WorldWideScience

Sample records for clear zones

  1. PLANETARY CHAOTIC ZONE CLEARING: DESTINATIONS AND TIMESCALES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, Sarah; Malhotra, Renu [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2015-01-20

    We investigate the orbital evolution of particles in a planet's chaotic zone to determine their final destinations and their timescales of clearing. There are four possible final states of chaotic particles: collision with the planet, collision with the star, escape, or bounded but non-collision orbits. In our investigations, within the framework of the planar circular restricted three body problem for planet-star mass ratio μ in the range 10{sup –9} to 10{sup –1.5}, we find no particles hitting the star. The relative frequencies of escape and collision with the planet are not scale-free, as they depend upon the size of the planet. For planet radius R{sub p} ≥ 0.001 R{sub H} where R{sub H} is the planet's Hill radius, we find that most chaotic zone particles collide with the planet for μ ≲ 10{sup –5}; particle scattering to large distances is significant only for higher mass planets. For fixed ratio R{sub p} /R{sub H} , the particle clearing timescale, T {sub cl}, has a broken power-law dependence on μ. A shallower power law, T {sub cl} ∼ μ{sup –1/3}, prevails at small μ where particles are cleared primarily by collisions with the planet; a steeper power law, T {sub cl} ∼ μ{sup –3/2}, prevails at larger μ where scattering dominates the particle loss. In the limit of vanishing planet radius, we find T {sub cl} ≈ 0.024 μ{sup –3/2}. The interior and exterior boundaries of the annular zone in which chaotic particles are cleared are increasingly asymmetric about the planet's orbit for larger planet masses; the inner boundary coincides well with the classical first order resonance overlap zone, Δa {sub cl,} {sub int} ≅ 1.2 μ{sup 0.28} a{sub p} ; the outer boundary is better described by Δa {sub cl,} {sub ext} ≅ 1.7 μ{sup 0.31} a{sub p} , where a{sub p} is the planet-star separation.

  2. Planetary chaotic zone clearing: destinations and timescales

    CERN Document Server

    Morrison, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the orbital evolution of particles in a planet's chaotic zone to determine their final destinations and their timescales of clearing. There are four possible final states of chaotic particles: collision with the planet, collision with the star, escape, or bounded but non-collision orbits. In our investigations, within the framework of the planar circular restricted three body problem for planet-star mass ratio $\\mu$ in the range $10^{-9}$ to $10^{-1.5}$, we find no particles hitting the star. The relative frequencies of escape and collision with the planet are not scale-free, as they depend upon the size of the planet. For planet radius $R_p\\ge0.001R_H$ where $R_H$ is the planet's Hill radius, we find that most chaotic zone particles collide with the planet for $\\mu\\lesssim10^{-5}$; particle scattering to large distances is significant only for higher mass planets. For fixed ratio $R_p/R_H$, the particle clearing timescale, $T_{cl}$, has a broken power-law dependence on $\\mu$. A shallower power...

  3. 32 CFR 256.9 - Real estate interests to be considered for clear zones and accident potential zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Real estate interests to be considered for clear zones and accident potential zone. 256.9 Section 256.9 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued....9 Real estate interests to be considered for clear zones and accident potential zone. (a) The...

  4. Clear Zone Formation around Screws in the Early Postoperative Stages after Posterior Lumbar Fusion Using the Cortical Bone Trajectory Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Ninomiya, Koshi; Iwatsuki, Koichi; Ohnishi, Yu-ichiro; Ohkawa, Toshika; Yoshimine, Toshiki

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective study. Purpose To evaluate the initial fixation using the cortical bone trajectory (CBT) technique for posterior lumbar fusion through assessment of the clear zones around the screws and the risk factors involved. Overview of Literature Postoperative radiolucent zones (clear zones) are an indicator of poor conventional pedicle screw fixation. Methods Between January 2013 and April 2014, 19 patients (8 men and 11 women) underwent posterior lumbar interbody fusion or ...

  5. Synaptophysin 1 Clears Synaptobrevin 2 from the Presynaptic Active Zone to Prevent Short-Term Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajit Rajappa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Release site clearance is an important process during synaptic vesicle (SV recycling. However, little is known about its molecular mechanism. Here we identify self-assembly of exocytosed Synaptobrevin 2 (Syb2 and Synaptophysin 1 (Syp1 by homo- and hetero-oligomerization into clusters as key mechanisms mediating release site clearance for preventing cis-SNARE complex formation at the active zone (AZ. In hippocampal neurons from Syp1 knockout mice, neurons expressing a monomeric Syb2 mutant, or after acute block of the ATPase N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF, responsible for cis-SNARE complex disassembly, we found strong frequency-dependent short-term depression (STD, whereas retrieval of Syb2 by compensatory endocytosis was only affected weakly. Defects in Syb2 endocytosis were stimulus- and frequency-dependent, indicating that Syp1 is not essential for Syb2 retrieval, but for its efficient clearance upstream of endocytosis. Our findings identify an SV protein as a release site clearance factor.

  6. CLEAR Landscape Change Module: No Increased Restoration and Protection, UTM Zone 15N NAD83, Coastal Louisiana Ecosystem Assessment and Restoration (2007), [CLEAR_Output_NIA_012307_final

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — The Coastal Louisiana Ecosystem Assessment and Restoration (CLEAR) Framework is an integrated ecosystem forecasting system, designed to simulate ecological change...

  7. CLEAR Landscape Change Module: Preliminary Draft Coastal Protection and Restoration Authority Master Plan, UTM Zone 15N NAD83, Coastal Louisiana Ecosystem Assessment and Restoration (2007), [clear_ouput_cpra_pdmp_012307

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — The Coastal Louisiana Ecosystem Assessment and Restoration (CLEAR) Framework is an integrated ecosystem forecasting system, designed to simulate ecological change...

  8. Clearing, transparency, and collateral

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Carli; Francesca Carapella; Gaetano Antinolfi

    2014-01-01

    In an environment of Over-The-Counter trading with adverse selection we study traders' incentives to screen their counterparties under different clearing arrangements. When the clearing arrangement is also a choice, traders decide which types of transactions to clear under each arrangement, with signicant consequences for transparency and collateral requirements. The key trade-off is between insurance and the value of information: on one hand risk averse traders want to smooth consumption and...

  9. Snow-clearing operations

    CERN Multimedia

    EN Department

    2010-01-01

    To facilitate snow clearing operations, which commence at 4.30 in the morning, all drivers of CERN cars are kindly requested to park them together in groups. This will help us greatly assist us in our work. Thank-you for your help. Transport Group / EN-HE Tel. 72202

  10. Hudson_Clearing.m

    OpenAIRE

    Rigby, S.E.

    2014-01-01

    This MATLAB code allows the user to generate a series of keyword files for use with LS-DYNA to predict the blast load and evaluate the effects of blast wave clearing on a finite-sized, deformable target. User doccumentation is provided.

  11. Clear cell sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar Ozuguz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant melanoma (MM of soft tissue, also called clear cell sarcoma (CCS of tendons and aponeuroses, derives from the neural crest. CCS is similar morphologically to MM but has no precursor skin lesion, and instead, has a characteristic chromosomal translocation. Prognosis is related to the tumor size. Early recognition and initial radical surgery is the key to a favorable outcome. The tumor has to be differentiated from other benign and malignant lesions of the soft tissues, such as fibrosarcoma. The demonstration of melanin and a positive immunohistochemical reaction for S-100 protein and HMB-45 can assist in the differential diagnosis. We report the case of a 58-year-old woman with CCS arising from the soft tissue of her little finger.

  12. Different Apparent Gas Exchange Coefficients for CO2 and CH4: Comparing a Brown-Water and a Clear-Water Lake in the Boreal Zone during the Whole Growing Season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantakari, Miitta; Heiskanen, Jouni; Mammarella, Ivan; Tulonen, Tiina; Linnaluoma, Jessica; Kankaala, Paula; Ojala, Anne

    2015-10-01

    The air-water exchange of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) is a central process during attempts to establish carbon budgets for lakes and landscapes containing lakes. Lake-atmosphere diffusive gas exchange is dependent on the concentration gradient between air and surface water and also on the gas transfer velocity, often described with the gas transfer coefficient k. We used the floating-chamber method in connection with surface water gas concentration measurements to estimate the gas transfer velocity of CO2 (kCO2) and CH4 (kCH4) weekly throughout the entire growing season in two contrasting boreal lakes, a humic oligotrophic lake and a clear-water productive lake, in order to investigate the earlier observed differences between kCO2 and kCH4. We found that the seasonally averaged gas transfer velocity of CH4 was the same for both lakes. When the lakes were sources of CO2, the gas transfer velocity of CO2 was also similar between the two study lakes. The gas transfer velocity of CH4 was constantly higher than that of CO2 in both lakes, a result also found in other studies but for reasons not yet fully understood. We found no differences between the lakes, demonstrating that the difference between kCO2 and kCH4 is not dependent on season or the characteristics of the lake. PMID:26359720

  13. To Clear or Not To Clear - That Is the Question

    OpenAIRE

    Downing, Adam; Childs, Corey; Porr, C. A. Shea

    2009-01-01

    Many options exist if you do decide to clear land. Regardless of the option you choose, the primary goal should be the same: to minimize soil loss and movement during and immediately after the land clearing process.

  14. Clearing and vegetation management issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clearing and continued management of incompatible plant species is critical to maintaining safe and reliable transmission and distribution lines at British Columbia Hydro. As part of a general review of policies regarding rights-of-way, the clearing of BC Hydro rights-of-way was studied by a task team in order to formulate a set of recommended policies and procedures to guide employees in all rights-of-way decisions, and to provide clear direction for resolution of all rights-of-way issues in a cost-effective manner. Issues reviewed were: clearing standards and line security standardization for transmission circuits; clearing rights for removal of trees or management of vegetation beyond the statutory right-of-way; clearing and vegetation management procedures; tree replacement; arboricultural techniques; periodic reviewing of clearing practices; compensation for tree removal; herbicide use; and heritage and wildlife trees. Justification for the recommendation is provided along with alternate options and costs of compliance

  15. 75 FR 68390 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The Options Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-05

    ... futures necessitated by the use of European banks and time zone differences. \\3\\ 15 U.S.C. 78q-1. (B) Self... time zone differences and the planned use of accounts at North American and European clearing...

  16. Media Language, Clear or Obscure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Bjarne le Fevre; Ejstrup, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Abstract— Be clear, not obscure. One of the four maxims for optimal communication is that it is essential to develop proficiency in being concise and clear. The question is whether this is really a good idea in all contexts. There is some evidence to the contrary. Undoubtedly, we have many contex...

  17. Clear Cell Basal Cell Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Bo Wang; Tracey Harbert; Jennifer Olivella; Daniel Olson; Sarma, Deba P; Stephanie Ortman

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Clear cell basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is an uncommon and unusual variant of BCC, which is characterized by a variable component of clear cells. The pathogenesis of this histological variant and its clinical significance has not been clarified. Differentiation of this uncommon variant of BCC from other clear cell tumors is important for the treatment. Case Presentation. A 65-year-old male presented with a 0.9 cm dome-shaped lesion on his upper chest. A shave biopsy revealed a der...

  18. Media Language, Clear or Obscure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejstrup, Michael; le Fevre Jakobsen, Bjarne

    2015-01-01

    Be clear, not obscure. One of the four maxims for optimal communication is that it is essential to develop proficiency in being concise and clear. The question is whether this is really a good idea in all contexts. There is some evidence to the contrary. Undoubtedly, we have many contexts where it...... is important for mutual understanding that we be clear and concise. This is true of instructions for electronic equipment and for household appliances. Here, linguistic brevity and clarity may be preferable, but not in other cases. Culture, globalization, and the recognition of ever faster growth in...

  19. 77 FR 21277 - Customer Clearing Documentation, Timing of Acceptance for Clearing, and Clearing Member Risk...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-09

    ... for Processing, Clearing, and Transfer of Customer Positions, 76 FR 13101 (Mar. 10, 2011). \\6... (Aug. 1, 2011). \\11\\ See 76 FR 33066 (Jun. 6, 2011). II. Customer Clearing Documentation A... customer when trading with that SD or MSP. \\12\\ See 76 FR 45730 at 45731, Aug. 1, 2011. \\13\\ See...

  20. Plain Language Clear and Simple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Literacy Secretariat, Ottawa (Ontario).

    Written for Canadian public servants and written with their help, this handbook presents principles and tips to make official writing clear, concise, and well organized. The handbook defines "plain language" writing as a technique of organizing information in ways that make sense to the reader--using familiar, straightforward words. The handbook…

  1. The art of thinking clearly

    CERN Document Server

    Dobelli, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    The Art of Thinking Clearly by world-class thinker and entrepreneur Rolf Dobelli is an eye-opening look at human psychology and reasoning — essential reading for anyone who wants to avoid “cognitive errors” and make better choices in all aspects of their lives. Have you ever: Invested time in something that, with hindsight, just wasn’t worth it? Or continued doing something you knew was bad for you? These are examples of cognitive biases, simple errors we all make in our day-to-day thinking. But by knowing what they are and how to spot them, we can avoid them and make better decisions. Simple, clear, and always surprising, this indispensable book will change the way you think and transform your decision-making—work, at home, every day. It reveals, in 99 short chapters, the most common errors of judgment, and how to avoid them.

  2. Central Clearing of OTC Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cont, Rama; Kokholm, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    netting agreements. When a CCP exists for interest rate derivatives, adding a CCP for credit derivatives is shown to decrease overall exposures. These findings are shown to be robust to the statistical assumptions of the model as well as the choice of risk measure used to quantify exposures....... classes are realistically taken into account. We argue that empirically plausible specifications of model parameters lead to the conclusion that central clearing does reduce interdealer exposures: the gain from multilateral netting in a CCP overweighs the loss of netting across asset classes in bilateral...

  3. The ClearPET project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Crystal Clear Collaboration has designed and is building a high-resolution small animal PET scanner. The design is based on the use of the Hamamatsu R7600-M64 multi-anode photomultiplier tube and a LSO/LuYAP phoswich matrix with one to one coupling between the crystals and the photo-detector. The complete system will have 80 PM tubes in four rings with an inner diameter of 137 mm and an axial field of view of 110 mm. The PM pulses are digitized by free-running ADCs and digital data processing determines the gamma energy, the phoswich layer and even the pulse arrival time. Single gamma interactions are recorded and coincidences are found by software. The gantry allows rotation of the detector modules around the field of view. Simulations, and measurements a 2x4 module test set-up predict a spatial resolution of 1.5 mm in the centre of the field of view and a sensitivity of 5.9% for a point source in the centre of the field of view

  4. CO2 Efflux from Cleared Mangrove Peat

    OpenAIRE

    Lovelock, Catherine E.; Roger W Ruess; Feller, Ilka C.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: CO(2) emissions from cleared mangrove areas may be substantial, increasing the costs of continued losses of these ecosystems, particularly in mangroves that have highly organic soils. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We measured CO(2) efflux from mangrove soils that had been cleared for up to 20 years on the islands of Twin Cays, Belize. We also disturbed these cleared peat soils to assess what disturbance of soils after clearing may have on CO(2) efflux. CO(2) efflux from soils de...

  5. 27 CFR 9.99 - Clear Lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Clear Lake. 9.99 Section 9... TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.99 Clear Lake. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Clear Lake.” (b) Approved...

  6. Hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma: A rare entity

    OpenAIRE

    P Venkat Baghirath; J Vijay Kumar; B Hari Vinay

    2011-01-01

    Hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma (HCCC) is an uncommon malignant salivary gland tumor accounting for about 1% of all intra-oral salivary gland tumors. Microscopic diagnosis of clear cell carcinoma may be challenging because of the spectrum of features which frequently overlaps with the other salivary gland tumors that contain clear cells, and thus it may be a diagnosis of exclusion. Here we, report a case of HCCC in a 36 years old female with detailed histological, histochemical and immunohis...

  7. Clear cell carcinoma of the lung.

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, C; Carlile, A

    1985-01-01

    Six tumours of the lung initially classified as clear cell carcinoma, were studied. Examination of further material by light and electron microscopy showed adenocarcinomatous differentiation in three cases and squamous differentiation in two. One case showed the features of a large cell anaplastic carcinoma. The clear appearance of the cytoplasm in paraffin sections was due to accumulations of glycogen that were partially removed during processing. It is concluded that clear cell carcinoma is...

  8. Primary clear cell sarcoma of bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clear cell sarcoma is a rare soft tissue sarcoma of young adults with melanocytic differentiation. It occurs predominantly in the soft tissue of extremities, typically involving tendons and aponeuroses. Primary clear cell sarcoma of bone is extremely rare. We report a case of primary clear cell sarcoma of the right first metatarsal in a 48-year-old woman and provide a literature review of the entity. (orig.)

  9. Clearing over-the-counter derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Ed Nosal

    2011-01-01

    Prior to the financial crisis of 2008, the over-the-counter derivatives market was not required to “clear” transactions. This changed with the signing of the new financial reform legislation, the Dodd–Frank Act on July 21, 2010. Going forward, most OTC derivatives will be cleared through a particular set of institutional arrangements: a regulated clearinghouse. This article provides an overview of how clearing works, the potential benefits of central clearing for OTC derivatives, and the opti...

  10. 17 CFR 39.4 - Procedures for implementing derivatives clearing organization rules and clearing new products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... product until its registration as a derivatives clearing organization is reinstated under the procedures... clearing a new product that is not traded on a designated contract market or a registered derivatives... of the product that make it acceptable for clearing with a certification that the clearing of...

  11. 76 FR 45724 - Clearing Member Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ... techniques or other forms of information technology. Comments may be submitted directly to the Office of... COMMISSION 17 CFR Parts 1 and 23 RIN 3038-AD51 Clearing Member Risk Management AGENCY: Commodity Futures... extensive regulations addressing open access and risk management at the derivatives clearing...

  12. Internalization, Clearing and Settlement, and Liquidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degryse, H.A.; van Achter, M.; Wuyts, G.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: We study the relation between liquidity in financial markets and post-trading fees (i.e. clearing and settlement fees). The clearing and settlement agent (CSD) faces different marginal costs for different types of transactions. Costs are lower for an internalized transaction, i.e. when buy

  13. Acoustics of Clear Speech: Effect of Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Jennifer; Tjaden, Kris; Wilding, Greg

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated how different instructions for eliciting clear speech affected selected acoustic measures of speech. Method: Twelve speakers were audio-recorded reading 18 different sentences from the Assessment of Intelligibility of Dysarthric Speech (Yorkston & Beukelman, 1984). Sentences were produced in habitual, clear,…

  14. Keep Your Kidneys Clear: Kicking Kidney Stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Kidneys Clear Keep Your Kidneys Clear Kicking Kidney Stones Some say that passing a kidney stone is like delivering a baby made of razor ... is that, although they can be excruciatingly painful, kidney stones rarely cause permanent damage, and you may be ...

  15. SNOW CLEARING SERVICE WINTER 2001-2002

    CERN Multimedia

    ST-HM Group; Tel. 72202

    2001-01-01

    As usual at this time of the year, the snowing clearing service, which comes under the control of the Transport Group (ST-HM), is preparing for the start of snow-clearing operations (timetable, stand-by service, personnel responsible for driving vehicles and machines, preparation of useful and necessary equipment, work instructions, etc.) in collaboration with the Cleaning Service (ST-TFM) and the Fire Brigade (TIS-FB). The main difficulty for the snow-clearing service is the car parks, which cannot be properly cleared because of the presence of CERN and private vehicles parked there overnight in different parts of the parking areas. The ST-HM Transport Group would therefore like to invite you to park vehicles together in order to facilitate the access of the snow ploughs, thus allowing the car parks to be cleared more efficiently before the personnel arrives for work in the mornings.

  16. Clear Cell Carcinoma and Clear Cell Odontogenic Carcinoma: a Comparative Clinicopathologic and Immunohistochemical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Bilodeau, Elizabeth A.; Hoschar, Aaron P.; Barnes, E. Leon; Hunt, Jennifer L.; Seethala, Raja R.

    2011-01-01

    Clear cell carcinoma or hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma (CCC) and clear cell odontogenic carcinoma (CCOC) are rare, low-grade and typically indolent malignancies that can be diagnostically challenging. In this study the clinicopathologic, histologic, and immunohistochemical features of 17 CCCs and 12 CCOCs are examined. The differential diagnosis of clear cell malignancies in the head and neck is discussed. The relationship of CCCs and CCOCs to other clear cell tumors on the basis of their i...

  17. Zone refining of plutonium metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The zone refining process was applied to Pu metal containing known amounts of impurities. Rod specimens of plutonium metal were melted into and contained in tantalum boats, each of which was passed horizontally through a three-turn, high-frequency coil in such a manner as to cause a narrow molten zone to pass through the Pu metal rod 10 times. The impurity elements Co, Cr, Fe, Ni, Np, U were found to move in the same direction as the molten zone as predicted by binary phase diagrams. The elements Al, Am, and Ga moved in the opposite direction of the molten zone as predicted by binary phase diagrams. As the impurity alloy was zone refined, δ-phase plutonium metal crystals were produced. The first few zone refining passes were more effective than each later pass because an oxide layer formed on the rod surface. There was no clear evidence of better impurity movement at the slower zone refining speed. Also, constant or variable coil power appeared to have no effect on impurity movement during a single run (10 passes). This experiment was the first step to developing a zone refining process for plutonium metal

  18. High Altitude Clear Air Turbulence Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory conducted the High Altitude Clear Air Turbulence Project in the mid 1960s with the intention of better understanding air...

  19. Primary clear cell carcinoma of the larynx.

    OpenAIRE

    G.Pesavento; Ferlito, A; Recher, G.

    1980-01-01

    The clinical and pathological findings in three patients with clear cell carcinoma of the larynx are described. This type of neoplasm in the larynx is extremely rare. The aggressiveness of the tumour and its high biological malignancy are stressed.

  20. Clear corneal incision in cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar M Al Mahmood

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the introduction of sutureless clear corneal cataract incisions, the procedure has gained increasing popularity worldwide because it offers several advantages over the traditional sutured scleral tunnels and limbal incisions. Some of these benefits include lack of conjunctival trauma, less discomfort and bleeding, absence of suture-induced astigmatism, and faster visual rehabilitation. However, an increasing incidence of postoperative endophthalmitis after clear corneal cataract surgery has been reported. Different authors have shown a significant increase up to 15-fold in the incidence of endophthalmitis following clear corneal incision compared to scleral tunnels. The aim of this report is to review the advantages and disadvantages of clear corneal incisions in cataract surgery, emphasizing on wound construction recommendations based on published literature.

  1. Ion clearing the the XLS-ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bozoki, E.S.; Halama, H.

    1990-01-01

    The mechanism of ion capture by the beam, their effects on the beam as well as ways to clear the ions are discussed. Special attention is given to these questions for the SXLS ring. 20 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Ion clearing the the XLS-ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanism of ion capture by the beam, their effects on the beam as well as ways to clear the ions are discussed. Special attention is given to these questions for the SXLS ring. 20 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  3. komunikace značky Clean & Clear

    OpenAIRE

    Nováková, Kateřina

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to describe a communication campaign of Clean & Clear brand. A brand owned by Johnson & Johnson company specializing in cosmetics for teenage girls. Campaign is described into details, evaluated in terms of effectiveness of its communication tools by achieving marketing goals over a specified period of time. This thesis should confirm the suitability and effectivity of the communication mix applied for Clean & Clear brand in a specific enviroment of anti-acne c...

  4. Governance of securities clearing and settlement systems

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Russo; Terry L. Hart; Chryssa Papathanassiou

    2004-01-01

    In the context of securities clearing and settlement systems, the nature of governance arrangements acquires a dimension that goes beyond their traditional function in corporate law. They constitute a tool for regulators and central banks to achieve their respective policy goals relating to market operation, market integrity, and systemic stability. In the light of the analysis of this paper, and pending a further evolution in the regulation of securities clearing and settlement in the Commun...

  5. Skin optical clearing potential of disaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wei; Shi, Rui; Ma, Ning; Tuchina, Daria K; Tuchin, Valery V; Zhu, Dan

    2016-08-01

    Skin optical clearing can significantly enhance the ability of biomedical optical imaging. Some alcohols and sugars have been selected to be optical clearing agents (OCAs). In this work, we paid attention to the optical clearing potential of disaccharides. Sucrose and maltose were chosen as typical disaccharides to compare with fructose, an excellent monosaccharide-OCA, by using molecular dynamics simulation and an ex vivo experiment. The experimental results indicated that the optical clearing efficacy of skin increases linearly with the concentration for each OCA. Both the theoretical predication and experimental results revealed that the two disaccharides exerted a better optical clearing potential than fructose at the same concentration, and sucrose is optimal. Since maltose has an extremely low saturation concentration, the other two OCAs with saturation concentrations were treated topically on rat skin in vivo, and optical coherence tomography imaging was applied to monitor the optical clearing process. The results demonstrated that sucrose could cause a more significant increase in imaging depth and signal intensity than fructose. PMID:27108771

  6. CO2 efflux from cleared mangrove peat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine E Lovelock

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: CO(2 emissions from cleared mangrove areas may be substantial, increasing the costs of continued losses of these ecosystems, particularly in mangroves that have highly organic soils. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We measured CO(2 efflux from mangrove soils that had been cleared for up to 20 years on the islands of Twin Cays, Belize. We also disturbed these cleared peat soils to assess what disturbance of soils after clearing may have on CO(2 efflux. CO(2 efflux from soils declines from time of clearing from ∼10,600 tonnes km(-2 year(-1 in the first year to 3000 tonnes km(2 year(-1 after 20 years since clearing. Disturbing peat leads to short term increases in CO(2 efflux (27 umol m(-2 s(-1, but this had returned to baseline levels within 2 days. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Deforesting mangroves that grow on peat soils results in CO(2 emissions that are comparable to rates estimated for peat collapse in other tropical ecosystems. Preventing deforestation presents an opportunity for countries to benefit from carbon payments for preservation of threatened carbon stocks.

  7. Coastal zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report entitled Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation : A Canadian Perspective, presents a summary of research regarding the impacts of climate change on key sectors over the past five years as it relates to Canada. This chapter on the coastal zone focuses on the impact of climate change on Canada's marine and Great Lakes coasts with tips on how to deal with the impacts associated with climate change in sensitive environments. This report is aimed at the sectors that will be most affected by adaptation decisions in the coastal zone, including fisheries, tourism, transportation and water resources. The impact of climate change in the coastal zone may include changes in water levels, wave patterns, storm surges, and thickness of seasonal ice cover. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change projects global average sea level will rise between 9 and 88 centimetres between 1990 to 2100, but not all areas of Canada will experience the same rate of future sea level change. The main physical impact would be shoreline change that could result in a range of biophysical and socio-economic impacts, some beneficial, some negative. The report focuses on issues related to infrastructure and communities in coastal regions. It is noted that appropriate human adaptation will play a vital role in reducing the extent of potential impacts by decreasing the vulnerability of average zone to climate change. The 3 main trends in coastal adaptation include: (1) increase in soft protection, retreat and accommodation, (2) reliance on technology such as geographic information systems to manage information, and (3) awareness of the need for coastal adaptation that is appropriate for local conditions. 61 refs., 7 figs

  8. 76 FR 47529 - Customer Clearing Documentation and Timing of Acceptance for Clearing; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-05

    ... Street, NW., Washington, DC 20581. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In FR Doc. 2011-19365 appearing on page... COMMISSION 17 CFR Parts 1, 23, and 39 RIN 3038-AD51 Customer Clearing Documentation and Timing of Acceptance... August 1, 2011, regarding Customer Clearing Documentation and Timing of Acceptance for Clearing....

  9. MODIS/Terra 8-Day Clear Sky Radiance Bias Daily L3 Global 1Deg Zonal Bands V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS 8-day clear-sky radiance bias (observed - calculated) statistics are provided for 1Deg latitudinal zones and selected thermal bands. Separation by day and...

  10. MODIS/Terra 8-Day Clear Sky Radiance Bias Daily L3 Global 1Deg Zonal Bands V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS 8-day clear-sky radiance bias (observed - calculated) statistics are provided for 1Deg latitudinal zones and selected thermal bands. Separation by day and...

  11. MODIS/Aqua 8-Day Clear Sky Radiance Bias Daily L3 Global 1Deg Zonal Bands V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS 8-day clear-sky radiance bias (observed - calculated) statistics are provided for 1Deg latitudinal zones and selected thermal bands. Separation by day and...

  12. MODIS/Aqua 8-Day Clear Sky Radiance Bias Daily L3 Global 1Deg Zonal Bands V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS 8-day clear-sky radiance bias (observed - calculated) statistics are provided for 1Deg latitudinal zones and selected thermal bands. Separation by day and...

  13. Oral Cavity Clear Cell Odontogenic Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginat, Daniel Thomas; Villaflor, Victoria; Cipriani, Nicole A

    2016-06-01

    A case of clear cell odontogenic carcinoma of the oral cavity is described in this sine qua non radiology-pathology correlation article. CT demonstrated a solid and cystic mass arising from the mandible. Histology demonstrated variably-sized nests of clear to pale eosinophilic cells with occasional central necrosis embedded in a hyalinized to fibrocellular stroma. The specimen was also positive for the characteristic rearrangement of the EWSR1 (22q12) locus in 93.5 % of interphase cells. PMID:25994920

  14. Clear Liquor Scrubbing with Anhydrite Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this project to develop an advanced flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process that has decreased capital and operating costs, higher SO2 removal efficiency, and better by-product solids quality than existing, commercially available technology. A clear liquor process (which uses a scrubbing liquid with no solids) will be used to accomplish this objective rather than a slurry liquor process (which contains solids). This clear liquor scrubbing (CLS) project is focused on three research areas: (1) Development of a clear liquor scrubbing process that uses a clear solution to remove SO2 from flue gas and can be operated under inhibited-oxidation conditions; (2) Development of an anhydrite process that converts precipitated calcium sulfite to anhydrous calcium sulfate (anhydrite); and (3) Development of an alkali/humidification process to remove HCl from flue gas upstream of the FGD system. The anhydrite process also can be retrofit into existing FGD systems to produce a valuable by-product as an alternative to gypsum. This fits well into another of FETC's PRDA objectives of developing an advanced byproduct recovery subsystem capable of transforming SO2 into a useable byproduct or high-volume valuable commodities of interest. This paper describes the proposed processes, outlines the test approach, and preliminary Phase I test results

  15. Lake Mead--clear and vital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessells, Stephen M.; Rosen, Michael

    2013-01-01

    “Lake Mead – Clear and Vital” is a 13 minute documentary relating the crucial role of science in maintaining high water quality in Lake Mead. The program was produced coincident with release of the Lakes Mead and Mohave Circular a USGS publication covering past and on-going research in the lakes and tributaries of the Lake Mead National Recreation Area.

  16. 77 FR 66219 - Clearing Agency Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-02

    ... Payment System Risk, 72 FR 2518 (Jan. 12, 2007). \\34\\ See FMI Report, supra note 32. II. Overview of... to clear credit default swaps. See Exchange Act Release Nos. 60372 (July 23, 2009), 74 FR 37748 (July 29, 2009), 61973 (Apr. 23, 2010), 75 FR 22656 (Apr. 29, 2010) and 63389 (Nov. 29, 2010), 75 FR...

  17. Plant Histology: Clearing and the Optical Section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, H. E.

    1985-01-01

    Clearing is a simple and rapid technique in which 75 percent lactic acid is used to remove pigments and cytoplasmic contents of fresh leaves, enabling microscopic view of various internal leaf layers. Procedures for using the technique (which helps students gain a more thorough understanding of plant anatomy) are given. (DH)

  18. Twin Convergence Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's QuikSCAT satellite has confirmed a 30-year old largely unproven theory that there are two areas near the equator where the winds converge year after year and drive ocean circulation south of the equator. By analyzing winds, QuikSCAT has found a year-round southern and northern Intertropical Convergence Zone. This find is important to climate modelers and weather forecasters because it provides more detail on how the oceans and atmosphere interact near the equator. The Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) is the region that circles the Earth near the equator, where the trade winds of both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres come together. North of the equator, strong sun and warm water of the equator heats the air in the ITCZ, drawing air in from north and south and causing the air to rise. As the air rises it cools, releasing the accumulated moisture in an almost perpetual series of thunderstorms. Satellite data, however, has confirmed that there is an ITCZ north of the equator and a parallel ITCZ south of the equator. Variation in the location of the ITCZ is important to people around the world because it affects the north-south atmospheric circulation, which redistributes energy. It drastically affects rainfall in many equatorial nations, resulting in the wet and dry seasons of the tropics rather than the cold and warm seasons of higher latitudes. Longer term changes in the ITCZ can result in severe droughts or flooding in nearby areas. 'The double ITCZ is usually only identified in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans on a limited and seasonal basis,' said Timothy Liu, of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif., and lead researcher on the project. In the eastern Pacific Ocean, the southern ITCZ is usually seen springtime. In the western Atlantic Ocean, the southern ITCZ was recently clearly identified only in the summertime. However, QuikSCAT's wind data has seen the southern ITCZ in all seasons across the

  19. Roadmap-Based Level Clearing of Buildings

    KAUST Repository

    Rodriguez, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we describe a roadmap-based approach for a multi-agent search strategy to clear a building or multi-story environment. This approach utilizes an encoding of the environment in the form of a graph (roadmap) that is used to encode feasible paths through the environment. The roadmap is partitioned into regions, e.g., one per level, and we design region-based search strategies to cover and clear the environment. We can provide certain guarantees within this roadmap-based framework on coverage and the number of agents needed. Our approach can handle complex and realistic environments where many approaches are restricted to simple 2D environments. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  20. Clear cell odontogenic carcinoma: A rare case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garima Jain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Clear cell odontogenic carcinoma is a rare neoplasm with very few cases reported in the literature. We report a case of a 50-year-old female patient with the malignancy at a less common location. Diagnosis was given based on the histopathologic findings. The demographic data and understanding for this tumor needs to be strengthened by reporting all new cases, which are diagnosed, in literature.

  1. Imaging of ovarian clear cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to examine the appearance of ovarian clear cell adenocarcinoma (OCCA) on MR, CT, US. In 39 cases with OCCA, the imaging characteristics of OCCA were evaluated morphologically and classified into three groups, that was, monomural nodule type, multi-mural nodule type and predominantly solid type. Forty-three percent of the patients had endometriosis. Contrast material-enhanced MRI was the most useful method for diagnosis of OCCA. (author)

  2. Renal Clear Cell Carcinoma and Tonsil Metastasis

    OpenAIRE

    Dario Marcotullio; Giannicola Iannella; Gian Franco Macri; Caterina Marinelli; Melissa Zelli; Giuseppe Magliulo

    2013-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma is the most common renal tumor in adults. Clear cell carcinoma represents 85% of all histological subtypes. In February 2012 a 72-year-old woman came to our department due to the appearance of massive hemoptysis and pharyngodinia. Previously, this patient was diagnosed with a renal cell carcinoma treated with left nephrectomy. We observed an exophytic, grayish, and ulcerated mass in the left tonsillar lodge and decided to subject the patient to an immediate tonsillectomy....

  3. Internet compromise clears way for WSIS agreement

    CERN Document Server

    Ermert, M

    2003-01-01

    A working group under the leadership of United Nations Secretary General Kofi Annan himself will try to resolve the deep differences on the question of Internet governance, officials said here. The group, whose exact membership wasn't immediately clear, is to propose a solution to the controversial issue that has given negotiators at the World Summit of the Information Society (WSIS) a headache (1/2 page).

  4. Imaging of ovarian clear cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Toshihiko; Sawano, Seishi; Yamada, Keiko [Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo (Japan). Hospital] (and others)

    1999-12-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the appearance of ovarian clear cell adenocarcinoma (OCCA) on MR, CT, US. In 39 cases with OCCA, the imaging characteristics of OCCA were evaluated morphologically and classified into three groups, that was, monomural nodule type, multi-mural nodule type and predominantly solid type. Forty-three percent of the patients had endometriosis. Contrast material-enhanced MRI was the most useful method for diagnosis of OCCA. (author)

  5. Rapid radiative clearing of protoplanetary discs

    CERN Document Server

    Haworth, Thomas J; Owen, James E

    2015-01-01

    The lack of observed transition discs with inner gas holes of radii greater than ~50AU implies that protoplanetary discs dispersed from the inside out must remove gas from the outer regions rapidly. We investigate the role of photoevaporation in the final clearing of gas from low mass discs with inner holes. In particular, we study the so-called "thermal sweeping" mechanism which results in rapid clearing of the disc. Thermal sweeping was originally thought to arise when the radial and vertical pressure scale lengths at the X-ray heated inner edge of the disc match. We demonstrate that this criterion is not fundamental. Rather, thermal sweeping occurs when the pressure maximum at the inner edge of the dust heated disc falls below the maximum possible pressure of X-ray heated gas (which depends on the local X-ray flux). We derive new critical peak volume and surface density estimates for rapid radiative clearing which, in general, result in rapid dispersal happening less readily than in previous estimates. Thi...

  6. Regional Integrated Tenets to Reinforce the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources (ClearZone)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The EURATOM Research and Training Programme on Nuclear Energy includes 2 main fields - fusion energy research and management of radioactive waste, radiation protection and other activities of nuclear technology and safety.Seven instruments (mechanisms) for projects management are used - 'Network of Excellence' (NOE); 'Integrated Project' (IP); 'Specific Targeted Research Project' or 'Specific Targeted Training Project' (STREP); 'Co-ordination Action' (CA); Actions to Promote and Develop Human Resources and Mobility Specific Support Actions; Integrated Infrastructure Initiatives. Two consecutive sub-projects are proposed: 'small' - countries of the Visegrad four + Austrian participant -within the 6th FP 'Specific Supported Actions' and 'large' - participation of more countries in the region - more oriented to practical implementation of the 'small' project findings - intention to use the 6th Framework Programme resources to co-financing the implementation activities. The main objectives are: to create effective lines of defense (prevention -detection - categorization - transport - storage) against malicious use of radioactive sources; to achieve and maintain a high level of safety and security of radioactive sources; to arise the radioactive sources management safety and security culture at the Central European region. Consortium of 11 organisations from Czech Republic, Slovak Republic, Austria, Hungary and Poland is established for the Project implementation. The Project task are grouped in the following areas: legislation, infrastructure, practices; metallurgical industry, cross border control; instrumentation and metrology; information system

  7. Nitrous oxide flux following tropical land clearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luizao, Flavio; Luizao, Regina; Matson, Pamela; Livingston, Gerald; Vitousek, Peter

    1989-01-01

    The importance of seasonal cycles of N2O flux from tropical ecosystems and the possibility that tropical deforestation could contribute to the ongoing global increase in N2O concentrations were assessed by measuring N2O flux from forest, cleared land, and pasture over an annual cycle in the central Amazon. A pasture that had been converted from tropical forest had threefold greater annual N2O flux than a paired forest site; similar results were obtained in spot measurements in other pastures. If these results are general, such tropical pastures represent a globally significant source of increased N2O.

  8. A gap clearing kicker for Main Injector

    CERN Document Server

    Kourbanis, I; Biggs, J; Brown, B; Capista, D; Jensen, C C; Krafczyk, G E; Morris, D K; Scott, D; Seiya, K; Ward, S R; Wu, G; Yang, M -J

    2012-01-01

    Fermilab Main Injector has been operating at high Beam Power levels since 2008 when multi-batch slip stacking became operational. In order to maintain and increase the beam power levels the localized beam loss due to beam left over in the injection kicker gap during slip stacking needs to be addressed. A set of gap clearing kickers that kick any beam left in the injection gap to the beam abort have been built. The kickers were installed in the summer of 2009 and became operational in November of 2010. The kicker performance and its effect on the beam losses will be described.

  9. Greenhouse problem in the Amazon jungle clearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the contribution of Amazon jungle clearing to the greenhouse problem and makes an assessment of long-run prospects. The introductory sections pose the problem from both international and Brazilian perspectives. The next section describes major features of the Amazonia ecosystems and presents methods and evidence on deforestation and on its impact on carbon dioxide emissions. Based upon cross-section information for a sample of municipalities in the Brazilian Amazon, the following section estimates elasticities of deforestation in relation to major economic factors- government policies included- and uses them to make projections for the future pace of deforestation. The last section discusses policy alternatives to slow down forest conversion

  10. CHINA'S WORST OIL LEAK CLEARED EXPENSIVELY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Eight days and nights of clean-up efforts after the worst oil leak ever in Chinese waters, the aftermath of a collision between two foreign ships happening at 9:35 pm on December 7 about 8 nautical miles away from the mouth of the Pearl River and near the Danjiang Island, have finally paid off. So far, hundreds of tons of waste oil and polluted water have been cleared up. A large area of oil spills has been cleaned thanks to the prompt and proper operation launched just two hours after the accident.

  11. The Protease Ste24 Clears Clogged Translocons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ast, Tslil; Michaelis, Susan; Schuldiner, Maya

    2016-01-14

    Translocation into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the first step in the biogenesis of thousands of eukaryotic endomembrane proteins. Although functional ER translocation has been avidly studied, little is known about the quality control mechanisms that resolve faulty translocational states. One such faulty state is translocon clogging, in which the substrate fails to properly translocate and obstructs the translocon pore. To shed light on the machinery required to resolve clogging, we carried out a systematic screen in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that highlighted a role for the ER metalloprotease Ste24. We could demonstrate that Ste24 approaches the translocon upon clogging, and it interacts with and generates cleavage fragments of the clogged protein. Importantly, these functions are conserved in the human homolog, ZMPSTE24, although disease-associated mutant forms of ZMPSTE24 fail to clear the translocon. These results shed light on a new and critical task of Ste24, which safeguards the essential process of translocation. PMID:26771486

  12. Nuclear threat. A clear and present danger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was disappointed at the discussion in the review conference of the NPT held in 2005. The fact may be caused by the estrangement between the international urgent issues related to the non-proliferation and the effectiveness of archaic measures through the NPT. However, it should not be recognized that the international obligation and worth of NPT has been gone. The NPT referred the typical international situation under the cold war era. Although several permanent issues of the nuclear non-proliferation exist in current discussions, the activities relevant to the NPT may not be effect against newly unstable situations after the September 11th of 2001. Urgent challenges to be taken are that we must strictly analyze the interventions between 'the clear and present danger' of our world and the nuclear herms, and must take appropriate actions toward them without influences from previous international situations that might be subsisted in current international treaties and agreements. This paper identified the features of nuclear threats based on the four categories and examined the possibilities of nuclear terrorism from previous facts with the inductive inference. The results identified the possibility of nuclear facility attack and of radioactive materials theft by the Polico-Religious Groups and others are stood out. The authors would suggest the important of urgent recognition to establish the certain security system against nuclear terrorism. (author)

  13. Night sky luminance under clear sky conditions: Theory vs. experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocifaj, Miroslav

    2014-05-01

    Sky glow is caused by both natural phenomena and factors of anthropogenic origin, and of the latter ground-based light sources are the most important contributors for they emit the spatially linked spectral radiant intensity distribution of artificial light sources, which are further modulated by local atmospheric optics and perceived as the diffuse light of a night sky. In other words, sky glow is closely related to a city's shape and pattern of luminaire distribution, in practical effect an almost arbitrary deployment of random orientation of heterogeneous electrical light sources. Thus the luminance gradation function measured in a suburban zone or near the edges of a city is linked to the City Pattern or vice versa. It is shown that clear sky luminance/radiance data recorded in an urban area can be used to retrieve the bulk luminous/radiant intensity distribution if some a-priori information on atmospheric aerosols is available. For instance, the single scattering albedo of aerosol particles is required under low turbidity conditions, as demonstrated on a targeted experiment in the city of Frýdek-Mistek. One of the main advantages of the retrieval method presented in this paper is that the single scattering approximation is satisfactorily accurate in characterizing the light field near the ground because the dominant contribution to the sky glow has originated from beams propagated along short optical paths.

  14. MI Gap Clearing Kicker Magnet Design Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Chris; /Fermilab

    2008-10-01

    The kicker system requirements were originally conceived for the NOvA project. NOvA is a neutrino experiment located in Minnesota. To achieve the desired neutrino flux several upgrades are required to the accelerator complex. The Recycler will be used as a proton pre-injector for the Main Injector (MI). As the Recycler is the same size as the MI, it is possible to do a single turn fill ({approx}11 {micro}sec), minimizing the proton injection time in the MI cycle and maximizing the protons on target. The Recycler can then be filled with beam while the MI is ramping to extract beam to the target. To do this requires two new transfer lines. The existing Recycler injection line was designed for 10{pi} pbar beams, not the 20{pi} proton beams we anticipate from the Booster. The existing Recycler extraction line allows for proton injection through the MI, while we want direct injection from the Booster. These two lines will be decommissioned. The new injection line from the MI8 line into the Recycler will start at 848 and end with injection kickers at RR104. The new extraction line in the RR30 straight section will start with a new extraction kicker at RR232 and end with new MI injection kickers at MI308. Finally, to reduce beam loss activation in the enclosure, a new gap clearing kicker will be used to extract uncaptured beam created during the slip stack injection process down the existing dump line. It was suggested that the MI could benefit from this type of system immediately. This led to the early installation of the gap clearing system in the MI, followed by moving the system to Recycler during NOvA. The specifications also changed during this process. Initially the rise and fall time requirements were 38 ns and the field stability was {+-}1%. The 38 ns is based on having a gap of 2 RF buckets between injections. (There are 84 RF buckets that can be filled from the Booster for each injection, but 82 would be filled with beam. MI and Recycler contain 588 RF buckets

  15. Zone distillation: justification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The features of zone distillation (with zone melting of refined material and with pulling of condensate) as a new purification method are shown. The method is based on similarity of equations of distillation and crystallization refining. The analogy between some distillation and condensation methods (particularly between zone distillation and zone re-crystallization) is should up

  16. Clear cell renal cell tumors: Not all that is "clear" is cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Sean R; Cheng, Liang

    2016-07-01

    Continued improvement of our understanding of the clinical, histologic, and genetic features of renal cell tumors has progressively evolved renal tumor classification, revealing an expanding array of distinct tumor types with different implications for prognosis, patient counseling, and treatment. Although clear cell renal cell carcinoma is unequivocally the most common adult renal tumor, there is growing evidence that some "clear cell" renal neoplasms, such as exemplified by multilocular cystic clear cell renal neoplasm of low malignant potential (formerly multilocular cystic renal cell carcinoma), do not have the same potential for insidious progression and metastasis, warranting reclassification as low malignant potential tumors or benign neoplasms. Still other novel tumor types such as clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma have been more recently recognized, which similarly have shown a conspicuous absence of aggressive behavior to date, suggesting that these too may be recategorized as noncancerous or may be premalignant neoplasms. This importance for prognosis is increasingly significant in the modern era, in which renal masses are increasingly found incidentally by imaging techniques at a small tumor size, raising consideration for less aggressive management options guided by renal mass biopsy diagnosis, including imaging surveillance, tumor ablation, or partial nephrectomy. PMID:26988177

  17. When a Cleared Rape Is Not Cleared: A Multilevel Study of Arrest and Exceptional Clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walfield, Scott M

    2016-05-01

    As rape remains one of the most underreported and least likely to be cleared of the violent crimes, it is of paramount importance to understand the factors associated with the likelihood of a case being cleared by law enforcement. This study uses data from the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) and the Law Enforcement Management and Administrative Statistics (LEMAS), and a multilevel modeling approach to examine the relationship between victim, offender, incident, and police department characteristics contrasting the two types of clearance: arrest and exceptional clearance. The latter occurs due to reasons outside of law enforcement's control and despite being considered cleared, the offender is not arrested, charged, nor turned over for prosecution. Of the 16,231 cleared rapes in 238 departments, nearly half (47%) results in exceptional clearance when the victim refuses to cooperate or when prosecution is declined. Incident-level variables have a greater effect on the likelihood of exceptional clearance than victim and offender variables. The department explained a nontrivial amount of variation in the dependent variable, as 37% of the variance in type of clearance was between-department variation. Implications for future research on exceptional clearance and NIBRS are discussed. PMID:25646164

  18. 76 FR 45730 - Customer Clearing Documentation and Timing of Acceptance for Clearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ... derivatives clearing organization (DCO) level.\\4\\ \\4\\ See, e.g., 76 FR 3698 (Jan. 20, 2011) (Risk Management... permitting them to do so. \\5\\ 75 FR 70152 (Nov. 17, 2010) (Implementation of Conflicts of Interest Policies and Procedures by Futures Commission Merchants and Introducing Brokers); 75 FR 71391 (Nov. 23,...

  19. MODIS Collection 6 Clear Sky Restoral (CSR): Filtering Cloud Mast 'Not Clear' Pixels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Kerry G.; Platnick, Steven Edward; Wind, Galina; Riedi, Jerome

    2014-01-01

    Correctly identifying cloudy pixels appropriate for the MOD06 cloud optical and microphysical property retrievals is accomplished in large part using results from the MOD35 1km cloud mask tests (note there are also two 250m subpixel cloud mask tests that can convert the 1km cloudy designations to clear sky). However, because MOD35 is by design clear sky conservative (i.e., it identifies "not clear" pixels), certain situations exist in which pixels identified by MOD35 as "cloudy" are nevertheless likely to be poor retrieval candidates. For instance, near the edge of clouds or within broken cloud fields, a given 1km MODIS field of view (FOV) may in fact only be partially cloudy. This can be problematic for the MOD06 retrievals because in these cases the assumptions of a completely overcast homogenous cloudy FOV and 1-dimensional plane-parallel radiative transfer no longer hold, and subsequent retrievals will be of low confidence. Furthermore, some pixels may be identified by MOD35 as "cloudy" for reasons other than the presence of clouds, such as scenes with thick smoke or lofted dust, and should therefore not be retrieved as clouds. With such situations in mind, a Clear Sky Restoral (CSR) algorithm was introduced in C5 that attempts to identify pixels expected to be poor retrieval candidates. Table 1 provides SDS locations for CSR and partly cloudy (PCL) pixels.

  20. Apixaban and atrial fibrillation: no clear advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    For the prevention of thromboembolic events in patients with atrial fibrillation and a high thrombotic risk, the standard treatment is warfarin, an anticoagulant. Dabigatran, a thrombin inhibitor, is the alternative when warfarin fails to maintain the INR within the therapeutic range. Patients with a moderate thrombotic risk may receive either warfarin or low-dose aspirin. Apixaban, a factor Xa inhibitor anticoagulant, has been authorised in the European Union for use in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation and a moderate or high risk of thrombosis. In a double-blind, randomised non-inferiority trial versus warfarin in 18 201 patients, the incidence of stroke or systemic embolism was lower in the apixaban group (average 1.3 versus 1.6 events per 100 patient-years; p = 0.01). This difference was mainly due to a lower incidence of haemorrhagic stroke and did not result in a clear decline in mortality. In addition, these results are undermined by multiple methodological flaws. Clinical evaluation included no trials comparing apixaban with dabigatran; any indirect comparison would be risky given the poor quality of the clinical assessment of both drugs in atrial fibrillation. A double-blind, randomised trial including 5598 patients compared apixaban with aspirin but provided little information on these options in patients with a moderate risk of thrombosis, as most patients were at high risk. In clinical trials, major bleeding events were less frequent with apixaban than with warfarin (average 2.1 versus 3.1 events per 100 patient-years), but they were more frequent with apixaban than with aspirin (1.4 versus 0.9 events per 100 patient-years). In 2013, there is no way of monitoring the anticoagulant activity of apixaban in routine clinical practice, and there is no antidote in case of overdose; the same is true for dabigatran. Apixaban is a substrate for various cytochrome P450 isoenzymes and for P-glycoprotein, creating a risk of multiple drug

  1. Emergency planning zone reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the process used by a large industrial Department of Energy (DOE) site to communicate changing hazards to its stakeholders and install the confidence necessary to implement the resulting emergency planning changes. Over the last decade as the sites missions have shifted from full-scale production to a greater emphasis on environmental restoration and waste management, the off-site threat from its operations has substantially decreased. The challenge was to clearly communicate the reduced hazards, install confidence in the technical analysis that documented the hazard reduction, and obtain stakeholder buy-in on the path forward to change the emergency management program. The most significant change to the emergency management program was the proposed reduction of the sites Emergency Planning Zone (EPZ). As the EPZ is defined as an area for which planning is needed to protect the public in the event of an accident, the process became politically challenging. An overview of how the site initially approached this problem and then learned to more substantially involve the state and local emergency preparedness agencies and the local Citizens Advisory Board will be presented. (author)

  2. Clear Cell Basal Cell Carcinoma with Sialomucin Deposition

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Do Young; Cho, Sung Bin; Chung, Kee Yang; Kim, You Chan

    2006-01-01

    Clear cell basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is a variant of BCC with a characteristic clear cell component that may occupy all or part of the tumor islands. Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining for glycogen is variably positive, and mild deposition of sulfated mucin has been noted. However, to our knowledge, clear cell BCC with sialomucin deposition has not been reported. Here we report a case of clear cell BCC showing sialomucin deposition. The clear tumor cells stained with PAS and showed incomple...

  3. Managing the Risks that Appear throughout the Pursuit of Clearing

    OpenAIRE

    Lucean MIHALCEA

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes to deal with some aspects of clearing houses and the significant changes in European legislation in this field. It will also embark upon discussing the risks incurred in clearing houses in the current context of the international economic crisis-driven and how clearing houses in Romania can manage these risks mainly related to the market risk, credit risk and liquidity risk. This study will conclude with an econometric model of credit risk management that affects clearing ...

  4. Diagnosis of Thymic Clear Cell Carcinoma by Cytology

    OpenAIRE

    Lale, Seema A.; Tiscornia-Wasserman, Patricia G.; Mohamed Aziz

    2013-01-01

    Clear cell carcinoma of the thymus is a rare tumor. Few cases of clear-cell carcinoma of thymus have been documented (Truong et al., 1990 and Wolfe III et al., 1983). All these cases were diagnosed by histopathological examination of the tissue. Diagnosis of thymic clear cell carcinoma on cytology is extremely challenging. Here we report the first case of thymic clear cell carcinoma diagnosed by cytological examination of the pericardial fluid with the help of immunocytochemistry. Differentia...

  5. Clear cell mammary malignant myoepithelioma with abundant glycogens.

    OpenAIRE

    Kuwabara, H.; Uda, H

    1997-01-01

    Malignant myoepithelioma (myoepithelial carcinoma) of the breast is extremely rare. A case is reported of a 46 year old female with clear cell mammary malignant myoepithelioma that, on histological examination, was glycogen abundant clear cell carcinoma. Immunohistochemically, the clear cells showed myoepithelial differentiation--that is, they were a smooth muscle actin and S100 protein positive. This case shows that glycogen abundant clear cell carcinoma is a variant of malignant myoepitheli...

  6. Glycogen Rich Clear Cell Breast Carcinoma: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Çınkır, Havva Yeşil; Dilek, Gülay Bilir; Demirci, Ayşe; Başal, Fatma Buğdaycı; Aydın, Kübra; Demirci, Umut; Öksüzoğlu, Berna; Alkış, Necati

    2014-01-01

    Glycogen-rich clear cell carcinoma of the breast is a rare type of breast carcinoma. Tumoral tissue is consist of intracytoplasmic glycogen-rich clear cells. We presented in here a 44-year old woman diagnosed with glycogen-rich clear cell carcinoma.

  7. Analysis of marine stratocumulus clearing events during FIRE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloesel, Kevin A.

    1990-01-01

    During FIRE, three major stratocumulus clearing events took place over the project region. These clearing events are analyzed using synoptic variables to determine if these clearing events can be predicted by current modeling techniques. A preliminary statistical evaluation of the correlation between satellite cloud brightness parameters and NMC global model parameters is available in Wylie, et al., 1989.

  8. 75 FR 63113 - Financial Resources Requirements for Derivatives Clearing Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-14

    ... number of small entities. \\17\\ 5 U.S.C. 601 et seq. \\18\\ 47 FR 18618 (Apr. 30, 1982). \\19\\ See 66 FR..., and statement of cash flows, of the derivatives clearing organization or of its parent company; and... membership organization. Clearing members include futures commission merchants (FCMs) that clear on behalf...

  9. Collisional zones in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao Davila, D. A.

    2012-04-01

    Collisional events along the North American-Caribbean plate boundary are complex and not completely understood. Structures and metamorphism in rocks exposed in Cuba, Hispaniola, and Puerto Rico suggest that the margin has undergone at least three main contractional events in the Early Cretaceous, Late Cretaceous, and in the Late Eocene. The Eocene event is more evident in the transpressional structures preserved in Eocene rocks and may be related to the oblique collision of the northern margin of the Caribbean Plate with continental crust of the Bahamas in the North American Plate. In Puerto Rico, the Late Eocene collisional event is best exposed in the Northern Puerto Rico Fault Zone (NPRFZ) and the Southern Puerto Rico Fault Zone (SPRFZ). These fault zones show transpression in Eocene rocks that suggest contraction and left-lateral shear. The NPRFZ is the boundary between the Northeast and Southwest blocks. Its main fault is the Cerro Mula Fault, a WNW-ESE striking left-lateral fault. The SPRFZ separates the Central and Southwest blocks and strikes NW-SE in the western part of the island. The origin and extent of the Early Cretaceous and Late Cretaceous events are less clear. Recent structural and stratigraphic studies in the Southwest block of Puerto Rico suggest that deformation of Late Cretaceous folded and faulted sedimentary and volcanic rocks, and thrust emplacement of mantle rocks (serpentinized-peridotite) onto the crust are related to Maastrichtian to Paleocene contraction along the plate boundary. In Puerto Rico, there is no metamorphism associated to this event. This deformation constitutes a Late Cretaceous collisional event that is also recognized in Hispaniola and Cuba. Late Cretaceous-Paleocene serpentinite emplacement is attributed to the collision of the subduction zone with the hypothesized Caribeana submerged platform to the north. In Puerto Rico there is a volcanic hiatus in Early Paleocene that may be related to the proposed collision

  10. Using sandpaper for noninvasive transepidermal optical skin clearing agent delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumpp, O.; Chen, Bo; Welch, Ashley J.

    2006-07-01

    We present a gentle mechanical method for the noninvasive transepidermal delivery of topically applied optical skin clearing agents. Optical skin clearing reduces light scattering in highly turbid skin with the aid of hyperosmotic chemicals such as glycerol, polyethylene glycol, and solutions of dextrose. Transepidermal delivery of such agents is believed to be most patient compliant and most likely to be used in a clinical environment. Optical skin clearing has the potential to expand the current limited use of laser light in medicine for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Light scattering limits the penetration depth of collimated light into skin. In order to increase the diffusion of topically applied optical skin clearing agents into skin, we present a gentle mechanical delivery method involving glycerol and dextrose as optical skin clearing agents and fine 220-grit sandpaper to rub the clearing agent into the tissue. Gentle rubbing causes abrasion of the superficial skin layer including the stratum corneum, which otherwise prevents these optical skin clearing agents from freely diffusing into skin. Results indicate very fast optical skin clearing rates. In vivo hamster skin turned transparent within 2 min. The 1/e light penetration depth increased by 36+/-3.75% for dextrose and 43+/-8.24% for glycerol. Optical skin clearing was reversed using phosphate buffered saline solution. Skin viability was observed 70 h post-treatment and showed scabbing and erythema on a few percent of the total optically cleared skin surface.

  11. Generalized Fibonacci zone plates

    CERN Document Server

    Ke, Jie; Zhu, Jianqiang

    2015-01-01

    We propose a family of zone plates which are produced by the generalized Fibonacci sequences and their axial focusing properties are analyzed in detail. Compared with traditional Fresnel zone plates, the generalized Fibonacci zone plates present two axial foci with equal intensity. Besides, we propose an approach to adjust the axial locations of the two foci by means of different optical path difference, and further give the deterministic ratio of the two focal distances which attributes to their own generalized Fibonacci sequences. The generalized Fibonacci zone plates may allow for new applications in micro and nanophotonics.

  12. Global ballast water management and the "same location" concept: a clear term or a clear issue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Matej; Gollasch, Stephan; Pavliha, Marko

    2013-03-01

    The United Nations recognized the transfer of harmful organisms and pathogens across natural barriers as one of the four greatest pressures to the world's oceans and seas, causing global environmental changes, while also posing a threat to human health, property, and resources. Ballast water transferred by vessels was recognized as a prominent vector of such species and was regulated by the International Convention for the Control and Management of Ship's Ballast Water and Sediments (2004). Permanent exceptions from ballast water management requirements may apply when the uptake and discharge of ballast water occur at the "same location." However, the "same location" concept may be interpreted differently, e.g., a port basin, a port, an anchorage, or a larger area even with more ports inside. Considering that the Convention is nearing the beginning of enforcement, national authorities all around the world will soon be exposed to applications for exceptions. Here we consider possible effects of different interpretations of the "same location" concept. We have considered different possible extensions of the same location through environmental, shipping, and legal aspects. The extension of such areas, and the inclusion of more ports, may compromise the Convention's main purpose. We recommend that "same location" mean the smallest practicable unit, i.e., the same harbor, mooring, or anchorage. An entire smaller port, possibly also including the anchorage, could be considered as same location. For larger ports with a gradient of environmental conditions, "same location" should mean a terminal or a port basin. We further recommend that IMO consider the preparation of a guidance document to include concepts, criteria, and processes outlining how to identify "same location," which limits should be clearly identified. PMID:23634585

  13. Optimized optical clearing method for imaging central nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tingting; Qi, Yisong; Gong, Hui; Luo, Qingming; Zhu, Dan

    2015-03-01

    The development of various optical clearing methods provides a great potential for imaging entire central nervous system by combining with multiple-labelling and microscopic imaging techniques. These methods had made certain clearing contributions with respective weaknesses, including tissue deformation, fluorescence quenching, execution complexity and antibody penetration limitation that makes immunostaining of tissue blocks difficult. The passive clarity technique (PACT) bypasses those problems and clears the samples with simple implementation, excellent transparency with fine fluorescence retention, but the passive tissue clearing method needs too long time. In this study, we not only accelerate the clearing speed of brain blocks but also preserve GFP fluorescence well by screening an optimal clearing temperature. The selection of proper temperature will make PACT more applicable, which evidently broaden the application range of this method.

  14. Current treatment approach to non-clear cell renal carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    I. V. Tsimafeyeu

    2015-01-01

    Non-clear cell renal cell carcinoma has various histologic subtypes. Tumor biology plays significant role in the disease development. However, despite the one surgical approach both to clear cell and non-clear cell renal carcinoma, patients’ outcomes within one stage of the disease may vary. Furthermore, tumor sensitivity and its response to therapy are highly dependent on the same histologic subtype.The article gives detailed data on the current treatment of papillary, chromophobe and other ...

  15. Response of surface air temperature to small-scale land clearing across latitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate models simulating continental scale deforestation suggest a warming effect of land clearing on the surface air temperature in the tropical zone and a cooling effect in the boreal zone due to different control of biogeochemical and biophysical processes. Ongoing land-use/cover changes mostly occur at local scales (hectares), and it is not clear whether the local-scale deforestation will generate temperature patterns consistent with the climate model results. Here we paired 40 and 12 flux sites with nearby weather stations in North and South America and in Eastern Asia, respectively, and quantified the temperature difference between these paired sites. Our goal was to investigate the response of the surface air temperature to local-scale (hectares) land clearing across latitudes using the surface weather stations as proxies for localized land clearing. The results show that north of 10°N, the annual mean temperature difference (open land minus forest) decreases with increasing latitude, but the temperature difference shrinks with latitude at a faster rate in the Americas [−0.079 (±0.010) °C per degree] than in Asia [−0.046 (±0.011) °C per degree]. Regression of the combined data suggests a transitional latitude of about 35.5°N that demarks deforestation warming to the south and cooling to the north. The warming in latitudes south of 35°N is associated with increase in the daily maximum temperature, with little change in the daily minimum temperature while the reverse is true in the boreal latitudes. (paper)

  16. Fault zone hydrogeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bense, V. F.; Gleeson, T.; Loveless, S. E.; Bour, O.; Scibek, J.

    2013-12-01

    Deformation along faults in the shallow crust (evaluation of the impact of faults to fluid flow patterns remains a challenge and requires a multidisciplinary research effort of structural geologists and hydrogeologists. However, we find that these disciplines often use different methods with little interaction between them. In this review, we document the current multi-disciplinary understanding of fault zone hydrogeology. We discuss surface- and subsurface observations from diverse rock types from unlithified and lithified clastic sediments through to carbonate, crystalline, and volcanic rocks. For each rock type, we evaluate geological deformation mechanisms, hydrogeologic observations and conceptual models of fault zone hydrogeology. Outcrop observations indicate that fault zones commonly have a permeability structure suggesting they should act as complex conduit-barrier systems in which along-fault flow is encouraged and across-fault flow is impeded. Hydrogeological observations of fault zones reported in the literature show a broad qualitative agreement with outcrop-based conceptual models of fault zone hydrogeology. Nevertheless, the specific impact of a particular fault permeability structure on fault zone hydrogeology can only be assessed when the hydrogeological context of the fault zone is considered and not from outcrop observations alone. To gain a more integrated, comprehensive understanding of fault zone hydrogeology, we foresee numerous synergistic opportunities and challenges for the discipline of structural geology and hydrogeology to co-evolve and address remaining challenges by co-locating study areas, sharing approaches and fusing data, developing conceptual models from hydrogeologic data, numerical modeling, and training interdisciplinary scientists.

  17. The Clearing: Heidegger’s Lichtung and The Big Scrub

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Garbutt

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Clearings make settlement possible. Whether on a small scale using an axe and other hand implements to make way for a dwelling and a garden, or on a large scale with a chain strung between two D9 bulldozers in preparation for a major agribusiness development, the process of clearing creates spaces for installing something new. This paper uses the idea of (the clearing, as practice, process, outcome and metaphor, to examine the installation of the locals in a settler society. Using Lismore on the far-north coast of New South Wales, Australia, as a case example, the particular work of clearing that is discussed here is a practice that enables a form of colonisation and settlement that distances itself from its history of migration. This is a history of settler locals who were 'always here', and a colonial form of clearing clears the land and the mind of troubling pasts and of troubling presences. For the locals within a place, then, clearing manages and simplifies a complex set of social and material relations, histories and identities. Using Anthony Appiah's concept the 'space clearing gesture', the paper concludes with a reflection on the space in which the idea of "the clearing" and this paper appears. Do places, in this instance rural places, provide a type of clearing in which certain ideas might appear that may not appear elsewhere? If situatedness matters then the diversity of places where thinking is done is important for our ecology of thought, and in connection with this, perhaps what 'rural cultural studies' does is clear a particular type of space for thinking.

  18. The Clearing : Heidegger’s Lichtung and the big scrub

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garbutt, Rob

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Clearings make settlement possible. Whether on a small scale using an axe and other hand implements to make way for a dwelling and a garden, or on a large scale with a chain strung between two D9 bulldozers in preparation for a major agribusiness development, the process of clearing creates spaces for installing something new. This paper uses the idea of (the clearing, as practice, process, outcome and metaphor, to examine the installation of the locals in a settler society. Using Lismore on the far-north coast of New South Wales, Australia, as a case example, the particular work of clearing that is discussed here is a practice that enables a form of colonisation and settlement that distances itself from its history of migration. This is a history of settler locals who were 'always here', and a colonial form of clearing clears the land and the mind of troubling pasts and of troubling presences. For the locals within a place, then, clearing manages and simplifies a complex set of social and material relations, histories and identities.Using Anthony Appiah's concept the 'space clearing gesture', the paper concludes with a reflection on the space in which the idea of "the clearing" and this paper appears. Do places, in this instance rural places, provide a type of clearing in which certain ideas might appear that may not appear elsewhere? If situatedness matters then the diversity of places where thinking is done is important for our ecology of thought, and in connection with this, perhaps what 'rural cultural studies' does is clear a particular type of space for thinking.

  19. Close but not a central bank: The New York Clearing House and issues of clearing house loan certificates

    OpenAIRE

    Jon R. Moen; Ellis W. Tallman

    2013-01-01

    The paper examines the New York Clearing House (NYCH) as a lender of last resort by looking at clearing-house-loan-certificate borrowing during five banking panics of the National Banking Era (1863–1913). In that system, adequate aggregate liquidity provision was passive and dependent upon member bank borrowing. We document bank borrowing behavior using bank-level data for clearing-house loan certifi cates issued to NYCH member banks. The historical record reveals that the large New York City...

  20. Theoretical analysis of recirculation zone and buffer zone in the ADS windowless spallation target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Height of recirculation zone is very important in windowless target design. • A theoretical formula for the height is derived based on the Bernoulli equation. • Numerical simulation for the LBE is performed and the height of recirculation zone is also obtained. • The theoretically-derived simulation-predicted recirculation zone heights agree with each other very well and the theoretical derivation is proved to be correct. - Abstract: The thermo-hydraulic analysis including reduction of the height of recirculation zone and stability of the free surface is very important in the design and optimization of ADS windowless spallation targets. In the present study, the Bernoulli equation is used to analyze the entire flow process in the target. Formulae for the height of the recirculation zone and the buffer zone are both obtained explicitly. Furthermore, numerical simulation for the heavy metal lead–bismuth eutectic liquid and vapor with cavitation phase change is also performed, and a novel method to calculate the height of the recirculation zone is put forward. By comparison of the theoretical formulae and numerical results, it is clearly shown that they agree with each other very well, and the heights predicted by the two methods are both determined by their own upstream flow parameters

  1. Validation of the McClear clear-sky model in desert conditions with three stations in Israel

    OpenAIRE

    Lefèvre, Mireille; Wald, Lucien

    2016-01-01

    The new McClear clear-sky model, a fast model based on a radiative transfer solver, exploits the atmospheric properties provided by the EU-funded Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS) to estimate the solar direct and global irradiances received at ground level in cloud-free conditions at any place any time. The work presented here focuses on desert conditions and compares the McClear irradiances to coincident 1 min measurements made in clear-sky conditions at three...

  2. Multigate and fast clear logic in FERA readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The operation of CAMAC FERA readout with several sources of Gate and Clear signals in the same branch is described including fast Clear before completion of the digitization or the data transfer. Different FERA compatible modules are used within the branch. The presented logic is implemented in the DIRAC experiment with four FERA branches

  3. Breast metastasis from clear cell renal cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Botticelli, A.; De Francesco, G. P.; D. Di Stefano

    2013-01-01

    In Western countries, breast cancer is the most common cancer in women, whereas metastases to the breast from extramammary malignancies are extremely rare. We present the case of a 60-year-old woman, who underwent surgery in 2007 for clear cell renal cell carcinoma and who 4 years later presented with a breast metastasis from clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

  4. The Nordic power market: Are there alternatives to expensive clearing?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Enron scandal of 2002 has set focus on counter party risk in the Nordic power market and is an important cause of increased clearing of bilateral financial power contracts. The article discusses whether expensive clearing is always the best tool for dealing with counter party risk

  5. 76 FR 16587 - Risk Management Requirements for Derivatives Clearing Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    ...The Commodity Futures Trading Commission (Commission) is reopening the comment period for a proposed rule that would require derivatives clearing organizations (DCOs) to report end-of-day positions for each clearing member, by customer origin and house origin, and for customer origin, separately, the gross positions of each beneficial...

  6. ClearPEM: prototype PET device dedicated to breast imaging

    CERN Multimedia

    Joao Varela

    2009-01-01

    Clinical trials have begun in Portugal on a new breast imaging system (ClearPEM) using positron emission tomography (PET). The system, developed by a Portuguese consortium in collaboration with CERN and laboratories participating in the Crystal Clear collaboration, will detect even the smallest tumours and thus help avoid unnecessary biopsies.

  7. 78 FR 50259 - Derivatives Clearing Organizations and International Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... addition, an FMI must clearly specify the roles and responsibilities of the board of directors and... is the Supervisory Agency only for CME and ICE Clear Credit, the SEC serves as OCC's Supervisory... ensure that the board of directors has the appropriate incentive to fulfill its multiple roles, the...

  8. A simple formula for determining globally clear skies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, C.N.; George, A.T.; Mace, G.G. [Penn State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    Surface measurements to serve as {open_quotes}ground truth{close_quotes} are of primary importance in the development of retrieval algorithms using satellite measurements to predict surface irradiance. The most basic algorithms of this type deal with clear sky (i.e., cloudless) top-to-surface shortwave (SW) transfer, serving as a necessary prerequisite towards treating both clear and cloudy conditions. Recently, atmosphere SW cloud forcing to infer the possibility of excess atmospheric absorption (compared with model results) in cloudy atmospheres. The surface component of this ratio relies on inferring the expected clear sky SW irradiance to determine the effects of clouds on the SW energy budget. Solar renewable energy applications make use of clear and cloud fraction climatologies to assess solar radiation resources. All of the above depend to some extent on the identification of globally clear sky conditions and the attendant measurements of downwelling SW irradiance.

  9. Comparison of skin optical clearing by different drug delivery method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous studies have shown that optical clearing techniques have great potential for optical diagnosis and therapy. In order to further discuss the effect by different drug delivery method, diffusion chambers were used to simulate in vivo physiological environment; and the optical clearing agents were acted on the surface of porcine skin, the saline was contacted with the dermal side (epidermal application). Then they were compared with the traditional method-samples immersed in the optical clearing agents (mainly dermal immersion). The transmission intensity of skin was monitored by an integrating sphere system. The changes in thickness were measured before and after experiments. The results showed that the optical clearing effect and the changes in thickness are not coincident under the two different methods. It indicates that the optical clearing effect and mechanism may relate to the drug delivery method.

  10. Comparison of skin optical clearing by different drug delivery method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, Z; Ge, X [Department of Fundamental Theories, Shandong Sports University, Jinan, 250102 (China); Li, E, E-mail: mm73@163.com [Institute of Physical Education, Huazhong Normal University, Wuhan, 430079 (China)

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that optical clearing techniques have great potential for optical diagnosis and therapy. In order to further discuss the effect by different drug delivery method, diffusion chambers were used to simulate in vivo physiological environment; and the optical clearing agents were acted on the surface of porcine skin, the saline was contacted with the dermal side (epidermal application). Then they were compared with the traditional method-samples immersed in the optical clearing agents (mainly dermal immersion). The transmission intensity of skin was monitored by an integrating sphere system. The changes in thickness were measured before and after experiments. The results showed that the optical clearing effect and the changes in thickness are not coincident under the two different methods. It indicates that the optical clearing effect and mechanism may relate to the drug delivery method.

  11. Clear cell hepatocellular carcinoma: Back to the basics for diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puja Sakhuja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is a common cancer world-wide with a higher incidence in Asia. Clear cell variant of HCC (CCHCC has a frequency ranging from 0.4% to 37%. The presence of 90-100% clear cells is rare. In the present case, a 35-year-old female patient presented with fever and a large abdominal mass in the right hypochondrium. Histology of the tumor revealed >95% clear cells and after taking multiple sections from different areas of tumor only few scattered cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm were found. Immunohistochemistry with Hep Par 1, Glypican 3 and polyclonal carcinoembryonic antigen were negative as were all other markers for metastatic clear cell tumors. Histological diagnosis was based on routine H and E sections showing a histological pattern of architecture with thickened trabeculae. We describe a rare case of CCHCC with >95% clear cells and no immunoreactivity in tumor cells in a non-cirrhotic liver.

  12. 75 FR 27338 - NASDAQ OMX Commodities Clearing-Contract Merchant LLC; NASDAQ OMX Commodities Clearing-Delivery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission NASDAQ OMX Commodities Clearing--Contract Merchant LLC; NASDAQ OMX.... Take notice that, on May 3, 2010, NASDAQ OMX Commodities Clearing-- Contract Merchant LLC, NASDAQ...

  13. Molecular Characterization of Clear Cell Lesions of Head and Neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Anshi; Shetty, Devi Charan; Juneja, Saurabh; Narwal, Nidhi

    2016-05-01

    The salivary glands, oral mucosa and jaws constitute a group of lesions which are heterogeneous in nature and are odontogenic, salivary or metastatic in origin. This group of tumours is termed as Clear Cell Tumours. Fixation artifacts are one of the most important reasons for the cell to appear clear but clearing of cells may also result from cytoplasmic accumulation of water, presence of glycogen within the cell, intermediate filaments, immature zymogen granules, or a paucity of cellular organelles. Clear cell Odontogenic neoplasms predominantly include odontogenic carcinoma, ameloblastoma and calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumour. Clear cell tumours of salivary gland origin are almost invariably malignant in nature but they do include two benign lesions. Very frequently, surgical pathologist encounters clear cells in many malignant neoplasms, the nature and sources of which are undetermined on the basis of conventional histopathology. This review will selectively discuss the clinicopathological features of neoplasms which at times may pose a diagnostic challenge and dilemma due to clear cell changes. PMID:27437379

  14. An experimental investigation of loop seal clearings in SBLOCA tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • An experimental study of the loop seal clearing in the SBLOCAs was performed. • Loop seal behaviors with related parameters were investigated. • The mechanism of initiation of a loop seal clearing was suggested. • The sustaining of a loop seal clearing without refilling was evaluated. - Abstract: An investigation of the loop seal clearing (LSC) in a small-break loss-of-coolant accident (SBLOCA) for direct vessel injection (DVI) line and cold leg (CL) breaks was performed. The behavior of an LSC appears to be closely related to the break location and break size. In the tests of SBLOCAs, a loop seal or cross-over leg (COL) in the broken loop was cleared first, and the number of loop seals cleared was dependent on the break size. The larger the break size was, the more the loop seals or COLs that were cleared. The location of the LSCs appeared to have a consistent behavior under each scenario. In the SBLOCA tests, the downcomer water level just before an LSC was a very important parameter to the peak cladding temperature (PCT). The initiation of an LSC might not be related to the existing flooding condition, but to the magnitude of the pressure difference between the reactor upper head and downcomer, which is sufficient to push the upflow leg of a COL. The sustaining of an LSC without refilling was evaluated using the test data and existing flooding conditions

  15. Clear-PEM, a dedicated PET camera for mammography

    CERN Document Server

    Lecoq, P

    2002-01-01

    Preliminary results suggest that Positron Emission Mammography (PEM) can offer a noninvasive method for the diagnosis of breast cancer. Metabolic images from PEM contain unique information not available from conventional morphologic imaging techniques and aid in expeditiously establishing the diagnosis of cancer. A dedicated machine seems to offer better perspectives in terms of position resolution and sensitivity. This paper describes the concept of Clear-PEM, the system presently developed by the Crystal Clear Collaboration at CERN for an evaluation of this approach. This device is based on new crystals introduced by the Crystal Clear as well as on modern data acquisition techniques developed for the large experiments in high energy physics experiments.

  16. Clearing and Labeling Techniques for Large-Scale Biological Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jinyoung; Choe, Minjin; Kim, Sung-Yon

    2016-06-30

    Clearing and labeling techniques for large-scale biological tissues enable simultaneous extraction of molecular and structural information with minimal disassembly of the sample, facilitating the integration of molecular, cellular and systems biology across different scales. Recent years have witnessed an explosive increase in the number of such methods and their applications, reflecting heightened interest in organ-wide clearing and labeling across many fields of biology and medicine. In this review, we provide an overview and comparison of existing clearing and labeling techniques and discuss challenges and opportunities in the investigations of large-scale biological systems. PMID:27239813

  17. Phase zone photon sieve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Jia; Xie Chang-Qing

    2009-01-01

    A novel diffractive optical element, named phase zone photon sieve (PZPS), is presented. There are three kinds of phase plates in PZPSs: PZPS1, PZPS2, and PZPS3. Each of the PZPSs has its own structure and is made on quartz substrate by etching. The three PZPSs have stronger diffraction peak intensity than a photon sieve (PS) when the margin pinhole and zone line width are kept the same. The PZPS3 can produce a smaller central diffractive spot than the ordinary PS with the same number of zones on the Fresnel zone plate. We have given the design method for and the simulation of PZPS and PS. PZPS has potential applications in optical maskless lithography.

  18. BLM Solar Energy Zones

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — Priority development areas for utility-scale solar energy facilities as identified in the Solar PEIS Record of Decision. An additional Solar Energy Zone identified...

  19. Phase zone photon sieve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel diffractive optical element, named phase zone photon sieve (PZPS), is presented. There are three kinds of phase plates in PZPSs: PZPS1, PZPS2, and PZPS3. Each of the PZPSs has its own structure and is made on quartz substrate by etching. The three PZPSs have stronger diffraction peak intensity than a photon sieve (PS) when the margin pinhole and zone line width are kept the same. The PZPS3 can produce a smaller central diffractive spot than the ordinary PS with the same number of zones on the Fresnel zone plate. We have given the design method for and the simulation of PZPS and PS. PZPS has potential applications in optical maskless lithography. (classical areas of phenomenology)

  20. : Seizure onset zone imaging

    OpenAIRE

    David, Olivier; Blauwblomme, Thomas; Job, Anne-Sophie; Chabardès, Stéphan; Hoffmann, Dominique,; Minotti, Lorella; Kahane, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    International audience Stereo-electroencephalography is used to localize the seizure onset zone and connected neuronal networks in surgical candidates suffering from intractable focal epilepsy. The concept of an epileptogenicity index has been proposed recently to represent the likelihood of various regions being part of the seizure onset zone. It quantifies low-voltage fast activity, the electrophysiological signature of seizure onset usually assessed visually by neurologists. Here, we re...

  1. Reconstruction of Clear-PEM data with STIR

    CERN Document Server

    Martins, M V; Rodrigues, P; Trindade, A; Oliveira, N; Correia, M; Cordeiro, H; Ferreira, N C; Varela, J; Almeida, P

    2006-01-01

    The Clear-PEM scanner is a device based on planar detectors that is currently under development within the Crystal Clear Collaboration, at CERN. The basis for 3D image reconstruction in Clear-PEM is the software for tomographic image reconstruction (STIR). STIR is an open source object-oriented library that efficiently deals with the 3D positron emission tomography data sets. This library was originally designed for the traditional cylindrical scanners. In order to make its use compatible with planar scanner data, new functionalities were introduced into the library's framework. In this work, Monte Carlo simulations of the Clear-PEM scanner acquisitions were used as input for image reconstruction with the 3D OSEM algorithm available in STIR. The results presented indicate that dual plate PEM data can be accurately reconstructed using the enhanced STIR framework.

  2. Impact of Ion Clearing Electrodes on Beam Dynamics in DAFNE

    CERN Document Server

    Zobov, M; Clozza, A; Lollo, V; Milardi, C; Spataro, B; Stella, A; Vaccarezza, C

    2007-01-01

    Presently clearing electrodes are being considered as a possible cure of e-cloud driven problems in existing and future colliders. 'Invisible' electrodes, made of a thin highly resistive layer pasted on a dielectric plate, have been proposed as one of design solutions for the e-cloud clearing. For the first time such electrodes were successfully used in the electron-positron accumulator (EPA) of LEP. Similar electrodes had been using for a long time for ion clearing purposes in the DAFNE electron ring. Theoretical considerations and experimental measurements at DAFNE have revealed a substantial contribution of the ion clearing electrodes (ICE) to the machine broad-band impedance giving rise to several harmful effects degrading the collider performance. In this paper we discuss the impact of the electrodes on DAFNE beam dynamics, show the results of ICE wake field and impedance calculations and compare them with available experimental data. We also describe the procedure of ICE removal from the wiggler section...

  3. CBFS: high performance feature selection algorithm based on feature clearness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minseok Seo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The goal of feature selection is to select useful features and simultaneously exclude garbage features from a given dataset for classification purposes. This is expected to bring reduction of processing time and improvement of classification accuracy. METHODOLOGY: In this study, we devised a new feature selection algorithm (CBFS based on clearness of features. Feature clearness expresses separability among classes in a feature. Highly clear features contribute towards obtaining high classification accuracy. CScore is a measure to score clearness of each feature and is based on clustered samples to centroid of classes in a feature. We also suggest combining CBFS and other algorithms to improve classification accuracy. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: From the experiment we confirm that CBFS is more excellent than up-to-date feature selection algorithms including FeaLect. CBFS can be applied to microarray gene selection, text categorization, and image classification.

  4. Molecular Air Data Clear Air Turbulence Sensor: MADCAT Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Clear air turbulence (CAT), often referred to as "air pockets," is attributed to Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities at altitudes usually above 18,000ft, often without...

  5. Molecular Air Data Clear Air Turbulence Sensor: MADCAT Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Clear air turbulence (CAT), often referred to as "air pockets," is attributed to Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities at altitudes generally above 18,000ft, often in the...

  6. CLEAR CELL MYOEPITHELIAL CARCINOMA OF OROPHARYNX : A CASE REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Adil; Nataraju; Ravi Kuma

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Myoepitheliomas are rare neoplasms. We present a case of clear cell myoepithelial carcinoma arising from submucosal minor salivary gl ands of oropharynx.The significance of this lesion is that it is a recent entity 1,2 and it shares morphological similarities with many neoplasms that pose a challenge in the diagnosis. It has to be distinguished from benign myoepitheliom as and neoplasms with predominantly clear cells...

  7. Transformation of Abdominal Wall Endometriosis to Clear Cell Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Paula Ruiz; Darryl Lewis Wallace; Matthew Thomas Connell

    2015-01-01

    Clear cell carcinoma is the least common of the malignant transformations reported in nonpelvic sites of endometriosis. Two cases with clear cell carcinoma transformation arising from endometriosis in abdominal wall scars are presented. These patients underwent total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, pelvic washings, and abdominal wall lesion resection. The first case had initial treatment with chemotherapy, while chemotherapy and radiation therapy were given for th...

  8. Clinical enigma: A rare case of clear cell odontogenic carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Cheshta Walia; Rudra Prasad Chatterjee; Sanchita Kundu; Sudip Roy

    2015-01-01

    Clear cell odontogenic carcinoma is a rare, aggressive neoplasm of the jaw with only 74 reported cases. It occurs predominantly in the mandibular anterior region during fifth to seventh decades of life. Clinically it manifests as intra-bony swelling with a variable degree of pain. Microscopically, it reveals nests of cells with clear cytoplasm in connective tissue stroma arranged in different patterns. It is often misdiagnosed due to the rarity of lesion and confusing histopathology. Immunohi...

  9. Rare tumors of the gallbladder: Clear cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Huseyin Eken; Mecdi Gurhan Balci; Sercan Buyukakincak; Arda Isik; Deniz Firat; Orhan Cimen

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Gallbladder cancer is a rare tumor in the gastrointestinal tract has poor prognosis, low survival and is difficult to diagnose. The most common type of gallbladder cancer is adenocarcinoma, and the incidence of clear cell carcinoma is low. Mostly, it is difficult to determine whether the isolated tumor is a primary tumor in the gallbladder or a metastatic tumor from another region. Before accepting a clear cell carcinoma as a primary gallbladder tumor, the kidneys and other poss...

  10. Clearing Barter Exchange Markets: Kidney Exchange and Beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Glorie, Kristiaan

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Advanced computer assisted markets, otherwise known as smart markets, are becoming an important part of our modern society. This dissertation considers smart barter exchange markets, which enable people to trade a wide range of goods: from shifts, to houses, to kidneys. Centralized and computerized clearing is what makes these markets ‘smart’. The market clearing problem is to match demand and supply so as to maximize the gains of trade. Trades, in this regard, ne...

  11. Clearing of the sea bed in the North Sea 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report relates to an NPD (Norwegian Petroleum Directorate) project which aimed to clear away objects from the sea bed on the Norwegian continental shelf. The project was divided in two phases. Phase 1 included the recording of objects by the use of sonars, and phase 2 covered the clearing operation itself. The results from the project, which included a fishery-intensive and oil-related area of 1300 km2 on Egersundbanken, are presented. 3 figs., 4 tabs

  12. Arbitraging Margins - do Clearing Houses oddly assess position risks?

    OpenAIRE

    Zambruno, G

    2008-01-01

    Margins called by Clearing Houses whenever a new position is opened are often deemed to be good indicators of the riskiness of the position. This approach complies with IOSCO recommendation to maintain sufficient financial resources to withstand, at a minimum, a default by the participant to which it has the largest exposure in extreme but plausible market conditions. This statement clearly indicates that initial margins should account for the position's riskiness in a way similar to the Valu...

  13. Global horizontal irradiance clear sky models : implementation and analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, Joshua S.; Hansen, Clifford W.; Reno, Matthew J.

    2012-03-01

    Clear sky models estimate the terrestrial solar radiation under a cloudless sky as a function of the solar elevation angle, site altitude, aerosol concentration, water vapor, and various atmospheric conditions. This report provides an overview of a number of global horizontal irradiance (GHI) clear sky models from very simple to complex. Validation of clear-sky models requires comparison of model results to measured irradiance during clear-sky periods. To facilitate validation, we present a new algorithm for automatically identifying clear-sky periods in a time series of GHI measurements. We evaluate the performance of selected clear-sky models using measured data from 30 different sites, totaling about 300 site-years of data. We analyze the variation of these errors across time and location. In terms of error averaged over all locations and times, we found that complex models that correctly account for all the atmospheric parameters are slightly more accurate than other models, but, primarily at low elevations, comparable accuracy can be obtained from some simpler models. However, simpler models often exhibit errors that vary with time of day and season, whereas the errors for complex models vary less over time.

  14. Enhancement of optical skin clearing efficacy using a microneedle roller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jinhee; Son, Taeyoon; Choi, Eung-ho; Choi, Bernard; Nelson, J. Stuart; Jung, Byungjo

    2009-01-01

    Light scattering in biological tissues can be reduced by using optical clearing agents. Various physical methods in conjunction with agents have been studied to enhance the optical clearing efficacy of skin for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. In this study, we propose a new physical method to enhance the optical clearing potential of topically applied glycerol. A microneedle roller is used to easily create numerous transdermal microchannels prior to glycerol application. The optical clearing efficacy of skin is quantitatively evaluated with the use of a modulation transfer function target placed underneath ex vivo porcine skin samples. From cross-polarized images acquired at various time points after glycerol application, we find that samples treated with the microneedle roller resulted in an approximately two-fold increase in contrast compared to control samples 30 min after glycerol application. In conclusion, our data suggest that the microneedle roller can be a good physical method to enhance transdermal delivery of optical clearing agents, and hence their optical clearing potential over large regions of skin. PMID:18465952

  15. Coastal sediment elevation change following anthropogenic mangrove clearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Heather L.; Granek, Elise F.

    2015-11-01

    Coastal mangrove forests along tropical shorelines serve as an important interface between land and sea. They provide a physical buffer protecting the coastline from erosion and act as sediment "traps" catching terrestrial sediment, thus preventing smothering of subtidal coral reefs. Coastal development that removes mangrove habitat may impact adjacent nearshore coral reefs through sedimentation and nutrient loading. We examined differences in sediment elevation change between patches of open-coast intact and anthropogenically cleared red mangroves (Rhizophora mangle) on the east side of Turneffe Atoll, Belize, to quantify changes following mangrove clearing. Samples were collected over a 24 month period at five study sites, each containing paired intact (+mangrove) and cleared (-mangrove) plots. Five sediment elevation pins were deployed in each plot: behind areas cleared of mangroves (-mangrove) and behind adjacent intact mangroves (+mangrove). Sediment elevation increased at intact mangrove sites (M = +3.83 mm, SE = 0.95) whereas cleared mangrove areas suffered elevation loss (M = -7.30 mm, SE = 3.38). Mangroves inshore of partial or continuous gaps in the adjacent fringing reefs had higher rates of elevation loss (M = -15.05 mm) than mangroves inshore of continuous fringing reefs (M = -1.90 mm). Our findings provide information on potential effects of mangrove clearing and the role of offshore habitat characteristics on coastal sediment trapping and maintenance of sediment elevation by mangroves. With implications for coastline capacity to adjust to sea level rise, these findings are relevant to management of coastal fringing mangrove forests across the Caribbean.

  16. 75 FR 3859 - Safety Zone; Baltimore Captain of Port Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ..., 2008 issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Baltimore Captain of Port Zone AGENCY... establishing a temporary safety zone in all navigable waters of the Captain of the Port Baltimore zone....

  17. Clear Cell Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Potential Mimic of Conventional Clear Cell Renal Carcinoma on Core Biopsy

    OpenAIRE

    Heath Liddell; Anton Mare; Sean Heywood; Genevieve Bennett; Hin Fan Chan

    2015-01-01

    Clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma (CCP-RCC) is a recently described, relatively uncommon variant of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with a reported incidence of 4.1%. Thought to only arise in those with end stage renal disease, CCP-RCC is increasingly identified in those without renal impairment. CCP-RCCs have unique morphologic, genetic, and immunohistochemical features distinguishing them from both conventional clear cell renal cell carcinomas and papillary renal cell carcinomas. Immunoh...

  18. Anterior Crossbite and Crowding Correction with a Series of Clear Aligners Involving Lower Incisor Extraction: "The Clear Way" Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawaskar, Naval Suresh

    2015-01-01

    The Clear Aligner can be used to correct tooth movement without involving extraction, surgery, and other adjunct orthopaedic appliances. Some forms ofattachments are required with clear aligners to achieve all major types of orthodontic tooth movements. The Clear Aligner is a procedure that can be performed by a clinician with computer simulation/calculation. Since the Clear Aligner can be fabricated in steps, it is readily available to change the treatment sequence throughout the course of the treatment in cases of complex malocclusions. The patient can receive any necessary dental procedures with ease during the course of the treatment. The treatment can also be easily resumed even if the patient has not worn the aligners for a period of time. The purpose of this article is to report dental anterior crossbite correction with a series of Clear Aligners without the use of any forms of attachments. The Clear Aligner could be used as an alternative in appropriate cases for those who are reluctant with conventional appliances. PMID:27029089

  19. Saltwater upconing zone of influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovovic, Danica; Werner, Adrian D.; de Louw, Perry G. B.; Post, Vincent E. A.; Morgan, Leanne K.

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we define and characterize the saltwater upconing zone of influence (SUZI). The SUZI is the region around a pumping well within which significant rise in the saltwater-freshwater interface occurs. While the zone of influence of a pumping well can be clearly defined in terms of hydraulics (e.g., drawdown), the SUZI has not been recognised and characterised, despite its importance for groundwater decision-making in coastal regions. We explore the SUZI under various conditions and compare common methods of investigation using both axisymmetric (1D and 2D vertical cross-section) and 3D simulations of saltwater upconing at the field scale, based on a combination of numerical and analytical approaches. The SUZI was found to be dependent on the relative magnitudes of pumping, regional flow, distance of the well from the coast, and position of the well above the interface, as expected. The three-dimensional coastal setting simulations revealed an asymmetric shape of the lateral extent of the SUZI, which is largest in the direction parallel to the coast. This occurs because the ocean and the inland extent of the seawater wedge limit the propagation of the SUZI perpendicular to the coast. Predictions of the SUZI using the Ghyben-Herzberg approximation, including cases where sloping interfaces occur (i.e., in contrast to the artificiality of horizontal interfaces used in axisymmetric approaches), provide reasonable first approximations of the SUZI. Numerical modelling of dispersive upconing in the 3D inclined interface case is influenced by practical limits to the model domain size and grid resolution. For example, the no-flow boundary condition at 1500 m from the pumping well elongates the SUZI in the direction parallel to the coast. This study extends previous concepts of well interference, which have previously been based on hydraulics only, by introducing the SUZI and characterising its extent, with consideration given to differences in commonly adopted

  20. A stochastic framework for clearing of reactive power market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amjady, N. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan (Iran); Rabiee, A.; Shayanfar, H.A. [Center of excellence for Power System Automation and Operation, Department of Electrical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran)

    2010-01-15

    This paper presents a new stochastic framework for clearing of day-ahead reactive power market. The uncertainty of generating units in the form of system contingencies are considered in the reactive power market-clearing procedure by the stochastic model in two steps. The Monte-Carlo Simulation (MCS) is first used to generate random scenarios. Then, in the second step, the stochastic market-clearing procedure is implemented as a series of deterministic optimization problems (scenarios) including non-contingent scenario and different post-contingency states. In each of these deterministic optimization problems, the objective function is total payment function (TPF) of generators which refers to the payment paid to the generators for their reactive power compensation. The effectiveness of the proposed model is examined based on the IEEE 24-bus Reliability Test System (IEEE 24-bus RTS). (author)

  1. Multiobjective clearing of reactive power market in deregulated power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabiee, A.; Shayanfar, H. [Center of Excellence for Power System Automation and Operation, Electrical Engineering Department, Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST), Narmak, Tehran 16846 (Iran); Amjady, N. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan (Iran)

    2009-09-15

    This paper presents a day-ahead reactive power market which is cleared in the form of multiobjective context. Total payment function (TPF) of generators, representing the payment paid to the generators for their reactive power compensation, is considered as the main objective function of reactive power market. Besides that, voltage security margin, overload index, and also voltage drop index are the other objective functions of the optimal power flow (OPF) problem to clear the reactive power market. A Multiobjective Mathematical Programming (MMP) formulation is implemented to solve the problem of reactive power market clearing using a fuzzy approach to choose the best compromise solution according to the specific preference among various non-dominated (pareto optimal) solutions. The effectiveness of the proposed method is examined based on the IEEE 24-bus reliability test system (IEEE 24-bus RTS). (author)

  2. Clear cell colitis: A form of microscopic colitis in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jan J(o)zefczuk; Bogdan Marian Wozniewicz

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To describe a new clinical and pathological subtype of microscopic colitis in children.METHODS: A selected group of children with abdominal pain, constipation and/or diarrhoea showing discrete or no macroscopic abnormalities on endoscopy was described.RESULTS: Multiple biopsies of colon showed large mononuclear clear cells in lamina propria of mucous membrane provided that good quality histological sections were performed and observed under a higher magnification. Otherwise, they could be misinterpreted as artefacts. Their presence in routine histology might suggest a systemic storage disease (Whipple's disease), and neuronal intestine dysplasia.Using immunohistochemical staining and electron microscopy we confirmed their origin from CD68 positive mononuclear macrophages.CONCLUSION: The presence of large clear cells is a constant microscopic feature. Failure of transient large bowel stationary macrophages plays a role in the pathogenesis of this benign microscopic clear cell colitis,sometimes coexisting with allergy.

  3. Advanced ThioClear process testing. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lani, B.

    1998-03-01

    Wet scrubbing is the leading proven commercial post-combustion FGD technology available to meet the sulfur dioxide reductions required by the Clean Air Act Amendments. To reduce costs associated with wet FGD, Dravo Lime Company has developed the ThioClear process. ThioClear is an ex-situ forced oxidation magnesium-enhanced lime FGD process. ThioClear process differs from the conventional magnesium-enhanced lime process in that the recycle liquor has minimal suspended solids and the by-products are wallboard quality gypsum and magnesium hydroxide, an excellent reagent for water treatment. The process has demonstrated sulfur dioxide removal efficiencies of +95% in both a vertical spray scrubber tower and a horizontal absorber operating at gas velocities of 16 fps, respectively. This report details the optimization studies and associated economics from testing conducted at Dravo Lime Company`s pilot plant located at the Miami Fort Station of the Cincinnati Gas and Electric Company.

  4. Diagnosis of clear sky ultraviolet radiation for Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemus Deschamps, L. [Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre (Australia); Galindo, I.; Solano, R.; Elizalde, A.T.; Fonseca, J. [Centro Universitario de Investigaciones en Ciencias del Ambiente, University of Colima (Mexico)

    2002-07-01

    A discrete-ordinate radiative transfer model is employed to develop a regional clear sky ultraviolet (UV) diagnosis system. The clear sky UV radiation, weighted by the spectral sensitivity of human skin is calculated using the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) data sets. Examples of the geographical clear sky UV Index distributions are presented and the model results are compared with surface UV measurements from University of Colima for 1999. [Spanish] Utilizando un modelo de transferencia de radiacion de ordenadas discretas se desarrolla un sistema para el diagnostico de la distribucion de radiacion ultravioleta para cielo despejado en la Republica Mexicana. La radiacion para cielo despejado se obtiene utilizando la respuesta espectral de la piel humana y los datos de satelite de ozono total registrados por el espectrometro TOMS. Se presentan ejemplos del Indice de radiacion ultravioleta (UV Index) calculados con el modelo y se comparan con las mediciones en superficie obtenidas en la Universidad de Colima durante 1999.

  5. Combined Papillated Bowen Disease and Clear Cell Atypical Fibroxanthoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimas Suárez-Vilela

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case of papillated Bowen disease (PBD, associated with a clear cell atypical fibroxanthoma (CCAFXA. The epidermal lesion showed a bowenoid papillomatous growth pattern with histologic features suggestive of infection by human papilloma virus (HPV. In the dermis a neoplasm made up by spindled or polygonal cells with wide clear cytoplasm and moderate nuclear pleomorphism was found. Immunohistochemical characteristics of these two lesions were clearly different. The atypical cells of the intraepidermal proliferation were positive for AE1-AE3 anticytokeratin antibody, EMA, p16, p53 and p63. The dermal tumor was positive for vimentin, CD10, CD68, CD99, alpha-1-antitrypsin and c-kit. Histological features and immunohistochemical profile of the dermal tumor corresponded to a CCAFXA, a very uncommon neoplasm of which only 10 cases have been reported. In situ hybridization for numerous types of HPVs was negative in both lesions.

  6. A stochastic framework for clearing of reactive power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a new stochastic framework for clearing of day-ahead reactive power market. The uncertainty of generating units in the form of system contingencies are considered in the reactive power market-clearing procedure by the stochastic model in two steps. The Monte-Carlo Simulation (MCS) is first used to generate random scenarios. Then, in the second step, the stochastic market-clearing procedure is implemented as a series of deterministic optimization problems (scenarios) including non-contingent scenario and different post-contingency states. In each of these deterministic optimization problems, the objective function is total payment function (TPF) of generators which refers to the payment paid to the generators for their reactive power compensation. The effectiveness of the proposed model is examined based on the IEEE 24-bus Reliability Test System (IEEE 24-bus RTS). (author)

  7. Multiobjective clearing of reactive power market in deregulated power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a day-ahead reactive power market which is cleared in the form of multiobjective context. Total payment function (TPF) of generators, representing the payment paid to the generators for their reactive power compensation, is considered as the main objective function of reactive power market. Besides that, voltage security margin, overload index, and also voltage drop index are the other objective functions of the optimal power flow (OPF) problem to clear the reactive power market. A Multiobjective Mathematical Programming (MMP) formulation is implemented to solve the problem of reactive power market clearing using a fuzzy approach to choose the best compromise solution according to the specific preference among various non-dominated (pareto optimal) solutions. The effectiveness of the proposed method is examined based on the IEEE 24-bus reliability test system (IEEE 24-bus RTS). (author)

  8. A stochastic framework for clearing of reactive power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a new stochastic framework for clearing of day-ahead reactive power market. The uncertainty of generating units in the form of system contingencies are considered in the reactive power market-clearing procedure by the stochastic model in two steps. The Monte-Carlo Simulation (MCS) is first used to generate random scenarios. Then, in the second step, the stochastic market-clearing procedure is implemented as a series of deterministic optimization problems (scenarios) including non-contingent scenario and different post-contingency states. In each of these deterministic optimization problems, the objective function is total payment function (TPF) of generators which refers to the payment paid to the generators for their reactive power compensation. The effectiveness of the proposed model is examined based on the IEEE 24-bus Reliability Test System (IEEE 24-bus RTS).

  9. A new versatile clearing method for brain imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, Irene; Di Giovanna, Antonino Paolo; Allegra Mascaro, Anna Letizia; Silvestri, Ludovico; Müllenbroich, Marie Caroline; Sacconi, Leonardo; Pavone, Francesco S.

    2015-03-01

    Light scattering inside biological tissue is a limitation for large volumes imaging with microscopic resolution. Based on refractive index matching, different approaches have been developed to reduce scattering in fixed tissue. High refractive index organic solvents and water-based optical clearing agents, such as Sca/e, SeeDB and CUBIC have been used for optical clearing of entire mouse brain. Although these methods guarantee high transparency and preservation of the fluorescence, though present other non-negligible limitations. Tissue transformation by CLARITY allows high transparency, whole brain immunolabelling and structural and molecular preservation. This method however requires a highly expensive refractive index matching solution limiting practical applicability to large volumes. In this work we investigate the effectiveness of a water-soluble clearing agent, the 2,2'-thiodiethanol (TDE) to clear mouse and human brain. TDE does not quench the fluorescence signal, is compatible with immunostaining and does not introduce any deformation at sub-cellular level. The not viscous nature of the TDE make it a suitable agent to perform brain slicing during serial two-photon (STP) tomography. In fact, by improving penetration depth it reduces tissue slicing, decreasing the acquisition time and cutting artefacts. TDE can also be used as a refractive index medium for CLARITY. The potential of this method has been explored by imaging blocks of dysplastic human brain transformed with CLARITY, immunostained and cleared with the TDE. This clearing approach significantly expands the application of single and two-photon imaging, providing a new useful method for quantitative morphological analysis of structure in mouse and human brain.

  10. A versatile new technique to clear mouse and human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, Irene; Di Giovanna, Antonino Paolo; Allegra Mascaro, Anna Letizia; Silvestri, Ludovico; Müllenbroich, Marie Caroline; Sacconi, Leonardo; Pavone, Francesco S.

    2015-07-01

    Large volumes imaging with microscopic resolution is limited by light scattering. In the last few years based on refractive index matching, different clearing approaches have been developed. Organic solvents and water-based optical clearing agents have been used for optical clearing of entire mouse brain. Although these methods guarantee high transparency and preservation of the fluorescence, though present other non-negligible limitations. Tissue transformation by CLARITY allows high transparency, whole brain immunolabelling and structural and molecular preservation. This method however requires a highly expensive refractive index matching solution limiting practical applicability. In this work we investigate the effectiveness of a water-soluble clearing agent, the 2,2'-thiodiethanol (TDE) to clear mouse and human brain. TDE does not quench the fluorescence signal, is compatible with immunostaining and does not introduce any deformation at sub-cellular level. The not viscous nature of the TDE make it a suitable agent to perform brain slicing during serial two-photon (STP) tomography. In fact, by improving penetration depth it reduces tissue slicing, decreasing the acquisition time and cutting artefacts. TDE can also be used as a refractive index medium for CLARITY. The potential of this method has been explored by imaging a whole transgenic mouse brain with the light sheet microscope. Moreover we apply this technique also on blocks of dysplastic human brain tissue transformed with CLARITY and labeled with different antibody. This clearing approach significantly expands the application of single and two-photon imaging, providing a new useful method for quantitative morphological analysis of structure in mouse and human brain.

  11. Cladoceran zooplankton abundance under clear and snow-covered ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBates, T.J.; Chipps, S.R.; Ward, M.C.; Werlin, K.B.; Lorenzen, P.B.

    2003-01-01

    We described the distribution of cladoceran zooplankton under the ice in a natural, glacial lake. Local light availability apparently altered the spatial distribution of cladocerans. Light levels measured under snow-covered areas (0.178 lux) were an order of magnitude less than those measured at the same depth under clear ice (1.750 lux). Cladoceran density under snow-covered areas was significantly higher (Bosmina spp.=3.34/L; Daphnia spp.=0.61/L) than cladoceran abundance under clear ice (Bosmina spp.=0.91/L; Daphnia spp.=0.19/L).

  12. Clear cell odontogenic carcinoma of maxilla: A diagnostic challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouzia Siraj

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Clear cell odontogenic carcinoma (CCOC is a rare odontogenic tumor which occurs mostly in the mandible. It is primarily seen in fifth to seventh decades with a female predilection. We report a case of CCOC in the maxillary arch of a 66-year-old woman. Morphologic examination along with histochemical and immunohistochemical markers led to the establishment of the diagnosis. It is important to diagnose this entity and differentiate it from other clear cell tumors in the head and neck region as it is a locally aggressive tumor with a propensity for regional, nodal, and distant metastasis.

  13. Effects of Clear-Fell Harvest on Bat Home Range

    OpenAIRE

    Borkin, Kerry M.; Parsons, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    We investigated effects of roost loss due to clear-fell harvest on bat home range. The study took place in plantation forest, inhabited by the New Zealand long-tailed bat (Chalinolobus tuberculatus), in which trees are harvested between the ages 26–32 years. We determined home ranges by radiotracking different bats in areas that had and had not been recently clear-fell harvested. Home ranges were smaller in areas that had been harvested. Adult male bats selected 20–25 year old stands within h...

  14. A RARE CASE OF CLEAR CELL SARCOMA OF TENDONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Clear cell sarcoma of tendons & aponeuroses , is a rare malignancy derived from neural crest cells. It commonly presents in young adults in extremities. It is usually a high grade tumor with poor survival rates. Grossly , the tumor is circumscribed with a histologic pattern of uniform polygonal to fusiform cells with clear to pale eosinophilic cytoplasm divided into variably sized clusters by fibrous septa. Immunohistochemistry reveals neopalstic cells which are positive for HMB - 45 & react with antibody against S - 100 protein. Mainstay treatment remains wide excision of tumor . The role of chemotherapy & radiotherapy are reported to be limited. We report this case in view of its rarity.

  15. Computer analyses on loop seal clearing experiment at PWR PACTEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Code analyses of loop seal clearing experiment with PWR PACTEL are introduced. • TRACE and APROS system codes are used in the analyses. • Main events of the experiment are well predicted with both codes. • Discrepancies are observed on the secondary side and in the core region. • Loop seal clearing phenomenon is well simulated with both codes. - Abstract: Water seal formation in the loop seal in pressurized water reactors can occur during a small or intermediate break loss-of-coolant accident, causing temporary fuel overheating. Quantification of the accuracy of overheating prediction is of interest in the best-estimate safety analyses, even though the peak cladding temperatures due to the water seal formation in the loop seal seldom approach acceptance criteria as such. The aim of this study was to test and evaluate the accuracy with which the thermal–hydraulic system code nodalizations of the PWR PACTEL predict loop seal clearing in a small break loss-of-coolant-accident test performed with the PWR PACTEL facility. PWR PACTEL is a thermal–hydraulic test facility with two loops and vertical inverted U-tube steam generators. Post-test simulations were performed with the TRACE and APROS system codes. In the post-test simulations, the main events of the transient such as the decrease in the core water level, depressurization of the primary circuit, and the behavior of the water seal formation and clearing in the loop seal were predicted satisfactorily by both codes. However, discrepancies with the experiment results were observed in the analyses with both codes, for example the core temperature excursions were halted too early and the peak temperature predictions were too low. The core water level increase caused by loop seal clearing was overestimated with both codes, and the pressure and temperature were overestimated on the secondary side of the steam generators. Loop Seal 2 was evidently cleared out while Loop Seal 1 remained closed

  16. Glycogen-rich clear cell carcinoma of the breast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Paulsen, S M

    1987-01-01

    cells were stained by antisera to carcinoembryonic antigen, keratin and epithelial membrane antigen, but not by antisera to alpha-lactalbumin, desmin or vimentin. Ultrastructurally, the epithelial derivation of the tumour was confirmed. Only a few intracytoplasmic lumina were demonstrated. The tumour......The light microscopic, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural features of a clear cell carcinoma of the breast have been studied. Both intraductal and invasive components were found. Histochemistry showed large amounts of intracytoplasmic glycogen and sparse neutral mucin in the tumour. The tumour...... was classified as a mucin-containing variant of glycogen-rich, clear cell carcinoma of the breast....

  17. Zones of emotional labour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøbæk, Pernille Solveig

    2011-01-01

    The paper suggests that due to the difficult nature of their work public family law caseworkers are to be included in the definition of emotional labour even though they are omitted by Hochschild. Based upon a review of the structures involved in emotional labour an explorative qualitative study is...... put forth among 25 Danish public family law caseworkers. The study points to personal, professional, and social zones of emotional labour through which the caseworkers carry out their work. Emotional labour zones mark emotion structures that may be challenging due to complex emotional intersections...

  18. ZoneLib

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Jan Jacob; Schiøler, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    We present a dynamic model for climate in a livestock building divided into a number of zones, and a corresponding modular Simulink library (ZoneLib). While most literature in this area consider air flow as a control parameter we show how to model climate dynamics using actual control signals...... for the ventilation equipment. To   overcome a shortcoming in Simulink to solve algebraic equations and matrix inversions, we have developed the library inspired by the so called dynamic node technique. We present simulation results using the presented library, and concludes with visions for further...

  19. Grid zone drone

    OpenAIRE

    McCarthy, Clive; Cooper, Graham; Field, James; Thayne, Martyn; Vickers, Richard

    2014-01-01

    From 16th – 19th October 2014, co_LAB presented its newest creation, Grid Zone Drone, at Kinetica – an international exhibition providing a global platform for galleries, curatorial groups, design studios and artists working with new media art. 2014 marked the third consecutive year that the University of Lincoln has been represented at the global art fair. Grid Zone Drone represents a continuation of the group’s research into ‘drone culture’, and explores the detachment of the drone withi...

  20. Some implications of Coastal Regulation Zone (CRZ) legislation for the coast of Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mascarenhas, A.

    framework known as the Coastal Regulation Zone (CRZ) Notification in 1991. This law was meant to control and minimise impacts on sensitive ecosystems. The CRZ Notification is significantly comprehensive and clear in most respects, and can be classified...

  1. Does gently clearing the nasal passage affect odor identification?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell G. Spring

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Identifying scents in a wine’s bouquet is considered one of the most important steps in the process of wine tasting. An individual’s ability to successfully do this is dependent on the sense of smell; thus, altering the nasal microenvironment could have a powerful effect on the wine tasting experience. In the present study, we examined olfactory performance in healthy participants who cleared their nasal cavity before odorant presentations. Fifty undergraduate participants were assessed with a standardized test of olfaction requiring the recognition of a battery of odors. Half of these participants cleared mucus from their nasal cavities (by gently blowing their noses prior to the assessment. No difference was found in performance between those who cleared their nasal passages and those who did not. Further, data were not different than known population data from the test. These data suggest that gently clearing the nasal cavity before presentation of odorants bears no effect on the ability to perceive those odor qualities.

  2. Clear cell adenocarcinoma of the bladder with intravesical cervical invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchalik, Daniel; Krishnan, Jayashree; Verghese, Mohan; Venkatesan, Krishnan

    2015-01-01

    A 26-year-old woman with a complicated urological and gynecological history with uterine didelphys with bilaterally inserting intravesical cervical oses presented with cyclical haematuria. Work up revealed a mass in the ectopic cervical os and adjacent bladder wall. Subsequent resection confirmed a clear cell adenocarcinoma of urological origin with invasion into neighbouring os. PMID:26109625

  3. 78 FR 72475 - Derivatives Clearing Organizations and International Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... Clearing Organization General Provisions and Core Principles, 76 FR 69334 (Nov. 8, 2011). These regulations... Market Utilities as Systemically Important, 76 FR 44763, 44774 (July 27, 2011) (final rule). In... deems appropriate. \\11\\ 76 FR 44766. \\12\\ See Press Release, Financial Stability Oversight...

  4. 76 FR 14471 - Clearing Agency Standards for Operation and Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    ... CFTC have proposed rules to define these terms. See Exchange Act No. 63452 (December 7, 2010), 75 FR...-the- counter market. See Exchange Act Release No. 63825 (February 2, 2011), 76 FR 10948 (February 28... five entities to clear credit default swaps. See Exchange Act Release Nos. 60372 (July 23, 2009), 74...

  5. Clear Cell Chondrosarcoma in Association With Niemann-Pick Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. N. Srikanth

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this case report is to bring to light this unusual combination of two rare diseases, namely Neimann-Pick disease Type B and clear cell chondrosarcoma occurring in the same patient. This has not previously been reported in the world literature.

  6. 76 FR 3697 - Risk Management Requirements for Derivatives Clearing Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ....\\29\\ \\29\\ See 75 FR at 63750. In that proposed rulemaking, the provisions relating to the Risk... Trading Commission 17 CFR Part 39 Risk Management Requirements for Derivatives Clearing Organizations...; ] COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION 17 CFR Part 39 RIN 3038-AC98 Risk Management Requirements...

  7. Multifocal Rhizopus microsporus lung infection following brush clearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artsiom V. Tsyrkunou

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of pulmonary Rhizopus microsporus infection in a patient with untreated diabetes following brush clearing. The patient was successfully treated with a combined medical and surgical approach with complete resolution of the lung lesions and remains asymptomatic at 11-month follow-up.

  8. Bifunctional mesoporous silicas with clearly distinguished localization of grafted groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roik, N. V.; Belyakova, L. A.

    2013-12-01

    Bifunctional mesoporous silicas with clearly distinguished localization of grafted groups on the surface of particles and inside their pores were obtained by means of sol-gel synthesis with postsynthetic vapor-phase treatment in vacuum. It was found that the synthesized materials have the hexagonally ordered porous structure typical of MCM-41 type silica.

  9. Marketing Strategies of United Kingdom Universities during Clearing and Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogaji, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The clearing system in the UK enables students without a university place after exam results have been announced to find suitable vacancies, as it is important for universities to fill their vacancies as any shortfall loses them a lot of money. The purpose of this paper is to examine marketing strategies adopted by UK universities on…

  10. Antimalarial Drugs Clear Resistant Parasites from Partially Immune Hosts

    OpenAIRE

    Cravo, Pedro; Culleton, Richard; Hunt, Paul; Walliker, David; Mackinnon, Margaret J.

    2001-01-01

    Circumstantial evidence in human malaria suggests that elimination of parasites by drug treatment meets higher success rates in individuals having some background immunity. In this study, using the rodent malaria model Plasmodium chabaudi, we show that drug-resistant parasites can be cleared by drugs when the host is partially immune.

  11. Seeing Clearly (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-05-08

    If you’re not seeing the world as clearly as you used to, you might be among the millions of people suffering from vision impairment. In this podcast, Dr. John Crews discusses ways to take care of your eyes.  Created: 5/8/2014 by MMWR.   Date Released: 5/8/2014.

  12. 18 CFR 367.1840 - Account 184, Clearing accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Account 184, Clearing accounts. 367.1840 Section 367.1840 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR CENTRALIZED SERVICE COMPANIES SUBJECT...

  13. Treatment results and prognostic factors of clear cell ovarian carcinomas and ovarian carcinomas with clear cell component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Ahmedova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The most important prognostic factors for clear cell carcinoma (CCC are clinical and morphological signs and clinical stage of the disease. Analyses of 5-year survival in patients with I stage of CCC is 69 %, in II stage – 55 %, in III stage – 14 % and in IV stage – 4 % patients. We analyzed distant results of treatment of 71 patients with CCC and of 25 patients with mixed malignant ovaries neoplasm with obligatory clear cell component taking into consideration main clinical and morphological sings of disease. On the base of performed reseal we revealed that morphological structure of the tumors and stage of the disease exerted heist influence on the exponent of survival of the patients with clear CCC ovaries neoplasm. Besides, there is a correlation between exponent of patients’ survival and radicalized of surgery, character of tumor growth, differentiation degree, cell anaplasia and mitotic activity of tumor cells.

  14. The potential of clear-sky carbon dioxide satellite retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Robert R.; O'Dell, Christopher W.; Taylor, Thomas E.; Mandrake, Lukas; Smyth, Mike

    2016-04-01

    Since the launch of the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) in 2009, retrieval algorithms designed to infer the column-averaged dry-air mole fraction of carbon dioxide (XCO2) from hyperspectral near-infrared observations of reflected sunlight have been greatly improved. They now generally include the scattering effects of clouds and aerosols, as early work found that absorption-only retrievals, which neglected these effects, often incurred unacceptably large errors, even for scenes with optically thin cloud or aerosol layers. However, these "full-physics" retrievals tend to be computationally expensive and may incur biases from trying to deduce the properties of clouds and aerosols when there are none present. Additionally, algorithms are now available that can quickly and effectively identify and remove most scenes in which cloud or aerosol scattering plays a significant role. In this work, we test the hypothesis that non-scattering, or "clear-sky", retrievals may perform as well as full-physics retrievals for sufficiently clear scenes. Clear-sky retrievals could potentially avoid errors and biases brought about by trying to infer properties of clouds and aerosols when none are present. Clear-sky retrievals are also desirable because they are orders of magnitude faster than full-physics retrievals. Here we use a simplified version of the Atmospheric Carbon Observations from Space (ACOS) XCO2 retrieval algorithm that does not include the scattering and absorption effects of clouds or aerosols. It was found that for simulated Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) measurements, the clear-sky retrieval had errors comparable to those of the full-physics retrieval. For real GOSAT data, the clear-sky retrieval had errors 0-20 % larger than the full-physics retrieval over land and errors roughly 20-35 % larger over ocean, depending on filtration level. In general, the clear-sky retrieval had XCO2 root-mean-square errors (RMSEs) of less than 2.0 ppm, relative to

  15. Clear-air radar observations of the atmospheric boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ince, Turker

    2001-10-01

    This dissertation presents the design and operation of a high-resolution frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FM- CW) radar system to study the structure and dynamics of clear-air turbulence in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). This sensitive radar can image the vertical structure of the ABL with both high spatial and temporal resolutions, and provide both qualitative information about the morphology of clear-air structures and quantitative information on the intensity of fluctuations in refractive-index of air. The principles of operation and the hardware and data acquisition characteristics of the radar are described in the dissertation. In October 1999, the radar participated in the Cooperative Atmosphere-Surface Exchange Study (CASES'99) Experiment to characterize the temporal structure and evolution of the boundary-layer features in both convective and stable conditions. The observed structures include clear-air convection, boundary layer evolution, gravity waves, Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities, stably stratified layers, and clear-air turbulence. Many of the S-band radar images also show high- reflectivity returns from Rayleigh scatterers such as insects. An adaptive median filtering technique based on local statistics has, therefore, been developed to discriminate between Bragg and Rayleigh scattering in clear-air radar observations. The filter is tested on radar observations of clear air convection with comparison to two commonly used image processing techniques. The dissertation also examines the statistical mean of the radar-measured C2n for clear-air convection, and compares it with the theoretical predictions. The study also shows that the inversion height, local thickness of the inversion layer, and the height of the elevated atmospheric layers can be estimated from the radar reflectivity measurements. In addition, comparisons to the radiosonde-based height estimates are made. To examine the temporal and spatial structure of C2n , the dissertation

  16. The potential of clear-sky carbon dioxide satellite retrievals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. R. Nelson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the launch of the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT in 2009, retrieval algorithms designed to infer the column-averaged dry-air mole fraction of carbon dioxide (XCO2 from hyperspectral near-infrared observations of reflected sunlight have been greatly improved. They now generally include the scattering effects of clouds and aerosols, as early work found that absorption-only retrievals, which neglected these effects, often incurred unacceptably large errors, even for scenes with optically thin cloud or aerosol layers. However, these "full-physics" retrievals tend to be computationally expensive and may incur biases from trying to deduce the properties of clouds and aerosols when there are none present. Additionally, algorithms are now available that can quickly and effectively identify and remove most scenes in which cloud or aerosol scattering plays a significant role. In this work, we test the hypothesis that non-scattering, or "clear-sky", retrievals may perform as well as full-physics retrievals for sufficiently clear scenes. Clear-sky retrievals could potentially avoid errors and biases brought about by trying to infer properties of clouds and aerosols when none are present. Clear-sky retrievals are also desirable because they are orders of magnitude faster than full-physics retrievals. Here we use a simplified version of the Atmospheric Carbon Observations from Space (ACOS XCO2 retrieval algorithm that does not include the scattering and absorption effects of clouds or aerosols. It was found that for simulated Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2 measurements, the clear-sky retrieval had errors comparable to those of the full-physics retrieval. For real GOSAT data, the clear-sky retrieval had nearly indistinguishable error characteristics over land, but roughly 30–60 % larger errors over ocean, depending on filtration level, compared to the full-physics retrieval. In general, the clear-sky retrieval had XCO2 root

  17. Validation of the McClear clear-sky model in desert conditions with three stations in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefèvre, Mireille; Wald, Lucien

    2016-03-01

    The new McClear clear-sky model, a fast model based on a radiative transfer solver, exploits the atmospheric properties provided by the EU-funded Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS) to estimate the solar direct and global irradiances received at ground level in cloud-free conditions at any place any time. The work presented here focuses on desert conditions and compares the McClear irradiances to coincident 1 min measurements made in clear-sky conditions at three stations in Israel which are distant from less than 100 km. The bias for global irradiance is comprised between 2 and 32 W m-2, i.e. between 0 and 4 % of the mean observed irradiance (approximately 830 W m-2). The RMSE ranges from 30 to 41 W m-2 (4 %) and the squared correlation coefficient is greater than 0.976. The bias for the direct irradiance at normal incidence (DNI) is comprised between -68 and +13 W m-2, i.e. between -8 and 2 % of the mean observed DNI (approximately 840 W m-2). The RMSE ranges from 53 (7 %) to 83 W m-2 (10 %). The squared correlation coefficient is close to 0.6. The performances are similar for the three sites for the global irradiance and for the DNI to a lesser extent, demonstrating the robustness of the McClear model combined with CAMS products. These results are discussed in the light of those obtained by McClear for other desert areas in Egypt and United Arab Emirates.

  18. DNS zones revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanrooij, van Ward; Pras, Aiko; Delgado Kloos, Carlos

    2005-01-01

    Recent research [Pap04b] suggests DNS reliability and performance is not up to the levels it should be due to misconfigurations. This paper checks the configuration of nameserver zones against additional requirements, recommendations and best-practices. It shows that almost one in four domains fails

  19. AIDS and journalism. Trying to tell too clear a story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, J

    1994-12-01

    Much in science is complex. Scientists, by definition, work within the realm of complex hypothesis, empirical evidence, and proof. Questions, answers, details, complexities; that is the domain of the scientist. Journalists, on the other hand, are paid to develop and present stories which are clearly read and interpreted by the general public. The mechanics and dynamics of HIV and AIDS are among the most complex scientific challenges in the history of humankind. Journalists calling upon scientists to obtain and report clear, concise, information about the agent and its resulting pandemic are therefore surely not always going to receive simple, readily reportable responses. HIV is a moving target upon which research continues. While there are some definitively affirmative and some definitively negative factors about HIV, the gray areas and speculation remain vast. The author gives a few examples of AIDS stories which the media mishandled because they were trying to tell too clear a story. He then discusses stories flawed because scientists managed to present clear information about which journalists were overly skeptical. In one case, the public was informed that AIDS vaccines were not working, with headlines which insinuated that the vaccines themselves were causing infections. None of the vaccines, however, contained infectious materials. As a result, people became overly fearful of participating in HIV vaccine trials. Coverage of the potential identification of HIV-3 was premature and only scared people, while Rolling Stone magazine's article hypothesizing the origin of HIV via trials of a contaminated polio vaccine in the Belgium Congo in the late 1950s should not have been published. Clear answers about HIV/AIDS are few and far between, but interesting and significant stories can still be found; they are just hard to tell. PMID:12319130

  20. Clear cell ovarian cancer and endometriosis: is there a relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzin, Jacek; Obirek, Katarzyna; Sochacka, Amanda; Łoszakiewicz, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Ovarian clear cell carcinoma is a rare type of ovarian cancer. In recent years, issues of the common genetic origin of endometriosis and ovarian clear cell carcinoma have been raised. Aim of this study Aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of this type of cancer, risk factors, prognosis and its potential aetiological association with endometriosis. Material and methods In a retrospective study, we analysed histopathological data of patients operated in the First Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (MU, Lodz) due to ovarian cancer in 2004-2014. Among the 394 patients operated on for ovarian cancer, clear cell carcinoma was found in 0.02% (9/394). Menstrual history, parity, comorbidities, data from physical examination, operational protocols and histopathological diagnoses were analysed. Follow-up was obtained from 77.8% of patients. Statistical analysis was performed using Microsoft Excel 2013. Results The mean age of patients at diagnosis was 57.6 years; the BMI in the study group was 27.2; the majority of patients were multiparous (77.8%). Clear cell carcinoma was detected mostly at stage Ia (n = 4). The concentration of Ca125 in the study group had an average of 142.75 U/ml and a median of 69.3 U/ml. The coexistence of endometriosis could not be clinically or histologically confirmed amongst our patients. The most common comorbidity in the study group was hypertension. Conclusions In our clinical material, ovarian clear cell carcinoma is a rare histopathological specimen with a prognostic value comparable to that of serous ovarian cancer. Due to the rarity of this histopathological subtype, proving a cause-and-effect relationship between it and endometriosis can only be elucidated through statistical studies of the entire population.

  1. Deaf children's use of clear visual cues in mindreading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Jian; Su, Yanjie

    2014-11-01

    Previous studies show that typically developing 4-year old children can understand other people's false beliefs but that deaf children of hearing families have difficulty in understanding false beliefs until the age of approximately 13. Because false beliefs are implicit mental states that are not expressed through clear visual cues in standard false belief tasks, the present study examines the hypothesis that the deaf children's developmental delay in understanding false beliefs may reflect their difficulty in understanding a spectrum of mental states that are not expressed through clear visual cues. Nine- to 13-year-old deaf children of hearing families and 4-6-year-old typically developing children completed false belief tasks and emotion recognition tasks under different cue conditions. The results indicated that after controlling for the effect of the children's language abilities, the deaf children inferred other people's false beliefs as accurately as the typically developing children when other people's false beliefs were clearly expressed through their eye-gaze direction. However, the deaf children performed worse than the typically developing children when asked to infer false beliefs with ambiguous or no eye-gaze cues. Moreover, the deaf children were capable of recognizing other people's emotions that were clearly conveyed by their facial or body expressions. The results suggest that although theory-based or simulation-based mental state understanding is typical of hearing children's theory of mind mechanism, for deaf children of hearing families, clear cue-based mental state understanding may be their specific theory of mind mechanism. PMID:25104224

  2. A conceptual model of daily water balance following partial clearing from forest to pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Bari

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple conceptual water balance model representing the streamflow generation processes on a daily time step following land use change is presented. The model consists of five stores: (i Dry, Wet and Subsurface Stores for vertical and lateral water flow, (ii a transient Stream zone Store (iii a saturated Goundwater Store. The soil moisture balance in the top soil Dry and Wet Stores are the most important components of the model and characterize the dynamically varying saturated areas responsible for surface runoff, interflow and deep percolation. The Subsurface Store describes the unsaturated soil moisture balance, extraction of percolated water by vegetation and groundwater recharge. The Groundwater Store controls the baseflow to stream (if any and the groundwater contribution to the stream zone saturated areas. The daily model was developed following a downward approach by analysing data from Ernies (control and Lemon (53% cleared catchments in Western Australia and elaborating a monthly model. The daily model performed very well in simulating daily flow generation processes for both catchments. Most of the model parameters were incorporated a priori from catchment attributes such as surface slope, soil depth, porosity, stream length and initial groundwater depth, and some were calibrated by matching the observed and predicted hydrographs. The predicted groundwater depth, and streamflow volumes across all time steps from daily to monthly to annual were in close agreement with observations for both catchments.

  3. 14 CFR 399.32 - Zone of limited suspension for domestic passenger fares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Zone of limited suspension for domestic... and Tariffs § 399.32 Zone of limited suspension for domestic passenger fares. (a) Applicability. This... except upon a clear showing of abuse of market power that the Board does not expect to be...

  4. 78 FR 54507 - Clearing Agency; the Options Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-04

    ..., including number of outstanding shares, number of outstanding shareholders and overall trading volume. The... collateral for a particular clearing member, shares of an otherwise eligible security held as margin. II... market price ofconcentrated security positions by identifying the two individual securities whose...

  5. Zoning Districts, Countywide Zoning Shapefile, Published in unknown, Cleveland County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Zoning Districts dataset as of unknown. It is described as 'Countywide Zoning Shapefile'. Data by this publisher are often provided in State Plane coordinate...

  6. Empowerment Zones and Enterprise Districts - MDC_EnterpriseZone

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Polygon feature class of Miami Dade County Enterprise Zones. Enterprise Zones are special areas in the county where certain incentives from the State are available...

  7. Clear sky atmosphere at cm-wavelengths from climatology data

    CERN Document Server

    Lew, Bartosz

    2015-01-01

    We utilise ground-based, balloon-born and satellite climatology data to reconstruct site and season-dependent vertical profiles of precipitable water vapour (PWV). We use these profiles to numerically solve radiative transfer through the atmosphere, and derive atmospheric brightness temperature ($T_{\\rm atm}$) and optical depth ($\\tau$) at the centimetre wavelengths. We validate the reconstruction by comparing the model column PWV, with photometric measurements of PWV, performed in the clear sky conditions towards the Sun. Based on the measurements, we devise a selection criteria to filter the climatology data to match the PWV levels to the expectations of the clear sky conditions. We apply the reconstruction to the location of the Polish 32-metre radio telescope, and characterise $T_{\\rm atm}$ and $\\tau$ year-round, at selected frequencies. We also derive the zenith distance dependence for these parameters, and discuss shortcomings of using planar, single-layer, and optically thin atmospheric model approxima...

  8. Status of crystal clear collaboration activities on scintillators

    CERN Document Server

    Auffray, Etiennette

    2000-01-01

    Since about 10 years, the Crystal Clear Collaboration at CERN works on systematic investigations of new scintillating crystals and their application in science and industry. A large amount of new type scintillators had been characterised and optimised in terms of emission spectra, light yield, production yield and radiation hardness. As a result, one of those crystals, PbWO4, was chosen to be the baseline solution for the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter at CERN and is actually produced in industrial scale with a quantity of about 1000 crystals per month. Another baseline of actual research interests in Crystal Clear is the construction of a PET-scanning prototype made of small, high light yield crystals for future medical applications. As a result of the different research activities on scintillating crystals, a website is currently under construction, which provides access to a large crystal database. Beside general and methodological informations on scintillating crystals, the database will contain a large ...

  9. Aberrant expression of metallothioneins in clear cell renal cell carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rymar V. I.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To find candidate tumor suppressor genes among metallothioneins for clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Methods. Analysis of the microarray data, quantitative PCR. Results. We found three genes encoding metallothioneines that showed reduced expression in different types of renal tumors, using protocol of the cross-platform meta-analysis of microarray data with normalization on several reference genes. Decreased expression of the MT1G, MT1F, and MT1H genes in clear cell renal cell carcinoma was confirmed by qPCR. Conclusions. The MT1G, MT1F and MT1H genes as well as may be considered as the candidate tumor suppressor genes for ccRCC.

  10. Enhanced OCT imaging of embryonic tissue with optical clearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) holds great promise as a routine research tool for 3-D analysis of mammalian embryos. However, despite the depth penetration afforded by this imaging modality, light attenuation in tissues imposes limitations. Here we studied the optical clearing effect of different concentrations of glycerol in mouse embryos. Depth- and time-resolved profiles for OCT signal enhancement are presented. We found that application of 50% glycerol resulted in 51.5±12.5% improvement of the OCT signal, while 25% glycerol enhanced the OCT signal by 25.2±7.3% at the depth of about 200 to 500 μm, and the glycerol permeability rate was estimated as 26.7±6 μm/min. These results demonstrate that embryonic imaging is improved by application of glycerol as optical clearing agent

  11. ClearFuels-Rentech Integrated Biorefinery Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, Joshua [Project Director

    2014-02-26

    The project Final Report describes the validation of the performance of the integration of two technologies that were proven individually on a pilot scale and were demonstrated as a pilot scale integrated biorefinery. The integrated technologies were a larger scale ClearFuels’ (CF) advanced flexible biomass to syngas thermochemical high efficiency hydrothermal reformer (HEHTR) technology with Rentech’s (RTK) existing synthetic gas to liquids (GTL) technology.

  12. Agroforestry is promising for previously cleared hardwood rangelands

    OpenAIRE

    McCreary, Doug

    2001-01-01

    Livestock grazing is the primary economic use of most hardwood rangelands in the coastal foothills of California. But owners of these lands may be able to increase revenues by simultaneously producing two crops, trees and sheep. In 1993, we initiated an agroforestry project at the UC Hopland Research and Extension Center to study the ability of three pine species and one hybrid to grow on cleared hardwood rangelands that are grazed by sheep. This study also evaluated the response of planted s...

  13. Clear-cut monitoring on French region of Limousin

    OpenAIRE

    Salvado, A; Stach, N.; Deshayes, M.; Lascaux, P.

    2007-01-01

    Since 2006, IFN (French National Forest Inventory) has been conducting an annual survey of clear-cuts on the French administrative region of Limousin (17060 km2). This work has been initiated as a part of the GSE (Global monitoring for environment and security Service Element) Forest monitoring European project, a common initiative of the European Commission and ESA. The goal of this project is to bridge the gap between producers of information derived from satellite data and users of this...

  14. Image reconstruction for the ClearPETTM Neuro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ClearPETTM is a family of small-animal PET scanners which are currently under development within the Crystal Clear Collaboration (CERN). All scanners are based on the same detector block design using individual LSO and LuYAP crystals in phoswich configuration, coupled to multi-anode photomultiplier tubes. One of the scanners, the ClearPETTM Neuro is designed for applications in neuroscience. Four detector blocks with 64 2x2x10 mm LSO and LuYAP crystals, arranged in line, build a module. Twenty modules are arranged in a ring with a ring diameter of 13.8 cm and an axial size of 11.2 cm. An insensitive region at the border of the detector heads results in gaps between the detectors axially and tangentially. The detectors are rotating by 360o in step and shoot mode during data acquisition. Every second module is shifted axially to compensate partly for the gaps between the detector blocks in a module. This unconventional scanner geometry requires dedicated image reconstruction procedures. Data acquisition acquires single events that are stored with a time mark in a dedicated list mode format. Coincidences are associated off line by software. After sorting the data into 3D sinograms, image reconstruction is performed using the Ordered Subset Maximum A Posteriori One-Step Late (OSMAPOSL) iterative algorithm implemented in the Software for Tomographic Image Reconstruction (STIR) library. Due to the non-conventional scanner design, careful estimation of the sensitivity matrix is needed to obtain artifact-free images from the ClearPETTM Neuro

  15. Durational cues to word boundaries in clear speech

    OpenAIRE

    Cutler, A.; Butterfield, S.

    1990-01-01

    One of a listener’s major tasks in understanding continuous speech in segmenting the speech signal into separate words. When listening conditions are difficult, speakers can help listeners by deliberately clear speech. We found that speakers do indeed attempt to makr word boundaries; moreover, they differentiate between word boundaries in a way which suggest they are sensitive to listener needs. Application of heuristic segmentation strategies makes word boundaries before strong syllables eas...

  16. Clear sky atmosphere at cm-wavelengths from climatology data

    OpenAIRE

    Lew, Bartosz; Uscka-Kowalkowska, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    We utilise ground-based, balloon-borne and satellite climatology data to reconstruct site and season-dependent vertical profiles of precipitable water vapour (PWV). We use these profiles to solve radiative transfer through the atmosphere, and derive atmospheric brightness temperature ($T_{\\rm atm}$) and optical depth ($\\tau$) at centimetre wavelengths. We validate the reconstruction by comparing the model column PWV with photometric measurements of PWV, performed in clear sky conditions point...

  17. Clear Cell Chondrosarcoma in Association With Niemann-Pick Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Sumathi, V. P.; Grimer, R. J.; Davies, A. M.; Kulkarni, A.; Srikanth, K. N.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this case report is to bring to light this unusual combination of two rare diseases, namely Neimann-Pick disease Type B and clear cell chondrosarcoma occurring in the same patient. This has not previously been reported in the world literature. Subject: Niemann-Pick disease (NPD) is a rare autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism. Type B NPD is even rarer. It is a lysosomal storage disorder affecting children and adolescents often causing death in early childhood,...

  18. Experimental characterization of the Clear-PEM scanner spectrometric performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugalho, R.; Carriço, B.; Ferreira, C. S.; Frade, M.; Ferreira, M.; Moura, R.; Ortigão, C.; Pinheiro, J. F.; Rodrigues, P.; Rolo, I.; Silva, J. C.; Trindade, A.; Varela, J.

    2009-10-01

    In the framework of the Clear-PEM project for the construction of a high-resolution and high-specificity scanner for breast cancer imaging, a Positron Emission Mammography tomograph has been developed and installed at the Instituto Português de Oncologia do Porto hospital. The Clear-PEM scanner is mainly composed by two planar detector heads attached to a robotic arm, trigger/data acquisition electronics system and computing servers. The detector heads hold crystal matrices built from 2 × 2 × 20 mm3 LYSO:Ce crystals readout by Hamamatsu S8550 APD arrays. The APDs are optically coupled to both ends of the 6144 crystals in order to extract the DOI information for each detected event. Each one of 12288 APD's pixels is read and controlled by Application Specific Integrated Circuits water-cooled by an external cooling unit. The Clear-PEM frontend boards innovative design results in a unprecedented integration of the crystal matrices, APDs and ASICs, making Clear-PEM the PET scanner with the highest number of APD pixels ever integrated so far. In this paper, the scanner's main technical characteristics, calibration strategies and the first spectrometric performance evaluation in a clinical environment are presented. The first commissioning results show 99.7% active channels, which, after calibration, have inter-pixel and absolute gain distributions with dispersions of, respectively, 12.2% and 15.3%, demonstrating that despite the large number of channels, the system is uniform. The mean energy resolution at 511 keV is of 15.9%, with a 8.8% dispersion, and the mean CDOI-1 is 5.9%/mm, with a 7.8% dispersion. The coincidence time resolution, at 511 keV, for a energy window between 400 and 600 keV, is 5.2 ns FWHM.

  19. Disaggregated Bundle Methods for Distributed Market Clearing in Power Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yu; Gatsis, Nikolaos; Giannakis, Georgios B.

    2013-01-01

    A fast distributed approach is developed for the market clearing with large-scale demand response in electric power networks. In addition to conventional supply bids, demand offers from aggregators serving large numbers of residential smart appliances with different energy constraints are incorporated. Leveraging the Lagrangian relaxation based dual decomposition, the resulting optimization problem is decomposed into separate subproblems, and then solved in a distributed fashion by the market...

  20. Crowded Trades: An Overlooked Systemic Risk for Central Clearing Counterparties

    OpenAIRE

    Albert J. Menkveld

    2014-01-01

    Counterparty default risk might hamper trade and trigger a financial crisis. The introduction of a central clearing counterparty (CCP) benefits trading but pushes systemic risk into CCP default. Standard risk management strategies at CCPs currently overlook a risk associated with crowded trades. This paper identifies it, measures it, and proposes a margin methodology that accounts for it. The application to actual CCP data illustrates that this hidden risk can become large, in particular at t...

  1. Autophagy and bacterial clearance: a not so clear picture

    OpenAIRE

    Mostowy, Serge

    2012-01-01

    Autophagy, an intracellular degradation process highly conserved from yeast to humans, is viewed as an important defence mechanism to clear intracellular bacteria. However, recent work has shown that autophagy may have different roles during different bacterial infections that restrict bacterial replication (antibacterial autophagy), act in cell autonomous signalling (non-bacterial autophagy) or support bacterial replication (pro-bacterial autophagy). This review will focus on newfound intera...

  2. Clear-Air Propagation Modeling using Parabolic Equation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kvicera

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Propagation of radio waves under clear-air conditions is affected bythe distribution of atmospheric refractivity between the transmitterand the receiver. The measurement of refractivity was carried out onthe TV Tower Prague to access evolution of a refractivity profile. Inthis paper, the parabolic equation method is used in modelingpropagation of microwaves when using the measured data. This paperbriefly describes the method and shows some practical results ofsimulation of microwave propagation using real vertical profiles ofatmospheric refractivity.

  3. Is Clear Lake methylmercury distribution decoupled from bulk mercury loading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchanek, Thomas H; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Harner, E James

    2008-12-01

    Clear Lake is the site of the abandoned Sulphur Bank Mercury Mine, active periodically from 1873 to 1957, resulting in approximately 100 Mg of mercury (Hg) being deposited into the lake's ecosystem. Concentrations of total (primarily inorganic) Hg (TotHg) in Clear Lake are some of the highest reported worldwide for sediments (up to 4.4 x 10(5) ng/g [ppb dry mass]) and water (up to 4 x 10(-1) microg/L [= ppb]). However, the ratio of methylmercury (MeHg) to TotHg at Clear Lake indicates that the methylation process is mostly decoupled from bulk inorganic Hg loading, with Hg in lower trophic level biota significantly less than anticipated compared with other Hg-contaminated sites worldwide. This may be due to several factors, including: (1) reduced bioavailability of Hg derived from the mine (i.e., cinnabar, metacinnabar, and corderoite), (2) the alkaline nature of the lake water, (3) the shallow depth of the lake, which prevents stratification and subsequent methylation in a stratified hypolimnion, and (4) possible dilution of MeHg by a highly productive system. However, while bulk inorganic Hg loading to the lake may not contribute significantly to the bioaccumulation of Hg, acid mine drainage (AMD) from the mine likely promotes Hg methylation by sulfate-reducing and iron-reducing bacteria, making AMD a vehicle for the production of highly bioavailable Hg. If Clear Lake were deeper, less productive, or less alkaline, biota would likely contain much more MeHg than they do presently. Comparisons of MeHg:TotHg ratios in sediments, water, and biota from sites worldwide suggest that the highest production of MeHg may be found at sites influenced by chloralkali plants, followed by sites influenced by gold and silver mines, with the lowest production of MeHg observed at cinnabar and metacinnabar Hg mines. These data also suggest that the total maximum daily load (TMDL) process for Hg at Clear Lake, as currently implemented to reduce contamination in fishes for the

  4. CLEAR (Calculates Logical Evacuation And Response): A generic transportation network model for the calculation of evacuation time estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the methodology and application of the computer model CLEAR (Calculates Logical Evacuation And Response) which estimates the time required for a specific population density and distribution to evacuate an area using a specific transportation network. The CLEAR model simulates vehicle departure and movement on a transportation network according to the conditions and consequences of traffic flow. These include handling vehicles at intersecting road segments, calculating the velocity of travel on a road segment as a function of its vehicle density, and accounting for the delay of vehicles in traffic queues. The program also models the distribution of times required by individuals to prepare for an evacuation. In order to test its accuracy, the CLEAR model was used to estimate evacuation times for the emergency planning zone surrounding the Beaver Valley Nuclear Power Plant. The Beaver Valley site was selected because evacuation time estimates had previously been prepared by the licensee, Duquesne Light, as well as by the Federal Emergency Management Agency and the Pennsylvania Emergency Management Agency. A lack of documentation prevented a detailed comparison of the estimates based on the CLEAR model and those obtained by Duquesne Light. However, the CLEAR model results compared favorably with the estimates prepared by the other two agencies. (author)

  5. Cape Verde Frontal Zone

    OpenAIRE

    Zenk, Walter; Klein, Birgit; Schröder, Michael

    1991-01-01

    The term Cape Verde Frontal Zone is introduced to characterize the southeastern corner of the subtropical gyre circulation in the North Atlantic Ocean far west of the upwelling area off the Mauretanean shelf. Two water mass fronts, one overlying the other, are identified with a quasi-synoptic set of CTD-OZ and nutrient data from November 1986. In the warm water sphere we encounter North and South Atlantic Central Water (NACWISACW) superimposed on extensions of Mediterranean outflow and Antarc...

  6. TurbEFA: an interdisciplinary effort to investigate the turbulent flow across a forest clearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Queck

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is assumed that the description of the exchange processes between heterogeneous natural surfaces and the atmosphere within turbulence closure models is mainly limited by a realistic three-dimensional (3D representation of the vegetation architecture. Within this contribution we present a method to record the 3D vegetation structure and to use this information to derive model parameters that are suitable for numerical flow models. A mixed conifer forest stand around a clearing was scanned and represented by a dense 3D point cloud applying a terrestrial laser scanner. Thus, the plant area density (PAD with a resolution of one cubic meter was provided for analysis and for numerical simulations. Multi-level high-frequency wind velocity measurements were recorded simultaneously by 27 ultrasonic anemometers on 4 towers for a period of one year. The relationship between wind speed, Reynolds stress and PAD was investigated and a parametrization of the drag coefficient CD$C_D$ by the PAD is suggested. The derived 3D vegetation model and a simpler model (based on classical forest assessments of the site were applied in a boundary layer model (BLM and in large-eddy simulations (LES. The spatial development of the turbulent flow over the clearing is further demonstrated by the results of a wind tunnel experiment. The project showed, that the simulation results were improved significantly by the usage of realistic vegetation models. 3D simulations are necessary to depict the influence of heterogeneous canopies on the turbulent flow. Whereas we found limits for the mapping of the vegetation structure within the wind tunnel, there is a considerable potential for numerical simulations. The field measurements and the LES gave new insight into the turbulent flow in the vicinity and across the clearing. The results show that the zones of intensive turbulence development can not be restricted to the locations found in previous studies with more idealized

  7. The Record of Geomagnetic Excursions from a ~150 m Sediment Core: Clear Lake, Northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, E.; Byrne, R.; Looy, C. V.; Wahl, D.; Noren, A. J.; Verosub, K. L.

    2015-12-01

    We are studying the paleomagnetic properties of a new ~150 meter drill core from Clear Lake, CA. Step-wise demagnetization of the natural remanent magnetism (NRM) yields stable directions after 20 mT, implying that the sediments are reliable recorders of geomagnetic field behavior. Several intervals of low relative paleointensity (RPI) from the core appear to be correlated with known geomagnetic excursions. At about 46 m depth, and ~33 ka according to an age model based on radiocarbon dates obtained from pollen and the Olema ash bed, a low RPI zone seems to agree with the age and duration of the Mono Lake Excursion, previously identified between 32 and 35 ka. Slightly lower in the core, at about 50 m depth and ~40 ka, noticeably low RPI values seem to be coeval with the Laschamp excursion, which has been dated at ~41 ka. A volcanic ash near the bottom of the core (141 mblf) is near the same depth as an ash identified in 1988 by Andrei Sarna-Wojcicki and others as the Loleta ash bed in a previous Clear Lake core. If the basal ash in the new core is indeed the, Loleta ash bed, then the core may date back to about 270-300 ka. Depending on the age of the lowest ash, a sequence of low RPI intervals could correlate with the Blake (120 ka), Iceland Basin (188 ka), Jamaica/Pringle Falls (211 ka), and CR0 (260 ka) excursions. Correlation of the low RPI intervals to these geomagnetic excursions will help in the development of a higher resolution chronostratigraphy for the core, resolve a long-standing controversy about a possible hiatus in the Clear Lake record, and provide information about climatically-driven changes in sedimentation.

  8. Radiant zone heated particulate filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-12-27

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter including an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas and a downstream end. A radiant zoned heater includes N zones, where N is an integer greater than one, wherein each of the N zones includes M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than or equal to one. A control module selectively activates at least a selected one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones, restricts exhaust gas flow in a portion of the PM filter that corresponds to the selected one of the N zones, and deactivates non-selected ones of the N zones.

  9. Toward a clear-sky model for the French Guiana Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobinddass, M.; Linguet, L.; Marie-Joseph, I.; Atmospheric Science; Remote Sensing Team

    2011-12-01

    French Guiana is an equatorial area which feels the effects of two anticyclones (Azores anticyclone and Saint-Helena anticyclone). This area is disturbed by the atmospheric circulation of the IZC (Intertropical Zone of Convergence). However, its position on the Earth explains the fact that it is one of the most solar irradiated areas on the globe (about 1700 Kwh/m2). Therefore, it is becoming a proper district to the setting of solar panels and to this solar energy exploitation. This work is a part of the SOLAREST project. It aims to accurately estimate the radiation in French Guiana. Several methods are used to estimate solar radiation. Some of those are inverted methods (e.g. Heliosat, Heliosat-2, Heliosat-3), while other methods (e.g. Heliosat-4) directly modelize the effects of the atmosphere on the incident radiation. The inverse models are divided into three parts : the first is a clear sky model(e.g. Modtran, ESRA model, Bird model, ...), the second is an overcast sky model for radiation and finally the last is a strong method which combine the results of these two models with a measure based on the cloud information to estimate the radiation. Physical models using a numerical radiative transfer code (ie: LibRadtran, Lowtran) and requires parameters such as position of the sun and optical properties of the atmosphere above the point considered. When the inverse method (Heliosat-2) radiation result by using Meteosat images is compared to the pyranometers radiation results for the six French Guiana ground stations a daily RMSE of 17 % and a daily MBE of 11% are obtained (I. Marie-Joseph et al., submitted). These values are higher than these of temperate climate area. In fact, the Heliosat-2 software use the clear sky ESRA model to calculate solar radiation and all the atmospheric disturbances are represented by the Linke turbidity factor. Even if this factor represent "total" characteristic phenomena of atmospheric absorption and scattering (Rigollier, 2000

  10. Blasting of broken marble zones

    OpenAIRE

    Dambov, Risto; Stojceski, Igor; Dambov, Ilija

    2015-01-01

    On receipt of marble blocks appear deformed zones with presence of cracks and other deformities and very small cracks with different azimuth in the rocky massif. The fastest and economical way to bring this zone are removed by applying the methods of blasting. Before blasting, these tables - zones are limited by the block, making the cuts with diamond wire because explosive action may cause of surrounding quality marble blocks. Keywords: blasting, crashed zones, cracks, marble ...

  11. The concept of the Economic Exclusive Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina Patuzi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The important and the new concept that brought the third UN Conference of the Law of the Sea was the Economic Exclusive Zone (EEZ, requested by countries whose coasts are bordering on the oceans, seas, but also in harmony with the interests of countries which have extensive coastline or those with specific geographical features, which have a very narrow coastal zone. On December 10, 1982, nearly 120 countries signed the new United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, as one of the most significant international conferences. Part V of that Convention (more precisely Articles 55 to 75 provides for an “Exclusive Economic Zone” extending 200 nautical miles seaward from the coast. If all coastal states thus exercised their jurisdiction over their own EEZ, some 38 million square nautical miles would become their “economic patrimony”. It should be mentioned that the ocean represents 71% of the total surface of the earth and that 32% of that falls under the jurisdiction of coastal states. Consequently inside these economic zones would lie 90% of global fishing, 87% of oil deposits and 10 % of polymetallic nodules. The EEZ provisions have received widespread support and have become an integral part of international practice especially when the Convention of 1982 entered into force, also articles 55 and 86 of the Convention make it clear that the EEZ is not a part of the territorial sea, but it is a zone sui generis, with a statute of its own. Some countries had claimed 200-mile EEZ and other have established a 200- mile Exclusive Fishing Zone (EFZ. The countries benefiting the most from the EEZ concept are in order of the size of their zones: USA, Australia, Indonesia, New Zealand, Canada and Russia. If this concept was to be applied by all coastal Mediterranean States, the entire sea would be covered by EEZs of the littoral countries. The countries of the Mediterranean that would most benefit from the EEZ are Greece, Cyprus, Italy and Malta

  12. The Clear Creek Envirohydrologic Observatory: From Vision Toward Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Just, C.; Muste, M.; Kruger, A.

    2007-12-01

    As the vision of a fully-functional Clear Creek Envirohydrologic Observatory comes closer to reality, the opportunities for significant watershed science advances in the near future become more apparent. As a starting point to approaching this vision, we focused on creating a working example of cyberinfrastructure in the hydrologic and environmental sciences. The system will integrate a broad range of technologies and ideas: wired and wireless sensors, low power wireless communication, embedded microcontrollers, commodity cellular networks, the internet, unattended quality assurance, metadata, relational databases, machine-to-machine communication, interfaces to hydrologic and environmental models, feedback, and external inputs. Hardware: An accomplishment to date is "in-house" developed sensor networking electronics to compliment commercially available communications. The first of these networkable sensors are dielectric soil moisture probes that are arrayed and equipped with wireless connectivity for communications. Commercially available data logging and telemetry-enabled systems deployed at the Clear Creek testbed include a Campbell Scientific CR1000 datalogger, a Redwing 100 cellular modem, a YA Series yagi antenna, a NP12 rechargeable battery, and a BP SX20U solar panel. This networking equipment has been coupled with Hach DS5X water quality sondes, DTS-12 turbidity probes and MicroLAB nutrient analyzers. Software: Our existing data model is an Arc Hydro-based geodatabase customized with applications for extraction and population of the database with third party data. The following third party data are acquired automatically and in real time into the Arc Hydro customized database: 1) geophysical data: 10m DEM and soil grids, soils; 2) land use/land cover data; and 3) eco-hydrological: radar-based rainfall estimates, stream gage, streamlines, and water quality data. A new processing software for data analysis of Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCP

  13. Operating experience with electron cloud clearing electrodes at DAFNE

    CERN Document Server

    Zobov, M; Drago, A; Gallo, A; Guiducci, S; Milardi, C; Stella, A; De Santis, S; Demma, T; Raimondi, P

    2013-01-01

    During the current run of an electron-positron collider DAFNE special electrodes for electron cloud suppression have been inserted in all dipole and wiggler magnets of the positron ring. In this paper we discuss the impact of these electrodes on beam dynamics and overall collider performance. In particular we report results of measurements such as e-cloud instabilities growth rate, transverse beam size variation, tune shifts along the bunch train etc. with the electrodes switched on and off that clearly indicate the effectiveness of the electrodes for e-cloud suppression.

  14. Clear Sky Index : Framtagen med enkortsdator och webbkamera

    OpenAIRE

    Enström, Oskar; Klavebäck, Erik; Muhrbeck, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    A future sustainable society need to rely more on renewable energy sources. One of the most promising alternatives is solar power. However, there are inherent fluctuations accompanied with solar power, for example if the shadow of a cloud blocks the sun light on a whole solar cell it will not produce any power. This will cause problems with connecting the solar panels to the power grid. Clear sky index (CSI) is a measurement of how much of the sky that is covered by clouds, and is a key param...

  15. Optical clearing and multiphoton imaging of paraffin-embedded specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jesse W.; Degan, Simone; Fischer, Martin C.; Warren, Warren S.

    2013-02-01

    New labeling, imaging, or analysis tools could provide new retrospective insights when applied to archived, paraffin-embedded samples. Deep-tissue multiphoton microscopy of paraffin-embedded specimens is achieved using optical clearing with mineral oil. We tested a variety of murine tissue specimens including skin, lung, spleen, kidney, and heart, acquiring multiphoton autofluorescence and second-harmonic generation, and pump-probe images This technique introduces the capability for non-destructive 3-dimensional microscopic imaging of existing archived pathology specimens, enabling retrospective studies.

  16. An Efficient Method for Detecting Misbehaving Zone Manager in MANET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafsanjani, Marjan Kuchaki; Pakzad, Farzaneh; Asadinia, Sanaz

    In recent years, one of the wireless technologies increased tremendously is mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) in which mobile nodes organize themselves without the help of any predefined infrastructure. MANETs are highly vulnerable to attack due to the open medium, dynamically changing network topology, cooperative algorithms, lack of centralized monitoring, management point and lack of a clear defense line. In this paper, we report our progress in developing intrusion detection (ID) capabilities for MANET. In our proposed scheme, the network with distributed hierarchical architecture is partitioned into zones, so that in each of them there is one zone manager. The zone manager is responsible for monitoring the cluster heads in its zone and cluster heads are in charge of monitoring their members. However, the most important problem is how the trustworthiness of the zone manager can be recognized. So, we propose a scheme in which "honest neighbors" of zone manager specify the validation of their zone manager. These honest neighbors prevent false accusations and also allow manager if it is wrongly misbehaving. However, if the manger repeats its misbehavior, then it will lose its management degree. Therefore, our scheme will be improved intrusion detection and also provide a more reliable network.

  17. Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma of the Urethra: Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Kodzo-Grey Venyo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Clear cell adenocarcinoma of the urethra (CCAU is extremely rare and a number of clinicians may be unfamiliar with its diagnosis and biological behaviour. Aims. To review the literature on CCAU. Methods. Various internet databases were used. Results/Literature Review. (i CCAU occurs in adults and in women in the great majority of cases. (ii It has a particular association with urethral diverticulum, which has been present in 56% of the patients; is indistinguishable from clear cell adenocarcinoma of the female genital tract but is not associated with endometriosis; and probably does not arise by malignant transformation of nephrogenic adenoma. (iii It is usually, readily distinguished from nephrogenic adenoma because of greater cytological a-typicality and mitotic activity and does not stain for prostate-specific antigen or prostatic acid phosphatase. (iv It has been treated by anterior exenteration in women and cystoprostatectomy in men and at times by radiotherapy; chemotherapy has rarely been given. (v CCAU is aggressive with low 5-year survival rates. (vi There is no consensus opinion of treatment options that would improve the prognosis. Conclusions. Few cases of CCAU have been reported. Urologists, gynaecologists, pathologists, and oncologists should report cases of CCAU they encounter and enter them into a multicentric trial to determine the best treatment options that would improve the prognosis.

  18. A new computational method for reactive power market clearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After deregulation of electricity markets, ancillary services such as reactive power supply are priced separately. However, unlike real power supply, procedures for costing and pricing reactive power supply are still evolving and spot markets for reactive power do not exist as of now. Further, traditional formulations proposed for clearing reactive power markets use a non-linear mixed integer programming formulation that are difficult to solve. This paper proposes a new reactive power supply market clearing scheme. Novelty of this formulation lies in the pricing scheme that rewards transformers for tap shifting while participating in this market. The proposed model is a non-linear mixed integer challenge. A significant portion of the manuscript is devoted towards the development of a new successive mixed integer linear programming (MILP) technique to solve this formulation. The successive MILP method is computationally robust and fast. The IEEE 6-bus and 300-bus systems are used to test the proposed method. These tests serve to demonstrate computational speed and rigor of the proposed method. (author)

  19. DAΦNE Operation with Electron-Cloud-Clearing Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alesini, D.; Drago, A.; Gallo, A.; Guiducci, S.; Milardi, C.; Stella, A.; Zobov, M.; De Santis, S.; Demma, T.; Raimondi, P.

    2013-03-01

    The effects of an electron cloud (e-cloud) on beam dynamics are one of the major factors limiting performances of high intensity positron, proton, and ion storage rings. In the electron-positron collider DAΦNE, namely, a horizontal beam instability due to the electron-cloud effect has been identified as one of the main limitations on the maximum stored positron beam current and as a source of beam quality deterioration. During the last machine shutdown in order to mitigate such instability, special electrodes have been inserted in all dipole and wiggler magnets of the positron ring. It has been the first installation all over the world of this type since long metallic electrodes have been installed in all arcs of the collider positron ring and are currently used during the machine operation in collision. This has allowed a number of unprecedented measurements (e-cloud instabilities growth rate, transverse beam size variation, tune shifts along the bunch train) where the e-cloud contribution is clearly evidenced by turning the electrodes on and off. In this Letter we briefly describe a novel design of the electrodes, while the main focus is on experimental measurements. Here we report all results that clearly indicate the effectiveness of the electrodes for e-cloud suppression.

  20. Primary abdominal wall clear cell carcinoma arising from incisional endometriosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Burcu Gundogdu; Isin Ureyen; Gunsu Kimyon; Hakan Turan; Nurettin Boran; Gokhan Tulunay; Dilek Bulbul; Taner Turan; M Faruk Kose

    2013-01-01

    A 49 year-old patient with the complaint of a mass located in the caesarean scar was admitted. There was a fixed mass 30í30 mm in diameter with regular contour located at the right corner of the pfannenstiel incision. Computed tomography revealed a (40í50í50) mm solid mass lesion with margins that cannot be distinguished from the uterus, bladder and small intestines and a heterogeneous mass lesion (50í45í55) mm in diameter, located in the right side of the anterior abdominal wall. Cytoreductive surgery including total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy was performed. Final pathology was clear cell carcinoma. Clear cell carcinoma arising from an extraovarian endometriotic focus was diagnosed and the patient received 6 cycles paclitaxel-carboplatin chemotherapy as adjuvant treatment. The patient who was lost to follow-up applied to our clinic 2 years after surgery with a recurrent mass in the left inguinal region. After 3 cycles of chemotherapy, the patient's tumoral mass in the left inguinal region was excised. The result of the pathology was carcinoma metastasis. It is decided that the following treatment of the patient should be palliative radiation therapy. The patient who underwent palliative radiation therapy died of disease after 4 months of the second operation.

  1. Statistical functions and relevant correlation coefficients of clearness index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavanello, Diego; Zaaiman, Willem; Colli, Alessandra; Heiser, John; Smith, Scott

    2015-08-01

    This article presents a statistical analysis of the sky conditions, during years from 2010 to 2012, for three different locations: the Joint Research Centre site in Ispra (Italy, European Solar Test Installation - ESTI laboratories), the site of National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden (Colorado, USA) and the site of Brookhaven National Laboratories in Upton (New York, USA). The key parameter is the clearness index kT, a dimensionless expression of the global irradiance impinging upon a horizontal surface at a given instant of time. In the first part, the sky conditions are characterized using daily averages, giving a general overview of the three sites. In the second part the analysis is performed using data sets with a short-term resolution of 1 sample per minute, demonstrating remarkable properties of the statistical distributions of the clearness index, reinforced by a proof using fuzzy logic methods. Successively some time-dependent correlations between different meteorological variables are presented in terms of Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients, and introducing a new one.

  2. APLIKASI SIX SIGMA PADA PRODUK CLEAR FILE DI PERUSAHAAN STATIONARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desy Emilasari

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the application of the Six Sigma methods is used in order to improve quality in manufacturing company that produce stationary product. DMAIC approach is utilized to analyze and improve 'Pocket Clear File' product since this product has more variability and defects. Quality improvement also monitor the process that influenced pocket defect in Bag Making, Kami-ire, Karidome, and Pocket after Karidome Inspections section. Determining of Six Sigma project is based in process and defect type in each section. FMEA also gave the recommendation for quality improvement we need to evaluate the final result of the improvement since some of them were not working properly. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Paper ini menggambarkan bagaimana aplikasi metode Six Sigma digunakan untuk melakukan perbaikan kualitas pada perusahaan manufaktur yang memproduksi produk stationary. Pendekatan DMAIC dipakai untuk menganalisa dan melakukan perbaikan produk 'Pocket Clear File' karena tingginya variabilitas dan cacat dibanding produk lain. Perbaikan kualitas juga memperhatikan proses yang mempengaruhi terjadinya cacat pocket pada section Bag Making, Kami-ire, Karidome, dan Pocket after Karidome Inspection. Penentuan proyek Six Sigma didasarkan atas proses dan jenis cacat pada setiap section. Pendekatan FMEA mampu memberi rekomendasi perbaikan kualitas. Evaluasi dari hasil perbaikan penting untuk dilakukan karena beberapa implementasi perbaikan kualitas tidak berjalan sesuai dengan rencana. kata kunci: six sigma, DMAIC, perusahaan stationary.

  3. A giant benign clear cell hidradenoma on the anterior trunk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damlanur Sakiz

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Clear cell hidroadenoma (CCA is a uncommon variant of bening cutaneous adnexial tumors. These tumors are clinically asymptomatic, solitary dermal nodules. they occur most frequently on the scalp, face, abdomen and the extremities. Growth is slow and malignant change is rare. 45- year-old woman presented us with a nodule with a central ulceration and a minimal hemoragic discharge on her anterior abdomen wall which had begun 4 years ago as a small nodular asymptomatic lesion. On dermatological examination there was a 6.5x4x5 cm non-tender, soft reddish purple nodule with lobular appearence and ulceration. In the laboratory investigations, all the hematologic and biochemical tests were normal. A CT scan demonstrated a cyctic tumor with lobulated countour with contrast enhancement. The lesion excised totally. In histopathological examination the tumor was composed of biphasic  smaller dark polygonal cells and larger clera cells and coarse nuclear chromatine. There were duct like structures. Immunohistochemical investigation was done for the suspicion of malignancy. Cytoplasm of clear cells and duct like structures showed PAS positive and d-Pas resistant staining. There was a positive reactivity to epithelial membrane antigen and carcinoembrionic antigen. The mitotic index in Ki 67 examination was low. All these findings confirmed the diagnosis of bening CCA. 

  4. Clear cell carcinoid tumor of the distal common bile duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsukada Katsuhiko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carcinoid tumors rarely arise in the extrahepatic bile duct and can be difficult to distinguish from carcinoma. There are no reports of clear cell carcinoid (CCC tumors in the distal bile duct (DBD to the best of our knowledge. Herein, we report a CCC tumor in the DBD and review the literature concerning extrahepatic bile duct carcinoid tumors. Case presentation A 73-old man presented with fever and occult obstructive jaundice. Ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreaticography (MRCP demonstrated a nodular tumor projection in the DBD without regional lymph node swelling. Under suspicion of carcinoma, we resected the head of the pancreas along with 2nd portion duodenectomy and a lymph node dissection. The surgical specimen showed a golden yellow polypoid tumor in the DBD (0.8 × 0.6 × 0.5 cm in size. The lesion was composed of clear polygonal cells arranged in nests and a trabecular pattern. The tumor invaded through the wall into the fibromuscular layer. Immunohistochemical stains showed that neoplastic cells were positive for neuron-specific enolase (NSE, chromogranin A, synaptophysin, and pancreatic polypeptide and negative for inhibin, keratin, CD56, serotonin, gastrin and somatostatin. The postoperative course was uneventful and he is living well without relapse 12 months after surgery. Conclusion Given the preoperative difficulty in differentiating carcinoid from carcinoma, the pancreaticoduodenectomy is an appropriate treatment choice for carcinoid tumors located within the intra-pancreatic bile duct.

  5. Saturated Zone Colloid Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This scientific analysis provides retardation factors for colloids transporting in the saturated zone (SZ) and the unsaturated zone (UZ). These retardation factors represent the reversible chemical and physical filtration of colloids in the SZ. The value of the colloid retardation factor, Rcol is dependent on several factors, such as colloid size, colloid type, and geochemical conditions (e.g., pH, Eh, and ionic strength). These factors are folded into the distributions of Rcol that have been developed from field and experimental data collected under varying geochemical conditions with different colloid types and sizes. Attachment rate constants, katt, and detachment rate constants, kdet, of colloids to the fracture surface have been measured for the fractured volcanics, and separate Rcol uncertainty distributions have been developed for attachment and detachment to clastic material and mineral grains in the alluvium. Radionuclides such as plutonium and americium sorb mostly (90 to 99 percent) irreversibly to colloids (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170025], Section 6.3.3.2). The colloid retardation factors developed in this analysis are needed to simulate the transport of radionuclides that are irreversibly sorbed onto colloids; this transport is discussed in the model report ''Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170036]). Although it is not exclusive to any particular radionuclide release scenario, this scientific analysis especially addresses those scenarios pertaining to evidence from waste-degradation experiments, which indicate that plutonium and americium may be irreversibly attached to colloids for the time scales of interest. A section of this report will also discuss the validity of using microspheres as analogs to colloids in some of the lab and field experiments used to obtain the colloid retardation factors. In addition, a small fraction of colloids travels with the groundwater without any significant retardation. Radionuclides irreversibly sorbed

  6. Parapapillary atrophy: histological gamma zone and delta zone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jost B Jonas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To examine histomorphometrically the parapapillary region in human eyes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The histomorphometric study included 65 human globes (axial length:21-37 mm. On anterior-posterior histological sections, we measured the distance Bruch's membrane end (BME-optic nerve margin ("Gamma zone", BME-retinal pigment epithelium (RPE ("Beta zone", BME-beginning of non-occluded choriocapillaris, and BME-beginning of photoreceptor layer. "Delta zone" was defined as part of gamma zone in which blood vessels of at least 50 µm diameter were not present over a length of >300 µm. Beta zone (mean length:0.35±0.52 mm was significantly (P = 0.01 larger in the glaucoma group than in the non-glaucomatous group. It was not significantly (P = 0.28 associated with axial length. Beta zone was significantly (P = 0.004 larger than the region with occluded choriocapillaris. Gamma zone (mean length:0.63±1.25 mm was associated with axial length (P50 µm diameter within gamma zone was present only in highly axially elongated globes and was not related with glaucoma. Beta zone (Bruch's membrane without RPE was correlated with glaucoma but not with globe elongation. Since the region with occluded choriocapillaris was smaller than beta zone, complete loss of RPE may have occurred before complete choriocapillaris closure.

  7. Use of Digital Image Technology to 'Clearly' Depict Global Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnia, B. F.; Carbo, C. L.

    2014-12-01

    Earth is dynamic and beautiful. Understanding why, when, how, and how fast its surface changes yields information and serves as a source of inspiration. The artistic use of geoscience information can inform the public about what is happening to their planet in a non-confrontational and apolitical way. While individual images may clearly depict a landscape, photographic comparisons are necessary to clearly capture and display annual, decadal, or century-scale impacts of climate and environmental change on Earth's landscapes. After years of effort to artistically communicate geoscience concepts with unenhanced individual photographs or pairs of images, the authors have partnered to maximize this process by using digital image enhancement technology. This is done, not to manipulate the inherent artistic content or information content of the photographs, but to insure that the comparative photo pairs produced are geometrically correct and unambiguous. For comparative photography, information-rich historical photographs are selected from archives, websites, and other sources. After determining the geographic location from which the historical photograph was made, the original site is identified and eventually revisited. There, the historical photos field of view is again photographed, ideally from the original location. From nearly 250 locations revisited, about 175 pairs have been produced. Every effort is made to reoccupy the original historical site. However, vegetation growth, visibility reduction, and co-seismic level change may make this impossible. Also, inherent differences in lens optics, camera construction, and image format may result in differences in the geometry of the new photograph when compared to the old. Upon selection, historical photos are cleaned, contrast stretched, brightness adjusted, and sharpened to maximize site identification and information extraction. To facilitate matching historical and new images, digital files of each are overlain in

  8. Temporal co-registration for TROPOMI cloud clearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Genkova

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI is planed for launch in 2014 on board of the Sentinel 5 Precursor (S5P and is anticipated to provide high-quality and timely information on the global atmospheric composition for climate and air quality applications. TROPOMI will observe key atmospheric constituents such as ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, formaldehyde and aerosol properties. The retrieval algorithms for the anticipated products require cloud information on a pixel basis. Most of them will use the cloud properties derived from TROPOMI's own measurements, such as the O2 A-band measurements. However, the methane and the aerosol retrievals require very precise cloud clearing, which is difficult to achieve at the TROPOMI spatial resolution (7 × 7 km2 and without thermal IR measurements. The current payload of the Sentinel 5 Precursor (S-5P does not include a cloud imager, thus it is planned to fly the S5P mission in a constellation with another instrument yielding an accurate cloud mask. The cloud imagery data will be provided by the US NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP mission which will have the Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS on board (Scalione, 2004. VIIRS will have 22 bands in the VIS and IR spectral ranges, and will deliver data with two spatial resolutions: imagery resolution bands with a nominal pixel size of 370 m at nadir, and moderate resolution bands with nominal pixel size 740 m at nadir. The instrument is combining fine spatial resolution with high-accuracy calibration similar or superior to AVHRR.

    This paper presents results from investigating the temporal co-registration requirements for suitable time differences between the VIIRS measurements of clouds and the TROPOMI methane and aerosol measurements, so that the former could be used for cloud clearing. The temporal co-registration is studied using Meteosat Second Generation (MSG Spinning

  9. Dosing antiretroviral medication when crossing time zones: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Joseph M; Volny-Anne, Alain; Waitt, Catriona; Boffito, Marta; Khoo, Saye

    2016-01-01

    International tourism continues to increase worldwide, and people living with HIV and their clinicians are increasingly confronted with the problem of how to dose antiretroviral therapy during transmeridian air travel across time zones. No guidance on this topic currently exists. This review is a response to requests from patient groups for clear, practical and evidence-based guidance for travelling on antiretroviral therapy; we present currently available data on the pharmacokinetic forgiveness and toxicity of various antiretroviral regimens, and synthesize this data to provide guidelines on how to safely dose antiretrovirals when travelling across time zones. PMID:26684823

  10. Simulating colors of clear and partly cloudy skies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedzelman, Stanley David

    2005-09-20

    A model (SKYCOLOR) is developed that simulates the light and color of the sky and open cloud decks in the vertical plane including the Sun and the observer and animates the changes as the Sun goes down. Model skylight consists of sunbeams that are scattered toward the observer, but depleted by scattering and absorption in the Chappuis bands of ozone. SKYCOLOR includes the Earth's curvature, atmospheric refraction, cloud shadows, and solar eclipses. Scattering is given a wavelength (lambda) dependence of lambda(-4) for air molecules (Rayleigh scattering), lambda(-1) for tropospheric aerosols, and lambda(+1) for volcanic aerosol particles. Multiple scattering is calculated directly in clouds but is parameterized in clear air by decreasing the scattering rates of sunlight and of skylight in the Earth's shadow by 30%. PMID:16201435

  11. The palm oil supply chain, deforestation and peat clearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, D. H.

    2013-12-01

    The palm oil industry has expanded rapidly in the last two decades, particularly in Indonesia. A considerable amount of this expansion has been at the expense of forests and peatlands, resulting in considerable greenhouse gas emissions. Now the industry is faced with two new challenges. There is a possible oversupply on the global market due to recent expansion and the time lag between clearing and new production coming on line, which may depress prices considerably. Furthermore, there is increasing pressure to reduce the industry's impact on climate and biodiversity, exemplified by the commitment by the businesses of the Consumer Goods Forum to eliminate deforestation from their supply chains by 2020. This presentation will examine the interaction between these two challenges and its implications for the industry, in both southeast Asia and new regions of expansion, and how this interaction could transform the industry's mode of expansion in the coming decade.

  12. Electricity market clearing with improved dispatch of stochastic production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales González, Juan Miguel; Zugno, Marco; Pineda, Salvador;

    2014-01-01

    -constrained auction purely based on the least-cost merit order, where stochastic generation enters with its expected production and a low marginal cost; on the other, a counterfactual auction that also accounts for the projected balancing costs using stochastic programming. Although the stochastic clearing procedure...... in some scenarios. Using a bilevel programming framework, we then show that the conventional auction, if combined with a suitable day-ahead dispatch of stochastic producers (generally different from their expected production), can substantially increase market efficiency and emulate the advantageous...... features of the stochastic optimization ideal, while avoiding its major pitfalls. A two-node power system serves as both an illustrative example and a proof of concept. Finally, a more realistic case study highlights the main advantages of a smart day-ahead dispatch of stochastic producers....

  13. Proposal for a project agreement with ISTC - Crystal Clear Collaboration

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    This document concerns a project agreement with the ISTC entitled "Development of the Detector Production Technology for a New Generation of Positron Emission Tomographs to be used in Medecine and Pharmacology" to be executed in co-operation with the Crystal Clear Collaboration. For the reasons set out in this document, the Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a project agreement with ISTC for a total amount of 775 000 US dollars. The European Union party in ISTC will co-fund the project up to a total of 525 000 US dollars. CERN's contribution will not exceed 250 000 US dollars. At the present rate of exchange this is equivalent to approximately 430 000 Swiss francs

  14. All-clear for gourmets: truffles not radioactive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büntgen, U.; Jäggi, M.; Stobbe, U.; Tegel, W.; Sproll, L.; Eikenberg, J.; Egli, S.

    2016-02-01

    Although ranging among the most expensive gourmet foods, it remains unclear whether Burgundy truffles (Tuber aestivum) accumulate radioactivity at a harmful level comparable to other fungal species. Here, we measure the 137Cs in 82 T. aestivum fruit bodies from Switzerland, Germany, France, Italy, and Hungary. All tested specimens reveal insignificant radiocaesium concentrations, thus providing an all-clear for many truffle hunters and cultivators in large parts of Europe as well as the subsequent chain of dealers and customers from around the world. Our results are particularly relevant in the light of ongoing efforts to cultivate Burgundy truffles, as well as the fact that several forest ecosystems are still highly contaminated with 137Cs, for which mushrooms are one of the main pathways to human diets.

  15. Interpretation of MST radar returns from clear air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C. H.

    1983-01-01

    The nature of the scattering and reflection mechanisms that give rise to the MST radar echoes from the clear air is essential in the correct interpretation of the data about winds, waves, turbulence and stability in the atmosphere. There are two main aspects: the nature of the targets the radar sees and their generation mechanisms; and the signatures of the radar signals returned from the different targets. Volume scatterings from isotropic or anisotropic turbulence, and partial reflections from horizontally stratified, sharp refractive index gradients are believed the main contributors to radar echoes. Combined effects from all the mechanisms probably produce the observed data. The signature of the echo signals for these different scatterers under realistic experimental conditions should be studied. It is hoped from these studies, the nature of the targets can be better understood, and related to atmospheric dynamic processes.

  16. What can be said can be said clearly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biggest problem in nuclear technology is not the technology itself but the public acceptance. Most people cannot evaluate the radiation risk themselves, so they must trust experts. But, laymen do not understand the jargon of radiation experts, whose language is full of technical terms, unfamiliar units, abbreviations and acronyms etc. After 26 years of experience in radiation protection and public information the author believes that the public has no possibility to leap over the broad communication gap. So, it is the experts who must do it. The author has discussed his communication strategy in his book The Core and the Apple Peel and implemented it in his book Radiation in Everyday Language. He stresses that nothing has been taught if nothing has been learned and claims that everything than can be said can be said clearly. (au)

  17. Endogenous Market-Clearing Prices and Reference Point Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragicevic, Arnaud Z.

    When prices depend on the submitted bids, i.e. with endogenous market-clearing prices in repeated-round auction mechanisms, the assumption of independent private values that underlines the property of incentive-compatibility is to be brought into question; even if these mechanisms provide active involvement and market learning. In its orthodox view, adaptive bidding behavior imperils incentive-compatibility. We relax the assumption of private values' independence in the repeated-round auctions, when the market-clearing prices are made public at the end of each round. Instead of using game-theory learning models, we introduce a behavioral model that shows that bidders bid according to the anchoring-and-adjustment heuristic, which neither ignores the rationality and incentive-compatibility constraints, nor rejects the posted prices issued from others' bids. Bidders simply weight information at their disposal and adjust their discovered value using reference points encoded in the sequential price weighting function. Our model says that bidders and offerers are sincere boundedly rational utility maximizers. It lies between evolutionary dynamics and adaptive heuristics and we model the concept of inertia as high weighting of the anchor, which stands for truthful bidding and high regard to freshly discovered preferences. Adjustment means adaptive rule based on adaptation of the reference point in the direction of the posted price. It helps a bidder to maximize her expected payoff, which is after all the only purpose that matters to rationality. The two components simply suggest that sincere bidders are boundedly rational. Furthermore, by deviating from their anchor in the direction of the public signal, bidders operate in a correlated equilibrium. The correlation between bids comes from the commonly observed history of play and each bidder's actions are determined by the history. Bidders are sincere if they have limited memory and confine their reference point adaptation

  18. Fault zones and seismicity in western Connecticut and southeastern New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, J. E.

    1981-10-01

    Two previously unmapped, major fault zones were identified and investigated in southeastern New York and western Connecticut. These fault zones were clearly active in the Paleozoic and Mesozoic and probably also in the Cenozoic. Although surface rupture has not been associated with historic events along these zones, their locations do coincide with alignments of historic and instrumentally measured seismicity. Multiple episodes of epigenetic mineralization that occur on these faults indicate that their faulting and circulation histories are indeed complex and that a detailed record of their stress release history from the Paleozoic to the present can be obtained for each fault zone.

  19. The Near Zone to Far Zone Transformation (N2F)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackfield, Donald T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Poole, Brian R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-03-11

    N2F is a C/C++ code used to calculate the far zone electromagnetic (EM) field, given E and H near zone field data. The method used by N2F can be found in Ref. 1 and 2. N2F determines the far field EΦ and Eθ in spherical coordinates for near zone data calculated in either Cartesian or Cylindrical geometry.

  20. NOVEL ZONING RULE FOR DESIGNING SQUARE FRESNEL ZONE PLATE

    OpenAIRE

    Minin, I.; Minin, O.; Petosa, A.; Thirakoune, S.

    2006-01-01

    An improved zoning rule is presented for designing a square Fresnel zone plate lens (FZPL). This new rule results in a higher gain when the FZPL is used as an antenna element or can enhance the focusing properties of the square FZPL when used to collimate an incident plane wave. The derivation of this improved zoning rule is presented along with simulated results for some typical cases.

  1. Empowerment Zones and Enterprise Districts - Volusia County Enterprise Zones

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Florida's Enterprise Zone Program encourages economic growth and investment in distressed areas by offering tax advantages and incentives to businesses that are...

  2. GAP CLEARING BY PLANETS IN A COLLISIONAL DEBRIS DISK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We apply our 3D debris disk model, SMACK, to simulate a planet on a circular orbit near a ring of planetesimals that are experiencing destructive collisions. Previous simulations of a planet opening a gap in a collisionless debris disk have found that the width of the gap scales as the planet mass to the 2/7th power (α = 2/7). We find that gap sizes in a collisional disk still obey a power law scaling with planet mass, but that the index α of the power law depends on the age of the system t relative to the collisional timescale t coll of the disk by α = 0.32(t/t coll)–0.04, with inferred planet masses up to five times smaller than those predicted by the classical gap law. The increased gap sizes likely stem from the interaction between collisions and the mean motion resonances near the chaotic zone. We investigate the effects of the initial eccentricity distribution of the disk particles and find a negligible effect on the gap size at Jovian planet masses, since collisions tend to erase memory of the initial particle eccentricity distributions. Finally, we find that the presence of Trojan analogs is a potentially powerful diagnostic of planets in the mass range ∼1-10 M Jup. We apply our model to place new upper limits on planets around Fomalhaut, HR 4796 A, HD 202628, HD 181327, and β Pictoris

  3. GAP CLEARING BY PLANETS IN A COLLISIONAL DEBRIS DISK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nesvold, Erika R. [Department of Physics, University of Maryland Baltimore County 1000 Hilltop Circle Baltimore, MD 21250 (United States); Kuchner, Marc J., E-mail: Erika.Nesvold@umbc.edu, E-mail: Marc.Kuchner@nasa.gov [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Exoplanets and Stellar Astrophysics Laboratory, Code 667 Greenbelt, MD 21230 (United States)

    2015-01-10

    We apply our 3D debris disk model, SMACK, to simulate a planet on a circular orbit near a ring of planetesimals that are experiencing destructive collisions. Previous simulations of a planet opening a gap in a collisionless debris disk have found that the width of the gap scales as the planet mass to the 2/7th power (α = 2/7). We find that gap sizes in a collisional disk still obey a power law scaling with planet mass, but that the index α of the power law depends on the age of the system t relative to the collisional timescale t {sub coll} of the disk by α = 0.32(t/t {sub coll}){sup –0.04}, with inferred planet masses up to five times smaller than those predicted by the classical gap law. The increased gap sizes likely stem from the interaction between collisions and the mean motion resonances near the chaotic zone. We investigate the effects of the initial eccentricity distribution of the disk particles and find a negligible effect on the gap size at Jovian planet masses, since collisions tend to erase memory of the initial particle eccentricity distributions. Finally, we find that the presence of Trojan analogs is a potentially powerful diagnostic of planets in the mass range ∼1-10 M {sub Jup}. We apply our model to place new upper limits on planets around Fomalhaut, HR 4796 A, HD 202628, HD 181327, and β Pictoris.

  4. Gap Clearing by Planets in a Collisional Debris Disk

    CERN Document Server

    Nesvold, Erika R

    2014-01-01

    We apply our 3D debris disk model, SMACK, to simulate a planet on a circular orbit near a ring of planetesimals that are experiencing destructive collisions. Previous simulations of a planet opening a gap in a collisionless debris disk have found that the width of the gap scales as the planet mass to the 2/7th power ($\\alpha$=2/7). We find that the gap sizes in a collisional disk still obey a power law scaling with planet mass, but that the index alpha of the power law depends on the age of the system t relative to the collisional timescale $t_{coll}$ of the disk by $\\alpha = 0.32(t/t_{coll})^{-0.04}$, with inferred planet masses up to five times smaller than those predicted by the classical gap law. The increased gap sizes likely stem from the interaction between the collisions and the mean motion resonances near the chaotic zone. We investigate the effects of the initial eccentricity distribution of the disk particles and find a negligible effect on the gap size at Jovian planet masses, since collisions ten...

  5. Nairu en zone heureuse

    OpenAIRE

    Reynès, Frédéric; Lemoine, Matthieu; Veroni, Paola

    2007-01-01

    Cette étude spéciale propose des estimations du niveau non inflationniste du taux de chômage (Nairu) pour la zone euro agrégée, pour la France, l’Italie et l’Allemagne. Une équation d’inflation, qui dépend de l’écart du taux de chômage au Nairu, est estimée par le filtre de Kalman. Le modèle le plus simple, qui considère le Nairu comme une marche aléatoire, a des capacités prédictives limitées. Il diagnostique un taux de chômage inférieur au Nairu à l’horizon de notre prévision. Il est con...

  6. The zone of alienation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten years after the nuclear disaster, people still live and die in Chernobyl. Thousands of people continue to live and work there. Roughly 500 have moved back into their old homes inside the alienation zone. Fewer than half still alive. Medical researchers in the area insist that immune systems are weakened by doses of radiation far lower than previously thought. However, an European Union sponsored study concluded that Chernobyl's toll has been exaggerated. Thus, while 760 children in the contaminated area have developed thyroid cancer, only three have died as a result. Yet in and around Chernobyl, people carry on their lives and the Ukrainian Government says it can't afford to close the plant without billions of dollars in Western aid. ills

  7. Saturated Zone Colloid Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. S. Viswanathan

    2004-10-07

    This scientific analysis provides retardation factors for colloids transporting in the saturated zone (SZ) and the unsaturated zone (UZ). These retardation factors represent the reversible chemical and physical filtration of colloids in the SZ. The value of the colloid retardation factor, R{sub col} is dependent on several factors, such as colloid size, colloid type, and geochemical conditions (e.g., pH, Eh, and ionic strength). These factors are folded into the distributions of R{sub col} that have been developed from field and experimental data collected under varying geochemical conditions with different colloid types and sizes. Attachment rate constants, k{sub att}, and detachment rate constants, k{sub det}, of colloids to the fracture surface have been measured for the fractured volcanics, and separate R{sub col} uncertainty distributions have been developed for attachment and detachment to clastic material and mineral grains in the alluvium. Radionuclides such as plutonium and americium sorb mostly (90 to 99 percent) irreversibly to colloids (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170025], Section 6.3.3.2). The colloid retardation factors developed in this analysis are needed to simulate the transport of radionuclides that are irreversibly sorbed onto colloids; this transport is discussed in the model report ''Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170036]). Although it is not exclusive to any particular radionuclide release scenario, this scientific analysis especially addresses those scenarios pertaining to evidence from waste-degradation experiments, which indicate that plutonium and americium may be irreversibly attached to colloids for the time scales of interest. A section of this report will also discuss the validity of using microspheres as analogs to colloids in some of the lab and field experiments used to obtain the colloid retardation factors. In addition, a small fraction of colloids travels with the groundwater without any significant

  8. Continuous detection and characterization of the Sea Breeze in clear sky conditions using Meteosat Second Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Lensky

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The sea breeze (SB is a thermally induced boundary layer phenomenon that occurs at coastal locations throughout the world. Previous satellite remote sensing studies used low-level clouds formed over the sea-breeze convergence zones to identify the SB. In this study continuous thermal infrared data from a geostationary satellite (Meteosat Second Generation and concurrent field measurements were used to detect and characterize the SB in clear sky conditions during the summer. Surface data (wind speed and direction from 11 sites over Israel for ten summer days in July 2010 for three different synoptic circulation categories were selected.

    In order to assess the impact of the synoptic induced flow on the SB, we looked for the best agreement between surface and satellite SB timing. An independent classification of synoptic categories performed for the ten summer days revealed two distinct patterns of the SB. During weak horizontal pressure gradient (Weak Persian Trough and High to the West, which enables full development of the SB, the timing of the SB from satellite and field measurements were well correlated (R2=0.75, as compared to unfavorable atmospheric conditions (Deep Persian Trough yielding lower value (R2=0.5. The SB was identified by surface measurements in an earlier time of the day, with respect to the satellite column integrated measurements.

    Visualizing a product of time series analysis of the satellite data enabled clear distinction of SB behavior under different synoptic categories. Over desert regions the strong thermal contrast enables detection of the SB even under suppressing synoptic conditions (Deep Persian Trough.

    This method enables detection and timing of the SB over desert regions where clouds and field measurements are scarce, and is applicable worldwide.

  9. Astigmatic Outcomes of Temporal versus Nasal Clear Corneal Phacoemulsification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Pakravan

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available

    PURPOSE: To compare the astigmatic outcomes of phacoemulsification cataract surgery using temporal versus nasal clear corneal incisions. METHODS: In a clinical trial, consecutive patients with senile cataracts underwent phacoemulsification and implantation of a hydrophobic acrylic foldable intraocular lens through a horizontal clear corneal incision (temporal in right and nasal in left eyes. Outcome measures included keratometric astigmatism and surgically induced astigmatism (SIA calculated by the vector analysis method using the Holladay-Cravy-Koch formula. RESULTS: The nasal and temporal groups consisted of 20 eyes each. Mean preoperative keratometric astigmatism was 0.63±0.48 D and 0.38±0.39 D in the temporal and nasal incision groups respectively (P=0.09. Data on 10 eyes in each study group was available for the six-month analysis. Mean keratometric astigmatism was as follows in the temporal and nasal groups respectively: 0.85±0.47 D versus 1.95±0.45 D at 1 week (P < 0.001, 0.73±0.46 D versus 1.79±0.55 D at 4 weeks (P < 0.001, and 0.63±0.30 D versus 1.05±0.56 D at 6 months (P=0.053 after surgery. SIA at the same follow-up intervals was 0.71±0.20 D versus 1.80±0.22 D (P < 0.001, 0.63±0.20 D versus 1.65±0.31 D (P < 0.001 and 0.26±0.46 D versus 0.92±0.36 D (P=0.002 in the temporal versus nasal incision groups

  10. Contaminants in Vadose Zone Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Freshley, Mark D.; Johnson, Timothy C.; Miracle, Ann L.

    2012-11-01

    Contaminants in vadose zone environments pose a long-term source and threat to groundwater resources, human health, and the environment. Several technical, regulatory, and policy challenges and opportunities are associated with contamination in vadose zone environments, particularly in remediation. In this special issue, ten papers present novel approaches to characterize, monitor, remediate, and predict the transport and fate of contaminants in vadose zone environments.

  11. Learning About Intervention Target Zones

    OpenAIRE

    Michael W. Klein; Karen K. Lewis

    1991-01-01

    This paper provides a framework for evaluating how market participants' beliefs about foreign exchange target zones change as they learn about central bank intervention policy. In order to examine this behavior, we first generalize the standard target zone model to allow for intra-marginal intervention. Intra-marginal intervention implies that the position of market participants' beliefs about the target zone can be determined from their beliefs about the likelihood of intervention. As an app...

  12. Street Prostitution Zones and Crime

    OpenAIRE

    Bisschop, Paul; Kastoryano, Stephen; Van der Klaauw, Bas

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the effects of introducing legal street prostitution zones on both registered and perceived crime. We exploit a unique setting in the Netherlands where legal street prostitution zones were opened in nine cities under different regulation systems. We provide evidence that the opening of these zones was not in response to changes in crime. Our difference-in-difference analysis using data on the largest 25 Dutch cities between 1994 and 2011 shows that opening a legal street pr...

  13. Race, Ethnicity, and Discriminatory Zoning

    OpenAIRE

    Allison Shertzer; Tate Twinam; Randall P. Walsh

    2014-01-01

    Zoning has been cited as a discriminatory policy tool by critics, who argue that ordinances are used to deter the entry of minority residents into majority neighborhoods through density restrictions (exclusionary zoning) and locate manufacturing activity in minority neighborhoods (environmental racism). However, identifying discrimination in these regulations is complicated by the fact that land use and zoning have been co-evolving for nearly a century in most American cities, rendering resid...

  14. Childhood to adolescence: dust and gas clearing in protoplanetary disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Joanna Margaret

    Disks are ubiquitous around young stars. Over time, disks dissipate, revealing planets that formed hidden by their natal dust. Since direct detection of young planets at small orbital radii is currently impossible, other tracers of planet formation must be found. One sign of disk evolution, potentially linked to planet formation, is the opening of a gap or inner hole in the disk. In this thesis, I have identified and characterized several cold disks with large inner gaps but retaining massive primordial outer disks. While cold disks are not common, with ~5% of disks showing signs of inner gaps, they provide proof that at least some disks evolve from the inside-out. These large gaps are equivalent to dust clearing from inside the Earth's orbit to Neptune's orbit or even the inner Kuiper belt. Unlike more evolved systems like our own, the central star is often still accreting and a large outer disk remains. I identified four cold disks in Spitzer 5-40 μm spectra and modeled these disks using a 2-D radiative transfer code to determine the gap properties. Outer gap radii of 20-45 AU were derived. However, spectrophotometric identification is indirect and model-dependent. To validate this interpretation, I observed three disks with a submillimeter interferometer and obtained the first direct images of the central holes. The images agree well with the gap sizes derived from the spectrophotometry. One system, LkH&alpha 330, has a very steep outer gap edge which seems more consistent with gravitational perturbation rather than gradual processes, such as grain growth and settling. Roughly 70% of cold disks show CO v=1&rarr 0 gas emission from the inner 1 AU and therefore are unlikely to have evolved due to photoevaporation. The derived rotation temperatures are significantly lower for the cold disks than disks without gaps. Unresolved (sub)millimeter photometry shows that cold disks have steeper colors, indicating that they are optically thin at these wavelengths, unlike

  15. Problems of Chernobyl Exclusion Zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The collection comprises the results of researches and design activity in the ChNPP exclusion zone, aimed at the development of technologies, equipment and devices for radioactive waste management and ChNPP accident clean-up, at studying the composition and structure of the Exclusion zone soil activity solid bearers, form transformation of the fission products of fuel fallout radionuclide composition in the ChNPP near zone, the spatial distribution of radionuclides and other radioecological issues.. Much attention is paid to medical and biological aspects of the accident influence on the flora, fauna and people's health, labour conditions and incidence of the workers of the Exclusion zone

  16. Bridge Pressure Flow Scour at Clear Water Threshold Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Junke; KERENYI Kornel; PAGAN-ORTIZ Jorge E; FLORA Kevin

    2009-01-01

    Bridge pressure flow scour at clear water threshold condition is studied theoretically and experimentally. The flume experiments reveal that the measured scour profiles under a bridge are more or less 2-dimensional; all the measured scour profiles can be described by two similarity equations, where the horizontal distance is scaled by the deck width while the local scour by the maximum scour depth; the maximum scour position is located just under the bridge about 15% deck width from the downstream deck edge; the scour begins at about one deck width upstream the bridge while the deposition occurs at about 2.5 deck widths downstream the bridge; and the maximum scour depth decreases with increas-ing sediment size, but increases with deck inundation. The theoretical analysis shows that: bridge scour can be divided into three cases, i.e. downstream unsubmerged, partially submerged, and totally submerged. For downstream unsubmerged flows, the maximum bridge scour depth is an open-channel problem where the conventional methods in terms of critical velocity or bed shear stress can be applied; for partially and totally submerged flows, the equilibrium maximum scour depth can be described by a scour and an inundation similarity number, which has been confirmed by experiments with two decks and two sediment sizes. For application, a design and field evaluation procedure with examples is presented, including the maximum scour depth and scour profile.

  17. Vaginal clear cell carcinoma in a Japanese Black cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michishita, Masaki; Hori, Makito; Nakahira, Rei; Takahashi, Kimimasa

    2016-06-01

    During artificial insemination of an 18-year-old female Japanese Black cow, a mass that was of a hen's egg size was found in the vagina. On necropsy, the firm mass, measuring approximately 3.5 × 3.5 × 3.0 cm, was located at the superior region of the vagina. The cut surface of the mass was gray-white in color with occasional necrotic or hemorrhagic areas. Histologically, the mass was composed of tumor cells arranged in solid nests of various sizes with an occasional tubular structure separated by a delicate fibrovascular stroma. The tumor cells had a hypochromatic nucleus and abundant, faintly eosinophilic cytoplasm. The tumor cells contained diastase-sensitive periodic acid-Schiff positive granules. Immunohistochemically, tumor cells were positive for cytokeratin AE1/AE3, CAM5.2 and carcinoembryonic antigen, but not for vimentin, p63, estrogen receptor-α, progesterone receptor, α-smooth muscle actin, neuron-specific enolase, S-100 protein and chromogranin A. On the basis of these findings, the tumor was diagnosed as a clear cell carcinoma of the vagina. PMID:26852732

  18. Clear cell sarcoma of the kidney in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To demonstrate clear sarcoma of the kidney (CCSK) imaging diagnosis in an infant hospital, its incidence in childhood and its correlation to the prevalent malignant renal pathology. Material and methods: We retrospectively reviewed 12 patients with histological CCSK diagnosis, examined in our hospital from July 1987 to May 2000. We analysed the clinical findings, we used diagnostic methods and histopathological characteristics, and assessed clinical and radiographic aspects and its differences with Wilms tumour. Results: There was higher incidence in males (4:1). Patient's age ranged from 15 moths to 14 years. All patients had a palpable abdominal mass. Arterial hypertension and hematuria was present in 25% and 16% of the cases. In 6 patients the renal tumour exceeded the middle abdominal line. Ultrasonography revealed: unilateral heterogeneous mass, with hypoechoic areas (necrosis), cystic appearance was identified in 2 cases, calcifications in 2 cases and 1 case showed inferior vena cava thrombosis. Two patients already showed lung metastases at the time of admittance in our institution. Computed Tomography (CT) supported sonographic findings. During clinical evolution metastases were confirmed in 8 patients (bone, lung and testicles) and local relapse in one. Conclusion: CCKS represented 0.5% of renal malignant tumours treated in our hospital and diagnosis was only achieved through pathological anatomy, since no clinical-radiographic sign is pathognomonic to allow a distinction from Wilms tumour. Despite its low incidence, this malignant neoplasm should be considered in differential diagnosis. (author)

  19. MR imaging of clear cell carcinoma of the ovary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic resonance imaging findings are reported for 12 pathologically proven lesions of clear cell carcinoma (CCC) of the ovary in 11 women (mean age 50 years). T1- and T2-weighted MR images were obtained in all patients, and gadolinium-enhanced MR images were obtained in 9. The mean diameter of the tumors was 13 cm. Seven patients presented with stage-I tumors. All 12 lesions consisted of cystic masses with solid protrusions occurring in 10 and solid masses in 2. The cysts were unilocular in 9 lesions and multilocular in 1. In four lesions, the cysts displayed with high intensity on T1-weighted images. Round solid protrusions were identified in 8 lesions. In 5 lesions, the number of protrusions was only a few. The solid portions of 5 masses had slightly high-intensity regions on T1-weighted images. The number of patients with ascites was three. Magnetic resonance imaging of CCC usually shows a unilocular large cyst with solid protrusions, which are often round and few in number. Such MR imaging findings suggest malignant tumor but are not specific. (orig.)

  20. The epigenetic landscape of clear-cell renal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Kluzek

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC is the most common subtype of all kidney tumors. During the last few years, epigenetics has emerged as an important mechanism in ccRCC pathogenesis. Recent reports, involving large-scale methylation and sequencing analyses, have identified genes frequently inactivated by promoter methylation and recurrent mutations in genes encoding chromatin regulatory proteins. Interestingly, three of detected genes (PBRM1, SETD2 and BAP1 are located on chromosome 3p, near the VHL gene, inactivated in over 80% ccRCC cases. This suggests that 3p alterations are an essential part of ccRCC pathogenesis. Moreover, most of the proteins encoded by these genes cooperate in histone H3 modifications. The aim of this review is to summarize the latest discoveries shedding light on deregulation of chromatin machinery in ccRCC. Newly described ccRCC-specific epigenetic alterations could potentially serve as novel diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers and become an object of novel therapeutic strategies.

  1. Nondural-based lumbar clear cell meningioma. Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzman, R N; Jormark, S C

    1996-02-01

    This 32-year-old man had noticed right leg pain for 4 years and developed classic right sciatica after heavy lifting, followed by episodes of buckling of both legs 1 month prior to admission. His medical history included congenital left abducens palsy. Examination revealed a right Lasègue's sign and Fajersztajn's sign with mild weakness of the right extensor hallucis longus. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a 1.5 x 2.0-cm enhancing intradural lesion at the L3-4 level. Following laminectomy of L-3 and L-4 and intradural exposure, the tumor was found to be draped loosely by the roots of the cauda equina and attached to a single root without any adherence to dura. Transection of the adherent fascicles and typical microdissection of arachnoidal filaments permitted its complete removal without violation of the capsule, allowing the preservation of a large fascicle. The patient's recovery was uneventful. Postoperatively, a mild right lateral foot hypalgesia and diminution of the right ankle jerk implicated the S-1 root. Histological and immunohistochemical analyses diagnosed the specimen as a clear cell meningioma. PMID:8592230

  2. Clear antismudge unimolecular coatings of diblock copolymers on glass plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macoretta, Danielle; Rabnawaz, Muhammad; Grozea, Claudia M; Liu, Guojun; Wang, Yu; Crumblehulme, Alison; Wyer, Martin

    2014-12-10

    Two poly[3-(triisopropyloxysilyl)propyl methacrylate]-block-poly[2-(perfluorooctyl)ethyl methacrylate] (PIPSMA-b-PFOEMA) samples and one poly(perfluoropropylene oxide)-block-poly-[3-(triisopropyloxysilyl)propyl methacrylate] (PFPO-b-PIPSMA) sample were synthesized, characterized, and used to coat glass plates. These coatings were formed by evaporating a dilute polymer solution containing HCl, which catalyzed PIPSMA's sol-gel chemistry. Polymer usage was minimized by targeting at diblock copolymer unimolecular (brush) layers that consisted of a sol-gelled grafted PIPSMA layer and an oil- and water-repellant fluorinated surface layer. Investigated is the effect of varying the catalyst amount, polymer amount, as well as block copolymer type and composition on the structure, morphology, and oil- and water-repellency of the coatings. Under optimized conditions, the prepared coatings were optically clear and resistant to writing by a permanent marker. The marker's trace was the faintest on PFPO-b-PIPSMA coatings. In addition, the PFPO-b-PIPSMA coatings were far more wear-resistant than the PIPSMA-b-PFOEMA coatings. PMID:25399630

  3. Genetic mutations associated with metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qingjian; Li, Fengjie; Zhao, Jiang; Wu, Kaijin; Qu, Cunye; Chen, Yibu; Li, Meng; Chen, Xuelian; Stucky, Andres; Zhong, Jiangjian; Li, Longkun; Zhong, Jiang F.

    2016-01-01

    Metastasis is the major cause of death among cancer patients, yet early detection and intervention of metastasis could significantly improve their clinical outcomes. We have sequenced and analyzed RNA (Expression) and DNA (Mutations) from the primary tumor (PT), tumor extension (TE) and lymphatic metastatic (LM) sites of patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC) before treatment. Here, we report a three-nucleotide deletion near the C-region of Plk5 that is specifically associated with the lymphatic metastasis. This mutation is un-detectable in the PT, becomes detectable in the TE and dominates the LM tissue. So while only a few primary cancer cells carry this mutation, the majority of metastatic cells have this mutation. The increasing frequency of this mutation in metastatic tissue suggests that this Plk5 deletion could be used as an early indicator of CCRCC metastasis, and be identified by low cost PCR assay. A large scale clinical trial could reveal whether a simple PCR assay for this mutation at the time of nephrectomy could identify and stratify high-risk CCRCC patients for treatments. PMID:26908440

  4. Vertical velocity structure and geometry of clear air convective elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, J. R.; Arnold, A.

    1975-01-01

    The paper discusses observations of individual convective elements with a high-power narrow-beam scanning radar, an FM-CW radar, and an acoustic sounder, including the determination of the vertical air velocity patterns of convective structures with the FM-CW radar and acoustic sounder. Data are presented which link the observed velocity structure and geometrical patterns to previously proposed models of boundary layer convection. It is shown that the high-power radar provides a clear three-dimensional picture of convective cells and fields over a large area with a resolution of 150 m, where the convective cells are roughly spherical. Analysis of time-height records of the FM-CW radar and acoustic sounder confirms the downdraft-entrainment mechanism of the convective cell. The Doppler return of the acoustic sounder and the insect-trail slopes on FM-CW radar records are independent but redundant methods for obtaining the vertical velocity patterns of convective structures.

  5. Activities of RAHP and problems to be cleared towards commercialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research Association of HTGR Plant (RAHP) is the sole research association on HTGR Plants in industrial sector of Japan since its establishment in 1985. Activities in these years were to analyze world R and D trends, to set-up fundamental development strategies, and to incorporate the study results into actions towards commercialization of HTGR. RAHP is now mainly investigating fuel cycle aspects and development programs of small modular reactors, such as US-Russian GT-MHR and South African PBMR. Conclusions obtained through the activities so far are: (a) From view points of effective use of energies and reduction of environmental impacts in global scale, development of nuclear power is essential, and that of HTGR is desirable in particular, because of its very highly inherent safety and feasibility of high temperature heat utilizations. The role of HTGR is inter-complementary with those of LWR and FBR. (b) Future subjects and problems to be cleared towards commercializing HTGR are: (1) safety, technical and economical demonstrations, including inherent safety, fuel integrity as key of the safety, gas turbine cycle, high temperature system performances, etc.; (2) acceptance of safety design concept, and preparation for its evaluation and licensing. (c) Construction of demonstration plant(s) as a total system, through effective international cooperation, such as internationally common or sharing development on basic machinery systems between GT-MHR and PBMR Programs, becomes most significant. (author)

  6. DAФNE Operation with Electron-Cloud-Clearing Electrodes

    CERN Document Server

    Alesini, D; Gallo, A; Guiducci, S; Milardi, C; Stella, A; Zobov, Mikhail; De Santis, S; Demma, Theo; Raimondi, P

    2013-01-01

    The effects of an electron cloud (e-cloud) on beam dynamics are one of the major factors limiting performances of high intensity positron, proton, and ion storage rings. In the electron-positron collider DAΦNE, namely, a horizontal beam instability due to the electron-cloud effect has been identified as one of the main limitations on the maximum stored positron beam current and as a source of beam quality deterioration. During the last machine shutdown in order to mitigate such instability, special electrodes have been inserted in all dipole and wiggler magnets of the positron ring. It has been the first installation all over the world of this type since long metallic electrodes have been installed in all arcs of the collider positron ring and are currently used during the machine operation in collision. This has allowed a number of unprecedented measurements (e-cloud instabilities growth rate, transverse beam size variation, tune shifts along the bunch train) where the e-cloud contribution is clearly eviden...

  7. Clearing the way for reducing emissions from tropical deforestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon emissions from tropical deforestation account for about 25% of all anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions but cannot be credited under current climate change agreements. In the discussions around the architecture of the post-2012 climate regime, the possibility of including credits for reduced emissions from deforestation arises. The paper reviews two approaches for this, compensated reductions (CR) as proposed by Santilli et al. and the Joint Research Centre proposal that combine voluntary commitments by non-Annex I countries to reduce emissions from deforestation with carbon market financing. Both approaches have the clear advantages of simplicity and the possibility of fitting to an evolving greenhouse gas emission reduction regime. The authors consider the strengths and limitations of each proposal and build upon them to address several implementation challenges and options for improvement. Given the urgency of avoiding dangerous climate change, the timely development of technically sound, politically acceptable, cost-effective and practicable measures to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation is essential. These two approaches take us a step closer to this goal, but they need to be refined rapidly to enable this goal to be realised

  8. NOAA AVHRR Clear-Sky Products over Oceans (ACSPO): Sea Surface Temperature, Clear Sky Radiances, and Aerosol Optical Depth for the Global Ocean, 2011 - present (NCEI Accession 0072979)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The AVHRR Clear-Sky Processor over Oceans, jointly developed between NESDIS STAR and OSDPD, produces AVHRR clear-sky products over oceans. ACSPO generates output...

  9. Earth's Critical Zone and hydropedology: concepts, characteristics, and advances

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, H.

    2010-01-01

    The Critical Zone (CZ) is a holistic framework for integrated studies of water with soil, rock, air, and biotic resources in the near-surface terrestrial environment. This most heterogeneous and complex region of the Earth ranges from the vegetation top to the aquifer bottom, with a highly variable thickness globally and a yet-to-be clearly defined lower boundary of active water cycle. Interfaces among different compartments in the CZ are critical, which provide fertile ground for interdiscip...

  10. 76 FR 54824 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Fixed Income Clearing Corporation; Order Approving Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-02

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Fixed Income Clearing Corporation; Order Approving Proposed Rule... Generic CUSIP Number. Fixed Income Clearing Corporation, Government Securities Division Rulebook, Rule 1...-backed security or securities issued by Ginnie Mae. Fixed Income Clearing Corporation,...

  11. Clear cell urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder: a case report and review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Knez, Virginia M; Barrow, Willis; Lucia, M. Scott; Wilson, Shandra; La Rosa, Francisco G.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The occurrence of clear cell tumors in the bladder is not uncommon. Clear cell dysplasia is well-described and characterized by focal replacement of transitional mucosa by cells with abundant clear cytoplasm, nuclear enlargement, and a granular chromatin pattern. Clear cells can also be seen in clear cell adenocarcinoma, which is rare, comprising 0.5% to 2.0% of the reported bladder carcinomas. Other clear cell tumors found in the bladder to be considered in the differential diag...

  12. FLOW FIELD IN SCOURED ZONE OF CHANNEL CONTRACTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rajkumar V. RAIKAR; Subhasish DEY

    2004-01-01

    Experiments were conducted in a laboratory flume to measure the two-dimensional turbulent flow field in the scoured zone of channel contractions under a clear-water scour condition. The Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV) was used to detect the flow field at different vertical lines along the centerline of uncontracted (main channel) and contracted zones of the channel. The distributions of time-averaged velocity components, turbulent intensity, turbulent kinetic energy, and Reynolds stresses are presented in nondimensional graphical form. The bed shear stresses are computed from the measured Reynolds stresses being in threshold condition within the zone of contraction where bed was scoured. The data presented in this paper would be useful to the investigators for the development of kinematic flow model and morphological model of scour at a channel or river contraction.

  13. Oceanic fronts: transition zones for bacterioplankton community composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltar, Federico; Currie, Kim; Stuck, Esther; Roosa, Stéphanie; Morales, Sergio E

    2016-02-01

    Oceanic fronts are widespread mesoscale features that exist in the boundary between different water masses. Despite the recognized importance of bacterioplankton (including bacteria and archaea) on the marine biogeochemical cycles and the ubiquitousness of fronts, the effect of frontal zones on the distribution of bacterioplankton community remains unknown. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing coupled with a high spatial resolution analysis of the physical properties of the water masses, we demonstrate strong shifts in bacterioplankton community composition (BCC) across the subtropical frontal zone off New Zealand. The transition between water masses resulted in a clear modification of the dominant taxa and a significant increase in community dissimilarity. Our results, linking physical oceanography and marine molecular ecology, support the strong role of oceanic frontal zones in delimiting the distribution of bacterioplankton in the ocean. PMID:26636656

  14. Do Clear Cell Papillary Renal Cell Carcinomas Have Malignant Potential?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diolombi, Mairo L; Cheng, Liang; Argani, Pedram; Epstein, Jonathan I

    2015-12-01

    There have been no recurrences or metastases of clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma (CCPRCC) in 268 reported cases with follow-up in the English-language literature. We identified all our cases of CCPRCC (1990 to 2013), reviewing all cases that preceded the formal designation of the entity. Immunohistochemical stains were performed on 32 cases during their initial workup. In addition, stains for carbonic anhydrase IX and cytokeratin 7 were performed on 2 cases, one with atypical follow-up and the other with a more compact morphology, although not performed initially. An extended panel with AMACR, CD10, and renal cell carcinoma (RCC) was added to the case with atypical follow-up. Fluorescence in situ hybridization for chromosomes 3p, 7, and 17 was performed on the latter case and on another clinically presumed metastatic tumor. In classic cases, immunohistochemical staining was not performed. Fifty-eight patients (31 women; 27 men) with follow-up data were included in our study; 39 cases were from our consult service. The patients' ages ranged from 36 to 83 years. Thirty-five patients had cystic or partially cystic lesions; 6 tumors were multifocal, 3 of which were bilateral. The majority (53 patients; 91.4%) presented with stage pT1 disease (size range, 0.2 to 8 cm), 2 patients presented with pT2 disease (8.5 and 10.3 cm), 1 patient presented with pT3 disease (6.5 cm sarcomatoid RCC focally extending out of the kidney), and pathologic stage was unavailable in 2 cases. Treatment consisted of 29 partial nephrectomies, 26 radical nephrectomies, 2 cryoablations, and 1 cyst ablation. The resection margins were negative in all but one case, with this case disease free after a 26-month period. Two patients had intraoperative tumor disruption and were disease free at 9 and 34 months. Five patients had synchronous ipsilateral renal cell carcinomas (non-CCPRCC). Mean follow-up time was 21 months (range, 1 to 175 mo), with all but 3 patients having no evidence of

  15. Seismic signature of a hydrous mantle transition zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thio, Vincent; Cobden, Laura; Trampert, Jeannot

    2016-01-01

    Although water has a major influence on tectonic and other geodynamic processes, little is known about its quantity and distribution within the deep Earth. In the last few decades, laboratory experiments on nominally anhydrous minerals (NAMs) of the transition zone have shown that these minerals can contain significant amounts of water, up to 3.3 wt%. In this study, we investigate if it is possible to use seismic observations to distinguish between a hydrous and anhydrous transition zone. We perform an extensive literature search of mineral experimental data, to generate a compilation of the water storage capacities, elastic parameters and phase boundary data for potentially hydrous minerals in the transition zone, and use thermodynamic modelling to compute synthetic seismic profiles of density, VP and VS at transition zone temperatures and pressures. We find that large uncertainties on the mineral phase equilibria (ca. 2 GPa) and elastic properties produce a wide range of seismic profiles. In particular, there is a lack of data at temperatures corresponding to those along a 1300 °C adiabat or hotter, which may be expected at transition zone pressures. Comparing our hydrous transition zone models with equivalent profiles at anhydrous conditions, we see that the depths of the 410 and 660 discontinuities cannot at present be used to map the water content of the transition zone due to these uncertainties. Further, while average velocities and densities inside the transition zone clearly decrease with increasing water content, there is a near-perfect trade-off with increases in temperature. It is therefore difficult to distinguish thermal from water effects, and the conventional view of a slow and thick transition zone for water and slow and thin transition zone for high temperature should be regarded with caution. A better diagnostic for water may be given by the average velocity gradients of the transition zone, which increase with increasing water content (but

  16. Using seismology to map water in the mantle transition zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobden, Laura; Thio, Vincent; Trampert, Jeannot

    2016-04-01

    Water has a major influence on tectonic and other geodynamic processes, yet little is known about its quantity and distribution within the deep Earth. Laboratory experiments on "nominally anhydrous" minerals (NAMs) have shown that in the transition zone these minerals can contain significant amounts of water (up to ~3.3 wt%). We investigate if it is possible to use seismic observations to distinguish between a hydrous and anhydrous transition zone. We perform an extensive literature search of mineral experimental data, to generate a compilation of the water storage capacities, elastic parameters and phase boundary data for potentially hydrous minerals in the transition zone, and use thermodynamic modelling to compute synthetic seismic profiles of density, Vp and Vs at transition zone temperatures and pressures. We find that large uncertainties on the mineral phase equilibria (ca. 2 GPa) and elastic properties produce a wide range of seismic profiles. In particular, there is a lack of data at temperatures corresponding to those along a 1300 °C adiabat or hotter, which may be expected at transition zone pressures. Comparing our hydrous transition zone models with equivalent profiles at anhydrous conditions, we see that the depths of the 410 and 660 discontinuities cannot at present be used to map the water content of the transition zone due to these uncertainties. Further, while average velocities and densities inside the transition zone clearly decrease with increasing water content, there is a near-perfect trade-off with increases in temperature. It is therefore difficult to distinguish thermal from water effects, and the conventional view of a slow and thick transition zone for water and slow and thin transition zone for high temperature should be regarded with caution. A better diagnostic for water may be given by the average velocity gradients of the transition zone, which increase with increasing water content (but decrease for increasing temperature). However

  17. Gene expression profile of renal cell carcinoma clear cell type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos F. Dall’Oglio

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The determination of prognosis in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC is based, classically, on stage and histopathological aspects. The metastatic disease develops in one third of patients after surgery, even in localized tumors. There are few options for treating those patients, and even the new target designed drugs have shown low rates of success in controlling disease progression. Few studies used high throughput genomic analysis in renal cell carcinoma for determination of prognosis. This study is focused on the identification of gene expression signatures in tissues of low-risk, high-risk and metastatic RCC clear cell type (RCC-CCT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed the expression of approximately 55,000 distinct transcripts using the Whole Genome microarray platform hybridized with RNA extracted from 19 patients submitted to surgery to treat RCC-CCT with different clinical outcomes. They were divided into three groups (1 low risk, characterized by pT1, Fuhrman grade 1 or 2, no microvascular invasion RCC; (2 high risk, pT2-3, Fuhrman grade 3 or 4 with, necrosis and microvascular invasion present and (3 metastatic RCC-CCT. Normal renal tissue was used as control. RESULTS: After comparison of differentially expressed genes among low-risk, high-risk and metastatic groups, we identified a group of common genes characterizing metastatic disease. Among them Interleukin-8 and Heat shock protein 70 were over-expressed in metastasis and validated by real-time polymerase chain reaction. CONCLUSION: These findings can be used as a starting point to generate molecular markers of RCC-CCT as well as a target for the development of innovative therapies.

  18. DISCRIMINATING BETWEEN CLOUDY, HAZY, AND CLEAR SKY EXOPLANETS USING REFRACTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a method to distinguish between cloudy, hazy, and clear sky (free of clouds and hazes) exoplanet atmospheres that could be applicable to upcoming large aperture space- and ground-based telescopes such as the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) and the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT). These facilities will be powerful tools for characterizing transiting exoplanets, but only after a considerable amount of telescope time is devoted to a single planet. A technique that could provide a relatively rapid means of identifying haze-free targets (which may be more valuable targets for characterization) could potentially increase the science return for these telescopes. Our proposed method utilizes broadband observations of refracted light in the out-of-transit spectrum. Light refracted through an exoplanet atmosphere can lead to an increase of flux prior to ingress and subsequent to egress. Because this light is transmitted at pressures greater than those for typical cloud and haze layers, the detection of refracted light could indicate a cloud- or haze-free atmosphere. A detection of refracted light could be accomplished in <10 hr for Jovian exoplanets with JWST and <5 hr for super-Earths/mini-Neptunes with E-ELT. We find that this technique is most effective for planets with equilibrium temperatures between 200 and 500 K, which may include potentially habitable planets. A detection of refracted light for a potentially habitable planet would strongly suggest the planet was free of a global cloud or haze layer, and therefore a promising candidate for follow-up observations

  19. MET Inhibition in Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zuoquan; Lee, Young H.; Boeke, Marta; Jilaveanu, Lucia B.; Liu, Zongzhi; Bottaro, Donald P.; Kluger, Harriet M.; Shuch, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Background: Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is the most lethal form of kidney cancer. Small molecule VEGFR inhibitors are widely used but are not curative and various resistance mechanisms such as activation of the MET pathway have been described. Dual MET/VEGFR2 inhibitors have recently shown clinical benefit but limited preclinical data evaluates their effects in ccRCC. Methods: An interrogation of the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset was performed to evaluate oncogenic alterations in the MET/VEGFR2 pathway. We evaluated the in vitro effects of Cabozantinib, a dual MET/VEGFR2 inhibitor, using a panel of ccRCC cell lines. Drug effects of cell viability and proliferation, migration, cell scatter, anchorage independent growth, and downstream MET/VEGFR2 signaling pathways were assessed. Results: Twelve percent of TCGA cases had possible MET/HGF oncogenic alterations with co-occurrence noted (p<0.001). MET/HGF altered cases had worse overall survival (p=0.044). Cabozantinib was a potent inhibitor of MET and VEGFR2 in vitro in our cell line panel. PI3K, MAPK and mTOR pathways were also suppressed by cabozantinib, however the effects on cell viability in vitro were modest. At nanomolar concentrations of cabozantinib, HGF-stimulated migration, invasion, cellular scattering and soft agar colony formation were inhibited. Conclusions: We provide further preclinical rationale for dual MET/VEGFR2 inhibition in ccRCC. While the MET pathway is implicated in VEGFR resistance, dual inhibitors may have direct anti-tumor effects in a patient subset with evidence of MET pathway involvement. Cabozantinib is a potent dual MET/VEGFR2 inhibitor, significantly inhibits cell migration and invasion in vitro and likely has anti-angiogenic effects similar to other VEGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Future work involving in vivo models will be useful to better define mechanisms of potential anti-tumor activity. PMID:27390595

  20. Effect of mechanical optical clearing on near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idelson, Christopher R; Vogt, William C; King-Casas, Brooks; LaConte, Stephen M; Rylander, Christopher G

    2015-08-01

    Near-infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) is a broadly utilized technology with many emerging applications including clinical diagnostics, sports medicine, and functional neuroimaging, to name a few. For functional brain imaging NIR light is delivered at multiple wavelengths through the scalp and skull to the brain to enable spatial oximetry measurements. Dynamic changes in brain oxygenation are highly correlated with neural stimulation, activation, and function. Unfortunately, NIRS is currently limited by its low spatial resolution, shallow penetration depth, and, perhaps most importantly, signal corruption due to light interactions with superficial non-target tissues such as scalp and skull. In response to these issues, we have combined the non-invasive and rapidly reversible method of mechanical tissue optical clearing (MOC) with a commercially available NIRS system. MOC utilizes a compressive loading force on tissue, causing the lateral displacement of blood and water, while simultaneously thinning the tissue. A MOC-NIRS Breath Hold Test displayed a ∼3.5-fold decrease in the time-averaged standard deviation between channels, consequentially promoting greater channel agreement. A Skin Pinch Test was implemented to negate brain and muscle activity from affecting the recorded signal. These results displayed a 2.5-3.0 fold increase in raw signal amplitude. Existing NIRS instrumentation has been further integrated within a custom helmet device to provide a uniform force distribution across the NIRS sensor array. These results showed a gradual decrease in time-averaged standard deviation among channels with an increase in applied pressure. Through these experiments, and the development of the MOC-NIRS helmet device, MOC appears to provide enhancement of NIRS technology beyond its current limitations. PMID:26041069

  1. DISCRIMINATING BETWEEN CLOUDY, HAZY, AND CLEAR SKY EXOPLANETS USING REFRACTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misra, Amit K.; Meadows, Victoria S. [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    We propose a method to distinguish between cloudy, hazy, and clear sky (free of clouds and hazes) exoplanet atmospheres that could be applicable to upcoming large aperture space- and ground-based telescopes such as the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) and the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT). These facilities will be powerful tools for characterizing transiting exoplanets, but only after a considerable amount of telescope time is devoted to a single planet. A technique that could provide a relatively rapid means of identifying haze-free targets (which may be more valuable targets for characterization) could potentially increase the science return for these telescopes. Our proposed method utilizes broadband observations of refracted light in the out-of-transit spectrum. Light refracted through an exoplanet atmosphere can lead to an increase of flux prior to ingress and subsequent to egress. Because this light is transmitted at pressures greater than those for typical cloud and haze layers, the detection of refracted light could indicate a cloud- or haze-free atmosphere. A detection of refracted light could be accomplished in <10 hr for Jovian exoplanets with JWST and <5 hr for super-Earths/mini-Neptunes with E-ELT. We find that this technique is most effective for planets with equilibrium temperatures between 200 and 500 K, which may include potentially habitable planets. A detection of refracted light for a potentially habitable planet would strongly suggest the planet was free of a global cloud or haze layer, and therefore a promising candidate for follow-up observations.

  2. Infrasonic tremor in the diffraction zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fee, David; Garcés, Milton

    2007-08-01

    Volcanic tremor signals recorded by an infrasound array ~12.5 km from the active vent of Kīlauea Volcano show clear diurnal amplitude variations and originate from a well defined direction pointing to the active Pu`u `Ō`ō crater complex. Spectral amplitudes between 0.02-0.3 Hz, a proxy for wind speed, increase when the wind speeds increase during the daytime. Spectral amplitudes between 0.5-3 Hz, where infrasonic tremor is concentrated, increase when the wind speeds decrease at night. Power spectrum analysis shows that when ambient noise levels drop, infrasonic tremor amplitudes rise. Array processing confirms this relationship and reveals tremor detections and amplitudes decrease during the day. These changes in infrasonic tremor spectral amplitude and coherence are most likely due to diurnal variations in atmospheric boundary layers affecting infrasonic propagation within the diffraction zone. Recognition of these regional atmospheric patterns is necessary to permit robust infrasonic remote sensing of volcanic processes.

  3. Clearing the Cosmic Fog - The Most Distant Galaxy Ever Measured

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    A European team of astronomers using ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) has measured the distance to the most remote galaxy so far. By carefully analysing the very faint glow of the galaxy they have found that they are seeing it when the Universe was only about 600 million years old (a redshift of 8.6). These are the first confirmed observations of a galaxy whose light is clearing the opaque hydrogen fog that filled the cosmos at this early time. The results were presented at an online press conference with the scientists on 19 October 2010, and will appear in the 21 October issue of the journal Nature. "Using the ESO Very Large Telescope we have confirmed that a galaxy spotted earlier using Hubble is the most remote object identified so far in the Universe" [1], says Matt Lehnert (Observatoire de Paris) who is lead author of the paper reporting the results. "The power of the VLT and its SINFONI spectrograph allows us to actually measure the distance to this very faint galaxy and we find that we are seeing it when the Universe was less than 600 million years old." Studying these first galaxies is extremely difficult. By the time that their initially brilliant light gets to Earth they appear very faint and small. Furthermore, this dim light falls mostly in the infrared part of the spectrum because its wavelength has been stretched by the expansion of the Universe - an effect known as redshift. To make matters worse, at this early time, less than a billion years after the Big Bang, the Universe was not fully transparent and much of it was filled with a hydrogen fog that absorbed the fierce ultraviolet light from young galaxies. The period when the fog was still being cleared by this ultraviolet light is known as the era of reionisation [2]. Despite these challenges the new Wide Field Camera 3 on the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope discovered several robust candidate objects in 2009 [3] that were thought to be galaxies shining in the era of reionisation. Confirming the

  4. Management of coastal zone vegetation

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.

    stream_size 14 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Trg_Course_Coast_Zone_Manage_1993_22.pdf.txt stream_source_info Trg_Course_Coast_Zone_Manage_1993_22.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset...

  5. Instrumentation for coastal zone management

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joseph, A.

    stream_size 11 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Trg_Course_Coast_Zone_Manage_1993_91.pdf.txt stream_source_info Trg_Course_Coast_Zone_Manage_1993_91.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset...

  6. Fresnel zone plate coded imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author introduced the principle of the Fresnel-zone-plate coded imaging, and design a Fresnel zone plate coded image camera with high spatial resolution. A experimental simulation with two-aperture visible light source is made. The result shows that this coded image camera can reveal the source distribution truly

  7. Subduction zone guided waves in Northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garth, Thomas; Rietbrock, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Guided wave dispersion is observed in subduction zones as high frequency energy is retained and delayed by low velocity structure in the subducting slab, while lower frequency energy is able to travel at the faster velocities associated with the surrounding mantle material. As subduction zone guided waves spend longer interacting with the low velocity structure of the slab than any other seismic phase, they have a unique capability to resolve these low velocity structures. In Northern Chile, guided wave arrivals are clearly observed on two stations in the Chilean fore-arc on permanent stations of the IPOC network. High frequency (> 5 Hz) P-wave arrivals are delayed by approximately 2 seconds compared to the low frequency (times of different frequencies, while the velocity spectra is used to constrain the relative amplitude of the arrivals. Constraining the waveform in these two ways means that the full waveform is also matched, and the low pass filtered observed and synthetic waveforms can be compared. A combined misfit between synthetic and observed waveforms is then calculated following Garth & Rietbrock (2014). Based on this misfit criterion we constrain the velocity model by using a grid search approach. Modelling the guided wave arrivals suggest that the observed dispersion cannot be solely accounted for by a single low velocity layer as suggested by previous guided wave studies. Including dipping low velocity normal fault structures in the synthetic model not only accounts for the observed strong P-wave coda, but also produces a clear first motion dispersion. We therefore propose that the lithospheric mantle of the subducting Nazca plate is highly hydrated at intermediate depths by dipping low velocity normal faults. Additionally, we show that the low velocity oceanic crust persists to depths of up to 200 km, well beyond the depth range where the eclogite transition is expected to have occurred. Our results suggest that young subducting lithosphere also has

  8. Excavation damaged zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popp, T.; Salzer, K.; Minkley, W. [Institut fur Gebirgsmechanik GmbH, Leipzig (Germany); Gibert, D.; Nicollin, F.; Kergosien, B. [Rennes-1 Univ., GdR FORPRO (CNRS/ANDRA GdR 788) and Geosciences Rennes (CNRS/UR1 UMR 6118) (France); Bossart, P. [Federal Office for Topography, Wabern (Switzerland); Nussbaum, C. [Institut Geotechnique SA, St-Ursanne (Switzerland); Robinet, J.C.; Nguyen, M.T. [EGC Euro-Geomat-Consulting, 45 - Orleans (France); Barnichon, J.D.; Plas, F. [ANDRA - Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs, 92 - Chatenay Malabry (France); Ghorbani, A.; Cosenza, P.; Florsch, N. [Pierre et Marie Curie Univ., UMR 7619 Sisyphe, 75 - Paris (France); Revil, A.; Jougnot, D. [Aix-Marseille-2, UMR 6635, CNRS-CEREGE, 13 (France); Schmutz, M. [EGID, M. de Montaigne Univ., 33 - Pessac (France); Contrucci, I.; Klein, E. [Institut National de l' Environnement Industriel et des Risques (INERIS), Ecole des Mines de Nancy, 54 - Nancy (France); Cabrera, J.; Ben-Slimane, K.; Rejeb, A.; Matray, J.M.; Savoye, S. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Maiolino, S. [Ecole Polytechnique, Lab. de Mecanique des Solides, UMR 7649, LMS, 91 - Palaiseau (France); CETE de Lyon/LRPC de Lyon/Meca Roches/ ERA, 69 - Bron (France); Yong, S.; Loew, S.; Fidelibus, C.; Lemy, F. [Engineering Geology, ETH Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Frank, E. [Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (HSK), Villigen (Switzerland); Chun-Liang, Zhang; Tilmann, Rothfuchs [Gesellschaft fur Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Braunschweig (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    This session gathers 10 articles (posters) dealing with: the influence of bedding planes to EDZ evolution and the coupled HM properties of Opalinus Clay; the electrical tomography monitoring of the EDZ during the excavation of the gallery 04 in the Mont Terri rock laboratory; the seismic endoscopy and tomography of the EDZ of the gallery 04 in the Mont Terri rock laboratory; a elastoplastic damage model for saturated and unsaturated stiffness clays: description and application to the modelling of EDZ around drifts in Callovo-Oxfordian argillites; the non-invasive monitoring of water content and microcracks in argillites using spectral induced polarization; EDZ investigations by ultrasonic borehole logging in drifts of different ages excavated in argillaceous formations of the Tournemire experimental station (Aveyron, France); the excavation damaged zones in the argillaceous Tournemire site: characterisation and failure mechanisms; the hardening-based degradation factor: influence of mean stress and stiffness; the disturbance in the EDZ in the Opalinus clay at Mont Terri; and the experimental study on self-sealing capacity of clay rocks.

  9. Madeleine Leininger: claroscuro trascultural Madeleine Leininger: Clear and dark transcultural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Fornons Fontdevila

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A principios de la década de los años 60, Madeleine Leininger conceptualiza y funda la Enfermería transcultural, pero a pesar de la vigencia y reconocimiento que actualmente posee la enfermería transcultural, ésta no se escapa de un territorio claro-oscuro de contradicciones y dicciones. ¿Qué concepto de cultura utiliza Madeleine Leininger? ¿Qué consecuencias implica su transculturalidad? En el artículo se debate la particularidad conceptual utilizada por Leininger. Así mismo se propone cambiar terminológicamente y conceptualmente significados y significantes como la etnoenfermería y los conceptos de transculturalidad que a ella refieren. Para evitar los determinismos culturales se considera más correcto hablar de las identidades culturales, propias e individuales. La enfermería debe establecer un diálogo transcultural con las identidades culturales, con las medicinas y enfermerías transculturales. Un diálogo en igualdad, no sin por ello renunciar a la riqueza y eficiencia de la enfermería y de la medicina occidentales.At the beginning of the decade of the 60s, Madeleine Leininger conceptualizes and founds the nursing transcultural, but in spite of the current force and recognition that nowadays possesses the nursing transcultural, this does not escape of a clear - dark territory of contradictions and dictions. What concept of culture does Madeleine Leininger use? What consequences does it imply her transculturality? In the article the conceptual particularity used by Leininger is debated. Likewise it proposes to change the term and conceptual important and significant as the etno-infirmary and the concepts of transcultural that recount her. To avoid the cultural determinisms it is more correct to speak about the cultural, own and individual identities. The nursing must establish a dialog transcultural with the cultural identities, with the medicines and transcultural nursing. A dialog in equality, not without for it to resign

  10. 49 CFR 71.8 - Mountain zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mountain zone. 71.8 Section 71.8 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.8 Mountain zone. The fourth zone, the mountain standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is west of...

  11. Development of Hydrologic Characterization Technology of Fault Zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karasaki, Kenzi; Onishi, Tiemi; Wu, Yu-Shu

    2008-03-31

    Through an extensive literature survey we find that there is very limited amount of work on fault zone hydrology, particularly in the field using borehole testing. The common elements of a fault include a core, and damage zones. The core usually acts as a barrier to the flow across it, whereas the damage zone controls the flow either parallel to the strike or dip of a fault. In most of cases the damage zone isthe one that is controlling the flow in the fault zone and the surroundings. The permeability of damage zone is in the range of two to three orders of magnitude higher than the protolith. The fault core can have permeability up to seven orders of magnitude lower than the damage zone. The fault types (normal, reverse, and strike-slip) by themselves do not appear to be a clear classifier of the hydrology of fault zones. However, there still remains a possibility that other additional geologic attributes and scaling relationships can be used to predict or bracket the range of hydrologic behavior of fault zones. AMT (Audio frequency Magneto Telluric) and seismic reflection techniques are often used to locate faults. Geochemical signatures and temperature distributions are often used to identify flow domains and/or directions. ALSM (Airborne Laser Swath Mapping) or LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) method may prove to be a powerful tool for identifying lineaments in place of the traditional photogrammetry. Nonetheless not much work has been done to characterize the hydrologic properties of faults by directly testing them using pump tests. There are some uncertainties involved in analyzing pressure transients of pump tests: both low permeability and high permeability faults exhibit similar pressure responses. A physically based conceptual and numerical model is presented for simulating fluid and heat flow and solute transport through fractured fault zones using a multiple-continuum medium approach. Data from the Horonobe URL site are analyzed to demonstrate the

  12. Development of Hydrologic Characterization Technology of Fault Zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Through an extensive literature survey we find that there is very limited amount of work on fault zone hydrology, particularly in the field using borehole testing. The common elements of a fault include a core, and damage zones. The core usually acts as a barrier to the flow across it, whereas the damage zone controls the flow either parallel to the strike or dip of a fault. In most of cases the damage zone is the one that is controlling the flow in the fault zone and the surroundings. The permeability of damage zone is in the range of two to three orders of magnitude higher than the protolith. The fault core can have permeability up to seven orders of magnitude lower than the damage zone. The fault types (normal, reverse, and strike-slip) by themselves do not appear to be a clear classifier of the hydrology of fault zones. However, there still remains a possibility that other additional geologic attributes and scaling relationships can be used to predict or bracket the range of hydrologic behavior of fault zones. AMT (Audio frequency Magneto Telluric) and seismic reflection techniques are often used to locate faults. Geochemical signatures and temperature distributions are often used to identify flow domains and/or directions. ALSM (Airborne Laser Swath Mapping) or LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) method may prove to be a powerful tool for identifying lineaments in place of the traditional photogrammetry. Nonetheless not much work has been done to characterize the hydrologic properties of faults by directly testing them using pump tests. There are some uncertainties involved in analyzing pressure transients of pump tests: both low permeability and high permeability faults exhibit similar pressure responses. A physically based conceptual and numerical model is presented for simulating fluid and heat flow and solute transport through fractured fault zones using a multiple-continuum medium approach. Data from the Horonobe URL site are analyzed to demonstrate the

  13. NASA's Eos ClearingHOuse: Integrating Access to Data Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, M. T.; Pfister, R.; Wichman, K.

    2002-12-01

    ECHO (The Earth Observing System (EOS) ClearingHOuse) is being developed to provide flexibility to NASA's EOS to better meet the needs of the science community. ECHO is a clearinghouse of metadata, representing the data offerings of participating data providers. ECHO is being built with the goal of being an enabling system: Enabling a variety of Data Providers to participate. Enabling access to an ever-changing variety of Earth Science Data. Enabling access to an ever-growing suite of services, provided by the Science Community, which improves the usefulness of this data, including the binding of those services to the data represented in the clearinghouse. The purpose of this enabling philosophy is to support current Science efforts, but also to give the opportunity for creative organizations and individuals to break the traditional paradigm for discovering and leveraging Earth Science Data and Services in completely new ways. This presentation will focus on ECHO's approach to integrating Data Services from varied Service Providers, and facilitating access to those services by the user community. ECHO can be viewed as a typical Service oriented architecture. The fundamental interactions that it supports are (abstractly) Publish, Find and Bind. ECHO provides interfaces and mechanisms that allow organizations to publish their services. Using these interfaces, Service Providers can effectively "plug-in" their capabilities. There are mechanisms that allow the correlation of their service to the data types in the clearinghouse. ECHO's user community can find, or discover, services through a separate set of interfaces. Bindings are the mechanisms that support the invocation of services by ECHO's user community. ECHO supports binding either directly between the user and the service provider, or indirectly by using ECHO as a Service Broker. ECHO is supporting all of these Service capabilities by leveraging the contemporary (and evolving) "standards" of Web Services. Web

  14. Stony Brook's Graduate Courses in Clear, Vivid, Conversational Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, E.

    2011-12-01

    Graduate students in the sciences at Stony Brook University are taking for-credit courses to learn to communicate more effectively about science with people outside their disciplines, including public officials, the press, students, potential funders and employers, colleagues in other fields, and the general public. Five Communicating Science courses are offered; two more will be added in January, 2012. The courses are offered by the School of Journalism and developed by the Center for Communicating Science (CCS). This interdisciplinary center was founded in 2009, with the participation of Alan Alda, the actor, writer, director and longtime advocate for science, who is a Visiting Professor at Stony Brook. At the core of the program are three 1-credit (14-hour) modules that rely on experiential learning, repeated practice and immediate, interactive feedback. In Distilling Your Message, students practice speaking clearly, vividly and conversationally about their work at different levels of complexity and formality to different audiences, using storytelling techniques where appropriate. In Writing for the Public, they extend these skills into writing. In Improvisation for Scientists, the most unconventional of the courses, students play improvisational theater games to help themselves connect more directly, personally and responsively with their audiences. In their first two semesters, the courses are expected to serve about 90 students, taking a total of about 180 credits. Most of the courses have filled quickly, mixing master's and doctoral students from more than a dozen fields, including marine and atmospheric sciences. Three to six credits of Communicating Science courses are required for students in two programs, an MA in Marine Conservation and Policy and an Advanced Certificate in Health Communications. The content and methods of the courses are based largely on lessons learned from evaluations of all-day workshops that CCS has conducted for more than 250

  15. Mechanical properties of fracture zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Available data on mechanical characteristics of fracture zones are compiled and discussed. The aim is to improve the basis for adequate representation of fracture zones in geomechanical models. The sources of data researched are primarily borehole investigations and case studies in rock engineering, involving observations of fracture zones subjected to artificial load change. Boreholes only yield local information about the components of fracture zones, i.e. intact rock, fractures and various low-strength materials. Difficulties are therefore encountered in evaluating morphological and mechanical properties of fracture zones from borehole data. Although often thought of as macroscopically planar features, available field data consistently show that fracture zones are characterized by geometrical irregularities such as thickness variations, surface undulation and jogs. These irregularities prevail on all scales. As a result, fracture zones are on all scales characterized by large, in-plane variation of strength- and deformational properties. This has important mechanical consequences in terms of non-uniform stress transfer and complex mechanisms of shear deformation. Field evidence for these findings, in particular results from the underground research laboratory in Canada and from studies of induced fault slip in deep mines, is summarized and discussed. 79 refs

  16. Special Economic Zones In India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip Khanderao Patil

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A Special Economic Zone (SEZ is a geographical region that has economic laws that are more liberal than a country's typical economic laws. The category 'SEZ' covers a broad range of more specific zone types, including Free Trade Zones (FTZ, Export processing zones (EPZ, Free Zones (FZ, Industrial Estates (IE, Free ports, Urban Enterprise Zones and others. Usually the goal of a structure is to increase foreign direct investment by foreign investors; typically an international business or a Multi National Corporation (MNC. The total physical exports from SEZs in India as on 31st December, 2012 i.e. in the first three quarters of the current financial year, has been to the tune of Rs. 3,53,195 crore approximately registering a growth of 35.34% over the exports of corresponding period of the previous financial year. The total investment in SEZs till 31st December, 2012 is Rs.2,38,990 crore approximately, including Rs.2,18,919 crore in the newly notified zones.

  17. Water quality dynamics and hydrology in nitrate loaded riparian zones in Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riparian zones are known to function as buffers, reducing non-point source pollution from agricultural land to streams. In Netherlands, riparian zones are subject to high nitrogen inputs. We combined hydrological, chemical and soil profile data with groundwater modelling to evaluate whether chronically N loaded riparian zones were still mitigating diffuse nitrate fluxes. Hydraulic parameters and water quality were monitored over 2 years in 50 piezometres in a forested and grassland riparian zone. Average nitrate loadings were high in the forested zone with 87 g NO3--N m-2 y-1 and significantly lower in the grassland zone with 15 g NO3--N m-2 y-1. Groundwater from a second aquifer diluted the nitrate loaded agricultural runoff. Biological N removal however occurred in both riparian zones, the grassland zone removed about 63% of the incoming nitrate load, whereas in the forested zone clear symptoms of saturation were visible and only 38% of the nitrate load was removed. - Riparian zones reduced nitrate from agricultural lands

  18. Clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma and clear cell renal cell carcinoma arising in acquired cystic disease of the kidney: an immunohistochemical and genetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Naoto; Shiotsu, Tomoyuki; Kawada, Chiaki; Shuin, Taro; Hes, Ondrej; Michal, Michal; Ohe, Chisato; Mikami, Shuji; Pan, Chin-Chen

    2011-08-01

    Clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a recently established disease entity. However, there are few reports on genetic study of this entity. We report such a case with focus on genetic study. A 57-year-old Japanese man was found to have 3 renal tumors. Histologically, two tumors showed findings of clear cell RCC; and the other tumor showed findings of clear cell papillary RCC that was characterized by papillary growth pattern of neoplastic cells in cystic space with purely clear cell cytology. Immunohistochemically, tumor cells of clear cell papillary RCC were diffusely positive for PAX2 and cytokeratin 7, but negative for CD10, RCC Ma, and AMACR. In fluorescence in situ hybridization study for one clear cell papillary RCC, we detected polysomy for chromosome 7 and monosomy for chromosomes 17, 16, and 20. In addition, we detected mutation of VHL gene in clear cell RCC, but found no VHL gene mutation in clear cell papillary RCC. Finally, our results provide further evidence that clear cell papillary RCC may be both morphologically and genetically distinct entity from clear cell RCC and papillary RCC. PMID:20952286

  19. Evaluation of Clear Sky Models for Satellite-Based Irradiance Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sengupta, M.; Gotseff, P.

    2013-12-01

    This report describes an intercomparison of three popular broadband clear sky solar irradiance model results with measured data, as well as satellite-based model clear sky results compared to measured clear sky data. The authors conclude that one of the popular clear sky models (the Bird clear sky model developed by Richard Bird and Roland Hulstrom) could serve as a more accurate replacement for current satellite-model clear sky estimations. Additionally, the analysis of the model results with respect to model input parameters indicates that rather than climatological, annual, or monthly mean input data, higher-time-resolution input parameters improve the general clear sky model performance.

  20. Problems of Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The collection comprises the results of researches and design activity in the ChNPP exclusion zone with the aim to develop technology, equipment and instruments for RAW management and accident clean-up, studying of the composition and structure of the activity solid bearers in the soil of the exclusion zone and transformation of the radionuclides in the nearest zone of ChNPP. Much attention is paid to medical and biological problems of the accident influence on the flora, fauna and people's health labour conditions and incidence of the people involved

  1. Problems of Chornobyl Exclusion Zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The collection comprises the results of researches and design activity in the ChNPP exclusion zone with the aim to develop technology, equipment and instruments for RAW management and accident clean-up, studying of the composition and structure of the activity solid bearers in the soil of the exclusion zone and transformation of the radionuclides in the nearest zone of ChNPP. Much attention is paid to medical and biological problems of the accident influence on the flora, fauna and people's health, labour conditions and incidence of the people involved.

  2. ShoreZone Survey Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a point file showing GPS trackline data collected during a ShoreZone aerial imaging survey. This flight trackline is recorded at 1-second intervals...

  3. Offshore Wind Technology Depth Zones

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coastal bathymetric depth, measured in meters at depth values of: -30, -60, -900 Shallow Zone (0-30m): Technology has been demonstrated on a commercial scale at...

  4. NEPR Geographic Zone Map 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This geographic zone map was created by interpreting satellite and aerial imagery, seafloor topography (bathymetry model), and the new NEPR Benthic Habitat Map...

  5. Development Zones Flourish in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Based on the Beijing Municipal Government's plans for developing the city and neighboring suburbs,and after more than 10 years in development,the Beijing Development Zones have taken shape,each with their own characteristics.

  6. Thermal modeling of the Clear Lake magmatic system, California: Implications for conventional and hot dry rock geothermal development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stimac, J.; Goff, F.; Wohletz, K.

    1997-06-01

    The combination of recent volcanism, high heat flow ({ge} HFU or 167 mW/m{sup 2}), and high conductive geothermal gradient (up to 120{degree} C/km) makes the Clear Lake region of northern California one of the best prospects for hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal development in the US. The lack of permeability in exploration wells and lack of evidence for widespread geothermal reservoirs north of the Collayomi fault zone are not reassuring indications for conventional geothermal development. This report summarizes results of thermal modeling of the Clear Lake magmatic system, and discusses implications for HDR site selection in the region. The thermal models incorporate a wide range of constraints including the distribution and nature of volcanism in time and space, water and gas geochemistry, well data, and geophysical surveys. The nature of upper crustal magma bodies at Clear Lake is inferred from studying sequences of related silicic lavas, which tell a story of multistage mixing of silicic and mafic magma in clusters of small upper crustal chambers. Thermobarometry on metamorphic xenoliths yield temperature and pressure estimates of {approximately}780--900 C and 4--6 kb respectively, indicating that at least a portion of the deep magma system resided at depths from 14 to 21 km (9 to 12 mi). The results of thermal modeling support previous assessments of the high HDR potential of the area, and suggest the possibility that granitic bodies similar to The Geysers felsite may underlie much of the Clear Lake region at depths as little as 3--6 km. This is significant because future HDR reservoirs could potentially be sited in relatively shallow granitoid plutons rather than in structurally complex Franciscan basement rocks.

  7. Stepped conical zone plate antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltse, James C.

    2001-07-01

    The Fresnel zone plate lens was invented and developed for optical frequencies. However, fabrication difficulties at the short optical wavelengths have prevented obtain good efficiencies. At longer microwave or millimeter-wavelengths fabrication is easier and phase correcting zone plate antennas have been used to obtain good efficiencies. This paper describes a new type of phase correcting zone plate having even better efficiency, namely a diffraction efficiency of 99 percent compared to a true lens, and an overall efficiency much better than a true lens. For the usual zone plate antenna employed at microwave or millimeter wavelengths, path length adjustment is accomplished by cutting different depths in a dielectric plate or by using two or more dielectrics having different dielectric constants. The new design uses a tilted cut in a dielectric plate, which more accurately matches the shape of a true lens and produces much lower phase error. The construction is still near and can be made for example, by a milling machine with a tilted bit. For a circular zone plate, the lens is a stepped conical or tapered shape. Because the phase steps are small, the far-field antenna pattern is excellent and sidelobe-levels are very low. Analysis of typical configurations will be given, showing that phase errors are small, lower than those for an eighth-wave corrected phase zone plate.

  8. Understanding the Fluvial Critical Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bätz, N.; Lane, S. N.; Temme, A. J. A. M.; Lang, F.

    2012-04-01

    Geomorphological modelling has evolved significantly the representation of the link between river morphology, flow processes and sediment transport; notably recently, with an emphasis upon the interactions between vegetation dynamics and morphodynamics. Nevertheless, vegetation dynamics have tended to be treated as a simplistic "black box" in which time replaces the more complex underlying processes. Thus, riparian vegetation dynamics not only result from interactions between surface-flow, topography and vegetation resistance to disturbance, but also soil development within the fluvial zone, which affects nutrient and water supply. More generally labeled the critical zone, there is a lack of considering the "critical fluvial zone" in geomorphological models. Understanding the key drivers of this system, thus the processes interrelating vegetation, topography, soil (formation), subsurface- and surface-flow, are crucial to understand how riverine landscapes respond to increasing human pressure and to climate change. In this poster, we consider the likely nature of a braided river critical fluvial zone. Braided rivers in deglaciated forelands provide an opportunity to study the fluvial critical zone due to their dynamic properties, the restricted physical size, the simple ecosystems and the space-for-time relation caused by glacier retreatment after the "Little Ice Age". The poster aims to commence a discussion on the fluvial critical zone, showing first results about: a) the system understanding of a braided river set in a recently deglaciated alpine foreland; b) methodological approaches to quantify the identified interrelating key processes; c) how quantitative understanding can be integrated into fluvial geomorphological modelling.

  9. Mechanical modelling of the Singoe deformation zone. Site descriptive modelling Forsmark stage 2.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glamheden, Rune; Maersk Hansen, Lars; Fredriksson, Anders; Bergkvist, Lars; Markstroem, Ingemar; Elfstroem, Mats [Golder Associates AB (Sweden)

    2007-02-15

    This project aims at demonstrating the theoretical approach developed by SKB for determination of mechanical properties of large deformation zones, in particular the Singoe deformation zone. Up to now, only bedrock and minor deformation zones have been characterized by means of this methodology, which has been modified for this project. The Singoe deformation zone is taken as a reference object to get a more comprehensive picture of the structure, which could be incorporated in a future version of the SDM of Forsmark. Furthermore, the Singoe Zone has been chosen because of available data from four tunnels. Scope of work has included compilation and analysis of geological information from site investigations and documentation of existing tunnels. Results have been analyzed and demonstrated by means of RVS-visualization. Numerical modelling has been used to obtain mechanical properties. Numerical modelling has also been carried out in order to verify the results by comparison of calculated and measured deformations. Compilation of various structures in the four tunnels coincides largely with a magnetic anomaly and also with the estimated width. Based on the study it is clear that the Singoe deformation zone has a heterogeneous nature. The number of fracture zones associated with the deformation zone varies on either side of the zone, as does the transition zone between host rock and the Singoe zone. The overall impression from the study is that the results demonstrate that the methodology used for simulating of equivalent mechanical properties is an applicable and adequate method, also in case of large deformation zones. Typical rock mechanical parameters of the Singoe deformations that can be used in the regional stress model considering the zone to be a single fracture are: 200 MPa/m in normal stiffness, 10-15 MPa/m in shear stiffness, 0.4 MPa in cohesion and 31.5 degrees in friction angle.

  10. Mechanical modelling of the Singoe deformation zone. Site descriptive modelling Forsmark stage 2.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project aims at demonstrating the theoretical approach developed by SKB for determination of mechanical properties of large deformation zones, in particular the Singoe deformation zone. Up to now, only bedrock and minor deformation zones have been characterized by means of this methodology, which has been modified for this project. The Singoe deformation zone is taken as a reference object to get a more comprehensive picture of the structure, which could be incorporated in a future version of the SDM of Forsmark. Furthermore, the Singoe Zone has been chosen because of available data from four tunnels. Scope of work has included compilation and analysis of geological information from site investigations and documentation of existing tunnels. Results have been analyzed and demonstrated by means of RVS-visualization. Numerical modelling has been used to obtain mechanical properties. Numerical modelling has also been carried out in order to verify the results by comparison of calculated and measured deformations. Compilation of various structures in the four tunnels coincides largely with a magnetic anomaly and also with the estimated width. Based on the study it is clear that the Singoe deformation zone has a heterogeneous nature. The number of fracture zones associated with the deformation zone varies on either side of the zone, as does the transition zone between host rock and the Singoe zone. The overall impression from the study is that the results demonstrate that the methodology used for simulating of equivalent mechanical properties is an applicable and adequate method, also in case of large deformation zones. Typical rock mechanical parameters of the Singoe deformations that can be used in the regional stress model considering the zone to be a single fracture are: 200 MPa/m in normal stiffness, 10-15 MPa/m in shear stiffness, 0.4 MPa in cohesion and 31.5 degrees in friction angle

  11. Radially converging tracer test in a low-angle fracture zone at the Finnsjoen site, central Sweden. The fracture zone project - phase 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performance and results of a radially converging tracer test in a low-angle major fracture zone in crystalline rock are described. The extensive, about 100 m thick, zone 2 was encountered by means of borehole investigations at depths ranging from 100 to 250 metres at the Finnsjon site, central eastern Sweden. The zone studied (zone 2) consists of highly conductive, metre thick interconnected minor shear and fracture zones (sub-zones) with low conductive rock in between. The objective of the tracer test was primarily to determine flow and transport characteristics in a major fracture zone. Secondly new equipment, experimental design and methods of interpretation were developed, tested and improved. The converging flow field was created by pumping in a central borehole from a packed-off interval enclosing the whole thickness of zone 2. Tracer breakthrough was registered from all nine injection points, with first arrivals ranging from 24 to 3200 hours. Evaluated flow and transport parameters included; flow porosity, dispersivity, flow wetted surface, fracture aperture and hydraulic conductivity in fracture flow paths. Directional variations were found in the flow and transport parameters determined, which is concluded to be due to heterogeneity and/or anisotropy. This conditions is more pronounced at depth in zone 2. The results from the tracer test also clearly show that the upper boundary of zone 2 is highly conductive and consistent over hundreds of metres. Within zone 2, and between upper and lower margins, interconnected discrete minor shear and fracture zones (sub-zones) constitute flow paths of considerable variable residence times. The dispersion within the sub-zones of zone 2, expressed as Peclet numbers ranged from 16 to 40. Flow porosity was determined to be 0.001-0.05 in the upper sub-zone and 0.01-0.1 in the intermediate and lower ones and flow wetted surface area per volume of rock was calculated to be within 1-92 m2/m3. 68 refs, 61 figs, 40 tabs

  12. Shear Zone Development and Rheology in the Deep Orogenic Crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, J. H.; Johnson, S. E.; Gerbi, C. C.; Culshaw, N. G.

    2008-12-01

    unsheared granulites, often with clear centimeter-decimeter wide alteration halos, is preserved in adjacent rocks closer to the domain interior. Approaching the TMBSZ, the proportion of undeformed panel is decreased considerably and a finer-grained tectonite fabric becomes dominant. Panels in this area are more podiform, and relict layering is often at a much lower angle to the transposed fabric that wraps it. Large feldspar porphyroclasts, often with extensive tails parallel to layering, are commonly observed in the tectonite suggesting that these rocks represent widened and strongly attenuated pegmatite-cored shear zones. Thus, a six-stage conceptual model is proposed in which iPSD granulites are reworked into amphibolite facies tectonites (of the TMBSZ) through growth of spaced shear zones that initiated on fluid-filled fractures, and progressive consumption and rotation of relict granulite panels. Previous experimental studies have shown that changes in rock mineralogy and microstructure can have a substantial effect on bulk rheology and the partitioning of strain. For reactions where relatively rigid phases such as garnet and pyroxene are replaced by well-aligned biotite and amphibole, orders of magnitude strength drops may be possible. Structural data and observations are used here to constrain grain- and outcrop-scale numerical modeling exercises that evaluate the 1) strength contrasts between the shear zones and the granulite protolith, 2) bulk strength of crustal blocks with variable proportions of shear zones, and 3) sensitivity to various physical parameters.

  13. Pediatric evaluation of the ClearVoice™ speech enhancement algorithm in everyday life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Noël-Petroff

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available ClearVoice™ enables Advanced Bionics cochlear implant users to improve their speech understanding in difficult listening environments, without compromising performance in quiet situations. The aim of the study was to evaluate the benefits of ClearVoice in children. Children between six and fourteen years of age randomly tested two modalities of ClearVoice for one month each. The baseline program, HiRes 120™, and both ClearVoice programs were evaluated with a sentence test in quiet and noise. Parents and teachers completed a questionnaire related to everyday noisy situations. The switchover to ClearVoice was uneventful for both modalities. Adjustments to thresholds and comfort levels were required. Seven out of the nine children preferred a ClearVoice program. No impact of ClearVoice on performance in quiet was observed and both modalities of ClearVoice improved speech understanding in noise compared to the baseline program, significantly with ClearVoice high. Positive outcomes were obtained from the questionnaires and discussions with parents and children. This study showed that children benefited from using ClearVoice in their daily life. There was a clear trend towards improved speech understanding in noise with ClearVoice, without affecting performance in quiet; therefore ClearVoice can be used by children all day, without having to change programs.

  14. 75 FR 68014 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Fixed Income Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Fixed Income Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing and Immediate... the Fixed Income Clearing Corporation (``FICC'') filed with the Securities and Exchange...

  15. 78 FR 52598 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Fixed Income Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing of Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Fixed Income Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing of Proposed..., the Fixed Income Clearing Corporation (``FICC'') filed with the Securities and Exchange...

  16. 77 FR 15822 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Fixed Income Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing of Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Fixed Income Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing of Proposed... Fixed Income Clearing Corporation (``FICC'') filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission... modifications to certain rules of the Government Securities Division (``GSD'') of the Fixed Income...

  17. 76 FR 13683 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The Fixed Income Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The Fixed Income Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing and... 2, 2011, the Fixed Income Clearing Corporation (``FICC'') filed with the Securities and...

  18. 78 FR 33456 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Fixed Income Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Fixed Income Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing Proposed Rule... Fixed Income Clearing Corporation (``FICC'') filed with the Securities and Exchange...

  19. Light-sheet microscopy imaging of a whole cleared rat brain with Thy1-GFP transgene

    OpenAIRE

    Marzena Stefaniuk; Gualda, Emilio J.; Monika Pawlowska; Diana Legutko; Paweł Matryba; Paulina Koza; Witold Konopka; Dorota Owczarek; Marcin Wawrzyniak; Pablo Loza-Alvarez; Leszek Kaczmarek

    2016-01-01

    Whole-brain imaging with light-sheet fluorescence microscopy and optically cleared tissue is a new, rapidly developing research field. Whereas successful attempts to clear and image mouse brain have been reported, a similar result for rats has proven difficult to achieve. Herein, we report on creating novel transgenic rat harboring fluorescent reporter GFP under control of neuronal gene promoter. We then present data on clearing the rat brain, showing that FluoClearBABB was found superior ove...

  20. Perception of foreign-accented clear speech by younger and older English listeners

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Chi-Nin

    2009-01-01

    Naturally produced English clear speech has been shown to be more intelligible than English conversational speech. However, little is known about the extent of the clear speech effects in the production of nonnative English, and perception of foreign-accented English by younger and older listeners. The present study examined whether Cantonese speakers would employ the same strategies as those used by native English speakers in producing clear speech in their second language. Also, the clear s...

  1. An acoustic-phonetic comparison of the clear speaking styles of late Finnish-English bilinguals

    OpenAIRE

    Granlund, S.; Hazan, V.; Baker, R.

    2012-01-01

    Research on clear speech, an intelligibility-enhancing speaking style, has proposed that global clear speech modifications which make speech more perceptible in adverse conditions are language-independent, while the more fine-grained segmental clear speech modifications, which enhance the salience of phonological contrasts, are language-specific [Bradlow, A.R. & Bent, T., 2002. The clear speech effect for non-native listeners. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 112, 272–284]. This ...

  2. Total Value Assessment of Tree Clearing for Developing Grazing Systems in Central Queensland

    OpenAIRE

    Kaur, Kamaljit; Stanley, Owen

    2006-01-01

    Tree clearing is widely practised in Queensland to develop exotic pastures to enhance pasture production and hence the financial gains. One of the major woodland community i.e. brigalow (Acacia harpop hylla) was targeted for clearing in the early 1950s due to its fertile soils. Recently, some marginal communities such as Poplar box (Eucalyptus populnea) and Iron bark (Eucalyptus melanophloia) are targeted for clearing. Net benefits from clearing woodlands to increase pasture production, hence...

  3. What the EWSR1-ATF1 Fusion has Taught Us About Hyalinizing Clear Cell Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Tanguay, Jeff; Weinreb, Ilan

    2013-01-01

    Hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma (HCCC) is a unique low-grade tumor composed of cords and nests of clear cells in a hyalinized stroma that was first reported by Milchgrub et al. It was recognized as a separate entity from clear cell variants of epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma, myoepithelial carcinoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma. HCCC is included in a long list of clear cell-containing tumors of salivary gland, as well as odontogenic tumors and metastases (renal cell carcinoma). Up until n...

  4. Zone distillation: a new purification method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The features of zone distillation (with zone melting of refined material and with pulling of condensate) as a new purification method are shown. The method is based on similarity of equations of distillation and crystallization refining. The analogy between some distillation and condensation methods (particularly between zone distillation and zone recrystallization) is should up

  5. Selected approaches to determining the purpose of emergency planning zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobeš, Pavel; Baudišová, Barbora; Sluka, Vilém; Skřínský, Jan; Danihelka, Pavel; Dlabka, Jakub; Řeháček, Jakub

    2013-04-01

    One of the major accident hazards (hereinafter referred to as "MAH") tools to determine the range of effects of a major accident and consequent protection of the public is the determination of the emergency planning zone (hereinafter referred to as "zone"). In the Czech Republic, the determination of the zone is regulated by the Decree No. 103/2006 Coll. laying down the principles for determination of the emergency planning zone and the extent and manner of elaborating the external emergency plan (hereinafter referred to as "Decree") 3. The Decree is based on the principles of the IAEA-TECDOC-727 method - Manual for the Classification and Prioritization of Risks Due to Major Accidents in Process and Related Industries (hereinafter referred to as "method" and "manual", respectively)3. In the manual, it is pointed out that the method used is not suitable for making emergency plans for special situations (industrial activities in an inhabited area). Nonetheless, its principles and procedures are still used for such purposes in the Czech Republic. The expert scientific community dealing with MAH issues in the Czech Republic, however, realizes that the procedure of the zone boundary delineation should be modified to reflect up-to-date knowledge in protection of the public and its enhancement. Therefore, the OPTIZON Project (Optimization of the Emergency Planning Zone Designation and Elaboration of Emergency Plans Based on Threatening Effects of Dangerous Chemical Substances at Operational Accidents with Respect to Inhabitant Protection Enhancement) was developed and approved for the Program of Security Research of the Czech Republic 2010 - 2015 (BV II/2-VS). One of the main project's objectives is to define clearly the purpose of the zone because at present it is not quite apparent. From the general view, this step may seem insignificant or trivial, but the reverse is true. It represents one of the most important stages in seeking the approach to the zone designation as

  6. Clear cell variant of intraosseous mucoepidermoid carcinoma: Report of a rare entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujatha Varma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Intraosseous mucoepidermoid carcinoma of jaw bones is a rare lesion. Abundance of clear cells in an intraosseous mucoepidermoid carcinoma may complicate its histopathologic diagnosis. It becomes extremely important to distinguish this lesion from other clear cell lesions of jaw region. Here, we report a case of clear cell variant of intraosseous mucoepidermoid carcinoma in the mandible.

  7. 77 FR 63398 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The Options Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-16

    ... of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the ``Act''), because it reduces the clearing fee... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The Options Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Reduce the Per Contract Clearing Fee for Routing Trades Executed...

  8. Clear cell variant of intraosseous mucoepidermoid carcinoma: Report of a rare entity

    OpenAIRE

    Sujatha Varma; P. M. Shameena; Sudha, S; Resmi G Nair; Ipe V Varghese

    2012-01-01

    Intraosseous mucoepidermoid carcinoma of jaw bones is a rare lesion. Abundance of clear cells in an intraosseous mucoepidermoid carcinoma may complicate its histopathologic diagnosis. It becomes extremely important to distinguish this lesion from other clear cell lesions of jaw region. Here, we report a case of clear cell variant of intraosseous mucoepidermoid carcinoma in the mandible.

  9. 76 FR 31518 - Public Roundtable on the Protection of Cleared Swaps Customer Collateral

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... COMMISSION 17 CFR Parts 22 and 190 Public Roundtable on the Protection of Cleared Swaps Customer Collateral... related to the protection of cleared swaps customer collateral described in the CFTC's notice of proposed rulemaking regarding the Protection of Cleared Swaps Customer Contracts and Collateral and...

  10. 77 FR 32153 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Fixed Income Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing of Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-31

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Fixed Income Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing of Proposed... hereby given that on May 15, 2012, Fixed Income Clearing Corporation (``FICC'') filed with the Securities... Clearing Fund formula is driven by historical data observed in the fixed-income market. While the...

  11. 78 FR 39027 - Order Granting the Fixed Income Clearing Corporation's Amended Application for Permanent...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-28

    ... COMMISSION Order Granting the Fixed Income Clearing Corporation's Amended Application for Permanent Registration as a Clearing Agency June 24, 2013. I. Introduction On April 5, 2013, the Fixed Income Clearing... Securities Exchange Act Release No. 69362 (April 11, 2013), 78 FR 22923-01 (April 17, 2013) (File No....

  12. 77 FR 40398 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Fixed Income Clearing Corporation; Order Approving Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-09

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Fixed Income Clearing Corporation; Order Approving Proposed Rule..., 2012, the Fixed Income Clearing Corporation (``FICC'') filed with the Securities and Exchange... Clearing Fund formula is driven by historical data observed in the fixed-income market. While the...

  13. 75 FR 4430 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The Fixed Income Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The Fixed Income Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing and... Division of the Fixed Income Clearing Corporation January 21, 2010. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of the... Income Clearing Corporation (``FICC'') filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission...

  14. 76 FR 12144 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Fixed Income Clearing Corporation; Order Granting Approval of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-04

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Fixed Income Clearing Corporation; Order Granting Approval of a Proposed Rule Change To Introduce Cross- Margining of Certain Positions Cleared at the Fixed Income.... Introduction On November 12, 2010, Fixed Income Clearing Corporation (``FICC'') filed with the Securities...

  15. Problems of Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The collection comprises the results of researches and design activity in the ChNPP exclusion zone with the aim to develop technology, equipment and instruments for RAW management and accident clean-up, studying of the composition and structure of the activity solid bearers in the soil of the exclusion zone and transformation of the radionuclides in the nearest zone of ChNPP. Much attention is paid to medical and biological problems of the accident influence on the flora, fauna and people's health, labour conditions and incidence of the people involved. The collection comprises the information for scientists, experts, postgraduates and students in gaged in ecology, radioecology, nuclear engineering, radiology, radiochemistry and radiobiology

  16. Earthquake Zoning Maps of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earthquake Zoning Maps (1945, 1947, 1963, 1972 and 1996) and Specifications for Construction in Disaster Areas (1947, 1953, 1962, 1968, 1975, 1996, 1997 and 2006) have been changed many times following the developments in engineering seismology, tectonic and seismo-tectonic invention and improved earthquake data collection. The aim of this study is to give information about this maps, which come into force at different dates since the introduction of the firs official Earthquake Zoning Map published in 1945 and is to assist for better understanding of the development phases of these maps

  17. Clear & Simple

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... thrill seeking behavior, views toward or participation in violence) Related knowledge, attitudes, and practices (e.g., stigma, shame, discrimination) Patterns of use of related services (urban vs. rural, access to services, travel distance and ...

  18. Road Zone Effects in Small-Mammal Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia A. Rosa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Our study focused on the putative effects of roads on small-mammal communities in a high desert region of southern Utah. Specifically, we tested whether or not roads create adjacent zones characterized by lower small- mammal densities, abundance, and diversity. We sampled abundance of small mammals at increasing distances from Interstate 15 during two summers. We recorded 11 genera and 13 species. We detected no clear abundance, density, or diversity effects relative to distance from the road. Only two of 13 species were never captured near roads. The abundance of the remaining 11 small mammal species was either similar at different distances from the road or higher closer to the road. We conclude that although roads may act as barriers and possible sources of mortality, adjacent zones of vegetation often provide favorable microhabitat in the desert landscape for many small mammals.

  19. Road zone effects in small-mammal communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissonette, J.A.; Rosa, S.A.

    2009-01-01

    Our study focused on the putative effects of roads on small-mammal communities in a high desert region of southern Utah. Specifically, we tested whether or not roads create adjacent zones characterized by lower small- mammal densities, abundance, and diversity. We sampled abundance of small mammals at increasing distances from Interstate 15 during two summers. We recorded 11 genera and 13 species. We detected no clear abundance, density, or diversity effects relative to distance from the road. Only two of 13 species were never captured near roads. The abundance of the remaining 11 small mammal species was either similar at different distances from the road or higher closer to the road. We conclude that although roads may act as barriers and possible sources of mortality, adjacent zones of vegetation often provide favorable microhabitat in the desert landscape for many small mammals. ?? 2009 by the author(s).

  20. Optical clearing assisted confocal microscopy of ex vivo transgenic mouse skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Eunjoo; Ahn, YoonJoon; Ahn, Jinhyo; Ahn, Soyeon; Kim, Changhwan; Choi, Sanghoon; Boutilier, Richard Martin; Lee, Yongjoong; Kim, Pilhan; Lee, Ho

    2015-10-01

    We examined the optical clearing assisted confocal microscopy of the transgenic mouse skin. The pinna and dorsal skin were imaged with a confocal microscope after the application of glycerol and FocusClear. In case of the glycerol-treated pinna, the clearing was minimal due to the inefficient permeability. However, the imaging depth was improved when the pinna was treated with FocusClear. In case of dorsal skin, we were able to image deeply to the subcutaneous connective tissue with both agents. Various skin structures such as the vessel, epithelium cells, cartilage, dermal cells, and hair follicles were clearly imaged.

  1. 76 FR 44803 - Quarterly Listings; Safety Zones, Security Zones, Special Local Regulations, Drawbridge Operation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... Ship Channel, LA Security Zone (Part 165)... 1/10/2010 USCG-2010-0016 Guam Safety zone (Part 165.../23/2010 USCG-2010-0696 Theodore, AL Security Zone (Part 165)... 7/22/2010 USCG-2010-0697 Panama City, FL Security Zone (Part 165)... 8/14/2010 USCG-2010-0698 Panama City, FL Security Zone (Part 165)......

  2. Issues in Coastal Zone Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Derrin

    1992-01-01

    Addresses the following issues relevant to coastal zone management: overcrowding, resource exploitation, pollution, agriculture, fisheries, industrial, and other uses. Describes conflicts and trade-offs in management typified by fragmented agency decision making. Discusses implications of the greenhouse effect, sustainable development, and the…

  3. ShoreZone Mapped Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is a polyline file of mapped ShoreZone units which correspond with data records found in the Unit, Xshr, BioUnit, and BioBand tables of this...

  4. ISOLDE target zone control room

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Operating the ISOLDE target handling robots from the dedicated control room in building 197. Monitors showing the movements of the robots (GPS in this case) in the target zone. The footage shows the actual operation by the operator as well as the different equipment such as camera electronics, camera motor controls, camera monitors and Kuka robot controls touch panel.

  5. Unsteady aspects of sodium-water reaction. Water clearing of sodium containing equipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodium fast Reactor (FSR) is one of the most promising nuclear reactor concepts in the frame of Generation IV Systems to be commercialised in the next decades. One important safety issue about this technology is the highly exothermal chemical reaction of sodium when brought in contact with liquid water. This situation is likely, in particular during decommissioning, when sodium needs to be firstly converted ('destroyed') into non-reactive species. This is achieved by water washing: the major products are then gaseous hydrogen and corrosive soda. Today, such operations are performed in confined chambers to mitigate the consequences of any possible abnormal conditions. It has for long been believed that the main safety problem was the combustion of hydrogen in the surrounding air despite some pioneering works suggested that even without air the reaction could be explosive. It is extremely important to clarify the phenomenology of sodium-water interactions since available knowledge does not allow a robust extrapolation of existing data/model to full scale plants. The primary objective of this work is to identify and assess the details of the phenomenology, especially at the sodium/water interface, to isolate the leading mechanisms and to propose a robust and innovative modelling approach. A large body of yet unreleased experimental data extracted from the files of the French Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) was collated and analysed on the basis of 'explosion' physics. Some additional experiments were also performed to fill some gaps, especially about the kinetics of the reaction. The results strongly suggest that the fast expansion of gas producing a blast wave in certain conditions is a kind of vapour explosion. It also appears that any potential hydrogen-air explosion should be strongly mitigated by the large quantity of water vapour emanating also from the reaction zone. The limitations of existing modelling approaches are clearly

  6. Detection and clearing of trapped ions in the high current Cornell photoinjector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Full, S.; Bartnik, A.; Bazarov, I. V.; Dobbins, J.; Dunham, B.; Hoffstaetter, G. H.

    2016-03-01

    We have recently performed experiments to test the effectiveness of three ion-clearing strategies in the Cornell high intensity photoinjector: DC clearing electrodes, bunch gaps, and beam shaking. The photoinjector reaches a new regime of linac beam parameters where high continuous wave beam currents lead to ion trapping. Therefore ion mitigation strategies must be evaluated for this machine and other similar future high current linacs. We have developed several techniques to directly measure the residual trapped ions. Our two primary indicators of successful clearing are the amount of ion current removed by a DC clearing electrode, and the absence of bremsstrahlung radiation generated by beam-ion interactions. Measurements were taken for an electron beam with an energy of 5 MeV and continuous wave beam currents in the range of 1-20 mA. Several theoretical models have been developed to explain our data. Using them, we are able to estimate the clearing electrode voltage required for maximum ion clearing, the creation and clearing rates of the ions while employing bunch gaps, and the sinusoidal shaking frequency necessary for clearing via beam shaking. In all cases, we achieve a maximum ion clearing of at least 70% or higher, and in some cases our data is consistent with full ion clearing.

  7. Unsaturated Zone and Saturated Zone Transport Properties (U0100)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Analysis/Model Report (AMR) summarizes transport properties for the lower unsaturated zone hydrogeologic units and the saturated zone at Yucca Mountain and provides a summary of data from the Busted Butte Unsaturated Zone Transport Test (UZTT). The purpose of this report is to summarize the sorption and transport knowledge relevant to flow and transport in the units below Yucca Mountain and to provide backup documentation for the sorption parameters decided upon for each rock type. Because of the complexity of processes such as sorption, and because of the lack of direct data for many conditions that may be relevant for Yucca Mountain, data from systems outside of Yucca Mountain are also included. The data reported in this AMR will be used in Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) calculations and as general scientific support for various Process Model Reports (PMRs) requiring knowledge of the transport properties of different materials. This report provides, but is not limited to, sorption coefficients and other relevant thermodynamic and transport properties for the radioisotopes of concern, especially neptunium (Np), plutonium (Pu), Uranium (U), technetium (Tc), iodine (I), and selenium (Se). The unsaturated-zone (UZ) transport properties in the vitric Calico Hills (CHv) are discussed, as are colloidal transport data based on the Busted Butte UZTT, the saturated tuff, and alluvium. These values were determined through expert elicitation, direct measurements, and data analysis. The transport parameters include information on interactions of the fractures and matrix. In addition, core matrix permeability data from the Busted Butte UZTT are summarized by both percent alteration and dispersion

  8. Unsaturated Zone and Saturated Zone Transport Properties (U0100)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Conca

    2000-12-20

    This Analysis/Model Report (AMR) summarizes transport properties for the lower unsaturated zone hydrogeologic units and the saturated zone at Yucca Mountain and provides a summary of data from the Busted Butte Unsaturated Zone Transport Test (UZTT). The purpose of this report is to summarize the sorption and transport knowledge relevant to flow and transport in the units below Yucca Mountain and to provide backup documentation for the sorption parameters decided upon for each rock type. Because of the complexity of processes such as sorption, and because of the lack of direct data for many conditions that may be relevant for Yucca Mountain, data from systems outside of Yucca Mountain are also included. The data reported in this AMR will be used in Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) calculations and as general scientific support for various Process Model Reports (PMRs) requiring knowledge of the transport properties of different materials. This report provides, but is not limited to, sorption coefficients and other relevant thermodynamic and transport properties for the radioisotopes of concern, especially neptunium (Np), plutonium (Pu), Uranium (U), technetium (Tc), iodine (I), and selenium (Se). The unsaturated-zone (UZ) transport properties in the vitric Calico Hills (CHv) are discussed, as are colloidal transport data based on the Busted Butte UZTT, the saturated tuff, and alluvium. These values were determined through expert elicitation, direct measurements, and data analysis. The transport parameters include information on interactions of the fractures and matrix. In addition, core matrix permeability data from the Busted Butte UZTT are summarized by both percent alteration and dispersion.

  9. Simplified three-dimensional tissue clearing and incorporation of colorimetric phenotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Kevin; Ding, Yichen; Ma, Jianguo; Chen, Harrison; Huang, Vincent; Cheng, Michelle; Yang, Cindy F; Kim, Jocelyn T; Eguchi, Daniel; Di Carlo, Dino; Hsiai, Tzung K; Nakano, Atsushi; Kulkarni, Rajan P

    2016-01-01

    Tissue clearing methods promise to provide exquisite three-dimensional imaging information; however, there is a need for simplified methods for lower resource settings and for non-fluorescence based phenotyping to enable light microscopic imaging modalities. Here we describe the simplified CLARITY method (SCM) for tissue clearing that preserves epitopes of interest. We imaged the resulting tissues using light sheet microscopy to generate rapid 3D reconstructions of entire tissues and organs. In addition, to enable clearing and 3D tissue imaging with light microscopy methods, we developed a colorimetric, non-fluorescent method for specifically labeling cleared tissues based on horseradish peroxidase conversion of diaminobenzidine to a colored insoluble product. The methods we describe here are portable and can be accomplished at low cost, and can allow light microscopic imaging of cleared tissues, thus enabling tissue clearing and imaging in a wide variety of settings. PMID:27498769

  10. Subventricular zone neural progenitors protect striatal neurons from glutamatergic excitotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butti, Erica; Bacigaluppi, Marco; Rossi, Silvia; Cambiaghi, Marco; Bari, Monica; Cebrian Silla, Arantxa; Brambilla, Elena; Musella, Alessandra; De Ceglia, Roberta; Teneud, Luis; De Chiara, Valentina; D'Adamo, Patrizia; Garcia-Verdugo, Jose Manuel; Comi, Giancarlo; Muzio, Luca; Quattrini, Angelo; Leocani, Letizia; Maccarrone, Mauro; Centonze, Diego; Martino, Gianvito

    2012-11-01

    The functional significance of adult neural stem and progenitor cells in hippocampal-dependent learning and memory has been well documented. Although adult neural stem and progenitor cells in the subventricular zone are known to migrate to, maintain and reorganize the olfactory bulb, it is less clear whether they are functionally required for other processes. Using a conditional transgenic mouse model, selective ablation of adult neural stem and progenitor cells in the subventricular zone induced a dramatic increase in morbidity and mortality of central nervous system disorders characterized by excitotoxicity-induced cell death accompanied by reactive inflammation, such as 4-aminopyridine-induced epilepsy and ischaemic stroke. To test the role of subventricular zone adult neural stem and progenitor cells in protecting central nervous system tissue from glutamatergic excitotoxicity, neurophysiological recordings of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents from single medium spiny striatal neurons were measured on acute brain slices. Indeed, lipopolysaccharide-stimulated, but not unstimulated, subventricular zone adult neural stem and progenitor cells reverted the increased frequency and duration of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents by secreting the endocannabinod arachidonoyl ethanolamide, a molecule that regulates glutamatergic tone through type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB(1)) binding. In vivo restoration of cannabinoid levels, either by administration of the type 1 cannabinoid receptor agonist HU210 or the inhibitor of the principal catabolic enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase, URB597, completely reverted the increased morbidity and mortality of adult neural stem and progenitor cell-ablated mice suffering from epilepsy and ischaemic stroke. Our results provide the first evidence that adult neural stem and progenitor cells located within the subventricular zone exert an 'innate' homeostatic regulatory role by protecting striatal neurons from glutamate

  11. Following dimethyl sulfoxide skin optical clearing dynamics with quantitative nonlinear multimodal microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmerley, Maxwell; McClure, R. Anthony; Choi, Bernard; Potma, Eric Olaf

    2009-01-01

    Second-harmonic generation (SHG) imaging is combined with coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy to follow the process of optical clearing in human skin ex vivo using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as the optical clearing agent. SHG imaging revealed that DMSO introduces morphological changes to the collagen I matrix. By carefully measuring the dynamic tissue attenuation of the coherent nonlinear signal, using CARS reference signals during the clearing process, it is found that DMS...

  12. Primary clear cell ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas: A case report and clinicopathologic literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Yashpal Modi; Hamid Shaaban; Dron Gauchan; Michael Maroules; Nalini Parikh; Gunwant Guron

    2014-01-01

    We present a very rare, interesting case of a carcinoma of the pancreas with predominantly abundant clear cell morphology. According to the WHO classification, primary clear cell carcinoma of the pancreas is classified as a rare "miscellaneous" carcinoma. The tumor was observed in the distal body and tail of the pancreas of a 74-year-old woman. The histopathology of tumor cells showed well-defined cell membranes, clear cytoplasm, and prominent cell boundaries. Immunohistochemical (IHC) staini...

  13. Clear Cell Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Parotid Gland: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demet ETİT

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Clear cell variant of mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the salivary glands is rare. A 55-year-old male patient with recently growing left parotid mass underwent superficial parotidectomy. Although the dominant component of the tumor was composed of clear cells, mucin containing cells were also present. Histochemically, alcian blue stain supported intracellular mucin positivity. Immunohistochemically, p63 was positive. Based on the morphological, histochemical and immunohistochemical findings, the case was diagnosed as mucoepidermoid carcinoma, clear cell variant.

  14. Clear cell carcinoma of cervix in a postmenopausal woman: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Pal, Subrata; Jana, Sritanu; Bose, Kingshuk

    2015-01-01

    Clear cell carcinoma of cervix is a very rare neoplasm accounting only 4% of all cervical adenocarcinomas. Intrauterine exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) is supposed to be causative factor for clear cell adenocarcinoma in childhood and young-age patients. We are reporting a case of clear cell carcinoma of cervix in a 49-years-old multiparous post-menopausal woman, who had no exposure to DES (in-utero) or synthetic non-steroidal estrogen.

  15. Novel biomarker candidates for the diagnosis of ovarian clear cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Kobayashi, Hiroshi; SUGIMOTO, HITOMI; ONISHI, SHUNSUKE; NAKANO, KAZUTOSHI

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian clear cell carcinoma can arise from endometriosis; however, it is distinct from other types of epithelial ovarian carcinoma in terms of its clinicopathological and molecular features. Cancer antigen 125 lacks the sensitivity and specificity required for accurate clinical diagnosis of clear cell carcinoma. Therefore, the aim of the current review was to identify novel biomarker candidates for the immunohistochemical and serological diagnosis of clear cell carcinoma. A search of the rel...

  16. Low-Grade Clear Cell Carcinoma with Myoepithelial Features in the Submandibular Gland

    OpenAIRE

    Haruyama, Takuo; Furukawa, Masayuki; Matsumoto, Fumihiko; Abe, Keiko; Arakawa, Atsushi; Ikeda, Katsuhisa

    2011-01-01

    Clear cell carcinoma is rarely found in the salivary gland. It is classified as a low-grade carcinoma. This case demonstrates a low-grade clear cell carcinoma with myoepithelial features in the submandibular gland which differs from hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma and epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma. A 32-year-old man presented with a 7 month history of left submandibular swelling. Left submandibular gland excision and left-sided supra-omohyoid neck dissection were performed. Microscopica...

  17. Clear cell carcinoma of the ovary arising in a mucinous cystadenoma

    OpenAIRE

    Dutt, N; Berney, D

    2000-01-01

    A 57 year old woman presented complaining of increasing abdominal swelling of six months duration. A mixed solid cystic left ovarian tumour measuring 24 cm in diameter was excised. Histology showed numerous cysts lined by benign mucinous epithelium blending imperceptibly into borderline clear cell and mucinous areas that in turn merged with an invasive clear cell carcinoma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of clear cell carcinoma arising in a mucinous cystadenoma....

  18. Clear cell carcinoma of ovary with squamous metaplasia: A unique histopathological observation

    OpenAIRE

    Prasenjit Das; Geetika Singh; Narender Kumar; Roopa Hariprasad; Dinda, Amit K.; Lalit Kumar; Mathur, Sandeep R.

    2011-01-01

    Squamous metaplasia though is commonly associated with ovarian endometrioid neoplasm, mixed mullerian tumor and Brenner tumors; it has not been described in an ovarian clear cell carcinoma. Unusual presence of squamous islands, either in the form of morules or keratin plaques, may create diagnostic difficulty in a clear cell carcinoma of ovary, and thus the other common associations should be ruled out. Here, we describe a case of clear cell carcinoma of the ovary, with both gross and microsc...

  19. Ultrasonographic Pattern of Testicular Metastasis of Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma with Pathological Correlation

    OpenAIRE

    Libert, Florent; Cabri-Wiltzer, Mathieu; Dardenne, Emmanuel; Draguet, Anne-Philippe; Puttemans, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Two cases of testicular metastases of a clear cell renal cell carcinoma sharing a very similar ultrasonographic pattern are reported. The observed pattern – masses containing multiple tiny cyst-like areas – is very similar to that of a previously described ovarian metastasis of clear cell renal parenchymal tumor and can be explained by histopathologic features. Despite the small number of cases, this ultrasonographic pattern of testicular mass may be specific for metastasis of clear cell rena...

  20. Change in Astigmatism After Temporal Clear Corneal Cataract Extraction in the Pediatric Population

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, Helene Y; Yen, Kimberly G

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the early postoperative change in astigmatism in pediatric patients having cataract extraction with intraocular lens implantation using sutured temporal clear corneal incision. Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed on all pediatric patients who underwent clear corneal cataract surgery with intraocular lens implantation between 12/01/2005 and 11/30/2006. Results: A total of 31 eyes of 22 patients who underwent temporal clear corneal cataract surgery and intra...

  1. PAIRED OPPOSITE CLEAR CORNEAL INCISIONS TO REDUCE PREEXISTING CORNEAL ASTIGMATISM IN PHACOEMULSIFICATION

    OpenAIRE

    Chandrakant; Narayan; Srinivasulu; Prabhu; Inchara; Sushma; Padmini

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To study the effect of paired opposite clear corneal incisions on the steep axis on preexisting corneal astigmatism in phacoemulsification. MATERIALS AND METHODS : This study was performed on 30 eyes of 30 patients who had keratometric astigmatism of more than 1 diopter. All patients underwent clear corneal phacoemulsification with a 3.2mm clear corneal incision on the stee p axis. An additional similar incision was placed on the steep axis opposit...

  2. Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma Arising from Adenofibroma in a Patient with Endometriosis of the Ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Inju; Lim, Sung-Chul

    2016-03-01

    Ovarian clear cell adenocarcinomas (CCACs) are frequently associated with endometriosis and, less often with clear cell adenofibromas (CCAFs). We encountered a case of ovarian CCAC arising from benign and borderline adenofibromas of the clear cell and endometrioid types with endometriosis in a 53-year-old woman. Regions of the adenofibromas showed transformation to CCAC and regions of the endometriosis showed atypical endometriotic cysts. This case demonstrates that CCAC can arise from CCAF or endometriosis. PMID:26498012

  3. Apoptotic Cells Are Cleared by Directional Migration and elmo1-Dependent Macrophage Engulfment

    OpenAIRE

    van Ham, Tjakko J.; Kokel, David; Peterson, Randall T.

    2012-01-01

    Apoptotic cell death is essential for development and tissue homeostasis [1, 2]. Failure to clear apoptotic cells can ultimately cause inflammation and autoimmunity [3, 4]. Apoptosis has primarily been studied by staining of fixed tissue sections, and a clear understanding of the behavior of apoptotic cells in living tissue has been elusive. Here, we use a newly developed technique [5] to track apoptotic cells in real time as they emerge and are cleared from the zebrafish brain. We find that ...

  4. CLEAR SKY MODELS ASSESSMENT FOR AN OPERATIONAL PV PRODUCTION FORECASTING SOLUTION

    OpenAIRE

    Cros, Sylvain; Liandrat, Olivier; Sébastien, Nicolas; Schmutz, Nicolas; Voyant, Cyril

    2013-01-01

    Photovoltaic production is mostly driven by the solar irradiance received at ground level. Forecasting surface solar irradiance remains to predict the cloudiness and combine it with the value of the irradiance modeled under a clear sky for the same area at the same forecast horizon. Thus, uncertainty of irradiance under clear sky can affect significantly the photovoltaic production forecast. Clear sky irradiance can be accurately computed if concentration of some atmospheric components (aeros...

  5. Demarcation of secondary hyperalgesia zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringsted, Thomas K; Enghuus, Casper; Petersen, Morten A; Werner, Mads U

    2015-01-01

    of analgesic drug effects in humans. However, since the methods applied in demarcating the secondary hyperalgesia zone seem inconsistent across studies, we examined the effect of a standardized approach upon the measurement of SHA following a first degree burn injury (BI). NEW METHOD: The study was a...... SHAs (P<0.0001). No day-to-day or observer-to-observer differences in SHAs were observed. Intraclass correlation coefficients, in the range of 0.51 to 0.84, indicated a moderate to almost perfect reliability between observers. COMPARISON WITH EXISTING METHODS: No standardized approach in SHA......-assessment has hitherto been presented. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to demonstrate that demarcation of secondary hyperalgesia zones depends on the developed pressure of the punctate stimulator used....

  6. Dielectrophoretically controlled Fresnel zone plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrimes, A F; Khodasevych, I; Mitchell, A; Rosengarten, G; Kalantar-zadeh, K

    2015-02-21

    Switchability is a highly sought after feature for planar optical systems. Suspensions of nanomaterials can be used for generating controllable changes in such systems. We report a planar diffractive microfluidic lens which integrates controlled dielectrophoresis (DEP) for trapping suspended nanomaterials. Silicon and tungsten oxide nanoparticle suspensions are used. These nanomaterials are trapped in such a way as to form alternating opaque and transparent rings using the DEP forces on demand. These rings form a planar diffractive Fresnel zone plate to focus the incident light. The Fresnel zone plate is tuned for the visible light region and the lens can be turned on (DEP applied) or off (DEP removed) in a controlled manner. This proof of concept demonstration can be further expanded for a variety of switchable optical devices and can be integrated with lab-on-a-chip and optofluidic devices. PMID:25524620

  7. Satellite-Derived Management Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepoutre, Damien; Layrol, Laurent

    2005-01-01

    The term "satellite-derived management zones" (SAMZ) denotes agricultural management zones that are subdivisions of large fields and that are derived from images of the fields acquired by instruments aboard Earth-orbiting satellites during approximately the past 15 years. "SAMZ" also denotes the methodology and the software that implements the methodology for creating such zones. The SAMZ approach is one of several products of continuing efforts to realize a concept of precision agriculture, which involves optimal variations in seeding, in application of chemicals, and in irrigation, plus decisions to farm or not to farm certain portions of fields, all in an effort to maximize profitability in view of spatial and temporal variations in the growth and health of crops, and in the chemical and physical conditions of soils. As used here, "management zone" signifies, more precisely, a subdivision of a field within which the crop-production behavior is regarded as homogeneous. From the perspective of precision agriculture, management zones are the smallest subdivisions between which the seeding, application of chemicals, and other management parameters are to be varied. In the SAMZ approach, the main sources of data are the archives of satellite imagery that have been collected over the years for diverse purposes. One of the main advantages afforded by the SAMZ approach is that the data in these archives can be reused for purposes of precision agriculture at low cost. De facto, these archives contain information on all sources of variability within a field, including weather, crop types, crop management, soil types, and water drainage patterns. The SAMZ methodology involves the establishment of a Web-based interface based on an algorithm that generates management zones automatically and quickly from archival satellite image data in response to requests from farmers. A farmer can make a request by either uploading data describing a field boundary to the Web site or else

  8. Topography of Human Erogenous Zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nummenmaa, Lauri; Suvilehto, Juulia T; Glerean, Enrico; Santtila, Pekka; Hietanen, Jari K

    2016-07-01

    Touching is a powerful means for eliciting sexual arousal. Here, we establish the topographical organization of bodily regions triggering sexual arousal in humans. A total of 704 participants were shown images of same and opposite sex bodies and asked to color the bodily regions whose touching they or members of the opposite sex would experience as sexually arousing while masturbating or having sex with a partner. Resulting erogenous zone maps (EZMs) revealed that the whole body was sensitive to sexual touching, with erogenous hotspots consisting of genitals, breasts, and anus. The EZM area was larger while having sex with a partner versus while masturbating, and was also dependent on sexual desire and heterosexual and homosexual interest levels. We conclude that tactile stimulation of practically all bodily regions may trigger sexual arousal. Extension of the erogenous zones while having sex with a partner may reflect the role of touching in maintenance of reproductive pair bonds. PMID:27091187

  9. A Numerical Investigation of Blast Loading and Clearing on Small Targets

    OpenAIRE

    Rigby, S.E.; Tyas, A; Bennett, T.; Fay, S.D.; Clarke, S.D.; Warren, J. A.

    2014-01-01

    When a blast wave strikes a finite target, diffraction of the blast wave around the free edge causes a rarefaction clearing wave to propagate along the loaded face and relieve the pressure acting at any point it passes over. For small targets, the time taken for this clearing wave to traverse the loaded face will be small in relation to the duration of loading. Previous studies have not shown what happens in the late-time stages of clearing relief, nor the mechanism by which the cleared refle...

  10. 75 FR 40726 - Safety Zones: Annual Events Requiring Safety Zones in the Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    ... the Port Buffalo Zone AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY... Buffalo Zone from July 2, 2010 through July 31, 2010. This action is necessary to protect the safety of... vessel may enter the safety zones without the permission of the Captain of the Port Buffalo. DATES:...

  11. The Interface Fresnel Zone revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Favretto-Cristini, Nathalie; Cristini, Paul; De Bazelaire, Eric

    2006-01-01

    We determine the part of reflectors which actually affects the reflected wavefield, which is of particular interest for the characterization of the interfaces from physical and seismic viewpoints, and for seismic resolution. We reformulate the concepts of Fresnel volumes (FV) and Interface Fresnel zones (IFZ), by accounting for all possible rays defining the isochrone for the source-receiver pair and the specular reflected wave. In the case of a plane homogeneous interface, the results obtain...

  12. TASK 2: QUENCH ZONE SIMULATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fusselman, Steve

    2015-09-30

    Aerojet Rocketdyne (AR) has developed an innovative gasifier concept incorporating advanced technologies in ultra-dense phase dry feed system, rapid mix injector, and advanced component cooling to significantly improve gasifier performance, life, and cost compared to commercially available state-of-the-art systems. A key feature of the AR gasifier design is the transition from the gasifier outlet into the quench zone, where the raw syngas is cooled to ~ 400°C by injection and vaporization of atomized water. Earlier pilot plant testing revealed a propensity for the original gasifier outlet design to accumulate slag in the outlet, leading to erratic syngas flow from the outlet. Subsequent design modifications successfully resolved this issue in the pilot plant gasifier. In order to gain greater insight into the physical phenomena occurring within this zone, AR developed a cold flow simulation apparatus with Coanda Research & Development with a high degree of similitude to hot fire conditions with the pilot scale gasifier design, and capable of accommodating a scaled-down quench zone for a demonstration-scale gasifier. The objective of this task was to validate similitude of the cold flow simulation model by comparison of pilot-scale outlet design performance, and to assess demonstration scale gasifier design feasibility from testing of a scaled-down outlet design. Test results did exhibit a strong correspondence with the two pilot scale outlet designs, indicating credible similitude for the cold flow simulation device. Testing of the scaled-down outlet revealed important considerations in the design and operation of the demonstration scale gasifier, in particular pertaining to the relative momentum between the downcoming raw syngas and the sprayed quench water and associated impacts on flow patterns within the quench zone. This report describes key findings from the test program, including assessment of pilot plant configuration simulations relative to actual

  13. Nitrogen processing in the hyporheic zone and its response to stream-groundwater interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Stanley; Azizian, Morvarid; Boano, Fulvio

    2016-04-01

    Modeling and experimental studies have shown that stream-groundwater interactions reduce hyporheic exchange, but the implications of this observation for hyporheic zone function are not yet clear. In this study we develop and test a simple process-based model for nitrate cycling in the hyporheic zone of a gaining or losing stream. Our model reproduces field measurements of nitrate uptake velocity and predicts that stream-groundwater interactions: (1) reduce hyporheic exchange; (2) reduce the residence time of water in the hyporheic zone; (3) slow denitrification; and (4) can cause stream sediments to switch from a net sink to source of nitrate. Stream-groundwater interactions attenuate denitrification across at least two scales of hyporheic exchange (fluvial dunes and riffle-pool bedforms). These results suggest that changes in regional groundwater hydrology (e.g., brought on by climate change) can indirectly affect stream nitrogen budgets by altering the form and function of the hyporheic zone.

  14. Hard X-ray microbeam with sputtered-sliced fresnel zone plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hard X-ray microbeam with zone plate optics has been tested at the TRISTAN mainring test-beamline, and preliminary experiments on scanning microscopy has also been performed. A sputtered-sliced Fresnel zone plate with Au core and Ag/C multi-layer is used as an X-ray focusing device. The outermost zone width of the zone plate is 0.25 μm. A focused spot size of about 0.5 μm has been achieved at an X-ray energy of 8.54 keV. In a scanning X-ray microscopy experiment, test patterns with sub-micrometer fine structure have been clearly resolved. (author)

  15. Zoning, 2004, East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a graphical polygon dataset depicting the zoning boundaries of the East Baton Rouge Parish of the State of Louisiana. Zoning can be defined as the range of...

  16. Zone Denmark - gasell Taanist / Reet Krause

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Krause, Reet, 1967-

    2006-01-01

    Taanis Viborgis asuva firma Zone Company Denmark, kaubamärgi Zone Denmark ja firma disainerite tutvustus. Ettevõte valmistab disainitooteid roostevabast terasest, klaasist, puidust, kummist jm. Disainer Naja Utzon Popov endast, oma loomingust

  17. GIS modeling of introduction zones in Sochi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annenkova Irina Vladimirovna

    2014-11-01

    Defined the mean monthly temperature and precipitation for each zone. The diagram shows the dependence of the probability distribution of the three groups resistance from the mean annual temperature and mean annual precipitation. Describes the climatic conditions of the zones.

  18. United States Stateplane Zones - NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — U.S. State Plane Zones (NAD 1983) represents the State Plane Coordinate System (SPCS) Zones for the 1983 North American Datum within United States.

  19. United States Stateplane Zones - NAD27

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — U.S. State Plane Zones (NAD 1927) represents the State Plane Coordinate System (SPCS) Zones for the 1927 North American Datum within United States.

  20. A Case of Hyalinizing Clear Cell Carcinoma, So-Called Clear Cell Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified, of the Minor Salivary Glands of the Buccal Mucosa

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma (HCCC), so-called clear cell carcinoma, not otherwise specified (CCC (NOS)), of the salivary glands is a rare and low-grade malignant tumor. We report a case of HCCC so-called CCC (NOS) (referred to as HCCC) of the minor salivary gland of the buccal mucosa. A 52-year-old woman had presented with a gradually growing and indolent mass in the right buccal mucosa for about two years. The first biopsy histopathologically suggested the possibility of malignancy deri...

  1. Zone heating for fluidized bed silane pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iya, Sridhar K. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    An improved heated fluidized bed reactor and method for the production of high purity polycrystalline silicon by silane pyrolysis wherein silicon seed particles are heated in an upper heating zone of the reactor and admixed with particles in a lower reaction zone, in which zone a silane-containing gas stream, having passed through a lower cooled gas distribution zone not conducive to silane pyrolysis, contacts the heated seed particles whereon the silane is heterogeneously reduced to silicon.

  2. Evolution of a Subduction Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noack, Lena; Van Hoolst, Tim; Dehant, Veronique

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand how Earth's surface might have evolved with time and to examine in a more general way the initiation and continuance of subduction zones and the possible formation of continents on an Earth-like planet. Plate tectonics and continents seem to influence the likelihood of a planet to harbour life, and both are strongly influenced by the planetary interior (e.g. mantle temperature and rheology) and surface conditions (e.g. stabilizing effect of continents, atmospheric temperature), but may also depend on the biosphere. Employing the Fortran convection code CHIC (developed at the Royal Observatory of Belgium), we simulate a subduction zone with a pre-defined weak zone (between oceanic and continental crust) and a fixed plate velocity for the subducting oceanic plate (Quinquis et al. in preparation). In our study we first investigate the main factors that influence the subduction process. We simulate the subduction of an oceanic plate beneath a continental plate (Noack et al., 2013). The crust is separated into an upper crust and a lower crust. We apply mixed Newtonian/non-Newtonian rheology and vary the parameters that are most likely to influence the subduction of the ocanic plate, as for example density of the crust/mantle, surface temperature, plate velocity and subduction angle. The second part of our study concentrates on the long-term evolution of a subduction zone. Even though we model only the upper mantle (until a depth of 670km), the subducted crust is allowed to flow into the lower mantle, where it is no longer subject to our investigation. This way we can model the subduction zone over long time spans, for which we assume a continuous inflow of the oceanic plate into the investigated domain. We include variations in mantle temperatures (via secular cooling and decay of radioactive heat sources) and dehydration of silicates (leading to stiffening of the material). We investigate how the mantle environment influences

  3. Treatment of teeth in the esthetic zone in a patient with amelogenesis imperfecta using composite veneers and the clear matrix technique: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Bogosavljević Aleksandar; Mišina Vanja; Jordačević Jovana; Abazović Milka; Dukić Smiljka; Ristić Ljubiša; Daković Dragana

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Restorative dental treatment of patients with a generalized form of amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) remains a challenge even today. The treatment approach is multidisciplinary and includes action of several dental disciplines such as restorative, orthodontic, and prosthetic dental specialties. Case report. A 18-year-old female patent was referred to the Department of Restorative Dentistry and Periodontology at the Military Medical Academy of Belg...

  4. Characterizing the Effects of a Vertical Time Threshold for a Class of Well-Clear Definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upchurch, Jason M.; Munoz, Cesar A.; Narkawicz, Anthony J.; Consiglio, Maria C.; Chamberlain James P.

    2015-01-01

    A fundamental requirement for the integration of unmanned aircraft into civil airspace is the capability of aircraft to remain well clear of each other and avoid collisions. This requirement has led to a broad recognition of the need for an unambiguous, formal definition of well clear. It is further recognized that any such definition must be interoperable with existing airborne collision avoidance systems (ACAS). A particular class of well-clear definitions uses logic checks of independent distance thresholds as well as independent time thresholds in the vertical and horizontal dimensions to determine if a well-clear violation is predicted to occur within a given time interval. Existing ACAS systems also use independent distance thresholds, however a common time threshold is used for the vertical and horizontal logic checks. The main contribution of this paper is the characterization of the effects of the decoupled vertical time threshold on a well-clear definition in terms of (1) time to well-clear violation, and (2) interoperability with existing ACAS. The paper provides governing equations for both metrics and includes simulation results to illustrate the relationships. In this paper, interoperability implies that the time of well-clear violation is strictly less than the time a resolution advisory is issued by ACAS. The encounter geometries under consideration in this paper are initially well clear and consist of constant-velocity trajectories resulting in near-mid-air collisions.

  5. Patterns of spread of clear cell ovarian cancer: Case report and case series ☆

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Aalok; Gilks, C. Blake; Mar, Colin; Santos, Jennifer; Tinker, Anna V.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights • Although patterns of metastases in ovarian clear cell cancer are not well described, patients may initially present with bone metastases. • Clear cell carcinoma with bone metastases is responsive to radiation therapy. • Bone metastases are not common in patients with ovarian high grade serous cancer.

  6. A case of clear cell carcinoma arising from the endometriosis of the paraovarian cyst

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jung-Yun; Im, Eun Seon; Kim, Sang-Wook; Kim, Haeryoung; Kim, Yong-Beom; Jeon, Yong-Tark

    2009-01-01

    Malignant transformation of endometriosis is an infrequent complication. Clear cell carcinoma from endometriosis is very rare in the paraovarian cyst. To date no cases have been reported. We report a case of clear cell carcinoma arising from endometriosis of the paraovarian cyst with a brief review of literature.

  7. 78 FR 49663 - Enhanced Risk Management Standards for Systemically Important Derivatives Clearing Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-15

    ...''), 77 FR 45907, 45908 (Aug. 2, 2012) (final rule). F. Risk Management Standards for SIDCOs As noted..., 2010). \\72\\ Id. \\73\\ See Risk Management Requirements for Derivatives Clearing Organizations, 76 FR... Financial Resources Requirements for Derivatives Clearing Organizations, 75 FR 63113 (Oct. 14, 2010);...

  8. 31 CFR 560.516 - Payment and United States dollar clearing transactions involving Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... clearing transactions involving Iran. 560.516 Section 560.516 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Payment and United States dollar clearing transactions involving Iran. (a) United States depository institutions are authorized to process transfers of funds to or from Iran, or for the direct or...

  9. 49 CFR 1242.62 - Clearing wrecks (account XX-51-63).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Clearing wrecks (account XX-51-63). 1242.62 Section 1242.62 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE...-Transportation § 1242.62 Clearing wrecks (account XX-51-63). Separate common expenses according to...

  10. 49 CFR 1242.69 - Clearing wrecks (account XX-52-63).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Clearing wrecks (account XX-52-63). 1242.69 Section 1242.69 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE...-Transportation § 1242.69 Clearing wrecks (account XX-52-63). Separate common expenses according to...

  11. 77 FR 58194 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The Options Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing of Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... reporting of certain financial liabilities to U.S. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles. Canadian... Change Relating to Financial Reporting by Canadian Clearing Members September 13, 2012. Pursuant to... Rules relating to financial reporting by Canadian clearing members to reflect the Investment...

  12. 78 FR 26413 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The Options Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing of Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    ... operational risk upon OCC and its clearing members. Therefore, it has been a long-term goal of OCC and its... operational efficiencies and reduce operational risk for OCC and its clearing members. After the expiration... move to Friday night processing will also eliminate the operational risk presented by scheduling...

  13. 33 CFR 263.24 - Authority for snagging and clearing for flood control (Section 208).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... clearing for flood control (Section 208). 263.24 Section 263.24 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTINUING AUTHORITIES PROGRAMS Flood Control Policy § 263.24 Authority for snagging and clearing for flood control (Section 208). (a)...

  14. 76 FR 45638 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Fixed Income Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing of Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Fixed Income Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing of Proposed... July 12, 2011, the Fixed Income Clearing Corporation (``FICC'') filed with the Securities and Exchange... (September, 30, 2008), 73 FR 58698 (October 7, 2008). The TLGP, one of the steps taken by the U.S....

  15. 77 FR 20445 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Fixed Income Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing of Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Fixed Income Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing of Proposed..., the Fixed Income Clearing Corporation (``FICC'') filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission... modifications to certain rules of the Government Securities Division (``GSD'') of the Fixed Income...

  16. 76 FR 12782 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The Fixed Income Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The Fixed Income Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing and... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (``Act''),\\1\\ notice is hereby given that on February 17, 2011, The Fixed Income Clearing Corporation (``FICC'') filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission...

  17. 76 FR 54268 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Fixed Income Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing of Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Fixed Income Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing of Proposed..., the Fixed Income Clearing ] Corporation (``FICC'') filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission... longer necessary. \\4\\ See Securities Exchange Act Release No. 34-63611 (December 28, 2010), 76 FR...

  18. 78 FR 77511 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Fixed Income Clearing Corporation; Order Approving Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Fixed Income Clearing Corporation; Order Approving Proposed Rule..., 2013, the Fixed Income Clearing Corporation (``FICC'') filed with the Securities and Exchange... FR 68496 (Nov. 14, 2013) (SR-FICC-2013-09). II. Description The purpose of this proposed rule...

  19. 77 FR 60165 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Fixed Income Clearing Corporation; Order Approving Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-02

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Fixed Income Clearing Corporation; Order Approving Proposed Rule... September 26, 2012. I. Introduction On August 6, 2012, the Fixed Income Clearing Corporation (``FICC... 240.19b-4. \\3\\ Securities Exchange Act Release No. 67653 (August 14, 2012), 77 FR 50198 (August...

  20. 78 FR 22923 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Fixed Income Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing of Amended...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-17

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Fixed Income Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing of Amended... Income Clearing Corporation (``FICC'') filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (``Commission... agencies. \\6\\ Securities Exchange Act Release No. 23929 (December 23, 1986), 52 FR 373-01 (January 5,...

  1. 78 FR 25115 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Fixed Income Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing of Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-29

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Fixed Income Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing of Proposed... April 12, 2013, the Fixed Income Clearing Corporation (``FICC'') filed with the Securities and Exchange... 9, 2012), 77 FR 15155 (March 14, 2012) (File No. SR-FICC-2008-01). However, on March 1, 2013,...

  2. 78 FR 970 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Fixed Income Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-07

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Fixed Income Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing and Immediate... December 21, 2012 Fixed Income Clearing Corporation (``FICC'') filed with the Securities and Exchange... Securities Exchange Act Release No. 34-63215 (October 29, 2010); 75 FR 213 (November 4, 2010)...

  3. 78 FR 35334 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The Fixed Income Clearing Corporation; Order Granting Approval of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The Fixed Income Clearing Corporation; Order Granting Approval of a..., 2013. I. Introduction On April 15, 2013, the Fixed Income Clearing Corporation (``FICC'') filed with...). \\2\\ 17 CFR 240.19b-4. \\3\\ Securities Exchange Act Release No. 69434 (April 23, 2013), 78 FR...

  4. 75 FR 70328 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Fixed Income Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing of Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Fixed Income Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing of Proposed... \\2\\ notice is hereby given that on October 28, 2010, the Fixed Income Clearing Corporation...

  5. 76 FR 29018 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Fixed Income Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing and Order...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Fixed Income Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing and Order... that on May 10, 2011, the Fixed Income Clearing Corporation (``FICC'') filed with the Securities and... amount of each Member's and Participant's required deposit being fixed by FICC in accordance...

  6. 78 FR 71702 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Fixed Income Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing of Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Fixed Income Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing of Proposed...,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that, on November 12, 2013, the Fixed Income Clearing Corporation (``FICC... Securities Exchange Act Release No. 34-63986 (Feb. 28, 2011), 76 FR 12144 (Mar. 4, 2011). In rule filing...

  7. 76 FR 37165 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Fixed Income Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing and Order...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Fixed Income Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing and Order... interested persons and to extend the Fixed Income Clearing Corporation's (``FICC'') temporary registration as...\\ Securities Exchange Act Release No. 24046 (February 2, 1987), 52 FR 4218. \\5\\ Securities Exchange Act...

  8. 78 FR 42809 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Fixed Income Clearing Corporation; Order Approving Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-17

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Fixed Income Clearing Corporation; Order Approving Proposed Rule... Government Securities Division July 11, 2013. On May 15, 2013, the Fixed Income Clearing Corporation (``FICC..., 2013), 78 FR 33456 (June 4, 2013) (SR-FICC-2013-05). \\4\\ Email submission by Laura Skinner (June...

  9. 78 FR 47453 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Fixed Income Clearing Corporation; Order Approving Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Fixed Income Clearing Corporation; Order Approving Proposed Rule... Repo Service July 30, 2013. On June 5, 2013, the Fixed Income Clearing Corporation (``FICC'') filed...\\ Securities Exchange Act Release No. 69653 (May 29, 2013), 78 FR 33456 (June 4, 2013) (SR-FICC-2013-05)....

  10. 78 FR 26093 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Fixed Income Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing of Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Fixed Income Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing of Proposed... Income Clearing Corporation (``FICC'') filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (``Commission... this rule filing on February 28, 2011. See Exchange Act Release No. 34-63986 (February 28, 2011); 76...

  11. 75 FR 36723 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Fixed Income Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing and Order...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Fixed Income Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing and Order... interested persons and to extend the Fixed Income Clearing Corporation's (``FICC'') temporary registration as...\\ Securities Exchange Act Release No. 24046 (February 2, 1987), 52 FR 4218. \\5\\ Securities Exchange Act...

  12. 77 FR 38108 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Fixed Income Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing of Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-26

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Fixed Income Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing of Proposed... June 8, 2012, the Fixed Income Clearing Corporation (``FICC'') filed with the Securities and Exchange...-65213 (August 29, 2011), 76 FR 54824 (September 2, 2011). Background: Description of the GCF...

  13. 77 FR 66897 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Fixed Income Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Fixed Income Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing and Immediate... hereby given that on October 19, 2012, the Fixed Income Clearing Corporation (``FICC'') filed with...

  14. 77 FR 69913 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Fixed Income Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing of Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-21

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Fixed Income Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing of Proposed... \\2\\ notice is hereby given that on November 6, 2012, the Fixed Income Clearing Corporation (``FICC...\\ See MBSD Rule 1, Definitions. \\10\\ Securities Exchange Act Release No. 34-66550 (March 9, 2012); 77...

  15. 76 FR 62876 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Fixed Income Clearing Corporation; Order Approving Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-11

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Fixed Income Clearing Corporation; Order Approving Proposed Rule... Utilized or Necessary October 4, 2011. I. Introduction On August 17, 2011, Fixed Income Clearing... 240.19b-4. \\3\\ Securities Exchange Act Release No. 34-65198 (August 25, 2011), 76 FR 54268 (August...

  16. 76 FR 64403 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The Fixed Income Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-18

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The Fixed Income Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing and... September 30, 2011, the Fixed Income Clearing Corporation (``FICC'') filed with the Securities and Exchange... Exchange Act Release No. 34-63986 (February 28, 2011), 76 FR 12144 (March 4, 2011). 2. Schedule of...

  17. 76 FR 408 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Fixed Income Clearing Corporation; Order Approving Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Fixed Income Clearing Corporation; Order Approving Proposed Rule.... Introduction On October 28, 2010, the Fixed Income Clearing Corporation (``FICC'') filed with the Securities.... 63301 (November 17, 2010), 75 FR 70328. II. Description FICC is eliminating the cash adjustments...

  18. 77 FR 2103 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Fixed Income Clearing Corporation; Notice of Designation of Longer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-13

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Fixed Income Clearing Corporation; Notice of Designation of Longer..., 2008, the Fixed Income Clearing Corporation (``FICC'') filed with the Securities and Exchange....19b-4. \\3\\ Securities Exchange Act Release No. 65899 (Dec. 6, 2011), 76 FR 77287 (Dec. 12,...

  19. 78 FR 36608 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Fixed Income Clearing Corporation; Order Approving Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-18

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Fixed Income Clearing Corporation; Order Approving Proposed Rule..., 2013. On April 22, 2013, the Fixed Income Clearing Corporation (``FICC'') filed with the Securities and.... 78s(b)(1). \\2\\ 17 CFR 240.19b-4. \\3\\ Securities Exchange Act Release No. 69495 (May 2, 2013), 78...

  20. 76 FR 596 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Fixed Income Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Fixed Income Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing and Immediate... on December 21, 2010, the Fixed Income Clearing Corporation (``FICC'') filed with the Securities...

  1. Ion clearing and photoelectron production in the 200 MeV SXLS ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The X-ray Lithography Source (XLS) offers a unique opportunity to study both ion clearing and photoelectron production since its energy can be ramped from 60 to 200 MeV which represents critical photon energy var-epsilon c between 0.8 and 30 eV. The installed clearing electrodes collect not only positive ions produced by the circulating electron beam but also expel photoelectrons which are created in much larger quantities when clearing electrodes (CEs) are hit by synchrotron radiation. At var-epsilon c = 0.8 eV the photoelectron production decreases six orders of magnitude when compared to var-epsilon c = 30 eV and direct clearing (positive ion) current measurements become possible. The design of the SXLS clearing system and its behavior are presented. In normal 200 MeV operation, clearing electrode current is dominated by photoelectrons. Clearing electrodes appear essential only in several locations but not in the dipoles. The effect of clearing voltage on the tune and the beam profile is also discussed

  2. 75 FR 16452 - Nasdaq OMX Commodities Clearing-Contract Merchant, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Nasdaq OMX Commodities Clearing--Contract Merchant, LLC; Supplemental Notice... Clearing--Contract Merchant, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  3. Soil-gas helium and surface-waves detection of fault zones in granitic bedrock

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G K Reddy; T Seshunarayana; Rajeev Menon; P Senthil Kumar

    2010-10-01

    Fracture and fault networks are conduits that facilitate groundwater movement in hard-rock terrains.Soil-gas helium emanometry has been utilized in Wailapally watershed,near Hyderabad in southern India,for the detection of fracture and fault zones in a granite basement terrain having a thin regolith.Based on satellite imagery and geologic mapping,three sites were selected for detailed investigation.High spatial resolution soil-gas samples were collected at every one meter at a depth of <1.5m along 100 m long profiles (3 in number).In addition,deep shear-wave images were also obtained using the multichannel analysis of surface waves.The study clearly indicates several soil-gas helium anomalies (above 200 ppb)along the pro files,where the shear-wave velocity images also show many near-surface vertical low velocity zones.We thus interpret that the soil-gas helium anomalous zones and the vertical low-velocity zones are probable traces of fault/fracture zones that could be efficient natural recharge zones and potential groundwater conduits.The result obtained from this study demonstrates the efficacy of an integrated approach of soil-gas helium and the seismic methods for mapping groundwater resource zones in granite/gneiss provinces.

  4. Clear Cell Sarcoma of Gluteal Region Malignant Melanoma of Soft Parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haren V. Oza

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Clear cell sarcoma (CCS is described as variant of sarcoma characterized by prominent clear cells showing features similar to malignant melanoma of soft parts. This neoplasm was first described by Dr. Franz m. Enzinger. Primary CCS usually arises in deeper soft tissues, in association with fascia, tendons, or aponeuroses. Clear cell sarcoma (CCS is a rare malignant tumor with a propensity for slow progressive invasion. It is a tumor derived from Melanoblast like cell. They occur most commonly in the extremities, with a predilection for young females. Clear cell sarcoma of tendons and aponeuroses (malignant melanoma of soft parts and conventional malignant melanoma may demonstrate significant morphologic overlap at the light microscopic and ultra structural level. The tumor is very rare and can pose clinical challenges in early diagnosis. This case report demonstrates an unusual site of occurrence for clear cell sarcoma. [Natl J Med Res 2013; 3(2.000: 193-195

  5. Preparation of Samples for Leaf Architecture Studies, A Method for Mounting Cleared Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Vasco

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Several recent waves of interest in leaf architecture have shown an expanding range of approaches and applications across a number of disciplines. Despite this increased interest, examination of existing archives of cleared and mounted leaves shows that current methods for mounting, in particular, yield unsatisfactory results and deterioration of samples over relatively short periods. Although techniques for clearing and staining leaves are numerous, published techniques for mounting leaves are scarce. Methods and Results: Here we present a complete protocol and recommendations for clearing, staining, and imaging leaves, and, most importantly, a method to permanently mount cleared leaves. Conclusions: The mounting protocol is faster than other methods, inexpensive, and straightforward; moreover, it yields clear and permanent samples that can easily be imaged, scanned, and stored. Specimens mounted with this method preserve well, with leaves that were mounted more than 35 years ago showing no signs of bubbling or discoloration.

  6. Optical clearing for luminal organ imaging with ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yanmei; Yuan, Wu; Mavadia-Shukla, Jessica; Li, Xingde

    2016-08-01

    The imaging depth of optical coherence tomography (OCT) in highly scattering biological tissues (such as luminal organs) is limited, particularly for OCT operating at shorter wavelength regions (such as around 800 nm). For the first time, the optical clearing effect of the mixture of liquid paraffin and glycerol on luminal organs was explored with ultrahigh-resolution spectral domain OCT at 800 nm. Ex vivo studies were performed on pig esophagus and bronchus, and guinea pig esophagus with different volume ratios of the mixture. We found that the mixture of 40% liquid paraffin had the best optical clearing effect on esophageal tissues with a short effective time of ∼ 10 min, which means the clearing effect occurs about 10 min after the application of the clearing agent. In contrast, no obvious optical clearing effect was identified on bronchus tissues. PMID:27335154

  7. A Family of Well-Clear Boundary Models for the Integration of UAS in the NAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Cesar A.; Narkawicz, Anthony; Chamberlain, James; Consiglio, Maria; Upchurch, Jason

    2014-01-01

    The FAA-sponsored Sense and Avoid Workshop for Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) defines the concept of sense and avoid for remote pilots as "the capability of a UAS to remain well clear from and avoid collisions with other airborne traffic." Hence, a rigorous definition of well clear is fundamental to any separation assurance concept for the integration of UAS into civil airspace. This paper presents a family of well-clear boundary models based on the TCAS II Resolution Advisory logic. For these models, algorithms that predict well-clear violations along aircraft current trajectories are provided. These algorithms are analogous to conflict detection algorithms but instead of predicting loss of separation, they predict whether well-clear violations will occur during a given lookahead time interval. Analytical techniques are used to study the properties and relationships satisfied by the models.

  8. Clear-sky classification procedures and models using a world-wide data-base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clear-sky data need to be extracted from all-sky measured solar-irradiance dataset, often by using algorithms that rely on other measured meteorological parameters. Current procedures for clear-sky data extraction have been examined and compared with each other to determine their reliability and location dependency. New clear-sky determination algorithms are proposed that are based on a combination of clearness index, diffuse ratio, cloud cover and Linke's turbidity limits. Various researchers have proposed clear-sky irradiance models that rely on synoptic parameters; four of these models, MRM, PRM, YRM and REST2 have been compared for six world-wide-locations. Based on a previously-developed comprehensive accuracy scoring method, the models MRM, REST2 and YRM were found to be of satisfactory performance in decreasing order. The so-called Page radiation model (PRM) was found to underestimate solar radiation, even though local turbidity data were provided for its operation

  9. Sonograph mosaic of U. S. west coast Exclusive Economic Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, J.V.; Cacchione, D.A.; Drake, D.E.; Edwards, B.D.; Field, M.E.; Hampton, M.A.; Karl, H.A.; McCulloch, D.S.; Kenyon, N.H.; Masson, D.G.

    1986-07-01

    The Geological Long-Range Inclined Asdic (GLORIA) side-scanning sonar system was used to obtain data that were compiled as an image-enhanced acoustic mosaic, similar to an aerial photograph, of the sea floor from the edge of the continental shelf to 200 nmi offshore within the US Exclusive Economic Zone off California, Oregon, and Washington. The mosaic clearly displays the large-scale geomorphic and sedimentologic features of the sea floor, including spreading centers, seamounts, fracture zones, sediment fans, continental-slope canyons, and abyssal-plain channels. Hundreds of seamounts (some previously uncharted) dot the deep sea floor, and many have large summit craters and attendant volcanic flows. The major Nitinat, Astoria, Delgada, and Monterey sediment fans are traversed by lengthy channel-levee complexes that extend from morphologically diverse canyons on the adjacent continental slope. Areally extensive sediment-wave fields occur adjacent to the complexes. Some channels on the abyssal plain are straight whereas others are highly sinuous, suggesting that various channel-forming processes occur on the sea floor. The contrast between the transform tectonic regime south of Cape Mendocino and the convergent tectonic regime to the north is particularly apparent on the mosaic. The linear basement ridges that were generated at the Gorda and Juan de Fuca spreading centers and were later moved apart by sea-floor spreading are abruptly truncated by the Mendocino and Blanco fracture zones that accommodate horizontal slip between adjacent lithospheric plates.

  10. Soft x-ray microscope with zone plates at UVSOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A soft X-ray microscope with zone plates was set up at UVSOR (Okazaki, Japan). A 0.41 μm line and space pattern was clearly distinguished using an objective zone plate with the outermost zone width of 0.41 μm. Modulation transfer functions were measured at wavelengths of 3.1 nm and 5.4 nm, and compared with theoretical calculations. Considering the resolution of a microchannel plate used as a detector, the agreement is fairly good. With this microscope, some biological specimens such as diatoms, spicule of trepang, crab and rabbit muscles, human blood cells, human chromosomes and magnetotactic bacterium were observed at 3.1 nm and 5.4 nm. With an environmental chamber (wet cell) using polypropylene foils as windows, wet specimens were observed at a wavelength of 4.6 nm. Images of spicule of trepang, human blood cell and cultured protoplast of plant cell stained by methyl mercury were observed with good contrast

  11. Tumor signatures of PTHLH overexpression, high serum calcium, and poor prognosis were observed exclusively in clear cell but not non clear cell renal carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High serum calcium (Ca) due to aberrant secretion of tumor parathyroid hormone-like hormone (PTHLH) is a well-known paraneoplastic sign and is associated with poor prognosis in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). However, the status of serum Ca and tumor PTHLH expression have not been verified using the 2004 World Health Organization (WHO) renal tumor classification. We retrospectively reviewed corrected serum Ca levels at initial onset (n = 683) and/or as of recurrence (n = 71) in patients with RCC. We also examined a total of 623 renal parenchymal tumor samples for PTHLH mRNA expressions by quantitative real-time PCR. High serum Ca concomitant with PTHLH overexpression in tumors was observed exclusively in clear cell RCC but not in other non clear cell subtype tumors, including papillary, chromophobe, collecting-duct, unclassified, and other rare subtype RCCs or in benign oncocytomas and angiomyolipomas. In clear cell RCC, PTHLH expression was significantly high in male patients, and was associated with a symptomatic presentation, higher grade, and higher stage cases, whereas it was not associated with VHL gene status. Univariate analyses demonstrated that high PTHLH expression was strongly associated with poor outcome both in overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) for patients who underwent standard nephrectomy. Further multivariate Cox analyses revealed that the PTHLH expressions remained as independent prognostic parameters for OS but not for DFS. These data suggest that the previously characterized tumor signatures of high serum Ca due to high PTHLH expression and poor prognosis are clear cell RCC-specific features, whereas these characteristics are rare in non clear cell RCCs

  12. 77 FR 11607 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Europe Limited; Notice of Filing and Order Granting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Europe Limited; Notice of Filing and Order Granting... thereunder \\2\\ notice is hereby given that on February 7, 2012, ICE Clear Europe Limited (``ICE Clear Europe... seek processes to be followed by ICE Clear Europe and its Clearing Members on the occurrence of...

  13. 33 CFR 165.911 - Security Zones; Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Port Buffalo Zone. 165.911 Section 165.911 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Security Zones; Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone. (a) Location. The following are security zones: (1) Nine... Port Buffalo. (2) Persons or vessels desiring to transit the area of the Nine Mile Point...

  14. 76 FR 1362 - Safety Zone; Ice Conditions for the Baltimore Captain of Port Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-10

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But you may... Port Zone AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary interim rule with request for comments. SUMMARY... Port Baltimore zone. The temporary safety zone restricts vessels from transiting the zone during...

  15. 76 FR 7107 - Quarterly Listings; Safety Zones, Security Zones, Special Local Regulations, Drawbridge Operation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    ...-0997 New York, NY Security Zones (Part 165).... 9/23/2008 USCG-2008-0998 Puerto Rico Safety Zones (Part.../2009 USCG-2009-0272 Key West, FL Safety Zones (Part 165)...... 4/24/2009 USCG-2009-0282 Santa Cruz...-0358 Puerto Rico Safety Zones (Part 165)...... 5/31/2009 USCG-2009-0360 Cincinnati, OH Safety...

  16. 40 CFR 265.278 - Unsaturated zone (zone of aeration) monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unsaturated zone (zone of aeration) monitoring. 265.278 Section 265.278 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED..., STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Land Treatment § 265.278 Unsaturated zone (zone of aeration)...

  17. 76 FR 22033 - Safety Zone; Red River Safety Zone, Red River, MN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-20

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AAOO Safety Zone; Red River Safety Zone, Red River, MN AGENCY... Safety Unit Duluth, MN is establishing a temporary safety zone on the Red River, MN. This safety zone is... entering all navigable waters of the Red River in the State of Minnesota north of a line drawn...

  18. On-chip clearing of arrays of 3-D cell cultures and micro-tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grist, S M; Nasseri, S S; Poon, T; Roskelley, C; Cheung, K C

    2016-07-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) cell cultures are beneficial models for mimicking the complexities of in vivo tissues, especially in tumour studies where transport limitations can complicate response to cancer drugs. 3-D optical microscopy techniques are less involved than traditional embedding and sectioning, but are impeded by optical scattering properties of the tissues. Confocal and even two-photon microscopy limit sample imaging to approximately 100-200 μm depth, which is insufficient to image hypoxic spheroid cores. Optical clearing methods have permitted high-depth imaging of tissues without physical sectioning, but they are difficult to implement for smaller 3-D cultures due to sample loss in solution exchange. In this work, we demonstrate a microfluidic platform for high-throughput on-chip optical clearing of breast cancer spheroids using the SeeDB, Clear(T2), and ScaleSQ clearing methods. Although all three methods are able to effectively clear the spheroids, we find that SeeDB and ScaleSQ more effectively clear the sample than Clear(T2); however, SeeDB induces green autofluorescence while ScaleS causes sample expansion. Our unique on-chip implementation permits clearing arrays of 3-D cultures using perfusion while monitoring the 3-D cultures throughout the process, enabling visualization of the clearing endpoint as well as monitoring of transient changes that could induce image artefacts. Our microfluidic device is compatible with on-chip 3-D cell culture, permitting the use of on-chip clearing at the endpoint after monitoring the same spheroids during their culture. This on-chip method has the potential to improve readout from 3-D cultures, facilitating their use in cell-based assays for high-content drug screening and other applications. PMID:27493703

  19. Comparison of lesion conspicuity of radiofrequency ablation zones among MR sequences according to time in the normal rabbit liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ku, Myong Seo; Kim, Seung Kwon; Hong, Hyun Pyo; Kwag, Hyon Joo [Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-09-15

    To compare the lesion conspicuity of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) zones among MR sequences according to time in the normal rabbit liver. RFA zones were created in 12 rabbit livers with a 17-gauge internally cooled electrode (1-cm active tip, 30 Watts, 3 minutes). Three rabbits were sacrificed immediately, three days, two weeks, and six weeks after the RFA procedure, respectively. Before sacrifice, T1-, T2-weighted images (WI), and gadolinium-enhanced (GE)-T1WI images were obtained. The lesion conspicuity of the RAF zone and the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the RFA zone to the liver parenchyma were analyzed and compared among the MR sequences according to time. On T1WI, the RFA zones were only clearly seen on acute phase. On T2WI, the RFA zones were clearly seen on all phases except the hyperacute phase. On GE T1WI, the RFA zones were clearly seen on all phases. The CNRs of the RFA zone to the liver parenchyma of GE-T1WI (8.1-12.4) were significantly higher than the CNRs of TIWI (1.6-2.7) and T2WI (1.7-6.3) on all phases ({rho} < 0.05), but the visual lesion conspicuity between GE T1WI and T2WI were similar. On hyperacute phase, GE T1WI showed better lesion conspicuity of the RFA zone than T1WI and T2WI. On other phases, GE T1WI and T2WI showed similar lesion conspicuity.

  20. The stretch zone of automotive steel sheets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ľ Ambriško; L Pešek

    2014-04-01

    The paper deals with an experimental determination of the stretch zone dimensions in the notch tip in thin steel sheets. The stretch zone dimensions depend on steel grade, on the rolling direction as well as on the loading rate. Stretch zones were observed and measured on three steel grades. Fracture area and stretch zones were analysed by SEM. Stable crack growth was monitored by videoextensometry techniques on CT (Compact Tension) specimens. Specimens were loaded under two loading rates by eccentric tension, whereby the deformation in the notch surrounding area was recorded using a non-contact measurement–videoextensometry technique. Linear relation between the stretch zone dimensions was determined.

  1. Fresnel zones for ground-based antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J. Bach

    1964-01-01

    The ordinary Fresnel zone concept is modified to include the influence of finite ground conductivity. This is important for ground-based antennas because the influence on the radiation pattern of irregularities near the antenna is determined by the amplitude and phase of the groundwave. A new...... definition of Fresnel zones which takes into account the phase shift of groundwave propagation is given and it is shown that these new zones are zones of greatest influence, at least when discontinuities of the electrical parameters of the ground are considered. Numerical results for the first Fresnel zone...

  2. Serpentine in active subduction zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynard, Bruno

    2013-09-01

    Serpentinization is a key phenomenon for understanding the geodynamics of subduction zones in the 10-200 km depth range. Serpentines are a major water carrier, and their rheological properties have a strong influence on deformation partitioning and seismicity at depths. I review experimental investigations that have been conducted on serpentines, with emphasis on the large body of data acquired over the past decade. Determinations of physical properties at the pressure and temperature conditions of subductions allow interpreting geophysical data in active subduction in terms of mineralogy and petrology, and to link the presence of serpentinites with deformation and fluid circulation. The fluid budget can be partially constrained from geophysical data. Elasticity data provide a quantitative basis for mapping serpentinization in the mantle wedge and slab from seismic tomography. Anisotropy suggests the existence of thin serpentinite channels above the plate interface, that account for mechanical decoupling inferred from down-dip limit of the seismogenic zone and heat flow. Strain-rate dependent rheology of antigorite serpentine is consistent with stable deformation of this thin layer or channel over timescales ranging from those of the seismic cycle to those of thermal equilibration and exhumation of high-pressure rocks, and with the geological record of subduction-related deformation. Circulation of serpentinizing fluids depends on the permeability structure, and is imaged by electrical conductivity tomography. It could be controlled by fracturing in the undeformed cold nose of the mantle wedge, and by plastic deformation along the plate interface. Fluid migration mechanisms are similar to those inferred from petrological and geochemical data on exhumed serpentinites. Estimation of the fluid budget associated with serpentine formation will rely on numerical simulations for which coupling of kinetics of hydration and dehydration at scales ranging from grain size up

  3. Plant heat zones of Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    L. E. Giddings; M. Soto-Esparza

    2005-01-01

    Se presenta un Mapa de Zonas de Calor para México equivalente al Plant Heat-Zone Map de los Estados Unidos de América (EEUU), el cual muestra el número de días promedio que en el año presentan temperatura máxima mayor a 30 °C (86 °F). Su uso principal es para evaluar el potencial para cultivar plantas ornamentales en un lugar dado, al igual que el mapa correspondiente de EEUU, preparado por la American Horticultural Society. También puede ser usado para determinar la distribución pot...

  4. Nanoscale characterisation of crystal zoning

    OpenAIRE

    Saunders, Kate; Buse, Ben; Kilburn, Matt; Kearns, Stuart; Blundy, Jon

    2014-01-01

    Advances in analytical techniques are fundamental to the enhanced understandings of many geological processes. Zoned volcanic crystals have been analysed by low (5) kV field emission gun electron probe micro-analyser (FEG-EPMA) and NanoSIMS to obtain sub-micrometre chemical profiles and compared to time-of-flight SIMS (TOF-SIMS) and high (15–20) kV EPMA profiles. Plagioclase and orthopyroxene crystals have been analysed by FEG-EPMA, at accelerating voltages of 5 kV providing a spatial resolut...

  5. The combined effect of attraction and orientation zones in 2D flocking models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliass, Tarras; Cambui, Dorilson

    2016-01-01

    In nature, many animal groups, such as fish schools or bird flocks, clearly display structural order and appear to move as a single coherent entity. In order to understand the complex motion of these systems, we study the Vicsek model of self-propelled particles (SPP) which is an important tool to investigate the behavior of collective motion of live organisms. This model reproduces the biological behavior patterns in the two-dimensional (2D) space. Within the framework of this model, the particles move with the same absolute velocity and interact locally in the zone of orientation by trying to align their direction with that of the neighbors. In this paper, we model the collective movement of SPP using an agent-based model which follows biologically motivated behavioral rules, by adding a second region called the attraction zone, where each particles move towards each other avoiding being isolated. Our main goal is to present a detailed numerical study on the effect of the zone of attraction on the kinetic phase transition of our system. In our study, the consideration of this zone seems to play an important role in the cohesion. Consequently, in the directional orientation, the zone that we added forms the compact particle group. In our simulation, we show clearly that the model proposed here can produce two collective behavior patterns: torus and dynamic parallel group. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  6. Evaluation of skin optical clearing enhancement with Azone as a penetration enhancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiangqun; Zhu, Qiuhong

    2007-11-01

    In order to find a non-invasive way to improve the efficacy of skin optical clearing with topically applied optical clearing agents (OCA), we evaluated the effect of Azone as a chemical penetration enhancer on optical clearing of intact skin in vitro. Fresh porcine skin with topical application of glycerol (G) mixed with various concentrations of water-soluble Azone (A w) or propylene glycol (PG) mixed with oil-soluble Azone (A o) was investigated. We measured changes in optical transmittance and diffuse reflectance of the skin under treatment with a near-infrared spectrophotometer. Light transmittance at 1276 nm increased by 37.3% and 41.1% at 60 min after the treatment in the cases with 40%PG5%A o and 40%G5%A w, respectively. Diffuse reflectance at 1066 nm decreased by 20.6% and 29.3% at 60 min after the treatment with 40%PG5%A o and 40%G5%A w, respectively. Forty percent glycerol or propylene glycol with the addition of Azone could achieve the same optical clearing effect as 80% glycerol. The results indicated that skin optical clearing with the topical application of glycerol and propylene glycol was markedly enhanced by both water-soluble and oil-soluble Azone. Skin penetration enhancing effect of Azone accounts probably for the skin clearing enhancement. In addition, Azone itself has shown optical clearing capability.

  7. Detection and clearing of trapped ions in the high current Cornell photoinjector

    CERN Document Server

    Full, Steven; Bazarov, Ivan; Dobbins, John; Dunham, Bruce; Hoffstaetter, Georg

    2015-01-01

    We have recently performed experiments to test the effectiveness of three ion-clearing strategies in the Cornell high intensity photoinjector: DC clearing electrodes, bunch gaps, and beam shaking. The photoinjector reaches a new regime of linac beam parameters where high CW beam currents lead to ion trapping. Therefore ion mitigation strategies must be evaluated for this machine and other similar future high current linacs. We have developed several techniques to directly measure the residual trapped ions. Our two primary indicators of successful clearing are the amount of ion current removed by a DC clearing electrode, and the absence of bremsstrahlung radiation generated by beam-ion interactions. Measurements were taken for an electron beam with an energy of 5 MeV and CW beam currents in the range of 1-20 mA. Several theoretical models have been developed to explain our data. Using them, we are able to estimate the clearing electrode voltage required for maximum ion clearing, the creation and clearing rates...

  8. Children's Perception of Conversational and Clear American-English Vowels in Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Dorothy

    A handful of studies have examined children's perception of clear speech in the presence of background noise. Although accurate vowel perception is important for listeners' comprehension, no study has focused on whether vowels uttered in clear speech aid intelligibility for children listeners. In the present study, American-English (AE) speaking children repeated the AE vowels /epsilon, ae, alpha, lambda in the nonsense word /g[schwa]bVp[schwa]/ in phrases produced in conversational and clear speech by two female AE-speaking adults. The recordings of the adults' speech were presented at a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of -6 dB to 15 AE-speaking children (ages 5.0-8.5) in an examination of whether the accuracy of AE school-age children's vowel identification in noise is more accurate when utterances are produced in clear speech than in conversational speech. Effects of the particular vowel uttered and talker effects were also examined. Clear speech vowels were repeated significantly more accurately (87%) than conversational speech vowels (59%), suggesting that clear speech aids children's vowel identification. Results varied as a function of the talker and particular vowel uttered. Child listeners repeated one talker's vowels more accurately than the other's and front vowels more accurately than central and back vowels. The findings support the use of clear speech for enhancing adult-to-child communication in AE, particularly in noisy environments.

  9. A Clearing Protocol for Whole Tissues: An Example Using Haustoria of Orobanchaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffery J. Morawetz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Due to lack of success in clearing whole tissues using only classical clearing techniques (e.g., Heir's 4 ½ solution, KOH, NaOH, lactic acid saturated with chloral hydrate, and because tissue degradation is often a result of harsh clearing agents (e.g., KOH, NaOH, a novel combined treatment was sought to improve the removal of obscuring tannins from intact haustoria. Methods and Results: Stockwell's bleach proved to be useful in removing tannins from haustoria, usually within 3 d (up to 10 d, rendering them opaque to (rarely translucent. After bleaching, haustoria were successfully cleared in 1–3 d in a solution of lactic acid saturated with chloral hydrate at 42°C Conclusions: The two-step clearing protocol reported here will now facilitate structural studies on haustoria, such as those examining the presence and distribution of callose, and three-dimensional reconstmction using confocal microscopy. Tissues in this study did not suffer from the degradation in quality observed using harsher treatments. This protocol should be useful for other difficult-to-clear tissues that are unable to be cleared using classical protocols alone.

  10. Crust-mantle structure feature and the seismic activity of the main tectonic units in the North Tanlu fault zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Using recent data of geoscience transaction in Northeast China, the author analyses and studies the crust-upper mantle structure feature of the North Tanlu fault zone. The result shows the crust-mantle structure are obvious difference at both sides of the North Tanlu fault zone. The fault activity and segmentation are closely related with abruptly change zone of the crust-upper mantle structure. There is a clear mirror image relationship between the big geomorphic shape and asthenosphere undulate, the former restricts tectonic stability and tectonic style of different crustal units. The significantly strengthening seismicity of north set and south set in the North Tanlu fault zone just correspond to the low-velocity and high conductivity layer of crust-upper mantle. In the North Tanlu fault zone, the main controlling structure of the mid-strong seismic generally consists of the active fault sectors, whose crust-mantle structure is more complicated in rigidity massif.

  11. Clear-PEM: A dedicated PET camera for improved breast cancer detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron emission mammography (PEM) can offer a non-invasive method for the diagnosis of breast cancer. Metabolic images from PEM using 18F-fluoro-deoxy-glucose, contain unique information not available from conventional morphologic imaging techniques like X-ray radiography. In this work, the concept of Clear-PEM, the system presently developed in the frame of the Crystal Clear Collaboration at CERN, is described. Clear-PEM will be a dedicated scanner, offering better perspectives in terms of position resolution and detection sensitivity. (authors)

  12. Clear cell adenocarcinoma of a female urethra: A case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amel Trabelsi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Context : Clear cell adenocarcinoma of the urethra is an extremely rare tumour. Its histogenetic derivation remains controversial. Case report : We report a new case of clear cell adenocarcinoma of the proximal urethra in a 56-year-old woman who presented with grossly hematuria. Urethral cystoscopy revealed a tumour protruding from the posterior urethral wall at the bladder neck. Treatment consisted of urethrocystectomy with pelvic lymph node dissection. Histologically, the neoplasm consisted of clear cell adenocarcinoma of the urethra. Conclusion : It appears that female urethral adenocarcinoma has more than one tissue of origin.

  13. Renal-type clear cell carcinoma of the prostate: a diagnostic challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Patne, Shashikant C. U.; Johri, Nidhi; Katiyar, Richa; Trivedi, Sameer; Dwivedi, Uday Shankar

    2015-01-01

    A 72-year-old male presented with urinary symptoms. His serum prostate specific antigen level was 65.2 ng/ml. His radical prostatectomy specimen showed clear cell lesion reminiscent of the clear cell renal cell carcinoma along with acinar type of prostatic adenocarcinoma, Gleason score 4 + 4. The lesional clear cells were positive for pancytokeratin, epithelial membrane antigen, CD10, vimentin, and AMACR while negative for 34βE12, CK7, prostate specific antigen, and PAX8. The final diagnosis ...

  14. Clear cell carcinoma of the endometrium: an uncommon entity with a favorable prognosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From 1969 to 1978, 345 patients with endometrial carcinoma were treated at the Medical College of Virginia. Twenty-three of these were clear cell carcinoma (6.6%). Previous reports indicate a poor prognosis with this histological entity. In this series no differences were noticed between clear cell carcinoma and classical adenocarcinoma with regard to variables such as age, race, stage at presentation or response to treatment. Clear cell carcinoma is a distinct histological entity and does not appear to be different than classical adenocarcinoma in its behavior and response to therapy. It is recommended that these tumors be managed by a combination of surgery and radiotherapy

  15. Clear cell carcinoma of the larynx: one case report and review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clear cell carcinoma of the larynx is exceptional. Only six cases are described in the literature. We report a new case occurring in a 58-year-old man. The treatment consisted of a total laryngectomy with lymph node dissection followed by adjuvant irradiation. Local and regional recurrence occurred after 5 months. The patient died from the tumor's evolution 12 months after the diagnosis. The prognosis of clear cell carcinoma of the larynx is similar to the clear cell carcinoma of the lung and is unfavorable. (authors)

  16. Analysis of Well-Clear Boundary Models for the Integration of UAS in the NAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upchurch, Jason M.; Munoz, Cesar A.; Narkawicz, Anthony J.; Chamberlain, James P.; Consiglio, Maria C.

    2014-01-01

    The FAA-sponsored Sense and Avoid Workshop for Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) defnes the concept of sense and avoid for remote pilots as "the capability of a UAS to remain well clear from and avoid collisions with other airborne traffic." Hence, a rigorous definition of well clear is fundamental to any separation assurance concept for the integration of UAS into civil airspace. This paper presents a family of well-clear boundary models based on the TCAS II Resolution Advisory logic. Analytical techniques are used to study the properties and relationships satisfied by the models. Some of these properties are numerically quantifed using statistical methods.

  17. Imaging features of clear-cell ependymoma of the spinal cord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bapuraj, J.R.; Parmar, Hemant A. [University of Michigan, Department of Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Blaivas, Mila [University of Michigan Health System, Department of Neuropathology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Muraszko, Karin M. [University of Michigan Health System, Department of Neurosurgery, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2007-04-15

    A 10-year-old girl presented with increasing lower back pain without gait or sphincter disturbances. MRI demonstrated a large, intramedullary tumor at the level of the conus. The imaging findings were unlike those of a classic ependymoma or astrocytoma. Histopathologic examination demonstrated clear-cell ependymoma, which is a distinct entity. We found three cases of clear-cell ependymoma of the spinal cord reported in the literature. Clear-cell ependymoma of the spinal cord can be resected completely and needs to be recognized for its imaging features, benign course and favorable prognosis. (orig.)

  18. Nation-wide clear-cut mapping in Sweden using ALOS PALSAR strip images

    OpenAIRE

    Anders Persson; Jonas Dahlgren; Maurizio Santoro; Andreas Pantze; Fransson, Johan E. S.

    2012-01-01

    Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) Phased Array L-band type Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) backscatter images with 50 m pixel size (strip images) at HV-polarization were used to map clear-cuts at a regional and national level in Sweden. For a set of 31 clear-cuts, on average 59.9% of the pixels within each clear-cut were correctly detected. When compared with a one-pixel edge-eroded version of the reference dataset, the accuracy increased to 88.9%. With respect to statistics from the...

  19. Lagrangian variability of the Eastern Tropical Pacific Oxygen Minimum Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettencourt, João; López, Cristóbal; Hernández-García, Emilio; Montes, Ivonne; Sudre, Joël; Dewitte, Boris; Paulmier, Aurélien; Garçon, Véronique

    2013-04-01

    We study the variability of the Eastern Tropical Pacific Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ) developed off Peru, using Lagrangian tools based on the dynamical systems theory. We focus on the identification of dynamical mechanisms, pathways and barriers to transport water masses with high/low oxygen content inside and outside the OMZ, using the concept of Lagrangian coherent structures (LCS) and residence times. The finite-size Lyapunov exponent (FSLE) is used to identify the relevant LCSs within the OMZ area. Our preliminary results show that the core of the OMZ is characterized by weak circulation while the boundaries of the OMZ have shorter residence times with a complex spatial distribution, consisting of filaments with low and high residence time. Incursions of low residence time into the OMZ core also present a filament shape. In addition, the middepth mean FSLE and dissolved O2 fields indicate a clear correlation between the northern and southern OMZ boundaries and high mean FSLE zones. These zones, so-called 'corridors', are thought to signal the pathways of mesoscale eddies from where they were originated - the coastal upwelling areas. The instantaneous FSLE field is organized into thin regions of high values within a low FSLE background field. These high FSLE regions are related to the boundaries of mesoscale and submesoscale eddies and fronts occupying the Eastern Tropical Pacific, released in the near shore upwelling zones. On the boundaries of the OMZ, these high FSLE lines are seen to separate waters with dissimilar dissolved oxygen content. Eddies of extreme low dissolved oxygen concentrations that penetrate the OMZ tend to remain coherent and do not mix with the surrounding waters; this is due to the existence of LCSs that form barriers around the eddies. This mechanism could contribute to the maintenance of the OMZ off Peru.

  20. Clear cell carcinoma, not otherwise specified/hyalinising clear cell carcinoma of the salivary gland: The current nomenclature, clinical/pathological characteristics and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniele, Luca; Nikolarakos, Dimitrios; Keenan, Jonathon; Schaefer, Nathan; Lam, Alfred King-Yin

    2016-06-01

    Clear cell carcinoma, not otherwise specified (NOS)/hyalinising clear cell carcinoma (HCCC) is a rare entity in salivary gland tumour. The aim of the research is to review the current concepts and characteristics of this carcinoma. The clinical and pathological data of the disease obtained from literature and two original cases were analysed. Overall, 152 cases were reviewed up to the year 2014. The carcinomas were noted often in woman, in the seventh decade of life, located in oral cavity and as early-stages cancers. On pathological examination, they were characterized by tumour cells having clear cell morphology with hyalinised stroma. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that the carcinoma is positive for cytokeratin and negative for myoepithelial differentiation. EWSR1-ATF1 fusion is specific for the carcinoma. Also, 9% of the reported cases had local nodal metastasis, with 6 cases demonstrating distant metastases at presentation. On follow-up, 22% of patients had recurrent or with persistent diseases after surgery. The time for the first recurrence could be as long as 24 years. Risk factors for recurrence include advanced stage at diagnosis and metastases at presentation. To conclude, HCCC is a low grade malignancy but have the potential for local metastases, recurrence, distant metastases and cancer-related death. PMID:27150676

  1. Generalized provisional seed zones for native plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Andrew D; St Clair, J Bradley; Erickson, Vicky

    2014-07-01

    Deploying well-adapted and ecologically appropriate plant materials is a core component of successful restoration projects. We have developed generalized provisional seed zones that can be applied to any plant species in the United States to help guide seed movement. These seed zones are based on the intersection of high-resolution climatic data for winter minimum temperature and aridity (as measured by annual heat : moisture index), each classified into discrete bands. This results in the delineation of 64 provisional seed zones for the continental United States. These zones represent areas of relative climatic similarity, and movement of seed within these zones should help to minimize maladaptation. Superimposing Omernik's level III ecoregions over these seed zones distinguishes areas that are similar climatically yet different ecologically. A quantitative comparison of provisional seed zones with level III ecoregions and provisional seed zones within ecoregions for three species showed that provisional seed zone within ecoregion often explained the greatest proportion of variation in a suite of traits potentially related to plant fitness. These provisional seed zones can be considered a starting point for guidelines for seed transfer, and should be utilized in conjunction with appropriate species-specific information as well as local knowledge of microsite differences. PMID:25154085

  2. Effect of adding a swirl on flow pattern and recirculation zone in ADS windowless spallation target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The reduction of the recirculation zone and the stability of the free surface are key issues in the target. • A swirl is numerically added in the target to make the recirculation zone small and stable. • Numerical simulation with different boundary conditions is carried out. • Physical analysis is presented to explain the numerical results. - Abstract: Aiming the key issues in the accelerator driven system (ADS), windowless spallation target focus on the minimization of the recirculation zone and on the stability of the free surface, an innovation has been made by numerically adding swirl to the fluid at the inlet. At first, two phase flow pattern in the simulation is compared with the experiments and numerical method is employed correctly. The results reveal that the recirculation zone and the flow pattern are greatly influenced when the swirl strength is changed from 1.0 rad/s to 2.5 rad/s. The height of the recirculation zone decreases with increase in swirl strength and completely disappears when the swirl strength reaches 2.0 rad/s. In addition, larger swirl strength leads to different flow pattern and a new cavitation zone is generated under the recirculation zone. The Bernoulli's equation and angular momentum conservation are applied to make it clear that this phenomena is due to the decrease of the axial pressure caused by the radial velocity. Moreover, the new cavitation zone totally links to the vapor area above the recirculation zone when the swirl strength is 2.5 rad/s. The results are very helpful to the design and optimization of the ADS windowless spallation target

  3. NESDIS-Unique CrIS-ATMS Product System (NUCAPS) Cloud-Cleared Radiances

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of Cloud-Cleared Radiances (CCRs) from the NOAA-Unique CrIS-ATMS Processing System (NUCAPS). NUCAPS was developed by the NOAA/NESDIS Center...

  4. Role of the sunshine number and clearness index in forecasting solar radiation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Paulescu, M.; Badescu, V.; Brabec, Marek

    Bucharest: University Politehnica of Bucharest, 2015. S10_14. [WREC 2015. World Renewable Energy Congress /14./. 08.06.2015-12.06.2015, Bucharest] Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : solar irradiance * nowcasting * sunshine number * clearness index

  5. SR-CATS: A Short-Range Clear Air Turbulence Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Clear air turbulence (CAT), often referred to as "air pockets," is attributed to Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities at altitudes generally above 18,000ft, often in the...

  6. Market clearing of joint energy and reserves auctions using augmented payment minimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amjady, N. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan (Iran); Aghaei, J.; Shayanfar, H.A. [Center of Excellence for Power Systems Automation and Operation, Electrical Engineering Department, Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST), Tehran (Iran)

    2009-10-15

    This paper presents the market clearing of joint energy and reserves auctions and its mathematical formulation, focusing on a possible implementation of the Payment Cost Minimization (PCM). It also discusses another key point in debate: whether market clearing algorithm should minimize offer costs or payment costs? An aggregated simultaneous market clearing approach is proposed for provision of ancillary services as well as energy, which is in the form of Mixed Integer Nonlinear Programming (MINLP) formulation. In the MINLP formulation of the market clearing process, the objective function (Payment cost or offer cost) are optimized while meeting AC power flow constraints, system reserve requirements and lost opportunity cost (LOC) considerations. The model is applied to the IEEE 24-bus Reliability Test System (IEEE 24-bus RTS), and simulation studies are carried out to examine the effectiveness of each objective function. (author)

  7. On the Relation between Solar Activity and Clear-Sky Terrestrial Irradiance

    CERN Document Server

    Feulner, Georg

    2012-01-01

    The Mauna Loa Observatory record of direct-beam solar irradiance measurements for the years 1958-2010 is analysed to investigate the variation of clear-sky terrestrial insolation with solar activity over more than four solar cycles. The raw irradiance data exhibit a marked seasonal cycle, extended periods of lower irradiance due to emissions of volcanic aerosols, and a long-term decrease in atmospheric transmission independent of solar activity. After correcting for these effects, it is found that clear-sky terrestrial irradiance typically varies by about 0.2 +/- 0.1% over the course of the solar cycle, a change of the same order of magnitude as the variations of the total solar irradiance above the atmosphere. An investigation of changes in the clear-sky atmospheric transmission fails to find a significant trend with sunspot number. Hence there is no evidence for a yet unknown effect amplifying variations of clear-sky irradiance with solar activity.

  8. 77 FR 71466 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The Options Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing of Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-30

    ... separation of firm and customer positions), clearing members have discretion as to which Stock Loan Positions..., may be used to satisfy the mark-to- market obligations arising from the Stock Loan Positions in...

  9. Clear Lake National Wildlife Refuge : Klamath Basin National Wildlife Refuges : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Clear Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1981 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  10. Opposite Clear Corneal Incisions versus Steep Meridian Incision Phacoemulsification for Correction of Pre-existing Astigmatism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Naim Aminifard

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To compare the efficacy of adding an opposite clear corneal incision (OCCI on the steep meridian versus performing surgery on the steep meridian alone during phacoemulsification in reducing pre-existing corneal astigmatism in Alzahra ophthalmology center. Materials and Methods: This randomized clinical trial was performed on 40 eyes with corneal astigmatism undergoing phacoemulsification and divided randomly to two groups. In the first group 3.2 mm phacoemulsification incision was made on steep meridian and in the other group after the procedure was completed the surgeon made 3.2 mm incision opposite to the main incision. Patients were followed with refraction, keratometry at 1, 4, 12 weeks. Results: Mean corrected astigmatism was greater in opposite clear corneal incision group than steep meridian incision phacoemulsification group. No significant change occurred in amount of astigmatism in two groups. Conclusion: Opposite clear corneal incisions achieve an enhanced effect over single clear corneal incisions in treating preexisting astigmatism in cataract patients.

  11. Market clearing of joint energy and reserves auctions using augmented payment minimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the market clearing of joint energy and reserves auctions and its mathematical formulation, focusing on a possible implementation of the Payment Cost Minimization (PCM). It also discusses another key point in debate: whether market clearing algorithm should minimize offer costs or payment costs? An aggregated simultaneous market clearing approach is proposed for provision of ancillary services as well as energy, which is in the form of Mixed Integer Nonlinear Programming (MINLP) formulation. In the MINLP formulation of the market clearing process, the objective function (Payment cost or offer cost) are optimized while meeting AC power flow constraints, system reserve requirements and lost opportunity cost (LOC) considerations. The model is applied to the IEEE 24-bus Reliability Test System (IEEE 24-bus RTS), and simulation studies are carried out to examine the effectiveness of each objective function. (author)

  12. Clear-cell chondrosarcoma of the maxilla Report of a case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slootweg, P.J.

    1980-01-01

    Clear-cell chondrosarcoma is a variant of chondrosarcoma which is characterized by a typical histomorphology and a very slow rate of growth. A case is presented in which the tumor was located in the maxilla.

  13. Renal cell carcinoma: evolving approaches to advanced non-clear cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Y.C. Heng

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC has changed dramatically with the introduction of targeted therapies including sunitinib, sorafenib, and temsirolimus. Because patients with conventional clear cell histology account for 75- 80% of all patients with RCC, there has been little accumulated evidence on the treatment of patients with non-clear cell histologies. Most clinical trials have excluded them from enrolment, except for randomized studies investigating temsirolimus. Many retrospective studies on the use of all three of these targeted therapies in patients with non-clear cell histology have demonstrated response rates ranging from 3.7%–16%. Although response rates may not be as high compared to patients with clear cell histologies, targeted therapy does provide a clinically meaningful response.

  14. The filtering, clear-cornea diathermal keratostomy: a minor Danish multicenter study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, S.V.; Nissen, O.I.; Thygesen, J.; Flesner, P.; Otland, N.; Riise, P.

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: Is the new micropenetrating, clear-cornea procedure, intrastromal diathermal keratostomy (IDK), an alternative to the intricate "modern trabeculectomy"? METHODS: Prospective multicenter study. Four surgeons from 4 Danish eye departments attended an IDK course and subsequently decided whe...

  15. A COMPARISON OF SURGICAL INDUCED ASTIGMATISM FOLLOWING PHACOEMULSIFICATION WITH CLEAR CORNEAL VERSUS SCLERAL INCISION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyavardhana Rao

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study included 50 Cases, Group-1- 25 Cases, underwent Temporal Sclera incision phacoemulsification, Group-2: 25 Cases underwent temporal clear corneal incision phacoemulsification. Out of this majority of the cases with scleral incision Group showed an surgically induced astigmatism of 0.5 D(56%, in clear corneal group 40% showed 0.5 D and 32% showed 0.75 D of Surgically induced astigmatism. The mean surgically induced astigmatism in scleral incision Group was 0.550.28 and in clear corneal group 0.690.25. In both the cases there is decrease in pre-operative against the rule astigmatism to Post–Operative against the rule astigmatism and an increase in with the rule astigmatism from Pre-Operative to Post–Operative period, but this is seen more with clear corneal incision group compared to scleral incision group.

  16. Equality of Demand and Supply Neither Determines Price Nor Clears the Market

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Gani

    2004-01-01

    The belief that equality of demand and supply determines price and clears the market is universal. Shockingly, this belief is unfounded. It contradicts macro’s claim that equality of demand and supply determines output. It contradicts (new) monetary theory, which claims that equality of demand and supply is necessary but not sufficient to clear the market. In indirect trade, money also must be used. Micro says that price is equal to marginal cost, rejecting trade theory’s claim that trade is ...

  17. Statistical analysis of weather conditions based on the Clearness Index and correlation with meteorological variables

    OpenAIRE

    COLLI Alessandra; PAVANELLO DIEGO; ZAAIMAN Willem; Heiser, John; Smith, Scott

    2014-01-01

    The Clearness Index and the ratio between diffuse and global irradiance for different time scales are used to define a taxonomy for sky conditions and to study patterns to provide information for production-oriented probabilistic risk analysis studies for utility-level PV arrays. The study is focused on the definition of probabilities and distribution functions for the defined taxonomy of sky conditions. Correlations of the Clearness Index are investigated with different meteorolo...

  18. Renal-type Clear Cell Carcinoma Occurring in the Prostate With Zinner Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Yuichi Sato; Masao Kataoka; Junya Hata; Hidenori Akaihata; Soichiro Ogawa; Yoshiyuki Kojima

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of clear cell carcinoma occurring in the prostate with Zinner syndrome in a 64-year-old man. Based on the immunohistochemical findings, it was concluded that this tumor represented primary renal-type clear cell carcinoma arising in the prostate. After receiving radical cystoprostatectomy, he was treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy for local recurrence in accordance with the protocol of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) treatment, because microarray cluster analysis ...

  19. Renal cell carcinoma: evolving approaches to advanced non-clear cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Bukowski, Ronald M; Heng, Daniel Y.C.

    2011-01-01

    The treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has changed dramatically with the introduction of targeted therapies including sunitinib, sorafenib, and temsirolimus. Because patients with conventional clear cell histology account for 75- 80% of all patients with RCC, there has been little accumulated evidence on the treatment of patients with non-clear cell histologies. Most clinical trials have excluded them from enrolment, except for randomized studies investigating temsirolimus. Ma...

  20. A gallbladder tumor revealing metastatic clear cell renal carcinoma: report of case and review of literature

    OpenAIRE

    Ghaouti Merieme; Znati Kaoutar; Jahid Ahmed; Zouaidia Fouad; Bernoussi Zakiya; Fakir Youssef El; Mahassini Najat

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Metastatic renal cell carcinoma in the gallbladder is extremely rare, with reported frequencies of less than 0.6% in large autopsy reviews. Only 40 cases were reported in the literature. We report a first case of gallbladder polypoid tumor revealing metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma, which demonstrates the importance of radiological tests, histology and immunohistochemistry when making a definitive diagnosis. These examinations also allow differentiating metastatic clear cel...

  1. Clear Cell Carcinoma of the Pancreas -A Case Report and Review of the Literature-

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hui-Young; Lee, Dong-Gyu; Chun, Kwangjin; Lee, Seungkoo; SONG, SEO-YOUNG

    2009-01-01

    Most of the malignant neoplasms of the pancreas demonstrate features that are consistent with adenocarcinoma. According to the WHO classification, primary clear cell carcinoma of the pancreas is rare and it is classified as a "miscellaneous" carcinoma. In addition, there is not an adequate systematic overview that can demonstrate its true existence as a definable entity. We report here on an unusual case of primary pancreatic clear cell carcinoma, which is the first such reported case in Kore...

  2. CLEAR CELL CARCINOMA OF MINOR SALIVARY GLAND ORIGIN: A CASE OF MISTAKEN IDENTITY

    OpenAIRE

    Safia Rana; Jairajpuri S Zeeba; Raina, P. K.; Sujata Jetley

    2014-01-01

    Clear cell carcinoma (CCC) of salivary gland origin is an extremely rare low-grade carcinoma. It occurs in the minor salivary glands. This is a recent addition to the World Health Organisation (WHO) classification of salivary gland tumours and defines it as a malignant epithelial neoplasm with single monomorphic population of cells having optically clear cytoplasm on standard Hematoxylin and Eosin (H and E) stain. We hereby, report an interesting case of CCC of minor salivary gland origin...

  3. Potential targets for ovarian clear cell carcinoma: a review of updates and future perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuzaki, Shinya; Yoshino, Kiyoshi; Ueda, Yutaka; Matsuzaki, Satoko; Kakuda, Mamoru; Okazawa, Akiko; Egawa-Takata, Tomomi; Kobayashi, Eiji; Kimura, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    Advances in surgical and medical treatments for ovarian cancer have improved prognoses. Platinum drugs in particular are pivotal for the medical treatment of ovarian cancer. However, previous studies have revealed that some histological subtypes, such as clear cell carcinoma, are resistant to medical treatment, including that with platinum drugs. Consequently, the clinical prognosis of advanced clear cell carcinoma is remarkably inferior, primarily because of its chemoresistant behavior. The ...

  4. Lactate Dehydrogenase A is a potential prognostic marker in clear cell renal cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Girgis, Hala; Masui, Olena; White, Nicole MA; Scorilas, Andreas; Rotondo, Fabio; Seivwright, Annetta; Gabril, Manal; Filter, Emily R; Girgis, Andrew HA; Bjarnason, Georg A.; Jewett, Michael AS; Evans, Andrew; Al-Haddad, Sahar; Siu, KW Michael; Yousef, George M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Over 90% of cancer-related deaths in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC) are caused by tumor relapse and metastasis. Thus, there is an urgent need for new molecular markers that can potentiate the efficacy of the current clinical-based models of prognosis assessment. The objective of this study is to evaluate the potential significance of lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA), assessed by immunohistochemical staining, as a prognostic marker in clear cell renal cell carcinoma in relation...

  5. Clear cell renal carcinoma with areas of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Rekha Thodavadi Subbanna; Nandini Nandish Manoli

    2012-01-01

    The classification of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is based upon various histological features which aids in determining the treatment and prognosis. We report a unique case of RCC displaying features of predominantly clear cell RCC with areas of chromophobe RCC in an unusual edematous background. The tumor cells from chromophobe RCC were positive for Hales colloidal iron stain. On Immunohistochemistry majority of them were positive for vimentin and CD10, the markers of clear cell RCC with scat...

  6. Clear cell sarcoma of the abdominal wall with peritoneal sarcomatosis: CT features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clear cell sarcoma, also called malignant melanoma of soft parts, is an uncommon neoplasm that involves tendons or aponeuroses of the lower extremity. The CT features of a clear cell sarcoma arising from the abdominal wall with later peritoneal dissemination are described. Peritoneal sarcomatosis from soft tissue sarcomas is a very rare condition previously unreported in the radiologic literature. Metastases to peritoneal surfaces must therefore be considered a possible site for systemic dissemination of soft tissue sarcomas. (orig.)

  7. A COMPARISON OF SURGICAL INDUCED ASTIGMATISM FOLLOWING PHACOEMULSIFICATION WITH CLEAR CORNEAL VERSUS SCLERAL INCISION

    OpenAIRE

    Satyavardhana Rao

    2015-01-01

    The present study included 50 Cases, Group-1- 25 Cases, underwent Temporal Sclera incision phacoemulsification, Group-2: 25 Cases underwent temporal clear corneal incision phacoemulsification. Out of this majority of the cases with scleral incision Group showed an surgically induced astigmatism of 0.5 D(56%), in clear corneal group 40% showed 0.5 D and 32% showed 0.75 D of Surgically induced astigmatism. The mean surgically induced astigmatism in scleral incision Group was 0.5...

  8. Mortality in patients with chronic and cleared hepatitis C viral infection: a nationwide cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omland, Lars Haukali; Krarup, Henrik; Jepsen, Peter; Georgsen, Jørgen; Harritshøj, Lene Holm; Riisom, Kirsten; Jacobsen, Svend Erik Hove; Schouenborg, Per; Christensen, Peer Brehm; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Obel, Niels; Bangsborg, Jette Marie

    2010-01-01

    It is unknown whether mortality differs between patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication and those who cleared the virus after infection. We examined the impact of chronic HCV replication on mortality among Danish patients testing positive for HCV antibodies.......It is unknown whether mortality differs between patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication and those who cleared the virus after infection. We examined the impact of chronic HCV replication on mortality among Danish patients testing positive for HCV antibodies....

  9. Reduction of Photo Bleaching and Long Term Archiving of Chemically Cleared GFP-Expressing Mouse Brains

    OpenAIRE

    Klaus Becker; Christian Markus Hahn; Saiedeh Saghafi; Nina Jährling; Martina Wanis; Hans-Ulrich Dodt

    2014-01-01

    Tissue clearing allows microscopy of large specimens as whole mouse brains or embryos. However, lipophilic tissue clearing agents as dibenzyl ether limit storage time of GFP-expressing samples to several days and do not prevent them from photobleaching during microscopy. To preserve GFP fluorescence, we developed a transparent solid resin formulation, which maintains the specimens' transparency and provides a constant signal to noise ratio even after hours of continuous laser irradiation. If ...

  10. Assessment of phacoaspiration techniques in clear lens extraction for correction of high myopia

    OpenAIRE

    El-Helw, Mostafa

    2010-01-01

    Mostafa A El-Helw, Ahmed M EmarahDepartment of Ophthalmology, Cairo University, EgyptPurpose: To evaluate various phacoaspiration techniques in clear lens extraction for the incidence of intraoperative difficulties and complications.Patients and methods: This was a prospective study in which bilateral clear lens extraction was performed on 40 eyes of 20 patients, to correct high myopia. The patients were divided into 2 groups: group A underwent supracapsular phacoaspiration; group B were the ...

  11. The fabrication and surface tolerance measurements of the JPL clear aperture microwave antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, J.; Rocci, S.; Chian, C. T.

    1982-01-01

    Present ground station microwave antennas of the Deep Space Network are of the symmetric dual reflector (cassegrainian) type. An investigation is being made of alternative high-performance offset antenna designs which have a clear aperture (no reflector or structural blockage) with shaped reflector surfaces. A 1.5-m, 32-GHz clear aperture model was built for experimental studies. The unique processes of fabrication, surface measurement, and alignment are described.

  12. Analysis of Postoperative Corneal Astigmatism after Phacoemulsification Through a Clear Corneal Incision

    OpenAIRE

    Sušić, Nikola; Brajković, Jasenka; Kalauz-Surać, Ivana

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze postoperative corneal astigmatism after phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation through a clear corneal incision. This prospective study included 22 eyes (10 right and 12 left eyes) having had phacoemulsification with implantation of a foldable intraocular lens through a clear corneal incision. A superotemporal incision was used in all right eyes, and superonasal incision in all left eyes. Astigmatism was measured by autorefractometer-keratom...

  13. Of floating-zone uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The floating zone method has been chosen in order to purify uranium. The various parameters occurring in this purification technique, have been studied theoretically and technologically. The speed that proves to be the most efficient is 0,7 cm/h, the direction can only upwards, and the fusion must take place under pressure of 10-7 Torr or so. Besides such problems concerning purification, the study of the floating zone stability led us to define a field touching the size and diameter of uranium drops, which, on the one hand coincides with Heywang's conditions and, on the other hand, is compatible with a fusion in the core of the bar. Such field shows that the floating zone can easily apply to bars whose diameter is included between 5 and 10 mm, and that it cannot work out when the diameter exceeds 21 mm. The apparatus, consisting in a means of heating by electronic bombardment under ultra-vacuum is conditioned by the various parameters that have been studied. As the analysis results were insufficient, the uranium thus dealt with has been characterized by metallurgic and physical tests: micrographic tests, measures of microhardness, measures of electric resistivity at a low temperature, have shown a definite purification at the bar-head; these results have been confirmed by the lowering at 270 C of the temperature of recrystallization together with the definite tendency of the refined metal to polygonize. The measures of electric resistivity constitute an easy and quantitative way of figuring out the metal purity. The influence of an impurity on the electric resistivity of uranium has been studied by U-Au alloys with a weak concentration of gold. The two important following points are brought out be these experiences: 1 - the measure of electric resistivity should be worked out on anneal bars in γ phase and cooled. 2 - Gold has a very strong influence on uranium; the value 500 μωcm per cent of gold enabled us to give a total concentration of 20 to 30 ppm of

  14. Skin optical clearing enhancement with penetration enhancer azone using spectroscopy and optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiangqun; Zhu, Qiuhong

    2008-06-01

    In order to find a non-invasive way to improve the efficacy of skin optical clearing with topically applied optical clearing agents (OCA), we evaluated the effect of azone ® (epsilon-Laurocapram) as a chemical penetration enhancer on optical clearing of intact skin in vitro. Fresh porcine skin with topical application of glycerol (G) mixed with water-soluble azone (A) was investigated using near-infrared spectroscopy and optical coherence tomography (OCT). Light transmittance at 1276 nm increased by 41% and diffuse reflectance at 1066 nm decreased by 29% at 60 min after treatment with 40%G5%A on a spectrophotometer with an internal integrating sphere. 40% glycerol with addition of azone was a more effective optical clearing agent than 40% and 80% glycerol. 60%G/5%A led to a 2-fold increase in achievable OCT imaging depth and a 2.2-fold increase in light intensity reflected off the underneath needle surface after 60 minutes in the OCT in-depth reflectance profiles. In conclusion, skin optical clearing with the topical application of glycerol was markedly enhanced by water-soluble azone. Skin permeation enhancing effect of azone accounts probably for the skin clearing enhancement.

  15. Indications on continued nitrogen uptake in Scots pine roots after clear-felling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrektson, A.; Valinger, E.; Leijon, B.; Sjoegren, H.; Sonesson, J.

    1997-11-01

    A study was performed in a 150 years old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand situated on a sandy moor in northern Sweden. Two plots were to be compared, and in June 1993 one was clear-felled. Even if reduced with approximately 50%, a significant fine root (diameter < 2 mm) growth was noticed at least up to one year after the clear-felling. For medium roots (diameters 2-4 and 4-6 mm) nitrogen content in root-wood and root-bark samples from the clear-felling, as compared to the reference plot, were 30-50% higher two months after the clear-felling. The difference did not increase in later comparisons. N-content in bark and wood buttress did not differ during the period studied, except for a higher percentage in bark at the clear-felling after two summers. This was believed to be a result of decomposition. The results indicate a maintained physiological activity in the stump-root system of Scots pine at least for one year at this site. An active uptake of N in roots of cut trees may influence leaching after clear-felling, the forage value of roots, and root decomposition rate and also maintain root competition with standing trees after thinning. 40 refs, 1 fig, 2 tabs

  16. Establishment of a clean chemistry laboratory at JAERI. Clean laboratory for environmental analysis and research (CLEAR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The JAERI has established a facility with a cleanroom: the Clean Laboratory for Environmental Analysis and Research (CLEAR). This report is an overview of the design, construction and performance evaluation of the CLEAR in the initial stage of the laboratory operation in June 2001. The CLEAR is a facility to be used for analyses of ultra trace amounts of nuclear materials in environmental samples for the safeguards, for the CTBT verification and for researches on environmental sciences. One of the special features of the CLEAR is that it meets double requirements of a cleanroom and for handling of nuclear materials. As another feature of the CLEAR, much attention was paid to the construction materials of the cleanroom for trace analysis of metal elements using considerable amounts of corrosive acids. The air conditioning and purification system, specially designed experimental equipment to provide clean work surfaces, utilities and safety systems are also demonstrated. The potential contamination from the completed cleanroom atmosphere during the analytical procedure was evaluated. It can be concluded that the CLEAR has provided a suitable condition for reliable analysis of ultra trace amounts of nuclear materials and other heavy elements in environmental samples. (author)

  17. Endometrioid and clear cell ovarian cancers: a comparative analysis of risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagle, Christina M; Olsen, Catherine M; Webb, Penelope M; Jordan, Susan J; Whiteman, David C; Green, Adèle C

    2008-11-01

    Endometrioid and clear cell subtypes of ovarian cancer are both known to be closely associated with endometriosis and endometrial pathology, and so have often been combined in studies of causation. We have examined these ovarian cancers separately for potentially distinct risk factors in our population-based, Australia-wide case control study of 142 women with incident invasive endometrioid, 90 with clear cell ovarian cancers and 1508 population controls. Multivariate logistic regression was used to calculated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Increasing parity, and hormonal contraceptive use for > or = 5 years, strongly decreased the risks of both subtypes. Breast feeding and tubal ligation were also inversely associated, but significantly so only for the endometrioid subtype. As expected endometriosis increased the risk of both subtypes (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.2-3.9 for endometrioid and OR 3.0, 95% CI 1.5-5.9 for clear cell). Obesity was associated only with clear cell cancers, where we observed a two-fold increased risk (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.2-4.1). Also a significant trend of decreasing risk with increasing intensity of smoking (p trend 0.02) and education beyond high school was associated with decreased development of clear cell cancers only. Endometrioid and clear cell ovarian cancers have some shared as well as some distinct risk factors, and therefore should be considered separately in studies of ovarian cancer. PMID:18707869

  18. Establishment of a clean chemistry laboratory at JAERI. Clean laboratory for environmental analysis and research (CLEAR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanzawa, Yukiko; Magara, Masaaki; Watanabe, Kazuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment] [and others

    2003-02-01

    The JAERI has established a facility with a cleanroom: the Clean Laboratory for Environmental Analysis and Research (CLEAR). This report is an overview of the design, construction and performance evaluation of the CLEAR in the initial stage of the laboratory operation in June 2001. The CLEAR is a facility to be used for analyses of ultra trace amounts of nuclear materials in environmental samples for the safeguards, for the CTBT verification and for researches on environmental sciences. One of the special features of the CLEAR is that it meets double requirements of a cleanroom and for handling of nuclear materials. As another feature of the CLEAR, much attention was paid to the construction materials of the cleanroom for trace analysis of metal elements using considerable amounts of corrosive acids. The air conditioning and purification system, specially designed experimental equipment to provide clean work surfaces, utilities and safety systems are also demonstrated. The potential contamination from the completed cleanroom atmosphere during the analytical procedure was evaluated. It can be concluded that the CLEAR has provided a suitable condition for reliable analysis of ultra trace amounts of nuclear materials and other heavy elements in environmental samples. (author)

  19. Some results on 4~m2~n designs with clear two-factor interaction components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Clear effects criterion is one of the important rules for selecting optimal fractional factorial designs,and it has become an active research issue in recent years.Tang et al.derived upper and lower bounds on the maximum number of clear two-factor interactions(2fi’s) in 2n-(n-k) fractional factorial designs of resolutions III and IV by constructing a 2n-(n-k) design for given k,which are only restricted for the symmetrical case.This paper proposes and studies the clear effects problem for the asymmetrical case.It improves the construction method of Tang et al.for 2n-(n-k) designs with resolution III and derives the upper and lower bounds on the maximum number of clear two-factor interaction components(2fic’s) in 4m2n designs with resolutions III and IV.The lower bounds are achieved by constructing specific designs.Comparisons show that the number of clear 2fic’s in the resulting design attains its maximum number in many cases,which reveals that the construction methods are satisfactory when they are used to construct 4m2n designs under the clear effects criterion.

  20. Clearing and dissecting insects for internal skeletal morphological research with particular reference to bees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Sasso Porto

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A detailed protocol for chemical clearing of bee specimens is presented. Dry specimens as well as those preserved in liquid media can be cleared using this protocol. The procedure consists of a combined use of alkaline solution (KOH or NaOH and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, followed by the boiling of the cleared specimens in 60–70% EtOH. Clearing is particularly useful for internal skeletal morphological research. This procedure allows for efficient study of internal projections of the exoskeleton (e.g., apodemes, furcae, phragmata, tentoria, internal ridges and sulci, but this process makes external features of the integument, as some sutures and sulci, readily available for observation as well. Upon completion of the chemical clearing process the specimens can be stored in glycerin. This procedure was developed and evaluated for the preparation of bees and other Apoidea, but modifications for use with other insect taxa should be straightforward after some experimentation on variations of timing of steps, concentration of solutions, temperatures, and the necessity of a given step. Comments on the long-term storage, morphological examination, and photodocumentation of cleared specimens are also provided.