WorldWideScience

Sample records for cleanup efforts nationwide

  1. Major clean-up effort in the ATLAS cavern

    CERN Multimedia

    Marzio Nessi

    On Tuesday 10 October, 58 ATLAS collaborators volunteered to give a hand for a major clean-up of the ATLAS detector prior to the toroid magnet ramp-up. This special task monopolised all of the technical coordination team and eight supervisors to oversee the volunteers who were assigned to two separate five-hour shifts. The volunteers removed all sorts of loose material inside and outside the detector, focusing mainly on potentially magnetic material lost inside the detector and dirt accumulated over several months, not to mention zillions of clipped cable ties! The technical crew provided 120 garbage bags and all were used. All sorts of material that had been lost inside the detector by various people was retrieved, in particular small tools which could potentially damage the detector, as well as metallic fillings hazardous for the electronics once the magnet will be ramped up. A more detailed inspection followed for all the inside of the detector, making sure the current on the magnet could be raised to 5KA ...

  2. Optimizing oil spill cleanup efforts: A tactical approach and evaluation framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubesic, Tony H; Wei, Ran; Nelson, Jake

    2017-12-15

    Although anthropogenic oil spills vary in size, duration and severity, their broad impacts on complex social, economic and ecological systems can be significant. Questions pertaining to the operational challenges associated with the tactical allocation of human resources, cleanup equipment and supplies to areas impacted by a large spill are particularly salient when developing mitigation strategies for extreme oiling events. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the application of advanced oil spill modeling techniques in combination with a developed mathematical model to spatially optimize the allocation of response crews and equipment for cleaning up an offshore oil spill. The results suggest that the detailed simulations and optimization model are a good first step in allowing both communities and emergency responders to proactively plan for extreme oiling events and develop response strategies that minimize the impacts of spills. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Respiratory effects of inhalation exposure among workers during the clean-up effort at the World Trade Center disaster site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbstman, Julie B; Frank, Robert; Schwab, Margo; Williams, D'Ann L; Samet, Jonathan M; Breysse, Patrick N; Geyh, Alison S

    2005-09-01

    During December 2001 we conducted a field study of 183 clean-up and recovery workers at the World Trade Center (WTC) disaster site to assess respiratory health effects potentially resulting from their work at the site. On site, we administered a respiratory health questionnaire designed to assess upper respiratory symptoms and lower respiratory symptoms, including cough, phlegm, and wheeze, as well as indices of exposure, including number of days worked at the site and job category. Spirometry was conducted for 175 workers. Sixty-five percent of the workers surveyed arrived at the site without lower respiratory symptoms. Of this group, 34% developed cough, 24% developed phlegm, and 19% developed wheeze. Prevalence rates of these symptoms were related to the number of days spent working at the WTC, but not job category. The mean percentage predicted FEV(1) and FVC were 6% and 5% lower, respectively, for workers who developed new lower respiratory symptoms compared to those who remained symptom free. While the development of new wheeze suggested the presence of airway obstruction, the near-normal distribution of age-adjusted FEV(1)/FVC ratios suggested that the degree of obstruction was mild. The prevalence rates of upper airway symptoms (nasal congestion, sore throat, hoarse throat) exceeded those of lower respiratory symptoms, however, it was not determined whether symptoms pre-dated arrival at the WTC site.

  4. Planting local seed for growth to nationwide E/PO efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, N.; Beisser, K.; Mendez, F.; Cockrell, D.; Wilhide, B.

    the expanding knowledge of space science. They experience the process involved in planning/launching a simulated space mission, including design/fabrication of instrumentation for a spacecraft. They are part of a Mission Team that built a spacecraft scale model complete with instrumentation and even give a full mission overview oral presentation to their peers. During this 2 week experience, the students interact with the APL scientists and engineers directly responsible for the featured missions. Scientists and engineers team up with Comcast Cablevision of Maryland, Cable in the Classroom, and the Maryland State Department of Education to give Maryland middle school students a true outer space experience focusing on specific NASA missions. The students move from behind their desks to behind the scenes of a deep- space mission at JHU/APL. The students hear mission briefings and take part in a special student press conference with mission team members. They don clean-room suits and tour the Lab's space facilities, including the Mission Operations Center, the space environment simulation lab, the vibration test lab, and the satellite communications facility. These local programs for outreach opportunities have often served as the test bed for national programs and partnerships. In this presentation we will review the local programs to show how the organizations benefit from the partnership with APL and also how the APL outreach programs gain a much wider and more appreciative audience. We will also show how these programs are being expanded to a more nationwide focus.

  5. RS-BASED WATER RESOURCES INVENTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES: CAPACITY BUILDING EFFORTS FOR NATIONWIDE IMPLEMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. C. Perez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering that the Philippines is archipelagic in nature and is exposed to disasters accentuated by climate change, water resource monitoring and management has been an important concern in the country. The design and implementation of an effective management scheme relies heavily on accurate, complete, and updated water resource inventories, usually in the form of maps and geodatabases. With the aim of developing a detailed and comprehensive database of all water resources in the Philippines, a 3-year project entitled “Development of the Philippine Hydrologic Dataset (PHD for Watersheds from LiDAR Surveys”, has been initiated by the University of the Philippines Diliman (UPD and the Department of Science and Technology (DOST. Various workflows has been developed to extract inland hydrologic features in the Philippines using accurate Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR Digital Terrain Models (DTMs and LiDAR point cloud data obtained through other government-funded programs, supplemented with other remotely-sensed imageries and ancillary information. Since the project covers national-scale mapping and inventory, the implementation was structured to be a collaborative effort between fifteen (15 State Universities/Colleges (SUCs and Higher Education Institutes (HEIs, along with multiple National Government Agencies (NGAs and Local Government Units (LGUs. This paper presents the project’s general structure, focusing mainly on its attempts and accomplishments in strengthening individual capacities of all involved SUCs, HEIs, and stakeholders utilizing hydrologic data for different applications.

  6. Cleanups in My Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleanups In My Community is a web app of hazardous waste cleanups for which EPA collects information, on maps and in lists, and to access additional information about those cleanups. This page describes and links to the application.

  7. Accelerating cleanup: Paths to closure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    This report describes the status of Environmental Management`s (EM`s) cleanup program and a direction forward to complete achievement of the 2006 vision. Achieving the 2006 vision results in significant benefits related to accomplishing EM program objectives. As DOE sites accelerate cleanup activities, risks to public health, the environment, and worker safety and health are all reduced. Finding more efficient ways to conduct work can result in making compliance with applicable environmental requirements easier to achieve. Finally, as cleanup activities at sites are completed, the EM program can focus attention and resources on the small number of sites with more complex cleanup challenges. Chapter 1 describes the process by which this report has been developed and what it hopes to accomplish, its relationship to the EM decision-making process, and a general background of the EM mission and program. Chapter 2 describes how the site-by-site projections were constructed, and summarizes, for each of DOE`s 11 Operations/Field Offices, the projected costs and schedules for completing the cleanup mission. Chapter 3 presents summaries of the detailed cleanup projections from three of the 11 Operations/Field Offices: Rocky Flats (Colorado), Richland (Washington), and Savannah River (South Carolina). The remaining eight Operations/Field Office summaries are in Appendix E. Chapter 4 reviews the cost drivers, budgetary constraints, and performance enhancements underlying the detailed analysis of the 353 projects that comprise EM`s accelerated cleanup and closure effort. Chapter 5 describes a management system to support the EM program. Chapter 6 provides responses to the general comments received on the February draft of this document.

  8. Nationwide Snapshot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mapes, Terry S.; Iverson, Megan M.; Fassbender, Linda L.; Britt, Michelle L.

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this effort was to create a nationwide snapshot of the current residential building practices in the United States, and to identify trends in building practices as they relate to building energy efficiency. Information on typical insulation levels, heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) efficiencies, window profiles, and other residential building components and assemblies provided a foundation for (1) identifying trends in residential building practices over time, (2) assessing energy-efficiency improvements in single-family homes over time and correlating them with the applicable building energy codes if possible, and (3) identifying building energy code adoption and compliance needs. This report seeks to identify trends in the residential building practice from 1996 to 2009.

  9. Mold: Cleanup and Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Mold Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Mold Cleanup & Remediation Homeowner’s and Renter’s Guide to Mold ...

  10. Cleanups in My Community

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Cleanups in My Community (CIMC) is a public web application that enables integrated access through maps, lists and search filtering to site-specific information EPA...

  11. Tritium research laboratory cleanup and transition project final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, A.J.

    1997-02-01

    This Tritium Research Laboratory Cleanup and Transition Project Final Report provides a high-level summary of this project`s multidimensional accomplishments. Throughout this report references are provided for in-depth information concerning the various topical areas. Project related records also offer solutions to many of the technical and or administrative challenges that such a cleanup effort requires. These documents and the experience obtained during this effort are valuable resources to the DOE, which has more than 1200 other process contaminated facilities awaiting cleanup and reapplication or demolition.

  12. Environmental compliance and cleanup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, D.G.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the roles of the principal agencies, organizations, and public in environmental compliance and cleanup of the Hanford Site. Regulatory oversight, the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, the role of Indian tribes, public participation, and CERCLA Natural Resource Damage Assessment Trustee Activities are all discussed.

  13. 75 FR 30753 - Regulated Navigation Area; Thea Foss and Wheeler-Osgood Waterways EPA Superfund Cleanup Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    ... Waterways EPA Superfund Cleanup Site, Commencement Bay, Tacoma, WA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION...) Commencement Bay Nearshore/Tideflats superfund cleanup remediation efforts. To more effectively protect those... ] Superfund Cleanup Site, Commencement Bay, Tacoma, WA'' in the Federal Register (73 FR 162, Aug. 20, 2008...

  14. SUPERFUND CLEANUPS AND INFANT HEALTH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Janet; Greenstone, Michael; Moretti, Enrico

    2011-05-01

    We are the first to examine the effect of Superfund cleanups on infant health rather than focusing on proximity to a site. We study singleton births to mothers residing within 5km of a Superfund site between 1989-2003 in five large states. Our "difference in differences" approach compares birth outcomes before and after a site clean-up for mothers who live within 2,000 meters of the site and those who live between 2,000- 5,000 meters of a site. We find that proximity to a Superfund site before cleanup is associated with a 20 to 25% increase in the risk of congenital anomalies.

  15. 76 FR 45738 - Regulated Navigation Area; Pacific Sound Resources and Lockheed Shipyard EPA Superfund Cleanup...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ... Lockheed Shipyard EPA Superfund Cleanup Sites, Elliott Bay, Seattle, WA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... Resources (PSR) and Lockheed Shipyard superfund cleanup remediation efforts. This RNA would prohibit... that involve disrupting the integrity of the sediment caps that cover the superfund sites. It will not...

  16. U-PLANT GEOGRAPHIC ZONE CLEANUP PROTOTYPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ROMINE, L.D.

    2006-02-01

    The U Plant geographic zone (UPZ) occupies 0.83 square kilometers on the Hanford Site Central Plateau (200 Area). It encompasses the U Plant canyon (221-U Facility), ancillary facilities that supported the canyon, soil waste sites, and underground pipelines. The UPZ cleanup initiative coordinates the cleanup of the major facilities, ancillary facilities, waste sites, and contaminated pipelines (collectively identified as ''cleanup items'') within the geographic zone. The UPZ was selected as a geographic cleanup zone prototype for resolving regulatory, technical, and stakeholder issues and demonstrating cleanup methods for several reasons: most of the area is inactive, sufficient characterization information is available to support decisions, cleanup of the high-risk waste sites will help protect the groundwater, and the zone contains a representative cross-section of the types of cleanup actions that will be required in other geographic zones. The UPZ cleanup demonstrates the first of 22 integrated zone cleanup actions on the Hanford Site Central Plateau to address threats to groundwater, the environment, and human health. The UPZ contains more than 100 individual cleanup items. Cleanup actions in the zone will be undertaken using multiple regulatory processes and decision documents. Cleanup actions will include building demolition, waste site and pipeline excavation, and the construction of multiple, large engineered barriers. In some cases, different cleanup actions may be taken at item locations that are immediately adjacent to each other. The cleanup planning and field activities for each cleanup item must be undertaken in a coordinated and cohesive manner to ensure effective execution of the UPZ cleanup initiative. The UPZ zone cleanup implementation plan (ZCIP) was developed to address the need for a fundamental integration tool for UPZ cleanup. As UPZ cleanup planning and implementation moves forward, the ZCIP is intended to be a living

  17. Landfill gas cleanup for fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    EPRI is to test the feasibility of using a carbonate fuel cell to generate electricity from landfill gas. Landfills produce a substantial quantity of methane gas, a natural by-product of decaying organic wastes. Landfill gas, however, contains sulfur and halogen compounds, which are known contaminants to fuel cells and their fuel processing equipment. The objective of this project is to clean the landfill gas well enough to be used by the fuel cell without making the process prohibitively expensive. The cleanup system tested in this effort could also be adapted for use with other fuel cells (e.g., solid oxide, phosphoric acid) running on landfill gas.

  18. Shoreline clean-up methods : biological treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massoura, S.T. [Oil Spill Response Limited, Southampton (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01

    The cleanup of oil spills in shoreline environments is a challenging issue worldwide. Oil spills receive public and media attention, particularly in the event of a coastal impact. It is important to evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness of cleanup methods when defining the level of effort and consequences that are appropriate to remove or treat different types of oil on different shoreline substrates. Of the many studies that have compared different mechanical, chemical and biological treatments for their effectiveness on various types of oil, biological techniques have received the most attention. For that reason, this paper evaluated the effectiveness and effects of shoreline cleanup methods using biological techniques. It summarized data from field experiments and oil spill incidents, including the Exxon Valdez, Sea Empress, Prestige, Grand Eagle, Nakhodka, Guanabara Bay and various Gulf war oil spills. Five major shoreline types were examined, notably rocky intertidal, cobble/pebble/gravel, sand/mud, saltmarsh, and mangrove/sea-grass. The biological techniques that were addressed were nutrient enrichment, hydrocarbon-utilizing bacteria, vegetable oil biosolvents, plants, surf washing, oil-particle interactions and natural attenuation. The study considered the oil type, volume and fate of stranded oil, location of coastal materials, extent of pollution and the impact of biological techniques. The main factors that affect biodegradation of hydrocarbons are the volume, chemical composition and weathering state of the petroleum product as well as the temperature, oxygen availability of nutrients, water salinity, pH level, water content, and microorganisms in the shoreline environment. The interaction of these factors also affect the biodegradation of oil. It was concluded that understanding the fate of stranded oil can help in the development of techniques that improve the weathering and degradation of oil on complex shoreline substrates. 39 refs.

  19. Superfund Cleanups and Infant Health

    OpenAIRE

    Janet Currie; Michael Greenstone; Enrico Moretti

    2011-01-01

    We are the first to examine the effect of Superfund cleanups on infant health rather than focusing on proximity to a site. We study singleton births to mothers residing within 5km of a Superfund site between 1989–2003 in five large states. Our “difference in differences” approach compares birth outcomes before and after a site clean-up for mothers who live within 2,000 meters of the site and those who live between 2,000– 5,000 meters of a site. We find that proximity to a Superfund site befor...

  20. Recycling Facilities - Land Recycling Cleanup Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Land Recycling Cleanup Location Land Recycling Cleanup Locations (LRCL) are divided into one or more sub-facilities categorized as media: Air, Contained Release or...

  1. Army Environmental Cleanup Strategic Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    Serves an enduring document to guide future strategic plans – Establishes ISO 14001 framework for cleanup; complies w/GPRA  Army Environmental...follow ISO 14001 – Plan - Complete the FY10-11 Strategic Plan – Do - Implement Activities According to the Plan – Check - Evaluate Progress Against the

  2. PARTICULATE HOT GAS STREAM CLEANUP TECHNICAL ISSUES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-05-05

    This is the fourth annual report describing the activities performed under Task 1 of Contract No. DE-AC21-94MC31160. The analyses of hot gas stream cleanup (HGCU) ashes and descriptions of filter performance studied under this contract are designed to address problems with filter operation that are apparently linked to characteristics of the collected ash. This work is designed to generate a data base of the key characteristics of ashes collected from operating advanced particle filters and to relate these ash properties to the operation and performance of these filters and their components. This report summarizes characterizations of ash and char samples from pressurized fluidized-bed combustion and gasification facilities. Efforts are under way to develop a method for preserving fragile filter cakes formed on ceramic filter elements. The HGCU data base was formatted for Microsoft Access 97 ® . Plans for the remainder of the project include characterization of additional samples collected during site visits to the Department of Energy / Southern Company Services Power Systems Development Facility and completion and delivery of the HGCU data base.

  3. PARTICULATE HOT GAS STREAM CLEANUP TECHNICAL ISSUES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-30

    This is the fourth annual report describing the activities performed under Task 1 of Contract No. DE-AC21-94MC31160. The analyses of hot gas stream cleanup (HGCU) ashes and descriptions of filter performance studied under this contract are designed to address problems with filter operation that are apparently linked to characteristics of the collected ash. This work is designed to generate a data base of the key characteristics of ashes collected from operating advanced particle filters and to relate these ash properties to the operation and performance of these filters and their components. This report summarizes characterizations of ash and char samples from pressurized fluidized-bed combustion and gasification facilities. Efforts are under way to develop a method for preserving fragile filter cakes formed on ceramic filter elements. The HGCU data base was formatted for Microsoft Access 97 ® . Plans for the remainder of the project include characterization of additional samples collected during site visits to the Department of Energy / Southern Company Services Power Systems Development Facility and completion and delivery of the HGCU data base.

  4. PARTICULATE HOT GAS STREAM CLEANUP TECHNICAL ISSUES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-05

    This is the fourth annual report describing the activities performed under Task 1 of Contract No. DE-AC21-94MC31160. The analyses of hot gas stream cleanup (HGCU) ashes and descriptions of filter performance studied under this contract are designed to address problems with filter operation that are apparently linked to characteristics of the collected ash. This work is designed to generate a data base of the key characteristics of ashes collected from operating advanced particle filters and to relate these ash properties to the operation and performance of these filters and their components. This report summarizes characterizations of ash and char samples from pressurized fluidized-bed combustion and gasification facilities. Efforts are under way to develop a method for preserving fragile filter cakes formed on ceramic filter elements. The HGCU data base was formatted for Microsoft Access 97{reg_sign}. Plans for the remainder of the project include characterization of additional samples collected during site visits to the Department of Energy/Southern Company Services Power Systems Development Facility and completion and delivery of the HGCU data base.

  5. Increased leukemia risk in Chernobyl cleanup workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new study found a significantly elevated risk for chronic lymphocytic leukemia among workers who were engaged in recovery and clean-up activities following the Chernobyl power plant accident in 1986.

  6. Assessment, Cleanup and Redevelopment Exchange System (ACRES)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Assessment, Cleanup and Redevelopment Exchange System (ACRES) is an online database for Brownfields Grantees to electronically submit data directly to EPA.

  7. Bioavailability: implications for science/cleanup policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denit, Jeffery; Planicka, J. Gregory

    1998-12-01

    This paper examines the role of bioavailability in risk assessment and cleanup decisions. Bioavailability refers to how chemicals ''behave'' and their ''availability'' to interact with living organisms. Bioavailability has significant implications for exposure risks, cleanup goals, and site costs. Risk to human health and the environment is directly tied to the bioavailability of the chemicals of concern.

  8. Intergenerational equity and environmental restoration cleanup levels.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hocking, E. K.; Environmental Assessment

    2001-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy environmental restoration program faces difficult decisions about the levels of cleanup to be achieved at its many contaminated sites and has acknowledged the need for considering intergenerational equity in its decision making. Intergenerational equity refers to the fairness of access to resources across generations. Environmental restoration cleanup levels can have unintended and unfair consequences for future generations access to resources. The potentially higher costs associated with using low, non-risk-based cleanup levels for remediation may divert funding from other activities that could have a greater beneficial impact on future generations. Low, non-risk-based cleanup levels could also result in more damage to the nation's resources than would occur if a higher cleanup level were used. The loss or impairment of these resources could have an inequitable effect on future generations. However, intergenerational inequity could arise if sites are not completely restored and if access to and use of natural and cultural resources are unfairly limited as a result of residual contamination. In addition to concerns about creating possible intergenerational inequities related to selected cleanup levels, the tremendous uncertainties associated with sites and their restoration can lead site planners to rely on stewardship by default. An ill-conceived stewardship program can contribute to intergenerational inequity by limiting access to resources while passing on risks to future generations and not preparing them for those risks. This paper presents a basic model and process for designing stewardship programs that can achieve equity among generations.

  9. Document image cleanup and binarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Victor; Manmatha, Raghaven

    1998-04-01

    Image binarization is a difficult task for documents with text over textured or shaded backgrounds, poor contrast, and/or considerable noise. Current optical character recognition (OCR) and document analysis technology do not handle such documents well. We have developed a simple yet effective algorithm for document image clean-up and binarization. The algorithm consists of two basic steps. In the first step, the input image is smoothed using a low-pass filter. The smoothing operation enhances the text relative to any background texture. This is because background texture normally has higher frequency than text does. The smoothing operation also removes speckle noise. In the second step, the intensity histogram of the smoothed image is computed and a threshold automatically selected as follows. For black text, the first peak of the histogram corresponds to text. Thresholding the image at the value of the valley between the first and second peaks of the histogram binarizes the image well. In order to reliably identify the valley, the histogram is smoothed by a low-pass filter before the threshold is computed. The algorithm has been applied to some 50 images from a wide variety of source: digitized video frames, photos, newspapers, advertisements in magazines or sales flyers, personal checks, etc. There are 21820 characters and 4406 words in these images. 91 percent of the characters and 86 percent of the words are successfully cleaned up and binarized. A commercial OCR was applied to the binarized text when it consisted of fonts which were OCR recognizable. The recognition rate was 84 percent for the characters and 77 percent for the words.

  10. Hot-gas cleanup system model development. Volume I. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ushimaru, K.; Bennett, A.; Bekowies, P.J.

    1982-11-01

    This two-volume report summarizes the state of the art in performance modeling of advanced high-temperature, high-pressure (HTHP) gas cleanup devices. Volume I contains the culmination of the research effort carried over the past 12 months and is a summary of research achievements. Volume II is the user's manual for the computer programs developed under the present research project. In this volume, Section 2 presents background information on pressurized, fluidized-bed combustion concepts, a description of the role of the advanced gas cleanup systems, and a list of advanced gas cleanup systems that are currently in development under DOE sponsorship. Section 3 describes the methodology for the software architecture that forms the basis of the well-disciplined and structured computer programs developed under the present project. Section 4 reviews the fundamental theories that are important in analyzing the cleanup performance of HTHP gas filters. Section 5 discusses the effect of alkali agents in HTHP gas cleanup. Section 6 evaluates the advanced HTHP gas cleanup models based on their mathematical integrity, availability of supporting data, and the likelihood of commercialization. As a result of the evaluation procedure detailed in Section 6, five performance models were chosen to be incorporated into the overall system simulation code, ASPEN. These five models (the electrocyclone, ceramic bag filter, moving granular bed filter, electrostatic granular bed filter, and electrostatic precipitator) are described in Section 7. The method of cost projection for these five models is discussed in Section 8. The supporting data and validation of the computer codes are presented in Section 9, and finally the conclusions and recommendations for the HTHP gas cleanup system model development are given in Section 10. 72 references, 19 figures, 25 tables.

  11. Sectored Clean-up Work Plan for Housekeeping Category Waste Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. J. Nacht

    2000-02-01

    The Sectored Clean-up Work Plan (SCWP) replaces the Housekeeping Category Corrective Action Unit Work Plan and provides a strategy to be used for conducting housekeeping activities using a sectored clean-up approach. This work plan provides a process by which one or more existing housekeeping category Corrective Action Sites (CASS) from the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order and/or non-FFACO designated waste site(s) are grouped into a sector for simultaneous remediation and cleanup. This increases effectiveness and efficiencies in labor, materials, equipment, cost, and time. This plan is an effort by the U.S. Department of Energy to expedite work in a more organized and efficient approach. The objectives of this plan are to: Group housekeeping FFACO CASS and non-FFACO housekeeping sites into sectors and remediate during the same field visit; Provide consistent documentation on FFACO CAS and non-FFACO clean-up activities; Perform similar activities under one approved document; Remediate areas inside the Deactivation and Decommissioning facilities and compounds in a campaign-style remediation; and Increase efficiencies and cost-effectiveness, accelerate cleanups, reduce mobilization, demobilization, and remediation costs.

  12. HARVESTING EMSP RESEARCH RESULTS FOR WASTE CLEANUP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillen, Donna Post; Nielson, R. Bruce; Phillips, Ann Marie; Lebow, Scott

    2003-02-27

    The extent of environmental contamination created by the nuclear weapons legacy combined with expensive, ineffective waste cleanup strategies at many U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites prompted Congress to pass the FY96 Energy and Water Development Appropriations Act, which directed the DOE to: ''provide sufficient attention and resources to longer-term basic science research, which needs to be done to ultimately reduce cleanup costs'', ''develop a program that takes advantage of laboratory and university expertise, and'' ''seek new and innovative cleanup methods to replace current conventional approaches which are often costly and ineffective.'' In response, the DOE initiated the Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP)-a targeted, long-term research program intended to produce solutions to DOE's most pressing environmental problems. EMSP funds basic research to lower cleanup cost and reduce risk to workers, the public, and the environment; direct the nation's scientific infrastructure towards cleanup of contaminated waste sites; and bridge the gap between fundamental research and technology development activities. EMSP research projects are competitively awarded based on the project's scientific, merit coupled with relevance to addressing DOE site needs. This paper describes selected EMSP research projects with long, mid, and short-term deployment potential and discusses the impacts, focus, and results of the research. Results of EMSP research are intended to accelerate cleanup schedules, reduce cost or risk for current baselines, provide alternatives for contingency planning, or provide solutions to problems where no solutions exist.

  13. Assessment of synfuel spill cleanup options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petty, S.E.; Wakamiya, W.; English, C.J.; Strand, J.A.; Mahlum, D.D.

    1982-04-01

    Existing petroleum-spill cleanup technologies are reviewed and their limitations, should they be used to mitigate the effects of synfuels spills, are discussed. The six subsections of this report address the following program goals: synfuels production estimates to the year 2000; possible sources of synfuel spills and volumes of spilled fuel to the year 2000; hazards of synfuels spills; assessment of existing spill cleanup technologies for oil spills; assessment of cleanup technologies for synfuel spills; and disposal of residue from synfuel spill cleanup operations. The first goal of the program was to obtain the most current estimates on synfuel production. These estimates were then used to determine the amount of synfuels and synfuel products likely to be spilled, by location and by method of transportation. A review of existing toxicological studies and existing spill mitigation technologies was then completed to determine the potential impacts of synthetic fuel spills on the environment. Data are presented in the four appendixes on the following subjects: synfuel production estimates; acute toxicity of synfuel; acute toxicity of alcohols.

  14. Flood Cleanup to Protect Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    During a flood cleanup, the indoor air quality in your home or office may appear to be the least of your problems. However, failure to remove contaminated materials and to reduce moisture and humidity can present serious long-term health risks.

  15. Cleanups In My Community (CIMC) - Recovery Act Funded Cleanups, National Layer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer provides access to Recovery Act Funded Cleanup sites as part of the CIMC web service. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act was signed into law...

  16. EPA Signs Two Clean Up Decisions in a Continued Effort to Protect Cape Cod Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    In its ongoing efforts to protect the Cape Cod aquifer from contamination from historical military training activities, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has issued final cleanup strategies for two contaminated areas at Camp Edwards.

  17. The Use of the Hanford Onsite Packaging and Transportation Safety Program to Meet Cleanup Milestones Under the Hanford Site Cleanup 2015 Vision and the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 - 12403

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavender, John C. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA 99354 (United States); Edwards, W. Scott [Areva Federal Services, Richland, WA 99354 (United States); Macbeth, Paul J.; Self, Richard J. [U.S. Department of Energy Richland Operations Office, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); West, Lori D. [Materials and Energy Corporation, Richland, WA 99354 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The Hanford Site presents unique challenges in meeting the U.S. Department of Energy Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) 2015 Cleanup Vision. CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC), its subcontractors, and DOE-RL were challenged to retrieve, transport and remediate a wide range of waste materials. Through a collaborative effort by all Hanford Onsite Central Plateau Cleanup Team Members, disposition pathways for diverse and seemingly impossible to ship wastes were developed under a DOE Order 460.1C-compliant Hanford Onsite Transportation Safety Program. The team determined an effective method for transporting oversized compliant waste payloads to processing and disposition facilities. The use of the onsite TSD packaging authorizations proved to be vital to safely transporting these materials for processing and eventual final disposition. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) provided additional resources to expedite planning and execution of these important cleanup milestones. Through the innovative and creative use of the TSD, the Hanford Onsite Central Plateau Cleanup Team Members have developed and are executing an integrated project plan that enables the safe and compliant transport of a wide variety of difficult-to-transport waste items, accelerating previous cleanup schedules to meet cleanup milestones. (authors)

  18. Computer models used to support cleanup decision-making at hazardous and radioactive waste sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moskowitz, P.D.; Pardi, R.; DePhillips, M.P.; Meinhold, A.F.

    1992-07-01

    Massive efforts are underway to cleanup hazardous and radioactive waste sites located throughout the US To help determine cleanup priorities, computer models are being used to characterize the source, transport, fate and effects of hazardous chemicals and radioactive materials found at these sites. Although, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the US Department of Energy (DOE), and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) have provided preliminary guidance to promote the use of computer models for remediation purposes, no Agency has produced directed guidance on models that must be used in these efforts. To identify what models are actually being used to support decision-making at hazardous and radioactive waste sites, a project jointly funded by EPA, DOE and NRC was initiated. The purpose of this project was to: (1) Identify models being used for hazardous and radioactive waste site assessment purposes; and (2) describe and classify these models. This report presents the results of this study.

  19. Oil spill cleanup method and apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayes, F.M.

    1980-06-24

    A method for removing oil from the surface of water where an oil spill has occurred, particularly in obstructed or shallow areas, which comprises partially surrounding a hovercraft with a floating oil-collecting barrier, there being no barrier at the front of the hovercraft, moving the oil-barrier-surrounded-hovercraft into oil contaminated water, and collecting oil gathered within the barrier behind the hovercraft through a suction line which carries the oil to a storage tank aboard the hovercraft. The invention also embodies the hovercraft adapted to effect an oil spill cleanup.

  20. Particulate hot gas stream cleanup technical issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pontius, D.H.; Snyder, T.R.

    1999-09-30

    The analyses of hot gas stream cleanup particulate samples and descriptions of filter performance studied under this contract were designed to address problems with filter operation that have been linked to characteristics of the collected particulate matter. One objective of this work was to generate an interactive, computerized data bank of the key physical and chemical characteristics of ash and char collected from operating advanced particle filters and to relate these characteristics to the operation and performance of these filters. The interactive data bank summarizes analyses of over 160 ash and char samples from fifteen pressurized fluidized-bed combustion and gasification facilities utilizing high-temperature, high pressure barrier filters.

  1. TRUEX process solvent cleanup with solid sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tse, Pui-Kwan; Reichley-Yinger, L.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1989-01-01

    Solid sorbents, alumina, silica gel, and Amberlyst A-26 have been tested for the cleanup of degraded TRUEX-NPH solvent. A sodium carbonate scrub alone does not completely remove acidic degradation products from highly degraded solvent and cannot restore the stripping performance of the solvent. By following the carbonate scrub with either neutral alumina or Amberlyst A-26 anion exchange resin, the performance of the TRUEX-NPH is substantially restored. The degraded TRUEX-NPH was characterized before and after treatment by supercritical fluid chromatography. Its performance was evaluated by americium distribution ratios, phase-separation times, and lauric acid distribution coefficients. 17 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Central cortical cleanup and zonular deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Ahmad M; Antonios, Rafic S; Ahmed, Iqbal Ike K

    2016-01-01

    Complete removal of the cortex has been advocated to prevent posterior capsular opacification but carries the risk of zonular dehiscence, hence there is a need for a safe maximal cortical cleanup technique in eyes with severe diffuse zonulopathy in subjects above age 90. We used bimanual central cortical cleaning by elevating central fibers and aspirating them toward the periphery. Peripheral cortical fibers were removed passively only when they became loose due to copious irrigation. A one-piece foldable implant was inserted without a capsular tension ring. Postoperative corticosteroid drops were used. This technique was safely performed in a dozen eyes with severe pseudo-exfoliation or brunescent cataract with weak zonules. Posterior capsular rupture, iritis, vitreous loss, and lens subluxation were not observed. Moderate capsular phimosis occurred but with maintained central vision. The dogma of "complete cortical cleanup" in severe zonulopathy needs to be revisited in favor of a clear visual axis with maximal preservation of the damaged zonules. This technique is ideal in patients above age 90 where posterior capsular opacification and late dislocation of intraocular lens-capsule bag complex are unlikely to occur until several years postoperatively.

  3. Houdini: Site and locomotion analysis-driven design of an in-tank mobile cleanup robot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schempf, H.

    1995-10-01

    This paper describes design and locomotion analysis efforts to develop a new reconfigurable and collapsible working machine, dubbed Houdini, to remotely clean up hazardous-waste and petroleum storage tanks. The tethered robot system is designed to allow remote entry through man-way openings as small as 0.61 m in diameter, after which it expands its locomotors and opens up its collapsible backhoe/manipulator and plow to subsequently perform waste or material handling operations. The design is optimized to meet stringent site and safety requirements, and represents a viable alternative to (1) the long-reach manipulation systems proposed for hazardous storage tank cleanup, and (2) confined-entry manual cleanup approaches. The system development has been funded to provide waste mobilization and removal solutions for the hazardous waste storage tanks in the Department of Energy (DoE) Fernald and Oak Ridge complexes. Other potential applications areas are the cleanup of heavy-crude petroleum storage tanks. The author has developed a fully operational prototype which is currently undergoing testing.

  4. Tephra fall clean-up in urban environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Josh L.; Wilson, Thomas M.; Magill, Christina

    2015-10-01

    Tephra falls impact urban communities by disrupting transport systems, contaminating and damaging buildings and infrastructures, and are potentially hazardous to human health. Therefore, prompt and effective tephra clean-up measures are an essential component of an urban community's response to tephra fall. This paper reviews case studies of tephra clean-up operations in urban environments around the world, spanning 50 years. It identifies methods used in tephra clean-up and assesses a range of empirical relationships between level of tephra accumulation and clean-up metrics such as collected tephra volume, costs, and duration of operations. Results indicate the volume of tephra collected from urban areas is proportional to tephra accumulation. Urban areas with small tephra accumulations (1,000 m3/km2 or an average of 1 mm thickness) may collect 50,000 m3/km2 or an average of 50 mm thickness) remove up to 80%. This relationship can inform impact and risk assessments by providing an estimate of the likely response required for a given tephra fall. No strong relationship was found between tephra fall accumulation and clean-up cost or duration for urban environments which received one-off tephra falls, suggesting that these aspects of tephra fall clean-up operations are context specific. Importantly, this study highlights the advantage of effective planning for tephra clean-up and disposal in potentially exposed areas.

  5. Particulate Hot Gas Stream Cleanup Technical Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potius, D.; Snyder, T.

    1997-07-01

    The characteristics of entrained particles generated by advanced coal conversion technologies and the harsh flue gas environments from which these particles must be removed challenge current ceramic barrier filtration systems. Measurements have shown that the size distribution, morphology, and chemical composition of particles generated by pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) and gasification processes differ significantly from the corresponding characteristics of conventional pulverized-coal ash particles. The entrained particulate matter from these advanced conversion technologies often comprise fine size distributions, irregular particle morphologies, high specific surface areas, and significant proportions of added sorbent material. These characteristics can create high ash cohesivity and high pressure losses through the filter cakes. In addition, the distributions of chemical constituents among the collected particles provide local, highly concentrated chemical species that promote reactions between adjacent particles that ultimately cause strong, nodular deposits to form in the filter vessel. These deposits can lead directly to bridging and filter element failure. This project is designed to address aspects of filter operation that are apparently linked to the characteristics of the collected ash or the performance of the ceramic filter elements. The activities conducted under Task 1, Assessment of Ash Characteristics, are discussed in this paper. Activities conducted under Task 2, Testing and Failure Analysis of Ceramic Filters, are discussed in a separate paper included in the proceedings of the Advanced Coal-Based Power and Environmental Systems `97 Conference. The specific objectives of Task I include the generation of a data base of the key characteristics of Hot Gas Stream Cleanup (HGCU) ashes collected from operating advanced particle filters (APFS) and the identification of relationships between HGCU ash properties and the operation and

  6. Particulate hot gas stream cleanup technical issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    This is the tenth in a series of quarterly reports describing the activities performed under Contract No. DE-AC21-94MC31160. Analyses of Hot Gas Stream Cleanup (HGCU) ashes and descriptions of filter performance address aspects of filter operation that are apparently linked to the characteristics of the collected ash or the performance of the ceramic bed filter elements. Task I is designed to generate a data base of the key characteristics of ashes collected from operating advanced particle filters (APFS) and to relate these ash properties to the operation and performance of these filters. Task 2 concerns testing and failure analysis of ceramic filter elements. Under Task I during the past quarter, analyses were performed on a particulate sample from the Transport Reactor Demonstration Unit (TRDU) located at the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center. Analyses are in progress on ash samples from the Advanced Particulate Filter (APF) at the Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustor (PFBC) that was in operation at Tidd and ash samples from the Pressurized Circulating Fluid Bed (PCFB) system located at Karhula, Finland. A site visit was made to the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) to collect ash samples from the filter vessel and to document the condition of the filter vessel with still photographs and videotape. Particulate samples obtained during this visit are currently being analyzed for entry into the Hot Gas Cleanup (HGCU) data base. Preparations are being made for a review meeting on ash bridging to be held at Department of Energy Federal Energy Technology Center - Morgantown (DOE/FETC-MGN) in the near future. Most work on Task 2 was on hold pending receipt of additional funds; however, creep testing of Schumacher FT20 continued. The creep tests on Schumacher FT20 specimens just recently ended and data analysis and comparisons to other data are ongoing. A summary and analysis of these creep results will be sent out shortly. Creep

  7. Introduction to Energy Conservation and Production at Waste Cleanup Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    This issue paper, prepared by EPA's Engineering Forum under the Technical Support Project, provides an overview on the considerations for energy conservation and production during the design and (O&M) phases of waste cleanup projects.

  8. Central cortical cleanup and zonular deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour AM

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Ahmad M Mansour,1,2 Rafic S Antonios,1 Iqbal Ike K Ahmed3 1Department of Ophthalmology, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Rafic Hariri University Hospital, Beirut, Lebanon; 3Department of Ophthalmology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada Background: Complete removal of the cortex has been advocated to prevent posterior capsular opacification but carries the risk of zonular dehiscence, hence there is a need for a safe maximal cortical cleanup technique in eyes with severe diffuse zonulopathy in subjects above age 90. Methods: We used bimanual central cortical cleaning by elevating central fibers and aspirating them toward the periphery. Peripheral cortical fibers were removed passively only when they became loose due to copious irrigation. A one-piece foldable implant was inserted without a capsular tension ring. Postoperative corticosteroid drops were used. Results: This technique was safely performed in a dozen eyes with severe pseudo-exfoliation or brunescent cataract with weak zonules. Posterior capsular rupture, iritis, vitreous loss, and lens subluxation were not observed. Moderate capsular phimosis occurred but with maintained central vision. Conclusion: The dogma of “complete cortical cleanup” in severe zonulopathy needs to be revisited in favor of a clear visual axis with maximal preservation of the damaged zonules. This technique is ideal in patients above age 90 where posterior capsular opacification and late dislocation of intraocular lens–capsule bag complex are unlikely to occur until several years postoperatively. Keywords: brunescent cataract, cortex aspiration, phacoemulsification, pseudo-exfoliation, weak zonules

  9. Nanoporous polystyrene fibers for oil spill cleanup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jinyou; Shang, Yanwei; Ding, Bin; Yang, Jianmao; Yu, Jianyong; Al-Deyab, Salem S

    2012-02-01

    The development of oil sorbents with high sorption capacity, low cost, scalable fabrication, and high selectivity is of great significance for water environmental protection, especially for oil spillage on seawater. In this work, we report nanoporous polystyrene (PS) fibers prepared via a one-step electrospinning process used as oil sorbents for oil spill cleanup. The oleophilic-hydrophobic PS oil sorbent with highly porous structures shows a motor oil sorption capacity of 113.87 g/g, approximately 3-4 times that of natural sorbents and nonwoven polypropylene fibrous mats. Additionally, the sorbents also exhibit a relatively high sorption capacity for edible oils, such as bean oil (111.80 g/g) and sunflower seed oil (96.89 g/g). The oil sorption mechanism of the PS sorbent and the sorption kinetics were investigated. Our nanoporous material has great potential for use in wastewater treatment, oil accident remediation and environmental protection. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Cleanup of a jet fuel spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesko, Steve

    1996-11-01

    Eaton operates a corporate aircraft hanger facility in Battle Creek, Michigan. Tests showed that two underground storage tanks leaked. Investigation confirmed this release discharged several hundred gallons of Jet A kerosene into the soil and groundwater. The oil moved downward approximately 30 feet and spread laterally onto the water table. Test results showed kerosene in the adsorbed, free and dissolved states. Eaton researched and investigated three clean-up options. They included pump and treat, dig and haul and bioremediation. Jet fuel is composed of readily biodegradable hydrocarbon chains. This fact coupled with the depth to groundwater and geologic setting made bioremediation the low cost and most effective alternative. A recovery well was installed at the leading edge of the dissolved contamination. A pump moved water from this well into a nutrient addition system. Nutrients added included nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium. Additionally, air was sparged into the water. The water was discharged into an infiltration gallery installed when the underground storage tanks were removed. Water circulated between the pump and the infiltration basin in a closed loop fashion. This oxygenated, nutrient rich water actively and aggressively treated the soils between the bottom of the gallery and the top of the groundwater and the groundwater. The system began operating in August of 1993 and reduced jet fuel to below detection levels. In August of 1995 The State of Michigan issued a clean closure declaration to the site.

  11. PARTICULATE HOT GAS STREAM CLEANUP TECHNICAL ISSUES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-02-26

    This quarterly report describes technical activities performed under Contract No. DE-AC21-94MC31160. The analyses of hot gas stream cleanup (HGCU) ashes and descriptions of filter performance studied under Task 1 of this contract are designed to address problems with filter operation that are apparently linked to characteristics of the collected ash. This report includes a description of a device developed to harden a filter cake on a filter element so that the element and cake can subsequently be encapsulated in epoxy and studied in detail. This report also reviews the status of the HGCU data base of ash and char characteristics. Task 1 plans for the remainder of the project include characterization of additional samples collected during site visits to the Department of Energy/Southern Company Services Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF), encapsulation of an intact filter cake from the PSDF, and completion and delivery of the HGCU data bank. Task 2 of this project concerns the testing and failure analyses of new and used filter elements and filter materials. Task 2 work during the past quarter consisted of hoop tensile and axial compressive stress-strain responses of McDermott ceramic composite and hoop tensile testing of Techniweave candle filters as-manufactured and after exposure to the gasification environment.

  12. PARTICULATE HOT GAS STREAM CLEANUP TECHNICAL ISSUES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.H. Pontius

    1999-08-30

    This quarterly report describes technical activities performed under Contract No. DE-AC21-94MC31160. The analyses of hot gas stream cleanup (HGCU) ashes and descriptions of filter performance studied under Task 1 of this contract are designed to address problems with filter operation that are apparently linked to characteristics of the collected ash. This report reviews the status of the HGCU data bank of ash and char characteristics, including the interactive querying of measured particulate properties. Task 1 plans for the remainder of the project include completion and delivery of the HGCU data bank, and issuance of a comprehensive final report on activities conducted under Task 1. Task 2 of this project concerns the testing and failure analyses of new and used filter elements and filter materials. Task 2 work during the past quarter included preliminary testing of two materials. One material tested was the soft candle filter manufactured by CGC and supplied by ABB. The other material was N610/mullite manufactured by Albany International (AIT).

  13. PARTICULATE HOT GAS STREAM CLEANUP TECHNICAL ISSUES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    This quarterly report describes technical activities performed under Contract No. DE-AC21-94MC31160. The analyses of hot gas stream cleanup (HGCU) ashes and descriptions of filter performance studied under Task 1 of this contract are designed to address problems with filter operation that are apparently linked to characteristics of the collected ash. This report includes summaries of analyses performed on particulate samples from Sierra Pacific Power Company's Pinon Pine Power Project. This report also reviews the status of the HGCU data bank of ash and char characteristics, and plans for enhancing the data bank with interactive querying of measured particulate properties. Task 1 plans for the remainder of the project include completion and delivery of the HGCU data bank. Task 2 of this project concerns the testing and failure analyses of new and used filter elements and filter materials. Task 2 work during the past quarter included preliminary testing of two materials. One material tested was the soft candle filter manufactured by CGC and supplied by ABB. The other material was N610/mullite manufactured by Albany International (AIT).

  14. Dillingham plan attacks oil spill cleanup problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1970-07-27

    A detailed scheme has been proposed for combating oil spills in U.S. offshore waters, hopefully moving oil spill control out of its infancy and at least into the toddler stage. In a comprehensive one-year systems study for the American Petroleum Institute (API), the results of which were released this week, Dillingham Environmental Co., studied major past oil spills and analyzed equipment and control techniques currently available to deal with them. The project director and his 5-man group recommend a multicomponent scheme including booms, absorbents, sinking agents, and chemical dispersants for oil containment and cleanup. The first phase, definition of the nature and scope of the problem, includes analysis of past oil spills to determine the basic characteristics of major oil spills; delineation of geographic regions where oil spills are likely to occur; and analysis of how oil spills affect, and are affected by the environment. The Dillingham report examines the effect of past oil spills on the environment. It concludes that isolated oil spills do not appear to present a major environmental threat resulting in lasting damage.

  15. Chernobyl cleanup workers from Estonia: cohort description and related epidemiological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahu, Kaja; Rahu, Mati; Tekkel, Mare; Veidebaum, Toomas; Hakulinen, Timo; Auvinen, Anssi; Bigbee, William L; Hartshorne, Michael F; Inskip, Peter D; Boice, John D

    2015-12-01

    The Estonian study of Chernobyl cleanup workers was one of the first investigations to evaluate the possible health consequences of working in the Chernobyl area (the 30 km exclusion zone and/or adjacent territories) after the 1986 reactor accident. The cohort consists of 4831 men who were dispatched in 1986-1991 for tasks involving decontamination, construction of buildings, transport, radiation measurement, guard duty or other activities. By 31 December 2012, the follow-up of the cohort yielded 102 158 person-years of observation. Exposure and health data were collected by postal questionnaires, biodosimetry evaluations, thyroid screenings, and record-linkages with cancer, causes of death and health insurance reimbursement registers and databases. These data cover socio-demographic factors, employment history, aspects of health behaviour, medical history, work and living conditions in the Chernobyl area, biomarkers of exposure, cancer and non-cancer disease occurrence and causes of death. Cancer incidence data were obtained for 1986-2008, mortality data for 1986-2011 and non-cancer morbidity data for 2004-2012. Although the cohort is relatively small, it has been extensively examined and benefited from comprehensive nationwide population and health registers. The major finding was an increased risk of suicide. Thyroid examinations did not reveal an association with thyroid nodular disease and radiation dose, but did indicate the importance of accounting for screening when making comparisons with unscreened populations. No risk of leukaemia was observed and risks higher than 2.5-fold could be excluded with 95% confidence. Biodosimetry included GPA analyses and chromosomal translocation analyses and indicated that the Estonian cleanup workers experienced a relatively low mean exposure of the order of 0.1 Gy. One value of the Estonian study is in the methodologic processes brought to bear in addressing possible health effects from the Chernobyl accident. Twenty

  16. Particulate hot gas stream cleanup technical issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    This is the thirteenth quarterly report describing the activities performed under Contract No. DE-AC21-94MC31160. The analyses of Hot Gas Stream Cleanup (HGCU) ashes and descriptions of filter performance studied under this contract are designed to address problems with filter operation that are apparently linked to characteristics of the collected ash. Task 1 is designed to generate a data base of the key characteristics of ashes collected from operating advanced particle filters (APFS) and to relate these ash properties to the operation and performance of these filters and their components. APF operations have also been limited by the strength and durability of the ceramic materials that have served as barrier filters for the capture of entrained HGCU ashes. Task 2 concerns testing and failure analyses of ceramic filter elements currently used in operating APFs and the characterization and evaluation of new ceramic materials. Task I research activities during the past quarter included characterizations of additional ash samples from Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustion (PFBC) facilities to the HGCU data base. Task I plans for the next quarter include characterization of samples collected during a site visit on January 20 to the Department of Energy / Southern Company Services Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF). Further work on the HGCU data base is also planned. Task 2 work during the past quarter included creep testing of a Coors P- I OOA- I specimen machined from Candle FC- 007 after 1166 hours in-service at the Karhula Pressurized Circulating Fluid Bed (PCFB) facility. Samples are currently in preparation for microstructural evaluations of Coors P-IOOA-I.Sixteen cordierite rings manufactured by Specific Surfaces were received for testing. Three of the specimens were exposed to the PFBC environment at the PSDF. These specimens are currently being machined for testing.

  17. Preparing a base realignment and closure cleanup plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diecidue, A.M.; Bandrowsky, M.; Wooldridge, P. [PRC Environmental Management, Inc., McLean, VA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Every Department of Defense (DoD) installation subject to closure or realignment is evaluating and implementing strategies for environmental response actions to facilitate the transfer of real property at the installation. The closure and realignment process is conducted pursuant to the Base Closure and Realignment Act of 1988 (Public Law 100-526, 102 Stat. 2623) (BRAC 88) or the Defense Base Closure and Realignment Act of 1990 (Public Law 101-510, 104 Stat. 1808) (BRAC 91, 93, and 95). On July 2, 1993, the President announced a five-part program to speed the economic recovery of communities where military bases are slated to close. DoD subsequently issued a policy memorandum on September 9, 1993 that provides guidance on implementing ``fast-track`` cleanup initiatives at those bases. The guidance introduces the use of BRAC cleanup teams (BCT) and the development of BRAC cleanup plans (BCP) as part of fast-track cleanup. The BCT is responsible for developing the BCP. The BCP serves as the road map for expeditious cleanup. This paper will focus on two areas: forming and working with the BCT and preparing the BCP. The paper will discuss the make-up of the BCT and how to build trust and achieve early consensus on the many issues to be addressed by the BCT. The paper also will discuss tips for forming the BCT and preparing the BCP based on the authors` experiences.

  18. Particulate hot gas stream cleanup technical issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    This is the eleventh in a series of quarterly reports describing the activities performed under Contract No. DE-AC21-94MC31160. Analyses of Hot Gas Stream Cleanup (HGCU) ashes and descriptions of filter performance address aspects of filter operation that are apparently linked to the characteristics of the collected ash or the performance of the ceramic bed filter elements. Task 1 is designed to generate a data base of the key characteristics of ashes collected from operating advanced particle filters (APFS) and to relate these ash properties to the operation and performance of these filters. Task 2 concerns testing and failure analysis of ceramic filter elements. Under Task 1 during the past quarter, analyses were completed on samples obtained during a site visit to the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF). Analyses are in progress on ash samples from the Advanced Particulate Filter (APF) at the Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustor (PFBC) that was in operation at Tidd and ash samples from the Pressurized Circulating Fluid Bed (PCFB) system located at Karhula, Finland. An additional analysis was performed on a particulate sample from the Transport Reactor Demonstration Unit (TRDU) located at the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center. A manuscript and poster were prepared for presentation at the Advanced Coal-Based Power and Environmental Systems `97 Conference scheduled for July 22 - 24, 1997. A summary of recent project work covering the mechanisms responsible for ash deposit consolidation and ash bridging in APF`s collecting PFB ash was prepared and presented at FETC-MGN in early July. The material presented at that meeting is included in the manuscript prepared for the Contractor`s Conference and also in this report. Task 2 work during the past quarter included mechanical testing and microstructural examination of Schumacher FT20 and Pall 326 as- manufactured, after 540 hr in service at Karhula, and after 1166 hr in service at

  19. Particulate Hot Gas Stream Cleanup Technical Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1998-08-31

    This is the fifteenth quarterly report describing the activities performed under Contract No. DE-AC21-94MC31160. The analyses of Hot Gas Stream Cleanup (HGCU) ashes and descriptions of filter performance studied under this contract are designed to address problems with filter operation that are apparently linked to characteristics of the collected ash. Task 1 is designed to generate a data bank of the key characteristics of ashes collected from operating advanced particle filters (APFs) and to relate these ash properties to the operation and performance of these filters and their components. APF operations have also been limited by the strength and durability of the ceramic materials that have served as barrier filters for the capture of entrained HGCU ashes. Task 2 concerns testing and failure analyses of ceramic filter elements currently used in operating APFs and the characterization and evaluation of new ceramic materials. Task 1 research activities during the past quarter included characterizations of samples collected during a site visit on May 18 to the Department of Energy / Southern Company Services Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) and a particulate sample collected in the Westinghouse filter at Sierra Pacific Power Company's Piñon Pine Power Project. Analysis of this Piñon Pine sample is ongoing: however, this report contains the results of analyses completed to date. Significant accomplishments were achieved on the HGCU data bank during this reporting quarter. The data bank was prepared for presentation at the Advanced Coal-Based Power and Environmental Systems 98 Conference scheduled for July, 1998. Task 2 work during the past quarter consisted of testing two Dupont PRD-66C candle filters, one McDermott ceramic composite candle filter, one Blasch 4-270 candle filter, and one Specific Surface cordierite candle filter. Tensile and thermal expansion testing is complete and the rest of the testing is in progress. Also, some 20-inch long

  20. Chernobyl cleanup workers from Estonia: follow-up for cancer incidence and mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahu, Kaja; Auvinen, Anssi; Hakulinen, Timo; Tekkel, Mare; Inskip, Peter D; Bromet, Evelyn J; Boice, John D; Rahu, Mati

    2013-01-01

    This study examined cancer incidence (1986–2008) and mortality (1986–2011) among the Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers in comparison with the Estonian male population. The cohort of 4,810 men was followed through nationwide population, mortality and cancer registries. Cancer and death risks were measured by standardized incidence ratio (SIR) and standardized mortality ratio (SMR), respectively. Poisson regression was used to analyze the effects of year of arrival, duration of stay, and time since return on cancer and death risks. The SIR for all cancers was 1.06 with 95% confidence interval 0.93–1.20 (232 cases). Elevated risks were found for cancers of pharynx, oesophagus, and the joint category of alcohol-related sites. No clear evidence of an increased risk of thyroid cancer, leukaemia, or radiation-related cancer sites combined was apparent. The SMR for all causes of death was 1.02 with 95% confidence interval 0.96–1.08 (1,018 deaths). Excess mortality was observed for mouth and pharynx cancer, alcohol-related cancer sites together, and suicide. Duration of stay rather than year of arrival was associated with increased mortality. Twenty-six years of follow-up of this cohort indicates no definite health effects attributable to radiation, but the elevated suicide risk has persisted. PMID:23532116

  1. [PFBC Hot Gas Cleanup Test Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    Four hundred and fifty four clay bonded silicon carbide Schumacher Dia Schumalith candle filters were purchased for installation in the Westinghouse Advanced Particle Filtration (APF) system at the American Electric Power (AEP) plant in Brilliant, Ohio. A surveillance effort has been identified which will monitor candle filter performance and life during hot gas cleaning in AEP's pressurized fluidized-bed combustion system. A description of the candle surveillance program, strategy for candle filter location selection, as well as candle filter post-test characterization is provided in this memo. The period of effort for candle filter surveillance monitoring is planned through March 1994.

  2. Deriving cleanup guidelines for radionuclides at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinhold, A.F.; Morris, S.C.; Dionne, B.; Moskowitz, P.D.

    1997-01-01

    Past activities at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) resulted in soil and groundwater contamination. As a result, BNL was designated a Superfund site under the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). BNL`s Office of Environmental Restoration (OER) is overseeing environmental restoration activities at the Laboratory. With the exception of radium, there are no regulations or guidelines to establish cleanup guidelines for radionuclides in soils at BNL. BNL must derive radionuclide soil cleanup guidelines for a number of Operable Units (OUs) and Areas of Concern (AOCs). These guidelines are required by DOE under a proposed regulation for radiation protection of public health and the environment as well as to satisfy the requirements of CERCLA. The objective of this report is to propose a standard approach to deriving risk-based cleanup guidelines for radionuclides in soil at BNL. Implementation of the approach is briefly discussed.

  3. Cleanup/stimulation of a horizontal wellbore using propellants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rougeot, J.E.; Lauterbach, K.A.

    1993-01-01

    This report documents the stimulation/cleanup of a horizontal well bore (Wilson 25) using propellants. The Wilson 25 is a Bartlesville Sand well located in the Flatrock Field, Osage County, Oklahoma. The Wilson 25 was drilled to determine if horizontal drilling could be used as a means to economically recover primary oil that had been left in place in a mostly abandoned oil field because of the adverse effects of water coning. Pump testing of the Wilson 25 horizontal well bore before cleanup or stimulation produced 6 barrels of oil and .84 barrels of water per day. The high percentage of daily oil production to total daily fluid production indicated that the horizontal well bore had accessed potentially economical oil reserves if the fluid production rate could be increased by performing a cleanup/stimulation treatment. Propellants were selected as an inexpensive means to stimulate and cleanup the near well bore area in a uniform manner. The ignition of a propellant creates a large volume of gas which penetrates the formation, creating numerous short cracks through which hydrocarbons can travel into the well bore. More conventional stimulation/cleanup techniques were either significantly more expensive, less likely to treat uniformly, or could not be confined to the near well bore area. Three different propellant torpedo designs were tested with a total of 304' of horizontal well bore being shot and producible. The initial test shot caused 400' of the horizontal well bore to become plugged off, and subsequently it could not be production tested. The second and third test shots were production tested, with the oil production being increased 458% and 349%, respectively, on a per foot basis. The Wilson 25 results indicate that a propellant shot treatment is an economically viable means to cleanup/stimulate a horizontal well bore.

  4. UTILIZING THE RIGHT MIX OF ENVIRONMENTAL CLEANUP TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergren, C; Wade Whitaker, W; Mary Flora, M

    2007-05-25

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) Figure 1 is a 310-square-mile United States Department of Energy nuclear facility located along the Savannah River near Aiken, South Carolina. During operations, which started in 1951, hazardous substances (chemicals and radionuclides) were released to the environment. The releases occurred as a result of inadvertent spills and waste disposal in unlined pits and basins which was common practice before environmental regulations existed. The hazardous substances have migrated to the vadose zone and groundwater in many areas of the SRS, resulting in 515 waste units that are required by environmental regulations, to undergo characterization and, if needed, remediation. In the initial years of the SRS environmental cleanup program (early 1990s), the focus was to use common technologies (such as pump and treat, air stripping, excavation and removal) that actively and tangibly removed contamination. Exclusive use of these technologies required continued and significant funding while often failing to meet acceptable clean-up goals and objectives. Recognizing that a more cost-effective approach was needed, SRS implemented new and complementary remediation methods focused on active and passive technologies targeted to solve specific remediation problems. Today, SRS uses technologies such as chemical/pH-adjusting injection, phytoremediation, underground cutoff walls, dynamic underground stripping, soil fracturing, microbial degradation, baroballs, electrical resistance heating, soil vapor extraction, and microblowers to more effectively treat contamination at lower costs. Additionally, SRS's remediation approach cost effectively maximizes cleanup as SRS works proactively with multiple regulatory agencies. Using GIS, video, animation, and graphics, SRS is able to provide an accurate depiction of the evolution of SRS groundwater and vadose zone cleanup activities to convince stakeholders and regulators of the effectiveness of various cleanup

  5. Biotechnologies for Marine Oil Spill Cleanup: Indissoluble Ties with Microorganisms

    KAUST Repository

    Mapelli, Francesca

    2017-05-13

    The ubiquitous exploitation of petroleum hydrocarbons (HCs) has been accompanied by accidental spills and chronic pollution in marine ecosystems, including the deep ocean. Physicochemical technologies are available for oil spill cleanup, but HCs must ultimately be mineralized by microorganisms. How environmental factors drive the assembly and activity of HC-degrading microbial communities remains unknown, limiting our capacity to integrate microorganism-based cleanup strategies with current physicochemical remediation technologies. In this review, we summarize recent findings about microbial physiology, metabolism and ecology and describe how microbes can be exploited to create improved biotechnological solutions to clean up marine surface and deep waters, sediments and beaches.

  6. Urinary metabolites before and after cleanup and subjective symptoms in volunteer participants in cleanup of the Hebei Spirit oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Mina; Kwon, Hojang; Cheong, Hae-Kwan; Lim, Sinye; Yoo, Seung Jin; Kim, Eun-Jung; Park, Seok Gun; Lee, Jeongae; Chung, Bong Chul

    2012-07-01

    On December 7th, 2007, the Hong Kong tanker Hebei Spirit (HS) (146,848 tons) was crushed by a crane ship near the shore of Taean, Korea. More than 12,547 kl of crude oil spilled into the sea and contaminated the western coastline of the Korean peninsula. For a period of six months after the accident, approximately 1,000,000 volunteers participated in the cleanup. Our goal in this study was to examine the exposure status and acute health effects on volunteers that participated in the oil spill cleanup. A survey questionnaire was filled out by 565 volunteers, requesting information regarding physical symptoms. Out of the total number of participants, urine samples from 105 university student volunteers were collected before and after the cleanup work, and metabolite levels of volatile organic compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were analyzed. Volunteers that participated for longer cleanup work reported an increase in physical symptoms including visual disturbance, nasal and bronchus irritation, headaches, heart palpitations, fatigue and fever, memory and cognitive disturbance, and abdominal pain. The levels of t,t-muconic acid, mandelic acid, and 1-hydroxypyrene were significantly higher in samples after cleanup than those measured before participation (plevel between the post- to pre-cleanup levels, no other physical symptoms demonstrated a significant association with changes observed in the levels of urinary metabolites. Based on the significant increase of subjective symptoms in volunteers participating in the study, monitoring of the long term health effects, focusing on those with longer exposure, is warranted. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Technical papers presented at a DOE meeting on criteria for cleanup of transuranium elements in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-09-01

    Transuranium element soil contamination cleanup experience gained from nuclear weapons accidents and cleanup at Eniwetok Atoll was reviewed. Presentations have been individually abstracted for inclusion in the data base. (ACR)

  8. Comparison of extraction and clean-up techniques for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development of a fast, efficient and quantitative technique for the extraction, clean-up, and preconcentration of the 16 United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was carried out on contaminated soils. The effect of Soxhlet, ultrasonication and mechanical ...

  9. Marine Debris Clean-Ups as Meaningful Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepath, Carl M.; Bacon, Joseph Scott

    2010-01-01

    This seven to eight week hands-on Marine Debris Clean-up Project used a service project to provide an introduction of marine science ecology, watershed interrelationships, the scientific method, and environmental stewardship to 8th grade middle school students. It utilized inquiry based learning to introduce marine debris sources and impacts to…

  10. Cleanup Verification Package for the 618-2 Burial Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. S. Thompson

    2006-12-28

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 618-2 Burial Ground, also referred to as Solid Waste Burial Ground No. 2; Burial Ground No. 2; 318-2; and Dry Waste Burial Site No. 2. This waste site was used primarily for the disposal of contaminated equipment, materials and laboratory waste from the 300 Area Facilities.

  11. Comparison of extraction and clean-up techniques for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The development of a fast, efficient and quantitative technique for the extraction, clean-up, and pre- concentration of the 16 United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was carried out on contaminated soils. The effect of Soxhlet, ultrasonication and mechanical ...

  12. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-F-6 Burial Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. M. Sulloway

    2008-10-02

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-F-6 Burial Ground located in the 100-FR-2 Operable Unit of the 100-F Area on the Hanford Site. The trenches received waste from the 100-F Experimental Animal Farm, including animal manure, animal carcasses, laboratory waste, plastic, cardboard, metal, and concrete debris as well as a railroad tank car.

  13. Enewetak fact book (a resume of pre-cleanup information)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bliss, W. (comp.)

    1982-09-01

    The book contains a group of short treatises on the precleanup condition of the islands in Enewetak Atoll. Their purpose was to provide brief guidance to the radiological history and radiological condition of the islands for use in cleanup of the atoll. (ACR)

  14. EEI will begin funding TMI-2 cleanup activities by January 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-08-01

    The Edison Electric Institute (EEI) will make the first of six annual payments to the Three Mile Island cleanup trust fund by January 1, 1985 even though individual utility pledges are $19 million short of the preset condition of $100 million. The EEI board also learned that surveys of customer opinions show an improvement in public relations during the year and that future energy needs will require the increase use of nuclear power. Various speakers at the board meeting challenged member utilities to improve their entrepreneurial approach, spoke on the need for better government support of industry's economic growth programs by fostering a climate that encourages research and development, estimated that 75% of US goods will be actively competing with foreign-made goods for sale, and noted the need to replace traditional utility high-growth strategies with efforts to help customers become more efficient in their use of energy.

  15. High-temperature high-pressure gas cleanup with ceramic bag filters. Draft final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shackleton, M.; Chang, R.; Sawyer, J.; Kuby, W.; Turner-Tamiyasu, E.

    1982-12-06

    Advanced processes designed for the efficient use of coal in the production of energy will benefit from, or even depend upon, highly efficient, economical, high-temperature removal systems for fine particulates. In the case of pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC), the hot gas cleanup device must operate at approximately 1600/sup 0/F. Existing commercial filter systems are temperature limited due to the filter material, but ceramic fibers intended for refractory insulation offer the promise of a practical high-temperature filter media if they can be incorporated into a design which combines filter performance with acceptable durability. The current work was initiated to further develop and demonstrate on a larger-scale basis, a ceramic fiber filtration system for application to coal-fired PFBC's. The development effort centered around the need to replace the knit metal wire scrim, used in earlier designs as support for the fine fiber ceramic mat filtration medium, with a corrosion-resistant material. This led to the selection of woven ceramic cloth for support of the mat layer. Because of the substantial difference in strength and other material properties between the metal and ceramic cloth, tests were necessary to optimize the filter; pulse parameters such as pulse duration, pulse pressure, and pulse injection orifice size; woven cloth mesh configuration; the technique for clamping the bag to the support; and similar structural, fluid, and control parameters. The demonstration effort included both tests to prove this concept in a real application and a systems analysis to show commercial feasibility of the ceramic filtration approach for hot gas cleanup in PFBC's. 12 references, 57 figures, 23 tables.

  16. Biosurfactant production and use in oil tank clean-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banat, I M; Samarah, N; Murad, M; Horne, R; Banerjee, S

    1991-01-01

    A proprietary bacterial strain (Pet 1006) produced biosurfactants when grown on both glucose and an immiscible hydrocarbon as carbon sources. Pilot-plant-scale (1500 I) production gave, on repeated batch runs, 2 tonnes of culture broth containing active biosurfactant. The product was used as a substitute for chemical surfactants in a clean-up demonstration test carried out by Cargo Fleet Chemical Company Ltd. (UK) on an oil storage tank belonging to Kuwait Oil Company, Kuwait. The clean-up was successful in removing the sludge from the tank bottom, and it also allowed the recovery of more than 90% of the hydrocarbon trapped in the sludge. The recovered hydrocarbon had excellent properties and could be sold after being blended with fresh crude.

  17. Myelodysplastic syndromes in Chernobyl clean-up workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluzman, Daniil F; Sklyarenko, Lilia M; Koval, Stella V; Rodionova, Nataliia K; Zavelevich, Michael P; Ivanivskaya, Tetiana S; Poludnenko, Liudmyla Yu; Ukrainskaya, Nataliia I

    2015-10-01

    The studies of the recent decades posed the question of the association between radiation exposure and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). This association has been proved in secondary MDS originating upon exposure to chemotherapeutics and/or radiation therapy. The long-term study in Japanese atomic (A)-bomb survivors demonstrated the significant linear dose-response for MDS confirming the link between radiation exposure and this form of hematopoietic malignancies. All these findings provide the strong basis for studying MDS in the persons exposed to radiation following the Chernobyl disaster, especially those in the cohort of Chernobyl clean-up workers of 1986-1987. The data on MDS among Chernobyl clean-up workers (1986-1987) diagnosed in 1996-2012 at the reference laboratory of RE Kavetsky Institute of Experimental Pathology, Oncology and Radiobiology are summarized. MDS cases were diagnosed in 23 persons (21 males and 2 females) having been exposed to radiation as clean-up workers of 1986-1987. Refractory anemia (RA) has been detected in 13, refractory anemia with ring sideroblasts (RARS)-in 2, and refractory anemia with excess blasts (RAEB)-in 8 patients. The median age of those MDS patients was 62.0 years. In addition, 5 cases of chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) were recorded in the group of Chernobyl clean-up workers with the median time of 14.8 years from 1986-1987 to diagnosis. The association between radiation exposure and MDS is discussed. The suggested life-long risk for myelodysplastic syndromes among A-bomb survivors in Japan highlights the importance of the continuing follow-up studies in the affected populations in the post-Chernobyl period.

  18. Cleanup Verification Package for the 618-3 Burial Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. J. Appel

    2006-09-12

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 618-3 Solid Waste Burial Ground, also referred to as Burial Ground Number 3 and the Dry Waste Burial Ground Number 3. During its period of operation, the 618-3 site was used to dispose of uranium-contaminated construction debris from the 311 Building and construction/demolition debris from remodeling of the 313, 303-J and 303-K Buildings.

  19. Cleanup Verification Package for the 618-8 Burial Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. J. Appel

    2006-08-10

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 618-8 Burial Ground, also referred to as the Solid Waste Burial Ground No. 8, 318-8, and the Early Solid Waste Burial Ground. During its period of operation, the 618-8 site is speculated to have been used to bury uranium-contaminated waste derived from fuel manufacturing, and construction debris from the remodeling of the 313 Building.

  20. Evaluation of beach cleanup effects using linear system analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Tomoya; Hinata, Hirofumi

    2015-02-15

    We established a method for evaluating beach cleanup effects (BCEs) based on a linear system analysis, and investigated factors determining BCEs. Here we focus on two BCEs: decreasing the total mass of toxic metals that could leach into a beach from marine plastics and preventing the fragmentation of marine plastics on the beach. Both BCEs depend strongly on the average residence time of marine plastics on the beach (τ(r)) and the period of temporal variability of the input flux of marine plastics (T). Cleanups on the beach where τ(r) is longer than T are more effective than those where τ(r) is shorter than T. In addition, both BCEs are the highest near the time when the remnants of plastics reach the local maximum (peak time). Therefore, it is crucial to understand the following three factors for effective cleanups: the average residence time, the plastic input period and the peak time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. 2008 TIGER/Line Nationwide Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This dataset contains a nationwide build of the 2008 TIGER/Line datasets from the US Census Bureau downloaded in April 2009. The TIGER/Line Shapefiles are an extract...

  2. Fernald restoration: ecologists and engineers integrate restoration and cleanup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, Eric; Homer, John

    2002-07-15

    As cleanup workers excavate pits and tear down buildings at the Fernald site in southwest Ohio, site ecologists are working side-by-side to create thriving wetlands and develop the early stages of forest, prairie, and savanna ecosystems to restore natural resources that were impacted by years of site operations. In 1998, the U.S. Department of Energy-Fernald Office (DOE-FN) and its cleanup contractor, Fluor Fernald, Inc., initiated several ecological restoration projects in perimeter areas of the site (e.g., areas not used for or impacted by uranium processing or waste management). The projects are part of Fernald's final land use plan to restore natural resources over 904 acres of the 1,050-acre site. Pete Yerace, the DOE-FN Natural Resource Trustee representative is working with the Fernald Natural Resource Trustees in an oversight role to resolve the state of Ohio's 1986 claim against DOE for injuries to natural resources. Fluor Fernald, Inc., and DOE-FN developed the ''Natural Resource Restoration Plan'', which outlines 15 major restoration projects for the site and will restore injured natural resources at the site. In general, Fernald's plan includes grading to maximize the formation of wetlands or expanded floodplain, amending soil where topsoil has been removed during excavation, and establishing native vegetation throughout the site. Today, with cleanup over 35 percent complete and site closure targeted for 2006, Fernald is entering a new phase of restoration that involves heavily remediated areas. By working closely with engineers and cleanup crews, site ecologists can take advantage of remediation fieldwork (e.g., convert an excavated depression into a wetland) and avoid unnecessary costs and duplication. This collaboration has also created opportunities for relatively simple and inexpensive restoration of areas that were discovered during ongoing remediation. To ensure the survival of the plant material in heavily

  3. Cleanup Verification Package for the 116-K-2 Effluent Trench

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. M. Capron

    2006-04-04

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 116-K-2 effluent trench, also referred to as the 116-K-2 mile-long trench and the 116-K-2 site. During its period of operation, the 116-K-2 site was used to dispose of cooling water effluent from the 105-KE and 105-KW Reactors by percolation into the soil. This site also received mixed liquid wastes from the 105-KW and 105-KE fuel storage basins, reactor floor drains, and miscellaneous decontamination activities.

  4. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-F-1 Burial Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. J. Farris and H. M. Sulloway

    2008-01-10

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-F-1 Burial Ground on the Hanford Site. This burial ground is a combination of two locations formerly called Minor Construction Burial Ground No. 2 and Solid Waste Burial Ground No. 2. This waste site received radioactive equipment and other miscellaneous waste from 105-F Reactor operations, including dummy elements and irradiated process tubing; gun barrel tips, steel sleeves, and metal chips removed from the reactor; filter boxes containing reactor graphite chips; and miscellaneous construction solid waste.

  5. Regime Shift in Sandy Beach Microbial Communities following Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Remediation Efforts

    OpenAIRE

    Annette Summers Engel; Gupta, Axita A.

    2014-01-01

    Sandy beaches support a wide variety of underappreciated biodiversity that is critical to coastal ecosystems. Prior to the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, the diversity and function of supratidal beach sediment microbial communities along Gulf of Mexico coastlines were not well understood. As such, it was unclear if microbial community compositional changes would occur following exposure to beached oil, if indigenous communities could biodegrade oil, or how cleanup efforts, such as sand was...

  6. Specification of matrix cleanup goals in fractured porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, David J; Kueper, Bernard H

    2013-01-01

    Semianalytical transient solutions have been developed to evaluate what level of fractured porous media (e.g., bedrock or clay) matrix cleanup must be achieved in order to achieve compliance of fracture pore water concentrations within a specified time at specified locations of interest. The developed mathematical solutions account for forward and backward diffusion in a fractured porous medium where the initial condition comprises a spatially uniform, nonzero matrix concentration throughout the domain. Illustrative simulations incorporating the properties of mudstone fractured bedrock demonstrate that the time required to reach a desired fracture pore water concentration is a function of the distance between the point of compliance and the upgradient face of the domain where clean groundwater is inflowing. Shorter distances correspond to reduced times required to reach compliance, implying that shorter treatment zones will respond more favorably to remediation than longer treatment zones in which back-diffusion dominates the fracture pore water response. For a specified matrix cleanup goal, compliance of fracture pore water concentrations will be reached sooner for decreased fracture spacing, increased fracture aperture, higher matrix fraction organic carbon, lower matrix porosity, shorter aqueous phase decay half-life, and a higher hydraulic gradient. The parameters dominating the response of the system can be measured using standard field and laboratory techniques. © 2012, The Author(s). Ground Water © 2012, National Ground Water Association.

  7. A Collective Effort to Improve Sociology Students' Writing Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess-Proctor, Amanda; Cassano, Graham; Condron, Dennis J.; Lyons, Heidi A.; Sanders, George

    2014-01-01

    Nationwide, academic sociologists at all types of higher education institutions face the challenge of working to improve students' writing skills. In this article, we describe a collective effort by a group of faculty members in one undergraduate sociology program to implement several effective writing-improvement strategies. We advocate…

  8. A nationwide prehospital stroke survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocco, T J; Kothari, R U; Sayre, M R; Liu, T

    1999-01-01

    To identify deficiencies in stroke knowledge among prehospital providers. A nationwide multiple-choice survey was sent to 689 paramedics (EMT-Ps) and 294 advanced EMTs (EMT-Is) from a random selection of the National Registry of Emergency Medical Technicians database. Of the 23 questions, five addressed demographic information, four quantity of training, five general knowledge, 6 and seven management, and two open-ended questions addressed the signs, symptoms, and risk factors of stroke. The EMT-P and EMT-I answers were compared using chi-square analysis or Fisher's exact test. Of the 355 (36%) respondents, 256 (72%) were EMT-Ps and 99 (28%) were EMT-Is. Virtually all the EMT-Ps (99%) and EMT-Is (98%) knew that a stroke injures the brain, but only 199 (78%) of the EMT-Ps and 47 (47%) of the EMT-Is correctly defined a transient ischemic attack (TIA) (p EMT-Ps were more likely to recognize that dextrose is potentially harmful to stroke patients [EMT-P = 216 (85%), EMT-I = 71 (72%), p = 0.005]; 169 (66%) of the EMT-Ps and 75 (76%) of the EMT-Is felt that elevated blood pressures should be lowered in the prehospital setting. Only 93 (36%) of the EMT-Ps and 22 (22%) of the EMT-Is knew that tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) must be given within three hours of symptom onset (p = 0.01). Most EMS providers are knowledgeable about the symptoms of stroke but are unaware of the therapeutic window for thrombolysis and the recommended avoidance of prehospital blood pressure reduction. In addition, further education is needed regarding TIAs.

  9. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-F-5 PNL Sawdust Pit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. D. Habel

    2008-05-20

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action, sampling activities, and compliance with cleanup criteria for the 118-F-5 Burial Ground, the PNL (Pacific Northwest Laboratory) Sawdust Pit. The 118-F-5 Burial Ground was an unlined trench that received radioactive sawdust from the floors of animal pens in the 100-F Experimental Animal Farm.

  10. Development of a risk-based approach to Hanford Site cleanup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hesser, W.A.; Daling, P.M. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Baynes, P.A. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)] [and others

    1995-06-01

    In response to a request from Mr. Thomas Grumbly, Assistant Secretary of Energy for Environmental Management, the Hanford Site contractors developed a conceptual set of risk-based cleanup strategies that (1) protect the public, workers, and environment from unacceptable risks; (2) are executable technically; and (3) fit within an expected annual funding profile of 1.05 billion dollars. These strategies were developed because (1) the US Department of Energy and Hanford Site budgets are being reduced, (2) stakeholders are dissatisfied with the perceived rate of cleanup, (3) the US Congress and the US Department of Energy are increasingly focusing on risk and riskreduction activities, (4) the present strategy is not integrated across the Site and is inconsistent in its treatment of similar hazards, (5) the present cleanup strategy is not cost-effective from a risk-reduction or future land use perspective, and (6) the milestones and activities in the Tri-Party Agreement cannot be achieved with an anticipated funding of 1.05 billion dollars annually. The risk-based strategies described herein were developed through a systems analysis approach that (1) analyzed the cleanup mission; (2) identified cleanup objectives, including risk reduction, land use, and mortgage reduction; (3) analyzed the existing baseline cleanup strategy from a cost and risk perspective; (4) developed alternatives for accomplishing the cleanup mission; (5) compared those alternatives against cleanup objectives; and (6) produced conclusions and recommendations regarding the current strategy and potential risk-based strategies.

  11. Increasing a Community's Knowledge about Drought, Watershed Ecosystems, and Water Quality Through Educational Activities Added to Coastal Cleanup Day Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinker, R.; Allen, L.; Cole, P.; Rho, C.

    2016-12-01

    International Coastal Cleanup Day, held each September, is an effective campaign to bring volunteers together to clean trash from beaches and waterways and document results. Over 500,000 participants cleared over 9 million pounds of trash in 2015. To build on the enthusiasm for this event, the city of Livermore, California's Water Resource Department, the Livermore Valley Joint Unified School District, Livermore Area Recreation and Parks Department created a water education program to embed within the city's Coastal Cleanup Day events. Goals of the education program are to increase awareness of the local watershed and its geographic reach, impacts of climate change and drought on local water supplies, pollution sources and impacts of local pollution on the ocean, positive impacts of a recent plastic bag ban, water quality assessment, and action steps citizens can take to support a healthy watershed. Volunteers collect and test water samples (when water is in the creek) using modified GLOBE and World Water Monitoring Day protocols. Test results are uploaded to the World Water Monitoring Day site and documented on the program web site. Volunteers report that they did not know about watersheds, impacts of local pollution, and water quality components before the education program. Volunteers are encouraged to adopt a creek spot for one year, and continue to collect and document trash. High school and middle school science classes added the water quality testing into curriculum, and regularly visit creek sites to clean the spots and monitor habitats. Each year for the past five years, about 300 volunteers have worked on creek clean-up events, 20 have adopted creek sites, and collected over 4,000 gallons of trash annually. As a result of these efforts, sites have been downgraded from a trash hot spot of concern. Strategies will be shared to expand an established (or start a new) Coastal Cleanup Day event into a successful watershed and climate awareness citizen science

  12. Mapping telemedicine efforts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kierkegaard, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    are being utilized? What medical disciplines are being addressed using telemedicine systems? Methods: All data was surveyed from the "Telemedicinsk Landkort", a newly created database designed to provide a comprehensive and systematic overview of all telemedicine technologies in Denmark. Results......Objectives: The aim of this study is to survey telemedicine services currently in operation across Denmark. The study specifically seeks to answer the following questions: What initiatives are deployed within the different regions? What are the motivations behind the projects? What technologies......: The results of this study suggest that a growing number of telemedicine initiatives are currently in operation across Denmark but that considerable variations existed in terms of regional efforts as the number of operational telemedicine projects varied from region to region. Conclusions: The results...

  13. Breckinridge Project, initial effort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1982-09-01

    Report III, Volume 1 contains those specifications numbered A through J, as follows: General Specifications (A); Specifications for Pressure Vessels (C); Specifications for Tanks (D); Specifications for Exchangers (E); Specifications for Fired Heaters (F); Specifications for Pumps and Drivers (G); and Specifications for Instrumentation (J). The standard specifications of Bechtel Petroleum Incorporated have been amended as necessary to reflect the specific requirements of the Breckinridge Project, and the more stringent specifications of Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc. These standard specifications are available to the Initial Effort (Phase Zero) work performed by all contractors and subcontractors. Report III, Volume 1 also contains the unique specifications prepared for Plants 8, 15, and 27. These specifications will be substantially reviewed during Phase I of the project, and modified as necessary for use during the engineering, procurement, and construction of this project.

  14. Clean-up criteria for remediation of contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, H.D.; Wilson, J.R. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab.; Sato, Chikashi [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States). College of Engineering

    1997-08-01

    {open_quotes}How clean is clean?{close_quotes} is a question commonly raised in the remediation of contaminated soils. To help with the answer, criteria are proposed to serve as guidelines for remedial actions and to define a clean-up level such that the remaining contaminant residuals in the soil will not violate the Drinking Water Standards (DWS). The equations for computing those criteria are developed from the principle of conservation of mass and are functions of the maximum concentration level in the water (MCL) and the sorption coefficient. A multiplier, ranging from 10 to 1000, is also factored into the soil standard equation to reflect the effectiveness of various remediation techniques. Maximum allowable concentration in the soil (MSCL) is presented for several contaminants which are being regulated at the present time. Future modifications are recommended for better estimates of the MSCLs as additional transport mechanisms are incorporated to account for other potentially dominant effects.

  15. Conceptual design of an emergency tritium clean-up system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, M.E.

    1978-01-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) has been selected by the Department of Energy (DOE) to design, build, and operate a facility to demonstrate the operability of the tritium-related subsystems that would be required to successfully develop fusion reactor systems. An emergency tritium clean-up subsystem (ETC) for this facility will be designed to remove tritium from the cell atmosphere if an accident causes the primary and secondary tritium containment to be breached. Conceptually, the ETC will process cell air at the rate of 0.65 actual m/sup 3//s and will achieve an overall decontamination factor of 10/sup 6/ per tritium oxide (T/sub 2/O). Following the maximum credible release of 100 g of tritium, the ETC will restore the cell to opertional status within 24 h without a significant release of tritium to the environment.

  16. PAN/PS elctrospun fibers for oil spill cleanup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Qiao; Lili, Zhao; Haixiang, Sun; Peng, Li

    2014-08-01

    A high-capacity oil sorbent was fabricated by electrospinning using PS/PAN blend. Morphology, contact angle and oil adsorption of PAN/PS fiber and PP nonwoven fabric were studied. It was found that the PAN/PS fiber had a smaller diameter than PP, and the maximum sorption capacities of the PAN/PS sorbent for pump oil, peanut oil, diesel, and gasoline were 194.85, 131.7, 66.75, and 43.38 g/g, which were far higher than those of PP. The sorbent PS/PAN fiber showed a contact angle of water144.32° and diesel oil 0°. The sorption kinetics of PAN/PS and PP sorbent were also investigated. Compared with the commercial PP fabric, the PAN/PS fiber seems to have the ability to be used in oil-spill cleanup application.

  17. Particulate hot gas stream cleanup technical issues. Quarterly report, April 1 - June 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This is the seventh in a series of quarterly reports describing the activities performed for this project. Our analyses of Hot Gas Stream Cleanup (HGCU) ashes and descriptions of filter performance address aspects of filter operation that are apparently linked to the characteristics of the collected ash or the performance of the ceramic barrier filter elements. Task 1 is designed to generate a data base of the key characteristics of ashes collected from operating advanced particle filters (APFs) and to relate these ash properties to the operation and performance of these filters. Task 2 concerns testing and failure analysis of ceramic filter elements. Under Task 1 during the past quarter, we received and analyzed a hopper ash sample from the Transport Reactor Demonstration Unit (TRDU) located at the University of North Dakota`s Energy and Environmental Research Center (UNDEERC). We also received six ash samples from the Ahlstrom 10 MWt Pressurized Fluidized Circulating Fluid Bed (PCFB) facility located at Karhula, Finland. We selected one of the filter cake ashes from this batch of samples for detailed analyses. We continued our work on the HGCU data base we are constructing in Microsoft Access{reg_sign}. We have been entering a variety of information into the data base, including numerical values, short or long text entries, and photographs. Task 2 efforts during the past quarter focused on hoop tensile testing of Schumacher FT20 and Refractron candle filter elements removed from the Karhula APF after {approximately}540 hours of service.

  18. Mental health and alcohol problems among Estonian cleanup workers 24 years after the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidra, Kaia; Rahu, Kaja; Tekkel, Mare; Aluoja, Anu; Leinsalu, Mall

    2015-11-01

    To study the long-term mental health consequences of the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear accident among cleanup workers from Estonia. In 2010, 614 Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers and 706 geographically and age-matched population-based controls completed a mail survey that included self-rated health, the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL), alcohol symptoms (AUDIT), and scales measuring depressive, anxiety, agoraphobia, fatigue, insomnia, and somatization symptoms. Respondents were dichotomized into high (top quartile) and low symptom groups on each measure. Logistic regression analysis detected significant differences between cleanup workers and controls on all measures even after adjustment for ethnicity, education, marital status, and employment status. The strongest difference was found for somatization, with cleanup workers being three times more likely than controls to score in the top quartile (OR = 3.28, 95% CI 2.39-4.52), whereas for alcohol problems the difference was half as large (OR = 1.52, 95% CI 1.16-1.99). Among cleanup workers, arrival at Chernobyl in 1986 (vs. later) was associated with sleep problems, somatization, and symptoms of agoraphobia. The toll of cleanup work was evident 24 years after the Chernobyl accident among Estonian cleanup workers indicating the need for focused mental health interventions.

  19. Particulate Hot Gas Stream Cleanup Technical Issues: Quarterly report, July 1-September 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pontius, D.H.

    1996-12-09

    This is the eighth in a series of quarterly reports describing the activities performed under Contract No. DE-AC21-94MC31160. Analyses of Hot Gas Stream Cleanup (HGCU) ashes and descriptions of filter performance address aspects of filter operation that are apparently linked to the characteristics of the collected ash or the performance of the ceramic barrier filter elements. Task 1 is designed to generate a data base of the key characteristics of ashes collected from operating advanced particle filters (APFS) and to relate these ash properties to the operation and performance of these filters. Task 2 concerns testing and failure analysis of ceramic filter elements. Under Task I during the past quarter, additional analyses were performed on ashes from the Ahlstrom 10 MWt Pressurized Fluidized Circulating Fluid Bed (PCFB) facility located at Karhula, Finland. Work continued on the HGCU data base being constructed in Microsoft Access. A variety of information has been entered into the data base, including numerical values, short or long text entries, and photographs. Detailed design of a bench top device for high temperature measurement of ash permeability has also begun. In addition to these activities, a paper was prepared and a poster was presented summarizing recent work performed under this contract at the 1996 DOE/METC Contractor`s Conference. A presentation was also given corresponding to the manuscript entitled Particle Characteristics and High-Temperature Filtration that was prepared for publication in the Proceedings of the Thirteenth Annual International Pittsburgh Coal Conference held this September in Pittsburgh, PA. Arrangements have been made to be present at the DOE/METC Modular Gas Cleanup Rig (MGCR) at the conclusion of the next run of the DOE/METC air blown Fluid Bed Gasifier (FBG). This visit will include on-site sampling to collect and characterize the filter cakes collected during FGB operation. Task 2 efforts during the past quarter focused on

  20. Ten-year cleanup of U.S. Department of Energy weapon sites: The changing roles for technology development in an era of privatization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, L.H. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-12-31

    In its beginning, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) viewed private industry as lacking adequate technology know-how to meet demands of hazardous and radioactive waste problems at the DOE`s laboratories and nuclear weapons production facilities. In November 1989, EM`s Office of Technology Development (recently renamed the Office of Science and Technology) embarked on a bold program of developing and demonstrating {open_quotes}innovative{close_quotes} waste cleanup technologies that would be safer, faster, more effective, and less expensive than the {open_quotes}baseline{close_quotes} commercial methods. This program has engaged DOE sites, national laboratories, and universities to produce preferred solutions to the problems of handling and treating DOE wastes. More recently, much of this work has shifted to joint efforts with private industry partners to accelerate the use of newly developed technologies and to enhance existing commercial methods. To date, the total funding allocation to the Office of Science and Technology program has been about $2.8 billion. If the technology applications` projects of the EM Offices of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management are included, the total funding is closer to $4 billion. Yet, the environmental industry generally has not been very receptive to EM`s innovative technology offerings. And, essentially the same can be said for DOE sites. According to the U.S. General Accounting Office in an August 1994 report, {open_quotes}Although DOE has spent a substantial amount to develop waste cleanup technologies, little new technology finds its way into the agency`s cleanup actions{close_quotes}. The DOE Baseline Environmental Management Report estimated cleanups of DOE`s Cold War legacy of wastes to require the considerable cost of $226 billion over a period of 75 years. 1 tab.

  1. Swedish nuclear waste efforts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rydberg, J.

    1981-09-01

    After the introduction of a law prohibiting the start-up of any new nuclear power plant until the utility had shown that the waste produced by the plant could be taken care of in an absolutely safe way, the Swedish nuclear utilities in December 1976 embarked on the Nuclear Fuel Safety Project, which in November 1977 presented a first report, Handling of Spent Nuclear Fuel and Final Storage of Vitrified Waste (KBS-I), and in November 1978 a second report, Handling and Final Storage of Unreprocessed Spent Nuclear Fuel (KBS II). These summary reports were supported by 120 technical reports prepared by 450 experts. The project engaged 70 private and governmental institutions at a total cost of US $15 million. The KBS-I and KBS-II reports are summarized in this document, as are also continued waste research efforts carried out by KBS, SKBF, PRAV, ASEA and other Swedish organizations. The KBS reports describe all steps (except reprocessing) in handling chain from removal from a reactor of spent fuel elements until their radioactive waste products are finally disposed of, in canisters, in an underground granite depository. The KBS concept relies on engineered multibarrier systems in combination with final storage in thoroughly investigated stable geologic formations. This report also briefly describes other activities carried out by the nuclear industry, namely, the construction of a central storage facility for spent fuel elements (to be in operation by 1985), a repository for reactor waste (to be in operation by 1988), and an intermediate storage facility for vitrified high-level waste (to be in operation by 1990). The R and D activities are updated to September 1981.

  2. Soil water and vegetation management for cleanup of selenium contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-05-01

    Over the past year scientists have initiatived a new effort aimed at developing a soil water and vegetation management plan for Kesterson Reservoir. The plan is intended to result in a gradual depletion of the inventory of soluble selenium at the Reservoir through a combination agriculturally oriented practices that enhance dissipation of selenium from near surface soils. Agriculturally oriented processes that will contribute to depletion include microbial volatilization from the soils, direct volatilization by living plants, decomposition and volatilization of selenium-bearing vegetation, harvest and removal of seleniferous vegetation, and leaching. The benefits of using this integrated approach are that (1) no single mechanism needs to be relied upon to detoxify the soils, (2) a stable plant community can be established during this period so that impacts to wildlife can be more easily evaluated and controlled, (3) cleanup and management of the site can be carried out in a cost-effective manner. The management plan is also intended to facilitate control over wildlife exposure to selenium contaminated biota by creating a well managed environment. The majority of research associated with this new effort is being carried out at a 200 m by 50 m test plot in Pond 7. A two-line irrigation system , providing local groundwater as an irrigation supply, has been installed. Through an intensive program of soil water sampling, soil gas sampling, vegetation sampling, groundwater monitoring, and soil moisture monitoring, the mass balance for selenium under irrigated conditions is being evaluated. These studies, in conjunction with supplementary laboratory experiments will provide the information needed to develop an optimal management plan for the site. 23 refs., 38 figs., 10 tabs.

  3. From Cleanup to Stewardship. A companion report to Accelerating Cleanup: Paths to Closure and background information to support the scoping process required for the 1998 PEIS Settlement Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1999-10-01

    Long-term stewardship is expected to be needed at more than 100 DOE sites after DOE's Environmental Management program completes disposal, stabilization, and restoration operations to address waste and contamination resulting from nuclear research and nuclear weapons production conducted over the past 50 years. From Cleanup to stewardship provides background information on the Department of Energy (DOE) long-term stewardship obligations and activities. This document begins to examine the transition from cleanup to long-term stewardship, and it fulfills the Secretary's commitment to the President in the 1999 Performance Agreement to provide a companion report to the Department's Accelerating Cleanup: Paths to Closure report. It also provides background information to support the scoping process required for a study on long-term stewardship required by a 1998 Settlement Agreement.

  4. Green Remediation Best Management Practices: Integrating Renewable Energy into Site Cleanup

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Principles for Greener Cleanups outline the Agency's policy for evaluating and minimizing the environmental 'footprint' of activities undertaken when cleaning up a contaminated site.

  5. EPA Begins Reviews of 24 New England Site Cleanups during Current Fiscal Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA plans to conduct comprehensive reviews of site cleanups at 24 National Priorities List Sites (Superfund Sites), including two Federal Facilities, across New England by performing required Five-Year Reviews of sites.

  6. Options for improving hazardous waste cleanups using risk-based criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D.

    1995-06-01

    This paper explores how risk- and technology-based criteria are currently used in the RCRA and CERCLA cleanup programs. It identifies ways in which risk could be further incorporated into RCRA and CERCLA cleanup requirements and the implications of risk-based approaches. The more universal use of risk assessment as embodied in the risk communication and risk improvement bills before Congress is not addressed. Incorporating risk into the laws and regulations governing hazardous waste cleanup, will allow the use of the best scientific information available to further the goal of environmental protection in the United States while containing costs. and may help set an example for other countries that may be developing cleanup programs, thereby contributing to enhanced global environmental management.

  7. Spreading, retention and clean-up of oil spills. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Jr, M P

    1976-05-01

    This study reviews and assesses the technology of oil spill spreading, retention and cleanup and proposes research needs in these areas. Sources of oil spills are analyzed and the difficulty of gathering meaningful statistics is discussed. Barrier technology is reviewed and problem areas analyzed. Natural and forced biodegradation and natural and chemical dispersion of oil spills are considered. Research recommendations are categorized under the following two headings (1) Preventive techniques and (2) Containment, Cleanup and Dispersion.

  8. Rapid cleanup of bacterial DNA from samples containing aerosol contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menking, Darrell E.; Kracke, Suzanne K.; Emanuel, Peter A.; Valdes, James J.

    1999-01-01

    Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is an in vitro enzymatic, synthetic method used to amplify specific DNA sequences from organisms. Detection of DNA using gene probes allows for absolute identification not only of specific organisms, but also of genetic material in recombinant organisms. PCR is an exquisite biological method for detecting bacteria in aerosol samples. A major challenge facing detection of DNA from field samples is that they are almost sure to contain impurities, especially impurities that inhibit amplification through PCR. DNA is being extracted from air, sewage/stool samples, food, sputum, a water and sediment; however, multi- step, time consuming methods are required to isolate the DNA from the surrounding contamination. This research focuses on developing a method for rapid cleanup of DNA which combines extraction and purification of DNA while, at the same time, removing inhibitors from 'dirty samples' to produce purified, PCR-ready DNA. GeneReleaser produces PCR-ready DNA in a rapid five-minute protocol. GeneReleaser resin was able to clean up sample contain micrograms of typical aerosol and water contaminants. The advantages of using GR are that it is rapid, inexpensive, requires one-step, uses no hazardous material and produces PCR-ready DNA.

  9. Experimental Tritium Cleanup System availability analysis from 1984 to 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadwallader, L.C. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Taylor, G.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1993-05-01

    This report gives the availability percentage of the Experimental Tritium Cleanup System (ETC) at the Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA), which is a fusion research and technology facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The component failure reports, the numbers of components, and operating times or demands are all given in this report. Sample calculations of the failure rates obtained from these data are given in the appendices. While future fusion experiments might use different or more advanced means to detritiate room air, the analysis of this system gives a data point for an actual detritiation system. Such a data point can be extrapolated for comparison with fault tree results on system designs, or can be used in a Bayesian failure rate analysis for estimating reliability of a new type of system. The nine years of testing operations on TSTA`s ETC result in a reasonable average availability value of 92% for the maximal tritium release event. The failure rates for new systems are expected to be lower than for the TSTA ETC, since improvements will be made in the design of the room air detritiation system based on the TSTA system experiences. Nonetheless, these TSTA data should be useful for future fusion reactor design work and safety assessment tasks.

  10. Environmental benefits of Boston Harbor clean-up projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connor, M.S.; Smith, W.M. (Massachusetts Water Resources Authority, Boston (United States))

    1990-01-09

    The Massachusetts Water Resources Authority has undertaken one of the largest public works projects in the country to control the pollution of Boston Harbor. The project includes construction of a new primary and secondary treatment plant and sludge treatment facilities, excavation of a long ocean outfall and diffuser, and a solution to the overflow of mixed sewage and stormwater during storms; it will take over twenty years and billions of dollars to construct. A comparison of the relative costs and environmental benefits of relative costs and environmental benefits of the various construction projects, and other pollution control strategies, shows that some projects are more cost-effective than others for solving specific pollution problems. The capture and treatment of combined sewer overflow (CSO) will result in a more dramatic reduction of pathogen contamination than will completion of the primary and secondary treatment plants. Although the flow of raw sewage is intermittent and relatively small, it has high concentrations of bacteria and viruses. On the other hand, the new treatment plants will be more important in reducing toxic contamination of fish and shellfish. In summary, all the planned clean-up projects appear to be necessary to reach the goal of a swimmable, fishable Boston Harbor.

  11. Effort rights-based management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Squires, Dale; Maunder, Mark; Allen, Robin

    2017-01-01

    Effort rights-based fisheries management (RBM) is less widely used than catch rights, whether for groups or individuals. Because RBM on catch or effort necessarily requires a total allowable catch (TAC) or total allowable effort (TAE), RBM is discussed in conjunction with issues in assessing fish...

  12. Assessment of coal gasification/hot gas cleanup based advanced gas turbine systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    The major objectives of the joint SCS/DOE study of air-blown gasification power plants with hot gas cleanup are to: (1) Evaluate various power plant configurations to determine if an air-blown gasification-based power plant with hot gas cleanup can compete against pulverized coal with flue gas desulfurization for baseload expansion at Georgia Power Company's Plant Wansley; (2) determine if air-blown gasification with hot gas cleanup is more cost effective than oxygen-blown IGCC with cold gas cleanup; (3) perform Second-Law/Thermoeconomic Analysis of air-blown IGCC with hot gas cleanup and oxygen-blown IGCC with cold gas cleanup; (4) compare cost, performance, and reliability of IGCC based on industrial gas turbines and ISTIG power island configurations based on aeroderivative gas turbines; (5) compare cost, performance, and reliability of large (400 MW) and small (100 to 200 MW) gasification power plants; and (6) compare cost, performance, and reliability of air-blown gasification power plants using fluidized-bed gasifiers to air-blown IGCC using transport gasification and pressurized combustion.

  13. Respiratory effort from the photoplethysmogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, Paul S

    2017-03-01

    The potential for a simple, non-invasive measure of respiratory effort based on the pulse oximeter signal - the photoplethysmogram or 'pleth' - was investigated in a pilot study. Several parameters were developed based on a variety of manifestations of respiratory effort in the signal, including modulation changes in amplitude, baseline, frequency and pulse transit times, as well as distinct baseline signal shifts. Thirteen candidate parameters were investigated using data from healthy volunteers. Each volunteer underwent a series of controlled respiratory effort maneuvers at various set flow resistances and respiratory rates. Six oximeter probes were tested at various body sites. In all, over three thousand pleth-based effort-airway pressure (EP) curves were generated across the various airway constrictions, respiratory efforts, respiratory rates, subjects, probe sites, and the candidate parameters considered. Regression analysis was performed to determine the existence of positive monotonic relationships between the respiratory effort parameters and resulting airway pressures. Six of the candidate parameters investigated exhibited a distinct positive relationship (p<0.001 across all probes tested) with increasing upper airway pressure repeatable across the range of respiratory rates and flow constrictions studied. These were: the three fundamental modulations in amplitude (AM-Effort), baseline (BM-Effort) and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA-Effort); two pulse transit time modulations - one using a pulse oximeter probe and an ECG (P2E-Effort) and the other using two pulse oximeter probes placed at different peripheral body sites (P2-Effort); and baseline shifts in heart rate, (BL-HR-Effort). In conclusion, a clear monotonic relationship was found between several pleth-based parameters and imposed respiratory loadings at the mouth across a range of respiratory rates and flow constrictions. The results suggest that the pleth may provide a measure of changing upper

  14. North Slope (Wahluke Slope) expedited response action cleanup plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    The purpose of this action is to mitigate any threat to public health and the environment from hazards on the North Slope and meet the expedited response action (ERA) objective of cleanup to a degree requiring no further action. The ERA may be the final remediation of the 100-I-3 Operable Unit. A No Action record of decision (ROD) may be issued after remediation completion. The US Department of Energy (DOE) currently owns or administers approximately 140 mi{sup 2} (about 90,000 acres) of land north and east of the Columbia River (referred to as the North Slope) that is part of the Hanford Site. The North Slope, also commonly known as the Wahluke Slope, was not used for plutonium production or support facilities; it was used for military air defense of the Hanford Site and vicinity. The North Slope contained seven antiaircraft gun emplacements and three Nike-Ajax missile positions. These military positions were vacated in 1960--1961 as the defense requirements at Hanford changed. They were demolished in 1974. Prior to government control in 1943, the North Slope was homesteaded. Since the initiation of this ERA in the summer of 1992, DOE signed the modified Hanford Federal Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) with the Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in which a milestone was set to complete remediation activities and a draft closeout report by October 1994. Remediation activities will make the North Slope area available for future non-DOE uses. Thirty-nine sites have undergone limited characterization to determine if significant environmental hazards exist. This plan documents the results of that characterization and evaluates the potential remediation alternatives.

  15. Multidisciplinary Efforts Driving Translational Theranostics

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Tony Y.

    2014-01-01

    This themed issue summarizes significant efforts aimed at using “biological language” to discern between “friends” and “foes” in the context of theranostics for true clinical application. It is expected that the success of theranostics depends on multidisciplinary efforts, combined to expedite our understanding of host responses to “customized” theranostic agents and formulating individualized therapies.

  16. Surface and subsurface cleanup protocol for radionuclides, Gunnison, Colorado, UMTRA project processing site. Final [report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    Surface and subsurface soil cleanup protocols for the Gunnison, Colorado, processing sits are summarized as follows: In accordance with EPA-promulgated land cleanup standards (40 CFR 192), in situ Ra-226 is to be cleaned up based on bulk concentrations not exceeding 5 and 15 pCi/g in 15-cm surface and subsurface depth increments, averaged over 100-m{sup 2} grid blocks, where the parent Ra-226 concentrations are greater than, or in secular equilibrium with, the Th-230 parent. A bulk interpretation of these EPA standards has been accepted by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and while the concentration of the finer-sized soil fraction less than a No. 4 mesh sieve contains the higher concentration of radioactivity, the bulk approach in effect integrates the total sample radioactivity over the entire sample mass. In locations where Th-230 has differentially migrated in subsoil relative to Ra-226, a Th-230 cleanup protocol has been developed in accordance with Supplemental Standard provisions of 40 CFR 192 for NRC/Colorado Department of Health (CDH) approval for timely implementation. Detailed elements of the protocol are contained in Appendix A, Generic Protocol from Thorium-230 Cleanup/Verification at UMTRA Project Processing Sites. The cleanup of other radionuclides or nonradiological hazards that pose a significant threat to the public and the environment will be determined and implemented in accordance with pathway analysis to assess impacts and the implications of ALARA specified in 40 CFR 192 relative to supplemental standards.

  17. Evaluation of containment failure and cleanup time for Pu shots on the Z machine.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darby, John L.

    2010-02-01

    Between November 30 and December 11, 2009 an evaluation was performed of the probability of containment failure and the time for cleanup of contamination of the Z machine given failure, for plutonium (Pu) experiments on the Z machine at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Due to the unique nature of the problem, there is little quantitative information available for the likelihood of failure of containment components or for the time to cleanup. Information for the evaluation was obtained from Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) at the Z machine facility. The SMEs provided the State of Knowledge (SOK) for the evaluation. There is significant epistemic- or state of knowledge- uncertainty associated with the events that comprise both failure of containment and cleanup. To capture epistemic uncertainty and to allow the SMEs to reason at the fidelity of the SOK, we used the belief/plausibility measure of uncertainty for this evaluation. We quantified two variables: the probability that the Pu containment system fails given a shot on the Z machine, and the time to cleanup Pu contamination in the Z machine given failure of containment. We identified dominant contributors for both the time to cleanup and the probability of containment failure. These results will be used by SNL management to decide the course of action for conducting the Pu experiments on the Z machine.

  18. EnviroAtlas: Providing Nationwide Geospatial Ecosystem Goods and Services Indicators and Indices to Inform Decision-Making, Research, and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    EnviroAtlas is a multi-organization effort led by the US Environmental Protection Agency to develop, host and display a large suite of nation-wide geospatial indicators and indices of ecosystem services. This open access tool allows users to view, analyze, and download a wealth o...

  19. High Temperature Syngas Cleanup Technology Scale-up and Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, Ben [Research Triangle Inst. (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Turk, Brian [Research Triangle Inst. (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Denton, David [Research Triangle Inst. (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Gupta, Raghubir [Research Triangle Inst. (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2015-09-30

    was designed and constructed on schedule and under budget and was operated for approximately 1,500 total hours utilizing ~20% of the IGCC’s total syngas as feed (~1.5 MM scfh of dry syngas). The WDP system reduced total sulfur levels to ~10 ppmv (~99.9% removal) from raw syngas that contained as high as 14,000 ppmv of total sulfur. The integration of WDP with the activated amine process enabled further reduction of total sulfur in the final treated syngas to the anticipated sub-ppmv concentrations (>99.99% removal), suitable for stringent syngas applications such as chemicals, fertilizers, and fuels. Techno-economic assessments by RTI and by third parties indicate potential for significant (up to 50%) capital and operating cost reductions for the entire syngas cleanup block when WDP technology is integrated with a broad spectrum of conventional and emerging carbon capture or acid gas removal technologies. This final scientific/technical report covers the pre-FEED, FEED, EPC, commissioning, and operation phases of this project, as well as system performance results. In addition, the report addresses other parallel-funded R&D efforts focused on development and testing of trace contaminant removal process (TCRP) sorbents, a direct sulfur recovery process (DSRP), and a novel sorbent for warm carbon dioxide capture, as well as pre-FEED, FEED, and techno-economic studies to consider the potential benefit for use of WDP for polygeneration of electric power and ammonia/urea fertilizers.

  20. From Effort to Value: Preschool Children's Alternative to Effort Justification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benozio, Avi; Diesendruck, Gil

    2015-09-01

    In the current studies, we addressed the development of effort-based object valuation. Four- and 6-year-olds invested either great or little effort in order to obtain attractive or unattractive rewards. Children were allowed to allocate these rewards to an unfamiliar recipient (dictator game). Investing great effort to obtain attractive rewards (a consonant situation) led 6-year-olds, but not 4-year-olds, to enhance the value of the rewards and thus distribute fewer of them to others. After investing effort to attain unattractive rewards (a dissonant situation), 6-year-olds cognitively reduced the dissonance between effort and reward quality by reappraising the value of the rewards and thus distributing fewer of them. In contrast, 4-year-olds reduced the dissonance behaviorally by discarding the rewards. These findings provide evidence for the emergence of an effort-value link and underline possible mechanisms underlying the primacy of cognitive versus behavioral solutions to dissonance reduction. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. 76 FR 43696 - Nationwide Cyber Security Review (NCSR) Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-21

    ... SECURITY Nationwide Cyber Security Review (NCSR) Assessment AGENCY: National Protection and Programs... of Cybersecurity and Communications (CS&C), National Cyber Security Division (NCSD), Cyber Security... (Pub. L. 104-13, 44 U.S.C. Chapter 35): New Information Collection Request, Nationwide Cyber Security...

  2. Chronic pain after lung transplantation: a nationwide study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildgaard, Kim; Iversen, Martin; Kehlet, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about persistent postsurgical pain after lung transplantation with the associated intensive and continuous immunosuppressive treatment. Therefore, we investigated the nationwide incidence of chronic pain after lung transplantations.......Little is known about persistent postsurgical pain after lung transplantation with the associated intensive and continuous immunosuppressive treatment. Therefore, we investigated the nationwide incidence of chronic pain after lung transplantations....

  3. Cleanup/stimulation of a horizontal wellbore using propellants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rougeot, J.E.; Lauterbach, K.A.

    1993-01-01

    This report documents the stimulation/cleanup of a horizontal well bore (Wilson 25) using propellants. The Wilson 25 is a Bartlesville Sand well located in the Flatrock Field, Osage County, Oklahoma. The Wilson 25 was drilled to determine if horizontal drilling could be used as a means to economically recover primary oil that had been left in place in a mostly abandoned oil field because of the adverse effects of water coning. Pump testing of the Wilson 25 horizontal well bore before cleanup or stimulation produced 6 barrels of oil and .84 barrels of water per day. The high percentage of daily oil production to total daily fluid production indicated that the horizontal well bore had accessed potentially economical oil reserves if the fluid production rate could be increased by performing a cleanup/stimulation treatment. Propellants were selected as an inexpensive means to stimulate and cleanup the near well bore area in a uniform manner. The ignition of a propellant creates a large volume of gas which penetrates the formation, creating numerous short cracks through which hydrocarbons can travel into the well bore. More conventional stimulation/cleanup techniques were either significantly more expensive, less likely to treat uniformly, or could not be confined to the near well bore area. Three different propellant torpedo designs were tested with a total of 304` of horizontal well bore being shot and producible. The initial test shot caused 400` of the horizontal well bore to become plugged off, and subsequently it could not be production tested. The second and third test shots were production tested, with the oil production being increased 458% and 349%, respectively, on a per foot basis. The Wilson 25 results indicate that a propellant shot treatment is an economically viable means to cleanup/stimulate a horizontal well bore.

  4. Reproductive effort decreases antibody responsiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deerenberg, Charlotte; Arpanius, Victor; Daan, Serge; Bos, Nicolaas

    1997-01-01

    The prevalence and intensity of parasitic infection often increases in animals when they are reproducing. This may be a consequence of increased rates of parasite transmission due to reproductive effort. Alternatively, endocrine changes associated with reproduction can lead to immunosuppression.

  5. Update on GPS Modernization Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-11

    Space and Missile Systems Center Update on GPS Modernization Efforts 11 June 2015 Col Steve Whitney GPS User Equipment Division PUBLICALLY...DATE 11 JUN 2015 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Update on GPS Modernization Efforts 5a...ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Air Force Space Command,Space and Missile Systems Center, GPS User Equipment Division ,Los Angeles AFB, El Segundo,CA

  6. Systems engineering functions and requirements for the Hanford cleanup mission. First issue, Addendum 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, J.J.

    1994-01-01

    This addendum provides the technical detail of a systems engineering functional analysis for the Hanford cleanup mission. Details of the mission analysis including mission statement, scope, problem statement, initial state definition, and final state definition are provided in the parent document. The functional analysis consists of Input Computer Automated Manufacturing Definition (IDEFO) diagrams an definitions, which will be understood by systems engineers, but which may be difficult for others to comprehend. For a more complete explanation of this work, refer to the parent document. The analysis covers the total Hanford cleanup mission including the decomposition levels at which the various Hanford programs or integrated activities are encountered.

  7. Mechanism involved in trichloroethylene-induced liver cancer: Importance to environmental cleanup. 1997 annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bull, R.J.

    1997-06-01

    'The Pacific Northwest National Lab. was awarded ten (10) Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) research grants in Fiscal Year 1996. This section gives a summary of how each grant is addressing significant DOE cleanup issues, including those at the Hanford Site. The technical progress made to date in each of these research projects is addressed in more detail in the individual progress reports contained in this document. This research is primarily focused in three areas-Tank Waste Remediation, Soil and Groundwater Cleanup, and Health Effects.'

  8. Fixed-bed gasifier and cleanup system engineering summary report through Test Run No. 100

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pater, K. Jr.; Headley, L.; Kovach, J.; Stopek, D.

    1984-06-01

    The state-of-the-art of high-pressure, fixed-bed gasification has been advanced by the many refinements developed over the last 5 years. A novel full-flow gas cleanup system has been installed and tested to clean coal-derived gases. This report summarizes the results of tests conducted on the gasifier and cleanup system from its inception through 1982. Selected process summary data are presented along with results from complementary programs in the areas of environmental research, process simulation, analytical methods development, and component testing. 20 references, 32 figures, 42 tables.

  9. Dyscirculatory encephalopathy in Chernobyl disaster clean-up workers (a 20-year study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podsonnaya, I V; Shumakher, G I; Golovin, V A

    2010-05-01

    Results obtained over 20-years of following 536 Chernobyl clean-up workers and 436 control subjects are presented. Dyscirculatory encephalopathy developed more frequently in persons exposed to radiation at age 30 years. As compared with the control group, workers were characterized by early onset of disease, faster progression, stable symptomatology for 5-6 years, and further progression of disease in the form of autonomic dysfunction, psycho-organic syndrome, and epilepsy. Major strokes were also more common in clean-up workers.

  10. Effort in Multitasking: Local and Global Assessment of Effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiesel, Andrea; Dignath, David

    2017-01-01

    When performing multiple tasks in succession, self-organization of task order might be superior compared to external-controlled task schedules, because self-organization allows optimizing processing modes and thus reduces switch costs, and it increases commitment to task goals. However, self-organization is an additional executive control process that is not required if task order is externally specified and as such it is considered as time-consuming and effortful. To compare self-organized and externally controlled task scheduling, we suggest assessing global subjective and objectives measures of effort in addition to local performance measures. In our new experimental approach, we combined characteristics of dual tasking settings and task switching settings and compared local and global measures of effort in a condition with free choice of task sequence and a condition with cued task sequence. In a multi-tasking environment, participants chose the task order while the task requirement of the not-yet-performed task remained the same. This task preview allowed participants to work on the previously non-chosen items in parallel and resulted in faster responses and fewer errors in task switch trials than in task repetition trials. The free-choice group profited more from this task preview than the cued group when considering local performance measures. Nevertheless, the free-choice group invested more effort than the cued group when considering global measures. Thus, self-organization in task scheduling seems to be effortful even in conditions in which it is beneficiary for task processing. In a second experiment, we reduced the possibility of task preview for the not-yet-performed tasks in order to hinder efficient self-organization. Here neither local nor global measures revealed substantial differences between the free-choice and a cued task sequence condition. Based on the results of both experiments, we suggest that global assessment of effort in addition to

  11. Models Show Subsurface Cracking May Complicate Groundwater Cleanup at Hazardous Waste Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlorinated solvents like trichloroethylene contaminate groundwater at numerous sites nationwide. This modeling study, conducted at the Air Force Institute of Technology, shows that subsurface cracks, either natural or due to the presence of the contaminant itself, may result in...

  12. Dopamine, behavioral economics, and effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D Salamone

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. There are numerous problems with the hypothesis that brain dopamine (DA systems, particularly in the nucleus accumbens, directly mediate the rewarding or primary motivational characteristics of natural stimuli such as food. Research and theory related to the functions of mesolimbic DA are undergoing a substantial conceptual restructuring, with the traditional emphasis on hedonia and primary reward yielding to other concepts and lines of inquiry. The present review is focused upon the involvement of nucleus accumbens DA in behavioral activation and effort-related processes. Viewed from the framework of behavioral economics, the effects of accumbens DA depletions and antagonism on food-reinforced behavior are highly dependent upon the work requirements of the instrumental task, and DA depleted rats are more sensitive to increases in response costs (i.e., ratio requirements. Moreover, interference with accumbens DA transmission exerts a powerful influence over effort-related choice behavior. Rats with accumbens DA depletions or antagonism reallocate their instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks that have high response requirements, and instead these rats select a less-effortful type of food-seeking behavior. Nucleus accumbens DA and adenosine interact in the regulation of effort-related functions, and other brain structures (anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala, ventral pallidum also are involved. Studies of the brain systems regulating effort-based processes may have implications for understanding drug abuse, as well as energy-related disorders such as psychomotor slowing, fatigue or anergia in depression and other neurological disorders.

  13. ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.K. Morton

    2012-09-01

    In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

  14. ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.K. Morton

    2011-09-01

    In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

  15. ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.K. Morton

    2010-09-01

    In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

  16. Effort problem of chemical pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okrajni, J.; Ciesla, M.; Mutwil, K. [Silesian Technical University, Katowice (Poland)

    1998-12-31

    The problem of the technical state assessment of the chemical pipelines working under mechanical and thermal loading has been shown in the paper. The pipelines effort after the long time operating period has been analysed. Material geometrical and loading conditions of the crack initiation and crack growth process in the chosen object has been discussed. Areas of the maximal effort have been determined. The material structure charges after the long time operating period have been described. Mechanisms of the crack initiation and crack growth in the pipeline elements have been analysed and mutual relations between the chemical and mechanical influences have been shown. (orig.) 16 refs.

  17. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-F-7, 100-F Miscellaneous Hardware Storage Vault

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. J. Appel

    2006-11-02

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-F-7, 100-F Miscellaneous Hardware Storage Vault. The site consisted of an inactive solid waste storage vault used for temporary storage of slightly contaminated reactor parts that could be recovered and reused for the 100-F Area reactor operations.

  18. Cancer incidence and thyroid disease among Estonian Chernobyl clean-up workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auvinen, A.; Salomaa, S. [eds.] [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland); Rahu, M.; Veidebaum, T.; Tekkel, M. [eds.] [Inst. of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, Tallinn (Estonia); Hakulinen, T. [ed.] [Finnish Cancer Registry, Helsinki (Finland); Boice, J.D. Jr. [ed.] [Int. Epidemiology Inst., MD (United States)

    1998-09-01

    The report describes the development and summarizes the results of the project Cancer incidence and thyroid disease among Estonian Chernobyl clean-up workers. One of the goals of the report is to give research protocols and questionnaires for researchers involved in other studies. Eight previously published articles are also included summarizing the results. The development of the collaboration work of the project is described in the introduction of the report. Epidemiological methods are described in an article complemented by the protocol and English version of the questionnaire administered to all cleanup workers, as well as the data collection form of the thyroid study. The results from biological biodosimetry using both glycophorin A and FISH methods have shown that the radiation doses received by the Chernobyl cleanup workers were relatively low. Thyroid nodularity was not associated with any radiation exposure characteristic in the thyroid screening study. Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers were followed up for cancer incidence through the Estonian Cancer Registry. No cases of leukemia or thyroid cancer were observed by the end of 1993. It is too early to observe possible effect on other types of cancer. However, mortality from suicides was increased compared with general population. Further follow-up and the extension to other Baltic countries in the future will undoubtedly strengthen the study. There are also plans for future projects covering areas from psychosocial factors to radiation biology

  19. Firms vie to offer DOE a prize-winning recipe for cleanup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, M.B.

    1994-04-25

    Eager to get the most bang for its waste cleanup bucks, the US Department of Energy is conducting its own version of the Pillsbury bake-off. DOE is pitting two environmental contractors, Rust International Corp. and Lockheed Environmental Systems and Technologies Co., against each other to come up with the prize-winning recipe for cleaning up some nasty waste problems.

  20. Mental disorders among Chernobyl cleanup workers from Estonia: A clinical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidra, Kaia; Rahu, Kaja; Kalaus, Katri-Evelin; Tekkel, Mare; Leinsalu, Mall

    2017-08-01

    To assess, at a clinical level, the mental health of former Chernobyl cleanup workers from Estonia by comparing them with same-age controls. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) was administered during 2011-2012 to 99 cleanup workers and 100 population-based controls previously screened for mental health symptoms. Logistic regression analysis showed that cleanup workers had higher odds of current depressive disorder (odds ratio [OR] = 3.07, 95% confidence interval [CI: 1.34, 7.01]), alcohol dependence (OR = 3.47, 95% CI [1.29, 9.34]), and suicide ideation (OR = 3.44, 95% CI [1.28, 9.21]) than did controls. Except for suicide ideation, associations with Chernobyl exposure became statistically nonsignificant when adjusted for education and ethnicity. A quarter of a century after the Chernobyl accident, Estonian cleanup workers were still at increased risk of mental disorders, which was partly attributable to sociodemographic factors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Status of Pesticides and Degradation Products in Soil After Clean-up ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The status of pesticide residues in soil samples collected from a former storage site one year after clean-up of stockpiles and treatment with NaOH was investigated. The analytes were extracted from samples ... Analysis of the analytes was performed using a high resolution GC–MS. The dominant contaminants detected and ...

  2. Roundtable on Long-Term Management In The Cleanup of Contaminated Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aimee Houghton

    2002-06-28

    The Center for Public Environmental Oversight (CPEO) convened a roundtable in Washington, DC on June 28, 2002 to discuss innovative approaches to long-term management in the cleanup of contaminated property. Twenty participants attended the meeting, including representatives of federal agencies, local government, state regulatory agencies, environmental organizations, and thinking tanks, as well as private consultants with experience in site remediation and redevelopment.

  3. Determination of fusaric acid in maize using molecularly imprinted SPE clean-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new liquid chromatography method to detect fusaric acid in maize is reported based on molecularly imprinted polymer solid phase extraction clean-up (MISPE) using mimic-templated molecularly-imprinted polymers. Picolinic acid was used as a toxin analog for imprinting polymers during a thermolytic s...

  4. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-B-6, 108-B Solid Waste Burial Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. L. Proctor

    2006-06-13

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-B-6, 108-B Solid Waste Burial Ground. The 118-B-6 site consisted of 2 concrete pipes buried vertically in the ground and capped by a concrete pad with steel lids. The site was used for the disposal of wastes from the "metal line" of the P-10 Tritium Separation Project.

  5. Cleanup Verification Package for the 100-F-20, Pacific Northwest Laboratory Parallel Pits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. J. Appel

    2007-01-22

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 100-F-20, Pacific Northwest Laboratory Parallel Pits waste site. This waste site consisted of two earthen trenches thought to have received both radioactive and nonradioactive material related to the 100-F Experimental Animal Farm.

  6. Legal aspects of the clean-up and reclamation of the manufactured gas plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joldzic, V. [Belgrade University, Belgrade (Yugoslavia). Inst. for Criminology and Sociological Research

    1995-12-31

    The laws associated with the cleanup of manufactured gas plants in Yugoslavia is described. These comprise the Environmental Protection Act; the Law about Space Planning and Organizing; Building Law; and Agricultural Land Use Law. Joint remedial action in the Danube Basin is discussed. 13 refs.

  7. Hebei spirit oil spill exposure and subjective symptoms in residents participating in clean-up activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Hae-Kwan; Ha, Mina; Lee, Jong Seong; Kwon, Hojang; Ha, Eun-Hee; Hong, Yun-Chul; Choi, Yeyong; Jeong, Woo-Chul; Hur, Jongil; Lee, Seung-Min; Kim, Eun-Jung; Im, Hosub

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the relationship between crude oil exposure and physical symptoms among residents participating in clean-up work associated with the Hebei Spirit oil spill, 2007 in Korea. A total of 288 residents responded to a questionnaire regarding subjective physical symptoms, sociodemographic characteristics and clean-up activities that occurred between two and eight weeks after the accident. Additionally, the urine of 154 of the respondents was analyzed for metabolites of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals. To compare the urinary levels of exposure biomarkers, the urine of 39 inland residents who were not directly exposed to the oil spill were analyzed. Residents exposed to oil remnants through clean-up work showed associations between physical symptoms and the exposure levels defined in various ways, including days of work, degree of skin contamination, and levels of some urinary exposure biomarkers of VOCs, metabolites and metals, although no major abnormalities in urinary exposure biomarkers were observed. This study provides evidence of a relationship between crude oil exposure and acute human health effects and suggests the need for follow-up to evaluate the exposure status and long-term health effects of clean-up participants.

  8. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-C-1, 105-C Solid Waste Burial Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. J. Appel and J. M. Capron

    2007-07-25

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-C-1, 105-C Solid Waste Burial Ground. This waste site was the primary burial ground for general wastes from the operation of the 105-C Reactor and received process tubes, aluminum fuel spacers, control rods, reactor hardware, spent nuclear fuel and soft wastes.

  9. Cleanup Verification Package for the 126-F-1, 184-F Powerhouse Ash Pit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. W. Clark and H. M Sulloway

    2007-10-31

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 126-F-1, 184-F Powerhouse Ash Pit. This waste site received coal ash from the 100-F Area coal-fired steam plant. Leakage of process effluent from the 116-F-14 , 107-F Retention Basins flowed south into the ash pit, contaminating the northern portion.

  10. Cleanup Verification Package for the 126-F-1, 184-F Powerhouse Ash Pit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. W. Clark and H. M. Sulloway

    2007-09-26

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 126-F-1, 184-F Powerhouse Ash Pit. This waste site received coal ash from the 100-F Area coal-fired steam plant. Leakage of process effluent from the 116-F-14 , 107-F Retention Basins flowed south into the ash pit, contaminating the northern portion.

  11. UTILIZING INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL CLEAN-UP, SAVAHHAH RIVER SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergren, C

    2009-01-07

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a 310-square-mile United States Department of Energy nuclear facility located along the Savannah River near Aiken, South Carolina. During operations, which started in 1951, hazardous substances (chemicals and radionuclides) were released to the environment. The releases occurred as a result of inadvertent spills and waste disposal in unlined pits and basins which was common practice before environmental regulations existed. The hazardous substances have migrated to the vadose zone and groundwater in many areas of the SRS, resulting in 515 waste units and facilities that are required by environmental regulations, to undergo characterization and, if needed, remediation. In the initial years of the SRS environmental cleanup program (early 1990s), the focus was to use common technologies (such as pump and treat, air stripping, excavation and removal) that actively and tangibly removed contamination. Exclusive use of these technologies required continued and significant funding while often failing to meet acceptable clean-up goals and objectives. Recognizing that a more cost-effective approach was needed, SRS implemented new and complementary remediation methods focused on active and passive technologies targeted to solve specific remediation problems. Today, SRS uses technologies such as chemical/pH-adjusting injection, phytoremediation, underground cutoff walls, dynamic underground stripping, soil fracturing, microbial degradation, baroballs, electrical resistance heating, soil vapor extraction, and microblowers to more effectively treat contamination at lower costs. Additionally, SRS's remediation approach cost effectively maximizes cleanup as SRS works proactively with multiple regulatory agencies. Using GIS, video, animation, and graphics, SRS is able to provide an accurate depiction of the evolution of SRS groundwater and vadose zone cleanup activities to convince stakeholders and regulators of the effectiveness of various

  12. Termination of prehospital resuscitative efforts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Søren; Schaffalitzky de Muckadell, Caroline; Binderup, Lars Grassmé

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Discussions on ethical aspects of life-and-death decisions within the hospital are often made in plenary. The prehospital physician, however, may be faced with ethical dilemmas in life-and-death decisions when time-critical decisions to initiate or refrain from resuscitative efforts n...

  13. The AstroHDF Effort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masters, J.; Alexov, A.; Folk, M.; Hanisch, R.; Heber, G.; Wise, M.

    2012-01-01

    Here we update the astronomy community on our effort to deal with the demands of ever-increasing astronomical data size and complexity, using the Hierarchical Data Format, version 5 (HDF5) format (Wise et al. 2011). NRAO, LOFAR and VAO have joined forces with The HDF Group to write an NSF grant,

  14. Emerging flue-gas cleanup technologies for combined control of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livengood, C.D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Markussen, J.M. [USDOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States)

    1994-06-01

    Enactment of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, as well as passage of legislation at the state level has raised the prospect of more stringent nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emission regulations and has fueled research and development efforts on a number technologies for the combined control of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and NO{sub x}. The integrated removal of both SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} in a single system can offer significant advantages over the use of several separate processes, including such factors as reduced system complexity, better operability, and lower costs. This paper reviews the status of a number of integrated flue-gas-cleanup systems that have reached a significant stage of development, focusing on post-combustion processes that have been tested or are ready for testing at the pilot scale or larger. A brief process description, a summary of the development status and performance achieved to date, pending commercialization issues, and process economics (when available) are given for each technology.

  15. HCUP Nationwide Emergency Department Database (NEDS) Restricted Access File

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS) was created to enable analyses of emergency department (ED) utilization patterns and support public health...

  16. Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Nationwide Readmissions Database (NRD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Nationwide Readmissions Database (NRD) is a unique and powerful database designed to support various types of analyses of national readmission rates for all...

  17. The Telemetry Agile Manufacturing Effort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, K.D.

    1995-01-01

    The Telemetry Agile Manufacturing Effort (TAME) is an agile enterprising demonstration sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The project experimented with new approaches to product realization and assessed their impacts on performance, cost, flow time, and agility. The purpose of the project was to design the electrical and mechanical features of an integrated telemetry processor, establish the manufacturing processes, and produce an initial production lot of two to six units. This paper outlines the major methodologies utilized by the TAME, describes the accomplishments that can be attributed to each methodology, and finally, examines the lessons learned and explores the opportunities for improvement associated with the overall effort. The areas for improvement are discussed relative to an ideal vision of the future for agile enterprises. By the end of the experiment, the TAME reduced production flow time by approximately 50% and life cycle cost by more than 30%. Product performance was improved compared with conventional DOE production approaches.

  18. Unidata's International Efforts and Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamurthy, Mohan

    2010-05-01

    Increasingly, the conduct of science requires strong international scientific partnerships and the sharing of data, information, knowledge and other assets. This is particularly true in the geosciences where the highly coupled nature of the Earth system and the need to understand global environmental processes and their regional linkages have heightened the importance of international collaborations. As geoscience studies become a team effort involving networked scientists and data providers, it is crucial that there is full, open, reliable and timely access to and sharing of earth system science data. Unidata, which is funded by the United States National Science Foundation, recognizes the benefits of international scientific partnerships and the value of networked communities, as institutions and people exchange data, knowledge and other resources. Unidata's international data sharing activities began modestly as the MeteoForum project in Latin America in 2001, but have since grown to include several projects and collaborations in many countries. Unidata's growing portfolio of international activities are conducted in close collaboration with academic, research, and operational institutions worldwide. Specific emphasis of those efforts is on sharing data, and provision of software, support, and training. Real-time atmospheric science data delivered have helped to initiate teaching innovations in universities, advanced research, and facilitated operational forecasting. In this talk, an overview of Unidata's approach to gradual but organic international broadening will be presented, along with examples of specific collaborations and activities via myriad internationally-linked efforts and projects. In addition to describing these efforts, the talk will summarize some of the lessons learned in developing, implementing, and supporting those activities.

  19. Nationwide public-access defibrillation in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Tetsuhisa; Iwami, Taku; Kawamura, Takashi; Nagao, Ken; Tanaka, Hideharu; Hiraide, Atsushi

    2010-03-18

    It is unclear whether dissemination of automated external defibrillators (AEDs) in public places can improve the rate of survival among patients who have had an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. From January 1, 2005, through December 31, 2007, we conducted a prospective, population-based, observational study involving consecutive patients across Japan who had an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and in whom resuscitation was attempted by emergency responders. We evaluated the effect of nationwide dissemination of public-access AEDs on the rate of survival after an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. The primary outcome measure was the 1-month rate of survival with minimal neurologic impairment. A multivariate logistic-regression analysis was performed to assess factors associated with a good neurologic outcome. A total of 312,319 adults who had an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest were included in the study; 12,631 of these patients had ventricular fibrillation and had an arrest that was of cardiac origin and that was witnessed by bystanders. In 462 of these patients (3.7%), shocks were administered by laypersons with the use of public-access AEDs, and the proportion increased, from 1.2% to 6.2%, as the number of public-access AEDs increased (Pdefibrillation, regardless of the type of provider (bystander or emergency-medical-services personnel), was associated with a good neurologic outcome after a cardiac arrest with ventricular fibrillation (adjusted odds ratio per 1-minute increase in the time to administration of shock, 0.91; 95% confidence interval, 0.89 to 0.92; P<0.001). The mean time to shock was reduced from 3.7 to 2.2 minutes, and the annual number of patients per 10 million population who survived with minimal neurologic impairment increased from 2.4 to 8.9 as the number of public-access AEDs increased from fewer than 1 per square kilometer of inhabited area to 4 or more. Nationwide dissemination of public-access AEDs in Japan resulted in earlier administration of

  20. Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup, and Oxygen Separation Equipment; Task 2: Gas Cleanup Design and Cost Estimates -- Wood Feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nexant Inc.

    2006-05-01

    As part of Task 2, Gas Cleanup and Cost Estimates, Nexant investigated the appropriate process scheme for treatment of wood-derived syngas for use in the synthesis of liquid fuels. Two different 2,000 metric tonne per day gasification schemes, a low-pressure, indirect system using the gasifier, and a high-pressure, direct system using gasification technology were evaluated. Initial syngas conditions from each of the gasifiers was provided to the team by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Nexant was the prime contractor and principal investigator during this task; technical assistance was provided by both GTI and Emery Energy.

  1. Satellite data-based phenological evaluation of the nationwide reforestation of South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Su-Jong; Ho, Chang-Hoi; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Kim, Jinwon; Lee, Eun-Ju; Gim, Hyeon-Ju

    2013-01-01

    Through the past 60 years, forests, now of various age classes, have been established in the southern part of the Korean Peninsula through nationwide efforts to reestablish forests since the Korean War (1950-53), during which more than 65% of the nation's forest was destroyed. Careful evaluation of long-term changes in vegetation growth after reforestation is one of the essential steps to ensuring sustainable forest management. This study investigated nationwide variations in vegetation phenology using satellite-based growing season estimates for 1982-2008. The start of the growing season calculated from the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) agrees reasonably with the ground-observed first flowering date both temporally (correlation coefficient, r = 0.54) and spatially (r = 0.64) at the 95% confidence level. Over the entire 27-year period, South Korea, on average, experienced a lengthening of the growing season of 4.5 days decade(-1), perhaps due to recent global warming. The lengthening of the growing season is attributed mostly to delays in the end of the growing season. The retrieved nationwide growing season data were used to compare the spatial variations in forest biomass carbon density with the time-averaged growing season length for 61 forests. Relatively higher forest biomass carbon density was observed over the regions having a longer growing season, especially for the regions dominated by young (<30 year) forests. These results imply that a lengthening of the growing season related to the ongoing global warming may have positive impacts on carbon sequestration, an important aspect of large-scale forest management for sustainable development.

  2. Satellite data-based phenological evaluation of the nationwide reforestation of South Korea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Jong Jeong

    Full Text Available Through the past 60 years, forests, now of various age classes, have been established in the southern part of the Korean Peninsula through nationwide efforts to reestablish forests since the Korean War (1950-53, during which more than 65% of the nation's forest was destroyed. Careful evaluation of long-term changes in vegetation growth after reforestation is one of the essential steps to ensuring sustainable forest management. This study investigated nationwide variations in vegetation phenology using satellite-based growing season estimates for 1982-2008. The start of the growing season calculated from the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI agrees reasonably with the ground-observed first flowering date both temporally (correlation coefficient, r = 0.54 and spatially (r = 0.64 at the 95% confidence level. Over the entire 27-year period, South Korea, on average, experienced a lengthening of the growing season of 4.5 days decade(-1, perhaps due to recent global warming. The lengthening of the growing season is attributed mostly to delays in the end of the growing season. The retrieved nationwide growing season data were used to compare the spatial variations in forest biomass carbon density with the time-averaged growing season length for 61 forests. Relatively higher forest biomass carbon density was observed over the regions having a longer growing season, especially for the regions dominated by young (<30 year forests. These results imply that a lengthening of the growing season related to the ongoing global warming may have positive impacts on carbon sequestration, an important aspect of large-scale forest management for sustainable development.

  3. Technical support for the EPA cleanup rule on radioactively contaminated sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, H.B.; Newman, A.; Wolbarst, A.B. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing a radiation site cleanup regulation for the protection of the public from radionuclide contamination at sites that are to be cleaned up and released for public use. The regulation will apply to sites under the control of Federal agencies, and to sites licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) or NRC Agreement States. The agency is therefore conducting a comprehensive technical analysis aimed at developing information that will be used to support the rule. This presentation describes the regulation and the approach developed to determine how radiological health impacts and volumes of soil requiring remediation vary as functions of the possible cleanup dose or risk level.

  4. Science To Support DOE Site Cleanup: The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Environmental Management Science Program Awards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bredt, Paul R.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Brockman, Fred J.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Camaioni, Donald M.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Felmy, Andrew R.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Grate, Jay W.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Hay, Benjamin P.(PNNL); Hess, Nancy J.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Meyer, Philip D.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Murray, Christopher J.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Pfund, David M.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Su, Yali (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Thornton, Edward C.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Weber, William J.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Zachara, John M.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

    2001-06-19

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was awarded ten Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) research grants in fiscal year 1996, six in fiscal year 1997, nine in fiscal year 1998, seven in fiscal year 1999, and five in fiscal year 2000. All of the fiscal year 1996 award projects have published final reports. The 1997 and 1998 award projects have been completed or are nearing completion. Final reports for these awards will be published, so their annual updates will not be included in this document. This section summarizes how each of the 1999 and 2000 grants address significant U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) cleanup issues, including those at the Hanford Site. The technical progress made to date in each of these research projects is addressed in more detail in the individual progress reports contained in this document. The 1999 and 2000 EMSP awards at PNNL are focused primarily in two areas: Tank Waste Remediation, and Soil and Groundwater Cleanup.

  5. Interaction between emergency responders and cleanup contractors: Transition to environmental recovery via the unified command system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimball, J.P. [Roy F. Weston, Inc., Rockville, MD (United States); Hughes, S. [Tri-County Industries, Beltsville, MD (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The transition of operations from the emergency phase of a spill or release to the clean-up and recovery stage can be ragged and disorganized. The communication and coordination must be clear and complete between emergency control crews and clean-up and recovery groups. Not only is environmental restoration and remediation enhanced but the health and safety of all concerned depends on a smooth transition from the emergency to the recovery. The utilization of an organized scene and site management system will help ensure that the pick-up, transport, storage and disposal of incident-generated hazardous wastes is processed safely and legally. The unified command system is one such emergency management organization. The presenters, both experienced emergency responders as well as recovery contractors, will present methods of utilizing unified command systems to assure a safe and efficient transition of operations.

  6. Hot particulate removal and desulfurization results from the METC integrated gasification and hot gas cleanup facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rockey, J.M.

    1995-06-01

    The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) is conducting experimental testing using a 10-inch diameter fluid-bed gasifier (FBG) and modular hot gas cleanup rig (MGCR) to develop advanced methods for removing contaminants in hot coal gasifier gas streams for commercial development of integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power systems. The program focus is on hot gas particulate removal and desulfurization technologies that match the temperatures and pressures of the gasifier, cleanup system, and power generator. The purpose of this poster is to present the program objectives and results of the work conducted in cooperation with industrial users and vendors to meet the vision for IGCC of reducing the capital cost per kilowatt to $1050 and increasing the plant efficiency to 52% by the year 2010.

  7. APS Education and Diversity Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestridge, Katherine; Hodapp, Theodore

    2015-11-01

    American Physical Society (APS) has a wide range of education and diversity programs and activities, including programs that improve physics education, increase diversity, provide outreach to the public, and impact public policy. We present the latest programs spearheaded by the Committee on the Status of Women in Physics (CSWP), with highlights from other diversity and education efforts. The CSWP is working to increase the fraction of women in physics, understand and implement solutions for gender-specific issues, enhance professional development opportunities for women in physics, and remedy issues that impact gender inequality in physics. The Conferences for Undergraduate Women in Physics, Professional Skills Development Workshops, and our new Professional Skills program for students and postdocs are all working towards meeting these goals. The CSWP also has site visit and conversation visit programs, where department chairs request that the APS assess the climate for women in their departments or facilitate climate discussions. APS also has two significant programs to increase participation by underrepresented minorities (URM). The newest program, the APS National Mentoring Community, is working to provide mentoring to URM undergraduates, and the APS Bridge Program is an established effort that is dramatically increasing the number of URM PhDs in physics.

  8. Celebrating Success: EPA Region 3 Greener Cleanup and Sustainable Reuse Award Winner: Aberdeen Proving Ground Federal Facility Superfund Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greener Cleanup practices were implemented as part of a successful Time-Critical Removal Action (TCRA) completed at the APG Former NIKE Missile Site which has resulted in a reduced environmental footprint, accelerated site closure, and a cost savings.

  9. SERDP/ESTCP Expert Panel Workshop on Research and Development Needs for Cleanup of Chlorinated Solvent Sites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    ...) perform its mission. These programs together conducted an expert panel workshop on August 6-7, 2001 to evaluate the needs for research and development in the general area of chlorinated solvent site cleanup...

  10. Systems engineering product description report for the Hanford Cleanup Mission: First issue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, J.J.; Bailey, K.B. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Collings, J.L.; Hubbard, A.B.; Niepke, T.M. [Science Applications International Corp. (United States)

    1994-06-01

    This document describes the upper level physical and administrative (nonphysical) products that, when delivered, complete the Hanford Cleanup Mission. Development of product descriptions is a continuation of the Sitewide Systems Engineering work described in the Sitewide functional analysis, the architecture synthesis, and is consistent with guidance contained in the mission plan. This document provides a bridge between all three documents and the products required to complete the mission of cleaning up the Hanford Site.

  11. Efficiency of different protocols for enamel clean-up after bracket debonding: an in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Carvalho Freitas Sigilião

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to assess the efficiency of six protocols for cleaning-up tooth enamel after bracket debonding.Methods:A total of 60 premolars were divided into six groups, according to the tools used for clean-up: 12-blade bur at low speed (G12L, 12-blade bur at high speed (G12H, 30-blade bur at low speed (G30L, DU10CO ORTHO polisher (GDU, Renew System (GR and Diagloss polisher (GD. Mean roughness (Ra and mean roughness depth (Rz of enamel surface were analyzed with a profilometer. Paired t-test was used to assess Ra and Rz before and after enamel clean-up. ANOVA/Tukey tests were used for intergroup comparison. The duration of removal procedures was recorded. The association between time and variation in enamel roughness (∆Ra, ∆Rz were evaluated by Pearson's correlation test. Enamel topography was assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM.Results:In Groups G12L and G12H, original enamel roughness did not change significantly. In Groups G30L, GDU, GR and GD, a smoother surface (p < 0.05 was found after clean-up. In Groups G30L and GD, the protocols used were more time-consuming than those used in the other groups. Negative and moderate correlation was observed between time and (∆Ra, ∆Rz; Ra and (∆Ra, ∆Rz; Rz (r = - 0.445, r = - 0.475, p < 0.01.Conclusion:All enamel clean-up protocols were efficient because they did not result in increased surface roughness. The longer the time spent performing the protocol, the lower the surface roughness.

  12. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-F-3, Minor Construction Burial Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. J. Appel

    2007-01-04

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-F-3, Minor Construction Burial Ground waste site. This site was an open field covered with cobbles, with no vegetation growing on the surface. The site received irradiated reactor parts that were removed during conversion of the 105-F Reactor from the Liquid 3X to the Ball 3X Project safety systems and received mostly vertical safety rod thimbles and step plugs.

  13. Oxidative stress biomarkers in long-term participants in clean-up work after the Hebei Spirit oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Su Ryeon; Cheong, Hae-Kwan; Ha, Mina; Eom, Sang-Yong; Kim, Heon; Choi, Young-Hyun; Paek, Domyung

    2015-05-15

    The oil tanker Hebei Spirit spilled 12,547kL of oil near the western coastline of Korea on December 7, 2007. We aimed to investigate the relationship between oil spill exposure and oxidative stress in residents living near the affected area. Study subjects were 671 residents who participated in a health examination between February and September 2009. As surrogates for oil spill exposure, we used the total duration of clean-up work and levels of urinary metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) and 2-naphthol (2-NAPH). Oxidative stress was measured using urinary levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), indicators of lipid peroxidation and oxidative DNA damage, respectively. Levels of oxidative stress biomarkers were significantly increased with longer involvement in clean-up work over one year after the Hebei Spirit oil spill (MDA, p-trendlevels of PAH metabolites (1-OHP and 2-NAPH), as well as levels of the oxidative stress biomarkers (MDA and 8-OHdG) decreased further. The level of 1-OHP had a significant positive correlation with the total duration of clean-up work involvement, with a higher level found in those who participated in clean-up for >100 days. Increasing levels of 1-OHP were significantly associated with increased MDA and 8-OHdG after adjusting for covariates, while the strength of association weakened as time passed since the last participation in clean-up work. The significance of the association was maintained for up to 12 months after the last clean-up work. The results suggested that oil exposure from prolonged clean-up activity likely induced oxidative stress in clean-up participants up to at least one year after the last exposure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Proceedings of the seventh annual gasification and gas stream cleanup systems contractors review meeting: Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghate, M.R.; Markel, K.E. Jr.; Jarr, L.A.; Bossart, S.J. (eds.)

    1987-08-01

    On June 16 through 19, 1987, METC sponsored the Seventh Annual Gasification and Gas Stream Cleanup Systems Contractors Review Meeting which was held at the Sheraton Lakeview Conference Center in Morgantown, West Virginia. The primary purpose of the meeting was threefold: to review the technical progress and current status of the gasification and gas stream cleanup projects sponsored by the Department of Energy; to foster technology exchange among participating researchers and other technical communities; to facilitate interactive dialogues which would identify research needs that would make coal-based gasification systems more attractive economically and environmentally. More than 310 representatives of Government, academia, industry, and foreign energy research organizations attended the 4-day meeting. Fifty-three papers and thirty poster dsplays were presented summarizing recent developments in the gasification and gas stream cleanup programs. Volume II covers papers presented at sessions 5 and 6 on system for the production of synthesis gas, and on system for the production of power. All papers have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  15. Integrated low emission cleanup system for direct coal-fueled turbines (electrostatic agglomeration)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quimby, J.M.; Kumar, K.S.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this contract was to investigate the removal of SO[sub x] and particulate matter from direct coal fired combustion gas streams at high temperature and high pressure conditions. This investigation was to be accomplished through a bench scale testing and evaluation program for SO[sub x] removal and the innovative particulate collection concept of particulate growth through electrostatic agglomeration followed by high efficiency mechanical collection. The process goal was to achieve control better than that required by 1979 New Source Performance Standards. During Phase I, the designs of the combustor and gas cleanup apparatus were successfully completed. Hot gas cleanup was designed to be accomplished at temperature levels between 1800[degrees] and 2500[degrees]F at pressures up to 15 atmospheres. The combustor gas flow rate could be varied between 0.2--0.5 pounds per second. The electrostatic agglomerator residence time could be varied between 0.25 to 3 seconds. In Phase II, all components were fabricated, and erected successfully. Test data from shakedown testing was obtained. Unpredictable difficulties in pilot plant erection and shakedown consumed more budget resources than was estimated and as a consequence DOE, METC, decided ft was best to complete the contract at the end of Phase II. Parameters studied in shakedown testing revealed that high-temperature high pressure electrostatics offers an alternative to barrier filtration in hot gas cleanup but more research is needed in successful system integration between the combustor and electrostatic agglomerator.

  16. Proceedings of the seventh annual gasification and gas stream cleanup systems contractors review meeting: Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghate, M.R.; Markel, K.E. Jr.; Jarr, L.A.; Bossart, S.J. (eds.)

    1987-08-01

    On June 16 through 19, 1987, METC sponsored the Seventh Annual Gasification and Gas Stream Cleanup Systems Contractors Review Meeting which was held at the Sheraton Lakeview Conference Center in Morgantown, West Virginia. The primary purpose of the meeting was threefold: to review the technical progress and current status of the gasification and gas stream cleanup projects sponsored by the Department of Energy; to foster technology exchange among participating researchers and other technical communities; to facilitate interactive dialogues which would identify research needs that would make coal-based gasification systems more attractive economically and environmentally. More than 310 representatives of Government, academia, industry, and foreign energy research organizations attended the 4-day meeting. Fifty-three papers and thirty poster displays were presented summarizing recent developments in the gasification and gas stream cleanup programs. Volume I covers information presented at sessions 1 through 4 on systems for the production of Co-products and industrial fuel gas, environmental projects, and components and materials. Individual papers have been processed for the Energy Data Base.

  17. Warm Cleanup of Coal-Derived Syngas: Multicontaminant Removal Process Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spies, Kurt A.; Rainbolt, James E.; Li, Xiaohong S.; Braunberger, Beau; Li, Liyu; King, David L.; Dagle, Robert A.

    2017-02-15

    Warm cleanup of coal- or biomass-derived syngas requires sorbent and catalytic beds to protect downstream processes and catalysts from fouling. Sulfur is particularly harmful because even parts-per-million amounts are sufficient to poison downstream synthesis catalysts. Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a conventional sorbent for sulfur removal; however, its operational performance using real gasifier-derived syngas and in an integrated warm cleanup process is not well reported. In this paper, we report the optimal temperature for bulk desulfurization to be 450oC, while removal of sulfur to parts-per-billion levels requires a lower temperature of approximately 350oC. Under these conditions, we found that sulfur in the form of both hydrogen sulfide and carbonyl sulfide could be absorbed equally well using ZnO. For long-term operation, sorbent regeneration is desirable to minimize process costs. Over the course of five sulfidation and regeneration cycles, a ZnO bed lost about a third of its initial sulfur capacity, however sorbent capacity stabilized. Here, we also demonstrate, at the bench-scale, a process and materials used for warm cleanup of coal-derived syngas using five operations: 1) Na2CO3 for HCl removal, 2) regenerable ZnO beds for bulk sulfur removal, 3) a second ZnO bed for trace sulfur removal, 4) a Ni-Cu/C sorbent for multi-contaminant inorganic removal, and 5) a Ir-Ni/MgAl2O4 catalyst employed for ammonia decomposition and tar and light hydrocarbon steam reforming. Syngas cleanup was demonstrated through successful long-term performance of a poison-sensitive, Cu-based, water-gas-shift catalyst placed downstream of the cleanup process train. The tar reformer is an important and necessary operation with this particular gasification system; its inclusion was the difference between deactivating the water-gas catalyst with carbon deposition and successful 100-hour testing using 1 LPM of coal-derived syngas.

  18. Trends in Drug Resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii over a 10-year Period: Nationwide Data from the China Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Gao

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: This longitudinal multicenter surveillance program revealed the nationwide emergence of A. baumannii in China and showed a significant increase in prevalence from 2004 to 2014. High levels of bacterial resistance were detected among samples collected from clinical settings in China, with IRAB and XDRAB being especially prevalent. This study will help to guide empirical therapy and identify at-risk groups requiring more intense interventional infection control measures, while also helping to focus surveillance efforts.

  19. Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup, and Oxygen Separation Equipment; Task 2: Gas Cleanup Design and Cost Estimates -- Black Liquor Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nexant Inc.

    2006-05-01

    As part of Task 2, Gas Cleanup and Cost Estimates, Nexant investigated the appropriate process scheme for removal of acid gases from black liquor-derived syngas for use in both power and liquid fuels synthesis. Two 3,200 metric tonne per day gasification schemes, both low-temperature/low-pressure (1100 deg F, 40 psi) and high-temperature/high-pressure (1800 deg F, 500 psi) were used for syngas production. Initial syngas conditions from each of the gasifiers was provided to the team by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and Princeton University. Nexant was the prime contractor and principal investigator during this task; technical assistance was provided by both GTI and Emery Energy.

  20. Incidence and risk factors of occupational blood exposure: a nation-wide survey among Danish doctors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelsing, S; Nielsen, T L; Brønnum-Hansen, H

    1997-01-01

    ). Only 35% adhered to the basic principles of universal precautions (UP) and non-compliance was associated with a considerably increased risk of both MCE and PCE, especially in non-surgical specialties. In conclusion, we found an unacceptably high incidence of occupational blood exposures among Danish...... doctors. Non-compliance with UP was associated with an increased risk of exposure and efforts to improve compliance with UP as well as implementation and evaluation of other preventive measures are needed.......Occupational blood exposures involves a risk of transmission of serious infections. We performed a nation-wide survey, to describe the incidence and risk factors of percutaneous (PCE) and mucocutaneous (MCE) blood exposures among hospital employed doctors in Denmark. Of 9,374 questionnaires, 6...

  1. Nationwide and population-based prescription patterns in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Vradi, Eleni; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to describe prescription patterns and changes in these patterns over the last decade for patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder in mental healthcare, using population-based and nationwide data, and to relate the findings to recommendations from...... international guidelines. METHODS: A population-based, nationwide study was carried out. It included register-based longitudinal data on all patients with a first-ever contact with mental healthcare with a diagnosis of mania/bipolar disorder from the entire Danish population, and all prescription data...

  2. Nationwide mobile communication systems. Volume 2, chapter 5: Appendix A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schworer, William Joseph, III

    1990-06-01

    Previous chapters discussed nationwide mobile communication system technologies and modeled user costs and benefits. This chapter provides a brief overview of mobile communication system economics, the projected U.S. market for nationwide mobile communications, and the potential revenues. The basic cost structure of satellite and meteor-burst systems are also modeled. A combination of all these factors will ultimately govern which systems will be commercially successful. Because of improvements in technology, communication system costs and user terminal costs (A) per unit of capacity tend to decline over time. However, inflation tends to drive the price of an identical product upward over time.

  3. Implementing a nationwide criteria-based emergency medical dispatch system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikkel S; Johnsen, Søren Paaske; Sørensen, Jan Nørtved

    2013-01-01

    A criteria-based nationwide Emergency Medical Dispatch (EMD) system was recently implemented in Denmark. We described the system and studied its ability to triage patients according to the severity of their condition by analysing hospital admission and case-fatality risks.......A criteria-based nationwide Emergency Medical Dispatch (EMD) system was recently implemented in Denmark. We described the system and studied its ability to triage patients according to the severity of their condition by analysing hospital admission and case-fatality risks....

  4. Sexual offending runs in families: A 37-year nationwide study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Långström, Niklas; Babchishin, Kelly M; Fazel, Seena; Lichtenstein, Paul; Frisell, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sexual crime is an important public health concern. The possible causes of sexual aggression, however, remain uncertain. Methods: We examined familial aggregation and the contribution of genetic and environmental factors to sexual crime by linking longitudinal, nationwide Swedish crime and multigenerational family registers. We included all men convicted of any sexual offence (N = 21 566), specifically rape of an adult (N = 6131) and child molestation (N = 4465), from 1973 to 2009. Sexual crime rates among fathers and brothers of sexual offenders were compared with corresponding rates in fathers and brothers of age-matched population control men without sexual crime convictions. We also modelled the relative influence of genetic and environmental factors to the liability of sexual offending. Results: We found strong familial aggregation of sexual crime [odds ratio (OR) = 5.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 4.5–5.9] among full brothers of convicted sexual offenders. Familial aggregation was lower in father-son dyads (OR = 3.7, 95% CI = 3.2–4.4) among paternal half-brothers (OR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.5–2.9) and maternal half-brothers (OR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.2–2.4). Statistical modelling of the strength and patterns of familial aggregation suggested that genetic factors (40%) and non-shared environmental factors (58%) explained the liability to offend sexually more than shared environmental influences (2%). Further, genetic effects tended to be weaker for rape of an adult (19%) than for child molestation (46%). Conclusions: We report strong evidence of familial clustering of sexual offending, primarily accounted for by genes rather than shared environmental influences. Future research should possibly test the effectiveness of selective prevention efforts for male first-degree relatives of sexually aggressive individuals, and consider familial risk in sexual violence risk assessment. PMID:25855722

  5. Site-specific cancer risk in the Baltic cohort of Chernobyl cleanup workers, 1986-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahu, Kaja; Hakulinen, Timo; Smailyte, Giedre; Stengrevics, Aivars; Auvinen, Anssi; Inskip, Peter D; Boice, John D; Rahu, Mati

    2013-09-01

    To assess site-specific cancer risk in the Baltic cohort of Chernobyl cleanup workers, 1986-2007. The Baltic cohort includes 17,040 men from Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania who participated in the environmental cleanup after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station in 1986-1991 and who were followed up for cancer incidence until the end of 2007. Cancer cases diagnosed in the cohort and in the male population of each country were identified from the respective national cancer registers. The proportional incidence ratio (PIR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to estimate the site-specific cancer risk in the cohort. For comparison and as it was possible, the site-specific standardised incidence ratio (SIR) was calculated for the Estonian sub-cohort, which was not feasible for the other countries. Overall, 756 cancer cases were reported during 1986-2007. A higher proportion of thyroid cancers in relation to the male population was found (PIR=2.76; 95%CI 1.63-4.36), especially among those who started their mission shortly after the accident, in April-May 1986 (PIR=6.38; 95%CI 2.34-13.89). Also, an excess of oesophageal cancers was noted (PIR=1.52; 95% CI 1.06-2.11). No increased PIRs for leukaemia or radiation-related cancer sites combined were observed. PIRs and SIRs for the Estonian sub-cohort demonstrated the same site-specific cancer risk pattern. Consistent evidence of an increase in radiation-related cancers in the Baltic cohort was not observed with the possible exception of thyroid cancer, where conclusions are hampered by known medical examination including thyroid screening among cleanup workers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Non-cancer morbidity among Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers: a register-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahu, Kaja; Bromet, Evelyn J; Hakulinen, Timo; Auvinen, Anssi; Uusküla, Anneli; Rahu, Mati

    2014-05-14

    To examine non-cancer morbidity in the Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers cohort compared with the population sample with special attention to radiation-related diseases and mental health disorders. Register-based cohort study. Estonia. An exposed cohort of 3680 men (cleanup workers) and an unexposed cohort of 7631 men (population sample) were followed from 2004 to 2012 through the Population Registry and Health Insurance Fund database. Morbidity in the exposed cohort compared with the unexposed controls was estimated in terms of rate ratio (RR) with 95% CIs using Poisson regression models. Elevated morbidity in the exposed cohort was found for diseases of the nervous system, digestive system, musculoskeletal system, ischaemic heart disease and for external causes. The most salient excess risk was observed for thyroid diseases (RR=1.69; 95% CI 1.38 to 2.07), intentional self-harm (RR=1.47; 95% CI 1.04 to 2.09) and selected alcohol-related diagnoses (RR=1.25; 95% CI 1.12 to 1.39). No increase in morbidity for stress reactions, depression, headaches or sleep disorders was detected. No obvious excess morbidity consistent with biological effects of radiation was seen in the exposed cohort, with the possible exception of benign thyroid diseases. Increased alcohol-induced morbidity may reflect alcohol abuse, and could underlie some of the higher morbidity rates. Mental disorders in the exposed cohort were probably under-reported. The future challenge will be to study mental and physical comorbidities in the Chernobyl cleanup workers cohort. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. Site-specific cancer risk in the Baltic cohort of Chernobyl cleanup workers, 1986–2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahu, Kaja; Hakulinen, Timo; Smailyte, Giedre; Stengrevics, Aivars; Auvinen, Anssi; Inskip, Peter D.; Boice, John D.; Rahu, Mati

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess site-specific cancer risk in the Baltic cohort of Chernobyl cleanup workers 1986–2007. Methods The Baltic cohort includes 17,040 men from Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania who participated in the environmental cleanup after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station in 1986–1991, and who were followed for cancer incidence until the end of 2007. Cancer cases diagnosed in the cohort and in the male population of each country were identified from the respective national cancer registers. The proportional incidence ratio (PIR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to estimate the site-specific cancer risk in the cohort. For comparison and as it was possible, the site-specific standardized incidence ratio (SIR) was calculated for the Estonian sub-cohort, which was not feasible for the other countries. Results Overall, 756 cancer cases were reported during 1986–2007. A higher proportion of thyroid cancers in relation to the male population was found (PIR=2.76; 95%CI 1.63–4.36), especially among those who started their mission shortly after the accident, in April–May 1986 (PIR=6.38; 95% CI 2.34–13.89). Also, an excess of oesophageal cancers was noted (PIR=1.52; 95% CI 1.06–2.11). No increased PIRs for leukaemia or radiation-related cancer sites combined were observed. PIRs and SIRs for the Estonian sub-cohort demonstrated the same site-specific cancer risk pattern. Conclusion Consistent evidence of an increase in radiation-related cancers in the Baltic cohort was not observed with the possible exception of thyroid cancer, where conclusions are hampered by known medical examination including thyroid screening among cleanup workers. PMID:23683549

  8. Non-cancer morbidity among Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers: a register-based cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahu, Kaja; Bromet, Evelyn J; Hakulinen, Timo; Auvinen, Anssi; Uusküla, Anneli; Rahu, Mati

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine non-cancer morbidity in the Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers cohort compared with the population sample with special attention to radiation-related diseases and mental health disorders. Design Register-based cohort study. Setting Estonia. Participants An exposed cohort of 3680 men (cleanup workers) and an unexposed cohort of 7631 men (population sample) were followed from 2004 to 2012 through the Population Registry and Health Insurance Fund database. Methods Morbidity in the exposed cohort compared with the unexposed controls was estimated in terms of rate ratio (RR) with 95% CIs using Poisson regression models. Results Elevated morbidity in the exposed cohort was found for diseases of the nervous system, digestive system, musculoskeletal system, ischaemic heart disease and for external causes. The most salient excess risk was observed for thyroid diseases (RR=1.69; 95% CI 1.38 to 2.07), intentional self-harm (RR=1.47; 95% CI 1.04 to 2.09) and selected alcohol-related diagnoses (RR=1.25; 95% CI 1.12 to 1.39). No increase in morbidity for stress reactions, depression, headaches or sleep disorders was detected. Conclusions No obvious excess morbidity consistent with biological effects of radiation was seen in the exposed cohort, with the possible exception of benign thyroid diseases. Increased alcohol-induced morbidity may reflect alcohol abuse, and could underlie some of the higher morbidity rates. Mental disorders in the exposed cohort were probably under-reported. The future challenge will be to study mental and physical comorbidities in the Chernobyl cleanup workers cohort. PMID:24833681

  9. Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility for gasification and pressurized combustion. Quarterly report, October--December 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    The objective of this project is to evaluate hot gas particle control technologies using coal-derived gas streams. This will entail the design, construction, installation, and use of a flexible test facility which can operate under realistic gasification and combustion conditions. The major particulate control device issues to be addressed include the integration of the particulate control devices into coal utilization systems, on-line cleaning techniques, chemical and thermal degradation of components, fatigue or structural failures, blinding, collection efficiency as a function of particle size, and scale-up of particulate control systems to commercial size. The conceptual design of the facility was extended to include a within scope, phased expansion of the existing Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility Cooperative Agreement to also address systems integration issues of hot particulate removal in advanced coal-based power generation systems. This expansion included the consideration of the following modules at the test facility in addition to the original Transport Reactor gas source and Hot Gas Cleanup Units: carbonizer/pressurized circulating fluidized bed gas source; hot gas cleanup units to mate to all gas streams; combustion gas turbine; and fuel cell and associated gas treatment. The major emphasis during this reporting period was continuing the detailed design of the facility and integrating the particulate control devices (PCDs) into structural and process designs. Substantial progress in underground construction activities was achieved during the quarter. Delivery and construction of coal handling and process structural steel began during the quarter. Delivery and construction of coal handling and process structural steel began during the quarter. MWK equipment at the grade level and the first tier are being set in the structure.

  10. Continuing Clean-up at Oak Ridge, Portsmouth and Paducah-Successes and Near-Term Plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritz, L. L.; Houser, S. M.; Starling, D. A.

    2002-02-26

    This paper describes the complexities and challenges associated with the Oak Ridge Environmental Management (EM) cleanup program and the steps that DOE and Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (the Oak Ridge EM team) have collaboratively taken to make significant physical progress and get the job done. Maintaining significant environmental cleanup progress is a daunting challenge for the Oak Ridge EM Team. The scale and span of the Oak Ridge Operations (ORO) cleanup is immense-five major half-century-old installations in three states (three installations are complete gaseous diffusion plants), with concurrent cleanup at the fully operational Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Y-12 National Security Complex, and with regulatory oversight from three states and two United States (US) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Regions. Potential distractions arising from funding fluctuations and color-of-money constraints, regulatory negotiations, stakeholder issues, or any one of a number of other potential delay phenomena can not reduce the focus on safely achieving project objectives to maintain cleanup momentum.

  11. Defense Contractor Recovery of Cleanup Costs at Contractor Owned and Operated Facilitie

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-30

    reimbursement of cleanup costs for its Rancho Cordova site near Sacramento California, the contracting officer denied Aerojet’s claim after discovering...Corporation et al. v. Cordova Chemical Company of Michigan. et al. 777 F. Supp. 549 (W.D. MI 1991) 11 U.S. v. Bliss, 1988 WL 169818 (ED MO 1988); U.S. v...of 1940, Chapter 720, 54 Stat. 885, 892 (1940) 31Emergency Price Control Act, 56 Stat. 23 (1942) 32Defense Production Act, 50 U.S.C. App §2071(a) 5

  12. Data clean-up and management a practical guide for librarians

    CERN Document Server

    Hogarth, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Data use in the library has specific characteristics and common problems. Data Clean-up and Management addresses these, and provides methods to clean up frequently-occurring data problems using readily-available applications. The authors highlight the importance and methods of data analysis and presentation, and offer guidelines and recommendations for a data quality policy. The book gives step-by-step how-to directions for common dirty data issues.focused towards libraries and practicing librariansdeals with practical, real-life issues and addresses common problems that all libraries faceoffe

  13. Action Memorandum for the Engineering Test Reactor under the Idaho Cleanup Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. B. Culp

    2007-01-26

    This Action Memorandum documents the selected alternative for decommissioning of the Engineering Test Reactor at the Idaho National Laboratory under the Idaho Cleanup Project. Since the missions of the Engineering Test Reactor Complex have been completed, an engineering evaluation/cost analysis that evaluated alternatives to accomplish the decommissioning of the Engineering Test Reactor Complex was prepared adn released for public comment. The scope of this Action Memorandum is to encompass the final end state of the Complex and disposal of the Engineering Test Reactor vessol. The selected removal action includes removing and disposing of the vessel at the Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility and demolishing the reactor building to ground surface.

  14. Action Memorandum for General Decommissioning Activities under the Idaho Cleanup Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. L. Reno

    2006-10-26

    This Action Memorandum documents the selected alternative to perform general decommissioning activities at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) under the Idaho Cleanup Project (ICP). Preparation of this Action Memorandum has been performed in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended by the "Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986", and in accordance with the "National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan". An engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) was prepared and released for public comment and evaluated alternatives to accomplish the decommissioning of excess buildings and structures whose missions havve been completed.

  15. FLUOR HANFORD (FH) MAKES CLEANUP A REALITY IN NEARLY 11 YEARS AT HANFORD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GERBER, M.S.

    2007-05-24

    For nearly 11 years, Fluor Hanford has been busy cleaning up the legacy of nuclear weapons production at one of the Department of Energy's (DOE'S) major sites in the United States. As prime nuclear waste cleanup contractor at the vast Hanford Site in southeastern Washington state, Fluor Hanford has changed the face of cleanup. Fluor beginning on October 1, 1996, Hanford Site cleanup was primarily a ''paper exercise.'' The Tri-Party Agreement, officially called the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order - the edict governing cleanup among the DOE, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Washington state - was just seven years old. Milestones mandated in the agreement up until then had required mainly waste characterization, reporting, and planning, with actual waste remediation activities off in the future. Real work, accessing waste ''in the field'' - or more literally in huge underground tanks, decaying spent fuel POO{approx}{approx}S, groundwater, hundreds of contaminated facilities, solid waste burial grounds, and liquid waste disposal sites -began in earnest under Fluor Hanford. The fruits of labors initiated, completed and/or underway by Fluor Hanford can today be seen across the site. Spent nuclear fuel is buttoned up in secure, dry containers stored away from regional water resources, reactive plutonium scraps are packaged in approved containers, transuranic (TRU) solid waste is being retrieved from burial trenches and shipped offsite for permanent disposal, contaminated facilities are being demolished, contaminated groundwater is being pumped out of aquifers at record rates, and many other inventive solutions are being applied to Hanford's most intransigent nuclear wastes. (TRU) waste contains more than 100 nanocuries per gram, and contains isotopes higher than uranium on the Periodic Table of the Elements. (A nanocurie is one-billionth of a curie.) At the same time, Fluor Hanford

  16. Relevance of Nuclear Weapons Clean-Up Experience to Dirty Bomb Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vantine, H C; Crites, T R

    2002-08-19

    During the past 50 years, the United States has experienced 32 major nuclear weapons accidents, nine of which released special nuclear material to the environment. Response to these accidents, coupled with recovery experience following the Russian satellite reentry and weapons test site cleanup, form the basis for determining actions that might be required following a nuclear terrorist event involving the release of radioactive material. Though valuable information has been gained following the recovery from various commercial accidents, most notably the Chernobyl nuclear power plant failure and the dismantled radiography source in the Brazilian city of Goi nia, this paper will focus on the lessons learned from the U.S. nuclear weapons program.

  17. Summary of proposed approach for deriving cleanup guidelines for radionuclides in soil at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinhold, A.F.; Morris, S.C.; Dionne, B.; Moskowitz, P.D.

    1996-11-01

    Past activities at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) resulted in soil and groundwater contamination. As a result, BNL was designated a Superfund site under the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). BNL`s Office of Environmental Restoration (OER) is overseeing environmental restoration activities at the Laboratory, carried out under an Interagency Agreement (IAG) with the United States Department of Energy (DOE), the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC). The objective of this paper is to propose a standard approach to deriving risk-based cleanup guidelines for radionuclides in soil at BNL.

  18. A breakthrough in flue gas cleanup, CO2 mitigation and H2S removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Wolf; Wasas, James; Stenger, Raymond; Howell, Evan

    2010-09-15

    SWAPSOL Corp. is developing commercial processes around a newly discovered reaction that reduces H2S below detectable levels while reacting with CO2 to form water, sulfur and carsuls, a carbon-sulfur polymer. The Stenger-Wasas Process (SWAP) stands to simplify sulfur removal technology as it consumes CO2 in an exothermic reaction. The SWAP has applications in landfill, sour, flue and Claus tail gas cleanup and may replace Claus technology. Destruction of waste hydrocarbons provides a source of H2S. The primary reactions and variants have been independently verified and the chemical kinetics determined by a third party laboratory.

  19. Early phase clean-up actions after nuclear accidents. Guidelines for the planner. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulvsand, T

    1997-06-01

    The work reported has been performed with the purpose of working out a guide for planners of early clean-up actions in nuclear fallout situations and for decision makers in the Nordic countries. The actions considered are hosing of roofs, walls and paved areas, lawn mowing, removal of snow, pruning of trees and bushes and vacuum cleaning of streets. The expected effects, mainly as life time dose reduction, and consequences regarding practicability, waste produced, staffing and protection are presented for urban, suburban and rural living environments. The work has been performed within the fram work of the Nordic Nuclear Safety Research Program 1994-97 (Statens Raeddningsverk). (au)

  20. Nationwide Survey of the Undergraduate Physical Chemistry Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Laura J.; Roehrig, Gillian H.

    2015-01-01

    A nationwide survey of the undergraduate physical chemistry course was conducted to investigate the depth and breadth of content that is covered, how content is delivered, how student understanding is assessed, and the experiences and beliefs of instructors. The survey was administered to instructors of physical chemistry (N = 331) at American…

  1. Biological measurements in a nationwide soil monitoring network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutgers, M.; Schouten, A.J.; Bloem, J.; Eekeren, van N.J.M.; Goede, de R.G.M.; Jagers op Akkerhuis, G.A.J.M.; Wal, van der A.; Mulder, C.; Brussaard, L.; Breure, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    In the Netherlands soil biological measurements are undertaken in a nationwide monitoring programme. The measurements are combined in the Biological Indicator of Soil Quality (BISQ). About 300 locations were selected in a random stratified design comprising stringent combinations of land use and

  2. Research findings are catalyst to nationwide rollout of HIV ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-27

    Apr 27, 2016 ... Research findings are catalyst to nationwide rollout of HIV prevention program in Botswana. April 27 ... The research found that gender violence, regressive views of gender hierarchy, economic dependence, and substance or alcohol abuse all lead to choice disability when it comes to HIV/AIDS prevention.

  3. Language Identity among Iranian English Language Learners: A Nationwide Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Saeed; Khatib, Mohammad; Baleghizadeh, Sasan

    2014-01-01

    The present study is a nationwide survey of language identity among English language learners in Iran. The participants who completed the survey in this research included 1851 English language learners from different parts of the country who belonged to different genders, age groups and English language proficiency levels. The main instrument was…

  4. Attributing causal agents to nationwide maps of forest disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gretchen G. Moisen; Todd A. Schroeder; Karen Schleeweis; Chris Toney; Warren B. Cohen; Samuel N. Goward

    2012-01-01

    Currently in its third phase, the North American Forest Dynamics (NAFD) project has launched nationwide processing of historic Landsat data to provide a comprehensive annual, wall-to-wall analysis of U.S. disturbance history over the last 30+ years. Because understanding the cause of disturbance is important to quantifying carbon dynamics, work is underway to attribute...

  5. 76 FR 22409 - Nationwide Cyber Security Review (NCSR) Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-21

    ... SECURITY Nationwide Cyber Security Review (NCSR) Assessment AGENCY: National Protection and Programs...), Office of Cybersecurity and Communications (CS&C), National Cyber Security Division (NCSD), Cyber... a cyber network security assessment so that a full measure of gaps and capabilities can be completed...

  6. 75 FR 66806 - Nationwide Life Insurance Company, et al.,

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... proposed Substitutions. ] 4. Nationwide Fund Advisors (``NFA'') currently serves as investment adviser to each of the NVIT Funds. NFA employs a subadvisory structure as part of its advisory strategy with... that the relief granted in the Manager of Managers Order extends to New Funds permitting NFA to enter...

  7. Student Consumer Knowledge: Results of a Nationwide Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brobeck, Stephen

    A nationwide test of consumer knowledge of high school students conducted in 1991 found that seniors are unprepared for critical purchasing decisions needed after they graduate. Random samples of the population, 428 high school seniors, were asked 250 questions about a range of consumer subjects such as credit, checking/saving accounts, auto…

  8. Trying to Smart-In-Up and Cleanup Our Act by Linking Regional Growth Planning, Brownfields Remediation, and Urban Infill in Southern Ontario Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher De Sousa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The reuse of brownfields as locations for urban intensification has become a core strategy in government sustainability efforts aimed at remediating pollution, curbing sprawl and prioritizing renewal, regeneration, and retrofitting. In Ontario, Canada’s most populous, industrialized, and brownfield-laden province, a suite of progressive policies and programs have been introduced to not only facilitate the assessment and remediation of the brownfields supply, but to also steer development demand away from peripheral greenfields and towards urban brownfields in a manner that considers a wider regional perspective. This article examines the character and extent of brownfields infill development that has taken place in three Ontario cities (Toronto, Waterloo, and Kingston since the provincial policy shift in the early 2000s. Using property assessment data and cleanup records, the research finds that redevelopment activity has been extensive in both scale and character, particularly in Toronto where the real estate market has been strong. While the results are promising in terms of government efforts to promote smarter growth that builds “in and up” instead of out, they also reveal that government could be doing more to facilitate redevelopment and influence its sustainability character, particularly in weaker markets.

  9. Effort and cognition in schizophrenia patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorissen, Marielle; Sanz, Juan Carlos; Schmand, Ben

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine whether low cognitive test scores in schizophrenia patients are due to insufficient effort and, if so, to what extent. Method: Mental effort was measured with the Word Memory Test (WMT), an effort test that has been extensively validated.

  10. Aerodynamic and acoustic features of vocal effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Allison L; Lowell, Soren Y; Colton, Raymond H

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the aerodynamic and acoustic features of speech produced at comfortable, maximal and minimal levels of vocal effort. Prospective, quasi-experimental research design. Eighteen healthy participants with normal voice were included in this study. After task training, participants produced repeated syllable combinations at comfortable, maximal and minimal levels of vocal effort. A pneumotachometer and vented (Rothenberg) mask were used to record aerodynamic data, with simultaneous recording of the acoustic signal for subsequent analysis. Aerodynamic measures of subglottal pressure, translaryngeal airflow, maximum flow declination rate (MFDR), and laryngeal resistance were analyzed, along with acoustic measures of cepstral peak prominence (CPP) and its standard deviation (SD). Participants produced significantly greater subglottal pressure, translaryngeal airflow, and MFDR during maximal effort speech as compared with comfortable vocal effort. When producing speech at minimal vocal effort, participants lowered subglottal pressure, MFDR, and laryngeal resistance. Acoustic changes associated with changes in vocal effort included significantly higher CPP during maximal effort speech and significantly lower CPP SD during minimal effort speech, when each was compared with comfortable effort. For healthy speakers without voice disorders, subglottal pressure, translaryngeal airflow, and MFDR may be important factors that contribute to an increased sense of vocal effort. Changes in the cepstral signal also occur under conditions of increased or decreased vocal effort relative to comfortable effort. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Early aging in Chernobyl clean-up workers: long-term study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnov, V; Kryukov, V; Samedova, E; Emelianova, I; Ryzhova, I

    2015-01-01

    This paper represents data of long-term open prospective study. 312 male clean-up workers, who participated in elimination of the Chernobyl disaster consequences in 1986-87, were observed and examined in Moscow Research Institute of Psychiatry. The average age of patients was 57,0 ± 6,8 years. All patients were diagnosed with psychoorganic syndrome, caused by combination of different factors, which led to early cerebrovascular pathology, which was confirmed by clinical, neuropsychological, and instrumental examination. Anamnesis and the level of social adaptation were also assayed. Clinical estimation was done with the use of specially developed Clinical Psychopathological Chart. All the symptoms were divided into 4 groups (asthenic, psychovegetative, dysthymic, and cognitive symptom-complexes). No pronounced signs of dementia were observed. The control group included 44 clean-up workers without mental disorders. Predomination of various exogenous factors before and after accident was noted. Therapy included different vasotropic remedies, as well as family therapy, art therapy, and cognitive training. The possibilities of the reverse development of symptoms were statistically proved. The results allow making a conclusion that these disorders could not be explained either by radiation effects or by PTSD but connected with cerebrovascular pathology.

  12. Use of an immunoaffinity column for tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin serum sample cleanup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelver, W L; Larsen, G L; Huwe, J K

    1998-02-13

    Covalently linking 1-amino-3,7,8-trichlorodibenzo-p-dioxin with either keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) or bovine serum albumin (BSA) provided antigens that generated antibodies in chickens. Competitive ELISA analysis demonstrated that the antibodies isolated from egg yolk (IgY) bound with 1,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (1,3,7,8-TCDD). The antibodies were linked to CNBr-Sepharose to generate an immunoaffinity column. Radiolabeled 1,3,7,8-TCDD in a 0.05% Tween 20 solution was retained by the column and could be eluted by increasing the Tween 20 concentration. The binding efficiency for 10.7 ng per ml gel matrix ranged from 85 to 97%. Immunoaffinity columns generated by this method did not effectively bind 14C-1,3,7,8-TCDD from serum samples. Diluting the serum 1:20 with 0.05% Tween 20 increased the binding efficiency. Alternately, ethanol-hexane extraction followed by solid phase extraction on a carbon column using a fat removal protocol also provided an appropriate preaffinity column cleanup for serum samples. After this preaffinity column cleanup, spiked serum samples applied to the immunoaffinity column showed binding efficiencies of over 90%.

  13. Sorption Mechanisms for Mercury Capture in Warm Post-Gasification Gas Clean-Up Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jost Wendt; Sung Jun Lee; Paul Blowers

    2008-09-30

    The research was directed towards a sorbent injection/particle removal process where a sorbent may be injected upstream of the warm gas cleanup system to scavenge Hg and other trace metals, and removed (with the metals) within the warm gas cleanup process. The specific objectives of this project were to understand and quantify, through fundamentally based models, mechanisms of interaction between mercury vapor compounds and novel paper waste derived (kaolinite + calcium based) sorbents (currently marketed under the trade name MinPlus). The portion of the research described first is the experimental portion, in which sorbent effectiveness to scavenge metallic mercury (Hg{sup 0}) at high temperatures (>600 C) is determined as a function of temperature, sorbent loading, gas composition, and other important parameters. Levels of Hg{sup 0} investigated were in an industrially relevant range ({approx} 25 {micro}g/m{sup 3}) although contaminants were contained in synthetic gases and not in actual flue gases. A later section of this report contains the results of the complementary computational results.

  14. Surface Modification of Graphene Oxides by Plasma Techniques and Their Application for Environmental Pollution Cleanup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiangxue; Fan, Qiaohui; Chen, Zhongshan; Wang, Qi; Li, Jiaxing; Hobiny, Aatef; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Wang, Xiangke

    2016-02-01

    Graphene oxides (GOs) have come under intense multidisciplinary study because of their unique physicochemical properties and possible applications. The large amount of oxygen-containing functional groups on GOs leads to a high sorption capacity for the removal of various kinds of organic and inorganic pollutants from aqueous solutions in environmental pollution cleanup. However, the lack of selectivity results in difficulty in the selective removal of target pollutants from aqueous solutions in the presence of other coexisting pollutants. Herein, the surface grafting of GOs with special oxygen-containing functional groups using low-temperature plasma techniques and the application of the surface-modified GOs for the efficient removal of organic and inorganic pollutants in environmental pollution are reviewed. This paper gives an account of our research on the application of GO-based nanomaterials in environmental pollution cleanup, including: (1) the synthesis and surface grafting of functional groups on GOs, summarizing various types of low-temperature plasma techniques for the synthesis of graphene/GOs; and (2) the application of graphene/GOs and their composites for the efficient removal of organic and inorganic pollutants from aqueous solutions, including the interaction mechanism according to recently published results. © 2015 The Chemical Society of Japan & Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. [Structural and functional changes of myocardium in Chernobyl disaster clean-up workers with atrial fibrillation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khomaziuk, I M; Habulavichene, Zh M; Khomaziuk, V A

    2011-01-01

    Particularities and clinical importance of the structural and functional changes of myocardium were estimated in Chernobyl disaster clean-up workers with atrial fibrillation (AF). We examined 122 men with AF, which was associated with ischemic heart disease and arterial hypertension. Paroxysmal AF was diagnosed in 42 patients, 80 patients had permanent AE Control group comprised 80 men without AF. Echocardiography and Doppler studies were performed using ultrasound scanner Aloka SSD-630 (Japan). Significant structural and functional changes of the heart were revealed already in paroxysmal AF and became more pronounced in permanent AF. Increased left atrial size, its ratio to left ventricular end diastolic diameter, diastolic dysfunction were important echocardiographic predictors of AF. Heart walls thickening was accompanied by disorders of myocardial relaxation, increase in myocardial mass led to ischemia, and together they promoted overload, dysfunction of atrium and development of AF. Obligatory echocardiographic examination of the Chernobyl disaster clean-up workers with ischemic heart disease and arterial hypertension is necessary for predicting AF early, ordering adequate therapy in proper time and improving prognosis.

  16. Early Aging in Chernobyl Clean-Up Workers: Long-Term Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Krasnov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents data of long-term open prospective study. 312 male clean-up workers, who participated in elimination of the Chernobyl disaster consequences in 1986-87, were observed and examined in Moscow Research Institute of Psychiatry. The average age of patients was 57,0 ± 6,8 years. All patients were diagnosed with psychoorganic syndrome, caused by combination of different factors, which led to early cerebrovascular pathology, which was confirmed by clinical, neuropsychological, and instrumental examination. Anamnesis and the level of social adaptation were also assayed. Clinical estimation was done with the use of specially developed Clinical Psychopathological Chart. All the symptoms were divided into 4 groups (asthenic, psychovegetative, dysthymic, and cognitive symptom-complexes. No pronounced signs of dementia were observed. The control group included 44 clean-up workers without mental disorders. Predomination of various exogenous factors before and after accident was noted. Therapy included different vasotropic remedies, as well as family therapy, art therapy, and cognitive training. The possibilities of the reverse development of symptoms were statistically proved. The results allow making a conclusion that these disorders could not be explained either by radiation effects or by PTSD but connected with cerebrovascular pathology.

  17. Cleanup and Dismantling of Highly Contaminated Ventilation Systems Using Robotic Tools - 13162

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambon, Frederic [AREVA FEDERAL SERVICES, Columbia MD (United States); CIZEL, Jean-Pierre [AREVA BE/NV, Marcoule (France); Blanchard, Samuel [CEA DEN/DPAD, Marcoule (France)

    2013-07-01

    The UP1 plant reprocessed nearly 20,000 tons of used natural uranium gas cooled reactor fuel coming from the first generation of civil nuclear reactors in France. Following operating incidents in the eighties, the ventilation system of the continuous dissolution line facility was shut down and replaced. Two types of remote controlled tool carriers were developed to perform the decontamination and dismantling operations of the highly contaminated ventilation duct network. The first one, a dedicated small robot, was designed from scratch to retrieve a thick powder deposit within a duct. The robot, managed and confined by two dedicated glove boxes, was equipped for intervention inside the ventilation duct and used for carrying various cleanup and inspection tools. The second type, consisting of robotic tools developed on the base of an industrial platform, was used for the clean-up and dismantling of the ventilation duct system. Depending on the type of work to be performed, on the shape constraints of the rooms and any equipment to be dismantled, different kinds of robotic tools were developed and installed on a Brokk 40 carrier. After more than ten years of ventilation duct D and D operations at the UP1 plant, a lot of experience was acquired about remote operations. The three main important lessons learned in terms of remote controlled operation are: characterizing the initial conditions as much as reasonably possible, performing non-radioactive full scale testing and making it as simple and modular as possible. (authors)

  18. Investigation of austenitic alloys for advanced heat recovery and hot gas cleanup systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swindeman, R.W.; Ren, W.

    1996-06-01

    The objective of the research is to provide databases and design criteria to assist in the selection of optimum alloys for construction of components needed to contain process streams in advanced heat recovery and hot-gas cleanup systems. Typical components include: steam line piping and superheater tubing for low emission boilers (600 to 700{degrees}C), heat exchanger tubing for advanced steam cycles and topping cycle systems (650 to 800{degrees}C), foil materials for recuperators, on advanced turbine systems (700 to 750{degrees}C), and tubesheets for barrier filters, liners for piping, cyclones, and blowback system tubing for hot-gas cleanup systems (850 to 1000{degrees}C). The materials being examined fall into several classes, depending on which of the advanced heat recovery concepts is of concern. These classes include martensitic steels for service to 650{degrees}C, lean stainless steels and modified 25Cr-30Ni steels for service to 700{degrees}C, modified 25Cr-20Ni steels for service to 900{degrees}C, and high Ni-Cr-Fe or Ni-Cr-Co-Fe alloys for service to 1000{degrees}C.

  19. Determination of amphetamines in hair by integrating sample disruption, clean-up and solid phase derivatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argente-García, A; Moliner-Martínez, Y; Campíns-Falcó, P; Verdú-Andrés, J; Herráez-Hernández, R

    2016-05-20

    The utility of matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) for the direct analysis of amphetamines in hair samples has been evaluated, using liquid chromatography (LC) with fluorescence detection and precolumn derivatization. The proposed approach is based on the employment of MSPD for matrix disruption and clean-up, followed by the derivatization of the analytes onto the dispersant-sample blend. The fluorogenic reagent 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate (FMOC) has been used for derivatization. Different conditions for MSPD, analyte purification and solid phase derivatization have been tested, using amphetamine (AMP), methamphetamine (MET), ephedrine (EPE) and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) as model compounds. The results have been compared with those achieved by using ultrasound-assisted alkaline digestion and by MSPD combined with conventional solution derivatization. On the basis of the results obtained, a methodology is proposed for the analysis of amphetamines in hair which integrates sample disruption, clean-up and derivatization using a C18 phase. Improved sensitivity is achieved with respect to that obtained by the alkaline digestion or by the MSPD followed by solution derivatization methods. The method can be used for the quantification of the tested amphetamines within the 2.0-20.0ng/mg concentration interval, with limits of detection (LODs) of 0.25-0.75ng/mg. The methodology is very simple and rapid (the preparation of the sample takes less than 15min). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Quantifying the clean-up of LNAPL lens and LNAPL entrapped in an aquifer composed of fractured permeable formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, H.; Koengeter, J.

    2006-12-01

    This study has originated and motivated by a case history of a comparatively wide scale of kerosene (LNAPL) contamination in an aquifer composed of a fractured permeable formation. Presently, parts of the LNAPL are entrapped within the top layers of the aquifer, and other parts are incorporated with LNAPL lens on top of the flowing groundwater. The study develops conceptual, mathematical and numerical models for simulating the aquifer and LNAPL lens clean-up by a pump-and-treat procedure. The numerical simulations identify the importance of mechanisms of dissolution of the entrapped LNAPL ganglia and the LNAPL lens by films of contact. Clean-up of the LNAPL lens is also affected by mixing in fracture intersections located at the interface LNAPL-groundwater. Dimensionless parameters governing all involved processes are identified and their effects in different ranges are quantified. The clean-up of the LNAPL lens is mainly affected by the mobility number and the fracture segment orientation. These parameters also determine the depth of penetration of the organic solutes into the aquifer. Clean-up of the entrapped LNAPL is mainly affected by the dimensionless interphase mass transfer coefficient. The simulations indicate that at low mobility numbers rates of LNAPL lens clean-up may be faster or slower than clean-up of the LNAPL entrapped within the top layers of the aquifer, depending on the value of the interphase mass transfer coefficient. At high mobility numbers the clean- up rates of the LNAPL lens are always slower than those of the LNAPL entrapped within the top layers of the aquifer.

  1. Plutonium-aerosol emission rates and potential inhalation exposure during cleanup and treatment test at Area 11, Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinn, J.H.; Homan, D.N.

    1985-08-13

    A Cleanup and Treatment (CAT) test was conducted in 1981 at Area 11, Nevada Test Site. Its purpose was to evaluate the effectiveness of using a large truck-mounted vacuum cleaner similar to those used to clean paved streets for cleaning radiological contamination from the surface of desert soils. We found that four passes with the vehicle removed 97% of the alpha contamination and reduced resuspension by 99.3 to 99.7%. Potential exposure to cleanup workers was slight when compared to natural background exposure. 7 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  2. Analysis of fusaric acid in maize using molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction (MISPE) clean-up and ion-pair LC with diode array UV detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusaric acid is a phytotoxin and mycotoxin occasionally found in maize contaminated with Fusarium fungi. A selective sample clean-up procedure was developed to detect fusaric acid in maize using molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction (MISPE) clean-up coupled with ion-pair liquid chromatography...

  3. Evaluation of the persistence of functional and biological respiratory health effects in clean-up workers 6 years after the Prestige oil spill.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zock, J.P.; Rodríguez-Trigo, G.; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, E.; Souto-Alonso, A.; Espinosa, A.; Pozo-Rodríguez, F.; Gómez, F.P.; Fuster, C.; Castaño-Vinyals, G.; Antó, J.M.; Barberà, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Fishermen who had participated in clean-up activities of the Prestige oil spill showed increased bronchial responsiveness and higher levels of respiratory biomarkers 2years later. We aimed to evaluate the persistence of these functional and biological respiratory health effects 6years after clean-up

  4. Perceived distributed effort in team ball sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beniscelli, Violeta; Tenenbaum, Gershon; Schinke, Robert Joel; Torregrosa, Miquel

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we explored the multifaceted concept of perceived mental and physical effort in team sport contexts where athletes must invest individual and shared efforts to reach a common goal. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of 15 Catalan professional coaches (3 women and 12 men, 3 each from the following sports: volleyball, basketball, handball, soccer, and water polo) to gain their views of three perceived effort-related dimensions: physical, psychological, and tactical. From a theoretical thematic analysis, it was found that the perception of effort is closely related to how effort is distributed within the team. Moreover, coaches viewed physical effort in relation to the frequency and intensity of the players' involvement in the game. They identified psychological effort in situations where players pay attention to proper cues, and manage emotions under difficult circumstances. Tactical effort addressed the decision-making process of players and how they fulfilled their roles while taking into account the actions of their teammates and opponents. Based on these findings, a model of perceived distributed effort was developed, which delineates the elements that compose each of the aforementioned dimensions. Implications of perceived distributed effort in team coordination and shared mental models are discussed.

  5. Public attitudes toward practice by medical students: a nationwide survey in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Kyoko; Sakuma, Mio; Seki, Susumu; Morimoto, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    It is essential for medical students to interact directly with patients. However, patients may be reluctant to be seen by medical students in settings in which they may also be seen by senior staff. To understand patients' attitudes toward practice by medical students and consider the factors involved in obtaining patients' cooperation, we conducted a nationwide cross-sectional survey. We randomly selected 2,400 adult participants from all over Japan. Trained research assistants inquired about participants' experiences and attitudes toward practice by medical students using a questionnaire. We compared differences in attitudes between participants who were accepting of practice by medical students and those who were not, as well as differences between participants who had experienced practice by a medical student versus those who had not. A total of 1,109 (46%) participants were included in the study. Eleven percent (117/1109) of the participants had experienced practice by a medical student. One fourth of participants were accepting of practice by medical students, and experienced participants were significantly more likely to be accepting of practice by medical students than inexperienced participants (45% vs. 24%, pmedical students among accepting participants with previous experiences included "polite," "kind," and "hard-working." Fifty-nine percent (637/1088) of participants indicated that they would request a senior staff member's supervision when being seen by a medical student. The present nationwide survey suggests that education emphasizing bedside manner may be effective in promoting patients' cooperation of medical students. In addition, providing information to patients about medical students and efforts to increase supervision during clinical clerkship should be emphasized to foster the public's cooperation.

  6. Myocardial infarction in Singapore: a nationwide 10-year study of multiethnic differences in incidence and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, A T H; Emmanuel, S C; Tan, B Y; Teo, W S; Chua, T S J; Tan, B H

    2002-07-01

    Cardiovascular diseases have progressively increased in importance as a major contributor of morbidity and mortality in Asia. However, many countries in Asia do not have nationwide systematically-collected and standardised data on myocardial infarction (MI). To accurately document the extent of atherosclerotic coronary heart disease in Singapore, a nationwide myocardial infarct registry was established in the mid-1986. Possible myocardial infarct events were identified through daily national lists of cardiac enzymes, hospital discharge codes, mortuary records and the national death registry. Data obtained from clinical history, cardiac enzymes and 12-lead electrocardiogram Minnesota codes were entered into an algorithm based on the WHO MONICA study. Cases identified as "definite" MI were included in the decade's review for this study. From 1988 to 1997, 13,048 myocardial infarct events were diagnosed with 3367 deaths. There was a 39.1% decline in mortality, with an average decline of 6.5% per year [95% confidence intervals (CI), -3.9% to -9.1%]. However, the decline in incidence was only 20.8% with an average decline of 2.4% per year (95% CI, -6.6% to -1.2%). The highest incidence and mortality rates for both genders were seen in the Indians, followed by the Malays and the Chinese. Over 10 years, from 1988 to 1997, we documented a significant fall in mortality from MI in Singapore. There was a smaller decline in the incidence of infarction. Singapore implemented a National Healthy Lifestyle Programme in 1992 as a 10-year effort. The disparity in the incidence and mortality may suggest that a more dramatic and immediate impact has taken place in mortality through therapeutic programmes; primary preventive programmes would be more difficult to evaluate and have a more gradual impact. Only with continual accurate data collection through the whole country, over a much longer period, can the relative value of preventive and therapeutic programmes in coronary heart

  7. Sense and Sensibility: The Case for the Nationwide Inclusion of Engineering in the K-12 Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Robert E.; Pinelli, Thomas E.; Batterson, James G.

    2008-01-01

    The competitive status of the United States is inextricably linked to innovation just as innovation is inseparable from science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. To stay competitive in innovation requires that the United States produce a 21st century workforce complete with requisite education, training, skills, and motivation. If we accept a priori that science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education are crucial to competitiveness and innovation and that, in terms of innovation, mathematics, science, and engineering are interdependent, why are mathematics and science uniformly ubiquitous in the K-12 curriculum while engineering is conspicuously absent? We are passionate in our belief that the uniform addition of engineering to the K-12 curriculum will help ensure that the nation has "the right" 21st Century workforce. Furthermore, we believe that a nationwide effort, led by a coalition of engineering academics, practitioners, and societies is required to turn this goal into reality. However, accomplishing this goal necessitates, as we are reminded by the title of Jane Austen's timeless novel, "Sense and Sensibility", a workable solution that seeks the "middle ground" between passion and reason. We begin our paper by making two essential points: Engineers are not scientists. Engineering exists separate from science, has its own specialized knowledge community apart from science, and it is largely responsible for many of the most significant advancements and improvements in the quality of our life. Our workable solution requires that K-12 education, nationwide, accommodate the inclusion of engineering as a stand alone curriculum and we offer three reasons to support our position: (1) workforce development, (2) stimulating interest in STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) courses and careers, and (3) creating a technologically literate society. We conclude with some thoughts on how this important goal can be accomplished.

  8. Environmental Assessment For Cleanup and Closure of the Energy Technology Engineering Center. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2003-03-01

    DOE analyzed two cleanup and closure alternatives and the No Action Alternative, in accordance with the Council on Environmental Quality regulations implementing NEPA (40 CFR Parts 1500-1508) and DOE's NEPA implementing regulations (10 CFR Part 1021). Under Alternative 1, DOE is proposing to clean up the remaining ETEC facilities using the existing site specific cleanup standard of 15 mrem/yr. (plus DOE's As Low As Reasonably Achievable--ALARA-principle) for decontamination of radiological facilities and surrounding soils (Alternative 1). An annual 15-millirem additional radiation dose to the maximally exposed individual (assumed to be an individual living in a residential setting on Area IV) from all exposure pathways (air, soil, groundwater) equates to an additional theoretical lifetime cancer risk of no more than 3 x 10-4 (3 in 10,000). For perspective, it is estimated that the average individual in the United States receives a dose of about 300 millirem each year from natural sources of radiation. However, actual exposures generally will be much lower as a result of the application of the ''as low as reasonably achievable'' (ALARA) principle. Based on post-remediation verification sampling previous cleanups have generally resulted in a 2 x 10-6 level of residual risk. DOE would decontaminate, decommission, and demolish the remaining radiological facilities. DOE would also decommission and demolish the one remaining sodium facility and all of the remaining uncontaminated support buildings for which it is responsible. The ongoing RCRA corrective action program, including groundwater treatment (interim measures), would continue. Other environmental impacts would include 2.5 x 10-3 fatalities as a result of LLW shipments and 6.0 x 10-3 fatalities as a result of emission exhaust from all shipments. DOE would also decommission and demolish the remaining sodium facility and decommission and

  9. Nationwide Prospective Study of Outcomes after Elective Incisional Hernia Repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helgstrand, Frederik; Rosenberg, Jacob; Kehlet, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Incisional hernia repair is a frequent surgical procedure, but perioperative risk factors and outcomes have not been prospectively assessed in large-scale studies. The aim of this nationwide study was to analyze surgical risk factors for early and late outcomes after incisional hernia...... repair. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a prospective nationwide study on all elective incisional hernia repairs registered in the Danish Ventral Hernia Database between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2010. Main outcomes measures were surgical risk factors for 30-day readmission, reoperation (excluding...... recurrence), and mortality after incisional hernia repair. Late outcomes included reoperation for recurrence during the follow-up period. Follow-up was obtained by merging the Danish Ventral Hernia Database with the Danish National Patient Register. Results were evaluated by multivariate analyses. RESULT...

  10. Report to Congress on the U.S. Department of Energy`s Environmental Management Science Program: Research funded and its linkages to environmental cleanup problems. Volume 1 of 3 -- Report and Appendix A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This report is submitted in response to a Congressional request and is intended to communicate the nature, content, goals, and accomplishments of the Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) to interested and affected parties in the Department and its contractors, at Federal agencies, in the scientific community, and in the general public. The EMSP was started in response to a request to mount an effort in longer term basic science research to seek new and innovative cleanup methods to replace current conventional approaches which are often costly and ineffective. Section 1, ``Background of the Program,`` provides information on the evolution of the EMSP and how it is managed, and summarizes recent accomplishments. Section 2, ``Research Award Selection Process,`` provides an overview of the ongoing needs identification process, solicitation development, and application review for scientific merit and programmatic relevance. Section 3, ``Linkages to Environmental Cleanup Problems,`` provides an overview of the major interrelationships (linkages) among EMSP basic research awards, Environmental Management problem areas, and high cost projects. Section 4, ``Capitalizing on Science Investments,`` discusses the steps the EMSP plans to use to facilitate the application of research results in Environmental Management strategies through effective communication and collaboration. Appendix A contains four program notices published by the EMSP inviting applications for grants.

  11. From Toques to Tokes: Two challenges facing nationwide legalization of cannabis in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bear, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    In 2015, a new Liberal Government came to power in Canada, elected on a platform that included legalization and regulation of cannabis for recreational purposes. Their legislation, based on recommendations from a Federal Task Force on Marijuana Legalization and Regulation, is due in early April 2017. This commentary utilizes Canadian Federal policy papers, previous literature, and internal and international agreements to examine two key areas critical to the development of a nationwide regulated market for cannabis in Canada; the need to overcome restrictions to legalizing cannabis in United Nations' drug control treaties, and the unique challenges that non-medical cannabis creates for navigating interprovincial trade policies in Canada. Irrespective of UN conventions that appear to prohibit legalization of cannabis the Government is preparing to bring forward legislation as this article goes to print. At the same time significant squabbles impede the selling of even beer and wine inter-provincially in Canada. This paper identifies the challenges facing Canadian legalization efforts, but also shows how the legalization legislation may provide opportunities to engender significant change beyond the simple legalization of a specific drug. This commentary does not argue for any specific course of action for Canada, but rather explores the nuance of legalization absent from the declaration in the Liberal party platform. The paper argues that Canada's efforts may hasten the dismantling of the UN drug control structure, and provide renewed opportunities for intern-provincial trade in Canada. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Time preferences, study effort, and academic performance

    OpenAIRE

    Non, J.A.; Tempelaar, D. T.

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the relation between time preferences, study effort, and academic performance among first-year Business and Economics students. Time preferences are measured by stated preferences for an immediate payment over larger delayed payments. Data on study efforts are derived from an electronic learning environment, which records the amount of time students are logged in and the fraction of exercises completed. Our third measure of study effort is participation in an on-line summer course....

  13. Development of a nationwide network for technology transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Louis B. C.; Brockman, Paul R.

    1987-01-01

    The winter and spring of 1987 saw the cooperative nationwide network for technology transfer translated from concept to reality. The most obvious of the network relationships which were developed or which are anticipated are summarized. The objective was to help assure that every U.S. business which has the capacity to exploit, or the need to obtain new technology in any form, has access to the technology it needs or can use.

  14. Binge Drinking – Nationwide Problem, Local Solutions

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-01-03

    This podcast is based on the January 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. One in six adults binge drinks about four times a month. It's a problem nationwide but community-based strategies, such as reducing access to alcohol and increasing the price, can prevent binge drinking.  Created: 1/3/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 1/3/2012.

  15. Japanese 2011 nationwide survey on complications from spine surgery

    OpenAIRE

    IMAJO, YASUAKI; Taguchi, Toshihiko; Yone , Kazunori; Okawa, Atsushi; Otani, Koji; Ogata, Tadanori; Ozawa, Hiroshi; SHIMADA, Yoichi; Neo, Masashi; Iguchi, Tetsuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Background The Japanese Society for Spine Surgery and Related Research (JSSR) previously carried out two nationwide surveys in 1994 and 2001 on complications from spine and spinal cord surgery. More than 10?years have now elapsed since 2001. Rapidly ageing populations have major impacts on society, particularly in the medical field. The purpose of this study was therefore to examine the present situation for spine surgery in Japan. Methods The JSSR research team prepared a computerized questi...

  16. Emotional exhaustion and burnout among medical professors; a nationwide survey

    OpenAIRE

    Joeri K Tijdink; Vergouwen, Anton CM; Yvo M Smulders

    2014-01-01

    Background Although job-related burnout and its core feature emotional exhaustion are common among medical professionals and compromise job satisfaction and professional performance, they have never been systematically studied in medical professors, who have central positions in academic medicine. Methods We performed an online nationwide survey inviting all 1206 medical professors in The Netherlands to participate. They were asked to fill out the Maslach Burnout Inventory, a ‘professional en...

  17. LP-gas marketers nationwide reveal hardships encountered during crisis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-04-01

    The authors report on a survey of 150 randomly-selected LP-gas marketers nationwide. Replies were solicited from every major geographical region. The purpose of the survey was to obtain a comprehensive sampling of information on local price increases, shipping difficulties, relations with customers, and strategies for the future. This paper presents a profile that sums up the effects of the propane emergency on marketers and customers.

  18. Efforts in Preparation for Jack Validation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Azuola, Francisco

    1997-01-01

    ... articulated geometric figures. This report reflects current efforts to develop and refine Jack software to enable its validation and verification as a tool for performing human engineering analysis...

  19. Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis in Denmark– A Nationwide Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmholdt, Tina R.; Olesen, Anne B. B.; Jørgensen, Bettina; Kvist, Stinne; Skov, Lone; Thomsen, Henrik S.; Marckmann, Peter; Pedersen, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Background Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis is a debilitating and painful disorder with an increased stimulation of the connective tissue in the skin and systemic tissues. The disease is associated with exposure to gadolinium-based contrast agent used in magnetic resonance imaging in patients with renal impairment. Methods The prevalence of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis has so far never been determined at a national level. In 2009, Denmark was the first country to design a guideline for the tracing of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis patients. The aim of this paper is to communicate the main findings of this quest. Results The outcome of the nationwide investigation revealed that Denmark had 65 patients with nephrogenic systemic fibrosis and thereby the highest prevalence of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis worldwide with 65 per 5.6 million inhabitants, or 12 per million. Conclusions The nationwide investigation in Denmark revealed the highest prevalence of NSF worldwide. This may be rooted in a high level of awareness of NSF both among doctors, politicians and, not least, the media, combined with the fact that a nationwide NSF investigation was initiated. PMID:24349178

  20. Answers to frequently asked questions about cleanup activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2. Public information report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    The document presents answers to frequently asked questions about plans for cleanup and decontamination activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2. Answers to the questions asked are based on information in the NRC 'Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement related to decontamination and disposal of radioactive wastes resulting from March 28, 1979, accident, Three Mile Island Nuclear Station, Unit 2,' NUREG-0683.

  1. The mating dance in cleanup recoveries: How to court responsible parties and in what court to do it

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, G.A. [Parker, Milliken, Clark, O`Hara and Samuelian, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This article discusses the legalities which pertain specifically to hazardous waste cleanup. Topics of discussion include the following: threshold decisions: litigate or negotiate; forum issues--Federal or state court; claims in state court; and different types of damages and recovery. CERCLA is not the only grounds for recovery in environmental contamination cases. Common law and RCRA are also attractive.

  2. IED Cleanup: A Cooperative Classroom Robotics Challenge--The Benefits and Execution of a Cooperative Classroom Robotics Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Mark; Kressly, Rich

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a cooperative classroom robotics challenge named "IED Cleanup". This classroom challenge was created to incorporate a humanitarian project with the use of a robotics design system in order to remove simulated IEDs (Improvised Explosive Devices) to a detonation zone within a specified amount of time. Throughout the activity,…

  3. Fluorosurfactants-Directed Preparation of Homogeneous and Hierarchical-Porosity CMP Aerogels for Gas Sorption and Oil Cleanup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Ran; Zheng, Zhe; Mao, Nannan; Zhang, Na; Hu, Wenping; Zhang, Jin

    2015-02-01

    Homogeneous, hierarchical-porosity and highly hydrophobic conjugated microporous polymer (CMP) aerogels are facilely prepared assisted by fluorosurfactants. The fluorosurfactants show several roles in controlling the gelation process, modulating pore structures, and raising the hydrophobicity of materials, thus giving rise to aerogels with exceptional gas sorption and oil cleanup performance.

  4. Use of molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction for the selective clean-up of clenbuterol from calf urine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berggren, C; Bayoudh, S; Sherrington, D; Ensing, K

    2000-01-01

    A feasibility study was performed in order to study the possibilities in using molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) as sorbent material in solid-phase extraction (MISPE) for clean-up of clenbuterol from urine. A binding study of clenbuterol in several solvents was performed on a clenbuterol

  5. Military Base Realignments and Closures: DOD Has Improved Environmental Cleanup Reporting but Should Obtain and Share More Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    DOD contamination from hazardous substances , pollutants , or contaminants; unexploded ordnance, discarded military munitions, or munitions constituents...ordnance. The program includes the investigation, identification, and cleanup of contamination from hazardous substances , pollutants , and...as hazardous substances or unexploded ordnance,1 found on military installations closed under the Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) process has

  6. EPA Public Notice: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Reviews Cleanup at Niagara Mohawk Power Corp. Superfund Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is conducting its third five-year review of the Niagara Mohawk Power Corp. Superfund Site, located in the city of Saratoga Springs, Saratoga County, New York. This review seeks to confirm that the cleanup acti

  7. A Comparative Study of American, Japanese, and Taiwanese Early Childhood Teachers' Perceptions of Clean-Up Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi-Taylor, Satomi; Ito, Yoko; Lin, Chia-Hui; Akita, Kiyomi

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine similarities and differences of American, Japanese, and Taiwanese kindergarten teachers' perspectives about clean-up time. The participants consisted of two female American kindergarten teachers in the southeastern US, two female Japanese kindergarten teachers on the main island, and two female Taiwanese…

  8. Comparison of Clean-Up Methods for Ochratoxin A on Wine, Beer, Roasted Coffee and Chili Commercialized in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prelle, Ambra; Spadaro, Davide; Denca, Aleksandra; Garibaldi, Angelo; Gullino, Maria Lodovica

    2013-01-01

    The most common technique used to detect ochratoxin A (OTA) in food matrices is based on extraction, clean-up, and chromatography detection. Different clean-up cartridges, such as immunoaffinity columns (IAC), molecular imprinting polymers (MIP), Mycosep™ 229, Mycospin™, and Oasis® HLB (Hydrophilic Lipophilic balance) as solid phase extraction were tested to optimize the purification for red wine, beer, roasted coffee and chili. Recovery, reproducibility, reproducibility, limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were calculated for each clean-up method. IAC demonstrated to be suitable for OTA analysis in wine and beer with recovery rate >90%, as well as Mycosep™ for wine and chili. On the contrary, MIP columns were the most appropriate to clean up coffee. A total of 120 samples (30 wines, 30 beers, 30 roasted coffee, 30 chili) marketed in Italy were analyzed, by applying the developed clean-up methods. Twenty-seven out of 120 samples analyzed (22.7%: two wines, five beers, eight coffees, and 12 chili) resulted positive to OTA. A higher incidence of OTA was found in chili (40.0%) more than wine (6.6%), beers (16.6%) and coffee (26.6%). Moreover, OTA concentration in chili was the highest detected, reaching 47.8 µg/kg. Furthermore, three samples (2.5%), two wines and one chili, exceeded the European threshold. PMID:24152987

  9. Hot gas cleanup test facility for gasification and pressurized combustion. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1--September 30, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    The objective of this project is to evaluate hot gas particle control technologies using coal-derived gas streams. This will entail the design, construction, installation, and use of a flexible test facility which can operate under realistic gasification and combustion conditions. The major particulate control device issues to be addressed include the integration of the particulate control devices into coal utilization systems, on-line cleaning techniques, chemical and thermal degradation of components, fatigue or structural failures, blinding, collection efficiency as a function of particle size, and scale-up of particulate control systems to commercial size. The conceptual design of the facility was extended to include a within scope, phased expansion of the existing Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility Cooperative Agreement to also address systems integration issues of hot particulate removal in advanced coal-based power generation systems. This expansion included the consideration of the following modules at the test facility in addition to the existing Transport Reactor gas source and Hot Gas Cleanup Units: Carbonizer/Pressurized Circulating Fluidized Bed Gas Source; hot Gas Cleanup Units to mate to all gas streams; and Combustion Gas Turbine. Fuel Cell and associated gas treatment. This expansion to the Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility is herein referred to as the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF).

  10. Comparison of Clean-Up Methods for Ochratoxin A on Wine, Beer, Roasted Coffee and Chili Commercialized in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambra Prelle

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The most common technique used to detect ochratoxin A (OTA in food matrices is based on extraction, clean-up, and chromatography detection. Different clean-up cartridges, such as immunoaffinity columns (IAC, molecular imprinting polymers (MIP, Mycosep™ 229, Mycospin™, and Oasis® HLB (Hydrophilic Lipophilic balance as solid phase extraction were tested to optimize the purification for red wine, beer, roasted coffee and chili. Recovery, reproducibility, reproducibility, limit of detection (LOD and limit of quantification (LOQ were calculated for each clean-up method. IAC demonstrated to be suitable for OTA analysis in wine and beer with recovery rate >90%, as well as Mycosep™ for wine and chili. On the contrary, MIP columns were the most appropriate to clean up coffee. A total of 120 samples (30 wines, 30 beers, 30 roasted coffee, 30 chili marketed in Italy were analyzed, by applying the developed clean-up methods. Twenty-seven out of 120 samples analyzed (22.7%: two wines, five beers, eight coffees, and 12 chili resulted positive to OTA. A higher incidence of OTA was found in chili (40.0% more than wine (6.6%, beers (16.6% and coffee (26.6%. Moreover, OTA concentration in chili was the highest detected, reaching 47.8 µg/kg. Furthermore, three samples (2.5%, two wines and one chili, exceeded the European threshold.

  11. Nevada Test Site Area 25. Radiological survey and cleanup project, 1974-1983. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKnight, R.K.; Rosenberry, C.E.; Orcutt, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    This report describes radiological survey, decontamination and decommissioning of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) Area 25 facilities and land areas incorporated in the Nuclear Rocket Development Station (NRDS). Buildings, facilities and support systems used after 1959 for nuclear reactor and engine testing were surveyed for the presence of radioactive contamination. The cleanup was part of the Surplus Facilities Management Program funded by the Department of Energy's Richland Operations Office. The radiological survey portion of the project encompassed portable instrument surveys and removable contamination surveys (swipe) for alpha and beta plus gamma radiation contamination of facilities, equipment and land areas. Soil sampling was also accomplished. The majority of Area 25 facilities and land areas have been returned to unrestricted use. Remaining radiologically contaminated areas are posted with warning signs and barricades. 12 figures.

  12. Environmental cleanup privatization, products and services directory, January 1997. Second edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    The US Department of Energy has undertaken an ambitious ``Ten Year Plan`` for the Weapons Complex, an initiative to complete cleanup at most nuclear sites within a decade. This Second Edition of the Directory is designed to facilitate privatization which is key to the success of the Plan. The Directory is patterned after the telephone Yellow Pages. Like the Yellow Pages, it provides the user with points of contact for inquiring further into the capabilities of the listed companies. This edition retains the original format of three major sections under the broad headings: Treatment, Characterization, and Extraction/Deliver/Materials Handling. Within each section, companies are listed alphabetically. Also, ``company name`` and ``process type`` indices are provided at the beginning of each section to allow the user quick access to listings of particular interest.

  13. An alternative clean-up column for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in solid matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndunda, Elizabeth N; Madadi, Vincent O; Mizaikoff, Boris

    2015-12-01

    The need for continuous monitoring of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has necessitated the development of analytical techniques that are sensitive and selective with minimal reagent requirement. In light of this, we developed a column for clean-up of soil and sediment extracts, which is less demanding in terms of the amount of solvent and sorbent. The dual-layer column consists of acidified silica gel and molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs). MIPs were synthesized via aqueous suspension polymerization using PCB 15 as the dummy template, 4-vinylpyridine as the functional monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the cross-linker and the obtained particles characterized via SEM, BET, and batch rebinding assays. Pre-concentration of the spiked real-world water sample using MISPE gave recoveries between 85.2 and 104.4% (RSD matrices provided recoveries of 91.6-102.5% (RSD matrices and water, respectively.

  14. Investigation of austenitic alloys for advanced heat recovery and hot gas cleanup systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swindeman, R.W.; Ren, W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-08-01

    Alloys for design and construction of structural components needed to contain process streams and provide internal structures in advanced heat recovery and hot gas cleanup systems were examined. Emphasis was placed on high-strength, corrosion-resistant alloys for service at temperatures above 1000 {degrees}F (540{degrees}C). Data were collected that related to fabrication, joining, corrosion protection, and failure criteria. Alloys systems include modified type 310 and 20Cr-25Ni-Nb steels and sulfidation-resistance alloys HR120 and HR160. Types of testing include creep, stress-rupture, creep crack growth, fatigue, and post-exposure short-time tensile. Because of the interest in relatively inexpensive alloys for high temperature service, a modified type 310 stainless steel was developed with a target strength of twice that for standard type 310 stainless steel.

  15. Investigation of austenitic alloys for advanced heat recovery and hot-gas cleanup systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swindeman, R.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-12-01

    Materials properties were collected for the design and construction of structural components for use in advanced heat recovery and hot gas cleanup systems. Alloys systems included 9Cr-1Mo-V steel, modified 316 stainless steel, modified type 310 stainless steel, modified 20Cr-25Ni-Nb stainless steel, and modified alloy 800. Experimental work was undertaken to expand the databases for potentially useful alloys. Types of testing included creep, stress-rupture, creep-crack growth, fatigue, and post-exposure short-time tensile tests. Because of the interest in relatively inexpensive alloys for service at 700 C and higher, research emphasis was placed on a modified type 310 stainless steel and a modified 20Cr-25Ni-Nb stainless steel. Both steels were found to have useful strength to 925 C with good weldability and ductility.

  16. Investigation of austenitic alloys for advanced heat recovery and hot gas cleanup systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swindeman, R.W.; Ren, W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Materials properties were collected for the design and construction of structural components for use in advanced heat recovery and hot gas cleanup systems. Alloys systems included 9Cr-1Mo-V steel, modified 316 stainless steel, modified type 310 stainless steel, modified 20Cr-25Ni-Nb stainless steel, modified alloy 800, and two sulfidation resistant alloys: HR160 and HR120. Experimental work was undertaken to expand the databases for potentially useful alloys. Types of testing included creep, stress-rupture, creep-crack growth, fatigue, and post-exposure short-time tensile tests. Because of the interest in relatively inexpensive alloys for service at 700{degrees}C and higher, research emphasis was placed on a modified type 310 stainless steel and a modified 20Cr-25Ni-Nb stainless steel. Both steels were found to have useful strength to 925{degrees}C with good weldability and ductility.

  17. Acetonitrile extraction and dual-layer solid phase extraction clean-up for pesticide residue analysis in propolis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oellig, Claudia

    2016-05-06

    Propolis is a very complex mixture of substances that is produced by honey bees and is known to be a rather challenging matrix for residue analysis. Besides resins, flavonoids and phenols, high amount of wax is co-extracted resulting in immense matrix effects. Therefore a suitable clean-up is crucial and indispensable. In this study, a reliable solid phase extraction (SPE) clean-up was developed for pesticide residue analysis in propolis. The clean-up success was quickly and easily monitored by high-performance thin-layer chromatography with different detection possibilities. The final method consists of the extraction of propolis with acetonitrile according to the QuEChERS method followed by an effective extract purification on dual-layer SPE cartridges with spherical hydrophobic polystyrene-divinylbenzene resin/primary secondary amine as sorbent and a mixture of toluene/acetone (95:5, v/v) for elution. Besides fat-soluble components like waxes, flavonoids, and terpenoids, more polar compounds like organic acids, fatty acids, sugars and anthocyanins were also removed to large extent. Method performance was assessed by recovery experiments at spiking levels of 0.5 and 1mg/kg (n=5) for fourteen pesticides that are relevant for propolis. Mean recoveries determined by HPLC-MS against solvent standards were between 40 and 101%, while calculation against matrix-matched standards provided recoveries of 79-104%. Precision of recovery, assessed by relative standard deviations, were below 9%. Thus, the developed dual-layer SPE clean-up enables the reliable pesticide residue analysis in propolis and provides a suitable alternative to time-consuming clean-up procedures proposed in literature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Content Analysis of Vomit and Diarrhea Cleanup Procedures To Prevent Norovirus Infections in Retail and Food Service Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Morgan G; Dubé, Anne-Julie; Leone, Cortney M; Moore, Christina M; Fraser, Angela M

    2016-11-01

    Human noroviruses are the leading cause of foodborne disease in the United States, sickening 19 to 21 million Americans each year. Vomit and diarrhea are both highly concentrated sources of norovirus particles. For this reason, establishing appropriate cleanup procedures for these two substances is critical. Food service establishments in states that have adopted the 2009 or 2013 U.S. Food and Drug Administration Food Code are required to have a program detailing specific cleanup procedures. The aim of our study was to determine the alignment of existing vomit and diarrhea cleanup procedures with the 11 elements recommended in Annex 3 of the 2011 Supplement to the 2009 Food Code and to determine their readability and clarity of presentation. In July 2015, we located vomit and diarrhea cleanup procedures by asking Norovirus Collaborative for Outreach, Research, and Education stakeholders for procedures used by their constituency groups and by conducting a Google Advanced Search of the World Wide Web. We performed content analysis to determine alignment with the recommendations in Annex 3. Readability and clarity of presentation were also assessed. A total of 38 artifacts were analyzed. The mean alignment score was 7.0 ± 1.7 of 11 points; the mean clarity score was 6.7 ± 2.5 of 17 points. Only nine artifacts were classified as high clarity, high alignment. Vomit and diarrhea cleanup procedures should align with Annex 3 in the Food Code and should, as well, be clearly presented; yet, none of the artifacts completely met both conditions. To reduce the spread of norovirus infections in food service establishments, editable guidelines are needed that are aligned with Annex 3 and are clearly written, into which authors could insert their facility-specific information.

  19. Clinical aspects of the health disturbances in Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident clean-up workers (liquidators) from Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eglite, M E; Zvagule, T J; Rainsford, K D; Reste, J D; Curbakova, E V; Kurjane, N N

    2009-06-01

    The health status of some 6,000 workers from Latvia who went to clean-up the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) site following the explosion on 26 April 1986 has been analyzed. The data on these workers have been recorded in the Latvian State Register of Occupational disease patients and people exposed to ionizing radiation due to Chernobyl NPP accident (Latvian State Register) that was established in 1994. From these data, estimates have been made of external ionizing radiation to which these workers were exposed together with observations on the impact of exposure to heavy metals (especially lead and zinc) and radioactive isotopes released during the reactor 'meltdown'. These factors along with psycho-emotional and social-economic stresses account for a marked excess of mortality and morbidity in the group of CNPP accident clean-up workers compared with that of the non-exposed normal Latvian population adjusted for age and sex. The number of diseases or conditions in the CNPP accident clean-up workers has progressively risen from an average of 1.3 in 1986 to 10.9 in 2007. This exceeds for the Latvian population when adjusted for age and sex. The most serious conditions affect the nervous, digestive, respiratory, cardiovascular, endocrine (especially thyroid) and immunological systems. While the morbidity associated with diseases of the respiratory and digestive systems has decreased in recent years that in the other systems is increasing. In recent years, there has been an increased occurrence of cancers affecting the thyroid, prostate and stomach. Clinical and laboratory investigations suggest that surviving CNPP accident clean-up workers exhibit signs of immuno-inflammatory reactions causing premature aging with evidence of autoimmune diseases and immunological deficiencies or abnormalities. It is suggested that the CNPP accident clean-up workers may have a specific syndrome, the 'Chernobyl post-radiation neurosomatic polypathy', due to sustained oxidant

  20. THE ROLE OF LAND USE IN ENVIRONMENTAL DECISION MAKING AT THREE DOE MEGA-CLEANUP SITES FERNALD & ROCKY FLATS & MOUND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JEWETT MA

    2011-01-14

    This paper explores the role that future land use decisions have played in the establishment of cost-effective cleanup objectives and the setting of environmental media cleanup levels for the three major U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites for which cleanup has now been successfully completed: the Rocky Flats, Mound, and Fernald Closure Sites. At each site, there are distinct consensus-building histories throughout the following four phases: (1) the facility shut-down and site investigation phase, which took place at the completion of their Cold War nuclear-material production missions; (2) the decision-making phase, whereby stakeholder and regulatory-agency consensus was achieved for the future land-use-based environmental decisions confronting the sites; (3) the remedy selection phase, whereby appropriate remedial actions were identified to achieve the future land-use-based decisions; and (4) the implementation phase, whereby the selected remedial actions for these high-profile sites were implemented and successfully closed out. At each of the three projects, there were strained relationships and distrust between the local community and the DOE as a result of site contamination and potential health effects to the workers and local residents. To engage citizens and interested stakeholder groups - particularly in the role of final land use in the decision-making process, the site management teams at each respective site developed new public-participation strategies to open stakeholder communication channels with site leadership, technical staff, and the regulatory agencies. This action proved invaluable to the success of the projects and reaching consensus on appropriate levels of cleanup. With the implementation of the cleanup remedies now complete, each of the three DOE sites have become models for future environmental-remediation projects and associated decision making.

  1. Listening Effort With Cochlear Implant Simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pals, Carina; Sarampalis, Anastasios; Başkent, Deniz

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Fitting a cochlear implant (CI) for optimal speech perception does not necessarily optimize listening effort. This study aimed to show that listening effort may change between CI processing conditions for which speech intelligibility remains constant. Method: Nineteen normal-hearing

  2. The Effect of Age on Listening Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degeest, Sofie; Keppler, Hannah; Corthals, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of age on listening effort. Method: A dual-task paradigm was used to evaluate listening effort in different conditions of background noise. Sixty adults ranging in age from 20 to 77 years were included. A primary speech-recognition task and a secondary memory task were performed…

  3. Attention, effort, and fatigue: Neuropsychological perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Ronald A.; Odonnell, Brian F.

    1988-01-01

    Models of attention, effort, and fatigue are reviewed. Methods are discussed for measuring these phenomena from a neuropsychological and psychophysiological perspective. The following methodologies are included: (1) the autonomic measurement of cognitive effort and quality of encoding; (2) serial assessment approaches to neurophysiological assessment; and (3) the assessment of subjective reports of fatigue using multidimensional ratings and their relationship to neurobehavioral measures.

  4. Time preferences, study effort, and academic performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Non, J.A.; Tempelaar, D.T.

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the relation between time preferences, study effort, and academic performance among first-year Business and Economics students. Time preferences are measured by stated preferences for an immediate payment over larger delayed payments. Data on study efforts are derived from an electronic

  5. Visual Cues and Listening Effort: Individual Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picou, Erin M.; Ricketts, Todd A; Hornsby, Benjamin W. Y.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of visual cues on listening effort as well as whether predictive variables such as working memory capacity (WMC) and lipreading ability affect the magnitude of listening effort. Method: Twenty participants with normal hearing were tested using a paired-associates recall task in 2 conditions (quiet and noise) and…

  6. Dopamine and Effort-Based Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Triasih Kurniawan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Motivational theories of choice focus on the influence of goal values and strength of reinforcement to explain behavior. By contrast relatively little is known concerning how the cost of an action, such as effort expended, contributes to a decision to act. Effort-based decision making addresses how we make an action choice based on an integration of action and goal values. Here we review behavioral and neurobiological data regarding the representation of effort as action cost, and how this impacts on decision making. Although organisms expend effort to obtain a desired reward there is a striking sensitivity to the amount of effort required, such that the net preference for an action decreases as effort cost increases. We discuss the contribution of the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA towards overcoming response costs and in enhancing an animal’s motivation towards effortful actions. We also consider the contribution of brain structures, including the basal ganglia (BG and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, in the internal generation of action involving a translation of reward expectation into effortful action.

  7. A systematic assessment of the state of hazardous waste clean-up technologies. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1--June 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, M.T.; Reed, B.E.; Gabr, M.

    1993-07-01

    West Virginia University (WVU) and the US DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) entered into a Cooperative Agreement on August 29, 1992 entitled ``Decontamination Systems Information and Research Programs.`` Stipulated within the Agreement is the requirement that WVU submit to METC a series of Technical Progress Report for Year 1 of the Agreement. This report reflects the progress and/or efforts performed on the following nine technical projects encompassed by the Year 1 Agreement for the period of April 1 through June 30, 1993: Systematic assessment of the state of hazardous waste clean-up technologies; site remediation technologies -- drain-enhanced soil flushing (DESF) for organic contaminants removal; site remediation technologies -- in situ bioremediation of organic contaminants; excavation systems for hazardous waste sites; chemical destruction of polychlorinated biphenyls; development of organic sensors -- monolayer and multilayer self-assembled films for chemical sensors; Winfield lock and dam remediation; Assessments of Technologies for hazardous waste site remediation -- non-treatment technologies and pilot scale test facility implementation; and remediation of hazardous sites with stream reforming.

  8. The Cossack Ranger II Seismograph, Research And Outreach Efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husebye, E. S.; Fedorenko, Y. V.; Pilgaev, S. V.; Matveeva, T. S.

    2006-12-01

    Earthquake monitoring is a highly desirable endaveour among seismologists but far from easy in practise. The reason for this is 3-fold; costly instrumentation, colleagues who dislike competition in network operations and running costs in terms of data transfer, storage and analysis. However, developments in recent years have off- set technical obstacles of the above kinds thus allowing for personal or small institution seismometry albeit the human factor remains. Anyway, a conventional SP-seismometer costs at least 2000 dollars while a complete 3-component seismograph may well cost 10000 dollars. However, a geophone-based 3-component seismograph may cost less than 2000 dollars but still have a performance matching that of a conventional station. The largest worry is normally not the one-time instrument expenses but operational and maintenance costs over say a 5-years time span. A solution here is socalled Seis Schooloperations implying that stations are deployed close to schools having good 'rocky' sites and permanent Internet access. Such sites are not necessarily optimum regarding ambient noise but on the other hand offer free data transfer to Hub and dedicated teachers taking care of the station operation. We have deployed small seismograph networks based on the above design and operational principles both in Norway and Karelia (NW Russia) as part of national outreach efforts. Noteworthy; recordings from these networks have proved useful in advanced wavefield analysis. A number of countries are economically poor but rich in earthquake activities. In other words, can hardly afford adequate monitoring of local seismicity. An interesting undertaking here is the SENSES project in Bulgaria supported by the "NATO Science for Peace and Security Programme' including 25 seismograph stations deployed nation-wide at sites close to local high schools. The close cooperation with these schools will ensure modest operational costs but also strengthen local outreach efforts in

  9. Responding to a Significant Recruitment Challenge within Three Nationwide Psycho-Educational Trials for Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Annette L.; Morra, Marion E.; Miller, Suzanne M.; Diefenbach, Michael A.; Slevin-Perocchia, Rosemarie; Raich, Peter C.; Fleisher, Linda; Wen, Kuang-Yi; Tran, Zung Vu; Mohamed, Nihal E.; George, Roshini; Bright, Mary Anne; Marcus, Alfred C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose When faced with a significant recruitment challenge for three nationwide psycho-educational trials targeting prostate and breast cancer patients, the Cancer Information Service Research Consortium initiated outreach efforts to increase accrual. Recruitment is reported by major outreach strategy to inform the use of similar campaigns, either as primary recruitment efforts or to supplement “in-reach” recruitment within oncology settings. Methods During a 33-month period, recruitment was tracked from the National Cancer Institute’s Cancer Information Service (CIS), the American Cancer Society (ACS), Dr. Susan Love Research Foundation’s Love/Avon Army of Women (AOW), Internet advertising, press releases, radio/television interviews, recruitment materials in community venues, and outreach to churches and cancer support organizations. Results Across projects, the majority (89%) of recruited participants (N = 2,134) was obtained from the CIS (n = 901, 19 months of recruitment), AOW (n = 869, 18 months), and ACS (n = 123, 12 months). Other efforts showed minimal gain in recruitment. Conclusions Cancer information programs (e.g., CIS, ACS) and registries of individuals willing to participate in cancer-related research (e.g., AOW) can represent exceptional resources for outreach recruitment of cancer patients, especially when the eligibility criteria are highly restrictive. However, these resources do not yield samples representative of the larger population of adults diagnosed with cancer, and conclusions from such trials must be tempered accordingly. Implications for cancer survivors Inadequate recruitment to randomized controlled trials limits the creation of useful interventions for cancer survivors. By enrolling in cancer registries and taking part in research, cancer survivors can contribute to the development of effective resources for the survivor population. PMID:23595235

  10. Responding to a significant recruitment challenge within three nationwide psychoeducational trials for cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Annette L; Morra, Marion E; Diefenbach, Michael A; Miller, Suzanne M; Slevin Perocchia, Rosemarie; Raich, Peter C; Fleisher, Linda; Wen, Kuang-Yi; Tran, Zung Vu; Mohamed, Nihal E; George, Roshini; Bright, Mary Anne; Marcus, Alfred C

    2013-09-01

    When faced with a significant recruitment challenge for three nationwide psychoeducational trials targeting prostate and breast cancer patients, the Cancer Information Service Research Consortium initiated outreach efforts to increase accrual. Recruitment is reported by major outreach strategy to inform the use of similar campaigns, either as primary recruitment efforts or to supplement "in-reach" recruitment within oncology settings. During a 33-month period, recruitment was tracked from the National Cancer Institute's Cancer Information Service (CIS), the American Cancer Society (ACS), Dr. Susan Love Research Foundation's Love/Avon Army of Women (AOW), Internet advertising, press releases, radio/television interviews, recruitment materials in community venues, and outreach to churches and cancer support organizations. Across projects, the majority (89 %) of recruited participants (N = 2,134) was obtained from the CIS (n = 901, 19 months of recruitment), AOW (n = 869, 18 months), and ACS (n = 123, 12 months). Other efforts showed minimal gain in recruitment. Cancer information programs (e.g., CIS and ACS) and registries of individuals willing to participate in cancer-related research (e.g., AOW) can represent exceptional resources for outreach recruitment of cancer patients, especially when the eligibility criteria are highly restrictive. However, these resources do not yield samples representative of the larger population of adults diagnosed with cancer, and conclusions from such trials must be tempered accordingly. Inadequate recruitment to randomized controlled trials limits the creation of useful interventions for cancer survivors. By enrolling in cancer registries and taking part in research, cancer survivors can contribute to the development of effective resources for the survivor population.

  11. Programming effort analysis of the ELLPACK language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    ELLPACK is a problem statement language and system for elliptic partial differential equations which is implemented by a FORTRAN preprocessor. ELLPACK's principal purpose is as a tool for the performance evaluation of software. However, it is used here as an example with which to study the programming effort required for problem solving. It is obvious that problem statement languages can reduce programming effort tremendously; the goal is to quantify this somewhat. This is done by analyzing the lengths and effort (as measured by Halstead's software science technique) of various approaches to solving these problems.

  12. Etiquette and effort: holding doors for others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaria, Joseph P; Rosenbaum, David A

    2011-05-01

    Etiquette, the customary code of polite behavior among members of a group, provides a means of conveying respect for others, but what is the basis for etiquette's unwritten rules? Here we show that one form of etiquette, holding a door open for another person, reflects the door holder's expectation that the person for whom he or she holds the door shares the belief that the total effort expended by the two of them will be less than the summed efforts of the two individuals acting on their own. Our observations extend recent work on effort reduction in motor control to the management of social interactions.

  13. Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup, and Oxygen Separation Equipment; Task 2.3: Sulfur Primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nexant Inc.

    2006-05-01

    This deliverable is Subtask 2.3 of Task 2, Gas Cleanup Design and Cost Estimates, of NREL Award ACO-5-44027, ''Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup and Oxygen Separation Equipment''. Subtask 2.3 builds upon the sulfur removal information first presented in Subtask 2.1, Gas Cleanup Technologies for Biomass Gasification by adding additional information on the commercial applications, manufacturers, environmental footprint, and technical specifications for sulfur removal technologies. The data was obtained from Nexant's experience, input from GTI and other vendors, past and current facility data, and existing literature.

  14. The use of dispersive pipet extraction (DPX) tips for the sample cleanup of apples, pears, and oranges in the analysis of formetanate HCI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podhorniak, Lynda V

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Analytical Chemistry Laboratory evaluated the effectiveness of dispersive pipet extraction (DPX) tip cleanup and compared the results with the Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe dispersive tube cleanup for the sample preparation of three different fruit matrixes analyzed for formetanate HCI (FHCI). Using LC/MS/MS, the target LOD and the LOQ achieved for FHCI with dispersive tubes, 0.1 and 0.3 ng/g, respectively, were similar to the DPX tip sample cleanup. Recoveries at the LOQ ranged from 94 to 109%. A set of 20-40 samples could be prepared in one working day by one chemist.

  15. Developing a common health information exchange platform to implement a nationwide health information network in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Minho; Heo, Eunyoung; Lim, Heesook; Lee, Jun Young; Weon, Sangho; Chae, Hoseok; Hwang, Hee; Yoo, Sooyoung

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to develop a common health information exchange (HIE) platform that can provide integrated services for implementing the HIE infrastructure in addition to guidelines for participating in an HIE network in South Korea. By exploiting the Health Level 7 (HL7) Clinical Document Architecture (CDA) and Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) Cross-enterprise Document Sharing-b (XDS.b) profile, we defined the architectural model, exchanging data items and their standardization, messaging standards, and privacy and security guidelines, for a secure, nationwide, interoperable HIE. We then developed a service-oriented common HIE platform to minimize the effort and difficulty of fulfilling the standard requirements for participating in the HIE network. The common platform supports open application program interfaces (APIs) for implementing a document registry, a document repository, a document consumer, and a master patient index. It could also be used for testing environments for the implementation of standard requirements. As the initial phase of implementing a nationwide HIE network in South Korea, we built a regional network for workers' compensation (WC) hospitals and their collaborating clinics to share referral and care record summaries to ensure the continuity of care for industrially injured workers, using the common HIE platform and verifying the feasibility of our technologies. We expect to expand the HIE network on a national scale with rapid support for implementing HL7 and IHE standards in South Korea.

  16. Schools must include faculty and staff in sexual violence prevention efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Jessica; Krause, Kathleen

    2017-01-01

    Creating a normative campus environment intolerant to sexual violence is important for prevention. While prevention initiatives focusing on students are vital, faculty and staff have a central role in supporting and sustaining a comprehensive strategy for preventing campus sexual violence. Nationwide, colleges and universities recently implemented campus climate surveys. At Emory, we decided to survey faculty and staff as well as students, motivated by our use of an ecological framing of campus sexual violence. Faculty and staff are long-term members of the community, and can provide stability and continuity that reinforces prevention efforts prioritized for students. We recommend that schools use a trauma-informed approach to guide the involvement of faculty and staff in prevention. We encourage colleges and universities to consider the experiences and needs of their faculty and staff, as professionals who serve as leaders on campus and as those who guide students through their academic experiences.

  17. Illinois highway materials sustainability efforts of 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-04

    This report provides a summary of the sustainability efforts of the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) in recycling : reclaimed materials in highway construction during calendar year 2016. This report meets the requirements of Illinois Publ...

  18. Information problem solving and mental effort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Frerejean, Jimmy

    2012-01-01

    Brand-Gruwel, S., & Frerejean, J. (2012, 5 September). Information problem solving and mental effort. Presentation at the EARLI ASC 2012 "Using eye tracking to design and evaluate education & training methods", Heerlen, The Netherlands.

  19. EU grid computing effort takes on malaria

    CERN Multimedia

    Lawrence, Stacy

    2006-01-01

    Malaria is the world's most common parasitic infection, affecting more thatn 500 million people annually and killing more than 1 million. In order to help combat malaria, CERN has launched a grid computing effort (1 page)

  20. Illinois highway materials sustainability efforts of 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    This report presents the 2014 sustainability efforts of the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) in : recycling reclaimed materials in highway construction. This report meets the requirements of Illinois : Public Act 097-0314 by documenting I...

  1. Illinois highway materials sustainability efforts of 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    This report presents the sustainability efforts of the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) in : recycling and reclaiming materials for use in highway construction. This report meets the requirements of : Illinois Public Act 097-0314 by docum...

  2. Maternal regulation and toddlers’ effortful control

    OpenAIRE

    Esquivel Y Ancona, María Fayne; Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México Distrito Federal.; García Cabrero, Benilde; Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México Distrito Federal.; Montero Y López Lena, María; Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México Distrito Federal.; Valencia Cruz, Alejandra; Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México Distrito Federal.

    2013-01-01

    Effortful control is a regulatory component of emotion (Calkins & Hill, 2007). This descriptive study analyzed the relation between maternal co-regulation strategies and children self-regulation strategies in order to evaluate their effortful control skills.19 dyads [mother-child] with children between 18 and 36 months old participated and were divided in three groups, the sample was taken from government´s nurseries. A transversal study with direct observation of the experimental situati...

  3. Mental Effort and Safety in Curved Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Entzinger, Jorg Onno; Uemura, Tsuneharu; Suzuki, Shinji

    2014-01-01

    Curved approach procedures are implemented around the world. Although typically flown by the autopilot, human pilots need the situational awareness and skills to take over control in rare-event cases to ensure flight safety. We try to understand the pilot’s cognitive models and differences in required (mental) effort between conventional straight-in approaches and curved approaches. We developed various methods to visualize pilots’ control efforts during manual flight, show their capabilities...

  4. [Script Concordance Test: first nationwide experience in pediatrics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamui, Magali; Ferreira, Juan P; Torrents, Milagros; Torres, Fernando; Ibarra, Mariano; Ossorio, Maria F; Urrutia, Luis; Ferrero, Fernando

    2018-02-01

    The Script Concordance Test is a suitable test for assessing clinical reasoning in postgraduate medical education. We present the first nationwide, realtime, web-based experience of a Script Concordance Test administered to 3rd year pediatric residents. The test was administered to 268 residents (postgraduate year 3), from 56 different programs, requiring 46.1 ± 27.1 minutes to complete it, and scoring 65.3 ± 7.47 points. A later survey showed limited satisfaction from participants. This experience showed that this kind of test is feasible in this setting. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  5. Performance of clinical mammography: a nationwide study from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Allan; Vejborg, Ilse; Severinsen, Niels

    2006-01-01

    sensitivity, specificity and accuracy, the latter using a receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) analysis. In 96,534 clinical mammography examinations, sensitivity was 75% and specificity 99%. The presence of at least one high volume-reading radiologist in the clinic increased accuracy (AUC = 0.91 for ... in Denmark in the year 2000 were collected and linked to cancer outcome. Use of the National Institute of Radiation Hygiene register for identification of radiology clinics ensured comprehensive nationwide registration. We used the final mammographic assessment at the end of the imaging work-up to determine...

  6. Nation-Wide Mobile Network Energy Evolution Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Eva; Frank, Philipp; Micallef, Gilbert

    2013-01-01

    be supported. In most cases, these upgrades increase the energy consumption of the network even further. This paper presents a nation-wide case study, based on a commercial network of a leading European operator, intended to provide a clear understanding of how the energy consumption of mobile networks......Mobile network operators are facing a challenging dilemma. While on the one hand they are committed to reducing their carbon emissions, and energy consumption, they are also required to continuously upgrade existing networks, ensuring that the relentless growth in data traffic can still...

  7. A Nationwide Census of ICU Capacity and Admissions in Mongolia

    OpenAIRE

    Mendsaikhan, Naranpurev; Begzjav, Tsolmon; Lundeg, Ganbold; Brunauer, Andreas; D?nser, Martin W.

    2016-01-01

    In Mongolia, a Central Asian lower-middle income country, intensive care medicine is an under-resourced and?developed medical specialty. The burden of critical illness and capacity of intensive care unit (ICU) services in the country is unknown. In this nationwide census, we collected data on adult and pediatric/neonatal ICU capacities and the number of ICU admissions in 2014. All hospitals registered to run an ICU service in Mongolia were surveyed. Data on the availability of an adult and/or...

  8. Asbestos exposures to truck drivers during World Trade Center cleanup operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breysse, Patrick N; Williams, D'Ann L; Herbstman, Julie B; Symons, J Morel; Chillrud, Steve N; Ross, James; Henshaw, Shannon; Rees, Katherine; Watson, Mike; Geyh, Alison S

    2005-08-01

    This article presents results of asbestos air sampling conducted to assess the exposure to truck drivers working at the World Trade Center site. Sampling consisted of a combination of area and personal monitoring of 49 truck drivers and included optical and electron microscopic analyses. Three sampling periods were conducted: October 1-7, 2001, October 17-26, 2001, and April 13-23, 2002. Area sample locations were selected to estimate airborne concentrations around the perimeter of the site, on top of the pile, and in the pit. Air samples were collected using a 50-mm conductive cowl and a 25-mm mixed cellulose ester filter at flow rates ranging from 0.5-2 L/min. Samples were analyzed using a combination of phase contrast microscopy (PCM) NIOSH method 7400, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) NIOSH method 7402, and the direct method specified under the Asbestos Hazardous Emergency Response Act. Sample times and flow rates were adjusted to prevent overloading while maximizing sample volume. Personal sampling results suggest that asbestos fiber exposures to truck drivers at the site were low. Exposures based on TEM results generally ranged from less than detectable to 0.1 structures per cubic centimeter (s/cm(3)). TEM-based results further indicate that the majority of asbestos fibers were chrysotile and less than 5 microm in length. PCM-based estimates were generally higher than the TEM results. This is likely due to the counting of nonasbestos fibers. This conclusion is supported by the NIOSH 7402 TEM results, which did not detect asbestos fibers longer than 5 micro m. Area sample results were generally less than the personal results (except for the sample collected on top of the rubble pile) and decreased over the course of the cleanup. Our results show low airborne asbestos concentrations and a predominance of short fibers. Given these low concentrations, evidence of short fibers, and the short duration of the exposure (less than 10 months to complete the

  9. In situ sediment treatment using activated carbon: a demonstrated sediment cleanup technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patmont, Clayton R; Ghosh, Upal; LaRosa, Paul; Menzie, Charles A; Luthy, Richard G; Greenberg, Marc S; Cornelissen, Gerard; Eek, Espen; Collins, John; Hull, John; Hjartland, Tore; Glaza, Edward; Bleiler, John; Quadrini, James

    2015-04-01

    This paper reviews general approaches for applying activated carbon (AC) amendments as an in situ sediment treatment remedy. In situ sediment treatment involves targeted placement of amendments using installation options that fall into two general approaches: 1) directly applying a thin layer of amendments (which potentially incorporates weighting or binding materials) to surface sediment, with or without initial mixing; and 2) incorporating amendments into a premixed, blended cover material of clean sand or sediment, which is also applied to the sediment surface. Over the past decade, pilot- or full-scale field sediment treatment projects using AC-globally recognized as one of the most effective sorbents for organic contaminants-were completed or were underway at more than 25 field sites in the United States, Norway, and the Netherlands. Collectively, these field projects (along with numerous laboratory experiments) have demonstrated the efficacy of AC for in situ treatment in a range of contaminated sediment conditions. Results from experimental studies and field applications indicate that in situ sequestration and immobilization treatment of hydrophobic organic compounds using either installation approach can reduce porewater concentrations and biouptake significantly, often becoming more effective over time due to progressive mass transfer. Certain conditions, such as use in unstable sediment environments, should be taken into account to maximize AC effectiveness over long time periods. In situ treatment is generally less disruptive and less expensive than traditional sediment cleanup technologies such as dredging or isolation capping. Proper site-specific balancing of the potential benefits, risks, ecological effects, and costs of in situ treatment technologies (in this case, AC) relative to other sediment cleanup technologies is important to successful full-scale field application. Extensive experimental studies and field trials have shown that when applied

  10. In Situ Sediment Treatment Using Activated Carbon: A Demonstrated Sediment Cleanup Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patmont, Clayton R; Ghosh, Upal; LaRosa, Paul; Menzie, Charles A; Luthy, Richard G; Greenberg, Marc S; Cornelissen, Gerard; Eek, Espen; Collins, John; Hull, John; Hjartland, Tore; Glaza, Edward; Bleiler, John; Quadrini, James

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews general approaches for applying activated carbon (AC) amendments as an in situ sediment treatment remedy. In situ sediment treatment involves targeted placement of amendments using installation options that fall into two general approaches: 1) directly applying a thin layer of amendments (which potentially incorporates weighting or binding materials) to surface sediment, with or without initial mixing; and 2) incorporating amendments into a premixed, blended cover material of clean sand or sediment, which is also applied to the sediment surface. Over the past decade, pilot- or full-scale field sediment treatment projects using AC—globally recognized as one of the most effective sorbents for organic contaminants—were completed or were underway at more than 25 field sites in the United States, Norway, and the Netherlands. Collectively, these field projects (along with numerous laboratory experiments) have demonstrated the efficacy of AC for in situ treatment in a range of contaminated sediment conditions. Results from experimental studies and field applications indicate that in situ sequestration and immobilization treatment of hydrophobic organic compounds using either installation approach can reduce porewater concentrations and biouptake significantly, often becoming more effective over time due to progressive mass transfer. Certain conditions, such as use in unstable sediment environments, should be taken into account to maximize AC effectiveness over long time periods. In situ treatment is generally less disruptive and less expensive than traditional sediment cleanup technologies such as dredging or isolation capping. Proper site-specific balancing of the potential benefits, risks, ecological effects, and costs of in situ treatment technologies (in this case, AC) relative to other sediment cleanup technologies is important to successful full-scale field application. Extensive experimental studies and field trials have shown that when

  11. US Efforts in Support of Examinations at Fukushima Daiichi – 2016 Evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amway, P. [Exelon Corp., Chicago, IL (United States); Andrews, N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bixby, Willis [WWBX Consulting, Crofton, MD (United States); Bunt, R. [Southern Nuclear. Birmingham, AL (United States); Corradini, M. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Ellison, P. [GE-Hitachi, Wilmington, NC (United States); Farmer, M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Farthing, T. [GE-Hitachi, Wilmington, NC (United States); Francis, M [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gabor, J. [Jensen Hughes, Baltimore, MD (United States); Gauntt, R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Henry, C. [Fauske and Associates, LLC, Burr Ridge, IL (United States); Humrickhouse, P. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kraft, S. [Nuclear Energy Inst., Washington, DC (United States); Linthicum, R. [Exelon Corp., Chicago, IL (United States); PWR Owners Group; Luangdilok, W. [Fauske and Associates, LLC, Burr Ridge, IL (United States); Lutz, R. [Lutz Nuclear Consulting, Asheville, NC (United States); Luxat, D. [Jensen Hughes, Baltimore, MD (United States); Maddox, J. [Inst. for Nuclear Power Operations, Atlanta, GA (United States); Negin, C. [CANegin & Associates; Paik, C. [Fauske and Associates, LLC, Burr Ridge, IL (United States); Plys, M. [Fauske and Associates, LLC, Burr Ridge, IL (United States); Rempe, J. [Rempe and Associates, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Robb, K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sanders, R. [AREVA Federal Services, Charlotte, NC (United States); Wachowiak, R. [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA (United States); Williamson, B. [Tennessee Valley Authority, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Although it is clear that the accident signatures from each unit at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (NPS) [Daiichi] differ, much is not known about the end-state of core materials within these units. Some of this uncertainty can be attributed to a lack of information related to cooling system operation and cooling water injection. There is also uncertainty in our understanding of phenomena affecting: a) in-vessel core damage progression during severe accidents in boiling water reactors (BWRs), and b) accident progression after vessel failure (ex-vessel progression) for BWRs and Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs). These uncertainties arise due to limited full scale prototypic data. Similar to what occurred after the accident at Three Mile Island Unit 2, these Daiichi units offer the international community a means to reduce such uncertainties by obtaining prototypic data from multiple full-scale BWR severe accidents. Information obtained from Daiichi is required to inform Decontamination and Decommissioning activities, improving the ability of the Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings (TEPCO) to characterize potential hazards and to ensure the safety of workers involved with cleanup activities. This document reports recent results from the US Forensics Effort to use information obtained by TEPCO to enhance the safety of existing and future nuclear power plant designs. This Forensics Effort, which is sponsored by the Reactor Safety Technologies Pathway of the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy Light Water Reactor (LWR) Sustainability Program, consists of a group of US experts in LWR safety and plant operations that have identified examination needs and are evaluating TEPCO information from Daiichi that address these needs. Examples presented in this report demonstrate that significant safety insights are being obtained in the areas of component performance, fission product release and transport, debris end-state location, and combustible gas

  12. Rethinking first response: effects of the clean up and recovery effort on workers at the world trade center disaster site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sara B; Langlieb, Alan M; Teret, Stephen P; Gross, Raz; Schwab, Margo; Massa, Jennifer; Ashwell, Leslie; Geyh, Alison S

    2005-04-01

    We sought to describe the physical and mental health effects of the cleanup and recovery effort on workers at the World Trade Center disaster site. A mailed survey was sent to truck drivers, heavy equipment operators, laborers, and carpenters. It assessed work-related exposures and somatic and mental health symptoms. In one open-ended question, respondents shared any aspect of their experiences they wished; these 332 narrative responses were analyzed using qualitative techniques. Respondents reported suffering debilitating consequences of their work, including depression, drug use, and posttraumatic stress disorder. They felt poorly prepared to work in a disaster, lacked protective equipment and training, and felt overwhelmed by the devastation they faced. These workers' experiences were qualitatively similar to the experiences of the first responders. To protect workers in the future, the focus on preparing "first" responders should be reconsidered more broadly.

  13. Analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in vegetable oils combining gel permeation chromatography with solid-phase extraction clean-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fromberg, Arvid; Højgård, A.; Duedahl-Olesen, Lene

    2007-01-01

    of benzo[a]pyrene levels in foods laid down by the Commission of the European Communities. A survey of 69 vegetable oils sampled from the Danish market included olive oil as well as other vegetable oils such as rapeseed oil, sunflower oil, grape seed oil and sesame oil. Levels of benzo[a]pyrene in all......A semi-automatic method for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in edible oils using a combined gel permeation chromatography/solid-phase extraction (GPC/SPE) clean-up is presented. The method takes advantage of automatic injections using a Gilson ASPEC XL sample handling...... system equipped with a GPC column (S-X3) and pre-packed silica SPE columns for the subsequent clean-up and finally gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) determination. The method was validated for the determination of PAHs in vegetable oils and it can meet the criteria for the official control...

  14. Ultrasonic extraction followed by a novel filtration and clean-up device for screening of some polyphenols in tobaccos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xungang; Cai, Jibao; Yang, Jun; Su, Qingde

    2005-02-01

    A simple and efficient HPLC method using a diode array detector (DAD) was developed for simultaneous determination of six polyphenols in tobaccos. Ultrasonic extraction was employed at 25 degrees C to extract the polyphenols present in tobaccos into anhydrous methanol. A novel filtration device linked to a clean-up cartridge was designed for simultaneous extract filtration and clean-up. Optimized HPLC-DAD analysis, with multi-wavelength detection, was used for determination of the polyphenols. Because the content of some of the polyphenols is too low to be quantified directly, a concentration step was necessary. Anhydrous methanol was employed for extraction of the polyphenols because of its high extraction efficiency and its low boiling point in the concentration step. Using the proposed method, six polyphenols were quantified in tobaccos (Nicotina tobaccum L.).

  15. Adaptation of Glass Columns For Clean-up in RP-HPLC Determination of Aflatoxins With Post-column Derivatisation With Bromine and Fluorescence Detection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Owino, Victor Ochieng

    2009-01-01

    .... This study aimed to evaluate the possibility of using cheap florisil-packed glass columns instead of relatively complex and expensive pre-packed cartridges for afltoxin clean-up prior to HPLC analysis...

  16. 75 FR 25320 - Agency Information Collection (Nation-wide Customer Satisfaction Surveys) Activities Under OMB...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Nation-wide Customer Satisfaction Surveys) Activities Under OMB... INFORMATION: Title: Nation-wide Customer Satisfaction Surveys, VA Forms 1465-2 through 1465-4. OMB Control...

  17. 75 FR 9277 - Proposed Information Collection (Nation-Wide Customer Satisfaction Surveys) Activity: Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Nation-Wide Customer Satisfaction Surveys) Activity: Comment.... Title: Nation-wide Customer Satisfaction Surveys, VA Forms 1465-2 through 1465-4. OMB Control Number...

  18. 77 FR 64382 - Agency Information Collection (Nation-Wide Customer Satisfaction Surveys) Activities Under OMB...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Nation-Wide Customer Satisfaction Surveys) Activities Under OMB....'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Nation-wide Customer Satisfaction Surveys, VA Forms 10-1465- 2 through 10-1465...

  19. 77 FR 2349 - Proposed Information Collection (Nation-wide Customer Satisfaction Surveys) Activity: Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Nation-wide Customer Satisfaction Surveys) Activity: Comment... forms of information technology. Title: Nation-wide Customer Satisfaction Surveys, VA Forms 10-1465- 2...

  20. Obstetric intensive care unit admission: a 2-year nationwide population-based cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, J.J.; Dupuis, J.R.O.; Richters, A.; Öry, F.; Roosmalen, J. van

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: As part of a larger nationwide enquiry into severe maternal morbidity, our aim was to assess the incidence and possible risk factors of obstetric intensive care unit (ICU) admission in the Netherlands. Methods: In a 2-year nationwide prospective population-based cohort study, all ICU

  1. Vocal effort and voice handicap among teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Márcio Cardoso; dos Reis, Eduardo José Farias Borges; Carvalho, Fernando Martins; Porto, Lauro Antonio; Araújo, Tânia Maria

    2012-11-01

    The relationship between voice handicap and professional vocal effort was investigated among teachers in a cross-sectional study of census nature on 4496 teachers within the public elementary education network in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Voice handicap (the outcome of interest) was evaluated using the Voice Handicap Index 10. The main exposure, the lifetime vocal effort index, was obtained as the product of the number of years working as a teacher multiplied by the mean weekly working hours. The prevalence of voice handicap was 28.8% among teachers with high professional vocal effort and 21.3% among those with acceptable vocal effort, thus yielding a crude prevalence ratio (PR) of 1.36 (95% confidence interval [CI]=1.14-1.61). In the final logistic model, the prevalence of voice handicap was statistically associated with the professional vocal effort index (PR=1.47; 95% CI=1.19-1.82), adjusted according to sex, microphone availability in the classroom, excessive noise, pressure from the school management, heartburn, and rhinitis. Copyright © 2012 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Impact of oil spill and posterior clean-up activities on wrack-living talitrid amphipods on estuarine beaches

    OpenAIRE

    Borzone,Carlos A.; Rosa,Leonardo C.

    2009-01-01

    A geomorphological and faunistic seasonal study of six estuarine beaches on Paranaguá Bay, Brazil, was abruptly interrupted when the Chilean ship "Vicuña" exploded and sank, spilling 291 tons of bunker fuel oil. The beaches sampled twice before the accident were affected by the oil spill deposition and the posterior clean-up activities. Neither drastic reduction in abundances nor occurrences of oil-covered individuals were registered. Significant variation in both amount of debris and talitri...

  3. Lower utilization of cervical cancer screening by nurses in Taiwan: a nationwide population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Shiu-Dong; Pfeiffer, Stefani; Lin, Herng-Ching

    2011-01-01

    Using a nationwide population-based database in Taiwan, this study compares use of Pap smear testing by nurses and the general population. We compared 1093 practicing female nurses and 5465 randomly selected female patients from the 2006 National Health Insurance (NHI) database to evaluate the likelihood of receiving at least one Pap smear during a three-year period. We found that 48.9% of the nurses and 56.2% of comparison subjects received a Pap test from 2004 to 2006 in Taiwan. Regression analysis showed that practicing female nurses were less likely to receive a Pap smear compared with the general population (OR=0.42, 95% CI=0.35-0.50, pambulatory care visits, urbanization level and the geographic location of the communities where subjects resided. Nurses were less likely to undergo cervical screening than the general population, despite ease of access and a national health insurance system providing universal coverage to residents of Taiwan. Efforts to raise the Pap screening rate among nurses may require addressing unique cultural and occupational concerns. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Socioeconomic Disparities in Colorectal Cancer Screening in Korea: A Nationwide Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Mina; Choi, Kui Son; Lee, Hoo-Yeon; Hahm, Myung-Il; Lee, Yoon Young; Jun, Jae Kwan; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2015-09-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common cancer worldwide. The incidence and mortality rates of CRC are higher among lower socioeconomic status (SES) populations. We investigated the association between different indicators of SES and CRC screening rates in Korea. The eligible study population included males and females aged 50 to 74 years who participated in a nationwide cross-sectional survey (2010-2012). The "compliance with recommendation" category was applicable to participants who had undergone a fecal occult blood test (FOBT), double-contrast barium enema, or colonoscopy within 1, 5, or 10 years, respectively. In total, 6221 subjects (51.4% female, 55.6% aged 50 years) were included in the final analysis. Lower household income was significantly negatively related to compliance with screening recommendations (P for trend income, having supplemental insurance, family history of cancer, and poor self-reported health were associated with a higher screening rate using colonoscopy. Lower household income was associated with a higher screening rate using the FOBT and with a lower screening rate using colonoscopy. To increase the rate of CRC screening using colonoscopy, efforts should be made toward improving the education and promotion of screening to the low household income target population.

  5. Disaster Vulnerability of Hospitals: A Nationwide Surveillance in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochi, Sae; Kato, Shigeaki; Kobayashi, Kenichi; Kanatani, Yasuhiro

    2015-12-01

    Hospital preparedness against disasters is key to achieving disaster mitigation for health. To gain a holistic view of hospitals in Japan, one of the most disaster-prone countries, a nationwide surveillance of hospital preparedness was conducted. A cross-sectional, paper-based interview was conducted that targeted all of the 8701 registered hospitals in Japan. Preparedness was assessed with regard to local hazards, compliance to building code, and preparation of resources such as electricity, water, communication tools, and transportation tools. Answers were obtained from 6122 hospitals (response rate: 70.3%), among which 20.5% were public (national or city-run) hospitals and others were private. Eight percent were the hospitals assigned as disaster-base hospitals and the others were non-disaster-base hospitals. Overall compliance to building code, power generators, water tanks, emergency communication tools, and helicopter platforms was 90%, 84%, 95%, 43%, and 22%, respectively. Major vulnerabilities in logistics in mega-cities and stockpiles required for chronic care emerged from the results of this nationwide surveillance of hospitals in Japan. To conduct further intensive surveillance to meet community health needs, appropriate sampling methods should be established on the basis of this preliminary study. Holistic vulnerability analysis of community hospitals will lead to more robust disaster mitigation at the local level.

  6. The 2013 Nationwide Survey of High School Physics Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Susan

    2013-01-01

    The data we report on in this column come from the Nationwide Survey of High School Physics Teachers. Since 1987, the American Institute of Physics (AIP) and the American Association of Physics Teachers (AAPT) have sponsored the High School Teacher Survey. Prior to our initial study, much of the previous literature focusing on high school physics employed anecdotal evidence or qualitative surveys for curriculum reviews or explorations of teachers' experiences and pedagogical techniques. As a direct response to this dearth of data, the Nationwide Survey of High School Physics Teachers was initiated in 1986-87 to answer questions about the number of teachers teaching physics, the educational background of these teachers, the number of students enrolled in physics, the variety of physics classes being offered, the demographics of the students and teachers, the textbooks being used, and the number of high schools offering physics regularly. Since the beginning of this study, we have surveyed both public and private high schools in the United States. The results of our study provide the definitive data about physics in U.S. high schools. The initial survey was conducted during the 1986-87 school year. The second was completed during 1989-90. Beginning with the 1992-93 survey, we have conducted the survey every four years. The 2012-13 survey will be the eighth in the series. Thus, we have a rich history of physics teaching in U.S. high schools.

  7. Autoimmune hepatitis in Japan: trends in a nationwide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Atsushi; Arinaga-Hino, Teruko; Ohira, Hiromasa; Torimura, Takuji; Zeniya, Mikio; Abe, Masanori; Yoshizawa, Kaname; Takaki, Akinobu; Suzuki, Yoshiyuki; Kang, Jong-Hon; Nakamoto, Nobuhiro; Fujisawa, Tomoo; Yonemoto, Koji; Tanaka, Atsushi; Takikawa, Hajime

    2017-05-01

    A nationwide survey of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) patients was performed in Japan in 2015. The aims of this study were to elucidate the trends and characteristics of AIH in Japan, in addition to identifying differences in AIH between acute hepatitis and chronic hepatitis. Questionnaires about patients with AIH diagnosed from 2009 to 2013 were sent to 437 hospitals or clinics with hepatology specialists. A total of 1682 patients were enrolled. The mean age at diagnosis was 60.0 years, and 87.1 % of patients were female. Serum immunoglobulin G levels were high, peaking at 1.5-2.0 g/dL. Histological diagnoses of chronic hepatitis, acute hepatitis, and cirrhosis were seen in 79.6, 11.7, and 6.7 % of patients respectively. In addition to elevation of aminotransferase levels, the frequencies of emperipolesis and human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR2 positivity were higher in patients with acute hepatitis than in those with chronic hepatitis. Approximately 80 % of patients were treated with corticosteroids, and in 97.7 % of them, their condition improved. Steroid pulse therapy was more frequently given to patients with acute hepatitis than to those with chronic hepatitis. In the present nationwide survey of AIH patients in Japan, patients with acute hepatitis had clinical features different from those of patients with chronic hepatitis.

  8. Prospects for pyrolysis technologies in managing municipal, industrial, and DOE cleanup wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reaven, S.J. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    1994-12-01

    Pyrolysis converts portions of municipal solid wastes, hazardous wastes, and special wastes such as tires, medical wastes, and even old landfills into solid carbon and a liquid or gaseous hydrocarbon stream. Pyrolysis heats a carbonaceous waste stream typically to 290--900 C in the absence of oxygen, and reduces the volume of waste by 90% and its weight by 75%. The solid carbon char has existing markets as an ingredient in many manufactured goods, and as an adsorbent or filter to sequester certain hazardous wastes. Pyrolytic gases may be burned as fuel by utilities, or liquefied for use as chemical feedstocks, or low-pollution motor vehicle fuels and fuel additives. This report analyzes the potential applications of pyrolysis in the Long Island region and evaluates for the four most promising pyrolytic systems their technological and commercial readiness, their applicability to regional waste management needs, and their conformity with DOE requirements for environmental restoration and waste management. This summary characterizes their engineering performance, environmental effects, costs, product applications, and markets. Because it can effectively treat those wastes that are inadequately addressed by current systems, pyrolysis can play an important complementing role in the region`s existing waste management strategy. Its role could be even more significant if the region moves away from existing commitments to incineration and MSW composting. Either way, Long Island could become the center for a pyrolysis-based recovery services industry serving global markets in municipal solid waste treatment and hazardous waste cleanup. 162 refs.

  9. Diving behaviour of wildlife impacted by an oil spill: A clean-up and rehabilitation success?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilvers, B L; Morgan, K M; Finlayson, G; Sievwright, K A

    2015-11-15

    The value of rehabilitating oiled wildlife is an on-going global debate. On October 5, 2011, the cargo vessel C/V Rena grounded on Astrolabe Reef, New Zealand (NZ), spilling over 300 tonnes of heavy fuel oil. As part of the Rena oil spill response, 383 little blue penguins (LBP, Eudyptula minor) were captured, cleaned, rehabilitated and released back into a cleaned environment. This research investigates foraging behaviour changes due either to the oil spill or by the rehabilitation process by comparing the diving behaviour of rehabilitated (n=8) and non-rehabilitated (n=6) LBPs and with LBP populations throughout NZ. Stabile isotope analysis of feathers was also used to investigate diet. There were no foraging behaviour differences between rehabilitated and non-rehabilitated LBPs and the overall diving behaviour of these LBPs have similar, if not less energetic, foraging behaviour than other LBPs in NZ. This suggests the rehabilitation process and clean-up undertaken after the Rena appears effective and helps justify the rehabilitation of oiled wildlife across the world. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Hot-gas cleanup system model development. Volume II. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ushimaru, K.; Bennett, A.; Bekowies, P.J.

    1982-11-01

    Under Contract to the Department of Energy (DOE) through the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), Flow Industries, Inc., has developed computer models to simulate the physical performance of five hot-gas cleanup devices for pressurized, fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC), combined-cycle power plants. Separate cost models have also been developed to estimate the cost of each device. The work leading to the development of these models is described in Volume I of this report. This volume contains the user's manuals for both the physical and cost models. The manuals for the physical models are given first followed by those for the cost models. Each manual is a complete and separate document. The model names and devices and their respective subroutine names are: (1) Moving Granular Bed Filter by Combustion Power Company, USRCGB, QFCOST; (2) Ceramic Bag Filter by Acurex, USRACB, QDCOST; (3) Electrostatic Granular Bed Filter by General Electric, USRGGB, QACOST; (4) Electrostatic Precipitator by Research Cottrell, USRCEP, QECOST; and (5) Electrocyclone by General Electric, USRGCY, QBCOST.

  11. Maximum tech, minimum time. Response and cleanup of the Fidalgo Bay oil spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pintler, L.R. (Burlington Environmental Inc., Seattle, WA (USA))

    1991-04-01

    A booster pump failure on a pipeline at Texaco's Anacortes refinery spilled more than 17,000 gallons of oil into Fidalgo Bay. A description is given of the spill control measures taken under Texaco's Spill Prevention and Control Countermeasures and facility contingency plans. The spill was addressed quickly, and containment booms were used to cordon off the spill. Vacuum trucks, rope mop machines and disk skimmers were used to collect the thickest concentrations of oil, and the oil and water collected was separated at the refinery's wastewater treatment centre. Nonwoven polypropylene sorbent pads, sweeps, booms and oil snares were used to clean up thinner concentrations of oil. Essential steps for a smooth spill response include the following: a comprehensive spill prevention and control countermeasures plan, training and regular drills and testing; immediate notification of appropriate regulatory agencies and company emergency response personnel; and the use of professional oil spill management contractors to assist in spill cleanup. 2 figs.

  12. Potential Biotechnological Strategies for the Cleanup of Heavy Metals and Metalloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosa, Kareem A.; Saadoun, Ismail; Kumar, Kundan; Helmy, Mohamed; Dhankher, Om Parkash

    2016-01-01

    Global mechanization, urbanization, and various natural processes have led to the increased release of toxic compounds into the biosphere. These hazardous toxic pollutants include a variety of organic and inorganic compounds, which pose a serious threat to the ecosystem. The contamination of soil and water are the major environmental concerns in the present scenario. This leads to a greater need for remediation of contaminated soils and water with suitable approaches and mechanisms. The conventional remediation of contaminated sites commonly involves the physical removal of contaminants, and their disposition. Physical remediation strategies are expensive, non-specific and often make the soil unsuitable for agriculture and other uses by disturbing the microenvironment. Owing to these concerns, there has been increased interest in eco-friendly and sustainable approaches such as bioremediation, phytoremediation and rhizoremediation for the cleanup of contaminated sites. This review lays particular emphasis on biotechnological approaches and strategies for heavy metal and metalloid containment removal from the environment, highlighting the advances and implications of bioremediation and phytoremediation as well as their utilization in cleaning-up toxic pollutants from contaminated environments. PMID:27014323

  13. Design for planning the cleanup of formerly used radium-contaminated sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voelker, A. H.

    1978-04-01

    The decontamination and decommissioning of radium-contaminated facilities no longer in use have received increased attention in recent years. However, planning cost-effective cleanup solutions that are acceptable to the major groups concerned with nuclear waste management has proved to be a significant stumbling block. The decision maker must objectively and efficiently consider trade-offs between various concerns, choose an appropriate solution, and convince an uneasy public that properly decontaminated and decommissioned facilities can be safe for future unrestricted use. Fortunately, new procedures to assist the decision maker in performing these duties are evolving, and this report suggests how these procedures can be adapted to a proposed planning process for the decontamination and decommissioning of formerly used sites. The proposed process has the attributes of continuity of responsibility, centralized authority, sensitivity to diverse concerns, flexibility, consensus seeking, alternative plan generation, and objectivity. Special emphasis is placed on means of opening the decision-making process to broader participation by interested parties and on generation of alternatives.

  14. Potential Biotechnological Strategies for the Cleanup of Heavy Metals and Metalloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kareem A. Mosa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Global mechanization, urbanization and various natural processes have led to the increased release of toxic compounds into the biosphere. These hazardous toxic pollutants include a variety of organic and inorganic compounds, which pose a serious threat to the ecosystem. The contamination of soil and water are the major environmental concerns in the present scenario. This leads to a greater need for remediation of contaminated soils and water with suitable approaches and mechanisms. The conventional remediation of contaminated sites commonly involves the physical removal of contaminants, and their disposition. Physical remediation strategies are expensive, non-specific and often make the soil unsuitable for agriculture and other uses by disturbing the microenvironment. Owing to these concerns, there has been increased interest in eco-friendly and sustainable approaches such as bioremediation, phytoremediation and rhizomediation for the cleanup of contaminated sites. This review lays particular emphasis on biotechnological approaches and strategies for heavy metal and metalloid containment removal from the environment, highlighting the advances and implications of bioremediation and phytoremediation as well as their utilization in cleaning-up toxic pollutants from contaminated environments.

  15. Validation of extraction, clean-up and DR CALUX {sup registered} bioanalysis. Pt. I. Feedingstuff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besselink, H.; Jonas, A.; Brouwer, B. [BioDetection Systems BV (BDS), Amsterdam (Netherlands); Pijnappels, M.; Swinkels, A. [Masterlab BV, Boxmeer (Netherlands)

    2004-09-15

    Feed safety is a high priority issue for the feed sector as it directly impacts at the beginning of the food-chain. Currently stringent EU limit values are in force for dioxins in feedingstuffs for animal and public health protection. Biodetection Systems BV's (BDS) DR CALUX {sup registered} bioassay is a cost-effective and rapid method to measure low levels of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in various matrices. The use of bioassays for monitoring dioxins in feed allows the (pre)-selection of samples suspected of being contaminated above limit values with dioxins. To permit bioassays to be used for screening feedingstuffs for the presence of dioxins and related compounds, the EU has laid down general requirements for the determination of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in feedingstuffs and specific requirements for cell-based bioassays. To ensure reliability the DR CALUX {sup registered} bioassay, validated methods for extraction and DR CALUX {sup registered} analysis are necessary. Within the framework of the development of DR CALUX {sup registered} analysis methods, extraction and clean-up methods for 13 feedingstuffs were evaluated, selected and validated. In this paper we present the results of this substantive multi-matrix feedingstuffs validation study.

  16. Critically safe volume vacuum pickup for use in wet or dry cleanup of radioactive enclosures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeren, Joseph D.

    1993-12-28

    A physical compact vacuum pickup device of critically safe volume and geometric shape is provided for use in radioactive enclosures, such as a small glove box, to facilitate manual cleanup of either wet or dry radioactive material. The device is constructed and arranged so as to remain safe when filled to capacity with plutonium-239 oxide. Two fine mesh filter bags are supported on the exterior of a rigid fine mesh stainless steel cup. This assembly is sealed within, and spaced from, the interior walls of a stainless steel canister. An air inlet communicates with the interior of the canister. A modified conventional vacuum head is physically connected to, and associated with, the interior of the mesh cup. The volume of the canister, as defined by the space between the mesh cup and the interior walls of the canister, forms a critically safe volume and geometric shape for dry radioactive particles that are gathered within the canister. A critically safe liquid volume is maintained by operation of a suction terminating float valve, and/or by operation of redundant vacuum check/liquid drain valves and placement of the air inlet.

  17. Validation of extraction, clean-up and DR CALUX {sup registered} bioanalysis. Pt. II. Foodstuff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besselink, H.; Jonas, A.; Brouwer, B. [BioDetection Systems BV (BDS), Amsterdam (Netherlands); Pijnappels, M.; Swinkels, A. [Masterlab BV, Boxmeer (Netherlands)

    2004-09-15

    Currently stringent EU limit values are in force for dioxins in foodstuffs for public health protection. Biodetection Systems BV's (BDS) DR CALUX {sup registered} bioassay is a cost-effective and rapid method to measure low levels of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in various matrices. The use of bioassays for monitoring dioxins in food allows the (pre)-selection of samples suspected of being contaminated above limit values with dioxins. To permit bioassays to be used for screening foodstuffs for the presence of dioxins and related compounds, the EU has laid down general requirements for the determination of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in foodstuffs and specific requirements for cell-based bioassays. To ensure reliability the DR CALUX {sup registered} bioassay, validated methods for extraction and DR CALUX {sup registered} analysis are necessary. Within the framework of the development of DR CALUX {sup registered} analysis methods, extraction and clean-up methods for 14 foodstuffs were evaluated, selected and validated. In this paper we present the results of this substantive multi-matrix foodstuff validation study.

  18. Commissioning of the catalytic plasma exhaust clean-up facility caprice and first experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glugla, M.; Kraemer, R.; Penzhorn, R.D.; Le, T.L.; Simon, K.H.; Guenther, K.; Besserer, U.; Schaefer, P.; Hellriegel, W. [Research Center Karlsruhe (Germany); Geissler, H. [Kraftanlagen Heidelberg (Germany)

    1995-10-01

    A fuel clean-up process for all plasma exhaust gases from DT fusion machines, based on catalytic conversion reactions combined with permeation of hydrogen isotopes through palladium/silver, has been developed. The complete process has already been proven with relevant concentrations of tritium at laboratory scale. On the basis of the results obtained the technical facility `CAPRICE` was designed, and is now under tritium operation at the Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK). The facility is being used to demonstrate the process on a target throughput of 10 mol/h DT and 1 mol/h tritiated and non-tritiated impurities. Full scale experiments with hydrogen and deuterium have been completed to verify the design parameters of the facility and to gain detailed knowledge on the performance of the different subsystems under a variety of experimental conditions. Decontamination factors were obtained from these experiments as well as from first tritium runs employing about 350 Ci (0.5%) tritium in deuterium. 4 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Detection of THCCOOH in hair by MSD-NCI after HPLC clean-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, H; Dressler, U

    2000-01-10

    Regular consumption of cannabis can easily be detected by examination of hair for tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabinol, and cannabidiol. Although several studies have demonstrated that after contamination with smoke or treatment with THC containing shampoos THC is not detectable, or only in small traces, the detection of 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THCCOOH) should be offered to prove the consumption and metabolisation of THC. Up to now this confirmation was only available using tandem MS techniques combined with negative chemical ionisation. A new method using a normal quadrupole GC/MS is described. The lack of expensive instruments has to be paid for by a costly and time consuming extraction and clean-up. After the sample has been digested by 2 M NaOH at 95 degrees C and the neutralised liquid has been extracted with a mixture of n-hexane and ethyl acetate the dried residue is reconstituted in acetonitrile-methanol-0.01 M sulfuric acid (49:21:30, v/v/v) and the cannabinoids separated by HPLC. Each fraction is collected over 1 min. Another extraction with n-hexane-ethyl acetate is followed by evaporation, derivatisation, and GC/MS determination. The calibration with THCCOOH spiked hair led to a LOD of 0.3 pg/mg and a LOQ of 1.1 pg/mg.

  20. Combined extraction-cleanup column chromatographic procedure for determination of dicofol in avian eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krynitsky, A.J.; Stafford, C.J.; Wiemeyer, Stanley N.

    1988-01-01

    Dicofol in avian eggs was completely oxidized to dichlorobenzophenone (DCBP) when a hexane Soxhlet extraction procedure was used. This degradation did not occur with other avian tissues (muscle and liver). For this reason, a combined extraction-cleanup column chromatographic procedure, without added heat, was developed for the determination of dicofol in avian eggs. Homogenized subsamples of eggs were mixed with sodium sulfate, and the mixture was added as the top layer on a column prepacked with Florisil. The dicofol and other compounds of interest were then eluted with ethyl ether-hexane. The extracts, relatively free from lipids, were quantitated on a gas chromatograph equipped with a 63Ni electron-capture detector and a methyl silicone capillary column. Recoveries from chicken eggs, fortified with dicofol and other DDT-related compounds, averaged 96%. Analysis of eggs of eastern screech-owls, fed a meat diet containing 10 ppm technical Kelthane, showed that both dicofol and DCBP were present. Results were confirmed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. This method is rapid and reliable, involves a minimum of sample handling, and is well suited for high volume determination of dicofol in eggs and other avian tissues.

  1. Improved exposure estimation in soil screening and cleanup criteria for volatile organic chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVaull, George E

    2017-09-01

    Soil cleanup criteria define acceptable concentrations of organic chemical constituents for exposed humans. These criteria sum the estimated soil exposure over multiple pathways. Assumptions for ingestion, dermal contact, and dust exposure generally presume a chemical persists in surface soils at a constant concentration level for the entire exposure duration. For volatile chemicals, this is an unrealistic assumption. A calculation method is presented for surficial soil criteria that include volatile depletion of chemical for these uptake pathways. The depletion estimates compare favorably with measured concentration profiles and with field measurements of soil concentration. Corresponding volatilization estimates compare favorably with measured data for a wide range of volatile and semivolatile chemicals, including instances with and without the presence of a mixed-chemical residual phase. Selected examples show application of the revised factors in estimating screening levels for benzene in surficial soils. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:861-869. © 2017 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society of Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry (SETAC). © 2017 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society of Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry (SETAC).

  2. Joule-heated graphene-wrapped sponge enables fast clean-up of viscous crude-oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jin; Shi, Lu-An; Wang, Yong-Chao; Zhao, Hao-Yu; Yao, Hong-Bin; Zhu, Yin-Bo; Zhang, Ye; Zhu, Hong-Wu; Wu, Heng-An; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2017-05-01

    The clean-up of viscous crude-oil spills is a global challenge. Hydrophobic and oleophilic oil sorbents have been demonstrated as promising candidates for oil-spill remediation. However, the sorption speeds of these oil sorbents for viscous crude oil are rather limited. Herein we report a Joule-heated graphene-wrapped sponge (GWS) to clean-up viscous crude oil at a high sorption speed. The Joule heat of the GWS reduced in situ the viscosity of the crude oil, which prominently increased the oil-diffusion coefficient in the pores of the GWS and thus speeded up the oil-sorption rate. The oil-sorption time was reduced by 94.6% compared with that of non-heated GWS. Besides, the oil-recovery speed was increased because of the viscosity decrease of crude oil. This in situ Joule self-heated sorbent design will promote the practical application of hydrophobic and oleophilic oil sorbents in the clean-up of viscous crude-oil spills.

  3. Evaluation of gasification and gas-cleanup processes for use in molten-carbonate fuel-cell power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    A choice of the gasifier/cleanup system combinations most suitable for molten carbonate fuel cell based power plant application is discussed. Included are hot gas cleanup, air blown, oxygen blown and molten salt based coal gas supply systems. An assessment of deposition for power plant size molten carbonate fuel cells is given and mechanisms affecting particle transfer in fuel cells are described. Gas cleanup to remove virtually all particles larger than one micron in diameter is expected to prevent, or at least minimize to a negligibly low level, deposition of particulate material on the anode. However, cathode particulate deposition in molten carbonate fuel cells should be evaluated in the future, since cathodes are more likely to experience deposition even though cathode channel particle concentrations can be much lower than anode channel concentrations. Cathodes are more susceptible to deposition than anodes due to a net mass flow of gases into cathode pores compared to a net mass flow of gases out from anode pores.

  4. Integrated low emission cleanup system for direct coal-fueled turbines (electrostatic agglomeration). Draft final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quimby, J.M.; Kumar, K.S.

    1992-12-31

    The objective of this contract was to investigate the removal of SO{sub x} and particulate matter from direct coal fired combustion gas streams at high temperature and high pressure conditions. This investigation was to be accomplished through a bench scale testing and evaluation program for SO{sub x} removal and the innovative particulate collection concept of particulate growth through electrostatic agglomeration followed by high efficiency mechanical collection. The process goal was to achieve control better than that required by 1979 New Source Performance Standards. During Phase I, the designs of the combustor and gas cleanup apparatus were successfully completed. Hot gas cleanup was designed to be accomplished at temperature levels between 1800{degrees} and 2500{degrees}F at pressures up to 15 atmospheres. The combustor gas flow rate could be varied between 0.2--0.5 pounds per second. The electrostatic agglomerator residence time could be varied between 0.25 to 3 seconds. In Phase II, all components were fabricated, and erected successfully. Test data from shakedown testing was obtained. Unpredictable difficulties in pilot plant erection and shakedown consumed more budget resources than was estimated and as a consequence DOE, METC, decided ft was best to complete the contract at the end of Phase II. Parameters studied in shakedown testing revealed that high-temperature high pressure electrostatics offers an alternative to barrier filtration in hot gas cleanup but more research is needed in successful system integration between the combustor and electrostatic agglomerator.

  5. Novel fracture technology proves marginal Viking prospect economic, part II: Well clean-up, flowback and testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haidar, S.; Rylance, M.; Tybero, G. [and others

    1996-12-31

    Having completed both fracture treatments as discussed in a companion paper, this paper continues on to describe the post fracture shut-in, clean-up and well testing operations that took place on the Viking Wx exploration well 49/17-12. These operations involved the removal of Resin Coated Proppant (RCP) from the wellbore, via Coiled Tubing (CT), through the use of a specially designed jetting nozzle. The RCP pack stability at a concentration of 3.0 lb/ft{sup 2} (as per planned design) had already been tested in a flowback cell. The use of a Surface Read-Out (SRO) gauge, combined with gas, water and proppant flow rates as well as the viscosity of fracturing fluids returns, enabled real time calculation of the drag forces, on the proppant pack, during clean-up. The flow rate, in the field, was controlled such that the calculated drag forces remained below those observed in the laboratory. Following the clean-up a flow and build-up test was conducted, to evaluate the fracture half length and fracture conductivity, from which a Pseudo-radial skin was calculated. The Non-Darcy effects in the fracture were also evaluated, and finally the short term and long term well deliverabilities were assessed.

  6. Influence of orthodontic adhesives and clean-up procedures on the stain susceptibility of enamel after debonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Hyun-Jin; Lee, Yong-Keun; Lee, Dong-Yul; Kim, Yae-Jin; Lim, Yong-Kyu

    2011-03-01

    To determine the influence of the type of orthodontic adhesive system, such as conventional acid-etching (CE) and self-etching primers (SEPs), on the stain susceptibility of enamel surface after debonding. Effects of clean-up procedures on the enamel surface were also determined. Two types and four brands of adhesive systems were investigated using 135 human premolars. Unbonded teeth were used as controls. Three-dimensional scanning of the enamel surface was performed before bracket bonding, after debonding, and after clean-up procedures. The color of each tooth was measured before bracket bonding and again after debonding and clean-up procedures. This was followed by methylene blue staining. The stain susceptibility of the enamel surface was measured after finishing only (F-condition) and after finishing/polishing (FP-condition). After debonding, the amount of residual adhesive resins in CE materials was greater than that in SEP materials. For the F-condition, staining color change in SEP materials was significantly higher than that in CE materials. For the FP-condition, staining color change in both CE and SEP materials was not different from those of the control. The SEP system would show less stain susceptibility if the thin residual adhesive resin layer after debonding is removed by polishing.

  7. Update on research software citation efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Alice

    2017-01-01

    Research software citation has received a lot of attention the past few years, as evidenced by numerous efforts that have discussed it, including WSSSPE, Force11 Software Citation Working Group, the Center for Open Science's Transparency and Openness Promotion (TOP) Guidelines, a workshop on Engineering Academic Software, and the CodeMeta project. This presentation briefly covers recent broad efforts to improve research transparency across disciplines through software availability and citation, and the Software Citation Principles that have recently been published as a result of the work done through Force11.

  8. Nationwide high-resolution mapping of hazards in the Philippines (Plinius Medal Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagmay, Alfredo Mahar Francisco A.

    2015-04-01

    The Philippines being a locus of typhoons, tsunamis, earthquakes, and volcanic eruptions, is a hotbed of disasters. Situated in a region where severe weather and geophysical unrest is common, the Philippines will inevitably suffer from calamities similar to those experienced recently. With continued development and population growth in hazard prone areas, it is expected that damage to infrastructure and human losses would persist and even rise unless appropriate measures are immediately implemented by government. Recently, the Philippines put in place a responsive program called the Nationwide Operational Assessment of Hazards (NOAH) for disaster prevention and mitigation. The efforts of Project NOAH are an offshoot of lessons learned from previous disasters that have inflicted massive loss of lives and costly damage to property. Several components of the NOAH program focus on mapping of landslide, riverine flood and storm surge inundation hazards. By simulating hazards phenomena over IFSAR- and LiDAR-derived digital terrain models (DTMs) using high-performance computers, multi-hazards maps of 1:10,000 scale, have been produced and disseminated to local government units through a variety of platforms. These detailed village-level (barangay-level) maps are useful to identify safe evacuation sites, planning emergency access routes and prepositioning of search and rescue and relief supplies during times of crises. They are also essential for long-term development planning of communities. In the past two years, NOAH was instrumental in providing timely, site-specific, and understandable hazards information to the public, considered as best practice in disaster risk reduction management (DRR). The use of advanced science and technology in the country's disaster prevention efforts is imperative to successfully mitigate the adverse impacts of natural hazards and should be a continuous quest - to find the best products, put forth in the forefront of battle against

  9. Has Malaysia's antidrug effort been effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorzelli, J F

    1992-01-01

    It is a common belief that a massive effort in law enforcement, preventive education and rehabilitation will result in the elimination of a country's drug problem. Based on this premise. Malaysia in 1983 implemented such a multifaceted anti-drug strategy, and the results of a 1987 study by the author suggested that Malaysia's effort had begun to contribute to a steady decrease in the number of identified drug abusers. Although the number of drug-addicted individuals declined, the country's recidivism rates were still high. Because of this high relapse rate, Malaysia expanded their rehabilitation effort and developed a community transition program. In order to determine the impact of these changes on the country's battle against drug abuse, a follow-up study was conducted in 1990. The results of this study did not clearly demonstrate that the Malaysian effort had been successful in eliminating the problem of drug abuse, and raised some questions concerning the effectiveness of the country's drug treatment programs.

  10. Effort, success, and nonuse determine arm choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yupeng; Kim, Sujin; Yoshioka, Toshinori; Gordon, James; Osu, Rieko

    2015-01-01

    How do humans choose one arm or the other to reach single targets in front of the body? Current theories of reward-driven decisionmaking predict that choice results from a comparison of “action values,” which are the expected rewards for possible actions in a given state. In addition, current theories of motor control predict that in planning arm movements, humans minimize an expected motor cost that balances motor effort and endpoint accuracy. Here, we test the hypotheses that arm choice is determined by comparison of action values comprising expected effort and expected task success for each arm, as well as a handedness bias. Right-handed subjects, in either a large or small target condition, were first instructed to use each hand in turn to shoot through an array of targets and then to choose either hand to shoot through the same targets. Effort was estimated via inverse kinematics and dynamics. A mixed-effects logistic-regression analysis showed that, as predicted, both expected effort and expected success predicted choice, as did arm use in the preceding trial. Finally, individual parameter estimation showed that the handedness bias correlated with mean difference between right- and left-arm success, leading to overall lower use of the left arm. We discuss our results in light of arm nonuse in individuals' poststroke. PMID:25948869

  11. Net benefits of wildfire prevention education efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey P. Prestemon; David T. Butry; Karen L. Abt; Ronda. Sutphen

    2010-01-01

    Wildfire prevention education efforts involve a variety of methods, including airing public service announcements, distributing brochures, and making presentations, which are intended to reduce the occurrence of certain kinds of wildfires. A Poisson model of preventable Florida wildfires from 2002 to 2007 by fire management region was developed. Controlling for...

  12. Revolutionary Educational Reform Efforts in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulston, Rolland G.

    1975-01-01

    The author briefly examines how educational reform attempts in Cuba since 1959 have taken place and how they have been related to social, economic, and political change efforts in the society at large. The Cuban educational system makes a significant contrast against the failure which characterizes the other Latin American educational systems.…

  13. The Galileo Teacher Training Program Global Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, R.; Pennypacker, C.; Ferlet, R.

    2012-08-01

    The Galileo Teacher Training Program (GTTP) successfully named representatives in nearly 100 nations in 2009, the International Year of Astronomy (IYA2009). The challenge had just begun. The steps ahead are how to reach educators that might benefit from our program and how to help build a more fair and science literate society, a society in which good tools and resources for science education are not the privilege of a few. From 2010 on our efforts have been to strengthen the newly formed network and learn how to equally help educators and students around the globe. New partnerships with other strong programs and institutions are being formed, sponsorship schemes being outlined, new tools and resources being publicized, and on-site and video conference training conducted all over the world. Efforts to officially accredit a GTTP curriculum are on the march and a stronger certification process being outlined. New science topics are being integrated in our effort and we now seek to discuss the path ahead with experts in this field and the community of users, opening the network to all corners of our beautiful blue dot. The main aim of this article is to open the discussion regarding the urgent issue of how to reawaken student interest in science, how to solve the gender inequality in science careers, and how to reach the underprivileged students and open to them the same possibilities. Efforts are in strengthening the newly formed network and learning how to equally help educators and students around the globe.

  14. Teachers' Perceptions of Principals Affect Collaborative Efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Peggy C.; Blase, Joseph J.

    1991-01-01

    If teachers perceive their principals as "closed"--inaccessible, unsupportive, and insecure--they are wary of efforts toward increased collaboration. With closed principals, teachers resort to micropolitical strategies, including avoidance, excessive rationality, ingratiation, confrontation, coalition-building, and deliberate noncompliance.…

  15. Student Effort, Consistency, and Online Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patron, Hilde; Lopez, Salvador

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines how student effort, consistency, motivation, and marginal learning, influence student grades in an online course. We use data from eleven Microeconomics courses taught online for a total of 212 students. Our findings show that consistency, or less time variation, is a statistically significant explanatory variable, whereas…

  16. On Making an Effort | Coffman | Philosophical Papers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is in the main a critical study of Robert Kane's account of the nature of Free Choice. I begin by briefly describing Kane's theory. I then consider four questions about a concept that is central to his account—viz., the concept of an Effort of Will. I argue that Kane's position affords satisfactory answers to three of these ...

  17. Inequality of Effort in an Egalitarian Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Ryoji

    2017-01-01

    Japanese compulsory education is considered as relatively egalitarian since poorer regions receive more funding from the central government, which standardizes the quality of education nationwide. Nevertheless, the literature indicates socioeconomic status-based achievement and educational attainment gaps. As parts of explanations of these gaps,…

  18. Mental health service use by cleanup workers in the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Sarah R; Kwok, Richard K; Payne, Julianne; Engel, Lawrence S; Galea, Sandro; Sandler, Dale P

    2015-04-01

    High rates of mental health (MH) problems have been documented among disaster relief workers. However, few workers utilize MH services, and predictors of service use among this group remain unexplored. The purpose of this study was to explore associations between predisposing, illness-related, and enabling factors from Andersen's behavioral model of treatment-seeking and patterns of service use among participants who completed at least one full day of cleanup work after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill and participated in home visits for the NIEHS GuLF STUDY (N = 8931). Workers reported on MH symptoms and whether they had used counseling or medication for MH problems since the oil spill. Hierarchical logistic regression models explored associations between predictors and counseling and medication use in the full sample, and type of use (counseling only, medication only, both) among participants who used either service. Analyses were replicated for subsamples of participants with and without symptom inventory scores suggestive of probable post-disaster mental illness. Having a pre-spill MH diagnosis, pre-spill service use, more severe post-spill MH symptoms, and healthcare coverage were positively associated with counseling and medication use in the full sample. Among participants who used either service, non-Hispanic Black race, pre-spill counseling, lower depression, and not identifying a personal doctor or healthcare provider were predictive of counseling only, whereas older age, female gender and pre-spill medication were predictive of medication only. The results were generally consistent among participants with and without probable post-disaster mental illness. The results suggest variability in which factors within Andersen's behavioral model are predictive of different patterns of service use among disaster relief workers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Particulate hot gas stream cleanup technical issues. Quarterly report, January 1--March 31, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    The analyses of Hot Gas Stream Cleanup (HGCU) ashes and descriptions of filter performance studied under this contract are designed to address problems with filter operation that are apparently linked to characteristics of the collected ash. Task 1 is designed to generate a data base of the key characteristics of ashes collected from operating advanced particle filters (APFs) and to relate these ash properties to the operation and performance of these filters and their components. APF operations have also been limited by the strength and durability of the ceramic materials that have served as barrier filters for the capture of entrained HGCU ashes. Task 2 concerns testing and failure analyses of ceramic filter elements currently used in operating APFs and the characterization and evaluation of new ceramic materials. Task 1 research activities during the past quarter included characterizations of samples collected during a site visit on January 20 to the Department of Energy/Southern Company Services Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF). Comparisons were made between laboratory analyses of these PSDF ashes and field data obtained from facility operation. In addition, selected laboratory techniques were reviewed to assess their reproducibility and the influence of non-ideal effects and differences between laboratory and filter conditions on the quantities measured. Further work on the HGCU data base is planned for the next quarter. Two Dupont PRD-66 candle filters, one McDermott candle filter, one Blasch candle filter, and one Specific Surfaces candle filter were received at SRI for testing. A test plan and cutting plan for these candles was developed. Acquisition of two of the Dupont PRD-66 candle filters will allow candle-to-candle variability to be examined.

  20. SOx-NOx-Rox Box{trademark} flue gas clean-up demonstration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The SNRB{trademark} Flue Gas Cleanup Demonstration Project was cooperatively funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO), B&W, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Ohio Edison, Norton Chemical Process Products Company and the 3M Company. The SNRB{trademark} technology evolved from the bench and laboratory pilot scale to be successfully demonstrated at the 5-MWe field scale. Development of the SNRB{trademark} process at B&W began with pilot testing of high-temperature dry sorbent injection for SO{sub 2} removal in the 1960`s. Integration of NO{sub x} reduction was evaluated in the 1970`s. Pilot work in the 1980`s focused on evaluation of various NO{sub x} reduction catalysts, SO{sub 2} sorbents and integration of the catalyst with the baghouse. This early development work led to the issuance of two US process patents to B&W - No. 4,309,386 and No. 4,793,981. An additional patent application for improvements to the process is pending. The OCDO was instrumental in working with B&W to develop the process to the point where a larger scale demonstration of the technology was feasible. This report represents the completion of Milestone M14 as specified in the Work Plan. B&W tested the SNRB{trademark} pollution control system at a 5-MWe demonstration facility at Ohio Edison`s R. E. Burger Plant located near Shadyside, Ohio. The design and operation were influenced by the results from laboratory pilot testing at B&W`s Alliance Research Center. The intent was to demonstrate the commercial feasibility of the SNRB{trademark} process. The SNRB{trademark} facility treated a 30,000 ACFM flue gas slipstream from Boiler No. 8. Operation of the facility began in May 1992 and was completed in May 1993.

  1. Workshop on Radiological Surveys in Support of the Edgemont Clean-up Action Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, R. W.; Young, J. A.; Jackson, P. O.; Thomas, V. W.; Schwendiman, L. C.

    1981-10-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards, has given Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) the responsibility for the development of procedures for the identification of offsite structures and properties in the vicinity of Edgemont, South Dakota, that require remedial action because of elevated radiation levels caused by residual radioactivity as defined in the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. In order to acquaint interested investigators with the procedures PNL has developed and the measurements that have been performed at Edgemont using these procedures, and also to obtain suggestions for the improvement of these procedures, PNL organized a "Workshop on Radiological Surveys in Support of the Edgemont Clean-up Action Program" on behalf of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This workshop was held in Denver on January 21 and 22, 1981. On the first day of the workshop an in-depth discussion of the procedures employed in the entire radiological survey program at Edgemont was held. It included a description of the equipment, techniques and procedures employed in radon daughter measurements within structures, indoor and outdoor gamma radiation surveys, and 226Ra measurements in surface and sub-surface soil samples. On the second day, the results of the measurements that have been conducted at Edgemont were presented. During the afternoon an open discussion of the radiological survey procedures used at Edgemont was held for the purpose of obtaining suggestions for the possible improvement of these procedures. Many useful suggestions were made and a few modifications in the survey procedures at Edgemont have been made in response to these suggestions.

  2. Nationwide reduction in the frequency of severe hypoglycemia by half

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredheim, S.; Johansen, A.; Thorsen, S. U.

    2015-01-01

    -years. The incidence rate peaked with 16.0 per 100 person-years in 2008 reaching a nadir of 4.9 in 2011. Overall, insulin pump reduced the rate of SH with 27 % compared to any pen treatment (P = 0.003). When stratifying pen treatment, premixed insulin increased the rate of SH by 1.9-fold (P = 0.0015) and NPH increased...... the rate by 1.6-fold (P = 0.003) versus pump treatment, whereas long-acting insulin analogues were comparable with pump treatment (P = 0.1485). We found no association of SH with glycemic control (P > 0.05). Conclusions: A nationwide halving in rates of severe hypoglycemia was observed during the study...

  3. The Danish 1905 cohort: a genetic-epidemiological nationwide survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, H; Gaist, D; Jeune, B

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The authors studied nonagenarians, a rapidly growing age group whose cognitive and physical abilities have yet to be investigated systematically. METHODS. All Danes born in 1905 were invited to participate in a home-based 2-hour multidimensional interview, including cognitive and phys......OBJECTIVES. The authors studied nonagenarians, a rapidly growing age group whose cognitive and physical abilities have yet to be investigated systematically. METHODS. All Danes born in 1905 were invited to participate in a home-based 2-hour multidimensional interview, including cognitive...... to marital status, institutionalization, and hospitalization patterns, but men and rural area residents were more likely to participate. Six months after the survey began, 7.2% of the participants and 11.8% of the nonparticipants had died. DISCUSSION. Despite the known difficulties of conducting surveys...... among the extremely old, it was possible to conduct a nationwide survey, including collection of DNA, among more than 2,000 fairly nonselected nonagenarians using lay interviewers....

  4. Shifts in the architecture of the Nationwide Health Information Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenert, Leslie; Sundwall, David; Lenert, Michael Edward

    2012-01-01

    In the midst of a US $30 billion USD investment in the Nationwide Health Information Network (NwHIN) and electronic health records systems, a significant change in the architecture of the NwHIN is taking place. Prior to 2010, the focus of information exchange in the NwHIN was the Regional Health Information Organization (RHIO). Since 2010, the Office of the National Coordinator (ONC) has been sponsoring policies that promote an internet-like architecture that encourages point to-point information exchange and private health information exchange networks. The net effect of these activities is to undercut the limited business model for RHIOs, decreasing the likelihood of their success, while making the NwHIN dependent on nascent technologies for community level functions such as record locator services. These changes may impact the health of patients and communities. Independent, scientifically focused debate is needed on the wisdom of ONC's proposed changes in its strategy for the NwHIN.

  5. Acceptable nationwide outcome after paediatric inguinal hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Thue; Kehlet, H; Oehlenschlager, J

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: The primary objective was to describe 30-day outcomes after primary inguinal paediatric hernia repair. METHODS: Prospectively collected data from the National Patient Registry covering a 2-year study period 1 January 2005 to 31 December 2006 were collected. Unexpected outcomes were defined...... was not associated with the inguinal hernia repair. The usual technique was a simple sutured plasty (96.5 %). Emergency repair was performed in 54 patients (2.2 %) mainly in children between 0 and 2 years (79.6 %). During the 1 year follow-up, reoperation for recurrent inguinal hernia was performed in 8 children...... after elective repair (recurrence rate 0.3 %). Paediatric repairs were for most parts performed in surgical public hospitals, and most departments performed less than 10 inguinal hernia repairs within the 2 years study period. CONCLUSION: These nationwide results are acceptable with low numbers...

  6. Ambulatory Care Visits to Pediatricians in Taiwan: A Nationwide Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Yu Yang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Pediatricians play a key role in the healthy development of children. Nevertheless, the practice patterns of pediatricians have seldom been investigated. The current study analyzed the nationwide profiles of ambulatory visits to pediatricians in Taiwan, using the National Health Insurance Research Database. From a dataset that was randomly sampled one out of every 500 records among a total of 309,880,000 visits in 2012 in the country, 9.8% (n = 60,717 of the visits were found paid to pediatricians. Children and adolescents accounted for only 69.3% of the visits to pediatricians. Male pediatricians provided 80.5% of the services and the main workforces were those aged 40–49 years. The most frequent diagnoses were respiratory tract diseases (64.7% and anti-histamine agents were prescribed in 48.8% of the visits to pediatricians. Our detailed results could contribute to evidence-based discussions on health policymaking.

  7. A nationwide study on anastomotic leakage after colonic cancer surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Peter-Martin; Jorgensen, L N; Andreasen, A H

    2012-01-01

    : AL occurred in 593 (6.4%) of 9333 patients. Laparoscopic surgery (odds ratio [OR], 1.34; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-1.70; P = 0.03); left hemicolectomy (OR, 2.02; 95% CI, 1.50-2.72) or sigmoid colectomy (OR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.32-2.17; P = 0.01); intraoperative blood loss (OR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1......Aim: Anastomotic leakage (AL) is a major challenge in colorectal cancer surgery due to increased morbidity and mortality. Possible risk factors should be investigated differentially, distinguishing between rectal and colonic surgery in large-scale studies to avoid selection bias and confounding....... Method: The incidence and risk factors associated with AL were analysed in an unselected nation-wide prospective cohort of patient subjected to curative colonic cancer surgery with primary anastomosis and entered into The Danish Colorectal Cancer Group database between May 2001 and December 2008. Results...

  8. Nationwide dissemination of contingency management: the Veterans Administration initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, Nancy M; DePhilippis, Dominick; Rash, Carla J; Drapkin, Michelle; McKay, James R

    2014-01-01

    Contingency management (CM) is an empirically validated intervention but one not often applied in practice settings in the US. The aim of this article is to describe the Veterans Administration (VA) nationwide implementation of CM treatment. In 2011, the VA called for integration of CM in its intensive outpatient substance abuse treatment clinics. As part of this initiative, the VA funded training and ongoing implementation support, and it provided direct funds for reinforcers and other intervention costs. Over 100 clinics received this funding in 2011, and CM has been implemented in over 70 substance abuse treatment clinics since August 2011. This training and implementation experience has been highly successful and represents the largest scale training in evidence-based treatments for substance use disorders in the VA health care system to date. This program may serve as a model for training in evidence-based treatments. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  9. Infections as risk factor for autoimmune diseases - A nationwide study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Philip Rising; Kragstrup, Tue Wenzel; Deleuran, Bent Winding

    2016-01-01

    Viruses, bacteria and other infectious pathogens are the major postulated environmental triggers of autoimmunity. In the present nation-wide study we describe the association between infections and 29 autoimmune diseases. We used the Danish Civil Registration System to identify 4.5 million persons...... born between 1945 and 2000. Information on infections and autoimmune diseases was obtained from the Danish Hospital Register. The cohort was followed from 1977 to 2012. Incidence rate ratios for developing an autoimmune disease were estimated using poisson regression. We found an association between...... hospital admission for an infection and 29 autoimmune diseases. This study shows that infections are risk factors for a broad spectrum of autoimmune diseases in a dose-response and temporal manner, in agreement with the hypothesis that infections are an environmental risk factor contributing...

  10. Farming and incidence of motor neuron disease: French nationwide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kab, S; Moisan, F; Elbaz, A

    2017-09-01

    The association of farming with motor neuron disease (MND) is unclear, with conflicting studies. We performed a French nationwide study of the association of farming with MND incidence, and compared findings with those for Parkinson's disease (PD), which has been shown to be more frequent in farmers. We used the French national health insurance and hospital discharge databases to identify MND/PD incident cases. The Mutualité Sociale Agricole (MSA) guarantees health insurance for farmers and agricultural workers. We compared the incidence of MND (2010-2014) and PD (2011-2012) in MSA farmers, MSA workers and non-MSA affiliates, and estimated relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Probabilistic sensitivity analyses were used for external smoking adjustment. Analyses relied on 8931 MND (MSA, 9%) and 45 409 PD (MSA,11%) cases. There was a trend towards higher MND incidence in MSA farmers compared with non-MSA affiliates (RR,1.08; 95% CI,0.99-1.18) and MSA workers (RR, 1.13; 95% CI, 0.97-1.31) that strengthened after smoking adjustment (if associated with MND). PD incidence was higher in MSA farmers than non-MSA affiliates (RR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.08-1.17) and MSA workers (RR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.02-1.18); this association remained after smoking adjustment (RR, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.05-1.14). This French nationwide study suggested an association between farming and MND, and confirmed higher PD incidence in farmers in France, a country with high pesticide use. © 2017 EAN.

  11. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis in Japan: A nationwide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguma, Tsuyoshi; Taniguchi, Masami; Shimoda, Terufumi; Kamei, Katsuhiko; Matsuse, Hiroto; Hebisawa, Akira; Takayanagi, Noboru; Konno, Satoshi; Fukunaga, Koichi; Harada, Kazuki; Tanaka, Jun; Tomomatsu, Katsuyoshi; Asano, Koichiro

    2018-01-01

    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is an allergic pulmonary disease characterized by a hypersensitivity reaction to Aspergillus species colonizing the airways. The clinical characteristics of ABPA may differ depending on genetic and environmental background. We performed a nationwide survey to determine the clinical characteristics of ABPA in Japan. In 2013, a questionnaire on physician-diagnosed ABPA/allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis was sent to 903 medical centers specializing in respiratory or allergic diseases. Cases fulfilling the following criteria were categorized as possible ABPA-central bronchiectasis (ABPA-CB): 1) presence of specific serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies or a positive skin reaction to Aspergillus, and 2) bronchiectasis or mucoid impaction in the central bronchi. Of 499 physician-diagnosed cases reported by 132 clinical centers, 358 cases met the criteria for possible ABPA-CB. Median age of ABPA-CB onset was 57 (interquartile range, 44-68) years; later-onset disease, developing ≥50 years of age, accounted for 66% of the cases and was associated with female sex, delayed onset of asthma, and lower levels of serum IgE. A third of the patients (120 patients, 34%) exhibited low levels of serum total IgE (<1000 IU/mL). Aspergillus species were isolated from sputum in 126/213 cases (59%), and Schizophyllum commune was identified in 12 (6%) patients. During the course of the treatment, ABPA recurred in 169 (48%) cases. This nationwide survey identified several unique clinical characteristics of ABPA in Japan, such as late-onset, relatively lower serum IgE levels, and frequent recurrences/flares. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A nationwide survey on unilateral moyamoya disease in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Kentaro; Horie, Nobutaka; Izumo, Tsuyoshi; Nagata, Izumi

    2014-09-01

    Moyamoya disease (MMD) is a unique occlusive disease of the bilateral internal carotid arteries; compensation for occlusion results in rich arterial collaterals at the base of the brain. The clinical features of unilateral MMD, confirmed by typical angiographic evidence of MMD unilaterally and normal or equivocal contralateral findings, are not well known. To identify the clinical features of unilateral MMD in Japan, a nationwide survey was conducted. The questionnaire was directly mailed to 241 departments that reported treating unilateral MMD patients in a primary survey. We ascertained the sex, age, family history, clinical manifestation, radiological findings, treatments, course of the disease, and daily activity of unilateral MMD patients. A total of 114 departments replied to the questionnaire. The data of 203 patients (118 female and 85 male; female to male ratio 1.4:1) were registered and analyzed. The mean age was 40.2 years old with a peak occurring in the fifties. Twenty-one patients (10.7%) exhibited familial MMD. The clinical symptoms are motor weakness 57 (26.8%), headache 37 (17.4%), transient ischemic attack 35 (16.4%), and no symptom 30 (14.1%). The MMD types determined by imaging included ischemic type in 64 patients (32.5%), bleeding type in 51 (25.9%), and normal in 82 (41.6%). The development of moyamoya vessels was mild in 78 patients (43.9%) and most patients (81.1%) were accompanied with cerebral hypoperfusion. Medical treatment or vascular reconstruction was employed for more than half of the patients. The clinical feature of unilateral MMD was revealed in this nationwide study. Unilateral MMD was predominant in adults and the development of moyamoya vessel was relatively less prevalent. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Nationwide fluoroscopic screening of recalled Riata defibrillator leads in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Jacob M; Riahi, Sam; Nielsen, Jens C; Videbaek, Regitze; Haarbo, Jens; Due, Karen M; Theuns, Dominic A M J; Johansen, Jens B

    2013-06-01

    The natural history of insulation defects with inside-out conductor externalization in recalled St Jude Medical Riata defibrillator leads is not well understood. To determine the prevalence of externalization in a nationwide screening. Secondary aims were to examine time dependence and location of externalization, association with electrical failure, and fluoroscopic diagnostic performance. All 299 patients with recalled Riata leads in Denmark were identified, and all except one underwent fluoroscopy and device interrogation. Externalizations were confirmed by multiple investigators. The prevalence of externalization was 32 of 298 (11%) at a mean dwell time of 5.1 years. The prevalence was 21 of 98 (21%) for 8-F leads and 11 of 200 (6%) for 7-F leads; however, 8-F leads had longer dwell times. The degree of externalization was correlated with dwell time (Spearman's ρ = .37; P = .03). Externalization more often included the lead segment below the tricuspid annulus in dual coil leads than in single coil leads (69% vs 16%; P = .004). No association was observed between externalization and electrical function. Fluoroscopic diagnostic performance was good with positive and negative predictive values of 88% and 99%, respectively. The prevalence of externalization in a nationwide screening is at the same level as reported in previous studies with similar lead dwell times. The degree of externalization is time dependent, and location seems to differ between single and dual coil leads. Long-term lead performance and association with electrical failure need further clarification. Fluoroscopy has a good diagnostic performance in clinical practice. Copyright © 2013 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparative Analysis of VNSA Complex Engineering Efforts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Ackerman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The case studies undertaken in this special issue demonstrate unequivocally that, despite being forced to operate clandestinely and facing the pressures of security forces seeking to hunt them down and neutralize them, at least a subset of violent non-state actors (VNSAs are capable of some genuinely impressive feats of engineering. At the same time, success in such endeavours is not guaranteed and VNSAs will undoubtedly face a number of obstacles along the way. A comparative analysis of the cases also reveals new insights about the factors influencing the decision to pursue complex engineering efforts, the implementation of such decisions and the determinants of the ultimate outcome. These result in a set of hypotheses and indicators that, if confirmed by future research, can contribute to both operational and strategic intelligence assessments. Overall, the current study enriches our understanding of how and why VNSAs might engage in complex engineering efforts.

  15. Final Report on the NCAR VTMX Effort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parsons, David; Pinto, James; Brown, William; Cohen, Stephen; Morley, Bruce

    2007-02-13

    The NCAR effort is primarily focused on the analysis of a diverse suite of measurements taken at the southern end of the Salt Lake City Valley within the Jordan Narrows. These measurements include wind profiler, surface, lidar, radiosonde, multi-layered tether-sonde and sodar measurements. We are also collaborating with other VTMX investigators through linking our measurements within the Jordan Narrows with their investigations. The instrumentation was provided to interested VTMX investigators and was used extensively. Thus the NCAR data set played a large role in the results of the overall experiment. Our work under this proposal includes analysis of the observations, mesoscale modeling efforts in support of our VTMX analysis and general instrumentation development aimed at improving the measurement of vertical transport and mixing under stable conditions. This report is subdivided by research objectives.

  16. Effort variation regularization in sound field reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefanakis, Nick; Jacobsen, Finn; Sarris, Ioannis

    2010-01-01

    . Specifically, it is suggested that the phase differential of the source driving signals should be in agreement with the phase differential of the desired sound pressure field. The performance of the suggested method is compared with that of conventional effort regularization, wave field synthesis (WFS......In this paper, active control is used in order to reproduce a given sound field in an extended spatial region. A method is proposed which minimizes the reproduction error at a number of control positions with the reproduction sources holding a certain relation within their complex strengths......), and adaptive wave field synthesis (AWFS), both under free-field conditions and in reverberant rooms. It is shown that effort variation regularization overcomes the problems associated with small spaces and with a low ratio of direct to reverberant energy, improving thus the reproduction accuracy...

  17. Estimating design effort for GE hydro projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bashir, H.A. [Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat (Oman). Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering; Thomson, V. [McGill University, Montreal (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2004-04-01

    Effort estimation is an essential process in determining the final cost, as well as the duration of, a future design project. This paper discusses the construction of a parametric model done in collaboration with General Electric (GE) Hydro (GE Hydro is a world leader in the design and construction of generators and turbines for hydro-electric power generation), the purpose being to estimate the effort needed to create designs for hydro-electric generators. An analysis of the data showed that the developed model resulted in a mean relative error of 13% compared to original estimation errors by GE Hydro staff, which averaged 27%. GE has been using the estimation model for its projects since the beginning of the year 2000. (author)

  18. Student Effort, Consistency and Online Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilde Patron

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how student effort, consistency, motivation, and marginal learning, influence student grades in an online course. We use data from eleven Microeconomics courses taught online for a total of 212 students. Our findings show that consistency, or less time variation, is a statistically significant explanatory variable, whereas effort, or total minutes spent online, is not. Other independent variables include GPA and the difference between a pre-test and a post-test. The GPA is used as a measure of motivation, and the difference between a post-test and pre-test as marginal learning. As expected, the level of motivation is found statistically significant at a 99% confidence level, and marginal learning is also significant at a 95% level.

  19. Autonomous Preservation Tools in Minimal Effort Ingest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurik, Bolette Ammitzbøll; Blekinge, Asger Askov; Andersen, Thorbjørn Ravn

    2016-01-01

    This poster presents the concept of Autonomous Preservation Tools, as developed by the State and University Library, Denmark. The work expands the idea of Minimal Effort Ingest, where most preservation actions such as Quality Assurance and enrichment of the digital objects are performed after...... content is ingested for preservation, rather than before. We present our Newspaper Digitisation Project as a case-study of real-world implementations of Autonomous Preservation Tools....

  20. Efforts to identify spore forming bacillus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuleiha, M.S.; Hilmy, N. (National Atomic Energy Agency, Jakarta (Indonesia). Pasar Djumat Research Centre)

    1982-04-01

    Efforts to identify 47 species of radioresistant spore forming bacillus sp. isolated from locally produced medical devices have been carried out. The identifications was conducted using 19 kinds of biochemical tests and compared to species to bacillus subtilis W. T.; bacillus pumilus E 601 and bacillus sphaericus Csub(I)A. The results showed that bacillus sp. examined could be divided into 6 groups, i.e. bacillus cereus; bacillus subtilis; bacillus stearothermophylus; bacillus coagulans; bacillus sphaericus and bacillus circulans.

  1. How do feelings influence effort? An empirical study of entrepreneurs' affect and venture effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Maw-Der; Uy, Marilyn A; Baron, Robert A

    2009-07-01

    How do feelings influence the effort of entrepreneurs? To obtain data on this issue, the authors implemented experience sampling methodology in which 46 entrepreneurs used cell phones to provide reports on their affect, future temporal focus, and venture effort twice daily for 24 days. Drawing on the affect-as-information theory, the study found that entrepreneurs' negative affect directly predicts entrepreneurs' effort toward tasks that are required immediately. Results were consistent for within-day and next-day time lags. Extending the theory, the study found that positive affect predicts venture effort beyond what is immediately required and that this relationship is mediated by future temporal focus. The mediating effects were significant only for next-day outcomes. Implications of findings on the nature of the affect-effort relationship for different time lags are discussed.

  2. The effects of tournament incentive contracts and relative performance feedback on task effort, learning effort, and performance

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, George

    2015-01-01

    When employees work hard, they exert more effort on job tasks (task effort); and when employees learn hard, they exert more effort to learn (learning effort). Task effort and learning effort are important causes of improved performance. This thesis investigates whether the use of tournament schemes motivates employees to work harder and learn harder, and also whether providing performance feedback in tournament schemes has any impact on task effort and learning effort.This thesis has three go...

  3. Inequity responses of monkeys modified by effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wolkenten, Megan; Brosnan, Sarah F.; de Waal, Frans B. M.

    2007-01-01

    Without joint benefits, joint actions could never have evolved. Cooperative animals need to monitor closely how large a share they receive relative to their investment toward collective goals. This work documents the sensitivity to reward division in brown, or tufted, capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella). In addition to confirming previous results with a larger subject pool, this work rules out several alternative explanations and adds data on effort sensitivity. Thirteen adult monkeys exchanged tokens for rewards, showing negative reactions to receiving a less-favored reward than their partner. Because their negative reaction could not be attributed to the mere visibility of better rewards (greed hypothesis) nor to having received such rewards in the immediate past (frustration hypothesis), it must have been caused by seeing their partner obtain the better reward. Effort had a major effect in that by far the lowest level of performance in the entire study occurred in subjects required to expend a large effort while at the same time seeing their partner receive a better reward. It is unclear whether this effort–effect was based on comparisons with the partner, but it added significantly to the intensity of the inequity response. These effects are as expected if the inequity response evolved in the context of cooperative survival strategies. PMID:18000045

  4. Supporting Scientists' Efforts in Education and Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, M.; NASA SMD Astrophysics Science Education; Public Outreach Forum

    2011-12-01

    Earth and space scientists have a long history of engagement in science education and outreach to K-12 students, educators and the public. While a few scientists obtain funding to do science education and public outreach (E/PO), often in partnership with formal or informal educators, many volunteer their time to such efforts. Nevertheless, faced with lingering challenges to science education and science literacy in the US, educators, funding agencies, policy makers, and professional societies are calling for greater numbers of scientists to provide more effective science outreach. The realization of this goal requires understanding the challenges and needs of scientists engaged or interested in education and outreach, figuring out best practices in scientist-educator partnerships, and offering resources and support structures that maximize scientists' efforts in E/PO. The NASA Science Mission Directorate's Astrophysics Education and Public Outreach Forum has initiated several activities toward these ends. Among them are: creating samplers and quick start guides to existing NASA Astrophysics E/PO resources and funding opportunities, a compilation from a variety of sources of credible online guides to doing E/PO, and tip sheets on audience misconceptions about astronomical topics. Feedback from both scientists and E/PO professionals has indicated these efforts are headed in the right direction. This presentation will introduce these resources to the AGU meeting participants, forming a basis for further discussions on how we can better support scientists in E/PO.

  5. Computer Models Used to Support Cleanup Decision Making at Hazardous and Radioactive Waste Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report is a product of the Interagency Environmental Pathway Modeling Workgroup. This report will help bring a uniform approach to solving environmental modeling problems common to site remediation and restoration efforts.

  6. Regime shift in sandy beach microbial communities following Deepwater Horizon oil spill remediation efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Annette Summers; Gupta, Axita A

    2014-01-01

    Sandy beaches support a wide variety of underappreciated biodiversity that is critical to coastal ecosystems. Prior to the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, the diversity and function of supratidal beach sediment microbial communities along Gulf of Mexico coastlines were not well understood. As such, it was unclear if microbial community compositional changes would occur following exposure to beached oil, if indigenous communities could biodegrade oil, or how cleanup efforts, such as sand washing and sediment redistribution, would impact microbial ecosystem resiliency. Transects perpendicular to the shoreline were sampled from public beaches on Grand Isle, Louisiana, and Dauphin Island, Alabama, over one year. Prior to oil coming onshore, elevated levels of bacteria associated with fecal contamination were detected (e.g., Enterobacteriales and Campylobacterales). Over time, significant shifts within major phyla were identified (e.g., Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria) and fecal indicator groups were replaced by taxa affiliated with open-ocean and marine systems (e.g., Oceanospirillales, Rhodospirillales, and Rhodobacterales). These new bacterial groups included putative hydrocarbon degraders, similar to those identified near the oil plume offshore. Shifts in the microbial community composition strongly correlated to more poorly sorted sediment and grain size distributional changes. Natural oceanographic processes could not account for the disrupted sediment, especially from the backshore well above the maximum high-tide levels recorded at these sites. Sand washing and tilling occurred on both open beaches from August through at least December 2010, which were mechanisms that could replace fecal indicator groups with open-ocean groups. Consequently, remediation efforts meant to return beaches to pre-spill compositions caused a regime shift that may have added potential ecosystem function, like hydrocarbon degradation, to the sediment. Future research will

  7. Regime shift in sandy beach microbial communities following Deepwater Horizon oil spill remediation efforts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Summers Engel

    Full Text Available Sandy beaches support a wide variety of underappreciated biodiversity that is critical to coastal ecosystems. Prior to the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, the diversity and function of supratidal beach sediment microbial communities along Gulf of Mexico coastlines were not well understood. As such, it was unclear if microbial community compositional changes would occur following exposure to beached oil, if indigenous communities could biodegrade oil, or how cleanup efforts, such as sand washing and sediment redistribution, would impact microbial ecosystem resiliency. Transects perpendicular to the shoreline were sampled from public beaches on Grand Isle, Louisiana, and Dauphin Island, Alabama, over one year. Prior to oil coming onshore, elevated levels of bacteria associated with fecal contamination were detected (e.g., Enterobacteriales and Campylobacterales. Over time, significant shifts within major phyla were identified (e.g., Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and fecal indicator groups were replaced by taxa affiliated with open-ocean and marine systems (e.g., Oceanospirillales, Rhodospirillales, and Rhodobacterales. These new bacterial groups included putative hydrocarbon degraders, similar to those identified near the oil plume offshore. Shifts in the microbial community composition strongly correlated to more poorly sorted sediment and grain size distributional changes. Natural oceanographic processes could not account for the disrupted sediment, especially from the backshore well above the maximum high-tide levels recorded at these sites. Sand washing and tilling occurred on both open beaches from August through at least December 2010, which were mechanisms that could replace fecal indicator groups with open-ocean groups. Consequently, remediation efforts meant to return beaches to pre-spill compositions caused a regime shift that may have added potential ecosystem function, like hydrocarbon degradation, to the sediment

  8. On the Boundary Conditions of Effort Losses and Effort Gains in Action Teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüffmeier, Joachim; Filusch, Michael; Mazei, Jens; Hertel, Guido; Mojzisch, Andreas; Krumm, Stefan

    2017-07-27

    While people's willingness to work hard can be reduced in teams (i.e., effort losses in teams as compared with individual work), it is less recognized that teamwork can also stimulate additional efforts (i.e., effort gains). Building on and extending existing theory, we (a) suggest an integration of these two research streams, and (b) provide evidence for team-related effort gains in action teams. In a first study, we tested our predictions by reanalyzing a field data set of 302,576 swimming performances in individual and relay races (Neugart & Richiardi, 2013). Consistent with our hypotheses, we observed a linear increase in effort across the relay. The first relay swimmers showed effort losses in the relay as compared with the individual competition whereas the remaining relay swimmers showed effort gains. However, this was only evident (a) when team members could realistically expect meaningful team outcomes in return for their performance, and (b) when the valence of these outcomes was equivalent to individual competitions. If such favorable conditions were not given, we found effort losses in team as compared with individual competitions at all relay positions. Results of a second study (N = 228) showed that the linear increase in effort across the relay was indeed attributable to the team members' serial position and not to their relative strength. Together, the studies demonstrate the motivating potential of teamwork even in the high performance contexts of action teams, such as competitive sports relays, where athletes are already highly motivated in their individual competitions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Implementing Successful Geoscience Education and Outreach Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braile, L. W.

    2004-12-01

    Successful geoscience Education and Outreach (E&O) efforts associated with a research program benefit from effective planning and a commitment by scientists/researchers to become more knowledgeable about and involved in education. Several suggested strategies have evolved based on experience in Earth science E&O with K-16 educators and students during the past 10 years. E&O programs and materials should be developed at appropriate levels ("start from where they're at") and utilize information, skills and topics that are most relevant to students and teachers. Hands-on and inquiry-based activities that teach or reinforce fundamental science understanding and skills, while introducing new topics, results and discoveries, are particularly effective. It is useful to design materials that can provide for a range of time commitment, level of technical skills, and effort, so that introductory to in-depth curriculum units can be implemented. Use of the Internet and working with teachers can be effective methods for dissemination and taking advantage of a "multiplying factor". Obtaining feedback and evaluation of the programs and developed materials, and connecting the materials to national or state education standards are also highly recommended. Most importantly, scientists should become more involved in the science education community. Attending and presenting papers at appropriate science education sessions or workshops, or state or national science teacher meetings (the annual National Science Teachers Association convention is an excellent place to start) can be a significant educational experience for the scientist/researcher. Effective geoscience E&O programs have significant potential for enhancing K-16 education and scientific literacy, and can help attract students to the sciences. Perhaps surprisingly, these efforts have substantial positive impact on the scientist/researcher as well.

  10. Smart FPA's: are they worth the effort?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leijtens, Johan; Theuwissen, Albert; Magnan, Pierre

    2006-09-01

    CMOS APS technology allows including signal processing in the sensor array. Inclusion of functionality however will come at a cost both financially and in the field of limited applicability. Based on two real world examples (micro digital sunsensor core and lightning flash detector for Meteosat Third Generation (MTG)) it will be demonstrated that large system gains can be obtained by devising smart focal planes. Therefore it is felt that the advantages outweigh the disadvantages for some applications, making it worth to spend the effort on system integration.

  11. Effort - Final technical report on task 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels; Henningsen, Poul; Eriksen, Morten

    The present report is documentation for the work carried out at DTU on the Brite/Euram project No. BE96-3340, contract No. BRPR-CT97-0398, with the title Enhanced Framework for forging design using reliable three-dimensional simulation (EFFORTS). The objective of task 3 is to determine data...... on the tool/workpiece interface conditions. The task includes the following four sub-tasks: Subtask 3.1 Simulative testing of friction in cold forming Subtask 3.2 Simulative testing of friction in warm and hot forming Subtask 3.3 Validation of measured friction values by process tests Subtask 3.4 Heat...

  12. Process-information definition for evaluation of gasification and gas-cleanup processes for use in molten-carbonate fuel-cell power plants. Task A topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidt, E.J.

    1981-11-01

    This report satisfies the requirements for DOE contract DE-AC21-81MC16220 to list coal gasifiers and gas cleanup systems suitable for supplying fuel to molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) in industrial and utility power plants. The process information and data necessary for this study were extracted from sources in the public domain, including reports from DOE, EPRI, and EPA; work sponsored in whole or in part by federal agencies; and from trade journals, MCFC developers, and manufacturers. The listings included data on the state of development, operating characteristics, effluents, and effectiveness of the gasifiers and coal gas cleanup systems, to the extent that such information is available in the public domain. Information available in the public domain on the effects of contaminants on MCFC performance and on the design constraints on heat recovery equipment used to adjust coal gas temperatures to levels appropriate for available cleanup systems was also provided. Cleanup systems not chosen by DOE's MCFC contractors, General Electric and United Technologies, Inc., for their MCFC power plant work, by virtue of the resource requirements of those systems for commercial development, were extensively characterized. Such characterization is included in Appendix B, principally for the hot gas cleanup processes listed therein. One of those processes, using zinc ferrite for coal gas desulfurization, is now under active development by METC and has the potential for effective use in MCFC power plants.

  13. Supercritical fluid extraction as a clean-up method for the extraction of pesticides from wool wax. A preliminary approach.

    OpenAIRE

    Crespi, M.; Gutiérrez, M.C.; Carrillo, F.; Christoe, J; López-Mesas, M.

    2007-01-01

    The work presented is a preliminary study for the development of a method for the extraction of pesticides from wax samples by means of superficial fluid extraction. The novelty of the study is the direct extraction of the pesticides from raw wool wax without any cleanup, as direct extraction has been considered almost impossible by many authors.Este trabajo es un estudio preliminar para el desarrollo de un método de extracción de pesticidas directamente de las muestras de cera medi...

  14. Development and validation of a cleanup method for hydrocarbon containing samples for the analysis of semivolatile organic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoppe, E.W.; Stromatt, R.W.; Campbell, J.A.; Steele, M.J.; Jones, J.E.

    1992-04-01

    Samples obtained from the Hanford single shell tanks (SSTs) are contaminated with normal paraffin hydrocarbon (NPH) as hydrostatic fluid from the sampling process or can be native to the tank waste. The contamination is usually high enough that a dilution of up to several orders of magnitude may be required before the sample can be analyzed by the conventional gas chromatography/mass spectrometry methodology. This can prevent detection and measurement of organic constituents that are present at lower concentration levels. To eliminate or minimize the problem, a sample cleanup method has been developed and validated and is presented in this document.

  15. Bevacizumab in Addition to Palliative Chemotherapy for Patients With Peritoneal Carcinomatosis of Colorectal Origin: A Nationwide Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razenberg, Lieke G E M; van Gestel, Yvette R B M; Lemmens, Valery E P P; de Hingh, Ignace H J T; Creemers, Geert-Jan

    2016-06-01

    Most patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) presenting with peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) rely on palliative systemic treatment options. However, data on the use and effect of systemic treatment strategies, including targeted agents for the palliative treatment of colorectal PC, are lacking. We conducted a nationwide population-based study with data from the period in which the targeted agent bevacizumab was introduced in the Netherlands. The present study included all patients diagnosed from 2007 to 2014 with synchronous PC from CRC treated with only palliative systemic therapy. We assessed the use of bevacizumab, the standard choice of targeted treatment, in addition to first-line chemotherapy. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to calculate the predictors for the additional prescription of bevacizumab. Survival estimates were calculated, and multivariable Cox analyses were performed to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) of death stratified by the treatment received. A total of 1235 patients received palliative chemotherapy, of whom 436 also received bevacizumab (35%). Patients aged ≥ 75 years and patients with PC from colonic tumors were less likely to receive chemotherapy plus bevacizumab. The addition of bevacizumab to palliative chemotherapy was associated with an improved overall median survival of 7.5 versus 11 months in both patients with isolated PC and those with concomitant extraperitoneal metastases. The improvement remained after adjustment for patient and tumor characteristics (HR, 0.7; 95% confidence interval, 0.64-0.83). The results of the present nationwide population-based study support the rationale for bevacizumab in addition to palliative chemotherapy for patients with PC of CRC and underline the need for ongoing efforts to precisely determine the role of targeted therapy in the treatment of PC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. How costs change with infection prevention efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Nicholas

    2014-08-01

    To describe articles since January 2013 that include information on how costs change with infection prevention efforts. Three articles described only the costs imposed by nosocomial infection and so provided limited information about whether or not infection prevention efforts should be changed. One article was found that described the costs of supplying alcohol-based hand run in low-income countries. Eight articles showed the extra costs and cost savings from changing infection prevention programmes and discussed the health benefits. All concluded that the changes are economically worthwhile. There was a systematic review of the costs of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus control programmes and a methods article for how to make cost estimates for infection prevention programmes. The balance has shifted away from studies that report the high cost of nosocomial infections toward articles that address the value for money of infection prevention. This is good as simply showing a disease is high cost does not inform decisions to reduce it. More research, done well, on the costs of implementation, cost savings and change to health benefits in this area needs to be done as many gaps exist in our knowledge.

  17. Regional Effort to Deploy Clean Coal Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald Hill; Kenneth Nemeth; Gary Garrett; Kimberly Sams

    2009-01-31

    The Southern States Energy Board's (SSEB) 'Regional Effort to Deploy Clean Coal Technologies' program began on June 1, 2003, and was completed on January 31, 2009. The project proved beneficial in providing state decision-makers with information that assisted them in removing barriers or implementing incentives to deploy clean coal technologies. This was accomplished through two specific tasks: (1) domestic energy security and diversity; and (2) the energy-water interface. Milestones accomplished during the project period are: (1) Presentations to Annual Meetings of SSEB Members, Associate Member Meetings, and the Gasification Technologies Council. (2) Energy: Water reports - (A) Regional Efforts to Deploy Clean Coal Technologies: Impacts and Implications for Water Supply and Quality. June 2004. (B) Energy-Water Interface Challenges: Coal Bed Methane and Mine Pool Water Characterization in the Southern States Region. 2004. (C) Freshwater Availability and Constraints on Thermoelectric Power Generation in the Southeast U.S. June 2008. (3) Blackwater Interactive Tabletop Exercise - Decatur, Georgia April 2007. (4) Blackwater Report: Blackwater: Energy and Water Interdependency Issues: Best Practices and Lessons Learned. August 2007. (5) Blackwater Report: BLACKWATER: Energy Water Interdependency Issues REPORT SUMMARY. April 2008.

  18. Traumatic Injuries in Developing Countries: Report from a Nationwide Cross-Sectional Survey of Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Kerry-Ann; Groen, Reinou S.; Kamara, Thaim B.; Farahzard, Mina; Samai, Mohamed; Yambasu, Sahr E.; Cassidy, Laura D.; Kushner, Adam L.; Wren, Sherry M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Despite the tremendous disability and mortality caused by traumatic injuries worldwide, there is a relative dearth of information on the burden of injuries in developing countries. In an effort to document the surgical burden of disease in Sierra Leone, a nationwide survey was conducted utilizing the Surgeons OverSeas Assessment of Surgical Need (SOSAS) tool. Here, we report the injury data from this study with the aim to (1) provide an estimate of injury prevalence, (2) determine the mechanisms of injury, and (3) evaluate the degree of injury related deaths. Methods A population-based household survey was conducted in Sierra Leone in 2012. Participants were selected using a two-stage random sampling method, which generated a target population of 3750 participants across the 14 districts of Sierra Leone. Frequency distributions of mechanisms of injury based on age, sex, and urban versus rural residence were computed, and bivariate logistic regression models used to determine associations between sociodemographic factors and injury patterns. Results Data was analyzed from 1,843 households and 3,645 respondents, representing a response rate of 98.3%. Four hundred and fifty-two respondents (12.4%) reported at least one traumatic injury in the preceding year. Falls were the most common cause of non-fatal injuries, accounting for over 40% of injuries. The extremities were most commonly injured (55% of injuries) regardless of age or sex. Although motor vehicle related injuries were the 4th most common cause of injury overall, they were the leading cause of injury related deaths, accounting for almost 6% of fatal injuries. Conclusion This study provides baseline data on the burden of traumatic injuries in one of the world's poorest nations. In addition to injury prevention measures, immediate strategies to address current healthcare deficits are urgently needed in these resource poor areas. This report is an Original Article with Level I evidence. PMID:23325317

  19. Current and future land use around a nationwide protected area network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Christopher M.; Martinuzzi, Sebastian; Plantinga, Andrew J.; Radeloff, Volker C.; Lewis, David J.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Heglund, Patricia J.; Pidgeon, Anna M.

    2013-01-01

    Land-use change around protected areas can reduce their effective size and limit their ability to conserve biodiversity because land-use change alters ecological processes and the ability of organisms to move freely among protected areas. The goal of our analysis was to inform conservation planning efforts for a nationwide network of protected lands by predicting future land use change. We evaluated the relative effect of three economic policy scenarios on land use surrounding the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's National Wildlife Refuges. We predicted changes for three land-use classes (forest/range, crop/pasture, and urban) by 2051. Our results showed an increase in forest/range lands (by 1.9% to 4.7% depending on the scenario), a decrease in crop/pasture between 15.2% and 23.1%, and a substantial increase in urban land use between 28.5% and 57.0%. The magnitude of land-use change differed strongly among different USFWS administrative regions, with the most change in the Upper Midwestern US (approximately 30%), and the Southeastern and Northeastern US (25%), and the rest of the U.S. between 15 and 20%. Among our scenarios, changes in land use were similar, with the exception of our “restricted-urban-growth” scenario, which resulted in noticeably different rates of change. This demonstrates that it will likely be difficult to influence land-use change patterns with national policies and that understanding regional land-use dynamics is critical for effective management and planning of protected lands throughout the U.S.

  20. Gynecologic oncologists' attitudes and practices relating to integrative medicine: results of a nationwide AGO survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Evelyn; Beckmann, Matthias W; Bader, Werner; Brucker, Cosima; Dobos, Gustav; Fischer, Dorothea; Hanf, Volker; Hasenburg, Annette; Jud, Sebastian M; Kalder, Matthias; Kiechle, Marion; Kümmel, Sherko; Müller, Andreas; Müller, Myrjam-Alice T; Paepke, Daniela; Rotmann, Andre-Robert; Schütz, Florian; Scharl, Anton; Voiss, Petra; Wallwiener, Markus; Witt, Claudia; Hack, Carolin C

    2017-08-01

    The growing popularity and acceptance of integrative medicine is evident both among patients and among the oncologists treating them. As little data are available regarding health-care professionals' knowledge, attitudes, and practices relating to the topic, a nationwide online survey was designed. Over a period of 11 weeks (from July 15 to September 30, 2014) a self-administered, 17-item online survey was sent to all 676 members of the Research Group on Gynecological Oncology (Arbeitsgemeinschaft Gynäkologische Onkologie) in the German Cancer Society. The questionnaire items addressed the use of integrative therapy methods, fields of indications for them, advice services provided, level of specific qualifications, and other topics. Of the 104 respondents (15.4%) using integrative medicine, 93% reported that integrative therapy was offered to breast cancer patients. The second most frequent type of tumor in connection with which integrative therapy methods were recommended was ovarian cancer, at 80% of the participants using integrative medicine. Exercise, nutritional therapy, dietary supplements, herbal medicines, and acupuncture were the methods the patients were most commonly advised to use. There is considerable interest in integrative medicine among gynecological oncologists, but integrative therapy approaches are at present poorly implemented in routine clinical work. Furthermore there is a lack of specific training. Whether future efforts should focus on extending counseling services on integrative medicine approaches in gynecologic oncology or not, have to be discussed. Evidence-based training on integrative medicine should be implemented in order to safely guide patients in their wish to do something by themselves.

  1. EPA leads effort to contain jet fuel spill on Sand Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    HONOLULU - Today, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency issued a federal Clean Water Act order to ensure the continued cleanup of spilled jet fuel at a tank farm facility on the Sand Island Access Road in Honolulu.

  2. Efforts to expand the genetic code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romesberg, Floyd E

    2005-01-01

    In an effort to develop an unnatural base pair with which to expand the genetic code we have examined a wide variety of simple phenyl rings derivatized with methyl, fluoro, or nitrogen. The small aromatic surface of these base pairs should prevent inter-strand intercalation, which is thought to inhibit the polymerase-mediated synthesis of base pairs with larger aromatic surface area. Surprisingly, despite reduced aromatic surface area and hydrogen-bonding potential, some of these base pairs are stable and synthesized with reasonable efficiency. We have also been examining the use of activity-based selection systems to evolve DNA polymerases to more efficiently recognize the unnatural substrates, and our initial successes are described.

  3. Advancing efforts to address youth violence involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weist, M D; Cooley-Quille, M

    2001-06-01

    Discusses the increased public attention on violence-related problems among youth and the concomitant increased diversity in research. Youth violence involvement is a complex construct that includes violence experienced in multiple settings (home, school, neighborhood) and in multiple forms (as victims, witnesses, perpetrators, and through family members, friends, and the media). Potential impacts of such violence involvement are considerable, including increased internalizing and externalizing behaviors among youth and future problems in school adjustment and life-course development. This introductory article reviews key dimensions of youth-related violence, describes an American Psychological Association Task Force (Division 12) developed to advance relevant research, and presents examples of national resources and efforts that attempt to address this critical public health issue.

  4. VPS GRCop-84 Liner Development Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elam, Sandra K.; Holmes, Richard; McKechnie, Tim; Hickman, Robert; Pickens, Tim

    2003-01-01

    For the past several years, NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been working with Plasma Processes, Inc. (PPI) to fabricate combustion chamber liners using the Vacuum Plasma Spray (VPS) process. Multiple liners of a variety of shapes and sizes have been created. Each liner has been fabricated with GRCop-84 (a copper alloy with chromium and niobium) and a functional gradient coating (FGC) on the hot wall. While the VPS process offers versatility and a reduced fabrication schedule, the material system created with VPS allows the liners to operate at higher temperatures, with maximum blanch resistance and improved cycle life. A subscal unit (5K lbf thrust class) is being cycle tested in a LOX/Hydrogen thrust chamber assembly at MSFC. To date, over 75 hot-fire tests have been accumulated on this article. Tests include conditions normally detrimental to conventional materials, yet the VPS GRCop-84 liner has yet to show any signs of degradation. A larger chamber (15K lbf thrust class) has also been fabricated and is being prepared for hot-fire testing at MSFC near the end of 2003. Linear liners have been successfully created to further demonstrate the versatility of the process. Finally, scale up issues for the VPS process are being tackled with efforts to fabricate a full size, engine class liner. Specifically, a liner for the SSME's Main Combustion Chamber (MCC) has recently been attempted. The SSME size was chosen for convenience, since its design was readily available and its size was sufficient to tackle specific issues. Efforts to fabricate these large liners have already provided valuable lessons for using this process for engine programs. The material quality for these large units is being evaluated with destructive analysis and these results will be available by the end of 2003.

  5. Prioritizing earthquake and tsunami alerting efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, R. M.; Allen, S.; Aranha, M. A.; Chung, A. I.; Hellweg, M.; Henson, I. H.; Melgar, D.; Neuhauser, D. S.; Nof, R. N.; Strauss, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    The timeline of hazards associated with earthquakes ranges from seconds for the strong shaking at the epicenter, to minutes for strong shaking at more distant locations in big quakes, to tens of minutes for a local tsunami. Earthquake and tsunami warning systems must therefore include very fast initial alerts, while also taking advantage of available time in bigger and tsunami-generating quakes. At the UC Berkeley Seismological Laboratory we are developing a suite of algorithms to provide the fullest possible information about earthquake shaking and tsunami inundation from seconds to minutes after a quake. The E-larmS algorithm uses the P-wave to rapidly detect an earthquake and issue a warning. It is currently issuing alerts to test users in as little as 3 sec after the origin time. Development of a new waveform detector may lead to even faster alerts. G-larmS uses permanent deformation estimates from GNSS stations to estimate the geometry and extent of rupture underway providing more accurate ground shaking estimates in big (M>~7) earthquakes. It performed well in the M6.0 2014 Napa earthquake. T-larmS is a new algorithm designed to extend alert capabilities to tsunami inundation. Rapid estimates of source characteristics for subduction zones event can not only be used to warn of the shaking hazard, but also the local tsunami inundation hazard. These algorithms are being developed, implemented and tested with a focus on the western US, but are also now being tested in other parts of the world including Israel, Turkey, Korea and Chile. Beta users in the Bay Area are receiving the alerts and beginning to implement automated actions. They also provide feedback on users needs, which has led to the development of the MyEEW smartphone app. This app allows beta users to receive the alerts on their cell phones. All these efforts feed into our ongoing assessment of directions and priorities for future development and implementation efforts.

  6. Non-Radiation Risk Factors for Leukemia: A case-control study among Chornobyl Cleanup Workers in Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudzenko, Nataliya; Hatch, Maureen; Bazyka, Dimitry; Dyagil, Irina; Reiss, Robert F; Brenner, Alina; Chumak, Vadim; Babkina, Natalie; Zablotska, Lydia B; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko

    2015-01-01

    Background Occupational and environmental exposure to chemicals such as benzene has been linked to increased risk of leukemia. Cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption have also been found to affect leukemia risk. Previous analyses in a large cohort of Chornobyl clean-up workers in Ukraine found significant radiation-related increased risk for all leukemia types. We investigated the potential for additional effects of occupational and lifestyle factors on leukemia risk in this radiation-exposed cohort. Methods In a case-control study of chronic lymphocytic and other leukemias among Chornobyl cleanup workers, we collected data on a range of non-radiation exposures. We evaluated these other potential risk factors in analyses adjusting for estimated bone marrow radiation dose. We calculated Odds Ratios and 95% Confidence Intervals in relation to lifestyle factors and occupational hazards. Results After adjusting for radiation, we found no clear association of leukemia risk with smoking or alcohol but identified a two-fold elevated risk for non-CLL leukemia with occupational exposure to petroleum (OR=2.28; 95% Confidence Interval 1.13, 6.79). Risks were particularly high for myeloid leukemias. No associations with risk factors other than radiation were found for chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Conclusions These data – the first from a working population in Ukraine – add to evidence from several previous reports of excess leukemia morbidity in groups exposed environmentally or occupationally to petroleum or its products. PMID:26117815

  7. Guidance document available for developers and users in hazardous waste cleanup technologies to minimize occupational hazards to workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruttenberg, R.; Weinstock, D. [National Clearinghouse for Worker Safety and Health Training, Bethesda, MD (United States); Moran, J. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Dobbin, D. [National Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1996-12-31

    In evaluating innovative technologies for hazardous waste cleanup, work safety and health issues are rarely considered. In two 1995 technical workshops, co-sponsored by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) and the US Department of Energy (DOE), dozens of experts from government, labor, industry, and academia gathered to write a Guidance Document to be used by the developers and users of innovative cleanup technology. The Guidance Document, which was developed by NIEHS, DOE, and a team of experts, recommends tools to package safety and health information in usable forms--including safety hazard matrices, health hazard matrices, transition check lists, and technology safety data sheets--as well as the need for checklists and contract clauses between remediation companies and responsible parties. Also included in the Guidance Document is a model for phase analysis with a list of the hazards associated with each phase of technological development and implementation. The Guidance Document creates checklists for better identification of hazards that occur during transitions. Emergency response needs are also a focus of the Guidance Document, with minimum standards a key element. Case studies, because they are such powerful tools, are an integral part of the Guidance Document.

  8. Fabrication of Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Sites on Polypropylene Nonwoven for Oil Spill Cleanup: Two Dilemmas Affecting Oil Sorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiangyu; Wang, Feifei; Ji, Yali; Chen, Weiting; Wei, Junfu

    2016-04-05

    This article mainly deals with the following dilemmas, which affect oil sorption and sorbent preparation: (1) hydrophobization could facilitate oil sorption but has adverse impacts on emulsion sorption; (2) micropores of conventional oil sorbent do not exhibit effective emulsion sorption. To solve the above contradictions, hydrophilic and hydrophobic sites were fabricated onto polypropylene (PP) nonwoven through electron beam radiation and subsequent ring-opening reaction. Further, a similar structure without a hydrophilic site was constructed as comparison to verify the dilemmas. An oil sorption and emulsion adsorption experiment revealed that the PP nonwoven with specific hydrophilic and hydrophobic sites is more suitable for oil cleanup. The hydrophobic site preserved its hydrophobicity and sorption capacity, and the hydrophilic site on PP surface effectively increased the affinity between the hydrophilic interface of emulsion and sorbent. The overlapped and intertwined structures could provide spaces large enough to accommodate oil and emulsion. In addition, the oil and emulsion sorption behaviors were systematically analyzed. The PP nonwoven fabricated in this study may find practical application in the cleanup of oil spills and the removal of organic pollutants from water surfaces.

  9. Hot gas cleanup test facility for gasification and pressurized combustion. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1--March 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    This quarterly technical progress report summarizes work completed during the Sixth Quarter of the First Budget Period, January 1 through March 31, 1992, under the Department of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC21-90MC25140 entitled ``Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility for Gasification and Pressurized Combustion.`` The objective of this project is to evaluate hot gas particle control technologies using coal-derived gas streams. The major emphasis during this reporting period was expanding the test facility to address system integration issues of hot particulate removal in advanced power generation systems. The conceptual design of the facility was extended to include additional modules for the expansion of the test facility, which is referred to as the Power Systems Development Facility (PSOF). A letter agreement was negotiated between Southern Company Services (SCS) and Foster Wheeler (FW) for the conceptual design of the Advanced Pressurized Fluid-Bed Combustion (APFBC)/Topping Combustor/Gas Turbine System to be added to the facility. The expanded conceptual design also included modifications to the existing conceptual design for the Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility (HGCTF), facility layout and balance of plant design for the PSOF. Southern Research Institute (SRI) began investigating the sampling requirements for the expanded facility and assisted SCS in contacting Particulate Control Device (PCD) vendors for additional information. SCS also contacted the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and two molten carbonate fuel cell vendors for input on the fuel cell module for the PSDF.

  10. Improved cleanup for liquid chromatographic analysis and fluorescence detection of aflatoxins M1 and M2 in fluid milk products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson-Foos, J; Warren, J D

    1984-01-01

    A rapid method is described for extraction and cleanup of raw and processed milk for determination of aflatoxins M1 and M2 by using a C18 Sep-Pak/silica gel cleanup column combination. Aflatoxins are separated by normal phase liquid chromatography and their concentrations are determined by fluorescence detection in a silica gel-packed flow cell. Recoveries ranged from 99 to 103% with coefficients of variation less than 2% for M1 levels of 0.117-1.17 ng/mL added to raw milk. Similar recoveries were obtained for M2. The coefficient of variation for analysis of 5 subsamples of naturally contaminated milk was less than 1%. Agreement with the official method is satisfactory. Each sample requires less than 25 mL solvent and 10 min actual handling time. Sample chromatograms show no interferences in the M1-M2 elution region and no late-eluting peaks, which permits spacing injections at 13-20 min intervals. Aflatoxin levels as low as 0.03 ppb may be determined by this procedure. Extracts have also been analyzed by thin layer chromatography.

  11. Non-radiation risk factors for leukemia: A case-control study among chornobyl cleanup workers in Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudzenko, N; Hatch, M; Bazyka, D; Dyagil, I; Reiss, R F; Brenner, A; Chumak, V; Babkina, N; Zablotska, L B; Mabuchi, K

    2015-10-01

    Occupational and environmental exposure to chemicals such as benzene has been linked to increased risk of leukemia. Cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption have also been found to affect leukemia risk. Previous analyses in a large cohort of Chornobyl clean-up workers in Ukraine found significant radiation-related increased risk for all leukemia types. We investigated the potential for additional effects of occupational and lifestyle factors on leukemia risk in this radiation-exposed cohort. In a case-control study of chronic lymphocytic and other leukemias among Chornobyl cleanup workers, we collected data on a range of non-radiation exposures. We evaluated these and other potential risk factors in analyses adjusting for estimated bone marrow radiation dose. We calculated Odds Ratios and 95% Confidence Intervals in relation to lifestyle factors and occupational hazards. After adjusting for radiation, we found no clear association of leukemia risk with smoking or alcohol but identified a two-fold elevated risk for non-CLL leukemia with occupational exposure to petroleum (OR=2.28; 95% Confidence Interval 1.13, 6.79). Risks were particularly high for myeloid leukemias. No associations with risk factors other than radiation were found for chronic lymphocytic leukemia. These data - the first from a working population in Ukraine - add to evidence from several previous reports of excess leukemia morbidity in groups exposed environmentally or occupationally to petroleum or its products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Multi-pesticides residue analysis of grains using modified magnetic nanoparticle adsorbent for facile and efficient cleanup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhenzhen; Qi, Peipei; Wang, Xiangyun; Wang, Zhiwei; Xu, Xiahong; Chen, Wenxue; Wu, Liyu; Zhang, Hu; Wang, Qiang; Wang, Xinquan

    2017-09-01

    A facile, rapid sample pretreatment method was developed based on magnetic nanoparticles for multi-pesticides residue analysis of grains. Magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) nanoparticles modified with 3-(N,N-diethylamino)propyltrimethoxysilane (Fe 3 O 4 -PSA) and commercial C18 were selected as the cleanup adsorbents to remove the target interferences of the matrix, such as fatty acids and non-polar compounds. Rice was used as the representative grain sample for method optimization. The amount of Fe 3 O 4 -PSA and C18 were systematically investigated for selecting the suitable purification conditions, and the simultaneous determination of 50 pesticides and 8 related metabolites in rice was established by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Under the optimal conditions, the method validation was performed including linearity, sensitivity, matrix effect, recovery and precision, which all satisfy the requirement for pesticides residue analysis. Compared to the conventional QuEChERS method with non-magnetic material as cleanup adsorbent, the present method can save 30% of the pretreatment time, giving the high throughput analysis possible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Learning and clean-up in a large scale music database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kai; Lehn-Schiøler, Tue; Petersen, Kaare Brandt

    2007-01-01

    We have collected a database of musical features from radio broadcasts (N > 100.000). The database poses a number of hard modeling challenges including: Segmentation problems and missing metadata. We describe our efforts towards cleaning the database using signal processing and machine learning...

  14. INCREASING PREVALENCE OF ADDISON DISEASE: RESULTS FROM A NATIONWIDE STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olafsson, Andri Snaer; Sigurjonsdottir, Helga Agusta

    2016-01-01

    Primary adrenal insufficiency is a life-threatening endocrine disease unless properly treated. However, few studies on the prevalence, concomitances of the disease, and prescribing of drugs have been published. The goal of the study was to establish the prevalence of primary adrenal insufficiency in Iceland and additionally, to study the most common concomitant diseases in patients with primary adrenal insufficiency, as well as the mode of glucocorticoid replacement therapies. To achieve this, the medical records of all patients in Iceland who had received the International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision, diagnosis code E27, were evaluated for true primary adrenal insufficiency. Additionally, these records were evaluated for concomitant diseases, as well as the mode of glucocorticoid replacement therapy. The study covered the whole population of Iceland over 18 years of age. It was thus a nationwide study. The records were retrieved from large hospitals and clinics and every practicing specialist in endocrinology. Primary adrenal insufficiency was found in 53 individuals, 26 women and 27 men, yielding a prevalence of 22.1 per 100,000 population. Hypothyroidism was by far the most common concomitant disease. Most patients had their glucocorticoid deficiency replaced with short-acting glucocorticoids. The prevalence of primary adrenal insufficiency in Iceland is higher than in earlier reports, with comorbidities being in line with recent studies. Treatment is according to the latest protocols.

  15. Polydrug use among college students in Brazil: a nationwide survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcio Garcia de Oliveira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the frequency of polydrug use (alcohol and illicit drugs among college students and its associations with gender and age group. Methods: A nationwide sample of 12,544 college students was asked to complete a questionnaire on their use of drugs according to three time parameters (lifetime, past 12 months, and last 30 days. The co-use of drugs was investigated as concurrent polydrug use (CPU and simultaneous polydrug use (SPU, a subcategory of CPU that involves the use of drugs at the same time or in close temporal proximity. Results: Almost 26% of college students reported having engaged in CPU in the past 12 months. Among these students, 37% had engaged in SPU. In the past 30 days, 17% college students had engaged in CPU. Among these, 35% had engaged in SPU. Marijuana was the illicit drug mostly frequently used with alcohol (either as CPU or SPU, especially among males. Among females, the most commonly reported combination was alcohol and prescribed medications. Conclusions: A high proportion of Brazilian college students may be engaging in polydrug use. College administrators should keep themselves informed to be able to identify such use and to develop educational interventions to prevent such behavior.

  16. Critical hepatic hemangioma in infants: recent nationwide survey in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Tatsuo; Hoshino, Ken; Nosaka, Shunsuke; Shiota, Yohko; Nakazawa, Atsuko; Takimoto, Tetsuya

    2014-06-01

    The International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies (ISSVA) classification divides vascular lesions into two major entities: neoplasms originating from the vascular endothelium and vascular malformations. Although this concept has been widely accepted, little has been established regarding vascular lesions in deep organs, such as infantile hepatic hemangioma (IHH). The current nationwide survey identified 19 critical infantile hemangiomas during the most recent 5 years. On histopathology all the lesions examined were neoplastic, but portovenos shunt was found histologically or clinically in some cases. High-output cardiac failure, consumption coagulopathy, and respiratory distress were the major symptoms, and treatment-resistant coagulopathy seemed to be the most reliable predictor of fatal outcome. Although steroid has been the gold standard treatment for these lesions, 25% of the patients were totally insensitive to steroids, whereas propranolol had a prompt effect in one case. For critical IHH with steroid-insensitive thrombocytopenia and prothrombin time prolongation, novel therapeutic options including beta-blocker therapy, surgery, and liver transplantation should be urgently considered as alterative treatment. The present review summarizes the results of the survey. © 2014 Japan Pediatric Society.

  17. Fertility Treatment and Childhood Epilepsy - a Nationwide Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kettner, Laura Ozer; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fertility treatment includes hormonal stimulation of the woman and in vitro manipulation of gametes and embryos that may influence prenatal brain development. We aimed to investigate the association between fertility treatment and childhood epilepsy, including specific types of treatm......BACKGROUND: Fertility treatment includes hormonal stimulation of the woman and in vitro manipulation of gametes and embryos that may influence prenatal brain development. We aimed to investigate the association between fertility treatment and childhood epilepsy, including specific types...... of treatment and indications, as well as subtypes of epilepsy. METHODS: In this nationwide birth cohort study, we included all pregnancies in Denmark resulting in live-born singletons, 1995-2003. Children conceived by fertility treatment and children developing epilepsy (until 2013) were identified from Danish...... national registers. RESULTS: A total of 565,116 pregnancies were included; 8,071 children (1.4%) developed epilepsy. Children conceived after ovulation induction or intrauterine insemination had a slightly higher risk of childhood epilepsy (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.15; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.00, 1...

  18. Internet addiction among Iranian adolescents: a nationwide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh

    2014-01-01

    Problematic use of the Internet by children and adolescents is a newly emerging disorder that has alerted health authorities throughout the world. In Iran, despite the very high speed rate of Internet spread, there is not enough data on the rate of Internet addiction among the adolescents. This study is the first nationwide study that addresses this issue. Overall 4500 students of high school or pre-college schools were recruited from 13/31 provinces of Iran by a cluster sampling method and 4342 (96%) participated. Two self-rated questionnaires (one demographics and one Young's Internet addiction scale) were filled b the participants. Data were analyzed by SPSS software. 962 (22.2%) of the study participants were labeled as having "internet addiction." Males were significantly more likely to be an internet addict (PInternet addiction (Pinternet addiction, and the least rate of addiction was observed when the mother was a housewife (PInternet addiction (PInternet addiction. This study showed that Internet addiction in Iranian adolescents is prevalent, and has several independent factors, from which, family relations is most likely to be modifiable. Improvements in family relations and more strict parental supervision, especially when mothers have active job employment, are recommended.

  19. A nationwide survey of pediatric acquired demyelinating syndromes in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Y; Torisu, H; Kira, R; Ishizaki, Y; Sakai, Y; Sanefuji, M; Ichiyama, T; Oka, A; Kishi, T; Kimura, S; Kubota, M; Takanashi, J; Takahashi, Y; Tamai, H; Natsume, J; Hamano, S; Hirabayashi, S; Maegaki, Y; Mizuguchi, M; Minagawa, K; Yoshikawa, H; Kira, J; Kusunoki, S; Hara, T

    2016-11-08

    To investigate the clinical and epidemiologic features of pediatric acquired demyelinating syndromes (ADS) of the CNS in Japan. We conducted a nationwide survey and collected clinical data on children with ADS aged 15 years or younger, who visited hospitals between 2005 and 2007. Among 977 hospitals enrolled, 723 (74.0%) responded to our inquiries and reported a total of 439 patients as follows: 244 with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), 117 with multiple sclerosis (MS), 14 with neuromyelitis optica (NMO), and 64 with other ADS. We collected and analyzed detailed data from 204 cases, including those with ADEM (66), MS (58), and NMO (10). We observed the following: (1) the estimated annual incidence rate of pediatric ADEM in Japan was 0.40 per 100,000 children (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.34-0.46), with the lowest prevalence in the north; (2) the estimated prevalence rate of MS was 0.69 per 100,000 children (95% CI, 0.58-0.80), with the lowest prevalence in the south; (3) NMO in Japan was rare, with an estimated prevalence of 0.06 per 100,000 children (95% CI, 0.04-0.08); and (4) the sex ratio and mean age at onset varied by ADS type, and (5) male/female ratios correlated with ages at onset in each ADS group. Our results clarify the characteristic clinical features of pediatric ADS in the Japanese population. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  20. Social media adoption in local health departments nationwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jenine K; Mueller, Nancy L; Snider, Doneisha

    2013-09-01

    We examined whether characteristics of local health departments (LHD) and their geographic region were associated with using Facebook and Twitter. We also examined the number of tweets per month for Twitter accounts as an indicator of social media use by LHDs. In 2012, we searched for Facebook and Twitter accounts for 2565 LHDs nationwide, and collected adoption date and number of connections for each account. Number of tweets sent indicated LHD use of social media. LHDs were classified as innovators, early adopters, or nonadopters. Characteristics of LHDs were compared across adoption categories, and we examined geographic characteristics, connections, and use. Twenty-four percent of LHDs had Facebook, 8% had Twitter, and 7% had both. LHDs serving larger populations were more likely to be innovators, tweeted more often, and had more social media connections. Frequency of tweeting was not associated with adoption category. There were differences in adoption across geographic regions, with western states more likely to be innovators. Innovation was also higher in states where the state health department adopted social media. Social media has the potential to aid LHDs in disseminating information across the public health system. More evidence is needed to develop best practices for this emerging tool.

  1. Obesity: a new disaster for haemophilic patients? A nationwide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstede, F G; Fijnvandraat, K; Plug, I; Kamphuisen, P W; Rosendaal, F R; Peters, M

    2008-09-01

    The prevalence of obesity, an important risk factor for both cardiovascular disease and arthropathy, is strongly increasing in the general population, but data for the haemophilia population are scarce. Obesity may have a more profound effect on arthropathy and on cardiovascular disease in patients with haemophilia. To assess the prevalence of obesity in haemophilia patients and install adequate measures, if necessary. We performed a nationwide postal survey to measure the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Dutch haemophilia patients in 1992 (n = 980) and 2001 (n = 1066). A random sample of the Dutch male population served as the control group. In adult haemophiliacs, the prevalence of overweight (BMI 25-30 kg m(-2)) increased from 27% to 35% (95% CI 31.1-38.0) and the prevalence of obesity (BMI >/=30 kg m(-2)) doubled from 4% to 8% (95% CI 6.0-10.1), which was comparable with the general population. The increased prevalence of obesity in boys with haemophiliacs, which tripled in 10 years, is alarming. The increased prevalence of overweight and obesity in patients with haemophilia may have a profound effect on morbidity and quality of life of haemophilia patients by aggravating pre-existing arthropathy and predisposing aged patients to cardiovascular disease. Measures to prevent overweight in haemophiliacs are therefore urgently needed.

  2. Waste is a Terrible Thing to Mind: Perspectives on the Cleanup of the United States Nuclear Weapons Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodde, David

    1997-03-01

    For the 50 years of the Cold War, the United States nuclear arsenal was the cornerstone of our national security. These weapons were designed, manufactured, and armed with fissionable materials in an industrial complex that, at its peak, included about 16 major facilities and vast tracts of land in Nevada, Idaho, Washington, and South Carolina. Included among these are such well-known sites as the Savannah River Plant, the Hanford, Oak Ridge, and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The Cold War, that "long twilight struggle" in the evocative phrase of John Kennedy, left little time and few resources for understanding and managing the environmental consequences of nuclear weapons production. At the same time, perceptions of the special nature of the atom led to a concentration of governance in the Atomic Energy Commission and the Joint Committee on Atomic Energy. Thus, external feedback for the managers of the complex was heavily filtered. But the imperatives of the Cold War have waned, and our understanding of the implications for the environment and the health and safety of workers has grown. By 1995 the Department of Energy (DoE) had spent about 23 billion in identifying and characterizing its waste, managing it, and assessing the actions needed to clean up the 120 sites in 36 states. Yet the majority of the task appeared ahead. Estimates made in 1995 suggested a total cost ranging from 200-350 billion and a time to complete of 75 years. If these were true, the cleanup of the weapons complex would become the largest civil works project in the history of humankind. Over the past year or so, the DoE program has shifted its focus from studies to actual cleanup. A strategic plan has been proposed that would accomplish most of the needed work over ten years at a cost of about $85 billion. At the same time, the Department is proposing to transfer oversight to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the states. This Invited

  3. Science to support DOE site cleanup: The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Environmental Management Science Program awards. Fiscal year 1997 mid-year progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was awarded ten Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) research grants in Fiscal Year 1996. This report gives a summary of how each grant is addressing significant DOE cleanup issues, including those at the Hanford Site. The technical progress made to date in each of these research projects is addressed in more detail in the individual progress reports contained in this document. This research is primarily focused in three areas--Tank Waste Remediation, Soil and Groundwater Cleanup, and Health Effects.

  4. Science to support DOE site cleanup: The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Environmental Management Science Program awards. Fiscal year 1998 mid-year progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was awarded ten (10) Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) research grants in Fiscal Year 1996 and six (6) in Fiscal Year 1997. This section summarizes how each grant addresses significant US Department of Energy (DOE) cleanup issues, including those at the Hanford Site. The technical progress made to date in each of these research projects is addressed in more detail in the individual progress reports contained in this document. This research is focused primarily in four areas: Tank Waste Remediation, Spent Nuclear Fuel and Nuclear Materials, Soil and Groundwater Cleanup, and Health Effects.

  5. Fracturing fluid cleanup by controlled release of enzymes from polyelectrolyte complex nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barati Ghahfarokhi, Reza

    activity of enzymes by entrapping them. It was also observed that control PEC nanoparticles decreased both viscoelastic moduli, but with a slower rate compared to the PEC nanoparticles loaded with enzyme. Preparation shear and applied shear showed no significant effect on activity of enzyme-loaded PEC nanoparticles mixed with HPG solutions. However, fast addition of chemicals during the preparations showed smaller particle size compared to the drop-wise method. PEC nanoparticles (PECNPs) also protected both enzymes from denaturation at elevated temperature and pH. Following preparation, enzyme-loaded PEC nanoparticles were mixed with borate crosslinked HPG and the mixture was injected through a shear loop. Pectinase-loaded nanoparticles mixed with gelled HPG showed no sensitivity to shear applied along the shear loop at 25 °C. However, EL2X-loaded PEC nanoparticles showed sensitivity to shear applied along the shear loop at 40 °C. Filter cake was formed and degraded in a fluid loss cell for borate crosslinked HPG solutions mixed with either enzymes or enzyme-loaded PEC nanoparticles. Cleanup slopes of filter cake degraded using enzyme-loaded PEC nanoparticles and systems with enzymes mixed with HPG gel were significantly higher than for the filter cake formed with HPG gel mixed with no enzyme. In a different application, enzyme-loaded PEC nanoparticles showed significantly slower reduction in viscosity of HPG solution over time compared to the HPG systems mixed with enzyme. Increasing the viscosity of low concentration HPG, used as slick-water, decreases the proppant settling velocity. This is of specific interest in fracturing fluids used for unconventional reservoirs.

  6. Eliciting Public Attitudes Regarding Bioremediation Cleanup Technologies: Lessons Learned from a Consensus Workshop in Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denise Lach, Principle Investigator; Stephanie Sanford, Co-P.I.

    2003-03-01

    During the summer of 2002, we developed and implemented a ''consensus workshop'' with Idaho citizens to elicit their concerns and issues regarding the use of bioremediation as a cleanup technology for radioactive nuclides and heavy metals at Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The consensus workshop is a derivation of a technology assessment method designed to ensure dialogue between experts and lay people. It has its origins in the United States in the form of ''consensus development conferences'' used by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to elicit professional knowledge and concerns about new medical treatments. Over the last 25 years, NIH has conducted over 100 consensus development conferences. (Jorgensen 1995). The consensus conference is grounded in the idea that technology assessment and policy needs to be socially negotiated among many different stakeholders and groups rather than narrowly defined by a group of experts. To successfully implement new technology, the public requires access to information that addresses a full complement of issues including understanding the organization proposing the technology. The consensus conference method creates an informed dialogue, making technology understandable to the general public and sets it within perspectives and priorities that may differ radically from those of the expert community. While specific outcomes differ depending on the overall context of a conference, one expected outcome is that citizen panel members develop greater knowledge of the technology during the conference process and, sometimes, the entire panel experiences a change in attitude toward the technology and/or the organization proposing its use (Kluver 1995). The purpose of this research project was to explore the efficacy of the consensus conference model as a way to elicit the input of the general public about bioremediation of radionuclides and heavy metals at Department of Energy sites

  7. STEM Education Efforts in the Ares Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doreswamy, Rajiv; Armstrong, Robert C.

    2010-01-01

    According to the National Science Foundation, of the more than 4 million first university degrees awarded in science and engineering in 2006, students in China earned about 21%, those in the European Union earned about 19%, and those in the United States earned about 11%. Statistics like these are of great interest to NASA's Ares Projects, which are responsible for building the rockets for the U.S. Constellation Program to send humans beyond low-Earth orbit. Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics students are essential for the long-term sustainability of any space program. Since the Projects creation, the Ares Outreach Team has used a variety of STEM-related media, methods, and materials to engage students, educators, and the general public in Constellation's mission. Like Project Apollo, the nation s exploration destinations and the vehicles used to get there can inspire students to learn more about STEM. Ares has been particularly active in public outreach to schools in Northern Alabama; on the Internet via outreach and grade-specific educational materials; and in more informal social media settings such as YouTube and Facebook. These combined efforts remain integral to America s space program, regardless of its future direction.

  8. NREL Quickens its Tech Transfer Efforts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lammers, H.

    2012-02-01

    Innovations and 'aha' movements in renewable energy and energy efficiency, while exciting in the lab, only truly live up to their promise once they find a place in homes or business. Late last year President Obama issued a directive to all federal agencies to increase their efforts to transfer technologies to the private sector in order to achieve greater societal and economic impacts of federal research investments. The president's call to action includes efforts to establish technology transfer goals and to measure progress, to engage in efforts to increase the speed of technology transfer and to enhance local and regional innovation partnerships. But, even before the White House began its initiative to restructure the commercialization process, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory had a major effort underway designed to increase the speed and impact of technology transfer activities and had already made sure its innovations had a streamlined path to the private sector. For the last three years, NREL has been actively setting commercialization goals and tracking progress against those goals. For example, NREL sought to triple the number of innovations over a five-year period that began in 2009. Through best practices associated with inventor engagement, education and collaboration, NREL quadrupled the number of innovations in just three years. Similar progress has been made in patenting, licensing transactions, income generation and rewards to inventors. 'NREL is known nationally for our cutting-edge research and companies know to call us when they are ready to collaborate,' William Farris, vice president for commercialization and technology transfer, said. 'Once a team is ready to dive in, they don't want be mired in paperwork. We've worked to make our process for licensing NREL technology faster; it now takes less than 60 days for us to come to an agreement and start work with a company interested in our research

  9. Occurrence and in vitro bioactivity of estrogen, androgen, and glucocorticoid compounds in a nationwide screen of United States stream waters

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — In vitro bioactivity concentrations and chemical concentrations of estrogens, androgens, and glucocorticoids from a nationwide screen of United States stream water...

  10. Plan for increasing public participation in cleanup decisions for the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-01

    This document describes a plan for involving the public in decisions related to cleaning up sites suspected of being contaminated with chemicals or radioactivity at Los Alamos National Laboratory. In this section we describe the purpose of the Environmental Remediation Project, our past efforts to communicate with the northern New Mexico community, and the events that brought about our realization that less traditional, more innovative approaches to public involvement are needed.

  11. Changes in Cleanup Strategies and Long-Term Monitoring Costs for DOE FUSRAP Sites-17241

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo, Darina [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Legacy Management; Carpenter, Cliff [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Legacy Management; Roberts, Rebecca [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc.; Young, Carl [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc.

    2017-03-05

    LM is preparing for the transfer of 11 new FUSRAP sites within the next 10 years from USACE, many of which will have substantially greater LTSM requirements than the current Completed sites. LM is analyzing the estimates for the level of effort required to monitor the new sites in order to make more customized and accurate predictions of future life cycle costs and environmental liabilities of these sites.

  12. A nationwide classification of New Zealand aquifer properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerhoff, Rogier; Tschritter, Constanze; Rawlinson, Zara; White, Paul

    2017-04-01

    Groundwater plays an essential role in water provision for domestic, industrial and agricultural use. Groundwater is also vital for ecology and environment, since it provides baseflow to many streams, rivers and wetlands. As groundwater is a 'hidden' resource that is typically poorly understood by the public, simple and informative maps can assist to enhance awareness for understanding groundwater and associated environmental issues. The first national aquifer map for New Zealand (2001) identified 200 aquifers at a scale of approximately 1:5 Million. Subsequently, regional councils and unitary authorities have updated their aquifer boundaries using a variety of methods. However, with increasing demand of groundwater in New Zealand and drought impacts expected to be more significant in the future, more consistent and more advanced aquifer characterisation and mapping techniques are needed to improve our understanding of the available resources. Significant resources have gone into detailed geological mapping in recent years, and the New Zealand 1:250,000 Geological Map (QMAP) was developed and released as a seamless GIS database in 2014. To date, there has been no national assessment of this significant data set for aquifer characterisation purposes. This study details the use of the QMAP lithological and chrono-stratigraphic information to develop a nationwide assessment of hydrogeological units and their properties. The aim of this study is to map hydrogeological units in New Zealand, with a long-term goal to use this as a basis for a nationally-consistent map of aquifer systems and aquifer properties (e.g., hydraulic conductivity estimates). Internationally accepted aquifer mapping studies were reviewed and a method was devised that classifies hydrogeological units based on the geological attributes of the QMAP ArcGIS polygons. The QMAP attributes used in this study were: main rock type; geological age; and secondary rock type. The method was mainly based on

  13. Nationwide lithological interpretation of cone penetration tests using neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Maanen, Peter-Paul; Schokker, Jeroen; Harting, Ronald; de Bruijn, Renée

    2017-04-01

    The Geological Survey of the Netherlands (GSN) systematically produces 3D stochastic geological models of the Dutch subsurface. These voxel models are regarded essential in answering subsurface-related questions on, for example, aggregate resource potential, groundwater flow, land subsidence hazard and the planning and realization of large-scale infrastructural works. GeoTOP is the most recent and detailed generation of 3D voxel models. This model describes 3D stratigraphical and lithological variability up to a depth of 50 m using voxels of 100 × 100 × 0.5 m. Currently, visually described borehole samples are the primary input of these large-scale 3D geological models, both when modeling architecture and composition. Although tens of thousands of cone penetration tests (CPTs) are performed each year, mainly in the reconnaissance phase of construction activities, these data are hardly used as geological model input. There are many reasons why it is of interest to utilize CPT data for geological and lithological modeling of the Dutch subsurface, such as: 1) CPTs are more abundant than borehole descriptions, 2) CPTs are cheaper and easier to gather, and 3) CPT data are more quantitative and uniform than visual sample descriptions. This study uses CPTs and the lithological descriptions of associated nearby undisturbed drilling cores collected by the GSN to establish a nationwide reference dataset for physical and chemical properties of the shallow subsurface. The 167 CPT-core pairs were collected at 160 locations situated in the North, West and South of the Netherlands. These locations were chosen to cover the full extent of geological units and lithological composition in the upper 30 to 40 m of the subsurface in these areas. The distance between the CPT location and associated borehole is small, varying between 0 and 30 m, with an average of 6 m. For each 2 cm CPT interval the data was automatically annotated with the lithoclass from the associated core using a

  14. Impact of oil spill and posterior clean-up activities on wrack-living talitrid amphipods on estuarine beaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Borzone

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A geomorphological and faunistic seasonal study of six estuarine beaches on Paranaguá Bay, Brazil, was abruptly interrupted when the Chilean ship "Vicuña" exploded and sank, spilling 291 tons of bunker fuel oil. The beaches sampled twice before the accident were affected by the oil spill deposition and the posterior clean-up activities. Neither drastic reduction in abundances nor occurrences of oil-covered individuals were registered. Significant variation in both amount of debris and talitrid amphipod densities was directly related to beach clean-up activities. A short (1-3 month manual clean-up of polluted wrack resulted in an increase in talitrid abundances, with the local distribution expansion of one species, Platorchestia monodi, from three to six of the beaches sampled. The active migration and concentration of organisms at sites without wrack during cleaning activities and a massive and continuous recovery of new debris, characteristic of estuarine beaches, may contribute to the findings.Um estudo sazonal da geomorfologia e fauna de seis praias estuarinas na baia de Paranaguá, Brasil, foi interrompido bruscamente pela explosão e posterior afundamento do navio chileno Vicuña, que derramou 291 toneladas de óleo bunker. As praias que foram afetadas pela deposição de óleo e pelas posteriores atividades de limpeza, tinham sido amostradas duas vezes antes do acidente. Nas coletas posteriores ao acidente não foram registradas nem reduções drásticas das abundâncias nem indivíduos impregnados por óleo. As significativas variações tanto da quantidade de detrito quanto nas densidades de anfipodes talitrídeos foram relacionadas às atividades de limpeza. Uma limpeza manual e de curta duração (1 a 3 meses resultou num aumento das abundâncias dos talitrídeos, juntamente com o aumento da distribuição de uma das espécies, Platorchestia monodi, que de três passou a ser encontrada em seis praias amostradas.Os fatores que

  15. A nationwide population-based study of depression in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munhoz, Tiago N; Nunes, Bruno P; Wehrmeister, Fernando C; Santos, Iná S; Matijasevich, Alicia

    2016-03-01

    The state of mental health of the population is considered to be an important and essential component of public health. Depression is the mental disorder with greatest prevalence in several countries around the world. This was a nationwide Brazilian survey with household-based interviews. The sampling process was at random and cluster-based, and performed in three stages: census tracts, households and individuals. One inhabitant aged ≥18 years was selected per household. Individuals at greater risk of depression were identified through the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) algorithm, which uses internationally accepted diagnostic criteria. All analyses took into account sample weights. A total of 60,202 individuals were evaluated and the prevalence of positive screening for depression was 4.1% (95% CI: 3.8-4.4%). After adjustments for potential confounding factors, depression was found to be greater among women, individuals aged either 40-59 years or 80 years or over, individuals living in urban areas, those with lower educational level, smokers, and among individuals with arterial hypertension, diabetes and heart disorders. Skin colour, marital status and alcohol abuse were not associated with depression. Characteristics of respondents and non-respondents in the sample could not be compared because data about non-respondents was not available. The prevalence of positive screening for depression in Brazil was similar to other studies conducted worldwide. In Brazil, this proportion reflects a considerable absolute number of people with greater risk of depression (≈5.5 million) that may require adequate management through the health system and services. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Clinical course of multiple sclerosis: A nationwide cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manouchehrinia, Ali; Beiki, Omid; Hillert, Jan

    2017-10-01

    The course of multiple sclerosis (MS) has been studied in several cohorts; however, results have varied significantly. To describe the clinical course of MS in a nationwide cohort of patients. Data from the Swedish MS register (SMSreg) were used to estimate the median time to the sustained Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) scores 3.0, 4.0 and 6.0, onset of secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS) and death using Kaplan-Meier method. A possible effect of first-line treatments on age at EDSS 6.0 and SPMS was estimated. In all, 12,703 patients were included. Median ages at EDSS scores 3.0, 4.0 and 6.0 were 55.4 (95% confidence interval (CI): 54.8-55.8), 60.7 (95% CI: 60.1-61.2) and 64.3 (95% CI: 63.6-64.7), respectively. Median age at SPMS was 57.4 (95% CI: 56.9-57.9). The median age at the time of death was 80.5 (95% CI: 79.9-81.1). Males and progressive-onset patients showed higher risks of disability worsening. On average, treated patients gained 1.6 years (95% CI: 0.2-3) to EDSS 6.0 as a result of treatment. Ages at disability milestones in this population-based cohort were higher than previously described in clinic- and regional-based samples. Nevertheless, MS patients die at younger age and live at an average almost 20 years with moderate and 30 years with severe disability.

  17. Macronutrient analysis of a nationwide sample of donor breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcik, Katherine Y; Rechtman, David J; Lee, Martin L; Montoya, Armando; Medo, Elena T

    2009-01-01

    Banked donor milk may be a reasonable substitute for mother's milk for human infants. No data on the macronutrient composition of banked donor milk have been reported. This study determined the composition of donated milk from a large number of banked donor milk samples and compared it to the reported values for macronutrients in mature breast milk. During a 9-month sampling period (May 2006 through February 2007) from a nationwide milk bank network, 415 sequential samples from 273 unique donors were analyzed for fat, protein, and lactose content, as well as energy density. Descriptive statistics were computed, including mean, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, median, and range. Percentiles were determined from the empirical distribution of the data. A ninety-five percent confidence interval was computed using standard, large sample (Gaussian) methods. Banked donor milk mean values (in weight/volume) were found to be 1.16%+/-0.25% for protein, 3.22%+/-1.00% for fat, 7.80%+/-0.88% for lactose, and mean total energy was 65+/-11 kcal/dL. Banked donor milk macronutrient content was found to differ from the values reported in the literature for mature human milk. Unformulated banked donor milk alone, similar to mother's milk alone, does not have sufficient macronutrient content or energy density to sustain a very-low-birth-weight preterm infant. Fortification could make up for these shortcomings, perhaps making formulated banked donor milk a better choice for preterm infants than bovine-based formulas when mother's milk is unavailable.

  18. Congenital aortic stenosis: treatment outcomes in a nationwide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallio, Merja; Rahkonen, Otto; Mattila, Ilkka; Pihkala, Jaana

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate treatment outcomes of pediatric valvar aortic stenosis (AS) in a nationwide follow-up. Balloon aortic valvuloplasty (BAV) has been the preferred treatment for congenital AS in Finland since the year 2000. All children treated due to isolated AS during 2000-2014 were included in this retrospective study. Treatment outcomes were categorized into Optimal: residual gradient  ≤35 mmHg and trivial or no aortic regurgitation (AR), Adequate: gradient ≤35 mmHg with mild AR, or Inadequate: gradient >35 mmHg and/or moderate to severe AR. Sixty-one patients underwent either BAV (n = 54) or surgical valvuloplasty (n = 7) for valvar AS at a median age of 29 days (range 6 hours to 16.9 years). The proportion of patients not requiring reintervention at 1, 5, and 10 years was 61%, 50%, and 29% in neonates and 83%, 73%, and 44% in older patients, respectively (p = .02); without difference between treatment groups. Larger proportion of patients remained free from valve surgery after optimal BAV result than after adequate or inadequate result (p = .01). The reason for the first reintervention was AS in 50%, AR in 36%, and combined aortic valve disease in 16% of cases. Early mortality (before hospital discharge) was 4.9%, and associated with critical AS in neonates. There was no late mortality during the follow-up. Although majority of congenital AS patients require more than one intervention during childhood, an optimal BAV result improves long-term outcome by increasing the proportion of patients remaining free from valve surgery. High long-term freedom from reintervention is attainable also in the neonatal population.

  19. Cardiac arrest in schools: Nationwide incidence, risk, and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Soyun; Shin, Sang Do; Lee, Kyungwon; Song, Kyoung Jun; Ahn, Ki Ok; Kim, Yu Jin; Hong, Ki Jeong; Ro, Young Sun; Lee, Eui Jung

    2017-01-01

    Schools are an important location for improving OHCA outcome. But there are few data on out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) in schools. This study aimed to show incidence and outcome of OHCA in schools, specifying location and activities. We used the Korean nationwide OHCA registry from 2008 to 2014. OHCA victims were categorized regarding level of school. The average annual incidence of OHCA was calculated based on per 1000 schools. The epidemiological characteristics are analysed and location and activity at the time of arrest is further described. The outcome of OHCA victims were analysed. 511 OHCA occurred in school while 374 cases were cardiac origin, 125 cases were non-cardiac, and 12 cases were missing in information. Annual incidence was 5.72 per 1000 school while highest incidence was shown in university (11.02 per 1000 school). The majority of victims were male (84.1%), aged 19-64 (62.2%, median 44.75), either students (35.0%) or visitors (35.2%). Most victims had none shockable rhythms, did not received EMS defibrillation and were not witnessed arrests, while most received bystander CPR. A large proportion of arrests occurred at an outdoor campus (29.7%) or sports facility (28.8%), and the most frequent activity was exercise (30.7%). 100 patients (19.6%) survived to discharge, and 66 patients (12.9%) were discharged with good neurological outcome. Incidence of OHCA in school is low. Most of victims were adult visitors. About one third of OHCA occurred during sports activity or at the sports facility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Active and Healthy Lifestyle - Nationwide Programs in Israeli Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zach, Sima; Inglis, Varda; Zeev, Aviva; Arnon, Michal; Netz, Yael

    2017-07-03

    The World Health Organization (WHO) announced the 'Global School Health Initiative' in 1995 following recommendations formulated in the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. Hence, the aims of the present study were to describe the various programs for nurturing an active and healthy lifestyle implemented during 2011-12 in schools in Israel, and to identify variables that may explain the success versus lack of success in implementing these programs. Participants were a nationwide representative sample of 126 school principals from six supervisory districts of the Ministry of Education, including six sectors, from the elementary, junior-high and senior-high school levels. Semi-structured telephone interviews were recorded and processed using the ATLAS.ti software for qualitative analysis. Physical education teachers, sciences teachers and social coordinators led the programs' implementation. The programs included four main activities domains: health, physical education, nutrition and sustainability. Three types of program implementation were observed: leading principles, teaching methods, and external programs. Parents were involved mostly in elementary schools. Evidence of program integration into school life was presented by changes in children's behaviors, whereas difficulties stemmed from lack of budget and teaching hours. Science and physical education lessons constituted the anchor for the programs. The schools needed a committed leader to help conduct and maintain the program. Thus, the role of the school principal was to initiate the idea of developing a program, encourage its implementation, select a leader for the program, and then, most importantly, to reinforce the teachers' enthusiasm. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Internet addiction among Iranian adolescents: a nationwide study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khodabakhsh Ahmadi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Problematic use of the Internet by children and adolescents is a newly emerging disorder that has alerted health authorities throughout the world. In Iran, despite the very high speed rate of Internet spread, there is not enough data on the rate of Internet addiction among the adolescents. This study is the first nationwide study that addresses this issue. Overall 4500 students of high school or pre-college schools were recruited from 13/31 provinces of Iran by a cluster sampling method and 4342 (96% participated. Two self-rated questionnaires (one demographics and one Young's Internet addiction scale were filled b the participants. Data were analyzed by SPSS software. 962 (22.2% of the study participants were labeled as having "internet addiction." Males were significantly more likely to be an internet addict (P<0.001. Students whose father and/or mother had a doctorate degree were most likely to have Internet addiction (P<0.001 for both. Job engagement of mothers was significantly associated with students' internet addiction, and the least rate of addiction was observed when the mother was a housewife (P<0.001; having no exercise was associated with the highest rate of Internet addiction (P<0.001. Stepwise logistic regression models showed gender (male, older age, mother's occupation, family's financial status (either very high or very low, low quality of family relationship, and students' lower levels of religious devotion were significantly associated with having Internet addiction. This study showed that Internet addiction in Iranian adolescents is prevalent, and has several independent factors, from which, family relations is most likely to be modifiable. Improvements in family relations and more strict parental supervision, especially when mothers have active job employment, are recommended.

  2. [A nationwide survey on the hand washing behavior and awareness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jae Sim; Choi, Jun Kil; Jeong, Ihn Sook; Paek, Kyong Ran; In, Hye-Kyung; Park, Ki Dong

    2007-05-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the public's awareness of the importance of hand washing and to compare perceptions on the habit of hand washing with actual hand washing behavior. Data were collected by observing 2,800 participants washing their hands after using public restrooms in seven cities nationwide and by surveying 1,000 respondents (age>14 years) through telephone interviews using a structured questionnaire. Although 94% of the survey respondents claimed to mostly or always wash their hands after using public restrooms, only 63.4% of the observed participants did wash their hands after using public restrooms. Significant factors related to increased adherence to hand washing were female gender, approximate ages of 20 to 39 years by their appearance, and the presence of other people from the observation. About 79% of the survey respondents always washed their hands after using bathrooms at home, 73% washed their hands before handling food, and 67% washed their hands upon returning to their home. However, 93.2% and 86.3% of the survey respondents did not wash their hands after coughing or sneezing and after handling money, respectively. Although most of the survey respondents (77.6%) were aware that hand washing is helpful in preventing communicable diseases, 39.6% of the survey respondents did not do so because they were 'not accustomed' to washing their hands and 30.2% thought that washing their hands is 'annoying'. This is the first comprehensive report on hand washing behavior and awareness of the general population in Korea. The result of this study in terms of individual behavior and awareness of hand washing are comparable with similar studies conducted in other countries. However adherence to hand washing is still low and needs to be increased. The results of this study can be used as a baseline in setting up strategies and activities to promote adherence to hand washing.

  3. Acute pesticide poisoning outcomes: a nationwide study in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chieh-Fan; Lin, Hsing-Lin; Chou, Huei-Yin; Hsu, Wen-Chi; Shi, Hon-Yi

    2015-03-01

    This study presents the findings of a nationwide study of acute pesticide poisoning (APP) outcomes, including outcome predictors such as physician and hospital volume and associated factors. This study of data contained in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database analysed 27 046 patients who had been hospitalised for APP from January 1996 to December 2007. Patient characteristics were then compared among quartiles. The primary outcome measures were length of stay (LOS) and hospital treatment cost. Effect size (ES) was compared among three equally divided periods, and multiple regression models were used to identify outcome predictors. The overall prevalence of APP per 100 000 patients decreased from 12.43 in 1996 to 6.87 in 2007. The LOS for APP treatment was negatively associated with physician volume during the study period. Both LOS and hospital treatment cost were lowest in the high hospital volume subgroup. Comparisons of LOS and hospital treatment cost among the three periods showed that high-volume hospitals and high-volume physicians had better ESs compared to low-volume hospitals and low-volume physicians. Age and number of co-morbidities had significant positive associations with LOS, while admission year, male gender, hospital level, hospital volume and physician volume had significant negative associations with LOS (p<0.05). Hospital treatment cost and hospital level correlated positively with admission year, number of co-morbidities and LOS but correlated negatively with hospital volume and physician volume (p<0.05). In APP patients, treatment by a high-volume physician can reduce LOS and treatment cost. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Comorbidity and Childhood Epilepsy: A Nationwide Registry Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaberg, Kari Modalsli; Bakken, Inger Johanne; Lossius, Morten I; Lund Søraas, Camilla; Håberg, Siri Eldevik; Stoltenberg, Camilla; Surén, Pål; Chin, Richard

    2016-09-01

    Children with epilepsy are at increased risk of other disorders and difficulties, preceding, cooccurring with, or after the diagnosis of epilepsy. Risk estimates vary, few studies are population-based, and few provide comprehensive assessments of comorbidities. We used nationwide registry data to describe frequencies of medical, neurologic, developmental, and psychiatric conditions occurring before and after children are diagnosed with childhood epilepsy. Data were obtained from the Norwegian Patient Registry, which is an administrative database recording International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision diagnoses from all government-funded specialist health services in Norway (outpatient consultations and hospitalizations). We included data from the years 2008 through 2013 for all children born in Norway between 1996 and 2013 (0-17 years of age at the end of follow-up). Children with epilepsy were compared with the general child population, adjusting for sex and age. We also compared children with complicated epilepsies (ie, epilepsies with additional neurologic and/or developmental disorders) to children with uncomplicated epilepsies. The study population included 1 125 161 children. There were 6635 (0.6%) children with epilepsy. Nearly 80% of children with epilepsy had ≥1 comorbid disorder. All types of disorders were more frequent in children with epilepsy, with additional medical disorders recorded in 55%, neurologic disorders in 41%, and developmental/psychiatric disorders in 43%. Children with complicated epilepsies had the highest overall levels of comorbidity, but the risk of medical and psychiatric comorbidities was also substantial among children with uncomplicated epilepsies. The overall frequency of comorbid disease is high in children with epilepsy, including children with presumably uncomplicated epilepsies. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  5. Hypothyroidism incidence in and around pregnancy: a Danish nationwide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, S L; Carlé, A; Olsen, J; Laurberg, P

    2016-11-01

    Immunological changes in and after a pregnancy may influence the onset of autoimmune diseases. An increased incidence of hyperthyroidism has been observed both in early pregnancy and postpartum, but it remains to be studied if the incidence of hypothyroidism varies in a similar way. Population-based cohort study using Danish nationwide registers. All women who gave birth to a singleton live-born child in Denmark from 1999 to 2008 (n = 403 958) were identified, and data on hospital diagnosis of hypothyroidism and redeemed prescriptions of thyroid hormone were extracted. The overall incidence rate (IR) of hypothyroidism during 1997-2010 and the IR in three-month intervals before, during and after the woman's first pregnancy in the study period were calculated and compared with the IR of hyperthyroidism. Altogether 5220 women were identified with onset of hypothyroidism from 1997 to 2010 (overall IR 92.3/100 000/year) and 1572 women developed hypothyroidism in the period from 2 years before to 2 years after birth of the first child in the study period. The incidence of hypothyroidism decreased during the pregnancy (incidence rate ratio (IRR) vs overall IR in the rest of the study period: first trimester: 0.89 (95% CI: 0.66-1.19), second trimester: 0.71 (0.52-0.97), third trimester: 0.29 (0.19-0.45)) and increased after birth with the highest level at 4-6 months postpartum (IRR 3.62 (2.85-4.60)). These are the first population-based data on the incidence of hypothyroidism in and around pregnancy. The incidence declined during pregnancy followed by a sharp increase postpartum. Notably, hypothyroidism as opposed to hyperthyroidism showed no early pregnancy increase. © 2016 European Society of Endocrinology.

  6. Vascular comorbidities in multiple sclerosis: a nationwide study from Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thormann, Anja; Magyari, Melinda; Koch-Henriksen, Nils; Laursen, Bjarne; Sørensen, Per Soelberg

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the occurrence of vascular comorbidities before and after the clinical onset of multiple sclerosis. In this combined case-control and cohort study, all Danish born citizens with onset of multiple sclerosis 1980-2005 were identified from the Danish Multiple Sclerosis Registry and randomly matched with controls regarding year of birth, gender, and municipality on January 1st in the year of multiple sclerosis (MS) onset (index date). Individual-level information on comorbidities was obtained from several independent nationwide registries and linked to the study population by unique personal identification numbers. To assess the presence of vascular comorbidities before and after MS onset, cases and controls were followed from January 1977 to the index date, and from the index date through December 2012. We used logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and Cox regression to calculate hazard ratios (HRs). Before the index date, MS cases had a decreased probability for cerebrovascular comorbidity [OR 0.69 (95 % CI 0.48-0.99, p = 0.043)], and a numerically but not statistically significant decreased probability for cardiovascular comorbidity [OR 0.87 (95 % CI 0.71-1.07, p = 0.188)]. After the index date, MS cases had an increased risk for cerebrovascular comorbidity [HR 1.84 (95 % CI 1.69-2.00, p < 0.0005)], and for cardiovascular comorbidity [HR 1.08 (95 % CI 1.02-1.15, p = 0.013)]. The lower occurrence of cerebrovascular comorbidities in cases prior to MS onset could be due to protective immune mechanisms, while the higher occurrence of vascular comorbidities in cases after MS onset could be because of converging causal pathways of the coexisting diseases. These findings deserve to be studied closer in a broader spectrum of comorbidities in MS.

  7. Acute hepatic porphyria and cancer risk: a nationwide cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baravelli, C M; Sandberg, S; Aarsand, A K; Nilsen, R M; Tollånes, M C

    2017-09-01

    Acute hepatic porphyria (AHP) is considered to be a risk factor for primary liver cancer (PLC), but varying risk estimates have been published. Our aim was to investigate the risk of PLC and other cancers in persons with AHP using a nationwide cohort design. Given that greater numbers of women than men tend to have manifest and more severe AHP, a further aim was to investigate sex differences in this risk. The study sample consisted of all Norwegian residents aged 18 years or older during the period 2000-2011. Persons with AHP (n = 251) were identified through the Norwegian Porphyria Centre, and patients with a cancer diagnosis were identified by linkage to the Cancer Registry of Norway. For persons with AHP, the annual incidence rate of PLC was 0.35%. PLC risk was substantially higher for individuals with an AHP diagnosis compared to the reference population [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 108, 95% confidence interval (CI) 56-207]. In a meta-analysis of published studies on PLC and AHP, including ours, women had a higher risk than men. In addition, our results suggested that persons with AHP may have increased risks of kidney (aHR 7.4, 95% CI 2.4-23.1) and endometrial cancers (aHR 6.2, 95% CI 2.0-19.3). Our findings confirmed a substantially higher risk of PLC associated with AHP compared to the general population. In a meta-analysis, the risk was shown to be greater for women than men. The novel findings of a moderate to substantial association between AHP and kidney and endometrial cancers should be investigated further. © 2017 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  8. Manager's effort and endogenous economic discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Orrillo

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Assume a labor supply consisting of two types of workers, 1 and 2. Both workers are equally productive and exhibit supply functions with the same elasticity. We consider a firm (entrepreneur or shareholders that is competitive in the output market and monopsonistic in input markets. The firm uses the services of a manager who has a high human capital and whose wage is given by the market. It is supposed that the manager does not like to work with one type of worker, say type 1. If we allow the manager's effort to be an additional input without any extra (in addition to his salary cost for the firm, then the firm's pricing decision will be different for both workers. That is, there will be a wage differential and therefore endogenous economic discrimination2 in the labor markets.Vamos assumir que a oferta de trabalho consiste de dois tipos de trabalhadores, 1 e 2. Ambos os trabalhadores são igualmente produtivos e exibem funções de oferta com a mesma elasticidade. Consideramos uma firma (empresário ou acionistas, a qual é competitiva no mercado de produtos e monopsonista nos mercados de insumos. A firma usa os serviços de um gerente quem tem um alto capital humano e cujo salário é dado pelo mercado. Suponhamos que o gerente não gosta de trabalhar com um tipo de trabalhador, digamos o tipo 1. Se permitirmos que o esforço do gerente seja um insumo adicional sem nenhum custo extra (além de seu salário, a decisão de salários será diferente para ambos os trabalhadores. Isto é, haverá um diferencial de salários e, em conseqüência, uma discriminação econômica1 endógena nos mercados de trabalho.

  9. VLTI-UT vibrations effort and performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poupar, Sébastien; Haguenauer, Pierre; Alonso, Jaime; Schuhler, Nicolas; Henriquez, Juan-Pablo; Berger, Jean-Philippe; Bourget, Pierre; Brillant, Stephane; Castillo, Roberto; Gitton, Philippe; Gonte, Frederic; Di Lieto, Nicola; Lizon, Jean-Louis; Merand, Antoine; Woillez, Julien

    2014-07-01

    The ESO Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) using the Unit Telescope (UT) was strongly affected by vibrations since the first observations. Investigation by ESO on that subject had started in 2007, with a considerable effort since mid 2008. An important number of investigations on various sub-systems (On telescope: Guiding, Passive supports, Train Coude, insulation of electronics cabinets; On Instruments: dedicated campaign on each instruments with a special attention on the ones equipped with Close Cycle Cooler) were realized. Vibrations were not only recorded and analyzed using the usual accelerometers but also using on use sub-systems as InfRared Image Sensor (IRIS) and Multiple Applications Curvature Adaptive Optics (MACAO) and using a specific tool developed for vibrations measurements Mirror vibrAtion Metrology systeM for the Unit Telescope (MAMMUT). Those tools and systems have been used in order to improve the knowledge on telescope by finding sources. The sources whenever it was possible were damped. As known for years, instruments are still the principal sources of vibrations, for the majority of the UT. A special test in which 2 UTs instruments were completely shut down was realized to determine the minimum Optical Path Length (OPL) achievable. Vibrations is now a part of the instruments interface document and during the installation of any new instrument (KMOS) or system (AOF) a test campaign is realized. As a result some modifications (damping of CCC) can be asked in case of non-compliance. To ensure good operational conditions, levels of vibrations are regularly recorded to control any environmental change.

  10. Revegetation Plan for Areas of the Fitzner-Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology Reserve Affected by Decommissioning of Buildings and Infrastructure and Debris Clean-up Actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downs, Janelle L.; Durham, Robin E.; Larson, Kyle B.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office is working to remove a number of facilities on the Fitzner Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology Reserve (ALE), which is part of the Hanford Reach National Monument. Decommissioning and removal of buildings and debris on ALE will leave bare soils and excavated areas that need to be revegetated to prevent erosion and weed invasion. Four main areas within ALE are affected by these activities (DOE 2009;DOE/EA-1660F): 1) facilities along the ridgeline of Rattlesnake Mountain, 2) the former Nike missile base and ALE HQ laboratory buildings, 3) the aquatic research laboratory at Rattlesnake Springs area, and 4) a number of small sites across ALE where various types of debris remain from previous uses. This revegetation plan addresses the revegetation and restoration of those land areas disturbed by decommissioning and removal of buildings, facilities and associated infrastructure or debris removal. The primary objective of the revegetation efforts on ALE is to establish native vegetation at each of the sites that will enhance and accelerate the recovery of the native plant community that naturally persists at that location. Revegetation is intended to meet the direction specified by the Environmental Assessment (DOE 2009; DOE/EA-1660F) and by Stipulation C.7 of the Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) for the Rattlesnake Mountain Combined Community Communication Facility and InfrastructureCleanup on the Fitzner/Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology Reserve, Hanford Site, Richland Washington(DOE 2009; Appendix B). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) under contract with CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CPRC) and in consultation with the tribes and DOE-RL developed a site-specific strategy for each of the revegetation units identified within this document. The strategy and implementation approach for each revegetation unit identifies an appropriate native species mix and outlines the necessary site preparation activities

  11. Analysis of sterigmatocystin in cereals, animal feed, seeds, beer and cheese by immunoaffinity column clean-up and HPLC and LC-MS/MS quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, Elaine; Brown, Phyllis; Mackie, Jennifer; Donnelly, Carol; Wilcox, Joyce; Pietri, Amedeo; Macdonald, Susan

    2015-01-01

    A method is reported for the analysis of sterigmatocystin in various food and feed matrices using a commercial sterigmatocystin immunoaffinity column (IAC) for sample clean-up prior to HPLC analysis by UV with mass spectrometric detection (LC-MS/MS). Cereals (wheat, oats, rye, maize and rice), sunflower seeds and animal feed were spiked with sterigmatocystin at levels from 0.75 to 50 µg kg(-1) to establish method performance. Using acetonitrile/water extraction followed by IAC clean-up, and analysis by HPLC with detection at 325 nm, recoveries ranged from 68% to 106%, with repeatability from 4.2% to 17.5%. The limit of quantification with UV detection in these matrices was 1.5 µg kg(-1). For the analysis of beer and cheese the sample preparation prior to IAC clean-up was changed to accommodate the different properties of the matrix, prior to analysis by LC-MS/MS. For beer and cheese spiked at 5.0 µg kg(-1) the recoveries were 94% and 104%, and precision (RSDs) were 1.9% and 2.9% respectively. The limits of quantification by LC-MS/MS in beer and cheese were 0.02 and 0.6 µg kg(-1) respectively. The sterigmatocystin IAC was demonstrated to provide an efficient clean-up of various matrices to enable this mycotoxin to be determined by either HPLC with UV detection or LC-MS/MS.

  12. Molecular level insights to the interaction of toluene with ZrO2-based biomass gasification gas clean-up catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viinikainen, T.; Kauppi, I.; Korhonen, S.; Lefferts, Leonardus; Kanervo, J.; Lehtonen, J.

    2013-01-01

    Gasification of biomass, followed by ZrO2-catalyzed hot gas clean-up at 600–900 °C for the oxidation of impurities (such as tar), is an environmentally attractive way to produce heat and power or synthesis gas. The interaction of toluene (as a model compound for tar) with ZrO2-based gasification gas

  13. Evaluation of a new carbon/zirconia-based sorbent for the cleanup of food extracts in multiclass analysis of pesticides and environmental contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    A novel carbon/zirconia based material, SupelTM QuE Verde (Verde), was evaluated in a filter-vial dispersive solid phase extraction (d-SPE) cleanup of QuEChERS extracts of pork, salmon, kale, and avocado for residual analysis of pesticides and environmental contaminants. Low pressure (LP) GC-MS/MS w...

  14. Separation and determination of citrinin in corn using HPLC fluorescence detection assisted by molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction clean-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    A liquid chromatography based method to detect citrinin in corn was developed using molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction (MISPE) sample clean-up. Molecularly imprinted polymers were synthesized using 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoic acid as the template and an amine functional monomer. Density func...

  15. Planar solid phase extraction--a new clean-up concept in multi-residue analysis of pesticides by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oellig, Claudia; Schwack, Wolfgang

    2011-09-16

    Efficient clean-up is indispensable for preventing matrix effects in multi-residue analysis of pesticides in food by liquid and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. As a completely new approach, highly automated planar chromatographic tools were applied for powerful clean-up, called high-throughput planar solid phase extraction (HTpSPE). Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) was used to completely separate pesticides from matrix compounds and to focus them into a sharp zone, followed by extraction of the target zone by the TLC-MS interface. HTpSPE resulted in extracts nearly free of interference and free of matrix effects, as shown for seven chemically representative pesticides in four different matrices (apples, cucumbers, red grapes, tomatoes). Regarding the clean-up step, quantification by LC-MS provided mean recovery (against solvent standards) of 90-104% with relative standard deviations of 0.3-4.1% (n=5) for two spiking levels of 0.1 and 0.5 mg/kg. Clean-up of one sample was completed in a manner of minutes, while running numerous samples in parallel at reduced costs, with very low sample and solvent volumes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The Development of an Automated Clean-up for Fat Extracts in the Routine Analysis of Organochlorine Compounds in Fish Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Andreea CIOCA

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes the development of a new, automatic High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC Clean-up step, in the methodology of sample preparation and multi-residue determination of organochlorine compounds (OCs in fish meat. 24 OCs were taken into study. In addition 7 Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs, 7 chlorobenzene compounds and one 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD were investigated. The HPLC conditions were established in accordance with the validated traditional Clean-up step of the laboratory. The technique was applied on a dilution of analytes of interest in order to establish the period of time in which the compounds are eluted. Another set of experiments involved fish oil, in order to identify and separate the fat fraction from the analytes. To confirm the findings of the experiments mentioned above, extracts of fish samples obtained after Accelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE were examined. The samples were spiked with the analytes of interest before HPLC clean-up step and quantified through Gas Chromatography coupled with tandem Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS/MS. A HPLC clean-up technique lasting 38 minutes/sample was developed. The method is not suitable for OCs such as Endosulfansulfat and Endrine Ketone due to the very low recovery results.Â

  17. Enrichment and low-level determination of glyphosate, aminomethylphosphonic acid and glufosinate in drinking water after cleanup by cation exchange resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küsters, Markus; Gerhartz, Michael

    2010-04-01

    For the determination of glyphosate, aminomethylphosphonic acid and glufosinate in drinking water, different procedures of enrichment and cleanup were examined using anion exchange or SPE. In many cases interactions of, e.g. alkaline earth metal ions especially calcium could be observed during enrichment and cleanup resulting in loss of analytes. For that reason, a novel cleanup and enrichment procedure for the determination of these phosphonic acid herbicides has been developed in drinking water using cation-exchange resin. In summary, the cleanup procedure with cation-exchange resin developed in this study avoids interactions as described above and is applicable to calcium-rich drinking water samples. After derivatization with 9-fluorenylmethylchloroformate followed by LC with fluorescence detection, LOD of 12, 14 and 12 ng/L and mean recoveries from real-world drinking water samples of 98+/-9, 100+/-16 and 101+/-11% were obtained for glyphosate, aminomethylphosphonic acid and glufosinate, respectively. The low LODs and the high precision permit the analysis of these phosphonic acid herbicides according to the guidelines of the European Commission.

  18. Is the cutting of oil contaminated marshes an efficient clean-up technique in a subtropical estuary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolinski, André L T O; Lana, Paulo C; Sandrini-Neto, Leonardo

    2011-06-01

    Cutting and removal of oil-impacted marsh plants are still used worldwide as a clean-up and recovery technique. To experimentally test the efficacy of cutting and removing marsh plants under subtropical conditions, we simulated an oil spill (Bunker MF-180) in Spartina alterniflora marshes and compared the responses of plant height, biomass, density of culms and number of flowering plants in high and low energy areas in Paranaguá Bay (S Brazil) for about 9 months. Cutting and removal were inefficient in promoting or accelerating the recovery of the impacted areas. Cut or uncut impacted marshes fully recovered within 6 months, both in low and high energy areas. Plant cutting should be practiced only when there is an effective risk of contamination of groundwater near urban areas, when obvious aesthetical issues are involved in areas of touristic interest or when there are real short-term conservation risks to threatened species. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Supercritical fluid extraction as a clean-up method for the extraction of pesticides from wool wax. A preliminary approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crespi, M

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The work presented is a preliminary study for the development of a method for the extraction of pesticides from wax samples by means of superficial fluid extraction. The novelty of the study is the direct extraction of the pesticides from raw wool wax without any cleanup, as direct extraction has been considered almost impossible by many authors.Este trabajo es un estudio preliminar para el desarrollo de un método de extracción de pesticidas directamente de las muestras de cera mediante extracción con fluido supercrítico. La novedad del estudio consiste en la extracción directa de los pesticidas de la cera de lana cruda sin ninguna limpieza previa, cuando muchos autores han considerado casi imposible la extracción directa.

  20. Hollow Few-Layer Graphene-Based Structures from Parafilm Waste for Flexible Transparent Supercapacitors and Oil Spill Cleanup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Duc Dung; Hsieh, Ping-Yen; Tsai, Meng-Ting; Lee, Chi-Young; Tai, Nyan-Hwa; To, Bao Dong; Vu, Duc Tu; Hsu, Chia Chen

    2017-11-22

    We report a versatile strategy to exploit parafilm waste as a carbon precursor for fabrication of freestanding, hollow few-layer graphene fiber mesh (HFGM) structures without use of any gaseous carriers/promoters via an annealing route. The freestanding HFGMs possess good mechanical flexibility, tailorable transparency, and high electrical conductivity, consequently qualifying them as promising electrochemical electrodes. Because of the hollow spaces, electrolyte ions can easily access into and contact with interior surfaces of the graphene fibers, accordingly increasing electrode/electrolyte interfacial area. As expected, solid-state supercapacitors based on the HFGMs exhibit a considerable enhancement in specific capacitance (20-30 fold) as compared to those employing chemical vapor deposition compact graphene films. Moreover, the parafilm waste is found to be beneficial for one-step fabrication of nanocarbon/few-layer graphene composite meshes with superior electrochemical performance, outstanding superhydrophobic property, good self-cleaning ability, and great promise for oil spill cleanup.

  1. Choosing appropriate subpopulations for modeling tree canopy cover nationwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gretchen G. Moisen; John W. Coulston; Barry T. Wilson; Warren B. Cohen; Mark V. Finco

    2012-01-01

    In prior national mapping efforts, the country has been divided into numerous ecologically similar mapping zones, and individual models have been constructed for each zone. Additionally, a hierarchical approach has been taken within zones to first mask out areas of nonforest, then target models of tree attributes within forested areas only. This results in many models...

  2. Automated multi-filtration cleanup with nitrogen-enriched activated carbon material as pesticide multi-residue analysis method in representative crop commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yuhong; Zhang, Jingru; Li, Yifan; Wang, Qiuxiao; Wu, Yangliu; Xu, Lanshu; Jin, Xiaojuan; Pan, Canping

    2017-09-15

    An automated multi-filtration cleanup (Auto m-FC) method with nitrogen-enriched activated carbon material based on modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) extracts was developed. It was applied to pesticide multi-residue analysis in six representative crop commodities. The automatic device was aimed to improve the cleanup efficiency and reduce manual operation workload in cleanup step. By controlling extracts volume, flow rate and Auto m-FC cycles, the device could finish cleanup process accurately. In this work, nitrogen-enriched activated carbon mixed with alternative sorbents and anhydrous magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) was packed in a column for Auto m-FC and followed by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) detection. This newly developed carbon material showed excellent cleanup performance. It was validated by analyzing 23 pesticides in six representative matrices spiked at two concentration levels of 10 and 100μg/kg. Water addition volume, salts, sorbents, Auto m-FC procedure including the flow rate and the Auto m-FC cycles for each matrix were optimized. Then, three general Auto m-FC methods were introduced to high water content, high oil and starch content, difficult commodities. Spike recoveries were within 82 and 106% and 1-14% RSD for all analytes in the tested matrices. Matrix-matched calibrations were performed with the coefficients of determination over 0.997 between concentration levels of 10 and 1000μg/kg. The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of pesticide residues in market samples. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. A security framework for nationwide health information exchange based on telehealth strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidan, B B; Haiqi, Ahmed; Zaidan, A A; Abdulnabi, Mohamed; Kiah, M L Mat; Muzamel, Hussaen

    2015-05-01

    This study focuses on the situation of health information exchange (HIE) in the context of a nationwide network. It aims to create a security framework that can be implemented to ensure the safe transmission of health information across the boundaries of care providers in Malaysia and other countries. First, a critique of the major elements of nationwide health information networks is presented from the perspective of security, along with such topics as the importance of HIE, issues, and main approaches. Second, a systematic evaluation is conducted on the security solutions that can be utilized in the proposed nationwide network. Finally, a secure framework for health information transmission is proposed within a central cloud-based model, which is compatible with the Malaysian telehealth strategy. The outcome of this analysis indicates that a complete security framework for a global structure of HIE is yet to be defined and implemented. Our proposed framework represents such an endeavor and suggests specific techniques to achieve this goal.

  4. Gender differences in sudden cardiac death in the young-a nationwide study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkel, Bo Gregers; Risgaard, Bjarke; Bjune, Thea

    2017-01-01

    Background: Hitherto, sudden cardiac death (SCD) in the young has been described with no distinction between genders. SCD occurs more often in men (SCDm) than women (SCDw), but this disparity is not understood and has not been investigated systematically in a nationwide setting. Our objective......=0.02) and died less often in a public place (16 vs. 26%, p=0.01). Age at death, ratios of autopsies and sudden unexplained deaths, and comorbidities, did not differ. Causes of SCD were largely comparable between genders. The incidence rate of SCDw was half of that of SCDm (1.8 vs. 3.6 per 100...... was to report gender differences in SCD in the young in a nationwide (Denmark) setting. Methods: All deaths in persons aged 1-35 years nationwide in Denmark between 2000 and 2009 were included. Death certificates and autopsy reports were obtained. The extensive health care registries in Denmark were used...

  5. Building Nation-Wide Information Infrastructures in Healthcare through Modular Implementation Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanestad, Margunn; Jensen, Tina Blegind

    2011-01-01

    initiatives, where a national project failed to deliver interoperable Electronic Patient Record (EPR) systems while a small, local solution grew and now offers a nation-wide solution for sharing patient record information. We apply II theory, specifically the five design principles proposed by Hanseth......Initiatives that seek to realize the vision of nation-wide information infrastructures (II) in healthcare have often failed to achieve their goals. In this paper, we focus on approaches used to plan, conduct, and manage the realization of such visions. Our empirical material describes two Danish...... and Lyytinen, to contrast the organization and implementation strategies of the two projects. Our findings highlight how implementation strategies differ with respect to how stakeholders are mobilized. We argue that the realization of nation-wide IIs for healthcare not only requires a gradual transition...

  6. [Undergraduate teaching of anaesthesiology : a nationwide survey in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, N; Breuer, G; Schüttler, J; Goetz, A E; Schmidt, G N

    2012-03-01

    In 2003 anaesthesiology was implemented as a compulsory speciality of undergraduate teaching in Germany due to the revised regulations of medical education. Besides the preexisting subject of emergency medicine an obligatory course in anaesthesiology was introduced. Thus anaesthesiology has gained considerable importance in all medical faculties. To gain insight into the current status of undergraduate medical education in the university departments of anaesthesiology a nationwide survey at all university departments in Germany was initiated. In cooperation with the German Society of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine (DGAI) a standardized questionnaire was developed and sent to 36 departments of anaesthesiology of all German medical faculties. Questions concerned the structure of the respective curriculum, learning goals, teaching, assessment and evaluation methods as well as facultative courses. Of the 36 university departments of anaesthesiology, 35 returned the questionnaire. In 66% undergraduate education in anaesthesiology is part of the fourth or fifth year of medical training. In 91% of the faculties lectures were accompanied by teaching in small student groups. A simulator-based training is integrated either in anaesthesiology and/or in emergency medicine in 91% of the departments of anaesthesiology. In 69% of the departments contents of anaesthesia, critical care medicine, emergency medicine and pain management are an integral part of undergraduate teaching in anaesthesiology. The primary learning goals are directed towards general anaesthesia and there is less focus on topics of preoperative or postoperative care, such as preoperative risk evaluation, postoperative pain management and regional anaesthesia. Besides a multiple choice test (91%) oral (63%) and/or practical examinations (71%) are used as assessment tools. In 71% of the medical faculties the respective departments of anaesthesiology are leading and organising skills laboratories. In

  7. Toward a taxonomic model of attention in effortful listening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Daniel J; Francis, Alexander L

    2017-08-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in studying listening effort. Research on listening effort intersects with the development of active theories of speech perception and contributes to the broader endeavor of understanding speech perception within the context of neuroscientific theories of perception, attention, and effort. Due to the multidisciplinary nature of the problem, researchers vary widely in their precise conceptualization of the catch-all term listening effort. Very recent consensus work stresses the relationship between listening effort and the allocation of cognitive resources, providing a conceptual link to current cognitive neuropsychological theories associating effort with the allocation of selective attention. By linking listening effort to attentional effort, we enable the application of a taxonomy of external and internal attention to the characterization of effortful listening. More specifically, we use a vectorial model to decompose the demand causing listening effort into its mutually orthogonal external and internal components and map the relationship between demanded and exerted effort by means of a resource-limiting term that can represent the influence of motivation as well as vigilance and arousal. Due to its quantitative nature and easy graphical interpretation, this model can be applied to a broad range of problems dealing with listening effort. As such, we conclude that the model provides a good starting point for further research on effortful listening within a more differentiated neuropsychological framework.

  8. Danish nationwide registers for public health and health-related research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erlangsen, Annette; Fedyszyn, Izabela

    2015-01-01

    and limitations. METHODS: Danish registers on somatic and psychiatric hospital contacts as well as care provided by general practitioners were reviewed. The availability of demographic, individual-level variables of relevance for health-related research was summarized. RESULTS: Since 1968, every person living......-UP NATIONWIDE COVERAGE ALSO ENSURES A LARGE SAMPLE TO INVESTIGATE EVENTS AND CONDITIONS WITH LOW BASE RATES CLINICAL OBSERVATIONS ARE LIMITED AND OFTEN ONLY AVAILABLE FOR SELECT PATIENT POPULATIONS HOWEVER, THE OPPORTUNITIES AVAILABLE FOR PUBLIC HEALTH RESEARCH THROUGH LINKAGE OF REGISTER DATA...... WITH THE INCREASING NUMBER OF NATIONWIDE CLINICAL DATABASES, BIO-BANKS AND SURVEYS ENTAIL PROMISING PERSPECTIVES FOR FUTURE RESEARCH....

  9. Crowdsourcing-based nationwide tick collection reveals the distribution of Ixodes ricinus and I. persulcatus and associated pathogens in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laaksonen, Maija; Sajanti, Eeva; Sormunen, Jani J; Penttinen, Ritva; Hänninen, Jari; Ruohomäki, Kai; Sääksjärvi, Ilari; Vesterinen, Eero J; Vuorinen, Ilppo; Hytönen, Jukka; Klemola, Tero

    2017-05-10

    A national crowdsourcing-based tick collection campaign was organized in 2015 with the objective of producing novel data on tick distribution and tick-borne pathogens in Finland. Nearly 20 000 Ixodes ticks were collected. The collected material revealed the nationwide distribution of I. persulcatus for the first time and a shift northwards in the distribution of I. ricinus in Finland. A subset of 2038 tick samples containing both species was screened for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (the prevalence was 14.2% for I. ricinus and 19.8% for I. persulcatus), B. miyamotoi (0.2% and 0.4%, respectively) and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV; 0.2% and 3.0%, respectively). We also report new risk areas for TBEV in Finland and, for the first time, the presence of B. miyamotoi in ticks from mainland Finland. Most importantly, our study demonstrates the overwhelming power of citizen science in accomplishing a collection effort that would have been impossible with the scientific community alone.

  10. Which young physicians are satisfied with their work? A prospective nationwide study in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekeberg Oivind

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have investigated personality and medical school variables in regard to job satisfaction after graduation. It is of great importance to investigate these factors because this information may be used in the recruitment/admittance process to medical schools, and possibly to improve medical education. Methods We conducted a nationwide prospective 10-year follow-up study of medical students at all medical schools in Norway. They were approached three times during their medical training: at very beginning (T1, in the middle (T2, in the last year of medical school (T3, and then four years after graduation (T4. There were 210 participants who responded on all four occasions. Job satisfaction was measured with the Job Satisfaction Scale, which was used as the outcome variable. In addition to conducting multiple regression analysis for the total sample, we also conducted similar analyses separately for men and women. Results Among the demographic and personality variables, 'having a father who is a physician' and 'interpersonal functioning (being withdrawn' were significantly associated with job satisfaction at T4. Among the medical school variables, 'well-being with peers', 'identification with the doctor's role at the end of curriculum', 'perceived medical school stress', and 'perceived clinical skills' were significantly associated with job satisfaction. In the multiple regression analysis only 'father as a physician' and 'perceived clinical skills' yielded an independent influence on the outcome variable in separate analyses within sub-groups of male and female students, 'perceived clinical skills' differentiated among woman only, while 'well-being with peers' differentiated only among men. Conclusion The main finding of this study is that the young physicians who are the most satisfied in their work are those whose fathers are physicians and those who have a high level of perceived clinical skills at the end of

  11. The experience of a nationwide Community of Practice to set up Regional Prevention Plans in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusti, Angela; Perra, Alberto; Lombardo, Flavia

    2017-07-27

    In 2010, the Italian Ministry of Health decided to start the planning process to elaborate the National Plan of Prevention 2010-2012 jointly with the 21 Regions. The National Institute of Health was responsible for supporting regional planners (RPs) by an original participatory approach of a web-based Community of Practice (CoP) to set up their own Regional Plans of Prevention. In this paper, we summarise the theoretical framework adopted, the main phases characterising the lifecycle of the nationwide CoP, the evaluation approach adopted and its findings. Following the CoP theoretical framework from Wenger, an initial group of RPs were trained on Project Cycle Management as a planning method and thereafter they started interacting on a web-based Moodle platform for 8 months. The CoP evaluation mainly took into account aspects of 'immediate value', such as members interactions within the website, and several quantitative and qualitative tools were used to monitor changes over time. Data were retrieved from Moodle statistics or directly from the RPs by the means of a Knowledge, Attitude and Practice survey, a reaction survey, SWOT analysis and focus groups. The level of individual RPs knowledge increased after the initial course from 55.7% to 75%, attitudes and competence perception about the planning process method also showed an overall favourable change. During the CoP life span, the number of members increased from the original 98 RPs to include up to 600 new members on the basis of spontaneous demand. From April 2010 to January 2011, the 'vital signs' of the CoP were monitored, including RP logins (13,450 total logins and 3744 unique logins), views (27,522) and posts (1606) distributed in 326 forum discussion threads. Data and information retrieved from quantitative and qualitative evaluation approaches proved to be useful for the management and follow-up of the CoP. The CoP experience was successful as 19 out of 20 Regions submitted their Regional Preventive

  12. Infective Endocarditis in the U.S., 1998–2009: A Nationwide Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bor, David H.; Woolhandler, Steffie; Nardin, Rachel; Brusch, John; Himmelstein, David U.

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies based on local case series estimated the annual incidence of endocarditis in the U.S. at about 4 per 100,000 population. Small-scale studies elsewhere have reported similar incidence rates. However, no nationally-representative population-based studies have verified these estimates. Methods and Findings Using the 1998–2009 Nationwide Inpatient Sample, which provides diagnoses from about 8 million U.S. hospitalizations annually, we examined endocarditis hospitalizations, bacteriology, co-morbidities, outcomes and costs. Hospital admissions for endocarditis rose from 25,511 in 1998 to 38, 976 in 2009 (12.7 per 100,000 population in 2009). The age-adjusted endocarditis admission rate increased 2.4% annually. The proportion of patients with intra-cardiac devices rose from 13.3% to 18.9%, while the share with drug use and/or HIV fell. Mortality remained stable at about 14.5%, as did cardiac valve replacement (9.6%). Other serious complications increased; 13.3% of patients in 2009 suffered a stroke or CNS infection, and 5.5% suffered myocardial infarction. Amongst cases with identified pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus was the most common, increasing from 37.6% in 1998 to 49.3% in 2009, 53.3% of which were MRSA. Streptococci were mentioned in 24.7% of cases, gram-negatives in 5.6% and Candida species in 1.0%. We detected no inflection in hospitalization rates after changes in prophylaxis recommendations in 2007. Mean age rose from 58.6 to 60.8 years; elderly patients suffered higher rates of myocardial infarction and death, but slightly lower rates of Staphylococcus aureus infections and neurologic complications. Our study relied on clinically diagnosed cases of endocarditis that may not meet strict criteria. Moreover, since some patients are discharged and readmitted during a single episode of endocarditis, our hospitalization figures probably slightly overstate the true incidence of this illness. Conclusions Endocarditis is more common in

  13. Psychopathic traits and offender characteristics – a nationwide consecutive sample of homicidal male adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putkonen Hanna

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to evaluate psychopathy-like personality traits in a nationwide consecutive sample of adolescent male homicide offenders and to compare the findings with those of a randomly sampled adult male homicide offender group. A further aim was to investigate associations between psychopathic traits and offender and offence characteristics in adolescent homicides. Methods Forensic psychiatric examination reports and crime reports of all 15 to19- year- old male Finnish offenders who had been subjected to a forensic psychiatric examination and convicted for a homicide during 1995–2004 were collected (n = 57. A random sample of 57 adult male homicide offenders was selected as a comparison group. Offence and offender characteristics were collected from the files and a file-based assessment of psychopathic traits was performed using the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R by trained raters. Results No significant differences existed between the adolescents and adults in PCL-R total scores, factor 2 (social deviance scores, or in facets 3 (lifestyle and 4 (antisocial. Adults scored significantly higher on factor 1 (interpersonal/affective and facets 1 (interpersonal and 2 (affective. The adolescent group was divided into two subgroups according to PCL-R total scores. One in five homicidal male adolescents met criteria for psychopathic personality using a PCL-R total score of 26 or higher. These boys significantly more often had a crime history before the index homicide, more frequently used excessive violence during the index homicide, more rarely lived with both parents until 16 years of age, had more institutional or foster home placements in childhood, had more school difficulties, more often had received special education, and, more often had contact with mental health services prior to age 18 years than boys scoring low on the PCL-R. They also more often had parental criminal history as well as homicide

  14. Psychopathic traits and offender characteristics – a nationwide consecutive sample of homicidal male adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Nina; Laajasalo, Taina; Holi, Matti; Putkonen, Hanna; Weizmann-Henelius, Ghitta; Häkkänen-Nyholm, Helinä

    2009-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to evaluate psychopathy-like personality traits in a nationwide consecutive sample of adolescent male homicide offenders and to compare the findings with those of a randomly sampled adult male homicide offender group. A further aim was to investigate associations between psychopathic traits and offender and offence characteristics in adolescent homicides. Methods Forensic psychiatric examination reports and crime reports of all 15 to19- year- old male Finnish offenders who had been subjected to a forensic psychiatric examination and convicted for a homicide during 1995–2004 were collected (n = 57). A random sample of 57 adult male homicide offenders was selected as a comparison group. Offence and offender characteristics were collected from the files and a file-based assessment of psychopathic traits was performed using the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) by trained raters. Results No significant differences existed between the adolescents and adults in PCL-R total scores, factor 2 (social deviance) scores, or in facets 3 (lifestyle) and 4 (antisocial). Adults scored significantly higher on factor 1 (interpersonal/affective) and facets 1 (interpersonal) and 2 (affective). The adolescent group was divided into two subgroups according to PCL-R total scores. One in five homicidal male adolescents met criteria for psychopathic personality using a PCL-R total score of 26 or higher. These boys significantly more often had a crime history before the index homicide, more frequently used excessive violence during the index homicide, more rarely lived with both parents until 16 years of age, had more institutional or foster home placements in childhood, had more school difficulties, more often had received special education, and, more often had contact with mental health services prior to age 18 years than boys scoring low on the PCL-R. They also more often had parental criminal history as well as homicide history of parents

  15. Psychopathic traits and offender characteristics - a nationwide consecutive sample of homicidal male adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Nina; Laajasalo, Taina; Holi, Matti; Putkonen, Hanna; Weizmann-Henelius, Ghitta; Häkkänen-Nyholm, Helinä

    2009-05-06

    The aim of the study was to evaluate psychopathy-like personality traits in a nationwide consecutive sample of adolescent male homicide offenders and to compare the findings with those of a randomly sampled adult male homicide offender group. A further aim was to investigate associations between psychopathic traits and offender and offence characteristics in adolescent homicides. Forensic psychiatric examination reports and crime reports of all 15 to 19- year- old male Finnish offenders who had been subjected to a forensic psychiatric examination and convicted for a homicide during 1995-2004 were collected (n = 57). A random sample of 57 adult male homicide offenders was selected as a comparison group. Offence and offender characteristics were collected from the files and a file-based assessment of psychopathic traits was performed using the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) by trained raters. No significant differences existed between the adolescents and adults in PCL-R total scores, factor 2 (social deviance) scores, or in facets 3 (lifestyle) and 4 (antisocial). Adults scored significantly higher on factor 1 (interpersonal/affective) and facets 1 (interpersonal) and 2 (affective). The adolescent group was divided into two subgroups according to PCL-R total scores. One in five homicidal male adolescents met criteria for psychopathic personality using a PCL-R total score of 26 or higher. These boys significantly more often had a crime history before the index homicide, more frequently used excessive violence during the index homicide, more rarely lived with both parents until 16 years of age, had more institutional or foster home placements in childhood, had more school difficulties, more often had received special education, and, more often had contact with mental health services prior to age 18 years than boys scoring low on the PCL-R. They also more often had parental criminal history as well as homicide history of parents or near relatives than the

  16. Infective endocarditis in the U.S., 1998-2009: a nationwide study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David H Bor

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies based on local case series estimated the annual incidence of endocarditis in the U.S. at about 4 per 100,000 population. Small-scale studies elsewhere have reported similar incidence rates. However, no nationally-representative population-based studies have verified these estimates. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using the 1998-2009 Nationwide Inpatient Sample, which provides diagnoses from about 8 million U.S. hospitalizations annually, we examined endocarditis hospitalizations, bacteriology, co-morbidities, outcomes and costs. Hospital admissions for endocarditis rose from 25,511 in 1998 to 38, 976 in 2009 (12.7 per 100,000 population in 2009. The age-adjusted endocarditis admission rate increased 2.4% annually. The proportion of patients with intra-cardiac devices rose from 13.3% to 18.9%, while the share with drug use and/or HIV fell. Mortality remained stable at about 14.5%, as did cardiac valve replacement (9.6%. Other serious complications increased; 13.3% of patients in 2009 suffered a stroke or CNS infection, and 5.5% suffered myocardial infarction. Amongst cases with identified pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus was the most common, increasing from 37.6% in 1998 to 49.3% in 2009, 53.3% of which were MRSA. Streptococci were mentioned in 24.7% of cases, gram-negatives in 5.6% and Candida species in 1.0%. We detected no inflection in hospitalization rates after changes in prophylaxis recommendations in 2007. Mean age rose from 58.6 to 60.8 years; elderly patients suffered higher rates of myocardial infarction and death, but slightly lower rates of Staphylococcus aureus infections and neurologic complications. Our study relied on clinically diagnosed cases of endocarditis that may not meet strict criteria. Moreover, since some patients are discharged and readmitted during a single episode of endocarditis, our hospitalization figures probably slightly overstate the true incidence of this illness. CONCLUSIONS: Endocarditis

  17. Coordination between posture and phonation in vocal effort behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagier, Aude; Vaugoyeau, Marianne; Ghio, Alain; Legou, Thierry; Giovanni, Antoine; Assaiante, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Postural correlates of vocal effort are rarely described in the literature, while they are extensively dealt with in speech therapy. This study aims at determining whether body movement is a side effect of vocal effort or an integral part of communication effort behavior. The answer to this question is mainly based on correlations between posture and phonation. Twenty healthy subjects participated in this study. They had to communicate with a listener under 3 conditions requiring different levels of vocal effort. The vocal parameters increased and confirmed that the subjects had made a vocal effort. The kinematic parameters (amplitude and duration of body movement) increased with vocal effort. Lastly, vocal and kinematic characteristics were significantly correlated. The close correlation of posture with vocal production shows that movement is not a mere consequence of vocal effort. Posture and voice are coordinated in communication behavior, and each body segment plays its specific role in the vocal effort behavior. (c) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. The effects of savings on reservation wages and search effort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the interrelations among wealth, reservation wages and search effort. A theoretical job search model predicts wealth to affect reservation wages positively, and search effort negatively. Subsequently, reduced form equations for reservation wages and search intensity take these

  19. Effort levels of the partners in networked manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, G. R.; Cai, Z.; Su, Y. N.; Zong, S. L.; Zhai, G. Y.; Jia, J. H.

    2017-08-01

    Compared with traditional manufacturing mode, could networked manufacturing improve effort levels of the partners? What factors will affect effort level of the partners? How to encourage the partners to improve their effort levels? To answer these questions, we introduce network effect coefficient to build effort level model of the partners in networked manufacturing. The results show that (1) with the increase of the network effect in networked manufacturing, the actual effort level can go beyond the ideal level of traditional manufacturing. (2) Profit allocation based on marginal contribution rate would help improve effort levels of the partners in networked manufacturing. (3) The partners in networked manufacturing who wishes to have a larger distribution ratio must make a higher effort level, and enterprises with insufficient effort should be terminated in networked manufacturing.

  20. Toward a taxonomic model of attention in effortful listening

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel J. Strauss; Alexander L. Francis

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in studying listening effort. Research on listening effort intersects with the development of active theories of speech perception and contributes to the broader endeavor of understanding speech perception within the context of neuroscientific theories of perception, attention, and effort. Due to the multidisciplinary nature of the problem, researchers vary widely in their precise conceptualization of the catch-all term listening effort. Ver...

  1. 7 CFR 622.31 - Basic planning efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Basic planning efforts. 622.31 Section 622.31..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES WATERSHED PROJECTS Planning § 622.31 Basic planning efforts. Upon... the need for planning effort. Once planning is authorized by the Chief of NRCS, a watershed plan...

  2. Quality-oriented efforts in IPD, - a framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    1998-01-01

    It is generally expected that modern quality efforts like TQM and ISO9000 should deliver a sufficient framework for quality efforts in industrial companies. Our findings in Danish industry shows a fragmented picture of islands of efforts and a weak understanding of basic quality concepts between...

  3. Contested Spatial Coincidence of Conservation and Mining Efforts in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mining appears to represent an important threat to conservation efforts in Madagascar. Expanding mining activities on the island have the potential to provide revenue for development and conservation efforts, but also pose a potential threat to conservation efforts on the island due to the spatial distribution and extent of ...

  4. Choosing the Optimum Mix of Duration and Effort in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterbeek, Hessel

    1995-01-01

    Employs a simple economic model to analyze determinants of Dutch college students' expected study duration and weekly effort. Findings show that the duration/effort ratio is determined by the relative prices of these inputs into the learning process. A higher socioeconomic status increases the duration/effort ratio. Higher ability levels decrease…

  5. Pesticide analysis in coffee leaves using a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe approach and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry: Optimization of the clean-up step.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, Maria Teresa Salles; Owen, Robert Wyn; Calatayud-Vernich, Pau; Breuer, Andrea; Picó, Yolanda

    2017-08-25

    An analytical method using a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe (QuEChERS) procedure for multi-residue determination of 52 pesticides in coffee leaf extractshas been developed and validated according to SANTE/11945/2015 guidelines. Different sorbent combinations for dispersive solid phase extraction (d-SPE) clean-up as well as dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) were tested. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) for the recovery of 87-94% of pesticides added to coffee leaf extracts,was ≤20% for samples spiked at concentrations up to 50ng*g -1 depending on the clean-up procedures. However, samples spiked with a 100ng*g -1 pesticide mixture gave RSDs>20% for most pesticides when d-SPE was carried out adding Supelclean ENVI-Carb 120/400. To explain this fact,the secondary metabolic profile was analyzed in all the extraction and clean-up procedures. Only in the clean-up procedure with the addition of Supel QuE Z-Sep+, does caffeine show a constant adsorption between blank and spiked samples. In other clean-up procedures, the amount of caffeine was higher in those samples spiked with pesticides. This indicates competition between caffeine and pesticides for adsorption to the sorbent. Addition of Supel QuE Z-Sep+ to the procedure revealed only a 32% matrix effect, whereas using PSA+ C18 the matrix effect was close to 97%. The process efficiency is up to 54% with the addition of Supel QuE Z-Sep+ and just up to 7% for the other clean-up procedures. The method was successfully tested in coffee leaves from different types of cultivars. Pesticides were not detected in organic coffee leaf extracts, but thiametoxan was clearly detected in 50% of coffee leaf extracts harvested from coffee trees grown under traditional conditions as determined by UHPLC-TOFMSLC/QqTOF-MS/MS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Integrated Warm Gas Multicontaminant Cleanup Technologies for Coal-Derived Syngas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turk, Brian; Gupta, Raghubir; Sharma, Pradeepkumar; Albritton, Johnny; Jamal, Aqil

    2010-09-30

    report describes the development efforts which expand this sorbent development effort to include Se, Cd, and P as well as Hg and As. Additional research has focused on improving removal performance with the goal of achieving effluent concentrations that are suitable for chemical production applications. By contrast, sorbent development for CO{sub 2} capture has focused on regenerable sorbents that capture the CO{sub 2} byproduct at higher CO{sub 2} pressures. Previous research on CO{sub 2} sorbents has demonstrated that the most challenging aspect of developing CO{sub 2} sorbents is regeneration. The research documented in this report investigates options to improve regeneration of the CO{sub 2} capture sorbents. This research includes effort on addressing existing regeneration limitations for sorbents previously developed and new approaches that focus initially on the regeneration performance of the sorbent.

  7. A nationwide study of the epidemiology of relapsing polychondritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horváth A

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Anna Horváth,1 Nóra Páll,2 Katalin Molnár,1 Tamás Kováts,3 György Surján,3 Tamás Vicsek,4,5 Péter Pollner2,4 13rd Department of Internal Medicine, Semmelweis University, 2Regional Science Center, Faculty of Science, Eötvös Loránd University, 3National Healthcare Service Center, 4MTA-ELTE Statistical and Biological Physics Research Group, 5Department of Biological Physics, Eötvös Loránd University Budapest, HungaryObjective: Relapsing polychondritis (RP is a rare autoimmune inflammatory disease that attacks mainly cartilaginous structures or causes serious damage in proteoglycan-rich structures (the eyes, heart, blood vessels, inner ear. This study shows results regarding the epidemiology, progression, and associations of this highly variable disease by collecting all cases from a 124-million-person-year Central European nationwide cohort.Methods: We used the Hungarian Health Care Database to identify all persons with possible RP infection. We followed patients who had International Classification of Diseases 10th edition code M94.1 at least once in their inpatient or outpatient records between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2013 in Hungary. We classified these patients into disease severity groups by their drug consumption patterns between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2013. We analyzed the regional distribution of RP incidences as well. Overall maps of comorbidity are presented with network layouts.Results: We identified 256 patients with RP among cumulatively 11.5 million registered inhabitants. We classified these patients into four severity classes as "extremely mild" (n=144, "mild" (n=22, "moderate" (n=41, and "severe" (n=4. Two additional groups were defined for patients without available drug data as "suspected only" (n=23 and "confirmed but unknown treatment" (n=22. The age and sex distributions of patients were similar to worldwide statistics. Indeed, the overall survival was good (95% confidence interval for 5

  8. Improving Physics Teaching through Action Research: The Impact of a Nationwide Professional Development Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Marcus; Rietdijk, Willeke; Garrett, Caro; Griffiths, Janice

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an independent evaluation of the Action Research for Physics (ARP) programme, a nationwide professional development programme which trains teachers to use action research to increase student interest in physics and encourage them to take post-compulsory physics. The impact of the programme was explored from the perspective of…

  9. Gender-Specific Risk Factors for Intimate Partner Homicide: A Nationwide Register-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weizmann-Henelius, Ghitta; Gronroos, Matti; Putkonen, Hanna; Eronen, Markku; Lindberg, Nina; Hakkanen-Nyholm, Helina

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined gender differences in intimate partner homicide (IPH) and offender characteristics with the focus on putative gender-specific risk factors in a nationwide consecutive sample of homicide offenders. Data on all offenders (N = 642; 91 females, 551 males) convicted of homicide and subjected to a forensic psychiatric…

  10. A nationwide registry-based cohort study of incidence of tonsillectomy in Denmark, 1991-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Marie Louise; Rasmussen, Eva Rye; Rasmussen, Stig Hebbelstrup Rye

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To update tonsillectomy incidence rates in Denmark and identify whether the incidence rates vary between geographical areas in the country during the period 1991-2012. DESIGN: This was a retrospective nationwide cohort study using data from the comprehensive Danish patient registries. ...

  11. Evaluation of Nationwide Health Costs of Air Pollution and Cigarette Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J. R.; Justus, C. G.

    1974-01-01

    The findings of this study indicate cigarette smoking causes more respiratory diseases than does air pollution. The 1970 nationwide health cost of respiratory diseases is estimated at $6.22 billion. The effect of air pollution accounts for between 1 and 5 percent of this total cost while cigarette smoking represents 68 percent. (MLB)

  12. Asthma and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Nationwide Population-Based Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mu-Hong; Su, Tung-Ping; Chen, Ying-Sheue; Hsu, Ju-Wei; Huang, Kai-Lin; Chang, Wen-Han; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Bai, Ya-Mei

    2013-01-01

    Background: Previous cross-sectional studies have suggested an association between asthma and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but the temporal relationship was not determined. Using a nationwide population-based prospective case-control cohort study (1:4, age-/gender-matched), we hypothesized that asthma in infanthood or early…

  13. Nationwide study of sudden cardiac death in persons aged 1-35 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkel, Bo Gregers; Holst, Anders Gaarsdal; Theilade, Juliane

    2011-01-01

    Aims The aim of this investigation was to study the incidence of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in persons aged 1-35 years in a nationwide setting (5.38 million people) by systematic evaluation of all deaths. Methods and results All deaths in persons aged 1-35 years in Denmark in 2000-06 were included...

  14. Methods of Suicide among Cancer Patients: A Nationwide Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kuo-Hsuan; Lin, Herng-Ching

    2010-01-01

    A 3-year nationwide population-based data set was used to explore methods of suicide (violent vs. nonviolent) and possible contributing factors among cancer patients in Taiwan. A total of 1,065 cancer inpatients who committed suicide were included as our study sample. The regression shows that those who had genitourinary cancer were 0.55 times (p…

  15. Incidence and outcomes of bulimia nervosa : a nationwide population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keski-Rahkonen, A.; Hoek, H. W.; Linna, M. S.; Raevuori, A.; Sihvola, E.; Bulik, C. M.; Rissanen, A.; Kaprio, J.

    Background. Little is known about the epidemiology of bulimia nervosa outside clinical settings. We report the incidence, prevalence and outcomes of bulimia nervosa using for the first time a nationwide Study design. Method. To assess the incidence and natural course and outcomes of DSM-IV bulimia

  16. 76 FR 56165 - Soliciting Input on Research and Development Priorities for Desirable Features of a Nationwide...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Soliciting Input on Research and Development Priorities for.... Department of Commerce's (DoC) National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is seeking input on various possible features of a new nationwide interoperable public safety broadband network. This input...

  17. Relative Income and Happiness in Asia: Evidence from Nationwide Surveys in China, Japan, and Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshio, Takashi; Nozaki, Kayo; Kobayashi, Miki

    2011-01-01

    This study attempts to examine relative income effects on perceived happiness in three major Asian countries--China, Japan, and Korea--in comparison with the United Sates, on the basis of largely comparable nationwide surveys in these countries. Consistent with the results from previous studies in Western countries, comparisons with an…

  18. Pregnancy with prosthetic heart valves - 30 years' nationwide experience in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillesen, Martin; Hjortdal, Vibeke; Vejlstrup, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Pregnancy in women with prosthetic heart valves remains a risk factor for both mother and fetus, but unselected and unbiased outcome and complication data remain scarce. We analyzed nationwide outcome data from 1977 to 2007 for all pregnancies in women with prosthetic valves....

  19. Reliability of nationwide prevalence estimates of dementia : A critical appraisal based on Brazilian surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaimowicz, F. (Flávio); A. Burdorf (Alex)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The nationwide dementia prevalence is usually calculated by applying the results of local surveys to countries' populations. To evaluate the reliability of such estimations in developing countries, we chose Brazil as an example. We carried out a systematic review of dementia

  20. Academic Dishonesty in Higher Education--A Nationwide Study in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Hua Susan; Wen, Ling-Yu Melody

    2007-01-01

    Academic dishonesty has been an important issue. However, only few researches had been done in Asian countries, especially a nationwide study. A sample of 2,068 college students throughout Taiwan was selected and surveyed on four domains of academic dishonesty, including: cheating on test, cheating on assignment, plagiarism, and falsifying…

  1. A nationwide study on readmission, morbidity, and mortality after umbilical and epigastric hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, T; Kehlet, H; Bay-Nielsen, M

    2011-01-01

    , complications and mortality occurred in 4.1% (open 3.7%; laparoscopic 8.2%) and 0.1% (open 0.1%; laparoscopic 0.4%), respectively. CONCLUSION: This first prospective nationwide study on elective umbilical and epigastric hernia repair found low morbidity and mortality but a high readmission rate mostly because...

  2. The Dutch Perinatal Audit Project : a feasibility study for nationwide perinatal audit in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Reu, Paul; Van Diem, Mariet; Eskes, Martine; Oosterbaan, Herman; Smits, Luc; Merkus, Hans; Nijhuis, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the feasibility of nationwide perinatal mortality audits in the Netherlands. Study design. Over a one-year period, data for all cases of perinatal mortality were collected. Six perinatal audit panels of professionals within perinatal care investigated and classified causes

  3. Mass Communication and Journalism Faculty and Their Electronic Communication with College Students: A Nationwide Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Brigitta R.; Yates, Bradford L.; Adams, Jennifer Wood

    2008-01-01

    Nearly 700 U.S. journalism and mass communication faculty reported their perceptions of student e-mail use via a Web-based survey. This nationwide study focused on content of e-mail received by faculty and made comparisons based on faculty gender. Nearly half of the respondents reported that they occasionally receive e-mails from students before a…

  4. Sampling intensity and normalizations: Exploring cost-driving factors in nationwide mapping of tree canopy cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Tipton; Gretchen Moisen; Paul Patterson; Thomas A. Jackson; John Coulston

    2012-01-01

    There are many factors that will determine the final cost of modeling and mapping tree canopy cover nationwide. For example, applying a normalization process to Landsat data used in the models is important in standardizing reflectance values among scenes and eliminating visual seams in the final map product. However, normalization at the national scale is expensive and...

  5. Forensic Psychiatric Perspective on Criminality Associated with Intellectual Disability: A Nationwide Register-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannynsalo, L.; Putkonen, H.; Lindberg, N.; Kotilainen, I.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Contrasting views exist over the association of intellectual disability (ID) and criminal offending. This nationwide study attempts to shed further light to expand understanding to substantiate the relation between socio-demographic characteristics, psychiatric co-morbidity and criminal behaviour among the Finnish forensic population…

  6. Impact of a Nationwide Training Program in Minimally Invasive Distal Pancreatectomy (LAELAPS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooij, T. de; Hilst, J. van; Boerma, D.; Bonsing, B.A.; Daams, F.; Dam, R.M. van; Dijkgraaf, M.G.; Eijck, C.H. van; Festen, S.; Gerhards, M.F.; Koerkamp, B.G.; Harst, E. van der; Hingh, I.H. de; Kazemier, G.; Klaase, J.; Kleine, R.H. de; Laarhoven, C.J.H.M. van; Lips, D.J.; Luyer, M.D.; Molenaar, I.Q.; Patijn, G.A.; Roos, D.; Scheepers, J.J.; Schelling, G.P. van der; Steenvoorde, P.; Vriens, M.R.; Wijsman, J.H.; Gouma, D.J.; Busch, O.R.; Hilal, M.A.; Besselink, M.G.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the feasibility and impact of a nationwide training program in minimally invasive distal pancreatectomy (MIDP). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Superior outcomes of MIDP compared with open distal pancreatectomy have been reported. In the Netherlands (2005 to 2013) only 10% of distal

  7. Impact of a Nationwide Training Program in Minimally Invasive Distal Pancreatectomy (LAELAPS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Rooij, Thijs; van Hilst, Jony; Boerma, Djamila; Bonsing, Bert A.; Daams, Freek; van Dam, Ronald M.; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G.; van Eijck, Casper H.; Festen, Sebastiaan; Gerhards, Michael F.; Koerkamp, Bas Groot; van der Harst, Erwin; de Hingh, Ignace H.; Kazemier, Geert; Klaase, Joost; de Kleine, Ruben H.; van Laarhoven, Cornelis J.; Lips, Daan J.; Luyer, Misha D.; Molenaar, I. Quintus; Patijn, Gijs A.; Roos, Daphne; Scheepers, Joris J.; van der Schelling, George P.; Steenvoorde, Pascal; Vriens, Menno R.; Wijsman, Jan H.; Gouma, Dirk J.; Busch, Olivier R.; Hilal, Mohammed Abu; Besselink, Marc G.; de Boer, Marieke T.

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the feasibility and impact of a nationwide training program in minimally invasive distal pancreatectomy (MIDP).Summary of Background Data:Superior outcomes of MIDP compared with open distal pancreatectomy have been reported. In the Netherlands (2005 to 2013) only 10% of distal

  8. Compilation of a soil map for Nigeria: a nation-wide soil resource ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the results of a nation-wide soil and land form inventory of Nigeria. The data compilation was conducted in the framework of two projects with the objective to calculate agricultural production potential under different input levels and assess the water erosion hazard. The information on spatial distribution ...

  9. Developing a Successful State-Level Environmental Education Organization: A Nationwide Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smaldone, David; Dey, Shannon E.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a nationwide assessment of state-level environmental education (EE) organizations to determine the components that are essential to the establishment and success of these organizations. E-mail surveys were used to collect data from North American Association for Environmental Education state affiliates, and…

  10. Student Evaluation of Teaching Effectiveness of a Nationwide Innovative Education Program on Image Display Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yueh, Hsiu-Ping; Chen, Tzy-Ling; Chiu, Li-An; Lee, San-Liang; Wang, An-Bang

    2012-01-01

    The study presented here explored a student evaluation of the teaching effectiveness of a nationwide innovative education program on image display technology in Taiwan. Using survey data collected through an online questionnaire system, covering 165 classes across 30 colleges and universities in Taiwan, the study aimed to understand the teaching…

  11. 76 FR 47568 - Nationwide Categorical Waivers Under Section 1605 (Buy American) of the American Recovery and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-05

    ... (50kW) wind turbines for use on eligible EERE-Recovery Act funded projects. DATES: Effective Date: July...: five kilowatt (5kW) and fifty kilowatt (50kW) wind turbines qualify for the ``nonavailability'' waiver... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Nationwide Categorical Waivers Under Section 1605 (Buy...

  12. A nationwide population analysis of antenatal and perinatal complications among nurses and nonmedical working women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Che Huang

    2016-10-01

    Conclusion: Our nationwide population-based study revealed increased risks of antenatal and perinatal complications among nurses compared with those among nonmedical working women. The large-scale observation of the increased antenatal and perinatal complications draws attention to the health issues faced by nursing personnel who represent one of the most important workforces in the healthcare system.

  13. 47 CFR Appendix B to Part 1 - Nationwide Programmatic Agreement for the Collocation of Wireless Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the standard number of new equipment cabinets for the technology involved, not to exceed four, or more... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nationwide Programmatic Agreement for the Collocation of Wireless Antennas B Appendix B to Part 1 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION...

  14. A nationwide planning of analytical chemistry in universities: possibilities and problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, R.

    1979-01-01

    A nationwide planning of Analytical Chemistry in universities should meet two requirements: formulation of a common minimum programme for all universities and a well-balanced spread of research themes over the different universities. In the Netherlands this planning is the object of “ISOAN”, the

  15. Use and benefits of public access defibrillation in a nation-wide network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Møller; Folke, Fredrik; Lippert, Freddy Knudsen

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Automated External Defibrillators (AEDs) are known to increase survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). The aim of this study was to examine the use and benefit of public-access defibrillation (PAD) in a nation-wide network. We primarily sought to assess survival at 1 month...

  16. Problem behavior of individuals with down syndrome in a nationwide cohort assessed in late adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gameren-Oosterom, H.B.M.; Fekkes, M.; Wouwe, J.P. van; Detmar, S.B.; Oudesluys-Murphy, A.M.; Verkerk, P.H.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess problem behavior in adolescents with Down syndrome and examine the association with sex and severity of intellectual disability. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional data of a Dutch nationwide cohort of Down syndrome children aged 16-19 years were collected using a written parental

  17. Overdiagnosis of Dementia in Young Patients - A Nationwide Register-Based Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salem, L C; Andersen, B B; Nielsen, T R

    2012-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the quality of the diagnostic evaluation and the validity of dementia diagnoses in young patients established in routine clinical practice. The aim of this study was to investigate the validity of the diagnosis of dementia registered in the Danish nationwide hosp...

  18. Presentation of a nationwide multicenter registry of intestinal failure and intestinal transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neelis, E. G.; Roskott, A. M.; Dijkstra, G.; Wanten, G. J.; Serlie, M. J.; Tabbers, M. M.; Damen, G.; Olthof, E. D.; Jonkers, C. F.; Kloeze, J. H.; Ploeg, R. J.; Imhann, F.; Nieuwenhuijs, V. B.; Rings, E. H. H. M.

    Background & aims: Exact data on Dutch patients with chronic intestinal failure (CIF) and after intestinal transplantation (ITx) have been lacking. To improve standard care of these patients, a nationwide collaboration has been established. Objectives of this study were obtaining an up-to-date

  19. Presentation of a nationwide multicenter registry of intestinal failure and intestinal transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neelis, E.G.; Roskott, A.M.; Dijkstra, G.; Wanten, G.J.A.; Serlie, M.J.; Tabbers, M.M.; Damen, G.M.; Olthof, E.D.; Jonkers, C.F.; Kloeze, J.H.; Ploeg, R.J.; Imhann, F.; Nieuwenhuijs, V.B.; Rings, E.H.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Exact data on Dutch patients with chronic intestinal failure (CIF) and after intestinal transplantation (ITx) have been lacking. To improve standard care of these patients, a nationwide collaboration has been established. Objectives of this study were obtaining an up-to-date

  20. Presentation of a nationwide multicenter registry of intestinal failure and intestinal transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neelis, E. G.; Roskott, A. M.; Dijkstra, G.; Wanten, G. J.; Serlie, M. J.; Tabbers, M. M.; Damen, G.; Olthof, E. D.; Jonkers, C. F.; Kloeze, J. H.; Ploeg, R. J.; Imhann, F.; Nieuwenhuijs, V. B.; Rings, E. H. H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Exact data on Dutch patients with chronic intestinal failure (CIF) and after intestinal transplantation (ITx) have been lacking. To improve standard care of these patients, a nationwide collaboration has been established. Objectives of this study were obtaining an up-to-date prevalence of CIF and