WorldWideScience

Sample records for clear zones

  1. 32 CFR 256.9 - Real estate interests to be considered for clear zones and accident potential zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Real estate interests to be considered for clear zones and accident potential zone. 256.9 Section 256.9 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued....9 Real estate interests to be considered for clear zones and accident potential zone. (a) The...

  2. Shanghai Clearing House to Roll out Renminbi-denominated Copper Clearing Operations in Free Trade Zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>Clearing House Financial Markets Co.,Ltd.(Shanghai Clearing House)General Manager Xie Zhong told the media recently at the briefing of the international symposium of"Reform Deepening and Mechanism Innovation of the Post-crisis Kerb Market",Shanghai Clearing House will explore the feasibility of carrying out bond business in

  3. 14 CFR 417.411 - Safety clear zones for hazardous operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety clear zones for hazardous operations. 417.411 Section 417.411 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION... for hazardous operations. (a) A launch operator must define a safety clear zone that confines...

  4. The pollen tube clear zone:Clues to the mechanism of polarized growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter K Hepler; Lawrence J Winship

    2015-01-01

    Pollen tubes usually exhibit a prominent region at their apex called the “clear zone” because it lacks light refracting amyloplasts. A robust, long clear zone often associates with fast growing pollen tubes, and thus serves as an indicator of pollen tube health. Nevertheless we do not understand how it arises or how it is maintained. Here we review the structure of the clear zone, and attempt to explain the factors that contribute to its formation. While amyloplasts and vacuolar elements are excluded from the clear zone, virtually all other organelles are present including secretory vesicles, mitochondria, Golgi dictyosomes, and the endoplas-mic reticulum (ER). Secretory vesicles aggregate into an inverted cone appressed against the apical plasma membrane. ER elements move nearly to the extreme apex, whereas mitochondria and Golgi dictyosomes move less far forward. The cortical actin fringe assumes a central position in the control of clear zone formation and maintenance, given its role in generating cytoplasmic streaming. Other likely factors include the tip-focused calcium gradient, the apical pH gradient, the influx of water, and a host of signaling factors (small G-proteins). We think that the clear zone is an emergent property that depends on the interaction of several factors crucial for polarized growth.

  5. Canine small clear cell/T-zone lymphoma: clinical presentation and outcome in a retrospective case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, V; Marconato, L; Poggi, A; Riondato, F; Aresu, L; Cozzi, M; Comazzi, S

    2016-08-01

    Published studies, taken together, suggest the existence of a single canine lymphoma entity, with a small clear cell appearance by cytological evaluation, a histopathological T-zone pattern and an aberrant CD45-negative T-cell phenotype, mostly characterized by long-term survival. We describe clinical presentation and outcome in a retrospective case series of canine small clear cell/T-zone lymphoma. Despite the reported predisposition of Golden retriever, this breed was not represented in our case series. Most dogs presented with stage V disease, whereas only few had clinical signs or peripheral cytopenias. Blood was almost always more infiltrated than bone marrow. Median survival confirmed the favourable prognosis described in literature, but a few dogs died within a short time. Also, a subgroup of dogs developed second malignancies, eventually leading to death. We did not investigate possible prognostic factors because of the wide variety in treatments, and further studies are needed to identify high-risk animals.

  6. [New methodologicalapproaches to establishment the sizes of the sanitary protection zone and roadside clear zones of civil airports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartyshev, O A

    2013-01-01

    This circumstance leads to considerable mistakes it creation of SPZ borders of the airports, in some cases it impedes development of the latters and causes objective difficulties for hygienic assessment of projects. In this article the results of studies on the creation and validation of two new domestic methods for the construction of impact zones of aircraft noise and dispersion of the concentrations of pollutants in assessing the negative impact of airports are considered. Both branch methods agreed upon with the Ministry of Transport have been harmonized with ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organization) requirements. The results of full-scale measurements have confirmed the possibilities of developed software for their implementation in the formation of a common SPZ border of an airport.

  7. Observation of the spectrally invariant properties of clouds in cloudy-to-clear transition zones during the MAGIC field campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Weidong; Marshak, Alexander; McBride, Patrick J.; Chiu, J. Christine; Knyazikhin, Yuri; Schmidt, K. Sebastian; Flynn, Connor; Lewis, Ernie R.; Eloranta, Edwin W.

    2016-12-01

    We use the spectrally invariant method to study the variability of cloud optical thickness τ and droplet effective radius reff in transition zones (between the cloudy and clear sky columns) observed from Solar Spectral Flux Radiometer (SSFR) and Shortwave Array Spectroradiometer-Zenith (SASZe) during the Marine ARM GPCI Investigation of Clouds (MAGIC) field campaign. The measurements from the SSFR and the SASZe are different, however inter-instrument differences of self-normalized measurements (divided by their own spectra at a fixed time) are small. The spectrally invariant method approximates the spectra in the cloud transition zone as a linear combination of definitely clear and cloudy spectra, where the coefficients, slope and intercept, character-ize the spectrally invariant properties of the transition zone. Simulation results from the SBDART (Santa Barbara DISORT Atmospheric Radiative Transfer) model demonstrate that (1) the slope of the visible band is positively correlated with the cloud optical thickness τ while the intercept of the near-infrared band has high negative cor-relation with the cloud drop effective radius reff even without the exact knowledge of τ; (2) the above relations hold for all Solar Zenith Angle (SZA) and for cloud-contaminated skies. In observations using redundant measure-ments from SSFR and SASZe, we find that during cloudy-to-clear transitions, (a) the slopes of the visible band de-crease, and (b) the intercepts of the near-infrared band remain almost constant near cloud edges. The findings in simulations and observations suggest that, while the optical thickness decreases during the cloudy-to-clear transition, the cloud drop effective radius does not change when cloud edges are approached. These results sup-port the hypothesis that inhomogeneous mixing dominates near cloud edges in the studied cases.

  8. Synaptophysin 1 Clears Synaptobrevin 2 from the Presynaptic Active Zone to Prevent Short-Term Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajit Rajappa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Release site clearance is an important process during synaptic vesicle (SV recycling. However, little is known about its molecular mechanism. Here we identify self-assembly of exocytosed Synaptobrevin 2 (Syb2 and Synaptophysin 1 (Syp1 by homo- and hetero-oligomerization into clusters as key mechanisms mediating release site clearance for preventing cis-SNARE complex formation at the active zone (AZ. In hippocampal neurons from Syp1 knockout mice, neurons expressing a monomeric Syb2 mutant, or after acute block of the ATPase N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF, responsible for cis-SNARE complex disassembly, we found strong frequency-dependent short-term depression (STD, whereas retrieval of Syb2 by compensatory endocytosis was only affected weakly. Defects in Syb2 endocytosis were stimulus- and frequency-dependent, indicating that Syp1 is not essential for Syb2 retrieval, but for its efficient clearance upstream of endocytosis. Our findings identify an SV protein as a release site clearance factor.

  9. CLEAR Landscape Change Module: No Increased Restoration and Protection, UTM Zone 15N NAD83, Coastal Louisiana Ecosystem Assessment and Restoration (2007), [CLEAR_Output_NIA_012307_final

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — The Coastal Louisiana Ecosystem Assessment and Restoration (CLEAR) Framework is an integrated ecosystem forecasting system, designed to simulate ecological change...

  10. Evaluation of CD45 protein expression and transcript in canine small clear cell/T zone lymphoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzia Cozzi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Canine small clear cell lymphoma is a peculiar lymphoma entity with T-zone histopathological pattern andindolent clinical course. From an immunophenotypic point of view the main feature is the lack of CD45 staining by flow-cytometry (FC, which accounts for >95% of cases. Underlying mechanisms have never been investigated.Aim of this work was to evaluate CD45 protein and mRNA expression in small clear cell lymphoma.Lymph nodes of 18 cases and 11 controls, with either reactive hyperplasia or CD45-positive high grade T-cell lymphoma, were investigated. FC was performed on lymph node fine needle aspiration and CD45 median fluorescence intensity (MFI was then evaluated on small clear cells and normal residual T-lymphocytes. CD45 surface expression was also evaluated by immunohistochemical reaction on paraffin wax-embedded lymph node sections.Quantitative real-time RT-PCR was performed on cases and controls. Total RNA was isolated from cell suspension in RNA later. The generated CD45cDNA was amplified and ΔΔCt method was used for the relative mRNA quantification.CD45-MFI in neoplastic cells was <1% compared to normal residual T-lymphocytes in the same sample. Cells were also negative for CD45 stain on histopathological preparations. RT-PCR showed a significantly lower amount of CD45 transcript in neoplastic samples compared to controls, likely due to the residual population.Results showed the lack of CD45 surface antigen and the virtually absence of CD45-mRNA in small clear cell lymphoma. We hypothesize a possible genomic/epigenomic aberration; further studies are in progress to investigate the pathogenesis of this aberrancy and the possible linkage to lymphomagenesis.

  11. The genomes of the non-clearing-zone-forming and natural-rubber- degrading species Gordonia polyisoprenivorans and Gordonia westfalica harbor genes expressing Lcp activity in Streptomyces strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bröker, Daniel; Dietz, David; Arenskötter, Matthias; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2008-04-01

    The latex-clearing protein (Lcp(K30)) from the rubber-degrading bacterium Streptomyces sp. strain K30 is involved in the cleavage of poly(cis-1,4-isoprene), yielding isoprenoid aldehydes and ketones. Lcp homologues have so far been detected in all investigated clearing-zone-forming rubber-degrading bacteria. Internal degenerated oligonucleotides derived from lcp genes of Streptomyces sp. strain K30 (lcp(K30)), Streptomyces coelicolor strain A3(2), and Nocardia farcinica strains IFM10152 and E1 were applied in PCR to investigate whether lcp homologues occur also in the non-clearing-zone-forming rubber-utilizing bacteria Gordonia polyisoprenivorans strains VH2 and Y2K, Gordonia alkanivorans strain 44187, and Gordonia westfalica strain Kb1, which grow adhesively on rubber. The 1,230- and 1,224-bp lcp-homologous genes from G. polyisoprenivorans strain VH2 (lcp(VH2)) and G. westfalica strain Kb1 (lcp(Kb1)) were obtained after screening genomic libraries by degenerated PCR amplification, and their translational products exhibited 50 and 52% amino acid identity, respectively, to Lcp(K30). Recombinant lcp(VH2) and lcp(Kb1) harboring cells of the non-rubber-degrading Streptomyces lividans strain TK23 were able to form clearing zones and aldehydes on latex overlay-agar plates, thus indicating that lcp(VH2) and lcp(Kb1) encode functionally active proteins. Analysis by gel permeation chromatography demonstrated lower polymer concentrations and molecular weights of the remaining polyisoprenoid molecules after incubation with these recombinant S. lividans strains. Reverse transcription-PCR analysis demonstrated that lcp(VH2) was transcribed in cells of G. polyisoprenivorans strain VH2 cultivated in the presence of poly(cis-1,4-isoprene) but not in the presence of sodium acetate. Anti-Lcp(K30) immunoglobulin Gs, which were raised in this study, were rather specific for Lcp(K30) and did not cross-react with Lcp(VH2) and Lcp(Kb1). A lcp(VH2) disruption mutant was still able to grow

  12. Clear & Simple

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cultural Respect Language Access Talking to Your Doctor Research Underway Plain Language Clear & Simple What is Clear & Simple? Clear & Simple ... schedule? A: Pretesting need not be an elaborate, time-consuming research project and depends on: How quickly you work, ...

  13. Treatment of teeth in the esthetic zone in a patient with amelogenesis imperfecta using composite veneers and the clear matrix technique: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogosavljević Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Restorative dental treatment of patients with a generalized form of amelogenesis imperfecta (AI remains a challenge even today. The treatment approach is multidisciplinary and includes action of several dental disciplines such as restorative, orthodontic, and prosthetic dental specialties. Case report. A 18-year-old female patent was referred to the Department of Restorative Dentistry and Periodontology at the Military Medical Academy of Belgrade, Serbia. She was diagnosed with AI and formerly had been treated for a long period of time at the Department of Pediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics. Her primary concern upon arrival was discomfort and concern for the esthetic appearance of the anterior teeth. The treatment was done with the modified clear matrix technique used in composite veneer restoration of teeth in the esthetic zone. Conclusion. Because fixed prosthetic restoration with crowns, is the final treatment of AI patients it involves severe tooth structure loss. The clear matrix method which was done in this case allowed for greater comfort, functionality, simplicity, speed, greater economic efficiency and tooth structure preservation.

  14. CLEAR Landscape Change Module: Preliminary Draft Coastal Protection and Restoration Authority Master Plan, UTM Zone 15N NAD83, Coastal Louisiana Ecosystem Assessment and Restoration (2007), [clear_ouput_cpra_pdmp_012307

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — The Coastal Louisiana Ecosystem Assessment and Restoration (CLEAR) Framework is an integrated ecosystem forecasting system, designed to simulate ecological change...

  15. Clear retainer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyakorn Chaimongkol

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A clear retainer is a removable retainer that is popular in the present day. Compared with conventional fixed and removable orthodontic retainers, it is a more esthetic, comfortable, and inexpensive appliance. Although several studies have been published about clear retainers, it could be difficult to interpret the results because of the variety of study designs, sample sizes, and research methods. This article is intended to compile the content from previous studies and discuss advantages, disadvantages, fabrication, insertion, and adjustment. Moreover, the effectiveness in maintaining dental position, occlusion, retention protocols, thickness, and survival rate of clear retainers is discussed.

  16. SNOW CLEARING

    CERN Multimedia

    Groupe de Transport/Transport Group

    1999-01-01

    In order to facilitate snow-clearing operations, which commence at 4.30 every morning, drivers of CERN vehicles are kindly requested to group their cars together in the car parks. This will greatly help us in our work. Thank you for your co-operation.Transport Group / ST-HMTel. 72202

  17. Clear cell chondrosarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, R.; David, R.; Cierney, G. III

    1985-01-01

    The clinical, radiologic, and histopathologic features of three cases of clear cell chondrosarcoma are described. On radiographs, this rather benign-appearing tumor resembles a chondroblastoma when it occurs at the end of a long bone, and may occasionally show a calcified matrix. However, it has distinctive tumor cells with a centrally placed vesicular nucleus surrounded by clear cytoplasm. The lesion has a low-grade malignancy and is amenable to en bloc surgical resection, which results in a much better prognosis than that of conventional chondrosarcoma.

  18. Snow-clearing operations

    CERN Document Server

    EN Department

    2010-01-01

    To facilitate snow clearing operations, which commence at 4.30 in the morning, all drivers of CERN cars are kindly requested to park them together in groups. This will help us greatly assist us in our work. Thank-you for your help. Transport Group / EN-HE Tel. 72202

  19. Clearing the Big Smog

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Beijing is trying to clean up its sky with a new standard for vehicle emissions From March 1,Beijing has imple- mented a new stricter vehicle emission standard that could lead to cleaner air,but also force thousands of cars off the road. StandardⅣ,the latest in a series of measures aimed at clearing the per- sistent smog,will match the current standard of the European Union. All the new light petro vehicles that are on sale in the Beijing market shall

  20. Consciousness CLEARS the mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossberg, Stephen

    2007-11-01

    A full understanding of consciousness requires that we identify the brain processes from which conscious experiences emerge. What are these processes, and what is their utility in supporting successful adaptive behaviors? Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART) predicted a functional link between processes of Consciousness, Learning, Expectation, Attention, Resonance and Synchrony (CLEARS), including the prediction that "all conscious states are resonant states". This connection clarifies how brain dynamics enable a behaving individual to autonomously adapt in real time to a rapidly changing world. The present article reviews theoretical considerations that predicted these functional links, how they work, and some of the rapidly growing body of behavioral and brain data that have provided support for these predictions. The article also summarizes ART models that predict functional roles for identified cells in laminar thalamocortical circuits, including the six layered neocortical circuits and their interactions with specific primary and higher-order specific thalamic nuclei and nonspecific nuclei. These predictions include explanations of how slow perceptual learning can occur without conscious awareness, and why oscillation frequencies in the lower layers of neocortex are sometimes slower beta oscillations, rather than the higher-frequency gamma oscillations that occur more frequently in superficial cortical layers. ART traces these properties to the existence of intracortical feedback loops, and to reset mechanisms whereby thalamocortical mismatches use circuits such as the one from specific thalamic nuclei to nonspecific thalamic nuclei and then to layer 4 of neocortical areas via layers 1-to-5-to-6-to-4.

  1. Media Language, Clear or Obscure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Bjarne le Fevre; Ejstrup, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Abstract— Be clear, not obscure. One of the four maxims for optimal communication is that it is essential to develop proficiency in being concise and clear. The question is whether this is really a good idea in all contexts. There is some evidence to the contrary. Undoubtedly, we have many contex...... for the survival of free speech....... growth in diversity, means that media need to be very cognizant of the stringency with which they handle the advice to be linguistically clear and concise. The need to pay great attention to situational awareness is highly visible and intrusive. Attention to situational awareness seems to be crucial...

  2. Optical clearing at cellular level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnunen, Matti; Bykov, Alexander V.; Tuorila, Juho; Haapalainen, Tomi; Karmenyan, Artashes V.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2014-07-01

    Strong light scattering in tissues and blood reduces the usability of many optical techniques. By reducing scattering, optical clearing enables deeper light penetration and improves resolution in several optical imaging applications. We demonstrate the usage of optical tweezers and elastic light scattering to study optical clearing [one of the major mechanisms-matching of refractive indices (RIs)] at the single particle and cell level. We used polystyrene spheres and human red blood cells (RBCs) as samples and glycerol or glucose water solutions as clearing agents. Optical tweezers kept single microspheres and RBCs in place during the measurement of light scattering patterns. The results show that optical clearing reduces the scattering cross section and increases g. Glucose also decreased light scattering from a RBC. Optical clearing affected the anisotropy factor g of 23.25-μm polystyrene spheres, increasing it by 0.5% for an RI change of 2.2% (20% glycerol) and 0.3% for an RI change of 1.1% (13% glucose).

  3. The art of thinking clearly

    CERN Document Server

    Dobelli, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    The Art of Thinking Clearly by world-class thinker and entrepreneur Rolf Dobelli is an eye-opening look at human psychology and reasoning — essential reading for anyone who wants to avoid “cognitive errors” and make better choices in all aspects of their lives. Have you ever: Invested time in something that, with hindsight, just wasn’t worth it? Or continued doing something you knew was bad for you? These are examples of cognitive biases, simple errors we all make in our day-to-day thinking. But by knowing what they are and how to spot them, we can avoid them and make better decisions. Simple, clear, and always surprising, this indispensable book will change the way you think and transform your decision-making—work, at home, every day. It reveals, in 99 short chapters, the most common errors of judgment, and how to avoid them.

  4. Writing clear animal activity proposals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinson, David M

    2011-06-01

    Although IACUC-related topics are frequently discussed in the literature, there is little published information about how to write animal activity proposals. In this article, the author discusses key considerations in the writing and review of animal activity proposals. The author then describes a framework for developing and writing clear animal activity proposals that highlight animal welfare concerns. Though these recommendations are aimed at individuals writing and reviewing research proposals, the framework can be modified for other types of animal activity proposals.

  5. Environmental Assessment: Clear Zone and Accident Potential Zone Selective Tree Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-25

    common here. Floodplain forests are also extremely rich in sedge ( Carex spp.). Some bottomland hardwood forest like that on Robins AFB may...Spiranthes ovalis) and Southern peat moss sedge ( Carex lonchocarpa), were found by Heyman (1994) in the floodplain of Sandy Run Creek on Robins AFB. In...virginiana), sweet gum, laurel oak, black willow (Salix nigra), tulip poplar, and red maple are also common in this vegetation type. Joor’s sedge

  6. Ion clearing in an ERL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffstaetter, Georg H.; Liepe, Matthias

    2006-02-01

    The rest-gas in the beam-pipe of a particle accelerator is readily ionized by effects like collisions, synchrotron radiation and field emission. Positive ions are attracted to electron beams and create a nonlinear potential in the vicinity of the beam which can lead to beam halo, particle loss, optical errors or transverse and longitudinal instabilities. In an energy recovery linac (ERL) where beam-loss has to be minimal, and where beam positions and emittances have to be very stable in time, these ion effects have to be avoided. Here we investigate three measures of avoiding ion accumulation: (a) A long gap between linac bunch trains that allows ions to drift out of the beam region, a measure regularly applied in linacs; (b) a short ion clearing gap in the beam that leads to a time varying beam potential and produces large excited oscillations of ions around the electron beam, a measure regularly applied in storage rings; (c) Clearing electrodes that create a sufficient voltage to draw ions out of the beam potential, a measure used for DC electron beams and for antiproton beams. For the parameters of the X-ray ERL planned at Cornell University we show that method (a) cannot be applied, method (b) is technically cumbersome, and (c) should be most easily applicable.

  7. Subduction of fracture zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantin Manea, Vlad; Gerya, Taras; Manea, Marina; Zhu, Guizhi; Leeman, William

    2013-04-01

    Since Wilson proposed in 1965 the existence of a new class of faults on the ocean floor, namely transform faults, the geodynamic effects and importance of fracture zone subduction is still little studied. It is known that oceanic plates are characterized by numerous fracture zones, and some of them have the potential to transport into subduction zones large volumes of water-rich serpentinite, providing a fertile water source for magma generated in subduction-related arc volcanoes. In most previous geodynamic studies, subducting plates are considered to be homogeneous, and there is no clear indication how the subduction of a fracture zone influences the melting pattern in the mantle wedge and the slab-derived fluids distribution in the subarc mantle. Here we show that subduction of serpentinized fracture zones plays a significant role in distribution of melt and fluids in the mantle wedge above the slab. Using high-resolution tree-dimensional coupled petrological-termomechanical simulations of subduction, we show that fluids, including melts and water, vary dramatically in the region where a serpentinized fracture zone enters into subduction. Our models show that substantial hydration and partial melting tend to concentrate where fracture zones are being subducted, creating favorable conditions for partially molten hydrous plumes to develop. These results are consistent with the along-arc variability in magma source compositions and processes in several regions, as the Aleutian Arc, the Cascades, the Southern Mexican Volcanic Arc, and the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone.

  8. 17 CFR 39.4 - Procedures for implementing derivatives clearing organization rules and clearing new products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... derivatives clearing organization rules and clearing new products. 39.4 Section 39.4 Commodity and Securities... implementing derivatives clearing organization rules and clearing new products. (a) Request for approval of... of § 40.6 of this chapter. (c) Acceptance of new products for clearing. (1) A dormant...

  9. Skin optical clearing for improvement of laser tattoo removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genina, Elina A.; Bashkatov, Alexey N.; Gavrilova, Anna A.; Pravdin, Alexander B.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Yaroslavsky, Ilya V.; Altshuler, Gregory B.

    2007-06-01

    The removal of tattoo pigments by laser energy is effected through a process of selective photothermolysis. Dehydration and optical immersion based on refractive index matching of scattering centers with that of surrounding matter through introduction of an exogenous index-matching agent can improve laser tattoo removal by providing increased efficiency of laser delivery to embedded ink particles and enabling the use of shorter wavelength visible lasers more effective on certain inks. Effectiveness of a method of accelerating penetration of the index-matching compounds by enhancing skin permeability through creating a lattice of micro-zones of limited thermal damage in the stratum corneum was studied. As optical clearing agents 100% and 88%-aqueous glycerol solutions were used. The effect of stratum corneum perforation on the rate of the immersion clearing of skin was studied. Dynamics of refractive index alteration of glycerol solution during its interaction with skin samples was monitored. Improvement of tattoo visualization was observed. The results of the experiments have shown that the lattice of island damage method the is effective for transepidermal delivery of optical clearing agents and could be used successfully in in vivo conditions for the enhancement of optical clearing of treated skin area and as enabling improvement of laser tattoo removal.

  10. Intelligibility of Clear Speech: Effect of Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Jennifer; Tjaden, Kris

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The authors investigated how clear speech instructions influence sentence intelligibility. Method: Twelve speakers produced sentences in habitual, clear, hearing impaired, and overenunciate conditions. Stimuli were amplitude normalized and mixed with multitalker babble for orthographic transcription by 40 listeners. The main analysis…

  11. Unusual clear cell variant of epithelioid mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessy, E; Falleni, M; Braidotti, P; Del Curto, B; Panigalli, T; Pietra, G G

    2001-12-01

    Clear cell mesothelioma is an extremely rare neoplasm of the pleura, which can easily be mistaken for a metastasis of clear cell carcinoma to the pleura. We report here the histochemical, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural aspects of a new case of clear cell pleural mesothelioma in a 52-year-old man with no known asbestos exposure. He was admitted to the hospital for recurrent pleural effusion, which was negative for neoplastic cells at the cytologic examination. A partial decortication of the right pleura was performed. The morphologic, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural features reported for this case are consistent with the diagnosis of clear cell mesothelioma. The differential diagnosis and immunohistochemical features in comparison with other clear cell neoplasms are discussed.

  12. SNOW CLEARING SERVICE WINTER 2001-2002

    CERN Multimedia

    ST-HM Group; Tel. 72202

    2001-01-01

    As usual at this time of the year, the snowing clearing service, which comes under the control of the Transport Group (ST-HM), is preparing for the start of snow-clearing operations (timetable, stand-by service, personnel responsible for driving vehicles and machines, preparation of useful and necessary equipment, work instructions, etc.) in collaboration with the Cleaning Service (ST-TFM) and the Fire Brigade (TIS-FB). The main difficulty for the snow-clearing service is the car parks, which cannot be properly cleared because of the presence of CERN and private vehicles parked there overnight in different parts of the parking areas. The ST-HM Transport Group would therefore like to invite you to park vehicles together in order to facilitate the access of the snow ploughs, thus allowing the car parks to be cleared more efficiently before the personnel arrives for work in the mornings.

  13. High Altitude Clear Air Turbulence Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory conducted the High Altitude Clear Air Turbulence Project in the mid 1960s with the intention of better understanding air...

  14. Zone refining of plutonium metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blau, Michael S. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States)

    1994-08-01

    The zone refining process was applied to Pu metal containing known amounts of impurities. Rod specimens of plutonium metal were melted into and contained in tantalum boats, each of which was passed horizontally through a three-turn, high-frequency coil in such a manner as to cause a narrow molten zone to pass through the Pu metal rod 10 times. The impurity elements Co, Cr, Fe, Ni, Np, U were found to move in the same direction as the molten zone as predicted by binary phase diagrams. The elements Al, Am, and Ga moved in the opposite direction of the molten zone as predicted by binary phase diagrams. As the impurity alloy was zone refined, {delta}-phase plutonium metal crystals were produced. The first few zone refining passes were more effective than each later pass because an oxide layer formed on the rod surface. There was no clear evidence of better impurity movement at the slower zone refining speed. Also, constant or variable coil power appeared to have no effect on impurity movement during a single run (10 passes). This experiment was the first step to developing a zone refining process for plutonium metal.

  15. Clear cell myoepithelial carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil R Rabade

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common epithelial neoplasm of lacrimal gland. A clear cell myoepithelial carcinoma arising in the background of pleomorphic adenoma is common in the salivary glands but very rare in the lacrimal glands. We report the case of a 27 year old man whose lacrimal gland pleomorphic adenoma recurred several times over a period of four years and ultimately evolved into a clear cell myoepithelial carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma.

  16. CO2 efflux from cleared mangrove peat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine E Lovelock

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: CO(2 emissions from cleared mangrove areas may be substantial, increasing the costs of continued losses of these ecosystems, particularly in mangroves that have highly organic soils. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We measured CO(2 efflux from mangrove soils that had been cleared for up to 20 years on the islands of Twin Cays, Belize. We also disturbed these cleared peat soils to assess what disturbance of soils after clearing may have on CO(2 efflux. CO(2 efflux from soils declines from time of clearing from ∼10,600 tonnes km(-2 year(-1 in the first year to 3000 tonnes km(2 year(-1 after 20 years since clearing. Disturbing peat leads to short term increases in CO(2 efflux (27 umol m(-2 s(-1, but this had returned to baseline levels within 2 days. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Deforesting mangroves that grow on peat soils results in CO(2 emissions that are comparable to rates estimated for peat collapse in other tropical ecosystems. Preventing deforestation presents an opportunity for countries to benefit from carbon payments for preservation of threatened carbon stocks.

  17. Clear plastic cups: a childhood choking hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, R L; Goldstein, M N; Dharia, A; Zahtz, G; Abramson, A L; Patel, M

    1996-11-01

    The disposable plastic beverage cup is not usually regarded as hazardous to young children. Certain varieties of these products however, are manufactured from a brittle, clear plastic that easily cracks and fragments. While most conscientious parents keep their children safe from peanuts, balloons, and other known choking hazards, a child can surreptitiously bite a cup edge and aspirate the fragment. We report two cases of foreign body aspiration involving clear plastic cups that went undetected one of which remained 21 months following a negative rigid bronchoscopy. Diagnostic difficulties are related to the transparency and radiolucency of these objects. When suspicious of foreign body aspiration in children, otolaryngologists should inquire about the availability of clear plastic cups in the household and be mindful of the diagnostic pitfalls. Further investigations including CT scanning and repeat bronchoscopy may be helpful in cases of suspected missed foreign bodies. An educational campaign aimed at prevention and placement of product package warning labels should be established.

  18. MODIS/Terra 8-Day Clear Sky Radiance Bias Daily L3 Global 1Deg Zonal Bands V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS 8-day clear-sky radiance bias (observed - calculated) statistics are provided for 1Deg latitudinal zones and selected thermal bands. Separation by day and...

  19. MODIS/Aqua 8-Day Clear Sky Radiance Bias Daily L3 Global 1Deg Zonal Bands V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS 8-day clear-sky radiance bias (observed - calculated) statistics are provided for 1Deg latitudinal zones and selected thermal bands. Separation by day and...

  20. Clear cell carcinoma of the female genital tract (not everything is as clear as it seems).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offman, Saul L; Longacre, Teri A

    2012-09-01

    Clear cell carcinoma has a storied history in the female genital tract. From the initial designation of ovarian clear cell adenocarcinoma as "mesonephroma" to the linkage between vaginal clear cell carcinoma and diethylstilbestrol exposure in utero, gynecologic tract clear cell tumors have puzzled investigators, posed therapeutic dilemmas for oncologists, and otherwise presented major differential diagnostic challenges for pathologists. One of the most common errors in gynecologic pathology is misdiagnosis of clear cell carcinoma, on both frozen section and permanent section. Given the poor response to platinum-based chemotherapy for advanced-stage disease and increased risk of thromboembolism, accurate diagnosis of clear cell carcinoma is important in the female genital tract. This review (1) presents the clinical and pathologic features of female genital tract clear cell carcinomas; (2) highlights recent molecular developments; (3) identifies areas of potential diagnostic confusion; and (4) presents solutions for these diagnostic problems where they exist.

  1. The management of clear cell sarcoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, DR; Hoekstra, HJ; Veth, RPH; Wobbes, T

    2003-01-01

    Clear cell sarcoma is a rare soft tissue tumour, constituting approximately 1% of all soft tissue sarcomas. Prognosis is reported to be poor due to the great propensity to metastasise regionally and distantly. In this paper, we report the surgical experience of two university hospitals. Both disease

  2. Clearing and settlement of exchange traded derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    John McPartland

    2009-01-01

    Derivatives are a class of financial instruments that derive their value from some underlying commodity, security, index, or other asset. Futures and options are common forms of derivatives. This article explains how clearing and settlement systems for exchange traded derivatives work.

  3. The Dynamics of Orbit-Clearing for Planets on Eccentric Orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Danielle; Margot, Jean-Luc

    2016-10-01

    The third requirement in the 2006 International Astronomical Union (IAU) definition of a planet is that the object has cleared the neighborhood around its orbit. Margot (2015) proposed a metric that quantitatively determines if an object has enough mass to clear an orbital zone of a specific extent within a defined time interval. In this metric, the size of the zone to be cleared is given by CRH, where C is a constant and RH is the Hill Radius. Margot (2015) adopts C=2*31/2 to describe the minimum extent of orbital clearing on the basis of the planet's feeding zone. However, this value of C may only apply for eccentricities up to about 0.3 (Quillen & Faber 2006). Here, we explore the timescales and boundaries of orbital clearing for planets over a range of orbital eccentricities and planet-star mass ratios using the MERCURY integration package (Chambers 1999). The basic setup for the integrations includes a single planet orbiting a star and a uniform distribution of massless particles extending beyond CRH. The system is integrated for at least 106 revolutions and the massless particles are tracked in order to quantify the timescale and extent of the clearing.

  4. Cellulose Degradation by Cellulose-Clearing and Non-Cellulose-Clearing Brown-Rot Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Highley, Terry L.

    1980-01-01

    Cellulose degradation by four cellulose-clearing brown-rot fungi in the Coniophoraceae—Coniophora prasinoides, C. puteana, Leucogyrophana arizonica, and L. olivascens—is compared with that of a non-cellulose-clearing brown-rot fungus, Poria placenta. The cellulose- and the non-cellulose-clearing brown-rot fungi apparently employ similar mechanisms to depolymerize cellulose; most likely a nonenzymatic mechanism is involved.

  5. Multiphoton microscopy of cleared mouse organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Sonia G.; Chia, Thomas H.; Zinter, Joseph P.; Levene, Michael J.

    2010-05-01

    Typical imaging depths with multiphoton microscopy (MPM) are limited to less than 300 μm in many tissues due to light scattering. Optical clearing significantly reduces light scattering by replacing water in the organ tissue with a fluid having a similar index of refraction to that of proteins. We demonstrate MPM of intact, fixed, cleared mouse organs with penetration depths and fields of view in excess of 2 mm. MPM enables the creation of large 3-D data sets with flexibility in pixel format and ready access to intrinsic fluorescence and second-harmonic generation. We present high-resolution images and 3-D image stacks of the brain, small intestine, large intestine, kidney, lung, and testicle with image sizes as large as 4096×4096 pixels.

  6. Roadmap-Based Level Clearing of Buildings

    KAUST Repository

    Rodriguez, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we describe a roadmap-based approach for a multi-agent search strategy to clear a building or multi-story environment. This approach utilizes an encoding of the environment in the form of a graph (roadmap) that is used to encode feasible paths through the environment. The roadmap is partitioned into regions, e.g., one per level, and we design region-based search strategies to cover and clear the environment. We can provide certain guarantees within this roadmap-based framework on coverage and the number of agents needed. Our approach can handle complex and realistic environments where many approaches are restricted to simple 2D environments. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  7. Clear cell odontogenic carcinoma: A rare case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garima Jain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Clear cell odontogenic carcinoma is a rare neoplasm with very few cases reported in the literature. We report a case of a 50-year-old female patient with the malignancy at a less common location. Diagnosis was given based on the histopathologic findings. The demographic data and understanding for this tumor needs to be strengthened by reporting all new cases, which are diagnosed, in literature.

  8. Internet compromise clears way for WSIS agreement

    CERN Multimedia

    Ermert, M

    2003-01-01

    A working group under the leadership of United Nations Secretary General Kofi Annan himself will try to resolve the deep differences on the question of Internet governance, officials said here. The group, whose exact membership wasn't immediately clear, is to propose a solution to the controversial issue that has given negotiators at the World Summit of the Information Society (WSIS) a headache (1/2 page).

  9. Optical clearing of muscle with propylene glycol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Luís; Lage, Armindo; Clemente, Manuel Pais; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2010-02-01

    Skeletal muscle presents an internal fibrous structure. The existence of muscle fibers surrounded by interstitial fluid originates an internal step refractive index profile that causes light scattering. One way to minimize this effect inside a muscle is to perform an optical clearing treatment, using an adequate solution that presents a refractive index higher than the interstitial fluid. We have studied muscle spectral transmittance during sample immersion in propylene glycol. With the collection of transmittance spectra registered during a period of 20 minutes of immersion we could represent spectral transmittance evolution for several wavelengths and verify that the tissue samples have become more translucent. The optical clearing effect created in the tissue samples was characterized by an increase of 45% above the natural transmittance and the variations observed in tissue mass, pH and global refractive index. We also identified the initial mechanisms of agent diffusion into the tissue and consequent tissue dehydration from the spectral transmittance evolution. The histological analysis of variations caused in the internal structure of the tissues permitted to better explain the optical clearing effect created. Considering a mathematical model developed in previous studies, we could estimate the amount of agent that was inserted into the tissue samples.

  10. The Nordic power market: Are there alternatives to expensive clearing?; Alternativer til kostbar clearing?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nerdrum, Per Kaare; Poulsson, Christian

    2003-07-01

    The Enron scandal of 2002 has set focus on counter party risk in the Nordic power market and is an important cause of increased clearing of bilateral financial power contracts. The article discusses whether expensive clearing is always the best tool for dealing with counter party risk.

  11. CHINA'S WORST OIL LEAK CLEARED EXPENSIVELY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Eight days and nights of clean-up efforts after the worst oil leak ever in Chinese waters, the aftermath of a collision between two foreign ships happening at 9:35 pm on December 7 about 8 nautical miles away from the mouth of the Pearl River and near the Danjiang Island, have finally paid off. So far, hundreds of tons of waste oil and polluted water have been cleared up. A large area of oil spills has been cleaned thanks to the prompt and proper operation launched just two hours after the accident.

  12. A gap clearing kicker for Main Injector

    CERN Document Server

    Kourbanis, I; Biggs, J; Brown, B; Capista, D; Jensen, C C; Krafczyk, G E; Morris, D K; Scott, D; Seiya, K; Ward, S R; Wu, G; Yang, M -J

    2012-01-01

    Fermilab Main Injector has been operating at high Beam Power levels since 2008 when multi-batch slip stacking became operational. In order to maintain and increase the beam power levels the localized beam loss due to beam left over in the injection kicker gap during slip stacking needs to be addressed. A set of gap clearing kickers that kick any beam left in the injection gap to the beam abort have been built. The kickers were installed in the summer of 2009 and became operational in November of 2010. The kicker performance and its effect on the beam losses will be described.

  13. Clearing the Cervical Spine in a War Zone: What Other Injuries Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) USAF School of Aerospace Medicine...negative clinical examination of the cervical spine. Coexisting injuries identified in patients with negative physical examination included...injuries in proximity to the neck (head, thoracic spine, chest, or humerus) in 17 (85%) patients. In 3 patients(15%), coexisting injuries were not in

  14. Environmental Assessment, Glide Slope/Clear Zone Obstructions, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    monitoring, and reduction of bird/wildlife hazards (WPAFB 2007a). Reptiles and amphibians occurring on the Base and within the proposed project...a Dosage- Effect Relationship for the Prevalence of Annoyance Due to General Transportation Noise.” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America ...Acoustical Society of America . June 1992. Finegold et al. 1994 Finegold, L.S., C.S. Harris, and H.E. vonGierke. 1994. “Community Annoyance and

  15. Malignant Clear Cell Hidradenoma of the Breast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahal, Ahmad K.; Reddy, Pavan S; Kallail, K. James

    2017-01-01

    A 58-year-old female had a mass in the right breast palpable beneath the areola. A mammogram revealed a 1.5-centimeter soft tissue density that was confirmed with a subsequent ultrasound. The patient underwent a core needle biopsy which was initially reported as a moderately differentiated invasive ductal carcinoma. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed negative staining for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER2), mammaglobin, and gross cystic disease fluid protein 15 (GCDFP-15). A wide local excision of the mass was performed. The pathology report stated the tumor had an infiltrative growth pattern with a desmoplastic stromal response with enhanced epithelial atypia consistent with malignant transformation of a nodular clear cell hidradenoma. Clear cell hidradenoma is a very rare tumor originating from the sweat gland and has a propensity for the face and extremities. The malignant variant of this tumor is extremely rare and has been reported to originate from the breast in few cases. This case represents the difficulty in diagnosing this tumor along with the radiographic and histologic features that can distinguish this malignancy from other entities.

  16. Comparative properties of optically clear epoxy encapsulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Maury; Zhou, Yan

    2001-12-01

    Three epoxy systems were evaluated for physical dn optical properties. The three systems chosen for the study were selected on the basis of their optical clarity, color and chemistry. Three distinctly different chemistries were chosen, aromatic epoxy-amine cured. Aromatic epoxy- anhydride cured and cycloaliphatic epoxy-anhydride cured. All three systems remained optically clear and water-white after full cure. The three selected systems were tested for physical properties, adhesion and light transmission properties. Light transmission was measured after thermal and humidity exposure. Adhesion was measured after humidity exposure only. Both of the epoxy-anhydride systems performed well in optical properties but poorer in adhesion as compared to the epoxy-amine system. The aromatic epoxy- amine system discolored badly during thermal exposure at 100 C. Data generated from this work will be used in selecting clear encapsulating materials for photonics applications. No single system offers optimal performance in all areas. The best compromise material is the aromatic epoxy-anhydride system.

  17. An unusual case of clear cell meningioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deb Prabal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Clear-cell meningioma (CCM is an uncommon, aggressive variant of meningioma, usually affecting younger females and having predilection for infratentorial locations. We present a rare case of recurrent supratentorial CCM in a 58-year-old male. Ten years back, he had an intra-axial tumor in the left occipital lobe, which was managed by surgical excision and radiotherapy. Currently, the patient presented with sudden severe headache along with speech and vision disturbances. Neuroimaging revealed an extra-axial parietooccipital tumor, with intratumoural bleed. Histopathology of both tumors showed features of CCM, immunopositive for epithelial membrane antigen (EMA and vimentin. This case illustrates multiple unusual features of a rare variant of meningioma in the form of affection of an adult age group, supratentorial location, recurrence, and intratumoral bleed. It also highlights the importance of incorporating immunohistochemistry in the diagnostic workup, to exclude CCM mimics, each having distinctive biological behavior, and prognostic outcome, and warranting different therapeutic protocols.

  18. Zoning Districts, Zoning, Published in 2002, Freelance.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Zoning Districts dataset, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2002. It is described as 'Zoning'. Data by this publisher are often...

  19. MI Gap Clearing Kicker Magnet Design Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Chris; /Fermilab

    2008-10-01

    The kicker system requirements were originally conceived for the NOvA project. NOvA is a neutrino experiment located in Minnesota. To achieve the desired neutrino flux several upgrades are required to the accelerator complex. The Recycler will be used as a proton pre-injector for the Main Injector (MI). As the Recycler is the same size as the MI, it is possible to do a single turn fill ({approx}11 {micro}sec), minimizing the proton injection time in the MI cycle and maximizing the protons on target. The Recycler can then be filled with beam while the MI is ramping to extract beam to the target. To do this requires two new transfer lines. The existing Recycler injection line was designed for 10{pi} pbar beams, not the 20{pi} proton beams we anticipate from the Booster. The existing Recycler extraction line allows for proton injection through the MI, while we want direct injection from the Booster. These two lines will be decommissioned. The new injection line from the MI8 line into the Recycler will start at 848 and end with injection kickers at RR104. The new extraction line in the RR30 straight section will start with a new extraction kicker at RR232 and end with new MI injection kickers at MI308. Finally, to reduce beam loss activation in the enclosure, a new gap clearing kicker will be used to extract uncaptured beam created during the slip stack injection process down the existing dump line. It was suggested that the MI could benefit from this type of system immediately. This led to the early installation of the gap clearing system in the MI, followed by moving the system to Recycler during NOvA. The specifications also changed during this process. Initially the rise and fall time requirements were 38 ns and the field stability was {+-}1%. The 38 ns is based on having a gap of 2 RF buckets between injections. (There are 84 RF buckets that can be filled from the Booster for each injection, but 82 would be filled with beam. MI and Recycler contain 588 RF buckets

  20. Clear Channel Assessment in Integrated Medical Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Zhen

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Complementary WLAN and WPAN technologies as well as other wireless technologies will play a fundamental role in the medical environments to support ubiquitous healthcare delivery. This paper investigates clear channel assessment (CCA and its impact on the coexistence of WLAN (IEEE 802.11 high rate direct sequence spread spectrum (HR/DSSS PHY and WPAN (IEEE 802.15.4b in the 2.4 GHz industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM band. We derived closed-form expressions of both energy-based CCA and feature-based CCA. We qualified unequal sensing abilities between them and termed this inequality asymmetric CCA, which is different from the traditional “hidden node” or “exposed node” issues in the homogeneous network. The energy-based CCA was considered in the considered integrated medical environment because the 2.4 GHz ISM band is too crowded to apply feature-based CCA. The WPAN is oversensitive to the 802.11 HR/DSSS signals and the WLAN is insensitive to the 802.15.4b signals. Choosing an optimal CCA threshold requires some prior knowledge of the underlying signals. In the integrated medical environment we considered here, energy-based CCA can effectively avoid possible packet collisions when they are close within the “heterogeneous exclusive CCA range” (HECR. However, when they are separated beyond the HECR, WPAN can still sense the 802.11 HR/DSSS signals, but WLAN loses its sense to the 802.15.4b signals. The asymmetric CCA leads to WPAN traffic in a position secondary to WLAN traffic.

  1. Clear Channel Assessment in Integrated Medical Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hara Shinsuke

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Complementary WLAN and WPAN technologies as well as other wireless technologies will play a fundamental role in the medical environments to support ubiquitous healthcare delivery. This paper investigates clear channel assessment (CCA and its impact on the coexistence of WLAN (IEEE 802.11 high rate direct sequence spread spectrum (HR/DSSS PHY and WPAN (IEEE 802.15.4b in the 2.4 GHz industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM band. We derived closed-form expressions of both energy-based CCA and feature-based CCA. We qualified unequal sensing abilities between them and termed this inequality asymmetric CCA, which is different from the traditional "hidden node" or "exposed node" issues in the homogeneous network. The energy-based CCA was considered in the considered integrated medical environment because the 2.4 GHz ISM band is too crowded to apply feature-based CCA. The WPAN is oversensitive to the 802.11 HR/DSSS signals and the WLAN is insensitive to the 802.15.4b signals. Choosing an optimal CCA threshold requires some prior knowledge of the underlying signals. In the integrated medical environment we considered here, energy-based CCA can effectively avoid possible packet collisions when they are close within the "heterogeneous exclusive CCA range" (HECR. However, when they are separated beyond the HECR, WPAN can still sense the 802.11 HR/DSSS signals, but WLAN loses its sense to the 802.15.4b signals. The asymmetric CCA leads to WPAN traffic in a position secondary to WLAN traffic.

  2. When a Cleared Rape Is Not Cleared: A Multilevel Study of Arrest and Exceptional Clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walfield, Scott M

    2016-05-01

    As rape remains one of the most underreported and least likely to be cleared of the violent crimes, it is of paramount importance to understand the factors associated with the likelihood of a case being cleared by law enforcement. This study uses data from the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) and the Law Enforcement Management and Administrative Statistics (LEMAS), and a multilevel modeling approach to examine the relationship between victim, offender, incident, and police department characteristics contrasting the two types of clearance: arrest and exceptional clearance. The latter occurs due to reasons outside of law enforcement's control and despite being considered cleared, the offender is not arrested, charged, nor turned over for prosecution. Of the 16,231 cleared rapes in 238 departments, nearly half (47%) results in exceptional clearance when the victim refuses to cooperate or when prosecution is declined. Incident-level variables have a greater effect on the likelihood of exceptional clearance than victim and offender variables. The department explained a nontrivial amount of variation in the dependent variable, as 37% of the variance in type of clearance was between-department variation. Implications for future research on exceptional clearance and NIBRS are discussed.

  3. MODIS Collection 6 Clear Sky Restoral (CSR): Filtering Cloud Mast 'Not Clear' Pixels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Kerry G.; Platnick, Steven Edward; Wind, Galina; Riedi, Jerome

    2014-01-01

    Correctly identifying cloudy pixels appropriate for the MOD06 cloud optical and microphysical property retrievals is accomplished in large part using results from the MOD35 1km cloud mask tests (note there are also two 250m subpixel cloud mask tests that can convert the 1km cloudy designations to clear sky). However, because MOD35 is by design clear sky conservative (i.e., it identifies "not clear" pixels), certain situations exist in which pixels identified by MOD35 as "cloudy" are nevertheless likely to be poor retrieval candidates. For instance, near the edge of clouds or within broken cloud fields, a given 1km MODIS field of view (FOV) may in fact only be partially cloudy. This can be problematic for the MOD06 retrievals because in these cases the assumptions of a completely overcast homogenous cloudy FOV and 1-dimensional plane-parallel radiative transfer no longer hold, and subsequent retrievals will be of low confidence. Furthermore, some pixels may be identified by MOD35 as "cloudy" for reasons other than the presence of clouds, such as scenes with thick smoke or lofted dust, and should therefore not be retrieved as clouds. With such situations in mind, a Clear Sky Restoral (CSR) algorithm was introduced in C5 that attempts to identify pixels expected to be poor retrieval candidates. Table 1 provides SDS locations for CSR and partly cloudy (PCL) pixels.

  4. Clear cell renal cell tumors: Not all that is "clear" is cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Sean R; Cheng, Liang

    2016-07-01

    Continued improvement of our understanding of the clinical, histologic, and genetic features of renal cell tumors has progressively evolved renal tumor classification, revealing an expanding array of distinct tumor types with different implications for prognosis, patient counseling, and treatment. Although clear cell renal cell carcinoma is unequivocally the most common adult renal tumor, there is growing evidence that some "clear cell" renal neoplasms, such as exemplified by multilocular cystic clear cell renal neoplasm of low malignant potential (formerly multilocular cystic renal cell carcinoma), do not have the same potential for insidious progression and metastasis, warranting reclassification as low malignant potential tumors or benign neoplasms. Still other novel tumor types such as clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma have been more recently recognized, which similarly have shown a conspicuous absence of aggressive behavior to date, suggesting that these too may be recategorized as noncancerous or may be premalignant neoplasms. This importance for prognosis is increasingly significant in the modern era, in which renal masses are increasingly found incidentally by imaging techniques at a small tumor size, raising consideration for less aggressive management options guided by renal mass biopsy diagnosis, including imaging surveillance, tumor ablation, or partial nephrectomy.

  5. Differences in regeneration between hurricane damaged and clear-cut mangrove stands 25 years after clearing

    OpenAIRE

    Ferwerda, J.G.; Ketner, P.; McGuiness, K.A.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of human disturbance on mangrove forest may be substantially different from the effects of natural disturbances. This paper describes differences in vegetation composition and structure of five vegetation types in two mangrove areas near Darwin, Australia, 25 years after disturbance. The vegetation in clear-felled forest showed more adult Avicennia marina than in the hurricane-affected forest, and a virtual absence of A. marina juveniles and saplings. This indicates that A. marina ...

  6. CLEARS An Education and Research Tool for Computational Semantics

    CERN Document Server

    Milward, D; Maier, Hans J; Pinkal, M; Milward, David; Konrad, Karsten; Maier, Holger; Pinkal, Manfred

    1996-01-01

    The CLEARS (Computational Linguistics Education and Research for Semantics) tool provides a graphical interface allowing interactive construction of semantic representations in a variety of different formalisms, and using several construction methods. CLEARS was developed as part of the FraCaS project which was designed to encourage convergence between different semantic formalisms, such as Montague-Grammar, DRT, and Situation Semantics. The CLEARS system is freely available on the WWW from http://coli.uni-sb.de/~clears/clears.html

  7. On Clear-Cut Mapping with Time-Series of Sentinel-1 Data in Boreal Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauste, Yrjo; Antropov, Oleg; Mutanen, Teemu; Hame, Tuomas

    2016-08-01

    Clear-cutting is the most drastic and wide-spread change that affects the hydrological and carbon-balance proper- ties of forested land in the Boreal forest zone1.A time-series of 36 Sentinel-1 images was used to study the potential for mapping clear-cut areas. The time series covered one and half year (2014-10-09 ... 2016-03-20) in a 200-km-by-200-km study site in Finland. The Sentinel- 1 images were acquired in Interferometric Wide-swath (IW), dual-polarized mode (VV+VH). All scenes were acquired in the same orbit configuration. Amplitude im- ages (GRDH product) were used. The Sentinel-1 scenes were ortho-rectified with in-house software using a digi- tal elevation model (DEM) produced by the Land Survey of Finland. The Sentinel-1 amplitude data were radio- metrically corrected for topographic effects.The temporal behaviour of C-band backscatter was stud- ied for areas representing 1) areas clear-cut during the ac- quisition of the Sentinel-1 time-series, 2) areas remaining forest during the acquisition of the Sentinel-1 time-series, and 3) areas that had been clear-cut before the acquisition of the Sentinel-1 time-series.The following observations were made:1. The separation between clear-cut areas and forest was generally low;2. Under certain acquisition conditions, clear-cut areas were well separable from forest;3. The good scenes were acquired: 1) in winter during thick snow cover, and 2) in late summer towards the end of a warm and dry period;4. The separation between clear-cut and forest was higher in VH polarized data than in VV-polarized data.5. The separation between clear-cut and forest was higher in the winter/snow scenes than in the dry summer scenes.

  8. Solubility determination from clear points upon solvent addition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reus, M.A.; Heijden, A.E.D.M. van der; Horst, J.H. ter

    2015-01-01

    A method is described for determining the solubility of multicomponent crystalline compounds from clear points upon sample dilution at a constant temperature. Clear points are established by continuously adding a solvent mixture to a suspension of known composition until a clear solution appears. Fo

  9. 78 FR 12409 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Credit LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change To Add...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ..., Liquidity Risk, Time Zone Risk, and Operational Risk. Additionally, the Portfolio Approach was updated to include appropriate portfolio benefits between North American CDS Indices and iTraxx Contracts. ICE Clear... account for Euro denominated portfolios. Specifically, updates have been made to the Guaranty...

  10. Global ballast water management and the "same location" concept: a clear term or a clear issue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Matej; Gollasch, Stephan; Pavliha, Marko

    2013-03-01

    The United Nations recognized the transfer of harmful organisms and pathogens across natural barriers as one of the four greatest pressures to the world's oceans and seas, causing global environmental changes, while also posing a threat to human health, property, and resources. Ballast water transferred by vessels was recognized as a prominent vector of such species and was regulated by the International Convention for the Control and Management of Ship's Ballast Water and Sediments (2004). Permanent exceptions from ballast water management requirements may apply when the uptake and discharge of ballast water occur at the "same location." However, the "same location" concept may be interpreted differently, e.g., a port basin, a port, an anchorage, or a larger area even with more ports inside. Considering that the Convention is nearing the beginning of enforcement, national authorities all around the world will soon be exposed to applications for exceptions. Here we consider possible effects of different interpretations of the "same location" concept. We have considered different possible extensions of the same location through environmental, shipping, and legal aspects. The extension of such areas, and the inclusion of more ports, may compromise the Convention's main purpose. We recommend that "same location" mean the smallest practicable unit, i.e., the same harbor, mooring, or anchorage. An entire smaller port, possibly also including the anchorage, could be considered as same location. For larger ports with a gradient of environmental conditions, "same location" should mean a terminal or a port basin. We further recommend that IMO consider the preparation of a guidance document to include concepts, criteria, and processes outlining how to identify "same location," which limits should be clearly identified.

  11. Optimized optical clearing method for imaging central nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tingting; Qi, Yisong; Gong, Hui; Luo, Qingming; Zhu, Dan

    2015-03-01

    The development of various optical clearing methods provides a great potential for imaging entire central nervous system by combining with multiple-labelling and microscopic imaging techniques. These methods had made certain clearing contributions with respective weaknesses, including tissue deformation, fluorescence quenching, execution complexity and antibody penetration limitation that makes immunostaining of tissue blocks difficult. The passive clarity technique (PACT) bypasses those problems and clears the samples with simple implementation, excellent transparency with fine fluorescence retention, but the passive tissue clearing method needs too long time. In this study, we not only accelerate the clearing speed of brain blocks but also preserve GFP fluorescence well by screening an optimal clearing temperature. The selection of proper temperature will make PACT more applicable, which evidently broaden the application range of this method.

  12. ZoneLib

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Jan Jacob; Schiøler, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    We present a dynamic model for climate in a livestock building divided into a number of zones, and a corresponding modular Simulink library (ZoneLib). While most literature in this area consider air flow as a control parameter we show how to model climate dynamics using actual control signals...... development of ZoneLib....

  13. Generalized Fibonacci zone plates

    CERN Document Server

    Ke, Jie; Zhu, Jianqiang

    2015-01-01

    We propose a family of zone plates which are produced by the generalized Fibonacci sequences and their axial focusing properties are analyzed in detail. Compared with traditional Fresnel zone plates, the generalized Fibonacci zone plates present two axial foci with equal intensity. Besides, we propose an approach to adjust the axial locations of the two foci by means of different optical path difference, and further give the deterministic ratio of the two focal distances which attributes to their own generalized Fibonacci sequences. The generalized Fibonacci zone plates may allow for new applications in micro and nanophotonics.

  14. Shanghai's Development Zones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Since the early 1980s,development zones began appearing in China.Their Success largely stems from the preferential policies they offer and the safe investment environment they work hard to create.As zones have personalities themselves,it is essential to look beyond the pamphlets and published information and get down to the nittygritty.Shanghai has more State designated Economic and Technology Development Zones than any other city in China.In the following article,we have chosen development zones located around Shanghai and conducted a comparison.

  15. The Clearing : Heidegger’s Lichtung and the big scrub

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garbutt, Rob

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Clearings make settlement possible. Whether on a small scale using an axe and other hand implements to make way for a dwelling and a garden, or on a large scale with a chain strung between two D9 bulldozers in preparation for a major agribusiness development, the process of clearing creates spaces for installing something new. This paper uses the idea of (the clearing, as practice, process, outcome and metaphor, to examine the installation of the locals in a settler society. Using Lismore on the far-north coast of New South Wales, Australia, as a case example, the particular work of clearing that is discussed here is a practice that enables a form of colonisation and settlement that distances itself from its history of migration. This is a history of settler locals who were 'always here', and a colonial form of clearing clears the land and the mind of troubling pasts and of troubling presences. For the locals within a place, then, clearing manages and simplifies a complex set of social and material relations, histories and identities.Using Anthony Appiah's concept the 'space clearing gesture', the paper concludes with a reflection on the space in which the idea of "the clearing" and this paper appears. Do places, in this instance rural places, provide a type of clearing in which certain ideas might appear that may not appear elsewhere? If situatedness matters then the diversity of places where thinking is done is important for our ecology of thought, and in connection with this, perhaps what 'rural cultural studies' does is clear a particular type of space for thinking.

  16. The Clearing: Heidegger’s Lichtung and The Big Scrub

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Garbutt

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Clearings make settlement possible. Whether on a small scale using an axe and other hand implements to make way for a dwelling and a garden, or on a large scale with a chain strung between two D9 bulldozers in preparation for a major agribusiness development, the process of clearing creates spaces for installing something new. This paper uses the idea of (the clearing, as practice, process, outcome and metaphor, to examine the installation of the locals in a settler society. Using Lismore on the far-north coast of New South Wales, Australia, as a case example, the particular work of clearing that is discussed here is a practice that enables a form of colonisation and settlement that distances itself from its history of migration. This is a history of settler locals who were 'always here', and a colonial form of clearing clears the land and the mind of troubling pasts and of troubling presences. For the locals within a place, then, clearing manages and simplifies a complex set of social and material relations, histories and identities. Using Anthony Appiah's concept the 'space clearing gesture', the paper concludes with a reflection on the space in which the idea of "the clearing" and this paper appears. Do places, in this instance rural places, provide a type of clearing in which certain ideas might appear that may not appear elsewhere? If situatedness matters then the diversity of places where thinking is done is important for our ecology of thought, and in connection with this, perhaps what 'rural cultural studies' does is clear a particular type of space for thinking.

  17. Behind the money market: clearing and settling money market instruments

    OpenAIRE

    David L. Mengle

    1992-01-01

    When a money market instrument is traded, the clearing and settlement process establishes the change in ownership. Because the process involves both costs and risks, money market participants have developed means of making clearing and settlement more efficient and less risky.

  18. Glycogen-rich clear cell carcinoma of the breast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Paulsen, S M

    1987-01-01

    The light microscopic, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural features of a clear cell carcinoma of the breast have been studied. Both intraductal and invasive components were found. Histochemistry showed large amounts of intracytoplasmic glycogen and sparse neutral mucin in the tumour. The tumour...... was classified as a mucin-containing variant of glycogen-rich, clear cell carcinoma of the breast....

  19. 75 FR 63113 - Financial Resources Requirements for Derivatives Clearing Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-14

    ... customers or themselves, and non-FCMs that clear solely on behalf of themselves. See also the definition of... member may have a specific incentive to pay an assessment depending on the size and profitability of its... purposes of this calculation, if a clearing member had pays in both its house and customer accounts,...

  20. The Effectiveness of Clear Speech as a Masker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calandruccio, Lauren; Van Engen, Kristin; Dhar, Sumitrajit; Bradlow, Ann R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: It is established that speaking clearly is an effective means of enhancing intelligibility. Because any signal-processing scheme modeled after known acoustic-phonetic features of clear speech will likely affect both target and competing speech, it is important to understand how speech recognition is affected when a competing speech signal…

  1. A New Type of distributed Enamel based Clearing Electrode

    CERN Document Server

    Kroyer, T; Caspers, Friedhelm; Hellmond, P; Métral, E; Wendel, J C; Zimmermann, F

    2007-01-01

    Clearing electrodes can be used for electron cloud (EC) suppression in high intensity particle accelerators. In this paper the use of low and highly resistive layers on a dielectric substrate are examined. The beam coupling impedance of such a structure is evaluated. Furthermore the clearing efficiency as well as technological issues are discussed.

  2. 76 FR 14471 - Clearing Agency Standards for Operation and Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    ... Operation and Governance; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76, No. 51 / Wednesday, March 16, 2011... Standards for Operation and Governance AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule... clearing agencies and standards for the operation and governance of clearing agencies. The proposed...

  3. ClearPEM: prototype PET device dedicated to breast imaging

    CERN Multimedia

    Joao Varela

    2009-01-01

    Clinical trials have begun in Portugal on a new breast imaging system (ClearPEM) using positron emission tomography (PET). The system, developed by a Portuguese consortium in collaboration with CERN and laboratories participating in the Crystal Clear collaboration, will detect even the smallest tumours and thus help avoid unnecessary biopsies.

  4. 18 CFR 367.1840 - Account 184, Clearing accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Deferred Debits § 367.1840 Account 184, Clearing accounts. This account must include undistributed balances in clearing accounts at the date of the balance sheet... accounts. 367.1840 Section 367.1840 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY...

  5. A simple formula for determining globally clear skies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, C.N.; George, A.T.; Mace, G.G. [Penn State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    Surface measurements to serve as {open_quotes}ground truth{close_quotes} are of primary importance in the development of retrieval algorithms using satellite measurements to predict surface irradiance. The most basic algorithms of this type deal with clear sky (i.e., cloudless) top-to-surface shortwave (SW) transfer, serving as a necessary prerequisite towards treating both clear and cloudy conditions. Recently, atmosphere SW cloud forcing to infer the possibility of excess atmospheric absorption (compared with model results) in cloudy atmospheres. The surface component of this ratio relies on inferring the expected clear sky SW irradiance to determine the effects of clouds on the SW energy budget. Solar renewable energy applications make use of clear and cloud fraction climatologies to assess solar radiation resources. All of the above depend to some extent on the identification of globally clear sky conditions and the attendant measurements of downwelling SW irradiance.

  6. Molecular basis for optical clearing of collagenous tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirshburg, Jason M.; Ravikumar, Krishnakumar M.; Hwang, Wonmuk; Yeh, Alvin T.

    2010-09-01

    Molecular interactions of optical clearing agents were investigated using a combination of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and optical spectroscopy. For a series of sugar alcohols with low to high optical clearing potential, Raman spectroscopy and integrating sphere measurements were used to quantitatively characterize tissue water loss and reduction in light scattering following agent exposures. The rate of tissue water loss was found to correlate with agent optical clearing potential, but equivalent tissue optical clearing was measured in native and fixed tissue in vitro, given long-enough exposure times to the polyol series. MD simulations showed that the rate of tissue optical clearing correlated with the preferential formation of hydrogen bond bridges between agent and collagen. Hydrogen bond bridge formation disrupts the collagen hydration layer and facilitates replacement by a chemical agent to homogenize tissue refractive index. However, the reduction in tissue light scattering did not correlate with the agent index of refraction. Our results suggest that a necessary property of optical clearing agents is hyperosmolarity to tissue, but that the most effective agents with the highest rates of optical clearing are a subset with the highest collagen solubilities.

  7. Clear cell sarcoma: A case mimicking primary cutaneous malignant melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodriguez-Martin M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Clear cell sarcoma (CCS is a recently described variant of sarcoma characterized by prominent clear cells showing features similar to clear cell melanoma. This neoplasm was first described by Dr. Franz M. Erzinger. Primary CCS usually arises in deeper soft tissues, in association with fascia, tendons, or aponeuroses. Characteristic translocation t(12;22 (q13;q12 has been considered pathognomonic for CCS. Prognosis is related to tumor size. An early recognition and initial radical surgery is the key to a favourable outcome. We present a patient with an unusual neoplasm that resembled malignant melanoma.

  8. Clear-PEM, a dedicated PET camera for mammography

    CERN Document Server

    Lecoq, P

    2002-01-01

    Preliminary results suggest that Positron Emission Mammography (PEM) can offer a noninvasive method for the diagnosis of breast cancer. Metabolic images from PEM contain unique information not available from conventional morphologic imaging techniques and aid in expeditiously establishing the diagnosis of cancer. A dedicated machine seems to offer better perspectives in terms of position resolution and sensitivity. This paper describes the concept of Clear-PEM, the system presently developed by the Crystal Clear Collaboration at CERN for an evaluation of this approach. This device is based on new crystals introduced by the Crystal Clear as well as on modern data acquisition techniques developed for the large experiments in high energy physics experiments.

  9. Denuded Zones, Diffusional Creep, and Grain Boundary Sliding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wadsworth, J; Ruano, O A; Sherby, O D

    2001-06-27

    The appearance of denuded zones following low stress creep in particle-containing crystalline materials is both a microstructural prediction and observation often cited as irrefutable evidence for the Nabarro-Herring mechanism of diffusional creep. The denuded zones are predicted to be at grain boundaries that are orthogonal to the direction of the applied stress. Furthermore, their dimensions should account for the accumulated plastic flow. In the present paper, the evidence for such denuded zones is critically examined. These zones have been observed during creep of magnesium, aluminum, and nickel-base alloys. The investigation casts serious doubts on the apparently compelling evidence for the link between denuded zones and diffusional creep. Specifically, denuded zones are clearly observed under conditions that are explicitly not diffusional creep. Additionally, the denuded zones are often found in directions that are not orthogonal to the applied stress. Other mechanisms that can account for the observations of denuded zones are discussed. It is proposed that grain boundary sliding accommodated by slip is the rate-controlling process in the stress range where denuded zones have been observed. It is likely that the denuded zones are created by dissolution of precipitates at grain boundaries that are simultaneously sliding and migrating during creep.

  10. Reconstruction of Clear-PEM data with STIR

    CERN Document Server

    Martins, M V; Rodrigues, P; Trindade, A; Oliveira, N; Correia, M; Cordeiro, H; Ferreira, N C; Varela, J; Almeida, P

    2006-01-01

    The Clear-PEM scanner is a device based on planar detectors that is currently under development within the Crystal Clear Collaboration, at CERN. The basis for 3D image reconstruction in Clear-PEM is the software for tomographic image reconstruction (STIR). STIR is an open source object-oriented library that efficiently deals with the 3D positron emission tomography data sets. This library was originally designed for the traditional cylindrical scanners. In order to make its use compatible with planar scanner data, new functionalities were introduced into the library's framework. In this work, Monte Carlo simulations of the Clear-PEM scanner acquisitions were used as input for image reconstruction with the 3D OSEM algorithm available in STIR. The results presented indicate that dual plate PEM data can be accurately reconstructed using the enhanced STIR framework.

  11. Molecular Air Data Clear Air Turbulence Sensor: MADCAT Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Clear air turbulence (CAT), often referred to as "air pockets," is attributed to Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities at altitudes generally above 18,000ft, often in the...

  12. Molecular Air Data Clear Air Turbulence Sensor: MADCAT Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Clear air turbulence (CAT), often referred to as "air pockets," is attributed to Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities at altitudes usually above 18,000ft, often without...

  13. Global horizontal irradiance clear sky models : implementation and analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, Joshua S.; Hansen, Clifford W.; Reno, Matthew J.

    2012-03-01

    Clear sky models estimate the terrestrial solar radiation under a cloudless sky as a function of the solar elevation angle, site altitude, aerosol concentration, water vapor, and various atmospheric conditions. This report provides an overview of a number of global horizontal irradiance (GHI) clear sky models from very simple to complex. Validation of clear-sky models requires comparison of model results to measured irradiance during clear-sky periods. To facilitate validation, we present a new algorithm for automatically identifying clear-sky periods in a time series of GHI measurements. We evaluate the performance of selected clear-sky models using measured data from 30 different sites, totaling about 300 site-years of data. We analyze the variation of these errors across time and location. In terms of error averaged over all locations and times, we found that complex models that correctly account for all the atmospheric parameters are slightly more accurate than other models, but, primarily at low elevations, comparable accuracy can be obtained from some simpler models. However, simpler models often exhibit errors that vary with time of day and season, whereas the errors for complex models vary less over time.

  14. Coastal sediment elevation change following anthropogenic mangrove clearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Heather L.; Granek, Elise F.

    2015-11-01

    Coastal mangrove forests along tropical shorelines serve as an important interface between land and sea. They provide a physical buffer protecting the coastline from erosion and act as sediment "traps" catching terrestrial sediment, thus preventing smothering of subtidal coral reefs. Coastal development that removes mangrove habitat may impact adjacent nearshore coral reefs through sedimentation and nutrient loading. We examined differences in sediment elevation change between patches of open-coast intact and anthropogenically cleared red mangroves (Rhizophora mangle) on the east side of Turneffe Atoll, Belize, to quantify changes following mangrove clearing. Samples were collected over a 24 month period at five study sites, each containing paired intact (+mangrove) and cleared (-mangrove) plots. Five sediment elevation pins were deployed in each plot: behind areas cleared of mangroves (-mangrove) and behind adjacent intact mangroves (+mangrove). Sediment elevation increased at intact mangrove sites (M = +3.83 mm, SE = 0.95) whereas cleared mangrove areas suffered elevation loss (M = -7.30 mm, SE = 3.38). Mangroves inshore of partial or continuous gaps in the adjacent fringing reefs had higher rates of elevation loss (M = -15.05 mm) than mangroves inshore of continuous fringing reefs (M = -1.90 mm). Our findings provide information on potential effects of mangrove clearing and the role of offshore habitat characteristics on coastal sediment trapping and maintenance of sediment elevation by mangroves. With implications for coastline capacity to adjust to sea level rise, these findings are relevant to management of coastal fringing mangrove forests across the Caribbean.

  15. Microgravity silicon zoning investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, E. L.; Gill, G. L., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The flow instabilities in floating zones of silicon were investigated and methods for investigation of these instabilities in microgravity were defined. Three principal tasks were involved: (1) characterization of the float zone in small diameter rods; (2) investigation of melt flow instabilities in circular melts in silicon disks; and (3) the development of a prototype of an apparatus that could be used in near term space experiments to investigate flow instabilities in a molten zone. It is shown that in a resistance heated zoner with 4 to 7 mm diameter silicon rods that the critical Marangoni number is about 1480 compared to a predicted value of 14 indicative that viable space experiments might be performed. The prototype float zone apparatus is built and specifications are prepared for a flight zoner should a decision be reached to proceed with a space flight experimental investigation.

  16. The gray zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisner, H J

    1998-01-01

    Think for a minute about the terms equivocal and indeterminate. Equivocal is defined as "of uncertain significance", and indeterminate is defined as "indefinite, uncertain". Now think of the context in which laboratory results are reported: either by using the exact words equivocal or indeterminate or cloaked in technical jargon (e.g., cytologic diagnoses "ASCUS" or "AGUS"). Clinicians expect (or at least want) laboratory results to be black or white (i.e., bimodally distributed), whereas laboratorians strive for the perfect shade of gray because of data that often are bimodal but overlapping. A consequence of this color war is "the gray zone" (often confused with the "twilight zone"), a noncommittal zone that leaves laboratorians and clinicians alike plenty of wiggle room, allowing us to interpret results on either side of the fence. This article examines the root causes of the gray zone, with several clinical examples of how it permeates laboratory interpretation.

  17. Promise Zones for Applicants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This tool assists applicants to HUD's Promise Zone initiative prepare data to submit with their application by allowing applicants to draw the exact location of the...

  18. BLM Solar Energy Zones

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — Priority development areas for utility-scale solar energy facilities as identified in the Solar PEIS Record of Decision. An additional Solar Energy Zone identified...

  19. Simulated floating zone method

    OpenAIRE

    Ozawa, Ryo; Kato, Yasuyuki; Motome, Yukitoshi

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides the simulated floating zone (SFZ) method that is an efficient simulation technique to obtain thermal equilibrium states, especially useful when domain formation prevents the system from reaching a spatially-uniform stable state. In the SFZ method, the system is heated up locally, and the heated region is steadily shifted, similar to the floating zone method for growing a single crystal with less lattice defect and impurity in experiments. We demonstrate that the SFZ method...

  20. Spatio-temporal changes in the genetic structure of the Passerina bunting hybrid zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carling, Matthew D; Zuckerberg, Benjamin

    2011-03-01

    Although theoretical models predict that the structure of a hybrid zone can change under a variety of scenarios, only a few empirical studies of hybrid zones have unequivocally demonstrated zone movement. These studies are rare because few data sets exist that include repeated, temporally spaced, samples of the same hybrid zone. We analysed mitochondrial DNA haplotype data from samples separated by 40-45 years from across the Passerina amoena (Lazuli Bunting) and Passerina cyanea (Indigo Bunting) hybrid zone to investigate whether the genetic structure of this zone has changed during that interval. Both cline and generalized linear mixed modelling analyses uncovered a significant narrowing and a substantial westward shift of the Passerina bunting hybrid zone, clearly illustrating hybrid zone movement. The cause of the change may be due to a combination of ecological, demographic and behavioural factors. Our results predict that the width of the hybrid zone will continue to narrow over time, a finding consistent with reinforcement theory.

  1. Water quality dynamics and hydrology in nitrate loaded riparian zones in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefting, Mariet; Beltman, Boudewijn; Karssenberg, Derek; Rebel, Karin; van Riessen, Mirjam; Spijker, Maarten

    2006-01-01

    Riparian zones are known to function as buffers, reducing non-point source pollution from agricultural land to streams. In the Netherlands, riparian zones are subject to high nitrogen inputs. We combined hydrological, chemical and soil profile data with groundwater modelling to evaluate whether chronically N loaded riparian zones were still mitigating diffuse nitrate fluxes. Hydraulic parameters and water quality were monitored over 2 years in 50 piezometres in a forested and grassland riparian zone. Average nitrate loadings were high in the forested zone with 87 g NO(3)(-)-N m(-2) y(-1) and significantly lower in the grassland zone with 15 g NO(3)(-)-N m(-2) y(-1). Groundwater from a second aquifer diluted the nitrate loaded agricultural runoff. Biological N removal however occurred in both riparian zones, the grassland zone removed about 63% of the incoming nitrate load, whereas in the forested zone clear symptoms of saturation were visible and only 38% of the nitrate load was removed.

  2. Anterior Crossbite and Crowding Correction with a Series of Clear Aligners Involving Lower Incisor Extraction: "The Clear Way" Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawaskar, Naval Suresh

    2015-01-01

    The Clear Aligner can be used to correct tooth movement without involving extraction, surgery, and other adjunct orthopaedic appliances. Some forms ofattachments are required with clear aligners to achieve all major types of orthodontic tooth movements. The Clear Aligner is a procedure that can be performed by a clinician with computer simulation/calculation. Since the Clear Aligner can be fabricated in steps, it is readily available to change the treatment sequence throughout the course of the treatment in cases of complex malocclusions. The patient can receive any necessary dental procedures with ease during the course of the treatment. The treatment can also be easily resumed even if the patient has not worn the aligners for a period of time. The purpose of this article is to report dental anterior crossbite correction with a series of Clear Aligners without the use of any forms of attachments. The Clear Aligner could be used as an alternative in appropriate cases for those who are reluctant with conventional appliances.

  3. Distribution of dilemma zone after intelligent transportation system established

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yuanchang; Yang, Huiqin; Wu, Linying

    2017-03-01

    Dilemma zone refers to an area where vehicles can neither clear the intersection during the yellow interval nor stop safely before the stop line. The purpose of this paper is to analyzing the distribution of two types of dilemma zone after intelligent transportation system (ITS) established at Outer Ring Roads signalized intersections in Guangzhou Higher Education Mega Center. To collect field data a drone aircraft was used. When calculating the type II dilemma zone's distribution, we considered the information of drivers' aggressiveness, which was classified by driving speed and type I dilemma zone as well. We also compared the two types dilemma zone's distribution before and after ITS established and analyzed the changes, which was brought by ITS.

  4. Mines and human casualties: a robotics approach toward mine clearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffari, Masoud; Manthena, Dinesh; Ghaffari, Alireza; Hall, Ernest L.

    2004-10-01

    An estimated 100 million landmines which have been planted in more than 60 countries kill or maim thousands of civilians every year. Millions of people live in the vast dangerous areas and are not able to access to basic human services because of landmines" threats. This problem has affected many third world countries and poor nations which are not able to afford high cost solutions. This paper tries to present some experiences with the land mine victims and solutions for the mine clearing. It studies current situation of this crisis as well as state of the art robotics technology for the mine clearing. It also introduces a survey robot which is suitable for the mine clearing applications. The results show that in addition to technical aspects, this problem has many socio-economic issues. The significance of this study is to persuade robotics researchers toward this topic and to peruse the technical and humanitarian facets of this issue.

  5. Advanced ThioClear process testing. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lani, B.

    1998-03-01

    Wet scrubbing is the leading proven commercial post-combustion FGD technology available to meet the sulfur dioxide reductions required by the Clean Air Act Amendments. To reduce costs associated with wet FGD, Dravo Lime Company has developed the ThioClear process. ThioClear is an ex-situ forced oxidation magnesium-enhanced lime FGD process. ThioClear process differs from the conventional magnesium-enhanced lime process in that the recycle liquor has minimal suspended solids and the by-products are wallboard quality gypsum and magnesium hydroxide, an excellent reagent for water treatment. The process has demonstrated sulfur dioxide removal efficiencies of +95% in both a vertical spray scrubber tower and a horizontal absorber operating at gas velocities of 16 fps, respectively. This report details the optimization studies and associated economics from testing conducted at Dravo Lime Company`s pilot plant located at the Miami Fort Station of the Cincinnati Gas and Electric Company.

  6. Study on application of optical clearing technique in skin diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Hao; Liang, Yanmei; Wang, Jingyi; Li, Yan

    2012-11-01

    So far, the study of the optical clearing is almost always about healthy tissue. However, the ultimate goal is to detect diseases for clinical application. Optical clearing on diseased skins is explored. The effect is evaluated by applying a combined liquid paraffin and glycerol mixed solution on several kinds of diseased skins in vitro. Scanning experiments from optical coherence tomography show that it has different effects among fibroma, pigmented nevus, and seborrheic keratosis. Based on the results, we conclude that different skin diseases have different compositions and structures, and their optical parameters and biological characteristics should be different, which implies that the optical clearing technique may have selectivity and may not be suitable for all kinds of skin diseases.

  7. Diagnosis of clear sky ultraviolet radiation for Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemus Deschamps, L. [Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre (Australia); Galindo, I.; Solano, R.; Elizalde, A.T.; Fonseca, J. [Centro Universitario de Investigaciones en Ciencias del Ambiente, University of Colima (Mexico)

    2002-07-01

    A discrete-ordinate radiative transfer model is employed to develop a regional clear sky ultraviolet (UV) diagnosis system. The clear sky UV radiation, weighted by the spectral sensitivity of human skin is calculated using the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) data sets. Examples of the geographical clear sky UV Index distributions are presented and the model results are compared with surface UV measurements from University of Colima for 1999. [Spanish] Utilizando un modelo de transferencia de radiacion de ordenadas discretas se desarrolla un sistema para el diagnostico de la distribucion de radiacion ultravioleta para cielo despejado en la Republica Mexicana. La radiacion para cielo despejado se obtiene utilizando la respuesta espectral de la piel humana y los datos de satelite de ozono total registrados por el espectrometro TOMS. Se presentan ejemplos del Indice de radiacion ultravioleta (UV Index) calculados con el modelo y se comparan con las mediciones en superficie obtenidas en la Universidad de Colima durante 1999.

  8. Clear cell colitis: A form of microscopic colitis in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jan J(o)zefczuk; Bogdan Marian Wozniewicz

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To describe a new clinical and pathological subtype of microscopic colitis in children.METHODS: A selected group of children with abdominal pain, constipation and/or diarrhoea showing discrete or no macroscopic abnormalities on endoscopy was described.RESULTS: Multiple biopsies of colon showed large mononuclear clear cells in lamina propria of mucous membrane provided that good quality histological sections were performed and observed under a higher magnification. Otherwise, they could be misinterpreted as artefacts. Their presence in routine histology might suggest a systemic storage disease (Whipple's disease), and neuronal intestine dysplasia.Using immunohistochemical staining and electron microscopy we confirmed their origin from CD68 positive mononuclear macrophages.CONCLUSION: The presence of large clear cells is a constant microscopic feature. Failure of transient large bowel stationary macrophages plays a role in the pathogenesis of this benign microscopic clear cell colitis,sometimes coexisting with allergy.

  9. Final Environmental Assessment for the Airfield Safety Zone Vegetation Clearing at Joint Base McGuire-Dix-Lakehurst

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    variable, but include dominants such as tussock sedge ( Carex stricta), and soft rush (Juncus effusus), with a v ariety of ot her w etland pl ants s uch a s...HARRIER E/U SEDGE WREN E WOOD TURTLE T BOG TURTLE LT E TIMBER RATTLESNAKE E BOBOLINK T/T CORN SNAKE E PEREGRINE FALCON E COMMON MAP TURTLE u BALD...Sl8,S2N GSTS Sl G4 SlB 2 30 AUG 2004 *** Ecosystems NAME STRIX VARIA SYNAPTOMYS COOPER! BRACKISH TIDAL MARSH COMPLEX CAREX STRIATA VAR

  10. Tropospheric haze and colors of the clear daytime sky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Raymond L

    2015-02-01

    To casual observers, haze's visible effects on clear daytime skies may seem mundane: significant scattering by tropospheric aerosols visibly (1) reduces the luminance contrast of distant objects and (2) desaturates sky blueness. However, few published measurements of hazy-sky spectra and chromaticities exist to compare with these naked-eye observations. Hyperspectral imaging along sky meridians of clear and hazy skies at one inland and two coastal sites shows that they have characteristic colorimetric signatures of scattering and absorption by haze aerosols. In addition, a simple spectral transfer function and a second-order scattering model of skylight reveal the net spectral and colorimetric effects of haze.

  11. Clear cell odontogenic carcinoma of maxilla: A diagnostic challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouzia Siraj

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Clear cell odontogenic carcinoma (CCOC is a rare odontogenic tumor which occurs mostly in the mandible. It is primarily seen in fifth to seventh decades with a female predilection. We report a case of CCOC in the maxillary arch of a 66-year-old woman. Morphologic examination along with histochemical and immunohistochemical markers led to the establishment of the diagnosis. It is important to diagnose this entity and differentiate it from other clear cell tumors in the head and neck region as it is a locally aggressive tumor with a propensity for regional, nodal, and distant metastasis.

  12. Restoring lakes by using artificial plant beds: habitat selection of zooplankton in a clear and a turbid shallow lake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Majbritt Overgård; Risholt, Casper; Lauridsen, Torben L.;

    2009-01-01

    1. Return of large-bodied zooplankton populations is of key importance for creating a shift from a turbid to a clear-water state in shallow lakes after a nutrient loading reduction. In temperate lakes, recovery is promoted by submerged macrophytes which function as a daytime refuge for large...... in lake restoration, we followed the day–night habitat choices of zooplankton throughout summer in a clear and a turbid lake. Observations were made in the pelagic and littoral zones and in APB in the littoral representing three different plant densities (coverage 0%, 40% and 80%). 3. In the clear lake...... overall more equally distributed between the five habitats. Ceriodaphnia was proportionally more abundant in the APB during most of the season. Cyclopoids were more abundant in the high APB during day but were equally distributed between the five habitats during night. 4. In the turbid lake, however...

  13. The clinical and imaging features of clear cell meningioma in ten cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHAO Guang-zuo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the clinical features and imaging findings of intracranial clear cell meningioma. Methods The clinical data were reviewed, including presentation, imaging and prognosis of 10 patients suffered from intracranial clear cell meningioma for 2 months-7 years and underwent surgical treatment. The patients included five males and five females with the age from nine to sixty-two years old (mean 35.43. The tumors were located at cerebellopontine angle (CPA zone (n = 5, parietal lobe (n = 1, tuberculum sella (n = 1, jugular foramen (n = 1, tentorium of cerebellum (n = 1 or lateral cerebral ventricle (n = 1. The initial symptoms included headache (n = 4, gait disturbance (n = 2, hearing loss (n = 2, vision loss (n = 1 and bucking (n = 1 which were associated with the mass locations. Results CT (n = 8 and MRI (n = 10 of 10 patients were retrospectively reviewed. CT findings of the lesions presented with hyperdensity (n = 6, isodensity (n = 1, or isodensity with hyperdensity (n = 1. MRI T1WI showed isointensity (n = 4, hypointensity with isointensity (n = 4 or hyperintensity (n = 2, whereas T2WI isointensity with hyperintensity (n = 7, presented hypointensity (n = 1, isointensity (n = 1, or hyperintensity (n = 1. On gadolinium-enhanced T1WI, moderate enhancement was seen in 8 lesions and marked enhancement was seen in 2 lesions. In initial CT scanning peritumoral edema was found in 7 cases, dural tail sign in 5 cases, cysts in 7 cases, calcification in 3 cases, periosteal proliferation in 1 case and bone destruction in 5 cases. Seven patients underwent complete resection and 3 underwent subtotal resection. Follow-up period was 11-120 months. Recurrence occurred in 5 patients. The mean recurrence time was 55.62 months. Conclusion Clear cell meningioma is a rare meningioma and often occurs in young persons without significant difference in sex. The CPA zone is the most affected area. The prognosis is closely related to the extent of

  14. The Search for Durable Exterior Clear Coatings for Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip D. Evans

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of a durable exterior clear coating has eluded generations of coatings technologists, despite long-standing desire amongst the public for such a coating. The journey towards this goal initially focused on modifications to coating formulation, but took a completely different direction when it was found that a UV-transparent silicone clear coating on wood modified with chromic acid met consumer expectations of coating durability. This finding sparked world-wide interest in wood pre-treatments as a way of enhancing the durability of clear coatings. This interest initially focused on transition metal compounds, but has now shifted in the direction of organic and inorganic photostabilizers or even more drastic pre-treatments. Pre-treatments that dimensionally stabilize wood, protect it from microbial degradation and photostabilize lignin, when combined with flexible, photostable, coatings provide the next way-stop on the journey towards achieving the goal of durable exterior clear coatings for wood. This paper reviews this journey, drawing upon our research and that of other groups who have focused on this elusive goal.

  15. 76 FR 16587 - Risk Management Requirements for Derivatives Clearing Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    ... COMMISSION 17 CFR Part 39 RIN 3038-AC98 Risk Management Requirements for Derivatives Clearing Organizations... Principle D (Risk Management) and would establish a related reporting requirement under Core Principle J... Exchange Act (CEA) \\4\\ to establish a comprehensive regulatory framework to reduce risk,...

  16. Clearing the Fog from the Undergraduate Course in Linear Algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Damon

    2007-01-01

    For over a decade it has been a common observation that a "fog" passes over the course in linear algebra once abstract vector spaces are presented. See [2, 3]. We show how this fog may be cleared by having the students translate "abstract" vector-space problems to isomorphic "concrete" settings, solve the "concrete" problem either by hand or with…

  17. 31 CFR 50.12 - Clear and conspicuous disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... INSURANCE PROGRAM Disclosures as Conditions for Federal Payment § 50.12 Clear and conspicuous disclosure. (a... circumstances of the disclosure. See § 50.17 for model forms. (b)(1) Description of premium. An insurer may..., consistent with the definition of an act of terrorism as amended by the Terrorism Risk Insurance...

  18. Marketing Strategies of United Kingdom Universities during Clearing and Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogaji, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The clearing system in the UK enables students without a university place after exam results have been announced to find suitable vacancies, as it is important for universities to fill their vacancies as any shortfall loses them a lot of money. The purpose of this paper is to examine marketing strategies adopted by UK universities on…

  19. Clear Speech Variants: An Acoustic Study in Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Jennifer; Tjaden, Kris

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The authors investigated how different variants of clear speech affect segmental and suprasegmental acoustic measures of speech in speakers with Parkinson's disease and a healthy control group. Method: A total of 14 participants with Parkinson's disease and 14 control participants served as speakers. Each speaker produced 18 different…

  20. Multifocal Rhizopus microsporus lung infection following brush clearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artsiom V. Tsyrkunou

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of pulmonary Rhizopus microsporus infection in a patient with untreated diabetes following brush clearing. The patient was successfully treated with a combined medical and surgical approach with complete resolution of the lung lesions and remains asymptomatic at 11-month follow-up.

  1. Does gently clearing the nasal passage affect odor identification?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell G. Spring

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Identifying scents in a wine’s bouquet is considered one of the most important steps in the process of wine tasting. An individual’s ability to successfully do this is dependent on the sense of smell; thus, altering the nasal microenvironment could have a powerful effect on the wine tasting experience. In the present study, we examined olfactory performance in healthy participants who cleared their nasal cavity before odorant presentations. Fifty undergraduate participants were assessed with a standardized test of olfaction requiring the recognition of a battery of odors. Half of these participants cleared mucus from their nasal cavities (by gently blowing their noses prior to the assessment. No difference was found in performance between those who cleared their nasal passages and those who did not. Further, data were not different than known population data from the test. These data suggest that gently clearing the nasal cavity before presentation of odorants bears no effect on the ability to perceive those odor qualities.

  2. Seeing Clearly (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-05-08

    If you’re not seeing the world as clearly as you used to, you might be among the millions of people suffering from vision impairment. In this podcast, Dr. John Crews discusses ways to take care of your eyes.  Created: 5/8/2014 by MMWR.   Date Released: 5/8/2014.

  3. 19 CFR 4.60 - Vessels required to clear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... contiguous country otherwise than by sea. (c) Vessels which will merely transit the Panama Canal without transacting any business there shall not be required to be cleared because of such transit. (d) In the event... hours after clearance to the port director who shall note the fact of detention on the certificate...

  4. Treatment results and prognostic factors of clear cell ovarian carcinomas and ovarian carcinomas with clear cell component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Ahmedova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The most important prognostic factors for clear cell carcinoma (CCC are clinical and morphological signs and clinical stage of the disease. Analyses of 5-year survival in patients with I stage of CCC is 69 %, in II stage – 55 %, in III stage – 14 % and in IV stage – 4 % patients. We analyzed distant results of treatment of 71 patients with CCC and of 25 patients with mixed malignant ovaries neoplasm with obligatory clear cell component taking into consideration main clinical and morphological sings of disease. On the base of performed reseal we revealed that morphological structure of the tumors and stage of the disease exerted heist influence on the exponent of survival of the patients with clear CCC ovaries neoplasm. Besides, there is a correlation between exponent of patients’ survival and radicalized of surgery, character of tumor growth, differentiation degree, cell anaplasia and mitotic activity of tumor cells.

  5. The potential of clear-sky carbon dioxide satellite retrievals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. R. Nelson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the launch of the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT in 2009, retrieval algorithms designed to infer the column-averaged dry-air mole fraction of carbon dioxide (XCO2 from hyperspectral near-infrared observations of reflected sunlight have been greatly improved. They now generally include the scattering effects of clouds and aerosols, as early work found that absorption-only retrievals, which neglected these effects, often incurred unacceptably large errors, even for scenes with optically thin cloud or aerosol layers. However, these "full-physics" retrievals tend to be computationally expensive and may incur biases from trying to deduce the properties of clouds and aerosols when there are none present. Additionally, algorithms are now available that can quickly and effectively identify and remove most scenes in which cloud or aerosol scattering plays a significant role. In this work, we test the hypothesis that non-scattering, or "clear-sky", retrievals may perform as well as full-physics retrievals for sufficiently clear scenes. Clear-sky retrievals could potentially avoid errors and biases brought about by trying to infer properties of clouds and aerosols when none are present. Clear-sky retrievals are also desirable because they are orders of magnitude faster than full-physics retrievals. Here we use a simplified version of the Atmospheric Carbon Observations from Space (ACOS XCO2 retrieval algorithm that does not include the scattering and absorption effects of clouds or aerosols. It was found that for simulated Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2 measurements, the clear-sky retrieval had errors comparable to those of the full-physics retrieval. For real GOSAT data, the clear-sky retrieval had nearly indistinguishable error characteristics over land, but roughly 30–60 % larger errors over ocean, depending on filtration level, compared to the full-physics retrieval. In general, the clear-sky retrieval had XCO2 root

  6. Clear-air radar observations of the atmospheric boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ince, Turker

    2001-10-01

    This dissertation presents the design and operation of a high-resolution frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FM- CW) radar system to study the structure and dynamics of clear-air turbulence in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). This sensitive radar can image the vertical structure of the ABL with both high spatial and temporal resolutions, and provide both qualitative information about the morphology of clear-air structures and quantitative information on the intensity of fluctuations in refractive-index of air. The principles of operation and the hardware and data acquisition characteristics of the radar are described in the dissertation. In October 1999, the radar participated in the Cooperative Atmosphere-Surface Exchange Study (CASES'99) Experiment to characterize the temporal structure and evolution of the boundary-layer features in both convective and stable conditions. The observed structures include clear-air convection, boundary layer evolution, gravity waves, Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities, stably stratified layers, and clear-air turbulence. Many of the S-band radar images also show high- reflectivity returns from Rayleigh scatterers such as insects. An adaptive median filtering technique based on local statistics has, therefore, been developed to discriminate between Bragg and Rayleigh scattering in clear-air radar observations. The filter is tested on radar observations of clear air convection with comparison to two commonly used image processing techniques. The dissertation also examines the statistical mean of the radar-measured C2n for clear-air convection, and compares it with the theoretical predictions. The study also shows that the inversion height, local thickness of the inversion layer, and the height of the elevated atmospheric layers can be estimated from the radar reflectivity measurements. In addition, comparisons to the radiosonde-based height estimates are made. To examine the temporal and spatial structure of C2n , the dissertation

  7. Saltwater upconing zone of influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovovic, Danica; Werner, Adrian D.; de Louw, Perry G. B.; Post, Vincent E. A.; Morgan, Leanne K.

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we define and characterize the saltwater upconing zone of influence (SUZI). The SUZI is the region around a pumping well within which significant rise in the saltwater-freshwater interface occurs. While the zone of influence of a pumping well can be clearly defined in terms of hydraulics (e.g., drawdown), the SUZI has not been recognised and characterised, despite its importance for groundwater decision-making in coastal regions. We explore the SUZI under various conditions and compare common methods of investigation using both axisymmetric (1D and 2D vertical cross-section) and 3D simulations of saltwater upconing at the field scale, based on a combination of numerical and analytical approaches. The SUZI was found to be dependent on the relative magnitudes of pumping, regional flow, distance of the well from the coast, and position of the well above the interface, as expected. The three-dimensional coastal setting simulations revealed an asymmetric shape of the lateral extent of the SUZI, which is largest in the direction parallel to the coast. This occurs because the ocean and the inland extent of the seawater wedge limit the propagation of the SUZI perpendicular to the coast. Predictions of the SUZI using the Ghyben-Herzberg approximation, including cases where sloping interfaces occur (i.e., in contrast to the artificiality of horizontal interfaces used in axisymmetric approaches), provide reasonable first approximations of the SUZI. Numerical modelling of dispersive upconing in the 3D inclined interface case is influenced by practical limits to the model domain size and grid resolution. For example, the no-flow boundary condition at 1500 m from the pumping well elongates the SUZI in the direction parallel to the coast. This study extends previous concepts of well interference, which have previously been based on hydraulics only, by introducing the SUZI and characterising its extent, with consideration given to differences in commonly adopted

  8. Clear cell ovarian cancer and endometriosis: is there a relationship?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Szubert

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ovarian clear cell carcinoma is a rare type of ovarian cancer. In recent years, issues of the common genetic origin of endometriosis and ovarian clear cell carcinoma have been raised. Aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of this type of cancer, risk factors, prognosis and its potential aetiological association with endometriosis. Material and methods: In a retrospective study, we analysed histopathological data of patients operated in the First Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (MU, Lodz due to ovarian cancer in 2004-2014. Among the 394 patients operated on for ovarian cancer, clear cell carcinoma was found in 0.02% (9/394. Menstrual history, parity, comorbidities, data from physical examination, operational protocols and histopathological diagnoses were analysed. Follow-up was obtained from 77.8% of patients. Statistical analysis was performed using Microsoft Excel 2013. Results: The mean age of patients at diagnosis was 57.6 years; the BMI in the study group was 27.2; the majority of patients were multiparous (77.8%. Clear cell carcinoma was detected mostly at stage Ia (n = 4. The concentration of Ca125 in the study group had an average of 142.75 U/ml and a median of 69.3 U/ml. The coexistence of endometriosis could not be clinically or histologically confirmed amongst our patients. The most common comorbidity in the study group was hypertension. Conclusions : In our clinical material, ovarian clear cell carcinoma is a rare histopathological specimen with a prognostic value comparable to that of serous ovarian cancer. Due to the rarity of this histopathological subtype, proving a cause-and-effect relationship between it and endometriosis can only be elucidated through statistical studies of the entire population.

  9. Zones of emotional labour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøbæk, Pernille Solveig

    2011-01-01

    is put forth among 25 Danish public family law caseworkers. The study points to personal, professional, and social zones of emotional labour through which the caseworkers carry out their work. Emotional labour zones mark emotion structures that may be challenging due to complex emotional intersections......The paper suggests that due to the difficult nature of their work public family law caseworkers are to be included in the definition of emotional labour even though they are omitted by Hochschild. Based upon a review of the structures involved in emotional labour an explorative qualitative study...

  10. Planning and management of the coastal zone in India - A perspective

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nayak, B.U.; Chandramohan, P.; Desai, B.N.

    zone, relevant to its physical, chemical, and biological regimes, as well as man's socioeconomic and political systems. The goals must be clearly specified and policies with necessary built-in legislative powers should be framed for implementation. Most...

  11. A conceptual model of daily water balance following partial clearing from forest to pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Bari

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple conceptual water balance model representing the streamflow generation processes on a daily time step following land use change is presented. The model consists of five stores: (i Dry, Wet and Subsurface Stores for vertical and lateral water flow, (ii a transient Stream zone Store (iii a saturated Goundwater Store. The soil moisture balance in the top soil Dry and Wet Stores are the most important components of the model and characterize the dynamically varying saturated areas responsible for surface runoff, interflow and deep percolation. The Subsurface Store describes the unsaturated soil moisture balance, extraction of percolated water by vegetation and groundwater recharge. The Groundwater Store controls the baseflow to stream (if any and the groundwater contribution to the stream zone saturated areas. The daily model was developed following a downward approach by analysing data from Ernies (control and Lemon (53% cleared catchments in Western Australia and elaborating a monthly model. The daily model performed very well in simulating daily flow generation processes for both catchments. Most of the model parameters were incorporated a priori from catchment attributes such as surface slope, soil depth, porosity, stream length and initial groundwater depth, and some were calibrated by matching the observed and predicted hydrographs. The predicted groundwater depth, and streamflow volumes across all time steps from daily to monthly to annual were in close agreement with observations for both catchments.

  12. Flexible 'zoning' aids adaptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corben, Simon

    2013-09-01

    Simon Corben, business development director at Capita Symonds' Health team, examines how 'clever use of zoning' when planning new healthcare facilities could improve hospital design, increase inherent flexibility, and reduce lifetime costs, and argues that a 'loose-fit, non-bespoke approach' to space planning will lead to 'more flexible buildings that are suitable for conversion to alternative uses'.

  13. DNS zones revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanrooij, van Ward; Pras, Aiko; Delgado Kloos, Carlos

    2005-01-01

    Recent research [Pap04b] suggests DNS reliability and performance is not up to the levels it should be due to misconfigurations. This paper checks the configuration of nameserver zones against additional requirements, recommendations and best-practices. It shows that almost one in four domains fails

  14. Bathymetry of Clear Creek Reservoir, Chaffee County, Colorado, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Michael S.; Kinzel, Paul J.; Mohrmann, Jacob S.

    2017-03-06

    To better characterize the water supply capacity of Clear Creek Reservoir, Chaffee County, Colorado, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Pueblo Board of Water Works and Colorado Mountain College, carried out a bathymetry survey of Clear Creek Reservoir. A bathymetry map of the reservoir is presented here with the elevation-surface area and the elevation-volume relations. The bathymetry survey was carried out June 6–9, 2016, using a man-operated boat-mounted, multibeam echo sounder integrated with a Global Positioning System and a terrestrial survey using real-time kinematic Global Navigation Satellite Systems. The two collected datasets were merged and imported into geographic information system software. The equipment and methods used in this study allowed water-resource managers to maintain typical reservoir operations, eliminating the need to empty the reservoir to carry out the survey.

  15. Clear sky atmosphere at cm-wavelengths from climatology data

    CERN Document Server

    Lew, Bartosz

    2015-01-01

    We utilise ground-based, balloon-born and satellite climatology data to reconstruct site and season-dependent vertical profiles of precipitable water vapour (PWV). We use these profiles to numerically solve radiative transfer through the atmosphere, and derive atmospheric brightness temperature ($T_{\\rm atm}$) and optical depth ($\\tau$) at the centimetre wavelengths. We validate the reconstruction by comparing the model column PWV, with photometric measurements of PWV, performed in the clear sky conditions towards the Sun. Based on the measurements, we devise a selection criteria to filter the climatology data to match the PWV levels to the expectations of the clear sky conditions. We apply the reconstruction to the location of the Polish 32-metre radio telescope, and characterise $T_{\\rm atm}$ and $\\tau$ year-round, at selected frequencies. We also derive the zenith distance dependence for these parameters, and discuss shortcomings of using planar, single-layer, and optically thin atmospheric model approxima...

  16. Clear cell sarcoma of the kidney: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipanwita Nag

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Clear cell sarcoma of the kidney is a rare malignant neoplasm of childhood, known for its aggressiveness, its tendency for recurrence, and to metastasize to bone. We report the observation of 8-month-old child presenting with a large abdominal mass. Clinically, it was diagnosed as Wilm′s tumor, and left nephrectomy was done. Grossly, 10 cm × 8 cm × 3.5 cm globular, white, encapsulated, smooth mass uniformly involving the whole kidney was noted. Histologically, the tumor was diagnosed as clear cell sarcoma with renal vein showing presence of tumor embolus in lumen. The tumor was given stage-II (NWTS-5 protocol. Immunohistochemistry showed vimentin positive and cytokeratin negative tumor cells. The child is currently undergoing chemotherapy and has not yet shown any sign of bony metastasis.

  17. Effects of Mixing on Hopper Sedimentation in Clearing Mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelmager Jensen, Jacob; Saremi, Sina

    2015-01-01

    and settling in high-concentration mixtures were examined theoretically. Analytical solutions for clearance of excess concentrations were derived for the limiting cases of (1) still-water clearance and (2) clearance when the amount of turbulence is abundant. When examining these analytical solutions......Hopper sedimentation is the result of precipitation of typically fine sediment from a homogenous, high-concentration mixture, which is not completely deficient of turbulence. If hopper sedimentation or loading is accomplished through a single-inflow system, or if the irregularity of the inflow...... concentrations is pronounced or simply terminated, then the hopper mixture will clear. Whereas turbulent mixing is redundant, when the mixture is homogeneous, it may take an active role when the mixture is clearing. The role of turbulence on hopper sedimentation has been the focus of several studies...

  18. Experimental characterization of the Clear-PEM scanner spectrometric performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugalho, R.; Carriço, B.; Ferreira, C. S.; Frade, M.; Ferreira, M.; Moura, R.; Ortigão, C.; Pinheiro, J. F.; Rodrigues, P.; Rolo, I.; Silva, J. C.; Trindade, A.; Varela, J.

    2009-10-01

    In the framework of the Clear-PEM project for the construction of a high-resolution and high-specificity scanner for breast cancer imaging, a Positron Emission Mammography tomograph has been developed and installed at the Instituto Português de Oncologia do Porto hospital. The Clear-PEM scanner is mainly composed by two planar detector heads attached to a robotic arm, trigger/data acquisition electronics system and computing servers. The detector heads hold crystal matrices built from 2 × 2 × 20 mm3 LYSO:Ce crystals readout by Hamamatsu S8550 APD arrays. The APDs are optically coupled to both ends of the 6144 crystals in order to extract the DOI information for each detected event. Each one of 12288 APD's pixels is read and controlled by Application Specific Integrated Circuits water-cooled by an external cooling unit. The Clear-PEM frontend boards innovative design results in a unprecedented integration of the crystal matrices, APDs and ASICs, making Clear-PEM the PET scanner with the highest number of APD pixels ever integrated so far. In this paper, the scanner's main technical characteristics, calibration strategies and the first spectrometric performance evaluation in a clinical environment are presented. The first commissioning results show 99.7% active channels, which, after calibration, have inter-pixel and absolute gain distributions with dispersions of, respectively, 12.2% and 15.3%, demonstrating that despite the large number of channels, the system is uniform. The mean energy resolution at 511 keV is of 15.9%, with a 8.8% dispersion, and the mean CDOI-1 is 5.9%/mm, with a 7.8% dispersion. The coincidence time resolution, at 511 keV, for a energy window between 400 and 600 keV, is 5.2 ns FWHM.

  19. ClearFuels-Rentech Integrated Biorefinery Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, Joshua [Project Director

    2014-02-26

    The project Final Report describes the validation of the performance of the integration of two technologies that were proven individually on a pilot scale and were demonstrated as a pilot scale integrated biorefinery. The integrated technologies were a larger scale ClearFuels’ (CF) advanced flexible biomass to syngas thermochemical high efficiency hydrothermal reformer (HEHTR) technology with Rentech’s (RTK) existing synthetic gas to liquids (GTL) technology.

  20. Experimental characterization of the Clear-PEM scanner spectrometric performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bugalho, R; Carrico, B; Ferreira, C S; Frade, M; Ferreira, M; Moura, R; Ortigao, C; Pinheiro, J F; Rodrigues, P; Rolo, I; Silva, J C; Trindade, A; Varela, J [Laboratorio de Instrumentacao e Fisica Experimental de Particulas (LIP), Av. Elias Garcia 14-1, 1000-149 Lisboa (Portugal)], E-mail: frade@lip.pt

    2009-10-15

    In the framework of the Clear-PEM project for the construction of a high-resolution and high-specificity scanner for breast cancer imaging, a Positron Emission Mammography tomograph has been developed and installed at the Instituto Portugues de Oncologia do Porto hospital. The Clear-PEM scanner is mainly composed by two planar detector heads attached to a robotic arm, trigger/data acquisition electronics system and computing servers. The detector heads hold crystal matrices built from 2 x 2 x 20 mm{sup 3} LYSO:Ce crystals readout by Hamamatsu S8550 APD arrays. The APDs are optically coupled to both ends of the 6144 crystals in order to extract the DOI information for each detected event. Each one of 12288 APD's pixels is read and controlled by Application Specific Integrated Circuits water-cooled by an external cooling unit. The Clear-PEM frontend boards innovative design results in a unprecedented integration of the crystal matrices, APDs and ASICs, making Clear-PEM the PET scanner with the highest number of APD pixels ever integrated so far. In this paper, the scanner's main technical characteristics, calibration strategies and the first spectrometric performance evaluation in a clinical environment are presented. The first commissioning results show 99.7% active channels, which, after calibration, have inter-pixel and absolute gain distributions with dispersions of, respectively, 12.2% and 15.3%, demonstrating that despite the large number of channels, the system is uniform. The mean energy resolution at 511 keV is of 15.9%, with a 8.8% dispersion, and the mean C{sub DOI}{sup -1} is 5.9%/mm, with a 7.8% dispersion. The coincidence time resolution, at 511 keV, for a energy window between 400 and 600 keV, is 5.2 ns FWHM.

  1. Clear-Sky Remote Sensing in the Vicinity of Clouds: What We Learned from MODIS and CALIPSO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshak, Alexander; Varnai, Tamas; Wen, Guoyong; Cahalan, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Studies on aerosol direct and indirect effects require a precise separation of cloud-free and cloudy air. However, separation between cloud-free and cloudy areas from remotely-sensed measurements is ambiguous. The transition zone in the regions around clouds often stretches out tens of km, which are neither precisely clear nor precisely cloudy. We study the transition zone between cloud-free and cloudy air using MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) measurements. Both instruments show enhanced clear-sky reflectance (MODIS) and clear-sky backscatterer (CALIPSO) near clouds, Analyzing a large dataset of MODIS observations we examine the effect of three-dimensional (3D) radiative interactions between clouds and cloud-free areas, also known as a cloud adjacency effect. Comparing with CALIPSO clear-sky backscatterer measurements, we show that the cloud adjacency effect may be responsible for a large portion of the enhanced clear sky reflectance observed by MODIS. While aerosol particles are responsible for a large part of the near-cloud enhancements in CALIPSO observations, misidentified or undetected cloud particles are also likely to contribute. As a result, both the nature of these particles (cloud vs. aerosol) and the processes creating them need to be clarified using a quantitative assessment of remote sensing limitations in particle detection and identification. The width and ubiquity of the transition zone near clouds imply that studies of aerosol-cloud interactions and aerosol direct radiative effects need to account for aerosol changes near clouds. Not accounted, these changes can cause systematic biases toward smaller aerosol radiative forcing. On the other hand, including aerosol products near clouds despite their uncertainties may overestimate aerosol radiative forcing. Therefore, there is an urgent need for developing methods that can assess and account for

  2. Clear-Sky Remote Sensing in the Vicinity of Clouds: What Can Be Learned About Aerosol Changes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshak, Alexander; Varnai, Tamas; Wen, Guoyong

    2010-01-01

    Studies on aerosol direct and indirect effects require a precise separation of cloud-free and cloudy air. However, separation between cloud-free and cloudy areas from remotely-sensed measurements is ambiguous. The transition zone in the regions around clouds often stretches out tens of km, which are neither precisely clear nor precisely cloudy. We study the transition zone between cloud-free and cloudy air using MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) measurements. Both instruments show enhanced clear-sky reflectance (MODIS) and clear-sky backscatterer (CALIPSO) near clouds. Analyzing a large dataset of MODIS observations we examine the effect of three-dimensional (3D) radiative interactions between clouds and cloud-free areas, also known as a cloud adjacency effect. Comparing with CALIPSO clear-sky backscatterer measurements, we show that the cloud adjacency effect may be responsible for a large portion of the enhanced clear sky reflectance observed by MODIS. While aerosol particles are responsible for a large part of the near-cloud enhancements in CALIPSO observations, misidentified or undetected cloud particles are also likely to contribute. As a result, both the nature of these particles (cloud vs. aerosol) and the processes creating them need to be clarified using a quantitative assessment of remote sensing limitations in particle detection and identification. "The width and ubiquity of the transition zone near clouds imply that studies of-aerosol-cloud -interactions and aerosol direct radiative effects need to account for aerosol changes near clouds. Not accounted, these changes can cause systematic biases toward smaller aerosol radiative forcing. On the other hand, including aerosol products near clouds despite their uncertainties may overestimate aerosol radiative forcing. Therefore, there is an urgent need for developing methods that can assess and account for

  3. Empowerment Zones and Enterprise Districts - MDC_EnterpriseZone

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Polygon feature class of Miami Dade County Enterprise Zones. Enterprise Zones are special areas in the county where certain incentives from the State are available...

  4. TurbEFA: an interdisciplinary effort to investigate the turbulent flow across a forest clearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Queck

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is assumed that the description of the exchange processes between heterogeneous natural surfaces and the atmosphere within turbulence closure models is mainly limited by a realistic three-dimensional (3D representation of the vegetation architecture. Within this contribution we present a method to record the 3D vegetation structure and to use this information to derive model parameters that are suitable for numerical flow models. A mixed conifer forest stand around a clearing was scanned and represented by a dense 3D point cloud applying a terrestrial laser scanner. Thus, the plant area density (PAD with a resolution of one cubic meter was provided for analysis and for numerical simulations. Multi-level high-frequency wind velocity measurements were recorded simultaneously by 27 ultrasonic anemometers on 4 towers for a period of one year. The relationship between wind speed, Reynolds stress and PAD was investigated and a parametrization of the drag coefficient CD$C_D$ by the PAD is suggested. The derived 3D vegetation model and a simpler model (based on classical forest assessments of the site were applied in a boundary layer model (BLM and in large-eddy simulations (LES. The spatial development of the turbulent flow over the clearing is further demonstrated by the results of a wind tunnel experiment. The project showed, that the simulation results were improved significantly by the usage of realistic vegetation models. 3D simulations are necessary to depict the influence of heterogeneous canopies on the turbulent flow. Whereas we found limits for the mapping of the vegetation structure within the wind tunnel, there is a considerable potential for numerical simulations. The field measurements and the LES gave new insight into the turbulent flow in the vicinity and across the clearing. The results show that the zones of intensive turbulence development can not be restricted to the locations found in previous studies with more idealized

  5. CLEAR (Calculates Logical Evacuation And Response): A Generic Transportation Network Model for the Calculation of Evacuation Time Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, M. P.; Urbanik, II, T.; Desrosiers, A. E.

    1982-03-01

    This paper describes the methodology and application of the computer model CLEAR (Calculates Logical Evacuation And Response) which estimates the time required for a specific population density and distribution to evacuate an area using a specific transportation network. The CLEAR model simulates vehicle departure and movement on a transportation network according to the conditions and consequences of traffic flow. These include handling vehicles at intersecting road segments, calculating the velocity of travel on a road segment as a function of its vehicle density, and accounting for the delay of vehicles in traffic queues. The program also models the distribution of times required by individuals to prepare for an evacuation. In order to test its accuracy, the CLEAR model was used to estimate evacuatlon tlmes for the emergency planning zone surrounding the Beaver Valley Nuclear Power Plant. The Beaver Valley site was selected because evacuation time estimates had previously been prepared by the licensee, Duquesne Light, as well as by the Federal Emergency Management Agency and the Pennsylvania Emergency Management Agency. A lack of documentation prevented a detailed comparison of the estimates based on the CLEAR model and those obtained by Duquesne Light. However, the CLEAR model results compared favorably with the estimates prepared by the other two agencies.

  6. Accuracy of the ABC/2 score for intracerebral hemorrhage: Systematic review and analysis of MISTIE, CLEAR-IVH, CLEAR III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Alastair JS; Ullman, Natalie L; Morgan, Tim C; Muschelli, John; Kornbluth, Joshua; Awad, Issam A; Mayo, Stephen; Rosenblum, Michael; Ziai, Wendy; Zuccarrello, Mario; Aldrich, Francois; John, Sayona; Harnof, Sagi; Lopez, George; Broaddus, William C; Wijman, Christine; Vespa, Paul; Bullock, Ross; Haines, Stephen J; Cruz-Flores, Salvador; Tuhrim, Stan; Hill, Michael D; Narayan, Raj; Hanley, Daniel F

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose The ABC/2 score estimates intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) volume, yet validations have been limited by small samples and inappropriate outcome measures. We determined accuracy of the ABC/2 score calculated at a specialized Reading Center (RC-ABC) or local site (site-ABC) versus the reference-standard CT-based planimetry (CTP). Methods In MISTIE-II, CLEAR-IVH and CLEAR-III trials, ICH volume was prospectively calculated by CTP, RC-ABC and site-ABC. Agreement between CTP and ABC/2 was defined as an absolute difference up to 5ml and relative difference within 20%. Determinants of ABC/2 accuracy were assessed by logistic regression. Results In 4369 scans from 507 patients, CTP was more strongly correlated with RC-ABC (r2=0.93) than site-ABC (r2=0.87). Although RC-ABC overestimated CTP-based volume on average (RC-ABC=15.2cm3, CTP=12.7cm3), agreement was reasonable when categorised into mild, moderate and severe ICH (kappa 0.75, p<0.001). This was consistent with overestimation of ICH volume in 6/8 previous studies. Agreement with CTP was greater for RC-ABC (84% within 5ml; 48% of scans within 20%) than for site-ABC (81% within 5ml; 41% within 20%). RC-ABC had moderate accuracy for detecting ≥ 5ml change in CTP volume between consecutive scans (sensitivity 0.76, specificity 0.86) and was more accurate with smaller ICH, thalamic haemorrhage and homogeneous clots. Conclusions ABC/2 scores at local or central sites are sufficiently accurate to categorise ICH volume and assess eligibility for the CLEAR III and MISTIE III studies, and moderately accurate for change in ICH volume. However, accuracy decreases with large, irregular or lobar clots. Clinical Trial Registration MISTIE-II NCT00224770; CLEAR-III NCT00784134; www.clinicaltrials.gov PMID:26243227

  7. Identifying fly puparia by clearing technique: application to forensic entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukontason, Kabkaew L; Ngern-Klun, Radchadawan; Sripakdee, Duanghatai; Sukontason, Kom

    2007-10-01

    In forensic investigations, immature stages of the fly (egg, larva, or puparia) can be used as entomological evidence at death scenes, not only to estimate the postmortem interval (PMI), analyze toxic substances, and to determine the manner of death but also to indicate the movement of a corpse in homicide cases. Of these immature stages, puparia represent the longest developmental time, which makes them of useful. However, in order for forensic entomologists to use puparia effectively, it is crucial that they are able to accurately identify the species of fly found in a corpse. Typically, these puparia are similar in general appearance, being coarctate and light brown to dark brown in color, which makes identification difficult. In this study, we report on the clearing technique used to pale the integument of fly puparia, thereby allowing observation of the anterior end (second to fourth segments) and the profile of the posterior spiracle, which are important clues for identification. We used puparia of the blowfly, Chrysomya megacephala (F.), as the model species in this experiment. With placement in a 20% potassium hydroxide solution daily and mounting on a clearing medium (Permount(R), New Jersey), the profile of the posterior spiracle could be clearly examined under a light microscope beginning on the fifth day after pupation, and the number of papillae in the anterior spiracle could be counted easily starting from the ninth day. Comparison of morphological features of C. megacephala puparia with those of other blowflies (Chrysomya nigripes [Aubertin], Chrysomya rufifacies [Macquart], Chrysomya villeneuvi [Patton], Lucilia cuprina [Wiedemann], and Hemipyrellia ligurriens [Wiedemann]) and a housefly (Musca domestica L.) revealed that the anterior ends and the profiles of the posterior spiracles had markedly distinguishing characteristics. Morphometric analysis of the length and width of puparia, along with the length of the gaps between the posterior spiracles

  8. The definition of IVM is clear-variations need defining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vos, Michel; Smitz, Johan; Thompson, Jeremy G; Gilchrist, Robert B

    2016-11-01

    Oocyte in vitro maturation (IVM) is currently defined as the maturation in vitro of immature cumulus-oocyte complexes collected from antral follicles. This is the original definition as first described by Pincus and Enzmann and then by Edwards many decades ago, and this clear and unambiguous definition has served us well ever since. In an attempt to clarify apparent differences among clinicians, the following revised definition of IVM was recently proposed: 'The retrieval of oocytes from small and intermediate sized follicles in an ovary before the largest follicle has surpassed 13 mm in mean diameter'. As such, this proposed definition should encompass the use of hCG triggering. To change the clear and long-serving definition of IVM to fit varying clinical practices requires a compelling justification based on solid scientific and clinical grounds. We are of the opinion that the proposed revised definition of IVM is counterintuitive as it includes protocols that are intended to mature oocytes in vivo The proposed definitions are cumbersome and indeed further complicate the situation. It is not scientifically rational to base the definition on follicular size, and the definition ignores the vast corporate knowledge acquired from the many decades and >6000 publications in animal research that universally practices IVM as per the existing definition. Furthermore, such a definition can lead to false results in interpreting the follow-up of children conceived using IVM. Hence, we see no rationale to change the existing definition of IVM. However, we agree that variations on IVM require alternative nomenclature-these definitions need to be intuitive and need to clearly distinguish themselves from the existing long-standing definition of IVM. This would help to clarify the recent confusion within the clinical ART community as to what is and what is not, IVM.

  9. The Habitable Zone Gallery

    CERN Document Server

    Kane, Stephen R

    2012-01-01

    The Habitable Zone Gallery (www.hzgallery.org) is a new service to the exoplanet community which provides Habitable Zone (HZ) information for each of the exoplanetary systems with known planetary orbital parameters. The service includes a sortable table with information on the percentage of orbital phase spent within the HZ, planetary effective temperatures, and other basic planetary properties. In addition to the table, we also plot the period and eccentricity of the planets with respect to their time spent in the HZ. The service includes a gallery of known systems which plot the orbits and the location of the HZ with respect to those orbits. Also provided are animations which aid in orbit visualization and provide the changing effective temperature for those planets in eccentric orbits. Here we describe the science motivation, the under-lying calculations, and the structure of the web site.

  10. Cerebellar clear cell ependymoma in a 10 year old girl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thinzar Aye Nyein; Moon, Ah Rim; Hwang, Sun Chul; Hong, Hyun Sook; Lee, A Leum; Chang, Kee Hyun; Kim, Hee Kyung; Chin, Su Sie [Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ji Sang [Soonchunhyang University Gumi Hospital, Gumi (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    Clear cell ependymoma (CCE) is a histological rare variant (1–5%) of ependymoma, which is distinguished from other histological subtypes by the presence of fusiform cells arrayed radially around small blood vessels. These alleged perivascular pseudorosettes are significant characteristic features of ependymomas. About 95% of infratentorial ependymomas are found in the fourth ventricle and the remainder occurs as cerebellopontine angle lesions. In previous reports, the cerebellum is found to be a rare location for ependymoma. In this study we report one case of CCE originating from the cerebellar hemisphere, showing unusual morphology on 3T MRI.

  11. Incidentally detected clear cell renal cell carcinoma with rhabdoid differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamoorthy, Venkatesh; Gowda, Kiran Krishne; Rao, Raman Narayana

    2016-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma with rhabdoid differentiation (RCC-R) has an aggressive biologic behavior and poor prognosis. A recent consensus statement of the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) proposed a nucleolar grading system (ISUP grade) for RCC to replace Fuhrman system and recommended reporting the presence of rhabdoid differentiation and considering tumors with rhabdoid differentiation to be ISUP Grade 4. We report a case of incidentally detected clear cell RCC-R in a 52-year-old man. This is one of the earliest cases of RCC-R (pT1b) detected and first such case from Indian subcontinent.

  12. Incidentally detected clear cell renal cell carcinoma with rhabdoid differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesh Krishnamoorthy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal cell carcinoma with rhabdoid differentiation (RCC-R has an aggressive biologic behavior and poor prognosis. A recent consensus statement of the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP proposed a nucleolar grading system (ISUP grade for RCC to replace Fuhrman system and recommended reporting the presence of rhabdoid differentiation and considering tumors with rhabdoid differentiation to be ISUP Grade 4. We report a case of incidentally detected clear cell RCC-R in a 52-year-old man. This is one of the earliest cases of RCC-R (pT1b detected and first such case from Indian subcontinent.

  13. ZONE OF COOPERATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The China-ASEAN Economic Zone is attracting more and more investors from both Southeast Asia and China Compared with other countries that have established free trade areas with ASEAN, China owns millions of unique advantages. Millions, after all, is the quantity of Chinese living in ASEAN countries. "With ties of blood, geography and commerce, business people of Chinese descent can be the best candidates to pro-

  14. Ecological zones of California deserts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The dataset delineates ecological zones within California deserts. We derived ecological zones by reclassifying LANDFIRE vegetation biophysical setting types, plus...

  15. Radiant zone heated particulate filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-12-27

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter including an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas and a downstream end. A radiant zoned heater includes N zones, where N is an integer greater than one, wherein each of the N zones includes M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than or equal to one. A control module selectively activates at least a selected one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones, restricts exhaust gas flow in a portion of the PM filter that corresponds to the selected one of the N zones, and deactivates non-selected ones of the N zones.

  16. The uncomfortable comfort zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Renato Zacharias

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Whenever we achieve the satisfaction of our expectations and anxiety dissolves, we feel as if we were in a comfort zone – safe, complete, free from risks and in peace with ourselves. We might even have a little taste of heaven when we feel that we have fulfilled our duty. And as a fact, scientists are entitled to this kind of reward… but not for too long! In science, to enter a comfort zone can be as pleasant as dangerous. On one hand we may have a safe ground available to develop new modes of reasoning, protocols and theories. And on the other, we may stay stuck in a conventional but fragile ground, missing opportunities to reveal novel secrets or to address edge issues. ... The community of HD researchers seems to have entered a new comfort zone when nanostructures were found in HD. Nanostructures have been raised to the level of ultimate evidence doing away with Avogadro’s limit and leading homeopathy and HD research into mainstream science. We really should enjoy this moment and collect more information about the HD phenomenon. However, we must be wary to not fall into a trap.

  17. Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma of the Urethra: Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Kodzo-Grey Venyo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Clear cell adenocarcinoma of the urethra (CCAU is extremely rare and a number of clinicians may be unfamiliar with its diagnosis and biological behaviour. Aims. To review the literature on CCAU. Methods. Various internet databases were used. Results/Literature Review. (i CCAU occurs in adults and in women in the great majority of cases. (ii It has a particular association with urethral diverticulum, which has been present in 56% of the patients; is indistinguishable from clear cell adenocarcinoma of the female genital tract but is not associated with endometriosis; and probably does not arise by malignant transformation of nephrogenic adenoma. (iii It is usually, readily distinguished from nephrogenic adenoma because of greater cytological a-typicality and mitotic activity and does not stain for prostate-specific antigen or prostatic acid phosphatase. (iv It has been treated by anterior exenteration in women and cystoprostatectomy in men and at times by radiotherapy; chemotherapy has rarely been given. (v CCAU is aggressive with low 5-year survival rates. (vi There is no consensus opinion of treatment options that would improve the prognosis. Conclusions. Few cases of CCAU have been reported. Urologists, gynaecologists, pathologists, and oncologists should report cases of CCAU they encounter and enter them into a multicentric trial to determine the best treatment options that would improve the prognosis.

  18. Statistical functions and relevant correlation coefficients of clearness index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavanello, Diego; Zaaiman, Willem; Colli, Alessandra; Heiser, John; Smith, Scott

    2015-08-01

    This article presents a statistical analysis of the sky conditions, during years from 2010 to 2012, for three different locations: the Joint Research Centre site in Ispra (Italy, European Solar Test Installation - ESTI laboratories), the site of National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden (Colorado, USA) and the site of Brookhaven National Laboratories in Upton (New York, USA). The key parameter is the clearness index kT, a dimensionless expression of the global irradiance impinging upon a horizontal surface at a given instant of time. In the first part, the sky conditions are characterized using daily averages, giving a general overview of the three sites. In the second part the analysis is performed using data sets with a short-term resolution of 1 sample per minute, demonstrating remarkable properties of the statistical distributions of the clearness index, reinforced by a proof using fuzzy logic methods. Successively some time-dependent correlations between different meteorological variables are presented in terms of Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients, and introducing a new one.

  19. APLIKASI SIX SIGMA PADA PRODUK CLEAR FILE DI PERUSAHAAN STATIONARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desy Emilasari

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the application of the Six Sigma methods is used in order to improve quality in manufacturing company that produce stationary product. DMAIC approach is utilized to analyze and improve 'Pocket Clear File' product since this product has more variability and defects. Quality improvement also monitor the process that influenced pocket defect in Bag Making, Kami-ire, Karidome, and Pocket after Karidome Inspections section. Determining of Six Sigma project is based in process and defect type in each section. FMEA also gave the recommendation for quality improvement we need to evaluate the final result of the improvement since some of them were not working properly. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Paper ini menggambarkan bagaimana aplikasi metode Six Sigma digunakan untuk melakukan perbaikan kualitas pada perusahaan manufaktur yang memproduksi produk stationary. Pendekatan DMAIC dipakai untuk menganalisa dan melakukan perbaikan produk 'Pocket Clear File' karena tingginya variabilitas dan cacat dibanding produk lain. Perbaikan kualitas juga memperhatikan proses yang mempengaruhi terjadinya cacat pocket pada section Bag Making, Kami-ire, Karidome, dan Pocket after Karidome Inspection. Penentuan proyek Six Sigma didasarkan atas proses dan jenis cacat pada setiap section. Pendekatan FMEA mampu memberi rekomendasi perbaikan kualitas. Evaluasi dari hasil perbaikan penting untuk dilakukan karena beberapa implementasi perbaikan kualitas tidak berjalan sesuai dengan rencana. kata kunci: six sigma, DMAIC, perusahaan stationary.

  20. Primary abdominal wall clear cell carcinoma arising from incisional endometriosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Burcu Gundogdu; Isin Ureyen; Gunsu Kimyon; Hakan Turan; Nurettin Boran; Gokhan Tulunay; Dilek Bulbul; Taner Turan; M Faruk Kose

    2013-01-01

    A 49 year-old patient with the complaint of a mass located in the caesarean scar was admitted. There was a fixed mass 30í30 mm in diameter with regular contour located at the right corner of the pfannenstiel incision. Computed tomography revealed a (40í50í50) mm solid mass lesion with margins that cannot be distinguished from the uterus, bladder and small intestines and a heterogeneous mass lesion (50í45í55) mm in diameter, located in the right side of the anterior abdominal wall. Cytoreductive surgery including total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy was performed. Final pathology was clear cell carcinoma. Clear cell carcinoma arising from an extraovarian endometriotic focus was diagnosed and the patient received 6 cycles paclitaxel-carboplatin chemotherapy as adjuvant treatment. The patient who was lost to follow-up applied to our clinic 2 years after surgery with a recurrent mass in the left inguinal region. After 3 cycles of chemotherapy, the patient's tumoral mass in the left inguinal region was excised. The result of the pathology was carcinoma metastasis. It is decided that the following treatment of the patient should be palliative radiation therapy. The patient who underwent palliative radiation therapy died of disease after 4 months of the second operation.

  1. Code Generation for Embedded Software for Modeling Clear Box Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Chandra Prakash

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Cleanroom software Engineering (CRSE recommended that the code related to the Application systems be generated either manually or through code generation models or represents the same as a hierarchy of clear box structures. CRSE has even advocated that the code be developed using the State models that models the internal behavior of the systems. No framework has been recommended by any Author using which the Clear boxes are designed using the code generation methods. Code Generation is one of the important quality issues addressed in cleanroom software engineering. It has been investigated that CRSE can be used for life cycle management of the embedded systems when the hardware-software co-design is in-built as part and parcel of CRSE by way of adding suitable models to CRSE and redefining the same. The design of Embedded Systems involves code generation in respect of hardware and Embedded Software. In this paper, a framework is proposed using which the embedded software is generated. The method is unique that it considers various aspects of the code generation which includes Code Segments, Code Functions, Classes, Globalization, Variable propagation etc. The proposed Framework has been applied to a Pilot project and the experimental results are presented.

  2. MODIS Observations of Enhanced Clear Sky Reflectance Near Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varnai, Tamas; Marshak, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Several recent studies have found that the brightness of clear sky systematically increases near clouds. Understanding this increase is important both for a correct interpretation of observations and for improving our knowledge of aerosol-cloud interactions. However, while the studies suggested several processes to explain the increase, the significance of each process is yet to be determined. This study examines one of the suggested processes three-dimensional (3-D) radiative interactions between clouds and their surroundings by analyzing a large dataset of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) observations over the Northeast Atlantic Ocean. The results indicate that 3-D effects are responsible for a large portion of the observed increase, which extends to about 15 km away from clouds and is stronger (i) at shorter wavelengths (ii) near optically thicker clouds and (iii) near illuminated cloud sides. This implies that it is important to account for 3-D radiative effects in the interpretation of solar reflectance measurements over clear regions in the vicinity of clouds.

  3. Genetic characteristics of the non-clear cell renal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Mikhaylenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal cancer (RC is one of the most frequent diseases in oncological urology; the most common form of RC is the clear cell carcinoma. However, percentage of less-studied non-clear cell RC (nccRC reaches up to 25 % of cases suggesting further studying, improvement of diagnosis and treatment of these tumors. The key events of carcinogenesis are genetic alterations including chromosomal aberrations and point mutations in proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. This review describes cytogenetic aberrations in the context of nccRC diversity according to the current ISUP classification. Translocation variants of nccRC (MiT-RC were characterized separately as particular cases of the chromosome rearrangements involving MiT gene family (TFE3, TFEB, MITF. In addition, the main nccRC hereditary forms caused by germinal mutations in the genes FLCN, FH, and MET, as well as recent studies of sporadic tumors with using the next generation sequencing techniques were reviewed. These experiments were designed to search for somatic mutations throughout the tumor genome or exom and revealed the different mutational profiles of I/II papillary RC subtypes, chromophobe carcinoma versus oncocytoma. The review may be informative for oncologists, urologists, geneticists and specialists in related sciences. 

  4. The concept of the Economic Exclusive Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina Patuzi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The important and the new concept that brought the third UN Conference of the Law of the Sea was the Economic Exclusive Zone (EEZ, requested by countries whose coasts are bordering on the oceans, seas, but also in harmony with the interests of countries which have extensive coastline or those with specific geographical features, which have a very narrow coastal zone. On December 10, 1982, nearly 120 countries signed the new United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, as one of the most significant international conferences. Part V of that Convention (more precisely Articles 55 to 75 provides for an “Exclusive Economic Zone” extending 200 nautical miles seaward from the coast. If all coastal states thus exercised their jurisdiction over their own EEZ, some 38 million square nautical miles would become their “economic patrimony”. It should be mentioned that the ocean represents 71% of the total surface of the earth and that 32% of that falls under the jurisdiction of coastal states. Consequently inside these economic zones would lie 90% of global fishing, 87% of oil deposits and 10 % of polymetallic nodules. The EEZ provisions have received widespread support and have become an integral part of international practice especially when the Convention of 1982 entered into force, also articles 55 and 86 of the Convention make it clear that the EEZ is not a part of the territorial sea, but it is a zone sui generis, with a statute of its own. Some countries had claimed 200-mile EEZ and other have established a 200- mile Exclusive Fishing Zone (EFZ. The countries benefiting the most from the EEZ concept are in order of the size of their zones: USA, Australia, Indonesia, New Zealand, Canada and Russia. If this concept was to be applied by all coastal Mediterranean States, the entire sea would be covered by EEZs of the littoral countries. The countries of the Mediterranean that would most benefit from the EEZ are Greece, Cyprus, Italy and Malta

  5. An Efficient Method for Detecting Misbehaving Zone Manager in MANET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafsanjani, Marjan Kuchaki; Pakzad, Farzaneh; Asadinia, Sanaz

    In recent years, one of the wireless technologies increased tremendously is mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) in which mobile nodes organize themselves without the help of any predefined infrastructure. MANETs are highly vulnerable to attack due to the open medium, dynamically changing network topology, cooperative algorithms, lack of centralized monitoring, management point and lack of a clear defense line. In this paper, we report our progress in developing intrusion detection (ID) capabilities for MANET. In our proposed scheme, the network with distributed hierarchical architecture is partitioned into zones, so that in each of them there is one zone manager. The zone manager is responsible for monitoring the cluster heads in its zone and cluster heads are in charge of monitoring their members. However, the most important problem is how the trustworthiness of the zone manager can be recognized. So, we propose a scheme in which "honest neighbors" of zone manager specify the validation of their zone manager. These honest neighbors prevent false accusations and also allow manager if it is wrongly misbehaving. However, if the manger repeats its misbehavior, then it will lose its management degree. Therefore, our scheme will be improved intrusion detection and also provide a more reliable network.

  6. Use of Digital Image Technology to 'Clearly' Depict Global Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnia, B. F.; Carbo, C. L.

    2014-12-01

    Earth is dynamic and beautiful. Understanding why, when, how, and how fast its surface changes yields information and serves as a source of inspiration. The artistic use of geoscience information can inform the public about what is happening to their planet in a non-confrontational and apolitical way. While individual images may clearly depict a landscape, photographic comparisons are necessary to clearly capture and display annual, decadal, or century-scale impacts of climate and environmental change on Earth's landscapes. After years of effort to artistically communicate geoscience concepts with unenhanced individual photographs or pairs of images, the authors have partnered to maximize this process by using digital image enhancement technology. This is done, not to manipulate the inherent artistic content or information content of the photographs, but to insure that the comparative photo pairs produced are geometrically correct and unambiguous. For comparative photography, information-rich historical photographs are selected from archives, websites, and other sources. After determining the geographic location from which the historical photograph was made, the original site is identified and eventually revisited. There, the historical photos field of view is again photographed, ideally from the original location. From nearly 250 locations revisited, about 175 pairs have been produced. Every effort is made to reoccupy the original historical site. However, vegetation growth, visibility reduction, and co-seismic level change may make this impossible. Also, inherent differences in lens optics, camera construction, and image format may result in differences in the geometry of the new photograph when compared to the old. Upon selection, historical photos are cleaned, contrast stretched, brightness adjusted, and sharpened to maximize site identification and information extraction. To facilitate matching historical and new images, digital files of each are overlain in

  7. Temporal co-registration for TROPOMI cloud clearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Genkova

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI is planed for launch in 2014 on board of the Sentinel 5 Precursor (S5P and is anticipated to provide high-quality and timely information on the global atmospheric composition for climate and air quality applications. TROPOMI will observe key atmospheric constituents such as ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, formaldehyde and aerosol properties. The retrieval algorithms for the anticipated products require cloud information on a pixel basis. Most of them will use the cloud properties derived from TROPOMI's own measurements, such as the O2 A-band measurements. However, the methane and the aerosol retrievals require very precise cloud clearing, which is difficult to achieve at the TROPOMI spatial resolution (7 × 7 km2 and without thermal IR measurements. The current payload of the Sentinel 5 Precursor (S-5P does not include a cloud imager, thus it is planned to fly the S5P mission in a constellation with another instrument yielding an accurate cloud mask. The cloud imagery data will be provided by the US NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP mission which will have the Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS on board (Scalione, 2004. VIIRS will have 22 bands in the VIS and IR spectral ranges, and will deliver data with two spatial resolutions: imagery resolution bands with a nominal pixel size of 370 m at nadir, and moderate resolution bands with nominal pixel size 740 m at nadir. The instrument is combining fine spatial resolution with high-accuracy calibration similar or superior to AVHRR.

    This paper presents results from investigating the temporal co-registration requirements for suitable time differences between the VIIRS measurements of clouds and the TROPOMI methane and aerosol measurements, so that the former could be used for cloud clearing. The temporal co-registration is studied using Meteosat Second Generation (MSG Spinning

  8. Oxygenated gasoline release in the unsaturated zone — Part 1: Source zone behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Juliana G.; Barker, James F.

    2011-11-01

    Oxygenates present in gasoline, such as ethanol and MTBE, are a concern in subsurface contamination related to accidental spills. While gasoline hydrocarbon compounds have low solubility, MTBE and ethanol are more soluble, ethanol being completely miscible with water. Consequently, their fate in the subsurface is likely to differ from that of gasoline. To evaluate the fate of gasoline containing oxygenates following a release in the unsaturated zone shielded from rainfall/recharge, a controlled field test was performed at Canadian Forces Base Borden, in Ontario. 200 L of a mixture composed of gasoline with 10% ethanol and 4.5% MTBE was released in the unsaturated zone, into a trench 20 cm deep, about 32 cm above the water table. Based on soil cores, most of the ethanol was retained in the source, above the capillary fringe, and remained there for more than 100 days. Ethanol partitioned from the gasoline to the unsaturated pore-water and was retained, despite the thin unsaturated zone at the site (~ 35 cm from the top of the capillary fringe to ground surface). Due to its lower solubility, most of the MTBE remained within the NAPL as it infiltrated deeper into the unsaturated zone and accumulated with the gasoline on top of the depressed capillary fringe. Only minor changes in the distribution of ethanol were noted following oscillations in the water table. Two methods to estimate the capacity of the unsaturated zone to retain ethanol are explored. It is clear that conceptual models for sites impacted by ethanol-fuels must consider the unsaturated zone.

  9. Proposal for a project agreement with ISTC - Crystal Clear Collaboration

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    This document concerns a project agreement with the ISTC entitled "Development of the Detector Production Technology for a New Generation of Positron Emission Tomographs to be used in Medecine and Pharmacology" to be executed in co-operation with the Crystal Clear Collaboration. For the reasons set out in this document, the Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a project agreement with ISTC for a total amount of 775 000 US dollars. The European Union party in ISTC will co-fund the project up to a total of 525 000 US dollars. CERN's contribution will not exceed 250 000 US dollars. At the present rate of exchange this is equivalent to approximately 430 000 Swiss francs

  10. All-clear for gourmets: truffles not radioactive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büntgen, U.; Jäggi, M.; Stobbe, U.; Tegel, W.; Sproll, L.; Eikenberg, J.; Egli, S.

    2016-02-01

    Although ranging among the most expensive gourmet foods, it remains unclear whether Burgundy truffles (Tuber aestivum) accumulate radioactivity at a harmful level comparable to other fungal species. Here, we measure the 137Cs in 82 T. aestivum fruit bodies from Switzerland, Germany, France, Italy, and Hungary. All tested specimens reveal insignificant radiocaesium concentrations, thus providing an all-clear for many truffle hunters and cultivators in large parts of Europe as well as the subsequent chain of dealers and customers from around the world. Our results are particularly relevant in the light of ongoing efforts to cultivate Burgundy truffles, as well as the fact that several forest ecosystems are still highly contaminated with 137Cs, for which mushrooms are one of the main pathways to human diets.

  11. Impacts of roads and linear clearings on tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurance, William F; Goosem, Miriam; Laurance, Susan G W

    2009-12-01

    Linear infrastructure such as roads, highways, power lines and gas lines are omnipresent features of human activity and are rapidly expanding in the tropics. Tropical species are especially vulnerable to such infrastructure because they include many ecological specialists that avoid even narrow (forest edges, as well as other species that are susceptible to road kill, predation or hunting by humans near roads. In addition, roads have a major role in opening up forested tropical regions to destructive colonization and exploitation. Here, we synthesize existing research on the impacts of roads and other linear clearings on tropical rainforests, and assert that such impacts are often qualitatively and quantitatively different in tropical forests than in other ecosystems. We also highlight practical measures to reduce the negative impacts of roads and other linear infrastructure on tropical species.

  12. The palm oil supply chain, deforestation and peat clearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, D. H.

    2013-12-01

    The palm oil industry has expanded rapidly in the last two decades, particularly in Indonesia. A considerable amount of this expansion has been at the expense of forests and peatlands, resulting in considerable greenhouse gas emissions. Now the industry is faced with two new challenges. There is a possible oversupply on the global market due to recent expansion and the time lag between clearing and new production coming on line, which may depress prices considerably. Furthermore, there is increasing pressure to reduce the industry's impact on climate and biodiversity, exemplified by the commitment by the businesses of the Consumer Goods Forum to eliminate deforestation from their supply chains by 2020. This presentation will examine the interaction between these two challenges and its implications for the industry, in both southeast Asia and new regions of expansion, and how this interaction could transform the industry's mode of expansion in the coming decade.

  13. Short imidazolium chains effectively clear fungal biofilm in keratitis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lihong; Wu, Hong; Riduan, Siti Nurhanna; Ying, Jackie Y; Zhang, Yugen

    2013-01-01

    Fungal keratitis is a leading cause of ocular morbidity throughout the world. However, current therapies against fungal keratitis are often ineffective. Herein, we have developed the amphiphilic main-chain imidazolium polymer (PIM-45) and oligomer (IBN-1) materials that can efficiently inhibit the growth of fungi with low minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) values and clear the fungal biofilm, while displaying minimal hemolysis. In vivo keratitis treatment indicates that topical solutions of these polyimidazolium salts (PIMSs) are safe and as effective as that of amphotericin B, the most commonly used agent for the treatment of Candida albicans (C. albicans) keratitis. Compared to the costly and unstable amphotericin B and fluconazole, PIM-45 and IBN-1 are easy to prepare, inexpensive and stable. They can be stored in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solutions with long shelf life for routine topical use.

  14. Temporal variation of clear-water scour at compound Abutments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aminuddin Ab. Ghani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Most of actual abutments in rivers are built on foundation, while there is limited number of study available on the effects of the foundation on the local scour. In this study, temporal variation of local scour around compound abutment was investigated experimentally under clear-water conditions. The results showed that a suitable level of foundation is able to decrease the scour depth and increase scour time during the flood events. The trend of temporal scour depth at compound pier and abutment is similar. The scour depth develops to top of foundation quickly, and then the foundation postpones the scour development (lag–time. Duration of lag–time depends on the foundation level, velocity ratio (U/Uc and foundation dimension. This study highlights that proper design of foundation level increases duration of scouring and provides enough time to treat bridge foundation after the flood events.

  15. Renal Clear Cell Sarcoma - Anaplastic Variant: A Rare Entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walke, Vaishali Atmaram; Shende, Nitin Y; Kumbhalkar, D T

    2017-01-01

    Clear Cell Sarcoma of Kidney (CCSK) is known for its morphologic diversity, aggressive behaviour, tendency to recur and metastasis to bone. Amongst the various morphologic subtypes, anaplastic CCSK is associated with worse prognosis. Here, we report a case of this rare variant of CCSK. A five-year-old boy presented with history of lump and pain in abdomen since one week. The Computed Tomography (CT) scan revealed a large mass occupying the middle and inferior pole of right kidney. The clinical impression was Wilms tumour. Nephrectomy specimen was received and the diagnosis of CCSK anaplastic variant was offered only after excluding the differentials and after performing ancillary tests such as Immunohistochemistry (IHC). Thus, this case emphasizes the diagnostic challenges on morphology and the essential role of IHC in arriving at a definitive diagnosis, because failure to do so may deprive the child from optimal treatment.

  16. A Qualitative and Quantitative Evaluation of 8 Clear Sky Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruneton, Eric

    2016-10-27

    We provide a qualitative and quantitative evaluation of 8 clear sky models used in Computer Graphics. We compare the models with each other as well as with measurements and with a reference model from the physics community. After a short summary of the physics of the problem, we present the measurements and the reference model, and how we "invert" it to get the model parameters. We then give an overview of each CG model, and detail its scope, its algorithmic complexity, and its results using the same parameters as in the reference model. We also compare the models with a perceptual study. Our quantitative results confirm that the less simplifications and approximations are used to solve the physical equations, the more accurate are the results. We conclude with a discussion of the advantages and drawbacks of each model, and how to further improve their accuracy.

  17. Clear cell chondrosarcoma mimicking chondroblastoma in a skeletally immature patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cannon, Christopher P. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Madigan Army Medical Center, Ft. Lewis, WA (United States); Nelson, Scott D. [Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles School of Medicine, CA (United States); Seeger, Leanne L. [Department of Radiological Sciences, University of California, CA (United States); Eckardt, Jeffrey J. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of California, Los Angeles School of Medicine, CA (United States)

    2002-06-01

    We report the case of a clear cell chondrosarcoma (CCCS) occurring in the femoral head of a 14-year-old skeletally immature boy. Radiographic examination revealed a well-defined, osteolytic lesion in the epiphysis of the femoral head. Given the patient's age and the radiographic appearance of the lesion, chondroblastoma was high on the differential diagnosis. A frozen section was performed at the time of open biopsy was felt to be consistent with either chondroblastoma or CCCS. CCCS in a skeletally immature patient was felt to be unlikely, so curettage and bone grafting was performed. Final pathology review, however, confirmed the diagnosis of CCCS. The patient was taken back to surgery 4 weeks later for a wide resection and hemiarthroplasty. (orig.)

  18. Electricity market clearing with improved dispatch of stochastic production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales González, Juan Miguel; Zugno, Marco; Pineda, Salvador;

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we consider an electricity market that consists of a day-ahead and a balancing settlement, and includes a number of stochastic producers. We first introduce two reference procedures for scheduling and pricing energy in the day-ahead market: on the one hand, a conventional network......-constrained auction purely based on the least-cost merit order, where stochastic generation enters with its expected production and a low marginal cost; on the other, a counterfactual auction that also accounts for the projected balancing costs using stochastic programming. Although the stochastic clearing procedure...... attains higher market efficiency in expectation than the conventional day-ahead auction, it suffers from fundamental drawbacks with a view to its practical implementation. In particular, it requires flexible producers (those that make up for the lack or surplus of stochastic generation) to accept losses...

  19. Use of clear lake as standard reflectors for atmospheric measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahern, F. J.; Goodenough, D. G.; Jain, S. C.; Rao, V. R.; Rochon, G.

    1977-01-01

    A method is proposed for using clear lakes as dark backgrounds against which the atmospheric path radiance can be determined from satellite observations. If the path radiance can be determined to sufficient accuracy, the atmospheric extinction can be inferred with suitable radiative transfer models. An extensive program of observation was made to determine the magnitude and variability of the various contributors to the total radiance observed by a satellite. It is shown that the volume and surface reflectance contributions (in the absence of sunglint) are small, constant, and can be modeled accurately enough to make these an insignificant source of error. The sunglint radiance observed in this investigation may be a significant source of error. It is shown that atmospheric extinction can be inferred from the path radiance observation after systematic differences between the model and observations are removed.

  20. Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma Arising from Abdominal Wall Endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thouraya Achach

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Endometriosis is a frequent benign disorder. Malignancy arising in extraovarian endometriosis is a rare event. A 49-year-old woman is presented with a large painful abdominal wall mass. She underwent a myomectomy, 20 years before, for uterus leiomyoma. Computed tomography suggested that this was a desmoid tumor and she underwent surgery. Histological examination showed a clear cell adenocarcinoma associated with endometriosis foci. Pelvic ultrasound, computed tomography, and endometrial curettage did not show any malignancy or endometriosis in the uterus and ovaries. Adjuvant chemotherapy was recommended, but the patient was lost to follow up. Six months later, she returned with a recurrence of the abdominal wall mass. She was given chemotherapy and then she was reoperated.

  1. Estimation of clear sky hourly global solar radiation in Iraq

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Jumaily, Kais J.; Al-Zuhairi, Munya F.; Mahdi, Zahraa S. [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, College of Science, Al-Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad (Iraq)

    2012-07-01

    The availability of hourly solar radiation data is very important for applications utilizing solar energy and for climate and environmental aspects. The aim of this work is to use a simple model for estimating hourly global solar radiation under clear sky condition in Iraq. Calculations were compared with measurements obtained from local station in Baghdad city and from Meteosat satellite data for different locations in Iraq. The statistical test methods of the mean bias error (MBE), root mean square error (RMSE) and t-test were used to evaluate the performance of the model. Results indicated that a fairly good agreement exists between calculated and measured values for all locations in Iraq. Since the model is independent of any meteorological variable, it would be of a practical use for rural areas where no meteorological data are available.

  2. Estrategia de redes sociales para la marca Clean&Clear

    OpenAIRE

    González Alzáibar, Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    Aquest treball és una proposta d'estratègia de xarxes socials per la marca Clean&Clear, que pertany al grup Johnson&Johnson. El treball constitueix una estratègia que té en compte tots els aspectes rellevants, per tant, es podria aplicar de forma immediata. Amb la intenció de dissenyar aquesta estratègia, s'analitza la situació actual de la marca a l'entorn social, així com la situació de la seva competència. Posteriorment, s’estudia el target i la penetració de les xarxes socials a Espanya p...

  3. Temperature gradients and clear-air turbulence probabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, M. A.; Panofsky, H. A.; Peslen, C. A.

    1976-01-01

    In order to forecast clear-air turbulence (CAT) in jet aircraft flights, a study was conducted in which the data from a special-purpose instrument aboard a Boeing 747 jet airliner were compared with satellite-derived radiance gradients, conventional temperature gradients from analyzed maps, and temperature gradients obtained from a total air temperature sensor on the plane. The advantage of making use of satellite-derived data is that they are available worldwide without the need for radiosonde observations, which are scarce in many parts of the world. Major conclusions are that CAT probabilities are significantly higher over mountains than flat terrain, and that satellite radiance gradients appear to discriminate between CAT and no CAT better than conventional temperature gradients over flat lands, whereas the reverse is true over mountains, the differences between the two techniques being not large over mountains.

  4. Endogenous Market-Clearing Prices and Reference Point Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragicevic, Arnaud Z.

    When prices depend on the submitted bids, i.e. with endogenous market-clearing prices in repeated-round auction mechanisms, the assumption of independent private values that underlines the property of incentive-compatibility is to be brought into question; even if these mechanisms provide active involvement and market learning. In its orthodox view, adaptive bidding behavior imperils incentive-compatibility. We relax the assumption of private values' independence in the repeated-round auctions, when the market-clearing prices are made public at the end of each round. Instead of using game-theory learning models, we introduce a behavioral model that shows that bidders bid according to the anchoring-and-adjustment heuristic, which neither ignores the rationality and incentive-compatibility constraints, nor rejects the posted prices issued from others' bids. Bidders simply weight information at their disposal and adjust their discovered value using reference points encoded in the sequential price weighting function. Our model says that bidders and offerers are sincere boundedly rational utility maximizers. It lies between evolutionary dynamics and adaptive heuristics and we model the concept of inertia as high weighting of the anchor, which stands for truthful bidding and high regard to freshly discovered preferences. Adjustment means adaptive rule based on adaptation of the reference point in the direction of the posted price. It helps a bidder to maximize her expected payoff, which is after all the only purpose that matters to rationality. The two components simply suggest that sincere bidders are boundedly rational. Furthermore, by deviating from their anchor in the direction of the public signal, bidders operate in a correlated equilibrium. The correlation between bids comes from the commonly observed history of play and each bidder's actions are determined by the history. Bidders are sincere if they have limited memory and confine their reference point adaptation

  5. Smartphones and Time Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, William; Secrest, Jeffery; Padgett, Clifford; Johnson, Wayne; Hagrelius, Claire

    2016-09-01

    Using the Sun to tell time is an ancient idea, but we can take advantage of modern technology to bring it into the 21st century for students in astronomy, physics, or physical science classes. We have employed smartphones, Google Earth, and 3D printing to find the moment of local noon at two widely separated locations. By reviewing GPS time-stamped photos from each place, we are able to illustrate that local noon is longitude-dependent and therefore explain the need for time zones.

  6. Parapapillary atrophy: histological gamma zone and delta zone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jost B Jonas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To examine histomorphometrically the parapapillary region in human eyes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The histomorphometric study included 65 human globes (axial length:21-37 mm. On anterior-posterior histological sections, we measured the distance Bruch's membrane end (BME-optic nerve margin ("Gamma zone", BME-retinal pigment epithelium (RPE ("Beta zone", BME-beginning of non-occluded choriocapillaris, and BME-beginning of photoreceptor layer. "Delta zone" was defined as part of gamma zone in which blood vessels of at least 50 µm diameter were not present over a length of >300 µm. Beta zone (mean length:0.35±0.52 mm was significantly (P = 0.01 larger in the glaucoma group than in the non-glaucomatous group. It was not significantly (P = 0.28 associated with axial length. Beta zone was significantly (P = 0.004 larger than the region with occluded choriocapillaris. Gamma zone (mean length:0.63±1.25 mm was associated with axial length (P50 µm diameter within gamma zone was present only in highly axially elongated globes and was not related with glaucoma. Beta zone (Bruch's membrane without RPE was correlated with glaucoma but not with globe elongation. Since the region with occluded choriocapillaris was smaller than beta zone, complete loss of RPE may have occurred before complete choriocapillaris closure.

  7. GAP CLEARING BY PLANETS IN A COLLISIONAL DEBRIS DISK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nesvold, Erika R. [Department of Physics, University of Maryland Baltimore County 1000 Hilltop Circle Baltimore, MD 21250 (United States); Kuchner, Marc J., E-mail: Erika.Nesvold@umbc.edu, E-mail: Marc.Kuchner@nasa.gov [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Exoplanets and Stellar Astrophysics Laboratory, Code 667 Greenbelt, MD 21230 (United States)

    2015-01-10

    We apply our 3D debris disk model, SMACK, to simulate a planet on a circular orbit near a ring of planetesimals that are experiencing destructive collisions. Previous simulations of a planet opening a gap in a collisionless debris disk have found that the width of the gap scales as the planet mass to the 2/7th power (α = 2/7). We find that gap sizes in a collisional disk still obey a power law scaling with planet mass, but that the index α of the power law depends on the age of the system t relative to the collisional timescale t {sub coll} of the disk by α = 0.32(t/t {sub coll}){sup –0.04}, with inferred planet masses up to five times smaller than those predicted by the classical gap law. The increased gap sizes likely stem from the interaction between collisions and the mean motion resonances near the chaotic zone. We investigate the effects of the initial eccentricity distribution of the disk particles and find a negligible effect on the gap size at Jovian planet masses, since collisions tend to erase memory of the initial particle eccentricity distributions. Finally, we find that the presence of Trojan analogs is a potentially powerful diagnostic of planets in the mass range ∼1-10 M {sub Jup}. We apply our model to place new upper limits on planets around Fomalhaut, HR 4796 A, HD 202628, HD 181327, and β Pictoris.

  8. Influence of forest clear-cutting on the thermal and hydrological regime of the active layer near Yakutsk, eastern Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwahana, Go; Machimura, Takashi; Kobayashi, Yoshikazu; Fedorov, Alexander N.; Konstantinov, Pavel Y.; Fukuda, Masami

    2005-12-01

    Thermal and hydrological conditions in the active layer were investigated at a mature larch forest and an experimental cutover, to clarify the characteristics of heat and water budget in the active layer and to assess the influence of clear-cutting on permafrost and active layer conditions. Clear-cutting enhanced ground thawing and the difference in the active layer thickness between the forest and the cutover after 1 year was 14 cm. The soil water content drastically decreased at the forest, while that at the cutover was retained during the first thaw season after clear-cutting. Although the ground heat flux continued to increase at the cutover (the difference in the total amounts between sites from May to August were 44 and 69 MJ/m2 in 1 year and 2 years after the clear-cutting, respectively) marked changes in the active layer conditions were limited only to the first thaw season. The correspondent differences in the active layer thickness between the sites were 16 and 14 cm in 2 years and 3 years, respectively. Further increases in the maximum thaw depth at the cutover site were inhibited by the thermal inertial effect of the larger amount of ice in the second spring after disturbance. This suggests a self-retention mechanism of the active layer thickness after forest disturbance in this continuous permafrost zone.

  9. Dosing antiretroviral medication when crossing time zones: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Joseph M; Volny-Anne, Alain; Waitt, Catriona; Boffito, Marta; Khoo, Saye

    2016-01-01

    International tourism continues to increase worldwide, and people living with HIV and their clinicians are increasingly confronted with the problem of how to dose antiretroviral therapy during transmeridian air travel across time zones. No guidance on this topic currently exists. This review is a response to requests from patient groups for clear, practical and evidence-based guidance for travelling on antiretroviral therapy; we present currently available data on the pharmacokinetic forgiveness and toxicity of various antiretroviral regimens, and synthesize this data to provide guidelines on how to safely dose antiretrovirals when travelling across time zones.

  10. Childhood to adolescence: dust and gas clearing in protoplanetary disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Joanna Margaret

    Disks are ubiquitous around young stars. Over time, disks dissipate, revealing planets that formed hidden by their natal dust. Since direct detection of young planets at small orbital radii is currently impossible, other tracers of planet formation must be found. One sign of disk evolution, potentially linked to planet formation, is the opening of a gap or inner hole in the disk. In this thesis, I have identified and characterized several cold disks with large inner gaps but retaining massive primordial outer disks. While cold disks are not common, with ~5% of disks showing signs of inner gaps, they provide proof that at least some disks evolve from the inside-out. These large gaps are equivalent to dust clearing from inside the Earth's orbit to Neptune's orbit or even the inner Kuiper belt. Unlike more evolved systems like our own, the central star is often still accreting and a large outer disk remains. I identified four cold disks in Spitzer 5-40 μm spectra and modeled these disks using a 2-D radiative transfer code to determine the gap properties. Outer gap radii of 20-45 AU were derived. However, spectrophotometric identification is indirect and model-dependent. To validate this interpretation, I observed three disks with a submillimeter interferometer and obtained the first direct images of the central holes. The images agree well with the gap sizes derived from the spectrophotometry. One system, LkH&alpha 330, has a very steep outer gap edge which seems more consistent with gravitational perturbation rather than gradual processes, such as grain growth and settling. Roughly 70% of cold disks show CO v=1&rarr 0 gas emission from the inner 1 AU and therefore are unlikely to have evolved due to photoevaporation. The derived rotation temperatures are significantly lower for the cold disks than disks without gaps. Unresolved (sub)millimeter photometry shows that cold disks have steeper colors, indicating that they are optically thin at these wavelengths, unlike

  11. The Near Zone to Far Zone Transformation (N2F)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackfield, Donald T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Poole, Brian R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-03-11

    N2F is a C/C++ code used to calculate the far zone electromagnetic (EM) field, given E and H near zone field data. The method used by N2F can be found in Ref. 1 and 2. N2F determines the far field EΦ and Eθ in spherical coordinates for near zone data calculated in either Cartesian or Cylindrical geometry.

  12. Clearing the way for reducing emissions from tropical deforestation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skutsch, M. [Department of Technology and Sustainable Development, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Bird, N. [Joanneum Research, Elizabethstrasse 5/1, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Trines, E. [Gramserweg 2, 3711 AW Austerlitz (Netherlands); Dutschke, M. [Biocarbon, Badstrasse 41, 77652 Offenburg (Germany); Frumhoff, P. [Union of Concerned Scientists, 2 Brattle Square, Cambridge, MA 02238-9105 (United States); De Jong, B.H.J. [El Colegio de la Frontera Sur, Unidad Villahermosa, Carr. Vhsa-Reforma Km. 15.5, C.P. 86280, Ra Guineo 2da Secc, Villahermosa, Tabasco (Mexico); Van Laak, P. [ITC, Department of Natural Resources, P.O. Box 6, 7500 AA Enschede (Netherlands); Masera, O. [Centro de Investigaciones en Ecosistemas, UNAMAP 27-3 Xangari 58089, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Murdiyarso, D. [Center for International Forestry Research, Jl. CIFOR, Situ Gede Sindangbarang, Bogor 16680 (Indonesia)

    2007-06-15

    Carbon emissions from tropical deforestation account for about 25% of all anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions but cannot be credited under current climate change agreements. In the discussions around the architecture of the post-2012 climate regime, the possibility of including credits for reduced emissions from deforestation arises. The paper reviews two approaches for this, compensated reductions (CR) as proposed by Santilli et al. and the Joint Research Centre proposal that combine voluntary commitments by non-Annex I countries to reduce emissions from deforestation with carbon market financing. Both approaches have the clear advantages of simplicity and the possibility of fitting to an evolving greenhouse gas emission reduction regime. The authors consider the strengths and limitations of each proposal and build upon them to address several implementation challenges and options for improvement. Given the urgency of avoiding dangerous climate change, the timely development of technically sound, politically acceptable, cost-effective and practicable measures to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation is essential. These two approaches take us a step closer to this goal, but they need to be refined rapidly to enable this goal to be realised.

  13. A crystal-clear zebrafish for in vivo imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antinucci, Paride; Hindges, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The larval zebrafish (Danio rerio) is an excellent vertebrate model for in vivo imaging of biological phenomena at subcellular, cellular and systems levels. However, the optical accessibility of highly pigmented tissues, like the eyes, is limited even in this animal model. Typical strategies to improve the transparency of zebrafish larvae require the use of either highly toxic chemical compounds (e.g. 1-phenyl-2-thiourea, PTU) or pigmentation mutant strains (e.g. casper mutant). To date none of these strategies produce normally behaving larvae that are transparent in both the body and the eyes. Here we present crystal, an optically clear zebrafish mutant obtained by combining different viable mutations affecting skin pigmentation. Compared to the previously described combinatorial mutant casper, the crystal mutant lacks pigmentation also in the retinal pigment epithelium, therefore enabling optical access to the eyes. Unlike PTU-treated animals, crystal larvae are able to perform visually guided behaviours, such as the optomotor response, as efficiently as wild type larvae. To validate the in vivo application of crystal larvae, we performed whole-brain light-sheet imaging and two-photon calcium imaging of neural activity in the retina. In conclusion, this novel combinatorial pigmentation mutant represents an ideal vertebrate tool for completely unobstructed structural and functional in vivo investigations of biological processes, particularly when imaging tissues inside or between the eyes.

  14. Clear antismudge unimolecular coatings of diblock copolymers on glass plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macoretta, Danielle; Rabnawaz, Muhammad; Grozea, Claudia M; Liu, Guojun; Wang, Yu; Crumblehulme, Alison; Wyer, Martin

    2014-12-10

    Two poly[3-(triisopropyloxysilyl)propyl methacrylate]-block-poly[2-(perfluorooctyl)ethyl methacrylate] (PIPSMA-b-PFOEMA) samples and one poly(perfluoropropylene oxide)-block-poly-[3-(triisopropyloxysilyl)propyl methacrylate] (PFPO-b-PIPSMA) sample were synthesized, characterized, and used to coat glass plates. These coatings were formed by evaporating a dilute polymer solution containing HCl, which catalyzed PIPSMA's sol-gel chemistry. Polymer usage was minimized by targeting at diblock copolymer unimolecular (brush) layers that consisted of a sol-gelled grafted PIPSMA layer and an oil- and water-repellant fluorinated surface layer. Investigated is the effect of varying the catalyst amount, polymer amount, as well as block copolymer type and composition on the structure, morphology, and oil- and water-repellency of the coatings. Under optimized conditions, the prepared coatings were optically clear and resistant to writing by a permanent marker. The marker's trace was the faintest on PFPO-b-PIPSMA coatings. In addition, the PFPO-b-PIPSMA coatings were far more wear-resistant than the PIPSMA-b-PFOEMA coatings.

  15. Energy Efficient Clear Channel Assessment for LR-WPAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Kaushik

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available IEEE 802.15.4 LR-WPAN is a specification for low-cost, low-powered and low data rate transmission. This standard uses CSMA/CA protocol for contention resolution. One of the tasks performed by CSMA/CA algorithm is Clear Channel Assessment (CCA, used to find the status (IDLE or BUSY of the channel. There are three operating modes to perform CCA. As per the standard CCA mode 2 and 3 are based on carrier sensing where as CCA mode 1 is based on Energy Detection Threshold (EDThreshold. CCA in most of the WPAN is based on carrier sense. EDThreshold dependent CCA mode 1 is more advantageous in case of energy constraint networks, as minimum energy is consumed in channel allocation using EDThreshold. This property of EDThreshold is utilized in CCA for LR- WPAN and is implemented in NS2. Simulation results of EDThreshold based mode 1 CCA indicate that number of packets dropped decreases, network as well as node throughput increases and energy consumption is also less when compared to Carrier Sense Threshold (CSThreshold based mode 1 CCA. It is also observed from the results that MAC_PACKET_ERROR is also acceptable, that is, less than 1%.

  16. Clearing Unexploded Ordnance: Bayesian Methodology for Assessing Success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, K K.

    2005-10-30

    The Department of Defense has many Formerly Used Defense Sites (FUDS) that are slated for transfer for public use. Some sites have unexploded ordnance (UXO) that must be cleared prior to any land transfers. Sites are characterized using geophysical sensing devices and locations are identified where possible UXO may be located. In practice, based on the analysis of the geophysical surveys, a dig list of N suspect locations is created for a site that is possibly contaminated with UXO. The suspect locations on the dig list are often assigned into K bins ranging from ``most likely to contain UXO" to ``least likely to be UXO" based on signal discrimination techniques and expert judgment. Usually all dig list locations are sampled to determine if UXO is present before the site is determined to be free of UXO. While this method is 100% certain to insure no UXO remains in the locations identified by the signal discrimination and expert judgment, it is very costly. This paper proposes a statistical Bayesian methodology that may result in digging less than 100% of the suspect locations to reach a pre-defined tolerable risk, where risk is defined in terms of a low probability that any UXO remains in the unsampled dig list locations. Two important features of a Bayesian approach are that it can account for uncertainties in model parameters and that it can handle data that becomes available in stages. The results from each stage of data can be used to direct the subsequent digs.

  17. Hemosiderotic clear-cell acanthoma: A pigmented mimicker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Bugatti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors report on a case of a 65-year-old man with pigmented clear-cell acanthoma located on the right thigh. Dermoscopy disclosed a peculiar picture consisting of diffuse black pigmentation with a superficial greyish veil in the central portion, dotted-to-globular dark red-black structures mainly located at the periphery with a homogenous regular reticular arrangement; peripheral translucid desquamation. Dermoscopic features are correlated with the histology, where hemosiderin deposits present in a sheet-like arrangement in the perivascular papillary dermis and in a band-like disposition in the reticular dermis at the base of the lesion can account for the pigmented picture. The lesion arose on a trauma-prone skin site; thus the authors believe that traumatic irritation may be responsible for the clinical and dermoscopic pictures, giving rise to a reaction similar in a way to the Auspitz′s sign provocated by trauma for psoriasis. Red blood cells extravasation from extremely superficialized capillaries may have led to hemosiderin deposition in the papillary and the reticular dermis.

  18. Bridge Pressure Flow Scour at Clear Water Threshold Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Junke; KERENYI Kornel; PAGAN-ORTIZ Jorge E; FLORA Kevin

    2009-01-01

    Bridge pressure flow scour at clear water threshold condition is studied theoretically and experimentally. The flume experiments reveal that the measured scour profiles under a bridge are more or less 2-dimensional; all the measured scour profiles can be described by two similarity equations, where the horizontal distance is scaled by the deck width while the local scour by the maximum scour depth; the maximum scour position is located just under the bridge about 15% deck width from the downstream deck edge; the scour begins at about one deck width upstream the bridge while the deposition occurs at about 2.5 deck widths downstream the bridge; and the maximum scour depth decreases with increas-ing sediment size, but increases with deck inundation. The theoretical analysis shows that: bridge scour can be divided into three cases, i.e. downstream unsubmerged, partially submerged, and totally submerged. For downstream unsubmerged flows, the maximum bridge scour depth is an open-channel problem where the conventional methods in terms of critical velocity or bed shear stress can be applied; for partially and totally submerged flows, the equilibrium maximum scour depth can be described by a scour and an inundation similarity number, which has been confirmed by experiments with two decks and two sediment sizes. For application, a design and field evaluation procedure with examples is presented, including the maximum scour depth and scour profile.

  19. Empowerment Zones and Enterprise Districts - Volusia County Enterprise Zones

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Florida's Enterprise Zone Program encourages economic growth and investment in distressed areas by offering tax advantages and incentives to businesses that are...

  20. Saturated Zone Colloid Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. S. Viswanathan

    2004-10-07

    This scientific analysis provides retardation factors for colloids transporting in the saturated zone (SZ) and the unsaturated zone (UZ). These retardation factors represent the reversible chemical and physical filtration of colloids in the SZ. The value of the colloid retardation factor, R{sub col} is dependent on several factors, such as colloid size, colloid type, and geochemical conditions (e.g., pH, Eh, and ionic strength). These factors are folded into the distributions of R{sub col} that have been developed from field and experimental data collected under varying geochemical conditions with different colloid types and sizes. Attachment rate constants, k{sub att}, and detachment rate constants, k{sub det}, of colloids to the fracture surface have been measured for the fractured volcanics, and separate R{sub col} uncertainty distributions have been developed for attachment and detachment to clastic material and mineral grains in the alluvium. Radionuclides such as plutonium and americium sorb mostly (90 to 99 percent) irreversibly to colloids (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170025], Section 6.3.3.2). The colloid retardation factors developed in this analysis are needed to simulate the transport of radionuclides that are irreversibly sorbed onto colloids; this transport is discussed in the model report ''Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170036]). Although it is not exclusive to any particular radionuclide release scenario, this scientific analysis especially addresses those scenarios pertaining to evidence from waste-degradation experiments, which indicate that plutonium and americium may be irreversibly attached to colloids for the time scales of interest. A section of this report will also discuss the validity of using microspheres as analogs to colloids in some of the lab and field experiments used to obtain the colloid retardation factors. In addition, a small fraction of colloids travels with the groundwater without any significant

  1. NOAA AVHRR Clear-Sky Products over Oceans (ACSPO): Sea Surface Temperature, Clear Sky Radiances, and Aerosol Optical Depth for the Global Ocean, 2011 - present (NCEI Accession 0072979)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The AVHRR Clear-Sky Processor over Oceans, jointly developed between NESDIS STAR and OSDPD, produces AVHRR clear-sky products over oceans. ACSPO generates output...

  2. Learning About Intervention Target Zones

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, Michael W; Karen K. Lewis

    1991-01-01

    This paper provides a framework for evaluating how market participants' beliefs about foreign exchange target zones change as they learn about central bank intervention policy. In order to examine this behavior, we first generalize the standard target zone model to allow for intra-marginal intervention. Intra-marginal intervention implies that the position of market participants' beliefs about the target zone can be determined from their beliefs about the likelihood of intervention. As an app...

  3. DISCRIMINATING BETWEEN CLOUDY, HAZY, AND CLEAR SKY EXOPLANETS USING REFRACTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misra, Amit K.; Meadows, Victoria S. [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    We propose a method to distinguish between cloudy, hazy, and clear sky (free of clouds and hazes) exoplanet atmospheres that could be applicable to upcoming large aperture space- and ground-based telescopes such as the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) and the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT). These facilities will be powerful tools for characterizing transiting exoplanets, but only after a considerable amount of telescope time is devoted to a single planet. A technique that could provide a relatively rapid means of identifying haze-free targets (which may be more valuable targets for characterization) could potentially increase the science return for these telescopes. Our proposed method utilizes broadband observations of refracted light in the out-of-transit spectrum. Light refracted through an exoplanet atmosphere can lead to an increase of flux prior to ingress and subsequent to egress. Because this light is transmitted at pressures greater than those for typical cloud and haze layers, the detection of refracted light could indicate a cloud- or haze-free atmosphere. A detection of refracted light could be accomplished in <10 hr for Jovian exoplanets with JWST and <5 hr for super-Earths/mini-Neptunes with E-ELT. We find that this technique is most effective for planets with equilibrium temperatures between 200 and 500 K, which may include potentially habitable planets. A detection of refracted light for a potentially habitable planet would strongly suggest the planet was free of a global cloud or haze layer, and therefore a promising candidate for follow-up observations.

  4. Gene expression profile of renal cell carcinoma clear cell type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos F. Dall’Oglio

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The determination of prognosis in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC is based, classically, on stage and histopathological aspects. The metastatic disease develops in one third of patients after surgery, even in localized tumors. There are few options for treating those patients, and even the new target designed drugs have shown low rates of success in controlling disease progression. Few studies used high throughput genomic analysis in renal cell carcinoma for determination of prognosis. This study is focused on the identification of gene expression signatures in tissues of low-risk, high-risk and metastatic RCC clear cell type (RCC-CCT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed the expression of approximately 55,000 distinct transcripts using the Whole Genome microarray platform hybridized with RNA extracted from 19 patients submitted to surgery to treat RCC-CCT with different clinical outcomes. They were divided into three groups (1 low risk, characterized by pT1, Fuhrman grade 1 or 2, no microvascular invasion RCC; (2 high risk, pT2-3, Fuhrman grade 3 or 4 with, necrosis and microvascular invasion present and (3 metastatic RCC-CCT. Normal renal tissue was used as control. RESULTS: After comparison of differentially expressed genes among low-risk, high-risk and metastatic groups, we identified a group of common genes characterizing metastatic disease. Among them Interleukin-8 and Heat shock protein 70 were over-expressed in metastasis and validated by real-time polymerase chain reaction. CONCLUSION: These findings can be used as a starting point to generate molecular markers of RCC-CCT as well as a target for the development of innovative therapies.

  5. Effect of mechanical optical clearing on near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idelson, Christopher R; Vogt, William C; King-Casas, Brooks; LaConte, Stephen M; Rylander, Christopher G

    2015-08-01

    Near-infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) is a broadly utilized technology with many emerging applications including clinical diagnostics, sports medicine, and functional neuroimaging, to name a few. For functional brain imaging NIR light is delivered at multiple wavelengths through the scalp and skull to the brain to enable spatial oximetry measurements. Dynamic changes in brain oxygenation are highly correlated with neural stimulation, activation, and function. Unfortunately, NIRS is currently limited by its low spatial resolution, shallow penetration depth, and, perhaps most importantly, signal corruption due to light interactions with superficial non-target tissues such as scalp and skull. In response to these issues, we have combined the non-invasive and rapidly reversible method of mechanical tissue optical clearing (MOC) with a commercially available NIRS system. MOC utilizes a compressive loading force on tissue, causing the lateral displacement of blood and water, while simultaneously thinning the tissue. A MOC-NIRS Breath Hold Test displayed a ∼3.5-fold decrease in the time-averaged standard deviation between channels, consequentially promoting greater channel agreement. A Skin Pinch Test was implemented to negate brain and muscle activity from affecting the recorded signal. These results displayed a 2.5-3.0 fold increase in raw signal amplitude. Existing NIRS instrumentation has been further integrated within a custom helmet device to provide a uniform force distribution across the NIRS sensor array. These results showed a gradual decrease in time-averaged standard deviation among channels with an increase in applied pressure. Through these experiments, and the development of the MOC-NIRS helmet device, MOC appears to provide enhancement of NIRS technology beyond its current limitations.

  6. Vegetation zones shift in changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belda, Michal; Halenka, Tomas; Kalvova, Jaroslava; Holtanova, Eva

    2016-04-01

    between the selected types can be studied as well providing the information on climate change signal. The shift of the boundary between the boreal zone and continental temperate zone to the north is clearly seen in most simulations as well as eastern move of the boundary of the maritime and continental type of temperate zone. However, there can be quite clear problem with model biases in climate types association.

  7. Zoning should promote public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschhorn, Joel S

    2004-01-01

    Legally, governments use their police powers to protect public health, safety, and welfare through zoning. This paper presents a case for revisiting zoning on the basis of increasing evidence that certain types of community design promote public health, as opposed to the dominant pattern of sprawl development, which does not. Zoning, and the land use planning linked to it, that prohibits or disfavors health-promoting community designs contradicts the inherent public policy goal on which it is based. If there is a paradigm shift underway, from traditional sprawl to health-promoting community designs, then health professionals and others should understand why zoning must be reassessed.

  8. Work Zone Data Collection Trailer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Work Zone Data Collection Trailer was designed and constructed to enhance data collection and analysis capabilities for the "Evaluating Roadway Construction Work...

  9. 77 FR 6335 - Protection of Cleared Swaps Customer Contracts and Collateral; Conforming Amendments to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-07

    ... merchants (``FCMs'') and derivatives clearing organizations (``DCOs'') regarding the treatment of cleared... the rules or bylaws of a derivatives clearing organization require that such transactions, along with the money, securities, and other property margining, guaranteeing or securing such transactions,...

  10. Clearing the Cosmic Fog - The Most Distant Galaxy Ever Measured

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    A European team of astronomers using ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) has measured the distance to the most remote galaxy so far. By carefully analysing the very faint glow of the galaxy they have found that they are seeing it when the Universe was only about 600 million years old (a redshift of 8.6). These are the first confirmed observations of a galaxy whose light is clearing the opaque hydrogen fog that filled the cosmos at this early time. The results were presented at an online press conference with the scientists on 19 October 2010, and will appear in the 21 October issue of the journal Nature. "Using the ESO Very Large Telescope we have confirmed that a galaxy spotted earlier using Hubble is the most remote object identified so far in the Universe" [1], says Matt Lehnert (Observatoire de Paris) who is lead author of the paper reporting the results. "The power of the VLT and its SINFONI spectrograph allows us to actually measure the distance to this very faint galaxy and we find that we are seeing it when the Universe was less than 600 million years old." Studying these first galaxies is extremely difficult. By the time that their initially brilliant light gets to Earth they appear very faint and small. Furthermore, this dim light falls mostly in the infrared part of the spectrum because its wavelength has been stretched by the expansion of the Universe - an effect known as redshift. To make matters worse, at this early time, less than a billion years after the Big Bang, the Universe was not fully transparent and much of it was filled with a hydrogen fog that absorbed the fierce ultraviolet light from young galaxies. The period when the fog was still being cleared by this ultraviolet light is known as the era of reionisation [2]. Despite these challenges the new Wide Field Camera 3 on the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope discovered several robust candidate objects in 2009 [3] that were thought to be galaxies shining in the era of reionisation. Confirming the

  11. Madeleine Leininger: claroscuro trascultural Madeleine Leininger: Clear and dark transcultural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Fornons Fontdevila

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A principios de la década de los años 60, Madeleine Leininger conceptualiza y funda la Enfermería transcultural, pero a pesar de la vigencia y reconocimiento que actualmente posee la enfermería transcultural, ésta no se escapa de un territorio claro-oscuro de contradicciones y dicciones. ¿Qué concepto de cultura utiliza Madeleine Leininger? ¿Qué consecuencias implica su transculturalidad? En el artículo se debate la particularidad conceptual utilizada por Leininger. Así mismo se propone cambiar terminológicamente y conceptualmente significados y significantes como la etnoenfermería y los conceptos de transculturalidad que a ella refieren. Para evitar los determinismos culturales se considera más correcto hablar de las identidades culturales, propias e individuales. La enfermería debe establecer un diálogo transcultural con las identidades culturales, con las medicinas y enfermerías transculturales. Un diálogo en igualdad, no sin por ello renunciar a la riqueza y eficiencia de la enfermería y de la medicina occidentales.At the beginning of the decade of the 60s, Madeleine Leininger conceptualizes and founds the nursing transcultural, but in spite of the current force and recognition that nowadays possesses the nursing transcultural, this does not escape of a clear - dark territory of contradictions and dictions. What concept of culture does Madeleine Leininger use? What consequences does it imply her transculturality? In the article the conceptual particularity used by Leininger is debated. Likewise it proposes to change the term and conceptual important and significant as the etno-infirmary and the concepts of transcultural that recount her. To avoid the cultural determinisms it is more correct to speak about the cultural, own and individual identities. The nursing must establish a dialog transcultural with the cultural identities, with the medicines and transcultural nursing. A dialog in equality, not without for it to resign

  12. Food web efficiency differs between humic and clear water lake communities in response to nutrients and light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faithfull, C L; Mathisen, P; Wenzel, A; Bergström, A K; Vrede, T

    2015-03-01

    This study demonstrates that clear and humic freshwater pelagic communities respond differently to the same environmental stressors, i.e. nutrient and light availability. Thus, effects on humic communities cannot be generalized from existing knowledge about these environmental stressors on clear water communities. Small humic lakes are the most numerous type of lake in the boreal zone, but little is known about how these lakes will respond to increased inflows of nutrients and terrestrial dissolved organic C (t-DOC) due to climate change and increased human impacts. Therefore, we compared the effects of nutrient addition and light availability on pelagic humic and clear water lake communities in a mesocosm experiment. When nutrients were added, phytoplankton production (PPr) increased in both communities, but pelagic energy mobilization (PEM) and bacterial production (BP) only increased in the humic community. At low light conditions, the addition of nutrients led to increased PPr only in the humic community, suggesting that, in contrast to the clear water community, humic phytoplankton were already adapted to lower ambient light levels. Low light significantly reduced PPr and PEM in the clear water community, but without reducing total zooplankton production, which resulted in a doubling of food web efficiency (FWE = total zooplankton production/PEM). However, total zooplankton production was not correlated with PEM, PPr, BP, PPr:BP or C:nutrient stoichiometry for either community type. Therefore, other factors such as food chain length, food quality, ultra-violet radiation or duration of the experiment, must have determined total zooplankton production and ultimately FWE.

  13. Environmental monitoring of the coastal zone by robot platforms

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desa, E.S.; Maurya, P.; Madhan, R.; Navelkar, G.S.; Desa, E.

    , PARIS , FRANCE The coastal zone is prone to a diverse array of hazards which include natural ones caused by storm surges, tsunamis, sea level rise, hurricanes and floods and man made hazards caused by industrial effluents discharge, river runoff... bearing sediments, nutrients, artificial fertilizers from agricultural fields and sewage discharge into the sea. The scientific challenges are clearly found in separating out man made effects from the natural variability of coastal processes. The task...

  14. FLOW FIELD IN SCOURED ZONE OF CHANNEL CONTRACTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rajkumar V. RAIKAR; Subhasish DEY

    2004-01-01

    Experiments were conducted in a laboratory flume to measure the two-dimensional turbulent flow field in the scoured zone of channel contractions under a clear-water scour condition. The Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV) was used to detect the flow field at different vertical lines along the centerline of uncontracted (main channel) and contracted zones of the channel. The distributions of time-averaged velocity components, turbulent intensity, turbulent kinetic energy, and Reynolds stresses are presented in nondimensional graphical form. The bed shear stresses are computed from the measured Reynolds stresses being in threshold condition within the zone of contraction where bed was scoured. The data presented in this paper would be useful to the investigators for the development of kinematic flow model and morphological model of scour at a channel or river contraction.

  15. Seismic image of the Ivanhoe Lake Fault Zone in the Kapuskasing Uplift of the Canadian Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianjun; Mereu, Robert F.; Percival, John A.

    1992-02-01

    The Kapuskasing uplift, located in the central Canadian shield, represents an oblique exposure of the Archean middle to lower crust. The Ivanhoe Lake fault zone, believed to be the basal thrust carrying the high-grade rocks of the Kapuskasing zone over the low-grade Abitibi greenstone belt, holds the key to understanding the nature and evolution of the Kapuskasing uplift. Despite numerous geological and geophysical studies, including LITHOPROBE deep seismic reflection profiles, and because of very limited bedrock exposure in the area, the shallow structure of the Ivanhoe Lake fault zone remains obscure. Here we present results obtained by reprocessing data from a LITHOPROBE seismic reflection profile across the fault zone. For the first time, the Ivanhoe Lake fault zone is clearly imaged on the seismic section as a series of west-dipping reflectors with an average dip of 20°, which can be traced to the surface. The results support the conclusion that fault zones form good reflectors.

  16. Technical foundation research on high resolution remote sensing system of China's coastal zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiaomei; LAN Rongqin; DU Yunyan; CHEN Xiufa

    2004-01-01

    China's coastal zone is a region with a highly developed economy that contrasts clearly with the slow paced regular investigation on its natural environment,which cannot keep pace with the requirement of economic development and modem management. Laying a theoretical foundation for the modem management of China's costal zone is aimed at.This research focuses on the following processing and analyzing technologies for coastal zone high-resolution remote sensing data: organization and management of large amounts of high-resolution remote sensing data, quick and precise spatial positioning system,algorithms for image fusion in feature level and coastal zone feature extraction. They will form a technical foundation of the system. And, ifcombined with other research results such as coastal zone remote sensing classification system and its mapping subsystem, an advanced technical frame for remote sensing investigation of coastal zone resource will be constructed.

  17. Excavation damaged zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulain, S.; Sergeant, C.; Vesvres, M.H.; Simonoff, M.; Lavielle, B.; Thomas, B.; Gilabert, E. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., I and 2/CNRS and GdR FORPRO 0788, Nuclear Analytical and Bioenvironmental Chemistry 33 - Gradignan (France); Poulain, S.; Altmann, S.; Lenoir, N.; Barnichon, J.D.; Wileveau, Y.; Lebon, P. [ANDRA - Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs, 92 - Chatenay Malabry (France); Le Marrec, C. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., ISTAB, INRA, UMR Oenologie - ISVV, 33 - Talence (France); Vinsot, A.; Dewonck, S.; Wileveau, Y.; Armand, G.; Cruchaudet, P.; Rebours, H.; Morel, J. [Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs, Lab. de Souterrain de Meuse/Haute-Marne, 55 - Bure (France); Lanyon, G.W. [Fracture Systems Ltd, Tregurrian, Ayr, St Ives, Cornwall (United Kingdom); Marschall, P.; Vietor, T. [NAGRA - National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste, Wettingen (Switzerland); Bourdeau, C.; Dedecker, F.; Billaux, D. [ITASCA Consultants, S.A.S., 69 - Ecully (France); Lenoir, N.; Desrues, J.; Viggiani, G.; Besuelle, P. [Laboratoire 3S-R - Sols Solides Structures-Risques, 38 - Grenoble (France); Bornert, M. [Ecole Polytechnique, LMS - Lab. de Mecanique des Solides, 91 - Palaiseau (France); Arson, C.; Gatmiri, B. [CERMES, Ecole Nationale des Ponts et Chaussees, 77 - Marne-la-Vallee (France); Gatmiri, B. [University of Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bernier, F. [ESV EURIDICE GIE - European Underground Research Infrastructure for Disposal of Nuclear Waste in Clay Environment (Belgium); Nussbaum, C.; Mori, O. [Geotechnical Institute Ltd., Fabrique de Chaux, St-Ursanne (Switzerland); Bossart, P. [Swisstopo - Federal Office of Topography, Wabern (Switzerland); Schuster, K.; Alheid, H.J. [BGR - Bundesanstalt fur Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hannover (Germany); Lavanchy, J.M.; Croise, J.; Schwarz, R. [Colenco Power Engineering AG, Groundwater Protection and Waste Disposal, Baden (Switzerland)] [and others

    2007-07-01

    This session gathers 13 articles dealing with: autochthonous and colonizing microorganisms in argillaceous underground environments (S. Poulain, C. Sergeant, C. Le Marrec, M.H. Vesvres, A. Vinsot, S. Dewonck, M. Simonoff, S. Altmann); the discrete fracture network modelling of the Hg-a experiment at the Mont Terri rock Laboratory (G.W. Lanyon, P. Marschall, T. Vietor); the discrete modelling of drift behaviour in the Meuse/Haute-Marne URL, France (C. Bourdeau, F. Dedecker, D. Billaux); the fracturing in Callovo-Oxfordian argillite under triaxial compression studied by X-ray microtomography (N. Lenoir, J. Desrues, G. Viggiani, P. Besuelle, M. Bornert, J.D. Barnichon); a general review of the damage models for the EDZ creation (C. Arson, B. Gatmiri); similarities in the Hydro-Mechanical response of Callovo-Oxfordian clay and Boom clay during gallery excavation (Y. Wileveau, F. Bernier); the different geometries of the EDZ fracture networks in the Mont Terri and Meuse/Haute-Marne rock laboratories: Structural approach (C. Nussbaum, Y. Wileveau, P. Bossart, A. Moeri, G. Armand); the characterisation of the Excavation-Damaged Zone in the Meuse/Haute-Marne Underground Research Laboratory (G. Armand, P. Lebon, M. Cruchaudet, H. Rebours, J. Morel, Y. Wileveau); the EDZ characterisation with ultrasonic interval velocity measurements in the Meuse/Haute-Marne URL, performed between depth of 85 m and 504 m (K. Schuster, H.J. Alheid); the clay formation at the Meuse Haute Marne URL: evaluation of the impact of resin filled slots on flow paths characteristics within the EDZ (J.M. Lavanchy, J. Croise, R. Schwarz, G. Armand, M. Cruchaudet); the characterisation and evolution of EDZ by extraction and analyse of noble gases in pore waters in the Meuse/Haute Marne URL site (B. Lavielle, B. Thomas, E. Gilabert); in-situ gas test for the characterisation of Excavation Disturbed Zone at the Meuse/Haute Marne URL (H. Shao, K. Schuster, J. Soennke, V. Braeuer); and the flow and reactive

  18. Management of coastal zone vegetation

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.

    stream_size 14 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Trg_Course_Coast_Zone_Manage_1993_22.pdf.txt stream_source_info Trg_Course_Coast_Zone_Manage_1993_22.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset...

  19. Instrumentation for coastal zone management

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joseph, A.

    stream_size 11 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Trg_Course_Coast_Zone_Manage_1993_91.pdf.txt stream_source_info Trg_Course_Coast_Zone_Manage_1993_91.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset...

  20. Stony Brook's Graduate Courses in Clear, Vivid, Conversational Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, E.

    2011-12-01

    Graduate students in the sciences at Stony Brook University are taking for-credit courses to learn to communicate more effectively about science with people outside their disciplines, including public officials, the press, students, potential funders and employers, colleagues in other fields, and the general public. Five Communicating Science courses are offered; two more will be added in January, 2012. The courses are offered by the School of Journalism and developed by the Center for Communicating Science (CCS). This interdisciplinary center was founded in 2009, with the participation of Alan Alda, the actor, writer, director and longtime advocate for science, who is a Visiting Professor at Stony Brook. At the core of the program are three 1-credit (14-hour) modules that rely on experiential learning, repeated practice and immediate, interactive feedback. In Distilling Your Message, students practice speaking clearly, vividly and conversationally about their work at different levels of complexity and formality to different audiences, using storytelling techniques where appropriate. In Writing for the Public, they extend these skills into writing. In Improvisation for Scientists, the most unconventional of the courses, students play improvisational theater games to help themselves connect more directly, personally and responsively with their audiences. In their first two semesters, the courses are expected to serve about 90 students, taking a total of about 180 credits. Most of the courses have filled quickly, mixing master's and doctoral students from more than a dozen fields, including marine and atmospheric sciences. Three to six credits of Communicating Science courses are required for students in two programs, an MA in Marine Conservation and Policy and an Advanced Certificate in Health Communications. The content and methods of the courses are based largely on lessons learned from evaluations of all-day workshops that CCS has conducted for more than 250

  1. Volcanic Zone, New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham J. Weir

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A conceptual model of the Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ is developed, to a depth of 25 km, formed from three constant density layers. The upper layer is formed from eruption products. A constant rate of eruption is assumed, which eventually implies a constant rate of extension, and a constant rate of volumetric creation in the middle and bottom layers. Tectonic extension creates volume which can accomodate magmatic intrusions. Spreading models assume this volume is distributed throughout the whole region, perhaps in vertical dykes, whereas rifting models assume the upper crust is thinned and the volume created lies under this upper crust. Bounds on the heat flow from such magmatic intrusions are calculated. Heat flow calculations are performed and some examples are provided which match the present total heat output from the TVZ of about 4200 MW, but these either have extension rates greater than the low values of about 8 ± 4 mm/a being reported from GPS measurements, or else consider extension rates in the TVZ to have varied over time.

  2. Lidar measurements of the atmospheric entrainment zone and the potential temperature jump across the top of the mixed layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boers, R.; Eloranta, E. W.

    1986-01-01

    Lidar data of the atmospheric entrainment zone from six days of clear air convection obtained in central Illinois during July 1979 are presented. A new method to measure the potential temperature jump across the entrainment zone based on only one temperature sounding and continuous lidar measurements of the mixed layer height is developed. An almost linear dependence is found between the normalized entrainment rate and the normalized thickness of the entrainment zone.

  3. 78 FR 62846 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; National Securities Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... Supplemental Liquidity Deposits to Its Clearing Fund Designed To Increase Liquidity Resources To Meet Its Liquidity Needs October 15, 2013. On March 21, 2013, National Securities Clearing Corporation (``NSCC...'') to provide for supplemental liquidity deposits to its Clearing Fund (the ``NSCC Clearing Fund'')...

  4. Evaluation of Clear Sky Models for Satellite-Based Irradiance Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sengupta, M.; Gotseff, P.

    2013-12-01

    This report describes an intercomparison of three popular broadband clear sky solar irradiance model results with measured data, as well as satellite-based model clear sky results compared to measured clear sky data. The authors conclude that one of the popular clear sky models (the Bird clear sky model developed by Richard Bird and Roland Hulstrom) could serve as a more accurate replacement for current satellite-model clear sky estimations. Additionally, the analysis of the model results with respect to model input parameters indicates that rather than climatological, annual, or monthly mean input data, higher-time-resolution input parameters improve the general clear sky model performance.

  5. 49 CFR 71.8 - Mountain zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mountain zone. 71.8 Section 71.8 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.8 Mountain zone. The fourth zone, the mountain standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is west of...

  6. Development of Hydrologic Characterization Technology of Fault Zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karasaki, Kenzi; Onishi, Tiemi; Wu, Yu-Shu

    2008-03-31

    Through an extensive literature survey we find that there is very limited amount of work on fault zone hydrology, particularly in the field using borehole testing. The common elements of a fault include a core, and damage zones. The core usually acts as a barrier to the flow across it, whereas the damage zone controls the flow either parallel to the strike or dip of a fault. In most of cases the damage zone isthe one that is controlling the flow in the fault zone and the surroundings. The permeability of damage zone is in the range of two to three orders of magnitude higher than the protolith. The fault core can have permeability up to seven orders of magnitude lower than the damage zone. The fault types (normal, reverse, and strike-slip) by themselves do not appear to be a clear classifier of the hydrology of fault zones. However, there still remains a possibility that other additional geologic attributes and scaling relationships can be used to predict or bracket the range of hydrologic behavior of fault zones. AMT (Audio frequency Magneto Telluric) and seismic reflection techniques are often used to locate faults. Geochemical signatures and temperature distributions are often used to identify flow domains and/or directions. ALSM (Airborne Laser Swath Mapping) or LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) method may prove to be a powerful tool for identifying lineaments in place of the traditional photogrammetry. Nonetheless not much work has been done to characterize the hydrologic properties of faults by directly testing them using pump tests. There are some uncertainties involved in analyzing pressure transients of pump tests: both low permeability and high permeability faults exhibit similar pressure responses. A physically based conceptual and numerical model is presented for simulating fluid and heat flow and solute transport through fractured fault zones using a multiple-continuum medium approach. Data from the Horonobe URL site are analyzed to demonstrate the

  7. Water quality dynamics and hydrology in nitrate loaded riparian zones in Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hefting, Mariet [Department of Geobiology, Faculty of Biology, Utrecht University, PO Box 80084, 3508 TB Utrecht (Netherlands)]. E-mail: m.m.hefting@bio.uu.nl; Beltman, Boudewijn [Department of Geobiology, Faculty of Biology, Utrecht University, PO Box 80084, 3508 TB Utrecht (Netherlands); Karssenberg, Derek [Netherlands Centre for Geo-ecological Research (ICG), Faculty of Geographical Sciences, Utrecht University, PO Box 80115, 3508 TC Utrecht (Netherlands); Rebel, Karin [Department of Geobiology, Faculty of Biology, Utrecht University, PO Box 80084, 3508 TB Utrecht (Netherlands); Riessen, Mirjam van [Netherlands Centre for Geo-ecological Research (ICG), Faculty of Geographical Sciences, Utrecht University, PO Box 80115, 3508 TC Utrecht (Netherlands); Spijker, Maarten [Netherlands Centre for Geo-ecological Research (ICG), Faculty of Geographical Sciences, Utrecht University, PO Box 80115, 3508 TC Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2006-01-15

    Riparian zones are known to function as buffers, reducing non-point source pollution from agricultural land to streams. In Netherlands, riparian zones are subject to high nitrogen inputs. We combined hydrological, chemical and soil profile data with groundwater modelling to evaluate whether chronically N loaded riparian zones were still mitigating diffuse nitrate fluxes. Hydraulic parameters and water quality were monitored over 2 years in 50 piezometres in a forested and grassland riparian zone. Average nitrate loadings were high in the forested zone with 87 g NO{sub 3} {sup -}-N m{sup -2} y{sup -1} and significantly lower in the grassland zone with 15 g NO{sub 3} {sup -}-N m{sup -2} y{sup -1}. Groundwater from a second aquifer diluted the nitrate loaded agricultural runoff. Biological N removal however occurred in both riparian zones, the grassland zone removed about 63% of the incoming nitrate load, whereas in the forested zone clear symptoms of saturation were visible and only 38% of the nitrate load was removed. - Riparian zones reduced nitrate from agricultural lands.

  8. Formalized morphostructural zoning of the mountain zone of the Andes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabrielov, A.M.; Gvishiani, A.D.; Zhidkov, M.P.

    1982-01-01

    A plan is presented for morphostructural zoning of the Andes compiled according to formalized signs for purposes of seismic forecasting. Characteristics are presented for the basic morphostructural subdivisions of the Andes.

  9. Chaotic zones around gravitating binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Shevchenko, Ivan I

    2014-01-01

    The extent of the continuous zone of chaotic orbits of a small-mass tertiary around a system of two gravitationally bound bodies (a double star, a double black hole, a binary asteroid, etc.) is estimated analytically, in function of the tertiary's orbital eccentricity. The separatrix map theory is used to demonstrate that the central continuous chaos zone emerges due to overlapping of the orbital resonances corresponding to the integer ratios p:1 between the tertiary and the binary periods. The binary's mass ratio, above which such a chaotic zone is universally present, is also estimated.

  10. High Resolution Seismic Imaging of Fault Zones: Methods and Examples From The San Andreas Fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catchings, R. D.; Rymer, M. J.; Goldman, M.; Prentice, C. S.; Sickler, R. R.; Criley, C.

    2011-12-01

    Seismic imaging of fault zones at shallow depths is challenging. Conventional seismic reflection methods do not work well in fault zones that consist of non-planar strata or that have large variations in velocity structure, two properties that occur in most fault zones. Understanding the structure and geometry of fault zones is important to elucidate the earthquake hazard associated with fault zones and the barrier effect that faults impose on subsurface fluid flow. In collaboration with the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission (SFPUC) at San Andreas Lake on the San Francisco peninsula, we acquired combined seismic P-wave and S-wave reflection, refraction, and guided-wave data to image the principal strand of the San Andreas Fault (SAF) that ruptured the surface during the 1906 San Francisco earthquake and additional fault strands east of the rupture. The locations and geometries of these fault strands are important because the SFPUC is seismically retrofitting the Hetch Hetchy water delivery system, which provides much of the water for the San Francisco Bay area, and the delivery system is close to the SAF at San Andreas Lake. Seismic reflection images did not image the SAF zone well due to the brecciated bedrock, a lack of layered stratigraphy, and widely varying velocities. Tomographic P-wave velocity images clearly delineate the fault zone as a low-velocity zone at about 10 m depth in more competent rock, but due to soil saturation above the rock, the P-waves do not clearly image the fault strands at shallower depths. S-wave velocity images, however, clearly show a diagnostic low-velocity zone at the mapped 1906 surface break. To image the fault zone at greater depths, we utilized guided waves, which exhibit high amplitude seismic energy within fault zones. The guided waves appear to image the fault zone at varying depths depending on the frequency of the seismic waves. At higher frequencies (~30 to 40 Hz), the guided waves show strong amplification at the

  11. Thermal modeling of the Clear Lake magmatic system, California: Implications for conventional and hot dry rock geothermal development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stimac, J.; Goff, F.; Wohletz, K.

    1997-06-01

    The combination of recent volcanism, high heat flow ({ge} HFU or 167 mW/m{sup 2}), and high conductive geothermal gradient (up to 120{degree} C/km) makes the Clear Lake region of northern California one of the best prospects for hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal development in the US. The lack of permeability in exploration wells and lack of evidence for widespread geothermal reservoirs north of the Collayomi fault zone are not reassuring indications for conventional geothermal development. This report summarizes results of thermal modeling of the Clear Lake magmatic system, and discusses implications for HDR site selection in the region. The thermal models incorporate a wide range of constraints including the distribution and nature of volcanism in time and space, water and gas geochemistry, well data, and geophysical surveys. The nature of upper crustal magma bodies at Clear Lake is inferred from studying sequences of related silicic lavas, which tell a story of multistage mixing of silicic and mafic magma in clusters of small upper crustal chambers. Thermobarometry on metamorphic xenoliths yield temperature and pressure estimates of {approximately}780--900 C and 4--6 kb respectively, indicating that at least a portion of the deep magma system resided at depths from 14 to 21 km (9 to 12 mi). The results of thermal modeling support previous assessments of the high HDR potential of the area, and suggest the possibility that granitic bodies similar to The Geysers felsite may underlie much of the Clear Lake region at depths as little as 3--6 km. This is significant because future HDR reservoirs could potentially be sited in relatively shallow granitoid plutons rather than in structurally complex Franciscan basement rocks.

  12. ShoreZone Survey Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a point file showing GPS trackline data collected during a ShoreZone aerial imaging survey. This flight trackline is recorded at 1-second intervals...

  13. In situ vadose zone bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhener, Patrick; Ponsin, Violaine

    2014-06-01

    Contamination of the vadose zone with various pollutants is a world-wide problem, and often technical or economic constraints impose remediation without excavation. In situ bioremediation in the vadose zone by bioventing has become a standard remediation technology for light spilled petroleum products. In this review, focus is given on new in situ bioremediation strategies in the vadose zone targeting a variety of other pollutants such as perchlorate, nitrate, uranium, chromium, halogenated solvents, explosives and pesticides. The techniques for biostimulation of either oxidative or reductive degradation pathways are presented, and biotransformations to immobile pollutants are discussed in cases of non-degradable pollutants. Furthermore, research on natural attenuation in the vadose zone is presented.

  14. Offshore Wind Technology Depth Zones

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coastal bathymetric depth, measured in meters at depth values of: -30, -60, -900 Shallow Zone (0-30m): Technology has been demonstrated on a commercial scale at...

  15. NEPR Geographic Zone Map 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This geographic zone map was created by interpreting satellite and aerial imagery, seafloor topography (bathymetry model), and the new NEPR Benthic Habitat Map...

  16. Development Zones Flourish in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Based on the Beijing Municipal Government's plans for developing the city and neighboring suburbs,and after more than 10 years in development,the Beijing Development Zones have taken shape,each with their own characteristics.

  17. Demarcation of secondary hyperalgesia zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringsted, Thomas K; Enghuus, Casper; Petersen, Morten A;

    2015-01-01

    of analgesic drug effects in humans. However, since the methods applied in demarcating the secondary hyperalgesia zone seem inconsistent across studies, we examined the effect of a standardized approach upon the measurement of SHA following a first degree burn injury (BI). NEW METHOD: The study was a two...... presented. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to demonstrate that demarcation of secondary hyperalgesia zones depends on the developed pressure of the punctate stimulator used....

  18. The acid-base resistant zone in three dentin bonding systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Go; Nikaido, Toru; Foxton, Richard M; Tagami, Junji

    2009-11-01

    An acid-base resistant zone has been found to exist after acid-base challenge adjacent to the hybrid layer using SEM. The aim of this study was to examine the acid-base resistant zone using three different bonding systems. Dentin disks were applied with three different bonding systems, and then a resin composite was light-cured to make dentin disk sandwiches. After acid-base challenge, the polished surfaces were observed using SEM. For both one- and two-step self-etching primer systems, an acid-base resistant zone was clearly observed adjacent to the hybrid layer - but with differing appearances. For the wet bonding system, the presence of an acid-base resistant zone was unclear. This was because the self-etching primer systems etched the dentin surface mildly, such that the remaining mineral phase of dentin and the bonding agent yielded clear acid-base resistant zones. In conclusion, the acid-base resistant zone was clearly observed when self-etching primer systems were used, but not so for the wet bonding system.

  19. The global aftershock zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Thomas E.; Margaret Segou,; Warner Marzocchi,

    2014-01-01

    The aftershock zone of each large (M ≥ 7) earthquake extends throughout the shallows of planet Earth. Most aftershocks cluster near the mainshock rupture, but earthquakes send out shivers in the form of seismic waves, and these temporary distortions are large enough to trigger other earthquakes at global range. The aftershocks that happen at great distance from their mainshock are often superposed onto already seismically active regions, making them difficult to detect and understand. From a hazard perspective we are concerned that this dynamic process might encourage other high magnitude earthquakes, and wonder if a global alarm state is warranted after every large mainshock. From an earthquake process perspective we are curious about the physics of earthquake triggering across the magnitude spectrum. In this review we build upon past studies that examined the combined global response to mainshocks. Such compilations demonstrate significant rate increases during, and immediately after (~ 45 min) M > 7.0 mainshocks in all tectonic settings and ranges. However, it is difficult to find strong evidence for M > 5 rate increases during the passage of surface waves in combined global catalogs. On the other hand, recently published studies of individual large mainshocks associate M > 5 triggering at global range that is delayed by hours to days after surface wave arrivals. The longer the delay between mainshock and global aftershock, the more difficult it is to establish causation. To address these questions, we review the response to 260 M ≥ 7.0 shallow (Z ≤ 50 km) mainshocks in 21 global regions with local seismograph networks. In this way we can examine the detailed temporal and spatial response, or lack thereof, during passing seismic waves, and over the 24 h period after their passing. We see an array of responses that can involve immediate and widespread seismicity outbreaks, delayed and localized earthquake clusters, to no response at all. About 50% of the

  20. Mechanical modelling of the Singoe deformation zone. Site descriptive modelling Forsmark stage 2.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glamheden, Rune; Maersk Hansen, Lars; Fredriksson, Anders; Bergkvist, Lars; Markstroem, Ingemar; Elfstroem, Mats [Golder Associates AB (Sweden)

    2007-02-15

    This project aims at demonstrating the theoretical approach developed by SKB for determination of mechanical properties of large deformation zones, in particular the Singoe deformation zone. Up to now, only bedrock and minor deformation zones have been characterized by means of this methodology, which has been modified for this project. The Singoe deformation zone is taken as a reference object to get a more comprehensive picture of the structure, which could be incorporated in a future version of the SDM of Forsmark. Furthermore, the Singoe Zone has been chosen because of available data from four tunnels. Scope of work has included compilation and analysis of geological information from site investigations and documentation of existing tunnels. Results have been analyzed and demonstrated by means of RVS-visualization. Numerical modelling has been used to obtain mechanical properties. Numerical modelling has also been carried out in order to verify the results by comparison of calculated and measured deformations. Compilation of various structures in the four tunnels coincides largely with a magnetic anomaly and also with the estimated width. Based on the study it is clear that the Singoe deformation zone has a heterogeneous nature. The number of fracture zones associated with the deformation zone varies on either side of the zone, as does the transition zone between host rock and the Singoe zone. The overall impression from the study is that the results demonstrate that the methodology used for simulating of equivalent mechanical properties is an applicable and adequate method, also in case of large deformation zones. Typical rock mechanical parameters of the Singoe deformations that can be used in the regional stress model considering the zone to be a single fracture are: 200 MPa/m in normal stiffness, 10-15 MPa/m in shear stiffness, 0.4 MPa in cohesion and 31.5 degrees in friction angle.

  1. Pediatric evaluation of the ClearVoice™ speech enhancement algorithm in everyday life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Noël-Petroff

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available ClearVoice™ enables Advanced Bionics cochlear implant users to improve their speech understanding in difficult listening environments, without compromising performance in quiet situations. The aim of the study was to evaluate the benefits of ClearVoice in children. Children between six and fourteen years of age randomly tested two modalities of ClearVoice for one month each. The baseline program, HiRes 120™, and both ClearVoice programs were evaluated with a sentence test in quiet and noise. Parents and teachers completed a questionnaire related to everyday noisy situations. The switchover to ClearVoice was uneventful for both modalities. Adjustments to thresholds and comfort levels were required. Seven out of the nine children preferred a ClearVoice program. No impact of ClearVoice on performance in quiet was observed and both modalities of ClearVoice improved speech understanding in noise compared to the baseline program, significantly with ClearVoice high. Positive outcomes were obtained from the questionnaires and discussions with parents and children. This study showed that children benefited from using ClearVoice in their daily life. There was a clear trend towards improved speech understanding in noise with ClearVoice, without affecting performance in quiet; therefore ClearVoice can be used by children all day, without having to change programs.

  2. 76 FR 16588 - Risk Management Requirements for Derivatives Clearing Organizations; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION 17 CFR Part 39 RIN 3038-AC98 Risk Management Requirements for Derivatives Clearing Organizations..., regarding Risk Management Requirements for Derivatives Clearing Organizations. FOR FURTHER...

  3. Zone and double zone diagrams in abstract spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Reem, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    A zone diagram of order $n$ is a relatively new concept which was first defined and studied by T. Asano, J. Matousek and T. Tokuyama. It can be interpreted as a state of equilibrium between $n$ mutually hostile kingdoms. Formally, it is a fixed point of a certain mapping. These authors considered the Euclidean plane and proved the existence and uniqueness of zone diagrams there. In the present paper we generalize this concept in various ways. We consider $m$-spaces (a simple generalization of metric spaces) and prove some existence and (non)uniqueness results there. In contrast to previous works, our proofs are based on purely order theoretic arguments. Many explicit examples are given, and some of them illustrate new phenomena which occur in the general case. We also re-interpret zone diagrams as a stable configuration in a certain combinatorial game, and provide an algorithm for finding this configuration in a particular case.

  4. Clear cell variant of calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor of maxilla: Report of a rare case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badrashetty, Dinesh; Rangaswamy, Shruthi; Belgode, Niranjan

    2013-09-01

    The calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT) is a rare benign tumor of the jaws. Pindborg's tumor having clear cells is extremely rare. Twelve central lesions have been reported of which only three cases have occurred in maxilla. Clear cell variant is a distinct entity, has more aggressive biological behavior and higher chances of recurrence. Hence it is important that presence of clear cells be included in histopathological diagnosis. Here we present a rare case of clear cell CEOT having aggressive behavior.

  5. High resolution seismic velocity structure around the Yamasaki fault zone of southwest Japan as revealed from travel-time tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugraha, Andri Dian; Ohmi, Shiro; Mori, Jim; Shibutani, Takuo

    2013-08-01

    The Yamasaki fault zone in southwestern Japan currently has a high potential for producing a large damaging earthquake. We carried out a seismic tomographic study to determine detailed crustal structures for the region. The velocity model clearly images a low-velocity and high V p / V s (high Poisson's ratio) anomaly in the lower crust beneath the Yamasaki fault zone at a depth of ~15-20 km. This anomaly may be associated with the existence of partially-melted minerals. The existence of this anomaly below the fault zone may contribute to changing the long-term stress concentration in the seismogenic zone.

  6. 77 FR 67042 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The Options Clearing Corporation; Notice of No Objection to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-08

    ... implementing many of the new statutory core principles for CFTC-registered derivatives clearing organizations...-2011-18. \\8\\ See SR-OCC-2012-06. \\9\\ Derivatives Clearing Organization General Provisions and Core... the exercise, assignment or maturity of cleared contracts. For this reason, OCC will treat all...

  7. Talker Differences in Clear and Conversational Speech: Vowel Intelligibility for Older Adults with Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Sarah Hargus

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To establish the range of talker variability for vowel intelligibility in clear versus conversational speech for older adults with hearing loss and to determine whether talkers who produced a clear speech benefit for young listeners with normal hearing also did so for older adults with hearing loss. Method: Clear and conversational vowels…

  8. Clear cell variant of intraosseous mucoepidermoid carcinoma: Report of a rare entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujatha Varma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Intraosseous mucoepidermoid carcinoma of jaw bones is a rare lesion. Abundance of clear cells in an intraosseous mucoepidermoid carcinoma may complicate its histopathologic diagnosis. It becomes extremely important to distinguish this lesion from other clear cell lesions of jaw region. Here, we report a case of clear cell variant of intraosseous mucoepidermoid carcinoma in the mandible.

  9. 45 CFR 5.67 - Exemption six: Clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...: Clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. (a) Documents affected. We may withhold records about individuals if disclosure would constitute a clearly unwarranted invasion of their personal privacy. (b... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exemption six: Clearly unwarranted invasion...

  10. 78 FR 61436 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The Options Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ... to the Definition of Hedge Clearing Member September 27, 2013. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of the... to the definition of Hedge Clearing Member. II. Clearing Agency's Statement of the Purpose of, and... the proposed rule change. The text of these statements may be examined at the places specified in...

  11. 77 FR 66900 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The Options Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing of Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-07

    ... potential use of the clearing fund as a source of liquidity should it ever be the case that OCC is unable to... a failure of any bank or securities or commodities clearing organization to perform its obligations... provide a source of liquidity in the event of a default by a clearing member or one of OCC's...

  12. Clear-cell variant of calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (Pindborg tumor) in the mandible

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ching-Yi Chen; Chung-Wei Wu; Wen-Chen Wang; Li-Min Lin; Yuk-Kwan Chen

    2013-01-01

    We present an uncommon case (female patient aged 59 years) of the clear-cell variant of calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT) (also known as Pindborg tumor) in the mandible. The clinical characteristics and probable origins of the clear tumor cells of previously reported cases of clear-cell variant of intraosseous CEOT are also summarized and discussed.

  13. SEMIAUTOMATIC DETECTION OF TUMORAL ZONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezzeddine Zagrouba

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a robust method based on the cooperation of fuzzy classification and regions segmentation algorithms, in order to detect the tumoral zone in the brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI. On one hand, the classification in fuzzy sets is done by the Fuzzy C-Means algorithm (FCM, where a study of its different parameters and its complexity has been previously realised, which led us to improve it. On the other hand, the segmentation in regions is obtained by an hierarchical method through adaptive thresholding. Then, an operator expert selects a germ in the tumoral zone, and the class containing the sick zone is localised in return for the FCM algorithm. Finally, the superposition of the two partitions of the image will determine the sick zone. The originality of our approach is the parallel exploitation of different types of information in the image by the cooperation of two complementary approaches. This allows us to carry out a pertinent approach for the detection of sick zone in MRI images.

  14. Mantle transition zone thickness in the Central South-American Subduction Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunmiller, Jochen; van der Lee, Suzan; Doermann, Lindsey

    We used receiver functions to determine lateral variations in mantle transition zone thickness and sharpness of the 410- and 660-km discontinuities in the presence of subducting lithosphere. The mantle beneath the central Andes of South America provides an ideal study site owing to its long-lived subduction history and the availability of broadband seismic data from the dense BANJO/SEDA temporary networks and the permanent station LPAZ. For LPAZ, we analyzed 26 earthquakes between 1993-2003 and stacked the depth-migrated receiver functions. For temporary stations operating for only about one year (1994-1995), station stacks were not robust. We thus stacked receiver functions for close-by stations forming five groups that span the subduction zone from west to east, each containing 12 to 25 events. We found signal significant at the 2σ level for several station groups from P to S conversions that originate near 520- and 850-900 km depth, but most prominently from the 410- and 660-km discontinuities. For the latter, the P to S converted signal is clear in stacks for western groups and LPAZ, lack of coherent signal for two eastern groups is possibly due to incoherent stacking and does not necessitate the absence of converted energy. The thickness of the mantle transition zone increases progressively from a near-normal 255 km at the Pacific coast to about 295 km beneath station LPAZ in the Eastern Cordillera. Beneath LPAZ, the 410-km discontinuity appears elevated by nearly 40 km, thus thickening the transition zone. We compared signal amplitudes from receiver function stacks calculated at different low-pass frequencies to study frequency dependence and possibly associated discontinuity sharpness of the P to S converted signals. We found that both the 410- and 660-km discontinuities exhibit amplitude increase with decreasing frequency. Synthetic receiver function calculations for discontinuity topography mimicking observed topography show that the observed steep

  15. Selected approaches to determining the purpose of emergency planning zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobeš, Pavel; Baudišová, Barbora; Sluka, Vilém; Skřínský, Jan; Danihelka, Pavel; Dlabka, Jakub; Řeháček, Jakub

    2013-04-01

    One of the major accident hazards (hereinafter referred to as "MAH") tools to determine the range of effects of a major accident and consequent protection of the public is the determination of the emergency planning zone (hereinafter referred to as "zone"). In the Czech Republic, the determination of the zone is regulated by the Decree No. 103/2006 Coll. laying down the principles for determination of the emergency planning zone and the extent and manner of elaborating the external emergency plan (hereinafter referred to as "Decree") 3. The Decree is based on the principles of the IAEA-TECDOC-727 method - Manual for the Classification and Prioritization of Risks Due to Major Accidents in Process and Related Industries (hereinafter referred to as "method" and "manual", respectively)3. In the manual, it is pointed out that the method used is not suitable for making emergency plans for special situations (industrial activities in an inhabited area). Nonetheless, its principles and procedures are still used for such purposes in the Czech Republic. The expert scientific community dealing with MAH issues in the Czech Republic, however, realizes that the procedure of the zone boundary delineation should be modified to reflect up-to-date knowledge in protection of the public and its enhancement. Therefore, the OPTIZON Project (Optimization of the Emergency Planning Zone Designation and Elaboration of Emergency Plans Based on Threatening Effects of Dangerous Chemical Substances at Operational Accidents with Respect to Inhabitant Protection Enhancement) was developed and approved for the Program of Security Research of the Czech Republic 2010 - 2015 (BV II/2-VS). One of the main project's objectives is to define clearly the purpose of the zone because at present it is not quite apparent. From the general view, this step may seem insignificant or trivial, but the reverse is true. It represents one of the most important stages in seeking the approach to the zone designation as

  16. Plumes in stellar convection zones

    CERN Document Server

    Zahn, J P

    1999-01-01

    All numerical simulations of compressible convection reveal the presence of strong downwards directed flows. Thanks to helioseismology, such plumes have now been detected also at the top of the solar convection zone, on super- granular scales. Their properties may be crudely described by adopting Taylor's turbulent entrainment hypothesis, whose validity is well established under various conditions. Using this model, one finds that the strong density stratification does not prevent the plumes from traversing the whole convection zone, and that they carry upwards a net energy flux (Rieutord & Zahn 1995). They penetrate to some extent in the adjacent stable region, where they establish a nearly adiabatic stratification. These plumes have a strong impact on the dynamics of stellar convection zones, and they play probably a key role in the dynamo mechanism.

  17. Mines and Prospects, Idaho Springs District, Clear Creek and Gilpin Counties, Colorado - Descriptions and Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moench, Robert Hadley; Drake, Avery Ala

    1966-01-01

    The Idaho Springs mining district forms an important segment of the Front Range mineral belt, a northeast-trending zone of coextensive intrusive rocks and hydrothermal ore deposits of early Tertiary age. This belt, which is about 50 miles long, extends from the region just west of Boulder southwestward across the Front Range. From 1859, when placer gold was discovered in Idaho Springs and lode gold in Central City, through 1959, ores valued at about $200 million were shipped from a 50-square-mile area that includes the Idaho Springs and adjacent districts to the north, west, and southwest. The adjacent Central City district, which produced ores valued at more than $100 million, is clearly the most important district in the mineral belt. The Idaho Springs district from 1860 to 1959 produced ores valued at about $65 million, and the districts to the west and southwest produced smaller amounts. Gold has accounted for about 60 percent of the value of the ore, but in some areas silver provides the chief values, and copper, lead, and zinc add value to the ores in most areas. Mining activity in the Idaho Springs and adjacent districts was at its 'heyday' in the late 1800's, it declined sharply after 1914, it was somewhat renewed during the 1930's, and it greatly declined during World War II. In the 1950's uranium prospecting stimulated some mining activity. No uranium was produced, however, and at the close of the decade only one mine--the Bald Eagle--was being worked for its precious- and base-metal ores. In this report, 135 mines and prospects are described. The mines and prospects described are those that were accessible at the time of this study, as well as a few inaccessible properties for which some information was available. Most of the data for the inaccessible or unimportant properties were obtained from Bastin and Hill (1917) and Spurr, Garrey, and Ball (1908). The following list shows, in alphabetical order, the names of about 325 openings of mines and

  18. 77 FR 75466 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Europe Limited; Notice of Designation of a Longer Period...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-20

    ... ICE Clear Europe to clear Western European Sovereign credit default swaps on the following sovereign... for Western European Sovereign credit default swaps, and because no registered clearing agency currently provides clearing services for Western European Sovereign credit default swaps, the......

  19. Road Zone Effects in Small-Mammal Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia A. Rosa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Our study focused on the putative effects of roads on small-mammal communities in a high desert region of southern Utah. Specifically, we tested whether or not roads create adjacent zones characterized by lower small- mammal densities, abundance, and diversity. We sampled abundance of small mammals at increasing distances from Interstate 15 during two summers. We recorded 11 genera and 13 species. We detected no clear abundance, density, or diversity effects relative to distance from the road. Only two of 13 species were never captured near roads. The abundance of the remaining 11 small mammal species was either similar at different distances from the road or higher closer to the road. We conclude that although roads may act as barriers and possible sources of mortality, adjacent zones of vegetation often provide favorable microhabitat in the desert landscape for many small mammals.

  20. Road zone effects in small-mammal communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissonette, J.A.; Rosa, S.A.

    2009-01-01

    Our study focused on the putative effects of roads on small-mammal communities in a high desert region of southern Utah. Specifically, we tested whether or not roads create adjacent zones characterized by lower small- mammal densities, abundance, and diversity. We sampled abundance of small mammals at increasing distances from Interstate 15 during two summers. We recorded 11 genera and 13 species. We detected no clear abundance, density, or diversity effects relative to distance from the road. Only two of 13 species were never captured near roads. The abundance of the remaining 11 small mammal species was either similar at different distances from the road or higher closer to the road. We conclude that although roads may act as barriers and possible sources of mortality, adjacent zones of vegetation often provide favorable microhabitat in the desert landscape for many small mammals. ?? 2009 by the author(s).

  1. 76 FR 7107 - Quarterly Listings; Safety Zones, Security Zones, Special Local Regulations, Drawbridge Operation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    ...-0997 New York, NY Security Zones (Part 165).... 9/23/2008 USCG-2008-0998 Puerto Rico Safety Zones (Part...-0358 Puerto Rico Safety Zones (Part 165)...... 5/31/2009 USCG-2009-0360 Cincinnati, OH Safety Zones...-1042 Baton Rouge, LA Safety Zones (Part 165)...... 12/4/2009 USCG-2009-1043 South Padre Island,...

  2. ISOLDE target zone control room

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Operating the ISOLDE target handling robots from the dedicated control room in building 197. Monitors showing the movements of the robots (GPS in this case) in the target zone. The footage shows the actual operation by the operator as well as the different equipment such as camera electronics, camera motor controls, camera monitors and Kuka robot controls touch panel.

  3. Land Governance as Grey Zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Anne Mette

    2017-01-01

    demonstrates that in Uganda, the need to maintain the ruling coalition in a clientelist political settlement to build electoral support, and the desire to attract economic investors, constitute political incentives to maintain land governance as a grey zone, even if there is apparent political...

  4. Cerebellar Zones: A Personal History

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Voogd (Jan)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractCerebellar zones were there, of course, before anyone noticed them. Their history is that of young people, unhindered by preconceived ideas, who followed up their observations with available or new techniques. In the 1960s of the last century, the circumstances were fortunate because thr

  5. Building a Subduction Zone Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomberg, Joan S.; Bodin, Paul; Bourgeois, Jody; Cashman, Susan; Cowan, Darrel; Creager, Kenneth C.; Crowell, Brendan; Duvall, Alison; Frankel, Arthur; Gonzalez, Frank; Houston, Heidi; Johnson, Paul; Kelsey, Harvey; Miller, Una; Roland, Emily C.; Schmidt, David; Staisch, Lydia; Vidale, John; Wilcock, William; Wirth, Erin

    2016-01-01

    Subduction zones contain many of Earth’s most remarkable geologic structures, from the deepest oceanic trenches to glacier-covered mountains and steaming volcanoes. These environments formed through spectacular events: Nature’s largest earthquakes, tsunamis, and volcanic eruptions are born here.

  6. ShoreZone Mapped Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is a polyline file of mapped ShoreZone units which correspond with data records found in the Unit, Xshr, BioUnit, and BioBand tables of this...

  7. Objects as Temporary Autonomous Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Morton

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available From Hakim Bey's instructions on creating temporary autonomous zones we see an oscillation "between performance art and politics, circus clowning and revolution." In this essay Tim Morton discusses anarchist politics as, "the creation of fresh objects in a reality without a top or a bottom object, or for that matter a middle object."

  8. Objects as Temporary Autonomous Zones

    OpenAIRE

    Tim Morton

    2011-01-01

    From Hakim Bey's instructions on creating temporary autonomous zones we see an oscillation "between performance art and politics, circus clowning and revolution." In this essay Tim Morton discusses anarchist politics as, "the creation of fresh objects in a reality without a top or a bottom object, or for that matter a middle object."

  9. CHAOTIC ZONES AROUND GRAVITATING BINARIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shevchenko, Ivan I., E-mail: iis@gao.spb.ru [Pulkovo Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pulkovskoje ave. 65, St. Petersburg 196140 (Russian Federation)

    2015-01-20

    The extent of the continuous zone of chaotic orbits of a small-mass tertiary around a system of two gravitationally bound primaries of comparable masses (a binary star, a binary black hole, a binary asteroid, etc.) is estimated analytically, as a function of the tertiary's orbital eccentricity. The separatrix map theory is used to demonstrate that the central continuous chaos zone emerges (above a threshold in the primaries' mass ratio) due to overlapping of the orbital resonances corresponding to the integer ratios p:1 between the tertiary and the central binary periods. In this zone, the unlimited chaotic orbital diffusion of the tertiary takes place, up to its ejection from the system. The primaries' mass ratio, above which such a chaotic zone is universally present at all initial eccentricities of the tertiary, is estimated. The diversity of the observed orbital configurations of biplanetary and circumbinary exosystems is shown to be in accord with the existence of the primaries' mass parameter threshold.

  10. Priority Education Zones in Mauritius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mahadeo Santosh; Gurrib, Mahomed Aniff

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the Priority Education Zones project (ZEP) in Mauritius. The original and innovative dimensions of the project are described, together with the difficulties encountered during the setting-up of the ZEP schools. The article covers five main issues: the status of the ZEP project; the minimal conditions for success; the…

  11. Zone refining of plutonium metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate zone refining techniques for the purification of plutonium metal. The redistribution of 10 impurity elements from zone melting was examined. Four tantalum boats were loaded with plutonium impurity alloy, placed in a vacuum furnace, heated to 700{degrees}C, and held at temperature for one hour. Ten passes were made with each boat. Metallographic and chemical analyses performed on the plutonium rods showed that, after 10 passes, moderate movement of certain elements were achieved. Molten zone speeds of 1 or 2 inches per hour had no effect on impurity element movement. Likewise, the application of constant or variable power had no effect on impurity movement. The study implies that development of a zone refining process to purify plutonium is feasible. Development of a process will be hampered by two factors: (1) the effect on impurity element redistribution of the oxide layer formed on the exposed surface of the material is not understood, and (2) the tantalum container material is not inert in the presence of plutonium. Cold boat studies are planned, with higher temperature and vacuum levels, to determine the effect on these factors. 5 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  12. Carcinomas of ovary and lung with clear cell features: can immunohistochemistry help in differential diagnosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Nicole R; Zheng, Wenxin; Cheng, Liang; Tornos, Carmen; Kane, Philip; Pearl, Michael; Chalas, Eva; Liang, Sharon X

    2007-04-01

    Metastatic lung carcinomas with clear cell morphology can be confused with primary ovarian clear cell carcinomas. We performed immunohistochemical stains in 14 cases of non-small cell lung carcinomas with clear cell features and 14 cases of ovarian clear cell carcinomas using a panel of markers, including thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), Wilms tumor gene 1, octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (OCT-4), cancer antigen 125 (CA-125), estrogen receptor, and progesterone receptor. Among non-small cell lung carcinomas with clear cell features, 87.5% of adenocarcinomas (or 50% overall frequency in lung carcinomas) were positive for TTF-1, whereas none of the ovarian clear cell carcinomas were positive (P = 0.002). All 14 ovarian clear cell carcinomas stained for CA-125 as compared with 1 non-small cell lung carcinoma (P < 0.001). On the other hand, 85% of non-small cell lung carcinomas stained for CEA, whereas none of the ovarian clear cell carcinomas did (P < 0.001). Interestingly, 4 ovarian clear cell carcinomas (28%) showed positive staining for the germ cell marker OCT-4. Either lung or ovarian carcinomas stained for Wilms tumor gene 1, estrogen receptor, or progesterone receptor very infrequently; and the difference between the 2 groups was not statistically significant. Our results suggest that an immunohistochemical panel consisting of TTF-1, CEA, CA-125, and OCT-4 is helpful in distinguishing most pulmonary and ovarian carcinomas with clear cell features.

  13. Detection and clearing of trapped ions in the high current Cornell photoinjector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Full, S.; Bartnik, A.; Bazarov, I. V.; Dobbins, J.; Dunham, B.; Hoffstaetter, G. H.

    2016-03-01

    We have recently performed experiments to test the effectiveness of three ion-clearing strategies in the Cornell high intensity photoinjector: DC clearing electrodes, bunch gaps, and beam shaking. The photoinjector reaches a new regime of linac beam parameters where high continuous wave beam currents lead to ion trapping. Therefore ion mitigation strategies must be evaluated for this machine and other similar future high current linacs. We have developed several techniques to directly measure the residual trapped ions. Our two primary indicators of successful clearing are the amount of ion current removed by a DC clearing electrode, and the absence of bremsstrahlung radiation generated by beam-ion interactions. Measurements were taken for an electron beam with an energy of 5 MeV and continuous wave beam currents in the range of 1-20 mA. Several theoretical models have been developed to explain our data. Using them, we are able to estimate the clearing electrode voltage required for maximum ion clearing, the creation and clearing rates of the ions while employing bunch gaps, and the sinusoidal shaking frequency necessary for clearing via beam shaking. In all cases, we achieve a maximum ion clearing of at least 70% or higher, and in some cases our data is consistent with full ion clearing.

  14. Clear cell myoepithelial carcinoma of salivary glands showing EWSR1 rearrangement: molecular analysis of 94 salivary gland carcinomas with prominent clear cell component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skálová, Alena; Weinreb, Ilan; Hyrcza, Martin; Simpson, Roderick H W; Laco, Jan; Agaimy, Abbas; Vazmitel, Marina; Majewska, Hanna; Vanecek, Tomas; Talarčik, Peter; Manajlovic, Spomenka; Losito, Simona N; Šteiner, Petr; Klimkova, Adela; Michal, Michal

    2015-03-01

    This study examines the presence of the EWSR1 rearrangement in a variety of clear cell salivary gland carcinomas with myoepithelial differentiation. A total of 94 salivary gland carcinomas with a prominent clear cell component included 51 cases of clear cell myoepithelial carcinomas de novo (CCMC), 21 cases of CCMCs ex pleomorphic adenoma (CCMCexPA), 11 cases of epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma (EMC), 6 cases of EMC with solid clear cell overgrowth, and 5 cases of hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma of minor salivary glands. In addition, 10 cases of myoepithelial carcinomas devoid of clear cell change and 12 cases of benign myoepithelioma were included as well. All the tumors in this spectrum were reviewed, reclassified, and tested by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for the EWSR1 rearrangement using the Probe Vysis EWSR1 Break Apart FISH Probe Kit. The EWSR1 rearrangement was detected in 20 of 51 (39%) cases of CCMC, in 5 of 21 (24%) cases of CCMCexPA, in 1 of 11 (9%) cases of EMC, and in 4 of 5 (80%) cases of hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma. The 25 EWSR1-rearranged CCMCs and CCMCexPAs shared similar histomorphology. They were arranged in nodules composed of compact nests of large polyhedral cells with abundant clear cytoplasm. Necrosis, areas of squamous metaplasia, and hyalinization were frequent features. Immunohistochemically, the tumors expressed p63 (96%), cytokeratin CK14 (96%), and S100 protein (88%). MIB1 index varied from 10% to 100%, with most cases in the 20% to 40% range. Clinical follow-up information was available in 21 cases (84%) and ranged from 3 months to 15 years (mean 5.2 y); 4 patients were lost to follow-up. Ten patients are alive with no evidence of recurrent or metastatic disease in the follow-up period from 3 months to 15 years (mean 5 y), 3 patients are alive with recurrent and metastatic disease, and 8 died of disseminated cancer 9 months to 16 years after diagnosis (mean 6 y). Lymph node metastasis appeared in 5 patients

  15. Prospects for Extrasolar "Earths" in Habitable Zones

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, B W; Sleep, P N

    2005-01-01

    We have shown that Earth-mass planets could survive in variously restricted regions of the habitable zones (HZs) of most of a sample of nine of the 102 main-sequence exoplanetary systems confirmed by 19 November 2003. In a preliminary extrapolation of our results to the other systems, we estimate that roughly a half of these systems could have had an Earth-mass planet confined to the HZ for at least the most recent 1000 Ma. The HZ migrates outwards during the main-sequence lifetime, and so this proportion varies with stellar age. About two thirds of the systems could have such a planet confined to the HZ for at least 1000 Ma at sometime during the main-sequence lifetime. Clearly, these systems should be high on the target list for exploration for terrestrial planets. We have reached this conclusion by launching putative Earth-mass planets in various orbits and following their fate with mixed-variable symplectic and hybrid integrators. Whether the Earth-mass planets could form in the HZs of the exoplanetary sy...

  16. Lakeshore zoning has heterogeneous ecological effects: an application of a coupled economic-ecological model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butsic, Van; Lewis, David J; Radeloff, Volker C

    2010-04-01

    Housing growth has been widely shown to be negatively correlated with wildlife populations, avian richness, anadromous fish, and exotic invasion. Zoning is the most frequently used public policy to manage housing development and is often motivated by a desire to protect the environment. Zoning is also pervasive, taking place in all 50 states. One relevant question that has received little research concerns the effectiveness of zoning to meet ecological goals. In this paper, we examined whether minimum frontage zoning policies have made a positive impact on the lakes they were aimed to protect in Vilas County, Wisconsin, U.S.A. We used an economic model that estimated when a given lot will be subdivided and how many new lots will be created as a function of zoning. Using the economic model, we simulated the effects of multiple zoning scenarios on lakeshore development. The simulated development patterns were then input to ecological models that predicted the amount of coarse woody debris (CWD) and the growth rate of bluegills as a function of residential density. Comparison of the ecological outcomes under different simulated zoning scenarios quantified the effect of zoning policies on residential density, CWD, and bluegill growth rates. Our results showed that zoning significantly affected residential density, CWD counts, and bluegill growth rates across our study area, although the effect was less clear at the scale of individual lake. Our results suggest that homogeneous zoning (i.e., for a county) is likely to have mixed results when applied to a heterogeneous landscape. Further, our results suggest that zoning regimes with a higher minimum shoreline frontage are likely to have larger ecological effects when applied to lakes that are less developed.

  17. Estimation of direct illuminance on a horizontal surface for clear and intermediate skies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robledo, L. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (Spain). Dpto. Sistemas Intelligentes Aplicados; Soler, A. [E.T.S. Arquitectura, Madrid (Spain). Dpto. de Fisica e Instalaciones Aplicados; Universidad Politecnico de Madrid (Spain). Facultad de Ciencias Ambientales

    2000-02-01

    In the present work two simple models have been obtained which may be used to estimate mean hourly direct illuminance for clear skies as a function of solar elevation. Also a simple model has been developed valid for all sky conditions When direct illuminance is available, that is clear and intermediate skies, using solar elevation and brightness index as input parameters. The sky conditions are defined by the clearness index and the brightness index, both calculated from solar irradiances. (author)

  18. Unsaturated Zone and Saturated Zone Transport Properties (U0100)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Conca

    2000-12-20

    This Analysis/Model Report (AMR) summarizes transport properties for the lower unsaturated zone hydrogeologic units and the saturated zone at Yucca Mountain and provides a summary of data from the Busted Butte Unsaturated Zone Transport Test (UZTT). The purpose of this report is to summarize the sorption and transport knowledge relevant to flow and transport in the units below Yucca Mountain and to provide backup documentation for the sorption parameters decided upon for each rock type. Because of the complexity of processes such as sorption, and because of the lack of direct data for many conditions that may be relevant for Yucca Mountain, data from systems outside of Yucca Mountain are also included. The data reported in this AMR will be used in Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) calculations and as general scientific support for various Process Model Reports (PMRs) requiring knowledge of the transport properties of different materials. This report provides, but is not limited to, sorption coefficients and other relevant thermodynamic and transport properties for the radioisotopes of concern, especially neptunium (Np), plutonium (Pu), Uranium (U), technetium (Tc), iodine (I), and selenium (Se). The unsaturated-zone (UZ) transport properties in the vitric Calico Hills (CHv) are discussed, as are colloidal transport data based on the Busted Butte UZTT, the saturated tuff, and alluvium. These values were determined through expert elicitation, direct measurements, and data analysis. The transport parameters include information on interactions of the fractures and matrix. In addition, core matrix permeability data from the Busted Butte UZTT are summarized by both percent alteration and dispersion.

  19. Clear cell variant of calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor of maxilla: Report of a rare case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Badrashetty

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT is a rare benign tumor of the jaws. Pindborg′s tumor having clear cells is extremely rare. Twelve central lesions have been reported of which only three cases have occurred in maxilla. Clear cell variant is a distinct entity, has more aggressive biological behavior and higher chances of recurrence. Hence it is important that presence of clear cells be included in histopathological diagnosis. Here we present a rare case of clear cell CEOT having aggressive behavior.

  20. TASK 2: QUENCH ZONE SIMULATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fusselman, Steve

    2015-09-30

    Aerojet Rocketdyne (AR) has developed an innovative gasifier concept incorporating advanced technologies in ultra-dense phase dry feed system, rapid mix injector, and advanced component cooling to significantly improve gasifier performance, life, and cost compared to commercially available state-of-the-art systems. A key feature of the AR gasifier design is the transition from the gasifier outlet into the quench zone, where the raw syngas is cooled to ~ 400°C by injection and vaporization of atomized water. Earlier pilot plant testing revealed a propensity for the original gasifier outlet design to accumulate slag in the outlet, leading to erratic syngas flow from the outlet. Subsequent design modifications successfully resolved this issue in the pilot plant gasifier. In order to gain greater insight into the physical phenomena occurring within this zone, AR developed a cold flow simulation apparatus with Coanda Research & Development with a high degree of similitude to hot fire conditions with the pilot scale gasifier design, and capable of accommodating a scaled-down quench zone for a demonstration-scale gasifier. The objective of this task was to validate similitude of the cold flow simulation model by comparison of pilot-scale outlet design performance, and to assess demonstration scale gasifier design feasibility from testing of a scaled-down outlet design. Test results did exhibit a strong correspondence with the two pilot scale outlet designs, indicating credible similitude for the cold flow simulation device. Testing of the scaled-down outlet revealed important considerations in the design and operation of the demonstration scale gasifier, in particular pertaining to the relative momentum between the downcoming raw syngas and the sprayed quench water and associated impacts on flow patterns within the quench zone. This report describes key findings from the test program, including assessment of pilot plant configuration simulations relative to actual

  1. Zone Denmark - gasell Taanist / Reet Krause

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Krause, Reet, 1967-

    2006-01-01

    Taanis Viborgis asuva firma Zone Company Denmark, kaubamärgi Zone Denmark ja firma disainerite tutvustus. Ettevõte valmistab disainitooteid roostevabast terasest, klaasist, puidust, kummist jm. Disainer Naja Utzon Popov endast, oma loomingust

  2. United States Stateplane Zones - NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — U.S. State Plane Zones (NAD 1983) represents the State Plane Coordinate System (SPCS) Zones for the 1983 North American Datum within United States.

  3. United States Stateplane Zones - NAD27

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — U.S. State Plane Zones (NAD 1927) represents the State Plane Coordinate System (SPCS) Zones for the 1927 North American Datum within United States.

  4. GIS modeling of introduction zones in Sochi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annenkova Irina Vladimirovna

    2014-11-01

    Defined the mean monthly temperature and precipitation for each zone. The diagram shows the dependence of the probability distribution of the three groups resistance from the mean annual temperature and mean annual precipitation. Describes the climatic conditions of the zones.

  5. Zoning, 2004, East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a graphical polygon dataset depicting the zoning boundaries of the East Baton Rouge Parish of the State of Louisiana. Zoning can be defined as the range of...

  6. Treatment of teeth in the esthetic zone in a patient with amelogenesis imperfecta using composite veneers and the clear matrix technique: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Bogosavljević Aleksandar; Mišina Vanja; Jordačević Jovana; Abazović Milka; Dukić Smiljka; Ristić Ljubiša; Daković Dragana

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Restorative dental treatment of patients with a generalized form of amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) remains a challenge even today. The treatment approach is multidisciplinary and includes action of several dental disciplines such as restorative, orthodontic, and prosthetic dental specialties. Case report. A 18-year-old female patent was referred to the Department of Restorative Dentistry and Periodontology at the Military Medical Academy of Belg...

  7. Tongue-Palate Contact Pressure, Oral Air Pressure, and Acoustics of Clear Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searl, Jeff; Evitts, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The authors compared articulatory contact pressure (ACP), oral air pressure (Po), and speech acoustics for conversational versus clear speech. They also assessed the relationship of these measures to listener perception. Method: Twelve adults with normal speech produced monosyllables in a phrase using conversational and clear speech.…

  8. Clear-Cell Adenocarcinoma of Vesical Origin: A Case Study of Metastatic Disease Treated with Chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Pena Álvarez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Vesical clear cell adenocarcinoma is an uncommon tumour. The description of nearly all published cases focuses on histological issues, providing few clinical particulars and limited followup. The treatment choice is resection. No publications have been found regarding systemic treatments for advanced disease. We present a case of metastatic clear cell adenocarcinoma of the bladder treated with chemotherapy.

  9. 75 FR 17805 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; the Options Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing of Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... Change Relating to Cash-Settled Foreign Currency Options With One-Cent Exercise Prices April 1, 2010... clear that cash-settled foreign currency options traded on national securities exchanges will be treated... XXII of its By-Laws to make clear that cash- settled foreign currency options traded on...

  10. 75 FR 44833 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The Options Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-29

    ... would credit foreign currency toward clearing fund and margin requirements. OCC does not presently accept foreign currency either as clearing fund contributions or margin deposits. However, because... securities. When determining the U.S. dollar value of such foreign currency, OCC would conduct its...

  11. 78 FR 62893 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; National Securities Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... Supplemental Liquidity Deposits to Its Clearing Fund Designed To Increase Liquidity Resources To Meet Its Liquidity Needs October 15, 2013. On March 21, 2013, National Securities Clearing Corporation (``NSCC... proposal by NSCC to amend its Rules & Procedures (the ``NSCC Rules'') to provide for supplemental...

  12. 78 FR 32292 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; National Securities Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... Modified by Amendment No. 1, To Institute Supplemental Liquidity Deposits to Its Clearing Fund Designed To Increase Liquidity Resources To Meet Its Liquidity Needs May 22, 2013. On March 21, 2013, National... members to provide supplemental liquidity deposits to NSCC's Clearing Fund, in order to increase...

  13. 78 FR 60347 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; National Securities Clearing Corporation; Notice of Designation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... Proposed Rule Change, as Modified by Amendment Nos. 1 and 2, To Institute Supplemental Liquidity Deposits to Its Clearing Funding Designed To Increase Liquidity Resources To Meet Its Liquidity Needs... supplemental liquidity deposits to its Clearing Fund in order to increase liquidity resources to meet...

  14. 76 FR 12645 - Ownership Limitations and Governance Requirements for Security-Based Swap Clearing Agencies...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    ... COMMISSION 17 CFR Part 242 RIN 3235-AK74 Ownership Limitations and Governance Requirements for Security... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Proposals relating to security-based swap clearing agencies: Catherine Moore... in and the governance of security-based swap clearing agencies, SB SEFs and SBS...

  15. 77 FR 24999 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The Options Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing and Order...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-26

    .... Central Time on the first business day following the day on which OCC notifies the clearing member of such... of the Rules), including a violation of Rule 215, from a clearing member's bank account, provided... on a fine schedule that has been adopted by operating subsidiaries of the Depository Trust &...

  16. Characterizing the Effects of a Vertical Time Threshold for a Class of Well-Clear Definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upchurch, Jason M.; Munoz, Cesar A.; Narkawicz, Anthony J.; Consiglio, Maria C.; Chamberlain James P.

    2015-01-01

    A fundamental requirement for the integration of unmanned aircraft into civil airspace is the capability of aircraft to remain well clear of each other and avoid collisions. This requirement has led to a broad recognition of the need for an unambiguous, formal definition of well clear. It is further recognized that any such definition must be interoperable with existing airborne collision avoidance systems (ACAS). A particular class of well-clear definitions uses logic checks of independent distance thresholds as well as independent time thresholds in the vertical and horizontal dimensions to determine if a well-clear violation is predicted to occur within a given time interval. Existing ACAS systems also use independent distance thresholds, however a common time threshold is used for the vertical and horizontal logic checks. The main contribution of this paper is the characterization of the effects of the decoupled vertical time threshold on a well-clear definition in terms of (1) time to well-clear violation, and (2) interoperability with existing ACAS. The paper provides governing equations for both metrics and includes simulation results to illustrate the relationships. In this paper, interoperability implies that the time of well-clear violation is strictly less than the time a resolution advisory is issued by ACAS. The encounter geometries under consideration in this paper are initially well clear and consist of constant-velocity trajectories resulting in near-mid-air collisions.

  17. 33 CFR 263.24 - Authority for snagging and clearing for flood control (Section 208).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... clearing for flood control (Section 208). 263.24 Section 263.24 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTINUING AUTHORITIES PROGRAMS Flood Control Policy § 263.24 Authority for snagging and clearing for flood control (Section 208). (a)...

  18. 77 FR 67036 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The Options Clearing Corporation; Order Approving Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-08

    ... October 18, 2011, the CFTC issued final regulations implementing many of the new statutory core principles... Clearing Organization General Provisions and Core Principles, 76 FR 69334, 69439 (November 8, 2011). OCC's... settlement obligations arising from the exercise, assignment or maturity of cleared contracts. For...

  19. 76 FR 51087 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The Options Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing of Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    ... exposure in extreme but plausible market conditions.'' The publication further advises clearing... during extreme market conditions. Article VIII, Section 6 of OCC's By-Laws, which obligates clearing... the adaptation of the methodology underlying the formula change made to incorporate the effects...

  20. Apoptotic Cells Are Cleared by Directional Migration and elmo1-Dependent Macrophage Engulfment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ham, Tjakko J.; Kokel, David; Peterson, Randall T.

    2012-01-01

    Apoptotic cell death is essential for development and tissue homeostasis [1, 2]. Failure to clear apoptotic cells can ultimately cause inflammation and autoimmunity [3, 4]. Apoptosis has primarily been studied by staining of fixed tissue sections, and a clear understanding of the behavior of apoptot

  1. Clear cell adenocarcinoma of the colon: A case report and review of literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Koichi Soga; Ken-Ichi Mukaisho; Takanori Hattori; Hideyuki Konishi; Natsuko Tatsumi; Chika Konishi; Keimei Nakano; Naold Wakabayashi; Shoji Mitsufuji; Keisho Kataoka; Takeshi Okanoue

    2008-01-01

    A primary clear cell adenocarcinoma of the colon is arare oncologic entity.We herein report a case of such atumor of the sigmoid colon in a 71-year-old woman whowas successfully treated by an endoscopic polypecLomy in our hospital.We also reviewed the published reports regarding cases of primary clear cell tumors in the colon.

  2. 75 FR 81264 - Critical Path Transmission, LLC; Clear Power, LLC; v. California Independent System Operator, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Critical Path Transmission, LLC; Clear Power, LLC; v. California Independent... (Commission), 18 CFR 385.206 (2010) and sections 206 and 306 of the Federal Power Act, 16 U.S.C. 824e and 825e (2006), Critical Path Transmission, LLC and Clear Power LLC (Complainants) filed a complaint...

  3. Experiential reflective learning and comfort zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Nehyba

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the issue of experiential reflective learning. Firstlyit aims to discuss the concept of comfort zone in this area. It goes beyond the usualdefinition of the domestic comfort zone and it reflects in terms of experiential reflectivelearning in the world. The conclusions point to possible parallels with the concept ofcomfort zones and K. Lewin theory. Overall, the article focuses on topics that help toexpand the view on the issue of comfort zone.

  4. A Family of Well-Clear Boundary Models for the Integration of UAS in the NAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Cesar A.; Narkawicz, Anthony; Chamberlain, James; Consiglio, Maria; Upchurch, Jason

    2014-01-01

    The FAA-sponsored Sense and Avoid Workshop for Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) defines the concept of sense and avoid for remote pilots as "the capability of a UAS to remain well clear from and avoid collisions with other airborne traffic." Hence, a rigorous definition of well clear is fundamental to any separation assurance concept for the integration of UAS into civil airspace. This paper presents a family of well-clear boundary models based on the TCAS II Resolution Advisory logic. For these models, algorithms that predict well-clear violations along aircraft current trajectories are provided. These algorithms are analogous to conflict detection algorithms but instead of predicting loss of separation, they predict whether well-clear violations will occur during a given lookahead time interval. Analytical techniques are used to study the properties and relationships satisfied by the models.

  5. Clear Cell Sarcoma of Gluteal Region Malignant Melanoma of Soft Parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haren V. Oza

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Clear cell sarcoma (CCS is described as variant of sarcoma characterized by prominent clear cells showing features similar to malignant melanoma of soft parts. This neoplasm was first described by Dr. Franz m. Enzinger. Primary CCS usually arises in deeper soft tissues, in association with fascia, tendons, or aponeuroses. Clear cell sarcoma (CCS is a rare malignant tumor with a propensity for slow progressive invasion. It is a tumor derived from Melanoblast like cell. They occur most commonly in the extremities, with a predilection for young females. Clear cell sarcoma of tendons and aponeuroses (malignant melanoma of soft parts and conventional malignant melanoma may demonstrate significant morphologic overlap at the light microscopic and ultra structural level. The tumor is very rare and can pose clinical challenges in early diagnosis. This case report demonstrates an unusual site of occurrence for clear cell sarcoma. [Natl J Med Res 2013; 3(2.000: 193-195

  6. Preparation of Samples for Leaf Architecture Studies, A Method for Mounting Cleared Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Vasco

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Several recent waves of interest in leaf architecture have shown an expanding range of approaches and applications across a number of disciplines. Despite this increased interest, examination of existing archives of cleared and mounted leaves shows that current methods for mounting, in particular, yield unsatisfactory results and deterioration of samples over relatively short periods. Although techniques for clearing and staining leaves are numerous, published techniques for mounting leaves are scarce. Methods and Results: Here we present a complete protocol and recommendations for clearing, staining, and imaging leaves, and, most importantly, a method to permanently mount cleared leaves. Conclusions: The mounting protocol is faster than other methods, inexpensive, and straightforward; moreover, it yields clear and permanent samples that can easily be imaged, scanned, and stored. Specimens mounted with this method preserve well, with leaves that were mounted more than 35 years ago showing no signs of bubbling or discoloration.

  7. 46 CFR 76.35-5 - Zoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Zoning. 76.35-5 Section 76.35-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Manual Alarm System, Details § 76.35-5 Zoning. (a) The zoning of the manual alarm system shall meet the same requirements...

  8. 46 CFR 76.23-5 - Zoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Zoning. 76.23-5 Section 76.23-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Manual Sprinkling System, Details § 76.23-5 Zoning. (a) Separate zones may be used for each deck, and on any...

  9. 46 CFR 76.33-5 - Zoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Zoning. 76.33-5 Section 76.33-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Smoke Detecting System, Details § 76.33-5 Zoning. (a) The smoke detecting system shall be divided into separate zones...

  10. Export Processing Zones and Global Class Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neveling, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    This chapter is concerned with one of the most striking developments in the global political economy of capitalism after the Second World War; the rise of export processing zones and special economic zones. Building on long-term ethnohistorical research on the zones’ global spread from one zone in P

  11. Identification of novel therapeutic targets in microdissected clear cell ovarian cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P Stany

    Full Text Available Clear cell ovarian cancer is an epithelial ovarian cancer histotype that is less responsive to chemotherapy and carries poorer prognosis than serous and endometrioid histotypes. Despite this, patients with these tumors are treated in a similar fashion as all other ovarian cancers. Previous genomic analysis has suggested that clear cell cancers represent a unique tumor subtype. Here we generated the first whole genomic expression profiling using epithelial component of clear cell ovarian cancers and normal ovarian surface specimens isolated by laser capture microdissection. All the arrays were analyzed using BRB ArrayTools and PathwayStudio software to identify the signaling pathways. Identified pathways validated using serous, clear cell cancer cell lines and RNAi technology. In vivo validations carried out using an orthotopic mouse model and liposomal encapsulated siRNA. Patient-derived clear cell and serous ovarian tumors were grafted under the renal capsule of NOD-SCID mice to evaluate the therapeutic potential of the identified pathway. We identified major activated pathways in clear cells involving in hypoxic cell growth, angiogenesis, and glucose metabolism not seen in other histotypes. Knockdown of key genes in these pathways sensitized clear cell ovarian cancer cell lines to hypoxia/glucose deprivation. In vivo experiments using patient derived tumors demonstrate that clear cell tumors are exquisitely sensitive to antiangiogenesis therapy (i.e. sunitinib compared with serous tumors. We generated a histotype specific, gene signature associated with clear cell ovarian cancer which identifies important activated pathways critical for their clinicopathologic characteristics. These results provide a rational basis for a radically different treatment for ovarian clear cell patients.

  12. 77 FR 13678 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Credit LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule To Provide...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ... in a Clearing Participant's Customer Account Origin May Be Satisfied by a Clearing Participant... cleared in a clearing participant's customer account origin may be satisfied by the clearing participant... participants to satisfy the initial margin-related liquidity requirements for client-related positions...

  13. Soil-gas helium and surface-waves detection of fault zones in granitic bedrock

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G K Reddy; T Seshunarayana; Rajeev Menon; P Senthil Kumar

    2010-10-01

    Fracture and fault networks are conduits that facilitate groundwater movement in hard-rock terrains.Soil-gas helium emanometry has been utilized in Wailapally watershed,near Hyderabad in southern India,for the detection of fracture and fault zones in a granite basement terrain having a thin regolith.Based on satellite imagery and geologic mapping,three sites were selected for detailed investigation.High spatial resolution soil-gas samples were collected at every one meter at a depth of <1.5m along 100 m long profiles (3 in number).In addition,deep shear-wave images were also obtained using the multichannel analysis of surface waves.The study clearly indicates several soil-gas helium anomalies (above 200 ppb)along the pro files,where the shear-wave velocity images also show many near-surface vertical low velocity zones.We thus interpret that the soil-gas helium anomalous zones and the vertical low-velocity zones are probable traces of fault/fracture zones that could be efficient natural recharge zones and potential groundwater conduits.The result obtained from this study demonstrates the efficacy of an integrated approach of soil-gas helium and the seismic methods for mapping groundwater resource zones in granite/gneiss provinces.

  14. Analysis of dead zone sources in a closed-loop fiber optic gyroscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Kyoung-Ho; Choi, Woo-Seok; Chong, Kil-To

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of the dead zone is among the intensive studies in a closed-loop fiber optic gyroscope. In a dead zone, a gyroscope cannot detect any rotation and produces a zero bias. In this study, an analysis of dead zone sources is performed in simulation and experiments. In general, the problem is mainly due to electrical cross coupling and phase modulation drift. Electrical cross coupling is caused by interference between modulation voltage and the photodetector. The cross-coupled signal produces spurious gyro bias and leads to a dead zone if it is larger than the input rate. Phase modulation drift as another dead zone source is due to the electrode contamination, the piezoelectric effect of the LiNbO3 substrate, or to organic fouling. This modulation drift lasts for a short or long period of time like a lead-lag filter response and produces gyro bias error, noise spikes, or dead zone. For a more detailed analysis, the cross-coupling effect and modulation phase drift are modeled as a filter and are simulated in both the open-loop and closed-loop modes. The sources of dead zone are more clearly analyzed in the simulation and experimental results.

  15. Geoelectrical monitoring of water movement in the unsaturated zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthold, Susann; Geib, Tobias

    2013-04-01

    To continually track the water movement in the unsaturated zone and monitor groundwater recharge, two geoelectrical profiles were permanently installed in the catchment area of a waterworks. The geoelectrical profiles were set up in areas with different groundwater recharge. One profile was installed on a forest clearing, where the unsaturated zone is eight meters thick and dominated by sand. The second profile was installed in heathland, where the unsaturated zone is eleven meters thick and dominated by fine sand. The profile length for the geoelectrical measurements and the number of electrodes per profile were chosen depending on the depth of the groundwater table. The geoelectrical measurements were carried out autonomously twice a day. Remote data transmission made the data instantaneously available for analysis and evaluation. During the entire period of investigation, that is August 2011 to December 2012, the geoelectrical profiles worked independently with low maintenance. During this period, approximately 800 data sets were recorded at each location. Each individual data set contained several thousand measuring points in the geoelectrical cross section. To handle the large amounts of data and efficiently interpret them, a largely automatic algorithm, the so-called ELMON algorithm, was developed. The algorithm reads in the raw measurement values and allows fast acquisition of incorrect measurements and, where appropriate, initiation of maintenance (for example, to troubleshoot browsing by game). The detected erroneous measurements are automatically removed. Then, the change in soil electrical conductivity is determined via a physically founded calculation method developed in the framework of the project. The change in soil electrical conductivity is represented compared to a reference state, e.g. the day prior to a rain event. Using the ELMON algorithm, the water movement through the unsaturated zone could be monitored over a period of more than a year

  16. 40 CFR 265.278 - Unsaturated zone (zone of aeration) monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unsaturated zone (zone of aeration) monitoring. 265.278 Section 265.278 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED..., STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Land Treatment § 265.278 Unsaturated zone (zone of aeration)...

  17. A study of metalized electrode self-clearing in electroactive polymer (EAP) based actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Saad; Ounaies, Zoubeida

    2016-04-01

    Electroactive polymer (EAP) based technologies have shown promise in areas such as artificial muscles, actuator, aerospace, medical and soft robotics. Still challenges remain such as low induced forces and defects-driven electrical breakdown, which impede the practical implementation of this technology. Multilayered or stacked configuration can address the low induced force issue whereas self-clearing can be a technique to improve breakdown limit of EAP based actuators. Self-clearing refers to the partial local breakdown of dielectric medium due to the presence of impurities, which in turn results in the evaporation of some of the metalized electrode. After this evaporation, the impurity is cleared and any current path would be safely cut off, which means the actuator continues to perform. It is a widely studied concept in the capacitor community, while it has not been studied much for EAP technologies. In this paper we report a systematic approach to precondition a silver-metalized electroactive polymer (EAP), more specifically P(VDF-TrFE-CTFE) terpolymer, using self-clearing concept. First, we show improvement in the dielectric breakdown strength of EAP based unimorph actuators after pre-clearing the impurities using low electric field (lower than dielectric breakdown of the terpolymer). Inspired by this improvement, we used Weibull statistics to systematically estimate the self-clearing/ preconditioning field needed to clear the defects. Then electrical breakdown experiments are conducted with and without preconditioning the samples to investigate its effect on the breakdown strength of the sample.

  18. Children's Perception of Conversational and Clear American-English Vowels in Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Dorothy

    A handful of studies have examined children's perception of clear speech in the presence of background noise. Although accurate vowel perception is important for listeners' comprehension, no study has focused on whether vowels uttered in clear speech aid intelligibility for children listeners. In the present study, American-English (AE) speaking children repeated the AE vowels /epsilon, ae, alpha, lambda in the nonsense word /g[schwa]bVp[schwa]/ in phrases produced in conversational and clear speech by two female AE-speaking adults. The recordings of the adults' speech were presented at a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of -6 dB to 15 AE-speaking children (ages 5.0-8.5) in an examination of whether the accuracy of AE school-age children's vowel identification in noise is more accurate when utterances are produced in clear speech than in conversational speech. Effects of the particular vowel uttered and talker effects were also examined. Clear speech vowels were repeated significantly more accurately (87%) than conversational speech vowels (59%), suggesting that clear speech aids children's vowel identification. Results varied as a function of the talker and particular vowel uttered. Child listeners repeated one talker's vowels more accurately than the other's and front vowels more accurately than central and back vowels. The findings support the use of clear speech for enhancing adult-to-child communication in AE, particularly in noisy environments.

  19. The stretch zone of automotive steel sheets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ľ Ambriško; L Pešek

    2014-04-01

    The paper deals with an experimental determination of the stretch zone dimensions in the notch tip in thin steel sheets. The stretch zone dimensions depend on steel grade, on the rolling direction as well as on the loading rate. Stretch zones were observed and measured on three steel grades. Fracture area and stretch zones were analysed by SEM. Stable crack growth was monitored by videoextensometry techniques on CT (Compact Tension) specimens. Specimens were loaded under two loading rates by eccentric tension, whereby the deformation in the notch surrounding area was recorded using a non-contact measurement–videoextensometry technique. Linear relation between the stretch zone dimensions was determined.

  20. Investigations of Near-Zone Doppler Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prouty, Dale Austen

    Far away from an electromagnetic source the normal Doppler shifts in frequency occur--a red shift for receding and a blue shift for approaching. As indicated by previous work with an infinitesimal dipole, different frequency shifts occur when the source and observer move closer together, into the near-zone. These "near-zone Doppler effects" are investigated for general sources and subsequently two specific examples are presented. The general results show that near-zone shifts are similar to far-zone shifts, but the local phase velocity must be used, i.e. (DIAGRAM, TABLE OR GRAPHIC OMITTED...PLEASE SEE DAI). In the far zone the phase velocity is the speed of light; in the near zone it differs. Fundamentally, the distance between surfaces of constant phase in the near zone is changed. The surfaces of constant phase for the waves are no longer spherical, but more ellipsoidal or spheroidal, so that a moving observer sees a different frequency shift. Two specific examples are presented to indicate the actual magnitude of near-zone effects. The examples include a prolate spheroidal antenna and a circular aperture. Once the magnitude of the effects is determined, the measurability of near-zone Doppler effects is discussed. The investigation concentrates on Fresnel zone effects due to the measurement problem. Finally, it is shown that for an electrically large wire antenna (the spheroidal example) near-zone Doppler effects are measurable.

  1. Clear cell adenocarcinoma of a female urethra: A case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amel Trabelsi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Context : Clear cell adenocarcinoma of the urethra is an extremely rare tumour. Its histogenetic derivation remains controversial. Case report : We report a new case of clear cell adenocarcinoma of the proximal urethra in a 56-year-old woman who presented with grossly hematuria. Urethral cystoscopy revealed a tumour protruding from the posterior urethral wall at the bladder neck. Treatment consisted of urethrocystectomy with pelvic lymph node dissection. Histologically, the neoplasm consisted of clear cell adenocarcinoma of the urethra. Conclusion : It appears that female urethral adenocarcinoma has more than one tissue of origin.

  2. Improving HelioClim-3 estimates of surface solar using the McClear clear-sky model and recent advances on atmosphere composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Qu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The HelioClim-3 database (HC3v3 provides records of surface solar irradiation every 15 min estimated by processing images from the geostationary meteorological Meteosat satellites using climatological data sets of atmospheric Linke turbidity factor. This technical note proposes a method to improve a posteriori HC3v3 by combining it with data records of the irradiation under clear sky from the new clear-sky model McClear whose inputs are the advanced global aerosol properties forecasts and physically consistent total column content in water vapour and ozone produced by the MACC projects. The method is validated by comparison with a series of ground measurements for 15 min and 1 h for 6 stations and for daily irradiation for 23 stations. The correlation coefficient is large, greater than respectively 0.92, 0.94, and 0.97, for 15 min, 1 h and daily irradiation. The bias ranges between −4 and 4% of the mean observed irradiation for most sites. The relative root mean square difference (RMSD varies between 14 and 38% for 15 min, 12 and 33% for 1 h irradiation, and 6 and 20% for daily irradiation. As a rule of thumb, the farther from the nadir of the Meteosat satellite located at latitude 0° and longitude 0°, and the greater the occurrence of fragmented cloud cover, the greater the relative RMSD. The method improves HC3v3 in most cases and no degradation in the others. A systematic correction of HC3v3 with McClear is recommended.

  3. Holdridge life zone physical inconsistency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, A., Sr.; Ochoa, A.

    2015-12-01

    Life zones is a very used classification system, developed by L.R. Holdridge in 1967, used to discern why plants have different adaptation mechanism to their surrounding environment. In this paper, the relation between potential evapotranspiration rate (ETr ), anual precipitation (P ) and biotemperature (Tb ) in the Holdridge triangle, is parametrized (P = (500/9)*ETr) to evaluate if the rain process is conserved in Colombia. Further, an adiabatic ascent of air with diurnal and interannual variability, and cluster analysis is view as a classification example of the advantage of using physical process to evaluate the plants adaptation mechanisms . The most inconsistency life zones are situated in the rainiest places of Colombian pacific costs in tropical latitudinal region, are non-exist places in holdridge triangle with annual biotemperature higher than 26◦ C, annual precipitation about 10.000mm and annual potential evapotranspiration rate about 0.1. The difference between Holdridge predicted precipitation and the precipitation measured with TRMM are about 5.000mm in these places. Classification systems based on an annual average, do not stablish adaptation as a function of diurnal variability, for example, the difference between valley sides vegetation could not being determined. This kind of limitations, added to a validation procces and the auscence of a physic procces in the variable interaction, make the Holdridge Life Zones a very useful tool, but physically inconsistent for caracterice vegetation as a function of precipitation. The rain process is very complex, depend of mass and energy exchanges and is still a controversial topic in atmospheric modeling, as a biotic pump.

  4. Geologic map of the Hayward fault zone, Contra Costa, Alameda, and Santa Clara counties, California: a digital database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graymer, R.W.; Jones, D.L.; Brabb, E.E.

    1995-01-01

    The Hayward is one of three major fault zones of the San Andreas system that have produced large historic earthquakes in the San Francisco Bay Area (the others being the San Andreas and Calaveras). Severe earthquakes were generated by this fault zone in 1836 and in 1868, and several large earthquakes have been recorded since 1868. The Hayward fault zone is considered to be the most probable source of a major earthquake in the San Francisco Bay Area, as much as 28% chance for a magnitude 7 earthquake before the year 2021 (Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities, 1990). The Hayward fault zone, as described in this work, is a zone of highly deformed rocks, trending north 30 degrees west and ranging in width from about 2 to 10 kilometers. The historic earthquake generating activity has been concentrated in the western portion of the zone, but the zone as a whole reflects deformation derived from oblique right-lateral and compressive tectonic stress along a significant upper crustal discontinuity for the past 10 million or more years. The Hayward fault zone is bounded on the east by a series of faults that demarcate the beginning of one or more structural blocks containing rocks and structures unrelated to the Hayward fault zone. The eastern bounding faults are, from the south, the Calaveras, Stonybrook, Palomares, Miller Creek, and Moraga faults. These faults are not considered to be part of the Hayward fault zone, although they are shown on the map to demarcate its boundary. The western boundary of the zone is less clearly defined, because the alluvium of the San Francisco Bay and Santa Clara Valley basins obscures bedrock and structural relationships. Although several of the westernmost faults in the zone clearly project under or through the alluvium, the western boundary of the fault is generally considered to be the westernmost mapped fault, which corresponds more or less with the margin of thick unconsolidated surficial deposits. The Hayward fault

  5. Synaptic vesicle proteins and active zone plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Kittel

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Neurotransmitter is released from synaptic vesicles at the highly specialized presynaptic active zone. The complex molecular architecture of active zones mediates the speed, precision and plasticity of synaptic transmission. Importantly, structural and functional properties of active zones vary significantly, even for a given connection. Thus, there appear to be distinct active zone states, which fundamentally influence neuronal communication by controlling the positioning and release of synaptic vesicles. Vice versa, recent evidence has revealed that synaptic vesicle components also modulate organizational states of the active zone.The protein-rich cytomatrix at the active zone (CAZ provides a structural platform for molecular interactions guiding vesicle exocytosis. Studies in Drosophila have now demonstrated that the vesicle proteins Synaptotagmin-1 (Syt1 and Rab3 also regulate glutamate release by shaping differentiation of the CAZ ultrastructure. We review these unexpected findings and discuss mechanistic interpretations of the reciprocal relationship between synaptic vesicles and active zone states, which has heretofore received little attention.

  6. A Case of Hyalinizing Clear Cell Carcinoma, So-Called Clear Cell Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified, of the Minor Salivary Glands of the Buccal Mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Yamanishi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma (HCCC, so-called clear cell carcinoma, not otherwise specified (CCC (NOS, of the salivary glands is a rare and low-grade malignant tumor. We report a case of HCCC so-called CCC (NOS (referred to as HCCC of the minor salivary gland of the buccal mucosa. A 52-year-old woman had presented with a gradually growing and indolent mass in the right buccal mucosa for about two years. The first biopsy histopathologically suggested the possibility of malignancy derived from the minor salivary glands. A month later, she visited our hospital. The tumor measured approximately 1.5 cm in diameter and was elastic hard, smooth, and well movable. Image examinations demonstrated internal homogeneity of the lesion, which had a smooth margin, in the right buccal mucosa. Complete tumor resection followed by covering with a polyglycolic acid sheet and fibrin glue spray was performed without surgical flap reconstruction. Histopathological findings revealed proliferating tumor cells with clear cytoplasm surrounded by hyalinizing stroma in the submucosal minor salivary glands. Immunohistochemical stains revealed these tumor cells to be positive for epithelial cell markers but negative for myoepithelial ones. These findings confirmed the diagnosis of HCCC. Good wound healing and no evidence of local recurrence and metastasis have been shown since surgery.

  7. Plan de Negocios: Networking Zone

    OpenAIRE

    Espol; Cárdenas Sáenz, Daniel Alejandro; Seminario Benalcázar, Ivette Dennisse

    2016-01-01

    Networking Zone se define coma una empresa que alquila espacios de trabajo totalmente amoblados y equipados, necesarios para los profesionales / emprendedores, ubicado en la ciudad de Guayaquil en un área de unos 800 metros cuadrados. Esta propuesta atiende la ausencia de espacios físicos amoblados para profesionales independientes, emprendedores, FreeLancer quienes buscan un lugar cómodo, accesible, con tecnología adecuada para cumplir sus necesidades de trabajo a un bajo costo, evtándole...

  8. Subventricular zone microglia transcriptional networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starossom, Sarah C; Imitola, Jaime; Wang, Yue; Cao, Li; Khoury, Samia J

    2011-07-01

    Microglia play an important role in inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system. There is evidence of microglial diversity with distinct phenotypes exhibiting either neuroprotection and repair or neurotoxicity. However the precise molecular mechanisms underlying this diversity are still unknown. Using a model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) we performed transcriptional profiling of isolated subventricular zone microglia from the acute and chronic disease phases of EAE. We found that microglia exhibit disease phase specific gene expression signatures, that correspond to unique gene ontology functions and genomic networks. Our data demonstrate for the first time, distinct transcriptional networks of microglia activation in vivo, that suggests a role as mediators of injury or repair.

  9. The combined effect of attraction and orientation zones in 2D flocking models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliass, Tarras; Cambui, Dorilson

    2016-01-01

    In nature, many animal groups, such as fish schools or bird flocks, clearly display structural order and appear to move as a single coherent entity. In order to understand the complex motion of these systems, we study the Vicsek model of self-propelled particles (SPP) which is an important tool to investigate the behavior of collective motion of live organisms. This model reproduces the biological behavior patterns in the two-dimensional (2D) space. Within the framework of this model, the particles move with the same absolute velocity and interact locally in the zone of orientation by trying to align their direction with that of the neighbors. In this paper, we model the collective movement of SPP using an agent-based model which follows biologically motivated behavioral rules, by adding a second region called the attraction zone, where each particles move towards each other avoiding being isolated. Our main goal is to present a detailed numerical study on the effect of the zone of attraction on the kinetic phase transition of our system. In our study, the consideration of this zone seems to play an important role in the cohesion. Consequently, in the directional orientation, the zone that we added forms the compact particle group. In our simulation, we show clearly that the model proposed here can produce two collective behavior patterns: torus and dynamic parallel group. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  10. 76 FR 33817 - Protection of Cleared Swaps Customer Contracts and Collateral; Conforming Amendments to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-09

    ... commission merchants (``FCMs'') and derivatives clearing organizations (``DCOs'') regarding the treatment of.... Permitted Investments b. Permitted Withdrawals c. Deposits of Own Money, Securities, or Other Property d.... Question f. Segregated Account; Daily Computation and Record C. Proposed Regulation...

  11. SR-CATS: A Short-Range Clear Air Turbulence Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Clear air turbulence (CAT), often referred to as "air pockets," is attributed to Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities at altitudes generally above 18,000ft, often in the...

  12. 75 FR 65538 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; the Options Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ... and reconciliation problems for the firms involved. At the request of the Roundtable, OCC has... amounts against a clearing member's bank account is not honored, OCC will have no obligation to effect...

  13. Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma of the Renal Pelvis in a Male Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarawut Kongkarnka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoma of the renal pelvis is an uncommon renal neoplasm. Clear cell adenocarcinoma in the urinary tract is rare and has a histomorphology resembling that of the female genital tract. We herein present a case of clear cell adenocarcinoma of the renal pelvis, which is the first example in a male patient to our knowledge. A 54-year-old man presented with right flank pain. The tumor was associated with renal stones and hydronephrosis and invaded into the peripelvic fat tissue with regional lymph node metastasis. The patient died of metastatic disease six months postoperatively. Histologically, the tumor showed complex papillary architecture lined with clear and hobnail cells. Clear cell adenocarcinoma of the renal pelvis may pose a diagnostic challenge on histological grounds, particularly in the distinction from renal cell carcinoma. The immunohistochemical stains could help confirm the diagnosis. Due to its rarity, an effective treatment regimen remains to be determined.

  14. 78 FR 31616 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; National Securities Clearing Corporation; Notice of Extension of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ... Advance Notice, as Modified by Amendment No. 1, To Institute Supplemental Liquidity Deposits to Its Clearing Fund Designed to Increase Liquidity Resources To Meet Its Liquidity Needs May 20, 2013. On...

  15. Renal cell carcinoma: evolving approaches to advanced non-clear cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald M. Bukowski

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC has changed dramatically with the introduction of targeted therapies including sunitinib, sorafenib, and temsirolimus. Because patients with conventional clear cell histology account for 75- 80% of all patients with RCC, there has been little accumulated evidence on the treatment of patients with non-clear cell histologies. Most clinical trials have excluded them from enrolment, except for randomized studies investigating temsirolimus. Many retrospective studies on the use of all three of these targeted therapies in patients with non-clear cell histology have demonstrated response rates ranging from 3.7%–16%. Although response rates may not be as high compared to patients with clear cell histologies, targeted therapy does provide a clinically meaningful response.

  16. Clear Lake National Wildlife Refuge : Klamath Basin National Wildlife Refuges : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Clear Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1981 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  17. Intelligibility and acoustic characteristics of clear and conversational speech in telugu (a South Indian dravidian language).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durisala, Naresh; Prakash, S G R; Nambi, Arivudai; Batra, Ridhima

    2011-04-01

    The overall goal of this study is to examine the intelligibility differences of clear and conversational speech and also to objectively analyze the acoustic properties contributing to these differences. Seventeen post-lingual stable sensory-neural hearing impaired listeners with an age range of 17-40 years were recruited for the study. Forty Telugu sentences spoken by a female Telugu speaker in both clear and conversational speech styles were used as stimuli for the subjects. Results revealed that mean scores of clear speech were higher (mean = 84.5) when compared to conversational speech (mean = 61.4) with an advantage of 23.1% points. Acoustic properties revealed greater fundamental frequency (f0) and intensity, longer duration, higher consonant-vowel ratio (CVR) and greater temporal energy in clear speech.

  18. Clear-cell chondrosarcoma of the maxilla Report of a case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slootweg, P.J.

    1980-01-01

    Clear-cell chondrosarcoma is a variant of chondrosarcoma which is characterized by a typical histomorphology and a very slow rate of growth. A case is presented in which the tumor was located in the maxilla.

  19. NESDIS-Unique CrIS-ATMS Product System (NUCAPS) Cloud-Cleared Radiances

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of Cloud-Cleared Radiances (CCRs) from the NOAA-Unique CrIS-ATMS Processing System (NUCAPS). NUCAPS was developed by the NOAA/NESDIS Center for...

  20. On the Relation between Solar Activity and Clear-Sky Terrestrial Irradiance

    CERN Document Server

    Feulner, Georg

    2012-01-01

    The Mauna Loa Observatory record of direct-beam solar irradiance measurements for the years 1958-2010 is analysed to investigate the variation of clear-sky terrestrial insolation with solar activity over more than four solar cycles. The raw irradiance data exhibit a marked seasonal cycle, extended periods of lower irradiance due to emissions of volcanic aerosols, and a long-term decrease in atmospheric transmission independent of solar activity. After correcting for these effects, it is found that clear-sky terrestrial irradiance typically varies by about 0.2 +/- 0.1% over the course of the solar cycle, a change of the same order of magnitude as the variations of the total solar irradiance above the atmosphere. An investigation of changes in the clear-sky atmospheric transmission fails to find a significant trend with sunspot number. Hence there is no evidence for a yet unknown effect amplifying variations of clear-sky irradiance with solar activity.

  1. Chondroblastoma and clear cell chondrosarcoma: radiological and MRI characteristics with histopathological correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaim, Achim H.; Huegli, Rolf [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital Basle (Switzerland); Bonel, Harald M. [Institute of Clinical Radiology, University Hospital, Munich-Grosshadern (Germany); Jundt, Gernot [Institute of Pathology, University Hospital Basle (Switzerland)

    2002-02-01

    Objective: To analyze and compare the radiological and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances of chondroblastoma and clear cell chondrosarcoma with histopathological correlation. Design and patients: Twelve patients with histologically proven chondroblastoma and of another four patients with clear cell chondrosarcoma were investigated by radiographs and MRI (T1-, T2-weighted sequences, intravenous gadolinium application). Additionally, the clinical and radiologic data of seven cases of clear cell chondrosarcoma without available MRI were considered. The localization, calcification of tumor matrix, periosteal reaction, cortical bone and patterns of bone destruction were analyzed according to the Lodwick radiological grading system (LRGS). The signal intensity on T1- and T2-weighted sequences, characteristics of contrast enhancement, associated bone marrow edema, soft tissue reaction and joint involvement were evaluated. Histopathological specimens were available in all cases. Results: The age of patients with chondroblastoma (range 15-59 years, mean 22.3 years) was lower than that of those with clear cell chondrosarcoma (range 19-61 years, mean 36.6 years), and the lesions were smaller in the chondroblastoma group (range 1-4 cm, mean 2.3 cm) than in patients with clear cell chondrosarcoma (range 3-7.5 cm, mean 5.2 cm). The chondroblastomas were more confined to the epiphysis (10/12) than the clear cell chondrosarcomas. All chondroblastomas and clear cell chondrosarcomas except one were classified as grade 1A or 1B according to the LRGS; one clear cell chondrosarcoma was judged as grade 2. Signal intensity of the tumors on MRI was very heterogeneous in both groups. High signal intensity on T2-weighted MR images in chondroblastoma mostly corresponded to areas with aneurysmal bone cyst components and in clear cell chondrosarcoma to islands of hyaline cartilage. Contrast enhancement occurred in all tumors and tended to be more intense with clear cell

  2. Wood zone plate fishnet metalens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orazbayev Bakhtiyar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fresnel-zone plate lenses provide focusing performance while having low profile. Unfortunately, they usually display higher reflection losses than conventional dielectric lenses. Here, we demonstrate a low-profile Wood zone plate metalens based on the fishnet metamaterial working in a near-zero regime with an equivalent refractive index less than unity (nf = 0.51. The metalens is made of alternating dielectric and fishnet metamaterial concentric rings. The use of fishnet metamaterial allows reducing the reflections from the lens, while maintaining low profile, low cost and ease of manufacturing. The lens is designed to work at the W-band of the millimeter-waves range with a focal length FL = 22.8 mm (7.5 λ0 aiming at antenna or radar system applications. The focusing performance of the lens along with its radiation characteristics in a lens antenna configuration have been studied numerically and confirmed experimentally, showing a gain improvement of ~2.5 dB with respect to a fishnet Soret metalens.

  3. Euphotic Zone Study moves forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denman, Kenneth

    The Global Ocean Euphotic Zone Study (GOEZS), a potential core program of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP) being planned jointly with the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR), was recently given the go-ahead by IGBP's Scientific Committee to move on to the next level of developing its scientific program.The GOEZS program will focus on the coupled physical, biological, and chemical processes operating in the euphotic zone, which is the ocean surface layer where sufficient light penetrates for photosynthesis by phytoplankton to exceed their metabolic energy losses. The upper ocean is extremely important to understanding the atmosphereocean system because it mediates exchanges of heat, momentum, carbon dioxide, sulphur, and nitrogen between the atmosphere and the ocean interior. For the major greenhouse gas carbon dioxide for example, there is more carbon in the upper ocean than in the whole atmosphere. Essentially all carbon dioxide from the atmosphere that passes from the upper ocean to the ocean interior has been transformed chemically or biologically in the upper ocean. Moreover, the upper ocean is the site of all marine shipping and most recreation and industrial activity and contains the planktonic food chain and most fish stocks.

  4. Possibility of increasing the efficiency of laser-induced tattoo removal by optical skin clearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genina, E. A.; Bashkatov, A. N.; Tuchin, V. V.; Altshuler, G. B.; Yaroslavskii, I. V.

    2008-06-01

    The possibility of selective laser photothermolysis improvement for the removal of tattoo pigments due to the optical clearing of human skin is investigated. It is shown experimentally that the optical skin clearing increases the tattoo image contrast. Computer Monte Carlo simulations show that by decreasing the laser beam scattering in upper skin layers, it is possible to reduce the radiation power required for tattoo removal by 30%—40% and, therefore, to increase the the photothermolysis efficiency.

  5. Clear cell odontogenic carcinoma: case report with immunohistochemical findings adding support to the challenging diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    XAVIER, FLÁVIA CALÓ AQUINO; Rodini, Camila Oliveira; Ramalho,Luciana Maria Pedreira; Sarmento,Viviane Almeida; Nunes, Fabio Daumas

    2008-01-01

    Acesso restrito: Texto completo. p. 403-410 Clear cell odontogenic carcinoma (CCOC) is a rare odontogenic tumor associated with aggressive clinical behavior, metastasis, and low survival. We report a case of CCOC affecting the mandible of a 39-year-old man. The tumor presented a biphasic pattern composed of clear cell nests intermingled with eosinophilic cells and separated by collagenous stroma. Immunoreactivity to cytokeratin (CK), specifically AE1/AE3 and CK 8, 14, 18, and 19 was fou...

  6. Mapping of crustal scale tectonic boundaries in the Ossa-Morena Zone using reprocessed IBERSEIS reflection seismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashubin, A. S.; Juhlin, C.

    2010-06-01

    The IBERSEIS deep seismic reflection profile imaged crustal scale structures in the SW Iberian Variscan belt, crossing the South Portuguese Zone, the Ossa-Morena Zone and the Central Iberian Zone in Spain. Two subsets of the profile, corresponding to the South Portuguese Zone-Ossa-Morena Zone and the Ossa-Morena Zone-Central Iberian Zone tectonic contacts, have been reprocessed with the aim of investigating the influence of cross-dip and to better image steeply dipping features. Alternative strategies for binning midpoints into common depth point (CDP) bins using different azimuths were examined for synthetic data. We show that the choice of the CDP-processing line and the bin azimuth orientation has a significant impact on the normal moveout and dip-moveout velocities and is crucial to optimizing the quality of the stacked seismic image along the crooked profile. Multi-azimuth binning, normal moveout/dip-moveout, and migration velocity analysis on synthetic and real data show the presence of clear sub-vertical upper crustal structures near the South Portuguese Zone-Ossa-Morena Zone suture, the Aroche fault. This sub-vertical reflectivity that was not imaged earlier, projects into a location in the lower crust with low reflectivity.

  7. ZOOGEOGRAPHICAL ZONING OF THE MEDITERRANEAN AND ADJACENT TERRITORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. Ketenchiev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Aim. The article considers the zoogeographical zoning of the Mediterranean and adjacent territories with the purpose of specification of the scheme of zoogeographic zoning of land on the basis of the distribution of dragonflies.Methods. Use common methods of entomological research, mapping and analysis of the fauna.Results. On the based on our analysis of the composition and distribution of odonatofauna Mediterranean zoogeographical subregion is offered to divide into 5 provinces: Caucasian, South-European, Pyrenees, Asian and African. Analysis of the existing schemes zoning of land based on the distribution of taxa dragonflies, installed the advantages and disadvantages presented by different authors, the result of which is proposed to change the borders between the Holarctic and Subholarctic areas of the Boreal fauna Kingdom (BFK. It is connected with the fact that the dividing them into subdomains and evaluation role in the establishment of regional odonatofauna not always convincing. In this regard, the article proposed to abolish the Holarctic region sub-region: European and Mongolian-Kazakh, and in Subholarctic - add 1 sub-region of Central Asia. In a new form Subholarctic region becomes clear and logical configuration, but her name becomes inadequate, therefore, we re-name it in Paleosubtropical.The scope of the results. In fundamental research on systematics of animals, ecology and biogeography.Main conclusions. Based on the study of the composition and distribution of taxa of dragonflies in the Mediterranean and adjacent territories proposed the division of the Mediterranean subregion 5 provinces and refined scheme of zoogeographic zoning of land.

  8. Indications on continued nitrogen uptake in Scots pine roots after clear-felling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrektson, A.; Valinger, E.; Leijon, B.; Sjoegren, H.; Sonesson, J.

    1997-11-01

    A study was performed in a 150 years old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand situated on a sandy moor in northern Sweden. Two plots were to be compared, and in June 1993 one was clear-felled. Even if reduced with approximately 50%, a significant fine root (diameter < 2 mm) growth was noticed at least up to one year after the clear-felling. For medium roots (diameters 2-4 and 4-6 mm) nitrogen content in root-wood and root-bark samples from the clear-felling, as compared to the reference plot, were 30-50% higher two months after the clear-felling. The difference did not increase in later comparisons. N-content in bark and wood buttress did not differ during the period studied, except for a higher percentage in bark at the clear-felling after two summers. This was believed to be a result of decomposition. The results indicate a maintained physiological activity in the stump-root system of Scots pine at least for one year at this site. An active uptake of N in roots of cut trees may influence leaching after clear-felling, the forage value of roots, and root decomposition rate and also maintain root competition with standing trees after thinning. 40 refs, 1 fig, 2 tabs

  9. Some results on 4m2n designs with clear two-factor interaction components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO ShengLi; ZHANG RunChu; LIU MinQian

    2008-01-01

    Clear effects criterion is one of the important rules for selecting optimal fractional factorial designs, and it has become an active research issue in recent years.Tang et al. derived upper and lower bounds on the maximum number of clear two-factor interactions (2fi's) in 2n-(n-k)fractional factorial designs of resolutions Ⅲ and Ⅳ by constructing a 2n-(n-k) design for given k, which are only restricted for the symmetrical case. This paper proposes and studies the clear effects problem for the asymmetrical case. It improves the construction method of Tang et al. for 2n-(n-k)designs with resolution Ⅲ and derives the upper and lower bounds on the maximum number of clear two-factor interaction components(2fic's) in 4m2n designs with resolutions Ⅲ and Ⅳ. The lower bounds are achieved by constructing specific designs. Comparisons show that the number of clear 2fic's in the resulting design attains its maximum number in many cases, which reveals that the construction methods are satisfactory when they are used to construct 4m2n designs under the clear effects criterion.

  10. Clearing and dissecting insects for internal skeletal morphological research with particular reference to bees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Sasso Porto

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A detailed protocol for chemical clearing of bee specimens is presented. Dry specimens as well as those preserved in liquid media can be cleared using this protocol. The procedure consists of a combined use of alkaline solution (KOH or NaOH and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, followed by the boiling of the cleared specimens in 60–70% EtOH. Clearing is particularly useful for internal skeletal morphological research. This procedure allows for efficient study of internal projections of the exoskeleton (e.g., apodemes, furcae, phragmata, tentoria, internal ridges and sulci, but this process makes external features of the integument, as some sutures and sulci, readily available for observation as well. Upon completion of the chemical clearing process the specimens can be stored in glycerin. This procedure was developed and evaluated for the preparation of bees and other Apoidea, but modifications for use with other insect taxa should be straightforward after some experimentation on variations of timing of steps, concentration of solutions, temperatures, and the necessity of a given step. Comments on the long-term storage, morphological examination, and photodocumentation of cleared specimens are also provided.

  11. Elevated-temperature-induced acceleration of PACT clearing process of mouse brain tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tingting; Qi, Yisong; Zhu, Jingtan; Xu, Jianyi; Gong, Hui; Luo, Qingming; Zhu, Dan

    2017-01-01

    Tissue optical clearing technique shows a great potential for neural imaging with high resolution, especially for connectomics in brain. The passive clarity technique (PACT) is a relative simple clearing method based on incubation, which has a great advantage on tissue transparency, fluorescence preservation and immunostaining compatibility for imaging tissue blocks. However, this method suffers from long processing time. Previous studies indicated that increasing temperature can speed up the clearing. In this work, we aim to systematacially and quantitatively study this influence based on PACT with graded increase of temperatures. We investigated the process of optical clearing of brain tissue block at different temperatures, and found that elevated temperature could accelerate the clearing process and also had influence on the fluorescence intensity. By balancing the advantages with drawbacks, we conclude that 42–47 °C is an alternative temperature range for PACT, which can not only produce faster clearing process, but also retain the original advantages of PACT by preserving endogenous fluorescence well, achieving fine morphology maintenance and immunostaining compatibility. PMID:28139694

  12. Estimation of hourly clear-sky solar radiation for P. D. R. Yemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdul Aziz, G.M. (Aden Univ., (P.D.R. Yemen) Faculty of Engineering)

    1990-01-01

    Monthly average hourly clear sky solar radiation for some principal stations in P.D.R. Yemen are evaluated. Hottel's model is used to predict the hourly clear sky beam and horizontal solar radiation and that of Liu and Jordan for the estimation of clear sky diffuse radiation. The two methods are combined to obtain the clear sky total radiation. Maximum and minimum clear sky total solar radiation are evaluated. The maxima are situated between 21.0 MJ/m{sup 2} and 26.6 MJ/m{sup 2}, minima between 15.0 MJ/m{sup 2} and 19.1 MJ/m{sup 2} for Aden and Mukairas respectively. Mean hourly clear-sky solar radiation are computed and discussed. 75% of the estimated radiation on a horizontal surface is obtained between 9 a.m.-3 p.m. The average intensity is about 700 W.m{sup 2} for Aden and 900 W/m{sup 2} for Mukairas. (author).

  13. Elevated-temperature-induced acceleration of PACT clearing process of mouse brain tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tingting; Qi, Yisong; Zhu, Jingtan; Xu, Jianyi; Gong, Hui; Luo, Qingming; Zhu, Dan

    2017-01-01

    Tissue optical clearing technique shows a great potential for neural imaging with high resolution, especially for connectomics in brain. The passive clarity technique (PACT) is a relative simple clearing method based on incubation, which has a great advantage on tissue transparency, fluorescence preservation and immunostaining compatibility for imaging tissue blocks. However, this method suffers from long processing time. Previous studies indicated that increasing temperature can speed up the clearing. In this work, we aim to systematacially and quantitatively study this influence based on PACT with graded increase of temperatures. We investigated the process of optical clearing of brain tissue block at different temperatures, and found that elevated temperature could accelerate the clearing process and also had influence on the fluorescence intensity. By balancing the advantages with drawbacks, we conclude that 42–47 °C is an alternative temperature range for PACT, which can not only produce faster clearing process, but also retain the original advantages of PACT by preserving endogenous fluorescence well, achieving fine morphology maintenance and immunostaining compatibility.

  14. Establishment of a clean chemistry laboratory at JAERI. Clean laboratory for environmental analysis and research (CLEAR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanzawa, Yukiko; Magara, Masaaki; Watanabe, Kazuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment] [and others

    2003-02-01

    The JAERI has established a facility with a cleanroom: the Clean Laboratory for Environmental Analysis and Research (CLEAR). This report is an overview of the design, construction and performance evaluation of the CLEAR in the initial stage of the laboratory operation in June 2001. The CLEAR is a facility to be used for analyses of ultra trace amounts of nuclear materials in environmental samples for the safeguards, for the CTBT verification and for researches on environmental sciences. One of the special features of the CLEAR is that it meets double requirements of a cleanroom and for handling of nuclear materials. As another feature of the CLEAR, much attention was paid to the construction materials of the cleanroom for trace analysis of metal elements using considerable amounts of corrosive acids. The air conditioning and purification system, specially designed experimental equipment to provide clean work surfaces, utilities and safety systems are also demonstrated. The potential contamination from the completed cleanroom atmosphere during the analytical procedure was evaluated. It can be concluded that the CLEAR has provided a suitable condition for reliable analysis of ultra trace amounts of nuclear materials and other heavy elements in environmental samples. (author)

  15. Some results on 4~m2~n designs with clear two-factor interaction components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Clear effects criterion is one of the important rules for selecting optimal fractional factorial designs,and it has become an active research issue in recent years.Tang et al.derived upper and lower bounds on the maximum number of clear two-factor interactions(2fi’s) in 2n-(n-k) fractional factorial designs of resolutions III and IV by constructing a 2n-(n-k) design for given k,which are only restricted for the symmetrical case.This paper proposes and studies the clear effects problem for the asymmetrical case.It improves the construction method of Tang et al.for 2n-(n-k) designs with resolution III and derives the upper and lower bounds on the maximum number of clear two-factor interaction components(2fic’s) in 4m2n designs with resolutions III and IV.The lower bounds are achieved by constructing specific designs.Comparisons show that the number of clear 2fic’s in the resulting design attains its maximum number in many cases,which reveals that the construction methods are satisfactory when they are used to construct 4m2n designs under the clear effects criterion.

  16. Infectivity of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in Naturally Regenerating, Unmanaged and Clear-Cut Beech Forests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    I.CLOSA; N.GOICOECHEA

    2011-01-01

    Clear-cutting, a management practice applied to many beech forests in the North of Spain, modifies microclimate and, consequently,the composition of the understory plant community in the disturbed areas. The objectives of this study were to assess if changes in the understory vegetation caused by altered light microclimate after clear-cutting affect the infectivity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on herbaceous plant species in beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) forests naturally regenerating from clear-cutting and to test if the use of bioassays for studying the infectivity of native AMF could provide aseful information to improve the management of clear-cut areas.Three nearby beech forests in northwest Navarra, Spain, a region in the northwest part of the Pyrenees, were selected: an unmanaged forest, a forest clear-cut in 1996, and another forest clear-cut in 2001. High stem density in the forest clear-cut in 1996 (44 000 trees ha-1) attenuated photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) and impaired the growth of herbaceous species within the ecosystem. The percentage of AMF colonization of plants in bioassays performed on soil samples collected from the forest clear-cut in 1996 was always lower than 10%. In the forest clear-cut in 2001, where soil was covered by perennial grasses, PAR was high and thc infectivity of native AMF achieved minimum values in spring and autumn and a maximum value in summer. In contrast, the infectivity of native AMF in the umnanaged forest remained similar across the seasons. Our results demonstrated that changes in the composition of understory vegetation within beech forests strongly affected the infectivity of native AMF in clear-cut areas and suggested that the assessment of the infectivity of native AMF through bioassays could provide helpful information for planning either the removal of overstory when the tree density is so high that it impairs the correct development of herbaceous species or the plantation of new sesdlings when high

  17. Functional imaging in bulk tissue specimens using optical emission tomography: fluorescence preservation during optical clearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhalkar, H. S.; Dewhirst, M.; Oliver, T.; Cao, Y.; Oldham, M.

    2007-04-01

    Optical emission computed tomography (optical-ECT) is a technique for imaging the three-dimensional (3D) distribution of fluorescent probes in biological tissue specimens with high contrast and spatial resolution. In optical-ECT, functional information can be imaged by (i) systemic application of functional labels (e.g. fluorophore labelled proteins) and/or (ii) endogenous expression of fluorescent reporter proteins (e.g. red fluorescent protein (RFP), green fluorescent protein (GFP)) in vivo. An essential prerequisite for optical-ECT is optical clearing, a procedure where tissue specimens are made transparent to light by sequential perfusion with fixing, dehydrating and clearing agents. In this study, we investigate clearing protocols involving a selection of common fixing (4% buffered paraformaldehyde (PFA), methanol and ethanol), dehydrating (methanol and ethanol) and clearing agents (methyl salicylate and benzyl-alcohol-benzyl-benzoate (BABB)) in order to determine a 'fluorescence friendly' clearing procedure. Cell culture experiments were employed to optimize the sequence of chemical treatments that best preserve fluorescence. Texas red (TxRed), fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), RFP and GFP were tested as fluorophores and fluorescent reporter proteins of interest. Fluorescent and control cells were imaged on a microscope using a DSred2 and FITC filter set. The most promising clearing protocols of cell culture experiments were applied to whole xenograft tumour specimens, to test their effectiveness in large unsectioned samples. Fluorescence of TxRed/FITC fluorophores was not found to be significantly affected by any of the test clearing protocols. RFP and GFP fluorescence, however, was found to be significantly greater when cell fixation was in ethanol. Fixation in either PFA or methanol resulted in diminished fluorescence. After ethanol fixation, the RFP and GFP fluorescence proved remarkably robust to subsequent exposure to either methyl salicylate or BABB

  18. Shear zones developed between extensional and compressional tectonic regimes: recent deformation of the Burdur Fethiye Shear Zone as a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elitez, İrem; Yaltırak, Cenk; Aktuǧ, Bahadır

    2016-04-01

    The southwestern Turkey is one of the most tectonically active areas of the eastern Mediterranean and therefore is a controversial region from the geodynamic point of view. This complex tectonic regime is dominated by the westward escape of Anatolia related to North Anatolian Fault, Aegean back-arc extension regime due to roll-back of Hellenic Arc, the subduction transform edge propagator (STEP) fault zone related to the motion of Hellenic and Cyprus arcs and compressional regime of Tauride Mountains. In addition to that, an active subduction and seamounts moving towards the north determine the tectonic frame of the Eastern Mediterranean. Many researchers suggest either the existence of a single left lateral fault or the nonexistence of a fault zone between Western Anatolia and Western Taurides. According to the integration of digital elevation data, non-commercial GoogleEarth satellite images and field studies, a 300 km-long 75-90 km-wide NE-SW-trending left lateral shear zone, the Burdur-Fethiye Shear Zone, is located among these tectonic structures. By using GPS velocities and focal mechanism solutions of earthquakes, it is understood that most of the previous studies turn a blind eye to the hundreds of faults related to a left-lateral shear zone which will have an important role in the Mediterrenean tectonics. The Burdur-Fethiye Shear Zone is like a zipper driven by the relative velocity differences due to the Aegean back-arc extensional system and Western Taurides compressional region and presents a high seismic activity. The GPS vectors reflect remarkable velocity differences on land and relatedly the significant topographic differences can be clearly observed. According to the GPS vectors, the Aegean region moves 4-12 mm/yr faster than the wesward escape of the Anatolia towards southwest and the velocities are low in the Western Taurides. The left-lateral differential motion across the Burdur-Fethiye Shear Zone varies from 3-4 mm/yr in the north side to 8

  19. The role of aerosol absorption in driving clear-sky solar dimming over East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persad, Geeta G.; Ming, Yi; Ramaswamy, V.

    2014-09-01

    Surface-based observations indicate a significant decreasing trend in clear-sky downward surface solar radiation (SSR) over East Asia since the 1960s. This "dimming" is thought to be driven by the region's long-term increase in aerosol emissions, but little work has been done to quantify the underlying physical mechanisms or the contribution from aerosol absorption within the atmospheric column. Given the distinct climate impacts that absorption-driven dimming may produce, this constitutes an important, but thus far rather neglected, line of inquiry. We examine experiments conducted in the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory's atmospheric general circulation models, AM2.1 and AM3, in order to analyze the model-simulated East Asian clear-sky SSR trends. We also use the models' stand-alone radiation module to examine the contribution from various aerosol characteristics in the two models (such as burden, mixing state, hygroscopicity, and seasonal distribution) to the trends. Both models produce trends in clear-sky SSR that are comparable to that observed but via disparate mechanisms. Despite their different aerosol characteristics, the models produce nearly identical increases in aerosol absorption since the 1960s, constituting as much as half of the modeled clear-sky dimming. This is due to a compensation between the differences in aerosol column burden and mixing state assumed in the two models, i.e., plausible clear-sky SSR simulations can be achieved via drastically different aerosol parameterizations. Our novel results indicate that trends in aerosol absorption drive a large portion of East Asian clear-sky solar dimming in the models presented here and for the time periods analyzed and that mechanistic analysis of the factors involved in aerosol absorption is an important diagnostic in evaluating modeled clear-sky solar dimming trends.

  20. Crustal growth in subduction zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Katharina; Castro, Antonio; Gerya, Taras

    2015-04-01

    There is a broad interest in understanding the physical principles leading to arc magmatisim at active continental margins and different mechanisms have been proposed to account for the composition and evolution of the continental crust. It is widely accepted that water released from the subducting plate lowers the melting temperature of the overlying mantle allowing for "flux melting" of the hydrated mantle. However, relamination of subducted crustal material to the base of the continental crust has been recently suggested to account for the growth and composition of the continental crust. We use petrological-thermo-mechanical models of active subduction zones to demonstrate that subduction of crustal material to sublithospheric depth may result in the formation of a tectonic rock mélange composed of basalt, sediment and hydrated /serpentinized mantle. This rock mélange may evolve into a partially molten diapir at asthenospheric depth and rise through the mantle because of its intrinsic buoyancy prior to emplacement at crustal levels (relamination). This process can be episodic and long-lived, forming successive diapirs that represent multiple magma pulses. Recent laboratory experiments of Castro et al. (2013) have demonstrated that reactions between these crustal components (i.e. basalt and sediment) produce andesitic melt typical for rocks of the continental crust. However, melt derived from a composite diapir will inherit the geochemical characteristics of its source and show distinct temporal variations of radiogenic isotopes based on the proportions of basalt and sediment in the source (Vogt et al., 2013). Hence, partial melting of a composite diapir is expected to produce melt with a constant major element composition, but substantial changes in terms of radiogenic isotopes. However, crustal growth at active continental margins may also involve accretionary processes by which new material is added to the continental crust. Oceanic plateaus and other

  1. Zone refining of cadmium and related characterization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N R Munirathnam; D S Prasad; Ch Sudheer; J V Rao; T L Prakash

    2005-06-01

    We present the zone refining results of cadmium using horizontal resistive zone refiner under constant flow of moisture free hydrogen gas. The boron impurity in cadmium can be avoided using quartz (GE 214 grade) boat in lieu of high pure graphite boat. The analytical results using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICPOES) show that majority of the impurities are less than the detection limits. Comparatively, zinc is the most difficult impurity element to remove in cadmium matrix by zone refining.

  2. 78 FR 40243 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Europe Limited; Notice of Filing of Amendment No. 3 and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ...., credit default swap) clearing business. ICE Clear Europe believes the clearing of LIFFE Contracts will... to its security-based swap related (i.e., credit default swap) clearing business. Moreover, new... market, default risk (including sovereign risk) with respect to those assets, relevant foreign...

  3. The effect of environmental degradation on the characterisation of automotive clear coats by infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Pal, Karin J; Sauzier, Georgina; Maric, Mark; van Bronswijk, Wilhelm; Pitts, Kari; Lewis, Simon W

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents a study into the chemical changes occurring within automotive clear coats as a result of environmental weathering, and their potential effect upon the characterisation of samples using infrared spectroscopy combined with chemometric modelling. Testing of three samples, collected from separate vehicles, exposed to the outside environment revealed no changes in model predictions over a 175 day period; however, incorrect predictions were observed following 435 days of exposure. Inspection of the corresponding infrared spectra revealed that these changes were likely due to the hydrolysis and photodegradation of polymer chains present in the clear coat, which were not observed in samples stored away from the outside environment over a one-year period. Analysis of previously weathered samples using synchrotron infrared microscopy found these changes occurred in a top-down fashion rather than within the bulk of the clear coat. This indicates that although weathering may affect the surface characterisation of clear coats over time, the targeting of deeper portions of the clear coat layer may still provide useful information as to the identity of the vehicle.

  4. Large-scale tissue clearing (PACT): Technical evaluation and new perspectives in immunofluorescence, histology, and ultrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neckel, Peter H.; Mattheus, Ulrich; Hirt, Bernhard; Just, Lothar; Mack, Andreas F.

    2016-01-01

    Novel techniques, like CLARITY and PACT, render large tissue specimens transparent and thereby suitable for microscopic analysis. We used these techniques to evaluate their potential in the intestine as an exemplary organ with a complex tissue composition. Immunohistochemistry, light sheet-, and confocal scanning-microscopy enabled us to follow complex three-dimensional structures, like nerve fibers, vessels, and epithelial barriers throughout the entire organ. Moreover, in a systematic electron microscopic study, we analyzed the morphology and preservation of tissue on ultrastructural level during the clearing process. We also connect tissue clearing with classical histology and demonstrate that cleared tissues can be stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin and Heidenhain’s Azan stain, suggesting potential use in histopathology. These experiments showed that a neutral pH during the clearing process results in much better preservation of tissue ultrastructure and standard stainability. Volume changes of specimens were monitored and quantified during the course of the protocol. Additionally, we employed the technique to visualize the enteric nervous system and the epithelial barrier in post mortem human gut preparations. Our data show the high potential of tissue clearing throughout different tissue types supporting its usefulness in research and diagnosis, and contribute to the technical discussion of ultrastructural tissue-retention. PMID:27680942

  5. Aerosol optical depth under "clear" sky conditions derived from sea surface reflection of lidar signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Min; Hu, Yongxiang; Huang, Jian Ping; Stamnes, Knut

    2016-12-26

    There are considerable demands for accurate atmospheric correction of satellite observations of the sea surface or subsurface signal. Surface and sub-surface reflection under "clear" atmospheric conditions can be used to study atmospheric correction for the simplest possible situation. Here "clear" sky means a cloud-free atmosphere with sufficiently small aerosol particles. The "clear" aerosol concept is defined according to the spectral dependence of the scattering cross section on particle size. A 5-year combined CALIPSO and AMSR-E data set was used to derive the aerosol optical depth (AOD) from the lidar signal reflected from the sea surface. Compared with the traditional lidar-retrieved AOD, which relies on lidar backscattering measurements and an assumed lidar ratio, the AOD retrieved through the surface reflectance method depends on both scattering and absorption because it is based on two-way attenuation of the lidar signal transmitted to and then reflected from the surface. The results show that the clear sky AOD derived from the surface signal agrees with the clear sky AOD available in the CALIPSO level 2 database in the westerly wind belt located in the southern hemisphere, but yields significantly higher aerosol loadings in the tropics and in the northern hemisphere.

  6. Comparison of the observed and calculated clear sky greenhouse effect - Implications for climate studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiehl, J. T.; Briegleb, B. P.

    1992-01-01

    The clear sky greenhouse effect is defined in terms of the outgoing longwave clear sky flux at the top of the atmosphere. Recently, interest in the magnitude of the clear sky greenhouse effect has increased due to the archiving of the clear sky flux quantity through the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). The present study investigates to what degree of accuracy this flux can be analyzed by using independent atmospheric and surface data in conjunction with a detailed longwave radiation model. The conclusion from this comparison is that for most regions over oceans the analyzed fluxes agree to within the accuracy of the ERBE-retrieved fluxes (+/- 5 W/sq m). However, in regions where deep convective activity occurs, the ERBE fluxes are significantly higher (10-15 W/sq m) than the calculated fluxes. This bias can arise from either cloud contamination problems or variability in water vapor amount. It is argued that the use of analyzed fluxes may provide a more consistent clear sky flux data set for general circulation modeling validation. Climate implications from the analyzed fluxes are explored. Finally, results for obtaining longwave surface fluxes over the oceans are presented.

  7. Imaging cleared intact biological systems at a cellular level by 3DISCO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertürk, Ali; Lafkas, Daniel; Chalouni, Cecile

    2014-07-07

    Tissue clearing and subsequent imaging of transparent organs is a powerful method to analyze fluorescently labeled cells and molecules in 3D, in intact organs. Unlike traditional histological methods, where the tissue of interest is sectioned for fluorescent imaging, 3D imaging of cleared tissue allows examination of labeled cells and molecules in the entire specimen. To this end, optically opaque tissues should be rendered transparent by matching the refractory indices throughout the tissue. Subsequently, the tissue can be imaged at once using laser-scanning microscopes to obtain a complete high-resolution 3D image of the specimen. A growing list of tissue clearing protocols including 3DISCO, CLARITY, Sca/e, ClearT2, and SeeDB provide new ways for researchers to image their tissue of interest as a whole. Among them, 3DISCO is a highly reproducible and straightforward method, which can clear different types of tissues and can be utilized with various microscopy techniques. This protocol describes this straightforward procedure and presents its various applications. It also discusses the limitations and possible difficulties and how to overcome them.

  8. Quantitative analysis of dehydration in porcine skin caused by optical clearing agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tingting; Wen, Xiang; Duan, Shu; Zhu, Dan

    2010-11-01

    Dehydration is supposed to be one of mechanisms of optical clearing, but current studies merely gave some qualitative descriptions. Here an analysis method was established to evaluate the water content of skin with PLS method based on the measurements of near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy and weight of porcine skin. Furthermore, a commercial spectrometer with integrating sphere was used to measure the reflectance and transmittance after treatment with different agents. Then the established method was used to evaluate the water content, while the Inverse Adding-Double algorithm was used to calculate the reduced scattering coefficients. The results show that both the water contents and reduced scattering coefficients decrease during the optical clearing process, and there is direct relationship between the optical clearing efficacy and dehydration. With the treating time last, the relative change in reduced scattering coefficient is larger than that in dehydration of skin, and the difference between the changes depends on the agents. Therefore, we conclude that dehydration is the main mechanism of skin optical clearing during the 60 min treatment of the agents, but for some OCAs, i.e., PEG400, glycerol, or D-sorbitol, there might be some other mechanisms contributing to the optical clearing efficacy.

  9. Laser Scanning In Vivo Confocal Microscopy of Clear Grafts after Penetrating Keratoplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dai; Song, Peng; Wang, Shuting; Sun, Dapeng; Wang, Yuexin; Zhang, Yangyang

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the changes of keratocytes and dendritic cells in the central clear graft by laser scanning in vivo confocal microscopy after penetrating keratoplasty (PK). Methods. Thirty adult subjects receiving PK at Shandong Eye Institute and with clear grafts and no sign of immune rejection after surgery were recruited into this study, and 10 healthy adults were controls. The keratocytes and dendritic cells in the central graft were evaluated by laser scanning confocal microscopy, as well as epithelium cells, keratocytes, corneal endothelium cells, and corneal nerves (especially subepithelial plexus nerves). Results. Median density of subepithelial plexus nerves, keratocyte density in each layer of the stroma, and density of corneal endothelium cells were all lower in clear grafts than in controls. The dendritic cells of five (16.7%) patients were active in Bowman's membrane and stromal membrane of the graft after PK. Conclusions. Activated dendritic cells and Langerhans cells could be detected in some of the clear grafts, which indicated that the subclinical stress of immune reaction took part in the chronic injury of the clear graft after PK, even when there was no clinical rejection episode. PMID:27034940

  10. Laser Scanning In Vivo Confocal Microscopy of Clear Grafts after Penetrating Keratoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the changes of keratocytes and dendritic cells in the central clear graft by laser scanning in vivo confocal microscopy after penetrating keratoplasty (PK. Methods. Thirty adult subjects receiving PK at Shandong Eye Institute and with clear grafts and no sign of immune rejection after surgery were recruited into this study, and 10 healthy adults were controls. The keratocytes and dendritic cells in the central graft were evaluated by laser scanning confocal microscopy, as well as epithelium cells, keratocytes, corneal endothelium cells, and corneal nerves (especially subepithelial plexus nerves. Results. Median density of subepithelial plexus nerves, keratocyte density in each layer of the stroma, and density of corneal endothelium cells were all lower in clear grafts than in controls. The dendritic cells of five (16.7% patients were active in Bowman’s membrane and stromal membrane of the graft after PK. Conclusions. Activated dendritic cells and Langerhans cells could be detected in some of the clear grafts, which indicated that the subclinical stress of immune reaction took part in the chronic injury of the clear graft after PK, even when there was no clinical rejection episode.

  11. Increasing the penetration depth for ultrafast laser tissue ablation using glycerol based optical clearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabay, Ilan; Subramanian, Kaushik G.; Martin, Chris; Yildirim, Murat; Tuchin, Valery V.; Ben-Yakar, Adela

    2016-03-01

    Background: Deep tissue ablation is the next challenge in ultrafast laser microsurgery. By focusing ultrafast pulses below the tissue surface one can create an ablation void confined to the focal volume. However, as the ablation depth increases in a scattering tissue, increase in the required power can trigger undesired nonlinear phenomena out of focus that restricts our ability to ablate beyond a maximum ablation depth of few scattering lengths. Optical clearing (OC) might reduce the intensity and increase the maximal ablation depth by lowering the refractive index mismatch, and therefore reducing scattering. Some efforts to ablate deeper showed out of focus damage, while others used brutal mechanical methods for clearing. Our clinical goal is to create voids in the scarred vocal folds and inject a biomaterial to bring back the tissue elasticity and restore phonation. Materials and methods: Fresh porcine vocal folds were excised and applied a biocompatible OC agent (75% glycerol). Collimated transmittance was monitored. The tissue was optically cleared and put under the microscope for ablation threshold measurements at different depths. Results: The time after which the tissue was optically cleared was roughly two hours. Fitting the threshold measurements to an exponential decay graph indicated that the scattering length of the tissue increased to 83+/-16 μm, which is more than doubling the known scattering length for normal tissue. Conclusion: Optical clearing with Glycerol increases the tissue scattering length and therefore reduces the energy for ablation and increases the maximal ablation depth. This technique can potentially improve clinical microsurgery.

  12. Discussion about the relationship between seismic belt and seismic statistical zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘华; 金严; 胡聿贤

    2003-01-01

    This paper makes a summary of status of delimitation of seismic zones and belts of China firstly in aspects of studying history, purpose, usage, delimiting principles, various presenting forms and main specialties. Then the viewpoints are emphasized, making geographical divisions by seismicity is just the most important purpose of delimiting seismic belts and the concept of seismic belt is also quite different from that of seismic statistical zone used in CPSHA method. The concept of seismic statistical zone and its history of evolvement are introduced too. Large differences between these two concepts exist separately in their statistical property, actual meaning, gradation, required scale, and property of refusing to overlap each other, aim and usage of delimitation. But in current engineering practice, these two concepts are confused. On the one hand, it causes no fit theory for delimiting seismic statistical zone in PSHA to be set up; on the other hand, researches about delimitation of seismic belts with purposes of seismicity zoning and studying on structural environment, mechanism of earthquake generating also pause to go ahead. Major conclusions are given in the end of this paper, that seismic statistical zone bases on the result of seismic belt delimiting, it only arises in and can be used in the especial PSHA method of China with considering spatially and temporally inhomogeneous seismic activities, and its concept should be clearly differentiated from the concept of seismic belt.

  13. Designing Zoning of Remote Sensing Drones for Urban Applications: a Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norzailawati, M. N.; Alias, A.; Akma, R. S.

    2016-06-01

    This paper discusses on-going research related to zoning regulation for the remote sensing drone in the urban applications. Timestamped maps are presented here follow a citation-based approach, where significant information is retrieved from the scientific literature. The emergence of drones in domestic air raises lots understandable issues on privacy, security and uncontrolled pervasive surveillance that require a careful and alternative solution. The effective solution is to adopt a privacy and property rights approach that create a drone zoning and clear drone legislatures. In providing a differential trend to other reviews, this paper is not limited to drones zoning and regulations, but also, discuss on trend remote sensing drones specification in designing a drone zones. Remote sensing drone will specific according to their features and performances; size and endurance, maximum airspeed and altitude level and particular references are made to the drones range. The implementation of laws zoning could lie with the urban planners whereby, a zoning for drone could become a new tactic used to specify areas, where drones could be used, will provide remedies for the harm that arise from drones, and act as a different against irresponsible behaviour. Finally, underlines the need for next regulations on guidelines and standards which can be used as a guidance for urban decision makers to control the drones' operating, thus ensuring a quality and sustainability of resilience cities simultaneously encouraging the revolution of technology.

  14. NOAA Average Annual Salinity (3-Zone)

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The 3-Zone Average Annual Salinity Digital Geography is a digital spatial framework developed using geographic information system (GIS) technology. These salinity...

  15. Seismic attenuation structure associated with episodic tremor and slip zone beneath Shikoku and the Kii peninsula, southwestern Japan, in the Nankai subduction zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kita, Saeko; Matsubara, Makoto

    2016-03-01

    The three-dimensional seismic attenuation structure (frequency-independent Q) beneath southwestern Japan was analyzed using t* estimated by applying the S coda wave spectral ratio method to the waveform data from a dense permanent seismic network. The seismic attenuation (Qp-1) structure is clearly imaged for the region beneath Shikoku, the Kii peninsula, and eastern Kyushu at depths down to approximately 50 km. At depths of 5 to 35 km, the seismic attenuation structure changes at the Median tectonic line and other geological boundaries beneath Shikoku and the southwestern Kii peninsula. High-Qp zones within the lower crust of the overlying plate are found just above the slip regions at the centers of the long-term slow-slip events (SSEs) beneath the Bungo and Kii channels and central Shikoku. Beneath central Shikoku, within the overlying plate, a high-Qp zone bounded by low-Qp zones is located from the land surface to the plate interface of the subducting plate. The high-Qp zone and low-Qp zones correspond to high-Vp and low-Vp zones of previous study, respectively. The boundaries of the high- and low-Qp zones are consistent with the segment boundaries of tremors (segment boundaries of short-term SSEs). These results indicated that the locations of the long- and short-term SSEs could be limited by the inhomogeneous distribution of the materials and/or condition of the overlying plate, which is formed due to geological and geographical process. The heterogeneity of materials and/or condition within the fore-arc crust possibly makes an effect on inhomogeneous rheological strength distribution on the interface.

  16. An Improved Clearing and Mounting Solution to Replace Chloral Hydrate in Microscopic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas S. Villani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: This study presents Visikol™, a new proprietary formulation that can be used as an efficient replacement for chloral hydrate as a clearing agent for microscopic examination. In the United States, chloral hydrate is regulated and therefore difficult to acquire. Methods and Results: Fresh and dry samples of the following plants: ginger (Zingiber officinale, maté (Ilex paraguariensis, lime basil (Ocimum americanum, oregano (Origanum vulgare, and mouse-ear cress (Arabidopsis thaliana, were cleared using Visikol or chloral hydrate solution and compared using a light microscope. Conclusions: This new method can be used successfully to clear specimens, allowing identification of diagnostic characteristics for the identification of plant materials. Visikol is as effective as chloral hydrate in providing clarity and resolution of all tissues examined. Tissues become transparent, allowing observation of deeper layers of cells and making it effective in research, botanical and quality control, and for educational applications.

  17. Recent Findings Based on Airborne Measurements at the Interface of Coastal California Clouds and Clear Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorooshian, A.; Crosbie, E.; Wang, Z.; Chuang, P. Y.; Craven, J. S.; Coggon, M. M.; Brunke, M.; Zeng, X.; Jonsson, H.; Woods, R. K.; Flagan, R. C.; Seinfeld, J.

    2015-12-01

    Recent aircraft field experiments with the Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS) Twin Otter have targeted interfaces between clear and cloudy areas along the California coast. These campaigns, based out of Marina, California in the July-August time frame, include the Eastern Pacific Emitted Aerosol Cloud Experiment (E-PEACE, 2011), Nucleation in California Experiment (NiCE, 2013), and the Biological Ocean Atmospheric Study (BOAS, 2015). Results will be presented related to (i) aqueous processing of natural and anthropogenic emissions, (ii) vertical re-distribution of ocean micronutrients, and (iii) stratocumulus cloud clearings and notable thermodynamic and aerosol contrasts across the clear-cloudy interface. The results have implications for modeling and observational studies of marine boundary layer clouds, especially in relation to aerosol-cloud interactions.

  18. Simulation results of a veto counter for the ClearPEM

    CERN Document Server

    Trummer, J; Lecoq, P

    2009-01-01

    The Crystal Clear Collaboration (CCC) has built a prototype of a novel positron emission tomograph dedicated to functional breast imaging, the ClearPEM. The ClearPEM uses the common radio pharmaceutical FDG for imaging cancer. As FDG is a rather non-specific radio tracer, it accumulates not only in cancer cells but in all cells with a high energy consumption, such as the heart and liver. This fact poses a problem especially in breast imaging, where the vicinity of the heart and other organs to the breast leads to a high background noise level in the scanner. In this work, a veto counter to reduce the background is described. Different configurations and their effectiveness were studied using the GATE simulation package.

  19. Solar cell process development in the European integrated project CrystalClear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaucarne, G.; John, J.; Choulat, P.; Ma, Y. [IMEC vzw, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Russel, R. [BP Solar Espana, Madrid (Spain); Romijn, I.; Weeber, A. [ECN Solar Energy, PO Box 1, NL 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Hofmann, M.; Preu, R. [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Heidenhofstr. 2, 79110 Freiburg (Germany); Slaoui, A. [InESS, Strassbourg (France); Le Quang, N.; Nichiporuk, O. [Photowatt Technologies, Bourgoin-Jallieu (France); Del Caoizo, C; Pan, A. [Polytechnical University of Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Solheim, H.; Evju, J. [REC Scancell, Sandvika (Norway); Nagel, H.; Horzel, J. [SCHOTT Solar, Alzenau (Germany); Bitnar, B.; Heemeier, M.; Weber, T. [SolarWorld, Freiberg/Sachsen (Germany); Raabe, B.; Haverkamp, H.; Struempel, C.; Junge, J.; Riegel, S.; Seren, S.; Hahn, G. [University of Konstanz, Department of Physics, P.O.Box X916, 78457 Konstanz (Germany)

    2008-10-15

    CrystalClear is a large integrated project funded by the European Commission that aims to drastically reduce the cost of crystalline Si PV modules, down to 1 Euro/Wp. Among the different subprojects, the one dealing with the development of advanced solar cells is relatively large (with 11 partners out of the 15 Crystal Clear partners taking part) and has a crucial role. The goal of the subproject is to develop cell design concepts and manufacturing processes that would enable a reduction in the order of 40% of the cell processing costs per Wp. In this paper, we give an overview of all the development work that has taken place in the CrystalClear solar cells subproject so far. World class results have been achieved, particularly on high efficiency cells on Si ribbons, and on industrial-type solar cells on very thin (120 {mu}m thick) substrates.

  20. Primary clear cell carcinoma of parotid gland: Case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Marta Saldaña; Reija, Maria Fe García; Rodilla, Irene González

    2013-01-01

    Clear cell carcinoma (CCC) is a rare low-grade carcinoma that represents only 1% to 2% of all salivary glands tumors. The finding of a clear cell tumor in a parotid gland involves the necessity of differential diagnosis between primary clear cell parotid tumors and metastases, mainly from kidney. The biological behavior is not very aggressive and development, which is very slow, is usually asymptomatic and indeed, the tumor often reaches considerable dimensions before being diagnosed. The treatment of choice is the surgical excision. There are rare cases of local recurrence and distant metastases. The aim of this article is to report a primary CCC in the parotid gland that microscopically closely resembled a metastatic CCC of renal origin, making microscopic differentiation difficult.

  1. A split-electrode for clearing scattered electrons in the RHIC e-lens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu X.; Pikin, A.; Thieberger, P.; Fischer, W.; Hock, J.; Hamdi, K.; Gassner,D.; Luo, Y.; Montag, C.; Okamura, M.

    2012-05-20

    We are designing two electron lenses that will be installed at RHIC IR10 to compensate for the head-on beam-beam effect. To clear accumulated scattered electrons from 100 GeV proton-electron head-on collisions in the e-lens, a clearing split electrode may be constructed. The feasibility of this proposed electrode was demonstrated via the CST Particle Studio and Opera program simulations. By splitting one of the drift tubes in the e-lens and applying {approx} 380 V across the two parts, the scattered electrons can be cleared out within several hundred micro-seconds. At the same time we can restrict the unwanted shift of the primary electron-beam that already passed the 2-m interaction region in e-lens, to less than 15um.

  2. Integrative bioinformatics links HNF1B with clear cell carcinoma and tumor-associated thrombosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Cuff

    Full Text Available Clear cell carcinoma (CCC is a histologically distinct carcinoma subtype that arises in several organ systems and is marked by cytoplasmic clearing, attributed to abundant intracellular glycogen. Previously, transcription factor hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-beta (HNF1B was identified as a biomarker of ovarian CCC. Here, we set out to explore more broadly the relation between HNF1B and carcinomas with clear cell histology. HNF1B expression, evaluated by immunohistochemistry, was significantly associated with clear cell histology across diverse gynecologic and renal carcinomas (P<0.001, as was hypomethylation of the HNF1B promoter (P<0.001. From microarray analysis, an empirically-derived HNF1B signature was significantly enriched for computationally-predicted targets (with HNF1 binding sites (P<0.03, as well as genes associated with glycogen metabolism, including glucose-6-phophatase, and strikingly the blood clotting cascade, including fibrinogen, prothrombin and factor XIII. Enrichment of the clotting cascade was also evident in microarray data from ovarian CCC versus other histotypes (P<0.01, and HNF1B-associated prothrombin expression was verified by immunohistochemistry (P = 0.015. Finally, among gynecologic carcinomas with cytoplasmic clearing, HNF1B immunostaining was linked to a 3.0-fold increased risk of clinically-significant venous thrombosis (P = 0.043, and with a 2.3-fold increased risk (P = 0.011 in a combined gynecologic and renal carcinoma cohort. Our results define HNF1B as a broad marker of clear cell phenotype, and support a mechanistic link to glycogen accumulation and thrombosis, possibly reflecting (for gynecologic CCC derivation from secretory endometrium. Our findings also implicate a novel mechanism of tumor-associated thrombosis (a major cause of cancer mortality, based on the direct production of clotting factors by cancer cells.

  3. Predicting Clear-Sky Reflectance Over Snow/Ice in Polar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Arduini, Robert F.; Hong, Gang; Minnis, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing of clouds requires an accurate estimate of the clear-sky radiances for a given scene to detect clouds and aerosols and to retrieve their microphysical properties. Knowing the spatial and angular variability of clear-sky albedo is essential for predicting clear-sky radiance at solar wavelengths. The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Project uses the nearinfrared (NIR; 1.24, 1.6 or 2.13 micrometers), visible (VIS; 0.63 micrometers) and vegetation (VEG; 0.86 micrometers) channels available on the Terra and Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to help identify clouds and retrieve their properties in both snow-free and snow-covered conditions. Thus, it is critical to have reliable distributions of clear-sky albedo for all of these channels. In CERES Edition 4 (Ed4), the 1.24-micrometer channel is used to retrieve cloud optical depth over snow/ice-covered surfaces. Thus, it is especially critical to accurately predict the 1.24-micrometer clear-sky albedo alpha and reflectance rho for a given location and time. Snow albedo and reflectance patterns are very complex due to surface texture, particle shapes and sizes, melt water, and vegetation protrusions from the snow surface. To minimize those effects, this study focuses on the permanent snow cover of Antarctica where vegetation is absent and melt water is minimal. Clear-sky albedos are determined as a function of solar zenith angle (SZA) from observations over all scenes determined to be cloud-free to produce a normalized directional albedo model (DRM). The DRM is used to develop alpha(SZA=0 degrees) on 10 foot grid for each season. These values provide the basis for predicting r at any location and set of viewing & illumination conditions. This paper examines the accuracy of this approach for two theoretical snow surface reflectance models.

  4. Long-term monitoring of Dzanga Bai forest elephants: forest clearing use patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkalo, Andrea K; Wrege, Peter H; Wittemyer, George

    2013-01-01

    Individual identification of the relatively cryptic forest elephant (Loxodonta cyclotis) at forest clearings currently provides the highest quality monitoring data on this ecologically important but increasingly threatened species. Here we present baseline data from the first 20 years of an individually based study of this species, conducted at the Dzanga Clearing, Central African Republic. A total of 3,128 elephants were identified over the 20-year study (1,244 adults; 675 females, 569 males). It took approximately four years for the majority of elephants visiting the clearing to be identified, but new elephants entered the clearing every year of the study. The study population was relatively stable, varying from 1,668 to 1,864 individuals (including juveniles and infants), with increasingly fewer males than females over time. The age-class distribution for females remained qualitatively unchanged between 1995 and 2010, while the proportion of adult males decreased from 20% to 10%, likely reflecting increased mortality. Visitation patterns by individuals were highly variable, with some elephants visiting monthly while others were ephemeral users with visits separated by multiple years. The number of individuals in the clearing at any time varied between 40 and 100 individuals, and there was little evidence of a seasonal pattern in this variation. The number of elephants entering the clearing together (defined here as a social group) averaged 1.49 (range 1-12) for males and 2.67 (range 1-14) for females. This collation of 20 years of intensive forest elephant monitoring provides the first detailed, long term look at the ecology of bai visitation for this species, offering insight to the ecological significance and motivation for bai use, social behavior, and threats to forest elephants. We discuss likely drivers (rainfall, compression, illegal killing, etc.) influencing bai visitation rates. This study provides the baseline for future demographic and behavioral

  5. Policy Change Implication Toward Integrated Wonorejo Zone as A Strategic Economic Development Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Pandu Dwinugraha

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Integrated Wonorejo Zone is one of the development zone in Lumajang Regency with significant goals to improve potensial condition in three aspect namely tourism, agriculture and SMEs. Based on RTRW in 2008-2028, which was established in 2008, the development strategy of this zone is change. Integrated Wonorejo Zone was mentioned as a Strategic Economic Development Zone. This research describe and analyse about how the implication of policy change toward Integrated Wonorejo Zone. This research using method of descriptive research with qualitative approach as well as analysis of data by John Seidel about QDA (qualitative data analysis. The result of this research explain that the policy change implication, from description, implementation and implication point of view did not give significant expectation. Key Words: Policy Change, Integrated Wonorejo Zone, Strategic Economic Development Zone.

  6. 76 FR 18393 - Safety Zones: Fireworks Displays in the Captain of the Port Columbia River Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... determination based on the fact that this rule only changes the period during which the safety zone established...: The owners or operators of vessels wishing to transit the safety zone established by this rule....

  7. The Life Cycle of Mercury Within the Clear Lake Aquatic Ecosystem: From Ore to Organism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchanek, T. H.; Suchanek, T. H.; Nelson, D. C.; Nelson, D. C.; Zierenberg, R. A.; King, P.; King, P.; McElroy, K.; McElroy, K.

    2001-12-01

    Clear Lake (Lake County) is located in the geologically active Clear Lake volcanics mercury (Hg) bearing Franciscan formation within the Coast Range of California, which includes over 300 abandoned Hg mines and prospects. Intermittent mining at the Sulphur Bank Mercury Mine (from 1872-1957), now a USEPA SuperFund site, has resulted in approximately 100 metric tonnes of Hg being deposited into the aquatic ecosystem of Clear Lake, with sediment concentrations of total-Hg as high as 650 mg/kg (parts per million = ppm) near the mine, making Clear Lake one of the most Hg contaminated lakes in the world. As a result, largemouth bass and other top predatory fish species often exceed both the Federal USFDA recommended maximum recommended concentrations of 1.0 ppm and the State of California level of 0.5 ppm. Acid rock drainage leaches Hg and high concentrations of sulfate from the mine site through wasterock and subsurface conduits through subsediment advection and eventually upward diffusion into lake sediments and water. When mineral-laden pH 3 fluids from the mine mix with Clear Lake water (pH 8), an alumino-silicate precipitate (floc) is produced that promotes the localized production of toxic methyl Hg. Floc "hot spots" in sediments near the mine exhibit low pH, high sulfate, anoxia and high organic loading which create conditions that promote Hg methylation by microbial activity, especially in late summer and fall. Wind-driven currents transport methyl-Hg laden floc particles throughout Clear Lake, where they are consumed by plankton and benthic invertebrates and bioaccumulated throughout the food web. While Clear Lake biota have elevated concentrations of methyl-Hg, they are not as elevated as might be expected based on the total Hg loading into the lake. A science-based management approach, utilizing over 10 years of data collected on Hg cycling within the physical and biological compartments of Clear Lake, is necessary to affect a sensible remediation plan.

  8. A Well-Clear Volume Based on Time to Entry Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narkawicz, Anthony J.; Munoz, Cesar A.; Upchurch, Jason M.; Chamberlain, James P.; Consiglio, Maria C.

    2014-01-01

    A well-clear volume is a key component of NASA's Separation Assurance concept for the integration of UAS in the NAS. This paper proposes a mathematical definition of the well-clear volume that uses, in addition to distance thresholds, a time threshold based on time to entry point (TEP). The mathematical model that results from this definition is more conservative than other candidate definitions of the wellclear volume that are based on range over closure rate and time to closest point of approach.

  9. Effect of Tropical Peat Swamp Forest Clearing on Soil Carbon Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad S.M. Nuri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: Forest clearing in Tropical Peat Swamp Forest (TPSF will affect forest soil carbon storage. Thus this study is essential to determine whether the effect of clearing of forest does to the nature of soil forest concentrating on soil carbon storage. The objectives of this study were to analyze carbon storage values in logged and clear cut TPSF and to compare these values to see whether clearing of forest will affect its soil in terms of carbon storage. Approach: Soil sampling was conducted in July 2009 on two different plots at Batang Igan, Sibu, Sarawak, Malaysia. The plots are secondary TPSF where this area has been logged but not been cleared while another plot is the clear cut area where the forest has been cut down and cleared for other land use. Soil samples were taken in each plot in the depth of 0-15 cm. Every sample was taken randomly by peat auger using bulking method. The soils were air dried, pounded using mortar and sieved. The bulk densities were determined by coring method. Total Carbon (TC, total Organic Matter (OM, Total Nitrogen (TN and stable C estimation per hectare were determined from bulk density. The soil pH was determined using pH meter by using water and KCl. SOM, TC and stable C in Humic Acid (HA were determined by loss-on ignition method. TN was determined using Micro-Kjeldahl method followed by steam distillation and titration. HA was extracted and purified using distilled water. Then, the HA were oven dried in 40oC. The E4/E6 ratio by using spectrometer was used. Total acidity of HA which consists of carboxylic (-COOH and phenolic (-OH functional group were analyzed. The statistical analysis and comparison was using t-test to compare between two means. Results: The variables that showing the significant differences between two plots were pH water and KCl, soil OM, total C and HA yield. The insignificant differences were bulk density, total N, C/N ratio, E4/E6, phenol, carboxyl

  10. Epidermization in the esophageal mucosa: unusual epithelial changes clearly detected by Lugol's staining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Y; Ochiai, A; Shimoda, T; Yamaguchi, H; Tachimori, Y; Kato, H; Watanabe, H; Hirohashi, S

    1997-05-01

    A 58-year-old Japanese man with superficial esophageal cancer accompanied by unusual epithelial changes, including esophageal mucosal epidermization, is reported. Staining with Lugol's iodine clearly showed irregular unstained lesions, which could not be seen clearly macroscopically, in the resected specimen. Histologic examination of the irregular unstained areas showed definite granular and horny layers regarded as epidermization, acanthosis with slight nuclear enlargement, and epithelial atrophy. The immunohistochemical staining patterns of keratins in the epidermized and atrophic lesions were similar to those in the epidermis, and the keratin staining patterns of the acanthotic lesion were similar to those of the oral epithelium.

  11. Catalog of Audiovisual Productions. Volume 4. DoD Productions Cleared for Public Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-01

    cONVENTIONAL WARFARE, THE 26062-DA UNITED STATES ARY RESEARCH AND DEVE,.1 PWENT • 21000-OF COMNAT HUNTER PHASE III 20017-OF THIRD CHALLENGE, THE... CORPORAL IN THE U,.. ARMY WHO IK, ROTION PICTURE 058 WiN 1958 - -CLEARED FOR PE, TV, tH, PS ’ UNCL WRITES HIS FATHER OF HIS FIRST VIT TO THE C PEARE...IN CAR, AND THE PERSHING AND HERCULES MISSILES CLEARED FOR PE, TV, OS UNCL MILITARY AND NON-MILITARY AREAS. HIGHLIGHTS IN COImPARISON WITH CORPORAL

  12. Melt zones beneath five volcanic complexes in California: an assessment of shallow magma occurrences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, N.E.; Flexser, S.

    1984-12-01

    Recent geological and geophysical data for five magma-hydrothermal systems were studied for the purpose of developing estimates for the depth, volume and location of magma beneath each area. The areas studied were: (1) Salton Trough, (2) The Geysers-Clear Lake, (3) Long Valley caldera, (4) Coso volcanic field, and (5) Medicine Lake volcano, all located in California and all selected on the basis of recent volcanic activity and published indications of crustal melt zones. 23 figs.

  13. Clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma: micro-RNA expression profiling and comparison with clear cell renal cell carcinoma and papillary renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munari, Enrico; Marchionni, Luigi; Chitre, Apurva; Hayashi, Masamichi; Martignoni, Guido; Brunelli, Matteo; Gobbo, Stefano; Argani, Pedram; Allaf, Mohamad; Hoque, Mohammad O; Netto, George J

    2014-06-01

    Clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma (CCPRCC) is a low-grade renal neoplasm with morphological characteristics mimicking both clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC) and papillary renal cell carcinoma (PRCC). However, despite some overlapping features, their morphological, immunohistochemical, and molecular profiles are distinct. Micro-RNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that play a crucial role in regulating gene expression and are involved in various biological processes, including cancer development. To better understand the biology of this tumor, we aimed to analyze the miRNA expression profile of a set of CCPRCC using microarray and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. A total of 15 cases diagnosed as CCPRCC were used in this study. Among the most differentially expressed miRNA in CCPRCC, we found miR-210, miR-122, miR-34a, miR-21, miR-34b*, and miR-489 to be up-regulated, whereas miR-4284, miR-1202, miR-135a, miR-1973, and miR-204 were down-regulated compared with normal renal parenchyma. To identify consensus of differentially regulated miRNA between CCPRCC, CCRCC, and PRCC, we additionally determined differential miRNA expression using 2 publically available microarray data sets from the NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus database (GSE41282 and GSE3798). This comparison revealed that the miRNA expression profile of CCPRCC shows some overlapping characteristics between CCRCC and PRCC. Moreover, CCPRCC lacks dysregulation of important miRNAs typically associated with aggressive behavior. In summary, we describe the miRNA expression profile of a relatively infrequent type of renal cancer. Our results may help in understanding the molecular underpinning of this newly recognized entity.

  14. Validation of the histologic grading for ovarian clear cell adenocarcinoma: a retrospective multi-institutional study by the Japan Clear Cell Carcinoma Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Sohei; Kasajima, Atsuko; Takano, Masashi; Yaegashi, Nobuo; Fujiwara, Hiroyuki; Kuzuya, Kazuo; Kigawa, Junzo; Tsuda, Hiroshi; Kurachi, Hirohisa; Kikuchi, Yoshihiro; Sugiyama, Toru; Tsuda, Hitoshi; Moriya, Takuya

    2011-03-01

    Pathologic slides from 150 patients with clear cell adenocarcinoma from the collaborating institutions were reviewed independently by 2 pathologists, and each tumor was graded histologically using the Shimizu-Silverberg and International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) grading systems. For the Shimizu-Silverberg grading system, 3 parameters-architectural pattern, nuclear pleomorphism, and mitotic activity-were assessed and scored as 1 to 3. When the summed scores of these parameters were 3 to 5, 6 to 7, and 8 to 9, grades 1, 2, and 3 were assigned, respectively. The FIGO grade was based on the ratio of glandular/papillary growth versus solid growth: grade 1, less than 5% solid tumor; grade 2, 5% to 50% solid tumor; grade 3, greater than 50% solid tumor. Interobserver agreement levels for assignment of both gradings were fair (κ=0.32 and 0.24, respectively). After consensus had been acquired, 82 (55%), 56 (37%), and 12 (8%) tumors were classified as grades 1, 2, and 3 by the Shimizu-Silverberg grading system, and 88 (59%), 38 (25%), and 24 (16%) were classified as grades 1, 2, and 3 by the FIGO grading system, respectively. Survival analyses indicated that patients with grade 3 tumors, as defined by both the grading systems, tended to have a poor outcome, but any differences between them were not statistically significant. Multivariate analysis showed that only the presence of residual tumor after initial surgery was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival. These results suggest that the 2 tested grading systems have limited value for the prognostication of patients with clear cell adenocarcinoma, and that a more effective grading system for this tumor may be required.

  15. 78 FR 25410 - Safety Zone; Tall Ship Safety Zones; War of 1812 Bicentennial Commemoration, Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... in the Tall Ships Challenge Great Lakes 2013 and the War of 1812 Bicentennial Commemoration. These... Safety Zones; War of 1812 Bicentennial Commemoration, Great Lakes. (a) Locations. The following are... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Tall Ship Safety Zones; War of...

  16. Land use zones and land use patterns in the Atlantic Zone of Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huising, E.J.

    1993-01-01

    This thesis describes an approach to land use inventory at the sub-regional scale in the Guacimo-Rio Jiménez-Siquirres (GRS) area in the Atlantic Zone of Costa Rica. Therefore, the concept of "land use zones" is introduced. The land use zone (LUZ) plays a central role in the definition of an observa

  17. 76 FR 18674 - Security Zones; Sector Southeastern New England Captain of the Port Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... security zone encompassing all navigable waters around any cruise ship anchored or moored and 200-yard radius security zone encompassing all navigable waters around any cruise ship underway that is being... navigable waters within the Southeastern New England COTP zone. We propose to define a ``cruise ship'' as...

  18. Identification Of Ground Water Potential Zones In Tamil Nadu By Remote Sensing And GIS Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Subramani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A case study was conducted to find out the groundwater potential zones in Salem, Erode and Namakkal districts, Tamil Nadu, India with an aerial extent of 360.60 km2 . The thematic maps such as geology, geomorphology, soil hydrological group, land use / land cover and drainage map were prepared for the study area. The Digital Elevation Model (DEM has been generated from the 10 m interval contour lines (which is derived from SOI, Toposheet 1:25000 scale and obtained the slope (% of the study area. The groundwater potential zones were obtained by overlaying all the thematic maps in terms of weighted overlay methods using the spatial analysis tool in Arc GIS 9.3. During weighted overlay analysis, the ranking has been given for each individual parameter of each thematic map and weights were assigned according to the influence such as soil −25%, geomorphology − 25%, land use/land cover −25%, slope − 15%, lineament − 5% and drainage / streams − 5% and find out the potential zones in terms of good, moderate and poor zones with the area of 49.70 km2 , 261.61 km2 and 46.04 km2 respectively. The potential zone wise study area was overlaid with village boundary map and the village wise groundwater potential zones with three categories such as good, moderate and poor zones were obtained. This GIS based output result was validated by conducting field survey by randomly selecting wells in different villages using GPS instruments. The coordinates of each well location were obtained by GPS and plotted in the GIS platform and it was clearly shown that the well coordinates were exactly seated with the classified zones.

  19. 46 CFR 76.27-5 - Zoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Zoning. 76.27-5 Section 76.27-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Electric Fire Detecting System, Details § 76.27-5 Zoning. (a) The fire detecting system shall be divided into...

  20. 46 CFR 76.30-5 - Zoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Zoning. 76.30-5 Section 76.30-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Pneumatic Fire Detecting System, Details § 76.30-5 Zoning. (a) The fire detecting system shall be divided into...

  1. Special Economic Zones Blaze New Trails

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐现祥; 陈小飞

    2008-01-01

    Special economic zones(SEZ) are starting points of incremental reform and opening-up in China. On the 30th anniversay of reform and opening-up,this article attempts to present a systematic review of the evolution,mechanism and performance of special economic zones as well as a pespective on SEZs’ furture development.

  2. CareZone adgangskontrol og demenshegn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauberg, Nanna

    2015-01-01

    Rapporten er skrevet på baggrund af afprøvning af CareZone, adgangskontrol og demenshegn på Solgaven, Mariagerfjord kommune i perioden april 2014 til januar 2015.......Rapporten er skrevet på baggrund af afprøvning af CareZone, adgangskontrol og demenshegn på Solgaven, Mariagerfjord kommune i perioden april 2014 til januar 2015....

  3. A Novel Offset Fresnel Zone Plate Antenna

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A novel offset Fresnel Zone Plate reflector Antenna (FZPA) is proposed, the phase correcting zone of this FZPA is elliptic. Based on Physical Optics Method, the focusing characteristics of the reflector are analyzed. The comparison of this new FZPA with the circular FZPA and Mawzones FZPA is made.

  4. Treating tar sands formations with karsted zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX)

    2010-03-09

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. The tar sands formation may have one or more karsted zones. Methods may include providing heat from one or more heaters to one or more karsted zones of the tar sands formation to mobilize fluids in the formation. At least some of the mobilized fluids may be produced from the formation.

  5. 46 CFR 76.25-5 - Zoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Automatic Sprinkling System, Details § 76.25-5 Zoning. (a) The automatic sprinkling system shall be divided into separate... more than 250 sprinkler heads. (c) The sprinkling zone may cover more than one deck, in which case,...

  6. Remote sensing applications for coastal zone management

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, L.V.G.

    stream_size 4 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Trg_Course_Coast_Zone_Manage_1993_5.pdf.txt stream_source_info Trg_Course_Coast_Zone_Manage_1993_5.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset...

  7. Brief Introduction to Five Key Zones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Liaoning Jinzhou Development Zone This zone includes Jinzhou Xihai Industrial Park and Huludao Beigang Industrial Park. The Jinzhou Xihai Industrial Park has a planned development area of 22.76 square km and a gross investment of 737 million yuan. It is featured in the sub-industries of heavy chemicals and petrochemicals that Include motor tool elements, medicine and production of containers.

  8. Fluorescent-protein stabilization and high-resolution imaging of cleared, intact mouse brains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin K Schwarz

    Full Text Available In order to observe and quantify long-range neuronal connections in intact mouse brain by light microscopy, it is first necessary to clear the brain, thus suppressing refractive-index variations. Here we describe a method that clears the brain and preserves the signal from proteinaceous fluorophores using a pH-adjusted non-aqueous index-matching medium. Successful clearing is enabled through the use of either 1-propanol or tert-butanol during dehydration whilst maintaining a basic pH. We show that high-resolution fluorescence imaging of entire, structurally intact juvenile and adult mouse brains is possible at subcellular resolution, even following many months in clearing solution. We also show that axonal long-range projections that are EGFP-labelled by modified Rabies virus can be imaged throughout the brain using a purpose-built light-sheet fluorescence microscope. To demonstrate the viability of the technique, we determined a detailed map of the monosynaptic projections onto a target cell population in the lateral entorhinal cortex. This example demonstrates that our method permits the quantification of whole-brain connectivity patterns at the subcellular level in the uncut brain.

  9. 77 FR 38108 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Fixed Income Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing of Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-26

    ... illustrates the manner in which the GCF Repo service works on an interbank basis: Assume that Dealer B clears... movement in the morning. FICC shifted the service back to intrabank status to enable management to study... activity by calculating a value on the customer's balances at the bank. Bank customers have the ability...

  10. 76 FR 41056 - Amendment to Rule Filing Requirements for Dually-Registered Clearing Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ..., registered clearing agency, and, for purposes of Section 19(b) and other limited purposes, the Municipal... Act, Public Law 111-203, 124 Stat. 1376 (2010). \\18\\ See Section 763(b) of the Dodd-Frank Act (adding... include the following: (i) For entities engaged in investment banking, securities dealing and...

  11. Optical clearing of melanoma in vivo: characterization by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Layla; Demidov, Valentin; Vitkin, I. Alex; Bagnato, Vanderlei; Kurachi, Cristina; Wilson, Brian C.

    2016-08-01

    Melanoma is the most aggressive type of skin cancer, with significant risk of fatality. Due to its pigmentation, light-based imaging and treatment techniques are limited to near the tumor surface, which is inadequate, for example, to evaluate the microvascular density that is associated with prognosis. White-light diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and near-infrared optical coherence tomography (OCT) were used to evaluate the effect of a topically applied optical clearing agent (OCA) in melanoma in vivo and to image the microvascular network. DRS was performed using a contact fiber optic probe in the range from 450 to 650 nm. OCT imaging was performed using a swept-source system at 1310 nm. The OCT image data were processed using speckle variance and depth-encoded algorithms. Diffuse reflectance signals decreased with clearing, dropping by ˜90% after 45 min. OCT was able to image the microvasculature in the pigmented melanoma tissue with good spatial resolution up to a depth of ˜300 μm without the use of OCA; improved contrast resolution was achieved with optical clearing to a depth of ˜750 μm in tumor. These findings are relevant to potential clinical applications in melanoma, such as assessing prognosis and treatment responses. Optical clearing may also facilitate the use of light-based treatments such as photodynamic therapy.

  12. Using Shrub Clearing, Draining, and Herbivory to Control Bramble Invasion in Mediterranean Dry Grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Solène; Mesléard, François; Dutoit, Thierry

    2015-10-01

    For centuries, the dry grassland of the plain of La Crau (south-eastern France) has been subjected to numerous disturbances resulting in the destruction and the fragmentation of this emblematic rangeland ecosystem of the Mediterranean. Today, this ecosystem is facing a new threat from a proliferating native species, the bramble ( Rubus ulmifolius Schott), which preferentially colonizes areas that were formerly cultivated and/or exposed to water infiltration. To identify a strategy for effective control of this colonization, in situ experiments testing disturbance regimes (shrub clearing and/or mixed grazing by sheep and goats) combined with the control of access to water resources (with or without drainage trenches) were undertaken between 2010 and 2013. Only clearing and grazing combined over 3 years led to significant changes in vegetation height and bramble cover as well as modifications in the floristic composition, diversity, similarity, and richness of the plant community. Neither a clearing operation carried out in 2010 alone, nor grazing alone, reduced bramble cover, and neither treatment increased the species richness of the plant community. Similarly, digging drainage trenches had no significant impact either on the plant community or on bramble cover. Our study suggests that only annual mechanical clearing coupled with sheep and goats grazing can significantly reduce bramble cover. This combined restoration treatment needs to be applied for at least 3 consecutive years to induce significant changes and enable this ecosystem to return to the dry grassland succession.

  13. 75 FR 6750 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The Options Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-10

    ... Securities Exchange Act of 1934,\\1\\ notice is hereby given that on January 14, 2010, The Options Clearing... proposed rule change pursuant to Section 19(b)(3)(A)(iii) of the Act \\2\\ and Rule 19b-4(f)(4) thereunder \\3... caused investor confusion because investors in some cases failed to realize that they were trading...

  14. 77 FR 47169 - Clearing Requirement Determination Under Section 2(h) of the CEA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-07

    ... Reserve Bank of New York (FRBNY) began encouraging market participants to establish a central counterparty.... \\12\\ See Federal Reserve Bank of New York, Press Release, ``New York Fed Welcomes Further Industry... Derivatives Clearinghouse Group (IDCH) on February 17, 2012; the CME Group (CME), ICE Clear Credit, ICE...

  15. 76 FR 44464 - Process for Review of Swaps for Mandatory Clearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    .... IntercontinentalExchange, Inc. (ICE) observed that the requirement that a DCO provide to the Commission a summary... a DCO to submit swaps for mandatory clearing. ICE proposed that the Commission adopt a 30-day... (Section 4s(e)(1) of the CEA) requires rules imposing capital and margin for bank swap dealers and...

  16. 75 FR 65881 - Ownership Limitations and Governance Requirements for Security-Based Swap Clearing Agencies...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... structures relating to ownership, voting, and governance of security- based swap clearing agencies, SB SEFs...: Comments may be submitted by any of the following methods: Electronic Comments Use the Commission's... and transparency in the financial system.\\2\\ Title VII of the Dodd-Frank Act provides the...

  17. 76 FR 35141 - Protection of Cleared Swaps Customer Contracts and Collateral; Conforming Amendments to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-16

    ... corrects the formatting of text and charts published in the Federal Register of June 09, 2011 (76 FR 33818), regarding Protection of Cleared Swaps Customer Contracts and Collateral; Conforming Amendments to the... Collateral; Conforming Amendments to the Commodity Broker Bankruptcy Provisions; Correction AGENCY:...

  18. 78 FR 77511 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Fixed Income Clearing Corporation; Order Approving Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ..., that the rules of a clearing agency registered with the Commission be designed to promote the prompt... FR 68496 (Nov. 14, 2013) (SR-FICC-2013-09). II. Description The purpose of this proposed rule change... historical database of reference indices. This data is necessary for determining coupon, which is used...

  19. 77 FR 50425 - Clearing Exemption for Swaps Between Certain Affiliated Entities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ... submitted in English, or if not, accompanied by an English translation. ``Inter-affiliate Clearing Exemption... Commission to exempt any transaction or class of transactions, including swaps, from certain CEA provisions... way to manage risk is often at one entity and on a portfolio level. This way all the risk for...

  20. The Effects of Opaque and Clear Pit and Fissure Sealants on Infrared Laser Fluorescence Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrololoomi, Z.; Khodabakhsh, M.; Khaksar, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Statement of the Problem: The purpose of placing sealants is to inhibit caries by physical closure of the pits and fissures of teeth. A device named DIAGNOdent is useful in detecting occlusal caries by employing laser fluorescence (LF). However, there are contradictory results in the influence of sealants on LF measurements. Purpose: The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of two different types of fissure sealants on LF measurements. Materials and Method: In this in vitro study, 86 extracted permanent third molars were divided randomly into two groups and clear or opaque sealant was applied on the occlusal surfaces. Two examiners performed pre- and post-seal fluorescence measurements twice with one week interval by employing DIAGNOdent device. Finally, measured values were evaluated through the statistical paired t-test by means of SPSS 17 software. Results: The mean value of LF measurements increased significantly due to the application of clear sealant (p= 0.001) while the statistical changes in this measurement was negligible after applying opaque sealant (p= 0.311). Conclusion: Clear sealants increase the LF measured values but opaque sealants cause almost no changes. Therefore, DIAGNOdent device is not reliable for detecting caries beneath the clear sealant. PMID:24883342

  1. The Effects of Opaque and Clear Pit and Fissure Sealants on Infrared Laser Fluorescence Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahrololoomi Z.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Statement of the Problem: The purpose of placing sealants is to inhibit caries by physical closure of the pits and fissures of teeth. A device named DIAGNOdent is useful in detecting occlusal caries by employing laser fluorescence (LF. However, there are contradictory results in the influence of sealants on LF measurements. Purpose: The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of two different types of fissure sealants on LF measurements. Materials and Method: In this in vitro study, 86 extracted permanent third molars were divided randomly into two groups and clear or opaque sealant was applied on the occlusal surfaces. Two examiners performed pre and post-seal fluorescence measurements twice with one week interval by employing DIAGNOdent device. Finally, measured values were evaluated through the statistical paired t-test by means of SPSS 17 software. Results: The mean value of LF measurements increased significantly due to the application of clear sealant (p= 0.001 while the statistical changes in this measurement is negligible after applying opaque sealant (p= 0.311. Conclusion: Clear sealants increase the LF measured values but opaque sealants cause almost no changes. Therefore DIAGNOdent device is not reliable for detecting caries beneath the clear sealant.

  2. 75 FR 70060 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The Options Clearing Corporation; Order Granting Approval of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ... Proposed Rule Change Relating to Cash- Settled Foreign Currency Options With One-Cent Exercise Prices... that cash-settled foreign currency options traded on national securities exchanges will be treated and... clear that cash-settled foreign currency options traded on national securities exchanges will be...

  3. Clear-sky atmospheric radiative transfer : a model intercomparison for shortwave irradiances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, P.; Knap, W.H.; Kuipers Munneke, P.; Stammes, P.

    2008-01-01

    This study consists of an intercomparison of clear-sky shortwave irradiances calculated by the Doubling Adding model of KNMI (DAK) and the Simple Model of the Atmospheric Radiative Transfer of Sunshine (SMARTS). The DAK and SMARTS models are run with identical input (state profiles, water vapour, oz

  4. Clear-sky radiative closure for the Cabauw Baseline Surface Radiation Network site, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, P.; Knap, W.H.; Kuipers Munneke, P.; Stammes, P.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a clear-sky shortwave closure analysis is presented for the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) site of Cabauw, Netherlands (51.97°N, 4.93°E). The analysis is based on an exceptional period of fine weather during the first half of May 2008, resulting in a selection of 72 comparis

  5. MUTATIONS IN THE VHL GENE FRIOM POTASSIUM BROMATE-INDUCED RAT CLEAR CELL RENAL TUMORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potassium bromate (KBrO3) is a rat renal carcinogen and a major drinking water disinfection by-product in water disinfected with ozone. Clear cell renal tumors, the most common form of human renal epithelial neoplasm, are rare in animals but are inducible by KBrO3 in F344 rats. ...

  6. 78 FR 62719 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The Options Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing of Advance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... as a systemically important financial market utility by the Financial Stability Oversight Council on July 18, 2012. See Financial Stability Oversight Council 2012 Annual Report, Appendix A, http://www...(n)(1)(i). I. Clearing Agency's Statement of the Terms of Substance of the Advance Notice...

  7. Do zooplankton contribute to an ultraviolet clear-water phase in lakes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williamson, C.E.; Lange, de H.J.; Leech, D.M.

    2007-01-01

    Seasonal increases in the ultraviolet (UV) transparency of the surface waters of an oligotrophic lake in Pennsylvania suggest that clear-water phase (CWP) events similar to those previously observed for visible light also exist for the potentially damaging UV wavelengths. Seasonal increases in zoopl

  8. 78 FR 21487 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; National Securities Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... Proposed Rule Change To Institute Supplemental Liquidity Deposits to Its Clearing Fund Designed To Increase Liquidity Resources To Meet Its Liquidity Needs April 4, 2013. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of the... Change To enhance its ability to meet its liquidity requirements, NSCC is proposing to amend its...

  9. 46 CFR 308.551 - War risk insurance clearing agency agreement for cargo, Form MA-321.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false War risk insurance clearing agency agreement for cargo... EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Iv-General § 308.551 War risk insurance... American War Risk Agency or MARAD....

  10. Children's Perception of Conversational and Clear American-English Vowels in Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Dorothy; Levy, Erika S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Much of a child's day is spent listening to speech in the presence of background noise. Although accurate vowel perception is important for listeners' accurate speech perception and comprehension, little is known about children's vowel perception in noise. "Clear speech" is a speech style frequently used by talkers in the…

  11. 77 FR 27529 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Credit LLC; Order Granting Accelerated Approval of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    ... promote compliance with the capital adequacy requirements, Rule 201(b)(i) is amended to provide that a Clearing Participant must be regulated for capital adequacy by a competent authority such as the CFTC, SEC... entity that satisfies the capital adequacy regulatory requirement and is subject to consolidated...

  12. Final Report on the Mississippi Project CLEAR Voice Teacher Working Conditions Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Barnett; Fuller, Ed

    2008-01-01

    In 2007, the state of Mississippi conducted a web-based survey of all school-based licensed educators in which they were asked to share their perceptions of the state of teacher working conditions in Mississippi. This report of the Mississippi Teacher Working Conditions Survey, Project CLEAR Voice (Cultivate Learning Environments to Accelerate…

  13. 78 FR 9751 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; National Securities Clearing Corporation; Notice of Designation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... a Longer Period for Commission Action on Proposed Rule Change To Eliminate the Offset of Its... U.S.C. 78s(b)(2). The proposed rule change would permit NSCC to eliminate the offset of NSCC... Purpose of Calculating Its Clearing Fund Under Procedure XV of Its Rules & Procedures February 5, 2013....

  14. Super-resolution stimulated emission depletion imaging of slit diaphragm proteins in optically cleared kidney tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unnersjö-Jess, David; Scott, Lena; Blom, Hans; Brismar, Hjalmar

    2016-01-01

    The glomerular filtration barrier, consisting of podocyte foot processes with bridging slit diaphragm, glomerular basement membrane, and endothelium, is a key component for renal function. Previously, the subtlest elements of the filtration barrier have only been visualized using electron microscopy. However, electron microscopy is mostly restricted to ultrathin two-dimensional samples, and the possibility to simultaneously visualize multiple different proteins is limited. Therefore, we sought to implement a super-resolution immunofluorescence microscopy protocol for the study of the filtration barrier in the kidney. Recently, several optical clearing methods have been developed making it possible to image through large volumes of tissue and even whole organs using light microscopy. Here we found that hydrogel-based optical clearing is a beneficial tool to study intact renal tissue at the nanometer scale. When imaging samples using super-resolution STED microscopy, the staining quality was critical in order to assess correct nanoscale information. The signal-to-noise ratio and immunosignal homogeneity were both improved in optically cleared tissue. Thus, STED of slit diaphragms in fluorescently labeled, optically cleared, intact kidney samples is a new tool for studying the glomerular filtration barrier in health and disease.

  15. 75 FR 80335 - Federal Government Participation in the Automated Clearing House

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... House AGENCY: Financial Management Service, Fiscal Service, Treasury. ACTION: Interim final rule... governing the use of the Automated Clearing House (ACH) system by Federal agencies to permit the delivery of... institutions, consumer advocacy groups, industry associations, the Senate Committee on Finance and the...

  16. 76 FR 59024 - Federal Government Participation in the Automated Clearing House

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ... House AGENCY: Financial Management Service, Fiscal Service, Treasury. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The... regulation governing the use of the Automated Clearing House (ACH) network by Federal agencies. The rule..., industry associations, the Senate Committee on Finance, and the House Committee on Ways and...

  17. 76 FR 13101 - Requirements for Processing, Clearing, and Transfer of Customer Positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-10

    ... in English, or if not, accompanied by an English translation. Comments will be posted as received to.... an error has been made in the clearing of a trade and the error is discovered and the transfer is... approval of OMB under the PRA. \\53\\ 44 U.S.C. 3501 et seq. C. Cost-Benefit Analysis Section 15(a) of...

  18. 78 FR 28936 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; National Securities Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing and No...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    ... Change As part of its liquidity risk management regime, NSCC maintains a 364-day committed, revolving... non-defaulting Members. Any borrowing would be secured principally by (i) securities deposited by... defaulting Member upon payment of its net settlement obligation. NSCC's Clearing Fund, which operates as...

  19. Primary clear cell ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas: A case report and clinicopathologic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashpal Modi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a very rare, interesting case of a carcinoma of the pancreas with predominantly abundant clear cell morphology. According to the WHO classification, primary clear cell carcinoma of the pancreas is classified as a rare "miscellaneous" carcinoma. The tumor was observed in the distal body and tail of the pancreas of a 74-year-old woman. The histopathology of tumor cells showed well-defined cell membranes, clear cytoplasm, and prominent cell boundaries. Immunohistochemical (IHC staining showed positive reactions to antibodies against vimentin, cytokeratin 7 (CK-7, mucicarmine (MUC-1, periodic acid-Schiff (PAS, periodic acid-Schiff with diastase (PASD, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, and Carbohydrate Antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9. On the other hand, IHC staining was negative for alpha-fetoprotein (AFP, cytokeratin 20 (CK-20, HMB45, chromogranin, and synaptophysin. The patient was subsequently diagnosed with a primary solid-type pancreatic clear cell carcinoma with hepatic metastasis. Herein, we report this rare case and include a review of the current literature of this tumor.

  20. 78 FR 52285 - Clearing Exemption for Certain Swaps Entered Into by Cooperatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-22

    ... for Certain Swaps Entered Into by Cooperatives; Harmonization of Compliance Obligations for Registered... COMMISSION 17 CFR Part 50 RIN 3038-AD47 Clearing Exemption for Certain Swaps Entered Into by Cooperatives... 4(c) of the Commodity Exchange Act (``CEA'') allowing cooperatives meeting certain conditions...

  1. Mortality in patients with chronic and cleared hepatitis C viral infection: a nationwide cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omland, Lars Haukali; Krarup, Henrik; Jepsen, Peter;

    2010-01-01

    It is unknown whether mortality differs between patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication and those who cleared the virus after infection. We examined the impact of chronic HCV replication on mortality among Danish patients testing positive for HCV antibodies....

  2. Clear Cell Carcinoma of the Breast: A Rare Breast Cancer Subtype - Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma Ratti

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Glycogen-rich clear cell breast carcinoma is a rare histological breast cancer subtype. Its prognosis may vary depending on specific clinical and pathological characteristics such as low grade, strong positivity of estrogen receptor (ER expression and early diagnosis. Case Presentation: We present the case of a 53-year-old woman with a bleeding 10-cm-diameter mass in the left breast. The histological examination showed a poorly differentiated tumor with malignant cells characterized by abundant clear cytoplasm. The diagnosis of clear cell carcinoma was based on the histological characteristics of the tumor, and a nonmammary origin was initially ruled out. The tumor was triple negative [i.e. ER, progesterone receptor (PR and HER2 negative]. Four months after the initial locoregional treatment, the patient developed lung and distant lymph node metastases. Conclusions: Glycogen-rich clear cell carcinoma of the breast is a rare tumor. Early diagnosis, absence of lymph node metastases and ER/PR positivity are associated with a better prognosis, as in other common breast cancer subtypes.

  3. 77 FR 77157 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The Options Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The Options Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Amend Interpretative Guidance Relating to the Adjustment of Stock Options and Single Stock Futures...

  4. Mortality among patients with cleared hepatitis C virus infection compared to the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omland, Lars Haukali; Christensen, Peer Brehm; Krarup, Henrik Bygum;

    2011-01-01

    The increased mortality in HCV-infected individuals partly stems from viral damage to the liver and partly from risk-taking behaviours. We examined mortality in patients who cleared their HCV-infection, comparing it to that of the general population. We also addressed the question whether prognos...... differed according to age, substance abuse (alcohol abuse and injection drug use) and comorbidity....

  5. 77 FR 71466 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The Options Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing of Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-30

    ... Terms of Substance of the Proposed Rule Change OCC proposes to make certain changes to Rule 1104 in... separation of firm and customer positions), clearing members have discretion as to which Stock Loan Positions... submitted by any of the following methods: Electronic Comments Use the Commissions Internet comment...

  6. 76 FR 69333 - Derivatives Clearing Organization General Provisions and Core Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... Clearing Organization General Provisions and Core Principles; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76... and Core Principles AGENCY: Commodity Futures Trading Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The... regulations establish the regulatory standards for compliance with DCO Core Principles A (Compliance),...

  7. A case report of the clear cell variant of gallbladder carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Maharaj

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: In these cases, clinical case management should be personalized for increased survival with the possible incorporation of next generation sequencing approaches to guide therapeutic algorithms. We discuss this exceedingly rare case of the clear cell variant of gallbladder carcinoma in detail, highlighting some of the diagnostic, and clinical challenges.

  8. 78 FR 76182 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The Options Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing of Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-16

    ... review the overall corporate governance of OCC and recommend improvements to OCC's Board. The GC Charter... Change Concerning the Governance Committee Charter December 11, 2013. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of the... Options Clearing Corporation (``OCC'') concerns the charter of the Governance Committee (``GC...

  9. 76 FR 77287 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Fixed Income Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing of Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ... MBSD rules will have a revised Rule 1, ``Definitions,'' which will include terminology applicable to....) or non-compliance with MBSD rules. The Clearing Fund is calculated every business day for each MBSD... interest, established by the Corporation on each business day, based on current market information for...

  10. 78 FR 42809 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Fixed Income Clearing Corporation; Order Approving Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-17

    ... Futures Trading Commission.\\8\\ The swap transactions executed by trueEX are cleared by a clearinghouse..., notes, bonds, Treasury inflation-protected securities (TIPS) and separate trading of registered interest..., including testing trueEX's trade input and receipt of output capabilities prior to the go-live date....

  11. 78 FR 75413 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; National Securities Clearing Corporation; Order Approving Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ... received.\\24\\ The Commission has reviewed and taken into full consideration all of the comments received... obligation and thus are relevant for the Commission's consideration of the Final SLD Proposal.\\41\\ Four... requires that: the rules of a clearing agency not be designed to permit unfair discrimination...

  12. High-resolution in-depth imaging of optically cleared thick samples using an adaptive SPIM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Aurore; Escande, Paul; Frongia, Céline; Clouvel, Grégory; Ducommun, Bernard; Lorenzo, Corinne

    2015-11-01

    Today, Light Sheet Fluorescence Microscopy (LSFM) makes it possible to image fluorescent samples through depths of several hundreds of microns. However, LSFM also suffers from scattering, absorption and optical aberrations. Spatial variations in the refractive index inside the samples cause major changes to the light path resulting in loss of signal and contrast in the deepest regions, thus impairing in-depth imaging capability. These effects are particularly marked when inhomogeneous, complex biological samples are under study. Recently, chemical treatments have been developed to render a sample transparent by homogenizing its refractive index (RI), consequently enabling a reduction of scattering phenomena and a simplification of optical aberration patterns. One drawback of these methods is that the resulting RI of cleared samples does not match the working RI medium generally used for LSFM lenses. This RI mismatch leads to the presence of low-order aberrations and therefore to a significant degradation of image quality. In this paper, we introduce an original optical-chemical combined method based on an adaptive SPIM and a water-based clearing protocol enabling compensation for aberrations arising from RI mismatches induced by optical clearing methods and acquisition of high-resolution in-depth images of optically cleared complex thick samples such as Multi-Cellular Tumour Spheroids.

  13. 76 FR 722 - Governance Requirements for Derivatives Clearing Organizations, Designated Contract Markets, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-06

    ... COMMISSION 17 CFR Parts 1, 37, 38, 39, and 40 RIN 3038-AD01 Governance Requirements for Derivatives Clearing... concerning governance fitness standards and the composition of governing bodies. Finally, for publicly-traded... conflicts, the Commission proposed \\6\\ both (i) structural governance requirements \\7\\ and (ii) limits...

  14. Seasonal distribution, aggregation, and habitat selection of common carp in Clear Lake, Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penne, C.R.; Pierce, C.L.

    2008-01-01

    The common carp Cyprinus carpio is widely distributed and frequently considered a nuisance species outside its native range. Common carp are abundant in Clear Lake, Iowa, where their presence is both a symptom of degradation and an impediment to improving water quality and the sport fishery. We used radiotelemetry to quantify seasonal distribution, aggregation, and habitat selection of adult and subadult common carp in Clear Lake during 2005-2006 in an effort to guide future control strategies. Over a 22-month period, we recorded 1,951 locations of 54 adults and 60 subadults implanted with radio transmitters. Adults demonstrated a clear tendency to aggregate in an offshore area during the late fall and winter and in shallow, vegetated areas before and during spring spawning. Late-fall and winter aggregations were estimated to include a larger percentage of the tracked adults than spring aggregations. Subadults aggregated in shallow, vegetated areas during the spring and early summer. Our study, when considered in combination with previous research, suggests repeatable patterns of distribution, aggregation, and habitat selection that should facilitate common carp reduction programs in Clear Lake and similar systems. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  15. 77 FR 58194 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The Options Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing of Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ..., through cross-references to interpretive provisions of OCC Rule 306--Financial Reports and OCC Rule 308... reporting of certain financial liabilities to U.S. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles. Canadian... Change Relating to Financial Reporting by Canadian Clearing Members September 13, 2012. Pursuant...

  16. Clear Cells of Toker in the Developing Anogenital Region of Male and Female Fetuses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Putte, Sebastian C. J.

    2011-01-01

    The clear cells of Toker are a mysterious population of intra-epidermal glandular cells. They were originally described in nipples, but were recently observed in the vulva as well. It was hypothesized that intra-epidermal embryonic remnants or underlying glands were a potential source. The embryolog

  17. Clearing lakes. An ecosystem approach to the restoration and management of shallow lakes in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hosper, H.

    1997-01-01

    In the 1950 s and 1960 s, most shallow lakes in the Netherlands shifted from macrophyte-dominated clear water lakes, towards algae-dominated turbid water lakes. Eutrophication, i.e. increased nutrient loading, is the main cause of the deterioration of the lake ecosystems. Other perturbations, such a

  18. 76 FR 38225 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The Options Clearing Corporation; Order Approving Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... by 10 a.m. constitutes a default. During discussions among OCC's senior management of various potential extreme default and liquidity squeeze scenarios, including the possible default of one of OCC's largest clearing members, OCC analyzed the risk associated with not being able to immediately...

  19. 77 FR 66196 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Options Clearing Corporation; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-02

    ... JRFQR with ``Form 1'' of the International Financial Reporting Standards. OCC proposes to replace... Financial Reporting Standards. OCC Rule 310, through cross-references to interpretive provisions of OCC Rule... Relating to Financial Reporting by Canadian Clearing Members October 26, 2012. I. Introduction On...

  20. Approach to In Situ Component Level Electronics Assembly Repair (CLEAR) for Constellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struk, Peter M.; Oeftering, Richard C.

    2010-01-01

    Maintenance resupply is a significant issue for long duration space missions. Currently, the International Space Station (ISS) approaches maintenance primarily around replaceable modules called Orbital Replacement Units (ORU). While swapping out ORUs has served the ISS well keeping crew time for maintenance to a minimum, this approach assumes a substantial logistics capacity to provide replacement ORUs and return ORUs to Earth for repair. The ORUs used for ISS require relatively large blocks of replacement hardware even though the actual failed component may be several orders of magnitude smaller. The Component Level Electronics Assembly Repair (CLEAR) task was created to explore electronics repair down to the component level for future space missions. From 2006 to 2009, CLEAR was an activity under the Supportability project of the Exploration Technology Development Program. This paper describes the activities of CLEAR including making a case for component-level electronics repair, examination of current terrestrial repair hardware, and potential repair needs. Based on those needs, the CLEAR team proposes an architecture for an in-situ repair capability aboard a spacecraft or habitat. Additionally, this paper discusses recent progress toward developing in-space repair capabilities--including two spaceflight experiments-- and presents technology concepts which could help enable or benefit the same.

  1. Local convergence zones or discontinuous lines in the Taklimakan Desert,Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masatoshi; YOSHINO; Takashi; ISHIYAMA; Jun; SUZUKI

    2010-01-01

    In order to study convergence zones or discontinuous lines formed locally in the Taklimakan Desert,we analyzed available MODIS images onboad TERRA or AQUA satellite for ten cases:29 March 2002,14 April 2002;2 January 2003;21 April 2003;26 March 2004;28 April 2004;30 January 2005;25 June 2005;3 December 2005;and 26 July 2006.We used weather maps published by the Japan Mete-orological Agency for the Asia and Pacific region at 500 hPa,700 hPa and 850 hPa,at 00Z and 12Z to analyze the meteorological conditions occurring in each case.We estimated the positions of air streams,convergence zones or discontinuous lines between them,and thermal conditions on the maps and con-firmed the presence of cumulus and cumulonimbus clouds through satellite images in particular.After a review of previous studies,this paper introduced the results of the present study.Closed warm areas in the Taklimakan Desert and on the Tibetan Plateau and local convergence zones or discontinuous lines in the Taklimakan Desert were discussed together with their diurnal changes,using composite maps of the ten cases.Along the long axis of the desert the convergence zones or discontinuous lines normally extend 70-80 km in a west-east direction,but are suspected to exceed 100 km in extreme cases.On the other hand,the convergence zones or discontinuous lines extending in a north-south direction on the southern fringe of the desert have a length of 40-60 km.The closed warm areas show clear diurnal changes,but they were not detected at the 500 hPa level.An example of a clear convergence zone running in a north-south direction on 26 July 2006 was presented in detail with corresponding satellite images.

  2. Louisiana Speaks Regional Plan Vision Special Economic Zones, UTM Zone 15N NAD83, Louisiana Recovery Authority (2007), [louisiana_speaks_vision_special_economic_zones

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This GIS shapefile data illustrates special economic zones included in the Louisiana Speaks Regional Plan Vision. Special economic zones include existing national,...

  3. Earthcasting the future Critical Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Goddéris

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract As humans continue to impact the Critical Zone, we need to project how our environment will evolve into the future. To model such change requires the ability to simulate interactions among the lithosphere, pedosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and atmosphere — including the activities of humans. Such projections, which some have called earthcasts, must be made with mechanistic models that capture the important phenomena, as well as scenarios of human behavior. As an example, we present earthcasts of future weathering in the mid-continent of the USA into the next century of projected warming. Rates of sequestration of CO2 from the atmosphere due to weathering will change in the future as carbonate and silicate minerals are dissolved or precipitated in soil. The downward or upward advance of the carbonate reaction front in the soil is an analogue of the oceanic lysocline. Like the movement of the oceanic lysocline in response to oceanic acidification, this terrestrial lysocline will likely move due to fluxes of CO2 driven by human activity. Understanding this and other responses to perturbations will best be achieved using multiple models for earthcasting.

  4. UV Habitable Zones Further Constrain Possible Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-02-01

    Where should we search for life in the universe? Habitable zones are traditionallydetermined based on the possibility of liquid water existing on a planet but ultraviolet (UV) radiation also plays a key role.The UV Habitable ZoneSchematic showing how the traditional habitable zones location and width changes around different types of stars. The UV habitable zone also hasdifferent locations and widths depending on the mass and metallicity of the star. [NASA/Kepler Mission/Dana Berry]Besides the presence of liquid water, there are other things life may need to persist. For life as we know it, one important elementis moderate UV radiation: if a planet receives too little UV flux, many biological compounds cant be synthesized. If it receives too much, however, then terrestrial biological systems (e.g. DNA) can be damaged.To determinethe most likely place to findpersistent life, we should therefore look for the region where a stars traditional habitable zone, within which liquid water is possible, overlaps with its UV habitable zone, within which the UV flux is at the right level to support life.Relationship between the stellar mass and location of the boundaries of the traditional and UV habitable zones for a solar-metallicity star. din and dout denote inner and outer boundaries, respectively. ZAMS and TMS denote when the star joins and leaves the main sequence, respectively. The traditional and UV habitable zones overlap only for stars of 11.5 solar masses. [Adapted from Oishi and Kamaya 2016]Looking for OverlapIn a recent study, two scientists from the National Defense Academy of Japan, Midori Oishi and Hideyuki Kamaya, explored howthe location of this UV habitable zone and that of its overlap with the traditional habitable zone might be affected by a stars mass and metallicity.Oishi and Kamaya developed a simple evolutional model of the UV habitable zone in stars in the mass range of 0.084 solar masses with metallicities of roughly solar metallicity (Z=0.02), a

  5. Trading Zones in Early Modern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Pamela O

    2015-12-01

    This essay adopts the concept of trading zones first developed for the history of science by Peter Galison and redefines it for the early modern period. The term "trading zones" is used to mean arenas in which substantive and reciprocal communication occurred between individuals who were artisanally trained and learned (university-trained) individuals. Such trading zones proliferated in the sixteenth century. They tended to arise in certain kinds of places and not in others, but their existence must be determined empirically. The author's work on trading zones differs from the ideas of Edgar Zilsel, who emphasized the influence of artisans on the scientific revolution. In contrast, in this essay, the mutual influence of artisans and the learned on each other is stressed, and translation is used as a modality that was important to communication within trading zones.

  6. Imaging the megathrust zone and Yakutat/Pacific plate interface in the Alaska subduction zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y.; Abers, G. A.; Li, J.; Christensen, D. H.; Rondenay, S.

    2013-12-01

    We image the subducted slab underneath a 450 km long transect of the Alaska subduction zone. Dense stations in southern Alaska are set up to investigate (1) the geometry and velocity structure of the downgoing plate and their relationship to slab seismicity, and (2) the interplate coupled zone where the great 1964 earthquake (magnitude 9.3) exhibited the largest amount of rupture. The joint teleseismic migration of two array datasets based on teleseismic receiver functions (RFs) reveals a prominent, shallow-dipping low-velocity layer at ~25-30 km depth in southern Alaska. Modeling of RF amplitudes suggests the existence of a thin (3-5 km) low-velocity layer (shear wave velocity of ~2.0-2.5 km/s) that is ~20-40% slower than underlying oceanic crustal velocities, and is sandwiched between the subducted slab and the overriding North America plate. The observed low-velocity megathrust layer (with P-to-S velocity ratio of 1.9-2.3) may be due to a thick sediment input from the trench in combination with elevated pore fluid pressure in the channel. The subducted crust below the low-velocity channel has gabbroic velocities with a thickness of ~15 km. Both velocities and thickness of the low-velocity channel abruptly increase downdip in central Alaska, which agrees with previously published results. Our image also includes an unusually thick low-velocity crust subducting with a ~20 degree dip down to 130 km depth at approximately 200 km inland beneath central Alaska. The unusual nature of this subducted segment has been suggested to be due to the subduction of the Yakutat terrane. We also show a clear image of the Yakutat and Pacific plate subduction beneath the Kenai Peninsula, and the along-strike boundary between them at megathrust depths. Our imaged western edge of the Yakutat terrane, at 25-30 km depth in the central Kenai along the megathrust, aligns with the western end of a geodetically locked patch with high slip deficit, and coincides with the boundary of

  7. Imaging megathrust zone and Yakutat/Pacific plate interface in Alaska subduction zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y.; Abers, G. A.; Li, J.; Christensen, D. H.; Calkins, J. A.

    2013-05-01

    We image the subducted slab underneath a 450 km long transect of the Alaska subduction zone. Dense stations in southern Alaska are set up to investigate (1) the geometry and velocity structure of the downgoing plate and their relation to slab seismicity, and (2) the interplate coupled zone where the great 1964 (magnitude 9.3) had greatest rupture. The joint teleseismic migration of two array datasets (MOOS, Multidisciplinary Observations of Onshore Subduction, and BEAAR, Broadband Experiment Across the Alaska Range) based on teleseismic receiver functions (RFs) using the MOOS data reveal a shallow-dipping prominent low-velocity layer at ~25-30 km depth in southern Alaska. Modeling of these RF amplitudes shows a thin (plate. The observed low-velocity megathrust layer (with P-to-S velocity ratio (Vp/Vs) exceeding 2.0) may be due to a thick sediment input from the trench in combination of elevated pore fluid pressure in the channel. The subducted crust below the low-velocity channel has gabbroic velocities with a thickness of 11-12 km. Both velocities and thickness of the low-velocity channel abruptly increase as the slab bends in central Alaska, which agrees with previously published RF results. Our image also includes an unusually thick low-velocity crust subducting with a ~20 degree dip down to 130 km depth at approximately 200 km inland beneath central Alaska. The unusual nature of this subducted segment has been suggested to be due to the subduction of the Yakutat terrane. We also show a clear image of the Yakutat and Pacific plate subduction beneath the Kenai Peninsula, and the along-strike boundary between them at megathrust depths. Our imaged western edge of the Yakutat terrane, at 25-30 km depth in the central Kenai along the megathrust, aligns with the western end of the geodetically locked patch with high slip deficit, and coincides with the boundary of aftershock events from the 1964 earthquake. It seems plausible that this sharp change in the nature of

  8. Internal structure of fault zones in geothermal reservoirs: Examples from palaeogeothermal fields and potential host rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonie Philipp, Sonja; Reyer, Dorothea; Meier, Silke; Bauer, Johanna F.; Afşar, Filiz

    2014-05-01

    Fault zones commonly have great effects on fluid transport in geothermal reservoirs. During fault slip all the pores and small fractures that meet with the slip plane become interconnected so that the inner part of the fault, the fault core, consisting of breccia or gouge, may suddenly develop a very high permeability. This is evidenced, for example by networks of mineral veins in deeply eroded fault zones in palaeogeothermal fields. Inactive faults, however, may have low permeabilities and even act as flow barriers. In natural and man-made geothermal reservoirs, the orientation of fault zones in relation to the current stress field and their internal structure needs be known as accurately as possible. One reason is that the activity of the fault zone depends on its angle to the principal stress directions. Another reason is that the outer part of a fault zone, the damage zone, comprises numerous fractures of various sizes. Here we present field examples of faults, and associated joints and mineral veins, in palaeogeothermal fields, and potential host rocks for man-made geothermal reservoirs, respectively. We studied several localities of different stratigraphies, lithologies and tectonic settings: (1) 58 fault zones in 22 outcrops from Upper Carboniferous to Upper Cretaceous in the Northwest German Basin (siliciclastic, carbonate and volcanic rocks); (2) 16 fault zones in 9 outcrops in Lower Permian to Middle Triassic (mainly sandstone, limestone and granite) in the Upper Rhine Graben; and (3) 74 fault zones in two coastal sections of Upper Triassic and Lower Jurassic age (mudstones and limestone-marl alternations) in the Bristol Channel Basin, UK. (1) and (2) are outcrop analogues of geothermal reservoir horizons, (3) represent palaeogeothermal fields with mineral veins. The field studies in the Northwest German Basin (1) show pronounced differences between normal-fault zones in carbonate and clastic rocks. In carbonate rocks clear damage zones occur that are

  9. Sediment properties and CO2 efflux from intact and cleared temperate mangrove forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulmer, R. H.; Lundquist, C. J.; Schwendenmann, L.

    2015-10-01

    Temperate mangrove forests in New Zealand have increased in area over recent decades. Expansion of temperate mangroves in New Zealand is associated with perceived loss of other estuarine habitats, and decreased recreational and amenity values, resulting in clearing of mangrove forests. In the tropics, changes in sediment characteristics and carbon efflux have been reported following mangrove clearance. This is the first study in temperate mangrove (Avicennia marina) forests investigating the impact of clearing on sediment CO2 efflux and associated biotic and abiotic factors. Sediment CO2 efflux rates from intact (168.5 ± 45.8 mmol m-2 d-1) and cleared (133.9 ± 37.2 mmol m-2 d-1) mangrove forests in New Zealand are comparable to rates measured in tropical mangrove forests. We did not find a significant difference in sediment CO2 efflux rates between intact and cleared temperate mangrove forests. Pre-shading the sediment for more than 30 min prior to dark chamber measurements was found to have no significant effect on sediment CO2 efflux. This suggests that the continuation of photosynthetic CO2 uptake by biofilm communities was not occurring after placement of dark chambers. Rather, above-ground mangrove biomass, sediment temperature and chlorophyll a concentration were the main factors explaining the variability in sediment CO2 efflux in intact mangrove forests. The main factors influencing sediment CO2 efflux in cleared mangrove forest sites were sediment organic carbon concentration, nitrogen concentration and sediment grain size. Our results show that greater consideration should be given regarding the rate of carbon released from mangrove forest following clearance and the relative contribution to global carbon emissions.

  10. A Supplementary Clear-Sky Snow and Ice Recognition Technique for CERES Level 2 Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radkevich, Alexander; Khlopenkov, Konstantin; Rutan, David; Kato, Seiji

    2013-01-01

    Identification of clear-sky snow and ice is an important step in the production of cryosphere radiation budget products, which are used in the derivation of long-term data series for climate research. In this paper, a new method of clear-sky snow/ice identification for Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is presented. The algorithm's goal is to enhance the identification of snow and ice within the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data after application of the standard CERES scene identification scheme. The input of the algorithm uses spectral radiances from five MODIS bands and surface skin temperature available in the CERES Single Scanner Footprint (SSF) product. The algorithm produces a cryosphere rating from an aggregated test: a higher rating corresponds to a more certain identification of the clear-sky snow/ice-covered scene. Empirical analysis of regions of interest representing distinctive targets such as snow, ice, ice and water clouds, open waters, and snow-free land selected from a number of MODIS images shows that the cryosphere rating of snow/ice targets falls into 95% confidence intervals lying above the same confidence intervals of all other targets. This enables recognition of clear-sky cryosphere by using a single threshold applied to the rating, which makes this technique different from traditional branching techniques based on multiple thresholds. Limited tests show that the established threshold clearly separates the cryosphere rating values computed for the cryosphere from those computed for noncryosphere scenes, whereas individual tests applied consequently cannot reliably identify the cryosphere for complex scenes.

  11. A pilot study comparing opaque, weighted bottles with conventional, clear bottles for infant feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Alison K; Pollack Golen, Rebecca

    2015-02-01

    It is hypothesized that the visual and weight cues afforded by bottle-feeding may lead mothers to overfeed in response to the amount of liquid in the bottle. The aim of the present pilot study was to test this hypothesis by comparing mothers' sensitivity and responsiveness to infant cues and infants' intakes when mothers use opaque, weighted bottles (that remove visual and weight cues) compared to conventional, clear bottles to feed their infants. We also tested the hypothesis that mothers' pressuring feeding style would moderate the effect of bottle type. Formula-feeding dyads (N = 25) visited our laboratory on two separate days. Mothers fed their infants from a clear bottle one day and an opaque, weighted bottle on the other; bottle-order was counterbalanced across the two days. Infant intake was assessed by weighing each bottle before and after the feeding. Maternal sensitivity and responsiveness to infant cues was objectively assessed using the Nursing Child Assessment Feeding Scale. Mothers were significantly more responsive to infant cues when they used opaque compared to clear bottles (p = .04). There was also a trend for infants to consume significantly less formula when fed from opaque compared to clear bottles (p = .08). Mothers' pressuring feeding style moderated the effect of bottle type on maternal responsiveness to infant cues (p = .02) and infant intake (p = .03). Specifically, mothers who reported higher levels of pressuring feeding were significantly more responsive to their infants' cues (p = .02) and fed their infants significantly less formula when using opaque versus clear bottles (p = .01); no differences were seen for mothers who reported lower levels of pressuring feeding. This study highlights a simple, yet effective intervention for improving the bottle-feeding practices of mothers who have pressuring feeding styles.

  12. A Massive Spiral Galaxy in the Zone of Avoidance

    CERN Document Server

    Donley, J L; Koribalski, B S; Kraan-Korteweg, R C; Schröder, A; Staveley-Smith, L

    2006-01-01

    We report the discovery of a very HI-massive disk galaxy, HIZOA J0836-43, at a velocity of v_hel = 10689 km/s, corresponding to a distance of 148 Mpc (assuming H_0=75 km/s/Mpc). It was found during the course of a systematic HI survey of the southern Zone of Avoidance (|b| < 5 deg) with the multibeam system at the 64m Parkes radio telescope. Follow-up observations with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) reveal an extended HI disk. We derive an HI mass of 7.5 x 10^10 Msun. Using the HI radius, we estimate a total dynamical mass of 1.4 x 10^12 Msun, similar to the most massive known disk galaxies such as Malin 1. HIZOA J0836-43 lies deep in the Zone of Avoidance (l, b = 262.48 deg, -1.64 deg) where the optical extinction is very high, A_B = 9.8. However, in the near-infrared wavebands, where the extinction is considerably lower, HIZOA J0836-43 is clearly detected by both DENIS and 2MASS. Deep AAT near-infrared (Ks and H-band) images show that HIZOA J0836-43 is an inclined disk galaxy with a promine...

  13. The Mantle Transition Zone in Central-Eastern Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, H. A.; Thybo, H.; Vinnik, L. P.

    2015-12-01

    We present results of a Receiver Function (RF) study of the mantle transition zone (TZ) in Central-Eastern Greenland. The base of this study is data from 19 broad-band seismometers, which were temporarily installed from 2009 to 2012 in the region between Scoresbysund and Summit (~ 70º N) plus 5 permanent stations from the GLISN network. One half of these stations were installed on the ice, the other half on bedrock.Our analysis is based on low frequency PRF, which use the difference in travel times between converted and not converted phasesat discontinuities. Most of our RFs show clear signals for P410s and P660s. Their delay times suggest a surprisingly thin mantle transition zone for most parts of the study area in comparison to standard Earth models, and much thinner than below other continental shield and platform areas. This could indicate a fairly recent heating of the TZ. Another observation is an M-shaped signal around the 410 km - discontinuity at some of the stations mainly in the western part around Summit. This observation is contrary to the expected simple negative signal. It may indicate a thin low velocity layer between 410 km and 520 km, as it has previously been observed in several settings based on converted waves and also explosion data. Most of our stations show positive travel time anomalies for the upper mantle, which again is contrary to simple models of old continental shields.

  14. A slow slip event along the northern Ecuadorian subduction zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocquet, J.; Mothes, P. A.; Vallee, M.; Regnier, M.

    2009-12-01

    Rapid subduction of the Nazca plate beneath the Ecuador-Colombia margin (~58 mm/yr) has produced one of the largest megathrust earthquake sequence during the last century. The 500-km-long rupture zone of the 1906 (Mw = 8.8) event was partially reactivated by three thrust events; in 1942 (Mw = 7.8), 1958 (Mw = 7.7), and 1979 (Mw = 8.2), whose rupture zones abut one another. New continuously-recording GPS stations installed along the Ecuadorian coast, together with campaign sites observed since 1994 indicate that the current velocities results from the superimposition of a NNE motion the crustal North Andean Block occurring at ~8 mm/yr in Ecuador and the elastic deformation involved by partial locking of the subduction interface. We first estimate the long-term kinematics of the North Andean block in a joint inversion including GPS data, earthquake slip vectors and quaternary slip rates on major faults. The inversion provides a Euler pole located at long. -107.8°E, lat. 36.2°N, 0.091°/Ma and indicates little internal deformation of the North Andean Block (wrms=1.3 mm/yr). Residual velocities with respect to the North Andean Block are then modeled in terms of elastic locking along the subduction interface. Models indicate that the subduction interface is partially locked (50%) up to a depth of 40 km. Finally, we report a transient event that occurred in early 2008 near the Ecuador-Colombia border. The magnitude of the trenchward displacement is 13 mm, with uplift of similar magnitude. While the total duration of the slip event is 5 months, the horizontal time series clearly shows two sub-phases of slip with approximatively similar magnitud of displacement and duration, separated by 6 weeks. Modelling indicates that the slip occurs at 40 km depth, immediately below downdip extension of the locked zone.

  15. Formulating a coastal zone health metric for landuse impact management in urban coastal zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anilkumar, P P; Varghese, Koshy; Ganesh, L S

    2010-11-01

    The need for ICZM arises often due to inadequate or inappropriate landuse planning practices and policies, especially in urban coastal zones which are more complex due to the larger number of components, their critical dimensions, attributes and interactions. A survey of literature shows that there is no holistic metric for assessing the impacts of landuse planning on the health of a coastal zone. Thus there is a need to define such a metric. The proposed metric, CHI (Coastal zone Health Indicator), developed on the basis of coastal system sustainability, attempts to gauge the health status of any coastal zone. It is formulated and modeled through an expert survey and pertains to the characteristic components of coastal zones, their critical dimensions, and relevant attributes. The proposed metric is applied to two urban coastal zones and validated. It can be used for more coast friendly and sustainable landuse planning/masterplan preparation and thereby for the better management of landuse impacts on coastal zones.

  16. TUM Critical Zone Observatory, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völkel, Jörg; Eden, Marie

    2014-05-01

    Founded 2011 the TUM Critical Zone Observatory run by the Technische Universität München and partners abroad is the first CZO within Germany. TUM CZO is both, a scientific as well as an education project. It is a watershed based observatory, but moving behind this focus. In fact, two mountainous areas are integrated: (1) The Ammer Catchment area as an alpine and pre alpine research area in the northern limestone Alps and forelands south of Munich; (2) the Otter Creek Catchment in the Bavarian Forest with a crystalline setting (Granite, Gneiss) as a mid mountainous area near Regensburg; and partly the mountainous Bavarian Forest National Park. The Ammer Catchment is a high energy system as well as a sensitive climate system with past glacial elements. The lithology shows mostly carbonates from Tertiary and Mesozoic times (e.g. Flysch). Source-to-sink processes are characteristic for the Ammer Catchment down to the last glacial Ammer Lake as the regional erosion and deposition base. The consideration of distal depositional environments, the integration of upstream and downstream landscape effects are characteristic for the Ammer Catchment as well. Long term datasets exist in many regards. The Otter Creek catchment area is developed in a granitic environment, rich in saprolites. As a mid mountainous catchment the energy system is facing lower stage. Hence, it is ideal comparing both of them. Both TUM CZO Catchments: The selected catchments capture the depositional environment. Both catchment areas include historical impacts and rapid land use change. Crosscutting themes across both sites are inbuilt. Questions of ability to capture such gradients along climosequence, chronosequence, anthroposequence are essential.

  17. A Volcanic Hydrogen Habitable Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Ramses M.; Kaltenegger, Lisa

    2017-03-01

    The classical habitable zone (HZ) is the circular region around a star in which liquid water could exist on the surface of a rocky planet. The outer edge of the traditional N2–CO2–H2O HZ extends out to nearly ∼1.7 au in our solar system, beyond which condensation and scattering by CO2 outstrips its greenhouse capacity. Here, we show that volcanic outgassing of atmospheric H2 can extend the outer edge of the HZ to ∼2.4 au in our solar system. This wider volcanic-hydrogen HZ (N2–CO2–H2O–H2) can be sustained as long as volcanic H2 output offsets its escape from the top of the atmosphere. We use a single-column radiative-convective climate model to compute the HZ limits of this volcanic hydrogen HZ for hydrogen concentrations between 1% and 50%, assuming diffusion-limited atmospheric escape. At a hydrogen concentration of 50%, the effective stellar flux required to support the outer edge decreases by ∼35%–60% for M–A stars. The corresponding orbital distances increase by ∼30%–60%. The inner edge of this HZ only moves out ∼0.1%–4% relative to the classical HZ because H2 warming is reduced in dense H2O atmospheres. The atmospheric scale heights of such volcanic H2 atmospheres near the outer edge of the HZ also increase, facilitating remote detection of atmospheric signatures.

  18. Nitrification and nitrifying bacterial communities in coniferous forest soils. Effects of liming and clear-cutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeckman, Jenny

    2003-05-01

    This thesis deals with the effects of liming and clear-cutting on nitrification in hemi-boreal and northern temperate coniferous forest soils. The approach has been to study both the potential nitrification and the community structure of the ammonia-oxidising bacteria, which carry out the first step of autotrophic nitrification. The potential nitrification was measured over short time incubations at optimal conditions for acid-sensitive, autotrophic nitrification. This method yields the potential nitrification of the actual nitrifying community. I studied the autotrophic ammonia-oxidising community at gene level (16S rRNA gene) using molecular methods, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP), and DNA sequencing. The results illustrate that both liming and clear-cutting may increase the potential nitrification by stimulating the growth of ammonia-oxidisers. Both these forest practises seem to favour the growth of Nitrosospira cluster 4-affiliated ammonia-oxidisers, although Nitrosospira cluster 2-affiliated bacteria also was present. The stimulated growth of the ammonia-oxidisers is caused by increased ammonia availability and more favourable pH (i.e. higher and more stable pH over time). The results also show that clear-cutting causes more intense growth of the ammonia-oxidisers and thereby larger potential nitrification than liming does. When forests that have previously been limed are clear-cut, nitrification responses more rapidly and the rates are larger compared to non-limed forests, since the ammonia-oxidising communities in limed soils seem better adapted to the conditions after the cutting. Liming does, however, not always increase nitrification. Although it may increase nitrogen mineralisation, it seems like the nitrogen status of the soil prior to liming is the most important factor, since liming caused the greatest response in potential nitrification in areas

  19. Evolution of the landscape along the Clear Creek Corridor, Colorado; urbanization, aggregate mining and reclamation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbogast, Belinda; Knepper, Daniel H.; Melick, Roger A.; Hickman, John

    2002-01-01

    Prime agricultural land along the Clear Creek floodplain, Colorado, attracted settlement in the 1850's but the demand for sand and gravel for 1900's construction initiated a sequence of events that exceeded previous interests and created the modified landscape and urban ecosystem that exists today. The Clear Creek valley corridor offers a landscape filled with a persistent visible and hidden reminder of it's past use. The map sheets illustrate the Clear Creek landscape as a series of compositions, both at the macro view (in the spatial context of urban structure and highways from aerial photographs) and micro view (from the civic scale where landscape features like trees, buildings, and sidewalks are included). The large-scale topographic features, such as mountains and terraces, appear 'changeless' (they do change over geologic time), while Clear Creek has changed from a wide braided stream to a narrow confined stream. Transportation networks (streets and highways) and spiraling population growth in adjacent cities (from approximately 38,000 people in 1880 to over a million in 1999) form two dominant landscape patterns. Mining and wetland/riparian occupy the smallest amount of land use acres compared to urban, transportation, or water reservoir activities in the Clear Creek aggregate reserve study area. Four types of reclaimed pits along Clear Creek were determined: water storage facilities, wildlife/greenbelt space, multiple-purpose reservoirs, and 'hidden scenery.' The latter involves infilling gravel pits (with earth backfill, concrete rubble, or sanitary landfill) and covering the site with light industry or residential housing making the landform hard to detect as a past mine site. Easier to recognize are the strong-edged, rectilinear water reservoirs, reclaimed from off-channel sand and gravel pits that reflect the land survey grid and property boundaries. The general public may not realize softly contoured linear wildlife corridors connecting urban

  20. Does the Nazca Slab Beneath Central Argentina Influence the Water Content of the Adjacent Transition Zone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booker, J. R.; Pomposiello, M. C.; Favetto, A.; Burd, A.

    2008-12-01

    When the Nazca flat-slab rolls over and plunges into the transition zone under Argentina, it appears to separate an electrically resistive transition zone to the west from an electrically conductive transition zone to the east. The simplest explanation for this is that the water content of the transition zone is much lower to the west than the east. The low conductivity to the west can be explained if anhydrous upper mantle mantle is being carried down into the transition zone by slab motion. The much higher conductivity to the east is beneath the Rio de la Plata Craton whose root almost certainly inhibits vertical motion east of the slab. Thus water injected by the descending slab is likely to accumulate in the transition zone. This idea was first presented in a Nature paper in 2004. Since then, we have collected more magnetotelluric data to the south where the slab dip is normal, but voluminous back-arc basaltic volcanism occurs and in the region where the slab is said to be flexing continuously between the two geometries. A goal of this work is to test whether the slab has a similar relation to transition zone conductivity along strike. The new data, originally collected along linear profiles perpendicular to the expected strike of the slab in the mantle clearly indicated that 2-D interpretation would be problematic. Indeed, analysis of new data in the flexure region using 2-D methods reveals a narrow, roughly east-west, near vertical resistive structure extending down to the top of a conductive transition zone. A possible, but controversial interpretation of this structure is that it is the signature of a slab tear rather than the widely-accepted continuous flexure geometry. If a tear is indeed correct, then there is an opportunity to test how the slab is influencing the transition zone conductivity and by inference the water content by looking at the southern edge of the plunging 'flat- slab' as it enters the transition zone. Since the original data were

  1. Radiation danger of exclusion zone objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kholosha, V.I.; Proskura, N.I.; Ivanov, Yu.A.; Kazakov, S.V.; Arkhipov, A.N. [Ministry of Ukraine of Emergencies and Affairs of Population Protection from the Consequences of Chornobyl Catastrophe (Ukraine)

    2001-03-01

    The analysis of radiation danger of the Exclusion Zone objects was made. Here, the Zone is defined as the territory from which the population has been evacuated in 1986 owing to the Chernobyl accident and possible outflow of the contaminated substances out of the borders is potentially dangerous to the Ukraine. In the present work were analyzed such problems as sources of radiation danger in the Zone, ways of radionuclide migration out of the borders of the Zone in normal and emergency situations, the non-radiation (ecological) danger factors of the Zone objects, doses (individual and collective) from various sources and on separate ways of their formation, and the characteristics of radiation danger of the Zone objects. The conclusions are: (1) Radionuclide flows both from technologic and natural sources exceed those from Shelter objects, (2) Under emergency conditions, radionuclide flows and doze loading remain comparable with those from emergency sources, (3) To solve some management tasks in radiation situation, the basic works on the Shelter objects should be oriented to decrease probability of emergency occurrence and to reduce radiation influence (prevention wash-outs during high waters, fire-prevention measures in forests and strengthening of the control behind non-authorized use of objects in the Zone). (S. Ohno)

  2. Shear zone junctions: Of zippers and freeways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passchier, Cees W.; Platt, John P.

    2017-02-01

    Ductile shear zones are commonly treated as straight high-strain domains with uniform shear sense and characteristic curved foliation trails, bounded by non-deforming wall rock. Many shear zones, however, are branched, and if movement on such branches is contemporaneous, the resulting shape can be complicated and lead to unusual shear sense arrangement and foliation geometries in the wall rock. For Y-shaped shear zone triple junctions with three joining branches and transport direction at a high angle to the branchline, only eight basic types of junction are thought to be stable and to produce significant displacement. The simplest type, called freeway junctions, have similar shear sense in all three branches. The other types show joining or separating behaviour of shear zone branches similar to the action of a zipper. Such junctions may have shear zone branches that join to form a single branch (closing zipper junction), or a single shear zone that splits to form two branches, (opening zipper junction). All categories of shear zone junctions show characteristic foliation patterns and deflection of markers in the wall rock. Closing zipper junctions are unusual, since they form a non-active zone with opposite deflection of foliations in the wall rock known as an extraction fault or wake. Shear zipper junctions can form domains of overprinting shear sense along their flanks. A small and large field example are given from NE Spain and Eastern Anatolia. The geometry of more complex, 3D shear zone junctions with slip parallel and oblique to the branchline is briefly discussed.

  3. A Study of Global Cirrus Cloud Morphology with AIRS Cloud-clear Radiances (CCRs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dong L.; Gong, Jie

    2012-01-01

    Version 6 (V6) AIRS cloud-clear radiances (CCR) are used to derive cloud-induced radiance (Tcir=Tb-CCR) at the infrared frequencies of weighting functions peaked in the middle troposphere. The significantly improved V 6 CCR product allows a more accurate estimation of the expected clear-sky radiance as if clouds are absent. In the case where strong cloud scattering is present, the CCR becomes unreliable, which is reflected by its estimated uncertainty, and interpolation is employed to replace this CCR value. We find that Tcir derived from this CCR method are much better than other methods and detect more clouds in the upper and lower troposphere as well as in the polar regions where cloud detection is particularly challenging. The cloud morphology derived from the V6 test month, as well as some artifacts, will be shown.

  4. Global solar irradiance in Cordoba: Clearness index distributions conditioned to the optical air mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varo, M.; Pedros, G.; Martinez-Jimenez, P. [Applied Physics Department, EPS, University of Cordoba, C/Maria Virgen y Madre s/n., Cordoba 14004 (Spain); Aguilera, M.J. [Applied Physics Department, ETSIAM, University of Cordoba, C/Menendez Pidal, s/n., Cordoba, 14004 (Spain)

    2006-07-15

    The biological and photochemical effects of solar radiation and solar energy applications make it really important to characterize the variability of this component. In view of the fact that the clearness index indicates not only the level of availability of solar radiation but also the changes in atmospheric conditions in a given location, since the classic Liu and Jordan study, many papers have dealt with its statistical distribution. Specifically, Tovar et al. [Tovar J, Olmo FJ, Alados-Arboledas L. Solar Energy 1998;62(6):387-393] proposed a model to represent the probability density distributions of the instantaneous clearness index conditioned to the optical air mass from measurements recorded in Granada (Spain). In this work, we have proved the applicability of this model in a different location, Cordoba (Spain), finding that the parameters for fitting the model depend on both the optical air mass and the geographic and climatic conditions. (author)

  5. Effects of clear topical ointment on transepidermal water loss in jaundiced pretermm infants receiving phototherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wananukul, S; Praisuwanna, P; Kesorncam, K

    2001-06-01

    Thirty jaundiced preterm infants, gestational age incubators were included. 1.5 ml of clear topical ointment was applied on the right side of the trunk and extremities while the left side was used as control. Data collection included transepidermal water loss (TEWL), ambient temperature and ambient humidity, before and at 30 minutes, 4-6 hours after application of the ointment during phototherapy. The measurements were executed both the right and left side in 3 positions; upper arm, back, lower leg. TEWL was reduced by 29 per cent (P value humidity were not significantly different (P value > 0.18). We concluded that application of clear topical ointment on the skin of jaundiced preterm infants receiving conventional phototherapy in incubators reduced TEWL significantly.

  6. Modifying the Balanced Scorecard for a Network Industry The Case of the Clearing Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlistalla, Michael; Schaper, Torsten

    The Balanced Scorecard (BSC) is a well-established framework for the management of a company as it integrates financial and non-financial perspectives. Little attention has been given to its theoretical and conceptual valuation. We illustrate how the stakeholder value theory corresponds with the concept of the BSC and show the importance of underlying cause-and-effect relationships between its perspectives. For the case of clearing in Europe which is currently facing profound changes, we present our three-phased approach how to adjust and to extend Kaplan and Norton’s original concept. We modify the generic BSC by adding risk management as a separate perspective and by integrating competition and IT. Based on multiple case studies, we then validate whether the modified BSC is suited to meet the specifics of the clearing industry.

  7. Primary Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma of a Urethral Diverticulum Treated with Multidisciplinary Robotic Anterior Pelvic Exenteration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dane Scantling

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary urethral carcinoma is extremely rare and is marked by a variety of clinical symptoms. Primary carcinoma of a urethral diverticulum is still rarer and clear cell adenocarcinoma of the urethra is particularly uncommon (Swartz et al., 2006. Such infrequency has led to inadequate management guidance in the literature for a disease that is often late in presentation and carries substantial morbidity and mortality. This treatable but grave disease deserves definitive curative treatment. We present the first published instance in which it was treated with robotic anterior exenteration. In our case, a 47-year-old female was referred to the urology service for investigation of recurring urinary tract infections. During the workup, the patient was found to have an advanced clear cell urethral adenocarcinoma originating in a urethral diverticulum. We discuss the natural history of this condition, its consequences, and the first instance of its treatment using robotic anterior pelvic exenteration.

  8. Clear cell myoepithelioma of palate with emphasis on clinical and histological differential diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Bindu J; Vivek, Velayudhannair; Sivakumar, Trivandrum T; Joseph, Anna P; Varun, Babyamma Raghavanpillai; Mony, Vinod

    2014-03-27

    Myoepitheliomas account for less than 1% of all salivary gland tumors and mostly occur in the parotid gland and palate. A 58-year old male patient reported to the Outpatient Department of PMS College of Dental Science and Research (Kerala, India) with a slow growing painless swelling on the palate for 4 years. Pleomorphic adenoma, basal cell adenoma, myoepithelioma, cyst adenoma, lipoma, neurofibroma, neurilemmoma and leiomyoma were considered. Histopathology revealed a thinly encapsulated tumor composed mainly of sheets of clear cells mixed with cells having eosinophilic cytoplasm. Histopathological differential diagnosis included pleomorphic adenoma, oncocytoma, oncocytic hyperplasia, sebaceous adenoma, malignant salivary gland neoplasms and metastatic lesions from kidney and thyroid. Myoepitheliomas mostly occur in the parotid gland and palatal region and various histological types of myoepithelioma are described. Myoepitheliomas of the palate are rare with clear cell variant even rarer.

  9. A comparison between radiovisiography and clearing technique in the study of the root canal types

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daming Wu; Younong Wu

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To compare the radiovisiography (RVG) with the clearing technique using Kappa value in the study of the root canal types. Methods: One hundred recently extracted human maxillary first premolars were used. Standard periapical RVG images were taken from a buccolingual and mesiodistal direction. The specimens were then accessed, injected with ink, demineralized,dehydrated, and finally were cleared. The RVG images and the transparent teeth were examined by a trained endodontist, and the date of root canal types following Wu's classification was collected. Results: The reliability of RVG was high for studies on simple root canals,but was poor for the studies on the multiple root canals. The Kappa value between the two techniques was 0.3793, indicating the agreement was poor. Conclusion: It is concluded that the limited value of RVG alone when studying certain aspect of the root canal system. The resolution of the RVG system should be enhanced.

  10. Production and perception of listener-oriented clear speech in child language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrett, Kristen; Kawahara, Shigeto

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we ask whether children are sensitive to the needs of their interlocutor, and, if so, whether they - like adults - modify acoustic characteristics of their speech as part of a communicative goal. In a production task, preschoolers participated in a word learning task that favored the use of clear speech. Children produced vowels that were longer, more intense, more dispersed in the vowel space, and had a more expanded F0 range than normal speech. Two perception studies with adults showed that these acoustic differences were perceptible and were used to distinguish normal and clear speech styles. We conclude that preschoolers are sensitive to aspects of the speaker-hearer relationship calling upon them to modify their speech in ways that benefit their listener.

  11. Gridded bathymetry data of Clear Creek Reservoir, Chaffee County, Colorado, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Michael S.

    2017-01-01

    To better characterize the water supply capacity of Clear Creek Reservoir, Chaffee County, Colorado, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Pueblo Board of Water Works and Colorado Mountain College, carried out a bathymetry survey of Clear Creek Reservoir. The bathymetry data of the reservoir is presented here in a 1-foot grid. The bathymetry survey was carried out June 6–9, 2016, using a man-operated boat-mounted, multibeam echo sounder integrated with a Global Positioning System (GPS) and a terrestrial survey using real-time kinematic (RTK) Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). The two collected datasets were merged and imported into geographic information system software. The equipment and methods used in this study allowed water-resource managers to maintain typical reservoir operations, eliminating the need to empty the reservoir to carry out the survey.

  12. Systematic Evaluation of the Prognostic Impact and Intratumour Heterogeneity of Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma Biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulati, Sakshi; Martinez, Pierre; Joshi, Tejal;

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundCandidate biomarkers have been identified for clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) patients, but most have not been validated. ObjectiveTo validate published ccRCC prognostic biomarkers in an independent patient cohort and to assess intratumour heterogeneity (ITH) of the most promising...... markers to guide biomarker optimisation. Design, setting, and participantsCancer-specific survival (CSS) for each of 28 identified genetic or transcriptomic biomarkers was assessed in 350 ccRCC patients. ITH was interrogated in a multiregion biopsy data set of 10 ccRCCs. Outcome measurements...... of published biomarkers to predict the survival of patients with clear cell kidney cancer in an independent patient cohort. Only one molecular test adds prognostic information to routine clinical assessments. This marker showed good and poor prognosis results within most individual cancers. Future biomarkers...

  13. Count rate performance study of the Lausanne ClearPET scanner demonstrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rey, M. [LPHE, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)]. E-mail: martin.rey@epfl.ch; Jan, S. [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, CEA, F-91401 Orsay (France); Vieira, J.-M. [LPHE, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Mosset, J.-B. [LPHE, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Krieguer, M. [IIHE, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Comtat, C. [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, CEA, F-91401 Orsay (France); Morel, C. [CPPM, CNRS-IN2P3, Universite de la Mediterranee Aix-Marseille II, F-13288 Marseille (France)

    2007-02-01

    This paper presents the count rate measurements obtained with the Lausanne partial ring ClearPET scanner demonstrator and compares them against GATE Monte Carlo simulations. For the present detector setup, a maximum single event count rate of 1.1 Mcps is measured or a 250-750 keV energy window. This corresponds to a coincidence count rate of approximately 22 kcps. Good agreements are observed between measured and simulated data. Count rate performance, including Noise Equivalent Count (NEC) curves, are determined and extrapolated for a full ring ClearPET design using GATE Monte Carlo simulations. For a full ring design with three rings of detector modules, NEC is peaking at about 70 kcps for 20 MBq.

  14. Comparison of Enamel and Stainless Steel Electron Cloud Clearing Electrodes Tested in the CERN Proton Synchrotron

    CERN Document Server

    Caspers, Friedhelm; Mahner, C; Wendel, JC

    2010-01-01

    During the 2007 run with the nominal LHC proton beam, electron cloud has been clearly identified and characterized in the PS using a dedicated setup with shielded button-type pickups. Efficient electron cloud suppression could be achieved with a stainless steel stripline-type electrode biased to negative and positive voltages up to ± 1 kV. For the 2008 run, a second setup was installed in straight section 84 of the PS where the stainless steel was replaced by a stripline composed of an enamel insulator with a resistive coating. In contrast to ordinary stripline electrodes this setup presents a very low beam coupling impedance and could thus be envisaged for long sections of high-intensity machines. Here, we present first comparative measurements with this new type of enamel clearing electrode using the nominal LHC beam with 72 bunches and 25 ns bunch spacing.

  15. Clear cell variant of squamous cell carcinoma of skin: A report of a case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Oluwatoyin Lawal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Clear cell squamous cell carcinoma (SCC is a rare variant of SCC of skin in which ultraviolet radiation has been suggested as possible etiology. This case is that of a 62-year-old male concrete block maker/bricklayer who presented with a 6 months history of a non-healing ulcer on the left side of his face. Histology showed features of malignant epithelial neoplasm composed of islands of large oval to polyhedral malignant squamous cells with eosinophilic to amphophilic cytoplasm and vesicular nuclei and there were areas showing clear cell differentiation and isolated areas of keratin pearl formation. The lesion was also negative for periodic acid schiff, mucicarmine, and alcian blue stains but was strongly positive for AE1/AE3 (immuno-stain. This case showed an aggressive and bizarre clinical presentation but more report of cases are needed to have a better characterization of the clinical presentation and prognosis of this variant of SCC.

  16. Clear cell variant of squamous cell carcinoma of skin: A report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawal, Ahmed Oluwatoyin; Adisa, Akinyele Olumuyiwa; Olajide, Mofoluwaso A; Olusanya, Adeola Adenike

    2013-01-01

    Clear cell squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a rare variant of SCC of skin in which ultraviolet radiation has been suggested as possible etiology. This case is that of a 62-year-old male concrete block maker/bricklayer who presented with a 6 months history of a non-healing ulcer on the left side of his face. Histology showed features of malignant epithelial neoplasm composed of islands of large oval to polyhedral malignant squamous cells with eosinophilic to amphophilic cytoplasm and vesicular nuclei and there were areas showing clear cell differentiation and isolated areas of keratin pearl formation. The lesion was also negative for periodic acid schiff, mucicarmine, and alcian blue stains but was strongly positive for AE1/AE3 (immuno-stain). This case showed an aggressive and bizarre clinical presentation but more report of cases are needed to have a better characterization of the clinical presentation and prognosis of this variant of SCC.

  17. Transdimensional imaging of random velocity inhomogeneities in Nankai subduction zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, T.; Obana, K.; Yamamoto, Y.; Kaiho, Y.; Nakanishi, A.; Kodaira, S.; Kaneda, Y.

    2014-12-01

    The Nankai trough in southwestern Japan is a convergent margin where the Philippine Sea plate is subducting beneath the Eurasian plate. We have conducted five seismic observations with ocean bottom seismograms (OBSs) from 2008 to 2012 to elucidate detailed seismic structures and its relations with fault segments of large earthquakes. These observations covered the entire area of the Nankai trough, but quantity and quality of data are not spatially uniform because of different observing lengths and various noises. Waveform data of OBSs suggests variously-sized anomalies of random velocity inhomogeneity (i.e., scattering strength) in this subduction zone. To clarify details of random inhomogeneity structures, we conducted a transdimensional imaging of random inhomogeneities by means of the reversible jump Markov Chain Monte Carlo (rjMCMC) without assuming smooth spatial distributions of unknown parameters. We applied the rjMCMC for the inversion of peak delay times of S-wave envelopes at 4-8, 8-16, and 16-32 Hz, where the peak delay time is defined as the time lag from the S-wave onset to its maximal amplitude arrival. This delay time mainly reflects the accumulated multiple forward scattering effect due to random inhomogeneities. We assumed the von Karman type power spectral density function (PSDF) for random velocity fluctuation, and estimated two parameters related with the PSDF at large wavenumber. Study area is partitioned by discrete Voronoi cells of which number and spatial sizes are variable. Estimated random inhomogeneities show clear lateral variations along the Nankai trough. The strongest inhomogeneity on the Nankai trough was found near the subducted Kyushu-Palau ridge that is located at the western margin of the fault segments. We also find a horizontal variation of inhomogeneity along the non-volcanic tremor zone. Relatively strong inhomogeneities in this tremor zone were imaged beneath west Shikoku and Kii-Peninsula. These anomalies were not clearly

  18. Knowledge-based flow field zoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Alison E.

    1988-01-01

    Automation flow field zoning in two dimensions is an important step towards easing the three-dimensional grid generation bottleneck in computational fluid dynamics. A knowledge based approach works well, but certain aspects of flow field zoning make the use of such an approach challenging. A knowledge based flow field zoner, called EZGrid, was implemented and tested on representative two-dimensional aerodynamic configurations. Results are shown which illustrate the way in which EZGrid incorporates the effects of physics, shape description, position, and user bias in a flow field zoning.

  19. New national seismic zoning map of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高孟潭

    2003-01-01

    A new set of seismic zoning maps were published in August 1,200l. It includes two maps, one is the seismic zon-ing map of peak acceleration, and the other is the zoning map of the characteristic period of the response spectrum.The exceeding probability of the map is 10% within 50 years. The scale of the map is 1:4 000 000. These mapsserve as the national standard. The background of this project, technical approach and key scientific measures, thebasic feature and the application of the maps are introduced in this paper.

  20. Flow and transport in Riparian Zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jannick Kolbjørn

    of riparian zones are extended by accounting for the effect of flooding and a key result is that flooding enhances nitrate removal given the right hydrogeological characteristics. Moreover the re-established riparian zones were characterized to understand the effects of flooding on subsurface hydrological......) and easurements of discharge to the river by seepage meter and river bed temperatures. The numerical model was used to simulate how observed dynamic seasonal flooding affects groundwater flow paths, residence times, and formation of zones with flow stagnation, all of which are key aspects in evaluating...