trait. QT prolongation is a risk factor for ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death (SCD) and could indicate the presence of the potentially lethal Mendelian Long QT Syndrome (LQTS). Using a genome-wide association and replication study in up to 100,000 individuals we identified 35 common variant QT interval loci, that collectively explain ∼8-10% of QT variation and highlight the imp...

  3. Genetic association study of QT interval highlights role for calcium signaling pathways in myocardial repolarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arking, Dan E; Pulit, Sara L; Crotti, Lia;

    2014-01-01

    The QT interval, an electrocardiographic measure reflecting myocardial repolarization, is a heritable trait. QT prolongation is a risk factor for ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death (SCD) and could indicate the presence of the potentially lethal mendelian long-QT syndrome (LQTS). Usi...

  4. Genetic association study of QT interval highlights role for calcium signaling pathways in myocardial repolarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arking, Dan E; Pulit, Sara L; Crotti, Lia; van der Harst, Pim; Munroe, Patricia B; Koopmann, Tamara T; Sotoodehnia, Nona; Rossin, Elizabeth J; Morley, Michael; Wang, Xinchen; Johnson, Andrew D; Lundby, Alicia; Gudbjartsson, Daníel F; Noseworthy, Peter A; Eijgelsheim, Mark; Bradford, Yuki; Tarasov, Kirill V; Dörr, Marcus; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Lahtinen, Annukka M; Nolte, Ilja M; Smith, Albert Vernon; Bis, Joshua C; Isaacs, Aaron; Newhouse, Stephen J; Evans, Daniel S; Post, Wendy S; Waggott, Daryl; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Hicks, Andrew A; Eisele, Lewin; Ellinghaus, David; Hayward, Caroline; Navarro, Pau; Ulivi, Sheila; Tanaka, Toshiko; Tester, David J; Chatel, Stéphanie; Gustafsson, Stefan; Kumari, Meena; Morris, Richard W; Naluai, Åsa T; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Kluttig, Alexander; Strohmer, Bernhard; Panayiotou, Andrie G; Torres, Maria; Knoflach, Michael; Hubacek, Jaroslav A; Slowikowski, Kamil; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Kumar, Runjun D; Harris, Tamara B; Launer, Lenore J; Shuldiner, Alan R; Alonso, Alvaro; Bader, Joel S; Ehret, Georg; Huang, Hailiang; Kao, W H Linda; Strait, James B; Macfarlane, Peter W; Brown, Morris; Caulfield, Mark J; Samani, Nilesh J; Kronenberg, Florian; Willeit, Johann; Smith, J Gustav; Greiser, Karin H; Meyer Zu Schwabedissen, Henriette; Werdan, Karl; Carella, Massimo; Zelante, Leopoldo; Heckbert, Susan R; Psaty, Bruce M; Rotter, Jerome I; Kolcic, Ivana; Polašek, Ozren; Wright, Alan F; Griffin, Maura; Daly, Mark J; Arnar, David O; Hólm, Hilma; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Denny, Joshua C; Roden, Dan M; Zuvich, Rebecca L; Emilsson, Valur; Plump, Andrew S; Larson, Martin G; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Yin, Xiaoyan; Bobbo, Marco; D'Adamo, Adamo P; Iorio, Annamaria; Sinagra, Gianfranco; Carracedo, Angel; Cummings, Steven R; Nalls, Michael A; Jula, Antti; Kontula, Kimmo K; Marjamaa, Annukka; Oikarinen, Lasse; Perola, Markus; Porthan, Kimmo; Erbel, Raimund; Hoffmann, Per; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Kälsch, Hagen; Nöthen, Markus M; den Hoed, Marcel; Loos, Ruth J F; Thelle, Dag S; Gieger, Christian; Meitinger, Thomas; Perz, Siegfried; Peters, Annette; Prucha, Hanna; Sinner, Moritz F; Waldenberger, Melanie; de Boer, Rudolf A; Franke, Lude; van der Vleuten, Pieter A; Beckmann, Britt Maria; Martens, Eimo; Bardai, Abdennasser; Hofman, Nynke; Wilde, Arthur A M; Behr, Elijah R; Dalageorgou, Chrysoula; Giudicessi, John R; Medeiros-Domingo, Argelia; Barc, Julien; Kyndt, Florence; Probst, Vincent; Ghidoni, Alice; Insolia, Roberto; Hamilton, Robert M; Scherer, Stephen W; Brandimarto, Jeffrey; Margulies, Kenneth; Moravec, Christine E; del Greco M, Fabiola; Fuchsberger, Christian; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Lee, Wai K; Watt, Graham C M; Campbell, Harry; Wild, Sarah H; El Mokhtari, Nour E; Frey, Norbert; Asselbergs, Folkert W; Mateo Leach, Irene; Navis, Gerjan; van den Berg, Maarten P; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J; Kellis, Manolis; Krijthe, Bouwe P; Franco, Oscar H; Hofman, Albert; Kors, Jan A; Uitterlinden, André G; Witteman, Jacqueline C M; Kedenko, Lyudmyla; Lamina, Claudia; Oostra, Ben A; Abecasis, Gonçalo R; Lakatta, Edward G; Mulas, Antonella; Orrú, Marco; Schlessinger, David; Uda, Manuela; Markus, Marcello R P; Völker, Uwe; Snieder, Harold; Spector, Timothy D; Ärnlöv, Johan; Lind, Lars; Sundström, Johan; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Kivimaki, Mika; Kähönen, Mika; Mononen, Nina; Raitakari, Olli T; Viikari, Jorma S; Adamkova, Vera; Kiechl, Stefan; Brion, Maria; Nicolaides, Andrew N; Paulweber, Bernhard; Haerting, Johannes; Dominiczak, Anna F; Nyberg, Fredrik; Whincup, Peter H; Hingorani, Aroon D; Schott, Jean-Jacques; Bezzina, Connie R; Ingelsson, Erik; Ferrucci, Luigi; Gasparini, Paolo; Wilson, James F; Rudan, Igor; Franke, Andre; Mühleisen, Thomas W; Pramstaller, Peter P; Lehtimäki, Terho J; Paterson, Andrew D; Parsa, Afshin; Liu, Yongmei; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Siscovick, David S; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Jamshidi, Yalda; Salomaa, Veikko; Felix, Stephan B; Sanna, Serena; Ritchie, Marylyn D; Stricker, Bruno H; Stefansson, Kari; Boyer, Laurie A; Cappola, Thomas P; Olsen, Jesper V; Lage, Kasper; Schwartz, Peter J; Kääb, Stefan; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Ackerman, Michael J; Pfeufer, Arne; de Bakker, Paul I W; Newton-Cheh, Christopher

    2014-08-01

    The QT interval, an electrocardiographic measure reflecting myocardial repolarization, is a heritable trait. QT prolongation is a risk factor for ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death (SCD) and could indicate the presence of the potentially lethal mendelian long-QT syndrome (LQTS). Using a genome-wide association and replication study in up to 100,000 individuals, we identified 35 common variant loci associated with QT interval that collectively explain ∼8-10% of QT-interval variation and highlight the importance of calcium regulation in myocardial repolarization. Rare variant analysis of 6 new QT interval-associated loci in 298 unrelated probands with LQTS identified coding variants not found in controls but of uncertain causality and therefore requiring validation. Several newly identified loci encode proteins that physically interact with other recognized repolarization proteins. Our integration of common variant association, expression and orthogonal protein-protein interaction screens provides new insights into cardiac electrophysiology and identifies new candidate genes for ventricular arrhythmias, LQTS and SCD. PMID:24952745

  5. Genetic association study of QT interval highlights role for calcium signaling pathways in myocardial repolarization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.E. Arking (Dan); S.L. Pulit (Sara); L. Crotti (Lia); P. van der Harst (Pim); P. Munroe (Patricia); T.T. Koopmann (Tamara); N. Sotoodehnia (Nona); E. Rossin (Elizabeth); M. Morley (Michael); X. Wang (Xinchen); A.D. Johnson (Andrew); A. Lundby (Alicia); D.F. Gudbjartsson (Daniel); P.A. Noseworthy (Peter); M. Eijgelsheim (Mark); Y. Bradford (Yuki); K.V. Tarasov (Kirill); M. Dörr (Marcus); M. Müller-Nurasyid (Martina); A.M. Lahtinen (Annukka); I.M. Nolte (Ilja); G.D. Smith; J.C. Bis (Joshua); A.J. Isaacs (Aaron); S.J. Newhouse (Stephen); D.S. Evans (Daniel); W.S. Post (Wendy S.); D. Waggott (Daryl); L.-P. Lyytikäinen (Leo-Pekka); A.A. Hicks (Andrew); L. Eisele (Lewin); D. Ellinghaus (David); C. Hayward (Caroline); P. Navarro (Pau); S. Ulivi (Shelia); T. Tanaka (Toshiko); D.J. Tester (David); S. Chatel (Stéphanie); S. Gustafsson (Stefan); M. Kumari (Meena); R. Morris (Richard); A.T. Naluai (Asa); S. Padmanabhan (Sandosh); A. Kluttig (Alexander); B. Strohmer (Bernhard); A.G. Panayiotou (Andrie); M. Torres (Maria); M. Knoflach (Michael); J.A. Hubacek (Jaroslav A.); K. Slowikowski (Kamil); S. Raychaudhuri (Soumya); R.D. Kumar (Runjun); T.B. Harris (Tamara); L.J. Launer (Lenore); A.R. Shuldiner (Alan); A. Alonso (Alvaro); J.S. Bader (Joel); G.B. Ehret (Georg); H. Huang (Hailiang); W.H.L. Kao (Wen); J.B. Strait (James); P.W. Macfarlane (Peter); M.J. Brown (Morris); M. Caulfield (Mark); N.J. Samani (Nilesh); F. Kronenberg (Florian); J. Willeit (Johann); J.G. Smith (J. Gustav); K.H. Greiser (Karin Halina); H.M. Zu Schwabedissen (Henriette Meyer); K. Werdan (Karl); C. Carella (Cintia); L. Zelante (Leopoldo); S.R. Heckbert (Susan); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); J.I. Rotter (Jerome); I. Kolcic (Ivana); O. Polasek (Ozren); A.F. Wright (Alan); M. Griffin (Maura); M.J. Daly (Mark); D.O. Arnar (David); H. Hólm (Hilma); U. Thorsteinsdottir (Unnur); J.C. Denny (Joshua); D.M. Roden (Dan); R.L. Zuvich (Rebecca); V. Emilsson (Valur); A.S. Plump (Andrew); M.G. Larson (Martin); C.J. O'Donnell (Christopher); X. Yin (Xiaoyan); M. Bobbo (Marco); P. D'Adamo (Pio); A. Iorio (Annamaria); G. Sinagra (Gianfranco); A. Carracedo (Angel); S.R. Cummings (Steven); M.A. Nalls (Michael); A. Jula (Antti); K.K. Kontula (Kimmo); A. Marjamaa (Annukka); L. Oikarinen (Lasse); M. Perola (Markus); K. Porthan (Kimmo); R. Erbel (Raimund); P. Hoffmann (Per); K.-H. Jöckel (Karl-Heinz); H. Kälsch (Hagen); M.M. Nöthen (Markus); M. den Hoed (Marcel); R.J.F. Loos (Ruth); D.S. Thelle (Dag); C. Gieger (Christian); T. Meitinger (Thomas); S. Perz (Siegfried); A. Peters (Annette); H. Prucha (Hanna); M.F. Sinner (Moritz); M. Waldenberger (Melanie); R.A. de Boer (Rudolf); L. Franke (Lude); P.A. van der Vleuten (Pieter); B.M. Beckmann (Britt); E. Martens (Eimo); A. Bardai (Abdennasser); N. Hofman (Nynke); A.A.M. Wilde (Arthur); E.R. Behr (Elijah ); C. Dalageorgou (Chrysoula); J.R. Giudicessi (John); A. Medeiros-Domingo (Argelia); J. Barc (Julien); F. Kyndt (Florence); V. Probst (Vincent); A. Ghidoni (Alice); R. Insolia (Roberto); R.M. Hamilton (Robert); S.W. Scherer (Stephen); J. Brandimarto (Jeffrey); K. Margulies (Kenneth); C.E. Moravec (Christine); F. Del Greco M (Fabiola); C. Fuchsberger (Christian); J.R. O'Connell (Jeffery); W.K. Lee (Wai); G.C.M. Watt (Graham); H. Campbell (Harry); S.H. Wild (Sarah); N.E. El Mokhtari (Nour); N. Frey (Norbert); F.W. Asselbergs (Folkert); I.M. Leach (Irene Mateo); G. Navis (Gerjan); M.P. van den Berg (Maarten); D.J. van Veldhuisen (Dirk); M. Kellis (Manolis); B.P. Krijthe (Bouwe); O.H. Franco (Oscar); A. Hofman (Albert); J.A. Kors (Jan); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); L. Kedenko (Lyudmyla); C. Lamina (Claudia); B.A. Oostra (Ben); G.R. Abecasis (Gonçalo); E. Lakatta (Edward); A. Mulas (Antonella); M. Orrù (Marco); D. Schlessinger (David); M. Uda (Manuela); M.R.P. Markus (Marcello R. P.); U. Völker (Uwe); H. Snieder (Harold); T.D. Spector (Timothy); J. Ärnlöv (Johan); L. Lind (Lars); J. Sundstrom (Johan); A.C. Syvanen; M. Kivimaki (Mika); M. Kähönen (Mika); K. Mononen (Kari); O. Raitakari (Olli); J. Viikari (Jorma); V. Adamkova (Vera); S. Kiechl (Stefan); M.-J. Brion (Maria); A.N. Nicolaides (Andrew); B. Paulweber (Bernhard); J. Haerting (Johannes); A. Dominiczak (Anna); F. Nyberg (Fredrik); P.H. Whincup (Peter); A. Hingorani (Aroon); J.-J. Schott (Jean-Jacques); C.R. Bezzina (Connie); E. Ingelsson (Erik); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); P. Gasparini (Paolo); J.F. Wilson (James); I. Rudan (Igor); A. Franke (Andre); T.W. Mühleisen (Thomas); P.P. Pramstaller (Peter Paul); T. Lehtimäki (Terho); A.D. Paterson (Andrew); A. Parsa (Afshin); Y. Liu (Yongmei); C.M. van Duijn (Cock); D.S. Siscovick (David); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); Y. Jamshidi (Yalda); V. Salomaa (Veikko); S.B. Felix (Stephan); S. Sanna (Serena); M.D. Ritchie (Marylyn); B.H.Ch. Stricker (Bruno); J-A. Zwart (John-Anker); L.A. Boyer (Laurie); T.P. Cappola (Thomas); J.V. Olsen (Jesper); P. Lage (Pedro); P.J. Schwartz (Peter); S. Kääb (Stefan); A. Chakravarti (Aravinda); M. Ackerman (Margaret); A. Pfeufer (Arne); P.I.W. de Bakker (Paul); C. Newton-Cheh (Christopher)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThe QT interval, an electrocardiographic measure reflecting myocardial repolarization, is a heritable trait. QT prolongation is a risk factor for ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death (SCD) and could indicate the presence of the potentially lethal mendelian long-QT syndrome (L

  6. Genetic association study of QT interval highlights role for calcium signaling pathways in myocardial repolarization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arking, Dan E.; Pulit, Sara L.; Crotti, Lia; Van der Harst, Pim; Munroe, Patricia B.; Koopmann, Tamara T.; Sotoodehnia, Nona; Rossin, Elizabeth J.; Morley, Michael; Wang, Xinchen; Johnson, Andrew D.; Lundby, Alicia; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F.; Noseworthy, Peter A.; Eijgelsheim, Mark; Bradford, Yuki; Tarasov, Kirill V.; Dorr, Marcus; Miiller-Nurasyid, Martina; Lahtinen, Annukka M.; Nolte, Ilja M.; Smith, Albert Vernon; Bis, Joshua C.; Isaacs, Aaron; Newhouse, Stephen J.; Evans, Daniel S.; Post, Wendy S.; Waggott, Daryl; Lyytikainen, Leo-Pekka; Hicks, Andrew A.; Eisele, Lewin; Ellinghaus, David; Hayward, Caroline; Navarro, Pau; Ulivi, Sheila; Tanaka, Toshiko; Tester, David J.; Chatel, Stephanie; Gustafsson, Stefan; Kumari, Meena; Morris, Richard W.; Naluai, Asa T.; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Kluttig, Alexander; Strohmer, Bernhard; Panayiotou, Andrie G.; Torres, Maria; Knoflach, Michael; Hubacek, Jaroslav A.; Slowikowski, Kamil; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Kumar, Runjun D.; Harris, Tamara B.; Launer, Lenore J.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Alonso, Alvaro; Bader, Joel S.; EhreT, Georg; Huang, Hailiang; Kao, W. H. Linda; Strait, James B.; Macfarlane, Peter W.; Brown, Morris; Caulfield, Mark J.; Samani, Nilesh J.; Kronenberg, Florian; Willeit, Johann; Smith, J. Gustav; Greiser, Karin H.; Schwabedissen, Henriette Meyer Zu; Werdan, Karl; Carella, Massimo; Zelante, Leopoldo; Heckbert, Susan R.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Kolcic, Ivana; Poagek, Ozren; Wright, Alan F.; Griffin, Maura; Daly, Mark J.; Arnar, David O.; Holm, Hilma; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Denny, Joshua C.; Roden, Dan M.; Zuvich, Rebecca L.; Emilsson, Valur; Plump, Andrew S.; Larson, Martin G.; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; Yin, Xiaoyan; Bobboll, Marco; D'Adamo, Adamo P.; Iorio, Annamaria; Sinagra, Gianfranco; Carracedo, Angel; Cummings, Steven R.; Nalls, Michael A.; Jula, Antti; Kontula, Kimmo K.; Marjamaa, Annukka; Oikarinen, Lasse; Perola, Markus; Porthan, Kimmo; Erbe, Raimund; Hoffmann, Per; Jockel, Karl-Heinz; Kalsch, Hagen; Nothen, Markus M.; Den Hoed, Marcel; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Thelle, Dag S.; Gieger, Christian; Meitinger, Thomas; Perz, Siegfried; Peters, Annette; Pruchal, Hanna; Sinner, Moritz F.; Waldenberger, Melanie; De Boer, Rudolf A.; Franke, Lude; Van der Vleuten, Pieter A.; Beckmann, Britt Maria; Martens, Eimo; Bardail, Abdennasser; Hofman, Nynke; Wilde, Arthur A. M.; Behr, Elijah R.; Dalageorgou, Chrysoula; Giudicessi, John R.; Medeiros-Domingo, Argelia; Barc, Julien; Kyndt, Florence; Probst, Vincent; Ghidoni, Alice; Insolia, Roberto; Hamilton, Robert M.; Scherer, Stephen W.; Brandimarto, Jeffrey; Margulies, Kenneth; Moravec, Christine E.; Del Greco, Fabiola; Fuchsberger, Christian; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Lee, Wai K.; Watt, Graham C. M.; Campbell, Harry; Wild, Sarah H.; El Mokhtari, Nour E.; Frey, Norbert; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Mateo Leach, Irene; Navis, Gerjan; Van den Berg, Maarten P.; Van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Kellis, Manolis; Krijthe, Bouwe P.; Franco, Oscar H.; Hofman, Albert; Kors, Jan A.; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.; Kedenko, Lyudmyla; Lamina, Claudia; Oostra, Ben A.; Abecasis, Goncalo R.; Lakatta, Edward G.; Mulas, Antonella; Orru, Marco; Schlessinger, David; Uda, Manuela; Markus, Marcello R. P.; Volker, Uwe; Snieder, Harold; Spector, Timothy D.; Arnlov, Johan; Lind, Lars; Sundstrom, Johan; Syvanen, Ann-Christine; Kivimaki, Mika; Kahonen, Mika; Mononen, Nina; Raitakari, I. T.; Viikari, Jorma S.; Adamkova, Vera; Kiech, Stefan; Brion, Maria; Nicolaides, Andrew N.; Paulweber, Bernhard; Haerting, Johannes; Dominiczak, Anna F.; Nyberg, Fredrik; Whincup, Peter H.; Hingorani, Aroon D.; Schott, Jean-Jacques; Bezzina, Connie R.; Ingelsson, Erik; Ferrucci, Luigi; Gaspariniin, Paolo; Wilson, James F.; Rudan, Igor; Franke, Andre; Miihleisen, Thomas W.; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Lehtimaki, Terho J.; Paterson, Andrew D.; Parsa, Afshin; Liu, Yongmei; Van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Siscovick, David S.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Jamshidi, Yalda; Salomaa, Veikko; Felix, Stephan B.; Sanna, Serena; Ritchie, Marylyn D.; Stricker, Bruno H.; Stefansson, Karl; Boyer, Laurie A.; Cappola, Thomas P.; Olsen, Jesper V.; Lage, Kasper; Schwartz, Peter J.; Kaab, Stefan; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Ackerman, Michael J.; Pfeufer, Arne; De Bakker, Paul I. W.; Newton-Cheh, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The QT interval, an electrocardiographic measure reflecting myocardial repolarization, is a heritable trait. QT prolongation is a risk factor for ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death (SCD) and could indicate the presence of the potentially lethal mendelian long-QT syndrome (LQTS). Using

  7. Delay Analysis and Formulation Inference of Signalized Intersection for Traffic Congestion Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘广萍; 丁建梅

    2004-01-01

    Vehicle delay is an important measure to evaluate the signal timings of signalized intersections.When optimization the signal control parameters, delays of vehicles from all approach directions of an intersection should be considered. Based on the analysis of the vehicle delay on an approach of intersection, directed against the typical condition of a congested intersection-over-saturated condition, the paper has analyzed and inferred the intersection delay dynamic formulation, and has established the relation between intersection delay,the signal timings, vehicle arrival rate and the queue lengths, and that provides useful information for understanding vehicle delay of signalized intersection and for establishing performance index function of signal timing optimization.

  8. Traffic sounds and cycling safety : the use of electronic devices by cyclists and the quietness of hybrid and electric cars.

    OpenAIRE

    Stelling-Konczak, A. Hagenzieker, M. & Wee, B. van

    2015-01-01

    The growing popularity of electric devices and the increasing number of hybrid and electric cars have recently raised concerns about the use of auditory signals by vulnerable road users. This paper consolidates current knowledge about the two trends in relation to cycling safety. Both a literature review and a crash data analysis were carried out. Based on a proposed conceptual model, knowledge gaps are identified that need to be addressed for a better understanding of the relation between li...

  9. Green Wave Traffic Optimization - A Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warberg, Andreas; Larsen, Jesper; Jørgensen, Rene Munk

    The objective of this survey is to cover the research in the area of adaptive traffic control with emphasis on the applied optimization methods. The problem of optimizing traffic signals can be viewed in various ways, depending on political, economic and ecological goals. The survey highlights some...... important conflicts, which support the notion that traffic signal optimization is a multi-objective problem, and relates this to the most common measures of effectiveness. A distinction can be made between classical systems, which operate with a common cycle time, and the more flexible, phase......-based, approach, which is shown to be more suitable for adaptive traffic control. To support this claim three adaptive systems, which use alternatives to the classical optimization procedures, are described in detail....

  10. Genetic association study of QT interval highlights role for calcium signaling pathways in myocardial repolarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arking, Dan E.; Pulit, Sara L.; Crotti, Lia; van der Harst, Pim; Munroe, Patricia B.; Koopmann, Tamara T.; Sotoodehnia, Nona; Rossin, Elizabeth J.; Morley, Michael; Wang, Xinchen; Johnson, Andrew D.; Lundby, Alicia; Gudbjartsson, Daníel F.; Noseworthy, Peter A.; Eijgelsheim, Mark; Bradford, Yuki; Tarasov, Kirill V.; Dörr, Marcus; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Lahtinen, Annukka M.; Nolte, Ilja M.; Smith, Albert Vernon; Bis, Joshua C.; Isaacs, Aaron; Newhouse, Stephen J.; Evans, Daniel S.; Post, Wendy S.; Waggott, Daryl; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Hicks, Andrew A.; Eisele, Lewin; Ellinghaus, David; Hayward, Caroline; Navarro, Pau; Ulivi, Sheila; Tanaka, Toshiko; Tester, David J.; Chatel, Stéphanie; Gustafsson, Stefan; Kumari, Meena; Morris, Richard W.; Naluai, Åsa T.; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Kluttig, Alexander; Strohmer, Bernhard; Panayiotou, Andrie G.; Torres, Maria; Knoflach, Michael; Hubacek, Jaroslav A.; Slowikowski, Kamil; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Kumar, Runjun D.; Harris, Tamara B.; Launer, Lenore J.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Alonso, Alvaro; Bader, Joel S.; Ehret, Georg; Huang, Hailiang; Kao, W.H. Linda; Strait, James B.; Macfarlane, Peter W.; Brown, Morris; Caulfield, Mark J.; Samani, Nilesh J.; Kronenberg, Florian; Willeit, Johann; Smith, J. Gustav; Greiser, Karin H.; zu Schwabedissen, Henriette Meyer; Werdan, Karl; Carella, Massimo; Zelante, Leopoldo; Heckbert, Susan R.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Kolcic, Ivana; Polašek, Ozren; Wright, Alan F.; Griffin, Maura; Daly, Mark J.; Arnar, David O.; Hólm, Hilma; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Denny, Joshua C.; Roden, Dan M.; Zuvich, Rebecca L.; Emilsson, Valur; Plump, Andrew S.; Larson, Martin G.; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; Yin, Xiaoyan; Bobbo, Marco; D'Adamo, Adamo P.; Iorio, Annamaria; Sinagra, Gianfranco; Carracedo, Angel; Cummings, Steven R.; Nalls, Michael A.; Jula, Antti; Kontula, Kimmo K.; Marjamaa, Annukka; Oikarinen, Lasse; Perola, Markus; Porthan, Kimmo; Erbel, Raimund; Hoffmann, Per; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Kälsch, Hagen; Nöthen, Markus M.; consortium, HRGEN; den Hoed, Marcel; Loos, Ruth J.F.; Thelle, Dag S.; Gieger, Christian; Meitinger, Thomas; Perz, Siegfried; Peters, Annette; Prucha, Hanna; Sinner, Moritz F.; Waldenberger, Melanie; de Boer, Rudolf A.; Franke, Lude; van der Vleuten, Pieter A.; Beckmann, Britt Maria; Martens, Eimo; Bardai, Abdennasser; Hofman, Nynke; Wilde, Arthur A.M.; Behr, Elijah R.; Dalageorgou, Chrysoula; Giudicessi, John R.; Medeiros-Domingo, Argelia; Barc, Julien; Kyndt, Florence; Probst, Vincent; Ghidoni, Alice; Insolia, Roberto; Hamilton, Robert M.; Scherer, Stephen W.; Brandimarto, Jeffrey; Margulies, Kenneth; Moravec, Christine E.; Fabiola Del, Greco M.; Fuchsberger, Christian; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Lee, Wai K.; Watt, Graham C.M.; Campbell, Harry; Wild, Sarah H.; El Mokhtari, Nour E.; Frey, Norbert; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Leach, Irene Mateo; Navis, Gerjan; van den Berg, Maarten P.; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Kellis, Manolis; Krijthe, Bouwe P.; Franco, Oscar H.; Hofman, Albert; Kors, Jan A.; Uitterlinden, André G.; Witteman, Jacqueline C.M.; Kedenko, Lyudmyla; Lamina, Claudia; Oostra, Ben A.; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.; Lakatta, Edward G.; Mulas, Antonella; Orrú, Marco; Schlessinger, David; Uda, Manuela; Markus, Marcello R.P.; Völker, Uwe; Snieder, Harold; Spector, Timothy D.; Ärnlöv, Johan; Lind, Lars; Sundström, Johan; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Kivimaki, Mika; Kähönen, Mika; Mononen, Nina; Raitakari, Olli T.; Viikari, Jorma S.; Adamkova, Vera; Kiechl, Stefan; Brion, Maria; Nicolaides, Andrew N.; Paulweber, Bernhard; Haerting, Johannes; Dominiczak, Anna F.; Nyberg, Fredrik; Whincup, Peter H.; Hingorani, Aroon; Schott, Jean-Jacques; Bezzina, Connie R.; Ingelsson, Erik; Ferrucci, Luigi; Gasparini, Paolo; Wilson, James F.; Rudan, Igor; Franke, Andre; Mühleisen, Thomas W.; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Lehtimäki, Terho J.; Paterson, Andrew D.; Parsa, Afshin; Liu, Yongmei; van Duijn, Cornelia; Siscovick, David S.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Jamshidi, Yalda; Salomaa, Veikko; Felix, Stephan B.; Sanna, Serena; Ritchie, Marylyn D.; Stricker, Bruno H.; Stefansson, Kari; Boyer, Laurie A.; Cappola, Thomas P.; Olsen, Jesper V.; Lage, Kasper; Schwartz, Peter J.; Kääb, Stefan; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Ackerman, Michael J.; Pfeufer, Arne; de Bakker, Paul I.W.; Newton-Cheh, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The QT interval, an electrocardiographic measure reflecting myocardial repolarization, is a heritable trait. QT prolongation is a risk factor for ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death (SCD) and could indicate the presence of the potentially lethal Mendelian Long QT Syndrome (LQTS). Using a genome-wide association and replication study in up to 100,000 individuals we identified 35 common variant QT interval loci, that collectively explain ∼8-10% of QT variation and highlight the importance of calcium regulation in myocardial repolarization. Rare variant analysis of 6 novel QT loci in 298 unrelated LQTS probands identified coding variants not found in controls but of uncertain causality and therefore requiring validation. Several newly identified loci encode for proteins that physically interact with other recognized repolarization proteins. Our integration of common variant association, expression and orthogonal protein-protein interaction screens provides new insights into cardiac electrophysiology and identifies novel candidate genes for ventricular arrhythmias, LQTS,and SCD. PMID:24952745

  11. Noncoding RNA mediated traffic of foreign mRNA into chloroplasts reveals a novel signaling mechanism in plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Gómez

    Full Text Available Communication between chloroplasts and the nucleus is one of the milestones of the evolution of plants on earth. Proteins encoded by ancestral chloroplast-endogenous genes were transferred to the nucleus during the endosymbiotic evolution and originated this communication, which is mainly dependent on specific transit-peptides. However, the identification of nuclear-encoded proteins targeted to the chloroplast lacking these canonical signals suggests the existence of an alternative cellular pathway tuning this metabolic crosstalk. Non-coding RNAS (NcRNAs are increasingly recognized as regulators of gene expression as they play roles previously believed to correspond to proteins. Avsunviroidae family viroids are the only noncoding functional RNAs that have been reported to traffic inside the chloroplasts. Elucidating mechanisms used by these pathogens to enter this organelle will unearth novel transport pathways in plant cells. Here we show that a viroid-derived NcRNA acting as a 5'UTR-end mediates the functional import of Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP mRNA into chloroplast. This claim is supported by the observation at confocal microscopy of a selective accumulation of GFP in the chloroplast of the leaves expressing the chimeric vd-5'UTR/GFP and by the detection of the GFP mRNA in chloroplasts isolated from cells expressing this construct. These results support the existence of an alternative signaling mechanism in plants between the host cell and chloroplasts, where an ncRNA functions as a key regulatory molecule to control the accumulation of nuclear-encoded proteins in this organelle. In addition, our findings provide a conceptual framework to develop new biotechnological tools in systems using plant chloroplast as bioreactors. Finally, viroids of the family Avsunviroidae have probably evolved to subvert this signaling mechanism to regulate their differential traffic into the chloroplast of infected cells.

  12. Prediction of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation using recurrence plot-based features of the RR-interval signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia and increases the risk of stroke. Predicting the onset of paroxysmal AF (PAF), based on noninvasive techniques, is clinically important and can be invaluable in order to avoid useless therapeutic intervention and to minimize risks for the patients. In this paper, we propose an effective PAF predictor which is based on the analysis of the RR-interval signal. This method consists of three steps: preprocessing, feature extraction and classification. In the first step, the QRS complexes are detected from the electrocardiogram (ECG) signal and then the RR-interval signal is extracted. In the next step, the recurrence plot (RP) of the RR-interval signal is obtained and five statistically significant features are extracted to characterize the basic patterns of the RP. These features consist of the recurrence rate, length of longest diagonal segments (Lmax ), average length of the diagonal lines (Lmean), entropy, and trapping time. Recurrence quantification analysis can reveal subtle aspects of dynamics not easily appreciated by other methods and exhibits characteristic patterns which are caused by the typical dynamical behavior. In the final step, a support vector machine (SVM)-based classifier is used for PAF prediction. The performance of the proposed method in prediction of PAF episodes was evaluated using the Atrial Fibrillation Prediction Database (AFPDB) which consists of both 30 min ECG recordings that end just prior to the onset of PAF and segments at least 45 min distant from any PAF events. The obtained sensitivity, specificity, positive predictivity and negative predictivity were 97%, 100%, 100%, and 96%, respectively. The proposed methodology presents better results than other existing approaches

  13. Low cadence interval training at moderate intensity does not improve cycling performance in highly trained veteran cyclists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten eKristoffersen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the present study was to investigate effects of low cadence training at moderate intensity on aerobic capacity, cycling performance, gross efficiency, freely chosen cadence and leg strength in veteran cyclists. Method: Twenty-two well trained veteran cyclists (age: 47 ±6 years, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max: 57.9 ±3.7 ml. kg-1. min-1 were randomized into two groups, a low cadence training group and a freely chose cadence training group. Respiratory variables, power output, cadence and leg strength were tested before and after a 12 weeks training intervention period. The low cadence training group performed 12 weeks of moderate (73-82 % of maximal heart rate (HRmax interval training (5 x 6 min with a cadence of 40 revolutions per minute (rpm two times a week, in addition to their usual training. The freely chosen cadence group added 90 minutes of training at freely chosen cadence at moderate intensity. Results: No significant effects of the low cadence training on aerobic capacity, cycling performance, power output, cadence, gross efficiency or leg strength was found. The freely chosen cadence group significantly improved both VO2max (58.9±2.4 vs. 62.2±3.2 ml. kg-1. min-1, VO2 consumption at lactate threshold (49.4 ±3.8 vs. 51.8±3.5 ml. kg-1. min-1 and during the 30 min performance test (52.8±3.0 vs. 54.7±3.5 ml. kg-1. min-1, and power output at lactate threshold (284 ±47 vs. 294 ±48 W and during the 30 min performance test (284±42 vs. 297±50 W. Conclusion: Twelve weeks of low cadence (40 rpm interval training at moderate intensity (73-82 % of HRmax twice a week does not improve aerobic capacity, cycling performance or leg strength in highly trained veteran cyclists. However, adding training at same intensity (% of HRmax and duration (90 minutes weekly at freely chosen cadence seems beneficial for performance and physiological adaptations.

  14. Ras signalling linked to the cell-cycle machinery by the retinoblastoma protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeper, D.S.; Upton, T.M.; Ladha, M.H.; Neuman, E.; Zalvide, J.; Bernards, R.A.; DeCaprio, J.A.; Ewen, M.E.

    1997-01-01

    The Ras proto-oncogene is a central component of mitogenic signal-transduction pathways, and is essential for cells both to leave a quiescent state (GO) and to pass through the GI/S transition of the cell cycle. The mechanism by which Ras signalling regulates cell-cycle progression is unclear, howev

  15. Signal Controlled Urban Traffic Network Model with Random Update Rule%信号灯随机更新的城市交通网络模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盘薇; 贾丽斯; 薛郁

    2016-01-01

    【目的】改进二维元胞自动机模型(BML模型),使其更好模拟实际城市交通网络。【方法】利用元胞自动机方法,建立信号灯随机更新的城市交通网络模型。【结果】数值模拟发现,信号灯的同步对城市交通网络的影响较大,且随机更新的引入使得网络系统的临界密度大幅度降低。【结论】同时调整信号灯的分布和信号变换周期能有效控制交通网络,解决由于信号灯随机更新所造成的系统临界密度变小的问题。%Objective]An improved two-dimensional cellular automaton model (BML model) was proposed to better simulate real urban traffic network.[Methods]Aiming at the urban traf-fic congestion problem and using the cellular automata method,a traffic signal model with ran-dom update rule was established to study the urban traffic network.[Results]Simulation results showed that the synchronization of the traffic signal has great influence on the traffic system, and the introduction of random update rule significantly reduces the critical density of phase transition.[Conclusion]When the roads are crowed by cars,simultaneous adj usting of signal ar-rangements and periods provides a possible way for relaxing the traffic congestion.

  16. 无灯控错位交叉口交通流模型研究%Traffic Flow Model for Staggered Intersection without Signal Lamp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘小明; 郑淑晖

    2012-01-01

    错位交叉口交通特性研究对于制定合理有效的错位交叉口交通管控策略具有重要意义.针对无灯控错位交叉口交通流间的冲突过程分别建立了相应的元胞自动机行为规则,进而应用上述规则对不同参数设置下的交通流演化过程进行数值模拟,并分析和讨论了主路进口道交通流密度变化对不同路段交通流平均速度的影响.研究结果表明,错位交叉口主路上较小的车流密度也能导致主路进口道及两T型口中间路段发生交通堵塞,每个T型口主路进口道交通流量变化会对另一个T型口主路进口道交通流平均速度产生较大影响,此外,无灯控下的交通堵塞也会呈现周期性的排队-消散过程.上述方法及结果可为错位交叉口实施信号控制提供有意义的指导.%Traffic characteristics investigation of staggered intersection lays the foundation of scientific and reasonable traffic control strategies. This paper first proposes the cellular automaton rules on the basis of the traffic conflict process analysis. Then with these rules, the traffic flow evolution under different parameters is presented by numerical simulations. The relationship between the arterial road traffic flow density and the average speed is explored. It is revealed that low traffic density on the main road of staggered intersections may lead to traffic congestions on the approach of main road and the road between two T-type intersections, and the average speed of traffic flow on each T-type import of main road was affected by the traffic flow changes of the other T-type approaches. Moreover, the traffic congestion on intersection without signal lamp is presented as a periodically queuing-dissipates process. The above methods and results provide meaningful guidance for traffic management and control implementation of staggered intersections without signal lamp.

  17. MQ-MAC: a multi-constrained QoS-aware duty cycle MAC for heterogeneous traffic in wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monowar, Muhammad Mostafa; Rahman, Md Obaidur; Hong, Choong Seon; Lee, Sungwon

    2010-01-01

    Energy conservation is one of the striking research issues now-a-days for power constrained wireless sensor networks (WSNs) and hence, several duty-cycle based MAC protocols have been devised for WSNs in the last few years. However, assimilation of diverse applications with different QoS requirements (i.e., delay and reliability) within the same network also necessitates in devising a generic duty-cycle based MAC protocol that can achieve both the delay and reliability guarantee, termed as multi-constrained QoS, while preserving the energy efficiency. To address this, in this paper, we propose a Multi-constrained QoS-aware duty-cycle MAC for heterogeneous traffic in WSNs (MQ-MAC). MQ-MAC classifies the traffic based on their multi-constrained QoS demands. Through extensive simulation using ns-2 we evaluate the performance of MQ-MAC. MQ-MAC provides the desired delay and reliability guarantee according to the nature of the traffic classes as well as achieves energy efficiency.

  18. MQ-MAC: A Multi-Constrained QoS-Aware Duty Cycle MAC for Heterogeneous Traffic in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungwon Lee

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Energy conservation is one of the striking research issues now-a-days for power constrained wireless sensor networks (WSNs and hence, several duty-cycle based MAC protocols have been devised for WSNs in the last few years. However, assimilation of diverse applications with different QoS requirements (i.e., delay and reliability within the same network also necessitates in devising a generic duty-cycle based MAC protocol that can achieve both the delay and reliability guarantee, termed as multi-constrained QoS, while preserving the energy efficiency. To address this, in this paper, we propose a Multi-constrained QoS-aware duty-cycle MAC for heterogeneous traffic in WSNs (MQ-MAC. MQ-MAC classifies the traffic based on their multi-constrained QoS demands. Through extensive simulation using ns-2 we evaluate the performance of MQ-MAC. MQ-MAC provides the desired delay and reliability guarantee according to the nature of the traffic classes as well as achieves energy efficiency.

  19. 一种新型嵌入式网络信号机研究与设计%Study and Design of Embedded Network Traffic Signal Controller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖圣兵; 陈锋

    2012-01-01

    Traffic signal controller is one of the main foundations for Intelligent Traffic System. In order to meet intellectualization and network requirements, a novel embedded network signal controller is investigated. ARM and CPLD are used to design hardware structure of signal controller, and humanized user interface is developed using QT/Embedded based on touch screen. Multiple communication interfaces are supported and the communication protocol is defined by XML. The mode of two level conflict check is introduced to avoid green conflict. Single point fuzzy control module is developed to deal with dynamic traffic flow, so as to increase traffic capacity in intersection. Connecting to traffic simulation software that simulates the actual intersectiont experiments show that traffic signal controller works stably, and has excellent performance.%交通信号机是智能交通系统的基础之一,为了满足信号机的网络化和智能化的要求,研究并提出了一种新型的嵌入式网络信号机,该信号机的硬件结构采用ARM和CPLD,以触摸屏为基础采用QT/Embedded设计了人性化的人机接口,信号机支持多种通信接口,其协议采用XML予以定义;为了避免绿冲突,以两级模式进行冲突判断;单点模糊控制机制的设计能够适应动态的交通流状况,有效提高交叉口的通行能力;连接交通仿真软件,模拟实际路口,实验显示该信号机工作稳定,性能优越.

  20. Small signal with background: objective confidence intervals and regions for physical parameters from the principle of maximum likelihood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is argued that the choice between one-sided and two-sided confidence intervals must be made according to a rule prior to and independent of the data and it is shown that such a rule was found in principle by a statistician about half a century ago. The novel problem with unphysical estimates of a parameter in presence of background is solved in the realm of classical statistics by applying this rule and the principle of maximum likelihood. Optimal confidence intervals are given for the measurement of a bounded magnitude with normal errors, most effective in discriminating a signal next to the bound, and it is shown how to get them in any single case for a bounded discrete variable with background, in general and specifically for Poisson and binomial variables, with two examples of application. The upper limit provided by this method, when the data are consistent with no signal, does not decrease with unphysical estimates going far off the physical values, so removing the last claimed support of Bayesian inference in physics. Procedure are given extending the method to several parameters

  1. Ultra-narrow interval angular control signal for holographic data storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Kazuyoshi; Hosaka, Makoto; Yamada, Kenichiro; Ogata, Takeshi; Shimada, Kenichi

    2016-08-01

    A precise and fast method for controlling the reference-beam angle of an angular-multiplexed holographic data storage system (HDSS)—to achieve larger capacity and faster data-transfer rate—is proposed. The reference beam is first controlled by a galvanometer mirror (GM) with an "angular control signal (ACS)" applied to its zero-cross angle (which differs by a certain offset angle from the target angle). The offset angle is then eliminated by referring to the output from a rotary encoder inside the GM, and the optimum angle for the reference beam is obtained. Next, a servo beam is used for the ACS, and the ACS value is obtained as a differential signal between the beam intensities of the diffracted reference beam and the diffracted servo beam. The servo beam is orthogonally polarized in regard to the reference beam and has a slightly different incident angle. A reference-beam angular error lower than 3.3 mdeg was confirmed in simulations and experiments.

  2. 车流量检测雷达系统信号处理研究%TRAFFIC FLOW MEASUREMENT RADAR SYSTEM SIGNAL PROCESSING RESEARCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秦君; 党宏社

    2011-01-01

    Designs one kind the traffic flow measurement radar system which as an input source of intelligent transport system, based on DSP technology to achieve an integrated signal processing, while using the feature which radar wave intermediate frequency signal contains information about how far from the object to radar, applies the related algorithm to carry on the spectral analysis to the intermediate frequency signal, to obtained access to the traffic lane information and the traffic flow statistics. Designed to achieve signal processing, traffic statistics and serial communication software system.%设计一种作为智能交通系统输入信息来源的车流量检测雷达系统,采用基于DSP的技术实现信号的综合处理,利用雷达波中频信号中包含了物体距离雷达有多远的信息这一特性,应用相关算法对中频信号进行频谱分析,获得车道信息并进行车流量统计.设计了实现系统信号处理、车流量统计及串口通信的软件系统.

  3. The signal peptide anchors apolipoprotein M in plasma lipoproteins and prevents rapid clearance of apolipoprotein M from plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Christina; Ahnström, Josefin; Axler, Olof;

    2008-01-01

    (mainly high density lipoprotein). Uniquely, however, apoM is secreted to plasma without cleavage of its hydrophobic NH(2)-terminal signal peptide. To test whether the signal peptide serves as a lipoprotein anchor for apoM in plasma, we generated mice expressing a mutated apoM(Q22A) cDNA in the liver (apo...... of human apoM protein secretion from hepatocytes were similar in apoM-Tg and apoM(Q22A)-Tg mice. Nevertheless, human apoM was not detectable in plasma of apoM(Q22A)-Tg mice, whereas it was easily measured in the apoM-Tg mice. To examine the plasma metabolism, recombinant apoM lacking the signal peptide...... suggest that hydrophobic signal peptide sequences, if preserved upon secretion, can anchor plasma proteins in lipoproteins. In the case of apoM, this mechanism prevents rapid loss by filtration in the kidney....

  4. Traffic Information System for Hanoi

    OpenAIRE

    Sohr, Alexander; Brockfeld, Elmar; Sauerländer-Biebl, Anke; Melde, Eric

    2016-01-01

    To improve the traffic situation in Hanoi it is necessary to have a good overview of the existing traffic situation and to monitor the development of the traffic over longer time periods. Floating Car Data (FCD) Systems can help to acquire area wide traffic information; here a FCD system based on taxis, busses and motor-cycles is described. It consists of Web and App tools and a Hotspot-Monitoring for long term traffic analysis.

  5. Two dimensional mixed traffic flow considering the transit traffic

    OpenAIRE

    Lingjiang Kong; Junhui Hu; Li Yang

    2012-01-01

    Based on the two-dimension cellular automaton traffic flow model (BML model), a mixed traffic flow model for urban traffic considering the transit traffic is established in this paper by using the Don't block the box rules. We have investigated the influences of the transit traffic ratio, and found that, in most cases, the urban traffic flow exhibited jam phase. Moreover, focusing on the traffic lights cycle, it is found that the average flow has the periodic fluctuation phenomenon, and we ha...

  6. The anti-motility signaling mechanism of TGFβ3 that controls cell traffic during skin wound healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arum Han

    2012-09-01

    When skin is wounded, migration of epidermal keratinocytes at the wound edge initiates within hours, whereas migration of dermal fibroblasts toward the wounded area remains undetectable until several days later. This “cell type traffic” regulation ensures proper healing of the wound, as disruptions of the regulation could either cause delay of wound healing or result in hypertrophic scars. TGFβ3 is the critical traffic controller that selectively halts migration of the dermal, but not epidermal, cells to ensure completion of wound re-epithelialization prior to wound remodeling. However, the mechanism of TGFβ3's anti-motility signaling has never been investigated. We report here that activated TβRII transmits the anti-motility signal of TGFβ3 in full to TβRI, since expression of the constitutively activated TβRI-TD mutant was sufficient to replace TGFβ3 to block PDGF-bb-induced dermal fibroblast migration. Second, the three components of R-Smad complex are all required. Individual downregulation of Smad2, Smad3 or Smad4 prevented TGFβ3 from inhibiting dermal fibroblast migration. Third, Protein Kinase Array allowed us to identify the protein kinase A (PKA as a specific downstream effector of R-Smads in dermal fibroblasts. Activation of PKA alone blocked PDGF-bb-induced dermal fibroblast migration, just like TGFβ3. Downregulation of PKA's catalytic subunit nullified the anti-motility signaling of TGFβ3. This is the first report on anti-motility signaling mechanism by TGFβ family cytokines. Significance of this finding is not only limited to wound healing but also to other human disorders, such as heart attack and cancer, where the diseased cells have often managed to avoid the anti-motility effect of TGFβ.

  7. Avoidance Expression in Rats as a Function of Signal-Shock Interval: Strain and Sex Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J Servatius

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Inbred Wistar Kyoto (WKY rats express inhibited temperament, increased sensitivity to stress, and exaggerated expressions of avoidance. A long-standing observation for lever press escape/avoidance learning in rats is the duration of the warning signal (WS determines whether avoidance is expressed over escape. Outbred female Sprague-Dawley (SD rats trained with a 10-s WS efficiently escaped, but failed to exhibit avoidance; avoidance was exhibited to a high degree with WSs longer than 20-s. We examined this longstanding WS duration function and extended it to male SD and male and female WKY rats. A cross-over design with two WS durations (10 s or 60 s was employed. Rats were trained (20 trials/session in four phases: acquisition (10 sessions, extinction (10 sessions, re-acquisition (8 sessions and re-extinction (8 sessions. Consistent with the literature, female and male SD rats failed to express avoidance to an appreciable degree with a 10-s WS. When these rats were switched to a 60-s WS, performance levels in the initial session of training resembled the peak performance of rats trained with a 60-s WS. Therefore, the avoidance relationship was acquired, but not expressed at 10-s WS. Further, poor avoidance at 10-s does not adversely affect expression at 60-s. Failure to express avoidance with a 10-s WS likely reflects contrasting reinforcement value of avoidance, not a reduction in the amount of time available to respond or competing responses. In contrast, WKY rats exhibited robust avoidance with a 10-s WS, which was most apparent in female WKY rats. Exaggerated expression of avoidances by WKY rats, especially female rats, further confirms this inbred strain as a model of anxiety vulnerability.

  8. Concurrent exercise incorporating high-intensity interval or continuous training modulates mTORC1 signaling and microRNA expression in human skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyfe, Jackson J; Bishop, David J; Zacharewicz, Evelyn; Russell, Aaron P; Stepto, Nigel K

    2016-06-01

    We compared the effects of concurrent exercise, incorporating either high-intensity interval training (HIT) or moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT), on mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling and microRNA expression in skeletal muscle, relative to resistance exercise (RE) alone. Eight males (mean ± SD: age, 27 ± 4 yr; V̇o2 peak , 45.7 ± 9 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) performed three experimental trials in a randomized order: 1) RE (8 × 5 leg press repetitions at 80% 1-repetition maximum) performed alone and RE preceded by either 2) HIT cycling [10 × 2 min at 120% lactate threshold (LT); HIT + RE] or 3) work-matched MICT cycling (30 min at 80% LT; MICT + RE). Vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were obtained immediately before RE, either without (REST) or with (POST) preceding endurance exercise and +1 h (RE + 1 h) and +3 h (RE + 3 h) after RE. Prior HIT and MICT similarly reduced muscle glycogen content and increased ACC(Ser79) and p70S6K(Thr389) phosphorylation before subsequent RE (i.e., at POST). Compared with MICT, HIT induced greater mTOR(Ser2448) and rps6(Ser235/236) phosphorylation at POST. RE-induced increases in p70S6K and rps6 phosphorylation were not influenced by prior HIT or MICT; however, mTOR phosphorylation was reduced at RE + 1 h for MICT + RE vs. both HIT + RE and RE. Expression of miR-133a, miR-378, and miR-486 was reduced at RE + 1 h for HIT + RE vs. both MICT + RE and RE. Postexercise mTORC1 signaling following RE is therefore not compromised by prior HIT or MICT, and concurrent exercise incorporating HIT, but not MICT, reduces postexercise expression of miRNAs implicated in skeletal muscle adaptation to RE. PMID:27101297

  9. Concurrent exercise incorporating high-intensity interval or continuous training modulates mTORC1 signaling and microRNA expression in human skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyfe, Jackson J; Bishop, David J; Zacharewicz, Evelyn; Russell, Aaron P; Stepto, Nigel K

    2016-06-01

    We compared the effects of concurrent exercise, incorporating either high-intensity interval training (HIT) or moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT), on mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling and microRNA expression in skeletal muscle, relative to resistance exercise (RE) alone. Eight males (mean ± SD: age, 27 ± 4 yr; V̇o2 peak , 45.7 ± 9 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) performed three experimental trials in a randomized order: 1) RE (8 × 5 leg press repetitions at 80% 1-repetition maximum) performed alone and RE preceded by either 2) HIT cycling [10 × 2 min at 120% lactate threshold (LT); HIT + RE] or 3) work-matched MICT cycling (30 min at 80% LT; MICT + RE). Vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were obtained immediately before RE, either without (REST) or with (POST) preceding endurance exercise and +1 h (RE + 1 h) and +3 h (RE + 3 h) after RE. Prior HIT and MICT similarly reduced muscle glycogen content and increased ACC(Ser79) and p70S6K(Thr389) phosphorylation before subsequent RE (i.e., at POST). Compared with MICT, HIT induced greater mTOR(Ser2448) and rps6(Ser235/236) phosphorylation at POST. RE-induced increases in p70S6K and rps6 phosphorylation were not influenced by prior HIT or MICT; however, mTOR phosphorylation was reduced at RE + 1 h for MICT + RE vs. both HIT + RE and RE. Expression of miR-133a, miR-378, and miR-486 was reduced at RE + 1 h for HIT + RE vs. both MICT + RE and RE. Postexercise mTORC1 signaling following RE is therefore not compromised by prior HIT or MICT, and concurrent exercise incorporating HIT, but not MICT, reduces postexercise expression of miRNAs implicated in skeletal muscle adaptation to RE.

  10. The Krüppel traffic report: Cooperative signals direct KLF8 nuclear transport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Estefanía Rodríguez; John A Martignetti

    2009-01-01

    @@ The Krüppel-like transcription fac-tor (KLF) family consists of 17 dis-tinct family members involved in the regulation of diverse cellular processes including differentiation, cell prolifera-tion, growth-related signal transduction, angiogenesis and apoptosis (recently reviewed in [1]). In addition to their currently known biologic roles, the discovery that at least one member of the family, KLF6, can be alternatively spliced into biologically active isoforms with antagonistic functions and a dis-tinct subcellular localization pattern [2], highlights the fact that nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling of KLF proteins may represent an additional layer of functional regulation and the possibility of an even more diverse and completely unexplored role for KLF family mem-bers in both health and disease.

  11. Life Cycle Cost Analysis of City Rail Traffic Vehicle%城市轨道交通车辆全寿命周期成本分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋钧杰; 谈飞

    2014-01-01

    City rail transportation has become an important part of modern city traffic system, and are being integrated into each big city of our country gradually. The vehicle is the core of city rail traffic engineering part. At present, in city track traffic vehicle procurement tender selection, only consider the vehicle purchase price, not include the life cycle cost of the vehicle, so the decision is only local optimum, not the best overall. The article analyzes the city rail transit vehicle life cycle stages, and breakdown the city track traffic vehicle life cycle cost, on this basis, article establishs the city track traffic vehicle life cycle cost model. At last, the city rail transit vehicle life cycle cost model is applied to an example. The conclusion is:vehicle purchase costs account for only 51. 68% in the vehicle life cycle cost, so the city track traffic vehicle selection should base on the whole life cycle cost.%城市轨道交通已经成为现代城市交通体系的重要组成部分,并且正在逐渐融入我国的各个大中城市。车辆是城市轨道交通工程中的核心组成部分。目前城市轨道交通车辆采购招标比选时,仅仅考虑车辆采购价格,并不包括车辆全寿命周期各个阶段发生的成本,因此做出的决策只是局部最优,并不是整体最佳。论文对城市轨道交通车辆全寿命周期的阶段进行划分,并对城市轨道交通车辆全寿命周期成本进行了成本分解,在此基础上构建了城市轨道交通车辆全寿命周期成本模型。最后将城市轨道交通车辆全寿命周期成本模型应用于地铁A型车辆进行实例分析,得出结论为:车辆购置成本占车辆全寿命周期成本的51.68%,所以进行城市轨道交通车辆选型时应从车辆的全寿命周期出发。

  12. Influences of driver’s attributions on signalized intersection traffic%驾驶员属性对信号灯路口交通流的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅超群

    2014-01-01

    A cellular automaton model is proposed to study the traffic at signalized intersection. The driving behaviors induced by driver’s attribution (gender, driving experience, character, etc. ) are numerically analyzed. Simulation results show that the rusty driving skills or tension driving, impatient driving and so on can lead to the transition from free flow to congestion more easily, and these behaviors are the important cause for low travel efficiency at the intersection; the signal cycle is the main factor influencing traffic flux and travel time fairness.%采用元胞自动机模型研究信号灯路口的交通流特性,系统地分析了与性别、驾驶经验、性格等驾驶员属性相关的驾驶行为对交通流的影响。数值模拟发现,技术生疏或紧张驾驶、急躁行驶等驾驶行为更易引发自由流到阻塞流的相变,是路口通行低效率及事故隐患的重要原因,信号周期是影响流量与个人通行时间公平的主要因素。

  13. Ras signalling linked to the cell-cycle machinery by the retinoblastoma protein

    OpenAIRE

    Peeper, D.S.; Upton, T.M.; Ladha, M H; Neuman, E; Zalvide, J; Bernards, R.A.; DeCaprio, J A; Ewen, M E

    1997-01-01

    The Ras proto-oncogene is a central component of mitogenic signal-transduction pathways, and is essential for cells both to leave a quiescent state (GO) and to pass through the GI/S transition of the cell cycle. The mechanism by which Ras signalling regulates cell-cycle progression is unclear, however. Here we report that the retinoblastoma tumour-suppressor protein (Rb), a regulator of GI exit, functionally links Ras to passage through the Gl phase. Inactivation of Ras in cycling cells cause...

  14. Traffic-Related Air Pollution and QT Interval: Modification by Diabetes, Obesity, and Oxidative Stress Gene Polymorphisms in the Normative Aging Study

    OpenAIRE

    Baja, Emmanuel S; Schwartz, Joel D; Wellenius, Gregory A.; Coull, Brent A.; Zanobetti, Antonella; Vokonas, Pantel S; Suh, Helen H.

    2010-01-01

    Background Acute exposure to ambient air pollution has been associated with acute changes in cardiac outcomes, often within hours of exposure. Objectives We examined the effects of air pollutants on heart-rate–corrected QT interval (QTc), an electrocardiographic marker of ventricular repolarization, and whether these associations were modified by participant characteristics and genetic polymorphisms related to oxidative stress. Methods We studied repeated measurements of QTc on 580 men from t...

  15. IL-27 Induced by Select Candida spp. via TLR7/NOD2 Signaling and IFN-β Production Inhibits Fungal Clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patin, Emmanuel C; Jones, Adam V; Thompson, Aiysha; Clement, Mathew; Liao, Chia-Te; Griffiths, James S; Wallace, Leah E; Bryant, Clare E; Lang, Roland; Rosenstiel, Philip; Humphreys, Ian R; Taylor, Philip R; Jones, Gareth W; Orr, Selinda J

    2016-07-01

    Candida spp. elicit cytokine production downstream of various pathogen recognition receptors, including C-type lectin-like receptors, TLRs, and nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors. IL-12 family members IL-12p70 and IL-23 are important for host immunity against Candida spp. In this article, we show that IL-27, another IL-12 family member, is produced by myeloid cells in response to selected Candida spp. We demonstrate a novel mechanism for Candida parapsilosis-mediated induction of IL-27 in a TLR7-, MyD88-, and NOD2-dependent manner. Our data revealed that IFN-β is induced by C. parapsilosis, which in turn signals through the IFN-α/β receptor and STAT1/2 to induce IL-27. Moreover, IL-27R (WSX-1)-deficient mice systemically infected with C. parapsilosis displayed enhanced pathogen clearance compared with wild-type mice. This was associated with increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines in the serum and increased IFN-γ and IL-17 responses in the spleens of IL-27R-deficient mice. Thus, our data define a novel link between C. parapsilosis, TLR7, NOD2, IFN-β, and IL-27, and we have identified an important role for IL-27 in the immune response against C. parapsilosis Overall, these findings demonstrate an important mechanism for the suppression of protective immune responses during infection with C. parapsilosis, which has potential relevance for infections with other fungal pathogens. PMID:27259855

  16. Hedgehog signaling acts with the temporal cascade to promote neuroblast cell cycle exit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phing Chian Chai

    Full Text Available In Drosophila postembryonic neuroblasts, transition in gene expression programs of a cascade of transcription factors (also known as the temporal series acts together with the asymmetric division machinery to generate diverse neurons with distinct identities and regulate the end of neuroblast proliferation. However, the underlying mechanism of how this "temporal series" acts during development remains unclear. Here, we show that Hh signaling in the postembryonic brain is temporally regulated; excess (earlier onset of Hh signaling causes premature neuroblast cell cycle exit and under-proliferation, whereas loss of Hh signaling causes delayed cell cycle exit and excess proliferation. Moreover, the Hh pathway functions downstream of Castor but upstream of Grainyhead, two components of the temporal series, to schedule neuroblast cell cycle exit. Interestingly, hh is likely a target of Castor. Hence, Hh signaling provides a link between the temporal series and the asymmetric division machinery in scheduling the end of neurogenesis.

  17. Chromium-Insulin Reduces Insulin Clearance and Enhances Insulin Signaling by Suppressing Hepatic Insulin-Degrading Enzyme and Proteasome Protein Expression in KKAy Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhong Q; Yu, Yongmei; Zhang, Xian H; Komorowski, James

    2014-01-01

    JDS-chromium-insulin (CRI)-003 is a novel form of insulin that has been directly conjugated with chromium (Cr) instead of zinc. Our hypothesis was that CRI enhances insulin's effects by altering insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) and proteasome enzymes. To test this hypothesis, we measured hepatic IDE content and proteasome parameters in a diabetic animal model. Male KKAy mice were randomly divided into three groups (n = 8/group); Sham (saline), human regular insulin (Reg-In), and chromium conjugated human insulin (CRI), respectively. Interventions were initiated at doses of 2 U insulin/kg body weight daily for 8-weeks. Plasma glucose and insulin were measured. Hepatic IDE, proteasome, and insulin signaling proteins were determined by western blotting. Insulin tolerance tests at week 7 showed that both insulin treatments significantly reduced glucose concentrations and increased insulin levels compared with the Sham group, CRI significantly reduced glucose at 4 and 6 h relative to Reg-In (P < 0.05), suggesting the effects of CRI on reducing glucose last longer than Reg-In. CRI treatment significantly increased hepatic IRS-1 and Akt1 and reduced IDE, 20S as well as 19S protein abundance (P < 0.01, P < 0.05, and P < 0.001, respectively), but Reg-In only significantly increased Akt1 (P < 0.05). Similar results were also observed in Reg-In- and CRI-treated HepG2 cells. This study, for the first time, demonstrates that CRI reduces plasma insulin clearance by inhibition of hepatic IDE protein expression and enhances insulin signaling as well as prevents degradation of IRS-1 and IRS-2 by suppressing ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in diabetic mice.

  18. Chromium-insulin reduces insulin clearance and enhances insulin signaling by suppressing hepatic insulin-degrading enzyme and proteasome protein expression in KKAy mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Q Wang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available JDS-CRI-003 (CRI is a novel form of insulin that has been directly conjugated with chromium (Cr instead of zinc. Our hypothesis was that CRI enhances insulin’s effects by altering insulin degrading enzyme (IDE and proteasome enzymes. To test this hypothesis, we measured hepatic IDE content and proteasome parameters in a diabetic animal model. Male KKAy mice were randomly divided into three groups (n=8/group; Sham (saline, human insulin (Reg-In and chromium conjugated human insulin (CRI, respectively. Interventions were initiated at doses of 2 U insulin/kg body weight daily for eight-weeks. Plasma glucose and insulin were measured. Hepatic IDE, proteasome and insulin signaling proteins were determined by western blotting. Insulin tolerance tests at week 7 showed that both insulin treatments significantly reduced glucose concentrations and increased insulin levels compared with the Sham group, CRI significantly reduced glucose at 4 and 6 hours relative to Reg-In (P<0.05, suggesting the effects of CRI on reducing glucose last longer than Reg-In. CRI treatment significantly increased hepatic IRS-1 and Akt1 and reduced IDE, 20S as well as 19S protein abundance (P<0.01, P<0.05, and P<0.001, respectively, but Reg-In only significantly increased Akt1 (P<0.05. Similar results were also observed in Reg-In and CRI treated HepG2 cells. This study, for the first time, demonstrates that CRI reduces plasma insulin clearance by inhibition of hepatic IDE protein expression and enhances insulin signaling as well as prevents degradation of IRS-1 and IRS-2 by suppressing ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in diabetic mice.

  19. A Dump Clearance Revenue-sharing Contract Research from Short-Life-Cycle Products Supply Chain%短生命周期产品供应链清仓收入共享契约研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何建佳; 徐福缘; 马庆国; 何胜学; 董琼

    2013-01-01

    基于快速反应策略的适时清仓,是提高短生命周期产品供应链运营效率及加速产品更新的有效方法。考虑由一个零售商和多个配件供应商组成的两级短生命周期产品组装供应链系统,当市场需求随机变化时,建立了基于清仓收益共享的决策模型,从集中和分散控制两个角度,比较分析了有清仓收入共享和不考虑清仓收入共享下,供应链的总产量和利润的变化。理论推导和数值解分析表明,在考虑清仓收入共享下,供应链的市场供给量增加;而且,在清仓收入共享契约下,供应链利润依据成员成本比重及所分担风险率而得到合理分配,进而提升了供应链的整体协作效益。%An in time dump clearance based on the quick response policy is an effective way in enhancing the efficiency of short-life-cycle products supply chain management and accelerating the update of products .This paper considers a two level short-life-cycle products supply chain composed by one retailer and multi-accessory supplies.It establishes a decision-making model on the dump clearance revenue when the requirement of the marketing changes .It also comparatively analyzes the change of supply chain total production and profit under the dump clearance revenue-sharing circumstance and no dump clearance revenue-sharing circumstance from concentration and distribution two aspects separately .The theory derivation and numerical solutions analysis shows that when considering the dump clearance revenue-sharing , the supply chain marketing will increase . What’s more, under the contract of dump clearance revenue-sharing, the supply chain profit would be allocated according to the portion of cost as well as risk rate burdened , which promotes the cooperation benefits of the supply chain in turn .

  20. The Effect of Drive Signal Limiting on High Cycle Fatigue Life Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihm, Frederic; Rizzi, Stephen A.

    2014-01-01

    It is common practice to assume a Gaussian distribution of both the input acceleration and the response when modeling random vibration tests. In the laboratory, however, shaker controllers often limit the drive signal to prevent high amplitude peaks. The high amplitudes may either be truncated at a given level (socalled brick wall limiting or abrupt clipping), or compressed (soft limiting), resulting in drive signals which are no longer Gaussian. The paper first introduces several methods for limiting a drive signal, including brick wall limiting and compression. The limited signal is then passed through a linear time-invariant system representing a device under test. High cycle fatigue life predictions are subsequently made using spectral fatigue and rainflow cycle counting schemes. The life predictions are compared with those obtained from unclipped input signals. Some guidelines are provided to help the test engineer decide how clipping should be applied under different test scenarios.

  1. T cell traffic signals

    OpenAIRE

    Van Epps, Heather L.

    2005-01-01

    In 1990, Charles Mackay and colleagues combined classical physiology with modern molecular biology to provide the first concrete evidence that naive and memory T cells follow distinct migratory routes out of the bloodstream— a discovery that helped invigorate the field of lymphocyte homing.

  2. Two-layer hierarchical control solutions for traffic signal%面向交通信号的两层递阶控制解决方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戈军; 周莲英

    2015-01-01

    针对现有交通信号控制系统的诸多不足,提出了一种用于交通信号控制的两层递阶多Agent系统解决方案。通过将交通网络进行区域划分,利用底层Agent控制各交叉口,顶层Agent控制区域,从而实现两层递阶控制。底层Agent采用经典Q学习同步学习最优策略,顶层Agent利用Tile Coding非凡的连续空间处理能力,实现Q学习的动作值函数逼近方法。仿真实验结果表明,该分层递阶控制不但提高了交通信号控制系统效率,而且也为大规模应用提供了很好的可伸缩解决方案。%In view of the existing deficiencies of traffic signal control system, this paper proposes two-layer hierarchical multi-Agent system solution for traffic signal control. Through regional division of the traffic network, it uses the bottom level Agent to control the intersection, the top level Agent to control areas, so as to achieve the two-layer hierarchical con-trol. The bottom level Agent uses the classical Q-learning to synchronize the optimal strategy, the top level Agent utilizes the special continuous space processing ability of Tile Coding to achieve Q learning of action value function approxima-tion method. The simulation test results show that, the hierarchical control not only improves the efficiency of traffic signal control system, but also provides a good scalable solution for large-scale applications.

  3. [Changes in autonomic nerve function during the normal menstrual cycle measured by the coefficient of variation of R-R intervals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, M; Hirano, T; Okamura, Y

    1989-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a change in autonomic nerve function during the menstrual cycle. The subjects were 20 females (average age 26.1 years +/- 4.6) with a normal menstrual cycle. The coefficient of variation of R-R intervals (CV R.R) was measured to investigate autonomic function in the menstrual, follicular, ovulatory, luteal, and premenstrual phases. Average CV R-R for all phases was 5.2 +/- 1.9%. And the CV R-R tended to be lower in those in their 30s than in those in their 20s. And no noticeable difference was seen in the CV R-R among the 5 phases of the menstrual cycle. On the other hand, the CV R-R of 11 females with premenstrual syndrome was low in the ovulatory, luteal and premenstrual phases. These results, which provide basic data for clinical use, suggest the following. (1) The age of subjects should be taken into consideration. (2) Changes in the CV R-R during the menstrual cycle are negligible. (3) However, in those showing symptoms associated with the menstrual cycle such as premenstrual syndrome, changes during the menstrual cycle should be taken into account. At the same time psychological changes in the subjects were evaluated by the following tests: Cornell Medical Index, Taylor's manifest anxiety scale, and Zung's self-rating depression scale. The results of these tests did not vary significantly during the menstrual cycle.

  4. Simulation Study of a Traffic Light Assistant Based on Vehicle-Infrastructure Communication

    CERN Document Server

    Treiber, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Vehicle-infrastructure communication opens up new ways to improve traffic flow efficiency at signalized intersections. In this study, we assume that equipped vehicles can obtain information about switching times of relevant traffic lights in advance, and additionally counting data from upstream detectors. By means of simulation, we investigate, how equipped vehicles can make use of this information to improve traffic flow. Criteria include cycle-averaged capacity, driving comfort, fuel consumption, travel time, and the number of stops. Depending on the overall traffic demand and the penetration rate of equipped vehicles, we generally find several percent of improvement.

  5. A novel insulin receptor-binding protein from Momordica charantia enhances glucose uptake and glucose clearance in vitro and in vivo through triggering insulin receptor signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Hsin-Yi; Ho, Tin-Yun; Li, Chia-Cheng; Chen, Jaw-Chyun; Liu, Jau-Jin; Hsiang, Chien-Yun

    2014-09-10

    Diabetes, a common metabolic disorder, is characterized by hyperglycemia. Insulin is the principal mediator of glucose homeostasis. In a previous study, we identified a trypsin inhibitor, named Momordica charantia insulin receptor (IR)-binding protein (mcIRBP) in this study, that might interact with IR. The physical and functional interactions between mcIRBP and IR were clearly analyzed in the present study. Photo-cross-linking coupled with mass spectrometry showed that three regions (17-21, 34-40, and 59-66 residues) located on mcIRBP physically interacted with leucine-rich repeat domain and cysteine-rich region of IR. IR-binding assay showed that the binding behavior of mcIRBP and insulin displayed a cooperative manner. After binding to IR, mcIRBP activated the kinase activity of IR by (5.87 ± 0.45)-fold, increased the amount of phospho-IR protein by (1.31 ± 0.03)-fold, affected phosphoinositide-3-kinase/Akt pathways, and consequently stimulated the uptake of glucose in 3T3-L1 cells by (1.36 ± 0.12)-fold. Intraperitoneal injection of 2.5 nmol/kg mcIRBP significantly decreased the blood glucose levels by 20.9 ± 3.2% and 10.8 ± 3.6% in normal and diabetic mice, respectively. Microarray analysis showed that mcIRBP affected genes involved in insulin signaling transduction pathway in mice. In conclusion, our findings suggest that mcIRBP is a novel IRBP that binds to sites different from the insulin-binding sites on IR and stimulates both the glucose uptake in cells and the glucose clearance in mice. PMID:25144709

  6. Cell cycle arrest by a gradient of Dpp signaling during Drosophila eye development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattacharya Abhishek

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The secreted morphogen Dpp plays important roles in spatial regulation of gene expression and cell cycle progression in the developing Drosophila eye. Dpp signaling is required for timely cell cycle arrest ahead of the morphogenetic furrow as a prelude to differentiation, and is also important for eye disc growth. The dpp gene is expressed at multiple locations in the eye imaginal disc, including the morphogenetic furrow that sweeps across the eye disc as differentiation initiates. Results Studies of Brinker and Dad expression, and of Mad phosphorylation, establish that there is a gradient of Dpp signaling in the eye imaginal disc anterior to the morphogenetic furrow, predominantly in the anterior-posterior axis, and also Dpp signaling at the margins of the disc epithelium and in the dorsal peripodial membrane. Almost all signaling activity seems to spread through the plane of the epithelia, although peripodial epithelium cells can also respond to underlying disc cells. There is a graded requirement for Dpp signaling components for G1 arrest in the eye disc, with more stringent requirements further anteriorly where signaling is lower. The signaling level defines the cell cycle response, because elevated signaling through expression of an activated Thickveins receptor molecule arrested cells at more anterior locations. Very anterior regions of the eye disc were not arrested in response to activated receptor, however, and evidence is presented that expression of the Homothorax protein may contribute to this protection. By contrast to activated Thickveins, ectopic expression of processed Dpp leads to very high levels of Mad phosphorylation which appear to have non-physiological consequences. Conclusions G1 arrest occurs at a threshold level of Dpp signaling within a morphogen gradient in the anterior eye. G1 arrest is specific for one competent domain in the eye disc, allowing Dpp signaling to promote growth at earlier

  7. How can we understand the solar cycle signal on the Earth's surface?

    OpenAIRE

    Kodera, Kunihiko; Thieblemont, Remi; Yukimoto, Seiji; Matthes, Katja

    2016-01-01

    To understand solar cycle signals on the Earth's surface and identify the physical mechanisms responsible, surface temperature variations from observations as well as climate model data are analyzed to characterize their spatial structure. The solar signal in the annual mean surface temperature is characterized by (i) mid-latitude warming and (ii) no warming in the tropics. The mid-latitude warming during solar maxima in both hemispheres is associated with a downward penetration of zonal mean...

  8. Gene expression profiling in true interval breast cancer reveals overactivation of the mTOR signaling pathway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rojo, F.; Domingo, L.; Sala, M.; Zazo, S.; Chamizo, C.; Menendez, S.; Arpi, O.; Corominas, J.; Bragado, R.; Servitja, S.; Tusquets, I.; Nonell, L.; Macia, F.; Martinez, J.; Rovira, A.; Albanell, J.; Castells, X.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The development and progression of true interval breast cancers (tumors that truly appear after a negative screening mammogram) is known to be different from screen-detected cancers. However, the worse clinical behavior of true interval cancers is not fully understood from a biologic bas

  9. Using co-operative vehicle-infrastructure systems to reduce traffic emissions and improve air quality at signalized urban intersections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahmod, Mohamed Kamil Morsi

    2011-01-01

    Road transport has expanded the scope of human mobility, increasing the distances people travel. However, the recent increase in the number of vehicles has resulted in many adverse consequences in terms of safety, efficiency and the environment. Traffic emissions are known to be the main source of a

  10. Optimizing urban traffic control using a rational agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Salvador IBARRA-MARTÍNEZ; José A. CASTÁN-ROCHA; Julio LARIA-MENCHACA

    2014-01-01

    This paper is devoted to developing and evaluating a set of technologies with the objective of designing a method-ology for the implementation of sophisticated traffic lights by means of rational agents. These devices would be capable of op-timizing the behavior of a junction with multiple traffic signals, reaching a higher level of autonomy without losing reliability, accuracy, or efficiency in the offered services. In particular, each rational agent in a traffic signal will be able to analyze the requirements and constraints of the road, in order to know its level of demand. With such information, the rational agent will adapt its light cycles with the view of accomplishing more fluid traffic patterns and minimizing the pollutant environmental emissions produced by vehicles while they are stopped at a red light, through using a case-based reasoning (CBR) adaptation. This paper also integrates a microscopic simulator developed to run a set of tests in order to compare the presented methodology with traditional traffic control methods. Two study cases are shown to demonstrate the efficiency of the introduced approach, increasing vehicular mobility and reducing harmful activity for the environment. For instance, in the first scenario, taking into account the studied traffic volumes, our approach increases mobility by 23%and reduces emissions by 35%. When the roads are managed by sophisticated traffic lights, a better level of service and considerable environmental benefits are achieved, demon-strating the utility of the presented approach.

  11. TGEV nucleocapsid protein induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis through activation of p53 signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Li [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A and F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); College of Life Sciences, Hainan Normal University, Haikou, Hainan 571158 (China); Huang, Yong; Du, Qian; Dong, Feng; Zhao, Xiaomin; Zhang, Wenlong; Xu, Xingang [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A and F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Tong, Dewen, E-mail: dwtong@nwsuaf.edu.cn [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A and F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China)

    2014-03-07

    Highlights: • TGEV N protein reduces cell viability by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. • TGEV N protein induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis by regulating p53 signaling. • TGEV N protein plays important roles in TGEV-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. - Abstract: Our previous studies showed that TGEV infection could induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis via activation of p53 signaling in cultured host cells. However, it is unclear which viral gene causes these effects. In this study, we investigated the effects of TGEV nucleocapsid (N) protein on PK-15 cells. We found that TGEV N protein suppressed cell proliferation by causing cell cycle arrest at the S and G2/M phases and apoptosis. Characterization of various cellular proteins that are involved in regulating cell cycle progression demonstrated that the expression of N gene resulted in an accumulation of p53 and p21, which suppressed cyclin B1, cdc2 and cdk2 expression. Moreover, the expression of TGEV N gene promoted translocation of Bax to mitochondria, which in turn caused the release of cytochrome c, followed by activation of caspase-3, resulting in cell apoptosis in the transfected PK-15 cells following cell cycle arrest. Further studies showed that p53 inhibitor attenuated TGEV N protein induced cell cycle arrest at S and G2/M phases and apoptosis through reversing the expression changes of cdc2, cdk2 and cyclin B1 and the translocation changes of Bax and cytochrome c induced by TGEV N protein. Taken together, these results demonstrated that TGEV N protein might play an important role in TGEV infection-induced p53 activation and cell cycle arrest at the S and G2/M phases and apoptosis occurrence.

  12. A FAK-Cas-Rac-lamellipodin signaling module transduces extracellular matrix stiffness into mechanosensitive cell cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Yong Ho; Mui, Keeley L; Hsu, Bernadette Y; Liu, Shu-Lin; Cretu, Alexandra; Razinia, Ziba; Xu, Tina; Puré, Ellen; Assoian, Richard K

    2014-06-17

    Tissue and extracellular matrix (ECM) stiffness is transduced into intracellular stiffness, signaling, and changes in cellular behavior. Integrins and several of their associated focal adhesion proteins have been implicated in sensing ECM stiffness. We investigated how an initial sensing event is translated into intracellular stiffness and a biologically interpretable signal. We found that a pathway consisting of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), the adaptor protein p130Cas (Cas), and the guanosine triphosphatase Rac selectively transduced ECM stiffness into stable intracellular stiffness, increased the abundance of the cell cycle protein cyclin D1, and promoted S-phase entry. Rac-dependent intracellular stiffening involved its binding partner lamellipodin, a protein that transmits Rac signals to the cytoskeleton during cell migration. Our findings establish that mechanotransduction by a FAK-Cas-Rac-lamellipodin signaling module converts the external information encoded by ECM stiffness into stable intracellular stiffness and mechanosensitive cell cycling. Thus, lamellipodin is important not only in controlling cellular migration but also for regulating the cell cycle in response to mechanical signals.

  13. Altered insulin receptor signalling and β-cell cycle dynamics in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Folli

    Full Text Available Insulin resistance, reduced β-cell mass, and hyperglucagonemia are consistent features in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. We used pancreas and islets from humans with T2DM to examine the regulation of insulin signaling and cell-cycle control of islet cells. We observed reduced β-cell mass and increased α-cell mass in the Type 2 diabetic pancreas. Confocal microscopy, real-time PCR and western blotting analyses revealed increased expression of PCNA and down-regulation of p27-Kip1 and altered expression of insulin receptors, insulin receptor substrate-2 and phosphorylated BAD. To investigate the mechanisms underlying these findings, we examined a mouse model of insulin resistance in β-cells--which also exhibits reduced β-cell mass, the β-cell-specific insulin receptor knockout (βIRKO. Freshly isolated islets and β-cell lines derived from βIRKO mice exhibited poor cell-cycle progression, nuclear restriction of FoxO1 and reduced expression of cell-cycle proteins favoring growth arrest. Re-expression of insulin receptors in βIRKO β-cells reversed the defects and promoted cell cycle progression and proliferation implying a role for insulin-signaling in β-cell growth. These data provide evidence that human β- and α-cells can enter the cell-cycle, but proliferation of β-cells in T2DM fails due to G1-to-S phase arrest secondary to defective insulin signaling. Activation of insulin signaling, FoxO1 and proteins in β-cell-cycle progression are attractive therapeutic targets to enhance β-cell regeneration in the treatment of T2DM.

  14. Disrupted G1 to S phase clearance via cyclin signaling impairs liver tissue repair in thioacetamide-treated type 1 diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previously we reported that a nonlethal dose of thioacetamide (TA, 300 mg/kg) causes 90% mortality in type 1 diabetic (DB) rats because of irreversible acute liver injury owing to inhibited hepatic tissue repair, primarily due to blockage of G0 to S phase progression of cell division cycle. On the other hand, DB rats receiving 30 mg TA/kg exhibited equal initial liver injury and delayed tissue repair compared to nondiabetic (NDB) rats receiving 300 mg TA/kg, resulting in a delay in recovery from liver injury and survival. The objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis that impaired cyclin-regulated progression of G1 to S phase of the cell cycle may explain inhibited liver tissue repair, hepatic failure, and death, contrasted with delayed liver tissue repair but survival observed in the DB rats receiving 300 in contrast to 30 mg TA/kg. In the TA-treated NDB rats sustained MAPKs and cyclin expression resulted in higher phosphorylation of retinoblastoma (pRb), explaining prompt tissue repair and survival. In contrast, DB rats receiving the same dose of TA (300 mg/kg) exhibited suppressed MAPKs and cyclin expression that led to inhibition of pRb, inhibited tissue repair, and death. On the other hand, DB rats receiving 30 mg TA/kg exhibited delayed up regulation of MAPK signaling that delayed the expression of CD1 and pRb, explaining delayed stimulation of tissue repair observed in this group. In conclusion, the hepatotoxicant TA has a dose-dependent adverse effect on cyclin-regulated pRb signaling: the lower dose causes a recoverable delay, whereas the higher dose inhibits it with corresponding effect on the ultimate outcomes on hepatic tissue repair; this dose-dependent adverse effect is substantially shifted to the left of the dose response curve in diabetes

  15. Traffic engineering eye diagram

    OpenAIRE

    Kowalik, Karol; Collier, Martin

    2005-01-01

    It is said that a picture is worth a thousand words - this statement also applies to networking topics. Thus, to effectively monitor network performance we need tools which present the performance metrics in a graphical way which is also clear and informative. We propose a tool for this purpose which we call the traffic engineering eye diagram (TEED). Eye diagrams are used in digital communications to analyse the quality of a digital signal; the TEED can similarly he used in the traffic engin...

  16. Abiotic and biogeochemical signals derived from the seasonal cycles of tropospheric nitrous oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. D. Nevison

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal cycles in the mixing ratios of tropospheric nitrous oxide (N2O are derived by detrending long-term measurements made at sites across four global surface monitoring networks. These cycles are examined for physical and biogeochemical signals. The detrended monthly data display large interannual variability, which at some sites challenges the concept of a "mean" seasonal cycle. The interannual variability in the seasonal cycle is not always correlated among networks that share common sites. In the Northern Hemisphere, correlations between detrended N2O seasonal minima and polar winter lower stratospheric temperature provide compelling evidence for a stratospheric influence, which varies in strength from year to year and can explain much of the interannual variability in the surface seasonal cycle. Even at sites where a strong, competing, regional N2O source exists, such as from coastal upwelling at Trinidad Head, California, the stratospheric influence must be understood in order to interpret the biogeochemical signal in monthly mean data. In the Southern Hemisphere, detrended surface N2O monthly means are correlated with polar lower stratospheric temperature in months preceding the N2O minimum, suggesting a coherent stratospheric influence in that hemisphere as well. A decomposition of the N2O seasonal cycle in the extratropical Southern Hemisphere suggests that ventilation of deep ocean water (microbially enriched in N2O and the stratospheric influx make similar contributions in phasing, and may be difficult to disentangle. In addition, there is a thermal signal in N2O due to seasonal ingassing and outgassing of cooling and warming surface waters that is out of phase and thus competes with the stratospheric and ventilation signals. All the seasonal signals discussed above are subtle and are generally better quantified in high-frequency in situ data

  17. Cellular automata cell structure for modeling heterogeneous traffic

    OpenAIRE

    Pal, Dibyendu; C.Mallikarjuna

    2010-01-01

    Gap maintaining behavior significantly affects the traffic flow modeling under heterogeneous traffic conditions. The clearance between two adjacent moving vehicles varies depending on several traffic conditions. From the data collected on the gap maintaining behavior it has been observed that vehicles maintain different gaps when travelling under different traffic conditions and this is also influenced by lateral position of the vehicle. Mallikarjuna (2007) has found that this variable gap ma...

  18. Branched signal wiring of an essential bacterial cell-cycle phosphotransfer protein

    OpenAIRE

    Blair, Jimmy A.; Xu, Qingping; Childers, W. Seth; Mathews, Irimpan I.; Kern, Justin W.; Eckart, Michael; Deacon, Ashley M.; Shapiro, Lucy

    2013-01-01

    Vital to bacterial survival is the faithful propagation of cellular signals, and in Caulobacter crescentus ChpT is an essential mediator within the cell cycle circuit. ChpT functions as a histidine-containing phosphotransfer protein (HPt) that shuttles a phosphoryl group from the receiver domain of CckA, the upstream hybrid histidine kinase (HK), to one of two downstream response regulators (RRs)—CtrA or CpdR—that controls cell cycle progression. To understand how ChpT interacts with multiple...

  19. Notch signaling regulates late-stage epidermal differentiation and maintains postnatal hair cycle homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsien-Yi Lin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Notch signaling involves ligand-receptor interactions through direct cell-cell contact. Multiple Notch receptors and ligands are expressed in the epidermis and hair follicles during embryonic development and the adult stage. Although Notch signaling plays an important role in regulating differentiation of the epidermis and hair follicles, it remains unclear how Notch signaling participates in late-stage epidermal differentiation and postnatal hair cycle homeostasis. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We applied Cre/loxP system to generate conditional gene targeted mice that allow inactivation of critical components of Notch signaling pathway in the skin. Rbpj, the core component of all four Notch receptors, and Pofut1, an essential factor for ligand-receptor interactions, were inactivated in hair follicle lineages and suprabasal layer of the epidermis using the Tgfb3-Cre mouse line. Rbpj conditional inactivation resulted in granular parakeratosis and reactive epidermal hyperplasia. Pofut1 conditional inactivation led to ultrastructural abnormalities in the granular layer and altered filaggrin processing in the epidermis, suggesting a perturbation of the granular layer differentiation. Disruption of Pofut1 in hair follicle lineages resulted in aberrant telogen morphology, a decrease of bulge stem cell markers, and a concomitant increase of K14-positive keratinocytes in the isthmus of mutant hair follicles. Pofut1-deficent hair follicles displayed a delay in anagen re-entry and dysregulation of proliferation and apoptosis during the hair cycle transition. Moreover, increased DNA double stand breaks were detected in Pofut1-deficent hair follicles, and real time PCR analyses on bulge keratinocytes isolated by FACS revealed an induction of DNA damage response and a paucity of DNA repair machinery in mutant bulge keratinocytes. SIGNIFICANCE: our data reveal a role for Notch signaling in regulating late-stage epidermal differentiation

  20. Are signalized intersections with cycle tracks safer? A case-control study based on automated surrogate safety analysis using video data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangenehpour, Sohail; Strauss, Jillian; Miranda-Moreno, Luis F; Saunier, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Cities in North America have been building bicycle infrastructure, in particular cycle tracks, with the intention of promoting urban cycling and improving cyclist safety. These facilities have been built and expanded but very little research has been done to investigate the safety impacts of cycle tracks, in particular at intersections, where cyclists interact with turning motor-vehicles. Some safety research has looked at injury data and most have reached the conclusion that cycle tracks have positive effects of cyclist safety. The objective of this work is to investigate the safety effects of cycle tracks at signalized intersections using a case-control study. For this purpose, a video-based method is proposed for analyzing the post-encroachment time as a surrogate measure of the severity of the interactions between cyclists and turning vehicles travelling in the same direction. Using the city of Montreal as the case study, a sample of intersections with and without cycle tracks on the right and left sides of the road were carefully selected accounting for intersection geometry and traffic volumes. More than 90h of video were collected from 23 intersections and processed to obtain cyclist and motor-vehicle trajectories and interactions. After cyclist and motor-vehicle interactions were defined, ordered logit models with random effects were developed to evaluate the safety effects of cycle tracks at intersections. Based on the extracted data from the recorded videos, it was found that intersection approaches with cycle tracks on the right are safer than intersection approaches with no cycle track. However, intersections with cycle tracks on the left compared to no cycle tracks seem to be significantly safer. Results also identify that the likelihood of a cyclist being involved in a dangerous interaction increases with increasing turning vehicle flow and decreases as the size of the cyclist group arriving at the intersection increases. The results highlight the

  1. Clustering in Cell Cycle Dynamics with General Response/Signaling Feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Young, Todd; Buckalew, Richard; Moses, Gregory; Boczko, Erik; 10.1016/j.jtbi.2011.10.002.

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by experimental and theoretical work on autonomous oscillations in yeast, we analyze ordinary differential equations models of large populations of cells with cell-cycle dependent feedback. We assume a particular type of feedback that we call Responsive/Signaling (RS), but do not specify a functional form of the feedback. We study the dynamics and emergent behaviour of solutions, particularly temporal clustering and stability of clustered solutions. We establish the existence of certain periodic clustered solutions as well as "uniform" solutions and add to the evidence that cell-cycle dependent feedback robustly leads to cell-cycle clustering. We highlight the fundamental differences in dynamics between systems with negative and positive feedback. For positive feedback systems the most important mechanism seems to be the stability of individual isolated clusters. On the other hand we find that in negative feedback systems, clusters must interact with each other to reinforce coherence. We conclude fr...

  2. Web traffic and firm performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Omar; Aguenaou, Samir

    2013-01-01

    Does the traffic generated by websites of firms signal anything to stock market participants? Does higher web-traffic translate into availability of more information and therefore lower agency problems? And if answers to above questions are in affirmative, does higher web-traffic traffic translate...... into better firm performance? This paper aims to answer these questions by documenting a positive relationship between the extent of web-traffic and firm performance in the MENA region during the 2010. We argue that higher web-traffic lowers the agency problems in firms by disseminating more information...... to stock market participants. Consequently, lower agency problems translate into better performance. Furthermore, we also show that agency reducing role of web-traffic is more pronounced in regimes where information environment is already bad. For example, our results show stronger impact of web...

  3. Organic traffic control

    OpenAIRE

    Prothmann, Holger

    2011-01-01

    Modern cities cannot be imagined without traffic lights controlling the road network. To handle the network's changing demands efficiently, the signal plan specification needs to be shifted from the design time to the run-time of a signal system. The generic observer/controller architecture proposed for Organic Computing facilitates this shift. A two-levelled learning mechanism optimises signal plans on-line while a distributed coordination mechanism establishes green waves in the road network.

  4. Security Clearance Tracking System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration — SCTS supports the adjudication process of private background investigations and clearances for potential employees, contractors, interns and student workers.

  5. Use of Data Comm by Flight Crew to Conduct Interval Management Operations to Parallel Dependent Runways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxley, Brian T.; Hubbs, Clay; Shay, Rick; Karanian, James

    2011-01-01

    The Interval Management (IM) concept is being developed as a method to maintain or increase high traffic density airport arrival throughput while allowing aircraft to conduct near idle thrust descents. The Interval Management with Spacing to Parallel Dependent Runways (IMSPiDR1) experiment at NASA Langley Research Center used 24 commercial pilots to examine IM procedures to conduct parallel dependent runway arrival operations while maintaining safe but efficient intervals behind the preceding aircraft. The use of IM procedures during these operations requires a lengthy and complex clearance from Air Traffic Control (ATC) to the participating aircraft, thereby making the use of Controller Pilot Data Link Communications (CPDLC) highly desirable as the communication method. The use of CPDLC reduces the need for voice transmissions between controllers and flight crew, and enables automated transfer of IM clearance elements into flight management systems or other aircraft avionics. The result is reduced crew workload and an increase in the efficiency of crew procedures. This paper focuses on the subset of data collected related to the use of CPDLC for IM operations into a busy airport. Overall, the experiment and results were very successful, with the mean time under 43 seconds for the flight crew to load the clearance into the IM spacing tool, review the calculated speed, and respond to ATC. An overall mean rating of Moderately Agree was given when the crews were asked if the use of CPDLC was operationally acceptable as simulated in this experiment. Approximately half of the flight crew reported the use of CPDLC below 10,000 for IM operations was unacceptable, with 83% reporting below 5000 was unacceptable. Also described are proposed modifications to the IM operations that may reduce CPDLC Respond time to less than 30 seconds and should significantly reduce the complexity of crew procedures, as well as follow-on research issues for operational use of CPDLC during IM

  6. Simvastatin induces cell cycle arrest and inhibits proliferation of bladder cancer cells via PPARγ signalling pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gang; Cao, Rui; Wang, Yongzhi; Qian, Guofeng; Dan, Han C.; Jiang, Wei; Ju, Lingao; Wu, Min; Xiao, Yu; Wang, Xinghuan

    2016-01-01

    Simvastatin is currently one of the most common drugs for old patients with hyperlipidemia, hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerotic diseases by reducing cholesterol level and anti-lipid properties. Importantly, simvastatin has also been reported to have anti-tumor effect, but the underlying mechanism is largely unknown. We collected several human bladder samples and performed microarray. Data analysis suggested bladder cancer (BCa) was significantly associated with fatty acid/lipid metabolism via PPAR signalling pathway. We observed simvastatin did not trigger BCa cell apoptosis, but reduced cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner, accompanied by PPARγ-activation. Moreover, flow cytometry analysis indicated that simvastatin induced cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase, suggested by downregulation of CDK4/6 and Cyclin D1. Furthermore, simvastatin suppressed BCa cell metastasis by inhibiting EMT and affecting AKT/GSK3β. More importantly, we found that the cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase and the alterations of CDK4/6 and Cyclin D1 triggered by simvastatin could be recovered by PPARγ-antagonist (GW9662), whereas the treatment of PPARα-antagonist (GW6471) shown no significant effects on the BCa cells. Taken together, our study for the first time revealed that simvastatin inhibited bladder cancer cell proliferation and induced cell cycle arrest at G1/G0 phase via PPARγ signalling pathway. PMID:27779188

  7. Extracting the respiration cycle lengths from ECG signal recorded with bed sheet electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for recognizing the respiration cycle lengths from the electrocardiographic (ECG) signal recorded with textile electrodes that are attached to a bed sheet is proposed. The method uses two features extracted from the ECG that are affected by the respiration: respiratory sinus arrhythmia and the amplitude of the R-peaks. The proposed method was tested in one hour long recordings with ten healthy young adults. A relative mean absolute error of 5.6 % was achieved when the algorithm was able to provide a result for approximately 40 % of the time. 90 % of the values were within 0.5 s and 97 % within 1 s from the reference respiration value. In addition to the instantaneous respiration cycle lengths, also the mean values during 1 and 5 minutes epochs are calculated. The effect of the ECG signal source is evaluated by calculating the result also from the simultaneously recorded reference ECG signal. The acquired respiration information can be used in the estimation of sleep quality and the detection of sleep disorders

  8. Extracting the respiration cycle lengths from ECG signal recorded with bed sheet electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vehkaoja, A.; Peltokangas, M.; Lekkala, J.

    2013-09-01

    A method for recognizing the respiration cycle lengths from the electrocardiographic (ECG) signal recorded with textile electrodes that are attached to a bed sheet is proposed. The method uses two features extracted from the ECG that are affected by the respiration: respiratory sinus arrhythmia and the amplitude of the R-peaks. The proposed method was tested in one hour long recordings with ten healthy young adults. A relative mean absolute error of 5.6 % was achieved when the algorithm was able to provide a result for approximately 40 % of the time. 90 % of the values were within 0.5 s and 97 % within 1 s from the reference respiration value. In addition to the instantaneous respiration cycle lengths, also the mean values during 1 and 5 minutes epochs are calculated. The effect of the ECG signal source is evaluated by calculating the result also from the simultaneously recorded reference ECG signal. The acquired respiration information can be used in the estimation of sleep quality and the detection of sleep disorders.

  9. Multi-objective optimization method for signal timing of urban traffic intersection%城市道路交叉口信号配时多目标优化方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭鹏飞; 徐海黎; 树爱兵; 潘腊青; 沈标

    2016-01-01

    针对目前交叉口信号配时优化目标单一、综合运行效率不高的问题,提出一种交叉口信号配时多目标优化方法。考虑绿灯时间、周期长度和饱和度等约束条件,通过加权系数法定义代价函数,使交叉口的延误时间、停车次数和通行能力在某种程度上达到最优。基于免疫克隆算法在处理多目标问题中具有最优解分布宽广性、均匀性好等特点,引入环境变异算子,提出环境变异免疫克隆算法对模型求解,增强了算法的全局搜索能力,提高了解的质量。仿真结果表明,与传统配时方法和改进粒子群算法相比,该文方法能有效减少信号交叉口的延误时间和停车次数,提高交叉口的运行效率。%To solve the problems of single optimization objective and low efficiency in signal timing,a novel multi⁃objective optimization method for signal timing of intersections is proposed. In consideration of constraint conditions of green⁃light dura⁃tion,cycle length and saturability,the cost function is defined by weighted coefficient method to make delay time,parking times and traffic capacity of intersections optimum to some extent. Based on the characteristics of uniformity and wide⁃distribu⁃tion of optimal solution while immune clone algorithm(ICA)is used to solve multi⁃objective problems,a new environment muta⁃tion operator was introduced,and the environment mutation ICA was proposed for model solution,which enhanced the global searching ability of the algorithm and improved the solution quality. The simulation results reveal that,compared with the tradi⁃tional timing method and inertia weight particle swarm algorithm,the presented method can efficiently reduce average delay, parking times of intersections,and improve the efficiency of traffic signal control.

  10. 14 CFR 91.123 - Compliance with ATC clearances and instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... obtained, an emergency exists, or the deviation is in response to a traffic alert and collision avoidance... avoidance system resolution advisory, deviates from an ATC clearance or instruction shall notify ATC of...

  11. Problems of Current Setup of Traffic Signal Lights and the Solutions%我国现行道路交通信号灯设置中的问题及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙毅然

    2014-01-01

    交通信号灯是加强道路交通管理,减少交通事故发生,提高道路通行效率不可或缺的重要工具。但我国部分城市的交通信号灯的设置,仍然存在严重的交通安全隐患。指出了交通信号灯设置和交叉口存在的主要问题,并从软件和硬件两方面提出了具体可行的对策建议。%Traffic signal lights aredispensable devices of enhancing road traffic management and reducing traffic ac -cidents .But seriously potential safety issues are still existing because of the setups of traffic signal lights in some cit -ies.This article dedicates the main existing problems of the setups of traffic signal lights and pay attention to the in-tersection’ s concrete condition , then proposes practically implemental suggestion in software and hardware .

  12. Insulin signalling and glucose transport in the ovary and ovarian function during the ovarian cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, Joëlle; Scaramuzzi, Rex J

    2016-06-01

    Data derived principally from peripheral tissues (fat, muscle and liver) show that insulin signals via diverse interconnecting intracellular pathways and that some of the major intersecting points (known as critical nodes) are the IRSs (insulin receptor substrates), PI3K (phosphoinositide kinase)/Akt and MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase). Most of these insulin pathways are probably also active in the ovary and their ability to interact with each other and also with follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) signalling pathways enables insulin to exert direct modulating influences on ovarian function. The present paper reviews the intracellular actions of insulin and the uptake of glucose by ovarian tissues (granulosa, theca and oocyte) during the oestrous/menstrual cycle of some rodent, primate and ruminant species. Insulin signals through diverse pathways and these are discussed with specific reference to follicular cell types (granulosa, theca and oocyte). The signalling pathways for FSH in granulosa cells and LH in granulosa and theca cells are summarized. The roles of glucose and of insulin-mediated uptake of glucose in folliculogenesis are discussed. It is suggested that glucose in addition to its well-established role of providing energy for cellular function may also have insulin-mediated signalling functions in ovarian cells, involving AMPK (AMP-dependent protein kinase) and/or hexosamine. Potential interactions of insulin signalling with FSH or LH signalling at critical nodes are identified and the available evidence for such interactions in ovarian cells is discussed. Finally the action of the insulin-sensitizing drugs metformin and the thiazolidinedione rosiglitazone on follicular cells is reviewed. PMID:27234585

  13. Direct measurement of first-pass ileal clearance of a bile acid in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a method of directly measuring ileal bile acid absorption efficiency during a single enterohepatic cycle (first-pass ileal clearance). This has become feasible for the first time because of the availability of the synthetic gamma-labeled bile acid 75Selena-homocholic acid-taurine (75SeHCAT). Together with the corresponding natural bile acid cholic acid-taurine (labeled with 14C), SeHCAT was infused distal to an occluding balloon situated beyond the ampulla of Vater in six healthy subjects. Completion of a single enterohepatic cycle was assessed by obtaining a plateau for 75SeHCAT activity proximal to the occluding balloon, which prevented further cycles. Unabsorbed 75SeHCAT was collected after total gut washout, which was administered distal to the occluding balloon. 75SeHCAT activity in the rectal effluent measured by gamma counter was compared with that of absorbed 75SeHCAT level measured by gamma camera and was used to calculate first-pass ileal clearance. This was very efficient (mean value, 96%) and showed very little variation in the six subjects studied (range, 95%-97%). A parallel time-activity course in hepatic bile for 14C and 75Se during a single enterohepatic cycle, together with a ratio of unity for 14C/75Se in samples obtained at different time intervals, suggests that 75SeHCAT is handled by the ileum like the natural bile acid cholic acid-taurine. Extrapolation of 75SeHCAT first-pass ileal clearance to that of the natural bile acid therefore seems justifiable. In a subsidiary experiment, ileal absorption efficiency per day for 75SeHCAT was also measured by scanning the gallbladder area on 5 successive days after the measurement of first-pass ileal clearance. In contrast with absorption efficiency per cycle, absorption efficiency per day varied widely (49%-86%)

  14. Cellular Automata Based Traffic Flow Simulation and Actuated Signal Control Strategy%基于CA方法的交通流数值模拟及信号灯感应控制策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晨; 陈建桥

    2011-01-01

    According to the theory of cellular automata ( CA), the urban traffic flows at 4 intersections were investigated and a set of discrete equations were proposed to describe the traffic dynamics. The effect of two signal control strategies, i.e., synchronous timing control and actuated control, on traffic flow were discussed. Simulation results show that ( 1 ) the effect of signal control strategies is related to the density of traffic flow; (2) and there exists a certain range of actuated control parameters in which the efficiency of traffic flow can be optimized. Therefore, in order to ensure the efficiency of traffic flow, one the proper signal control strategy should be chosen for different global densities of traffic flow.%采用细胞自动机方法(Cellular Automata:CA)模拟含4个路口的城市道路交通流状态,并通过离散方程描述车辆的运动过程.研究了信号灯控制策略(同步定时控制及感应控制)对交通流状态的影响.数值模拟结果表明,信号灯对交通流的影响与道路中车辆密度有关,同时,感应控制参数的选取存在一合理的取值范围,可优化交通流通行效率.因此,为保证交通流的通行效率,应针对不同的车辆密度,选取适当的信号灯控制方式.

  15. Noninvasive clearance of airway secretions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, K A; Anderson, B D

    1996-06-01

    Airway clearance techniques are indicated for specific diseases that have known clearance abnormalities (Table 2). Murray and others have commented that such techniques are required only for patients with a daily sputum production of greater than 30 mL. The authors have observed that patients with diseases known to cause clearance abnormalities can have sputum clearance with some techniques, such as positive expiratory pressure, autogenic drainage, and active cycle of breathing techniques, when PDPV has not been effective. Hasani et al has shown that use of the forced exhalatory technique in patients with nonproductive cough still resulted in movement of secretions proximally from all regions of the lung in patients with airway obstruction. It is therefore reasonable to consider airway clearance techniques for any patient who has a disease known to alter mucous clearance, including CF, dyskinetic cilia syndromes, and bronchiectasis from any cause. Patients with atelectasis from mucous plugs and hypersecretory states, such as asthma and chronic bronchitis, patients with pain secondary to surgical procedures, and patients with neuromuscular disease, weak cough, and abnormal patency of the airway may also benefit from the application of airway clearance techniques. Infants and children up to 3 years of age with airway clearance problems need to be treated with PDPV. Manual percussion with hands alone or a flexible face mask or cup and small mechanical vibrator/percussors, such as the ultrasonic devices, can be used. The intrapulmonary percussive ventilator shows growing promise in this area. The high-frequency oscillator is not supplied with vests of appropriate sizes for tiny babies and has not been studied in this group. Young patients with neuromuscular disease may require assisted ventilation and airway oscillations can be applied. CPAP alone has been shown to improve achievable flow rates that will increase air-liquid interactions for patients with these diseases

  16. Re-configurable digital receiver for optically envelope detected half cycle BPSK and MSK radio-on-fiber signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerrero Gonzalez, Neil; Prince, Kamau; Zibar, Darko;

    2011-01-01

    novel digital receiver consists of a digital signal processing unit integrating functions such as filtering, peak-powers detection, symbol synchronization and signal demodulation for optically envelope detected half-cycle binary phase-shift-keying and minimum-shift-keying signals. Furthermore, radio......-frequency signal down-conversion is not required in our proposed approach; simplifying evens more the optical receiver front-end. We experimentally demonstrate error-free optical transmission (bit-error rate corresponding to 10−3 related to FEC-compatible levels) for both 416.6 Mbit/s half-cycle binary phase...

  17. Chapter 10 the primary cilium coordinates signaling pathways in cell cycle control and migration during development and tissue repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Søren T; Pedersen, Stine F; Satir, Peter;

    2008-01-01

    Cell cycle control and migration are critical processes during development and maintenance of tissue functions. Recently, primary cilia were shown to take part in coordination of the signaling pathways that control these cellular processes in human health and disease. In this review, we present...... with the extracellular matrix, coordinate Wnt signaling, and modulate cytoskeletal changes that impinge on both cell cycle control and cell migration....

  18. The Effect of High-Intensity Interval Cycling Sprints Subsequent to Arm-Curl Exercise on Upper-Body Muscle Strength and Hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Naoki; Yoshida, Shou; Okuyama, Mizuki; Nakazato, Koichi

    2016-08-01

    Kikuchi, N, Yoshida, S, Okuyama, M, and Nakazato, K. The effect of high-intensity interval cycling sprints subsequent to arm-curl exercise on upper-body muscle strength and hypertrophy. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2318-2323, 2016-The purpose of this study was to examine whether lower limb sprint interval training (SIT) after arm resistance training (RT) influences training response of arm muscle strength and hypertrophy. Twenty men participated in this study. We divided subjects into RT group (n = 6) and concurrent training group (CT, n = 6). The RT program was designed to induce muscular hypertrophy (3 sets × 10 repetitions [reps] at 80% 1 repetition maximum [1RM] of arm-curl exercise) and was performed in an 8-week training schedule performed 3 times per week on nonconsecutive days. Subjects assigned to the CT group performed identical protocols as strength training and modified SIT (4 sets of 30-s maximal effort, separated in 4 m 30-s rest intervals) on the same day. Pretest and posttest maximal oxygen consumption (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max), muscle cross-sectional area (CSA), and 1RM were measured. Significant increase in V[Combining Dot Above]O2max from pretest to posttest was observed in the CT group (p = 0.010, effect size [ES] = 1.84) but not in the RT group (p = 0.559, ES = 0.35). Significant increase in CSA from pretest to posttest was observed in the RT group (p = 0.030, ES = 1.49) but not in the CT group (p = 0.110, ES = 1.01). Significant increase in 1RM from pretest to posttest was observed in the RT group (p = 0.021, ES = 1.57) but not in the CT group (p = 0.065, ES = 1.19). In conclusion, our data indicate that concurrent lower limb SIT interferes with arm muscle hypertrophy and strength. PMID:26694501

  19. Improvement spatial resolution of frequency modulated continuous wave laser ranging system by splicing equal optical frequency interval sampled signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Guang; Zhang, Fumin; Qu, Xinghua

    2015-02-01

    A dual interferometry FMCW laser ranging system is presented. The auxiliary interferometer for generating the clock pulses at equally spaced optical frequencies is incorporated into the main interferometer to simplify the system configuration and to compensate the tuning linearity of the laser source. The need of widely tunable laser limits the practical application of the FMCW laser ranging for precision industrial measurement. Splicing sampled signal method is proposed to break though the tuning range of the laser source limitation against the special resolution. In the experiments, 50 μm range resolution at 8.7 m is demonstrated, and this resolution is maintained over the entire measuring range. The measuring range depending on the power and coherence length of the source can reach more than 20 m. The system structure is simple, and the requirement on the tuning range of laser source is reduced in this system.

  20. Experimental Design for Stochastic Models of Nonlinear Signaling Pathways Using an Interval-Wise Linear Noise Approximation and State Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Background Computational modeling is a key technique for analyzing models in systems biology. There are well established methods for the estimation of the kinetic parameters in models of ordinary differential equations (ODE). Experimental design techniques aim at devising experiments that maximize the information encoded in the data. For ODE models there are well established approaches for experimental design and even software tools. However, data from single cell experiments on signaling pathways in systems biology often shows intrinsic stochastic effects prompting the development of specialized methods. While simulation methods have been developed for decades and parameter estimation has been targeted for the last years, only very few articles focus on experimental design for stochastic models. Methods The Fisher information matrix is the central measure for experimental design as it evaluates the information an experiment provides for parameter estimation. This article suggest an approach to calculate a Fisher information matrix for models containing intrinsic stochasticity and high nonlinearity. The approach makes use of a recently suggested multiple shooting for stochastic systems (MSS) objective function. The Fisher information matrix is calculated by evaluating pseudo data with the MSS technique. Results The performance of the approach is evaluated with simulation studies on an Immigration-Death, a Lotka-Volterra, and a Calcium oscillation model. The Calcium oscillation model is a particularly appropriate case study as it contains the challenges inherent to signaling pathways: high nonlinearity, intrinsic stochasticity, a qualitatively different behavior from an ODE solution, and partial observability. The computational speed of the MSS approach for the Fisher information matrix allows for an application in realistic size models. PMID:27583802

  1. Programming with Intervals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsakis, Nicholas D.; Gross, Thomas R.

    Intervals are a new, higher-level primitive for parallel programming with which programmers directly construct the program schedule. Programs using intervals can be statically analyzed to ensure that they do not deadlock or contain data races. In this paper, we demonstrate the flexibility of intervals by showing how to use them to emulate common parallel control-flow constructs like barriers and signals, as well as higher-level patterns such as bounded-buffer producer-consumer. We have implemented intervals as a publicly available library for Java and Scala.

  2. Traffic Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Mestech's X-15 "Eye in the Sky," a traffic monitoring system, incorporates NASA imaging and robotic vision technology. A camera or "sensor box" is mounted in a housing. The sensor detects vehicles approaching an intersection and sends the information to a computer, which controls the traffic light according to the traffic rate. Jet Propulsion Laboratory technical support packages aided in the company's development of the system. The X-15's "smart highway" can also be used to count vehicles on a highway and compute the number in each lane and their speeds, important information for freeway control engineers. Additional applications are in airport and railroad operations. The system is intended to replace loop-type traffic detectors.

  3. Cycling excitation process: An ultra efficient and quiet signal amplification mechanism in semiconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yu-Hsin [Materials Science and Engineering Program, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093-0418 (United States); Yan, Lujiang; Zhang, Alex Ce; Hall, David; Niaz, Iftikhar Ahmad; Zhou, Yuchun [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093-0409 (United States); Sham, L. J. [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Lo, Yu-Hwa, E-mail: ylo@ucsd.edu [Materials Science and Engineering Program, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093-0418 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093-0409 (United States)

    2015-08-03

    Signal amplification, performed by transistor amplifiers with its merit rated by the efficiency and noise characteristics, is ubiquitous in all electronic systems. Because of transistor thermal noise, an intrinsic signal amplification mechanism, impact ionization was sought after to complement the limits of transistor amplifiers. However, due to the high operation voltage (30-200 V typically), low power efficiency, limited scalability, and, above all, rapidly increasing excess noise with amplification factor, impact ionization has been out of favor for most electronic systems except for a few applications such as avalanche photodetectors and single-photon Geiger detectors. Here, we report an internal signal amplification mechanism based on the principle of the phonon-assisted cycling excitation process (CEP). Si devices using this concept show ultrahigh gain, low operation voltage, CMOS compatibility, and, above all, quantum limit noise performance that is 30 times lower than devices using impact ionization. Established on a unique physical effect of attractive properties, CEP-based devices can potentially revolutionize the fields of semiconductor electronics.

  4. Cycling excitation process: An ultra efficient and quiet signal amplification mechanism in semiconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signal amplification, performed by transistor amplifiers with its merit rated by the efficiency and noise characteristics, is ubiquitous in all electronic systems. Because of transistor thermal noise, an intrinsic signal amplification mechanism, impact ionization was sought after to complement the limits of transistor amplifiers. However, due to the high operation voltage (30-200 V typically), low power efficiency, limited scalability, and, above all, rapidly increasing excess noise with amplification factor, impact ionization has been out of favor for most electronic systems except for a few applications such as avalanche photodetectors and single-photon Geiger detectors. Here, we report an internal signal amplification mechanism based on the principle of the phonon-assisted cycling excitation process (CEP). Si devices using this concept show ultrahigh gain, low operation voltage, CMOS compatibility, and, above all, quantum limit noise performance that is 30 times lower than devices using impact ionization. Established on a unique physical effect of attractive properties, CEP-based devices can potentially revolutionize the fields of semiconductor electronics

  5. Automatic and efficient driving strategies while approaching a traffic light

    CERN Document Server

    Treiber, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Vehicle-infrastructure communication opens up new ways to improve traffic flow efficiency at signalized intersections. In this study, we assume that equipped vehicles can obtain information about switching times of relevant traffic lights in advance. This information is used to improve traffic flow by the strategies 'early braking', 'anticipative start', and 'flying start'. The strategies can be implemented in driver-information mode, or in automatic mode by an Adaptive Cruise Controller (ACC). Quality criteria include cycle-averaged capacity, driving comfort, fuel consumption, travel time, and the number of stops. By means of simulation, we investigate the isolated strategies and the complex interactions between the strategies and between equipped and non-equipped vehicles. As universal approach to assess equipment level effects we propose relative performance indexes and found, at a maximum speed of 50 km/h, improvements of about 15% for the number of stops and about 4% for the other criteria. All figures d...

  6. Serum IgE clearance is facilitated by human FcεRI internalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Alexandra M.; Wu, Nan; Putnam, Amy L.; Woodruff, Prescott G.; Wolters, Paul; Kinet, Jean-Pierre; Shin, Jeoung-Sook

    2014-01-01

    The high-affinity IgE receptor FcεRI is constitutively expressed in mast cells and basophils and is required for transmitting stimulatory signals upon engagement of IgE-bound allergens. FcεRI is also constitutively expressed in dendritic cells (DCs) and monocytes in humans; however, the specific functions of the FcεRI expressed by these cells are not completely understood. Here, we found that FcεRI expressed by human blood DC antigen 1–positive (BDCA1+) DCs and monocytes, but not basophils, traffics to endolysosomal compartments under steady-state conditions. Furthermore, IgE bound to FcεRI on BDCA1+ DCs was rapidly endocytosed, transported to the lysosomes, and degraded in vitro. IgE injected into mice expressing human FcεRIα (FCER1A-Tg mice) was endocytosed by conventional DCs and monocytes, and endocytosis was associated with rapid clearance of circulating IgE from these mice. Importantly, this rapid IgE clearance was dependent on monocytes or DCs but not basophils. These findings strongly suggest that constitutive internalization of human FcεRI by DCs and monocytes distinctively contributes to serum IgE clearance. PMID:24569373

  7. Acute High-Intensity Interval Exercise-Induced Redox Signaling Is Associated with Enhanced Insulin Sensitivity in Obese Middle-Aged Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Lewan; Stepto, Nigel K.; Shaw, Christopher S.; Serpiello, Fabio R.; Anderson, Mitchell; Hare, David L.; Levinger, Itamar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Obesity and aging are associated with increased oxidative stress, activation of stress and mitogen activated protein kinases (SAPK), and the development of insulin resistance and metabolic disease. In contrast, acute exercise also increases oxidative stress and SAPK signaling, yet is reported to enhance insulin sensitivity and reduce the risk of metabolic disease. This study explored this paradox by investigating the effect of a single session of high-intensity interval-exercise (HIIE) on redox status, muscle SAPK and insulin protein signaling in eleven middle-aged obese men. Methods: Participants completed a 2 h hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp at rest, and 60 min after HIIE (4 × 4 mins at 95% HRpeak; 2 min recovery periods), separated by 1–3 weeks. Results: Irrespective of exercise-induced changes to redox status, insulin stimulation both at rest and after HIIE similarly increased plasma superoxide dismutase activity, plasma catalase activity, and skeletal muscle 4-HNE; and significantly decreased plasma TBARS and hydrogen peroxide. The SAPK signaling pathways of p38 MAPK, NF-κB p65, and JNK, and the distal insulin signaling protein AS160Ser588, were activated with insulin stimulation at rest and to a greater extent with insulin stimulation after a prior bout of HIIE. Higher insulin sensitivity after HIIE was associated with higher insulin-stimulated SOD activity, JNK, p38 MAPK and NF-κB phosphorylation (r = 0.63, r = 0.71, r = 0.72, r = 0.71; p < 0.05, respectively). Conclusion:These findings support a role for redox homeostasis and SAPK signaling in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake which may contribute to the enhancement of insulin sensitivity in obese men 3 h after HIIE.

  8. An In Vivo Evaluation of the Effect of Repeated Administration and Clearance of Targeted Contrast Agents on Molecular Imaging Signal Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason E. Streeter, Paul A. Dayton

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Competitive inhibition diminishes ligand adhesion as receptor sites become occupied with competing ligands. It is unknown if this effect occurs in ultrasound molecular imaging studies where endothelial binding sites become occupied with adherent bubbles or bubble fragments. The goal of this pilot study was to assess the effect that repeated administration and clearance of targeted agents has on successive adhesion. Two groups of animals were imaged with 3-D ultrasonic molecular imaging. Injections and imaging were performed on Group 1 at time 0 and 60 minutes. Group 2 received injections of microbubbles at 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes with imaging at 0 and 60 minutes. At 60 minutes, Group 1 targeting relative to baseline was not significantly different from Group 2 (1.06±0.27 vs. 1.08±0.34, p=0.93. Data suggest that multiple injections of targeted microbubbles do not block sufficient binding sites to bias molecular imaging data in serial studies.

  9. Partial rescue of in vivo insulin signalling in skeletal muscle by impaired insulin clearance in heterozygous carriers of a mutation in the insulin receptor gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund, K.; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen; Birk, Jesper Bratz;

    2006-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Recently we reported the coexistence of postprandial hypoglycaemia and moderate insulin resistance in heterozygous carriers of the Arg1174Gln mutation in the insulin receptor gene (INSR). Controlled studies of in vivo insulin signalling in humans with mutant INSR are unavailable...... in vivo insulin signalling in muscle in these carriers of a mutant INSR, probably by increasing insulin action on the non-mutated insulin receptors......., and therefore the cellular mechanisms underlying insulin resistance in Arg1174Gln carriers remain to be clarified. SUBJECTS, MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied glucose metabolism and insulin signalling in skeletal muscle from six Arg1174Gln carriers and matched control subjects during a euglycaemic...

  10. Speed-Flow Analysis for Interrupted Oversaturated Traffic Flow with Heterogeneous Structure for Urban Roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant Kumar Sharma

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Speed–flow functions have been developed by several transportation experts to predict accurately the speed of urban road network. HCM Speed-Flow Curve, BPR Curve, MTC Speed-Flow Curve, Akçelik Speed-Flow Curve are some extraordinary efforts to define the shape of speed-flow curve. However, the complexity of driver’s behaviour, interactions among different type of vehicles, lateral clearance, co-relation of driver’s psychology with vehicular characteristics and interdependence of various variables of traffic has led to continuous development and refinement of speed-flow curves. The problem gets more tedious in case of urban roads with heterogeneous traffic, oversaturated flow and signalized network (which includes some unsignalized intersections as well. This paper presents speed-flow analysis for urban roads with interrupted flow comprising of heterogeneous traffic. Model has been developed for heterogeneous traffic under constraints of roadway geometry, vehicle characteristics, driving behaviour and traffic controls. The model developed in this paper shall predict speed, delay, average queue and maximum queue estimates for urban roads and quantify congestion for oversaturated condition. The investigation details oversaturated portion of flow in particular.

  11. Vehicular headways on signalized intersections: theory, models, and reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krbálek, Milan; Šleis, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    We discuss statistical properties of vehicular headways measured on signalized crossroads. On the basis of mathematical approaches, we formulate theoretical and empirically inspired criteria for the acceptability of theoretical headway distributions. Sequentially, the multifarious families of statistical distributions (commonly used to fit real-road headway statistics) are confronted with these criteria, and with original empirical time clearances gauged among neighboring vehicles leaving signal-controlled crossroads after a green signal appears. Using three different numerical schemes, we demonstrate that an arrangement of vehicles on an intersection is a consequence of the general stochastic nature of queueing systems, rather than a consequence of traffic rules, driver estimation processes, or decision-making procedures.

  12. Self——adaptive Control Method for Traffic Signal at Single Intersection Based on Cloud Model Adaptive%基于云模型的单路口交通信号自适应控制方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘罗仁; 罗金玲

    2011-01-01

    为了减少车辆通过路口的延误,提出了一种基于云模型的单路口交通信号自适应控制方法;使用云模型作为信号控制的基础模型,利用云模型中的正态云发生器和前件云发生器算法分别对道路交通信息进行处理并产生自适应的控制规则,以实现单路口交通信号的自适应控制;通过仿真实验,结果表明,使用云模型作为控制方法,比较传统控制方式更具智能化,更接近于人脑思维过程的控制方法,这也是将来交通信号控制的发展方向.%In order to reduce traffic delays through the intersection, this paper presents, a single intersection based on cloud model adaptive traffic signal control. Signal control using the cloud model as the basis model, the cloud model in the normal cloud generator and the former pieces of cloud generator algorithms are processed on road traffic information and generates adaptive control rules in order to achieve a single self-intersection traffic signal adaptive control. The simulation experiment results show that the control method using the cloud model as the more traditional control method is more intelligent, more close to the brain control the process of thinking, this is the future direction of development of traffic signal control.

  13. Isothermal cycling and cascade signal amplification strategy for ultrasensitive colorimetric detection of nucleic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have designed a novel isothermal cascade signal-amplification strategy for ultrasensitive colorimetric determination of nucleic acids. It is based on double-cycling amplification with formation of DNAzyme via a polymerase-induced strand-displacement reaction and nicking endonuclease-assisted recycling. The assay makes use of a hairpin DNA, a short primer, KF-polymerase, and nicking endonuclease. The presence of a target DNA triggers the strand-displacement and polymerization reaction with the formation of numerous DNAzyme molecules. Upon addition of H2O2 to the resulting mixture, the H2O2 reacts with 2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiozoline)-6-sulfonate to form a colored product in the aid of DNAzyme, which is quantified by photometry at 415 nm. Under optimal conditions, the assay allows target DNA to be determined at concentration as low as 0.6 aM. (author)

  14. Noise and critical phenomena in biochemical signaling cycles at small molecule numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzner, C.; Sajitz-Hermstein, M.; Schmidberger, M.; Fabry, B.

    2009-08-01

    Biochemical reaction networks in living cells usually involve reversible covalent modification of signaling molecules, such as protein phosphorylation. Under conditions of small molecule numbers, as is frequently the case in living cells, mass-action theory fails to describe the dynamics of such systems. Instead, the biochemical reactions must be treated as stochastic processes that intrinsically generate concentration fluctuations of the chemicals. We investigate the stochastic reaction kinetics of covalent modification cycles (CMCs) by analytical modeling and numerically exact Monte Carlo simulation of the temporally fluctuating concentration. Depending on the parameter regime, we find for the probability density of the concentration qualitatively distinct classes of distribution functions including power-law distributions with a fractional and tunable exponent. These findings challenge the traditional view of biochemical control networks as deterministic computational systems and suggest that CMCs in cells can function as versatile and tunable noise generators.

  15. Simulations of Continuous Descent Operations with Arrival-management Automation and Mixed Flight-deck Interval Management Equipage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callantine, Todd J.; Kupfer, Michael; Martin, Lynne Hazel; Prevot, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Air traffic management simulations conducted in the Airspace Operations Laboratory at NASA Ames Research Center have addressed the integration of trajectory-based arrival-management automation, controller tools, and Flight-Deck Interval Management avionics to enable Continuous Descent Operations (CDOs) during periods of sustained high traffic demand. The simulations are devoted to maturing the integrated system for field demonstration, and refining the controller tools, clearance phraseology, and procedures specified in the associated concept of operations. The results indicate a variety of factors impact the concept's safety and viability from a controller's perspective, including en-route preconditioning of arrival flows, useable clearance phraseology, and the characteristics of airspace, routes, and traffic-management methods in use at a particular site. Clear understanding of automation behavior and required shifts in roles and responsibilities is important for controller acceptance and realizing potential benefits. This paper discusses the simulations, drawing parallels with results from related European efforts. The most recent study found en-route controllers can effectively precondition arrival flows, which significantly improved route conformance during CDOs. Controllers found the tools acceptable, in line with previous studies.

  16. Wavelet Transform Analysis of the Power Spectrum of Centre of Pressure Signals to Detect the Critical Point Interval of Postural Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Neeraj Kumar; Snoussi, Hichem; Hewson, David; Duchêne, Jacques

    The aim of this study was to develop a method to detecting the critical point interval (CPI) when sensory feedback is used as part of a closed-loop postural control strategy. Postural balance was evaluated using centre of pressure (COP) displacements from a force plate for 17 control and 10 elderly subjects under eyes open, eyes closed, and vibration conditions. A modified local-maximum-modulus wavelet transform analysis using the power spectrum of COP signals was used to calculate CPI. Lower CPI values indicate increased closed-loop postural control with a quicker response to sensory input. Such a strategy requires greater energy expenditure due to the repeated muscular interventions to remain stable. The CPI for elderly occurred significantly quicker than for controls, indicating tighter control of posture. Similar results were observed for eyes closed and vibration conditions. The CPI parameter can be used to detect differences in postural control due to ageing.

  17. Calcium Signaling throughout the Toxoplasma gondii Lytic Cycle: A STUDY USING GENETICALLY ENCODED CALCIUM INDICATORS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges-Pereira, Lucas; Budu, Alexandre; McKnight, Ciara A; Moore, Christina A; Vella, Stephen A; Hortua Triana, Miryam A; Liu, Jing; Garcia, Celia R S; Pace, Douglas A; Moreno, Silvia N J

    2015-11-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that invades host cells, creating a parasitophorous vacuole where it communicates with the host cell cytosol through the parasitophorous vacuole membrane. The lytic cycle of the parasite starts with its exit from the host cell followed by gliding motility, conoid extrusion, attachment, and invasion of another host cell. Here, we report that Ca(2+) oscillations occur in the cytosol of the parasite during egress, gliding, and invasion, which are critical steps of the lytic cycle. Extracellular Ca(2+) enhances each one of these processes. We used tachyzoite clonal lines expressing genetically encoded calcium indicators combined with host cells expressing transiently expressed calcium indicators of different colors, and we measured Ca(2+) changes in both parasites and host simultaneously during egress. We demonstrated a link between cytosolic Ca(2+) oscillations in the host and in the parasite. Our approach also allowed us to measure two new features of motile parasites, which were enhanced by Ca(2+) influx. This is the first study showing, in real time, Ca(2+) signals preceding egress and their direct link with motility, an essential virulence trait.

  18. Calcium signaling and T-type calcium channels in cancer cell cycling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    James T Taylor; Xiang-Bin Zeng; Jonathan E Pottle; Kevin Lee; Alun R Wang; Stephenie G Yi; Jennifer A S Scruggs; Suresh S Sikka; Ming Li

    2008-01-01

    Regulation of intracellular calcium is an important signaling mechanism for cell proliferation in both normal and cancerous cells. In normal epithelial cells,free calcium concentration is essential for cells to enter and accomplish the S phase and the M phase of the cell cycle. In contrast, cancerous cells can pass these phases of the cell cycle with much lower cytoplasmic free calcium concentrations, indicating an alternative mechanism has developed for fulfilling the intracellular calcium requirement for an increased rate of DNA synthesis and mitosis of fast replicating cancerous cells. The detailed mechanism underlying the altered calcium loading pathway remains unclear;however, there is a growing body of evidence that suggests the T-type Ca2+ channel is abnormally expressed in cancerous cells and that blockade of these channels may reduce cell proliferation in addition to inducing apoptosis. Recent studies also show that the expression of T-type Ca2+ channels in breast cancer cells is proliferation state dependent, i.e. the channels are expressed at higher levels during the fast-replication period, and once the cells are in a non-proliferation state, expression of this channel isminimal. Therefore, selectively blocking calcium entry into cancerous cells may be a valuable approach for preventing tumor growth. Since T-type Ca2+ channels are not expressed in epithelial cells, selective T-type Ca2+ channel blockers may be useful in the treatment of certain types of cancers.

  19. SPARC expression induces cell cycle arrest via STAT3 signaling pathway in medulloblastoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chetty, Chandramu [Department of Cancer Biology and Pharmacology, University of Illinois College of Medicine at Peoria, One Illini Drive, Peoria, IL-61605 (United States); Dontula, Ranadheer [Section of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of Illinois College of Medicine at Chicago, 840 South Wood Street, Suite 820-E, Chicago, IL-60612 (United States); Ganji, Purnachandra Nagaraju [Department of Cancer Biology and Pharmacology, University of Illinois College of Medicine at Peoria, One Illini Drive, Peoria, IL-61605 (United States); Gujrati, Meena [Department of Pathology, University of Illinois College of Medicine at Peoria, One Illini Drive, Peoria, IL-61605 (United States); Lakka, Sajani S., E-mail: slakka@uic.edu [Section of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of Illinois College of Medicine at Chicago, 840 South Wood Street, Suite 820-E, Chicago, IL-60612 (United States)

    2012-01-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ectopic expression of SPARC impaired cell proliferation in medulloblastoma cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SPARC expression induces STAT3 mediated cell cycle arrest in medulloblastoma cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SPARC expression significantly inhibited pre-established tumor growth in nude-mice. -- Abstract: Dynamic cell interaction with ECM components has profound influence in cancer progression. SPARC is a component of the ECM, impairs the proliferation of different cell types and modulates tumor cell aggressive features. We previously reported that SPARC expression significantly impairs medulloblastoma tumor growth in vivo. In this study, we demonstrate that expression of SPARC inhibits medulloblastoma cell proliferation. MTT assay indicated a dose-dependent reduction in tumor cell proliferation in adenoviral mediated expression of SPARC full length cDNA (Ad-DsRed-SP) in D425 and UW228 cells. Flow cytometric analysis showed that Ad-DsRed-SP-infected cells accumulate in the G2/M phase of cell cycle. Further, immunoblot and immunoprecipitation analyses revealed that SPARC induced G2/M cell cycle arrest was mediated through inhibition of the Cyclin-B-regulated signaling pathway involving p21 and Cdc2 expression. Additionally, expression of SPARC decreased STAT3 phosphorylation at Tyr-705; constitutively active STAT3 expression reversed SPARC induced G2/M arrest. Ad-DsRed-SP significantly inhibited the pre-established orthotopic tumor growth and tumor volume in nude-mice. Immunohistochemical analysis of tumor sections from mice treated with Ad-DsRed-SP showed decreased immunoreactivity for pSTAT3 and increased immunoreactivity for p21 compared to tumor section from mice treated with mock and Ad-DsRed. Taken together our studies further reveal that STAT3 plays a key role in SPARC induced G2/M arrest in medulloblastoma cells. These new findings provide a molecular basis for the mechanistic understanding of the

  20. Bound Maxima as a Traffic Feature under DDOS Flood Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Xue

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives a novel traffic feature for identifying abnormal variation of traffic under DDOS flood attacks. It is the histogram of the maxima of the bounded traffic rate on an interval-by-interval basis. We use it to experiment on the traffic data provided by MIT Lincoln Laboratory under Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA in 1999. The experimental results profitably enhance the evidences that traffic rate under DDOS attacks is statistically higher than that of normal traffic considerably. They show that the pattern of the histogram of the maxima of bounded rate of attack-contained traffic greatly differs from that of attack-free traffic. Besides, the present traffic feature is simple in mathematics and easy to use in practice.

  1. The Effect of Total Cumulative Dose, Number of Treatment Cycles, Interval between Injections, and Length of Treatment on the Frequency of Occurrence of Antibodies to Botulinum Toxin Type A in the Treatment of Muscle Spasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakheit, Abdel Magid O.; Liptrot, Anthea; Newton, Rachel; Pickett, Andrew M.

    2012-01-01

    A large cumulative dose of botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A), frequent injections, a short interval between treatment cycles, and a long duration of treatment have all been suggested, but not confirmed, to be associated with a high incidence of neutralizing antibodies to the neurotoxin. The aim of this study was to investigate whether these…

  2. Glucose Signaling-Mediated Coordination of Cell Growth and Cell Cycle in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Busti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Besides being the favorite carbon and energy source for the budding yeast Sacchromyces cerevisiae, glucose can act as a signaling molecule to regulate multiple aspects of yeast physiology. Yeast cells have evolved several mechanisms for monitoring the level of glucose in their habitat and respond quickly to frequent changes in the sugar availability in the environment: the cAMP/PKA pathways (with its two branches comprising Ras and the Gpr1/Gpa2 module, the Rgt2/Snf3-Rgt1 pathway and the main repression pathway involving the kinase Snf1. The cAMP/PKA pathway plays the prominent role in responding to changes in glucose availability and initiating the signaling processes that promote cell growth and division. Snf1 (the yeast homologous to mammalian AMP-activated protein kinase is primarily required for the adaptation of yeast cell to glucose limitation and for growth on alternative carbon source, but it is also involved in the cellular response to various environmental stresses. The Rgt2/Snf3-Rgt1 pathway regulates the expression of genes required for glucose uptake. Many interconnections exist between the diverse glucose sensing systems, which enables yeast cells to fine tune cell growth, cell cycle and their coordination in response to nutritional changes.

  3. High intensity interval and moderate continuous cycle training in a physical education programme improves health-related fitness in young females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, K; Zmijewski, P; Krawczyk, K; Czajkowska, A; Kęska, A; Kapuściński, P; Mazurek, T

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of eight weeks of regular physical education classes supplemented with high intensity interval cycle exercise (HIIE) or continuous cycle exercises of moderate intensity (CME). Forty-eight collegiate females exercising in two regular physical education classes per week were randomly assigned to two programmes (HIIE; n = 24 or CME; n = 24) of additional (one session of 63 minutes per week) physical activity for 8 weeks. Participants performed HIIE comprising 2 series of 6x10 s sprinting with maximal pedalling cadence and active recovery pedalling with intensity 65%-75% HRmax or performed CME corresponding to 65%-75% HRmax. Before and after the 8-week programmes, anthropometric data and aero- and anaerobic capacity were measured. Two-way ANOVA revealed a significant time main effect for VO2max (p < 0.001), similar improvements being found in both groups (+12% in HIIE and +11% in CME), despite body mass not changing significantly (p = 0.59; +0.4% in HIIE and -0.1% in CME). A significant main time effect was found for relative fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively). A group x time interaction effect was found for relative FM and FFM (p = 0.018 and p = 0.018); a greater reduction in FM and greater increase in FFM were noted in the CME than the HIIE group. Improvements in anaerobic power were observed in both groups (p < 0.001), but it was greater in the HIIE group (interaction effect, p = 0.022). Weight loss is not mandatory for exercise-induced effects on improving aerobic and anaerobic capacity in collegiate females. Eight weeks of regular physical education classes supplemented with CME sessions are more effective in improving body composition than physical education classes supplemented with HIIE sessions. In contrast to earlier, smaller trials, similar improvements in aerobic capacity were observed following physical activity with additional HIIE or CME sessions. PMID:27274106

  4. Theory of clearance-phase-adjustor in pneumatically-driven split-Stirling-cycle cryocooler with clearance-phase-adjustor%狭缝调相式气动分置式斯特林制冷机的调相器理论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张存泉; 吴亦农

    2008-01-01

    给出的狭缝调相式气动分置式斯特林制冷机,具有阻尼调节方便、造价低、制作与装配简单等优点.该机使用调节件与气动腔体之间的缝隙替代气动杆上的干摩擦来调节排出器的运动阻尼,进而调节排出器与活塞之间的运动相位差.主要给出了狭缝调相器的理论模型,并针对不同间隙进行了性能模拟与试验验证.试验结果与性能模拟结果符合很好,证明了所建立理论模型的可行性.%The concept of pneumatically-driven split-Stirling-cycle cryocooler with clearance-phase.adjustor is proposed.It has the advantages of easy damping adjusting,low cost,simplifying manufacturing and assembling.The gap between the phase-adjusting part and the cylinder of spring chamber instead of dry friction acted on the pneumaticlly-driven rod is used to control motion damping of the displacer and adjust the phabe difference between the compression piston and displacer.A theoretical model for the clerance-phase-adjustor has been established and dynamic simulation of its operating performance at different gaps is demonstrated in this paper.The simulation resul are in good agreement with the experiment ones,therefore the theoretical model is feasible and reliable for the simulation.

  5. Functional Nanoscale Imaging of Synaptic Vesicle Cycling with Superfast Fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schikorski, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Functional imaging is the measurement of structural changes during an ongoing physiological process over time. In many cases, functional imaging has been implemented by tracking a fluorescent signal in live imaging sessions. Electron microscopy, however, excludes live imaging which has hampered functional imaging approaches on the ultrastructural level. This barrier was broken with the introduction of superfast fixation. Superfast fixation is capable of stopping and fixing membrane traffic at sufficient speed to capture a physiological process at a distinct functional state. Applying superfast fixation at sequential time points allows tracking of membrane traffic in a step-by-step fashion.This technique has been applied to track labeled endocytic vesicles at central synapses as they pass through the synaptic vesicle cycle. At synapses, neurotransmitter is released from synaptic vesicles (SVs) via fast activity-dependent exocytosis. Exocytosis is coupled to fast endocytosis that retrieves SVs components from the plasma membrane shortly after release. Fluorescent FM dyes that bind to the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane enter the endocytic vesicle during membrane retrieval and remain trapped in endocytic vesicles have been widely used to study SV exo-endocytic cycling in live imaging sessions. FM dyes can also be photoconverted into an electron-dense diaminobenzidine polymer which allows the investigation of SV cycling in the electron microscope. The combination of FM labeling with superfast fixation made it possible to track the fine structure of endocytic vesicles at 1 s intervals. Because this combination is not specialized to SV cycling, many other cellular processes can be studied. Furthermore, the technique is easy to set up and cost effective.This chapter describes activity-dependent FM dye labeling of SVs in cultured hippocampal neurons, superfast microwave-assisted fixation, photoconversion of the fluorescent endocytic vesicles, and the analysis of

  6. Timbre-induced pitch shift from the perspective of Signal Detection Theory: the impact of musical expertise, silence interval, and pitch region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vurma, Allan

    2014-01-01

    The paradigm of Signal Detection Theory (SDT) was used to analyze the ability of professional pianists (N = 16) and string players (N = 15) to discriminate small F0 differences between consecutive musical tones, presented in pairs, with identical and with different (bright and dull) timbres. The sensitivity (d') and response bias (c) were heavily dependent on the timbral arrangement of the pairs of tones (the "comparable tones"), which can be interpreted as the influence of timbre-induced pitch shift on F0 discrimination. The participants were somewhat biased to "miss" signals when comparable tones had identical timbres and to make "false alarms" when the tones had different timbres. The d' was lowest when the tones with a lower F0 in those stimulus-pairs containing tones with different timbres had a brighter timber, and highest when both tones had bright timbre. On average, the string players had a somewhat higher d' and their perception was slightly less influenced by timbre-induced pitch shift when compared to the pianists. Nevertheless, the dependence of d' and c on the timbral arrangement of the tones was registered in the case of all the participants at all the investigated pitch regions around D#3, D4, and C#5. Furthermore, the presence of a silence of 3.5 s-a silence interval-between the tones to be compared had an impact on both d'- and c-values as well as on the degree of vulnerability to timbre-induced pitch shift.

  7. Generic Clearance Values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyzes the Generic Clearance Values established for natural and artificial radionuclides with the objective of evaluating their degree of conservatism in views of adopting them into the regulatory body. Generic clearance values for natural radionuclides have been chosen by experts judgments as the optimum boundary between, on the one hand, the ubiquitous unmodified soil concentrations and, on the other hand, activity concentrations in ores, mineral sands, industrial residues and wastes. For artificial radionuclides the clearance levels have been derived from the scenarios postulated in the document Safety Reports Series 44 of the IAEA considering quantitative exemption criteria. A set of 8 scenarios were postulated covering external, ingestion and inhalation exposure pathways. For each radionuclide, the generic clearance level was derived as the more restrictive value obtained from the scenarios, that is the lowest ratio between the applicable individual dose and the dose per unit activity concentration (Bq/g). The individual dose was calculated by a formula depending on each scenario and pathway, with different parameters, such as exposure time, dosimetric factors, dilution factor, density of the material, geometric factors, etc. It was concluded that the basis and parameters used for the derivation of the generic clearance levels are quite conservative and therefore its the adoption in Argentina has been recommended. It is expected that their implementation will contribute to optimize the regulatory management system. (authors)

  8. Revolutionizing Technology Prioritizing Emergency Vehicles in Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ramya Sundaram

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The following study brings to the fore a technology exclusively engineered to eradicate the snags and inadequacies persisting in the existing system of traffic control and thus aims to provide a sophisticated operation and uninterrupted course for the emergency vehicles. The traffic in Indian roads has shown a tremendous rise over the years and the conventional pre-timed traffic signals and frequent traffic congestions, delaying the road commuters, have led to outrage and chaos on several occasions. This traffic management system has proved a nuisance for the effective operation of emergency vehicles, with the public adding to the woes, as each driver races along with the signal, unmindful of the emergency vehicles. A life threatening scenario ensues when emergency vehicles get blocked by the traffic, due to inefficient traffic management system and subsequently these emergency vehicles get delayed. The existing system requires manual interruption to guide other vehicles when an emergency vehicle passes through traffic junctions. It is therefore essential to implement a self-regulating and automated system in the traffic signals to facilitate smooth movement of emergency vehicles without posing a danger to other vehicles. The innovative traffic control system devised by us provides a truly dependable alternative to monitoring traffic flow when emergency vehicles pass by.

  9. Raf-1 Physically Interacts with Rb and Regulates Its Function: a Link between Mitogenic Signaling and Cell Cycle Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Sheng; Ghosh, Richik N.; Chellappan, Srikumar P

    1998-01-01

    Cells initiate proliferation in response to growth factor stimulation, but the biochemical mechanisms linking signals received at the cell surface receptors to the cell cycle regulatory molecules are not yet clear. In this study, we show that the signaling molecule Raf-1 can physically interact with Rb and p130 proteins in vitro and in vivo and that this interaction can be detected in mammalian cells without overexpressing any component. The binding of Raf-1 to Rb occurs subsequent to mitogen...

  10. Mig-6 regulates endometrial genes involved in cell cycle and progesterone signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitogen inducible gene 6 (Mig-6) is an important mediator of progesterone (P4) signaling to inhibit estrogen (E2) signaling in the uterus. Ablation of Mig-6 in the murine uterus leads to the development of endometrial hyperplasia and E2-induced endometrial cancer. To identify the molecular pathways regulated by Mig-6, we performed microarray analysis on the uterus of ovariectomized Mig-6f/f and PGRcre/+Mig-6f/f (Mig-6d/d) mice treated with vehicle or P4 for 6 h. The results revealed that 772 transcripts were significantly regulated in the Mig-6d/d uterus treated with vehicle as compared with Mig-6f/f mice. The pathway analysis showed that Mig-6 suppressed the expression of gene-related cell cycle regulation in the absence of ovarian steroid hormone. The epithelium of Mig-6d/d mice showed a significant increase in the number of proliferative cells compared to Mig-6f/f mice. This microarray analysis also revealed that 324 genes are regulated by P4 as well as Mig-6. Cited2, the developmentally important transcription factor, was identified as being regulated by the P4-Mig-6 axis. To determine the role of Cited2 in the uterus, we used the mice with Cited2 that were conditionally ablated in progesterone receptor-positive cells (PGRcre/+Cited2f/f; Cited2d/d). Ablation of Cited2 in the uterus resulted in a significant reduction in the ability of the uterus to undergo a hormonally induced decidual reaction. Identification and analysis of these responsive genes will help define the role of P4 as well as Mig-6 in regulating uterine biology. - Highlights: • We identify Mig-6- and P4-regulated uterine genes by microarray analysis. • Mig-6 suppresses cell cycle progression and epithelial cell proliferation in uterus. • We identify the Mig-6 dependent induced genes by P4. • Cited2 plays an important role for decidualization as a P4 and Mig-6 target gene

  11. Mig-6 regulates endometrial genes involved in cell cycle and progesterone signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Jung-Yoon; Kim, Tae Hoon; Lee, Jae Hee [Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology & Reproductive Biology, Michigan State University, Grand Rapids, MI (United States); Dunwoodie, Sally L. [Developmental and Stem Cell Biology Division, Victor Chang Cardiac Research Institute, Darlinghurst, New South Wales 2010 (Australia); St. Vincent' s Clinical School and the School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University of New South Wales, Kensington, New South Wales 2033 (Australia); Ku, Bon Jeong, E-mail: bonjeong@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Internal Medicine, Chungnam National University School of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Jae-Wook, E-mail: JaeWook.Jeong@hc.msu.edu [Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology & Reproductive Biology, Michigan State University, Grand Rapids, MI (United States); Department of Women' s Health, Spectrum Health System, Grand Rapids, MI (United States)

    2015-07-10

    Mitogen inducible gene 6 (Mig-6) is an important mediator of progesterone (P4) signaling to inhibit estrogen (E2) signaling in the uterus. Ablation of Mig-6 in the murine uterus leads to the development of endometrial hyperplasia and E2-induced endometrial cancer. To identify the molecular pathways regulated by Mig-6, we performed microarray analysis on the uterus of ovariectomized Mig-6{sup f/f} and PGR{sup cre/+}Mig-6{sup f/f} (Mig-6{sup d/d}) mice treated with vehicle or P4 for 6 h. The results revealed that 772 transcripts were significantly regulated in the Mig-6{sup d/d} uterus treated with vehicle as compared with Mig-6{sup f/f} mice. The pathway analysis showed that Mig-6 suppressed the expression of gene-related cell cycle regulation in the absence of ovarian steroid hormone. The epithelium of Mig-6{sup d/d} mice showed a significant increase in the number of proliferative cells compared to Mig-6{sup f/f} mice. This microarray analysis also revealed that 324 genes are regulated by P4 as well as Mig-6. Cited2, the developmentally important transcription factor, was identified as being regulated by the P4-Mig-6 axis. To determine the role of Cited2 in the uterus, we used the mice with Cited2 that were conditionally ablated in progesterone receptor-positive cells (PGR{sup cre/+}Cited2{sup f/f}; Cited2{sup d/d}). Ablation of Cited2 in the uterus resulted in a significant reduction in the ability of the uterus to undergo a hormonally induced decidual reaction. Identification and analysis of these responsive genes will help define the role of P4 as well as Mig-6 in regulating uterine biology. - Highlights: • We identify Mig-6- and P4-regulated uterine genes by microarray analysis. • Mig-6 suppresses cell cycle progression and epithelial cell proliferation in uterus. • We identify the Mig-6 dependent induced genes by P4. • Cited2 plays an important role for decidualization as a P4 and Mig-6 target gene.

  12. TGF-β Signaling Regulates Pancreatic β-Cell Proliferation through Control of Cell Cycle Regulator p27 Expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proliferation of pancreatic β-cells is an important mechanism underlying β-cell mass adaptation to metabolic demands. Increasing β-cell mass by regeneration may ameliorate or correct both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, which both result from inadequate production of insulin by β-cells of the pancreatic islet. Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling is essential for fetal development and growth of pancreatic islets. In this study, we exposed HIT-T15, a clonal pancreatic β-cell line, to TGF-β signaling. We found that inhibition of TGF-β signaling promotes proliferation of the cells significantly, while TGF-β signaling stimulation inhibits proliferation of the cells remarkably. We confirmed that this proliferative regulation by TGF-β signaling is due to the changed expression of the cell cycle regulator p27. Furthermore, we demonstrated that there is no observed effect on transcriptional activity of p27 by TGF-β signaling. Our data show that TGF-β signaling mediates the cell-cycle progression of pancreatic β-cells by regulating the nuclear localization of CDK inhibitor, p27. Inhibition of TGF-β signaling reduces the nuclear accumulation of p27, and as a result this inhibition promotes proliferation of β-cells

  13. Selecting noise source and traffic representations that capture urban traffic noise dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    CAN, Arnaud; Leclercq, Ludovic; Lelong, Joël

    2009-01-01

    Considering traffic dynamics greatly improves noise estimation in urban area. This can be achieved by coupling a dynamic traffic model with both noise emission laws and sound propagation calculation. Determining the relevant noise source and traffic representations to estimate classical noise descriptors (LAeq and statistical descriptors) near traffic signals has been recently studied. This research topic is extended in this paper to more specific descriptors which are able to capture noise d...

  14. Investigating traffic light violations by cyclists in Dublin City Centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Matthew; Caulfield, Brian

    2015-11-01

    This research examines the behaviour of cyclists in Dublin City with specific regard to red light running. A number of specific research questions are raised by this study. These questions address the impact of different infrastructure types on red light running, as well as the behavioural patterns and demographics of offending cyclists. Two data collection methods were used to gather information on cyclists in Dublin City - an observational survey and an online questionnaire. The observational surveys examined cyclist compliance with different traffic signal systems and the impact of on-road and off-road cycle infrastructure. An online questionnaire was used to get direct feedback from cyclists in Dublin City on the reasons (if any) they decide to commit infringement at traffic lights. With the recent growth of cycling in Dublin City (as well as many other international cities) it is vital to accommodate and manage this growing demand by ensuring the safety and road discipline of cyclists. The next few years will be crucial for the continued development of cycling in Dublin, particularly due to the increasing investment by transport planners in cycle infrastructure. It is therefore important to identify now the main factors which influence cyclist's decisions to break red lights in order to guide local traffic authorities in their efforts to reduce such transgressions. PMID:26320736

  15. Indole-3-carbinol, a vegetable phytochemical, inhibits adipogenesis by regulating cell cycle and AMPKα signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyeon-Son; Jeon, Hui-Jeon; Lee, Ok-Hwan; Lee, Boo-Yong

    2014-09-01

    Indole-3-carbinol (I3C) is a phytochemical present mainly in cruciferous vegetables. In this study, we investigated the mechanism by which I3C blocks adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells, and evaluated the anti-adipogenic effect of I3C in zebrafish. Our data showed that I3C mainly inhibits early differentiation of adipocyte through cell cycle arrest. Inhibition of early differentiation was reflected by down-regulation of early adipogenic factors such as CCAAT-enhancer binding proteins β and δ (C/EBPβ and C/EBPδ), followed by down-regulation of late adipogenic factors such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and C/EBPα, and regulation of signaling molecules. This result was supported by a reduction in triglyceride (TG) levels and TG synthetic enzymes. I3C activated AMP-activated protein kinase α (AMPKα) to inhibit fatty acid synthesis. In addition, an anti-adipogenic effect of I3C was found in zebrafish study. Our data suggest that vegetables-derived I3C could reduce lipid accumulation via various molecular mechanisms in cell.

  16. Multi-Agent Look-Ahead Traffic-Adaptive Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Katwijk, R.T.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to create a distributed, multi-agent, approach to traffic control. This PhD thesis' focus is on the control of a network instrumented by traffic signals.A thorough literature study has been performed, reviewing the current state of the art in traffic signal control.

  17. Allometric scaling for predicting human clearance of bisphenol A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collet, Séverine H., E-mail: s.collet@envt.fr; Picard-Hagen, Nicole, E-mail: n.hagen-picard@envt.fr; Lacroix, Marlène Z., E-mail: m.lacroix@envt.fr; Puel, Sylvie, E-mail: s.puel@envt.fr; Viguié, Catherine, E-mail: c.viguie@envt.fr; Bousquet-Melou, Alain, E-mail: a.bousquet-Melou@envt.fr; Toutain, Pierre-Louis, E-mail: pltoutain@wanadoo.fr; Gayrard, Véronique, E-mail: v.gayrard@envt.fr

    2015-05-01

    The investigation of interspecies differences in bisphenol A (BPA) pharmacokinetics (PK) may be useful for translating findings from animal studies to humans, identifying major processes involved in BPA clearance mechanisms, and predicting BPA PK parameters in man. For the first time, a large range of species in terms of body weight, from 0.02 kg (mice) to 495 kg (horses) was used to predict BPA clearance in man by an allometric approach. BPA PK was evaluated after intravenous administration of BPA in horses, sheep, pigs, dogs, rats and mice. A non-compartmental analysis was used to estimate plasma clearance and steady state volume of distribution and predict BPA PK parameters in humans from allometric scaling. In all the species investigated, BPA plasma clearance was high and of the same order of magnitude as their respective hepatic blood flow. By an allometric scaling, the human clearance was estimated to be 1.79 L/min (equivalent to 25.6 mL/kg.min) with a 95% prediction interval of 0.36 to 8.83 L/min. Our results support the hypothesis that there are highly efficient and hepatic mechanisms of BPA clearance in man. - Highlights: • Allometric scaling was used to predict BPA pharmacokinetic parameters in humans. • In all species, BPA plasma clearance approached hepatic blood flow. • Human BPA clearance was estimated to be 1.79 L/min.

  18. Allometric scaling for predicting human clearance of bisphenol A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The investigation of interspecies differences in bisphenol A (BPA) pharmacokinetics (PK) may be useful for translating findings from animal studies to humans, identifying major processes involved in BPA clearance mechanisms, and predicting BPA PK parameters in man. For the first time, a large range of species in terms of body weight, from 0.02 kg (mice) to 495 kg (horses) was used to predict BPA clearance in man by an allometric approach. BPA PK was evaluated after intravenous administration of BPA in horses, sheep, pigs, dogs, rats and mice. A non-compartmental analysis was used to estimate plasma clearance and steady state volume of distribution and predict BPA PK parameters in humans from allometric scaling. In all the species investigated, BPA plasma clearance was high and of the same order of magnitude as their respective hepatic blood flow. By an allometric scaling, the human clearance was estimated to be 1.79 L/min (equivalent to 25.6 mL/kg.min) with a 95% prediction interval of 0.36 to 8.83 L/min. Our results support the hypothesis that there are highly efficient and hepatic mechanisms of BPA clearance in man. - Highlights: • Allometric scaling was used to predict BPA pharmacokinetic parameters in humans. • In all species, BPA plasma clearance approached hepatic blood flow. • Human BPA clearance was estimated to be 1.79 L/min

  19. 采用系统科学方法优化交通信号灯的控制策略%Optimization Control Strategy of Traffic Signal with System Scientific Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张世良

    2012-01-01

    In order to control vehicles easily pass in the intersection,on the basis of the introduction of system structure for traffic signal lamp,run mode and workflow,this paper analyzes different ways in system control which can use different operation patterns at different times to adaptively control vehicle pass time.Traffic induction strategies which can use different open moment according to the space between the two intersections is used to reduce waiting time for vehicle,improve pass efficiency and ensure efficient circulation in the whole traffic system,and other traffic information,such as vehicle speed,type and traffic by vehicle labels can provide basic data of traffic forecast for the road long-term planning and is signality to direct intelligent traffic control.%为了控制车辆在交叉路口顺畅通行,本文在介绍交通信号灯系统结构、运行模式及工作流程的基础上,分析了系统控制中不同策略的方法,使用在不同的时段采用不同的路口控制模式,自适应地控制车辆通行时间,并根据路口间距采用不同的开启时刻以及使用交通诱导策略,减少车辆等待时间,提高车辆通行效率,保证整个交通系统的高效流通,而且通过车载标签及时掌握的车速、车型和交通量等交通信息可以为该路段远期规划的交通预测提供基础数据,对智能交通控制具有很大的指导意义。

  20. Initial Investigations of Controller Tools and Procedures for Schedule-Based Arrival Operations with Mixed Flight-Deck Interval Management Equipage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callantine, Todd J.; Cabrall, Christopher; Kupfer, Michael; Omar, Faisal G.; Prevot, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    NASA?s Air Traffic Management Demonstration-1 (ATD-1) is a multi-year effort to demonstrate high-throughput, fuel-efficient arrivals at a major U.S. airport using NASA-developed scheduling automation, controller decision-support tools, and ADS-B-enabled Flight-Deck Interval Management (FIM) avionics. First-year accomplishments include the development of a concept of operations for managing scheduled arrivals flying Optimized Profile Descents with equipped aircraft conducting FIM operations, and the integration of laboratory prototypes of the core ATD-1 technologies. Following each integration phase, a human-in-the-loop simulation was conducted to evaluate and refine controller tools, procedures, and clearance phraseology. From a ground-side perspective, the results indicate the concept is viable and the operations are safe and acceptable. Additional training is required for smooth operations that yield notable benefits, particularly in the areas of FIM operations and clearance phraseology.

  1. Timbre-induced pitch shift from the perspective of Signal Detection Theory: the impact of musical expertise, silence interval and pitch region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan eVurma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paradigm of Signal Detection Theory was used to analyze the ability of professional pianists (N = 16 and string players (N = 15 to discriminate small F0 differences between consecutive musical tones, presented in pairs, with identical and with different (bright and dull timbres. The sensitivity (d’ and response bias (c were heavily dependent on the timbral arrangement of the pairs of tones (the comparable tones, which can be interpreted as the influence of timbre-induced pitch shift on F0 discrimination. The participants were somewhat biased to ‘miss’ signals when comparable tones had identical timbres and to make ‘false alarms’ when the tones had different timbres. The d’ was lowest when the tones with a lower F0 in those stimulus-pairs containing tones with different timbres had a brighter timber, and highest when both tones had bright timbre. On average, the string players had a somewhat higher d’ and their perception was slightly less influenced by timbre-induced pitch shift when compared to the pianists. Nevertheless, the dependence of d’ and c on the timbral arrangement of the tones was registered in the case of all the participants at all the investigated pitch regions around D#3, D4 and C#5. Furthermore, the presence of a silence of 3.5 seconds – a silence interval – between the tones to be compared had an impact on both d’ and c values as well as on the degree of vulnerability to timbre-induced pitch shift.

  2. LIFE CYCLE DESIGN FRAMEWORK AND DEMONSTRATION PROJECTS - PROFILES OF AT&T AND ALLIED SIGNAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document offers guidance and practical experience for integrating environmental considerations into product system development. Life cycle design seeks to minimize the environmental burden associated with a product's life cycle from raw materials acquisition through manufact...

  3. PBO H2O: Monitoring the Terrestrial Water Cycle with reflected GPS signals recorded by the Plate Boundary Observatory Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, E. E.; Fairfax, E. J.; Chew, C. C.; Larson, K. M.

    2015-12-01

    Data from NSF's EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), and similar GPS networks worldwide, can be used to monitor the terrestrial water cycle. GPS satellites transmit L-band microwave signals, which are strongly influenced by water at the surface of the Earth. GPS signals take two different paths: (1) the "direct" signal travels from the satellite to the antenna; (2) the "reflected" signal interacts with the Earth's surface before travelling to the antenna. The direct signal is used by geophysicists to measure the position of the antenna. By analyzing these GPS data over multiple years, the motion of the site can be estimated. The effects of reflected signals are generally ignored by geophysicists because they are small. This is not happenstance, as significant effort has been made to design and deploy a GPS antenna that suppresses ground reflections. Our group has developed a remote sensing technique to retrieve terrestrial water cycle variables from GPS data. We extract the water cycle products from signal strength data that measures the interference between the direct and reflected GPS signals. The sensing footprint is intermediate in scale between in situ observations and most remote sensing measurements. Snow depth, snow water equivalent (SWE), near surface soil moisture, and an index of vegetation water content are currently estimated from nearly 500 PBO sites. These PBO H2O products are updated daily and are available online (http://xenon.colorado.edu/portal/index.php). Validation studies show that retrieved products are of sufficient quality to be used in a variety of applications. The root mean square error (RMSE) of GPS-based SWE is 2 cm, based on a comparison to snow survey data at nearly 20 GPS sites. The RMSE of near surface volumetric soil moisture is < 0.04 cm3 cm-3, sufficient for validation of SMAP soil moisture and similar products.

  4. N-glycosylation at Asn residues 554 and 566 of E-cadherin affects cell cycle progression through extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase signaling pathway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongbo Zhao; Xiliang Zha; Lidong Sun; Liying Wang; Zhibin Xu; Feng Zhou; Jianmin Su; Jiawei Jin; Yong Yang; Yali Hu

    2008-01-01

    E-cadherin, which has a widely acknowledged role in mediating calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion between epithelial cells, also functions as a tumor suppressor. The ectodomain of human E-cadherin contains four potential N-glycosylation sites at Asn residues 554, 566, 618, and 633.We investigated the role of E-cadherin N-glycosylation in cell cycle progression by site-directed mutagenesis. We showed previously that all four potential N-glycosylation sites of E-cadherin were N-glycosylated in human breast carcinoma MDA-MB-435 cells. Removal of N-glycan at Asn633 dramatically affected E-cadherin stability. In this study we showed that E-cadherin mutant missing N-glycans at Asn554, Asn566 and Asn618 failed to induce cell cycle arrest in G1 phase and to suppress cell proliferation in comparison with wild-type E-cadherin. Moreover, N-glycans at Asn554 and Asn566, but not at Asn618, seemed to be indispensable for E-cadherin-mediated suppression of cell cycle progression.Removal of N-glycans at either Asn554 or Asn566 of E-cadherin was accompanied with the activation of the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase signaling pathway. After treatment with PD98059, an inhibitor of the extraceilular signal-regulated protein kinase signaling pathway, wild-type E-cadherin transfected MDA-MB-435 and E-cadherin N-glycosylation-deficient mutant transfected MDA-MB-435 cells had equivalent numbers of cells in G1 phase. These findings implied that N-glycosylation might be crucial for E-cadherin-mediated suppression of cell cycle progression.

  5. The fully actuated traffic control problem solved by global optimization and complementarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Isabel M.; de Lurdes de Oliveira Simões, Maria

    2016-02-01

    Global optimization and complementarity are used to determine the signal timing for fully actuated traffic control, regarding effective green and red times on each cycle. The average values of these parameters can be used to estimate the control delay of vehicles. In this article, a two-phase queuing system for a signalized intersection is outlined, based on the principle of minimization of the total waiting time for the vehicles. The underlying model results in a linear program with linear complementarity constraints, solved by a sequential complementarity algorithm. Departure rates of vehicles during green and yellow periods were treated as deterministic, while arrival rates of vehicles were assumed to follow a Poisson distribution. Several traffic scenarios were created and solved. The numerical results reveal that it is possible to use global optimization and complementarity over a reasonable number of cycles and determine with efficiency effective green and red times for a signalized intersection.

  6. Wavelet Neural Network Based Traffic Prediction for Next Generation Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Qigang; Li Qunzhan; He Zhengyou

    2005-01-01

    By using netflow traffic collecting technology, some traffic data for analysis are collected from a next generation network (NGN) operator. To build a wavelet basis neural network (NN), the Sigmoid function is replaced with the wavelet in NN. Then the wavelet multiresolution analysis method is used to decompose the traffic signal, and the decomposed component sequences are employed to train the NN. By using the methods, an NGN traffic prediction model is built to predict one day's traffic. The experimental results show that the traffic prediction method of wavelet NN is more accurate than that without using wavelet in the NGN traffic forecasting.

  7. Mucociliary clearance in chronic sinusitis

    OpenAIRE

    Birdi, Surinder Mohan; Singh, Sunder; Singh, Ajit

    1998-01-01

    Mucociliary clearance is an important defence mechanism of upper and lower respiratory tracts. Any disturbance in the mechanism leads to stagnation of secretions and secondary infection with prolonged mucociliary clearance time. The present study was undertaken to establish normal mucociliary clearance time in our region and to evaluate its diagnostic and prognostic potential in chronic sinusitis of variable duration with and without obstructive diseases.

  8. 车路协同下基于交通密度的交叉口交通信号控制方法与仿真%Traffic Signal Control Method and Simulation Based on Traffic Density in Cooperative Vehicle Infrastructure System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林晓辉

    2014-01-01

    车路协同环境下路侧单元可实时获取车辆的位置、速度等信息,为改进交通信号控制提供了机遇和条件。本文借助感应控制方法的思路,以单个交叉口为研究对象,提出车路协同下基于交通密度的交通信号控制方法,该算法将依据交叉口进口道的交通密度,实时选择车流放行方向,并依据排队消散时间确定进口放行绿灯时间。为验证算法的有效性,以虎门大道---连升路交叉口为例,利用Vissim交通仿真软件,对高峰、平峰、低峰等3个交通需求分别进行仿真建模,并分别分析同一交通需求下,本文算法与感应控制方式、定时控制方式的平均行程时间、平均延误时间、平均停车次数及平均排队长度等各项交通信号控制指标优劣。仿真结果表明:在不同交通需求下,与感应控制方式、定时控制方式相比,本文算法各项交通信号控制指标均有明显的改善。%In a cooperative vehicle infrastructure system ( CVIS) , the road site unit can get the information about the position and speed of vehicles , which provides opportunities and conditions for improving traffic signal control .A single intersection is taken as the research object in this paper .A traffic signal control method is proposed based on traffic density in the CVIS by means of induction control method .This algo-rithm can choose the direction of flow based on the biggest traffic density of the import lanes , and deter-mine entrance green time by the queue dissipation time .In order to verify the effectiveness of the algo-rithm, Humen-Liansheng intersection is taken as an example .Simulation models for the peak , flat peak, and low peak are built respectively by using the Vissim traffic simulation software .Analysis is also conduc-ted to evaluate the traffic signal control indexes for the proposed algorithm , the induction control method , and the fix control mode under the same

  9. Coordinated control of Notch/Delta signalling and cell cycle progression drives lateral inhibition-mediated tissue patterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjivasiliou, Zena; Bonin, Hope; He, Li; Perrimon, Norbert; Charras, Guillaume; Baum, Buzz

    2016-01-01

    Coordinating cell differentiation with cell growth and division is crucial for the successful development, homeostasis and regeneration of multicellular tissues. Here, we use bristle patterning in the fly notum as a model system to explore the regulatory and functional coupling of cell cycle progression and cell fate decision-making. The pattern of bristles and intervening epithelial cells (ECs) becomes established through Notch-mediated lateral inhibition during G2 phase of the cell cycle, as neighbouring cells physically interact with each other via lateral contacts and/or basal protrusions. Since Notch signalling controls cell division timing downstream of Cdc25, ECs in lateral contact with a Delta-expressing cell experience higher levels of Notch signalling and divide first, followed by more distant neighbours, and lastly Delta-expressing cells. Conversely, mitotic entry and cell division makes ECs refractory to lateral inhibition signalling, fixing their fate. Using a combination of experiments and computational modelling, we show that this reciprocal relationship between Notch signalling and cell cycle progression acts like a developmental clock, providing a delimited window of time during which cells decide their fate, ensuring efficient and orderly bristle patterning. PMID:27226324

  10. Coordinated control of Notch/Delta signalling and cell cycle progression drives lateral inhibition-mediated tissue patterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Ginger L; Hadjivasiliou, Zena; Bonin, Hope; He, Li; Perrimon, Norbert; Charras, Guillaume; Baum, Buzz

    2016-07-01

    Coordinating cell differentiation with cell growth and division is crucial for the successful development, homeostasis and regeneration of multicellular tissues. Here, we use bristle patterning in the fly notum as a model system to explore the regulatory and functional coupling of cell cycle progression and cell fate decision-making. The pattern of bristles and intervening epithelial cells (ECs) becomes established through Notch-mediated lateral inhibition during G2 phase of the cell cycle, as neighbouring cells physically interact with each other via lateral contacts and/or basal protrusions. Since Notch signalling controls cell division timing downstream of Cdc25, ECs in lateral contact with a Delta-expressing cell experience higher levels of Notch signalling and divide first, followed by more distant neighbours, and lastly Delta-expressing cells. Conversely, mitotic entry and cell division makes ECs refractory to lateral inhibition signalling, fixing their fate. Using a combination of experiments and computational modelling, we show that this reciprocal relationship between Notch signalling and cell cycle progression acts like a developmental clock, providing a delimited window of time during which cells decide their fate, ensuring efficient and orderly bristle patterning. PMID:27226324

  11. Interbirth intervals

    OpenAIRE

    Haig, David

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives: Interbirth intervals (IBIs) mediate a trade-off between child number and child survival. Life history theory predicts that the evolutionarily optimal IBI differs for different individuals whose fitness is affected by how closely a mother spaces her children. The objective of the article is to clarify these conflicts and explore their implications for public health. Methodology: Simple models of inclusive fitness and kin conflict address the evolution of human birth-...

  12. A Comparison of Tram Priority at Signalized Intersections

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Lele

    2013-01-01

    We study tram priority at signalized intersections using a stochastic cellular automaton model for multimodal traffic flow. We simulate realistic traffic signal systems, which include signal linking and adaptive cycle lengths and split plans, with different levels of tram priority. We find that tram priority can improve service performance in terms of both average travel time and travel time variability. We consider two main types of tram priority, which we refer to as full and partial priority. Full tram priority is able to guarantee service quality even when traffic is saturated, however, it results in significant costs to other road users. Partial tram priority significantly reduces tram delays while having limited impact on other traffic, and therefore achieves a better result in terms of the overall network performance. We also study variations in which the tram priority is only enforced when trams are running behind schedule, and we find that those variations retain almost all of the benefit for tram op...

  13. 狭缝调相式分置斯特林制冷机理论模型与模拟%Theoretical modelling and simulation method of pneumatically-driven split-Stirling-cycle cryocooler with clearance-phase-adjustor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张存泉; 吴亦农

    2008-01-01

    自从分置式斯特林制冷机出现以来,工程设计对可靠的整机理论模型有着迫切需求.给出狭缝调相式气动分置式斯特林制冷机热动力学模型及控制方程,直线压缩机采用了绝热模型,压缩活塞的运动规律采用了试验修正,模型中考虑了活塞驱动电机运动特征和回热不完全、轴向导热、穿梭运动、气体泵热、辐射等主要冷损,排出器运动采用单自由度强迫运动模型,并运用数值计算方法模拟整机性能.该模型可用来对整机性能进行预测并帮助设计者深入理解整机物理过程.%Along with the advances of Stirling cryocoolers,there is a pressing demand for a theoretical model which can be used for reliable and practical design.In this paper,a theoretical model of a pneumatically-driven split-Stirling-cycle cryocooler with clearance-phase-adjustor,which described in Part 1,has been established to simulate its dynamic performances.Adiabatic calculation of the linear compressor is adopted and an experimentally rectified displacement of compression piston is introduced in the theoretical model.The working characteristics of compressor motor and the principal losses of cooling,including regenerator inefficiency loss,solid conduction loss,shuttle loss,pump loss and radiation loss,are taken into account.The displacer motion is modelled as a single-degree-of-freedom(SDOF)forced system.A set of goveming equations Call be solved by a numerical method to simulate the cooler's performances.The simulation model is useful for understanding the physical processes occurring in the cooler,and also for predicting the cooler'S performances.

  14. Cooperation as a signal of genetic or phenotypic quality in female mate choice? Evidence from preferences across the menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrelly, Daniel

    2011-08-01

    Previous research highlighting the role sexual selection may play in the evolution of human cooperation has yet to distinguish what qualities such behaviours actually signal. The aim here was to examine whether female preferences for male cooperative behaviours are because they signal genetic or indirect phenotypic quality. This was possible by taking into account female participants' stage of menstrual cycle, as much research has shown that females at the most fertile stage show greater preferences specifically for signals of genetic quality than any other stage, particularly for short-term relationships. Therefore, different examples of cooperation (personality, costly signals, heroism) and the mate preferences for altruistic traits self-report scale were used across a series of four experiments to examine females' attitudes towards cooperation in potential mates for different relationship lengths at different stages of the menstrual cycle. The results here consistently show that female fertility had no effect on perceptions of cooperative behaviour, and that such traits were considered more important for long-term relationships. Therefore, this provides strong evidence that cooperative behaviour is important in mate choice as predominantly a signal of phenotypic rather than genetic quality.

  15. Enhancing energy expenditure and enjoyment of exercise during pregnancy through the addition of brief higher intensity intervals to traditional continuous moderate intensity cycling

    OpenAIRE

    Ong, Ming Jing; Wallman, Karen E.; Fournier, Paul A.; Newnham, John P; Guelfi, Kym J

    2016-01-01

    Background Current guidelines recommend that pregnant women without contraindications should engage in 30 min or more of moderate intensity exercise on most days of the week, however, many women fail to achieve this goal. This study examined the effect of adding brief higher intensity intervals to traditional continuous moderate intensity exercise on energy expenditure and the enjoyment of exercise in late pregnancy. This is important to determine given that any additional energy expenditure ...

  16. Site clearance working group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The Gulf of Mexico and Louisiana continue to be areas with a high level of facility removal, and the pace of removal is projected to increase. Regulations were promulgated for the Gulf of Mexico and Louisiana requiring that abandoned sites be cleared of debris that could interfere with fishing and shrimping activities. The site clearance regulations also required verification that the sites were clear. Additionally, government programs were established to compensate fishermen for losses associated with snagging their equipment on oil and gas related objects that remained on the water bottoms in areas other than active producing sites and sites that had been verified as clear of obstructions and snags. The oil and gas industry funds the compensation programs. This paper reviews the regulations and evolving operating practices in the Gulf of Mexico and Louisiana where site clearance and fisherman`s gear compensation regulations have been in place for a number of years. Although regulations and guidelines may be in place elsewhere in the world, this paper focuses on the Gulf of Mexico and Louisiana. Workshop participants are encouraged to bring up international issues during the course of the workshop. Additionally, this paper raises questions and focuses on issues that are of concern to the various Gulf of Mexico and Louisiana water surface and water bottom stakeholders. This paper does not have answers to the questions or issues. During the workshop participants will debate the questions and issues in an attempt to develop consensus opinions and/or make suggestions that can be provided to the appropriate organizations, both private and government, for possible future research or policy adjustments. Site clearance and facility removal are different activities. Facility removal deals with removal of the structures used to produce oil and gas including platforms, wells, casing, piles, pipelines, well protection structures, etc.

  17. Spectral representation of the annual cycle in the climate change signal

    OpenAIRE

    T. Bosshard; S. Kotlarski; Ewen, T.; Schär, C.

    2011-01-01

    The annual cycle of temperature and precipitation changes as projected by climate models is of fundamental interest in climate impact studies. Its estimation, however, is impaired by natural variability. Using a simple form of the delta change method, we show that on regional scales relevant for hydrological impact models, the projected changes in the annual cycle are prone to sampling artefacts. For precipitation at station locations, these artefacts may have amplitudes that are comparable t...

  18. Synchronization of Traffic Light Systems for Maximum Efficiency along Jalan Bukit Gambier, Penang, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Rafidi M.A.; Abdul Hamid A.H.

    2014-01-01

    The synchronization of traffic light systems is one of the best solutions in order to avoid problematic traffic jams. Traffic timing is a major concern when it comes to traffic management. One of the common causes of traffic jams is because of nonsynchronized traffic light systems. Once a light turns green, traffic begins to move, but by the time the moving traffic reaches the next light, the signal is still red. This will disrupt the continuity of the traffic flow, especially for large main ...

  19. Nucleotide-mediated airway clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Andreas; Clunes, Lucy A; Salathe, Mathias; Verdugo, Pedro; Dietl, Paul; Davis, C William; Tarran, Robert

    2011-01-01

    A thin layer of airway surface liquid (ASL) lines the entire surface of the lung and is the first point of contact between the lung and the environment. Surfactants contained within this layer are secreted in the alveolar region and are required to maintain a low surface tension and to prevent alveolar collapse. Mucins are secreted into the ASL throughout the respiratory tract and serve to intercept inhaled pathogens, allergens and toxins. Their removal by mucociliary clearance (MCC) is facilitated by cilia beating and hydration of the ASL by active ion transport. Throughout the lung, secretion, ion transport and cilia beating are under purinergic control. Pulmonary epithelia release ATP into the ASL which acts in an autocrine fashion on P2Y(2) (ATP) receptors. The enzymatic network describes in Chap. 2 then mounts a secondary wave of signaling by surface conversion of ATP into adenosine (ADO), which induces A(2B) (ADO) receptor-mediated responses. This chapter offers a comprehensive description of MCC and the extensive ramifications of the purinergic signaling network on pulmonary surfaces. PMID:21560046

  20. 城市灯控平面交叉口慢行交通时空违章特征研究%Slow Traffic Peccancy Character for Urban Signal Intersection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王庆; 陈学武; 周娇; 陈琳英

    2012-01-01

    在南京市内4个典型交叉口调查数据的基础上,通过对4 000多个行人样本数据和相应交叉口不同时间段的自行车违章数据的统计分析,得出了慢行交通的时空违章特征.行人个体违章在时空违章上有不同的表现形式,在不同交叉口存在很大的差异性;行人的违章行为与性别无关,与年龄有关,少年的违章比例最低.由于交叉口断面形式、信号配时、运行秩序、交通管制、周边环境等方面的因素,自行车的行驶方向平均违章率和违章性质平均违章率在不同交叉口存在很大的差异性.针对慢行交通违章者安全意识淡薄且违章成本较低、交叉口的设计不合理等原因,提出相应的预防和纠正违章的建议和措施.%It has been drawn out from statistical analysis on 4000 sample data of the peccancy of passerby at different intersection from the four model intersection in Nanjing that there is different behave forms in time and space for passby peccancy and great difference at each crossings. It relates to passerby age, but not to sex, e. G. The peccancy rate of teen-age is the lowest. There is great difference in peccancy of run way and behavior property by analysis on differ time sect bicycle date, which is related to some factors, such as road cross-section, traffic control, run order and surrounding environment. According to the main reason of slow traffic peccancy behavior, I. E. The actor's dim safety consciousness, low cost of peccany, srrationali intersecton design, corresponding suggestions and measures to prevent and correct traffic peccancy are proposed. The behavior character of slow traffic peccancy on the city s signal intersection would be a good reference for solving the urban signal intersection mixed traffic problems.

  1. Traffic Monitoring and Control Using RFID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Thakur

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Traffic congestion and tidal flow management were recognized as major problems in modern urban areas, which have caused much frustration and loss of man hours. The operation of standard traffic lights which are currently deployed in many junctions, are based on predetermined timing schemes, which are fixed during the installation and remain until further resetting. The timing is no more than a default setup to control what may be considered as normal traffic. Although every road junction by necessity requires different traffic light timing setup, many existing systems operate with a default sequence. To design an intelligent and efficient traffic control system, a number of parameters that represent the status of the road conditions must be identified and taken into consideration. Approach: In order to solve the problem an intelligent RFID traffic control has been developed. This project is based on monitoring the traffic density at the signal using RFID Reader. RFID tags which is placed (instead of number plate at each vehicle will serve as the unique number of vehicle .Reader will count the number of tags at the signal and take decision of increasing or decreasing the signal time .This reader is also use to find the violation(VIN of violator of the signal. Each passive tag will have certain number of bytes information will be different for different vehicles. Whenever any tag will approach any signal, reader will take that bytes of information and simultaneously will also increment the number of vehicles for making decision to change the signal timing. Each tag of data will be stored in main memory (database.This unique data will also help in determining the violator of the signal .Thus it will save human efforts and resources to a greater extent and reduce waiting of the people at the signal. After implementation of this project, now all people waiting at the signal will get proper time (green light according to the traffic density

  2. Intelligent Traffic Signal Constrol System Based on Network Technology%基于网络的智能交通信号控制系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范振平; 李强

    2011-01-01

    针对城市交通控制系统的缺陷和不足,将基于网络的控制方法引入道路交通控制系统,并建立整合模糊控制和神经网络的模糊神经网络的控制模型,实现了控制系统的智能化、低成本,为现有的道路交通控制提供了一种新的解决思路.%In view of the deficiency and inadequacy of existing urban traffic control systems, the paper introduces the network-based control technology and establishes a fuzzy neural network control model which realizes intelligent control and cost reduction and provides a new perspective for road traffic regulation and control.

  3. 36 CFR 504.13 - Vehicular and pedestrian traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... traffic. 504.13 Section 504.13 Parks, Forests, and Public Property SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION RULES AND REGULATIONS GOVERNING SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 504.13 Vehicular and pedestrian traffic... times and shall comply with the signals and directions of the guards and all posted traffic signs....

  4. 31 CFR 91.12 - Vehicular and pedestrian traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicular and pedestrian traffic. 91... traffic. (a) Drivers of all vehicles in or on the property shall drive in a careful and safe manner at all times and shall comply with the signals and directions of guards and all posted traffic signs. (b)...

  5. 4 CFR 25.13 - Vehicular and pedestrian traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vehicular and pedestrian traffic. 25.13 Section 25.13... OFFICE BUILDING AND ON ITS GROUNDS § 25.13 Vehicular and pedestrian traffic. (a) Drivers of all vehicles... at all times and shall comply with all posted traffic signs and with the signals and directions...

  6. A new solar signal: Average maximum sunspot magnetic fields independent of activity cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Livingston, William

    2016-01-01

    Over the past five years, 2010-2015, we have observed, in the near infrared (IR), the maximum magnetic field strengths for 4145 sunspot umbrae. Herein we distinguish field strengths from field flux. (Most solar magnetographs measure flux). Maximum field strength in umbrae is co-spatial with the position of umbral minimum brightness (Norton and Gilman, 2004). We measure field strength by the Zeeman splitting of the Fe 15648.5 A spectral line. We show that in the IR no cycle dependence on average maximum field strength (2050 G) has been found +/- 20 Gauss. A similar analysis of 17,450 spots observed by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory reveal the same cycle independence +/- 0.18 G., or a variance of 0.01%. This is found not to change over the ongoing 2010-2015 minimum to maximum cycle. Conclude the average maximum umbral fields on the Sun are constant with time.

  7. Two-component signal transduction pathways regulating growth and cell cycle progression in a bacterium: a system-level analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey M Skerker

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Two-component signal transduction systems, comprised of histidine kinases and their response regulator substrates, are the predominant means by which bacteria sense and respond to extracellular signals. These systems allow cells to adapt to prevailing conditions by modifying cellular physiology, including initiating programs of gene expression, catalyzing reactions, or modifying protein-protein interactions. These signaling pathways have also been demonstrated to play a role in coordinating bacterial cell cycle progression and development. Here we report a system-level investigation of two-component pathways in the model organism Caulobacter crescentus. First, by a comprehensive deletion analysis we show that at least 39 of the 106 two-component genes are required for cell cycle progression, growth, or morphogenesis. These include nine genes essential for growth or viability of the organism. We then use a systematic biochemical approach, called phosphotransfer profiling, to map the connectivity of histidine kinases and response regulators. Combining these genetic and biochemical approaches, we identify a new, highly conserved essential signaling pathway from the histidine kinase CenK to the response regulator CenR, which plays a critical role in controlling cell envelope biogenesis and structure. Depletion of either cenK or cenR leads to an unusual, severe blebbing of cell envelope material, whereas constitutive activation of the pathway compromises cell envelope integrity, resulting in cell lysis and death. We propose that the CenK-CenR pathway may be a suitable target for new antibiotic development, given previous successes in targeting the bacterial cell wall. Finally, the ability of our in vitro phosphotransfer profiling method to identify signaling pathways that operate in vivo takes advantage of an observation that histidine kinases are endowed with a global kinetic preference for their cognate response regulators. We propose that this

  8. Using the moving synchronous average to analyze fuzzy cyclostationary signals

    OpenAIRE

    Leclere, Q.; Hamzaoui, Nacer

    2014-01-01

    International audience Cyclostationarity is a property of vibration and acoustic signals recorded on rotating machines operating at constant speed. It states that the statistic properties of signals are periodic: the random process defined by the signal observed at a given position in the cycle is stationary, the cycle being defined as the angle interval between two identical configurations of the mechanical system. Cyclostationarity is not fully satisfied if the signals are acquired in the ti...

  9. Characteristics of vehicular traffic flow at a roundabout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahim Fouladvand, M.; Sadjadi, Zeinab; Reza Shaebani, M.

    2004-10-01

    We construct a stochastic cellular automata model for the description of vehicular traffic at a roundabout designed at the intersection of two perpendicular streets. The vehicular traffic is controlled by a self-organized scheme in which traffic lights are absent. This controlling method incorporates a yield-at-entry strategy for the approaching vehicles to the circulating traffic flow in the roundabout. Vehicular dynamics is simulated and the delay experienced by the traffic at each individual street is evaluated. We discuss the impact of the geometrical properties of the roundabout on the total delay. We compare our results with traffic-light signalization schemes, and obtain the critical traffic volume over which the intersection is optimally controlled through traffic-light signalization schemes.

  10. Characterization of mortality rates resulting from traffic accidents involving cycles Caracterización de la mortalidad por accidentes del tránsito con participación de ciclos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavis Ortis Sagasta

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traffic accidents are a highly complex phenomenon due to the variety of factors involved in their occurrence. They have become more relevant as the fight against illnesses becomes more effective. Objective: To characterize the mortality rates resulting from traffic accidents involving cycles. Methods: Descriptive study on case series conducted at the General University Hospital "Dr. Gustavo Lima Aldereguía " in Cienfuegos on all deaths related to traffic accidents involving cycles from January 1st to December 31st , 2009. Variables that were analyzed: age, sex, time of the accident, predominantly affected anatomical region, direct cause of death and ingestion of alcohol. Results: There were 26 deaths (6.4 per 100 000 inhabitants, mainly in the group from 15 to 29 years old, predominantly males with 23 cases (88.4%.53, 8% of them were workers and 23% were students. There was a predominance of fatalities in the hours between 6:00 pm and 11:59 pm. The most affected anatomic region was the head (61.5%, 46, 2 % of deaths had more than 50 mg of alcohol in blood and the predominant direct cause of death was the injuries of higher nervous centers. Conclusions: Traffic accidents involving cycles are more frequent in young males . They are related to the ingestion of alcohol and usually affect the head region.Introducción: los accidentes constituyen un fenómeno sumamente complejo debido a los numerosos y variados factores que intervienen en su producción. Estos se hacen más relevantes en la medida que se hace más eficaz la lucha contra las enfermedades. Objetivo: caracterizar la mortalidad por accidentes de tránsito con participación de ciclos. Métodos: estudio descriptivo de serie de casos, realizado en el Hospital General Universitario “Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima” de Cienfuegos sobre todos los

  11. OPTIMIZATION OF URBAN MULTI-INTERSECTION TRAFFIC FLOW VIA Q-LEARNING

    OpenAIRE

    Yit Kwong Chin; Heng Jin Tham; N.S.V. Kameswara Rao; Nurmin Bolong; Kenneth Tze Kin Teo

    2013-01-01

    Congestions of the traffic flow within the urban traffic network have been a challenging task for all the urban developers. Many approaches have been introduced into the current system to solve the traffic congestion problems. Reconfiguration of the traffic signal timing plan has been carried out through implementation of different techniques. However, dynamic characteristics of the traffic flow increase the difficulties towards the ultimate solutions. Thus, traffic congestions still remain a...

  12. A Sarsa(λ)-Based Control Model for Real-Time Traffic Light Coordination

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoke Zhou; Fei Zhu; Quan Liu; Yuchen Fu; Wei Huang

    2014-01-01

    Traffic problems often occur due to the traffic demands by the outnumbered vehicles on road. Maximizing traffic flow and minimizing the average waiting time are the goals of intelligent traffic control. Each junction wants to get larger traffic flow. During the course, junctions form a policy of coordination as well as constraints for adjacent junctions to maximize their own interests. A good traffic signal timing policy is helpful to solve the problem. However, as there are so many factors t...

  13. Glial K(+) Clearance and Cell Swelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macaulay, Nanna; Zeuthen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    An important feature of neuronal signalling is the increased concentration of K(+) in the extracellular space. The K(+) concentration is restored to its original basal level primarily by uptake into nearby glial cells. The molecular mechanisms by which K(+) is transferred from the extracellular...... space into the glial cell are debated. Although spatial buffer currents may occur, their quantitative contribution to K(+) clearance is uncertain. The concept of spatial buffering of K(+) precludes intracellular K(+) accumulation and is therefore (i) difficult to reconcile with the K(+) accumulation...... repeatedly observed in glial cells during K(+) clearance and (ii) incompatible with K(+)-dependent glial cell swelling. K(+) uptake into non-voltage clamped cultured glial cells is carried out by the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and the Na(+)/K(+)/Cl(-) cotransporter in combination. In brain slices and intact optic...

  14. Jamitons: Phantom Traffic Jams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowszun, Jorj

    2013-01-01

    Traffic on motorways can slow down for no apparent reason. Sudden changes in speed by one or two drivers can create a chain reaction that causes a traffic jam for the vehicles that are following. This kind of phantom traffic jam is called a "jamiton" and the article discusses some of the ways in which traffic engineers produce…

  15. The impact of traffic volume, composition, and road geometry on personal air pollution exposures among cyclists in Montreal, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzopoulou, Marianne; Weichenthal, Scott; Dugum, Hussam; Pickett, Graeme; Miranda-Moreno, Luis; Kulka, Ryan; Andersen, Ross; Goldberg, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Cyclists may experience increased exposure to traffic-related air pollution owing to increased minute ventilation and close proximity to vehicle emissions. The aims of this study were to characterize personal exposures to air pollution among urban cyclists and to identify potential determinants of exposure including the type of cycling lane (separated vs on-road), traffic counts, and meteorological factors. In total, personal air pollution exposure data were collected over 64 cycling routes during morning and evening commutes in Montreal, Canada, over 32 days during the summer of 2011. Measured pollutants included ultrafine particles (UFPs), fine particles (PM(2.5)), black carbon (BC), and carbon monoxide (CO). Counts of diesel vehicles were important predictors of personal exposures to BC, with each 10 vehicle/h increase associated with a 15.0% (95% confidence interval (CI): 5.7%, 24.0%) increase in exposure. Use of separated cycling lanes had less impact on personal exposures with a 12% (95% CI: -43%, 14%) decrease observed for BC and smaller decreases observed for UFPs (mean: -1.3%, 95% CI: -20%, 17%) and CO (mean: -5.6%, 95% CI: -17%, 4%) after adjusting for meteorological factors and traffic counts. On average, PM(2.5) exposure increased 7.8% (95% CI: -17%, 35%) with separate cycling lane use, but this estimate was imprecise and not statistically significant. In general, our findings suggest that diesel vehicle traffic is an important contributor to personal BC exposures and that separate cycling lanes may have a modest impact on personal exposure to some air pollutants. Further evaluation is required, however, as the impact of separate cycling lanes and/or traffic counts on personal exposures may vary between regions.

  16. Traffic Route Modelling and Assignment with Intelligent Transport System

    OpenAIRE

    Kunicina Nadezhda; Galkina Alina; Zabasta Anatolijs; Patlins Antons; Kondratjevs Kaspars

    2014-01-01

    The development of signal transmitting environment for multimodal traffic control will enhance the integration of emergency and specialized transport routing tools in usual traffic control paradigms - it is one of the opportunities offered by modern intelligent traffic control systems. The improvement of effective electric power use in public transport system is an advantage of Intelligent Transport System (ITS). The research is connected with the improvement of on-line traffic control and ad...

  17. Study on Driver Visual Physiological Characteristics in Urban Traffic

    OpenAIRE

    Fengyuan Wang; Min Li; Jieyu Fan; Fuquan Pan

    2014-01-01

    In the integrated traffic environment, human factor is always a main factor of the three elementary factors, besides the vehicle and road factor. The driver physiological and psychological characteristics have an important impact especially on traffic safety in urban road traffic conditions . Some typical traffic scenes in condition of urban road, such as light signal control at intersection, overtaking, and passing, are selected for condition analysis. An eye movement apparatus was used to o...

  18. Data Fusion in Road Traffic Engineering: An overview

    OpenAIRE

    EL-FAOUZI, NE

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present an analysis of recent applications of data fusion (DF) in road traffic engineering. First, we report the most significant applications of data fusion techniques in road traffic engineering area: traffic monitoring, signal control, Automatic Incident Detection, traffic forecasting, Intelligent Transportation Systems ..., as well as the extent and direction of DF interest in the field. Second, a classification including applications, fusion goalsand mat...

  19. Influence of Link Flow and Traffic Signal Control on the Forecast of Travel Time%流量和信号控制对运行时间预测的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐丽群; 杨兆升; 管德永

    2001-01-01

    通过对实际交通状况的分析,说明路线运行时间不仅是路线交通流量的函数,而且是由于交叉口信号控制引起延误的函数。%The use of ATIS (Advanced Traveler Information Systems) for urban traffic management means that tripmakers can get in real time the pre-trip information and en-route information to ch oose the optimal route and reduce their travel time. Hence, reliable and frequently updated travel time information is the basis of effec tive implementation of ATIS. This paper proposes the method of foreca sting travel time at signalized network and concludes that travel time is not only the function of flow but also the function of delay caused by signal control at intersection.

  20. G-quadruplex − based homogenous fluorescence platform for ultrasensitive DNA detection through isothermal cycling and cascade signal amplification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a simple and homogenous fluorimetric method for sensitive determination of DNA. It is based on target-triggered isothermal cycling and a cascade exponential amplification reaction that generates a large amount of a G-quadruplex. This results in strong fluorescence signal when using thioflavin T as a G-quadruplex-specific light-up fluorescent probe. Tedious handling after amplification is widely eliminated by the addition of thioflavin T. No other exogenous reagent is required. This detection platform is inexpensive and rapid, and displays high sensitivity for target DNA, with a detection limit as low as 91 pM. (author)

  1. TRANSIMS traffic flow characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Nagel, Kai; Stretz, Paula; Pieck, Martin; Donnelly, Rick; Barrett, Christopher L.

    1997-01-01

    Knowledge of fundamental traffic flow characteristics of traffic simulation models is an essential requirement when using these models for the planning, design, and operation of transportation systems. In this paper we discuss the following: a description of how features relevant to traffic flow are currently under implementation in the TRANSIMS microsimulation, a proposition for standardized traffic flow tests for traffic simulation models, and the results of these tests for two different ve...

  2. Selective inhibition of BET bromodomain epigenetic signalling interferes with the bone-associated tumour vicious cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamoureux, François; Baud'Huin, Marc; Rodriguez Calleja, Lidia; Jacques, Camille; Berreur, Martine; Rédini, Françoise; Lecanda, Fernando; Bradner, James E.; Heymann, Dominique; Ory, Benjamin

    2014-03-01

    The vicious cycle established between bone-associated tumours and bone resorption is the central problem with therapeutic strategies against primary bone tumours and bone metastasis. Here we report data to support inhibition of BET bromodomain proteins as a promising therapeutic strategy that target simultaneously the three partners of the vicious cycle. Treatment with JQ1, a BET bromodomain inhibitor, reduces cell viability of osteosarcoma cells and inhibits osteoblastic differentiation both in vitro and in vivo. These effects are associated with transcriptional silencing of MYC and RUNX2, resulting from the depletion of BRD4 from their respective loci. Moreover, JQ1 also inhibits osteoclast differentiation by interfering with BRD4-dependent RANKL activation of NFATC1 transcription. Collectively, our data indicate that JQ1 is a potent inhibitor of osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation as well as bone tumour development.

  3. SQUID–SIMS is a useful approach to uncover primary signals in the Archean sulfur cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Woodward W.; Fike, David A; Johnson, Jena E; Raub, Timothy D; Guan, Yunbin; Kirschvink, Joseph L; Eiler, John M.

    2014-01-01

    The Agouron Institute and National Aeronautic and Space Administration Exobiology Award NNX09AM91G supported this work. Many aspects of Earth's early sulfur cycle, from the origin of mass-anomalous fractionations to the degree of biological participation, remain poorly understood-in part due to complications from postdepositional diagenetic and metamorphic processes. Using a combination of scanning high-resolution magnetic superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) microscopy and ...

  4. Implementation of Neural Network with a variant of Turing Machine for Traffic Flow Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Sehrawat

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The conventional method of operation of a typical traffic light is to distribute the time equally for all the directions.This method causes congestion when throughput of the signal increases and is alsoineffective in managing traffic flow. In this paper, we have proposed a new model for managing traffic intelligently.The model is based on Turing machine with the application of neural network. The modelconsiders current traffic status of its own signal along with the status of its adjacent signals to determine the ratio of time slot for each signal therefore, reducing traffic congestion to a greater extent and ensuring steady flow of traffic in a wide region.

  5. Research on Signal Distribution in the Saturated Traffic State of Intersection%交叉口饱和交通状态下的信号配时研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋启吉; 杨涛; 李东

    2015-01-01

    目前,英国的Webster模型在交叉口的定时信号控制中是应用最为广泛的模型之一。简单介绍交叉口常用的信号控制方法,其次对Webster信号优化模型进行了详细介绍。引进一个拥挤度阈值参数,并在Webster模型的基础上进行改进,提出一种改进的Webster信号配时方法,通过该方法对饱和交通状况下的交叉口进行信号配时,最后通过实验比较改进的方法与Webster方法的有效性。%At present, the Webster model is one of the most widely used models in the timing signal control of the intersection. Introduces the signal control method, and then introduces the Webster signal optimization model in details. Introduces a congestion threshold parameter. Then proposes an improved Webster signal timing method on the basis of Webster model. By this method, carries out the signal timing of the intersection of the saturated traffic. Finally, compares the effectiveness of the improved method and the Webster method by experiments.

  6. The digital traces of bubbles: feedback cycles between socio-economic signals in the Bitcoin economy

    OpenAIRE

    David Garcia; Claudio Juan Tessone; Pavlin Mavrodiev; Nicolas Perony

    2014-01-01

    What is the role of social interactions in the creation of price bubbles? Answering this question requires obtaining collective behavioural traces generated by the activity of a large number of actors. Digital currencies offer a unique possibility to measure socio-economic signals from such digital traces. Here, we focus on Bitcoin, the most popular cryptocurrency. Bitcoin has experienced periods of rapid increase in exchange rates (price) followed by sharp decline; we hypothesise that these ...

  7. The digital traces of bubbles: feedback cycles between socio-economic signals in the Bitcoin economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, David; Tessone, Claudio J; Mavrodiev, Pavlin; Perony, Nicolas

    2014-10-01

    What is the role of social interactions in the creation of price bubbles? Answering this question requires obtaining collective behavioural traces generated by the activity of a large number of actors. Digital currencies offer a unique possibility to measure socio-economic signals from such digital traces. Here, we focus on Bitcoin, the most popular cryptocurrency. Bitcoin has experienced periods of rapid increase in exchange rates (price) followed by sharp decline; we hypothesize that these fluctuations are largely driven by the interplay between different social phenomena. We thus quantify four socio-economic signals about Bitcoin from large datasets: price on online exchanges, volume of word-of-mouth communication in online social media, volume of information search and user base growth. By using vector autoregression, we identify two positive feedback loops that lead to price bubbles in the absence of exogenous stimuli: one driven by word of mouth, and the other by new Bitcoin adopters. We also observe that spikes in information search, presumably linked to external events, precede drastic price declines. Understanding the interplay between the socio-economic signals we measured can lead to applications beyond cryptocurrencies to other phenomena that leave digital footprints, such as online social network usage. PMID:25100315

  8. The digital traces of bubbles: feedback cycles between socio-economic signals in the Bitcoin economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, David; Tessone, Claudio J; Mavrodiev, Pavlin; Perony, Nicolas

    2014-10-01

    What is the role of social interactions in the creation of price bubbles? Answering this question requires obtaining collective behavioural traces generated by the activity of a large number of actors. Digital currencies offer a unique possibility to measure socio-economic signals from such digital traces. Here, we focus on Bitcoin, the most popular cryptocurrency. Bitcoin has experienced periods of rapid increase in exchange rates (price) followed by sharp decline; we hypothesize that these fluctuations are largely driven by the interplay between different social phenomena. We thus quantify four socio-economic signals about Bitcoin from large datasets: price on online exchanges, volume of word-of-mouth communication in online social media, volume of information search and user base growth. By using vector autoregression, we identify two positive feedback loops that lead to price bubbles in the absence of exogenous stimuli: one driven by word of mouth, and the other by new Bitcoin adopters. We also observe that spikes in information search, presumably linked to external events, precede drastic price declines. Understanding the interplay between the socio-economic signals we measured can lead to applications beyond cryptocurrencies to other phenomena that leave digital footprints, such as online social network usage.

  9. CD47-SIRPα在人类红细胞老化与吞噬过程中的作用%Role of CD47-SIRPa signaling in the senescence and clearance of human red blood cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周洁; 李勤; 朱自严

    2011-01-01

    探讨CD47-SIRPα在人类红细胞衰老与吞噬过程中的作用.采用Western blot检测体外4℃和37℃保存红细胞(RBC)及老化过程中红细胞膜上CD47的表达量;用单核细胞单层分析试验(monocyte monolayer assay,MMA)观察人THP-1单核细胞系对不同年龄段红细胞和CD47抗体F(ab')2端封闭红细胞的吞噬情况及Western blot检测THP-1细胞上SIRPa磷酸化情况.结果发现,无论是在体内老化还是体外老化过程中,红细胞膜上CD47的表达最均出现显著下降趋势,随着保存时间的延长,CD47的表达量最大可下降82.64%(4℃保存情况下);THP-1细胞对不同年龄段红细胞的吞噬情况存在差异性,更易吞噬年老红细胞,吞噬率为35.32,对年轻红细胞的吞噬率为13.72%(n=7,P<0.02);对新鲜红细胞的吞噬率为2.22 %,对CD47抗体F(ab')2端封闭红细胞的吞噬率为31.51%(n=7,P<0.02);吞噬不同年龄段红细胞后,THP-1细胞上磷酸化SIRPα量不同,与吞噬年轻红细胞相比,吞噬年老红细胞后,磷酸化SIRPα的量下降了57.12%.表明人类红细胞的老化与吞噬过程和CD47-SIRPα相互作用存在密切关系.%To investigate the role of CD47-SIRPa signaling in the course of the senescence and clearance of human red blood cells (RBCs) , the expression of CD47 on the membrane of RBCs stored at 4 'C or 37 'C in vitro and in vivo was detected by means of Western blot assay. The monocyte monolayer assay (MMA) was used to determine the difference of phagocytosis of THP-1 cells to RBCs with different ages(young or aged RBCs) and RBCs blocked with F(ab')2 fragments of anti-CD47 monoclonal antibody. In addition, Western blot assay was also applied to detect the expression of SIRPa phosphorylation on THP-1 cells phagocytosing the different age RBCs. It was demonstrated that the expression of CD47 on the cell membrane of human RBCs was significantly reduced both in vivo and in vitro, and along with the prolongation of the storage time of cells, the

  10. Improvement of driving safety in road traffic system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ke-Ping; Gao Zi-You

    2005-01-01

    A road traffic system is a complex system in which humans participate directly. In this system, human factors play a very important role. In this paper, a kind of control signal is designated at a given site (i.e., signal point) of the road. Under the effect of the control signal, the drivers will decrease their velocities when their vehicles pass the signal point. Our aim is to transit the traffic flow states from disorder to order, and then improve the traffic safety.We have tested this technique for the two-lane traffic model that is based on the deterministic Nagel-Schreckenberg (NaSch) traffic model. The simulation results indicate that the traffic flow states can be transited from disorder to order. Different order states can be observed in the system, and these states are safer.

  11. A Marine Traffic Flow Model

    OpenAIRE

    Tsz Leung Yip

    2013-01-01

    A model is developed for studying marine traffic flow through classical traffic flow theories, which can provide us with a better understanding of the phenomenon of traffic flow of ships. On one hand, marine traffic has its special features and is fundamentally different from highway, air and pedestrian traffic. The existing traffic models cannot be simply extended to marine traffic without addressing marine traffic features. On the other hand, existing literature on marine traffic focuses on...

  12. SELF-SIMILAR TRAFFIC GENERATOR

    OpenAIRE

    Linawati Linawati; I Made Suartika

    2009-01-01

    Network traffic generator can be produced using OPNET. OPNET generates the traffic as explicit traffic or background traffic. This paper demonstrates generating traffic in OPNET 7.0 as background traffic. The traffi generator that was simulated is self-similar traffic with different Hurst parameter. The simulation results proved that OPNET with background traffic function can be as a qualified self-similar traffic generator. These results can help in investigating and analysing network perfor...

  13. Valproate inhibits MAP kinase signalling and cell cycle progression in S. cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desfossés-Baron, Kristelle; Hammond-Martel, Ian; Simoneau, Antoine; Sellam, Adnane; Roberts, Stephen; Wurtele, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    The mechanism of action of valproate (VPA), a widely prescribed short chain fatty acid with anticonvulsant and anticancer properties, remains poorly understood. Here, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used as model to investigate the biological consequences of VPA exposure. We found that low pH strongly potentiates VPA-induced growth inhibition. Transcriptional profiling revealed that under these conditions, VPA modulates the expression of genes involved in diverse cellular processes including protein folding, cell wall organisation, sexual reproduction, and cell cycle progression. We further investigated the impact of VPA on selected processes and found that this drug: i) activates markers of the unfolded protein stress response such as Hac1 mRNA splicing; ii) modulates the cell wall integrity pathway by inhibiting the activation of the Slt2 MAP kinase, and synergizes with cell wall stressors such as micafungin and calcofluor white in preventing yeast growth; iii) prevents activation of the Kss1 and Fus3 MAP kinases of the mating pheromone pathway, which in turn abolishes cellular responses to alpha factor; and iv) blocks cell cycle progression and DNA replication. Overall, our data identify heretofore unknown biological responses to VPA in budding yeast, and highlight the broad spectrum of cellular pathways influenced by this chemical in eukaryotes. PMID:27782169

  14. Cycling across borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jože Kos

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the intent and content of the international Velo-City conference 1999, Maribor–Graz and the organisation of this cycling development planning meeting. It focuses on the resolution of the conference concerning cycling traffic policies, the emerging network of European cycling connections and the traffic planning workshop about a difficult square in Maribor. The content framework of particular papers is shown, as well as other post-conference events. In the conclusion certain useful addresses for obtaining added data on sustainable traffic planning are given.

  15. OPTIMIZATION OF URBAN MULTI-INTERSECTION TRAFFIC FLOW VIA Q-LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yit Kwong Chin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Congestions of the traffic flow within the urban traffic network have been a challenging task for all the urban developers. Many approaches have been introduced into the current system to solve the traffic congestion problems. Reconfiguration of the traffic signal timing plan has been carried out through implementation of different techniques. However, dynamic characteristics of the traffic flow increase the difficulties towards the ultimate solutions. Thus, traffic congestions still remain as unsolvable problems to the current traffic control system. In this study, artificial intelligence method has been introduced in the traffic light system to alter the traffic signal timing plan to optimize the traffic flows. Q-learning algorithm in this study has enhanced the traffic light system with learning ability. The learning mechanism of Q-learning enables traffic light intersections to release itself from traffic congestions situation. Adjacent traffic light intersections will work independently and yet cooperate with each others to a common goal of ensuring the fluency of the traffic flows within the traffic network. The simulated results show that the Q-Learning algorithm is able to learn from the dynamic traffic flow and optimize the traffic flow accordingly.

  16. SKF95365 induces apoptosis and cell-cycle arrest by disturbing oncogenic Ca2+ signaling in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang J

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Jinyan Zhang,1 Jiazhang Wei,2 Qian He,3 Yan Lin,1 Rong Liang,1 Jiaxiang Ye,1 Zhe Zhang,4 Yongqiang Li1 1Department of Medical Oncology, Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, 2Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Oncology, The People’s Hospital of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Nanning, People’s Republic of China; 3Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan; 4Department of Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, People’s Republic of China Background: Aberrant modulation of store-operated calcium ions (Ca2+ entry promotes the progression of human malignancies. Previously, we reported that the blockage of store-operated Ca2+ entry inhibited epidermal growth factor (EGF-stimulated migration and distant metastasis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC cells. However, the effects of pharmacological blocker on other Ca2+ signaling-regulated malignant characteristics in NPC cells remained poorly understood. Methods: We examined the effects of SKF96365, an inhibitor of store-operated Ca2+ channel, on EGF-launched Ca2+ signaling in two NPC cell lines. We determined the effects of SKF96365 on cell proliferation, colony formation, apoptosis, and cell-cycle status in vitro. We further elucidated the antitumor activity of SKF96365 in xenograft-bearing mice. Results: It was found that SKF96365 disturbed the thapsigargin (TG-stimulated Ca2+ release from endoplasmic reticulum and the subsequent Ca2+ influx. SKF96365 alone stimulated Ca2+ responses merely due to endoplasmic reticulum-released Ca2+. SKF96365 promoted cell mortality, inhibited colony formation, and induced apoptosis and cell-cycle arrest, while blunting the EGF-evoked Ca2+ signaling. Furthermore, we confirmed that SKF96365 reduced NPC xenograft growth while activating caspase-7-related apoptotic pathway. Conclusion: SKF96365 exerts multiple antitumor

  17. Intervenção comunitária para prevenção de acidentes de trânsito entre trabalhadores ciclistas Intervención comunitaria para la prevención de accidentes de tránsito entre trabajadores ciclistas A community intervention to prevent traffic accidents among bicycle commuters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo Bacchieri

    2010-10-01

    intervención educacional de prevención de accidentes de tránsito con trabajadores que utilizan la bicicleta como modo de transporte. MÉTODOS: Estudio de intervención, longitudinal, con implementación escalonada, realizado en cinco urbanizaciones con características geográficas distintas en la ciudad de Pelotas, Sur de Brasil, de enero de 2006 a mayo de 2007. Fueron sorteados 42 sectores censados de dichas urbanizaciones. Todos los domicilios fueron visitados en búsqueda de trabajadores del sexo masculino que utilizasen la bicicleta como modo de transporte, resultando en una muestra de 1.133 individuos. Fueron analizados como resultados "accidentes de tránsito" y "casi-accidentes". Mensualmente, vía telefónica, los ciclistas eran interrogados con respecto a la ocurrencia de accidentes de tránsito y de "casi-accidentes". Quincenalmente, a partir del segundo mes de acompañamiento, un grupo de aproximadamente 60 ciclistas era convidado a participar de la intervención, que incluía un componente educativo (seminario y presentación de video educativo, distribución de un kit de seguridad (chaleco nocturno con reflexivo, cartilla educativa y cintas reflexivas y revisión de los frenos de la bicicleta (mantenimiento realizado al ser necesario. Regresión de Poisson, con ajuste para el efecto del tiempo, fue utilizada para medir el efecto de la intervención. RESULTADOS: Aproximadamente 45% de los ciclistas no comparecieron a la intervención. Durante el período de estudio, 9% de los individuos informaron un accidente de tránsito y 88% un casi-accidente. En total, ocurrieron 106 accidentes y 1.091 casi-accidentes. No fue observado efecto de la intervención en ambos resultados. CONCLUSIONES: La intervención propuesta no fue capaz de reducir accidentes entre trabajadores ciclistas. falta de interés en seguridad por parte de los ciclistas y factores externos, tales como infra-estructura de las vías y comportamiento de los choferes, pueden haber colaborado para ese

  18. The digital traces of bubbles: feedback cycles between socio-economic signals in the Bitcoin economy

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia, David; Mavrodiev, Pavlin; Perony, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    What is the role of social interactions in the creation of price bubbles? Answering this question requires obtaining collective behavioural traces generated by the activity of a large number of actors. Digital currencies offer a unique possibility to measure socio-economic signals from such digital traces. Here, we focus on Bitcoin, the most popular cryptocurrency. Bitcoin has experienced periods of rapid increase in exchange rates (price) followed by sharp decline; we hypothesise that these fluctuations are largely driven by the interplay between different social phenomena. We thus quantify four socio-economic signals about Bitcoin from large data sets: price on on-line exchanges, volume of word-of-mouth communication in on-line social media, volume of information search, and user base growth. By using vector autoregression, we identify two positive feedback loops that lead to price bubbles in the absence of exogenous stimuli: one driven by word of mouth, and the other by new Bitcoin adopters. We also observ...

  19. Effects of activated fibroblasts on phenotype modulation, EGFR signalling and cell cycle regulation in OSCC cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berndt, Alexander, E-mail: alexander.berndt@med.uni-jena.de [Center for Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Pathology, Jena University Hospital, 07740 Jena (Germany); Büttner, Robert, E-mail: Robert-Buettner@gmx.net [Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, 07740 Jena (Germany); Gühne, Stefanie, E-mail: stefanie_guehne@gmx.net [Center for Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Pathology, Jena University Hospital, 07740 Jena (Germany); Gleinig, Anna, E-mail: annagleinig@yahoo.com [Center for Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Pathology, Jena University Hospital, 07740 Jena (Germany); Richter, Petra, E-mail: P.Richter@med.uni-jena.de [Center for Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Pathology, Jena University Hospital, 07740 Jena (Germany); Chen, Yuan, E-mail: Yuan.Chen@med.uni-jena.de [Center for Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Pathology, Jena University Hospital, 07740 Jena (Germany); Franz, Marcus, E-mail: Marcus.Franz@med.uni-jena.de [Clinic of Internal Medicine I, Jena University Hospital, 07740 Jena (Germany); Liebmann, Claus, E-mail: Claus.Liebmann@uni-jena.de [Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, 07740 Jena (Germany)

    2014-04-01

    Crosstalk between carcinoma associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells is suggested to mediate phenotype transition of cancer cells as a prerequisite for tumour progression, to predict patients’ outcome, and to influence the efficacy of EGFR inhibitor therapies. Here we investigate the influence of activated fibroblasts as a model for CAFs on phenotype and EGFR signalling in OSCC cells in vitro. For this, immortalised hTERT-BJ1 fibroblasts were activated with TGFβ1 and PDGFAB to generate a myofibroblast or proliferative phenotype, respectively. Conditioned media (FCM{sub TGF}, FCM{sub PDGF}) were used to stimulate PE/CA-PJ15 OSCC cells. Results were compared to the effect of conditioned media of non-stimulated fibroblasts (FCM{sub B}). FCM{sub TGF} stimulation leads to an up-regulation of vimentin in the OSCC cells and an enhancement of invasive behaviour, indicating EMT-like effects. Similarly, FCM{sub TGF}≫FCM{sub PDGF} induced up-regulation of EGFR, but not of ErbB2/ErbB3. In addition, we detected an increase in basal activities of ERK, PI3K/Akt and Stat3 (FCM{sub TGF}>FCM{sub PDGF}) accompanied by protein interaction of vimentin with pERK. These effects are correlated with an increased proliferation. In summary, our results suggest that the activated myofibroblast phenotype provides soluble factors which are able to induce EMT-like phenomena and to increase EGFR signalling as well as cell proliferation in OSCC cells. Our results indicate a possible influence of activated myofibroblasts on EGFR-inhibitor therapy. Therefore, CAFs may serve as promising novel targets for combined therapy strategies. - Highlights: • A cell culture model for cancer associated fibroblasts is described. • The mutual interaction with OSCC cells leads to up-regulation of EGFR in tumour cells. • mCAF induces EGFR downstream signalling with increased proliferation in OSCC. • Erk activation is associated with protein interaction with vimentin

  20. Traffic Flow Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Maerivoet, Sven; De Moor, Bart

    2005-01-01

    The scientific field of traffic engineering encompasses a rich set of mathematical techniques, as well as researchers with entirely different backgrounds. This paper provides an overview of what is currently the state-of-the-art with respect to traffic flow theory. Starting with a brief history, we introduce the microscopic and macroscopic characteristics of vehicular traffic flows. Moving on, we review some performance indicators that allow us to assess the quality of traffic operations. A f...

  1. Optimizing Traffic Flow

    OpenAIRE

    Huberman, Bernardo A.; Helbing, Dirk

    1998-01-01

    We present an economics-based method for deciding the optimal rates at which vehicles are allowed to enter a highway. The method exploits the naturally occuring fluctuations of traffic flow and is flexible enough to adapt in real time to the transient flow characteristics of road traffic. Simulations based on realistic parameter values show that this strategy is feasible for naturally occuring traffic, and that even far from optimality, injection policies can improve traffic flow. Our results...

  2. Traffic-flow simulation

    OpenAIRE

    OMAHEN, ANDRAŽ

    2015-01-01

    This diploma thesis presents the behavior of program, which uses the traffic light enhanced transport network to simulate the traffic flow of vehicles that behave according to the IDM model. We upgraded the program to allow, for the given network, to optimize the traffic flow. Because of the overwhelming problem of road closures or their rearrangement, we added a graphical user interface with which a user can create or modify the road network to observe changes in traffic. The objective of...

  3. Trajectories for Novel and Detailed Traffic Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Benjamin Bjerre; Andersen, Ove; Torp, Kristian

    2012-01-01

    Trajectories based on GPS tracks have been studied for a number of years but only to a limited degree been used for analyzing and monitoring traffic. This paper shows how novel and important information about traffic can be computed from trajectories. Concretely the paper proposes to compute...... to analyzing individual intersections that enables traffic analysts to compute queue lengths and estimated time to pass an intersection. Finally, the paper uses associative rule mining for evaluating green waves on road stretches. Such information can be used to verify that signalized intersections...... are correctly coordinated, and navigational device manufacturers to advice drivers in real-time on expected behavior of signalized intersections. The main conclusion is that trajectories can provide novel insight into the actual traffic situation that is not possible using existing approaches. Further...

  4. Traffic Flow Estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Vincent G.

    1981-01-01

    Two examples are given of ways traffic engineers estimate traffic flow. The first, Floating Car Method, involves some basic ideas and the notion of relative velocity. The second, Maximum Traffic Flow, is viewed to involve simple applications of calculus. The material provides insight into specialized applications of mathematics. (MP)

  5. Controlling Disorder in Traffic Flow by Perturbation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ke-Ping; GAO Zi-You; CHEN Tian-Lun

    2004-01-01

    We propose a new technique for controlling disorder in traffic system. A kind of control signal which can be considered as a perturbation has been designated at a given site (perturbation point) of the single-lane highway. When a vehicle passes the perturbation point at a time, the velocity of the vehicle will be changed at the next time by the perturbation. This technique is tested for the deterministic NaSch traffic model. The simulation results indicate that the traffic system can be transited from the disorder states to the order states, such as fixed-point, periodic motion, etc.

  6. Separating long-term deformation cycles and atmospheric signals at Mount St. Helens using PS-InSAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, M.

    2015-12-01

    Since its eruption in 1980, Mount St. Helens has experienced multiple inflation-deflation cycles associated with dome building eruptions. During the most recent dome-building episode, which spanned 2004 to 2008, GPS recorded the transition from pre-eruptive inflation to co-eruptive deflation and a final transition back to inflation. Such observations provide important constraints on the timing and mechanics of cyclic magma recharge and extrusion. Currently, the subtle surface deformation signal at St Helens is monitored primarily by ground based geodetic techniques like GPS. Satellite-based InSAR has the potential to substantially augment these techniques by providing spatially continuous, precise measurements of surface displacements, and may also reveal other volcanic or surficial processes too localized to be detected by ground based methods. Traditional interferometry is challenging to apply to volcanoes in the Cascades. Widespread phase decorrelation caused by persistent snow cover and dense vegetation, combined with large, elevation dependent atmospheric phase delays, mask or make deformation signals difficult to detect. By applying StaMPS, a Persistent Scatterers (PS) technique, phase decorrelation is mitigated by utilizing only the pixels with the highest, statistically derived, signal to noise ratio. However, atmospheric water vapor, which delays the radar signal, remains problematic, particularly on the volcano edifice. To assess the bias imposed by the atmosphere, we perform a series of sensitivity tests using a suite of methods including several that rely on the linear or power-law correlation of phase delay to topography and knowledge of the spatial scale of the signal. We also apply methods that calculate wet and dry phase delay from atmospheric reanalysis datasets such as ERA-Interim provided by the ECMWF. SAR data from the ERS, Envisat, and ALOS satellites, along with newer datasets, are processed with these tools to create a time series spanning

  7. 冰雪条件下信号交叉口交通拥堵扩散范围估计%Study on the Estimation of Scatter Range of Traffic Congestion of Signal Intersection Under Snow and Ice Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨龙海; 章锡俏; 李维; 刘缤璘

    2012-01-01

    冰雪条件下交叉口交通拥堵范围的正确估计,有助于交叉口交通控制的优化和决策.首先根据冰雪条件调查数据,分析了不同冰雪条件对饱和流率的影响,得到不同等级冰雪条件对交叉口饱和流率的折减值及其回归模型.然后基于信号交叉口车辆排队特点,将交叉口分为过饱和、不饱和以及临界饱和状态,并建立了交叉口实时车辆排队长度计算模型.最后考虑路网中各要素的相互关联和相互影响的特性,提出了冰雪条件下基于变叉口交通拥堵扩散范围估计方法.该交叉口拥堵扩散范围估计方法可作为冰雪天气条件下交叉口信号配时方案优化依据,同时对制定合理有效的交通拥挤疏导策略具有重要意义.%In order to estimate the scatter range of traffic congestion under snow and ice condition, this paper firstly studied how different extent snow and ice conditions influence saturation flow rate .by processing and analyzing collected data, it obtained the reduction values under different extent of snow and ice conditions as well as the corresponding regression function. Then the state of intersection is divided into supersaturated, under-saturated and critical-saturated based on the characteristics of vehicle queuing at signal intersections, it established the real-time calculation model of vehicle queue length . Finally this paper put forward the method of estimating the scatter range of traffic congestion under snow and ice condition on the basis of the interrelation and interaction of various elements of the road network. This method can be used to provide the basis of signal timing optimization ,a!so meaningful for developing rational and effective strategies of traffic control.

  8. Intelligent traffic control system using PLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barz, C.; Todea, C.; Latinovic, T.; Preradovic, D. M.; Deaconu, S.; Berdie, A.

    2016-08-01

    The paper presents the traffic control system controlled through a PLC which takes the signals from different sensors on roads. The global system developed ensures the coordination of four intersections, setting a path that respects coordination type green light, the integration of additional sensors, the implementation of probes radar to inform traffic participants about recommended speed for accessing the green state located in the intersection that will follow to cross.

  9. 49 CFR 236.73 - Open-wire transmission line; clearance to other circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Open-wire transmission line; clearance to other... line; clearance to other circuits. Open-wire transmission line operating at voltage of 750 volts or... THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS,...

  10. Cypermethrin Induces Macrophages Death through Cell Cycle Arrest and Oxidative Stress-Mediated JNK/ERK Signaling Regulated Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Huang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cypermethrin is one of the most highly effective synthetic pyrethroid insecticides. The toxicity of cypermethrin to the reproductive and nervous systems has been well studied. However, little is known about the toxic effect of cypermethrin on immune cells such as macrophages. Here, we investigated the cytotoxicity of cypermethrin on macrophages and the underlying molecular mechanisms. We found that cypermethrin reduced cell viability and induced apoptosis in RAW 264.7 cells. Cypermethrin also increased reactive oxygen species (ROS production and DNA damage in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, cypermethrin-induced G1 cell cycle arrest was associated with an enhanced expression of p21, wild-type p53, and down-regulation of cyclin D1, cyclin E and CDK4. In addition, cypermethrin treatment activated MAPK signal pathways by inducing c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK and extracellular regulated protein kinases 1/2 ERK1/2 phosphorylation, and increased the cleaved poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP. Further, pretreatment with antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC effectively abrogated cypermethrin-induced cell cytotoxicity, G1 cell cycle arrest, DNA damage, PARP activity, and JNK and ERK1/2 activation. The specific JNK inhibitor (SP600125 and ERK1/2 inhibitor (PD98059 effectively reversed the phosphorylation level of JNK and ERK1/2, and attenuated the apoptosis. Taken together, these data suggested that cypermethrin caused immune cell death via inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis regulated by ROS-mediated JNK/ERK pathway.

  11. Neurobehavioral performance in adolescents is inversely associated with traffic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kicinski, Michal; Vermeir, Griet; Van Larebeke, Nicolas; Den Hond, Elly; Schoeters, Greet; Bruckers, Liesbeth; Sioen, Isabelle; Bijnens, Esmée; Roels, Harry A; Baeyens, Willy; Viaene, Mineke K; Nawrot, Tim S

    2015-02-01

    On the basis of animal research and epidemiological studies in children and elderly there is a growing concern that traffic exposure may affect the brain. The aim of our study was to investigate the association between traffic exposure and neurobehavioral performance in adolescents. We examined 606 adolescents. To model the exposure, we constructed a traffic exposure factor based on a biomarker of benzene (urinary trans,trans-muconic acid) and the amount of contact with traffic preceding the neurobehavioral examination (using distance-weighted traffic density and time spent in traffic). We used a Bayesian structural equation model to investigate the association between traffic exposure and three neurobehavioral domains: sustained attention, short-term memory, and manual motor speed. A one standard deviation increase in traffic exposure was associated with a 0.26 standard deviation decrease in sustained attention (95% credible interval: -0.02 to -0.51), adjusting for gender, age, smoking, passive smoking, level of education of the mother, socioeconomic status, time of the day, and day of the week. The associations between traffic exposure and the other neurobehavioral domains studied had the same direction but did not reach the level of statistical significance. The results remained consistent in the sensitivity analysis excluding smokers and passive smokers. The inverse association between sustained attention and traffic exposure was independent of the blood lead level. Our study in adolescents supports the recent findings in children and elderly suggesting that traffic exposure adversely affects the neurobehavioral function. PMID:25461422

  12. An efficient method to detect periodic behavior in botnet traffic by analyzing control plane traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    AsSadhan, Basil; Moura, José M.F.

    2013-01-01

    Botnets are large networks of bots (compromised machines) that are under the control of a small number of bot masters. They pose a significant threat to Internet’s communications and applications. A botnet relies on command and control (C2) communications channels traffic between its members for its attack execution. C2 traffic occurs prior to any attack; hence, the detection of botnet’s C2 traffic enables the detection of members of the botnet before any real harm happens. We analyze C2 traffic and find that it exhibits a periodic behavior. This is due to the pre-programmed behavior of bots that check for updates to download them every T seconds. We exploit this periodic behavior to detect C2 traffic. The detection involves evaluating the periodogram of the monitored traffic. Then applying Walker’s large sample test to the periodogram’s maximum ordinate in order to determine if it is due to a periodic component or not. If the periodogram of the monitored traffic contains a periodic component, then it is highly likely that it is due to a bot’s C2 traffic. The test looks only at aggregate control plane traffic behavior, which makes it more scalable than techniques that involve deep packet inspection (DPI) or tracking the communication flows of different hosts. We apply the test to two types of botnet, tinyP2P and IRC that are generated by SLINGbot. We verify the periodic behavior of their C2 traffic and compare it to the results we get on real traffic that is obtained from a secured enterprise network. We further study the characteristics of the test in the presence of injected HTTP background traffic and the effect of the duty cycle on the periodic behavior. PMID:25685512

  13. Interval Algebraic Bistructures

    CERN Document Server

    Kandasamy, W B Vasantha

    2011-01-01

    This book has four chapters. In the first chapter interval bistructures (biinterval structures) such as interval bisemigroup, interval bigroupoid, interval bigroup and interval biloops are introduced. Throughout this book we work only with the intervals of the form [0, a] where a \\in Zn or Z+ \\cup {0} or R+ \\cup {0} or Q+ \\cup {0} unless otherwise specified. Also interval bistructures of the form interval loop-group, interval groupgroupoid so on are introduced and studied. In chapter two n-interval structures are introduced. n-interval groupoids, n-interval semigroups, n-interval loops and so on are introduced and analysed. Using these notions n-interval mixed algebraic structure are defined and described. Some probable applications are discussed. Only in due course of time several applications would be evolved by researchers as per their need. The final chapter suggests around 295 problems of which some are simple exercises, some are difficult and some of them are research problems.

  14. Modelling the Traffic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Važan Pavel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the simulation study results of the traffic system in the city of Hlohovec. The authors describe the process of building the model in Witness 2013c simulator. The individual entities of simulation model are explained in details, as the Witness simulator is primarily suitable for manufacture or service simulation and not for traffic system simulation. The goal of this paper is to analyse the traffic system and to suggest the changes for improving the traffic in the city of Hlohovec. All proposed measures will bring about 20% improvement of traffic when compared to the current state.

  15. Continuous detection of weak sensory signals in afferent spike trains: the role of anti-correlated interspike intervals in detection performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goense, J B M; Ratnam, R

    2003-10-01

    An important problem in sensory processing is deciding whether fluctuating neural activity encodes a stimulus or is due to variability in baseline activity. Neurons that subserve detection must examine incoming spike trains continuously, and quickly and reliably differentiate signals from baseline activity. Here we demonstrate that a neural integrator can perform continuous signal detection, with performance exceeding that of trial-based procedures, where spike counts in signal- and baseline windows are compared. The procedure was applied to data from electrosensory afferents of weakly electric fish (Apteronotus leptorhynchus), where weak perturbations generated by small prey add approximately 1 spike to a baseline of approximately 300 spikes s(-1). The hypothetical postsynaptic neuron, modeling an electrosensory lateral line lobe cell, could detect an added spike within 10-15 ms, achieving near ideal detection performance (80-95%) at false alarm rates of 1-2 Hz, while trial-based testing resulted in only 30-35% correct detections at that false alarm rate. The performance improvement was due to anti-correlations in the afferent spike train, which reduced both the amplitude and duration of fluctuations in postsynaptic membrane activity, and so decreased the number of false alarms. Anti-correlations can be exploited to improve detection performance only if there is memory of prior decisions.

  16. ADMA metabolism and clearance

    OpenAIRE

    Teerlink, Tom

    2005-01-01

    Abstract The plasma concentration of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, is the resultant of many processes at cellular and organ levels. Post-translational methylation of arginine residues of pro teins plays a crucial role in the regulation of their functions, which include processes such as transcription, translation and RNA splicing. Because protein methylation is irreversible, the methylation signal can be turned off only by pro...

  17. Concept of Operations for Interval Management Arrivals and Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicok, Daniel S.; Barmore, Bryan E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the concept of operations for interval management operations to be deployed in the US National Airspace System (NAS) by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) after 2020. The use of interval management operations is described that begin in en route airspace and continue to a termination point inside the arrival terminal area, in a terminal environment that includes other arrival management tools such as arrival metering, Ground-based Interval Management - Spacing (GIM-S), and Terminal Sequencing and Spacing (TSAS). The roles of Air Traffic Controllers and Flight Crews and the ground automation tools that are used by Air Traffic Controllers to enable the primary operation and variations are described.

  18. Optimization of congested traffic flow in systems with a localized periodic inhomogeneity

    OpenAIRE

    Tomer, Elad; Safonov, Leonid; Madar, Nilly; Havlin, Shlomo

    2001-01-01

    We study traffic flow on roads with a localized periodic inhomogeneity such as traffic signals, using a stochastic car-following model. We find that in cases of congestion, traffic flow can be optimized by controlling the inhomogeneity's frequency. By studying the wavelength dependence of the flux in stop-and-go traffic states, and exploring their stability, we are able to explain the optimization process. A general conclusion drawn from this study is, that the fundamental diagram of traffic ...

  19. A delayed flow intersection model for dynamic traffic assignment

    OpenAIRE

    DURLIN, T; HENN, V

    2005-01-01

    Day-to-Day and Within-Day dynamics are classically observed in dynamic traffic assignment, but smaller ones due to traffic lights phases also occur. These micro variations induce flow fluctuations defined at a cycle time scale. Their precise knowledge is irrelevant in a dynamic traffic assignment context. We propose to integrate these micro dynamics into a new intersection model without stages in which their average effects must be taken into account, especially delay and flow restriction ge...

  20. Transition from Disorder to Order in Traffic Flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ke-Ping; GAO Zi-You

    2004-01-01

    We propose a new technique to investigate the dynamical transitions among the traffic phases. A type of the control signals has been designated at a given site (signal point) of the single-lane highway. Under the effect of the control signal, the velocity of the vehicle that passes the signal point will be changed periodically. Our method is tested for the deterministic NaSch traffic model. The simulation results demonstrate that the disorder states in the deterministic NaSch traffic model can be suppressed, and the different types of periodic states would occur.

  1. Interference Cancellation Using Replica Signal for HTRCI-MIMO/OFDM in Time-Variant Large Delay Spread Longer Than Guard Interval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuta Ida

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM and multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO are generally known as the effective techniques for high data rate services. In MIMO/OFDM systems, the channel estimation (CE is very important to obtain an accurate channel state information (CSI. However, since the orthogonal pilot-based CE requires the large number of pilot symbols, the total transmission rate is degraded. To mitigate this problem, a high time resolution carrier interferometry (HTRCI for MIMO/OFDM has been proposed. In wireless communication systems, if the maximum delay spread is longer than the guard interval (GI, the system performance is significantly degraded due to the intersymbol interference (ISI and intercarrier interference (ICI. However, the conventional HTRCI-MIMO/OFDM does not consider the case with the time-variant large delay spread longer than the GI. In this paper, we propose the ISI and ICI compensation methods for a HTRCI-MIMO/OFDM in the time-variant large delay spread longer than the GI.

  2. DETECCIÓN Y RECONOCIMIENTO DE SEÑALES DE TRÁNSITO UTILIZANDO MATCHING DE CHAMFER DETECTION AND RECOGNITION OF TRAFFIC SIGNALS USING MATCHING OF CHAMFER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristián Arriagada García

    2007-08-01

    available details at first sight etc, in our case a prototype is presented which allows the opportunity to help a car driver to pay attention to the traffic signs on the road, attempting to assist the driver, and at the same time to avoid traffic infractions and accidents. The prototype developed with computer vision techniques, allows the detection and recognition of signposts that are on the road and to inform its nature to the driver through an audible sign or a visual projection. The research was mainly centered on the phases of initial detection; with the objective of taking into account a quick heuristic, taking advantage of the segmentation by color, with their characteristics of invariability of system HSV (Brightness, Saturation, Value [10], and/or initial detection by borders, making use of the improved algorithm of Chamfer [1], finally to detect and recognize the symbols of the sign, using transformation of distance techniques and hierarchical matching of Chamfer[1], conditioned to this kind of application. The prototype in the phase of proof was implemented in Matlab, with the initial purpose of proving the effectiveness of the methods that were used. Once they are proved an OpenCV was used to verify its functioning in real time.

  3. Network Characteristics of Video Streaming Traffic

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, Ashwin; Barakat, Chadi; Legout, Arnaud; Towsley, Don; Dabbous, Walid

    2011-01-01

    Video streaming represents a large fraction of Internet traffic. Surprisingly, little is known about the network characteristics of this traffic. In this paper, we study the network characteristics of the two most popular video streaming services, Netflix and YouTube. We show that the streaming strategies vary with the type of the application (Web browser or native mobile application), and the type of container (Silverlight, Flash, or HTML5) used for video streaming. In particular, we identify three different streaming strategies that produce traffic patterns from non-ack clocked ON-OFF cycles to bulk TCP transfer. We then present an analytical model to study the potential impact of these streaming strategies on the aggregate traffic and make recommendations accordingly.

  4. Implications of traffic characteristics on interdomain traffic engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Uhlig, Steve

    2004-01-01

    This thesis discusses the implications of the traffic characteristics on interdomain traffic engineering with BGP. We first provide an overview of the interdomain traffic control problem. Then, we present results concerning the characteristics of the interdomain traffic, based on the analysis of real traffic traces gathered from non-transit ASes. We discuss the implications of the topological properties of the traffic on interdomain traffic engineering. Based on this knowledge of the...

  5. A novel solution for car traffic control based on radiometric microwave devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldovieri, Francesco; Denisov, Alexander; Speziale, Victor

    2014-05-01

    The significant problem of traffic in big cities, connected with huge and building up quantity of automobile cars, demands for novel strategies, based on nonconventional solutions, in order to improve system traffic control, especially at crossroads. As well known, the usual solution is based on the time relay, which requires the installation of a fixed traffic interval (signal light switching) at a crossroad; this solution is low cost, but does not account for the actual traffic conditions. Therefore, in the recent years, attention is towards to new designs, where the monitoring of the and control of traffic is carried out by using various methods including, optical, the infrared, magnetic, radar tracking, acoustical ones. In this work, we discuss the deployment of high sensitivity radiometric systems and radiometers(sensor) in the microwave range [1, 2]. In fact, the radiometer as "sensor" can provide an always updated information about the car traffic in any weather condition and in absence or low visibility conditions. In fact, the radiometric sensor detects the cars thanks to the different behavior of the car roofs which reflect the cold sky whereas the road asphalt is visible as warm object (at around outside temperature). [1] A. G. Denisov, V. P. Gorishnyak, S. E. Kuzmin et al., "Some experiments concerning resolution of 32 sensors passive 8mm wave imaging system," in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology (ISSTT '09), Charlottesville, Va, USA, April 2009. [2] F. Soldovieri, A. Natale, V. Gorishnyak, A. Pavluchenko, A. Denisov, and L. Chen, "Radiometric Imaging for Monitoring and Surveillance Issues," International Journal of Antennas and Propagation, vol. 2013, Article ID 272561, 8 pages, 2013. doi:10.1155/2013/272561.

  6. Lithium clearance in chronic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A L; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Leyssac, P P;

    1989-01-01

    1. Lithium clearance measurements were made in 72 patients with chronic nephropathy of different aetiology and moderate to severely reduced renal function. 2. Lithium clearance was strictly correlated with glomerular filtration rate, and there was no suggestion of distal tubular reabsorption of...... lithium or influence of osmotic diuresis. 3. Fractional reabsorption of lithium was reduced in most patients with glomerular filtration rates below 25 ml/min. 4. Calculated fractional distal reabsorption of sodium was reduced in most patients with glomerular filtration rates below 50 ml/min. 5. Lithium...... lithium clearance may be a measure of the delivery of sodium and water from the renal proximal tubule. With this assumption it was found that adjustment of the sodium excretion in chronic nephropathy initially takes place in the distal parts of the nephron (loop of Henle, distal tubule and collecting duct...

  7. Occupant traffic estimation through structural vibration sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Shijia; Mirshekari, Mostafa; Zhang, Pei; Noh, Hae Young

    2016-04-01

    The number of people passing through different indoor areas is useful in various smart structure applications, including occupancy-based building energy/space management, marketing research, security, etc. Existing approaches to estimate occupant traffic include vision-, sound-, and radio-based (mobile) sensing methods, which have placement limitations (e.g., requirement of line-of-sight, quiet environment, carrying a device all the time). Such limitations make these direct sensing approaches difficult to deploy and maintain. An indirect approach using geophones to measure floor vibration induced by footsteps can be utilized. However, the main challenge lies in distinguishing multiple simultaneous walkers by developing features that can effectively represent the number of mixed signals and characterize the selected features under different traffic conditions. This paper presents a method to monitor multiple persons. Once the vibration signals are obtained, features are extracted to describe the overlapping vibration signals induced by multiple footsteps, which are used for occupancy traffic estimation. In particular, we focus on analysis of the efficiency and limitations of the four selected key features when used for estimating various traffic conditions. We characterize these features with signals collected from controlled impulse load tests as well as from multiple people walking through a real-world sensing area. In our experiments, the system achieves the mean estimation error of +/-0.2 people for different occupant traffic conditions (from one to four) using k-nearest neighbor classifier.

  8. Lactate clearance in cardiorespiratory emergency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Greco

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Early goal directed therapy has been found to improve prognosis in septic patients, if the therapeutic goal is achieved within the first six hours. The aim of our study is to demonstrate that in patients with acute cardiorespiratory failure, rapid (within 2 hours lactate clearance can help define patients’ prognosis. 67 consecutive patients, admitted to our 16-bed Emergency Medicine ward for acute cardiorespiratory failure (age 75,9 ± 9,8 (APACHE II score 19,0 ± 4,1, were included in the study. Blood lactate concentration was read at admission and after 2, 6 and 24 hours. We evaluated mortality at seven days and the use of orotracheal intubation (patients with negative outcome vs. discharge or transfer to a non-emergency ward with subsequent discharge (patients with negative outcome. Lactate concentration at admission was 4,6 ± 2,5 mmol/l; lactate clearance (% at 2 hours was 40,4 ± 32,1 in patients with a positive outcome and –8,3 ± 5,0 in patients with a negative outcome (p < 0,05. Lactate clearance at 2 hours < 25% is correlated to a negative outcome with an 84,2% sensitivity and a 79,2% specificity. The positive predictive value was 61,5% and the negative predictive value was 92,2%. Systematic lactate clearance monitoring can be used in cases of acute cardiorespiratory insufficiency to identify patients with a high risk of negative outcome. In our study, low clearance at two hours was associated with an increase in mortality and/or the need for orotracheal intubation. Conversely, a clearance at two hours of > 25% in most cases confirms the therapeutic strategy undertaken. Serial evaluation of blood lactate concentration may therefore be useful in guiding treatment strategies.

  9. Data Collecting Software Design for Traffic Lights' Signal Based on Multi-Serial Port and Multithreading%多串口多线程交通信号灯数据采集软件系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艳霞; 胡双炎

    2011-01-01

    An improved data collecting method for traffic lights' signal is presented,which uses multi-threading and multi-serial port technology to collect the traffic lights information from separate road junctions at the same time and uses synchronous technology to solve the interference from separate road junctions' data information.A custom communication protocol is put forward for the both communicating sides to improve communication reliability and maintainability.The center-side PC can receive all the real-time information from separate road junctions and at the same time can send various control commands to the road junctions,which can greatly reduce the labor intensity of the management staff of separate road junctions.%提出了一种交通信号灯数据采集方法,采用多串口多线程技术实时采集多个路口的红绿灯信息,利用同步技术解决了各路数据的干扰.通信双方采用自定义的通信协议,从而提高了通信的可靠性和可维护性.中心端PC机实时接收各路信息,同时发送各种控制命令给路口,大大减弱了各个路口信号灯管理人员的劳动强度.

  10. A Sarsa(λ-Based Control Model for Real-Time Traffic Light Coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoke Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic problems often occur due to the traffic demands by the outnumbered vehicles on road. Maximizing traffic flow and minimizing the average waiting time are the goals of intelligent traffic control. Each junction wants to get larger traffic flow. During the course, junctions form a policy of coordination as well as constraints for adjacent junctions to maximize their own interests. A good traffic signal timing policy is helpful to solve the problem. However, as there are so many factors that can affect the traffic control model, it is difficult to find the optimal solution. The disability of traffic light controllers to learn from past experiences caused them to be unable to adaptively fit dynamic changes of traffic flow. Considering dynamic characteristics of the actual traffic environment, reinforcement learning algorithm based traffic control approach can be applied to get optimal scheduling policy. The proposed Sarsa(λ-based real-time traffic control optimization model can maintain the traffic signal timing policy more effectively. The Sarsa(λ-based model gains traffic cost of the vehicle, which considers delay time, the number of waiting vehicles, and the integrated saturation from its experiences to learn and determine the optimal actions. The experiment results show an inspiring improvement in traffic control, indicating the proposed model is capable of facilitating real-time dynamic traffic control.

  11. A Sarsa(λ)-based control model for real-time traffic light coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoke; Zhu, Fei; Liu, Quan; Fu, Yuchen; Huang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Traffic problems often occur due to the traffic demands by the outnumbered vehicles on road. Maximizing traffic flow and minimizing the average waiting time are the goals of intelligent traffic control. Each junction wants to get larger traffic flow. During the course, junctions form a policy of coordination as well as constraints for adjacent junctions to maximize their own interests. A good traffic signal timing policy is helpful to solve the problem. However, as there are so many factors that can affect the traffic control model, it is difficult to find the optimal solution. The disability of traffic light controllers to learn from past experiences caused them to be unable to adaptively fit dynamic changes of traffic flow. Considering dynamic characteristics of the actual traffic environment, reinforcement learning algorithm based traffic control approach can be applied to get optimal scheduling policy. The proposed Sarsa(λ)-based real-time traffic control optimization model can maintain the traffic signal timing policy more effectively. The Sarsa(λ)-based model gains traffic cost of the vehicle, which considers delay time, the number of waiting vehicles, and the integrated saturation from its experiences to learn and determine the optimal actions. The experiment results show an inspiring improvement in traffic control, indicating the proposed model is capable of facilitating real-time dynamic traffic control. PMID:24592183

  12. Pinostrobin from Boesenbergia pandurata is an inhibitor of Ca2+-signal-mediated cell-cycle regulation in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangkangwan, Wachirasak; Boonkerd, Saipin; Chavasiri, Warinthorn; Sukapirom, Kasama; Pattanapanyasat, Kovit; Kongkathip, Ngampong; Miyakawa, Tokichi; Yompakdee, Chulee

    2009-07-01

    Upon searching plant extracts for inhibitors of the Ca(2+) signaling pathway using the zds1Delta-yeast proliferation based assay, a crude rhizome extract of Boesenbergia pandurata was found to be strongly positive, and from this extract pinostrobin, alpinetin, and pinocembrin chalcone were isolated as active components. Further biochemical experiments confirmed that pinostrobin possesses inhibitory activity on the Ca(2+) signals involved in the control of G2/M phase cell cycle progression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PMID:19584530

  13. SMART VIDEO SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM FOR VEHICLE DETECTION AND TRAFFIC FLOW CONTROL

    OpenAIRE

    Shafie, A. A.; Ali, M.H.; FADHLAN HAFIZ; ROSLIZAR M. ALI

    2011-01-01

    Traffic signal light can be optimized using vehicle flow statistics obtained by Smart Video Surveillance Software (SVSS). This research focuses on efficient traffic control system by detecting and counting the vehicle numbers at various times and locations. At present, one of the biggest problems in the main city in any country is the traffic jam during office hour and office break hour. Sometimes it can be seen that the traffic signal green light is still ON even though there is no vehicle c...

  14. Trajectory Based Traffic Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Benjamin Bjerre; Andersen, Ove; Lewis-Kelham, Edwin;

    2013-01-01

    We present the INTRA system for interactive path-based traffic analysis. The analyses are developed in collaboration with traffic researchers and provide novel insights into conditions such as congestion, travel-time, choice of route, and traffic-flow. INTRA supports interactive point-and-click a......We present the INTRA system for interactive path-based traffic analysis. The analyses are developed in collaboration with traffic researchers and provide novel insights into conditions such as congestion, travel-time, choice of route, and traffic-flow. INTRA supports interactive point......-and-click analysis, due to a novel and efficient indexing structure. With the web-site daisy.aau.dk/its/spqdemo/we will demonstrate several analyses, using a very large real-world data set consisting of 1.9 billion GPS records (1.5 million trajectories) recorded from more than 13000 vehicles, and touching most...

  15. Identifying file-sharing P2P traffic based on traffic characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on identifying file-sharing peer-to-peer (P2P) (such as BitTorrent (BT)) traffic at the borders of a stub network. By analyzing protocols and traffic of applications, it is found that file-sharing P2P traffic of a single user differs greatly from traditional and other P2P (such as QQ) applications' traffic in the distribution of involved remote hosts and remote ports. Therefore, a method based on discreteness of remote hosts (RHD) and discreteness of remote ports (RPD) is proposed to identify BT-like traffic. This method only relies on flow information of each user host in a stub network, and no packet payload needs to be monitored. At intervals, instant RHD for concurrent transmission control protocol and user datagram protocol flows for each host are calculated respectively through grouping flows by the stub network that the remote host of each flow belongs to. On given conditions, instant RPD are calculated through grouping flows by the remote port to amend instant RHD. Whether a host has been using a BT-like application or not can be deduced from instant RHD or average RHD for a period of time. The proposed method based on traffic characteristics is more suitable for identifying protean file-sharing P2P traffic than content-based methods. Experimental results show that this method is effective with high accuracy.

  16. Accidentes de tránsito de vehículos de motor en la población joven: evaluación de una intervención educativa en Cuernavaca, Morelos Road traffic injuries among youth: measuring the impact of an educational intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Hidalgo-Solórzano

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analizar el efecto de una intervención educativa dirigida a incrementar el conocimiento sobre causas y factores de riesgo de accidentes de tránsito de vehículos de motor (ATVM en jóvenes de la ciudad de Cuernavaca. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se utilizó un diseño cuasi-experimental en estudiantes de 15 a 19 años inscritos en preparatorias y universidades. La intervención educativa incluyó mensajes de radio, trípticos, pendones, carteles y tarjetas postales. La medida del efecto se estableció en los cambios en el conocimiento de factores de riesgo: velocidad, alcohol y uso de cinturón de seguridad, con base en la metodología de análisis factorial. RESULTADOS: Se observó un cambio significativo en el nivel de conocimiento (p=0.000 en 700 alumnos de 16 planteles educativos. CONCLUSIONES: Las intervenciones educativas representan un primer grupo de medidas para lograr cambios de conocimiento y conducta poblacionales. El presente estudio aporta una metodología para medir a corto plazo los cambios en el conocimiento sobre riesgos relacionados con el principal problema que afecta a los jóvenes mexicanos.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the impact of an educative intervention intended to increase the knowledge of causes and risk factors associated with road traffic iinjries in the city of Cuernavaca. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A quasi-experimental study design was administered to students from 16 to 19 years old in colleges and universities in the city of Cuernavaca. The educative intervention included radio spots, banners, pamphlets, posters and cards. The measure of impact was established as changes in knowledge about speed, alcohol and the use of seat belts, using factor analysis methodologies. RESULTS: A significant change in the level of knowledge (p= 0.000 was observed in 700 students from 16 institutions. CONCLUSIONS: Educative interventions represent an initial strategy for changes in knowledge and population behaviours. The present study

  17. Internet Traffic Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Bonaventure, Olivier; Trimintzios, Panos; Pavlou, George; Quoitin, Bruno; Azcorra, Arturo; Bagnulo, Marcelo; Fegkas, Paris; García-Martínez, Alberto; Georgatsos, Panos; Georgiadis, Leonidas; Jacquenet, Christian; Swinnen, Louis; Tandel, Sebastien; Uhlig, Steve

    2004-01-01

    Traffic engineering encompasses a set of techniques that can be used to control the flow of traffic in data networks. We discuss several of those techniques that have been developed during the last few years. Some techniques are focused on pure IP networks while others have been designed with emerging technologies for scalable Quality of Service (QoS) such as Differentiated Services and MPLS in mind. We first discuss traffic engineering techniques inside a single domain. We show that by using...

  18. Distraction in traffic.

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Many drivers, as well as cyclists and pedestrians, are occupied with all kinds of activities that can distract their attention from traffic, like listening to music, conducting a conversation on their mobile phone, or texting. Distraction has negative effects on traffic behaviour. Most studies estimate that distraction plays a role in the occurrence of about 5-25% of the car crashes. Considering the increasing diffusion of electronic devices in traffic, portable media devices as well as advan...

  19. Traffic Signs Inventory System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ružbarský

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on practical application of Cambridge Correlator. The goal is to propose a traffic signs inventory system by using excellent characteristics of correlator in the rapid optical correlation. The proposal of this inventory system includes obtaining of traffic signs to create the database either collecting the GPS coordinates. It is necessary to know the traffic signs position and also to document the entire surface route for later evaluation in offline mode.

  20. Performance experimental verification on pneumatically-driven split-Stirling-cycle cryocooler with clearance-phase-adjustor%狭缝调相式分置式斯特林制冷机性能试验验证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张存泉; 吴亦农

    2008-01-01

    给出了用来验证上两部分的大量系统试验结果,系统地研究并验证了整机内参数波动特征、压缩活塞与排出器之间的影响关系、冷头温度与调相器间隙对整机性能的影响,同时,以整机运行的冷头最低温度对其运行性能进行了检验,实时测量了各个气动腔内气体压力波动、排出器与活塞运动,这样有助于更加清晰地了解整机内部的工作机制.实验结果表明,试验数据与模拟结果吻合良好.%A set of systematical experiments were carried out in order to validate the simulation model described in the preceding two parts of the study. The parameters fluctuating characteristics in this cooler, influencing relations between the compression piston and the free displacer, and the effects of cold-tip temperatures and phase-adjusting clearance gaps on cooler performances, were intensively investigated. In the meantime, the cooler performances were examined. The minimum coldtip temperature was used as a criteria of refrigeration performance. Real-time measurements of gas pressures in different chambers, displacements of the compression piston and the free displacer, were performed in order to reveal the internal physical processes. The gas pressure has amplitude reduction and phase delay from the compressor to cold chamber. The displacer vidtation system has more complicated influence on the compressor vibration system. The method of the compressor vibration system on the displacer vibration system make gas pressure variation. The experimental results are found to be in good agreement with the simulated ones.

  1. Electroencephalographic signals synchronize with behaviors and are sexually dimorphic during the light-dark cycle in reproductive frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ping; Fang, Guangzhan; Xue, Fei; Cui, Jianguo; Brauth, Steven E; Tang, Yezhong

    2014-02-01

    Male frogs behave differently from females during the breeding season, particularly with respect to courtship displays and in response to mating signals. In search of physiological correlates of these differences, the present study measured changes in baseline electroencephalogram (EEG) power output within four frequency bands in the telencephalon and mesencephalon, together with changes in locomotor activity as a function of the light-dark cycle in male and female Emei music frogs (Babina daunchina) at the reproductive stage. Previous studies have shown that male vocal activity varies both seasonally and daily in this species and that females use male advertisement calls to locate and select mates. The present results show that both EEG and locomotor activity exhibit highly correlated circadian patterns with peaks around light onset and offset. Importantly, during the reproductive stage, statistically significant sex differences in EEG output across brain regions during the light and dark phases were found indicating that sexual dimorphism exists for EEG activity which may underlie sexually specific information processing and behavioral activities. PMID:24337372

  2. The acute effects of interval- vs. continuous-walking exercise on glycemic control in subjects with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karstoft, Kristian; Christensen, Camilla S; Pedersen, Bente K;

    2014-01-01

    . Design: Cross-over, controlled with trials performed in randomized order. Setting: Hospitalized and ambulatory care. Patients: Diagnosed with type 2 diabetes (T2DM; n=10, no withdrawels). Interventions: Subjects performed three 1-hour interventions: 1) interval-walking (IW; repeated cycles of 3 minutes...... and CON. Metabolic clearance rate of glucose during the MMTT was increased in IW compared to CW (P=0.049) and CON (Pday (8.2±0.4 vs. 9.3±0.7 mmol/l, P=0.03), whereas no differences were found between IW and CW...... the following day. Conclusions: One interval-based exercise session improves glycemic control in T2DM subjects when compared to an oxygen-consumption and time-duration matched continuous exercise session....

  3. PR Interval Behavior During Exercise Stress Test

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jae Ung; Kim, Kyung Soo; Kim, Jeong Hyun; Lim, Heon Kil; Lee, Bang Hun; Lee, Chung Kyun

    1995-01-01

    Objectives: The PR interval on the electrocardiogram represents conduction time from the onset of atrial activation through His-Purkinje conduction system during a normal cardiac cycle. While its behavior at rest and during exposure to various cardioactive drugs is well documented, there exist few reports which describe PR interval variations during exercise in normal control and patient groups. In the present study, We examined the behavior of the PR intervals during various stages of exerci...

  4. Impacts of Traffic Noise and Traffic Volume on Birds of Roadside Habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Schneider

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Roadside habitats are important for a range of taxa including plants, insects, mammals, and birds, particularly in developed countries in which large expanses of native vegetation have been cleared for agriculture or urban development. Although roadside vegetation may provide suitable habitat for many species, resident animals can be exposed to high levels of traffic noise, visual disturbance from passing vehicles, and the risk of collision with cars and trucks. Traffic noise can reduce the distance over which acoustic signals such as song can be detected, an effect known as acoustic interference or masking. Studies from the northern hemisphere show that the singing behavior of birds changes in the presence of traffic noise. We investigated the impact of traffic noise and traffic volume on two species of birds, the Grey Shrike-thrush (Colluricincla harmonica and the Grey Fantail (Rhipidura fuliginosa, at 58 roadside sites on the Mornington Peninsula, southeastern Australia. The lower singing Grey Shrike-thrush sang at a higher frequency in the presence of traffic noise, with a predicted increase in dominant frequency of 5.8 Hz/dB of traffic noise, and a total effect size of 209 Hz. In contrast, the higher singing Grey Fantail did not appear to change its song in traffic noise. The probability of detecting each species on a visit to a site declined substantially with increasing traffic noise and traffic volume, with several lines of evidence supporting a larger effect of traffic noise. Traffic noise could hamper detection of song by conspecifics, making it more difficult for birds to establish and maintain territories, attract mates and maintain pair bonds, and possibly leading to reduced breeding success in noisy roadside habitats. Closing key roads during the breeding season is a potential, but untested, management strategy to protect threatened bird species from traffic noise and collision with vehicles at the time of year when they are most

  5. 49 CFR 192.325 - Underground clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Underground clearance. 192.325 Section 192.325... Lines and Mains § 192.325 Underground clearance. (a) Each transmission line must be installed with at least 12 inches (305 millimeters) of clearance from any other underground structure not associated...

  6. 30 CFR 18.24 - Electrical clearances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electrical clearances. 18.24 Section 18.24... APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Construction and Design Requirements § 18.24 Electrical clearances. Minimum clearances between uninsulated electrical...

  7. 14 CFR 25.925 - Propeller clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Propeller clearance. 25.925 Section 25.925 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 25.925 Propeller clearance. Unless smaller clearances are substantiated,...

  8. 75 FR 66309 - Vessel Traffic Service Lower Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-28

    .... 161.65(c)(1): To provide advance notification to downbound vessels, a traffic repeater signal of... ``Vessel Traffic Service Lower Mississippi River'' (65 FR 24516) and requested comments during a 90-day... Guard published a notice (65 FR 50479) reopening the comment period until December 1, 2000. The...

  9. 31 CFR 700.10 - Vehicular and pedestrian traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicular and pedestrian traffic. 700... pedestrian traffic. (a) Drivers of all vehicles on the property shall drive in a careful and safe manner at all times and shall comply with the signals and directions of security officers and all posted...

  10. 44 CFR 15.14 - Vehicular and pedestrian traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER § 15.14 Vehicular and pedestrian traffic. (a) Drivers of all vehicles... signals and directions of the Police/Security Force or other authorized officials and all posted traffic signs; (b) Drivers must comply with NETC parking requirements and vehicle registration requirements;...

  11. Distraction in traffic.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2013-01-01

    Many drivers, as well as cyclists and pedestrians, are occupied with all kinds of activities that can distract their attention from traffic, like listening to music, conducting a conversation on their mobile phone, or texting. Distraction has negative effects on traffic behaviour. Most studies estim

  12. Costs of traffic injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Marie

    2015-01-01

    assessed using Danish national healthcare registers. Productivity costs were computed using duration analysis (Cox regression models). In a subanalysis, cost per severe traffic injury was computed for the 12 995 individuals that experienced a severe injury. RESULTS: The socioeconomic cost of a traffic...

  13. The Traffic Light Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    Traffic lights are an important part of the transportation infrastructure, regulating traffic flow and maintaining safety when crossing busy streets. When they go awry or become nonfunctional, a great deal of havoc and danger can be present. During power outages, the street lights go out all over the affected area. It would be good to be able to…

  14. Road Traffic in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jie, L.; Van Zuylen, H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Traffic is tightly related to the social and economic development in a country. In China the development of the economy has been very fast in the past 30 years and this is still continuing. The transport infrastructure shows a similar pattern, while traffic is also rapidly growing. In urban areas th

  15. Controlled Traffic Farming

    OpenAIRE

    Controlled Traffic Farming Europe

    2011-01-01

    Metadata only record Controlled Traffic Farming (CTF) is a farming method used to reduce soil compaction, decrease inputs, and improve soil structure when coupled with reduced-till or no-till practices. This practices utilizes permanent traffic/wheel zones to limit soil compaction to a specific area. This website provides practical information on CTF, case studies, workshops, and links to additional resources.

  16. Turning Traffic Jams to Jelly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Beijing, known for having the worst traffic in China, is brewing up a traffic plan with the harshest ever measures to ensure smooth traffic flow as the capital’s gridlock during rush hour and private car sales soar.

  17. Synchronization of Traffic Light Systems for Maximum Efficiency along Jalan Bukit Gambier, Penang, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Rafidi M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The synchronization of traffic light systems is one of the best solutions in order to avoid problematic traffic jams. Traffic timing is a major concern when it comes to traffic management. One of the common causes of traffic jams is because of nonsynchronized traffic light systems. Once a light turns green, traffic begins to move, but by the time the moving traffic reaches the next light, the signal is still red. This will disrupt the continuity of the traffic flow, especially for large main roads. The smooth flow of traffic on main routes is important to clear dense traffic in a given time. This study examined the density of vehicles on Jalan Bukit Gambier and also the traffic timing was documented in order to plan out proper re-timing for traffic lights along the studied road. The outcomes of this study support the hypothesis that retiming traffic lights to create a synchronized traffic light system for main roads will greatly improve traffic flow.

  18. Traffic Light Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Løchte

    2007-01-01

    light solvency stress test system introduced by the Danish Financial Supervisory Authority (DFSA) in June 2001. This monitoring system requires L&P companies to submit regular reports documenting the sensitivity of the companies' base capital to certain pre-defined market shocks - the red and yellow......This paper introduces, prices, and analyzes traffic light options. The traffic light option is an innovative structured OTC derivative developed independently by several London-based investment banks to suit the needs of Danish life and pension (L&P) companies, which must comply with the traffic...... light scenarios. These stress scenarios entail drops in interest rates as well as in stock prices, and traffic light options are thus designed to pay off and preserve sufficient capital when interest rates and stock prices fall simultaneously. Sweden's FSA implemented a traffic light system in January...

  19. Traffic Light Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Løchte

    light solvency stress test system introduced by the Danish Financial Supervisory Authority (DFSA) in June 2001. This monitoring system requires L&P companies to submit regular reports documenting the sensitivity of the companies' base capital to certain pre-defined market shocks - the red and yellow......This paper introduces, prices, and analyzes traffic light options. The traffic light option is an innovative structured OTC derivative developed independently by several London-based investment banks to suit the needs of Danish life and pension (L&P) companies, which must comply with the traffic...... light scenarios. These stress scenarios entail drops in interest rates as well as in stock prices, and traffic light options are thus designed to pay off and preserve sufficient capital when interest rates and stock prices fall simultaneously. Sweden's FSA implemented a traffic light system in January...

  20. Abnormal traffic flow data detection based on wavelet analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Qian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of the traffic flow data of non-stationary, the abnormal data detection is difficult.proposed basing on the wavelet analysis and least squares method of abnormal traffic flow data detection in this paper.First using wavelet analysis to make the traffic flow data of high frequency and low frequency component and separation, and then, combined with least square method to find abnormal points in the reconstructed signal data.Wavelet analysis and least square method, the simulation results show that using wavelet analysis of abnormal traffic flow data detection, effectively reduce the detection results of misjudgment rate and false negative rate.

  1. The cycle-dependence of Far-UV and Middle-UV solar emission: EMD analysis of SOLSTICE and Mg II signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrilli, Francesco; Lovric, Mija; Federico, Tosone; Cagnazzo, Chiara; Del Moro, Dario; Pietropaolo, Ermanno

    2016-04-01

    The solar Far-UV and Middle-UV variability is extremely relevant for the stratospheric ozone concentration and dynamics. We investigate solar UV variability at decennial time scale using the data of SOLar-STellar Irradiance Comparison Experiment (SOLSTICE) on SORCE and Bremen Mg II composite signal. The Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) technique has been applied to Mg II and UV signals to separate intrinsic solar components and focus on 11-y variability. The analysis shows that the star changes the UV spectral distribution during 11-y cycle with a different behaviour during the descending phase of cycle 23 and growing phase of cycle 24. The observed UV major evolution can provide empirically-motivated UV predictions over the cycles. On the other hand, the observed minor differences during the ascending and descending phase of solar cycle can be attributed to physical changes in solar emission or described by an uncorrected time-dependent performance of SOLSTICE UV channels. We shortly discuss both possibilities.

  2. Factors contributing to delay in parasite clearance in uncomplicated falciparum malaria in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sijuade Abayomi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum is common in many endemic and other settings but there is no clear recommendation on when to change therapy when there is delay in parasite clearance after initiation of therapy in African children. Methods The factors contributing to delay in parasite clearance, defined as a clearance time > 2 d, in falciparum malaria were characterized in 2,752 prospectively studied children treated with anti-malarial drugs between 1996 and 2008. Results 1,237 of 2,752 children (45% had delay in parasite clearance. Overall 211 children (17% with delay in clearance subsequently failed therapy and they constituted 72% of those who had drug failure, i.e., 211 of 291 children. The following were independent risk factors for delay in parasite clearance at enrolment: age less than or equal to 2 years (Adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.13, 95% confidence interval [CI]1.44-3.15, P 50,000/ul (AOR = 2.21, 95% CI = 1.77-2.75, P 20000/μl a day after treatment began, were independent risk factors for delay in clearance. Non-artemisinin monotherapies were associated with delay in clearance and treatment failures, and in those treated with chloroquine or amodiaquine, with pfmdr 1/pfcrt mutants. Delay in clearance significantly increased gametocyte carriage (P Conclusion Delay in parasite clearance is multifactorial, is related to drug resistance and treatment failure in uncomplicated malaria and has implications for malaria control efforts in sub-Saharan Africa.

  3. Intelligent Video Traffic Smooth Mechanism for Multimedia Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A principal challenge in supporting real-time video services over ATM is the need to provide synchronous play-out in the face of stochastic end-to-end network delays. In this paper, an intelligent traffic smooth mechanism ( ITSM ) is proposed to meet the continuity requirement which is composed of a back-propagation neural network ( BPNN ) traffic predictor, a play-out buffer, and a fuzzy neural network ( FNN ) based play-out rate determinator. The BPNN traffic predictor online predicts the mean packet rate of the traffic in the future interval ( FI ) and the FNN is designed to adaptively determinate the play-out time according to the number of packets in the buffer and the traffic character predicted. Simulation results show that compared to the window mechanism, ITSM achieves high continuity with accepted delay. Furthermore, ITSM can be adaptively modified to meet the QoS of different kinds of services by FNN parameter training.

  4. Distributed learning and multi-objectivity in traffic light control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brys, Tim; Pham, Tong T.; Taylor, Matthew E.

    2014-01-01

    Traffic jams and suboptimal traffic flows are ubiquitous in modern societies, and they create enormous economic losses each year. Delays at traffic lights alone account for roughly 10% of all delays in US traffic. As most traffic light scheduling systems currently in use are static, set up by human experts rather than being adaptive, the interest in machine learning approaches to this problem has increased in recent years. Reinforcement learning (RL) approaches are often used in these studies, as they require little pre-existing knowledge about traffic flows. Distributed constraint optimisation approaches (DCOP) have also been shown to be successful, but are limited to cases where the traffic flows are known. The distributed coordination of exploration and exploitation (DCEE) framework was recently proposed to introduce learning in the DCOP framework. In this paper, we present a study of DCEE and RL techniques in a complex simulator, illustrating the particular advantages of each, comparing them against standard isolated traffic actuated signals. We analyse how learning and coordination behave under different traffic conditions, and discuss the multi-objective nature of the problem. Finally we evaluate several alternative reward signals in the best performing approach, some of these taking advantage of the correlation between the problem-inherent objectives to improve performance.

  5. Modeling of urban traffic networks with lattice Boltzmann model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jian-ping; Qian, Yue-hong; Dai, Shi-qiang

    2008-02-01

    It is of great importance to uncover the characteristics of traffic networks. However, there have been few researches concerning kinetics models for urban traffic networks. In this work, a lattice Boltzmann model (LBM) for urban traffic networks is proposed by incorporating the ideas of the Biham-Middleton-Levine (BML) model into the LBM for road traffic. In the present model, situations at intersections with the red and green traffic signals are treated as a kind of boundary conditions varying with time. Thus, the urban traffic network could be described in the mesoscopic level. By performing numerical simulations under the periodic boundary conditions, the behavior of average velocity is investigated in detail. The numerical results agree quite well with those given by the Chowdhury-Schadschneider (ChSch) model (Chowdhury D. and Schadschneider A., Phys. Rev. E, 59 (1999) R1311). Furthermore, the statistical noise is reduced in this discrete kinetics model, thus, the present model has considerably high computational efficiency.

  6. Reduced expression of DNA repair and redox signaling protein APE1/Ref-1 impairs human pancreatic cancer cell survival, proliferation, and cell cycle progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yanlin; Zhou, Shaoyu; Sandusky, George E; Kelley, Mark R; Fishel, Melissa L

    2010-11-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a deadly disease that is virtually never cured. Understanding the chemoresistance intrinsic to this cancer will aid in developing new regimens. High expression of APE1/Ref-1, a DNA repair and redox signaling protein, is associated with resistance, poor outcome, and angiogenesis; little is known in pancreatic cancer. Immunostaining of adenocarcinoma shows greater APE1/Ref-1 expression than in normal pancreas tissue. A decrease in APE1/Ref-1 protein levels results in pancreatic cancer cell growth inhibition, increased apoptosis, and altered cell cycle progression. Endogenous cell cycle inhibitors increase when APE1/ Ref-1 is reduced, demonstrating its importance to proliferation and growth of pancreatic cancer.

  7. Characterization of P2P IPTV Traffic: Scaling Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Silverston, Thomas; Salamatian, Kave

    2007-01-01

    P2P IPTV applications arise on the Internet and will be massively used in the future. It is expected that P2P IPTV will contribute to increase the overall Internet traffic. In this context, it is important to measure the impact of P2P IPTV on the networks and to characterize this traffic. During the 2006 FIFA World Cup, we performed an extensive measurement campaign. We measured network traffic generated by broadcasting soccer games by the most popular P2P IPTV applications, namely PPLive, PPStream, SOPCast and TVAnts. From the collected data, we characterized the P2P IPTV traffic structure at different time scales. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work, which presents a complete multiscale analysis of the P2P IPTV traffic. Our observations show that the network traffic has not the same scale behavior whether the applications use TCP or UDP. For all the applications, the download traffic is different from the upload traffic and the signaling traffic has an impact on the download traffic.

  8. Bayesian credible interval construction for Poisson statistics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Yong-Sheng

    2008-01-01

    The construction of the Bayesian credible (confidence) interval for a Poisson observable including both the signal and background with and without systematic uncertainties is presented.Introducing the conditional probability satisfying the requirement of the background not larger than the observed events to construct the Bayesian credible interval is also discussed.A Fortran routine,BPOCI,has been developed to implement the calculation.

  9. Plasticity in the vocalizations of anurans in response to traffic noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunnington, Glenn M.; Fahrig, Lenore

    2010-09-01

    Many species use acoustic signals to attract mates, and such signals can be degraded by anthropogenic noise. Anuran abundance has been shown to be negatively correlated with road traffic which could be due in part to the interruption of mate attraction by traffic noise. However, this impact could be small if anurans can alter their vocalization characteristics to avoid masking of their calls by traffic noise. We predicted that: (i) anuran vocalization characteristics (dominant frequency, mean amplitude and call rate) should be different in areas with different traffic noise levels; (ii) increases in traffic noise can cause immediate changes in amphibian vocalization characteristics; (iii) these altered vocalizations are similar to those at high traffic sites. To test the first prediction we compared vocalizations of four species of anuran at breeding sites in locations with low traffic noise vs. sites with high traffic noise. For the second prediction we broadcast traffic noise at low traffic (quiet) sites, and compared the anuran vocalizations before vs. during the broadcast traffic noise. For the third prediction we compared vocalizations at high traffic sites to those produced at low traffic sites while broadcasting traffic noise. Three species of anurans found at locations with low traffic noise produced vocalizations with different characteristics than individuals of the same species found in locations with high traffic noise. Broadcast traffic noise immediately altered amphibian vocalization characteristics such that they became similar to those of the same species found in locations with high traffic noise. We conclude that plasticity in the vocalizations of anurans allows for the maintenance of acoustic communication in the presence of traffic noise.

  10. VBR video traffic models

    CERN Document Server

    Tanwir, Savera

    2014-01-01

    There has been a phenomenal growth in video applications over the past few years. An accurate traffic model of Variable Bit Rate (VBR) video is necessary for performance evaluation of a network design and for generating synthetic traffic that can be used for benchmarking a network. A large number of models for VBR video traffic have been proposed in the literature for different types of video in the past 20 years. Here, the authors have classified and surveyed these models and have also evaluated the models for H.264 AVC and MVC encoded video and discussed their findings.

  11. Road Traffic Injuries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zheng-guo

    2005-01-01

    @@ As everybody knows that automobiles have been greatly changing our life. However, everything has two sides, motor vehicles have also caused a huge number of people's deaths, injuries and property damage. Traffic crashes are perhaps the number one public health problem in developed countries [1]. In the United States, pre-retirement years of life lost in traffic crashes are more than that of the two combined leading diseases: cancer and heart disease [1]. Today road traffic crash (RTC) ranks 11th in leading cause of death and accounts for 2.1% of all deaths globally.

  12. Big Boss Interval Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alparslan-Gok, S.Z.; Brânzei, R.; Tijs, S.H.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper big boss interval games are introduced and various characterizations are given. The structure of the core of a big boss interval game is explicitly described and plays an important role relative to interval-type bi-monotonic allocation schemes for such games. Specifically, each element

  13. Analysis of X-ray induced cell-cycle perturbations in mouse osteosarcoma cells: a two-signal cell-cycle model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of X-irradiation on mouse osteosarcoma cells have been studied by time-lapse cinematography and the resulting pedigrees have been analysed statistically. It is shown that the irradiation treatment causes three types of cell kinetic lesions: cell death (disintegration), cell sterilization (failure to divide) and proliferation delay. The first two lesions are the most important with regard to survival of the irradiated cell in a clonal assay. Of these two lesions, sterilization appears to be highly correlated for sister cells, while this is not true for cell disintegration. This indicates that cell survival in a clonal assay may be a function of the ratio of the incidences of these two types of lesions. The X-ray-induced proliferation delay was studied in terms of intermitotic time distributions, mother-daughter correlation and sibling correlation in relation to the current cell-cycle phase at the time of treatment. This analysis shows that the effects of irradiation on these cell-cycle characteristics is highly cell-cycle-dependent. A qualitative model to account for the observations is presented. (author)

  14. Influence of lane change on stability analysis for two-lane traffic flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Liang; Ma Shou-Feng; Zhong Shi-Quan

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals mainly with the influence of lane changing behaviours on the stability of two-lane traffic flow under a periodic boundary condition.Following the description of an optimal velocity model for two vehicle groups and the derivation of their stability conditions,the feedback signals,which involve information about vehicles from both lanes acting on the two-lane traffic system,are introduced into the optimal velocity model.The control signals play a role in alleviating the traffic jam only if the traffic state is in congestion,and their role will vanish if the traffic state is in the steady state.The numerical simulations show that lane changing behaviours can break the steady state of two-lane traffic flow and aggravate the traffic disturbance,but the control method would successfully suppress the traffic jam eventually,which implies that the conclusions obtained here have certain theoretical and practical significance.

  15. Curcumin Promotes Cell Cycle Arrest and Inhibits Survival of Human Renal Cancer Cells by Negative Modulation of the PI3K/AKT Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Xu, Weili; Li, Baolin; Zhang, Kai; Wu, Yudong; Xu, Haidong; Wang, Junyong; Zhang, Jun; Fan, Rui; Wei, Jinxing

    2015-12-01

    Curcumin possesses anti-cancer effects. In the current study, we tested the effect of curcumin on cell proliferation, viability, apoptosis, cell cycle phases, and activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway in the renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cell line RCC-949. We observed that cell proliferation and viability were markedly inhibited by curcumin, while cell apoptosis was promoted. The latter effect was associated with increased expression of Bcl-2 and diminished expression of Bax (both: mRNA and protein). The cells treated with curcumin increasingly went into cell cycle arrest, which was likely mediated by diminished expression of cyclin B1, as seen in curcumin-treated cells. In addition, curcumin decreased activation of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that curcumin exerts anti-cancer effects by negative modulation of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway and may represent a promising new drug to treat RCC. PMID:27259310

  16. Signals involved in T cell activation. II. Distinct roles of intact accessory cells, phorbol esters, and interleukin 1 in activation and cell cycle progression of resting T lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, L.; Lipsky, P.E.

    1986-05-15

    The signals involved in the initiation of mitogen-induced activation of resting guinea pig T cells were examined. The combination of phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and 4..beta..-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) stimulated DNA synthesis by accessory cell (AC)-depleted T cells cultured at high density, but the use of low density cultures indicated that intact AC were absolutely necessary for PHA-stimulated T cell DNA synthesis even in the presence of PMA, interleukin 1 (IL 1), or interleukin 2 (IL 2). In contrast, AC-depleted T cells were able to respond to the combination of the calcium ionophore, ionomycin, and PMA regardless of the cell density at which they were cultured. Results of cell cycle analysis support the conclusion that intact AC, IL 1, and a PMA-like signal play distinct roles in the progression of mitogen stimulated T cells through the first round of the cell cycle.

  17. Traffic Accident Prediction Model Implementation in Traffic Safety Management

    OpenAIRE

    Wen, Keyao

    2009-01-01

    As one of the highest fatalities causes, traffic accidents and collisions always requires a large amounteffort to be reduced or prevented from occur. Traffic safety management routines therefore always needefficient and effective implementation due to the variations of traffic, especially from trafficengineering point of view apart from driver education.Traffic Accident Prediction Model, considered as one of the handy tool of traffic safety management,has become of well followed with interest...

  18. Non-Traffic Citations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Non-traffic citations (NTCs, also known as "summary offenses") document low-level criminal offenses where a law enforcement officer or other authorized official...

  19. Dementia and Traffic Accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jindong Ding; Siersma, Volkert; Nielsen, Connie Thurøe;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As a consequence of a rapid growth of an ageing population, more people with dementia are expected on the roads. Little is known about whether these people are at increased risk of road traffic-related accidents. OBJECTIVE: Our study aims to investigate the risk of road traffic...... Central Research Register, and/or (2) at least one dementia diagnosis-related drug prescription registration in the Danish National Prescription Registry. Police-, hospital-, and emergency room-reported road traffic-related accidents occurred within the study follow-up are defined as the study outcome...... selection bias due to nonparticipation and loss to follow-up. Furthermore, this ensures that the study results are reliable and generalizable. However, underreporting of traffic-related accidents may occur, which will limit estimation of absolute risks....

  20. Self-learning traffic signal control method of isolated intersection combining Q-learning and fuzzy logic%结合Q学习和模糊逻辑的单路口交通信号自学习控制方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何兆成; 佘锡伟; 杨文臣; 陈宁宁

    2011-01-01

    To address the dynamics and uncertainty in unban transportation system, this paper proposed a traffic signal control system based on reinforcement learning, which was suitable for real-time control in isolated intersection.The proposed method was capable of online learning through a combination of BP neural network and Q-learning algorithm.Furthermore, due to the multi-objective property in traffic signal control, this paper developed a reward design method for Q-learning based on fuzzy logic.Conducted simulated experiments in three traffic scenarios, using the Paramics microscopic traffic simulation software.Experimental results show that the proposed method has high control efficiency in different traffic scenarios, and is significantly better than fixed timing control method.%针对城市交通系统的动态性和不确定性,提出了基于强化学习的信号交叉口智能控制系统结构,对单交叉口动态实时控制进行了研究.将BP神经网络与Q学习算法相结合实现了路口的在线学习.同时,针对交通信号控制的多目标评价特征,采用基于模糊逻辑的Q学习奖惩信号设计方法,实施对交通信号的优化控制.最后,在三种交通场景下,应用Paramics微观交通仿真软件对典型十字路口进行仿真实验.结果表明,该方法对不同交通场景下的突变仍可保持较高的控制效率,控制效果明显优于定时控制.

  1. CONTROLLING TRAFFIC FLOW IN MULTILANE-ISOLATED INTERSECTION USING ANFIS APPROACH TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R. LAI

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Many controllers have applied the Adaptive Neural-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS concept for optimizing the controller performance. However, there are less traffic signal controllers developed using the ANFIS concept. ANFIS traffic signal controller with its fuzzy rule base and its ability to learn from a set of sample data could improve the performance of Existing traffic signal controlling system to reduce traffic congestions at most of the busy traffic intersections in city such as Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The aim of this research is to develop an ANFIS traffic signals controller for multilane-isolated four approaches intersections in order to ease traffic congestions at traffic intersections. The new concept to generate sample data for ANFIS training is introduced in this research. The sample data is generated based on fuzzy rules and can be analysed using tree diagram. This controller is simulated on multilane-isolated traffic intersection model developed using M/M/1 queuing theory and its performance in terms of average waiting time, queue length and delay time are compared with traditional controllers and fuzzy controller. Simulation result shows that the average waiting time, queue length, and delay time of ANFIS traffic signal controller are the lowest as compared to the other three controllers. In conclusion, the efficiency and performance of ANFIS controller are much better than that of fuzzy and traditional controllers in different traffic volumes.

  2. Traffic accident injuries in a referral Orthopedic Hospital in North West of Iran during summer 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Mohammad Navali

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Road traffic injuries are a major public health problem, requiring huge efforts for effective and sustainable prevention. Because of the high occurrence of traffic accidents in Iran, basic data acquisition is highly needed to implement prevention plans. The present research is conducted as an epidemiological study of the traffic accident victims referred to a referral orthopedic center in North West of Iran. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted during a 3 months period from June to September 2009 in Tabriz, Iran. A total of 16681 patients were admitted to the emergency ward, and 3246 patients (19.5% were hospitalized during this period because of traffic related injuries. After randomization, 630 cases were selected to be enrolled in the study. The location of an accident, position of road users, type of crashed vehicle, cause of accident, type of injury, time interval from accident to hospitalization and treatment outcome were recorded. Statistical analyses were carried out using SPSS software. Results: The mean age of the patients was 31 years (range, 6 months to 98 years and 77.0% of patients (468 cases were men. A total of 193 (36.6% patients sustained traffic accident in open roads and 335 (63.4% in urban corridors. In 67 (12.9% of accidents, there was only a single occupant in the vehicle. The time interval between the accident and admission was 6.6 ± 3.2 hours. Of the 608 cases, 45.7% were drivers, 30.3% passengers, and 24.0% pedestrians. Most cases of the car accident happened in urban areas, and the male victims were largely in the driver group. The most frequent type of injury was knee, leg and head trauma. Conclusion: The large number of traffic-related injuries admitted to our emergency ward that comprise mostly young adults should be considered as an alarming signal to policy makers and health providers in our province. Strict control on drivers’ behavior should be taken into account if increasing human

  3. Contributions of dynamic environmental signals during life-cycle transitions to early life-history traits in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.)

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yang; Wang, Tongli; El-Kassaby, Yousry A.

    2016-01-01

    Environmental signals are important triggers in the life-cycle transitions and play a crucial role in the life-history evolution. Yet very little is known about the leading ecological factors contributing to the variations of life-history traits in perennial plants. This paper explores both the causes and consequences for the evolution of life-history traits (i.e., seed dormancy and size) in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) across British Columbia (B.C.), Canada. We se...

  4. Turning Traffic Jams to Jelly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI LI

    2010-01-01

    @@ Beijing, known for having the worst traffic in China, is brewing up a traffic plan with the harshest ever measures to ensure smooth traffic flow as the capital's gridlock during rush hour and private car sales soar. On December 13, the Beijing Municipal Government started soliciting public opinions for a draft plan designed to relieve the city's traffic problems.

  5. Traffic-Adaptive Routing

    OpenAIRE

    Kammenhuber, Nils

    2011-01-01

    Despite the bursty and highly volatile traffic, routing in the Internet today is optimised only on coarse time scales, as load-adaptive routing is known to induce performance deterioration by causing massive oscillations. We describe ReplEx, an universally applicable distributed algorithm for dynamic routing/traffic engineering, which is based on game theory. We show through extensive realistic simulations that ReplEx does not oscillate, and that it achieves performance gains comparable to tr...

  6. Penalties in traffic.

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Traffic offenders are penalized in various ways: fines, (temporary) driving licence suspensions, confiscation of their vehicles, penalty points, mandatory participation in rehabilitation programmes, prison sentences or community service. The aim of penalties is to punish offenders, to protect society and to influence the behaviour of offenders and all citizens (prevention). Many studies have found that the combination of enforcement and penalties prevent the violation of traffic regulations a...

  7. Ant traffic rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourcassié, Vincent; Dussutour, Audrey; Deneubourg, Jean-Louis

    2010-07-15

    Many animals take part in flow-like collective movements. In most species, however, the flow is unidirectional. Ants are one of the rare group of organisms in which flow-like movements are predominantly bidirectional. This adds to the difficulty of the task of maintaining a smooth, efficient movement. Yet, ants seem to fare well at this task. Do they really? And if so, how do such simple organisms succeed in maintaining a smooth traffic flow, when even humans experience trouble with this task? How does traffic in ants compare with that in human pedestrians or vehicles? The experimental study of ant traffic is only a few years old but it has already provided interesting insights into traffic organization and regulation in animals, showing in particular that an ant colony as a whole can be considered as a typical self-organized adaptive system. In this review we will show that the study of ant traffic can not only uncover basic principles of behavioral ecology and evolution in social insects but also provide new insights into the study of traffic systems in general. PMID:20581264

  8. Target-induced formation of gold amalgamation on DNA-based sensing platform for electrochemical monitoring of mercury ion coupling with cycling signal amplification strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •We report a new electrochemical sensing protocol for the detection of mercury ion. •Gold amalgamation on DNA-based sensing platform was used as nanocatalyst. •The signal was amplified by cycling signal amplification strategy. -- Abstract: Heavy metal ion pollution poses severe risks in human health and environmental pollutant, because of the likelihood of bioaccumulation and toxicity. Driven by the requirement to monitor trace-level mercury ion (Hg2+), herein we construct a new DNA-based sensor for sensitive electrochemical monitoring of Hg2+ by coupling target-induced formation of gold amalgamation on DNA-based sensing platform with gold amalgamation-catalyzed cycling signal amplification strategy. The sensor was simply prepared by covalent conjugation of aminated poly-T(25) oligonucleotide onto the glassy carbon electrode by typical carbodiimide coupling. Upon introduction of target analyte, Hg2+ ion was intercalated into the DNA polyion complex membrane based on T–Hg2+–T coordination chemistry. The chelated Hg2+ ion could induce the formation of gold amalgamation, which could catalyze the p-nitrophenol with the aid of NaBH4 and Ru(NH3)63+ for cycling signal amplification. Experimental results indicated that the electronic signal of our system increased with the increasing Hg2+ level in the sample, and has a detection limit of 0.02 nM with a dynamic range of up to 1000 nM Hg2+. The strategy afforded exquisite selectivity for Hg2+ against other environmentally related metal ions. In addition, the methodology was evaluated for the analysis of Hg2+ in spiked tap-water samples, and the recovery was 87.9–113.8%

  9. ETFRC: Enhanced TFRC for Media Traffic over Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad A. Talaat

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The evident increase in media traffic over Internet is expected to worsen its congestion state. TCP-friendly rate control protocol TFRC is one of the most promising congestion control techniques developed so far. TFRC has been thoroughly tested in terms of being TCP-friendly, responsive, and fair. Yet, its impact on the visual quality and the peak signal-to- noise ratio PSNR of the media traffic traversing Internet is still questionable. In this paper we aimed to point out the enhancements required for TFRC that enables producing the maximum PSNR value for Internet media traffic. Firstly, we suspected the default value of n that represents the number of loss intervals used in calculating the loss event rate in the TFRC equation. This value is recommended to be set to 8 according to the latest RFC of TFRC. We investigated the effect of modifying the TFRC mechanism on the resulting PSNR of the transmitted video over Internet using TFRC via switching n across the values from 2 to 16. We investigated the effect of such variation over a simulated network environment to study its effect on the resulting PSNR for a number of arbitrary video sequences. Our simulations results showed that running TFRC with n=11 led to reaching the maximum PSNR values among all the examined values of n including its default value. Secondly, we tested the impact on the PSNR of another modification in the TFRC mechanism via switching both values of n and Nfb which is frequency of feedback messages sent by TFRC receiver to its sender every round-trip time RTT. The default value of Nfb is 1; hence we scanned every possible combination of n and Nfb ranging from 2 to 16, and from 1 to 4, respectively and recorded the produced PSNR. It was obvious that several other combinations of n and Nfb produced higher PSNR values other than their default values in the request for comment RFC of TFRC. We hereby suggest using an enhanced TFRC that we abbreviated as ETFRC which has the values

  10. [Cycling in Zagreb].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Stipan; Krapac, Ladislav; Krapac, Josip

    2007-01-01

    Cycling in Zagreb, as means of urban transport inside and outside the city, has a bright past, hazy presence but a promising future. Every day, aggressive citizens who lack urban traffic culture mistreat many cyclists but also many pedestrians. Sedentary way of living, unhealthy eating habits and inadequate recreation would surely be reduced if Zagreb had a network of cycling tracks (190 cm) or lanes (80 cm). Main city roads were constructed at the beginning of the 20th century. Today, the lack of cycling tracks is particularly evident in terms of missing connections between northern and southern parts of the city. Transportation of bikes in public vehicles, parking of bikes as well as cycling along the foot of the mountains Medvednica and Zumberacko gorje is not adequately organized. Better organization is necessary not only because of the present young generation but also because of the young who will shortly become citizens of the EU, where cycling is enormously popular. Cycling tourism is not known in Zagreb, partly due to inadequate roads. The surroundings of Zagreb are more suitable for cycling tourism and attractive brochures and tourist guides offer information to tourists on bikes. Professional, acrobatic and sports cycling do not have a tradition in Zagreb and in Croatia. The same holds true for recreational cycling and indoor exercise cycling. The authors discuss the impact of popularization of cycling using print and electronic media. The role of district and local self-government in the construction and improvement of traffic roads in Zagreb is very important. It is also significant for the implementation of legal regulations that must be obeyed by all traffic participants in order to protect cyclists, the most vulnerable group of traffic participants besides passengers. Multidisciplinary action of all benevolent experts would surely increase safety and pleasure of cycling in the city and its surroundings. This would also help reduce daily stress and

  11. Lock Traffic Signal Stations - USACE IENC

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — These inland electronic Navigational charts (IENCs) were developed from available data used in maintenance of Navigation channels. Users of these IENCs should be...

  12. The interval ordering problem

    CERN Document Server

    Dürr, Christoph; Spieksma, Frits C R; Nobibon, Fabrice Talla; Woeginger, Gerhard J

    2011-01-01

    For a given set of intervals on the real line, we consider the problem of ordering the intervals with the goal of minimizing an objective function that depends on the exposed interval pieces (that is, the pieces that are not covered by earlier intervals in the ordering). This problem is motivated by an application in molecular biology that concerns the determination of the structure of the backbone of a protein. We present polynomial-time algorithms for several natural special cases of the problem that cover the situation where the interval boundaries are agreeably ordered and the situation where the interval set is laminar. Also the bottleneck variant of the problem is shown to be solvable in polynomial time. Finally we prove that the general problem is NP-hard, and that the existence of a constant-factor-approximation algorithm is unlikely.

  13. MATLAB Simulation of Fuzzy Traffic Controller for Multilane Isolated Intersection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azura Che Soh/Lai Guan Rhung

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a MATLAB simulation of fuzzy traffic controller for controlling traffic flow at multilane isolated signalized intersection. The controller is developed based on the waiting time and vehicles queue length at current green phase, and vehicles queue lengths at the other phases. For control strategy, the controllercontrols the traffic light timings and phase sequence to ensure smooth flow of traffic with minimal waiting time, queue length and delay time. In this research, the isolated intersection model used consists of two lanes in each approach. Each approach has two different values of vehicles queue length and waiting time, respectively, at the intersection. The maximum values of vehicles queue length and waiting times are selected as the inputs to controller for optimized control of traffic flows at the intersection. A traffic model and fuzzy traffic controller are developed to evaluate the performance of traffic controllers underdifferent conditions. In the end, by comparing the experimental result obtained by the vehicle-actuated controller (VAC and fuzzy traffic controller (FTC which improves significant performance for intersections, we confirmed the efficiency of our intelligent controller based fuzzy inference system.

  14. RENAL CLEARANCE AND URINARY EXCRETION OF CIPROFLOXACIN IN GOATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. IQBAL, I. JAVED, B. ASLAM, F. MUHAMMAD AND I. U. JAN

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The renal clearance and urinary excretion of ciprofloxacin were investigated in eight healthy female goats. In each animal, ciprofloxacin was administered intramuscularly at the rate of 5 mg/kg body weight. Following drug administration, blood and urine samples were collected at different time intervals and analyzed for ciprofloxacin and creatinine. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was used to determine the drug concentration in the plasma and urine. The value of diuresis after single administration of ciprofloxacin was 0.073 ± 0.014 ml/min/kg. Mean (± SE values for renal clearance of creatinine and ciprofloxacin were 1.870 ± 0.385 and 0.982 ± 0.166 ml/min/kg, respectively. The ratio between the renal clearance of ciprofloxacin and that of creatinine remained less than one, which was indicative of back diffusion. The mean (± SE value for the cumulative percent of ciprofloxacin dose excreted at 10 hours following its intramuscular administration was 13.03 ± 2.07. Based on these results, it was evident that besides glomerular filtration, renal handling of drug involved back diffusion also. It was concluded that in local goats glomerular filtration rate (GFR was lower than that reported for their foreign counterparts.

  15. Operating the railway traffic control system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton PEPEVNIK

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the valid traffic policy and development strategy of the Republic of Slovenia, the Slovenian Railways have to consider the developmental and strategic aims of European railways. The perspective of progress is basically determined by skimming the European system development, by taking over the European system and managing the railway traffic in the connection with the European railway system.Technology and organization of the railway traffic system present the sum of all technological and organizational elements and processes that takes part in providing aims of the system. The aims are defined as solving transport problems in railway system. The term system is defined, from the formal mathematical viewpoint, as a whole that is usually complicated or even very much complicated. Therefore, the railway system is complex as well, and that is why it has to be managed precisely. In the narrow sense of meaning, technology and work organization both comprises a variety of means and procedures to realize basic activity that can be seen as a perfect unit, and that can be the process of passengers and freight transport in a transport system.Because of the prompt development of microelectronics and computer engineering, a new generation of electronic signal-safety devices appeared.All these changes from the past few years that have been introduced into railway technology, enable railway to become attractive and competitive to other means of traffic. Therefore, the Slovenian Railways have to follow novelties in traffic technology development and gradually modernize its railway network.

  16. ON INTERVAL ESTIMATING REGRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Michalak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new look on the well-known nonparametric regression estimator – the Nadaraya-Watson kernel estimator. Though it was invented 50 years ago it still being applied in many fields. After these yearsfoundations of uncertainty theory – interval analysis – are joined with this estimator. The paper presents the background of Nadaraya-Watson kernel estimator together with the basis of interval analysis and shows the interval Nadaraya-Watson kernel estimator.

  17. Design of optimized Interval Arithmetic Multiplier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajashekar B.Shettar

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Many DSP and Control applications that require the user to know how various numericalerrors(uncertainty affect the result. This uncertainty is eliminated by replacing non-interval values withintervals. Since most DSPs operate in real time environments, fast processors are required to implementinterval arithmetic. The goal is to develop a platform in which Interval Arithmetic operations areperformed at the same computational speed as present day signal processors. So we have proposed thedesign and implementation of Interval Arithmetic multiplier, which operates with IEEE 754 numbers. Theproposed unit consists of a floating point CSD multiplier, Interval operation selector. This architectureimplements an algorithm which is faster than conventional algorithm of Interval multiplier . The costoverhead of the proposed unit is 30% with respect to a conventional floating point multiplier. Theperformance of proposed architecture is better than that of a conventional CSD floating-point multiplier,as it can perform both interval multiplication and floating-point multiplication as well as Intervalcomparisons

  18. From Traffic Flow to Economic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bando, M.

    The optimal velocity model which is applied to traffic flow phenomena explains a spontaneous formation of traffic congestion. We discuss why the model works well in describing both free-flow and congested flow states in a unified way. The essential ingredient is that our model takes account of a sort of time delay in reacting to a given stimulus. This causes instability of many-body system, and yields a kind of phase transition above a certain critical density. Especially there appears a limit cycle on the phase space along which individual vehicle moves, and they show cyclic behavior. Once that we recognize the mechanism the same idea can be applied to a variety of phenomena which show cyclic behavior observed in many-body systems. As an example of such applications, we investigate business cycles commonly observed in economic system. We further discuss a possible origin of a kind of cyclic behavior observed in climate change.

  19. Can toe-ground footwear margin alter swing-foot ground clearance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagano, Hanatsu; Sparrow, W A; Begg, Rezaul K

    2015-07-01

    Falls are an important healthcare concern in the older population and tripping is the primary cause. Greater swing foot-ground clearance is functional for tripping prevention. Trips frequently occur due to the lowest part of the shoe contacting the walking surface. Shoe design effects on swing foot-ground clearance are, therefore, important considerations. When a shoe is placed on a flat surface, there usually is small vertical margin (VM) between the walking surface and the minimum toe point (MTP). The current study examined the effects of VM on swing foot-ground clearance at a critical gait cycle event, minimum foot clearance (MFC). 3D coordinates of the swing foot (i.e. MTP and heel) were obtained during the swing phase. MTP represented the swing foot-ground clearance and various MTPs were modelled based on a range of VMs. The sagittal orientation of the toe and heel relative to the walking surface was also considered to evaluate effects of VM and swing foot angle on foot-ground clearance. Greater VM increased the swing foot-ground clearance. At MFC, for example, 0.09 cm increase was estimated for every 0.1cm VM. Foot angle throughout the swing phase was typically -30° and 70°. Increasing swing ankle dorsiflexion can maximise VM, which is effective for tripping prevention. Further research will be needed to determine the maximum thresholds of VM to be safely incorporated into a shoe.

  20. BIRTH INTERVAL AMONG NOMAD WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.Keyvan

    1976-06-01

    Full Text Available To have an, idea about the relation between the length of birth interval and lactation, and birth control program this study have been done. The material for such analysis was nomad women's fertility history that was in their reproductive period (15-44. The material itself was gathered through a health survey. The main sample was composed of 2,165 qualified women, of whom 49 due to previous or presently using contraceptive methods and 10 for the lack of enough data were excluded from 'this study. Purpose of analysis was to find a relation between No. of live births and pregnancies with total duration of married life (in other word, total months which the women were at risk of pregnancy. 2,106 women which their fertility history was analyzed had a totally of272, 502 months married life. During this time 8,520 live births did occurred which gave a birth interval of 32 months. As pregnancy termination could be through either live birth, still birth or abortion (induced or spontaneous, bringing all together will give No. of pregnancies which have occurred during this period (8,520 + 124 + 328 = 8,972 with an average of interpregnancy interval of 30.3 months. Considering the length of components of birth interval: Post partum amenorrhea which depends upon lactation. - Anovulatory cycles (2 month - Ooulatory exposure, in the absence of contraceptive methods (5 months - Pregnancy (9 months.Difference between the length, of birth interval from the sum of the mentioned period (except the first component, (2 + 5+ 9 = 16 will be duration of post partum amenorrhea (32 - 16 = 16, or in other word duration of breast feeding among nomad women. In this study it was found that, in order to reduce birth by 50% a contraceptive method with 87% effectiveness is needed.

  1. ROLE OF PI3K-AKT-mTOR AND Wnt SIGNALING PATHWAYS IN G1-S TRANSITION OF CELL CYCLE IN CANCER CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAKSHMIPATHI eVADLAKONDA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The PI3K–Akt pathway together with one of its downstream targets, the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR is a highly deregulated pathway in cancers. There is a reciprocal relation between the Akt phosphorylation and mTOR complexes. Akt phosphorylated at T308 activates mTORC1 by inhibition of the tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC1/2, where as mTORC2 is recognized as the kinase that phosphorylates Akt at S473. Recent developments in the research on regulatory mechanisms of autophagy places mTORC1 mediated inhibition of autophagy at the central position in activation of proliferation and survival pathways in cells. Autophagy is a negative regulator of Wnt signaling pathway and the downstream effectors of Wnt signaling pathway, cyclin D1 and the c-Myc, are the key players in initiation of cell cycle and regulation of the G1-S transition in cancer cells. Production of reaction oxygen species (ROS, a common feature of a cancer cell metabolism, activates several downstream targets like the transcription factors FoxO, which play key roles in promoting the progression of cell cycle. A model is presented on the role of PI3K -Akt - mTOR and Wnt pathways in regulation of the progression of cell cycle through Go-G1-and S phases.

  2. Sensor for a traffic response system and traffic control system using a sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijningen, A.W.P. van; Kleijweg, J.C.M.

    2007-01-01

    Traffic is sensed using a signal from a wave reflection detection device to classify road users into different types. Classification is performed dependent on statistical properties of reflections. Preferably reflections are resolved into reflections for different combinations of position and speed,

  3. Emergent traffic jams

    CERN Document Server

    Nagel, K; Nagel, Kai; Paczuski, Maya

    1995-01-01

    We study a single-lane traffic model that is based on human driving behavior. The outflow from a traffic jam self-organizes to a critical state of maximum throughput. Small perturbations of the outflow far downstream create emergent traffic jams with a power law distribution P(t) \\sim t^{-3/2} of lifetimes, t. On varying the vehicle density in a closed system, this critical state separates lamellar and jammed regimes, and exhibits 1/f noise in the power spectrum. Using random walk arguments, in conjunction with a cascade equation, we develop a phenomenological theory that predicts the critical exponents for this transition and explains the self-organizing behavior. These predictions are consistent with all of our numerical results.

  4. Inaccuracy in traffic forecasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent; Holm, Mette K. Skamris; Buhl, Søren Ladegaard

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents results from the first statistically significant study of traffic forecasts in transportation infrastructure projects. The sample used is the largest of its kind, covering 210 projects in 14 nations worth US$58 billion. The study shows with very high statistical significance......, the difference between actual and forecasted traffic is more than +-20%; for 25% of road projects, the difference is larger than +-40%. Forecasts for roads are more accurate and more balanced than for rail, with no significant difference between the frequency of inflated versus deflated forecasts. But for both...... forecasting. Highly inaccurate traffic forecasts combined with large standard deviations translate into large financial and economic risks. But such risks are typically ignored or downplayed by planners and decision-makers, to the detriment of social and economic welfare. The paper presents the data...

  5. Interval Scheduling: A Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolen, A.W.J.; Lenstra, J.K.; Papadimitriou, C.H.; Spieksma, F.C.R.

    2007-01-01

    In interval scheduling, not only the processing times of the jobs but also their starting times are given. This article surveys the area of interval scheduling and presents proofs of results that have been known within the community for some time. We first review the complexity and approximability o

  6. Traffic Engineering in Metro Ethernet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmaraj Nair

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Traffic engineering is one of the major issues that has to be addressed in Metro Ethernet networks for quality of service and efficient resource utilization. This paper aims at understanding the relevant issues and outlines novel algorithms for multipoint traffic engineering in Metro Ethernet. We present an algorithmic solution for traffic engineering in Metro Ethernet using optimal multiple spanning trees. This iterative approach distributes traffic across the network uniformly without overloading network resources. We also introduce a new traffic specification model for Metro Ethernet, which is a hybrid of two widely used traffic specification models, the pipe and hose models.

  7. Target-induced formation of gold amalgamation on DNA-based sensing platform for electrochemical monitoring of mercury ion coupling with cycling signal amplification strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinfeng; Tang, Juan; Zhou, Jun; Zhang, Lan; Chen, Guonan; Tang, Dianping

    2014-01-31

    Heavy metal ion pollution poses severe risks in human health and environmental pollutant, because of the likelihood of bioaccumulation and toxicity. Driven by the requirement to monitor trace-level mercury ion (Hg(2+)), herein we construct a new DNA-based sensor for sensitive electrochemical monitoring of Hg(2+) by coupling target-induced formation of gold amalgamation on DNA-based sensing platform with gold amalgamation-catalyzed cycling signal amplification strategy. The sensor was simply prepared by covalent conjugation of aminated poly-T(25) oligonucleotide onto the glassy carbon electrode by typical carbodiimide coupling. Upon introduction of target analyte, Hg(2+) ion was intercalated into the DNA polyion complex membrane based on T-Hg(2+)-T coordination chemistry. The chelated Hg(2+) ion could induce the formation of gold amalgamation, which could catalyze the p-nitrophenol with the aid of NaBH4 and Ru(NH3)6(3+) for cycling signal amplification. Experimental results indicated that the electronic signal of our system increased with the increasing Hg(2+) level in the sample, and has a detection limit of 0.02nM with a dynamic range of up to 1000nM Hg(2+). The strategy afforded exquisite selectivity for Hg(2+) against other environmentally related metal ions. In addition, the methodology was evaluated for the analysis of Hg(2+) in spiked tap-water samples, and the recovery was 87.9-113.8%. PMID:24439499

  8. The MAPK Signaling Cascade is a Central Hub in the Regulation of Cell Cycle, Apoptosis and Cytoskeleton Remodeling by Tripeptidyl-Peptidase II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakrishna Sompallae

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Tripeptidyl-peptidase II (TPPII is a serine peptidase highly expressed in malignant Burkitt’s lymphoma cells (BL. We have previously shown that overexpression of TPPII correlates with chromosomal instability, centrosomal and mitotic spindle abnormalities and resistance to apoptosis induced by spindle poisons. Furthermore, TPPII knockdown by RNAi was associated with endoreplication and the accumulation of polynucleated cells that failed to complete cell division, indicating a role of TPPII in the cell cycle. Here we have applied a global approach of gene expression analysis to gain insights on the mechanism by which TPPII regulates this phenotype. mRNA profiling of control and TPPII knockdown BL cells identified one hundred and eighty five differentially expressed genes. Functional categorization of these genes high- lighted major physiological functions such as apoptosis, cell cycle progression, cytoskeleton remodeling, proteolysis, and signal transduction. Pathways and protein interactome analysis revealed a significant enrichment in components of MAP kinases signaling. These findings suggest that TPPII infl uences a wide network of signaling pathways that are regulated by MAPKs and exerts thereby a pleiotropic effect on biological processes associated with cell survival, proliferation and genomic instability.

  9. Generalized Deterministic Traffic Rules

    CERN Document Server

    Fuks, H; Fuks, Henryk; Boccara, Nino

    1997-01-01

    We study a family of deterministic models for highway traffic flow which generalize cellular automaton rule 184. This family is parametrized by the speed limit $m$ and another parameter $k$ that represents a ``degree of aggressiveness'' in driving, strictly related to the distance between two consecutive cars. We compare two driving strategies with identical maximum throughput: ``conservative'' driving with high speed limit and ``aggressive'' driving with low speed limit. Those two strategies are evaluated in terms of accident probability. We also discuss fundamental diagrams of generalized traffic rules and examine limitations of maximum achievable throughput. Possible modifications of the model are considered.

  10. Traffic Light Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipsen, Mark Philip; Jensen, Morten Bornø; Møgelmose, Andreas;

    2015-01-01

    Traffic light recognition (TLR) is an integral part of any intelligent vehicle, which must function in the existing infrastructure. Pedestrian and sign detection have recently seen great improvements due to the introduction of learning based detectors using integral channel features. A similar push...... database is collected based on footage from US roads. The database consists of both test and training data, totaling 46,418 frames and 112,971 annotated traffic lights, captured in continuous sequences under a varying light and weather conditions. The learning based detector achieves an AUC of 0.4 and 0...

  11. Development of a Novel System to Measure a Clearance of a Passenger Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, M.; Oizumi, J.; Matsuoka, R.; Takeda, H.; Okukura, H.; Ooya, A.; Koike, A.

    2016-06-01

    Clearances of a passenger platform at a railway station should be appropriately maintained for safety of both trains and passengers. In most Japanese railways clearances between a platform and a train car is measured precisely once or twice a year. Because current measurement systems operate on a track, the closure of the track is unavoidable. Since the procedure of the closure of a track is time-consuming and bothersome, we decided to develop a new system to measure clearances without the closure of a track. A new system is required to work on a platform and the required measurement accuracy is less than several millimetres. We have adopted a 3D laser scanner and stop-and-go operation for a new system. The current systems on a track measure clearances continuously at walking speed, while our system on a platform measures clearances at approximately ten metres intervals. The scanner controlled by a PC acquires a set of point data at each measuring station. Edge points of the platform, top and side points of two rails are detected from the acquired point data. Finally clearances of the platform are calculated by using the detected feature points of the platform and the rails. The results of an experiment using a prototype of our system show that the measurement accuracy by our system would be satisfactory, but our system would take more time than the current systems. Since our system requires no closure of a track, we conclude that our system would be convenient and effective.

  12. 19 CFR 122.77 - Clearance certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Clearance certificate. 122.77 Section 122.77 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Documents Required for Clearance and Permission To Depart;...

  13. 14 CFR 23.925 - Propeller clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Propeller clearance. 23.925 Section 23.925 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 23.925 Propeller clearance. Unless...

  14. Integrated Traffic Flow Management Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabbe, Shon R.; Sridhar, Banavar; Mukherjee, Avijit

    2009-01-01

    A generalized approach is proposed to support integrated traffic flow management decision making studies at both the U.S. national and regional levels. It can consider tradeoffs between alternative optimization and heuristic based models, strategic versus tactical flight controls, and system versus fleet preferences. Preliminary testing was accomplished by implementing thirteen unique traffic flow management models, which included all of the key components of the system and conducting 85, six-hour fast-time simulation experiments. These experiments considered variations in the strategic planning look-ahead times, the replanning intervals, and the types of traffic flow management control strategies. Initial testing indicates that longer strategic planning look-ahead times and re-planning intervals result in steadily decreasing levels of sector congestion for a fixed delay level. This applies when accurate estimates of the air traffic demand, airport capacities and airspace capacities are available. In general, the distribution of the delays amongst the users was found to be most equitable when scheduling flights using a heuristic scheduling algorithm, such as ration-by-distance. On the other hand, equity was the worst when using scheduling algorithms that took into account the number of seats aboard each flight. Though the scheduling algorithms were effective at alleviating sector congestion, the tactical rerouting algorithm was the primary control for avoiding en route weather hazards. Finally, the modeled levels of sector congestion, the number of weather incursions, and the total system delays, were found to be in fair agreement with the values that were operationally observed on both good and bad weather days.

  15. The Role of Intrinsic Flexibility in Signal Transduction Mediated by the Cell Cycle Regulator, p27Kip1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galea, Charles A. [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital; Nourse, Amanda [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital; Wang, Yuefeng [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital; Sivakolundu, Sivashankar G. [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital; Heller, William T [ORNL; Kriwacki, Richard W [University of Tennessee (UT) Health Science Center, Memphis

    2008-02-01

    p27{sup Kip1} (p27), which controls eukaryotic cell division through interactions with cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks), integrates and transduces promitogenic signals from various nonreceptor tyrosine kinases by orchestrating its own phosphorylation, ubiquitination and degradation. Intrinsic flexibility allows p27 to act as a 'conduit' for sequential signaling mediated by tyrosine and threonine phosphorylation and ubiquitination. While the structural features of the Cdk/cyclin-binding domain of p27 are understood, how the C-terminal regulatory domain coordinates multistep signaling leading to p27 degradation is poorly understood. We show that the 100-residue p27 C-terminal domain is extended and flexible when p27 is bound to Cdk2/cyclin A. We propose that the intrinsic flexibility of p27 provides a molecular basis for the sequential signal transduction conduit that regulates p27 degradation and cell division. Other intrinsically unstructured proteins possessing multiple sites of posttranslational modification may participate in similar signaling conduits.

  16. 基于强化学习的交叉口交通低排放信号控制研究%Traffic Emission Driven Signal Control of Urban Intersection Based on Reinforcement Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李昕

    2014-01-01

    Vehicle emissions at intersection are highly complex and it is difficult to establish clear mathematical model of vehicle emission especially in considering intersection initial queue length. Q-learning is a kind of model-free reinforcement learning algorithm. It searches for the optimal control strategy through trial and error interactive with environment. Based on microscopic traffic simulator USTCMTS2.0 platform, Q-learning is used to search for the optimal signal timing scheme with lowest emission in the different conditions of intersection initial queue length. In allusion to the low learning efficiency of Q-learning, the fuzzy inference is introduced to accelerate convergence of Q-learning. Simulation results show that the reinforcement learning algorithm is more effective. The average vehicle emissions are reduced by 13.9% compared with Hideki's method for high saturation of the intersection and the fuzzy initialization of Q-value significantly accelerates the convergence process of Q-learning.%交叉口车辆排放较为复杂,尤其是在考虑初始排队长度的情况下,更是难以建立明确的数学模型。Q学习是一种无模型的强化学习算法,通过与环境的试错交互学习最优控制策略。本文提出了一种基于Q学习的交通排放信号控制方案。利用仿真平台USTCMTS2.0,通过不断地试错学习找到在不同相位排队长度下最优配时。在Q学习中添加了模糊初始化Q函数的方法以改进Q学习的收敛速度,加速了学习过程。仿真实验结果表明:强化学习算法取得较好的效果。相比较Hideki的方法,在车流量较高时,车辆平均排放量减少了13.9%,并且对Q函数值的模糊初始化大大加速了Q函数收敛的过程。

  17. AB109. Downregulation of tNASP inhibits proliferation through regulating cell cycle-related proteins and inactive ERK/MAPK signal pathway in renal cell carcinoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jianzheng; Wang, Hainan; Cheng, Gong; Wang, Shangqian; Deng, Yunfei; Song, Zhen; Xu, Aiming; Liu, Bianjiang; Wang, Zengjun

    2016-01-01

    Objective Nuclear auto-antigenic sperm protein (NASP), initially described as a highly auto-immunogenic testis and sperm-specific protein, is a histone chaperone that is proved to present in all dividing cells. NASP has two splice variants: testicular NASP (tNASP) and somatic form of NASP (sNASP). Only cancer, germ, transformed, and embryonic cells have a high level of expression of the tNASP. Up to now, little has been known about tNASP in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). In the present study, the molecular mechanism of tNASP in RCC was explored. Methods The expression level of tNASP in 16 paired human RCC specimens was determined. Downregulation of tNASP by small interfering RNA (siRNA) was transfected in RCC cell lines. The effect of downregulation of tNASP by siRNA on cell colony formation and proliferation was examined by colony formation assay and CCK-8 assay, cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry, and the expression of cyclin D1 and P21 were detected by Western blotting. ERK/MAPK signaling was also analyzed. Results tNASP has a relative high expression level in human RCC tissues. Via upregulation of P21 and downregulation of cyclinD1, silence of tNASP can inhibit cell proliferation, which induces cell cycle arrest. Furthermore, ERK signaling pathway is confirmed to mediate the regulation of cell cycle-related proteins caused by silence of tNASP. Conclusions Our research demonstrates that knockdown of tNASP effectively inhibits the proliferation and causes G1 phase arrest through ERK/MAPK signal pathway.

  18. The Multiple Faces of Prostaglandin E2 G-Protein Coupled Receptor Signaling during the Dendritic Cell Life Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Cambi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Many processes regulating immune responses are initiated by G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs and report biochemical changes in the microenvironment. Dendritic cells (DCs are the most potent antigen-presenting cells and crucial for the regulation of innate and adaptive immune responses. The lipid mediator Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 via four GPCR subtypes (EP1-4 critically regulates DC generation, maturation and migration. The role of PGE2 signaling in DC biology was unraveled by the characterization of EP receptor subtype expression in DC progenitor cells and DCs, the identification of the signaling pathways initiated by these GPCR subtypes and the classification of DC responses to PGE2 at different stages of differentiation. Here, we review the advances in PGE2 signaling in DCs and describe the efforts still to be made to understand the spatio-temporal fine-tuning of PGE2 responses by DCs.

  19. Design of small interval signal acquisition system for low-energy X-ray industrial CT%低能X射线工业CT小间隔信号采集系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周钦; 高富强; 陈聃青; 陈晟飞

    2013-01-01

    In order to solve the traditional detectors' shortcomings of low speed and weak precision, to detect small sophisticated devices, and meet the demand of reconstructed images with high spatial resolution in low-energy X-ray microfocus CT systems, a small interval signal acquisition system is proposed. The system takes X-CARD 0. 2-256G as the detector, which is highly integrated with fast scanning speed and only 0. 2 mm pixel size, Cyclone EP1C3T as the core logic control module, and LXT972A as the Ethernet chip. The whole hardware and logic designations are described clearly in terms of the performance of reliable, stable and high efficiency. Then the dynamic range of the system is tested. Experimental results show that the proposed system has a dynamic range larger than 4000, can collect and transport the signal quickly and accurately, and can satisfy the requirements of ICT transmission sufficiently.%为克服探测器阵列获取速度慢、重建图像精度低的缺点,并能在低能X射线的小焦点/微焦点CT系统中完成对小型精密复杂器件的检测,研究了低能X射线工业CT的小间隔信号采集系统.系统选取DT公司0.2 mm像素尺寸、高集成度、扫描速度快的X-CARD 0.2-256G为探测器,Altera公司的Cyclone EP1C3T为主控芯片,Intel公司的LXT972A为以太网控制芯片.从数据传输的可靠、稳定、高效率角度出发,用模块化的方法给出了系统的硬件设计,用有限状态机技术完成了系统的逻辑单元设计,并对系统的动态范围进行了测试.测试实验结果表明,系统的动态范围大于4000,能够检测精密器件、准确迅速地完成信号的采集传输,满足实际工业CT对信号采集的要求.

  20. Comparison of Two Alternate Methods for Tracking Toe Clearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Christopher A.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2007-01-01

    Analyses of toe clearance during the swing phase of locomotion has often been utilized in determining a subject s propensity to trip while either walking or stepping over an obstacle. In the literature, toe clearance has been studied using a marker on the superior aspect of the second toe (rtoe), a marker on the lateral aspect of the fifth metatarsal head (mth5), or a virtual marker positioned at the anterior tip of the toe (vtoe). The purpose of this study was to compute toe clearance and associated parameters using a fifth metatarsal marker and a virtual toe marker, and compare the results with those of the standard toe marker. Subjects walked on a motorized treadmill at five different speeds while performing a visual acuity task at two separate target distances (ten 60-second trials). The minimum vertical height (TCl) was determined for each stride, along with its point of occurence in the gait cycle, and the angles of the foot and ankle at that time. A regression analysis was performed on the vtoe and mth5 results versus rtoe individually. For all TCl parameters, the mth5 marker did not correlate well with rtoe; the vtoe marker showed better agreement. Most importantly, the mth5 marker predicted a later occurence of TCl than rtoe and vtoe - thereby missing the most dangerous point in swing phase for a trip. From this analysis, the vtoe marker proved to be a better analog to rtoe than mth5, especially for determining a subject s propensity to trip.

  1. Surface Traffic Management Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yoo Chul

    2012-01-01

    This presentation discusses an overview of the surface traffic management research conducted by NASA Ames. The concept and human-in-the-loop simulation of the Spot and Runway Departure Advisor (SARDA), an integrated decision support tool for the tower controllers and airline ramp operators, is also discussed.

  2. Air Traffic Flow Management

    CERN Document Server

    Ganu, Hrishikesh V

    2008-01-01

    Air Traffic Flow Management is the regulation of air traffic in order to avoid exceeding airport or flight sector capacity in handling traffic, and to ensure that available capacity is used efficiently. We have tried to explore the logic behind the claims by Bertsimas et.al about integral solutions to the LP relaxation of the Traffic Flow Management Problem(TFMP). Polyhedral theory only indicates that the stronger TFMP formulation of Bertsimas et.al might lead to integral solutions in some cases. Our computations indicate that the encouraging results reported by Bertsimas et.al are not merely fortuitous or due to their specific data set. Indeed, we found that the TFMP had integral solutions even in case of artificial data sets generated to include severe conflicts in the flight schedules. In our limited tests with 4-5 scenarios, we obtained non-integral solutions only once. This is of significant practical importance because, the LP relaxation can be solved even on small machines with low memory and processor...

  3. Traffic Engineering in Metro Ethernet

    OpenAIRE

    Padmaraj Nair; Suku Nair; Girish Chiruvolu

    2010-01-01

    Traffic engineering is one of the major issues that has to be addressed in Metro Ethernet networks for quality of service and efficient resource utilization. This paper aims at understanding the relevant issues and outlines novel algorithms for multipoint traffic engineering in Metro Ethernet. We present an algorithmic solution for traffic engineering in Metro Ethernet using optimal multiple spanning trees. This iterative approach distributes traffic across the network uniformly without overl...

  4. Chaotic Control of Network Traffic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Tan; CUI Yi-Dong; JIN Yue-Hui; CHENG Shi-Duan

    2009-01-01

    A method of chaotic control on network traffic is presented.By this method,the chaotic network traffic can be controlled to a pre-assigned equilibrium point according to chaotic prediction and the largest Lyapunov exponent of the traffic on congested link is reduced,thereby the probability of traffic burst and network congestion can be reduced.Numerical examples show that this method is effective.

  5. Road Traffic Accidents in Kazakhstan

    OpenAIRE

    Alma Aubakirova; Alibek Kossumov; Nurbek Igissinov

    2013-01-01

    Background: The article provides the analysis of death rates in road traffic accidents in Kazakhstan from 2004 to 2010 and explores the use of sanitary aviation. Methods: Data of fatalities caused by road traffic accidents were collected and analysed. Descriptive and analytical methods of epidemiology and biomedical statistics were applied. Results: Totaly 27,003 people died as a result of road traffic accidents in this period. The death rate for the total population due to road traffic accid...

  6. Traffic flow modeling: a Genealogy

    OpenAIRE

    Van Wageningen-Kessels, F.L.M.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.; Vuik, C.; Lint, van J. W. C.

    2014-01-01

    80 years ago, Bruce Greenshields presented the first traffic flow model at the Annual Meeting of the Highway Research Board. Since then, many models and simulation tools have been developed. We show a model tree with four families of traffic flow models, all descending from Greenshields' model. The tree shows the historical development of traffic flow modeling and the relations between models. Based on the tree we discuss the main trends and future developments in traffic flow modeling and si...

  7. A Language and Toolset for the Synthesis and Efficient Simulation of Clock-Cycle-True Signal-Processing Algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstra, Klaas L.; Gerez, Sabih H.; Kampen, van David

    2005-01-01

    Optimal simulation speed and synthesizability are contradictory requirements for a hardware description language. This paper presents a language and toolset that enables both synthesis and fast simulation of fixed-point signal processing algorithms at the register-transfer level using a single syste

  8. HIGH LEVEL MODELLING OF REAL TIME TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROLLER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADITYA MANDLOI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to design and implement traffic control system. The system developed is able to sense the presence of vehicles within certain range by setting the appropriate duration for the traffic signals to react accordingly. By employing logical functions to calculate the appropriate timing for the signals toilluminate, the system can help to solve the problem of traffic congestion. The use of FPGAs (Field Programmable Gate Arrays is an interesting new phenomenon in VLSI development. FPGAs offer all of thefeatures needed to implement most complex designs. Hardware simulation tests were successfully performed on the algorithm implemented into a FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Arrays. The main object of the paper is to design a Real Time Traffic Light Controller (RTTLC using VHDL and implement the RTTLC in XILINX SPARTAN - 3 FPGA.

  9. Algorithmic testing for QT interval measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Bortolan, Giovanni

    2006-01-01

    The PTB diagnostic ECG database has been used for testing the fully automated program for the identification and measurement of QT interval. The database consists of 549 ECG recordings of 294 subjects. The testing algorithm uses the Padova program, which identifies all QRS complexes analyzing a global spatial velocity and the ECG signal. Different strategies for the choice of the optimal QT interval have been compared, and the optimization of T end in the single leads was performed using the ...

  10. Traffic sign detection and analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møgelmose, Andreas; Trivedi, Mohan M.; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2012-01-01

    Traffic sign recognition (TSR) is a research field that has seen much activity in the recent decade. This paper introduces the problem and presents 4 recent papers on traffic sign detection and 4 recent papers on traffic sign classification. It attempts to extract recent trends in the field...

  11. Impact of traffic noise on railway traffic safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravko TOŠ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic noise is one of the dominant factors of ergo-assessment. The harmful impact of traffic noise on the engine driver as target group can be studied in isolation from other ergo-assessment factors only in the initial phase of research. The simultaneous action of several related factors in the system of ergo-assessment factors has cumulative effect on the perception and psychomotoric status of the railway traffic participants in the appropriate traffic situation. The initial partial research of traffic noise by a combination of several scientific methods needs to be eventually upgraded by studying the relations among several concurrent important or dominant ergo-assessment factors.

  12. Does the time interval between antimüllerian hormone serum sampling and initiation of ovarian stimulation affect its predictive ability in in vitro fertilization-intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polyzos, Nikolaos P; Nelson, Scott M; Stoop, Dominic;

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether the time interval between serum antimüllerian hormone (AMH) sampling and initiation of ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization-intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF-ICSI) may affect the predictive ability of the marker for low and excessive ovarian response....

  13. CATS-based Air Traffic Controller Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callantine, Todd J.

    2002-01-01

    This report describes intelligent agents that function as air traffic controllers. Each agent controls traffic in a single sector in real time; agents controlling traffic in adjoining sectors can coordinate to manage an arrival flow across a given meter fix. The purpose of this research is threefold. First, it seeks to study the design of agents for controlling complex systems. In particular, it investigates agent planning and reactive control functionality in a dynamic environment in which a variety perceptual and decision making skills play a central role. It examines how heuristic rules can be applied to model planning and decision making skills, rather than attempting to apply optimization methods. Thus, the research attempts to develop intelligent agents that provide an approximation of human air traffic controller behavior that, while not based on an explicit cognitive model, does produce task performance consistent with the way human air traffic controllers operate. Second, this research sought to extend previous research on using the Crew Activity Tracking System (CATS) as the basis for intelligent agents. The agents use a high-level model of air traffic controller activities to structure the control task. To execute an activity in the CATS model, according to the current task context, the agents reference a 'skill library' and 'control rules' that in turn execute the pattern recognition, planning, and decision-making required to perform the activity. Applying the skills enables the agents to modify their representation of the current control situation (i.e., the 'flick' or 'picture'). The updated representation supports the next activity in a cycle of action that, taken as a whole, simulates air traffic controller behavior. A third, practical motivation for this research is to use intelligent agents to support evaluation of new air traffic control (ATC) methods to support new Air Traffic Management (ATM) concepts. Current approaches that use large, human

  14. Effects of Traffic Lights on CA Traffic Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SuweiFENG; GuoqingGU

    1997-01-01

    Cellular automaton traffic models can include various factors in traffic system with simple regulations and the corresponding computations and simulations are rather convenient and effective.In this paper,the Biham-Middleton-Levine model(briefly saying the BML model)is improved by removing its limitation of synchronized change of traffic lights.In new model,the traffic light at each crossing could arbitrarily change its starting time and tempo of variation and hence the model could more realistically describe the influence of traffic lights on the performance of traffic systems.The cases of traffic light with unsynchronized starting time and different tempo of variation are simulated in this paper.

  15. Robust Foot Clearance Estimation Based on the Integration of Foot-Mounted IMU Acceleration Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoussaad, Mourad; Sijobert, Benoît; Mombaur, Katja; Coste, Christine Azevedo

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a method for the robust estimation of foot clearance during walking, using a single inertial measurement unit (IMU) placed on the subject's foot. The proposed solution is based on double integration and drift cancellation of foot acceleration signals. The method is insensitive to misalignment of IMU axes with respect to foot axes. Details are provided regarding calibration and signal processing procedures. Experimental validation was performed on 10 healthy subjects under three walking conditions: normal, fast and with obstacles. Foot clearance estimation results were compared to measurements from an optical motion capture system. The mean error between them is significantly less than 15 % under the various walking conditions. PMID:26703622

  16. Productive life cycle of adeno-associated virus serotype 2 in the complete absence of a conventional polyadenylation signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lina; Yin, Zifei; Wang, Yuan; Lu, Yuan; Zhang, Daniel; Srivastava, Arun; Ling, Changquan; Aslanidi, George V; Ling, Chen

    2015-09-01

    We showed that WT adeno-associated virus serotype 2 (AAV2) genome devoid of a conventional polyadenylation [poly(A)] signal underwent complete genome replication, encapsidation and progeny virion production in the presence of adenovirus. The infectivity of the progeny virion was also retained. Using recombinant AAV2 vectors devoid of a human growth hormone poly(A) signal, we also demonstrated that a subset of mRNA transcripts contained the inverted terminal repeat (ITR) sequence at the 3' end, which we designated ITR in RNA (ITRR). Furthermore, AAV replication (Rep) proteins were able to interact with the ITRR. Taken together, our studies suggest a new function of the AAV2 ITR as an RNA element to mediate transgene expression from poly(A)-deleted mRNA. PMID:26297494

  17. Notch3 signaling gates cell cycle entry and limits neural stem cell amplification in the adult pallium

    OpenAIRE

    Alunni, A.; Krecsmarik, M.; A Bosco; Galant, S.; Pan, L.; Moens, C.B.; Bally-Cuif, L.

    2013-01-01

    Maintaining the homeostasis of germinal zones in adult organs is a fundamental but mechanistically poorly understood process. In particular, what controls stem cell activation remains unclear. We have previously shown that Notch signaling limits neural stem cell (NSC) proliferation in the adult zebrafish pallium. Combining pharmacological and genetic manipulations, we demonstrate here that long-term Notch invalidation primarily induces NSC amplification through their activation from quiescenc...

  18. SKIN KINETICS AND DERMAL CLEARANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash Shashi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Availability of several therapeutic and cosmetic formulations for topical application has made the research on skin kinetics as a topic of current interest. Topical formulations are typically meant for local effect although there is always a chance that the low molecular weight chemicals are easily transported across the skin layer and make it available in the systemic circulation. Thus there is a major concern about the transport of chemical moieties following the topical application of cosmetics and therapeutic formulations and the real time measurement of the molecules in the skin layer has become obligatory. It is well known that the properties of both drug and the excipients have identical role in determining the skin permeability of chemical moieties. In the last decade several investigations have been carried out in this filed using several in vitro and in vivo models. This review provides a brief account on the basics of skin kinetics, parameters assessed, various techniques and methods adapted in skin kinetic studies. Moreover, we have also discussed about the micro-environment inside the skin layer and the possible mechanism of drug depot formation, skin metabolism and clearance of molecules from the skin layers.

  19. Intelligent Testing of Traffic Light Programs: Validation in Smart Mobility Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Ferrer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In smart cities, the use of intelligent automatic techniques to find efficient cycle programs of traffic lights is becoming an innovative front for traffic flow management. However, this automatic programming of traffic lights requires a validation process of the generated solutions, since they can affect the mobility (and security of millions of citizens. In this paper, we propose a validation strategy based on genetic algorithms and feature models for the automatic generation of different traffic scenarios checking the robustness of traffic light cycle programs. We have concentrated on an extensive urban area in the city of Malaga (in Spain, in which we validate a set of candidate cycle programs generated by means of four optimization algorithms: Particle Swarm Optimization for Traffic Lights, Differential Evolution for Traffic Lights, random search, and Sumo Cycle Program Generator. We can test the cycles of traffic lights considering the different states of the city, weather, congestion, driver expertise, vehicle’s features, and so forth, but prioritizing the most relevant scenarios among a large and varied set of them. The improvement achieved in solution quality is remarkable, especially for CO2 emissions, in which we have obtained a reduction of 126.99% compared with the experts’ solutions.

  20. XIAO is involved in the control of organ size by contributing to the regulation of signaling and homeostasis of brassinosteroids and cell cycling in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yunhe; Bao, Liang; Jeong, So-Yoon; Kim, Seong-Ki; Xu, Caiguo; Li, Xianghua; Zhang, Qifa

    2012-05-01

    Organ size is determined by cell number and size, and involves two fundamental processes: cell proliferation and cell expansion. Although several plant hormones are known to play critical roles in shaping organ size by regulating the cell cycle, it is not known whether brassinosteroids (BRs) are also involved in regulating cell division. Here we identified a rice T-DNA insertion mutant for organ size, referred to as xiao, that displays dwarfism and erect leaves, typical BR-related phenotypes, together with reduced seed setting. XIAO is predicted to encode an LRR kinase. The small stature of the xiao mutant resulted from reduced organ sizes due to decreased cell numbers resulting from reduced cell division rate, as supported by the observed co-expression of XIAO with a number of genes involved in cell cycling. The xiao mutant displayed a tissue-specific enhanced BR response and greatly reduced BR contents at the whole-plant level. These results indicated that XIAO is a regulator of BR signaling and cell division. Thus, XIAO may provide a possible connection between BRs and cell-cycle regulation in controlling organ growth.

  1. Dual control of Shuanghuang Shengbai granule on upstream and downstream signal modulators of CyclinD-CDK4/6 signaling pathway of cell cycle in Lewis-bearing mice with cyclophosphamide-induced myelosuppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu X

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Xian Gu,1 Zhen-ye Xu,1 Ling-yu Zhu,1 Li-fang Wang,1 Kai Li,1 Qiang Pei21Longhua Hospital Shanghai University of TCM, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 2The First Affiliated Hospital of Xinxiang Medical University, Weihui, People's Republic of ChinaBackground: This study investigated the dual control mechanism of the Shuanghuang Shengbai granule in modulating the cell cycle in Lewis-bearing mice with cyclophosphamide induced myelosuppression.Methods: Thirty Lewis-bearing mice were randomly grouped into an untreated group, control group, and treated group. Both treated and untreated groups were intraperitoneally injected with cyclophosphamide to produce a myelosuppression model. Mice in the treated group were fed with the Shuanghuang Shengbai granule (40 g/day for 6 consecutive days. Standard blood tests and the count of bone marrow nuclear cells were performed, and the cell reproductive cycles of bone marrow and tumors were measured in these mice. In addition, the western blot approach was used to measure the upstream activating signals of CyclinD-CDK4/6 such as c-Myc and CDC25A, the upstream suppression signals such as p16INK4a, and the expression of downstream activated signals such as Rb, pRB, and E2F. All of the tested results were validated by reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction.Results: The results showed that the Shuanghuang Shengbai granule could elevate the count of leukocyte and bone marrow nuclear cells of Lewis-bearing mice with cyclophosphamide induced myelosuppression. It could also stimulate bone marrow cells to move from G0/G1 phases to S phase, accelerating the progress of the cell reproductive cycle and increasing the cell proliferation index. Simultaneously, the Shuanghuang Shengbai granule could also suppress cancer cells moving from G0/G1 phase to S phase, reducing the proliferation index. The tumor weight of Lewis-bearing mice in the treated group was much less than those of the

  2. Virtualized Traffic at Metropolitan Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eWilkie

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Few phenomena are more ubiquitous than traffic, and few are more significant economically, socially, or environmentally. Any virtual reality system, including virtual globes and immersive multi-player worlds that are set in a modern or futuristic setting feature traffic systems. Virtual reality models can also aid in addressing the challenges of real-world traffic systems, the ever-present gridlock and congestion in cities worldwide: traffic engineers and planners can diagnose system instabilities and explore control strategies in virtual worlds reconstructed from available sensor data. To create these systems, road network models need to be created and represented. Traffic needs to be realistically and efficiently simulated. To analyze real-world scenarios, the traffic conditions need to be estimated and reconstructed. To create virtual scenarios, such as simulated cities, traffic needs to be intelligently and efficiently routed.

  3. Differential effects of traffic sign stimuli upon speeding in school zones following a traffic light interruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Bree; Irwin, Julia D; Faulks, Ian J; Chekaluk, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    Motorists whose journey has been interrupted by signalized traffic intersections in school zones resume their journey at a faster vehicle speed than motorists who have not been required to stop. Introducing a flashing "check speed" sign 70m after the traffic intersections counteracts this interruptive effect. The present study examined which aspects of a reminder sign are responsible for reducing the speeding behavior of interrupted motorists. When a sign that combines both written text and flashing lights was introduced, interrupted motorists did not speed, traveling on average 0.82km/h below the 40km/h speed limit when measured 100m from traffic intersections. Alternatively, when only the flashing lights were visible the interrupted motorists sped 3.36km/h over the 40km/h speed limit. Similar vehicular speeds were observed when only the written text was visible and when no sign was present (7.67 and 7.49km/h over the 40km/h speed limit, respectively). This indicates that static reminder signs add little value over the absence of a school zone reminder sign; the presence of both cues is necessary to fully offset the interruptive effect. This study also highlights the benefit of using exogenous visual cues in traffic signs to capture drivers' attention. These findings have practical implications for the design and use of traffic signs to increase compliance with posted speed limits. PMID:26545011

  4. Changes in Cortical Oxyhaemoglobin Signal During Low-Intensity Cycle Ergometer Activity: A Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubaki, Atsuhiro; Takai, Haruna; Kojima, Sho; Miyaguchi, Shota; Sugawara, Kazuhiro; Sato, Daisuke; Tamaki, Hiroyuki; Onishi, Hideaki

    2016-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a widely used non-invasive method for measuring human brain activation based on the cerebral hemodynamic response during gross motor tasks. However, systemic changes can influence measured NIRS signals. We aimed to determine and compare time-dependent changes in NIRS signal, skin blood flow (SBF), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) during low-intensity, constant, dynamic exercise. Nine healthy volunteers (22.1±1.7 years, 3 women) participated in this study. After a 4-min pre-exercise rest and a 4-min warm-up, they exercised on a bicycle ergometer at workloads corresponding to 30% VO2 peak for 20 min. An 8-min rest period followed the exercise. Cortical oxyhaemoglobin signals (O2Hb) were recorded while subjects performed the exercise, using an NIRS system. Changes in SBF and MAP were also measured during exercise. O2Hb increased to 0.019 mM cm over 6 min of exercise, decreased slightly from 13 min towards the end of the exercise. SBF continued to increase over 16 min of the exercise period and thereafter decreased till the end of measurement. MAP fluctuated from -1.0 to 7.1 mmHg during the exercise. Pearson's correlation coefficients between SBF and O2Hb, and MAP and O2Hb differed in each time phase, from -0.365 to 0.713. During low-intensity, constant, dynamic exercise, the profile of changes in measurements of O2Hb, SBF, and MAP differed. These results suggested that it is necessary to confirm the relationship between O2Hb and systemic factors during motor tasks in order to detect cortical activation during gross motor tasks. PMID:26782198

  5. Road Traffic Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckenbauer, Thomas

    Road traffic is the most interfering noise source in developed countries. According to a publication of the European Union (EU) at the end of the twentieth century [1], about 40% of the population in 15 EU member states is exposed to road traffic noise at mean levels exceeding 55 dB(A). Nearly 80 million people, 20% of the population, are exposed to levels exceeding 65 dB(A) during daytime and more than 30% of the population is exposed to levels exceeding 55 dB(A) during night time. Such high noise levels cause health risks and social disorders (aggressiveness, protest, and helplessness), interference of communication and disturbance of sleep; the long- and short-term consequences cause adverse cardiovascular effects, detrimental hormonal responses (stress hormones), and possible disturbance of the human metabolism (nutrition) and the immune system. Even performance at work and school could be impaired.

  6. Dementia and Traffic Accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jindong Ding; Siersma, Volkert; Nielsen, Connie Thurøe;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As a consequence of a rapid growth of an ageing population, more people with dementia are expected on the roads. Little is known about whether these people are at increased risk of road traffic-related accidents. OBJECTIVE: Our study aims to investigate the risk of road traffic......-related accidents for people aged 65 years or older with a diagnosis of dementia in Denmark. METHODS: We will conduct a nationwide population-based cohort study consisting of Danish people aged 65 or older living in Denmark as of January 1, 2008. The cohort is followed for 7 years (2008-2014). Individual's personal...... data are available in Danish registers and can be linked using a unique personal identification number. A person is identified with dementia if the person meets at least one of the following criteria: (1) a diagnosis of the disease in the Danish National Patient Register or in the Danish Psychiatric...

  7. Intelligent Testing of Traffic Light Programs: Validation in Smart Mobility Scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    Javier Ferrer; José García-Nieto; Enrique Alba; Francisco Chicano

    2016-01-01

    In smart cities, the use of intelligent automatic techniques to find efficient cycle programs of traffic lights is becoming an innovative front for traffic flow management. However, this automatic programming of traffic lights requires a validation process of the generated solutions, since they can affect the mobility (and security) of millions of citizens. In this paper, we propose a validation strategy based on genetic algorithms and feature models for the automatic generation of different ...

  8. Analysis of traffic data from a hybrid satellite-terrestrial network

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, Savio

    2007-01-01

    Satellite data networks provide broadband access for areas not served by traditional broadband technologies. In this thesis, we describe a collection of traffic data (billing records and tcpdump traces) from a satellite Internet service provider in China. We use the billing records to investigate the downloaded and uploaded traffic volume and the aggregate user behavior. We examine daily and weekly cycles and effects of holidays on traffic patterns. We also employ cluster analysis methods to ...

  9. Physics of Traffic Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, L. C.

    2015-03-01

    The Texas A&M Transportation Institute estimated that traffic congestion cost the United States 121 billion in 2011 (the latest data available). The cost is due to wasted time and fuel. In addition to accidents and road construction, factors contributing to congestion include large demand, instability of high-density free flow and selfish behavior of drivers, which produces self-organized traffic bottlenecks. Extensive data collected on instrumented highways in various countries have led to a better understanding of traffic dynamics. From these measurements, Boris Kerner and colleagues developed a new theory called three-phase theory. They identified three major phases of flow observed in the data: free flow, synchronous flow and wide moving jams. The intermediate phase is called synchronous because vehicles in different lanes tend to have similar velocities. This congested phase, characterized by lower velocities yet modestly high throughput, frequently occurs near on-ramps and lane reductions. At present there are only two widely used methods of congestion mitigation: ramp metering and the display of current travel-time information to drivers. To find more effective methods to reduce congestion, researchers perform large-scale simulations using models based on the new theories. An algorithm has been proposed to realize Wardrop equilibria with real-time route information. Such equilibria have equal travel time on alternative routes between a given origin and destination. An active area of current research is the dynamics of connected vehicles, which communicate wirelessly with other vehicles and the surrounding infrastructure. These systems show great promise for improving traffic flow and safety.

  10. Assessing road traffic expression

    OpenAIRE

    Fábio Silva; Cesar Analide; Paulo Novais

    2014-01-01

    Road traffic is a problem which is increasing in cities with large population. Unrelated to this fact the number of portable and wearable devices has also been increasing throughout the population of most countries. With this advent, the capacity to monitor and register data about people habits and locations as well as more complex data such as intensity and strength of movements has created an opportunity to contribute to the general wealth and comfort within these environments. Ambient Inte...

  11. Untieing the Traffic Knot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Beijing is working to resolve its longtime transportation problems before the 2008 Olympics One traffic jam after another, annoying horns, endless lines of cars,impatient sighs from passengers on an overcrowded bus, the youstomped-on-my-toe quarreling in the subway train, all have led to the unsurprising result that Beijing scored at the tail end of a survey of 287 cities in the category of transport satisfaction in China’s 2006 Report on the Quality of Urban Life.

  12. Sex and estrous cycle-dependent rapid protein kinase signaling actions of estrogen in distal colonic cells.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Mahony, Fiona

    2008-10-01

    Previous studies from our laboratory demonstrated that 17beta-estradiol (E2) rapidly inhibits Cl(-) secretion in rat and human distal colonic epithelium. The inhibition has been shown to occur via targeting of a basolateral K(+) channel identified as the KCNQ1 (KvLQT1) channel. E2 indirectly modulates the channel activity via a cascade of second messengers which are rapidly phosphorylated in response to E2. The anti-secretory mechanism may be the manner by which E2 induces fluid retention in the intestine during periods of high circulating plasma E2. Here we review the sex-dependent and estrous cycle regulation of this novel rapid response to E2. The inhibition of KCNQ1 channel activity and Cl(-) secretion will be of interest in the future in the investigation of the retentive effects of estrogen in female tissue and also in the study of secretory disorders and drugable targets of the intestine.

  13. Deposition of aerosols and bronchial clearance measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A special inhalative device is described for reproducible deposition patterns of radioactive aerosols to measure mucociliary and tussive clearance and to evaluate the effect of drugs on the bronchial tree is described. Additive actions on mucus transport exist between β2-agonists and theophylline, but not incombination with inhalative quarternary ammonium compounds (ipatropium and oxitropium bromide). Mucolytics are generally less effective on mucociliary clearance than β2-agonists and theophylline, positive, negative and nonresponders are ofter seen due to the different viscoelastic properties of the mucus. Mucus transport is more than mucociliary clearance. Two-phase gas/liquid movement and coughing are also important transport mechanisms for bronchial mucus. Therefore, bronchodilators enhance mucus transport by increasing airway patency, which increases total and regional air flow and improves cough clearance. (orig.)

  14. Plasma Creatinine Clearance in the Dog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Loy W.

    1977-01-01

    Lists materials and methods for an experiment that demonstrates the concept of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using anesthesized dogs. In the dog, GFR is equivalent to the renal plasma clearance of exogenous creatinine. (CS)

  15. Cell cycle-dependent adaptor complex for ClpXP-mediated proteolysis directly integrates phosphorylation and second messenger signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephen C; Joshi, Kamal K; Zik, Justin J; Trinh, Katherine; Kamajaya, Aron; Chien, Peter; Ryan, Kathleen R

    2014-09-30

    The cell-division cycle of Caulobacter crescentus depends on periodic activation and deactivation of the essential response regulator CtrA. Although CtrA is critical for transcription during some parts of the cell cycle, its activity must be eliminated before chromosome replication because CtrA also blocks the initiation of DNA replication. CtrA activity is down-regulated both by dephosphorylation and by proteolysis, mediated by the ubiquitous ATP-dependent protease ClpXP. Here we demonstrate that proteins needed for rapid CtrA proteolysis in vivo form a phosphorylation-dependent and cyclic diguanylate (cdG)-dependent adaptor complex that accelerates CtrA degradation in vitro by ClpXP. The adaptor complex includes CpdR, a single-domain response regulator; PopA, a cdG-binding protein; and RcdA, a protein whose activity cannot be predicted. When CpdR is unphosphorylated and when PopA is bound to cdG, they work together with RcdA in an all-or-none manner to reduce the Km of CtrA proteolysis 10-fold. We further identified a set of amino acids in the receiver domain of CtrA that modulate its adaptor-mediated degradation in vitro and in vivo. Complex formation between PopA and CtrA depends on these amino acids, which reside on alpha-helix 1 of the CtrA receiver domain, and on cdG binding by PopA. These results reveal that each accessory factor plays an essential biochemical role in the regulated proteolysis of CtrA and demonstrate, to our knowledge, the first example of a multiprotein, cdG-dependent proteolytic adaptor.

  16. The Physics of Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, L. Craig

    2006-03-01

    Congestion in freeway traffic is an example of self-organization in the language of complexity theory. Nonequilibrium, first-order phase transitions from free flow cause complex spatiotemporal patterns. Two distinct phases of congestion are observed in empirical traffic data--wide moving jams and synchronous flow. Wide moving jams are characterized by stopped or slowly moving vehicles within the jammed region, which widens and moves upstream at 15-20 km/h. Above a critical density of vehicles, a sudden decrease in the velocity of a lead vehicle can initiate a transition from metastable states to this phase. Human behaviors, especially delayed reactions, are implicated in the formation of jams. The synchronous flow phase results from a bottleneck such as an on-ramp. Thus, in contrast to a jam, the downstream front is pinned at a fixed location. The name of the phase comes from the equilibration (or synchronization) of speed and flow rate across all lanes caused by frequent vehicle lane changes. Synchronous flow occurs when the mainline flow and the rate of merging from an on-ramp are sufficiently large. Large-scale simulations using car-following models reproduce the physical phenomena occurring in traffic and suggest methods to improve flow and mediate congestion.

  17. Assessing Road Traffic Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic is a problem which is increasing in cities with large population. Unrelated to this fact the number of portable and wearable devices has also been increasing throughout the population of most countries. With this advent, the capacity to monitor and register data about people habits and locations as well as more complex data such as intensity and strength of movements has created an opportunity to contribute to the general wealth and comfort within these environments. Ambient Intelligence and Intelligent Decision Making processes can benefit from the knowledge gathered by these devices to improve decisions on everyday tasks such as deciding navigation routes by car, bicycle or other means of transportation and avoiding route perils. The concept of computational sustainability may also be applied to this problem. Current applications in this area demonstrate the usefulness of real time system that inform the user of certain conditions in the surrounding area. On the other hand, the approach presented in this work aims to describe models and approaches to automatically identify current states of traffic inside cities and use methods from computer science to improve overall comfort and the sustainability of road traffic both with the user and the environment in mind. Such objective is delivered by analyzing real time contributions from those mobile ubiquitous devices to identifying problematic situations and areas under a defined criteria that have significant influence towards a sustainable use of the road transport infrastructure.

  18. The endocrine dyscrasia that accompanies menopause and andropause induces aberrant cell cycle signaling that triggers re-entry of post-mitotic neurons into the cell cycle, neurodysfunction, neurodegeneration and cognitive disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Craig S; Bowen, Richard L

    2015-11-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "SBN 2014". Sex hormones are physiological factors that promote neurogenesis during embryonic and fetal development. During childhood and adulthood these hormones support the maintenance of brain structure and function via neurogenesis and the formation of dendritic spines, axons and synapses required for the capture, processing and retrieval of information (memories). Not surprisingly, changes in these reproductive hormones that occur with menopause and during andropause are strongly correlated with neurodegeneration and cognitive decline. In this connection, much evidence now indicates that Alzheimer's disease (AD) involves aberrant re-entry of post-mitotic neurons into the cell cycle. Cell cycle abnormalities appear very early in the disease, prior to the appearance of plaques and tangles, and explain the biochemical, neuropathological and cognitive changes observed with disease progression. Intriguingly, a recent animal study has demonstrated that induction of adult neurogenesis results in the loss of previously encoded memories while decreasing neurogenesis after memory formation during infancy mitigated forgetting. Here we review the biochemical, epidemiological and clinical evidence that alterations in sex hormone signaling associated with menopause and andropause drive the aberrant re-entry of post-mitotic neurons into an abortive cell cycle that leads to neurite retraction, neuron dysfunction and neuron death. When the reproductive axis is in balance, gonadotropins such as luteinizing hormone (LH), and its fetal homolog, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), promote pluripotent human and totipotent murine embryonic stem cell and neuron proliferation. However, strong evidence supports menopausal/andropausal elevations in the LH:sex steroid ratio as driving aberrant mitotic events. These include the upregulation of tumor necrosis factor; amyloid-β precursor protein processing towards the production of mitogenic Aβ; and

  19. Rapamycin reverses NPM-ALK-induced glucocorticoid resistance in lymphoid tumor cells by inhibiting mTOR signaling pathway, enhancing G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, L; Gao, J; Li, Q; Zhu, Y P; Jia, C S; Fu, R Y; Chen, Y; Liao, Q K; Ma, Z

    2008-11-01

    The anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) is an oncogene product involved in hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic malignancies. Recent studies have demonstrated that nucleophosmin (NPM)-ALK, originated from the fusion of NPM and ALK genes, causes cell transformation through diverse mechanisms. Here, we show a novel mechanism by which NPM-ALK transforms lymphoid tumor cells to become resistant to glucocorticoid (GC) or dexamethasone (Dex) treatment. Transformed BaF3 cells by NPM-ALK were much more resistant to Dex compared with their parental cells, and concurrently had a constitutive activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling, as evidenced by hyperphosphorylation of its downstream effectors, p70 S6 kinase (p70S6K) and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1). The mTOR inhibitor rapamycin suppressed activation of p70S6K in BaF3/NPM-ALK cells and reversed GC resistance by synergistically inhibiting mTOR signaling pathway, enhancing cell cycle arrest at G(1) phase and promoting apoptotic cell death. In conclusion, our data indicate that the ALK fusion kinase, NPM-ALK, induces GC resistance by activating mTOR signaling, and addition of mTOR inhibitors to the chemotherapeutic regimen of ALK+ lymphomas may improve the prognosis.

  20. Product interval automata

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Deepak D’Souza; P S Thiagarajan

    2002-04-01

    We identify a subclass of timed automata called product interval automata and develop its theory. These automata consist of a network of timed agents with the key restriction being that there is just one clock for each agent and the way the clocks are read and reset is determined by the distribution of shared actions across the agents. We show that the resulting automata admit a clean theory in both logical and language theoretic terms. We also show that product interval automata are expressive enough to model the timed behaviour of asynchronous digital circuits.

  1. Trace Analysis of Driver Behavior on Traffic Violator by Using Big Data (Traffic Program) in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jonghak

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to prove the effectiveness of traffic safety education program for traffic violators. Traffic violators who finished the traffic safety education programs were tracked down. In order to analyze the effectiveness of traffic safety education program, traffic violator’s data during ten-year period were used. This study analyzed how traffic violators changed their attitudes about traffic law abidance. Also predicted social benefits from traffic safety education program...

  2. Comparison of measurements of plasma clearance of Mebrofenine and of indocyanine green; Comparaison des mesures de clairance plasmatique de la mebrofenine et du vert d`indocyanine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurel, G.; Coutris, G. [Service Central de Medecine Nucleaire, Hopital Saint Antoine (France); Vaubourdolle, M. [Laboratoire de Biochimie A, Hopital Saint Antoine (France); Attal, P.; Patureau, R.; Tabsoba, Th. [Service Central de Medecine Nucleaire, Hopital Saint Antoine (France); Mensch, B. [Laboratoire de Biophysique, CHU Saint Antoine (France); Askienazy, Pr.S. [Service Central de Medecine Nucleaire, Hopital Saint Antoine (France)

    1997-12-31

    The importance of clearance measurements in evaluating renal or hepatic function needs not further demonstration. The isotopic methods were proved in renal exploration but their utilization in exploration of hepato-biliary function needs to be evaluated. In this work we have compared the measurement of plasma clearance by Mebrofenine, a radiopharmaceutical of specifically hepatic elimination, with the reference method, the clearance of indocyanine green. On the basis of scintigraphic data from 23 patients who benefited by a hepato-biliary exploration by Mebrofenine-{sup 99m}Tc for pre-surgery account and surveillance, we have determined the plasma clearance of this radiopharmaceutical. The method makes use of the curve of normalized cardiac activity by a blood sampling, taken 60 minutes after injection. The measurement of the clearance of indocyanine green was effected within a delay inferior to 1 month from the moment of biliary scintigraphy. The average clearance of Mebrofenine-{sup 99m}Tc is of 553 ml/min for 1.73 m{sup 2} of corporal surface (typical interval is 374 ml/min), the value of indocyanine green is of 450 ml/min (typical interval is 229 ml/min). The two measurements of clearance are correlated (p = 0.05). In conclusion, the measurement of clearance by Mebrofenine-{sup 99m} appears to be adapted to the evaluation of hepato-biliary function

  3. The representation of solar cycle signals in stratospheric ozone - Part 1: A comparison of recently updated satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maycock, Amanda C.; Matthes, Katja; Tegtmeier, Susann; Thiéblemont, Rémi; Hood, Lon

    2016-08-01

    Changes in incoming solar ultraviolet radiation over the 11-year solar cycle affect stratospheric ozone abundances. It is important to quantify the magnitude, structure, and seasonality of the associated solar-ozone response (SOR) to understand the impact of the 11-year solar cycle on climate. Part 1 of this two-part study uses multiple linear regression analysis to extract the SOR in a number of recently updated satellite ozone datasets covering different periods within the epoch 1970 to 2013. The annual mean SOR in the updated version 7.0 (v7.0) Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II number density dataset (1984-2004) is very consistent with that found in the previous v6.2. In contrast, we find a substantial decrease in the magnitude of the SOR in the tropical upper stratosphere in the SAGE II v7.0 mixing ratio dataset (˜ 1 %) compared to the v6.2 (˜ 4 %). This difference is shown to be largely attributable to the change in the independent stratospheric temperature dataset used to convert SAGE II ozone number densities to mixing ratios. Since these temperature records contain substantial uncertainties, we suggest that datasets based on SAGE II number densities are currently most reliable for evaluating the SOR. We further analyse three extended ozone datasets that combine SAGE II v7.0 number densities with more recent GOMOS (Global Ozone Monitoring by Occultation of Stars) or OSIRIS (Optical Spectrograph and Infrared Imager System) measurements. The extended SAGE-OSIRIS dataset (1984-2013) shows a smaller and less statistically significant SOR across much of the tropical upper stratosphere compared to the SAGE II data alone. In contrast, the two SAGE-GOMOS datasets (1984-2011) show SORs that are in closer agreement with the original SAGE II data and therefore appear to provide a more reliable estimate of the SOR. We also analyse the SOR in the recent Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet Instrument (SBUV) Merged Ozone Dataset (SBUVMOD) version 8.6 (VN8

  4. Stirling cycle cryogenic cooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, M. G.; Sherman, A.; Studer, P. A.; Daniels, A.; Goldowsky, M. P. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A long lifetime Stirling cycle cryogenic cooler particularly adapted for space applications is described. It consists of a compressor section centrally aligned end to end with an expansion section, and respectively includes a reciprocating compressor piston and displacer radially suspended in interconnecting cylindrical housings by active magnetic bearings and has adjacent reduced clearance regions so as to be in noncontacting relationship therewith and wherein one or more of these regions operate as clearance seals. The piston and displacer are reciprocated in their housings by linear drive motors to vary the volume of respectively adjacent compression and expansion spaces which contain a gaseous working fluid and a thermal regenerator to effect Stirling cycle cryogenic cooling.

  5. Stirling cycle cryogenic cooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, M. G.; Sherman, A.; Studer, P. A.; Daniels, A.; Goldowsky, M. P.

    1983-06-01

    A long lifetime Stirling cycle cryogenic cooler particularly adapted for space applications is described. It consists of a compressor section centrally aligned end to end with an expansion section, and respectively includes a reciprocating compressor piston and displacer radially suspended in interconnecting cylindrical housings by active magnetic bearings and has adjacent reduced clearance regions so as to be in noncontacting relationship therewith and wherein one or more of these regions operate as clearance seals. The piston and displacer are reciprocated in their housings by linear drive motors to vary the volume of respectively adjacent compression and expansion spaces which contain a gaseous working fluid and a thermal regenerator to effect Stirling cycle cryogenic cooling.

  6. On Markovian traffic with applications to TES processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Jagerman

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Markov processes are an important ingredient in a variety of stochastic applications. Notable instances include queueing systems and traffic processes offered to them. This paper is concerned with Markovian traffic, i.e., traffic processes whose inter-arrival times (separating the time points of discrete arrivals form a real-valued Markov chain. As such this paper aims to extend the classical results of renewal traffic, where interarrival times are assumed to be independent, identically distributed. Following traditional renewal theory, three functions are addressed: the probability of the number of arrivals in a given interval, the corresponding mean number, and the probability of the times of future arrivals. The paper derives integral equations for these functions in the transform domain. These are then specialized to a subclass, TES+, of a versatile class of random sequences, called TES (Transform-Expand-Sample, consisting of marginally uniform autoregressive schemes with modulo-1 reduction, followed by various transformations. TES models are designed to simultaneously capture both first-order and second-order statistics of empirical records, and consequently can produce high-fidelity models. Two theoretical solutions for TES+ traffic functions are derived: an operator-based solution and a matric solution, both in the transform domain. A special case, permitting the conversion of the integral equations to differential equations, is illustrated and solved. Finally, the results are applied to obtain instructive closed-form representations for two measures of traffic burstiness: peakedness and index of dispersion, elucidating the relationship between them.

  7. Improved GIS-based Methods for Traffic Noise Impact Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Otto Anker; Bloch, Karsten Sand

    1996-01-01

    When vector-based GIS-packages are used for traffic noise impact assessments, the buffer-technique is usually employed for the study: 1. For each road segment buffer-zones representing different noise-intervals are generated, 2. The buffers from all road segments are smoothed together, and 3...... was compared with a new method which includes these corrections. Both methods follow the Common Nordic Noise Calculation Model, although the traditional buffer technique ignores parts of the model. The basis for the work was a digital map of roads and building polygons, combined with a traffic- and road...

  8. Cucurbitacin-I (JSI-124) activates the JNK/c-Jun signaling pathway independent of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in B Leukemic Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cucurbitacin-I (JSI-124) is potent inhibitor of JAK/STAT3 signaling pathway and has anti-tumor activity in a variety of cancer including B cell leukemia. However, other molecular targets of JSI-124 beyond the JAK/STAT3 pathway are not fully understood. BJAB, I-83, NALM-6 and primary CLL cells were treated with JSI-124 as indicated. Apoptosis was measured using flow cytometry for accumulation of sub-G1 phase cells (indicator of apoptosis) and Annexin V/PI staining. Cell cycle was analyzed by FACS for DNA content of G1 and G2 phases. Changes in phosphorylation and protein expression of p38, Erk1/2, JNK, c-Jun, and XIAP were detected by Western blot analysis. STAT3 and c-Jun genes were knocked out using siRNA transfection. VEGF expression was determined by mRNA and protein levels by RT-PCR and western blotting. Streptavidin Pull-Down Assay was used to determine c-Jun binding to the AP-1 DNA binding site. Herein, we show that JSI-124 activates c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and increases both the expression and serine phosphorylation of c-Jun protein in the B leukemic cell lines BJAB, I-83 and NALM-6. JSI-124 also activated MAPK p38 and MAPK Erk1/2 albeit at lower levels than JNK activation. Inhibition of the JNK signaling pathway failed to effect cell cycle arrest or apoptosis induced by JSI-124 but repressed JSI-124 induced c-Jun expression in these leukemia cells. The JNK pathway activation c-Jun leads to transcriptional activation of many genes. Treatment of BJAB, I-83, and NALM-6 cells with JSI-124 lead to an increase of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) at both the mRNA and protein level. Knockdown of c-Jun expression and inhibition of JNK activation significantly blocked JSI-124 induced VEGF expression. Pretreatment with recombinant VEGF reduced JSI-124 induced apoptosis. Taken together, our data demonstrates that JSI-124 activates the JNK signaling pathway independent of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, leading to increased VEGF expression

  9. Robust and reactive traffic engineering for dynamic traffic demands

    OpenAIRE

    Casas Hernandez, Pedro; Fillatre, Lionel; Vaton, Sandrine

    2008-01-01

    Traffic engineering (TE) has become a challenging mechanism for network management and resources optimization due to uncertain and difficult to predict traffic patterns. Recent works have proposed robust optimization techniques to cope with uncertain traffic, computing a stable routing configuration that is immune to demand variations within certain uncertainty set. However, using a single routing configuration for longtime periods can be highly inefficient. Even more, the presence of abnorma...

  10. Dividing the Traffic Matrix to Approach Optimal Traffic Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Balon, Simon; Leduc, Guy

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we propose a new method to approach optimal Traffic Engineering routing. The method consists of dividing the traffic matrix into $N$ sub-matrices, called strata, and route each of these independently. We propose two different implementations of our method in routers. Our method can also be used to compute a very precise approximation of the optimal value of a given objective function for comparison to heuristic Traffic Engineering algorithms. For this application, our algorithm ...

  11. Traffic Data and Their Implications for Consistent Traffic Flow Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Helbing, Dirk

    1998-01-01

    The paper analyzes traffic data of the Dutch freeway A9 with respect to certain aspects which are relevant for traffic flow modeling as well as the calibration of model parameters and functions. Apart from the dynamic velocity distribution, the density-dependence and the temporal evolution of various, partly lane-specific quantities is investigated. The results are well compatible with recent macroscopic traffic flow models which have been derived from the dynamics of driver-vehicle units. Th...

  12. Evaluation of Traffic Management Measures on Road Traffic Noise

    OpenAIRE

    Bhaskar, A.; Chung, E; Dumont, A.-G.

    2006-01-01

    Road traffic noise affects the quality of life in the areas adjoining the road. The effect of traffic noise on people is wide ranging and may include sleep disturbance and negative impact on work efficiency. To address the problem of traffic noise, it is necessary to estimate the noise level. For this, a number of noise estimation models have been developed which can estimate noise at the receptor points, based on simple configuration of buildings. Howe...

  13. 48 CFR 801.602-76 - Business clearance review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... obtain a business clearance review prior to award of any contract, task or delivery order, or blanket... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Business clearance review... Authority, and Responsibilities 801.602-76 Business clearance review. (a) A business clearance review is...

  14. Increased STAT5 signaling in the ring dove brain in response to prolactin administration and spontaneous elevations in prolactin during the breeding cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buntin, John D; Buntin, Linda

    2014-05-01

    Prolactin acts on target cells in the central nervous system (CNS) to stimulate behavioral changes associated with parental care in birds, but the signaling mechanisms that mediate these actions have not been characterized. In mammals, the Janus Kinase 2-Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 5 (JAK2-STAT5) signaling pathway mediates many of the actions of prolactin. To assess the importance of this pathway in prolactin-sensitive target cells in the avian brain, we measured changes in activated (phosphorylated) STAT5 (pSTAT5) in the forebrain of female ring doves sampled as plasma prolactin levels change during the breeding cycle and in prolactin-treated, non-breeding females. The anatomical distribution of cells exhibiting pSTAT5 immunoreactivity in dove brain closely paralleled the distribution of prolactin receptors in this species. The density of pSTAT5 immunoreactive (pSTAT5-ir) cells was highest in the preoptic area, the suprachiasmatic, paraventricular, and ventromedial hypothalamic nuclei, the lateral and tuberal hypothalamic regions, the lateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and the lateral septum. Mean pSTAT5-ir cell densities in these eight brain areas were several fold higher in breeding females during late incubation/early post-hatching when plasma prolactin levels have been observed to peak than in non-breeding females or breeding females sampled at earlier stages when prolactin titers have been reported to be lower. Similar differences were observed between prolactin-treated and vehicle-treated females in all three of the forebrain regions that were compared. We conclude that JAK2-STAT5 signaling is strongly activated in response to prolactin stimulation in the ring dove brain and could potentially mediate some of the centrally-mediated behavioral effects of this hormone.

  15. Camouflaging Timing Channels in Web Traffic

    OpenAIRE

    Sellke, Sarah H; Wang, Chih-Chun; Bagchi, Saurabh; Shroff, Ness B.

    2009-01-01

    Web traffic accounts for more than half of Internet traffic today. Camouflaging covert timing channels in Web traffic would be advantageous for concealment. In this paper, we investigate the possibility of disguising network covert timing channels as HTTP traffic to avoid detection. Extensive research has shown that Internet traffic, including HTTP traffic, exhibits self-similarity and long range persistence. Existing covert timing channels that mimic i.i.d. legitimate traffic cannot imitate ...

  16. Lagrangian Multi-Class Traffic State Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Road traffic is important to everybody in the world. People travel and commute everyday. For those who travel by cars (or other types of road vehicles), traffic congestion is a daily experience. One essential goal of traffic researchers is to reduce traffic congestion and to improve the whole traffic system operation and the environment. To achieve this goal, we have to first understand prevailing traffic situations, then perform pro-active traffic control and management. The estimation of tr...

  17. Video Traffic Prediction Using Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Oravec

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider video stream prediction for application in services likevideo-on-demand, videoconferencing, video broadcasting, etc. The aim is to predict thevideo stream for an efficient bandwidth allocation of the video signal. Efficient predictionof traffic generated by multimedia sources is an important part of traffic and congestioncontrol procedures at the network edges. As a tool for the prediction, we use neuralnetworks – multilayer perceptron (MLP, radial basis function networks (RBF networksand backpropagation through time (BPTT neural networks. At first, we briefly introducetheoretical background of neural networks, the prediction methods and the differencebetween them. We propose also video time-series processing using moving averages.Simulation results for each type of neural network together with final comparisons arepresented. For comparison purposes, also conventional (non-neural prediction isincluded. The purpose of our work is to construct suitable neural networks for variable bitrate video prediction and evaluate them. We use video traces from [1].

  18. Lower metabolic clearance of tizanidine in Japanese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momo, Kenji; Homma, Masato; Kohda, Yukinao

    2013-12-01

    Our aim was to determine whether metabolic clearance, renal clearance, or both elimination pathways contribute to ethnic differences in tizanidine clearance, which is ~ 2-fold higher in Caucasians than in Asians. The pharmacokinetic parameters of tizanidine in 9 healthy male Japanese subjects were compared with those of Caucasians in previous studies. Metabolic clearance of tizanidine was lower in Japanese than in Caucasian subjects (5.9 vs. 8.1 - 10.9 l/h/kg), although renal clearances were similar (0.040 vs. 0.047 - 0.055 l/h/kg). The results suggest that ethnic differences in tizanidine clearance are due to differences in metabolic clearance.

  19. A Modified Efficient Traffic Scheduling Algorithm for Routing in Optical WDM Mesh Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, T.; Rajamani, V.

    2013-09-01

    This paper is proposing an efficient traffic scheduling for routing in optical networks supported by Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM). Normally the traffic is routed through the primary path or back-up path towards the destination. In order to meet the transmission of higher data rates, the path of the WDM should be capable of carrying the traffic without any failure. Whenever the transmission through primary or backup path fails due to excessive overhead or network failure or congestion or excessive load, existing router mechanisms are not scheduling the traffic in an effective manner. This paper deals with an efficient traffic scheduling algorithm which effectively routes the traffic using multipath technique that satisfies the optical constraints. The whole procedure of routing algorithm is separated into two phases: the connection node establishment phase and multipath transmission from the connection node to destination phase. The connection node is selected on the basis of load and current traffic carrying capacity of that node. Then the traffic is routed to the destination using multiple paths. The proposed method tries to minimize the blocking probability of 70% compared to the existing Resource Efficiency Factor (REF) algorithm and also increase the throughput of 30% and better channel utilization of 23% based on data rate and 20% based on traffic time interval. Hence, the proposed algorithm is effectively routes the traffic within the network.

  20. Blockage of PI3K/PKB/P27kip1 signaling pathway can antagonize 17β-estradiol-induced Ishikawa proliferation and cell cycle progression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ It is well-known that risk for endometrial adenocar- cinoma increases in patients with high level of estrogen that is unopposed by progestin. And activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1 and phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/PKB) pathway are responsible for hormone-dependent cell growth in endometrial carcinoma.2-4 PI3K produces phosphatidylinositol- 3-phosphates by phosphory- lating the D3 hydroxyl of phosphoinositides, leading to membrane translocation of PKB, on which PKB is phosphorylated and activated. Then the activated PKB can stimulate antiapoptotic cellular responses and block apoptotic functions of the cells, thus regulate the apoptosis and proliferation of cell, cell cycle progression, glucose usage, and angiogenesis.