WorldWideScience

Sample records for cleanup based advanced

  1. Assessment of coal gasification/hot gas cleanup based advanced gas turbine systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    The major objectives of the joint SCS/DOE study of air-blown gasification power plants with hot gas cleanup are to: (1) Evaluate various power plant configurations to determine if an air-blown gasification-based power plant with hot gas cleanup can compete against pulverized coal with flue gas desulfurization for baseload expansion at Georgia Power Company's Plant Wansley; (2) determine if air-blown gasification with hot gas cleanup is more cost effective than oxygen-blown IGCC with cold gas cleanup; (3) perform Second-Law/Thermoeconomic Analysis of air-blown IGCC with hot gas cleanup and oxygen-blown IGCC with cold gas cleanup; (4) compare cost, performance, and reliability of IGCC based on industrial gas turbines and ISTIG power island configurations based on aeroderivative gas turbines; (5) compare cost, performance, and reliability of large (400 MW) and small (100 to 200 MW) gasification power plants; and (6) compare cost, performance, and reliability of air-blown gasification power plants using fluidized-bed gasifiers to air-blown IGCC using transport gasification and pressurized combustion.

  2. Development of an Integrated Multi-Contaminant Removal Process Applied to Warm Syngas Cleanup for Coal-Based Advanced Gasification Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Howard

    2010-11-30

    This project met the objective to further the development of an integrated multi-contaminant removal process in which H2S, NH3, HCl and heavy metals including Hg, As, Se and Cd present in the coal-derived syngas can be removed to specified levels in a single/integrated process step. The process supports the mission and goals of the Department of Energy's Gasification Technologies Program, namely to enhance the performance of gasification systems, thus enabling U.S. industry to improve the competitiveness of gasification-based processes. The gasification program will reduce equipment costs, improve process environmental performance, and increase process reliability and flexibility. Two sulfur conversion concepts were tested in the laboratory under this project, i.e., the solventbased, high-pressure University of California Sulfur Recovery Process High Pressure (UCSRP-HP) and the catalytic-based, direct oxidation (DO) section of the CrystaSulf-DO process. Each process required a polishing unit to meet the ultra-clean sulfur content goals of <50 ppbv (parts per billion by volume) as may be necessary for fuel cells or chemical production applications. UCSRP-HP was also tested for the removal of trace, non-sulfur contaminants, including ammonia, hydrogen chloride, and heavy metals. A bench-scale unit was commissioned and limited testing was performed with simulated syngas. Aspen-Plus®-based computer simulation models were prepared and the economics of the UCSRP-HP and CrystaSulf-DO processes were evaluated for a nominal 500 MWe, coal-based, IGCC power plant with carbon capture. This report covers the progress on the UCSRP-HP technology development and the CrystaSulf-DO technology.

  3. Development of a risk-based approach to Hanford Site cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesser, W.A.; Daling, P.M.; Baynes, P.A.

    1995-06-01

    In response to a request from Mr. Thomas Grumbly, Assistant Secretary of Energy for Environmental Management, the Hanford Site contractors developed a conceptual set of risk-based cleanup strategies that (1) protect the public, workers, and environment from unacceptable risks; (2) are executable technically; and (3) fit within an expected annual funding profile of 1.05 billion dollars. These strategies were developed because (1) the US Department of Energy and Hanford Site budgets are being reduced, (2) stakeholders are dissatisfied with the perceived rate of cleanup, (3) the US Congress and the US Department of Energy are increasingly focusing on risk and riskreduction activities, (4) the present strategy is not integrated across the Site and is inconsistent in its treatment of similar hazards, (5) the present cleanup strategy is not cost-effective from a risk-reduction or future land use perspective, and (6) the milestones and activities in the Tri-Party Agreement cannot be achieved with an anticipated funding of 1.05 billion dollars annually. The risk-based strategies described herein were developed through a systems analysis approach that (1) analyzed the cleanup mission; (2) identified cleanup objectives, including risk reduction, land use, and mortgage reduction; (3) analyzed the existing baseline cleanup strategy from a cost and risk perspective; (4) developed alternatives for accomplishing the cleanup mission; (5) compared those alternatives against cleanup objectives; and (6) produced conclusions and recommendations regarding the current strategy and potential risk-based strategies

  4. Development of a risk-based approach to Hanford Site cleanup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hesser, W.A.; Daling, P.M. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Baynes, P.A. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)] [and others

    1995-06-01

    In response to a request from Mr. Thomas Grumbly, Assistant Secretary of Energy for Environmental Management, the Hanford Site contractors developed a conceptual set of risk-based cleanup strategies that (1) protect the public, workers, and environment from unacceptable risks; (2) are executable technically; and (3) fit within an expected annual funding profile of 1.05 billion dollars. These strategies were developed because (1) the US Department of Energy and Hanford Site budgets are being reduced, (2) stakeholders are dissatisfied with the perceived rate of cleanup, (3) the US Congress and the US Department of Energy are increasingly focusing on risk and riskreduction activities, (4) the present strategy is not integrated across the Site and is inconsistent in its treatment of similar hazards, (5) the present cleanup strategy is not cost-effective from a risk-reduction or future land use perspective, and (6) the milestones and activities in the Tri-Party Agreement cannot be achieved with an anticipated funding of 1.05 billion dollars annually. The risk-based strategies described herein were developed through a systems analysis approach that (1) analyzed the cleanup mission; (2) identified cleanup objectives, including risk reduction, land use, and mortgage reduction; (3) analyzed the existing baseline cleanup strategy from a cost and risk perspective; (4) developed alternatives for accomplishing the cleanup mission; (5) compared those alternatives against cleanup objectives; and (6) produced conclusions and recommendations regarding the current strategy and potential risk-based strategies.

  5. Estimating Differences in the Cost of Groundwater Treatment of Trichioroethylene Based on Different Cleanup Goals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Atchue, Joseph

    1998-01-01

    ...) to develop a health-based groundwater (GW) cleanup standard for trichloroethylene (TCE). Reevaluation of the health risk of TCE exposure may provide sufficient evidence for EPA program offices...

  6. A risk-based approach to cleanup: Problems and pitfalls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anspaugh, L.

    1995-10-01

    This paper details information dealing with the meetings of the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU). Topics discussed include: Radtest program to summarize all data on radiation doses resulting from nuclear weapons testing; current status of US cleanup strategies; development of new milestones for the project due to reduced budgets; health hazards; and risk reduction

  7. Using Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Technology To Meet Accelerated Cleanup Program Milestones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, P.J.; Garcia, J.; Estes, C.H.; Palmer, C.R.; Meyers, G.S.

    2006-01-01

    Some DOE Complex facilities are entering the late stages of facility closure. As waste management operations are completed at these sites, remaining inventories of legacy mixed wastes must be finally disposed. These wastes have unique physical, chemical and radiological properties that have made their management troublesome, and hence why they have remained on site until this late stage of closure. Some of these wastes have had no approved or practical treatment alternative until just recently. Results are provided from using advanced mixed waste treatment technology to perform two treatment campaigns on these legacy wastes. Combinations of macro-encapsulation, vacuum thermal desorption (VTD), and chemical stabilization, with off-site incineration of the organic condensate, provided a complete solution to the problem wastes. One program included approximately 1,900 drums of material from the Fernald Environmental Management Project. Another included approximately 1,200 drums of material from the Accelerated Cleanup Program at the Oak Ridge Reservation. Both of these campaigns were conducted under tight time schedules and demanding specifications, and were performed in a matter of only a few months each. Coordinated rapid waste shipment, flexible permitting and waste acceptance criteria, adequate waste receiving and storage capacity, versatile feed preparation and sorting capability, robust treatment technology with a broad feed specification, and highly reliable operations were all valuable components to successful accomplishment of the project requirements. Descriptions of the waste are provided; material that was difficult or impossible to treat in earlier phases of site closure. These problem wastes included: 1) the combination of special nuclear materials mixed with high organic chemical content and/or mercury, 2) high toxic metal content mixed with high organic chemical content, and 3) very high organic chemical content mixed with debris, solids and sludge

  8. Non-cancer morbidity among Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers: a register-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahu, Kaja; Bromet, Evelyn J; Hakulinen, Timo; Auvinen, Anssi; Uusküla, Anneli; Rahu, Mati

    2014-05-14

    To examine non-cancer morbidity in the Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers cohort compared with the population sample with special attention to radiation-related diseases and mental health disorders. Register-based cohort study. Estonia. An exposed cohort of 3680 men (cleanup workers) and an unexposed cohort of 7631 men (population sample) were followed from 2004 to 2012 through the Population Registry and Health Insurance Fund database. Morbidity in the exposed cohort compared with the unexposed controls was estimated in terms of rate ratio (RR) with 95% CIs using Poisson regression models. Elevated morbidity in the exposed cohort was found for diseases of the nervous system, digestive system, musculoskeletal system, ischaemic heart disease and for external causes. The most salient excess risk was observed for thyroid diseases (RR=1.69; 95% CI 1.38 to 2.07), intentional self-harm (RR=1.47; 95% CI 1.04 to 2.09) and selected alcohol-related diagnoses (RR=1.25; 95% CI 1.12 to 1.39). No increase in morbidity for stress reactions, depression, headaches or sleep disorders was detected. No obvious excess morbidity consistent with biological effects of radiation was seen in the exposed cohort, with the possible exception of benign thyroid diseases. Increased alcohol-induced morbidity may reflect alcohol abuse, and could underlie some of the higher morbidity rates. Mental disorders in the exposed cohort were probably under-reported. The future challenge will be to study mental and physical comorbidities in the Chernobyl cleanup workers cohort. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. An Advanced Smoke-Eater for Post-Fire Cabin Atmosphere Cleanup, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An on-board oxygen concentrator is required during long duration manned space missions to supply medical oxygen. The commercial medical oxygen generators based on...

  10. Hollow Few-Layer Graphene-Based Structures from Parafilm Waste for Flexible Transparent Supercapacitors and Oil Spill Cleanup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Duc Dung; Hsieh, Ping-Yen; Tsai, Meng-Ting; Lee, Chi-Young; Tai, Nyan-Hwa; To, Bao Dong; Vu, Duc Tu; Hsu, Chia Chen

    2017-11-22

    We report a versatile strategy to exploit parafilm waste as a carbon precursor for fabrication of freestanding, hollow few-layer graphene fiber mesh (HFGM) structures without use of any gaseous carriers/promoters via an annealing route. The freestanding HFGMs possess good mechanical flexibility, tailorable transparency, and high electrical conductivity, consequently qualifying them as promising electrochemical electrodes. Because of the hollow spaces, electrolyte ions can easily access into and contact with interior surfaces of the graphene fibers, accordingly increasing electrode/electrolyte interfacial area. As expected, solid-state supercapacitors based on the HFGMs exhibit a considerable enhancement in specific capacitance (20-30 fold) as compared to those employing chemical vapor deposition compact graphene films. Moreover, the parafilm waste is found to be beneficial for one-step fabrication of nanocarbon/few-layer graphene composite meshes with superior electrochemical performance, outstanding superhydrophobic property, good self-cleaning ability, and great promise for oil spill cleanup.

  11. Evaluation of a new carbon/zirconia-based sorbent for the cleanup of food extracts in multiclass analysis of pesticides and environmental contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    A novel carbon/zirconia based material, SupelTM QuE Verde (Verde), was evaluated in a filter-vial dispersive solid phase extraction (d-SPE) cleanup of QuEChERS extracts of pork, salmon, kale, and avocado for residual analysis of pesticides and environmental contaminants. Low pressure (LP) GC-MS/MS w...

  12. Molecular level insights to the interaction of toluene with ZrO2-based biomass gasification gas clean-up catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viinikainen, T.; Kauppi, I.; Korhonen, S.; Lefferts, Leonardus; Kanervo, J.; Lehtonen, J.

    2013-01-01

    Gasification of biomass, followed by ZrO2-catalyzed hot gas clean-up at 600–900 °C for the oxidation of impurities (such as tar), is an environmentally attractive way to produce heat and power or synthesis gas. The interaction of toluene (as a model compound for tar) with ZrO2-based gasification gas

  13. Innovative technologies for groundwater cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yow, J.L. Jr.

    1992-09-01

    These notes provide a broad overview of current developments in innovative technologies for groundwater cleanup. In this context, groundwater cleanup technologies include site remediation methods that deal with contaminants in ground water or that may move from the vadose zone into ground water. This discussion attempts to emphasize approaches that may be able to achieve significant improvements in groundwater cleanup cost or effectiveness. However, since data for quantitative performance and cost comparisons of new cleanup methods are scarce, preliminary comparisons must be based on the scientific approach used by each method and on the site-specific technical challenges presented by each groundwater contamination situation. A large number of technical alternatives that are now in research, development, and testing can be categorized by the scientific phenomena that they employ and by the site contamination situations that they treat. After reviewing a representative selection of these technologies, one of the new technologies, the Microbial Filter method, is discussed in more detail to highlight a promising in situ groundwater cleanup technology that is now being readied for field testing

  14. Application of EnviroTRADE information system for the cleanup of the former Soviet Union (FSU) site at Komarom Base, Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matalucci, R.V.; Harrington, M.W.; Harlan, C.P.; Kuperberg, J.M.; Biczo, I.L.

    1994-01-01

    During a NATO Advanced Research Workshop (ARW) held in Visegrad, Hungary, June 21-23, 1994, portions of contamination data from the Former Soviet Union (FSU) site at Komarom, Hungary were used to demonstrate the international EnviroTRADE Information System as a tool to assist with the identification of alternative cleanup measures for contaminated sites. The NATO ARW was organized and conducted by the joint Florida State University and the Technical University of Budapest, Center for Hungarian-American Environmental Research, Studies, and Exchanges (CHAERSE). The purpose of the workshop was to develop a strategy for the identification and selection of appropriate low-cost and innovative site remediation technologies and approaches for a typical abandoned FSU site. The EnviroTRADE information system is a graphical, photographical, and textual environmental management tool under development by the U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) as a part of the cleanup program of the nuclear weapons complex. EnviroTRADE provides a single, powerful, multi-purpose, multi-user, multi-media, and interactive computer information system for worldwide environmental restoration and waste management (ER/WM). Graphical, photographic, and textual data from the Komarom FSU site were entered into EnviroTRADE. These data were used to make comparative evaluations of site characterization and remediation technologies that might be used to clean up primarily hydrocarbon contamination in the groundwater and soil. Available Hydrogeological and geological features, contaminated soil profiles, and topographical maps were included in the information profiles. Although EnviroTRADE is currently only partially populated (approximately 350 technologies for cleanup are included in the database), the utility of the information system to evaluate possible options for cleanup of the Komarom site has been demonstrated

  15. Application of EnviroTRADE information system for the cleanup of the former Soviet Union (FSU) site at Komarom Base, Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matalucci, R.V.; Harrington, M.W.; Harlan, C.P. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kuperberg, J.M. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Biczo, I.L. [Technical Univ., Budapest (Hungary)

    1994-10-01

    During a NATO Advanced Research Workshop (ARW) held in Visegrad, Hungary, June 21-23, 1994, portions of contamination data from the Former Soviet Union (FSU) site at Komarom, Hungary were used to demonstrate the international EnviroTRADE Information System as a tool to assist with the identification of alternative cleanup measures for contaminated sites. The NATO ARW was organized and conducted by the joint Florida State University and the Technical University of Budapest, Center for Hungarian-American Environmental Research, Studies, and Exchanges (CHAERSE). The purpose of the workshop was to develop a strategy for the identification and selection of appropriate low-cost and innovative site remediation technologies and approaches for a typical abandoned FSU site. The EnviroTRADE information system is a graphical, photographical, and textual environmental management tool under development by the U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) as a part of the cleanup program of the nuclear weapons complex. EnviroTRADE provides a single, powerful, multi-purpose, multi-user, multi-media, and interactive computer information system for worldwide environmental restoration and waste management (ER/WM). Graphical, photographic, and textual data from the Komarom FSU site were entered into EnviroTRADE. These data were used to make comparative evaluations of site characterization and remediation technologies that might be used to clean up primarily hydrocarbon contamination in the groundwater and soil. Available Hydrogeological and geological features, contaminated soil profiles, and topographical maps were included in the information profiles. Although EnviroTRADE is currently only partially populated (approximately 350 technologies for cleanup are included in the database), the utility of the information system to evaluate possible options for cleanup of the Komarom site has been demonstrated.

  16. Developing a Signature Based Safeguards Approach for the Electrorefiner and Salt Cleanup Unit Operations in Pyroprocessing Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, Chantell Lynne-Marie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-01-27

    Traditional nuclear materials accounting does not work well for safeguards when applied to pyroprocessing. Alternate methods such as Signature Based Safeguards (SBS) are being investigated. The goal of SBS is real-time/near-real-time detection of anomalous events in the pyroprocessing facility as they could indicate loss of special nuclear material. In high-throughput reprocessing facilities, metric tons of separated material are processed that must be accounted for. Even with very low uncertainties of accountancy measurements (<0.1%) the uncertainty of the material balances is still greater than the desired level. Novel contributions of this work are as follows: (1) significant enhancement of SBS development for the salt cleanup process by creating a new gas sparging process model, selecting sensors to monitor normal operation, identifying safeguards-significant off-normal scenarios, and simulating those off-normal events and generating sensor output; (2) further enhancement of SBS development for the electrorefiner by simulating off-normal events caused by changes in salt concentration and identifying which conditions lead to Pu and Cm not tracking throughout the rest of the system; and (3) new contribution in applying statistical techniques to analyze the signatures gained from these two models to help draw real-time conclusions on anomalous events.

  17. Preplanning of early cleanup. Annual report 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    A pre-study 'Pre-planning of early cleanup after fallout of radioactive material' made by Studvik EcoSafe has pointed out the need and request for pre-planning of actions. Based on the pre-study this project was started with the goal to work out guidelines and checklists. Because of the common interest between the Nordic countries NKS is the organization responsible for the project. The results of the project will be a document pointing out what can be planned in advance, including guidelines and checklists, regarding early cleanup actions after a nuclear plant accident in or in the vicinity of the Nordic countries. In this work 'early' means the three first weeks after an accident. The project only deals with questions concerning external radiation. The document shall be usable by persons in charge of planning or decision makers on the appropriate level of organization for each country. The document shall principally be aimed towards persons without professional competence in the field of radiology. The result will be presented for a limited number of generalized environments and fallout situations: urban/suburban/rural (concentrating on urban/suburban); regional differences (in for example house types and constructing material); dry or wet deposition. Five housing environments, ten cleanup actions and wet or dry deposition are treated. For 66 combinations calculations are made and the results are documented as data sheets, each describing the beneficial effects, costs and disadvantages of application of a feasible method for cleaning in the early phase of a specific type of surface in one of five different urban or suburban environments. This data forms the foundation for the recommendations on guidelines, which are the ultimate goal of the EKO-5 project. (EG)

  18. Cleanups In My Community (CIMC) - RCRA and Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Federal Facilities, National Layer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer provides access to Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) sites as part of the CIMC web service. The...

  19. Cleanups In My Community (CIMC) - Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Superfund Sites, National Layer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer provides access to Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Superfund Sites as part of the CIMC web service. EPA works with DoD to facilitate the reuse...

  20. ACCESSING FEDERAL DATA BASES FOR CONTAMINATED SITE CLEAN-UP TECHNOLOGIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable (Roundtable) eveloped this publication to provide information on accessing Federal data bases that contain data on innovative remediation technologies. The Roundtable includes representatives from the Department of Defense (DoD), En...

  1. Cleanups In My Community (CIMC) - Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Superfund Sites, National Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This data layer provides access to Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Superfund Sites as part of the CIMC web service. EPA works with DoD to facilitate the reuse and redevelopment of BRAC federal properties. When the BRAC program began in the early 1990s, EPA worked with DoD and the states to identify uncontaminated areas and these parcels were immediately made available for reuse. Since then EPA has worked with DoD to clean up the contaminated portions of bases. These are usually parcels that were training ranges, landfills, maintenance facilities and other past waste-disposal areas. Superfund is a program administered by the EPA to locate, investigate, and clean up worst hazardous waste sites throughout the United States. EPA administers the Superfund program in cooperation with individual states and tribal governments. These sites include abandoned warehouses, manufacturing facilities, processing plants, and landfills - the key word here being abandoned.This data layer shows Superfund Sites that are located at BRAC Federal Facilities. Additional Superfund sites and other BRAC sites (those that are not Superfund sites) are included in other data layers as part of this web service.BRAC Superfund Sites shown in this web service are derived from the epa.gov website and include links to the relevant web pages within the attribute table. Data about BRAC Superfund Sites are located on their own EPA web pages, and CIMC links to those pages. The CIMC web service

  2. GC-MS identification of proteins in wall painting samples: a fast clean-up procedure to remove copper-based pigment interferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, Gwénaëlle; Colombini, Maria Perla

    2007-08-15

    A new approach was explored to purify proteins in a multi-step procedure for the characterisation of proteinaceous materials (casein, animal glue, and egg) in artwork samples by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. High concentrations of inorganic salts, such as azurite, have been found to impair the determination of protein via amino acid analysis. The effect of varying concentrations of copper-based pigments on the quantification of amino acids was evaluated through the analysis of replica paintings prepared with the three types of proteinaceous materials. Glycine, aspartic and glutamic acids are the amino acids most affected by the presence of copper salts. In the case of high concentration of salts, this interference hampers the correct identification of the proteins. To eliminate the inorganic salts, a C18 pipette tip was used to clean-up the ammonia extracts before the acidic hydrolysis step. The clean-up procedure allows us to prevent the influence of the inorganic salts and thus allows correct protein identification, though the quantitative recovery of proteinaceous material is quite low. The effectiveness of the optimised procedure was evaluated by analysing samples from two Italian wall paintings from the 13th and the 14th centuries. Without the clean-up it would not have been possible to detect the presence of a mixture of egg and animal glue in one case, and that of egg in the other one.

  3. Cleanups in My Community

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Cleanups in My Community (CIMC) is a public web application that enables integrated access through maps, lists and search filtering to site-specific information EPA...

  4. Cleanup of contaminated areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beone, G.; Carbone, A.I.; Zagaroli, M.

    1989-01-01

    The paper deals with the problem of contaminated areas cleanup, in order to eliminate every possible damage for man safety and environment and to site recovery for some utilization, The first step of cleanup operation is site characterization, that is followed by a pianificazion activity for a better definition of staff qualification, technology to be used, protection and prevention instruments for the risks due to contaminants handling. The second section describes the different remedial technologies for contaminated sites. Remedial technologies may be divided into on-site/off-site and in-situ treatments, according to whether materials (waste, soil, water) are moved to another location or not, respectively. Finally, it is outlined that contaminated areas cleanup is a typical multidisciplinary activity because very different competences are required. (author)

  5. Environmental compliance and cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, D.G.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the roles of the principal agencies, organizations, and public in environmental compliance and cleanup of the Hanford Site. Regulatory oversight, the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, the role of Indian tribes, public participation, and CERCLA Natural Resource Damage Assessment Trustee Activities are all discussed

  6. Development of a groundwater clean-up technology for the Hradcany military air base; Developpement d'une technologie de depollution des eaux souterraines de la base militaire de Hradcany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masak, J.; Cejkova, A.; Jirku, V. [Institut of Chemical Technology, Dept. of Fermentation Chemistry and Bioengineering, Prague (Czech Republic); Hercik, F. [KAP Ltd, Liberec (Czech Republic)

    1999-07-01

    The former Hradcany military air base in the Czech Republic has been the object of a complex tailor-made clean-up technology for fuel pollution. The information presented here provides an overview of the project, including a description of the site, the contaminants, the technological tests, the bacterial strain used, as well as the technical goals and operation efficiency. The technological development of this ongoing project combines different treatments based on the application of biological agents and nutrient additives. (authors)

  7. HANDBOOK ON THE BENEFITS, COSTS, AND IMPACTS OF LAND CLEANUP AND REUSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summarizes the theoretical and empirical literature addressing benefit-cost and impact assessment of the land cleanup and reuse scenario. When possible, recommendations are provided for conducting economic analysis of land cleanup and reuse sites and programs. The knowledge base ...

  8. Technical papers presented at a DOE meeting on criteria for cleanup of transuranium elements in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-09-01

    Transuranium element soil contamination cleanup experience gained from nuclear weapons accidents and cleanup at Eniwetok Atoll was reviewed. Presentations have been individually abstracted for inclusion in the data base

  9. Review of State Soil Cleanup Levels for Dioxin (December 2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This final report summarizes a survey of state soil cleanup levels for dioxin and characterizes the science underlying these values. The objective of this project was to summarize existing state cleanup levels for dioxin in soil, together with their scientific bases where availa...

  10. HARVESTING EMSP RESEARCH RESULTS FOR WASTE CLEANUP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillen, Donna Post; Nielson, R. Bruce; Phillips, Ann Marie; Lebow, Scott

    2003-02-27

    The extent of environmental contamination created by the nuclear weapons legacy combined with expensive, ineffective waste cleanup strategies at many U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites prompted Congress to pass the FY96 Energy and Water Development Appropriations Act, which directed the DOE to: ''provide sufficient attention and resources to longer-term basic science research, which needs to be done to ultimately reduce cleanup costs'', ''develop a program that takes advantage of laboratory and university expertise, and'' ''seek new and innovative cleanup methods to replace current conventional approaches which are often costly and ineffective.'' In response, the DOE initiated the Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP)-a targeted, long-term research program intended to produce solutions to DOE's most pressing environmental problems. EMSP funds basic research to lower cleanup cost and reduce risk to workers, the public, and the environment; direct the nation's scientific infrastructure towards cleanup of contaminated waste sites; and bridge the gap between fundamental research and technology development activities. EMSP research projects are competitively awarded based on the project's scientific, merit coupled with relevance to addressing DOE site needs. This paper describes selected EMSP research projects with long, mid, and short-term deployment potential and discusses the impacts, focus, and results of the research. Results of EMSP research are intended to accelerate cleanup schedules, reduce cost or risk for current baselines, provide alternatives for contingency planning, or provide solutions to problems where no solutions exist.

  11. Task 3.3: Warm Syngas Cleanup and Catalytic Processes for Syngas Conversion to Fuels Subtask 3: Advanced Syngas Conversion to Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebarbier Dagel, Vanessa M.; Li, J.; Taylor, Charles E.; Wang, Yong; Dagle, Robert A.; Deshmane, Chinmay A.; Bao, Xinhe

    2014-03-31

    activity was to develop methods and enabling materials for syngas conversion to SNG with readily CO2 separation. Suitable methanation catalyst and CO2 sorbent materials were developed. Successful proof-of-concept for the combined reaction-sorption process was demonstrated, which culminated in a research publication. With successful demonstration, a decision was made to switch focus to an area of fuels research of more interest to all three research institutions (CAS-NETL-PNNL). Syngas-to-Hydrocarbon Fuels through Higher Alcohol Intermediates There are two types of processes in syngas conversion to fuels that are attracting R&D interest: 1) syngas conversion to mixed alcohols; and 2) syngas conversion to gasoline via the methanol-to-gasoline process developed by Exxon-Mobil in the 1970s. The focus of this task was to develop a one-step conversion technology by effectively incorporating both processes, which is expected to reduce the capital and operational cost associated with the conversion of coal-derived syngas to liquid fuels. It should be noted that this work did not further study the classic Fischer-Tropsch reaction pathway. Rather, we focused on the studies for unique catalyst pathways that involve the direct liquid fuel synthesis enabled by oxygenated intermediates. Recent advances made in the area of higher alcohol synthesis including the novel catalytic composite materials recently developed by CAS using base metal catalysts were used.

  12. Evaluation of contaminated groundwater cleanup objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arquiett, C.; Gerke, M.; Datskou, I.

    1996-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Environmental Restoration Program will be responsible for remediating the approximately 230 contaminated groundwater sites across the DOE Complex. A major concern for remediation is choosing the appropriate cleanup objective. The cleanup objective chosen will influence the risk to the nearby public during and after remediation; risk to remedial and non-involved workers during remediation; and the cost of remediation. This paper discusses the trends shown in analyses currently being performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratories' (ORNL's) Center for Risk Management (CRM). To evaluate these trends, CRM is developing a database of contaminated sites. This paper examines several contaminated groundwater sites selected for assessment from CRM's data base. The sites in this sample represent potential types of contaminated groundwater sites commonly found at an installation within DOE. The baseline risk from these sites to various receptors is presented. Residual risk and risk during remediation is reported for different cleanup objectives. The cost associated with remediating to each of these objectives is also estimated for each of the representative sites. Finally, the general trends of impacts as a function of cleanup objective will be summarized. The sites examined include the Savannah River site, where there was substantial ground pollution from radionuclides, oil, coal stockpiles, and other forms of groundwater contamination. The effects of various types of groundwater contamination on various types of future user is described. 4 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Advanced Space-Based Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-17

    type InAs/GaSb (GaSb is gallium/ antimonide ) SLS absorber (n) and contacts (n), with an Aluminum /Galium/ Antimonide AlGaSb barrier (B). [10] We...3D – three-dimensional AEOSS – Advanced Electro-Optical Space Sensors AlGaAs – Aluminum /Galium/Arsenide AlGaSb – Aluminum /Galium/ Antimonide CNL...heterojunction between the semiconductor composed of galium and arsenide (GaAs) and one composed of aluminum , galium, and arsenide (AlGaAs). Related

  14. Graphene oxide adsorbent based dispersive solid phase extraction coupled with multi-pretreatment clean-up for analysis of trace aflatoxins in traditional proprietary Chinese medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Congcong; Chen, Dan; Ma, Haiyan; Jiang, Ye

    2017-02-15

    Graphene oxide (GO)-based dispersive solid phase extraction (D-SPE) method combined with multi-step preparation has been proposed for the evaluation of trace aflatoxins in proprietary Chinese medicines (PCM). After being extracted by methanol, the sample was purified based on multi-step preparation, including dehydration with MgSO 4 /NaCl and cleanup with neutral alumina. Then GO was used as an adsorbent in D-SPE method for further preconcentration of aflatoxins prior to high performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection. The selected conditions were investigated. The Box-Behnken design (BBD) was used to optimize factors affecting adsorption procedure. Under the optimized conditions, good linear relationships had been achieved with the correlation coefficient (R 2 ) varying from 0.9904 to 0.9990. The LODs and LOQs were ranging from 0.020 to 0.041ng/mL and 0.061 to 0.125ng/mL, respectively. The results of the recoveries were 74.0-102.7% for the four aflatoxins, while the precisions from 1.8% to 7.2% were obtained, which indicated that the method was suitable for the analysis of aflatoxins in PCM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Remote handling systems help TMI-2 cleanup efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    As the cleanup at Three Mile Island-2 reactor progresses, the use of remote handling technology will play an important role in the upcoming decontamination of the reactor building basement and the defueling of the reactor. The Remote Reconnaissance Vehicle, Rover, and its use in cleanup tasks are described. Possible concepts for second-generation vehicles are discussed. Earlier less-advanced remote handling equipment used at TMI-2 are also described. Techniques planned for reactor defueling using the Remotely Operated Service Arm, Rosa, and advanced remote handling technology is presented

  16. Advanced fibre based energy storage.

    OpenAIRE

    Reid, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    New energy storage devices are required to enable future technologies. With the rise of wearable consumer and medical devices, a suitable flexible and wearable means of storing electrical energy is required. Fibre-based devices present a possible method of achieving this aim. Fibres are inherently more flexible than their bulk counterparts, and as such can be employed to form the electrodes of flexible batteries and capacitors. They also present a facile possibility for incorporation into man...

  17. Advanced Fibre Based Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Daniel Oliver

    New energy storage devices are required to enable future technologies. With the rise of wearable consumer and medical devices, a suitable flexible and wearable means of storing electrical energy is required. Fibre-based devices present a possible method of achieving this aim. Fibres are inherently more flexible than their bulk counterparts, and as such can be employed to form the electrodes of flexible batteries and capacitors. They also present a facile possibility for incorporation into many fabrics and clothes, further boosting their potential for use in wearable devices. Electrically conducting fibres were produced from a dispersion of carbon nanomaterials in a room temperature ionic liquid. Coagulation of this dispersion was achieved through manual injection into aqueous solutions of xanthan gum. The limitations of this method are highlighted by very low ultimate tensile strengths of these fibres, in the order of 3 MPa, with high variation within all of the fibres. Fibres were also produced via scrolling of bi-component films containing poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). Chemical treatments were employed to impart water compatibility to these fibres, and their electrochemical, physical and electrical properties were analysed. Fibres were wet spun from two PEDOT:PSS sources, in several fibre diameters. The effect of chemical treatments on the fibres were investigated and compared. Short 5 min treatment times with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) on 20 mum fibres produced from Clevios PH1000 were found to produce the best overall treatment. Up to a six-fold increase in electrical conductivity resulted, reaching 800 S cm-1, with up to 40 % increase in specific capacitance and no loss of mechanical strength (55 F g-1 and 150 MPa recorded). A wet spinning system to produce PEDOT:PSS fibres containing functionalised graphenes and carbon nanotubes, as well as birnessite nanotubes was subsequently developed

  18. Cleanup around an old waste site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandergaast, G.; Moffett, D.; Lawrence, B.E.

    1988-01-01

    42,500 m 3 of contaminated soil were removed from off-site areas around an old, low-level radioactive waste site near Port Hope, Ontario. The cleanup was done by means of conventional excavation equipment to criteria developed by Eldorado specific to the land use around the company's waste management facility. These cleanup criteria were based on exposure analyses carried out for critical receptors in two different scenarios. The excavated soils, involving eight different landowners, were placed on the original burial area of the waste management facility. Measures were also undertaken to stabilize the soils brought on-site and to ensure that there would be no subsequent recontamination of the off-site areas

  19. Molybdenum-based additives to mixed-metal oxides for use in hot gas cleanup sorbents for the catalytic decomposition of ammonia in coal gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Raul E.

    1993-01-01

    This invention relates to additives to mixed-metal oxides that act simultaneously as sorbents and catalysts in cleanup systems for hot coal gases. Such additives of this type, generally, act as a sorbent to remove sulfur from the coal gases while substantially simultaneously, catalytically decomposing appreciable amounts of ammonia from the coal gases.

  20. Accelerating cleanup: Paths to closure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    This report describes the status of Environmental Management`s (EM`s) cleanup program and a direction forward to complete achievement of the 2006 vision. Achieving the 2006 vision results in significant benefits related to accomplishing EM program objectives. As DOE sites accelerate cleanup activities, risks to public health, the environment, and worker safety and health are all reduced. Finding more efficient ways to conduct work can result in making compliance with applicable environmental requirements easier to achieve. Finally, as cleanup activities at sites are completed, the EM program can focus attention and resources on the small number of sites with more complex cleanup challenges. Chapter 1 describes the process by which this report has been developed and what it hopes to accomplish, its relationship to the EM decision-making process, and a general background of the EM mission and program. Chapter 2 describes how the site-by-site projections were constructed, and summarizes, for each of DOE`s 11 Operations/Field Offices, the projected costs and schedules for completing the cleanup mission. Chapter 3 presents summaries of the detailed cleanup projections from three of the 11 Operations/Field Offices: Rocky Flats (Colorado), Richland (Washington), and Savannah River (South Carolina). The remaining eight Operations/Field Office summaries are in Appendix E. Chapter 4 reviews the cost drivers, budgetary constraints, and performance enhancements underlying the detailed analysis of the 353 projects that comprise EM`s accelerated cleanup and closure effort. Chapter 5 describes a management system to support the EM program. Chapter 6 provides responses to the general comments received on the February draft of this document.

  1. Accelerating cleanup: Paths to closure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    This report describes the status of Environmental Management's (EM's) cleanup program and a direction forward to complete achievement of the 2006 vision. Achieving the 2006 vision results in significant benefits related to accomplishing EM program objectives. As DOE sites accelerate cleanup activities, risks to public health, the environment, and worker safety and health are all reduced. Finding more efficient ways to conduct work can result in making compliance with applicable environmental requirements easier to achieve. Finally, as cleanup activities at sites are completed, the EM program can focus attention and resources on the small number of sites with more complex cleanup challenges. Chapter 1 describes the process by which this report has been developed and what it hopes to accomplish, its relationship to the EM decision-making process, and a general background of the EM mission and program. Chapter 2 describes how the site-by-site projections were constructed, and summarizes, for each of DOE's 11 Operations/Field Offices, the projected costs and schedules for completing the cleanup mission. Chapter 3 presents summaries of the detailed cleanup projections from three of the 11 Operations/Field Offices: Rocky Flats (Colorado), Richland (Washington), and Savannah River (South Carolina). The remaining eight Operations/Field Office summaries are in Appendix E. Chapter 4 reviews the cost drivers, budgetary constraints, and performance enhancements underlying the detailed analysis of the 353 projects that comprise EM's accelerated cleanup and closure effort. Chapter 5 describes a management system to support the EM program. Chapter 6 provides responses to the general comments received on the February draft of this document

  2. Military Base Realignments and Closures: DOD Has Improved Environmental Cleanup Reporting but Should Obtain and Share More Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    whether by malfunction, design, or any other cause .” 10 U.S.C. § 101(e)(5). Letter Page 2 GAO-17-151 Military Base Realignments...For example, in 2015 we reported that a variety of homeless assistance was provided as a result of BRAC 2005 but that DOD and the Department of...Housing and Urban Development do not require tracking of data about the transfer of property for homeless assistance. We recommended that DOD and the

  3. Multi-residue method for the determination of organochlorine pesticides in fish feed based on a cleanup approach followed by gas chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardelli, Valeria; dell'Oro, Daniela; Palermo, Carmen; Centonze, Diego

    2010-07-23

    A multi-residue method for the determination of organochlorine pesticides in fish feed samples was developed and optimized. The method is based on a cleanup step of the extracted fat, carried out by liquid-liquid extraction on diatomaceous earth cartridge with n-hexane/acetonitrile (80/20, v/v) followed by solid phase extraction (SPE) with silica gel-SCX cartridge, before the identification and quantification of the residues by gas chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). Performance characteristics, such as accuracy, precision, linear range, limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ), for each pesticide were determined. Instrumental LODs ranged from 0.01 to 0.11 microg L(-1), LOQs were in the range of 0.02-0.35 microg L(-1), and calibration curves were linear (r2>0.999) in the whole range of explored concentrations (5-100 microg L(-1)). Repeatability values were in the range of 3-15%, evaluated from the relative standard deviation of six samples spiked at 100 microg kg(-1) of fat, and in compliance with that derived by the Horwitz's equation. No matrix effects or interfering substances were observed in fish feed analyses. The proposed method allowed high recoveries (92-116%) of spiked extracted fat samples at 100 microg kg(-1), and very low LODs (between 0.02 and 0.63 microg kg(-1)) and LOQs (between 0.05 and 2.09 microg kg(-1)) determined in fish feed samples. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Advanced location-based technologies and services

    CERN Document Server

    Karimi, Hassan A

    2013-01-01

    Due to the rapid increase in the number of mobile device users worldwide, location-based services (LBSs) have become pervasive, and the demand for them will continue to grow. Exploring recent changes in the technology and its uses, Advanced Location-Based Technologies and Services takes an in-depth look at new and existing technologies, techniques, applications, and opportunities. Under the editorial guidance of Hassan Karimi, with contributions from experts in the field, the book examines the breadth and depth of advanced LBS technologies and techniques. The book provides up-to-date informati

  5. Cleanup standards and pathways analysis methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devgun, J.S.

    1993-01-01

    Remediation of a radioactively contaminated site requires that certain regulatory criteria be met before the site can be released for unrestricted future use. Since the ultimate objective of remediation is to protect the public health and safety, residual radioactivity levels remaining at a site after cleanup must be below certain preset limits or meet acceptable dose or risk criteria. Release of a decontaminated site requires proof that the radiological data obtained from the site meet the regulatory criteria for such a release. Typically release criteria consist of a composite of acceptance limits that depend on the radionuclides, the media in which they are present, and federal and local regulations. In recent years, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a pathways analysis model to determine site-specific soil activity concentration guidelines for radionuclides that do not have established generic acceptance limits. The DOE pathways analysis computer code (developed by Argonne National Laboratory for the DOE) is called RESRAD (Gilbert et al. 1989). Similar efforts have been initiated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to develop and use dose-related criteria based on genetic pathways analyses rather than simplistic numerical limits on residual radioactivity. The focus of this paper is radionuclide contaminated soil. Cleanup standards are reviewed, pathways analysis methods are described, and an example is presented in which RESRAD was used to derive cleanup guidelines

  6. Versatile fabrication of a superhydrophobic and ultralight cellulose-based aerogel for oil spillage clean-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Li, Yuqi; Xu, Yaoguang; Lu, Zexiang; Chen, Lihui; Huang, Liulian; Fan, Mizi

    2016-10-12

    To deal with marine oil spillage and chemical leakage issues, a highly efficient absorbent (cellulose based aerogel) with a low density (ρ 98.5%) and high mechanical strength was fabricated via a novel physical-chemical foaming method, plasma treatment and subsequent silane modification process. This aerogel has a perfect 3D skeleton and interconnected pores similar to honeycomb, which are favorable to oil adsorption and storage. More importantly, without introducing additional micro/nanoparticles, the rough micro/nano structure of the surface was directly constructed using plasma irradiation in this study. The low surface energy substrate was further introduced using a simple physical-soaking method and the resulting aerogel exhibited excellent superhydrophobicity (WCA > 156°) and superoleophilicity (OCA = 0°), which can selectively and efficiently absorb various oils or organic solvents from polluted water. In addition, this aerogel has a high storage capacity and absorption capacity (up to 4300% and 99% of its weight and volume, respectively). More interestingly, this aerogel exhibits excellent mechanical abrasion resistance and corrosion resistance even in strong acid, alkali solution and salt marine environment. The aerogel could be reused more than 30 times after removal of the absorbed oil by rinsing with ethanol.

  7. New Advances in Corpus-based Lexicography

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Riette Ruthven

    New Advances in Corpus-based Lexicography. 115 method ensures that at least all common words will be included. This statement sounds trivial, but it is not trivial at all. In the comprehen- sive computer evaluation of five Swahili dictionaries (Hurskainen 1994, 2002), it was found that the two most authoritative dictionaries9 ...

  8. Recent Advances in Paper-Based Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Chow

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Paper-based sensors are a new alternative technology for fabricating simple, low-cost, portable and disposable analytical devices for many application areas including clinical diagnosis, food quality control and environmental monitoring. The unique properties of paper which allow passive liquid transport and compatibility with chemicals/biochemicals are the main advantages of using paper as a sensing platform. Depending on the main goal to be achieved in paper-based sensors, the fabrication methods and the analysis techniques can be tuned to fulfill the needs of the end-user. Current paper-based sensors are focused on microfluidic delivery of solution to the detection site whereas more advanced designs involve complex 3-D geometries based on the same microfluidic principles. Although paper-based sensors are very promising, they still suffer from certain limitations such as accuracy and sensitivity. However, it is anticipated that in the future, with advances in fabrication and analytical techniques, that there will be more new and innovative developments in paper-based sensors. These sensors could better meet the current objectives of a viable low-cost and portable device in addition to offering high sensitivity and selectivity, and multiple analyte discrimination. This paper is a review of recent advances in paper-based sensors and covers the following topics: existing fabrication techniques, analytical methods and application areas. Finally, the present challenges and future outlooks are discussed.

  9. Hot gas cleanup test facility for gasification and pressurized combustion. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1--September 30, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    The objective of this project is to evaluate hot gas particle control technologies using coal-derived gas streams. This will entail the design, construction, installation, and use of a flexible test facility which can operate under realistic gasification and combustion conditions. The major particulate control device issues to be addressed include the integration of the particulate control devices into coal utilization systems, on-line cleaning techniques, chemical and thermal degradation of components, fatigue or structural failures, blinding, collection efficiency as a function of particle size, and scale-up of particulate control systems to commercial size. The conceptual design of the facility was extended to include a within scope, phased expansion of the existing Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility Cooperative Agreement to also address systems integration issues of hot particulate removal in advanced coal-based power generation systems. This expansion included the consideration of the following modules at the test facility in addition to the existing Transport Reactor gas source and Hot Gas Cleanup Units: Carbonizer/Pressurized Circulating Fluidized Bed Gas Source; hot Gas Cleanup Units to mate to all gas streams; and Combustion Gas Turbine. Fuel Cell and associated gas treatment. This expansion to the Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility is herein referred to as the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF).

  10. Evidence-Based Advances in Rabbit Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summa, Noémie M; Brandão, João

    2017-09-01

    Rabbit medicine has been continuously evolving over time with increasing popularity and demand. Tremendous advances have been made in rabbit medicine over the past 5 years, including the use of imaging tools for otitis and dental disease management, the development of laboratory testing for encephalitozoonosis, or determination of prognosis in rabbits. Recent pharmacokinetic studies have been published, providing additional information on commonly used antibiotics and motility-enhancer drugs, as well as benzimidazole toxicosis. This article presents a review of evidence-based advances for liver lobe torsions, thymoma, and dental disease in rabbits and controversial and new future promising areas in rabbit medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Evidence-Based Advances in Avian Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summa, Noémie M; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon

    2017-09-01

    This article presents relevant advances in avian medicine and surgery over the past 5 years. New information has been published to improve clinical diagnosis in avian diseases. This article also describes new pharmacokinetic studies. Advances in the understanding and treatment of common avian disorders are presented in this article, as well. Although important progress has been made over the past years, there is still much research that needs to be done regarding the etiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of avian diseases and evidence-based information is still sparse in the literature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Recycling Facilities - Land Recycling Cleanup Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Land Recycling Cleanup Location Land Recycling Cleanup Locations (LRCL) are divided into one or more sub-facilities categorized as media: Air, Contained Release or...

  13. Development of teleoperated cleanup system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki Ho; Park, J. J.; Yang, M. S.; Kwon, H. J.

    2005-01-01

    This report describes the development of a teleoperated cleanup system for use in a highly radioactive environment of DFDF(DUPIC Fuel Demonstration Facility) at KAERI where direct human access to the in-cell is strictly limited. The teleoperated cleanup system was designed to remotely remove contaminants placed or fixed on the floor surface of the hot-cell by mopping them with wet cloth. This cleanup system consists of a mopping slave, a mopping master and a control console. The mopping slave located at the in-cell comprises a mopping tool with a mopping cloth and a mobile platform, which were constructed in modules to facilitate maintenance. The mopping master that is an input device to control the mopping slave has kinematic dissimilarity with the mopping slave. The control console provides a means of bilateral control flows and communications between the mopping master and the mopping slave. In operation, the human operator from the out-of-cell performs a series of decontamination tasks remotely by manipulating the mopping slave located in-cell via a mopping master, having a sense of real mopping. The environmental and mechanical design considerations, and control systems of the developed teleoperated cleanup system are also described

  14. Advanced Approach of Multiagent Based Buoy Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gediminas Gricius

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Usually, a hydrometeorological information system is faced with great data flows, but the data levels are often excessive, depending on the observed region of the water. The paper presents advanced buoy communication technologies based on multiagent interaction and data exchange between several monitoring system nodes. The proposed management of buoy communication is based on a clustering algorithm, which enables the performance of the hydrometeorological information system to be enhanced. The experiment is based on the design and analysis of the inexpensive but reliable Baltic Sea autonomous monitoring network (buoys, which would be able to continuously monitor and collect temperature, waviness, and other required data. The proposed approach of multiagent based buoy communication enables all the data from the costal-based station to be monitored with limited transition speed by setting different tasks for the agent-based buoy system according to the clustering information.

  15. Advanced Approach of Multiagent Based Buoy Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gricius, Gediminas; Drungilas, Darius; Andziulis, Arunas; Dzemydiene, Dale; Voznak, Miroslav; Kurmis, Mindaugas; Jakovlev, Sergej

    2015-01-01

    Usually, a hydrometeorological information system is faced with great data flows, but the data levels are often excessive, depending on the observed region of the water. The paper presents advanced buoy communication technologies based on multiagent interaction and data exchange between several monitoring system nodes. The proposed management of buoy communication is based on a clustering algorithm, which enables the performance of the hydrometeorological information system to be enhanced. The experiment is based on the design and analysis of the inexpensive but reliable Baltic Sea autonomous monitoring network (buoys), which would be able to continuously monitor and collect temperature, waviness, and other required data. The proposed approach of multiagent based buoy communication enables all the data from the costal-based station to be monitored with limited transition speed by setting different tasks for the agent-based buoy system according to the clustering information.

  16. Computer-aided cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.; Jones, B.

    1994-01-01

    In late 1992, the remedial investigation of operable unit 2 at the Department of Energy (DOE) Superfund site in Fernald, Ohio was in trouble. Despite years of effort--including an EPA-approved field-investigation work plan, 123 soil borings, 51 ground-water-monitoring wells, analysis of more than 650 soil and ground-water samples, and preparation of a draft remedial-investigation (RI) report--it was not possible to conclude if contaminated material in the unit was related to ground-water contamination previously detected beneath and beyond the site boundary. Compounding the problem, the schedule for the RI, feasibility study and record of decision for operable unit 2 was governed by a DOE-EPA consent agreement stipulating penalties of up to $10,000 per week for not meeting scheduled milestones--and time was running out. An advanced three-dimensional computer model confirmed that radioactive wastes dumped at the Fernald, Ohio Superfund site had contaminated ground water, after years of previous testing has been inconclusive. The system is now being used to aid feasibility and design work on the more-than-$1 billion remediation project

  17. Licensed bases management for advanced nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connell, J.; Rumble, E.; Rodwell, E.

    2001-01-01

    Prospective Advanced Nuclear Plant (ANP) owners must have high confidence that the integrity of the licensed bases (LB) of a plant will be effectively maintained over its life cycle. Currently, licensing engineers use text retrieval systems, database managers, and checklists to access, update, and maintain vast and disparate licensing information libraries. This paper describes the demonstration of a ''twin-engine'' approach that integrates a program from the emerging class of concept searching tools with a modern Product Data Management System (PDMS) to enhance the management of LB information for an example ANP design. (author)

  18. Accelerating cleanup: Paths to closure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, C.

    1998-06-30

    This document was previously referred to as the Draft 2006 Plan. As part of the DOE`s national strategy, the Richland Operations Office`s Paths to Closure summarizes an integrated path forward for environmental cleanup at the Hanford Site. The Hanford Site underwent a concerted effort between 1994 and 1996 to accelerate the cleanup of the Site. These efforts are reflected in the current Site Baseline. This document describes the current Site Baseline and suggests strategies for further improvements in scope, schedule and cost. The Environmental Management program decided to change the name of the draft strategy and the document describing it in response to a series of stakeholder concerns, including the practicality of achieving widespread cleanup by 2006. Also, EM was concerned that calling the document a plan could be misconstrued to be a proposal by DOE or a decision-making document. The change in name, however, does not diminish the 2006 vision. To that end, Paths to Closure retains a focus on 2006, which serves as a point in time around which objectives and goals are established.

  19. Deriving cleanup guidelines for radionuclides at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meinhold, A.F.; Morris, S.C.; Dionne, B.; Moskowitz, P.D.

    1997-01-01

    Past activities at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) resulted in soil and groundwater contamination. As a result, BNL was designated a Superfund site under the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). BNL's Office of Environmental Restoration (OER) is overseeing environmental restoration activities at the Laboratory. With the exception of radium, there are no regulations or guidelines to establish cleanup guidelines for radionuclides in soils at BNL. BNL must derive radionuclide soil cleanup guidelines for a number of Operable Units (OUs) and Areas of Concern (AOCs). These guidelines are required by DOE under a proposed regulation for radiation protection of public health and the environment as well as to satisfy the requirements of CERCLA. The objective of this report is to propose a standard approach to deriving risk-based cleanup guidelines for radionuclides in soil at BNL. Implementation of the approach is briefly discussed

  20. Deriving cleanup guidelines for radionuclides at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinhold, A.F.; Morris, S.C.; Dionne, B.; Moskowitz, P.D.

    1997-01-01

    Past activities at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) resulted in soil and groundwater contamination. As a result, BNL was designated a Superfund site under the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). BNL`s Office of Environmental Restoration (OER) is overseeing environmental restoration activities at the Laboratory. With the exception of radium, there are no regulations or guidelines to establish cleanup guidelines for radionuclides in soils at BNL. BNL must derive radionuclide soil cleanup guidelines for a number of Operable Units (OUs) and Areas of Concern (AOCs). These guidelines are required by DOE under a proposed regulation for radiation protection of public health and the environment as well as to satisfy the requirements of CERCLA. The objective of this report is to propose a standard approach to deriving risk-based cleanup guidelines for radionuclides in soil at BNL. Implementation of the approach is briefly discussed.

  1. Biotechnologies for Marine Oil Spill Cleanup: Indissoluble Ties with Microorganisms

    KAUST Repository

    Mapelli, Francesca

    2017-05-13

    The ubiquitous exploitation of petroleum hydrocarbons (HCs) has been accompanied by accidental spills and chronic pollution in marine ecosystems, including the deep ocean. Physicochemical technologies are available for oil spill cleanup, but HCs must ultimately be mineralized by microorganisms. How environmental factors drive the assembly and activity of HC-degrading microbial communities remains unknown, limiting our capacity to integrate microorganism-based cleanup strategies with current physicochemical remediation technologies. In this review, we summarize recent findings about microbial physiology, metabolism and ecology and describe how microbes can be exploited to create improved biotechnological solutions to clean up marine surface and deep waters, sediments and beaches.

  2. Historical research in the Hanford site waste cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, Michele S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper will acquaint the audience with role of historical research in the Hanford Site waste cleanup - the largest waste cleanup endeavor ever undertaken in human history. There were no comparable predecessors to this massive waste remediation effort, but the Hanford historical record can provide a partial road map and guide. It can be, and is, a useful tool in meeting the goal of a successful, cost-effective, safe and technologically exemplary waste cleanup. The Hanford historical record is rich and complex. Yet, it poses difficult challenges, in that no central and complete repository or data base exists, records contain obscure code words and code numbers, and the measurement systems and terminology used in the records change many times over the years. Still, these records are useful to the current waste cleanup in technical ways, and in ways that extend beyond a strictly scientific aspect. Study and presentations of Hanford Site history contribute to the huge educational and outreach tasks of helping the Site's work force deal with 'culture change' and become motivated for the cleanup work that is ahead, and of helping the public and the regulators to place the events at Hanford in the context of WWII and the Cold War. This paper traces historical waste practices and policies as they changed over the years at the Hanford Site, and acquaints the audience with the generation of the major waste streams of concern in Hanford Site cleanup today. It presents original, primary-source research into the waste history of the Hanford Site. The earliest, 1940s knowledge base, assumptions and calculations about radioactive and chemical discharges, as discussed in the memos, correspondence and reports of the original Hanford Site (then Hanford Engineer Works) builders and operators, are reviewed. The growth of knowledge, research efforts, and subsequent changes in Site waste disposal policies and practices are traced. Examples of the strengths and limitations of the

  3. HANFORD SITE CENTRAL PLATEAU CLEANUP COMPLETION STRATEGY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, T.B.

    2011-01-01

    Cleanup of the Hanford Site is a complex and challenging undertaking. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a comprehensive vision for completing Hanford's cleanup mission including transition to post-cleanup activities. This vision includes 3 principle components of cleanup: the ∼200 square miles ofland adjacent to the Columbia River, known as the River Corridor; the 75 square miles of land in the center of the Hanford Site, where the majority of the reprocessing and waste management activities have occurred, known as the Central Plateau; and the stored reprocessing wastes in the Central Plateau, the Tank Wastes. Cleanup of the River Corridor is well underway and is progressing towards completion of most cleanup actions by 2015. Tank waste cleanup is progressing on a longer schedule due to the complexity of the mission, with construction of the largest nuclear construction project in the United States, the Waste Treatment Plant, over 50% complete. With the progress on the River Corridor and Tank Waste, it is time to place increased emphasis on moving forward with cleanup of the Central Plateau. Cleanup of the Hanford Site has been proceeding under a framework defmed in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement). In early 2009, the DOE, the State of Washington Department of Ecology, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency signed an Agreement in Principle in which the parties recognized the need to develop a more comprehensive strategy for cleanup of the Central Plateau. DOE agreed to develop a Central Plateau Cleanup Completion Strategy as a starting point for discussions. This DOE Strategy was the basis for negotiations between the Parties, discussions with the State of Oregon, the Hanford Advisory Board, and other Stakeholder groups (including open public meetings), and consultation with the Tribal Nations. The change packages to incorporate the Central Plateau Cleanup Completion Strategy were signed by the

  4. Coolant cleanup system for a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiina, Atsushi; Usui, Naoshi; Yamamoto, Michiyoshi; Osumi, Katsumi.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To maintain the electric conductivity of reactor water lower and to minimize the heat loss in the cleanup system by providing a low temperature cleanup system and a high temperature cleanup system together. Constitution: A low temperature cleanup system using ion exchange resins as filter aids and a high temperature cleanup system using inorganic ion exchange materials as filter aids are provided in combination. A part of the reactor water in a reactor pressure vessel is passed through a conductivity meter, one portion of which flows into the high temperature cleanup system having no heat exchanger and filled with inorganic ion exchange materials by way of a first flow rate control valve and the other portion of which flows into the low temperature cleanup system having heat exchangers and filled with the ion exchange materials by way of a second control valve. The first control valve is adjusted so as to flow, for example, about more than 15% of the feedwater flow rate to the high temperature cleanup system and the second control valve is adjusted with its valve opening degree depending on the indication of the conductivity meter so as to flow about 2 - 7 % of the feedwater flow rate into the low temperature cleanup system, to thereby control the electric conductivity to between 0.055 - 0.3 μS/cm. (Moriyama, K.)

  5. Marine Debris Clean-Ups as Meaningful Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepath, Carl M.; Bacon, Joseph Scott

    2010-01-01

    This seven to eight week hands-on Marine Debris Clean-up Project used a service project to provide an introduction of marine science ecology, watershed interrelationships, the scientific method, and environmental stewardship to 8th grade middle school students. It utilized inquiry based learning to introduce marine debris sources and impacts to…

  6. Urinary metabolites before and after cleanup and subjective symptoms in volunteer participants in cleanup of the Hebei Spirit oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Mina; Kwon, Hojang; Cheong, Hae-Kwan; Lim, Sinye; Yoo, Seung Jin; Kim, Eun-Jung; Park, Seok Gun; Lee, Jeongae; Chung, Bong Chul

    2012-07-01

    On December 7th, 2007, the Hong Kong tanker Hebei Spirit (HS) (146,848 tons) was crushed by a crane ship near the shore of Taean, Korea. More than 12,547 kl of crude oil spilled into the sea and contaminated the western coastline of the Korean peninsula. For a period of six months after the accident, approximately 1,000,000 volunteers participated in the cleanup. Our goal in this study was to examine the exposure status and acute health effects on volunteers that participated in the oil spill cleanup. A survey questionnaire was filled out by 565 volunteers, requesting information regarding physical symptoms. Out of the total number of participants, urine samples from 105 university student volunteers were collected before and after the cleanup work, and metabolite levels of volatile organic compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were analyzed. Volunteers that participated for longer cleanup work reported an increase in physical symptoms including visual disturbance, nasal and bronchus irritation, headaches, heart palpitations, fatigue and fever, memory and cognitive disturbance, and abdominal pain. The levels of t,t-muconic acid, mandelic acid, and 1-hydroxypyrene were significantly higher in samples after cleanup than those measured before participation (plevel between the post- to pre-cleanup levels, no other physical symptoms demonstrated a significant association with changes observed in the levels of urinary metabolites. Based on the significant increase of subjective symptoms in volunteers participating in the study, monitoring of the long term health effects, focusing on those with longer exposure, is warranted. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of gasification and gas cleanup processes for use in molten carbonate fuel cell power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonski, G.; Hamm, J. R.; Alvin, M. A.; Wenglarz, R. A.; Patel, P.

    1982-10-01

    Coal gasifiers and gas cleanup systems suitable for supplying fuel to molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) in industrial and utility power plants are listed. Those coal gas cleanup systems rejected by DOE's MCFC contractors for their power plant systems by virtue of the resources required for those systems to be commercially developed are characterized. An analytical model to predict MCFC tolerance for particulates on the anode (fuel gas) side of the MCFC was developed. An analytical model to predict MCFC anode side tolerance for chemical species, including sulfides, halogens, and trace heavy metals was developed. The candidate gasifier/cleanup systems those most suitable for MCFC-based power plants are discussed. A reference wet cleanup system, parametric analyses of the coal gasifiers and gas cleanup systems, efficiency, investment, cost of electricity, operability, and environmental effect rankings, and a final report are discussed.

  8. Field-based systems and advanced diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eryurek, E.

    1998-01-01

    Detection and characterization of anomalies in an industrial plant provide improved plant availability and plant efficiency thus yielding increased economic efficiency. Traditionally, detection of process anomalies is done at a high-level control system through various signal validation methods. These signal validation techniques rely on data from transmitters, which measure related process variables. Correlating these signals and deducing anomalies often is a very time consuming and a difficult task. Delays in detecting these anomalies can be costly during plant operation. Conventional centralized approaches also suffer from their dependence on detailed mathematical models of the processes. Smart field devices have the advantage of providing the necessary information directly to the control system as anomalies develop during operation of the processes enabling operators to take necessary steps to either prevent an unnecessary shut down before the problem becomes serious or schedule maintenance on the problematic loop. Fisher-Rosemount's PlantWeb TM architecture addresses 'Enhanced Measurement, Advanced Diagnostics and Control in the Field'. PlantWeb TM builds open process management systems by networking intelligent field devices, scalable control and systems platforms, and integrated modular software. A description of PlantWeb TM and how it improves various process conditions and reduces operating cost of a plant as well as a high level description of 'Enhanced Measurement, Advanced Diagnostics and Control in the Field', will be provided in this paper. PlantWeb TM is the trademark for Fisher-Rosemount's new field-based architecture that uses emerging technologies to utilize the power of intelligent field devices and deliver critical process and equipment information to improve plant performance. (author)

  9. Reactor water clean-up device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Koji; Egashira, Yasuo; Shimada, Fumie; Igarashi, Noboru.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To save a low temperature reactor water clean-up system indispensable so far and significantly simplify the system by carrying out the reactor water clean-up solely in a high temperature reactor water clean-up system. Constitution: The reactor water clean-up device comprises a high temperature clean-up pump and a high temperature adsorption device for inorganic adsorbents. The high temperature adsorption device is filled with amphoteric ion adsorbing inorganic adsorbents, or amphoteric ion adsorbing inorganic adsorbents and anionic adsorbing inorganic adsorbents. The reactor water clean-up device introduces reactor water by the high temperature clean-up pump through a recycling system to the high temperature adsorption device for inorganic adsorbents. Since cations such as cobalt ions and anions such as chlorine ions in the reactor water are simultaneously removed in the device, a low temperature reactor water clean-up system which has been indispensable so far can be saved to realize the significant simplification for the entire system. (Seki, T.)

  10. DOE cleanup chief sees contracting changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Thomas P. Grumbly, the US Department of Energy's top cleanup official, has ruled out the agency's use of further Environmental Restoration Management Contracts for remediating former nuclear weapon production sites. At a special briefing earlier this month he also noted other steps DOE was taking to accede to mounting pressure that it hire more plant workers for cleanups

  11. Large-scale multi-class herbicides analysis in oilseeds by rapid one-step QuEChERS-based extraction and cleanup method using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczyński, Piotr

    2017-09-01

    A simple, sensitive and rapid method is proposed for simultaneous determination of 120 various classes of herbicides in oilseed samples. A one-step QuEChERS-based approach to extraction and cleanup has been developed. LC-MS/MS was used to evaluate the proposed sample treatment methodologies. The new one-step QuEChERS strategy was compared to other methodologies previously used for elimination of co-extracts from fatty matrices. For validation purposes, recovery studies were carried out at 5, 50 and 500µgkg -1 levels for rapeseed, sunflower seeds and soybean. The optimized method yielded a small matrix effect (-20-20%) for 82% of the tested compounds. We was found to reduce matrix effects more effectively without significantly decreasing analyte recoveries. Throughout the validation experiments, 70-120% overall recoveries were achieved with RSDsherbicides. The validated method was employed in analysis of ninety real rapeseed samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Biomass gasification with air in fluidized bed. Hot gas cleanup with selected commercial and full-size nickel-based catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caballero, M.A.; Corella, J.; Aznar, M.P.; Gil, J.

    2000-05-01

    Three selected commercial, full-size steam-reforming catalysts for naphthas, BASF G1-50, ICI 46-1, and Topsoee R-67, are tested at pilot-scale level for hot gas cleanup in biomass gasification in a fluidized bed. Gas composition and tar content in the flue gas are measured before and after the catalytic bed. Variations of the catalytic bed in H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and H{sub 2}O contents are reported for different operating conditions. Tar conversions and an apparent first-order kinetics constant for the overall tar removal reaction are calculated. Tar contents at the exit of the catalytic reactor as low as 10 mg/m{sub n}{sup 3} are obtained in a test of 50 h-on-stream without noticeable catalyst deactivation. Important variations in tar conversion with space time in the catalytic bed, with H{sub 2}O/C* in the flue gas, and with the equivalence ratio in the upstream gasifier are observed. These results obtained at the pilot-scale level and with the use of full-sized commercial catalysts are an important forward step in demonstrating the technical feasibility of the overall biomass gasification process.

  13. Experimental Tritium Cleanup System availability analysis from 1984 to 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwallader, L.C.; Taylor, G.L.

    1993-05-01

    This report gives the availability percentage of the Experimental Tritium Cleanup System (ETC) at the Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA), which is a fusion research and technology facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The component failure reports, the numbers of components, and operating times or demands are all given in this report. Sample calculations of the failure rates obtained from these data are given in the appendices. While future fusion experiments might use different or more advanced means to detritiate room air, the analysis of this system gives a data point for an actual detritiation system. Such a data point can be extrapolated for comparison with fault tree results on system designs, or can be used in a Bayesian failure rate analysis for estimating reliability of a new type of system. The nine years of testing operations on TSTA's ETC result in a reasonable average availability value of 92% for the maximal tritium release event. The failure rates for new systems are expected to be lower than for the TSTA ETC, since improvements will be made in the design of the room air detritiation system based on the TSTA system experiences. Nonetheless, these TSTA data should be useful for future fusion reactor design work and safety assessment tasks

  14. CHAOS-BASED ADVANCED ENCRYPTION STANDARD

    KAUST Repository

    Abdulwahed, Naif B.

    2013-05-01

    This thesis introduces a new chaos-based Advanced Encryption Standard (AES). The AES is a well-known encryption algorithm that was standardized by U.S National Institute of Standard and Technology (NIST) in 2001. The thesis investigates and explores the behavior of the AES algorithm by replacing two of its original modules, namely the S-Box and the Key Schedule, with two other chaos- based modules. Three chaos systems are considered in designing the new modules which are Lorenz system with multiplication nonlinearity, Chen system with sign modules nonlinearity, and 1D multiscroll system with stair case nonlinearity. The three systems are evaluated on their sensitivity to initial conditions and as Pseudo Random Number Generators (PRNG) after applying a post-processing technique to their output then performing NIST SP. 800-22 statistical tests. The thesis presents a hardware implementation of dynamic S-Boxes for AES that are populated using the three chaos systems. Moreover, a full MATLAB package to analyze the chaos generated S-Boxes based on graphical analysis, Walsh-Hadamard spectrum analysis, and image encryption analysis is developed. Although these S-Boxes are dynamic, meaning they are regenerated whenever the encryption key is changed, the analysis results show that such S-Boxes exhibit good properties like the Strict Avalanche Criterion (SAC) and the nonlinearity and in the application of image encryption. Furthermore, the thesis presents a new Lorenz-chaos-based key expansion for the AES. Many researchers have pointed out that there are some defects in the original key expansion of AES and thus have motivated such chaos-based key expansion proposal. The new proposed key schedule is analyzed and assessed in terms of confusion and diffusion by performing the frequency and SAC test respectively. The obtained results show that the new proposed design is more secure than the original AES key schedule and other proposed designs in the literature. The proposed

  15. Enhancing aquifer cleanup with reinjection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isherwood, W.F.; Ziagos, J.; Rice, D. Jr.; Krauter, P.; Nichols, E.

    1992-09-01

    Injection of water or steam, with or without chemical surfactants, is a common petroleum industry technique to enhance product recovery. In the geothermal industry, reinjection (reinjection is used to mean the injection of ground water that was previously injected) of heat- depleted subsurface fluids is commonly used to maintain reservoir pressure, thus prolonging field productivity. The use reinjection in ground-water remediation projects allows for the application of both traditional production field management and a variety of additional enhancements to the cleanup process. Development of the ideas in this paper was stimulated by an initial suggestion by Dr. Jacob Bear (personal discussions, 1990--1991) that reinjected water might be heated to aid the desorption process

  16. Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility for gasification and pressurized combustion. Quarterly report, October--December 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    The objective of this project is to evaluate hot gas particle control technologies using coal-derived gas streams. This will entail the design, construction, installation, and use of a flexible test facility which can operate under realistic gasification and combustion conditions. The major particulate control device issues to be addressed include the integration of the particulate control devices into coal utilization systems, on-line cleaning techniques, chemical and thermal degradation of components, fatigue or structural failures, blinding, collection efficiency as a function of particle size, and scale-up of particulate control systems to commercial size. The conceptual design of the facility was extended to include a within scope, phased expansion of the existing Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility Cooperative Agreement to also address systems integration issues of hot particulate removal in advanced coal-based power generation systems. This expansion included the consideration of the following modules at the test facility in addition to the original Transport Reactor gas source and Hot Gas Cleanup Units: carbonizer/pressurized circulating fluidized bed gas source; hot gas cleanup units to mate to all gas streams; combustion gas turbine; and fuel cell and associated gas treatment. The major emphasis during this reporting period was continuing the detailed design of the facility and integrating the particulate control devices (PCDs) into structural and process designs. Substantial progress in underground construction activities was achieved during the quarter. Delivery and construction of coal handling and process structural steel began during the quarter. Delivery and construction of coal handling and process structural steel began during the quarter. MWK equipment at the grade level and the first tier are being set in the structure.

  17. HANFORD SITE RIVER CORRIDOR CLEANUP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BAZZELL, K.D.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, the US Department of Energy (DOE) launched the third generation of closure contracts, including the River Corridor Closure (RCC) Contract at Hanford. Over the past decade, significant progress has been made on cleaning up the river shore that bordes Hanford. However, the most important cleanup challenges lie ahead. In March 2005, DOE awarded the Hanford River Corridor Closure Contract to Washington Closure Hanford (WCH), a limited liability company owned by Washington Group International, Bechtel National and CH2M HILL. It is a single-purpose company whose goal is to safely and efficiently accelerate cleanup in the 544 km 2 Hanford river corridor and reduce or eliminate future obligations to DOE for maintaining long-term stewardship over the site. The RCC Contract is a cost-plus-incentive-fee closure contract, which incentivizes the contractor to reduce cost and accelerate the schedule. At $1.9 billion and seven years, WCH has accelerated cleaning up Hanford's river corridor significantly compared to the $3.2 billion and 10 years originally estimated by the US Army Corps of Engineers. Predictable funding is one of the key features of the new contract, with funding set by contract at $183 million in fiscal year (FY) 2006 and peaking at $387 million in FY2012. Another feature of the contract allows for Washington Closure to perform up to 40% of the value of the contract and subcontract the balance. One of the major challenges in the next few years will be to identify and qualify sufficient subcontractors to meet the goal

  18. HANFORD SITE RIVER CORRIDOR CLEANUP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BAZZELL, K.D.

    2006-02-01

    In 2005, the US Department of Energy (DOE) launched the third generation of closure contracts, including the River Corridor Closure (RCC) Contract at Hanford. Over the past decade, significant progress has been made on cleaning up the river shore that bordes Hanford. However, the most important cleanup challenges lie ahead. In March 2005, DOE awarded the Hanford River Corridor Closure Contract to Washington Closure Hanford (WCH), a limited liability company owned by Washington Group International, Bechtel National and CH2M HILL. It is a single-purpose company whose goal is to safely and efficiently accelerate cleanup in the 544 km{sup 2} Hanford river corridor and reduce or eliminate future obligations to DOE for maintaining long-term stewardship over the site. The RCC Contract is a cost-plus-incentive-fee closure contract, which incentivizes the contractor to reduce cost and accelerate the schedule. At $1.9 billion and seven years, WCH has accelerated cleaning up Hanford's river corridor significantly compared to the $3.2 billion and 10 years originally estimated by the US Army Corps of Engineers. Predictable funding is one of the key features of the new contract, with funding set by contract at $183 million in fiscal year (FY) 2006 and peaking at $387 million in FY2012. Another feature of the contract allows for Washington Closure to perform up to 40% of the value of the contract and subcontract the balance. One of the major challenges in the next few years will be to identify and qualify sufficient subcontractors to meet the goal.

  19. Nivolumab-Based Treatments for Advanced Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    A summary of results from an international, double-blind, randomized phase III trial testing the combination of nivolumab (Opdivo®) and ipilimumab (Yervoy®) against nivolumab alone and ipilimumab alone in patients with advanced melanoma.

  20. Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility for Gasification and Pressurized Combustion Project. Quarterly report, April--June 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The objective of this project is to evaluate hot gas particle control technologies using coal-derived as streams. This will entail the design, construction, installation, and use of a flexible test facility which can operate under realistic gasification and combustion conditions. The major particulate control device issues to be addressed Include the integration of the particulate control devices into coal utilization systems, on-line cleaning, techniques, chemical and thermal degradation of components, fatigue or structural failures, blinding, collection efficiency as a function of particle size, and scale-up of particulate control systems to commercial size. The conceptual design of the facility was extended to include a within scope, phased expansion of the existing, Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility Cooperative Agreement to also address systems integration issues of hot particulate removal in advanced coal-based power generation systems. This expansion included the consideration of the following modules at the test facility in addition to the original Transport Reactor gas source and Hot Gas Cleanup Units: 1 . Carbonizer/Pressurized Circulating, Fluidized Bed Gas Source; 2. Hot Gas Cleanup Units to mate to all gas streams; 3. Combustion Gas Turbine; 4. Fuel Cell and associated gas treatment. This expansion to the Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility is herein referred to as the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF). The major emphasis during, this reporting period was continuing, the detailed design of the FW portion of the facility towards completion and integrating the balance-of-plant processes and particulate control devices (PCDS) into the structural and process designs. Substantial progress in construction activities was achieved during the quarter. Delivery and construction of the process structural steel is complete and the construction of steel for the coal preparation structure is complete.

  1. Mental health and alcohol problems among Estonian cleanup workers 24 years after the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidra, Kaia; Rahu, Kaja; Tekkel, Mare; Aluoja, Anu; Leinsalu, Mall

    2015-11-01

    To study the long-term mental health consequences of the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear accident among cleanup workers from Estonia. In 2010, 614 Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers and 706 geographically and age-matched population-based controls completed a mail survey that included self-rated health, the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL), alcohol symptoms (AUDIT), and scales measuring depressive, anxiety, agoraphobia, fatigue, insomnia, and somatization symptoms. Respondents were dichotomized into high (top quartile) and low symptom groups on each measure. Logistic regression analysis detected significant differences between cleanup workers and controls on all measures even after adjustment for ethnicity, education, marital status, and employment status. The strongest difference was found for somatization, with cleanup workers being three times more likely than controls to score in the top quartile (OR = 3.28, 95% CI 2.39-4.52), whereas for alcohol problems the difference was half as large (OR = 1.52, 95% CI 1.16-1.99). Among cleanup workers, arrival at Chernobyl in 1986 (vs. later) was associated with sleep problems, somatization, and symptoms of agoraphobia. The toll of cleanup work was evident 24 years after the Chernobyl accident among Estonian cleanup workers indicating the need for focused mental health interventions.

  2. Nuclear radiation cleanup and uranium prospecting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariella, Jr., Raymond P.; Dardenne, Yves M.

    2016-02-02

    Apparatus, systems, and methods for nuclear radiation cleanup and uranium prospecting include the steps of identifying an area; collecting samples; sample preparation; identification, assay, and analysis; and relating the samples to the area.

  3. Assessment, Cleanup and Redevelopment Exchange System (ACRES)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Assessment, Cleanup and Redevelopment Exchange System (ACRES) is an online database for Brownfields Grantees to electronically submit data directly to EPA.

  4. Increased leukemia risk in Chernobyl cleanup workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new study found a significantly elevated risk for chronic lymphocytic leukemia among workers who were engaged in recovery and clean-up activities following the Chernobyl power plant accident in 1986.

  5. Coolant clean-up and recycle systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Takao.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To increase the service life of mechanical seals in a shaft sealing device, eliminate leakages and improve the safety by providing a recycle pump for feeding coolants to a coolant clean-up device upon reactor shut-down and adapting the pump treat only low temperature and low pressure coolants. Constitution: The system is adapted to partially take out coolants from the pipeways of a recycling pump upon normal operation and feed them to a clean-up device. Upon reactor shut-down, the recycle pump is stopped and coolants are extracted by the recycle pump for shut-down into the clean-up device. Since the coolants are not fed to the clean-up device by the recycle pump during normal operation as conducted so far, high temperature and high pressure coolants are not directly fed to the recycle pump, thereby enabling to avoid mechanical problems in the pump. (Kamimura, M.)

  6. Bioavailability: implications for science/cleanup policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denit, Jeffery; Planicka, J. Gregory

    1998-12-01

    This paper examines the role of bioavailability in risk assessment and cleanup decisions. Bioavailability refers to how chemicals ''behave'' and their ''availability'' to interact with living organisms. Bioavailability has significant implications for exposure risks, cleanup goals, and site costs. Risk to human health and the environment is directly tied to the bioavailability of the chemicals of concern.

  7. Volume overload cleanup: An approach for on-line SPE-GC, GPC-GC, and GPC-SPE-GC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkdijk, H.; Mol, H.G.J.; Nagel, B. van der

    2007-01-01

    A new concept for cleanup, based on volume overloading of the cleanup column, has been developed for on-line coupling of gel permeation chromatography (GPC), solid-phase extraction (SPE), or both, to gas chromatography (GC). The principle is outlined and the applicability demonstrated by the

  8. Mechanics and model-based control of advanced engineering systems

    CERN Document Server

    Irschik, Hans; Krommer, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Mechanics and Model-Based Control of Advanced Engineering Systems collects 32 contributions presented at the International Workshop on Advanced Dynamics and Model Based Control of Structures and Machines, which took place in St. Petersburg, Russia in July 2012. The workshop continued a series of international workshops, which started with a Japan-Austria Joint Workshop on Mechanics and Model Based Control of Smart Materials and Structures and a Russia-Austria Joint Workshop on Advanced Dynamics and Model Based Control of Structures and Machines. In the present volume, 10 full-length papers based on presentations from Russia, 9 from Austria, 8 from Japan, 3 from Italy, one from Germany and one from Taiwan are included, which represent the state of the art in the field of mechanics and model based control, with particular emphasis on the application of advanced structures and machines.

  9. Summary of Model Toxics Control Act (MTCA) Potential Impacts Related to Hanford Cleanup and the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    IWATATE, D.F.

    2000-07-14

    This white paper provides an initial assessment of the potential impacts of the Model Toxics Control Act (MTCA) regulations (and proposed revisions) on the Hanford site cleanup and addresses concerns that MTCA might impose inappropriate or unachievable clean-up levels and drive clean-up costs higher. The white paper and supporting documentation (Appendices A and B) provide DOE with a concise and up-to-date review of potential MTCA impacts to cost and schedule for the Hanford site activities. MTCA, Chapter 70.105D RCW, is the State of Washington's risk based law governing clean-up of contaminated sites and is implemented by The Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology) under the MTCA Clean-up Regulations, Chapter 173-340 WAC. Hanford cleanup is subject to the MTCA requirements as Applicable, Relevant and Appropriate Requirements (ARARs) for those areas of Hanford being managed under the authority of the Federal Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), and the state Dangerous Waste Regulations. MTCA provides Ecology with authority to implement site clean-up actions under both the federal RCRA and CERCLA regulations as well as the state regulations. Most of the Hanford clean-up actions are being implemented under the CERCLA program, however, there is a trend is toward increased use of MTCA procedures and standards. The application of MTCA to the Hanford clean-up has been an evolving process with some of the Hanford clean-up actions considering MTCA standards as an ARAR and using MTCA procedures for remedy selection. The increased use and application of MTCA standards and procedures could potentially impact both cost and schedule for the Hanford cleanup.

  10. Drivers and applications of integrated clean-up technologies for surfactant-enhanced remediation of environments contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xujun; Guo, Chuling; Liao, Changjun; Liu, Shasha; Wick, Lukas Y; Peng, Dan; Yi, Xiaoyun; Lu, Guining; Yin, Hua; Lin, Zhang; Dang, Zhi

    2017-06-01

    Surfactant-enhanced remediation (SER) is considered as a promising and efficient remediation approach. This review summarizes and discusses main drivers on the application of SER in removing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from contaminated soil and water. The effect of PAH-PAH interactions on SER efficiency is, for the first time, illustrated in an SER review. Interactions between mixed PAHs could enhance, decrease, or have no impact on surfactants' solubilization power towards PAHs, thus affecting the optimal usage of surfactants for SER. Although SER can transfer PAHs from soil/non-aqueous phase liquids to the aqueous phase, the harmful impact of PAHs still exists. To decrease the level of PAHs in SER solutions, a series of SER-based integrated cleanup technologies have been developed including surfactant-enhanced bioremediation (SEBR), surfactant-enhanced phytoremediation (SEPR) and SER-advanced oxidation processes (SER-AOPs). In this review, the general considerations and corresponding applications of the integrated cleanup technologies are summarized and discussed. Compared with SER-AOPs, SEBR and SEPR need less operation cost, yet require more treatment time. To successfully achieve the field application of surfactant-based technologies, massive production of the cost-effective green surfactants (i.e. biosurfactants) and comprehensive evaluation of the drivers and the global cost of SER-based cleanup technologies need to be performed in the future. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Determination of carbamates in edible vegetable oils by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using a new clean-up based on zirconia for QuEChERS methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-González, David; Huertas-Pérez, José F; García-Campaña, Ana M; Gámiz-Gracia, Laura

    2014-10-01

    In this study a fast, selective and sensitive multiresidue method based on QuEChERS methodology has been evaluated and validated for the determination of carbamate pesticides, in edible vegetable oils by UHPLC-MS/MS. A new clean-up sorbent, Supel(TM) QuE Z-Sep(+), has been successfully applied in vegetable oil extracts. Z-Sep(+) was compared with other sorbents (i.e. mixture of C18 and PSA) previously used for dispersive solid phase extraction of these matrices, reducing more effectively matrix effects without a significant decrease of analyte recoveries. Matrix effect was studied in different matrices (extra-virgin olive, sunflower, maize, linseed and sesame oil) being ≤│30│% for most of the studied pesticides. Under optimum conditions, recoveries ranged from 74% to 101%, with relative standard deviations lower than 10%. Limits of quantification ranged from 0.09 to 2.0 µg kg(-1), allowing their determination at the low concentration levels demanding by current legislation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Ultra-fast liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry determination of ochratoxin A in traditional Chinese medicines based on vortex-assisted solid-liquid microextraction and aptamer-affinity column clean-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xihui; Hu, Yichen; Kong, Weijun; Chu, Xianfeng; Yang, Meihua; Zhao, Ming; Ouyang, Zhen

    2014-11-01

    A rapid, selective, and sensitive ultra-fast liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for the determination of ochratoxin A in traditional Chinese medicines based on vortex-assisted solid-liquid microextraction and aptamer-affinity column clean-up. Through optimizing the sample pretreatment procedures and chromatographic conditions, good linearity (r(2) ≥ 0.9993), low limit of detection (0.5-0.8 μg/kg), and satisfactory recovery (83.54-94.44%) expressed the good reliability and applicability of the established method in various traditional Chinese medicines. Moreover, the aptamer-affinity column, prepared in-house, showed an excellent feasibility owing to its specific identification of ochratoxin A in various kinds of selected traditional Chinese medicines. The maximum adsorption amount and applicability value were 188.96 ± 10.56 ng and 72.3%, respectively. The matrix effects were effectively eliminated, especially for m/z 404.2→358.0 of ochratoxin A. The application of the developed method for screening the natural contamination levels of ochratoxin A in 25 random traditional Chinese medicines on the market in China indicated that only eight samples were contaminated with low levels below the legal limit (5.0 μg/kg) set by the European Union. This study provided a preferred choice for the rapid and accurate monitoring of ochratoxin A in complex matrices. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. KSC ADVANCED GROUND BASED FIELD MILL V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Ground Based Field Mill (AGBFM) network consists of 34 (31 operational) field mills located at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida. The field mills...

  14. Advancing Evidence Based Policymaking and Regulation to Ensure ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ? Rapports. Research, capacity-building, advocacy and dissemination by LIRNEasia : advancing evidence-based policymaking and regulation in the emerging Asia-Pacific to ensure greater participation in ICTs (Phase II); final technical report ...

  15. Recent Advancements in Semiconductor-based Optical Signal Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M L; Mørk, Jesper

    2006-01-01

    Significant advancements in technology and basic understanding of device physics are bringing optical signal processing closer to a commercial breakthrough. In this paper we describe the main challenges in high-speed SOA-based switching.......Significant advancements in technology and basic understanding of device physics are bringing optical signal processing closer to a commercial breakthrough. In this paper we describe the main challenges in high-speed SOA-based switching....

  16. Adaptive IR Sensing Based on Advanced Nanostructures with Tunable Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-05

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2015-0360 ADAPTIVE IR SENSING BASED ON ADVANCED NANOSTRUCTURES WITH TUNABLE KINETICS Vladimir Mitin RESEARCH FOUNDATION OF STATE...1 August 2010 - 31 July 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Adaptive IR Sensing Based on Advanced Nanostructures with Tunable Kinetics 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...engineering, and technological basis for further development of IR nanomaterials with nanoscale potential profile that can be effectively controlled by

  17. Lessons learned at TMI: cleanup for respiratory protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parfitt, B.A.; Gee, E.F.

    1987-01-01

    The March 28, 1979, accident at Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) presented GPU Nuclear with technical challenges unprecedented in the nuclear power industry. Among these challenges were a myriad of health physics problems that had to be solved to ensure a radiologically safe environment for workers performing cleanup activities. The application of the as-low-as-reasonably-achievable (ALARA) philosophy has been a fundamental aspects in protecting cleanup workers. The unique conditions produced by the accident, however, have necessitated novel and innovative approaches in making this philosophy effective. The option to use respirators is based on which method will result in the lowest radiation dose to the worker. Inherent to this program has been the training of workers to overcome the perception that any internal contamination is of foremost concern and is orders of magnitude greater in biological effect than an identical external dose. It is, of course, the total dose (internal dose plus external dose) that must be minimized to implement a true ALARA philosophy. The need for considering the total radiation dose when making decisions to use respirators has been clear during the TMI-2 cleanup. Prescribing respirators is not always good for the ALARA concept

  18. Fixed-bed gasifier and cleanup system engineering summary report through Test Run No. 100

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pater, K. Jr.; Headley, L.; Kovach, J.; Stopek, D.

    1984-06-01

    The state-of-the-art of high-pressure, fixed-bed gasification has been advanced by the many refinements developed over the last 5 years. A novel full-flow gas cleanup system has been installed and tested to clean coal-derived gases. This report summarizes the results of tests conducted on the gasifier and cleanup system from its inception through 1982. Selected process summary data are presented along with results from complementary programs in the areas of environmental research, process simulation, analytical methods development, and component testing. 20 references, 32 figures, 42 tables.

  19. Advances in personalized web-based education

    CERN Document Server

    Chrysafiadi, Konstantina

    2015-01-01

    This book aims to provide important information about adaptivity in computer-based and/or web-based educational systems. In order to make the student modeling process clear, a literature review concerning student modeling techniques and approaches during the past decade is presented in a special chapter. A novel student modeling approach including fuzzy logic techniques is presented. Fuzzy logic is used to automatically model the learning or forgetting process of a student. The presented novel student model is responsible for tracking cognitive state transitions of learners with respect to their progress or non-progress. It maximizes the effectiveness of learning and contributes, significantly, to the adaptation of the learning process to the learning pace of each individual learner. Therefore the book provides important information to researchers, educators and software developers of computer-based educational software ranging from e-learning and mobile learning systems to educational games including stand a...

  20. Evidence-Based Advances in Ferret Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Minh; Chassang, Lucile; Zoller, Graham

    2017-09-01

    This literature review covers approximately 35 years of veterinary medicine. This article develops the current state of knowledge in pet ferret medicine regarding the most common diseases according to evidence-based data and gives insight into further axis of research. Literature review was conducted through identification of keywords (title + ferret) with Web-based database searching. To appreciate the methodological quality and the level of evidence of each article included in the review, full-text versions were reviewed and questions addressed in the articles were formulated. Analysis of the articles' content was performed by the authors, and relevant clinical information was extracted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Advancement in organic nanofiber based transistors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Baunegaard With; Kjelstrup-Hansen, Jakob; Tavares, Luciana

    The focus of this project is to study the light emission from nanofiber based organic light-emitting transistors (OLETs) with the overall aim of developing efficient, nanoscale light sources with different colors integrated on-chip. The research performed here regards the fabrication and characte...

  2. Recent advances in polyoxometalate based delignification

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. H. Atalla; L. A. Weinstock; R. S. Reiner; C. J. Houtman; S. Reichel; C. G. Hill; C. L. Hill

    1999-01-01

    A new delignification technology based on the use of polyoxometalates (POMs) as delignification agents is under development at the USDA Forest Service, Forest Products Labotatory (FPL), in Madison, Wisconsin. These reagents are chlorine free and can be used under conditions wherein they oxidize lignin and chromophores in wood pulp fibers while leaving the cellulose...

  3. DOE pursuing accelerated cleanup at Fernald

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgman, T.

    1996-01-01

    The timing is right, and officials at Fernald are ready to initiate final cleanup actions-at an accelerated pace. open-quotes We have a viable, aggressive plan in place that will reduce the risks associated with the site by accelerating the cleanup schedule, and save a lot of time and money in the process,close quotes said Don Ofte, president of the Fernald Environmental Restoration management Corporation (FERMCO). Ofte is referring to the accelerated cleanup plan that the U.S. Department of Energy has approved to complete the remediation of Fernald in approximately 10 years-instead of 25-30 years-at a cost savings to taxpayers of almost $3 billion. This article describes the scenario at Fernald and politically which has lead to this decision

  4. NRC's rulemaking to require materials licensees to be financially responsible for cleanup of accidental releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeman, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    On June 7, 1985, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) published an advance notice of proposed rulemaking (ANPRM) in the Federal Register to address funding for cleanup of accidents and unexpected decontamination by certain materials licensees. The NRC asked for public comment to help them determine whether to amend its regulations to require certain materials and fuel cycle licensees to demonstrate that they possess adequate financial means to pay for cleanup of accidental releases of radioactive materials. If licensees lack adequate financial resources and funds are to available for prompt cleanup, the consequences could be potentially significant for the public, the licencee and the federal government. The purpose of this paper is to explain the purpose and scope of the Commission's proposed regulatory action, as well as describing several accidents that made the Commission consider this action. Additionally, the paper will address other regulatory precedents. Finally, the paper will conclude by generally characterizing the public comments and items of concern raised by commenters

  5. Evidence-Based Advances in Reptile Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Mark A; Perry, Sean M

    2017-09-01

    Evidence-based medicine allows veterinarians to practice high-quality medicine, because the basis for all decision making is quantitative, objective, and reproducible. Case reports and case series are limited in their scope and application. Cross-sectional studies, likewise, cannot provide answers to specific variable testing with a temporal application. It is essential for the reptile specialty to expand into case-control studies, cohort studies, and experimental/intervention studies. Unfortunately, much of the reptile literature remains limited to descriptive studies. This article reviews current evidence-based topics in reptile medicine and shares how everyone practicing in the field can contribute to improving this specialty. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Ultrasound-based Liver Elastography: Recent Advances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Young; Choi, Byung Ihn [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    The invasiveness and sampling errors of liver biopsies have prompted the development of diverse non-invasive methods for evaluating liver stiffness. Recently, shear wave-based ultrasound elastography, such as transient elastography (TE), acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging and supersonic shear imaging (SSI), as well as quasi-static elastography, such as real-time tissue elastography, have been introduced as noninvasive techniques for evaluating liver stiffness. This editorial reviews each elastographic technique in terms of the principle and clinical applications for the liver diseases

  7. Recent advances in biosensor based endotoxin detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, A P; Kumar, P S; Swain, S

    2014-01-15

    Endotoxins also referred to as pyrogens are chemically lipopolysaccharides habitually found in food, environment and clinical products of bacterial origin and are unavoidable ubiquitous microbiological contaminants. Pernicious issues of its contamination result in high mortality and severe morbidities. Standard traditional techniques are slow and cumbersome, highlighting the pressing need for evoking agile endotoxin detection system. The early and prompt detection of endotoxin assumes prime importance in health care, pharmacological and biomedical sectors. The unparalleled recognition abilities of LAL biosensors perched with remarkable sensitivity, high stability and reproducibility have bestowed it with persistent reliability and their possible fabrication for commercial applicability. This review paper entails an overview of various trends in current techniques available and other possible alternatives in biosensor based endotoxin detection together with its classification, epidemiological aspects, thrust areas demanding endotoxin control, commercially available detection sensors and a revolutionary unprecedented approach narrating the influence of omics for endotoxin detection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Determination of fumonisins B-1 and B-2 in maize-based baby food products by HPLC with fluorimetric detection after immunoaffinity column clean-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Girolamo, De A.; Pereboom-de Fauw, D.P.K.H.; Sizoo, E.; Egmond, van H.P.; Gambacorta, L.; Bouten, K.; Stroka, J.; Visconti, A.; Solfrizzo, M.

    2010-01-01

    A method for the determination of fumonisin B-1 (FB1) and B-2 (FB2) in different commercial maize-based products for infants and young children was developed and tested in a limited validation study involving 3 laboratories. The method used extraction at 55 C with an acidic mixture of

  9. Advanced Signaling Support for IP-based Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Röhricht, Martin

    2013-01-01

    This work develops a set of advanced signaling concepts for IP-based networks. It proposes a design for secure and authentic signaling and provides QoS signaling support for mobile users. Furthermore, this work develops methods which allow for scalable QoS signaling by realizing QoS-based group communication mechanisms and through aggregation of resource reservations.

  10. New Advances in Corpus-based Lexicography*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvi Hurskainen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: This article presents various approaches used in corpus-based computational lexico-graphy. A claim is made that in order for computational lexicography to be efficient, precise and comprehensive, it should utilize the method where the corpus text is first analysed, and the results of this analysis is then processed further to meet the needs of a dictionary. This method has several advantages, including high precision and recall, as well as the possibility to automate the process much further than with more traditional computational methods. The frequency list obtained by using the lemma (the equivalent of the headword as basis helps in selecting the words to be in-cluded in the dictionary. The approach is demonstrated through various phases by applying SALAMA (the Swahili Language Manager to the process. Manual work will be needed in the phase when examples of use are selected from the corpus, and possibly modified. However, the list of examples of use, arranged alphabetically according to the corresponding headword, can also be produced automatically. Thus the alphabetical list of headwords with examples of use is the mate-rial on which the lexicographer works manually. The article deals with problems encountered in compiling traditional printed dictionaries, and it excludes electronic dictionaries and thesauri.

    Keywords: LEXICOGRAPHY, DICTIONARY, LANGUAGE TECHNOLOGY, COMPUTA-TIONAL LINGUISTICS, AUTOMATIC COMPILATION, DICTIONARY TESTING, INFORMA-TION RETRIEVAL, MORPHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS, SEMANTIC ANALYSIS, DISAMBIGUA-TION, HEURISTICS

    Opsomming: Nuwe ontwikkelinge in korpusgebaseerde leksikografie. Hier-die artikel beskryf verskillende benaderings wat in korpusgebaseerde rekenaarleksikografie ge-bruik word. Daar word aangevoer dat vir rekenaarleksikografie om doelmatig, noukeurig en omvattend te wees, dit die metode behoort te gebruik waarby die korpusteks eers ontleed word, en die resultaat van hierdie ontleding dan verder

  11. Radioactive Waste and Clean-up Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collard, G.

    2001-01-01

    The main objectives of the Radioactive Waste and Clean-up division of SCK-CEN are outlined. The division's programme consists of research, development and demonstration projects and aims to contribute to the objectives of Agenda 21 on sustainable development in the field of radioactive waste and rehabilitation of radioactively contaminated sites

  12. Flood Cleanup to Protect Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    During a flood cleanup, the indoor air quality in your home or office may appear to be the least of your problems. However, failure to remove contaminated materials and to reduce moisture and humidity can present serious long-term health risks.

  13. US nuclear cleanup shows signs of progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renner, R.

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's program for dealing with the radioactive and hazardous wastes at its former nuclear weapons production sites and at the national laboratories has been criticized for its expense and slow pace of cleanup. The largest environmental restoration and waste management program in the world faces formidable technical and scientific problems and these, according to numerous investigative committees and commissions, have been compounded by poor management, misuse of technology, and failure to appreciate the need for new basic scientific knowledge to solve many of the cleanup problems. In the past three years, DOE's Office of Environmental Management (EM), often spurred by congressional action, has begun to trim costs and accomplish more. New measures have been introduced to improve contract efficiency, better utilize existing remediation technologies, renegotiate compliance agreements, and begin basic research. Environmental Management Assistant Undersecretary Alvin Alm, appointed in May 1996, is seeking to solidify these changes into an ambitious plan to clean up most of DOE's 130 sites by 2006. But there are widespread doubts that EM has the money, skill, and will to turn itself around. There are also concerns that, in the name of efficiency and economy, EM may be negotiating lower cleanup standards and postponing some difficult cleanup tasks. This article discusses these issues. 7 refs

  14. Assessment of synfuel spill cleanup options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petty, S.E.; Wakamiya, W.; English, C.J.; Strand, J.A.; Mahlum, D.D.

    1982-04-01

    Existing petroleum-spill cleanup technologies are reviewed and their limitations, should they be used to mitigate the effects of synfuels spills, are discussed. The six subsections of this report address the following program goals: synfuels production estimates to the year 2000; possible sources of synfuel spills and volumes of spilled fuel to the year 2000; hazards of synfuels spills; assessment of existing spill cleanup technologies for oil spills; assessment of cleanup technologies for synfuel spills; and disposal of residue from synfuel spill cleanup operations. The first goal of the program was to obtain the most current estimates on synfuel production. These estimates were then used to determine the amount of synfuels and synfuel products likely to be spilled, by location and by method of transportation. A review of existing toxicological studies and existing spill mitigation technologies was then completed to determine the potential impacts of synthetic fuel spills on the environment. Data are presented in the four appendixes on the following subjects: synfuel production estimates; acute toxicity of synfuel; acute toxicity of alcohols.

  15. Radioactive Waste and Clean-up: Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collard, G.

    2000-01-01

    SCK-CEN's Radioactive Waste and Clean-up Division performs studies and develops strategies, techniques and technologies in the area of radioactive waste management, the decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear installations and the remediation of radioactive-contaminated sites. These activities are performed in the context of our responsibility towards the safety of present and future generations and contribute to achieve intrageneration equity

  16. Effectiveness of cleanup criteria relative to an accidental nuclear release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.Y.; Yuan, Y.C.

    1988-01-01

    In the event of an accidental nuclear release, the associated long-term radiological risks would result primarily from ground contamination pathways. Cleanup of the contaminated ground surfaces is a necessary step toward reducing the radiological risk to the general population. Ideally, the radiological risk decreases as the level of cleanup effort increases; however, as the cleanup criterion (i.e., the required contaminant concentration after cleanup) becomes more stringent, the cleanup effort may become prohibitively costly. This study examines several factors that are important in determining the effectiveness of the cleanup criteria for selected radionuclides: (a) annual individual dose commitment (mrem/yr), (b) total population environmental dose commitment (person-rem), and (c) total area (km 2 ) requiring cleanup following an accident. To effectively protect the general population, the benefits of cleanup should be weighed against the potentially large increase in cleanup area (and the associated costs) as the cleanup criterion becomes more stringent. The effectiveness of cleanup will vary, depending largely on site-specific parameters such as population density and agricultural productivity as well as on the amount and type of radionuclide released. Determination of an optimum cleanup criterion should account for all factors, including a comprehensive cost/benefit analysis

  17. Cleanups In My Community (CIMC) - Recovery Act Funded Cleanups, National Layer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer provides access to Recovery Act Funded Cleanup sites as part of the CIMC web service. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act was signed into law...

  18. Technical approach to finalizing sensible soil cleanup levels at the Fernald Environmental Management Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, D.; Hertel, B.; Jewett, M.; Janke, R.; Conner, B.

    1996-01-01

    The remedial strategy for addressing contaminated environmental media was recently finalized for the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) following almost 10 years of detailed technical analysis. The FEMP represents one of the first major nuclear facilities to successfully complete the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) phase of the environmental restoration process. A critical element of this success was the establishment of sensible cleanup levels for contaminated soil and groundwater both on and off the FEMP property. These cleanup levels were derived based upon a strict application of Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) regulations and guidance, coupled with positive input from the regulatory agencies and the local community regarding projected future land uses for the site. The approach for establishing the cleanup levels was based upon a Feasibility Study (FS) strategy that examined a bounding range of viable future land uses for the site. Within each land use, the cost and technical implications of a range of health-protective cleanup levels for the environmental media were analyzed. Technical considerations in driving these cleanup levels included: direct exposure routes to viable human receptors; cross- media impacts to air, surface water, and groundwater; technical practicality of attaining the levels; volume of affected media; impact to sensitive environmental receptors or ecosystems; and cost. This paper will discuss the technical approach used to support the finalization of the cleanup levels for the site. The final cleanup levels provide the last remaining significant piece to the puzzle of establishing a final site-wide remedial strategy for the FEMP, and positions the facility for the expedient completion of site-wide remedial activities

  19. Advanced Sea Base Enabler (ASE) Capstone Design Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-21

    previously designed hovercraft vehicles. o. Crew Size 35 A minimal crew size is desired based on stakeholder input. The crew size selected was based...of a design should be considered as one factor when faced with options on how to implement a solution. The federal government and DOD have extensive...Advanced Sea Base Enabler (ASE) Capstone Design Project by MSSE Cohort 311-081 – Group #1 Erik Bjorkner, Jerry Brennan, Robert Brooks

  20. Rapid and effective sample cleanup based on graphene oxide-encapsulated core–shell magnetic microspheres for determination of fifteen trace environmental phenols in seafood by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Sheng-Dong; Chen, Xiao-Hong [Key Laboratory of Health Risk Appraisal for Trace Toxic Chemicals of Zhejiang Province, Ningbo Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315010 (China); Ningbo Key Laboratory of Poison Research and Control, Ningbo Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Ningbo 315010 (China); Shen, Hao-Yu [Ningbo Institute of Technology, Zhejiang University, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315100 (China); Li, Xiao-Ping [Key Laboratory of Health Risk Appraisal for Trace Toxic Chemicals of Zhejiang Province, Ningbo Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315010 (China); Ningbo Key Laboratory of Poison Research and Control, Ningbo Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Ningbo 315010 (China); Cai, Mei-Qiang [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Zhao, Yong-Gang [Key Laboratory of Health Risk Appraisal for Trace Toxic Chemicals of Zhejiang Province, Ningbo Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315010 (China); Ningbo Key Laboratory of Poison Research and Control, Ningbo Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Ningbo 315010 (China); Jin, Mi-Cong, E-mail: jmcjc@163.com [Key Laboratory of Health Risk Appraisal for Trace Toxic Chemicals of Zhejiang Province, Ningbo Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315010 (China); Ningbo Key Laboratory of Poison Research and Control, Ningbo Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Ningbo 315010 (China)

    2016-05-05

    In this study, graphene oxide-encapsulated core–shell magnetic microspheres (GOE-CS-MM) were fabricated by a self-assemble approach between positive charged poly(diallyldimethylammonium) chloride (PDDA)-modified Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@SiO{sub 2} and negative charged GO sheets via electrostatic interaction. The as-prepared GOE-CS-MM was carefully characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), vibrating sample magnetometer analysis (VSM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and was used as a cleanup adsorbent in magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) for determination of 15 trace-level environmental phenols in seafood coupled to liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS). The obtained results showed that the GOE-CS-MM exhibited excellent cleanup efficiency and could availably reduce the matrix effect. The cleanup mechanisms were investigated and referred to π–π stacking interaction and hydrogen bond between GOE-CS-MM and impurities in the extracts. Moreover, the extraction and cleanup conditions of GOE-CS-MM toward phenols were optimized in detail. Under the optimized conditions, the limits of detection (LODs) were found to be 0.003–0.06 μg kg{sup −1}, and satisfactory recovery values of 84.8–103.1% were obtained for the tested seafood samples. It was confirmed that the developed method is simple, fast, sensitive, and accurate for the determination of 15 trace environmental phenols in seafood samples. - Highlights: • Novel graphene oxide-encapsulated core-shell magnetic microspheres (GOE-CS-MM) were fabricated by a self-assemble approach. • The as-prepared material GOE-CS-MM exhibited excellent cleanup efficiency and could availably reduce the matrix effect. • The cleanup mechanisms refer to π–π stacking interaction and hydrogen bond. • The developed MSPE–LC–MS/MS method was simple, fast, sensitive and accurate.

  1. Advanced alloy design technique: High temperature cobalt base superalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreshfield, R. L.; Freche, J. C.; Sandrock, G. D.

    1972-01-01

    Advanced alloy design technique was developed for treating alloys that will have extended life in service at high temperature and intermediate temperatures. Process stabilizes microstructure of the alloy by designing it so that compound identified with embrittlement is eliminated or minimized. Design process is being used to develop both nickel and cobalt-base superalloys.

  2. Advancing Evidence Based Policymaking and Regulation to Ensure ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Advancing Evidence Based Policymaking and Regulation to Ensure Greater Participation in ICTs (LIRNEasia Phase II). Significant strides have been made in closing the digital divide in Asia, mainly due to the proliferation of mobile telephones. Close to a billion people, some among the poorest segments of society, have ...

  3. Advanced flooding-based routing protocols for underwater sensor networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Isufi, E.; Dol, H.; Leus, G.J.T.

    2016-01-01

    Flooding-based protocols are a reliable solution to deliver packets in underwater sensor networks. However, these protocols potentially involve all the nodes in the forwarding process. Thus, the performance and energy efficiency are not optimal. In this work, we propose some advances of a

  4. Experiment-Based Teaching in Advanced Control Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precup, R.-E.; Preitl, S.; Radac, M.-B.; Petriu, E. M.; Dragos, C.-A.; Tar, J. K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses an experiment-based approach to teaching an advanced control engineering syllabus involving controlled plant analysis and modeling, control structures and algorithms, real-time laboratory experiments, and their assessment. These experiments are structured around the representative case of the longitudinal slip control of an…

  5. Advanced nanofibrous textile-based dressing material for treating ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2018-02-02

    Feb 2, 2018 ... ... Skudai 81300, Malaysia. 6Department of Chemistry, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Bharath University, Chennai 600073, ... Hence, various types of advanced textile-based dressings are developed to address the clinical complications associated with chronic wound management.

  6. Decision making in advanced otosclerosis: an evidence-based strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merkus, P.; van Loon, M.C.; Smit, C.F.G.M.; Smits, J.C.M.; de Cock, A.F.C.; Hensen, E.F.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis: To propose an evidence-based strategy for the management of patients with advanced otosclerosis accompanied by severe to profound hearing loss. Study Design: Systematic review of the literature and development of treatment guidelines. Methods: A systematic review was conducted

  7. Rapid and effective sample cleanup based on graphene oxide-encapsulated core-shell magnetic microspheres for determination of fifteen trace environmental phenols in seafood by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Sheng-Dong; Chen, Xiao-Hong; Shen, Hao-Yu; Li, Xiao-Ping; Cai, Mei-Qiang; Zhao, Yong-Gang; Jin, Mi-Cong

    2016-05-05

    In this study, graphene oxide-encapsulated core-shell magnetic microspheres (GOE-CS-MM) were fabricated by a self-assemble approach between positive charged poly(diallyldimethylammonium) chloride (PDDA)-modified Fe3O4@SiO2 and negative charged GO sheets via electrostatic interaction. The as-prepared GOE-CS-MM was carefully characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), vibrating sample magnetometer analysis (VSM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and was used as a cleanup adsorbent in magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) for determination of 15 trace-level environmental phenols in seafood coupled to liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The obtained results showed that the GOE-CS-MM exhibited excellent cleanup efficiency and could availably reduce the matrix effect. The cleanup mechanisms were investigated and referred to π-π stacking interaction and hydrogen bond between GOE-CS-MM and impurities in the extracts. Moreover, the extraction and cleanup conditions of GOE-CS-MM toward phenols were optimized in detail. Under the optimized conditions, the limits of detection (LODs) were found to be 0.003-0.06 μg kg(-1), and satisfactory recovery values of 84.8-103.1% were obtained for the tested seafood samples. It was confirmed that the developed method is simple, fast, sensitive, and accurate for the determination of 15 trace environmental phenols in seafood samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Surface and subsurface cleanup protocol for radionuclides, Gunnison, Colorado, UMTRA project processing site. Final [report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    Surface and subsurface soil cleanup protocols for the Gunnison, Colorado, processing sits are summarized as follows: In accordance with EPA-promulgated land cleanup standards (40 CFR 192), in situ Ra-226 is to be cleaned up based on bulk concentrations not exceeding 5 and 15 pCi/g in 15-cm surface and subsurface depth increments, averaged over 100-m{sup 2} grid blocks, where the parent Ra-226 concentrations are greater than, or in secular equilibrium with, the Th-230 parent. A bulk interpretation of these EPA standards has been accepted by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and while the concentration of the finer-sized soil fraction less than a No. 4 mesh sieve contains the higher concentration of radioactivity, the bulk approach in effect integrates the total sample radioactivity over the entire sample mass. In locations where Th-230 has differentially migrated in subsoil relative to Ra-226, a Th-230 cleanup protocol has been developed in accordance with Supplemental Standard provisions of 40 CFR 192 for NRC/Colorado Department of Health (CDH) approval for timely implementation. Detailed elements of the protocol are contained in Appendix A, Generic Protocol from Thorium-230 Cleanup/Verification at UMTRA Project Processing Sites. The cleanup of other radionuclides or nonradiological hazards that pose a significant threat to the public and the environment will be determined and implemented in accordance with pathway analysis to assess impacts and the implications of ALARA specified in 40 CFR 192 relative to supplemental standards.

  9. Surface and subsurface cleanup protocol for radionuclides, Gunnison, Colorado, UMTRA project processing site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    Surface and subsurface soil cleanup protocols for the Gunnison, Colorado, processing sits are summarized as follows: In accordance with EPA-promulgated land cleanup standards (40 CFR 192), in situ Ra-226 is to be cleaned up based on bulk concentrations not exceeding 5 and 15 pCi/g in 15-cm surface and subsurface depth increments, averaged over 100-m 2 grid blocks, where the parent Ra-226 concentrations are greater than, or in secular equilibrium with, the Th-230 parent. A bulk interpretation of these EPA standards has been accepted by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and while the concentration of the finer-sized soil fraction less than a No. 4 mesh sieve contains the higher concentration of radioactivity, the bulk approach in effect integrates the total sample radioactivity over the entire sample mass. In locations where Th-230 has differentially migrated in subsoil relative to Ra-226, a Th-230 cleanup protocol has been developed in accordance with Supplemental Standard provisions of 40 CFR 192 for NRC/Colorado Department of Health (CDH) approval for timely implementation. Detailed elements of the protocol are contained in Appendix A, Generic Protocol from Thorium-230 Cleanup/Verification at UMTRA Project Processing Sites. The cleanup of other radionuclides or nonradiological hazards that pose a significant threat to the public and the environment will be determined and implemented in accordance with pathway analysis to assess impacts and the implications of ALARA specified in 40 CFR 192 relative to supplemental standards

  10. Prioritization of environmental cleanup problems at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fassbender, L.L.

    1994-01-01

    New technologies and scientific research are needed to clean up the Hanford Site. However, there is insufficient funding to develop every technology that is identified or to undertake every scientific research project that is proposed. Thus, the Department of Energy (DOE) must focus its resources on science and technology (S ampersand T) that will have the most significant impacts on the overall cleanup effort. Hanford has recognized the importance of identifying and prioritizing its most critical problems and the most promising solutions to them. Hanford cleanup will require numerous decisions about technology development and implementation, which will be complicated because there are substantial uncertainties about the risks and the costs of new technologies. Further, the choice of a specific technology for a specific application must be evaluated with respect to multiple (and often conflicting) objectives (e.g., risk reduction, increasing effectiveness, cost reduction, increasing public acceptability, regulatory compliance). This paper provides an overview of the decision analysis methodology that was used to prioritize S ampersand T needs for Hanford cleanup

  11. Accelerating cleanup. Paths to closure Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, C.

    1998-01-01

    This document was previously referred to as the Draft 2006 Plan. As part of the DOE's national strategy, the Richland Operations Office's Paths to Closure summarizes an integrated path forward for environmental cleanup at the Hanford Site. The Hanford Site underwent a concerted effort between 1994 and 1996 to accelerate the cleanup of the Site. These efforts are reflected in the current Site Baseline. This document describes the current Site Baseline and suggests strategies for further improvements in scope, schedule and cost. The Environmental Management program decided to change the name of the draft strategy and the document describing it in response to a series of stakeholder concerns, including the practicality of achieving widespread cleanup by 2006. Also, EM was concerned that calling the document a plan could be misconstrued to be a proposal by DOE or a decision-making document. The change in name, however, does not diminish the 2006 vision. To that end, Paths to Closure retains a focus on 2006, which serves as a point in time around which objectives and goals are established

  12. Oak Ridge strategy accelerates cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garland, S.B. II; Boston, H.L.

    1996-01-01

    The strategy of the Oak Ridge Reservation Environmental Restoration Program is to accelerate the transition from characterization to remediation by making decisions at the watershed scale based on recommended land uses and historical data. Since the primary means of contaminant transport is via shallow groundwater to surface water, grouping contaminated sites by watersheds for characterization, decision-making, and remediation allows consistency and appropriateness in remedy selection. It also results in cost and schedule savings

  13. Moderator clean-up system in a heavy water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasada, Yasuhiro; Hamamura, Kenji.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To decrease the fluctuation of the poison concentration in heavy water moderator due to a heavy water clean-up system. Constitution: To a calandria tank filled with heavy water as poison-containing moderators, are connected both end of a pipeway through which heavy water flows and to which a clean-up device is provided. Strongly basic resin is filled within the clean-up device and a cooler is disposed to a pipeway at the upstream of the clean-up device. In this structure, the temperature of heavy water at the inlet of the clean-up device at a constant level between the temperature at the exit of the cooler and the lowest temperature for the moderator to thereby decrease the fluctuation in the poison concentration in the heavy water moderator due to the heavy water clean-up device. (Moriyama, K.)

  14. Use of decision analysis techniques to determine Hanford cleanup priorities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fassbender, L.; Gregory, R.; Winterfeldt, D. von; John, R.

    1992-01-01

    In January 1991, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Richland Field Office, Westinghouse Hanford Company, and the Pacific Northwest Laboratory initiated the Hanford Integrated Planning Process (HIPP) to ensure that technically sound and publicly acceptable decisions are made that support the environmental cleanup mission at Hanford. One of the HIPP's key roles is to develop an understanding of the science and technology (S and T) requirements to support the cleanup mission. This includes conducting an annual systematic assessment of the S and T needs at Hanford to support a comprehensive technology development program and a complementary scientific research program. Basic to success is a planning and assessment methodology that is defensible from a technical perspective and acceptable to the various Hanford stakeholders. Decision analysis techniques were used to help identify and prioritize problems and S and T needs at Hanford. The approach used structured elicitations to bring many Hanford stakeholders into the process. Decision analysis, which is based on the axioms and methods of utility and probability theory, is especially useful in problems characterized by uncertainties and multiple objectives. Decision analysis addresses uncertainties by laying out a logical sequence of decisions, events, and consequences and by quantifying event and consequence probabilities on the basis of expert judgments

  15. A software tool for soil clean-up technology selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vranes, S.; Gonzalez-Valencia, E.; Lodolo, A.; Miertus, S.

    2002-01-01

    Soil remediation is a difficult, time-consuming and expensive operation. A variety of mature and emerging soil remediation technologies is available and future trends in remediation will include continued competition among environmental service companies and technology developers, which will definitely result in further increase in the clean-up options. Consequently, the demand has enhanced developing decision support tools that could help the decision makers to select the most appropriate technology for the specific contaminated site, before the costly remedial actions are taken. Therefore, a software tool for soil clean-up technology selection is currently being developed with the aim of closely working with human decision makers (site owners, local community representatives, environmentalists, regulators, etc.) to assess the available technologies and preliminarily select the preferred remedial options. The analysis for the identification of the best remedial options is based on technical, financial, environmental, and social criteria. These criteria are ranked by all involved parties to determine their relative importance for a particular project. (author)

  16. Statistical methods for evaluating the attainment of cleanup standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, R.O.; Simpson, J.C.

    1992-12-01

    This document is the third volume in a series of volumes sponsored by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Statistical Policy Branch, that provide statistical methods for evaluating the attainment of cleanup Standards at Superfund sites. Volume 1 (USEPA 1989a) provides sampling designs and tests for evaluating attainment of risk-based standards for soils and solid media. Volume 2 (USEPA 1992) provides designs and tests for evaluating attainment of risk-based standards for groundwater. The purpose of this third volume is to provide statistical procedures for designing sampling programs and conducting statistical tests to determine whether pollution parameters in remediated soils and solid media at Superfund sites attain site-specific reference-based standards. This.document is written for individuals who may not have extensive training or experience with statistical methods. The intended audience includes EPA regional remedial project managers, Superfund-site potentially responsible parties, state environmental protection agencies, and contractors for these groups.

  17. GIS Based Application of Advanced Traveler Information System in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P.; Singh, V.

    2012-02-01

    Developed countries like USA, Canada, Japan, UK, Australia and Germany have adopted advanced traveler information technologies expeditiously in comparison to developing countries. But, unlike developed countries, developing countries face considerable financial and framework constraints. Moreover local traffic, roadway, signalization, demographic, topological and social conditions in developing countries are quite different from those in developed countries. In this paper, a comprehensive framework comprising of system architecture, development methodology and salient features of a developed Advanced Traveler Information System (ATIS) for metropolitan cities in developing countries has been discussed. Development of proposed system is based on integration of two well known information technologies viz. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and World Wide Web (WWW). Combination of these technologies can be utilized to develop an integrated ATIS that targets different types of travelers like private vehicle owners, transit users and casual outside visitors.

  18. Shoreline clean-up methods : biological treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massoura, S.T. [Oil Spill Response Limited, Southampton (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01

    The cleanup of oil spills in shoreline environments is a challenging issue worldwide. Oil spills receive public and media attention, particularly in the event of a coastal impact. It is important to evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness of cleanup methods when defining the level of effort and consequences that are appropriate to remove or treat different types of oil on different shoreline substrates. Of the many studies that have compared different mechanical, chemical and biological treatments for their effectiveness on various types of oil, biological techniques have received the most attention. For that reason, this paper evaluated the effectiveness and effects of shoreline cleanup methods using biological techniques. It summarized data from field experiments and oil spill incidents, including the Exxon Valdez, Sea Empress, Prestige, Grand Eagle, Nakhodka, Guanabara Bay and various Gulf war oil spills. Five major shoreline types were examined, notably rocky intertidal, cobble/pebble/gravel, sand/mud, saltmarsh, and mangrove/sea-grass. The biological techniques that were addressed were nutrient enrichment, hydrocarbon-utilizing bacteria, vegetable oil biosolvents, plants, surf washing, oil-particle interactions and natural attenuation. The study considered the oil type, volume and fate of stranded oil, location of coastal materials, extent of pollution and the impact of biological techniques. The main factors that affect biodegradation of hydrocarbons are the volume, chemical composition and weathering state of the petroleum product as well as the temperature, oxygen availability of nutrients, water salinity, pH level, water content, and microorganisms in the shoreline environment. The interaction of these factors also affect the biodegradation of oil. It was concluded that understanding the fate of stranded oil can help in the development of techniques that improve the weathering and degradation of oil on complex shoreline substrates. 39 refs.

  19. Oil spill cleanup method and apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayes, F.M.

    1980-06-24

    A method for removing oil from the surface of water where an oil spill has occurred, particularly in obstructed or shallow areas, which comprises partially surrounding a hovercraft with a floating oil-collecting barrier, there being no barrier at the front of the hovercraft, moving the oil-barrier-surrounded-hovercraft into oil contaminated water, and collecting oil gathered within the barrier behind the hovercraft through a suction line which carries the oil to a storage tank aboard the hovercraft. The invention also embodies the hovercraft adapted to effect an oil spill cleanup.

  20. Recent advances in graphite powder-based electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellido-Milla, Dolores; Cubillana-Aguilera, Laura Ma; El Kaoutit, Mohammed; Hernández-Artiga, Ma Purificación; Hidalgo-Hidalgo de Cisneros, José Luis; Naranjo-Rodríguez, Ignacio; Palacios-Santander, José Ma

    2013-04-01

    Graphite powder-based electrodes have the electrochemical performance of quasi-noble metal electrodes with intrinsic advantages related to the possibility of modification to enhance selectivity and their easily renewable surface, with no need for hazardous acids or bases for their cleaning. In contrast with commercial electrodes, for example screen-printed or sputtered-chip electrodes, graphite powder-based electrodes can also be fabricated in any laboratory with the form and characteristics desired. They are also readily modified with advanced materials, with relatively high reproducibility. All these characteristics make them a very interesting option for obtaining a large variety of electrodes to resolve different kinds of analytical problems. This review summarizes the state-of-the-art, advantages, and disadvantages of graphite powder-based electrodes in electrochemical analysis in the 21st century. It includes recent trends in carbon paste electrodes, devoting special attention to the use of emergent materials as new binders and to the development of other composite electrodes. The most recent advances in the use of graphite powder-modified sol-gel electrodes are also described. The development of sonogel-carbon electrodes and their use in electrochemical sensors and biosensors is included. These materials extend the possibilities of applications, especially for industrial technology-transfer purposes, and their development could affect not only electroanalytical green chemistry but other interesting areas also, for example catalysis and energy conversion and storage.

  1. Composite, Polymer-Based Electrolytes for Advanced Batteries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ratner, Mark A

    2001-01-01

    .... Several substantive advances towards new, improved performance electrolyte materials both for low temperature fuel cell applications and for advanced secondary lithium battery materials have been reported...

  2. Recent advances in agent-based complex automated negotiation

    CERN Document Server

    Ito, Takayuki; Zhang, Minjie; Fujita, Katsuhide; Robu, Valentin

    2016-01-01

    This book covers recent advances in Complex Automated Negotiations as a widely studied emerging area in the field of Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems. The book includes selected revised and extended papers from the 7th International Workshop on Agent-Based Complex Automated Negotiation (ACAN2014), which was held in Paris, France, in May 2014. The book also includes brief introductions about Agent-based Complex Automated Negotiation which are based on tutorials provided in the workshop, and brief summaries and descriptions about the ANAC'14 (Automated Negotiating Agents Competition) competition, where authors of selected finalist agents explain the strategies and the ideas used by them. The book is targeted to academic and industrial researchers in various communities of autonomous agents and multi-agent systems, such as agreement technology, mechanism design, electronic commerce, related areas, as well as graduate, undergraduate, and PhD students working in those areas or having interest in them.

  3. Coolant cleanup system for BWR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Shoichiro; Araki, Hidefumi.

    1993-01-01

    The cleanup system of the present invention removes impurity ions and floating materials accumulated in a reactor during evaporation of coolants in the nuclear reactor. That is, coolants pass pipelines from a pressure vessel using pressure difference between a high pressure in the pressure vessel and a low pressure at the upstream of a condensate filtration/desalting device of a condensate/feed water system as a driving source, during which cations and floating materials are removed in a high temperature filtration/desalting device and coolants flow into the condensate/feedwater system. Impurities containing anions are removed here by the condensates filtration/desalting device. Then, they return to the pressure vessel while pressurized and heated by a condensate pump, a feed water pump and a feed water heater. At least pumps, a heat exchanger for heating, a filtration/desalting device for removing anions and pipelines connecting them used exclusively for the coolant cleanup system are no more necessary. (I.S.)

  4. Knowledge based systems advanced concepts, techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    1997-01-01

    The field of knowledge-based systems (KBS) has expanded enormously during the last years, and many important techniques and tools are currently available. Applications of KBS range from medicine to engineering and aerospace.This book provides a selected set of state-of-the-art contributions that present advanced techniques, tools and applications. These contributions have been prepared by a group of eminent researchers and professionals in the field.The theoretical topics covered include: knowledge acquisition, machine learning, genetic algorithms, knowledge management and processing under unc

  5. Evidence-Based Advances in Aquatic Animal Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergneau-Grosset, Claire; Larrat, Sylvain

    2017-09-01

    Fish and aquatic invertebrates deserve evidence-based medicine. Pharmacologic information is available; most pharmacokinetic studies are derived from the aquaculture industry and extrapolated to ornamental fish. Conversely, advanced diagnostics and information regarding diseases affecting only ornamental fish and invertebrates require more peer-reviewed experimental studies; the examples of carp edema virus, sea star wasting disease, seahorse nutrition, and gas bubble disease of fish under human care are discussed. Antinociception is also a controversial topic of growing interest in aquatic animal medicine. This article summarizes information regarding new topics of interest in companion fish and invertebrates and highlights some future avenues for research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Architecture synthesis basis for the Hanford Cleanup system: First issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, J.J.

    1994-06-01

    This document describes a set of candidate alternatives proposed to accomplish the Hanford Cleanup system functions defined in a previous work. Development of alternatives is part of a sequence of system engineering activities which lead to definition of all the products which, when completed, accomplish the cleanup mission. The alternative set is developed to functional level four or higher depending on need

  7. Effect of genioglossus, geniohyoid, and digastric advancement on tongue base and hyoid position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutzner, Emily A; Miot, Christelle; Liu, Yuan; Renk, Elizabeth; Park, Joshua S; Inman, Jared C

    2017-08-01

    To assess the effect of genioglossus, geniohyoid, and anterior digastric muscle advancement on base of tongue and hyoid position. Cadaver experiments. In fresh cadavers, the mandibular attachments of the genioglossus, geniohyoid, and anterior digastric muscles were advanced anteriorly by 6, 10, or 14 mm, and the anterior displacement of the base of tongue and hyoid was measured. The degrees of displacement of the tongue base and hyoid by the individual muscles and combinations of muscles were compared to one another. In 11 cadavers, 462 measurements were taken. Genioglossus advancement alone produced significantly greater tongue base advancement than any other muscle (P tongue base advancement than the genioglossus alone. Geniohyoid (P tongue advancement. Geniohyoid or anterior digastric muscle advancement produces the greatest hyoid advancement. Advancement of neither base of tongue nor hyoid was superior when combinations of muscles were moved. NA Laryngoscope, 127:1938-1942, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  8. Planner-Based Control of Advanced Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscettola, Nicola; Kortenkamp, David; Fry, Chuck; Bell, Scott

    2005-01-01

    The paper describes an approach to the integration of qualitative and quantitative modeling techniques for advanced life support (ALS) systems. Developing reliable control strategies that scale up to fully integrated life support systems requires augmenting quantitative models and control algorithms with the abstractions provided by qualitative, symbolic models and their associated high-level control strategies. This will allow for effective management of the combinatorics due to the integration of a large number of ALS subsystems. By focusing control actions at different levels of detail and reactivity we can use faster: simpler responses at the lowest level and predictive but complex responses at the higher levels of abstraction. In particular, methods from model-based planning and scheduling can provide effective resource management over long time periods. We describe reference implementation of an advanced control system using the IDEA control architecture developed at NASA Ames Research Center. IDEA uses planning/scheduling as the sole reasoning method for predictive and reactive closed loop control. We describe preliminary experiments in planner-based control of ALS carried out on an integrated ALS simulation developed at NASA Johnson Space Center.

  9. Advances in graphene-based optoelectronics, plasmonics and photonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Bich Ha; Nguyen, Van Hieu

    2016-01-01

    Since the early works on graphene it has been remarked that graphene is a marvelous electronic material. Soon after its discovery, graphene was efficiently utilized in the fabrication of optoelectronic, plasmonic and photonic devices, including graphene-based Schottky junction solar cells. The present work is a review of the progress in the experimental research on graphene-based optoelectronics, plasmonics and photonics, with the emphasis on recent advances. The main graphene-based optoelectronic devices presented in this review are photodetectors and modulators. In the area of graphene-based plasmonics, a review of the plasmonic nanostructures enhancing or tuning graphene-light interaction, as well as of graphene plasmons is presented. In the area of graphene-based photonics, we report progress on fabrication of different types of graphene quantum dots as well as functionalized graphene and graphene oxide, the research on the photoluminescence and fluorescence of graphene nanostructures as well as on the energy exchange between graphene and semiconductor quantum dots. In particular, the promising achievements of research on graphene-based Schottky junction solar cells is presented. (review)

  10. Design and operational experience with a portable tritium cleanup system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maienschein, J.L.; Wilson, S.W.; Garcia, F.

    1991-06-01

    We built a portable tritium cleanup system to scavenge tritium from contaminated gases in any tritium-containing system in the LLNL Tritium Facility. The cleanup system uses standard catalytic oxidation of tritium to water followed by water removal with a molecular sieve dryer. The cleanup unit, complete with instrumentation, is contained in a portable cart that is rolled into place and connected to the apparatus to be cleaned. The cleanup systems is effective, low-tech, simple, and reliable. The nominal flow rate of the system is 30 liters/minute, and the decontamination factor is > 1000. In this paper we will show design information on our portable cleanup system, and will discuss our operational experience with it over the past several years

  11. Advanced solutions in combustion-based WtE technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Johannes J E; Koralewska, Ralf; Wohlleben, Andreas

    2015-03-01

    Thermal treatment of waste by means of combustion in grate-based systems has gained world-wide acceptance as the preferred method for sustainable management and safe disposal of residual waste. In order to maintain this position and to address new challenges and/or priorities, these systems need to be further developed with a view to energy conservation, resource and climate protection and a reduction in the environmental impact in general. MARTIN GmbH has investigated continuously how the implementation of innovative concepts in essential parts of its grate-based Waste-to-Energy (WtE) combustion technology can be used to meet the above-mentioned requirements. As a result of these efforts, new "advanced solutions" were developed, four examples of which are shown in this article. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. High-Pressure Design of Advanced BN-Based Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr O. Kurakevych

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present review is to highlight the state of the art in high-pressure design of new advanced materials based on boron nitride. Recent experimental achievements on the governing phase transformation, nanostructuring and chemical synthesis in the systems containing boron nitride at high pressures and high temperatures are presented. All these developments allowed discovering new materials, e.g., ultrahard nanocrystalline cubic boron nitride (nano-cBN with hardness comparable to diamond, and superhard boron subnitride B13N2. Thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of high-pressure synthesis are described based on the data obtained by in situ and ex situ methods. Mechanical and thermal properties (hardness, thermoelastic equations of state, etc. are discussed. New synthetic perspectives, combining both soft chemistry and extreme pressure–temperature conditions are considered.

  13. Recent advances in biosensors based on enzyme inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amine, A; Arduini, F; Moscone, D; Palleschi, G

    2016-02-15

    Enzyme inhibitors like drugs and pollutants are closely correlated to human and environmental health, thus their monitoring is of paramount importance in analytical chemistry. Enzymatic biosensors represent cost-effective, miniaturized and easy to use devices; particularly biosensors based on enzyme inhibition are useful analytical tools for fast screening and monitoring of inhibitors. The present review will highlight the research carried out in the last 9 years (2006-2014) on biosensors based on enzyme inhibition. We underpin the recent advances focused on the investigation in new theoretical approachs and in the evaluation of biosensor performances for reversible and irreversible inhibitors. The use of nanomaterials and microfluidic systems as well as the applications of the various biosensors in real samples is critically reviewed, demonstrating that such biosensors allow the development of useful devices for a fast and reliable alarm system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Technologies for environmental cleanup: Toxic and hazardous waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragaini, R.C.

    1993-12-01

    This is the second in a series of EUROCOURSES conducted under the title, ''Technologies for Environmental Cleanup.'' To date, the series consist of the following courses: 1992, soils and groundwater; 1993, Toxic and Hazardous Waste Management. The 1993 course focuses on recent technological developments in the United States and Europe in the areas of waste management policies and regulations, characterization and monitoring of waste, waste minimization and recycling strategies, thermal treatment technologies, photolytic degradation processes, bioremediation processes, medical waste treatment, waste stabilization processes, catalytic organic destruction technologies, risk analyses, and data bases and information networks. It is intended that this course ill serve as a resource of state-of-the-art technologies and methodologies for the environmental protection manager involved in decisions concerning the management of toxic and hazardous waste

  15. Radioactive Waste and Clean-up: Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collard, G.

    2007-01-01

    The primary mission of the Radioactive Waste and Clean-up division is to propose, to develop and to evaluate solutions for a safe, acceptable and sustainable management of radioactive waste. The Radioactive Waste and Clean-up division programme consists in research, studies, development and demonstration aiming to realise the objective of Agenda 21 on sustainable development in the field of radioactive waste and rehabilitation on radioactively contaminated sites. Indeed, it participates in the realisation of an objective which is to ensure that radioactive wastes are safely managed, transported, stored and disposed of, with a view to protecting human health and the environment, within a wider framework of an interactive and integrated approach to radioactive waste management and safety. We believe that nuclear energy will be necessary for the sustainable development of mankind in the 21st century, but we well understand that it would not be maintained if it is not proven that within benefits of nuclear energy a better protection of the environment is included. Although the current waste management practices are both technically and from the environmental point of view adequate, efforts in relation of future power production and waste management technologies should be put on waste minimisation. Therefore, the new and innovative reactors, fuel cycle and waste management processes and installations should be designed so that the waste generation can be kept in minimum. In addition to the design, the installations should be operated so as to create less waste; consideration should be given e.g. to keeping water chemistry clean and other quality factors. SCK-CEN in general and the Radioactive Waste and Clean-up division in particular are present in international groups preparing the development of innovative nuclear reactors, as Generation 4 and INPRO. Because performance assessments are often black boxes for the public, demonstration is needed for the acceptation of

  16. Mental disorders among Chernobyl cleanup workers from Estonia: A clinical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidra, Kaia; Rahu, Kaja; Kalaus, Katri-Evelin; Tekkel, Mare; Leinsalu, Mall

    2017-08-01

    To assess, at a clinical level, the mental health of former Chernobyl cleanup workers from Estonia by comparing them with same-age controls. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) was administered during 2011-2012 to 99 cleanup workers and 100 population-based controls previously screened for mental health symptoms. Logistic regression analysis showed that cleanup workers had higher odds of current depressive disorder (odds ratio [OR] = 3.07, 95% confidence interval [CI: 1.34, 7.01]), alcohol dependence (OR = 3.47, 95% CI [1.29, 9.34]), and suicide ideation (OR = 3.44, 95% CI [1.28, 9.21]) than did controls. Except for suicide ideation, associations with Chernobyl exposure became statistically nonsignificant when adjusted for education and ethnicity. A quarter of a century after the Chernobyl accident, Estonian cleanup workers were still at increased risk of mental disorders, which was partly attributable to sociodemographic factors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. The follow-up study of chromosomal aberrations in Chernobyl clean-up workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slozina, Natalia M.; Neronova, Elizaveta G.

    2016-01-01

    A cytogenetic study was carried out on 359 clean-up workers who worked at the Chernobyl station in 1986-1989. The investigation was performed 6-12 years after irradiation. Chromosome type damages, i.e. double fragments, dicentrics and rings were significantly increased in the clean-up workers compared to the control. Chromatid exchanges were found only in the clean-up workers. A temporal change of radiation makers was also investigated based on the data of 243 persons who worked at Chernobyl in 1986. The temporal variation of dicentric frequency shows an inexplicable tendency towards the increase of dicentrics rate for the period of 8-12 years after irradiation. The association between the frequency of different types of chromosomal aberrations and such variables as smoking habits, coffee, tea, alcohol consumption, etc. was also analysed using a stepwise multiple regression analysis. A statistically significant association was only observed between smoking and chromatid exchanges. This type of aberrations was significantly higher in the smoking subgroup than in the non-smoking subgroup of the clean-up workers. The fact of an increased level of unstable chromosomal aberrations in a remote period after irradiation allows us to suppose that other pathways of genomic burden may exist in addition to straight radiation action at the time of irradiation. (author)

  18. Multimedia approach to estimating target cleanup levels for soils at hazardous waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, S.T.

    1990-04-01

    Contaminated soils at hazardous and nuclear waste sites pose a potential threat to human health via transport through environmental media and subsequent human intake. To minimize health risks, it is necessary to identify those risks and ensure that appropriate actions are taken to protect public health. The regulatory process may typically include identification of target cleanup levels and evaluation of the effectiveness of remedial alternatives and the corresponding reduction in risks at a site. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recommends that exposure assessments be combined with toxicity information to quantify the health risk posed by a specific site. This recommendation then forms the basis for establishing target cleanup levels. An exposure assessment must first identify the chemical concentration in a specific medium (soil, water, air, or food), estimate the exposure potential based on human intake from that media, and then combined with health criteria to estimate the upperbound health risks for noncarcinogens and carcinogens. Estimation of target cleanup levels involves the use of these same principles but can occur in reverse order. The procedure starts from establishing a permissible health effect level and ends with an estimated target cleanup level through an exposure assessment process. 17 refs

  19. Coolant clean-up apparatus for reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonekawa, Yasumasa; Akita, Minoru; Moritani, Kenji.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent the occurrence of heat fatigue crackings due to the temperature difference between cleaned water and feed water at the portion on the pipeway where the two fluids are joined. Constitution: In the coolant clean-up system of a BWR type reactor, coolants are taken out from the side of the recycling system pump cooled by way of a regenerative heat exchanger and a non-regenerative heat exchanger and then flow into a filtering desalter for purification. Then, the purified water is joined with the feed water and returned to the inside of the reactor. Coolants for the auxiliary equipment cooler are recycled through non-regenerative heat exchanger and the flow control valve for the coolants is adjusted such that the temperature for the cleaned water accords with that of the feed water, whereby the temperature of the purified water is controlled to eliminate the temperature difference with the feed water. (Kamimura, M.)

  20. Rocky Flats cleanup receives new deadline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The Rocky Flats nuclear weapon plant near Denver narrowly missed a court-ordered shutdown of virtually all cleanup activities when it failed to meet an Aug. 22 deadline for a state permit to store mixed radioactive and hazardous wastes on site. US District Court Judge Lewis Babcock granted a 90-day stay of contempt charges against the US Dept. of Energy, but left open the possibility of civil penalties under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. DOE's problems stem from a lawsuit the Sierra Club won two years ago in which Babcock gave Rocky Flats until Aug. 22 to obtain a RCRA permit or interim status from Colorado to store 600 cu yd of mixed wastes. If DOE failed to do so, the court said it could not generate further hazardous wastes at the site

  1. Validation Database Based Thermal Analysis of an Advanced RPS Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balint, Tibor S.; Emis, Nickolas D.

    2006-01-01

    Advanced RPS concepts can be conceived, designed and assessed using high-end computational analysis tools. These predictions may provide an initial insight into the potential performance of these models, but verification and validation are necessary and required steps to gain confidence in the numerical analysis results. This paper discusses the findings from a numerical validation exercise for a small advanced RPS concept, based on a thermal analysis methodology developed at JPL and on a validation database obtained from experiments performed at Oregon State University. Both the numerical and experimental configurations utilized a single GPHS module enabled design, resembling a Mod-RTG concept. The analysis focused on operating and environmental conditions during the storage phase only. This validation exercise helped to refine key thermal analysis and modeling parameters, such as heat transfer coefficients, and conductivity and radiation heat transfer values. Improved understanding of the Mod-RTG concept through validation of the thermal model allows for future improvements to this power system concept.

  2. Advances in Enzyme-Based Biosensors for Pesticide Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Bucur

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The intensive use of toxic and remanent pesticides in agriculture has prompted research into novel performant, yet cost-effective and fast analytical tools to control the pesticide residue levels in the environment and food. In this context, biosensors based on enzyme inhibition have been proposed as adequate analytical devices with the added advantage of using the toxicity of pesticides for detection purposes, being more “biologically relevant” than standard chromatographic methods. This review proposes an overview of recent advances in the development of biosensors exploiting the inhibition of cholinesterases, photosynthetic system II, alkaline phosphatase, cytochrome P450A1, peroxidase, tyrosinase, laccase, urease, and aldehyde dehydrogenase. While various strategies have been employed to detect pesticides from different classes (organophosphates, carbamates, dithiocarbamates, triazines, phenylureas, diazines, or phenols, the number of practical applications and the variety of environmental and food samples tested remains limited. Recent advances focus on enhancing the sensitivity and selectivity by using nanomaterials in the sensor assembly and novel mutant enzymes in array-type sensor formats in combination with chemometric methods for data analysis. The progress in the development of solar cells enriched the possibilities for efficient wiring of photosynthetic enzymes on different surfaces, opening new avenues for development of biosensors for photosynthesis-inhibiting herbicides.

  3. Helping with the clean-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peelle, E.

    1990-01-01

    Successes in public involvement efforts for nuclear waste management are so few that they deserve careful documentation and analysis. This paper chronicles the goals, process, problems and outcomes of one such success, the Northwest Defense Waste Citizens Forum (CF), created by the DOE-Richland manager in 1986 to advise DOE on its plans for nuclear waste disposal and cleanup of the Hanford site n eastern Washington state. In the evolving, often-controversial, highly-visible area of agency-public interactions, citizen task forces (TFs) have been shown to be useful in developing public policy at the local level. Making them work at the state level is more problematic. This case shows that a diverse, two-state citizen group can make significant contributions to complex EIS evaluations with heavy technical components. The CFs principal contribution to public policy was communication of its findings to business and professional groups, to area political representatives and state agencies, thereby laying the ground work for refocusing the Northwest upon the need for action on DW cleanup at Hanford. In going well beyond NEPA requirements for public involvement in agency decision making, DOE-Richland demonstrated innovative ways of dealing with the difficult issues of public confidence and public trust by means of agency openness, responsiveness to citizen needs for information, and good faith two-way communication. The success of this pro-active DOE initiative was due to many factors including selecting the right issue (existing wastes), structuring the CF at a broad, regional level, and intensive implementation of trust-building strategies

  4. Advances in Reprogramming-Based Study of Neurologic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Kristin K.

    2015-01-01

    The technology to convert adult human non-neural cells into neural lineages, through induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), somatic cell nuclear transfer, and direct lineage reprogramming or transdifferentiation has progressed tremendously in recent years. Reprogramming-based approaches aimed at manipulating cellular identity have enormous potential for disease modeling, high-throughput drug screening, cell therapy, and personalized medicine. Human iPSC (hiPSC)-based cellular disease models have provided proof of principle evidence of the validity of this system. However, several challenges remain before patient-specific neurons produced by reprogramming can provide reliable insights into disease mechanisms or be efficiently applied to drug discovery and transplantation therapy. This review will first discuss limitations of currently available reprogramming-based methods in faithfully and reproducibly recapitulating disease pathology. Specifically, we will address issues such as culture heterogeneity, interline and inter-individual variability, and limitations of two-dimensional differentiation paradigms. Second, we will assess recent progress and the future prospects of reprogramming-based neurologic disease modeling. This includes three-dimensional disease modeling, advances in reprogramming technology, prescreening of hiPSCs and creating isogenic disease models using gene editing. PMID:25749371

  5. Advances in p-Value Based Multiple Test Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamhane, Ajit C; Gou, Jiangtao

    2018-01-01

    In this article we review recent advances in [Formula: see text]-value-based multiple test procedures (MTPs). We begin with a brief review of the basic tests of Bonferroni and Simes. Standard stepwise MTPs derived from them using the closure method of Marcus et al. (1976) are discussed next. They include the well-known MTPs of Holm (1979), Hochberg (1988) and Hommel (1988), and their extensions and improvements. This is followed by stepwise MTPs for a priori ordered hypotheses. Next we present gatekeeping MTPs (Dmitrienko and Tamhane, 2007) for hierarchically ordered families of hypotheses with logical relations among them. Finally, we give a brief review of the graphical approach (Bretz et al., 2009) to constructing and visualizing gatekeeping and other MTPs. Simple numerical examples are given to illustrate the various procedures.

  6. Current advances in T-cell-based cancer immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingjun; Yin, Bingnan; Wang, Helen Y; Wang, Rong-Fu

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide; due to the lack of ideal cancer biomarkers for early detection or diagnosis, most patients present with late-stage disease at the time of diagnosis, thus limiting the potential for successful treatment. Traditional cancer treatments, including surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy, have demonstrated very limited efficacy for patients with late-stage disease. Therefore, innovative and effective cancer treatments are urgently needed for cancer patients with late-stage and refractory disease. Cancer immunotherapy, particularly adoptive cell transfer, has shown great promise in the treatment of patients with late-stage disease, including those who are refractory to standard therapies. In this review, we will highlight recent advances and discuss future directions in adoptive cell transfer based cancer immunotherapy. PMID:25524383

  7. Recent advances in nanomaterial-based biosensors for antibiotics detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Lingyi; Yao, Yao; Ping, Jianfeng; Ying, Yibin

    2017-05-15

    Antibiotics are able to be accumulated in human body by food chain and may induce severe influence to human health and safety. Hence, the development of sensitive and simple methods for rapid evaluation of antibiotic levels is highly desirable. Nanomaterials with excellent electronic, optical, mechanical, and thermal properties have been recognized as one of the most promising materials for opening new gates in the development of next-generation biosensors. This review highlights the current advances in the nanomaterial-based biosensors for antibiotics detection. Different kinds of nanomaterials including carbon nanomaterials, metal nanomaterials, magnetic nanoparticles, up-conversion nanoparticles, and quantum dots have been applied to the construction of biosensors with two main signal-transducing mechanisms, i.e. optical and electrochemical. Furthermore, the current challenges and future prospects in this field are also included to provide an overview for future research directions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Defining the framework for environmentally compliant cleanup: The Hanford site tri-party agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austin, B.A.; Wisness, S.H.

    1994-01-01

    The Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, commonly called the Tri-Party Agreement, was signed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the State of Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in May of 1989. It was the first three-party agreement of its magnitude in the country and was touted as a landmark agreement. It was one of the most significant actions that has been taken to define the framework for environmentally compliant cleanup actions at the Hanford Site. Accomplishments thus far represent a lot of planning, permitting, and development activities either required by regulation or necessary to ensure an adequate infrastructure to support cleanup activities. Actual cleanup work and construction of new facilities are beginning to accelerate as the Hanford Site moves out of study and development phases into actual cleanup activities. Significant changes to the Hanford Tri-Party Agreement were negotiated between May 1993 and January 1994. These negotiations were precipitated by the completion of a 15-month rebaselining study of the Hanford Site's Tank Waste Remediation System. The revised agreement is based on comments and values the three agencies heard from people of the region during the negotiation process. The recent renegotiation reflected an ability of the agencies and the agreement to change commensurate with technical, economic, and political realities of today. Hanford has moved into a new era of public participation which will continue to watch and guide cleanup efforts in manners satisfactory to regional concerns and values

  9. Coolant clean-up system in nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuburaya, Hirobumi; Akita, Minoru; Shiraishi, Tadashi; Kinoshita, Shoichiro; Okura, Minoru; Tsuji, Akio.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To ensure a sufficient urging pressure at the inlet of a coolant clean-up system pump in a nuclear reactor and eliminate radioactive contaminations to the pump. Constitution: Coolant clean-up system (CUW) pump in a nuclear reactor is disposed to the downstream of a filtration desalter and, for compensating the insufficiency of the urging pressure at the pump inlet, the reactor water intake port to the clean-up system is disposed to the downstream of the after-heat removing pump and the heat exchanger. By compensating the net positive suction head (NPSH) of the clean-up system from the residual heat removing system, the problems of insufficient NPSH for the CUW pump upon reactor shut-down can be dissolved and, accordingly, the reactor clean-up system can be arranged in the order of the heat exchanger, clean-up device and pump. Thus, the CUW pump acts on reactor water after cleaned-up in the clean-up device to reduce the radioactivity contamination to the pump. (Kawakami, Y.)

  10. Advanced practice nursing: A principle-based concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruel, Jennifer; Motyka, Carrie

    2009-07-01

    To analyze and clarify the conceptual basis of advanced practice nursing to determine the state of the knowledge from the perspective of four overarching principles derived from the philosophy of science: epistemological, pragmatic, linguistic, and logical. Written discourse regarding advanced practice nursing from refereed journals published between 2000 and 2007. Conceptualization of a core definition of advanced practice nursing will enhance external legitimacy and recognition; understanding advanced practice nurse (APN) roles, sub-roles, and competencies will enhance internal cohesion. The outcome of this concept analysis is a greater understanding of the conceptual basis of advanced practice nursing and a current best estimate of the probable truth surrounding advanced practice nursing. A greater understanding of the conceptual basis of advanced practice nursing will help to gain clarity, internal cohesion, external legitimacy, and acceptance of APN roles by society and other healthcare professions.

  11. Tritium research laboratory cleanup and transition project final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.J.

    1997-02-01

    This Tritium Research Laboratory Cleanup and Transition Project Final Report provides a high-level summary of this project's multidimensional accomplishments. Throughout this report references are provided for in-depth information concerning the various topical areas. Project related records also offer solutions to many of the technical and or administrative challenges that such a cleanup effort requires. These documents and the experience obtained during this effort are valuable resources to the DOE, which has more than 1200 other process contaminated facilities awaiting cleanup and reapplication or demolition

  12. Advanced Ship Detection For Spaceborne Based Maritime Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radius, Andrea; Ferreira, Joao; Carmo, Paulo; Marques, Paulo

    2013-12-01

    In the last years the increase in marine traffic generated the necessity of global monitoring for marine environment management in terms of safety, security and fisheries. The increasing number of new satellite-based Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) systems, and the intrinsic capability of the transmitted electromagnetic pulses to interact with the ships and to retrieve its cinematic characteristics, made this instrument particularly fit to improve global maritime awareness through the fusion with cooperative data (AIS, VMS, LRIT). The growing need of global maritime awareness gave a push to the realization of different projects in the European context, each one focused on a different particular objective. Particularly useful is the synergy between the operational and research aspects, being the goal of the last to improve the state of the art in the field of ship detection. Two European projects are the key to strive this synergy: the project MARitime Security Service (MARISS), which implements the operational capability, and the R&D Dolphin projects, which is focused on the deep exploitation of remote sensing data and on the technological development of advanced techniques for ship detection and classification purposes, and Seabilla project, which is also dedicated to improve the current ship detection capability and to fuse all the available information from different data sources for border surveillance optimization. This paper introduces the multipurpose Edisoft Vessel Detection software (EdiVDC) implemented by the EDISOFT company, which comes from the necessity to respect increasingly stringent requirements in terms of ship detection. The EdiVDC software is being operationally used in the framework of the MARISS project and it integrates advanced processing algorithms, developed in the scope of the Dolphin project with the cooperation of ISEL-IT (Instituto de Telecomunicações), and data simulators, developed in the context of the Seabilla project, improving

  13. (Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center): Quarterly technical progress report for the period ending June 30, 1987. [Advanced Coal Research and Technology Development Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1988-02-01

    Research programs on coal and coal liquefaction are presented. Topics discussed are: coal science, combustion, kinetics, surface science; advanced technology projects in liquefaction; two stage liquefaction and direct liquefaction; catalysts of liquefaction; Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and thermodynamics; alternative fuels utilization; coal preparation; biodegradation; advanced combustion technology; flue gas cleanup; environmental coordination, and technology transfer. Individual projects are processed separately for the data base. (CBS)

  14. ADVANCED SEISMIC BASE ISOLATION METHODS FOR MODULAR REACTORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanford, E.; Keldrauk, E.; Laufer, M.; Mieler, M.; Wei, J.; Stojadinovic, B.; Peterson, P.F.

    2010-01-01

    Advanced technologies for structural design and construction have the potential for major impact not only on nuclear power plant construction time and cost, but also on the design process and on the safety, security and reliability of next generation of nuclear power plants. In future Generation IV (Gen IV) reactors, structural and seismic design should be much more closely integrated with the design of nuclear and industrial safety systems, physical security systems, and international safeguards systems. Overall reliability will be increased, through the use of replaceable and modular equipment, and through design to facilitate on-line monitoring, in-service inspection, maintenance, replacement, and decommissioning. Economics will also receive high design priority, through integrated engineering efforts to optimize building arrangements to minimize building heights and footprints. Finally, the licensing approach will be transformed by becoming increasingly performance based and technology neutral, using best-estimate simulation methods with uncertainty and margin quantification. In this context, two structural engineering technologies, seismic base isolation and modular steel-plate/concrete composite structural walls, are investigated. These technologies have major potential to (1) enable standardized reactor designs to be deployed across a wider range of sites, (2) reduce the impact of uncertainties related to site-specific seismic conditions, and (3) alleviate reactor equipment qualification requirements. For Gen IV reactors the potential for deliberate crashes of large aircraft must also be considered in design. This report concludes that base-isolated structures should be decoupled from the reactor external event exclusion system. As an example, a scoping analysis is performed for a rectangular, decoupled external event shell designed as a grillage. This report also reviews modular construction technology, particularly steel-plate/concrete construction using

  15. ADVANCED SEISMIC BASE ISOLATION METHODS FOR MODULAR REACTORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Blanford; E. Keldrauk; M. Laufer; M. Mieler; J. Wei; B. Stojadinovic; P.F. Peterson

    2010-09-20

    Advanced technologies for structural design and construction have the potential for major impact not only on nuclear power plant construction time and cost, but also on the design process and on the safety, security and reliability of next generation of nuclear power plants. In future Generation IV (Gen IV) reactors, structural and seismic design should be much more closely integrated with the design of nuclear and industrial safety systems, physical security systems, and international safeguards systems. Overall reliability will be increased, through the use of replaceable and modular equipment, and through design to facilitate on-line monitoring, in-service inspection, maintenance, replacement, and decommissioning. Economics will also receive high design priority, through integrated engineering efforts to optimize building arrangements to minimize building heights and footprints. Finally, the licensing approach will be transformed by becoming increasingly performance based and technology neutral, using best-estimate simulation methods with uncertainty and margin quantification. In this context, two structural engineering technologies, seismic base isolation and modular steel-plate/concrete composite structural walls, are investigated. These technologies have major potential to (1) enable standardized reactor designs to be deployed across a wider range of sites, (2) reduce the impact of uncertainties related to site-specific seismic conditions, and (3) alleviate reactor equipment qualification requirements. For Gen IV reactors the potential for deliberate crashes of large aircraft must also be considered in design. This report concludes that base-isolated structures should be decoupled from the reactor external event exclusion system. As an example, a scoping analysis is performed for a rectangular, decoupled external event shell designed as a grillage. This report also reviews modular construction technology, particularly steel-plate/concrete construction using

  16. Advancing Simulation-Based Education in Pain Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Naileshni; Nielsen, Alison A; Copenhaver, David J; Sheth, Samir J; Li, Chin-Shang; Fishman, Scott M

    2018-02-27

    The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) has recently implemented milestones and competencies as a framework for training fellows in Pain Medicine, but individual programs are left to create educational platforms and assessment tools that meet ACGME standards. In this article, we discuss the concept of milestone-based competencies and the inherent challenges for implementation in pain medicine. We consider simulation-based education (SBE) as a potential tool for the field to meet ACGME goals through advancing novel learning opportunities, engaging in clinically relevant scenarios, and mastering technical and nontechnical skills. The sparse literature on SBE in pain medicine is highlighted, and we describe our pilot experience, which exemplifies a nascent effort that encountered early difficulties in implementing and refining an SBE program. The many complexities in offering a sophisticated simulated pain curriculum that is valid, reliable, feasible, and acceptable to learners and teachers may only be overcome with coordinated and collaborative efforts among pain medicine training programs and governing institutions.

  17. Advanced Technology MEMS-based Acoustic Array, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Interdisciplinary Consulting Corporation proposes a technological advancement of current state-of-the-art acoustic energy harvester for harsh environment...

  18. Advanced Technology MEMS-based Acoustic Array Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Interdisciplinary Consulting Corporation proposes a technological advancement of current state-of-the-art acoustic energy harvester for harsh environment...

  19. Collaborating across services to advance evidence-based nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Deborah J; Richard, Maggie L; Ceniceros, Xochitl; Blaize, Kelli

    2010-01-01

    Military medical treatment facilities offer a unique environment in which to develop a culture of evidence-based practice (EBP). Distinctive issues arise in the context of changed patient care demographics because of a war-injured population. These issues offer an opportunity to enhance the quality of care through the use and adaptation of research findings in this special nursing environment. In addition, the colocation of two military medical centers offers the prospect of collaborative efforts to create a regional culture for nursing EBP. The purposes of this study were to describe the processes of a collaborative project to train nurses in EBP and to share resources in developing and implementing evidence-based clinical nursing guidelines in two large military medical centers in the Northeastern United States and to discuss the collective efforts of nurse researchers, leadership, advanced practice nurses, and staff nurses in each hospital to facilitate the EBP process. A description of the organizational structure and the climate for EBP of each facility is provided followed by discussion of training efforts and the inculcation of an organizational culture for EBP. Contextual barriers and facilitators were encountered throughout the project. The two nurse researchers leading the projects were able to overcome the barriers and capitalize on opportunities to promote EBP. Three evidence-based clinical practice guidelines were developed at each facility and are currently in various stages of implementation. Despite the barriers, EBP continues to be at the forefront of military nursing practice in the U.S. National Capital Region. Clear communication and regular meetings were essential to the success of the collaborative project within and between the two military hospitals. Military-specific barriers to EBP included high team attrition and turnover because of the war mission and the usual high staff turnover at military hospitals. Military facilitators included a

  20. Advancing reservoir operation description in physically based hydrological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghileri, Daniela; Giudici, Federico; Castelletti, Andrea; Burlando, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    Last decades have seen significant advances in our capacity of characterizing and reproducing hydrological processes within physically based models. Yet, when the human component is considered (e.g. reservoirs, water distribution systems), the associated decisions are generally modeled with very simplistic rules, which might underperform in reproducing the actual operators' behaviour on a daily or sub-daily basis. For example, reservoir operations are usually described by a target-level rule curve, which represents the level that the reservoir should track during normal operating conditions. The associated release decision is determined by the current state of the reservoir relative to the rule curve. This modeling approach can reasonably reproduce the seasonal water volume shift due to reservoir operation. Still, it cannot capture more complex decision making processes in response, e.g., to the fluctuations of energy prices and demands, the temporal unavailability of power plants or varying amount of snow accumulated in the basin. In this work, we link a physically explicit hydrological model with detailed hydropower behavioural models describing the decision making process by the dam operator. In particular, we consider two categories of behavioural models: explicit or rule-based behavioural models, where reservoir operating rules are empirically inferred from observational data, and implicit or optimization based behavioural models, where, following a normative economic approach, the decision maker is represented as a rational agent maximising a utility function. We compare these two alternate modelling approaches on the real-world water system of Lake Como catchment in the Italian Alps. The water system is characterized by the presence of 18 artificial hydropower reservoirs generating almost 13% of the Italian hydropower production. Results show to which extent the hydrological regime in the catchment is affected by different behavioural models and reservoir

  1. Cleanup Verification Package for the 300-18 Waste Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capron, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 300-18 waste site. This site was identified as containing radiologically contaminated soil, metal shavings, nuts, bolts, and concrete

  2. Considering Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) During the Cleanup Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    This memorandum provides direction to improve the decision-making process as it relates to site assessment, characterization, and cleanup activities, to ensure EPA's Office of Land and Emergency Management is considering TEK when tribes provide it to EPA.

  3. Radiation Dose to Post-Chernobyl Cleanup Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation dose calculation for post-Chernobyl Cleanup Workers in Ukraine - both external radiation exposure due to fallout and internal doses due to inhalation (I131 intake) or ingestion of contaminated foodstuffs.

  4. AMCP Partnership Forum: Advancing Value-Based Contracting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    During the past decade, payment models for the delivery of health care have undergone a dramatic shift from focusing on volume to focusing on value. This shift began with the Affordable Care Act and was reinforced by the Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act of 2015 (MACRA), which increased the emphasis on payment for delivery of quality care. Today, value-based care is a primary strategy for improving patient care while managing costs. This shift in payment models is expanding beyond the delivery of health care services to encompass models of compensation between payers and biopharmaceutical manufacturers. Value-based contracts (VBCs) have emerged as a mechanism that payers may use to better align their contracting structures with broader changes in the health care system. While pharmaceuticals represent a small share of total health care spending, it is one of the fastest-growing segments of the health care marketplace, and the increasing costs of pharmaceuticals necessitate more flexibility to contract in new ways based on the value of these products. Although not all products or services are appropriate for these types of contracts, VBCs could be a part of the solution to address increasing drug prices and overall drug spending. VBCs encompass a variety of different contracting strategies for biopharmaceutical products that do not base payment rates on volume. These contracts instead may include payment on the achievement of specific goals in a predetermined patient population and offer innovative solutions for quantifying and rewarding positive outcomes or otherwise reducing payer risk associated with pharmaceutical costs. To engage national stakeholders in a discussion of current practices, barriers, and potential benefits of VBCs, the Academy of Managed Care Pharmacy (AMCP) convened a Partnership Forum on Advancing Value-Based Contracting in Arlington, Virginia, on June 20-21, 2017. The goals of the VBC forum were as follows: (a) agree to a definition

  5. Vision in space, based on the advanced stellar compass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liebe, Carl Christian; Jørgensen, John Leif; Eisenman, Allan R.

    1996-01-01

    A wide variety of Space-missions could benefit from advanced onboard image-analysis. With missions to other planets or asteroids as good examples (genotypes). With reference to the Oersted Advanced Stellar Compass, this paper describes possible onboard imageanalysis tasks. As the instrument track...

  6. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-F-2 Burial Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capron, J.M.; Anselm, K.A.

    2008-01-01

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action, sampling activities, and compliance with cleanup criteria for the 118-F-2 Burial Ground. This burial ground, formerly called Solid Waste Burial Ground No. 1, was the original solid waste disposal site for the 100-F Area. Eight trenches contained miscellaneous solid waste from the 105-F Reactor and one trench contained solid waste from the biology facilities

  7. Challenges encountered in hydrocarbon contaminated soil cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazzarettro, A.C.

    1991-01-01

    Much of the author's experience relating to the cleanup of hydrocarbon contaminated soils has been garnered from serving the city of Santa Fe Springs, California as a redevelopment consultant and project manager. In this paper, the author's comments will be centered on that community. To set the stage the author believes it might be helpful to relate some of the history and background of Santa Fe Springs (SFS). The community was first founded as an agricultural settlement in the latter part of the nineteenth century, with virtually all of the farms and ranches either planted in orchards or engaged in raising cattle and livestock. The Southern Pacific Railroad had a line running through the area primarily to serve the needs of the ranchers and farmers. The community at the time was known as Fulton Wells in honor of a large hotel complex which had been erected around a well-known mineral spring touted for its curative value. The local population had been aware for some time of the presence of brackish water in shallow wells and of the peculiar odor which permeated much of the surrounding area

  8. Spent fuel pool cleanup and stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.L.

    1987-06-01

    Each of the plutonium production reactors at Hanford had a large water-filled spent fuel pool to provide interim storage of irradiated fuel while awaiting shipment to the separation facilities. After cessation of reactor operations the fuel was removed from the pools and the water levels were drawn down to a 5- to 10-foot depth. The pools were maintained with the water to provide shielding and radiological control. What appeared to be a straightforward project to process the water, remove the sediments from the basin, and stabilize the contamination on the floors and walls became a very complex and time consuming operation. The sediment characteristics varied from pool to pool, the ion exchange system required modification, areas of hard-pack sediments were discovered on the floors, special arrangements to handle and package high dose rate items for shipment were required, and contract problems ensued with the subcontractor. The original schedule to complete the project from preliminary engineering to final stabilization of the pools was 15 months. The actual time required was about 25 months. The original cost estimate to perform the work was $2,651,000. The actual cost of the project was $5,120,000, which included $150,000 for payment of claims to the subcontractor. This paper summarizes the experiences associated with the cleanup and radiological stabilization of the 100-B, -C, -D, and -DR spent fuel pools, and discusses a number of lessons learned items

  9. Sensor-Based Trajectory Generation for Advanced Driver Assistance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher James Shackleton

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the trajectory generation problem for an advanced driver assistance system that could sense the driving state of the vehicle, so that a collision free trajectory can be generated safely. Specifically, the problem of trajectory generation is solved for the safety assessment of the driving state and to manipulate the vehicle in order to avoid any possible collisions. The vehicle senses the environment so as to obtain information about other vehicles and static obstacles ahead. Vehicles may share the perception of the environment via an inter-vehicle communication system. The planning algorithm is based on a visibility graph. A lateral repulsive potential is applied to adaptively maintain a trade-off between the trajectory length and vehicle clearance, which is the greatest problem associated with visibility graphs. As opposed to adaptive roadmap approaches, the algorithm exploits the structured nature of the environment for construction of the roadmap. Furthermore, the mostly organized nature of traffic systems is exploited to obtain orientation invariance, which is another limitation of both visibility graphs and adaptive roadmaps. Simulation results show that the algorithm can successfully solve the problem for a variety of commonly found scenarios.

  10. Advanced mobility handover for mobile IPv6 based wireless networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safa Sadiq, Ali; Fisal, Norsheila Binti; Ghafoor, Kayhan Zrar; Lloret, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    We propose an Advanced Mobility Handover scheme (AMH) in this paper for seamless mobility in MIPv6-based wireless networks. In the proposed scheme, the mobile node utilizes a unique home IPv6 address developed to maintain communication with other corresponding nodes without a care-of-address during the roaming process. The IPv6 address for each MN during the first round of AMH process is uniquely identified by HA using the developed MN-ID field as a global permanent, which is identifying uniquely the IPv6 address of MN. Moreover, a temporary MN-ID is generated by access point each time an MN is associated with a particular AP and temporarily saved in a developed table inside the AP. When employing the AMH scheme, the handover process in the network layer is performed prior to its default time. That is, the mobility handover process in the network layer is tackled by a trigger developed AMH message to the next access point. Thus, a mobile node keeps communicating with the current access point while the network layer handover is executed by the next access point. The mathematical analyses and simulation results show that the proposed scheme performs better as compared with the existing approaches.

  11. Advanced Contrast Agents for Multimodal Biomedical Imaging Based on Nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Daniel; Ballesteros, Paloma; Cerdán, Sebastián

    2018-01-01

    Clinical imaging modalities have reached a prominent role in medical diagnosis and patient management in the last decades. Different image methodologies as Positron Emission Tomography, Single Photon Emission Tomography, X-Rays, or Magnetic Resonance Imaging are in continuous evolution to satisfy the increasing demands of current medical diagnosis. Progress in these methodologies has been favored by the parallel development of increasingly more powerful contrast agents. These are molecules that enhance the intrinsic contrast of the images in the tissues where they accumulate, revealing noninvasively the presence of characteristic molecular targets or differential physiopathological microenvironments. The contrast agent field is currently moving to improve the performance of these molecules by incorporating the advantages that modern nanotechnology offers. These include, mainly, the possibilities to combine imaging and therapeutic capabilities over the same theranostic platform or improve the targeting efficiency in vivo by molecular engineering of the nanostructures. In this review, we provide an introduction to multimodal imaging methods in biomedicine, the sub-nanometric imaging agents previously used and the development of advanced multimodal and theranostic imaging agents based in nanotechnology. We conclude providing some illustrative examples from our own laboratories, including recent progress in theranostic formulations of magnetoliposomes containing ω-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids to treat inflammatory diseases, or the use of stealth liposomes engineered with a pH-sensitive nanovalve to release their cargo specifically in the acidic extracellular pH microenvironment of tumors.

  12. Development of international criteria for the cleanup of contaminated areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedemann-Jensen, P.; Barraclough, I.; Meck, R.; Gnugnoli, G.; Stegnar, P.

    1999-01-01

    IAEA TECDOC-987, Application of radiation protection principles to the cleanup of contaminated areas, provides a coherent framework and consistent guidance needed for approaches to cleanup that encompass the entire range of contamination situations. A major goal of cleanup is usually to re-establish that the environment can acceptably support habitation and use. Difficult situations include chronic exposures due to radioactivity associated with the discovery of contamination from a previously discontinued practice and post-accident situations. and post-accident situations. The concepts of justification, optimization, and limitation can be applied to cleanup from 'trivial' to 'intolerable' situations by taking into account not only radiological risk, but the entire range of social values including the ability of the society to feed and shelter itself and to sustain a productive economy. TECDOC-987 proposes six ranges, or bands, of doses that correspond to trivial, acceptable, tolerable - clean-up unlikely (unless constrained), tolerable - clean-up likely, unacceptable, and intolerable risks. Remedial actions may vary from 'none' to elaborate decontamination or restricted or prohibited use. (author)

  13. Validation of an online dual-loop cleanup device with an electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry-based system for simultaneous quantitative analysis of urinary benzene exposure biomarkers trans, trans-muconic acid and S-phenylmercapturic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, L.-C.; Chiung, Y.-M.; Shih, J.-F.; Shih, T.-S.G; Liao, P.-C.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study is to validate isotope-dilution electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS-MS) method with a dual-loop cleanup device for simultaneous quantitation of two benzene metabolites, trans, trans-muconic acid (ttMA) and S-phenylmercapturic acid (SPMA), in human urine. In this study, a pooled blank urine matrix from rural residents was adopted for validation of the analytical method. The calibration curve, detection limit, recovery, precision, accuracy and the stability of sample storage for the system have been characterized. Calibration plots of ttMA and SPMA standards spiked into two kinds of urine matrixes over a wide concentration range, 1/32-8-fold biological exposure indices (BEIs) values, showed good linearity (R > 0.9992). The detection limits in pooled urine matrix for ttMA and SPMA were 1.27 and 0.042 μg g -1 creatinine, respectively. For both of ttMA and SPMA, the intra- and inter-day precision values were considered acceptable well below 25% at the various spiked concentrations. The intra- and inter-day apparent recovery values were also considered acceptable (apparent recovery >90%). The ttMA accuracy was estimated by urinary standard reference material (SRM). The accuracy reported in terms of relative error (RE) was 5.0 ± 2.0% (n = 3). The stability of sample storage at 4 or -20 deg. C were assessed. Urinary ttMA and SPMA were found to be stable for at least 8 weeks when stored at 4 or -20 deg. C. In addition, urine samples from different benzene exposure groups were collected and measured in this system. Without tedious manual sample preparation procedure, the analytical system was able to quantify simultaneously ttMA and SPMA in less than 20 min

  14. Hanford Site Cleanup Challenges and Opportunities for Science and Technology--A Strategic Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Thomas W.; Johnson, Wayne L.; Kreid, Dennis K.; Walton, Terry L.

    2001-02-01

    The sheer expanse of the Hanford Site, the inherent hazards associated with the significant inventory of nuclear materials and wastes, the large number of aging contaminated facilities, the diverse nature and extent of environmental contamination, and the proximity to the Columbia River make Hanford perhaps the world's largest and most complex environmental cleanup project. It is not possible to address the more complex elements of this enormous challenge in a cost-effective manner without strategic investments in science and technology. Success requires vigorous and sustained efforts to enhance the science and technology basis, develop and deploy innovative solutions, and provide firm scientific bases to support site cleanup and closure decisions at Hanford.

  15. Implementing the shoreline cleanup assessment team process in the Gulf of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debusschere, K.; Penland, S.; Ramsey, K.E.; Lindstedt, D.; Westphal, K.A.; Seal, R.; McBride, R.A.; Byrnes, M.R.; Owens, E.

    1993-01-01

    Louisiana State University (LSU) and Woodward-Clyde Consultants are working with state and federal agencies and industry through the LSU Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill Research and Response Program to establish a shoreline cleanup assessment team program (SCAT) in the Gulf of Mexico. Each SCAT team consists of a coastal geomorphologist and ecologist (and archaeologist when appropriate), as well as representatives from the responsible federal, state, and private agencies. This cooperative effort is aimed at identifying oil spill impact and interagency coastal resource concerns and recommendations, and developing a cleanup strategy based on interagency cooperation and concurrence within a systematic and standardized framework. The SCAT program provides interagency coordination, SCAT preparedness, spill drill participation, interagency training, geographic information systems services, monitoring, and routine aerial videotape surveys. It also offers technical support to the decision-making process within spill response operations

  16. Risk assessment applications for determining cleanup limits for uranium in treated and untreated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, A.Q.; Layton, D.W.; Rutz, E.E.

    1994-01-01

    Uranium-contaminated soils are present at various locations across the US where uranium was processed for nuclear fuels or atomic weapons. Important issues relative to such contamination include the assessment of potential health risks associated with human exposures to the residual uranium and the determination of safe levels of uranium in soils that have been treated by a given technology. This paper discusses various risk assessment considerations that must be dealt with when developing cleanup limits for uranium in treated and untreated soils. Key issues addressed include alternative land use scenarios, potential exposure pathways, characterization of the bioavailability of uranium compounds in food and water, a brief overview of health risks associated with uranium and its daughter products as well as a summary of considerations for development of risk-based cleanup limits for uranium in soils

  17. Sol-gel-graphene-based fabric-phase sorptive extraction for cow and human breast milk sample cleanup for screening bisphenol A and residual dental restorative material before analysis by HPLC with diode array detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanidou, Victoria; Filippou, Olga; Marinou, Eirini; Kabir, Abuzar; Furton, Kenneth G

    2017-06-01

    Fabric-phase sorptive extraction has already been recognized as a simple and green alternative to the conventional sorbent-based sorptive microextraction techniques, using hybrid organic-inorganic sorbent coatings chemically bonded to a flexible fabric surface. Herein, we have investigated the synergistic combination of the advanced material properties offered by sol-gel graphene sorbent and the simplicity of Fabric phase sorptive extraction approach in selectively extracting bisphenol A and residual monomers including bisphenol A glycerolatedimethacrylate, urethane dimethacrylate, and triethylene glycol dimethacrylate derived dental restorative materials from cow and human breast milk samples. Different coatings were evaluated. Final method development employed sol-gel graphene coated media. The main experimental parameters influencing extraction of the compounds, such as sorbent chemistry used, sample loading conditions, elution solvent, sorption stirring time, elution time, impact of protein precipitation, amount of sample, and matrix effect, were investigated and optimized. Absolute recovery values from standard solutions were 50% for bisphenol A, 78% for T triethylene glycol dimethacrylate, 110% for urethane dimethacrylate, and 103% for bisphenol A glycerolatedimethacrylate, while respective absolute recovery values from milk were 30, 52, 104, and 42%. Method validation was performed according to European Decision 657/2002/EC in terms of selectivity, sensitivity, linearity, accuracy, and precision. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Statistical evaluation of cleanup: How should it be done?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, R.O.

    1993-02-01

    This paper discusses statistical issues that must be addressed when conducting statistical tests for the purpose of evaluating if a site has been remediated to guideline values or standards. The importance of using the Data Quality Objectives (DQO) process to plan and design the sampling plan is emphasized. Other topics discussed are: (1) accounting for the uncertainty of cleanup standards when conducting statistical tests, (2) determining the number of samples and measurements needed to attain specified DQOs, (3) considering whether the appropriate testing philosophy in a given situation is ''guilty until proven innocent'' or ''innocent until proven guilty'' when selecting a statistical test for evaluating the attainment of standards, (4) conducting tests using data sets that contain measurements that have been reported by the laboratory as less than the minimum detectable activity, and (5) selecting statistical tests that are appropriate for risk-based or background-based standards. A recent draft report by Berger that provides guidance on sampling plans and data analyses for final status surveys at US Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensed facilities serves as a focal point for discussion

  19. Proceedings of the seventh annual gasification and gas stream cleanup systems contractors review meeting: Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghate, M.R.; Markel, K.E. Jr.; Jarr, L.A.; Bossart, S.J. (eds.)

    1987-08-01

    On June 16 through 19, 1987, METC sponsored the Seventh Annual Gasification and Gas Stream Cleanup Systems Contractors Review Meeting which was held at the Sheraton Lakeview Conference Center in Morgantown, West Virginia. The primary purpose of the meeting was threefold: to review the technical progress and current status of the gasification and gas stream cleanup projects sponsored by the Department of Energy; to foster technology exchange among participating researchers and other technical communities; to facilitate interactive dialogues which would identify research needs that would make coal-based gasification systems more attractive economically and environmentally. More than 310 representatives of Government, academia, industry, and foreign energy research organizations attended the 4-day meeting. Fifty-three papers and thirty poster dsplays were presented summarizing recent developments in the gasification and gas stream cleanup programs. Volume II covers papers presented at sessions 5 and 6 on system for the production of synthesis gas, and on system for the production of power. All papers have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  20. Risk newsboy: approach for addressing uncertainty in developing action levels and cleanup limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooke, Roger; MacDonell, Margaret

    2007-01-01

    Site cleanup decisions involve developing action levels and residual limits for key contaminants, to assure health protection during the cleanup period and into the long term. Uncertainty is inherent in the toxicity information used to define these levels, based on incomplete scientific knowledge regarding dose-response relationships across various hazards and exposures at environmentally relevant levels. This problem can be addressed by applying principles used to manage uncertainty in operations research, as illustrated by the newsboy dilemma. Each day a newsboy must balance the risk of buying more papers than he can sell against the risk of not buying enough. Setting action levels and cleanup limits involves a similar concept of balancing and distributing risks and benefits in the face of uncertainty. The newsboy approach can be applied to develop health-based target concentrations for both radiological and chemical contaminants, with stakeholder input being crucial to assessing 'regret' levels. Associated tools include structured expert judgment elicitation to quantify uncertainty in the dose-response relationship, and mathematical techniques such as probabilistic inversion and iterative proportional fitting. (authors)

  1. Proceedings of the seventh annual gasification and gas stream cleanup systems contractors review meeting: Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghate, M.R.; Markel, K.E. Jr.; Jarr, L.A.; Bossart, S.J. (eds.)

    1987-08-01

    On June 16 through 19, 1987, METC sponsored the Seventh Annual Gasification and Gas Stream Cleanup Systems Contractors Review Meeting which was held at the Sheraton Lakeview Conference Center in Morgantown, West Virginia. The primary purpose of the meeting was threefold: to review the technical progress and current status of the gasification and gas stream cleanup projects sponsored by the Department of Energy; to foster technology exchange among participating researchers and other technical communities; to facilitate interactive dialogues which would identify research needs that would make coal-based gasification systems more attractive economically and environmentally. More than 310 representatives of Government, academia, industry, and foreign energy research organizations attended the 4-day meeting. Fifty-three papers and thirty poster displays were presented summarizing recent developments in the gasification and gas stream cleanup programs. Volume I covers information presented at sessions 1 through 4 on systems for the production of Co-products and industrial fuel gas, environmental projects, and components and materials. Individual papers have been processed for the Energy Data Base.

  2. Vision Based Autonomous Robotic Control for Advanced Inspection and Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehner, Walter S.

    2014-01-01

    The advanced inspection system is an autonomous control and analysis system that improves the inspection and remediation operations for ground and surface systems. It uses optical imaging technology with intelligent computer vision algorithms to analyze physical features of the real-world environment to make decisions and learn from experience. The advanced inspection system plans to control a robotic manipulator arm, an unmanned ground vehicle and cameras remotely, automatically and autonomously. There are many computer vision, image processing and machine learning techniques available as open source for using vision as a sensory feedback in decision-making and autonomous robotic movement. My responsibilities for the advanced inspection system are to create a software architecture that integrates and provides a framework for all the different subsystem components; identify open-source algorithms and techniques; and integrate robot hardware.

  3. Answers to frequently asked questions about cleanup activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2. Public information report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-09-01

    The document presents answers to frequently asked questions about plans for cleanup and decontamination activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2. Answers to the questions asked are based on information in the NRC 'Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement related to decontamination and disposal of radioactive wastes resulting from March 28, 1979, accident, Three Mile Island Nuclear Station, Unit 2' NUREG-0683

  4. Advanced Nano fibrous textile based dressing material for treating ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    57

    technique and method of developing materials have improved tremendously. As a result, new innovative and advanced textiles with excellent properties are introduced in the market each year. The crucial qualities such as non-toxic, haemostatic, non-allergic, bacteriostatic and biocompatibility have expanded the popularity ...

  5. Recent advances in cell-based therapy for Parkinson disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astradsson, Arnar; Cooper, Oliver; Vinuela, Angel

    2008-01-01

    In this review, the authors discuss recent advances in the field of cell therapy for Parkinson disease (PD). They compare and contrast recent clinical trials using fetal dopaminergic neurons. They attribute differences in cell preparation techniques, cell type specification, and immunosuppression...

  6. Autonomous vision in space, based on Advanced Stellar Compass platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Leif; Eisenman, Allan R.; Liebe, Carl Christian

    1996-01-01

    The Ørsted Star Imager, comprises the functionality of an Advanced Stellar Compass (ASC). I.e. it is able to, autonomously solve "the lost in space" attitude problem, as well as determine the attitude with high precision in the matter of seconds. The autonomy makes for a high capability for error...

  7. School Integration Matters: Research-Based Strategies to Advance Equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenberg, Erica, Ed.; Garces, Liliana M., Ed.; Hopkins, Megan, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    More than 60 years after the "Brown v. Board of Education" decision declared segregated schooling inherently unequal, this timely book sheds light on how and why U.S. schools are experiencing increasing segregation along racial, socioeconomic, and linguistic lines. It offers policy and programmatic alternatives for advancing equity and…

  8. A Knowledge- Based Decision Support Architecture for Advanced Traffic Management

    OpenAIRE

    Ritchie, Stephen G.

    1990-01-01

    Fundamental to the operation of most currently envisioned Intelligent Vehicle-Roadway System (IVRS) projects are advanced systems for surveillance, control and management of integrated freeway and arterial networks. A major concern in the development of such Smart Roads, and the focus of this paper, is the provision of decision support for traffic management center personnel, particularly for addressing nonrecurring congestion in large or complex networks. Decision support for control room st...

  9. PROGRESS & CHALLENGES IN CLEANUP OF HANFORDS TANK WASTES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HEWITT, W.M.; SCHEPENS, R.

    2006-01-23

    The River Protection Project (RPP), which is managed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of River Protection (ORP), is highly complex from technical, regulatory, legal, political, and logistical perspectives and is the largest ongoing environmental cleanup project in the world. Over the past three years, ORP has made significant advances in its planning and execution of the cleanup of the Hartford tank wastes. The 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs), 28 double-shell tanks (DSTs), and 60 miscellaneous underground storage tanks (MUSTs) at Hanford contain approximately 200,000 m{sup 3} (53 million gallons) of mixed radioactive wastes, some of which dates back to the first days of the Manhattan Project. The plan for treating and disposing of the waste stored in large underground tanks is to: (1) retrieve the waste, (2) treat the waste to separate it into high-level (sludge) and low-activity (supernatant) fractions, (3) remove key radionuclides (e.g., Cs-137, Sr-90, actinides) from the low-activity fraction to the maximum extent technically and economically practical, (4) immobilize both the high-level and low-activity waste fractions by vitrification, (5) interim store the high-level waste fraction for ultimate disposal off-site at the federal HLW repository, (6) dispose the low-activity fraction on-site in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF), and (7) close the waste management areas consisting of tanks, ancillary equipment, soils, and facilities. Design and construction of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP), the cornerstone of the RPP, has progressed substantially despite challenges arising from new seismic information for the WTP site. We have looked closely at the waste and aligned our treatment and disposal approaches with the waste characteristics. For example, approximately 11,000 m{sup 3} (2-3 million gallons) of metal sludges in twenty tanks were not created during spent nuclear fuel reprocessing and have low fission product concentrations. We

  10. UTILIZING THE RIGHT MIX OF ENVIRONMENTAL CLEANUP TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergren, C; Wade Whitaker, W; Mary Flora, M

    2007-05-25

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) Figure 1 is a 310-square-mile United States Department of Energy nuclear facility located along the Savannah River near Aiken, South Carolina. During operations, which started in 1951, hazardous substances (chemicals and radionuclides) were released to the environment. The releases occurred as a result of inadvertent spills and waste disposal in unlined pits and basins which was common practice before environmental regulations existed. The hazardous substances have migrated to the vadose zone and groundwater in many areas of the SRS, resulting in 515 waste units that are required by environmental regulations, to undergo characterization and, if needed, remediation. In the initial years of the SRS environmental cleanup program (early 1990s), the focus was to use common technologies (such as pump and treat, air stripping, excavation and removal) that actively and tangibly removed contamination. Exclusive use of these technologies required continued and significant funding while often failing to meet acceptable clean-up goals and objectives. Recognizing that a more cost-effective approach was needed, SRS implemented new and complementary remediation methods focused on active and passive technologies targeted to solve specific remediation problems. Today, SRS uses technologies such as chemical/pH-adjusting injection, phytoremediation, underground cutoff walls, dynamic underground stripping, soil fracturing, microbial degradation, baroballs, electrical resistance heating, soil vapor extraction, and microblowers to more effectively treat contamination at lower costs. Additionally, SRS's remediation approach cost effectively maximizes cleanup as SRS works proactively with multiple regulatory agencies. Using GIS, video, animation, and graphics, SRS is able to provide an accurate depiction of the evolution of SRS groundwater and vadose zone cleanup activities to convince stakeholders and regulators of the effectiveness of various cleanup

  11. Needs for Risk Informing Environmental Cleanup Decision Making - 13613

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Ming; Moorer, Richard

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the needs for risk informing decision making by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM). The mission of the DOE EM is to complete the safe cleanup of the environmental legacy brought about from the nation's five decades of nuclear weapons development and production and nuclear energy research. This work represents some of the most technically challenging and complex cleanup efforts in the world and is projected to require the investment of billions of dollars and several decades to complete. Quantitative assessments of health and environmental risks play an important role in work prioritization and cleanup decisions of these challenging environmental cleanup and closure projects. The risk assessments often involve evaluation of performance of integrated engineered barriers and natural systems over a period of hundreds to thousands of years, when subject to complex geo-environmental transformation processes resulting from remediation and disposal actions. The requirement of resource investments for the cleanup efforts and the associated technical challenges have subjected the EM program to continuous scrutiny by oversight entities. Recent DOE reviews recommended application of a risk-informed approach throughout the EM complex for improved targeting of resources. The idea behind this recommendation is that by using risk-informed approaches to prioritize work scope, the available resources can be best utilized to reduce environmental and health risks across the EM complex, while maintaining the momentum of the overall EM cleanup program at a sustainable level. In response to these recommendations, EM is re-examining its work portfolio and key decision making with risk insights for the major sites. This paper summarizes the review findings and recommendations from the DOE internal reviews, discusses the needs for risk informing the EM portfolio and makes an attempt to identify topics for R and D in integrated

  12. Biomass gasification hot gas cleanup for power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiant, B.C.; Bachovchin, D.M. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Orlando, FL (United States); Carty, R.H.; Onischak, M. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Horazak, D.A. [Gilbert/Commonwealth, Reading, PA (United States); Ruel, R.H. [The Pacific International Center for High Technology Research, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1993-12-31

    In support of the US Department of Energy`s Biomass Power Program, a Westinghouse Electric led team consisting of the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), Gilbert/Commonwealth (G/C), and the Pacific International Center for High Technology Research (PICHTR), is conducting a 30 month research and development program. The program will provide validation of hot gas cleanup technology with a pressurized fluidized bed, air-blown, biomass gasifier for operation of a gas turbine. This paper discusses the gasification and hot gas cleanup processes, scope of work and approach, and the program`s status.

  13. Planning for cleanup of large areas contaminated as a result of a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The cleanup of large areas of contaminated as a result of an accident at a nuclear facility could cost hundreds of millions of dollars and cause inconvenience to the public. Such a cleanup programme would be undertaken only if the detriment to health and social life resulting from cleanup activities would be less than that resulting from further exposures. All reasonable means should, however, be used to minimize the costs and detriment to humans of such a cleanup. For such a cleanup to be carried out safely, efficiently and as quickly as possible under adverse conditions requires: Good preliminary and final planning; A cleanup team having a well defined management structure and well trained personnel; and Suitable cleanup methods and equipment and cleanup criteria. 35 refs, 8 figs, 5 tabs

  14. Warm Cleanup of Coal-Derived Syngas: Multicontaminant Removal Process Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spies, Kurt A.; Rainbolt, James E.; Li, Xiaohong S.; Braunberger, Beau; Li, Liyu; King, David L.; Dagle, Robert A.

    2017-02-15

    Warm cleanup of coal- or biomass-derived syngas requires sorbent and catalytic beds to protect downstream processes and catalysts from fouling. Sulfur is particularly harmful because even parts-per-million amounts are sufficient to poison downstream synthesis catalysts. Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a conventional sorbent for sulfur removal; however, its operational performance using real gasifier-derived syngas and in an integrated warm cleanup process is not well reported. In this paper, we report the optimal temperature for bulk desulfurization to be 450oC, while removal of sulfur to parts-per-billion levels requires a lower temperature of approximately 350oC. Under these conditions, we found that sulfur in the form of both hydrogen sulfide and carbonyl sulfide could be absorbed equally well using ZnO. For long-term operation, sorbent regeneration is desirable to minimize process costs. Over the course of five sulfidation and regeneration cycles, a ZnO bed lost about a third of its initial sulfur capacity, however sorbent capacity stabilized. Here, we also demonstrate, at the bench-scale, a process and materials used for warm cleanup of coal-derived syngas using five operations: 1) Na2CO3 for HCl removal, 2) regenerable ZnO beds for bulk sulfur removal, 3) a second ZnO bed for trace sulfur removal, 4) a Ni-Cu/C sorbent for multi-contaminant inorganic removal, and 5) a Ir-Ni/MgAl2O4 catalyst employed for ammonia decomposition and tar and light hydrocarbon steam reforming. Syngas cleanup was demonstrated through successful long-term performance of a poison-sensitive, Cu-based, water-gas-shift catalyst placed downstream of the cleanup process train. The tar reformer is an important and necessary operation with this particular gasification system; its inclusion was the difference between deactivating the water-gas catalyst with carbon deposition and successful 100-hour testing using 1 LPM of coal-derived syngas.

  15. Natural product-based nanomedicine: recent advances and issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Rebekah; Wu, Ling; Zhang, Chenming; Davis, Richey M; Xu, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Natural products have been used in medicine for many years. Many top-selling pharmaceuticals are natural compounds or their derivatives. These plant- or microorganism-derived compounds have shown potential as therapeutic agents against cancer, microbial infection, inflammation, and other disease conditions. However, their success in clinical trials has been less impressive, partly due to the compounds' low bioavailability. The incorporation of nanoparticles into a delivery system for natural products would be a major advance in the efforts to increase their therapeutic effects. Recently, advances have been made showing that nanoparticles can significantly increase the bioavailability of natural products both in vitro and in vivo. Nanotechnology has demonstrated its capability to manipulate particles in order to target specific areas of the body and control the release of drugs. Although there are many benefits to applying nanotechnology for better delivery of natural products, it is not without issues. Drug targeting remains a challenge and potential nanoparticle toxicity needs to be further investigated, especially if these systems are to be used to treat chronic human diseases. This review aims to summarize recent progress in several key areas relevant to natural products in nanoparticle delivery systems for biomedical applications.

  16. Natural product-based nanomedicine: recent advances and issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Rebekah; Wu, Ling; Zhang, Chenming; Davis, Richey M; Xu, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Natural products have been used in medicine for many years. Many top-selling pharmaceuticals are natural compounds or their derivatives. These plant- or microorganism-derived compounds have shown potential as therapeutic agents against cancer, microbial infection, inflammation, and other disease conditions. However, their success in clinical trials has been less impressive, partly due to the compounds’ low bioavailability. The incorporation of nanoparticles into a delivery system for natural products would be a major advance in the efforts to increase their therapeutic effects. Recently, advances have been made showing that nanoparticles can significantly increase the bioavailability of natural products both in vitro and in vivo. Nanotechnology has demonstrated its capability to manipulate particles in order to target specific areas of the body and control the release of drugs. Although there are many benefits to applying nanotechnology for better delivery of natural products, it is not without issues. Drug targeting remains a challenge and potential nanoparticle toxicity needs to be further investigated, especially if these systems are to be used to treat chronic human diseases. This review aims to summarize recent progress in several key areas relevant to natural products in nanoparticle delivery systems for biomedical applications. PMID:26451111

  17. Advanced inference in fuzzy systems by rule base compression

    OpenAIRE

    Gegov, Alexander; Gobalakrishnan, N.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a method for rule base compression of fuzzy systems. The method compresses a fuzzy system with an arbitrarily large number of rules into a smaller fuzzy system by removing the redundancy in the fuzzy rule base. As a result of this compression, the number of on-line operations during the fuzzy inference process is significantly reduced without compromising the solution. This rule base compression method outperforms significantly other known methods for fuzzy rule base redu...

  18. Subgroup effects of occupational therapy-based intervention for people with advanced cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Marc Sampedro; Østergaard, Lisa Gregersen; la Cour, Karen

    2018-01-01

    Background: Many people with advanced cancer have decreased ability to perform activities of daily living (ADL). We recently performed a randomized, controlled trial (RCT) assessing the efficacy of an occupational therapy-based program, the ’Cancer Home-Life Intervention’ in people with advanced...

  19. Cleanup Verification Package for the 618-2 Burial Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, W.S.

    2006-01-01

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 618-2 Burial Ground, also referred to as Solid Waste Burial Ground No. 2; Burial Ground No. 2; 318-2; and Dry Waste Burial Site No. 2. This waste site was used primarily for the disposal of contaminated equipment, materials and laboratory waste from the 300 Area Facilities

  20. Cleanup Verification Package for the 618-2 Burial Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. S. Thompson

    2006-12-28

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 618-2 Burial Ground, also referred to as Solid Waste Burial Ground No. 2; Burial Ground No. 2; 318-2; and Dry Waste Burial Site No. 2. This waste site was used primarily for the disposal of contaminated equipment, materials and laboratory waste from the 300 Area Facilities.

  1. Future site use and cleanup strategy alternatives: The Hanford approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Power, M.; Breckel, J.; Rasmussen, J.; Smith, R.; Bergman, T.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear weapons materials production is no longer the mission of the Hanford Site, a 560-square-mile area in southeastern Washington's Columbia Basin. Environmental remediation, including removal of radioactive and hazardous contaminants, waste management and disposal decommissioning of old facilities, and restoration of land and groundwater, has become the site's major mission. The mission is conducted within the framework of the Tri-Party Agreement between USDOE, USEPA, and the State of Washington. There is broad public interest in cleanup and the future of the Hanford Site. A facilitated process to develop alternative future use and cleanup scenarios is about to begin. The process will introduce some traditional tools of land use planning alongside environmental regulations and cleanup technologies in order to develop an integrated vision. Many interests, including local governments, Indian Tribes, state and federal agencies, business, agriculture, labor, environmental, and recreational groups will be involved. It is hoped a widely shared vision of the site's future will both guide and sustain support for cleanup and restoration

  2. Cleanup Verification Package for the 300 VTS Waste Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. W. Clark and T. H. Mitchell

    2006-03-13

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 300 Area Vitrification Test Site, also known as the 300 VTS site. The site was used by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory as a field demonstration site for in situ vitrification of soils containing simulated waste.

  3. Buying time: Franchising hazardous and nuclear waste cleanup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hale, D.R. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-05-01

    This paper describes a private franchise approach to long-term custodial care, monitoring and eventual cleanup of hazardous and nuclear waste sites. The franchise concept could be applied to Superfund sites, decommissioning commercial reactors and safeguarding their wastes and to Department of Energy sites. Privatization would reduce costs by enforcing efficient operations and capital investments during the containment period, by providing incentives for successful innovation and by sustaining containment until the cleanup`s net benefits exceed its costs. The franchise system would also permit local governments and citizens to demand and pay for more risk reduction than provided by the federal government. In principle, they would have the option of taking over site management. The major political drawback of the idea is that it requires society to be explicit about what it is willing to pay for now to protect current and future generations. Hazardous waste sites are enduring legacies of energy development. Abandoned mines, closed refineries, underground storage tanks and nuclear facilities have often become threats to human health and water quality. The policy of the United States government is that such sites should quickly be made nonpolluting and safe for unrestricted use. That is, the policy of the United States is prompt cleanup. Orphaned commercial hazardous waste sites are addressed by the US Environmental Protection Agency`s Superfund program. 17 refs., 2 tabs.

  4. Enewetak fact book (a resume of pre-cleanup information)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bliss, W.

    1982-09-01

    The book contains a group of short treatises on the precleanup condition of the islands in Enewetak Atoll. Their purpose was to provide brief guidance to the radiological history and radiological condition of the islands for use in cleanup of the atoll

  5. Enewetak fact book (a resume of pre-cleanup information)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bliss, W. (comp.)

    1982-09-01

    The book contains a group of short treatises on the precleanup condition of the islands in Enewetak Atoll. Their purpose was to provide brief guidance to the radiological history and radiological condition of the islands for use in cleanup of the atoll. (ACR)

  6. Three Mile Island Cleanup: experiences, waste disposal, and environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, L.J.; Opelka, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    These papers were presented in a two-session symposium during the American Institute of Chemical Engineers 1981 Summer National meeting in Detroit, Michigan, August 16-19, 1981. The cleanup activities described included the venting of the gases, mostly krypton-85, from the reactor containment building and several entries of personnel into the containment building to determine the physical conditions and the levels of radiation and radioactive contamination. Results of the latest process development tests of the flowsheet for the submerged Demineralizer Water Treatment System for decontaminating the water in the containment building were presented. The status of existing knowledge of radiation effects on ion exchange materials used in radioactive waste management were reviewed. A program to demonstrate incorporation of the loaded zeolite into a glass as a final waste form was also described. The generation, classification, treatment, and disposal of solid waste forms resulting from the cleanup were discussed with special consideration of the ion exchange media used for cleanup of liquids with relatively high radionuclide concentrations. The radiological, socioeconomic, and psychological impacts of the cleanup were evaluated. This work formed the basis for the recent issuance by the NRC of a programmatic environmental impact statement relative to decontamination and disposal of the radioactive wastes resulting from the accidents

  7. 40 CFR 761.125 - Requirements for PCB spill cleanup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... electrical substations. Spills which occur in outdoor electrical substations, as defined under § 761.123... post-cleanup sampling as specified under § 761.130. At such times as outdoor electrical substations are... will jeopardize the integrity of the electrical equipment at the substation, the EPA regional office...

  8. Recent advances in chitosan-based nanoparticulate pulmonary drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Nazrul; Ferro, Vito

    2016-07-01

    The advent of biodegradable polymer-encapsulated drug nanoparticles has made the pulmonary route of administration an exciting area of drug delivery research. Chitosan, a natural biodegradable and biocompatible polysaccharide has received enormous attention as a carrier for drug delivery. Recently, nanoparticles of chitosan (CS) and its synthetic derivatives have been investigated for the encapsulation and delivery of many drugs with improved targeting and controlled release. Herein, recent advances in the preparation and use of micro-/nanoparticles of chitosan and its derivatives for pulmonary delivery of various therapeutic agents (drugs, genes, vaccines) are reviewed. Although chitosan has wide applications in terms of formulations and routes of drug delivery, this review is focused on pulmonary delivery of drug-encapsulated nanoparticles of chitosan and its derivatives. In addition, the controversial toxicological effects of chitosan nanoparticles for lung delivery will also be discussed.

  9. THE ROLE OF LAND USE IN ENVIRONMENTAL DECISION MAKING AT THREE DOE MEGA-CLEANUP SITES FERNALD & ROCKY FLATS & MOUND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JEWETT MA

    2011-01-14

    This paper explores the role that future land use decisions have played in the establishment of cost-effective cleanup objectives and the setting of environmental media cleanup levels for the three major U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites for which cleanup has now been successfully completed: the Rocky Flats, Mound, and Fernald Closure Sites. At each site, there are distinct consensus-building histories throughout the following four phases: (1) the facility shut-down and site investigation phase, which took place at the completion of their Cold War nuclear-material production missions; (2) the decision-making phase, whereby stakeholder and regulatory-agency consensus was achieved for the future land-use-based environmental decisions confronting the sites; (3) the remedy selection phase, whereby appropriate remedial actions were identified to achieve the future land-use-based decisions; and (4) the implementation phase, whereby the selected remedial actions for these high-profile sites were implemented and successfully closed out. At each of the three projects, there were strained relationships and distrust between the local community and the DOE as a result of site contamination and potential health effects to the workers and local residents. To engage citizens and interested stakeholder groups - particularly in the role of final land use in the decision-making process, the site management teams at each respective site developed new public-participation strategies to open stakeholder communication channels with site leadership, technical staff, and the regulatory agencies. This action proved invaluable to the success of the projects and reaching consensus on appropriate levels of cleanup. With the implementation of the cleanup remedies now complete, each of the three DOE sites have become models for future environmental-remediation projects and associated decision making.

  10. Natural product-based nanomedicine: recent advances and issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watkins R

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Rebekah Watkins,1,2,* Ling Wu,1,* Chenming Zhang,3–5 Richey M Davis,3,5,6 Bin Xu1,3 1Department of Biochemistry, 2Program in Nanoscience, 3Center for Drug Discovery, 4Department of Biological Systems Engineering, 5Institute for Critical Technology and Applied Science, 6Department of Chemical Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Natural products have been used in medicine for many years. Many top-selling pharmaceuticals are natural compounds or their derivatives. These plant- or microorganism-derived compounds have shown potential as therapeutic agents against cancer, microbial infection, inflammation, and other disease conditions. However, their success in clinical trials has been less impressive, partly due to the compounds’ low bioavailability. The incorporation of nanoparticles into a delivery system for natural products would be a major advance in the efforts to increase their therapeutic effects. Recently, advances have been made showing that nanoparticles can significantly increase the bioavailability of natural products both in vitro and in vivo. Nanotechnology has demonstrated its capability to manipulate particles in order to target specific areas of the body and control the release of drugs. Although there are many benefits to applying nanotechnology for better delivery of natural products, it is not without issues. Drug targeting remains a challenge and potential nanoparticle toxicity needs to be further investigated, especially if these systems are to be used to treat chronic human diseases. This review aims to summarize recent progress in several key areas relevant to natural products in nanoparticle delivery systems for biomedical applications. Keywords: natural products, nanomedicine, drug delivery, bioavailability, targeting, controlled release

  11. Advanced Coatings from Natural-Based Polymers for Metals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sugama, Toshifumi

    2000-01-01

    ... natural polysaccharide biopolymers originating from pectin, starch, and chitosan as renewable agricultural and marine resources, and on assessing their potential as the corrosion-preventing water-based...

  12. Advanced Image Processing Package for FPGA-Based Re-Programmable Miniature Electronics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ovod, Vladimir I; Baxter, Christopher R; Massie, Mark A; McCarley, Paul L

    2005-01-01

    .... An advanced image-processing package has been designed at Nova Sensors to re-configure the FPGA-based co-processor board for numerous applications including motion detection, optical background...

  13. Advanced Optical Signal Processing using Time Lens based Optical Fourier Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Pengyu; Røge, Kasper Meldgaard; Lillieholm, Mads

    2016-01-01

    An overview of recent progress on time lens based advanced optical signal processing is presented, with a special focus on all-optical ultrafast 640 Gbit/s all-channel serial-to-parallel conversion, and scalable WDM regeneration....

  14. Structural level characterization of base oils using advanced analytical techniques

    KAUST Repository

    Hourani, Nadim

    2015-05-21

    Base oils, blended for finished lubricant formulations, are classified by the American Petroleum Institute into five groups, viz., groups I-V. Groups I-III consist of petroleum based hydrocarbons whereas groups IV and V are made of synthetic polymers. In the present study, five base oil samples belonging to groups I and III were extensively characterized using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC), and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) equipped with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) and atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) sources. First, the capabilities and limitations of each analytical technique were evaluated, and then the availed information was combined to reveal compositional details on the base oil samples studied. HPLC showed the overwhelming presence of saturated over aromatic compounds in all five base oils. A similar trend was further corroborated using GC×GC, which yielded semiquantitative information on the compound classes present in the samples and provided further details on the carbon number distributions within these classes. In addition to chromatography methods, FT-ICR MS supplemented the compositional information on the base oil samples by resolving the aromatics compounds into alkyl- and naphtheno-subtituted families. APCI proved more effective for the ionization of the highly saturated base oil components compared to APPI. Furthermore, for the detailed information on hydrocarbon molecules FT-ICR MS revealed the presence of saturated and aromatic sulfur species in all base oil samples. The results presented herein offer a unique perspective into the detailed molecular structure of base oils typically used to formulate lubricants. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

  15. Construction of Index System Based on Advanced Persistent Threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Jia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the proliferation of advanced persistent threat (APT, APT attack effect evaluation is playing an increasingly important role in cyberspace. As one of the hot issues of network security, the evaluation to its attack effect can quantify the harm caused by APT. Then according to the evaluation results, we can derive specific measures to the network attack. At present, a lot of work has done in the network attack effect evaluation index system. However, a significant barrier to the development of APT attack effect evaluation is that the existing index system is either from the point of view of the network security situation, or for a single attack weapons to customize. In this paper, an evaluation index system is proposed through analysing the features of APT. Through this index system, we can not only quantify APT attack effect, but also visually observe the APT ability from various angles. Then, we use the analytic hierarchy process (AHP to model the evaluation process and calculate the weight of each indicator. Finally, the Ukrainian Power Outages is taken as an example to validate the proposed index system. The experimental results verify the effectiveness of the index system.

  16. Cleanup procedures at the Nevada Test Site and at other radioactively contaminated sites including representative costs of cleanup and treatment of contaminated areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talmage, S.S.; Chilton, B.D.

    1987-09-01

    This review summarizes available information on cleanup procedures at the Nevada Test Site and at other radioactively contaminated sites. Radionuclide distribution and inventory, size of the contaminated areas, equipment, and cleanup procedures and results are included. Information about the cost of cleanup and treatment for contaminated land is presented. Selected measures that could be useful in estimating the costs of cleaning up radioactively contaminated areas are described. 76 refs., 16 tabs

  17. Summary of proposed approach for deriving cleanup guidelines for radionuclides in soil at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meinhold, A.F.; Morris, S.C.; Dionne, B.; Moskowitz, P.D.

    1996-11-01

    Past activities at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) resulted in soil and groundwater contamination. As a result, BNL was designated a Superfund site under the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). BNL's Office of Environmental Restoration (OER) is overseeing environmental restoration activities at the Laboratory, carried out under an Interagency Agreement (IAG) with the United States Department of Energy (DOE), the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC). The objective of this paper is to propose a standard approach to deriving risk-based cleanup guidelines for radionuclides in soil at BNL

  18. Summary of proposed approach for deriving cleanup guidelines for radionuclides in soil at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinhold, A.F.; Morris, S.C.; Dionne, B.; Moskowitz, P.D.

    1996-11-01

    Past activities at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) resulted in soil and groundwater contamination. As a result, BNL was designated a Superfund site under the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). BNL`s Office of Environmental Restoration (OER) is overseeing environmental restoration activities at the Laboratory, carried out under an Interagency Agreement (IAG) with the United States Department of Energy (DOE), the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC). The objective of this paper is to propose a standard approach to deriving risk-based cleanup guidelines for radionuclides in soil at BNL.

  19. Preliminary design of fusion reactor fuel cleanup system by palladium alloy membrane method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Hiroshi; Konishi, Satoshi; Naruse, Yuji

    1981-10-01

    A design of palladium diffuser and Fuel Cleanup System (FCU) for D-T fusion reactor is proposed. Feasibility of palladium alloy membrane method is discussed based on the early studies by the authors. Operating conditions of the palladium diffuser are determined experimentally. Dimensions of the diffuser are estimated from computer simulation. FCU system is designed under the feed conditions of Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. The system is composed of Pd-diffusers, catalytic oxidizer, freezer and zink beds, and has some advantages in system layout and operation. This design can readily be extended to other conditions of plasma exhaust gases. (author)

  20. Recent advances in carbon nanotube-based electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Prithu; Ahuja, Prerit

    2008-01-01

    CNT-electronics is a field involving synthesis of carbon nanotubes-based novel electronic circuits, comparable to the size of molecules, the practically fundamental size possible. It has brought a new paradigm in science as it has enabled scientists to increase the device integration density tremendously, hence achieving better efficiency and speed. Here we review the state-of-art current research on the applications of CNTs in electronics and present recent results outlining their potential along with illustrating some current concerns in the research field. Unconventional projects such as CNT-based biological sensors, transistors, field emitters, integrated circuits, etc. are taking CNT-based electronics to its extremes. The field holds a promise for mass production of high speed and efficient electronic devices. However, the chemical complexity, reproducibility and other factors make the field a challenging one, which need to be addressed before the field realizes its true potential

  1. Advances in nucleic acid-based diagnostics of bacterial infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barken, Kim Bundvig; Haagensen, Janus Anders Juul; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim

    2007-01-01

    Methods for rapid detection of infectious bacteria and antimicrobial-resistant pathogens have evolved significantly over the last decade. Many of the new procedures are nucleic acid-based and replace conventional diagnostic methods like culturing which is time consuming especially with fastidious...... of these pathogens is important to isolate patients and prevent further spreading of the diseases. Newly developed diagnostic procedures are superior with respect to turnaround time, sensitivity and specificity. Methods like multiplex real time PCR and different array-based technologies offer the possibility...

  2. Teaching advance care planning to medical students with a computer-based decision aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Michael J; Levi, Benjamin H

    2011-03-01

    Discussing end-of-life decisions with cancer patients is a crucial skill for physicians. This article reports findings from a pilot study evaluating the effectiveness of a computer-based decision aid for teaching medical students about advance care planning. Second-year medical students at a single medical school were randomized to use a standard advance directive or a computer-based decision aid to help patients with advance care planning. Students' knowledge, skills, and satisfaction were measured by self-report; their performance was rated by patients. 121/133 (91%) of students participated. The Decision-Aid Group (n = 60) outperformed the Standard Group (n = 61) in terms of students' knowledge (p satisfaction with their learning experience (p student performance. Use of a computer-based decision aid may be an effective way to teach medical students how to discuss advance care planning with cancer patients.

  3. Advancing School-Based Interventions through Economic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Tina M.; Ferrer-Wreder, Laura; Eninger, Lilianne

    2014-01-01

    Commentators interested in school-based prevention programs point to the importance of economic issues for the future of prevention efforts. Many of the processes and aims of prevention science are dependent upon prevention resources. Although economic analysis is an essential tool for assessing resource use, the attention given economic analysis…

  4. Advanced Organic Permeable-Base Transistor with Superior Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger, Markus P; Fischer, Axel; Kaschura, Felix; Scholz, Reinhard; Lüssem, Björn; Kheradmand-Boroujeni, Bahman; Ellinger, Frank; Kasemann, Daniel; Leo, Karl

    2015-12-16

    An optimized vertical organic permeable-base transistor (OPBT) competing with the best organic field-effect transistors in performance, while employing low-cost fabrication techniques, is presented. The OPBT stands out by its excellent power efficiency at the highest frequencies. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Advance model for seismic base isolation Systems of building ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We set up some numerical experiment to evaluate our method and compare viability of the two main isolator types (i.e. sliding and elastomeric) for building. Keywords: Seismic Isolation, Base Isolation, Earthquake Resistant Design, Seismic Protective Systems J. Appl. Sci. Environ. Manage. Dec., 2012, Vol. 16 (4) 309-316 ...

  6. Recent advancements in oxadiazole-based anticancer agents

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    oxadiazole moiety as histone deacetylase inhibitors. Among the series of naphthalene based oxadazoles, compounds 11 and 12 appeared as the most potent and selective compounds against HDAC1. Compound 11 was more effective against U937 leukemia cells with. IC50 value of 7.8 μM than reference drug (SAHA).

  7. Demand driven salt clean-up in a molten salt fast reactor - Defining a priority list.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merk, B; Litskevich, D; Gregg, R; Mount, A R

    2018-01-01

    The PUREX technology based on aqueous processes is currently the leading reprocessing technology in nuclear energy systems. It seems to be the most developed and established process for light water reactor fuel and the use of solid fuel. However, demand driven development of the nuclear system opens the way to liquid fuelled reactors, and disruptive technology development through the application of an integrated fuel cycle with a direct link to reactor operation. The possibilities of this new concept for innovative reprocessing technology development are analysed, the boundary conditions are discussed, and the economic as well as the neutron physical optimization parameters of the process are elucidated. Reactor physical knowledge of the influence of different elements on the neutron economy of the reactor is required. Using an innovative study approach, an element priority list for the salt clean-up is developed, which indicates that separation of Neodymium and Caesium is desirable, as they contribute almost 50% to the loss of criticality. Separating Zirconium and Samarium in addition from the fuel salt would remove nearly 80% of the loss of criticality due to fission products. The theoretical study is followed by a qualitative discussion of the different, demand driven optimization strategies which could satisfy the conflicting interests of sustainable reactor operation, efficient chemical processing for the salt clean-up, and the related economic as well as chemical engineering consequences. A new, innovative approach of balancing the throughput through salt processing based on a low number of separation process steps is developed. Next steps for the development of an economically viable salt clean-up process are identified.

  8. Recent Advances in the Synthesis of Ammonium-Based Rotaxanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Thibeault

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The number of synthetic methods enabling the preparation of ammonium-based rotaxanes has increased very rapidly in the past ten years. The challenge in the synthesis of rotaxanes results from the rather weak interactions between the ammonium-containing rod and the crown ether macrocycle in the pseudorotaxane structure that rely mostly on O•H hydrogen bonds. Indeed, no strong base or polar solvent that could break up H-bonding can be used during the formation of rotaxanes because the two components will separate as two distinct entities. Moreover, most of the reactions have to be performed at room temperature to favor the formation of pseudorotaxane in solution. These non-trivial prerequisites have been taken into account to develop efficient reaction conditions for the preparation of rotaxanes and those are described in detail along this review.

  9. Alginate based polyurethanes: A review of recent advances and perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zia, Khalid Mahmood; Zia, Fatima; Zuber, Mohammad; Rehman, Saima; Ahmad, Mirza Nadeem

    2015-08-01

    The trend of using biopolymers in combination with synthetic polymers was increasing rapidly from last two or three decades. Polysaccharide based biopolymers especially starch, cellulose, chitin, chitosan, alginate, etc. found extensive applications for different industrial uses, as they are biocompatible, biodegradable, bio-renewable resources and chiefly environment friendly. Segment block copolymer character of polyurethanes that endows them a broad range of versatility in terms of tailoring their properties was employed in conjunction with various natural polymers resulted in modified biomaterials. Alginate is biodegradable, biocompatible, bioactive, less toxic and low cost anionic polysaccharide, as a part of structural component of bacteria and brown algae (sea weed) is quite abundant in nature. It is used in combination with polyurethanes to form elastomers, nano-composites, hydrogels, etc. that especially revolutionized the food and biomedical industries. The review summarized the development in alginate based polyurethanes with their potential applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Inventory control based on advanced probability theory, an application

    CERN Document Server

    Krever, Maarten; Schorr, Bernd; Wunderink, S

    2005-01-01

    Whenever stock is placed as a buffer between consumption and supply the decision when to replenish the stock is based on uncertain values of future demand and supply variables. Uncertainty exists about the replenishment lead time, about the number of demands and the quantities demanded during this period. We develop a new analytical expression for the reorder point, which is based on the desired service level and three distributions: the distribution of the quantity of single demands during lead time, the distribution of the lengths of time intervals between successive demands, and the distribution of the lead time itself. The distribution of lead time demand is derived from the distributions of individual demand quantities and not from the demand per period. It is not surprising that the resulting formulae for the mean and variance are different from those currently used. The theory developed is also applicable to periodic review systems. The system has been implemented at CERN and enables a significant enha...

  11. Advanced three dimensional characterization of silica-based ultraporous materials

    OpenAIRE

    Foray , Genevieve; Roiban , L.; Rong , Q.; Perret , A.; Ihiawakrim , D.; Masenelli-Varlot , K.; Maire , E.; Yrieix , B.

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Whatever the field of application (building, transportation, packaging, etc.) energy losses must be reduced to meet the government target of a 40% cut in CO 2 emissions. This leads to a challenge for materials scientists: designing materials with thermal conductivities lower than 0.015 W m À1 K À1 under ambient conditions. Such a low value requires reducing air molecule mobility in highly porous materials, and silica-based superinsulation materials (SIM) made of packed...

  12. Secure Virtualization Environment Based on Advanced Memory Introspection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhui Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Most existing virtual machine introspection (VMI technologies analyze the status of a target virtual machine under the assumption that the operating system (OS version and kernel structure information are known at the hypervisor level. In this paper, we propose a model of virtual machine (VM security monitoring based on memory introspection. Using a hardware-based approach to acquire the physical memory of the host machine in real time, the security of the host machine and VM can be diagnosed. Furthermore, a novel approach for VM memory forensics based on the virtual machine control structure (VMCS is put forward. By analyzing the memory of the host machine, the running VMs can be detected and their high-level semantic information can be reconstructed. Then, malicious activity in the VMs can be identified in a timely manner. Moreover, by mutually analyzing the memory content of the host machine and VMs, VM escape may be detected. Compared with previous memory introspection technologies, our solution can automatically reconstruct the comprehensive running state of a target VM without any prior knowledge and is strongly resistant to attacks with high reliability. We developed a prototype system called the VEDefender. Experimental results indicate that our system can handle the VMs of mainstream Linux and Windows OS versions with high efficiency and does not influence the performance of the host machine and VMs.

  13. How Quality Improvement Practice Evidence Can Advance the Knowledge Base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    OʼRourke, Hannah M; Fraser, Kimberly D

    2016-01-01

    Recommendations for the evaluation of quality improvement interventions have been made in order to improve the evidence base of whether, to what extent, and why quality improvement interventions affect chosen outcomes. The purpose of this article is to articulate why these recommendations are appropriate to improve the rigor of quality improvement intervention evaluation as a research endeavor, but inappropriate for the purposes of everyday quality improvement practice. To support our claim, we describe the differences between quality improvement interventions that occur for the purpose of practice as compared to research. We then carefully consider how feasibility, ethics, and the aims of evaluation each impact how quality improvement interventions that occur in practice, as opposed to research, can or should be evaluated. Recommendations that fit the evaluative goals of practice-based quality improvement interventions are needed to support fair appraisal of the distinct evidence they produce. We describe a current debate on the nature of evidence to assist in reenvisioning how quality improvement evidence generated from practice might complement that generated from research, and contribute in a value-added way to the knowledge base.

  14. Experience with model based display for advanced diagnostics and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staffon, J.D.; Lindsay, R.W.

    1989-01-01

    A full color, model based display system based on the Rankine thermodynamic cycle has been developed for use at the Experimental Breeder Reactor II by plant operators, engineers, and experimenters. The displays generate a real time thermodynamic model of the plant processes on computer screens to provide a direct indication of the plant performance. Operators and others who view the displays are no longer required to mentally ''construct'' a model of the process before acting. The model based display accurately depicts the plant states. It appears to effectively reduce the gulf of evaluation, which should result in a significant reduction in human operator errors if this plant display approach is adopted by the nuclear industry. Preliminary comments from users, including operators, indicate an overwhelming acceptance of the display approach. The displays incorporate alarm functions as well as levels of detail ''paging'' capability. The system is developed on a computer network which allows the easy addition of displays as well as extra computers. Constructing a complete console can be rapid and inexpensive. 1 ref., 2 figs

  15. MicroTCA based Platform for advanced particle accelerators diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Juszczyk, Bartłomiej

    2014-01-01

    All over the world there are many research centers that are conducting researches with use of particle accelerators. Thanks to various experiments we could better understand surrounding world. But, there are still a lot of unknowns to explore which science needs better instruments. One of these tools are measurement systems. Unfortunately currently used solutions do not provide sufficient performance to satisfy growing needs. This implies the search for new solutions. One of such solution is a modern uTCA architecture. In this document an open source project of a base card (AFC -AMC to FMC carrier board) based on this standard has been described. This card is equipped with two FMC connectors, which allow to connect wide variety of extension cards. In combination with a powerful FPGA device this card is an universal base circuit for variety of projects. Among the others it allows to implement algorithms which are collecting data from fast ADCs and to process these data. Moreover the applied uTCA architecture p...

  16. Microalgae-based advanced municipal wastewater treatment for reuse in water bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing-Han; Zhang, Tian-Yuan; Dao, Guo-Hua; Xu, Xue-Qiao; Wang, Xiao-Xiong; Hu, Hong -Ying

    2017-04-01

    Reuse of secondary municipal effluent from wastewater treatment plants in water bodies could effectively alleviate freshwater resource shortage. However, excessive nutrients must be efficiently removed to prevent eutrophication. Compared with other means of advanced wastewater treatment, microalgae-based processes display overwhelming advantages including efficient and simultaneous N and P removal, no requirement of additional chemicals, O 2 generation, CO 2 mitigation, and potential value-added products from harvested biomass. One particular challenge of microalgae-based advanced municipal wastewater treatment compared to treatment of other types of wastewater is that concentrations of nutrients and N:P ratios in secondary municipal effluent are much lower and imbalanced. Therefore, there should be comprehensive considerations on nutrient removal from this specific type of effluent. Removal of nutrients and organic substances, and other environmental benefits of microalgae-based advanced municipal wastewater treatment systems were summarized. Among the existing studies on microalgal advanced nutrient removal, much information on major parameters is absent, rendering performances between studies not really comparable. Mechanisms of microalgae-based nitrogen and phosphorus removal were respectively analyzed to better understand advanced nutrient removal from municipal secondary effluent. Factors influencing microalgae-based nutrient removal were divided into intrinsic, environmental, and operational categories; several factors were identified in each category, and their influences on microalgal nutrient removal were discussed. A multiplicative kinetic model was integrated to estimate microalgal growth-related nutrient removal based majorly on environmental and intrinsic factors. Limitations and prospects of future full-scale microalgae-based advanced municipal wastewater treatment were also suggested. The manuscript could offer much valuable information for future

  17. EBR-II Cover Gas Cleanup System (CGCS) upgrade graphical interface design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staffon, J.D.; Peters, G.G.

    1992-01-01

    Technology advances in the past few years have prompted an effort at Argonne National Laboratory to replace existing equipment with high performance digital computers and color graphic displays. Improved operation of process systems can be achieved by utilizing state-of-the-art computer technology in the areas of process control and process monitoring. The Cover Gas Cleanup System (CGCS) at EBR-II is the first system to be upgraded with high performance digital equipment. The upgrade consisted of a main control computer, a distributed control computer, a front end input/output computer, a main graphics interface terminal, and a remote graphics interface terminal. This paper describes the main control computer and the operator interface control software

  18. Advances in evidence-based cancer adoptive cell therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Chunlei; Li, Ruilei; Song, Xin; Qin, Shukui

    2017-04-01

    Adoptive cell therapy (ACT) has been developed in cancer treatment by transferring/infusing immune cells into cancer patients, which are able to recognize, target, and destroy tumor cells. Recently, sipuleucel-T and genetically-modified T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) show a great potential to control metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer and hematologic malignancies in clinic. This review summarized some of the major evidence-based ACT and the challenges to improve cell quality and reduce the side effects in the field. This review also provided future research directions to make sure ACT widely available in clinic.

  19. Last Advances in Silicon-Based Optical Biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Gavela, Adrián; Grajales García, Daniel; Ramirez, Jhonattan C.; Lechuga, Laura M.

    2016-01-01

    We review the most important achievements published in the last five years in the field of silicon-based optical biosensors. We focus specially on label-free optical biosensors and their implementation into lab-on-a-chip platforms, with an emphasis on developments demonstrating the capability of the devices for real bioanalytical applications. We report on novel transducers and materials, improvements of existing transducers, new and improved biofunctionalization procedures as well as the prospects for near future commercialization of these technologies. PMID:26927105

  20. Last Advances in Silicon-Based Optical Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Fernández Gavela

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We review the most important achievements published in the last five years in the field of silicon-based optical biosensors. We focus specially on label-free optical biosensors and their implementation into lab-on-a-chip platforms, with an emphasis on developments demonstrating the capability of the devices for real bioanalytical applications. We report on novel transducers and materials, improvements of existing transducers, new and improved biofunctionalization procedures as well as the prospects for near future commercialization of these technologies.

  1. Recent Advances in Germanium-Based Photoinitiator Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Michael; Radebner, Judith; Eibel, Anna; Gescheidt, Georg; Stueger, Harald

    2018-01-22

    Acylgermanes provide an outstanding photoinduced reactivity at very useful absorption wavelengths. This encouraged multidisciplinary research groups to utilize them as highly effective and non-toxic photoinitiators particularly for medical applications. In this Minireview, we present the most recent breakthroughs to synthesize acylgermanes. We also outline mechanistic aspects of photoinduced reactions of several acylgermane derivatives based on fundamental spectroscopic insights. These studies may aid future developments for tailor-made photoinitiators. © 2018 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  2. Advanced prototyping tools for project- and problem-based learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teodorescu, Remus; Bech, Michael Møller; Holm, Allan J.

    2002-01-01

    A new approach in prototyping for project- and problem-based learning is achieved by using the new Total Development Environment concept introduced by dSPACE that allows a full visual block-oriented programming of dynamic real-time systems to be achieved  using the Matlab/Simulink environment....... A new laboratory called Flexible Drives System Laboratory (FDSL) as well as a matrix-converter controller which both are using dSPACE prototyping tools are described in this paper....

  3. Advanced microgrid design and analysis for forward operating bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reasoner, Jonathan

    This thesis takes a holistic approach in creating an improved electric power generation system for a forward operating base (FOB) in the future through the design of an isolated microgrid. After an extensive literature search, this thesis found a need for drastic improvement of the FOB power system. A thorough design process analyzed FOB demand, researched demand side management improvements, evaluated various generation sources and energy storage options, and performed a HOMERRTM discrete optimization to determine the best microgrid design. Further sensitivity analysis was performed to see how changing parameters would affect the outcome. Lastly, this research also looks at some of the challenges which are associated with incorporating a design which relies heavily on inverter-based generation sources, and gives possible solutions to help make a renewable energy powered microgrid a reality. While this thesis uses a FOB as the case study, the process and discussion can be adapted to aide in the design of an off-grid small-scale power grid which utilizes high-penetration levels of renewable energy.

  4. Advancement of Marketing Developing Biotechnology-Based Business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaidas Vilmantas

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article, in a complex way, analyzes the needs of marketing improvement in developing biotechnology­based business and highlights its role in the context of modern society and globalization challenges. The article distinguishes between the existing problems of biotechnology business, the present perspectives and specific characteristics of developing the marketing of biotechnological business. The paper represents the possibility of the substantial modernization of marketing tools with regard to modelling user’s behaviour, improvement in marketing strategy for the company, the correction of the elements of the marketing complex, changes in the marketing conception inside the company, product and service differentiation and renewal, the encouragement of expansion into other markets, variations in or the expansion of the target market, alternatives to the positioning strategy for the company, an increase in competitive ability and an internal impact of marketing on the varying elements. The article has referred to the analysis of scientific literature and research on the opinions of consumers and experts in the field in the context of biotechnology­based businesses.

  5. Recent advance in oxazole-based medicinal chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui-Zhen; Zhao, Zhi-Long; Zhou, Cheng-He

    2018-01-20

    Oxazole compounds containing nitrogen and oxygen atoms in the five-membered aromatic ring are readily able to bind with a variety of enzymes and receptors in biological systems via diverse non-covalent interactions, and thus display versatile biological activities. The related researches in oxazole-based derivatives including oxazoles, isoxazoles, oxazolines, oxadiazoles, oxazolidones, benzoxazoles and so on, as medicinal drugs have been an extremely active topic, and numerous excellent achievements have been acquired. Noticeably, a large number of oxazole compounds as clinical drugs or candidates have been frequently employed for the treatment of various types of diseases, which have shown their large development value and wide potential as medicinal agents. This work systematically reviewed the recent researches and developments of the whole range of oxazole compounds as medicinal drugs, including antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antitubercular, anticancer, anti-inflammatory and analgesic, antidiabetic, antiparasitic, anti-obesitic, anti-neuropathic, antioxidative as well as other biological activities. The perspectives of the foreseeable future in the research and development of oxazole-based compounds as medicinal drugs are also presented. It is hoped that this review will serve as a stimulant for new thoughts in the quest for rational designs of more active and less toxic oxazole medicinal drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Novel Concept for LSS Based on Advanced Microalgal Biotechnologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, I.; Jones, J. A.; Bayless, D.; Karakis, S.; Karpov, L.; McKay, D. S.

    2006-01-01

    One of the key issues for successful human space exploration is biomedical life support in hostile space and planetary environments that otherwise cannot sustain life. Bioregenerative life support systems (LSS) are one of the options for atmospheric regeneration. To date, no bioregenerative LSS has shown capability for 100% air regeneration. Nor have these LSS been robust enough to simultaneously provide a regenerable complete food source. In contrast to microalgae, traditional plant approaches, e.g. wheat and lettuce, are lacking essential amino acids, vitamins, and micronutrients. Moreover, the rate of photosynthesis by microalgae significantly exceeds that of high plants. Nevertheless, the employment of microalgae in LSS technology was restricted, until recently, due to high water demands. Also the per person requirement of a 40L volume of microalgae in a photobioreactor, to provide daily O2 production, made an algae-based approach less attractive. By employing a vertically stacked membrane bioreactor, coupled with a solar tracker and photon-delivery system, a lightweight air revitalization system for space based applications, with minimal water requirements, can be developed. Our preliminary estimations suggest that a membrane bioreactor, 8m3 in volume, comprised of 80m2 (twenty 2m x 2m membranes, each spaced 10 cm apart), and a total of 70L of water could produce 2.7 kg of dried microalgal biomass that would supply the energy and essential amino acid requirements, as well as producing sufficient O2 for the daily needs of a 15 member crew. Research on the biochemical content of edible blue-green alga Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis shows a wide spectrum of stable Spirulina mutants with an enhanced content of amino acids, -carotene, and phycobilliprotein c-phycocyanin. Feeding animals suffering from radiation-induced lesions, c-phycocyanin, extracted from strain 27G, led to a correction in the decrement of dehydrogenase activity and energy-rich phosphate

  7. Training implications of skills needed for environmental cleanup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, C.; Hensley, J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Lehr, J.

    1995-03-01

    Well-trained staff are needed to perform the diverse tasks associated with environmental cleanup. Although educational and training programs are intended to help professionals learn relevant environmental skills, these programs may or may not be teaching the most appropriate skills. This project investigated the skills needed to carry out environmental activities at a headquarters office of a federal agency. The primary skills needed for environmental cleanup activities emphasize program management, problem solving/critical thinking, and communications. Furthermore, using Bloom`s taxonomy of educational objectives, most of these skills fell into the areas of {open_quotes}application{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}evaluation.{close_quotes} The results of this investigation suggest that rather than focusing on discipline-specific activities, such as helping improve people`s knowledge about regulatory requirements, training and education should emphasize complex problem-solving skills.

  8. Promoting advance directives among African Americans: a faith-based model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Karen

    2006-02-01

    Studies show that African Americans are less likely than other ethnic groups to complete advance directives. However, what influences African Americans' decisions to complete or not complete advance directives is unclear. Using a faith-based promotion model, 102 African Americans aged 55 years or older were recruited from local churches and community-based agencies to participate in a pilot study to promote advance care planning. Focus groups were used to collect data on participants' preferences for care, desire to make personal choices, values and attitudes, beliefs about death and dying, and advance directives. A standardized interview was used in the focus groups, and the data were organized and analyzed using NUDIST 4 software (QRS Software, Victoria, Australia). Three fourths of the participants refused to complete advance directives. The following factors influenced the participants' decisions about end-of-life care and completion of an advance directive: spirituality; view of suffering, death, and dying; social support networks; barriers to utilization; and mistrust of the health care system. The dissemination of information apprises individuals of their right to self-determine about their care, but educational efforts may not produce a significant change in behavior toward completion of advance care planning. Thus, ongoing efforts are needed to improve the trust that African Americans have in medical and health care providers.

  9. Advanced Encoding for Multilingual Access in a Terminological Data Base

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leroyer, Patrick; L'Homme, Marie-Claude; Robichaud, Benoît

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes new functionalities implemented in a terminological database (TDB) in order to allow efficient editing of and access to multilingual data. The functionalities are original in the sense that they allow users of the database to retrieve the equivalents not only of headwords......, but also of semantically related terms (especially collocations) that appear within the articles. The methods we developed are based on a formal encoding of lexical relationships, namely lexical functions (LFs). Since LFs are language-independent and are designed to capture semantic distinctions, links...... between equivalents can be established automatically. Examples are taken from the fields of computing and the Internet and focus on English and French. However, the model can easily be extended to other fields and languages provided that the data is available and encoded properly....

  10. Recent advances in Carbon Nanotube based Enzymatic Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge eCosnier

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes recent trends in the field of enzymatic fuel cells. Thanks to the high specificity of enzymes, biofuel cells can generate electrical energy by oxidation of a targeted fuel (sugars, alcohols or hydrogen at the anode and reduction of oxidants (O2, H2O2 at the cathode in complex media. The combination of carbon nanotubes, enzymes and redox mediators was widely exploited to develop biofuel cells since the electrons, involved in the bio-electrocatalytic processes, can be efficiently transferred from or to an external circuit. Original approaches to construct electron transfer based CNT-bioelectrodes and impressive biofuel cell performances are reported as well as biomedical applications.

  11. Recent Advancement in Cellulose based Nanocomposite for Addressing Environmental Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ul-Islam, Mazhar; Wajid Ullah, Muhammad; Khan, Shaukat; Kamal, Tahseen; Ul-Islam, Salman; Shah, Nasrullah; Park, Joong Kon

    2016-01-01

    Cellulose being the most abundant polymer has been widely utilized in multiple applications. Its impressive nanofibril arrangement has provoked its applications in numerous fields. Recent trends have been shifted to produce composites of nanocellulose for numerous applications among which the most important ones are its use in medical and environmental prospective. This review has basically focused the development of nanocellulose composites and its applications in resolving environmental hazards. We have reviewed large number of research and review articles from famous journals using a focused review question. The quality of retrieved papers was assessed through standard tools. The contents from reviewed articles were described in scientific way. We included 85 papers including research and review articles and patents in this review. 18 papers introduced the theme of current review. More than 10 papers were used to describe the approaches used for synthesizing cellullose nanocomposites. Composite synthesis strategies included the in situ addition, ex situ penetration, solution mixing, and solvent casting etc. Around 60 manuscripts including 6 patents were used to demonstrate various applications of nanocellulose composites. Nanocellulose based materials offer several applications in the development of antimicrobial filters, air and water filters, filters for removal of heavy metals, pollutant sensors as well as applications in catalysis and energy sectors. Such products are more efficient, robust, reliable, and environment-friendly. This review gives a comprehensive picture of ongoing research and development on environmental remediation by nanotechnology. We hope that the contents reviewed herein will catch the reader's interest and will provide interesting background to extend future research activities regarding cellulose based materials.

  12. Recent advances in recombinant protein-based malaria vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Simon J; Angov, Evelina; Horii, Toshihiro; Miller, Louis H; Srinivasan, Prakash; Theisen, Michael; Biswas, Sumi

    2015-12-22

    Plasmodium parasites are the causative agent of human malaria, and the development of a highly effective vaccine against infection, disease and transmission remains a key priority. It is widely established that multiple stages of the parasite's complex lifecycle within the human host and mosquito vector are susceptible to vaccine-induced antibodies. The mainstay approach to antibody induction by subunit vaccination has been the delivery of protein antigen formulated in adjuvant. Extensive efforts have been made in this endeavor with respect to malaria vaccine development, especially with regard to target antigen discovery, protein expression platforms, adjuvant testing, and development of soluble and virus-like particle (VLP) delivery platforms. The breadth of approaches to protein-based vaccines is continuing to expand as innovative new concepts in next-generation subunit design are explored, with the prospects for the development of a highly effective multi-component/multi-stage/multi-antigen formulation seeming ever more likely. This review will focus on recent progress in protein vaccine design, development and/or clinical testing for a number of leading malaria antigens from the sporozoite-, merozoite- and sexual-stages of the parasite's lifecycle-including PfCelTOS, PfMSP1, PfAMA1, PfRH5, PfSERA5, PfGLURP, PfMSP3, Pfs48/45 and Pfs25. Future prospects and challenges for the development, production, human delivery and assessment of protein-based malaria vaccines are discussed. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Ceramic thermal wind sensor based on advanced direct chip attaching package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Lin; Qin Ming; Chen Shengqi; Chen Bei

    2014-01-01

    An advanced direct chip attaching packaged two-dimensional ceramic thermal wind sensor is studied. The thermal wind sensor chip is fabricated by metal lift-off processes on the ceramic substrate. An advanced direct chip attaching (DCA) packaging is adopted and this new packaged method simplifies the processes of packaging further. Simulations of the advanced DCA packaged sensor based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model show the sensor can detect wind speed and direction effectively. The wind tunnel testing results show the advanced DCA packaged sensor can detect the wind direction from 0° to 360° and wind speed from 0 to 20 m/s with the error less than 0.5 m/s. The nonlinear fitting based least square method in Matlab is used to analyze the performance of the sensor. (semiconductor devices)

  14. Cleanup Verification Package for the 600-259 Waste Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. M. Capron

    2006-02-09

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 600-259 waste site. The site was the former site of the Special Waste Form Lysimeter, consisting of commercial reactor isotope waste forms in contact with soils within engineered caissons, and was used by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to collect data regarding leaching behavior for target analytes. A Grout Waste Test Facility also operated at the site, designed to test leaching rates of grout-solidified low-level radioactive waste.

  15. Myelodysplastic syndromes in Chernobyl clean-up workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluzman, Daniil F; Sklyarenko, Lilia M; Koval, Stella V; Rodionova, Nataliia K; Zavelevich, Michael P; Ivanivskaya, Tetiana S; Poludnenko, Liudmyla Yu; Ukrainskaya, Nataliia I

    2015-10-01

    The studies of the recent decades posed the question of the association between radiation exposure and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). This association has been proved in secondary MDS originating upon exposure to chemotherapeutics and/or radiation therapy. The long-term study in Japanese atomic (A)-bomb survivors demonstrated the significant linear dose-response for MDS confirming the link between radiation exposure and this form of hematopoietic malignancies. All these findings provide the strong basis for studying MDS in the persons exposed to radiation following the Chernobyl disaster, especially those in the cohort of Chernobyl clean-up workers of 1986-1987. The data on MDS among Chernobyl clean-up workers (1986-1987) diagnosed in 1996-2012 at the reference laboratory of RE Kavetsky Institute of Experimental Pathology, Oncology and Radiobiology are summarized. MDS cases were diagnosed in 23 persons (21 males and 2 females) having been exposed to radiation as clean-up workers of 1986-1987. Refractory anemia (RA) has been detected in 13, refractory anemia with ring sideroblasts (RARS)-in 2, and refractory anemia with excess blasts (RAEB)-in 8 patients. The median age of those MDS patients was 62.0 years. In addition, 5 cases of chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) were recorded in the group of Chernobyl clean-up workers with the median time of 14.8 years from 1986-1987 to diagnosis. The association between radiation exposure and MDS is discussed. The suggested life-long risk for myelodysplastic syndromes among A-bomb survivors in Japan highlights the importance of the continuing follow-up studies in the affected populations in the post-Chernobyl period.

  16. Public participation in the evaluation of innovative environmental cleanup technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, T.; McCabe, G.; Serie, P.; Niesen, K.

    1994-08-01

    Technologies for remediation of contamination are urgently needed to clean up US Department of Energy (DOE) sites across the country. DOE is managing a national program to develop, demonstrate, and deploy new technologies with promise to expedite this cleanup. The Integrated Demonstration for Cleanup of Volatile Organic Compounds at Arid Sites (VOC-Arid ID) is one such effort. Time and resources, however, are too limited to be invested in methods of remediation that will never be deployed because they have not been rigorously evaluated or because they face the withering opposition of stakeholders. Therefore the VOC-Arid ID is assessing technology both in terms of its technical effectiveness and its stakeholder acceptability. Only if a technology performs as required and is acceptable to regulators, users of technology, and the public will the VOC-Arid ID recommend its use. What distinguishes public involvement in the VOC-Arid ID is the direct influence stakeholders have on the design of technology demonstrations by working directly with technology developers. Stakeholders participated in defining the criteria with which innovative environmental cleanup technology is being evaluated. The integrated demonstration is committed to providing stakeholders with the information they've indicated they need to reach reasoned judgments about the use of specific cleanup technologies. A guiding principle of the VOC-Arid ID is that stakeholder participation improves the technologies being developed, enhances the acceptance of the technologies, and will lead to the broad and timely deployment of appropriate and effective methods of environmental remediation. The VOC-Arid ID has involved stakeholders from the host demonstration site, Hanford, Washington, and from other and sites where the ID technologies may be deployed

  17. Methodology and data used for estimating the complex-wide impacts of alternative environmental restoration clean-up goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shay, M.R.; Short, S.M.; Stiles, D.L.

    1994-03-01

    This paper describes the methodologies and data used for estimating the complex-wide impacts of alternative strategies for conducting remediation of all DOE sites and facilities, but does not address issues relating to Waste Management capabilities. Clean-up strategies and their corresponding goals for contaminated media may be driven by concentration-based regulatory standards, land-use standards (e.g., residential, industrial, wild life reserve, or totally restricted), risk-based standards, or other standards determined through stakeholder input. Strategies implemented to achieve these goals usually require the deployment of (a) clean-up technologies to destroy, remove, or contain the contaminants of concern; (b) institutional controls to prevent potential receptors from coming into contact with the contaminants; or (c) a combination of the above

  18. Advanced Multipath Mitigation Techniques for Satellite-Based Positioning Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Zahidul H. Bhuiyan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Multipath remains a dominant source of ranging errors in Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS, such as the Global Positioning System (GPS or the future European satellite navigation system Galileo. Multipath is generally considered undesirable in the context of GNSS, since the reception of multipath can make significant distortion to the shape of the correlation function used for time delay estimation. However, some wireless communications techniques exploit multipath in order to provide signal diversity though in GNSS, the major challenge is to effectively mitigate the multipath, since we are interested only in the satellite-receiver transit time offset of the Line-Of-Sight (LOS signal for the receiver's position estimate. Therefore, the multipath problem has been approached from several directions in order to mitigate the impact of multipath on navigation receivers, including the development of novel signal processing techniques. In this paper, we propose a maximum likelihood-based technique, namely, the Reduced Search Space Maximum Likelihood (RSSML delay estimator, which is capable of mitigating the multipath effects reasonably well at the expense of increased complexity. The proposed RSSML attempts to compensate the multipath error contribution by performing a nonlinear curve fit on the input correlation function, which finds a perfect match from a set of ideal reference correlation functions with certain amplitude(s, phase(s, and delay(s of the multipath signal. It also incorporates a threshold-based peak detection method, which eventually reduces the code-delay search space significantly. However, the downfall of RSSML is the memory requirement which it uses to store the reference correlation functions. The multipath performance of other delay-tracking methods previously studied for Binary Phase Shift Keying-(BPSK- and Sine Binary Offset Carrier- (SinBOC- modulated signals is also analyzed in closed loop model with the new Composite

  19. Harmonic Analysis on Torque Ripple of Brushless DC Motor Based on Advanced Commutation Control

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, Yanpeng; Li, Bin; Sun, Jingcheng

    2018-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between current, back electromotive force (back-EMF), and torque for permanent-magnet brushless DC (PM BLDC) motors under advanced commutation control from the perspective of harmonics. Considering that the phase current is the influencing factor of both torque and torque ripple, this paper firstly analyzes the effects of advanced commutation on phase current and current harmonics. And then, based on the harmonics of the phase current and back-EMF, the...

  20. Improvements In AF Ablation Outcome Will Be Based More On Technological Advancement Versus Mechanistic Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang Md, Chen-Yang; Jiang Ms, Ru-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is one of the most common cardiac arrhythmias. Catheter ablation has proven more effective than antiarrhythmic drugs in preventing clinical recurrence of AF, however long-term outcome remains unsatisfactory. Ablation strategies have evolved based on progress in mechanistic understanding, and technologies have advanced continuously. This article reviews current mechanistic concepts and technological advancements in AF treatment, and summarizes their impact on improvement of AF ablation outcome.

  1. HADES-1: A rapid prototyping environment based on advanced FPGA’s

    OpenAIRE

    Aguirre Echanove, Miguel Ángel; Torralba Silgado, Antonio Jesús; García Franquelo, Leopoldo; Tombs, J. N.

    2001-01-01

    Rapid prototyping of large digital systems is becoming supported with the use of new advanced FPGA's. These FPGA's can give more Information than functional simulation and emulation tasks, due to their inner inspection features. This paper presents HADES-l, a new environment for rapid prototyping and hardware debugging. HADES-l is based on one FPGA of the VIRTEX family, exploiting the advanced features of the SelectMap port and a fast link with the host PC.

  2. Economizer Based Data Center Liquid Cooling with Advanced Metal Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timothy Chainer

    2012-11-30

    A new chiller-less data center liquid cooling system utilizing the outside air environment has been shown to achieve up to 90% reduction in cooling energy compared to traditional chiller based data center cooling systems. The system removes heat from Volume servers inside a Sealed Rack and transports the heat using a liquid loop to an Outdoor Heat Exchanger which rejects the heat to the outdoor ambient environment. The servers in the rack are cooled using a hybrid cooling system by removing the majority of the heat generated by the processors and memory by direct thermal conduction using coldplates and the heat generated by the remaining components using forced air convection to an air- to- liquid heat exchanger inside the Sealed Rack. The anticipated benefits of such energy-centric configurations are significant energy savings at the data center level. When compared to a traditional 10 MW data center, which typically uses 25% of its total data center energy consumption for cooling this technology could potentially enable a cost savings of up to $800,000-$2,200,000/year (assuming electricity costs of 4 to 11 cents per kilowatt-hour) through the reduction in electrical energy usage.

  3. Advanced Navigation Aids System based on Augmented Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeyong OH

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Many maritime accidents have been caused by human-error including such things as inadequate watch keeping and/or mistakes in ship handling. Also, new navigational equipment has been developed using Information Technology (IT technology to provide various kinds of information for safe navigation. Despite these efforts, the reduction of maritime accidents has not occurred to the degree expected because, navigational equipment provides too much information, and this information is not well organized, such that users feel it to be complicated rather than helpful. In this point of view, the method of representation of navigational information is more important than the quantity of that information and research is required on the representation of information to make that information more easily understood and to allow decisions to be made correctly and promptly. In this paper, we adopt Augmented Reality (AR technologies for the representation of information. AR is a 3D computer graphics technology that blends virtual reality and the real world. Recently, this technology has been widely applied in our daily lives because it can provide information more effectively to users. Therefore, we propose a new concept, a navigational system based on AR technology; we review experimental results from a ship-handling simulator and from an open sea test to verify the efficiency of the proposed system.

  4. Recent advances in biosensor based diagnosis of urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, M S; Ghosh, S; Nayak, S; Das, A P

    2016-06-15

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are potentially life threatening infections that are associated with high rates of incidence, recurrence and mortality. UTIs are characterized by several chronic infections which may lead to lethal consequences if left undiagnosed and untreated. The uropathogens are consistent across the globe. The most prevalent uropathogenic gram negative bacteria are Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia. Early detection and precise diagnosis of these infections will play a pivotal role in health care, pharmacological and biomedical sectors. A number of detection methods are available but their performances are not upto the mark. Therefore a more rapid, selective and highly sensitive technique for the detection and quantification of uropathogen levels in extremely minute concentrations need of the time. This review brings all the major concerns of UTI at one's doorstep such as clinical costs and incidence rate, several diagnostic approaches along with their advantages and disadvantages. Paying attention to detection approaches with emphasizing biosensor based recent developments in the quest for new diagnostics for UTI and the need for more sophisticated techniques in terms of selectivity and sensitivity is discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Clean coal technology and advanced coal-based power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpert, S.B.

    1991-01-01

    Clean Coal Technology is an arbitrary terminology that has gained increased use since the 1980s when the debate over acid raid issues intensified over emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. In response to political discussions between Prime Minister Brian Mulroney of Canada and President Ronald Reagan in 1985, the US government initiated a demonstration program by the Department of Energy (DOE) on Clean Coal Technologies, which can be categorized as: 1. precombustion technologies wherein sulfur and nitrogen are removed before combustion, combustion technologies that prevent or lower emissions as coal is burned, and postcombustion technologies wherein flue gas from a boiler is treated to remove pollutants, usually transforming them into solids that are disposed of. The DOE Clean Coal Technology (CCT) program is being carried out with $2.5 billion of federal funds and additional private sector funds. By the end of 1989, 38 projects were under way or in negotiation. These projects were solicited in three rounds, known as Clean Coal I, II, and III, and two additional solicitations are planned by DOE. Worldwide about 100 clean coal demonstration projects are being carried out. This paper lists important requirements of demonstration plants based on experience with such plants. These requirements need to be met to allow a technology to proceed to commercial application with ordinary risk, and represent the principal reasons that a demonstration project is necessary when introducing new technology

  6. [Development and research advance of pharmacognosy field based on CNKI].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Li; Xiao, Hong

    2018-02-01

    Based on the literature data in CNKI, data mining and analysis technologies were used in this paper to describe the scientific research and development direction of Pharmacognosy in the last decade from the perspective of bibliometrics. The analysis of measured data revealed the core research institutions, excellent research teams, leading scholars, major research aspects and research progress in the field. Results showed that most of the scholars in the field were from colleges and institutions, accounting for 74.6% of the total research findings and forming a group of core scholars. In terms of frequency and timeliness of citation, pharmacognosy is a discipline in sustained growth and development since it mainly cites the literature in the other disciplines, absorbs and utilizes knowledge of the other disciplines. Over the last few years, molecular identification and genetic diversity have become the research hotspots in pharmacognosy, and the techniques and methods such as ISSR, RAPD, DNA barcoding and DNA molecular marker have been widely used. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  7. Ketogenic Diets: New Advances for Metabolism-Based Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossoff, Eric H.; Hartman, Adam L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Despite myriad anticonvulsants available and in various stages of development, there are thousands of children and adults with epilepsy worldwide still refractory to treatment and not candidates for epilepsy surgery. Many of these patients will now turn to dietary therapies such as the ketogenic diet, medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) diet, modified Atkins diet, and low glycemic index treatment. Recent Findings In the past several years, neurologists are finding new indications to use these dietary treatments, perhaps even as first-line therapy, including infantile spasms, myoclonic-astatic epilepsy (Doose syndrome), Dravet syndrome, and status epilepticus (including FIRES syndrome). Adults are also one of the most rapidly growing populations being treated nowadays; a group of patients previously not typically offered these treatments. In 2009, two controlled trials of the ketogenic diet were published as well as an International Expert Consensus Statement on dietary treatment of epilepsy. Ketogenic diets are also now being increasingly studied for neurologic conditions other than epilepsy, including Alzheimer disease and cancer. Insights from basic science research have helped elucidate the mechanisms by which metabolism-based therapy may be helpful, both in terms of an anticonvulsant and possibly neuroprotective effect. Summary Dietary therapy for epilepsy continues to grow in popularity worldwide, with expanding use for adults and conditions other than epilepsy. PMID:22322415

  8. Ketogenic diets: new advances for metabolism-based therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossoff, Eric H; Hartman, Adam L

    2012-04-01

    Despite myriad anticonvulsants available and in various stages of development, there are thousands of children and adults with epilepsy worldwide still refractory to treatment and not candidates for epilepsy surgery. Many of these patients will now turn to dietary therapies such as the ketogenic diet, medium-chain triglyceride diet, modified Atkins diet, and low glycemic index treatment. In the past several years, neurologists are finding new indications to use these dietary treatments, perhaps even as first-line therapy, including infantile spasms, myoclonic-astatic epilepsy (Doose syndrome), Dravet syndrome, and status epilepticus (including FIRES syndrome). Adults are also one of the most rapidly growing populations being treated nowadays; this group of patients previously was not typically offered these treatments. In 2009, two controlled trials of the ketogenic diet were published, as well as an International Expert Consensus Statement on dietary treatment of epilepsy. Ketogenic diets are also now being increasingly studied for neurological conditions other than epilepsy, including Alzheimer's disease and cancer. Insights from basic science research have helped elucidate the mechanisms by which metabolism-based therapy may be helpful, in terms of both an anticonvulsant and possibly a neuroprotective effect. Dietary therapy for epilepsy continues to grow in popularity worldwide, with expanding use for adults and conditions other than epilepsy.

  9. Measurement-Based Performance Evaluation of Advanced MIMO Transceiver Designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider Christian

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the methodology and the results of performance investigations on a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO transceiver scheme for frequency-selective radio channels. The method relies on offline simulations and employs real-time MIMO channel sounder measurement data to ensure a realistic channel modeling. Thus it can be classified in between the performance evaluation using some predefined channel models and the evaluation of a prototype hardware in field experiments. New aspects for the simulation setup are discussed, which are frequently ignored when using simpler model-based evaluations. Example simulations are provided for an iterative ("turbo" MIMO equalizer concept. The dependency of the achievable bit error rate performance on the propagation characteristics and on the variation in some system design parameters is shown, whereas the antenna constellation is of particular concern for MIMO systems. Although in many of the considered constellations turbo MIMO equalization appears feasible in real field scenarios, there exist cases with poor performance as well, indicating that in practical applications link adaptation of the transmitter and receiver processing to the environment is necessary.

  10. Advanced electron crystallography through model-based imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Aert, Sandra; De Backer, Annick; Martinez, Gerardo T.; den Dekker, Arnold J.; Van Dyck, Dirk; Bals, Sara; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf

    2016-01-01

    The increasing need for precise determination of the atomic arrangement of non-periodic structures in materials design and the control of nanostructures explains the growing interest in quantitative transmission electron microscopy. The aim is to extract precise and accurate numbers for unknown structure parameters including atomic positions, chemical concentrations and atomic numbers. For this purpose, statistical parameter estimation theory has been shown to provide reliable results. In this theory, observations are considered purely as data planes, from which structure parameters have to be determined using a parametric model describing the images. As such, the positions of atom columns can be measured with a precision of the order of a few picometres, even though the resolution of the electron microscope is still one or two orders of magnitude larger. Moreover, small differences in average atomic number, which cannot be distinguished visually, can be quantified using high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy images. In addition, this theory allows one to measure compositional changes at interfaces, to count atoms with single-atom sensitivity, and to reconstruct atomic structures in three dimensions. This feature article brings the reader up to date, summarizing the underlying theory and highlighting some of the recent applications of quantitative model-based transmisson electron microscopy. PMID:26870383

  11. Advanced electron crystallography through model-based imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Van Aert

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing need for precise determination of the atomic arrangement of non-periodic structures in materials design and the control of nanostructures explains the growing interest in quantitative transmission electron microscopy. The aim is to extract precise and accurate numbers for unknown structure parameters including atomic positions, chemical concentrations and atomic numbers. For this purpose, statistical parameter estimation theory has been shown to provide reliable results. In this theory, observations are considered purely as data planes, from which structure parameters have to be determined using a parametric model describing the images. As such, the positions of atom columns can be measured with a precision of the order of a few picometres, even though the resolution of the electron microscope is still one or two orders of magnitude larger. Moreover, small differences in average atomic number, which cannot be distinguished visually, can be quantified using high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy images. In addition, this theory allows one to measure compositional changes at interfaces, to count atoms with single-atom sensitivity, and to reconstruct atomic structures in three dimensions. This feature article brings the reader up to date, summarizing the underlying theory and highlighting some of the recent applications of quantitative model-based transmisson electron microscopy.

  12. Advanced Bio-Based Nanocomposites and Manufacturing Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinella, Stephen Matthew

    The aim of the PhD thesis concerns with the modification of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) via esterification or a radical grafting "from" approach to achieve polymeric nanocomposites of exceptional properties (Chapters 1 to 4). In addition to CNCs modification, other green routes have been introduced in this thesis in order to environmentally friendly polyester-based materials, i.e. Chapters five and six. The second chapter focuses on expanding on a one-pot cellulose acid hydrolysis/Fischer esterification to produce highly compatible CNCs without any organic solvent. It consists of modifying CNCs with acetic- and lactic- acid and exploring how such surface chemistry has an effect of dispersion in the case of polylactide (PLA)-based nanocomposites. The degree of substitution for AA-CNCs and LA-CNCs, determined by FTIR, are 0.12 and 0.13, respectively. PLA-based materials represent the best bioplastics relating to its high stiffness and biodegradability, but suffer from its poor thermal performances, namely its Heat Deflection Temperature (HDT). To improve the HDT of PLA, nanocomposites have been therefore prepared with modified cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) by melt blending. After blending at 5 wt-% loading of CNCs, LA-CNCs gives superior reinforcement below and above the glass temperature of PLA. An increase in PLA's heat deflection temperature by 10°C and 20°C is achieved by melt-blending PLA with 5 and 20 wt-% LA-CNCs, respectively. Chapter three concerns with expanding this process to a series of hydrophilic and hydrophobic acids yielding functional CNCs for electronic and biomedical applications. Hydrophilic acids include citric-, malonic- and malic acid. Modification with the abovementioned organic acids allows for the introduction of free acids onto the surface of CNCs. Modification with citric-, malonic- and malic- acid is verified by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and 13C solid state magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR experiments. The degree of

  13. Characterization of plutonium contamination at Maralinga: Dosimetry and cleanup criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.B.; Martin, L.J.; Williams, G.A.; Harries, J.R.

    2000-01-01

    An area of South Australia remained contaminated following British atomic tests at Maralinga during 1955-1963. Of importance is the long lived 239 Pu of which some 24 kg was explosively dispersed in several 'minor trials'. The extent, quantities and physical characteristics of the plutonium have been assessed and estimates of dose, dominated by the inhalation pathway in the critical group of Aborigines living a semi-traditional lifestyle, have been made for potential occupants. Dosimetry, together with social and economic factors, underpins the setting of cleanup criteria in terms of activity concentrations averaged over large areas and permissible concentrations of contaminated particles. The possibility of intentional behaviour such as fragment scavenging has also influenced limits on particulate contamination. Rehabilitation of the most contaminated areas is underway, with scraping of surface soil and burial on site completed. Vehicular-mounted radiation detector systems for wide area and particle monitoring have been developed, and procedures established for determining cleanup boundaries and for the verification monitoring to ensure that the cleanup process has met the specified criteria. Data are being obtained for a final dose and health risk assessment of the cleaned up site. (author)

  14. Rocky Flats Cleanup Agreement implementation successes and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shelton, D.C.

    1997-01-01

    On July 19, 1996 the US Department of Energy (DOE), State of Colorado (CDPHE), and US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) entered into an agreement called the Rocky Flats Cleanup Agreement (RFCA) for the cleanup and closure of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS or Rocky Flats). Major elements of the agreement include: an Integrated Site-Wide Baseline; up to twelve significant enforceable milestones per year; agreed upon soil and water action levels and standards for cleanup; open space as the likely foreseeable land use; the plutonium and TRU waste removed by 2015; streamlined regulatory process; agreement with the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) to coordinate activities; and a risk reduction focus. Successful implementation of RFCA requires a substantial effort by the parties to change their way of thinking about RFETS and meet the deliverables and commitments. Substantial progress toward Site closure through the implementation of RFCA has been accomplished in the short time since the signing, yet much remains to be done. Much can be learned from the Rocky Flats experience by other facilities in similar situations

  15. Thyroid disorders in Chernobyl clean-up workers from Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurjane, N.; Orlikovs, G.; Ritenberga, R.; Skudra, M.; Lemane, R.; Lemanis, A.; Curbakova, E.; Groma, V.; Socnevs, A.

    1999-01-01

    The condition of thyroid was examined in 2188 Chernobyl clean-up workers residing in Latvia and a control group consisting of 1041 employees of the Ministry of International Affairs. Thyroid examinations included palpation, ultrasonography, selective scintigraphy and detection of the level of thyroid hormones in blood serum:L STH (thyroid-stimulating hormone), total T3 (triiodothyronine), and T4 (thyroxine). Thyroid was registered in 394 Chernobyl clean-up workers. Of these cases, 28 patients with suspected thyroid cancer were operated, and morphological examinations revealed papillary adenocarcinoma (in 5 patients), follicular adenocarcinoma (2), nodular colloid goiter (16); toxic diffuse goiter (1), papillary-follicular adenoma (3), and chronic thyroiditis (1). It was determined that the thyroid pathology in the Chernobyl clean-up workers had a tendency to progress (27 cases in 1987 versus 394 cases in 1998 in total; and absence of thyroid cancer in 1987, compared with 7 cases in 1998); thyroid nodules increased twice (64 cases in 1997, compare with 126 cases in 1998). (author)

  16. Advanced ESPI-based medical instruments for otolaryngology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castracane, James; Conerty, M.; Cacace, Anthony T.; Gardner, Glendon M.; Miller, Mitchell B.; Parnes, Steven M.

    1993-05-01

    Optical fibers have long been used for visual inspection inside the human body for medical diagnoses and treatment. By making use of sophisticated optical interferometric and ultra- small imaging techniques, combined with automated image processing, it is possible to extract significantly increased information for more accurate medical diagnoses. With support from NIH under the SBIR program, we have been developing a range of such instruments. One of these supported by the NIDCD is capable of providing detailed spatial information on the vibratory response of the tympanic membrane (TM). This instrument involves the examination of the TM by means of high speed electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI). This provides a real time view of the vibration patterns of the TM for clinical diagnosis. This Interferometric Otoscope consists of mode conserving fiber optics, miniature diode lasers and high speed solid state detector arrays. We present the current status of the research including holography and ESPI of TM models and excised temporal bone preparations. A second instrument, also developed with support from NIDCD, is for application to the larynx. This system is also ESPI based but will incorporate features for direct vocal cord (VC) examination. By careful examination of the vibratory response of the VC during phonation, the characteristics of the mucosal wave may be examined. Adynamic regions of the cords can signal the start of lesions or cysts. Results of surgery can be evaluated in a quantitative manner. The design of a clinical prototype and preliminary electro-optic experiments on excised larynges and VC models will be presented.

  17. Advanced biomass science and technology for bio-based products: proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung Hse; Zehui Jiang; Mon-Lin Kuo

    2009-01-01

    This book was developed from the proceedings of the Advanced Biomass Science and Technology for Bio-Based Products Symposium held in Beijing, China, May 23-25, 2007. The symposium was designed to provide a forum for researchers, producers, and consumers of biomass and bio-based products; to exchange information and ideas; and to stimulate new research and...

  18. 78 FR 16513 - Application of Advances in Nucleic Acid and Protein Based Detection Methods to Multiplex...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-15

    ... Methods to Multiplex Detection of Transfusion- Transmissible Agents and Blood Cell Antigens in Blood... Transfusion-Transmissible Agents and Blood Cell Antigens in Blood Donations; Public Workshop AGENCY: Food and... technological advances in gene based and protein based pathogen and blood cell antigen detection methods and to...

  19. International Workshop on Advanced Dynamics and Model Based Control of Structures and Machines

    CERN Document Server

    Belyaev, Alexander; Krommer, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The papers in this volume present and discuss the frontiers in the mechanics of controlled machines and structures. They are based on papers presented at the International Workshop on Advanced Dynamics and Model Based Control of Structures and Machines held in Vienna in September 2015. The workshop continues a series of international workshops held in Linz (2008) and St. Petersburg (2010).

  20. Agent-based inter-organizational systems in advanced logistics operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Wasesa (Meditya)

    2017-01-01

    textabstract“Agent-based Inter-organizational Systems (ABIOS) in Advanced Logistics Operations” explores the concepts, the design, and the role and impact of agent-based systems to improve coordination and performance of logistics operations. The dissertation consists of one conceptual study and

  1. Investigation of advanced materials based on low-dimensional systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babenkov, Sergey

    2016-11-01

    In the framework of this thesis, a new end-station dedicated for dynamic-XPS measurements is created. The end-station is based on a new hemispherical electron spectrometer Argus which is equipped with a high speed detection system. In combination with the high brilliance XUV beamline P04 at PETRA III it provides users a unique tool for fast (down to 0.1 s/spectrum) and detailed investigations compared to existing XPS devices at other synchrotrons. This end-station is integrated into beamline P04 and available for users. During this research work it was widely used for fabrication of samples (Ar + sputtering, sample heating, film growth etc) and investigation of their properties by means of dynamic-XPS. Using several methods, the atomic and electronic structure of graphene grown on technically relevant substrates of cubic-SiC(001)/Si(001) (''on-axis'' and ''vicinal'') was investigated. We have shown a way to control the number of graphene layers by real-time photoemission measurements during preparation procedure. Using this approach, we have synthesized several samples with different numbers of graphene layers. Consequent atomically resolved STM studies prove the synthesis of a uniform, millimeter-scale graphene overlayer. At the same time, the graphene overlayer possesses rippled morphology and consists of large amount of domain boundaries. Directions of domain boundaries coincide with the directions of carbon atomic chains which were fabricated prior to graphene synthesis on the SiC(001)-c(2 x 2) surface reconstruction. Further, using vicinal-SiC, we synthesized Bernal-stacked trilayer graphene with self-aligned periodic nanodomain boundaries. We proposed a simple method to achieve a current On-Off ratio of 104 by opening a transport gap in Bernal-stacked trilayer graphene. Our low-temperature transport measurements clearly demonstrate that the self-aligned periodic NBs can induce a charge transport gap greater than 1.3 e

  2. Investigation of advanced materials based on low-dimensional systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babenkov, Sergey

    2016-11-15

    In the framework of this thesis, a new end-station dedicated for dynamic-XPS measurements is created. The end-station is based on a new hemispherical electron spectrometer Argus which is equipped with a high speed detection system. In combination with the high brilliance XUV beamline P04 at PETRA III it provides users a unique tool for fast (down to 0.1 s/spectrum) and detailed investigations compared to existing XPS devices at other synchrotrons. This end-station is integrated into beamline P04 and available for users. During this research work it was widely used for fabrication of samples (Ar{sup +} sputtering, sample heating, film growth etc) and investigation of their properties by means of dynamic-XPS. Using several methods, the atomic and electronic structure of graphene grown on technically relevant substrates of cubic-SiC(001)/Si(001) (''on-axis'' and ''vicinal'') was investigated. We have shown a way to control the number of graphene layers by real-time photoemission measurements during preparation procedure. Using this approach, we have synthesized several samples with different numbers of graphene layers. Consequent atomically resolved STM studies prove the synthesis of a uniform, millimeter-scale graphene overlayer. At the same time, the graphene overlayer possesses rippled morphology and consists of large amount of domain boundaries. Directions of domain boundaries coincide with the directions of carbon atomic chains which were fabricated prior to graphene synthesis on the SiC(001)-c(2 x 2) surface reconstruction. Further, using vicinal-SiC, we synthesized Bernal-stacked trilayer graphene with self-aligned periodic nanodomain boundaries. We proposed a simple method to achieve a current On-Off ratio of 104 by opening a transport gap in Bernal-stacked trilayer graphene. Our low-temperature transport measurements clearly demonstrate that the self-aligned periodic NBs can induce a charge transport gap greater than 1

  3. Sorption Mechanisms for Mercury Capture in Warm Post-Gasification Gas Clean-Up Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jost Wendt; Sung Jun Lee; Paul Blowers

    2008-09-30

    The research was directed towards a sorbent injection/particle removal process where a sorbent may be injected upstream of the warm gas cleanup system to scavenge Hg and other trace metals, and removed (with the metals) within the warm gas cleanup process. The specific objectives of this project were to understand and quantify, through fundamentally based models, mechanisms of interaction between mercury vapor compounds and novel paper waste derived (kaolinite + calcium based) sorbents (currently marketed under the trade name MinPlus). The portion of the research described first is the experimental portion, in which sorbent effectiveness to scavenge metallic mercury (Hg{sup 0}) at high temperatures (>600 C) is determined as a function of temperature, sorbent loading, gas composition, and other important parameters. Levels of Hg{sup 0} investigated were in an industrially relevant range ({approx} 25 {micro}g/m{sup 3}) although contaminants were contained in synthetic gases and not in actual flue gases. A later section of this report contains the results of the complementary computational results.

  4. Evolution of the Business Environment Surrounding the UK's Nuclear Site Cleanup Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miskimin, P.A.; Lees, P.M.; Wall, C.E.E.

    2006-01-01

    placing contracts via the major procurements being conducted in support of the nuclear site cleanup program. The next most powerful influence is the NDA itself, which has oversight responsibility for procurements conducted by the site management and operations contractors. The NDA must, of necessity, maintain some level of review over major procurements, but how best to do so with a limited number of staff, without slowing down the awarding of contracts? More dramatic in their impact on the UK's nuclear industry will be the competitive procurements to be conducted by the NDA to select the best site operators for the twenty sites. These major procurements, while common in the USA and elsewhere, will be new to the NDA's nuclear site cleanup program. Considering the large contract values expected, the procurements should attract some of the best talent in nuclear site cleanup. It is anticipated that these procurements will necessitate contractors to compete at the highest level, leaving no stone unturned to maximize the chance of being selected. Contract awards are expected to be in the range of 100 million pounds to several billion pounds. The first such procurement is currently planned to begin in April 2006, according to the NDA's draft strategy document. Lastly, the business relationships with local suppliers to the nuclear sites are also changing. These suppliers will be required to compete, primarily for contracts let by subcontractors to the site management and operations contractors, and even by sub-sub contractors, rather than directly from the site management and operations contractors. The benign paternalism previously practiced at some sites by the management and operations contractors should also cease, of necessity. Many other business aspects will evolve as well, such as contract awards being based on best value, rather than on lowest price or lowest hourly rate. Electronic commerce is expected to become more widely used. Even as late as 2003, little

  5. Evolution of the Pediatric Advanced Life Support course: enhanced learning with a new debriefing tool and Web-based module for Pediatric Advanced Life Support instructors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Adam; Rodgers, David L; van der Jagt, Élise; Eppich, Walter; O'Donnell, John

    2012-09-01

    To describe the history of the Pediatric Advanced Life Support course and outline the new developments in instructor training that will impact the way debriefing is conducted during Pediatric Advanced Life Support courses. The Pediatric Advanced Life Support course, first released by the American Heart Association in 1988, has seen substantial growth and change over the past few decades. Over that time, Pediatric Advanced Life Support has become the standard for resuscitation training for pediatric healthcare providers in North America. The incorporation of high-fidelity simulation-based learning into the most recent version of Pediatric Advanced Life Support has helped to enhance the realism of scenarios and cases, but has also placed more emphasis on the importance of post scenario debriefing. We developed two new resources: an online debriefing module designed to introduce a new model of debriefing and a debriefing tool for real-time use during Pediatric Advanced Life Support courses, to enhance and standardize the quality of debriefing by Pediatric Advanced Life Support instructors. In this article, we review the history of Pediatric Advanced Life Support and Pediatric Advanced Life Support instructor training and discuss the development and implementation of the new debriefing module and debriefing tool for Pediatric Advanced Life Support instructors. The incorporation of the debriefing module and debriefing tool into the 2011 Pediatric Advanced Life Support instructor materials will help both new and existing Pediatric Advanced Life Support instructors develop and enhance their debriefing skills with the intention of improving the acquisition of knowledge and skills for Pediatric Advanced Life Support students.

  6. Neutral cleanup procedure for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin residues in bovine fat and milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, P W; Meselson, M S; Baughman, R W

    1978-05-01

    A neutral cleanup method for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in milk and animal tissue was developed involving solvent extraction and liquid adsorption chromatography on magnesia-Celite 545, alumina, and Florisil. Cleaned up extracts were subjected to dual-ion analysis in a direct probe high resolution mass spectrometer, interfaced to a multi-channel analyzer for signal averaging. Calibration experiments were carried out with bovine milk and beef fat samples containing added TCDD. The 37CI isotopic isomer of TCDD was added as an internal standard. The response was linear for concentrations in the ppt range, with recoveries about 80%. Milk from a cow fed TCDD was cleaned up by the neutral procedure or, alternatively, a base-acid extraction procedure. The TCDD recoveries for both procedures were essentially the same. Recoveries of TCDD from liver samples of a rat given 14C-TCDD intraperitoneally, subjected to neutral cleanup and radioactive counting, were about 70%.

  7. Advances in the Traditional Chinese Medicine-Based Management of Viral Myocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yong; Xu, Xia; Zhang, Peiying

    2015-09-01

    Viral myocarditis (VMC) is a common clinical condition; however, no specific treatment has been available from the perspective of modern western medicine, and typically only symptomatic treatment is provided in clinical settings. The traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has shown certain advantages in treating VMC. Last few years have witnessed certain advances in the TCM-based research on the etiology and pathogenesis of VMC and its clinical management. This article reviews the clinical advances made in the TCM-based management of VMC in the last 5 years.

  8. Aflatoxin M1 in milk by immunoaffinity column cleanup with TLC/HPLC determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shundo Luzia

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available During 2002 and 2003, a total of 107 samples of raw, pasteurized and ultrahigh treated temperature (UHT milk commercialized in the cities of São Paulo and Marília (SP were analyzed for the presence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1. AFM1 was detected in 79 (73.8% of milk samples, ranging from <0.02 to 0.26 mug/L.The samples were analyzed using an immunoaffinity column for cleanup and a thin layer chromatography for determining AFM1. The parameters, such as recovery, repeatibility, detection and quantification limit were evaluated to optimize this method (in-house. Based on spiked samples, the recovery values ranged from 85.83 to 73.86% at levels of 0.010-0.50 mug/L, respectively, and the relative standard deviation for repeatibility ranged from 7.73 to 2.08%. The quantification limit was 0.02 mug/L. The results of some samples analyzed by this method demonstrated a satisfatory correlation when compared with High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. In conclusion, immunoaffinity column cleanup gave excellent results for recovery, sensibility and sample through put. Despite the high rate of occurrence of AFM1 in samples in both cities, the contamination level could not be considered a serious public health hazard, according to Brazilian legislation.

  9. Surface Modification of Graphene Oxides by Plasma Techniques and Their Application for Environmental Pollution Cleanup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiangxue; Fan, Qiaohui; Chen, Zhongshan; Wang, Qi; Li, Jiaxing; Hobiny, Aatef; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Wang, Xiangke

    2016-02-01

    Graphene oxides (GOs) have come under intense multidisciplinary study because of their unique physicochemical properties and possible applications. The large amount of oxygen-containing functional groups on GOs leads to a high sorption capacity for the removal of various kinds of organic and inorganic pollutants from aqueous solutions in environmental pollution cleanup. However, the lack of selectivity results in difficulty in the selective removal of target pollutants from aqueous solutions in the presence of other coexisting pollutants. Herein, the surface grafting of GOs with special oxygen-containing functional groups using low-temperature plasma techniques and the application of the surface-modified GOs for the efficient removal of organic and inorganic pollutants in environmental pollution are reviewed. This paper gives an account of our research on the application of GO-based nanomaterials in environmental pollution cleanup, including: (1) the synthesis and surface grafting of functional groups on GOs, summarizing various types of low-temperature plasma techniques for the synthesis of graphene/GOs; and (2) the application of graphene/GOs and their composites for the efficient removal of organic and inorganic pollutants from aqueous solutions, including the interaction mechanism according to recently published results. © 2015 The Chemical Society of Japan & Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Cleanup and Dismantling of Highly Contaminated Ventilation Systems Using Robotic Tools - 13162

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambon, Frederic; CIZEL, Jean-Pierre; Blanchard, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    The UP1 plant reprocessed nearly 20,000 tons of used natural uranium gas cooled reactor fuel coming from the first generation of civil nuclear reactors in France. Following operating incidents in the eighties, the ventilation system of the continuous dissolution line facility was shut down and replaced. Two types of remote controlled tool carriers were developed to perform the decontamination and dismantling operations of the highly contaminated ventilation duct network. The first one, a dedicated small robot, was designed from scratch to retrieve a thick powder deposit within a duct. The robot, managed and confined by two dedicated glove boxes, was equipped for intervention inside the ventilation duct and used for carrying various cleanup and inspection tools. The second type, consisting of robotic tools developed on the base of an industrial platform, was used for the clean-up and dismantling of the ventilation duct system. Depending on the type of work to be performed, on the shape constraints of the rooms and any equipment to be dismantled, different kinds of robotic tools were developed and installed on a Brokk 40 carrier. After more than ten years of ventilation duct D and D operations at the UP1 plant, a lot of experience was acquired about remote operations. The three main important lessons learned in terms of remote controlled operation are: characterizing the initial conditions as much as reasonably possible, performing non-radioactive full scale testing and making it as simple and modular as possible. (authors)

  11. Thermodynamic and economic evaluations of a geothermal district heating system using advanced exergy-based methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Mehmet; Keçebaş, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Evaluation of a GDHS using advanced exergy-based methods. • Comparison of the results of the conventional and advanced exergy-based methods. • The modified exergetic efficiency and exergoeconomic factor are found as 45% and 13%. • Improvement and total cost-savings potentials are found to be 3% and 14%. • All the pumps have the highest improvement potential and total cost-savings potential. - Abstract: In this paper, a geothermal district heating system (GDHS) is comparatively evaluated in terms of thermodynamic and economic aspects using advanced exergy-based methods to identify the potential for improvement, the interactions among system components, and the direction and potential for energy savings. The actual operational data are taken from the Sarayköy GDHS, Turkey. In the advanced exergetic and exergoeconomic analyses, the exergy destruction and the total operating cost within each component of the system are split into endogenous/exogenous and unavoidable/avoidable parts. The advantages of these analyses over conventional ones are demonstrated. The results indicate that the advanced exergy-based method is a more meaningful and effective tool than the conventional one for system performance evaluation. The exergetic efficiency and the exergoeconomic factor of the overall system for the Sarayköy GDHS were determined to be 43.72% and 5.25% according to the conventional tools and 45.06% and 12.98% according to the advanced tools. The improvement potential and the total cost-savings potential of the overall system were also determined to be 2.98% and 14.05%, respectively. All of the pumps have the highest improvement potential and total cost-savings potential because the pumps were selected to have high power during installation at the Sarayköy GDHS

  12. A decision-making process on cleanup of contaminated surface soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuda, Hiroshi

    1996-01-01

    This study presents principles for determining derived intervention levels (DILs) for surface soil cleanup. The people concerned were divided into major three groups: residents, responsible parties, and cleanup workers; it was considered that each group has different interests. The DILs for soil cleanup were determined from the viewpoints of these three groups: safety of residence, advantages of the countermeasures, and safety of cleanup activities, respectively. An example process for determination of the DILs in accordance with the principles was also presented for a site contaminated by 137 Cs. This decision-making frame is expected to be applicable to other contaminants. (author)

  13. Improving Sampling, Analysis, and Data Management for Site Investigation and Cleanup

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) supports the adoption of streamlined approaches to sampling, analysis, and data management activities conducted during site assessment, characterization, and cleanup.

  14. NRC plan for cleanup operations at Three Mile Island Unit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, R.; Snyder, B.J.

    1980-07-01

    The NRC plan defines the functional role of the NRC in cleanup operations at Three Mile Island Unit 2 to assure that agency regulatory responsibilities and objectives will be fulfilled. The plan outlines NRC functions in TMI-2 cleanup operations in the following areas: (1) the functional relationship of NRC to other government agencies, the public, and the licensee to coordinate activities, (2) the functional roles of these organizations in cleanup operations, (3) the NRC review and decision-making procedure for the licensee's proposed cleanup operation, (4) the NRC/licensee estimated schedule of major actions, and (5) NRC's functional role in overseeing implementation of approved licensee activities

  15. Hanford: A Conversation About Nuclear Waste and Cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gephart, Roy E.

    2003-01-01

    The author takes us on a journey through a world of facts, values, conflicts, and choices facing the most complex environmental cleanup project in the United States, the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. Starting with the top-secret Manhattan Project, Hanford was used to create tons of plutonium for nuclear weapons. Hundreds of tons of waste remain. In an easy-to-read, illustrated text, Gephart crafts the story of Hanford becoming the world's first nuclear weapons site to release large amounts of contaminants into the environment. This was at a time when radiation biology was in its infancy, industry practiced unbridled waste dumping, and the public trusted what it was told. The plutonium market stalled with the end of the Cold War. Public accountability and environmental compliance ushered in a new cleanup mission. Today, Hanford is driven by remediation choices whose outcomes remain uncertain. It's a story whose epilogue will be written by future generations. This book is an information resource, written for the general reader as well as the technically trained person wanting an overview of Hanford and cleanup issues facing the nuclear weapons complex. Each chapter is a topical mini-series. It's an idea guide that encourages readers to be informed consumers of Hanford news, to recognize that knowledge, high ethical standards, and social values are at the heart of coping with Hanford's past and charting its future. Hanford history is a window into many environmental conflicts facing our nation; it's about building upon success and learning from failure. And therein lies a key lesson, when powerful interests are involved, no generation is above pretense. Roy E. Gephart is a geohydrologist and senior program manager at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington. He has 30 years experience in environmental studies and the nuclear waste industry

  16. Application of the SBWR PRA to respond to risk-based regulation issues for advanced reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seebregts, A.J. [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN), Petten (Netherlands). Risk Analysis Section; Duncan, J.D. [General Electric Co., San Jose, CA (United States). Nuclear Energy Div.

    1995-10-01

    This paper discusses briefly the SBWR design, the 1993 SBWR PRA, and two specific, recent risk-based regulation issues for advanced reactors, viz. the Regulatory Treatment of Non-Safety Systems (RTNSS, including the Focused PRA), and the Phenomenological PRA. (orig.).

  17. Equilibrium II: Acids and Bases. Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry (ILPAC). Unit P3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inner London Education Authority (England).

    This unit on equilibrium is one of 10 first year units produced by the Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry (ILPAC). The unit, which consists of two levels, focuses on the application of equilibrium principles to equilibria involving weak acids and bases, including buffer solutions and indicators. Level one uses Le Chatelier's…

  18. TiO2-Based Advanced Oxidation Nanotechnologies For Water Purification And Reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    TiO2 photocatalysis, one of the UV-based advanced oxidation technologies (AOTs) and nanotechnologies (AONs), has attracted great attention for the development of efficient water treatment and purification systems due to the effectiveness of TiO2 to generate ...

  19. Home-based specialized palliative care in patients with advanced cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordly, Mie; Vadstrup, Eva Soelberg; Sjøgren, Per

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Due to an urgent need for specialized palliative care (SPC) for patients with advanced cancer, an overview of available information on organization and outcomes of home-based SPC would be valuable. Our systematic review aims to give an overview of available information on the organizat...... for patients with advanced cancer, resulting in poor information and a lack of evidence. Generally, home-based SPC seems to have some positive effect on pain and dyspnea, but more high-quality studies are required.......OBJECTIVE: Due to an urgent need for specialized palliative care (SPC) for patients with advanced cancer, an overview of available information on organization and outcomes of home-based SPC would be valuable. Our systematic review aims to give an overview of available information...... on the organization and outcomes of home-based SPC for patients with advanced cancer. Outcomes related to place of death, survival time, quality of life, performance status, and symptom management are included. METHOD: A PICO process search strategy consisting of terms related to cancer, palliation, and home care...

  20. Megastore: Advanced Internet-based Electronic Commerce Service for Music Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benabdelkader, A.; Afsarmanesh, H.; Hertzberger, L.O.; Ibrahim, M.; Küng, J.; Revell, N.

    2000-01-01

    To support necessary requirements and flexibility to the buyers of different goods; advanced and efficient internet-based Electronic Commerce services must be designed and developed. In addition to the traditional user requirements, the developed system must properly address efficiency issues, among

  1. Cross-Cultural Trust Networks and Advancing Education Equity in Place-Based Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Amber Joy

    2017-01-01

    Research suggests that trust can be a foundational element for the success and sustainability of multi-organizational partnerships focused on advancing education equity in a particular neighborhood or region. As these place-based strategies gain popularity in the U.S., collaborators are increasingly required to navigate relationships where racial…

  2. Advancement of vision-based SLAM from static to dynamic environments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pancham, A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available be not be included in the SLAM map as they may lead to localization errors and reduce map quality. Recent years, have seen the advancement of vision-based SLAM from static to dynamic environments, where SLAM coupled with Detection And Tracking of Moving Objects...

  3. Reagan's TMI cleanup: a smoke and mirror trick

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    Little federal money will actually be sent to help relieve the cleanup burden of General Public Utilities despite the administration's public support of a cost/share plan. The $100 million was not new money, but existing DOE research and development money already in hand and earmarked for Three Mile Island-related research. Pennsylvania congressmen and officials were quick to point out the deceptive nature of Reagan's approval of the plan to share the costs. The administration feels that federal participation should not be open-ended, but should be limited to research on safe nuclear waste disposal of general benefit

  4. NHC's contribution to cleanup of the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauve, H.D.

    1998-01-01

    The one billion dollars per year Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC), managed by Fluor Daniel Hanford, calls for cleanup of the Hanford Site for the Department of Energy. Project Hanford comprises four major subprojects, each managed by a different major contractor. Numatec Hanford Corporation (NHC) is a fifth major subcontractor which provides energy and technology to each of the Hanford projects. NHC draws on the experience and capabilities of its parent companies, COGEMA and SGN, and relies on local support from its sister Company in Richland, COGEMA Engineering Corporation, to bring the best commercial practices and new technology to the Project

  5. Union job fight boiling at DOE cleanup sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setzer, S.W.

    1993-01-01

    The US DOE is facing a growing jurisdictional dispute over which unions will perform the majority of clean-up work at its facilities. Unions affiliated with the AFL-CIO Metal Trades Council representing operations employees at the sites believe they have a fundamental right to work. Unions in the AFL-CIO's Building and Construction Trades Dept. insist that they have a clear mandate under federal labor law and the Davis-Bacon Act. The issue has heated up in recent weeks at the policy level and is boiling in a contentious dispute at DOE's Fernald site in Ohio

  6. Risky business: Assessing cleanup plans for waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaylock, B.

    1995-01-01

    ORNL was chosen to perform human health and ecological risk assessments for DOE because of its risk assessment expertise. The U.S. Department of Energy's many production and research sites contain radioactive and hazardous wastes. These waste sites pose potential risks to the health and safety of remediation and waste management workers and the public. The risks, however, vary from site to site. Some sites undoubtedly present larger risks than others and should be cleaned up first. However, before the cleanup begins, DOE is required by law to prepare an environmental impact statement on any actions that may significantly affect the environment-even actions that would clean it up

  7. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-F-1 Burial Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. J. Farris and H. M. Sulloway

    2008-01-10

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-F-1 Burial Ground on the Hanford Site. This burial ground is a combination of two locations formerly called Minor Construction Burial Ground No. 2 and Solid Waste Burial Ground No. 2. This waste site received radioactive equipment and other miscellaneous waste from 105-F Reactor operations, including dummy elements and irradiated process tubing; gun barrel tips, steel sleeves, and metal chips removed from the reactor; filter boxes containing reactor graphite chips; and miscellaneous construction solid waste.

  8. Cleanup Verification Package for the 116-K-2 Effluent Trench

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capron, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 116-K-2 effluent trench, also referred to as the 116-K-2 mile-long trench and the 116-K-2 site. During its period of operation, the 116-K-2 site was used to dispose of cooling water effluent from the 105-KE and 105-KW Reactors by percolation into the soil. This site also received mixed liquid wastes from the 105-KW and 105-KE fuel storage basins, reactor floor drains, and miscellaneous decontamination activities

  9. Cleanup Verification Package for the 116-K-2 Effluent Trench

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. M. Capron

    2006-04-04

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 116-K-2 effluent trench, also referred to as the 116-K-2 mile-long trench and the 116-K-2 site. During its period of operation, the 116-K-2 site was used to dispose of cooling water effluent from the 105-KE and 105-KW Reactors by percolation into the soil. This site also received mixed liquid wastes from the 105-KW and 105-KE fuel storage basins, reactor floor drains, and miscellaneous decontamination activities.

  10. Recent Advances in Electronic and Optoelectronic Devices Based on Two-Dimensional Transition Metal Dichalcogenides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingxiao Ye

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (2D TMDCs offer several attractive features for use in next-generation electronic and optoelectronic devices. Device applications of TMDCs have gained much research interest, and significant advancement has been recorded. In this review, the overall research advancement in electronic and optoelectronic devices based on TMDCs are summarized and discussed. In particular, we focus on evaluating field effect transistors (FETs, photovoltaic cells, light-emitting diodes (LEDs, photodetectors, lasers, and integrated circuits (ICs using TMDCs.

  11. Operator’s cognitive, communicative and operative activities based workload measurement of advanced main control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seunghwan; Kim, Yochan; Jung, Wondea

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • An advanced MMIS in the advanced MCR requires new roles and tasks of operators. • A new workload evaluation framework is needed for a new MMIS environment. • This work suggests a new workload measurement approach (COCOA) for an advanced MCR. • COCOA enables 3-dimensional measurement of cognition, communication and operation. • COCOA workload evaluation of the reference plant through simulation was performed. - Abstract: An advanced man–machine interface system (MMIS) with a computer-based procedure system and high-tech control/alarm system is installed in the advanced main control room (MCR) of a nuclear power plant. Accordingly, though the task of the operators has been changed a great deal, owing to a lack of appropriate guidelines on the role allocation or communication method of the operators, operators should follow the operating strategies of conventional MCR and the problem of an unbalanced workload for each operator can be raised. Thus, it is necessary to enhance the operation capability and improve the plant safety by developing guidelines on the role definition and communication of operators in an advanced MCR. To resolve this problem, however, a method for measuring the workload according to the work execution of the operators is needed, but an applicable method is not available. In this research, we propose a COgnitive, Communicative and Operational Activities measurement approach (COCOA) to measure and evaluate the workload of operators in an advanced MCR. This paper presents the taxonomy for additional operation activities of the operators to use the computerized procedures and soft control added to an advanced MCR, which enables an integrated measurement of the operator workload in various dimensions of cognition, communication, and operation. To check the applicability of COCOA, we evaluated the operator workload of an advanced MCR of a reference power plant through simulation training experiments. As a result, the amount

  12. Application of graphene for the SPE clean-up of organophosphorus pesticides residues from apple juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qiang; Wang, Zonghua; Xia, Jianfei; Zhang, Xiaoqiong; Wang, Hongwu; Ding, Mingyu

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, an effective graphene-based SPE clean-up procedure coupled with GC-MS was developed for the determination of organophosphorus pesticide residues in apple juices. The apple juice samples were diluted with water and could be loaded onto the cartridge directly. Several parameters affecting the extraction efficiency were investigated, including the type of elution, washing solution, and sample pH. Under the optimized conditions, excellent limits of quantitation for the target analytes were found to be 0.15-1.18 ng/mL, and the average recoveries of the analytes at two spiked levels for real-sample analysis ranged from 69.8 to 106.2% with RSDs less than 7.3%. Furthermore, the graphene-based cartridges exhibited superior reusability for juice sample analysis. The proposed method is sensitive, simple, and cost saving, and provides a detection platform for the monitoring of pesticide residues.

  13. Principles and techniques in the design of ADMS+. [advanced data-base management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussopoulos, Nick; Kang, Hyunchul

    1986-01-01

    'ADMS+/-' is an advanced data base management system whose architecture integrates the ADSM+ mainframe data base system with a large number of work station data base systems, designated ADMS-; no communications exist between these work stations. The use of this system radically decreases the response time of locally processed queries, since the work station runs in a single-user mode, and no dynamic security checking is required for the downloaded portion of the data base. The deferred update strategy used reduces overhead due to update synchronization in message traffic.

  14. Science based integrated approach to advanced nuclear fuel development - vision, approach, and overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unal, Cetin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pasamehmetoglu, Kemal [IDAHO NATIONAL LAB; Carmack, Jon [IDAHO NATIONAL LAB

    2010-01-01

    Advancing the performance of Light Water Reactors, Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles, and Advanced Rcactors, such as the Next Generation Nuclear Power Plants, requires enhancing our fundamental understanding of fuel and materials behavior under irradiation. The capability to accurately model the nuclear fuel systems is critical. In order to understand specific aspects of the nuclear fuel, fully coupled fuel simulation codes are required to achieve licensing of specific nuclear fuel designs for operation. The backbone of these codes, models, and simulations is a fundamental understanding and predictive capability for simulating the phase and microstructural behavior of the nuclear fuel system materials and matrices. The purpose of this paper is to identify the modeling and simulation approach in order to deliver predictive tools for advanced fuels development. The coordination between experimental nuclear fuel design, development technical experts, and computational fuel modeling and simulation technical experts is a critical aspect of the approach and naturally leads to an integrated, goal-oriented science-based R & D approach and strengthens both the experimental and computational efforts. The Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) and Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Fuels Integrated Performance and Safety Code (IPSC) are working together to determine experimental data and modeling needs. The primary objective of the NEAMS fuels IPSC project is to deliver a coupled, three-dimensional, predictive computational platform for modeling the fabrication and both normal and abnormal operation of nuclear fuel pins and assemblies, applicable to both existing and future reactor fuel designs. The science based program is pursuing the development of an integrated multi-scale and multi-physics modeling and simulation platform for nuclear fuels. This overview paper discusses the vision, goals and approaches how to develop and implement the new approach.

  15. Sustainability of evidence-based healthcare: research agenda, methodological advances, and infrastructure support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Enola; Luke, Douglas; Calhoun, Annaliese; McMillen, Curtis; Brownson, Ross; McCrary, Stacey; Padek, Margaret

    2015-06-11

    Little is known about how well or under what conditions health innovations are sustained and their gains maintained once they are put into practice. Implementation science typically focuses on uptake by early adopters of one healthcare innovation at a time. The later-stage challenges of scaling up and sustaining evidence-supported interventions receive too little attention. This project identifies the challenges associated with sustainability research and generates recommendations for accelerating and strengthening this work. A multi-method, multi-stage approach, was used: (1) identifying and recruiting experts in sustainability as participants, (2) conducting research on sustainability using concept mapping, (3) action planning during an intensive working conference of sustainability experts to expand the concept mapping quantitative results, and (4) consolidating results into a set of recommendations for research, methodological advances, and infrastructure building to advance understanding of sustainability. Participants comprised researchers, funders, and leaders in health, mental health, and public health with shared interest in the sustainability of evidence-based health care. Prompted to identify important issues for sustainability research, participants generated 91 distinct statements, for which a concept mapping process produced 11 conceptually distinct clusters. During the conference, participants built upon the concept mapping clusters to generate recommendations for sustainability research. The recommendations fell into three domains: (1) pursue high priority research questions as a unified agenda on sustainability; (2) advance methods for sustainability research; (3) advance infrastructure to support sustainability research. Implementation science needs to pursue later-stage translation research questions required for population impact. Priorities include conceptual consistency and operational clarity for measuring sustainability, developing evidence

  16. Public involvement in cleanup - the Rocky Flats experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paukert, J.; Pennock, S.; Schassburger, R.

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Rocky Flats Plant recently completed and implemented the Rocky Flats Plant Community Relations Plan for public involvement in environmental restoration of the site. The plan was developed in cooperation with the plant's regulators, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Colorado Department of Health. In addition, citizens near the plant played a significant role in shaping the document through extensive community interviews and public comment. The result of these cooperative efforts is a plan that meets and exceeds the applicable federal and state community relations requirements for a cleanup program. In fact, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has used the Rocky Flats Plant Community Relations Plants a model for similar plans at other federal facilities. Plan development, however, is only the starting point for an effective community relations effort. The Rocky Flats Plant and the public will face many challenges together as we implement the plan and build a partnership for addressing environmental cleanup issues. (author)

  17. New arrangement for the air cleanup system to recover tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, Masabumi; Takahashi, Kohsaku; Munakata, Kenzo; Fukada, Satoshi; Kotoh, Kenji; Takeishi, Toshiharu

    1997-01-01

    At present, the standard arrangement of the air cleanup system responsible for emergency tritium recovery from room air is a catalytic oxidation bed with a heater followed by an adsorption bed with a cooler. One disadvantage of this arrangement is that trouble with the heater or the cooler could result in a loss of capacity to recover tritium. Another disadvantage of the catalyst-adsorption-bed arrangement is that tritiated water must be recovered with a high decontamination factor after dilution with a large amount of water vapor in the working atmosphere. The performance of a new arrangement for the air cleanup system, which consists of a precious metal catalyst bed preceded by an adsorption bed without heating equipment, is discussed. According to calculations, most of the tritium released to the room air is recovered in the catalyst bed through oxidation, adsorption, and isotope exchange reaction when the new arrangement is applied. The adsorption bed placed before the catalyst bed dehumidifies the process gas to such a degree that the oxidation reaction of tritium in the catalyst bed is not hindered by water vapor. 15 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs

  18. An Advanced Compiler Designed for a VLIW DSP for Sensors-Based Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu He

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The VLIW architecture can be exploited to greatly enhance instruction level parallelism, thus it can provide computation power and energy efficiency advantages, which satisfies the requirements of future sensor-based systems. However, as VLIW codes are mainly compiled statically, the performance of a VLIW processor is dominated by the behavior of its compiler. In this paper, we present an advanced compiler designed for a VLIW DSP named Magnolia, which will be used in sensor-based systems. This compiler is based on the Open64 compiler. We have implemented several advanced optimization techniques in the compiler, and fulfilled the O3 level optimization. Benchmarks from the DSPstone test suite are used to verify the compiler. Results show that the code generated by our compiler can make the performance of Magnolia match that of the current state-of-the-art DSP processors.

  19. An advanced compiler designed for a VLIW DSP for sensors-based systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xu; He, Hu

    2012-01-01

    The VLIW architecture can be exploited to greatly enhance instruction level parallelism, thus it can provide computation power and energy efficiency advantages, which satisfies the requirements of future sensor-based systems. However, as VLIW codes are mainly compiled statically, the performance of a VLIW processor is dominated by the behavior of its compiler. In this paper, we present an advanced compiler designed for a VLIW DSP named Magnolia, which will be used in sensor-based systems. This compiler is based on the Open64 compiler. We have implemented several advanced optimization techniques in the compiler, and fulfilled the O3 level optimization. Benchmarks from the DSPstone test suite are used to verify the compiler. Results show that the code generated by our compiler can make the performance of Magnolia match that of the current state-of-the-art DSP processors.

  20. DECOMMISSIONING AND ENVRIONMENTAL CLEANUP OF SMALL ARMS TRAINING FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kmetz, T.

    2012-12-04

    USDOE performed a (CERCLA) non-time critical removal (NTCR) action at the Small Arms Training Area (SATA) Site Evaluation Area (SEA) located at the Savannah River Site (SRS), in Aiken, South Carolina. From 1951 to May 2010, the SATA was used as a small weapons practice and qualifying firing range. The SATA consisted of 870.1 ha (2,150 ac) of woodlands and open field, of which approximately 2.9 ha (7.3 ac) were used as a firing range. The SATA facility was comprised of three small arms ranges (one static and two interactive), storage buildings for supplies, a weapons cleaning building, and a control building. Additionally, a 113- m (370-ft) long earthen berm was used as a target backstop during live-fire exercises. The berm soils accumulated a large amount of spent lead bullets in the berm face during the facilities 59- years of operation. The accumulation of lead was such that soil concentrations exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) residential and industrial worker regional screening levels (RSLs). The RSL threshold values are based on standardized exposure scenarios that estimate contaminant concentrations in soil that the USEPA considers protective of humans over a lifetime. For the SATA facility, lead was present in soil at concentrations that exceed both the current residential (400 mg/kg) and industrial (800 mg/kg) RSLs. In addition, the concentration of lead in the soil exceeded the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) (40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] 261.24) regulatory limit. The TCLP analysis simulates landfill conditions and is designed to determine the mobility of contaminants in waste. In addition, a principal threat source material (PTSM) evaluation, human health risk assessment (HHRA), and contaminant migration (CM) analysis were conducted to evaluate soil contamination at the SATA SEA. This evaluation determined that there were no contaminants present that constitute PTSM and the CM analysis revealed that no

  1. Prototype Tool and Focus Group Evaluation for an Advanced Trajectory-Based Operations Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerreiro, Nelson M.; Jones, Denise R.; Barmore, Bryan E.; Butler, Ricky W.; Hagen, George E.; Maddalon, Jeffrey M.; Ahmad, Nash'at N.

    2017-01-01

    Trajectory-based operations (TBO) is a key concept in the Next Generation Air Transportation System transformation of the National Airspace System (NAS) that will increase the predictability and stability of traffic flows, support a common operational picture through the use of digital data sharing, facilitate more effective collaborative decision making between airspace users and air navigation service providers, and enable increased levels of integrated automation across the NAS. NASA has been developing trajectory-based systems to improve the efficiency of the NAS during specific phases of flight and is now also exploring Advanced 4-Dimensional Trajectory (4DT) operational concepts that will integrate these technologies and incorporate new technology where needed to create both automation and procedures to support gate-to-gate TBO. A TBO Prototype simulation toolkit has been developed that demonstrates initial functionality of an Advanced 4DT TBO concept. Pilot and controller subject matter experts (SMEs) were brought to the Air Traffic Operations Laboratory at NASA Langley Research Center for discussions on an Advanced 4DT operational concept and were provided an interactive demonstration of the TBO Prototype using four example scenarios. The SMEs provided feedback on potential operational, technological, and procedural opportunities and concerns. This paper describes an Advanced 4DT operational concept, the TBO Prototype, the demonstration scenarios and methods used, and the feedback obtained from the pilot and controller SMEs in this focus group activity.

  2. Historical Waste Retrieval and Clean-up Operations at Nuclear facility no.56, at the Cadarache Nuclear Research Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santucci, C.

    2008-01-01

    Among the different activities of the CEA research centre in Cadarache, located in the south of France, one of the most important involves cleaning, cleansing dismantling, decommissioning, and recovery of legacy wastes. This presentation will give an overview of the waste retrieval project from the historical interim storage facility called INB 56. The project is divided into three different sub-projects: the historical unpacked waste retrieval, the historical canister retrieval and the draining and clean-up of the spent fuel pools. All the described operations are conducted in accordance with the ALARA principle and the optimization of the waste categorization. The overall project, including the complete clean-up of the facility and its de-licensing, is due to end by 2020. The aim of this document is to outline the general ongoing historical waste retrieval operations and future projects on the INB 56 at the Cadarache research centre. In the final analysis, it can be seen that most of the waste is to be sent to the new CEDRA facility. Nevertheless one major goal of this project is to optimize the waste categorization and therefore to send the canisters to the ANDRA LLW site whenever possible. Two means will allow us to reach this goal: - The sorting out of un-packed waste in order to constitute a LLW canister - A wide range of measurements (gamma spectrometry, neutron measurement, tomography) in order to assess the exact nature of the contents in the historical canisters. Taking waste treatment and conditioning into account well in advance is a factor of prime importance that must be managed early in the elaboration of the decommissioning scenario. Precise knowledge of the physical and radiological inventories is of the utmost importance in defining the best waste pathway. Overall operations on the facility are due to end by 2020 including complete clean-up of the facility and its de-licensing

  3. Status of Pesticides and Degradation Products in Soil After Clean-up ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The status of pesticide residues in soil samples collected from a former storage site one year after clean-up of stockpiles and treatment with NaOH was investigated. The analytes were extracted from samples by pressurized fluid extraction using n-hexane:acetone (75:25) mixture. Clean-up of extracts was conducted by ...

  4. Health literacy: a study of internet-based information on advance directives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Peter

    2017-11-28

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality and value of web-based information on advance directives. Internet-based information on advance directives was selected because, if it is inaccurate or difficult to understand, patients risk making decisions about their care that may not be followed in practice. Two validated health information evaluation tools, the Suitability Assessment of Materials and DISCERN, and a focus group were used to assess credibility, user orientation and effectiveness. Only one of the 34 internet-based information items on advance directives reviewed fulfilled the study criteria and 30% of the sites were classed as unreadable. In terms of learning and informing, 79% of the sites were considered unsuitable. Using health literacy tools to evaluate internet-based health information highlights that often it is not at a functional literacy level and neither informs nor empowers users to make independent and valid healthcare decisions. ©2017 RCN Publishing Company Ltd. All rights reserved. Not to be copied, transmitted or recorded in any way, in whole or part, without prior permission of the publishers.

  5. CE: Original Research: Creating an Evidence-Based Progression for Clinical Advancement Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Kathleen G; Johnson, Tonya; Sites, Christine; Barnsteiner, Jane

    2017-05-01

    : Background: The Institute of Medicine (IOM) and the Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN) project have identified six nursing competencies and supported their integration into undergraduate and graduate nursing curricula nationwide. But integration of those competencies into clinical practice has been limited, and evidence for the progression of competency proficiency within clinical advancement programs is scant. Using an evidence-based approach and building on the competencies identified by the IOM and QSEN, a team of experts at an academic health system developed eight competency domains and 186 related knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs) for professional nursing practice. The aim of our study was to validate the eight identified competencies and 186 related KSAs and determine their developmental progression within a clinical advancement program. Using the Delphi technique, nursing leadership validated the newly identified competency domains and KSAs as essential to practice. Clinical experts from 13 Magnet-designated hospitals with clinical advancement programs then participated in Delphi rounds aimed at reaching consensus on the developmental progression of the 186 KSAs through four levels of clinical advancement. Two Delphi rounds resulted in consensus by the expert participants. All eight competency domains were determined to be essential at all four levels of clinical practice. At the novice level of practice, the experts identified a greater number of KSAs in the domains of safety and patient- and family-centered care. At more advanced practice levels, the experts identified a greater number of KSAs in the domains of professionalism, teamwork, technology and informatics, and continuous quality improvement. Incorporating the eight competency domains and the 186 KSAs into a framework for clinical advancement programs will likely result in more clearly defined role expectations; enhance accountability; and elevate and promote nursing practice

  6. Evaluation of secondary-system layup and cleanup practices and processes. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleary, W.F.

    1983-04-01

    The study of PWR secondary system layup and cleanup practices was undertaken to evaluate current and proposed methods of corrosion product control associated with extended plant outages. The overall goal was to evaluate means for significantly minimizing the steam generator sludge burden. The study included a field survey of 14 representative PWR plants, an extensive literature search and an evaluation of corrosion product transport data. Recommendations for layup and cleanup system processes were derived from these practices and related information. Estimates of the potential benefits to be expected in the control of corrosion products by controlled layup environments during extended outages and by cleanup following such outages are provided. Cleanup during all, or most, phases of operation is indicated as being most beneficial. Layup and cleanup system process design information is also provided

  7. Economic Consequences of a Rad/Nuc Attack: Cleanup Standards Significantly Affect Cost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichmuth, Barbara A.; Short, Steven M.; Wood, Thomas W.; Rutz, Frederick C.; Schwartz, Deborah S.

    2005-04-27

    These economic consequences are highly dependant on the magnitude of the weapon event. The cost to cleanup/remediate an area will depend on the cleanup standard applied to the event. Cleanup costs are highly sensitive to specific standards and need policy level attention. There are currently no cleanup standards for RDD events so the EPA standards would apply defacto. This paper offers an economic perspective on the magnitude of the economic consequences for a potential target in New York City with an emphasis on cost sensitivity as the cleanup standard changes. A comparison is made of the cost to remediate the area to the current standards under CERCLA and the EPA Protective action guidelines.

  8. Morning light cleanup and recovery operation: simulation studies of possible reactor fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landingham, R.L.; Casey, A.W.

    1978-01-01

    The nuclear fuel for Cosmos 954, the orbiting Russian reactor that broke up on reentry during January of 1978, has been identified as a U--Mo alloy containing about 10 wt% molybdenum. Identification was based on a combination of simulation studies at LLL, examination of fuel debris at Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment (WNRE), Pinawa, Manitoba, and reactor technology knowledge. In the LLL simulation studies, mixtures of uranium, molybdenum, and UO 2 were heated under conditions that simulated reentry and then examined by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometry, and x-ray diffraction. These studies indicated metallic behavior and suggested a U--Mo alloy. The identification was useful in assisting the Canadians in recovery, cleanup, and health/safety activities associated with the radioactive debris, which was scattered over a wide region of the Great Slave Lake

  9. Advancement of mass spectrometry-based proteomics technologies to explore triple negative breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Sayem; Banks, Charles A S; Adams, Mark K; Florens, Laurence; Lukong, Kiven E; Washburn, Michael P

    2016-12-20

    Understanding the complexity of cancer biology requires extensive information about the cancer proteome over the course of the disease. The recent advances in mass spectrometry-based proteomics technologies have led to the accumulation of an incredible amount of such proteomic information. This information allows us to identify protein signatures or protein biomarkers, which can be used to improve cancer diagnosis, prognosis and treatment. For example, mass spectrometry-based proteomics has been used in breast cancer research for over two decades to elucidate protein function. Breast cancer is a heterogeneous group of diseases with distinct molecular features that are reflected in tumour characteristics and clinical outcomes. Compared with all other subtypes of breast cancer, triple-negative breast cancer is perhaps the most distinct in nature and heterogeneity. In this review, we provide an introductory overview of the application of advanced proteomic technologies to triple-negative breast cancer research.

  10. Effects of System Characteristics on Adopting Web-Based Advanced Traveller Information System: Evidence from Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Wei Lin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a behavioural intention model that integrates information quality, response time, and system accessibility into the original technology acceptance model (TAM to investigate whether system characteristics affect the adoption of Web-based advanced traveller information systems (ATIS. This study empirically tests the proposed model using data collected from an online survey of Web-based advanced traveller information system users. Con­firmatory factor analysis (CFA was performed to examine the reliability and validity of the measurement model, and structural equation modelling (SEM was used to evaluate the structural model. The results indicate that three system characteristics had indirect effects on the intention to use through perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and attitude toward using. Information quality was the most im­portant system characteristic factor, followed by response time and system accessibility. This study presents implica­tions for practitioners and researchers, and suggests direc­tions for future research.

  11. Optimal allocation of selected T-series advanced base functional component equipment packages

    OpenAIRE

    Weitz, Jeffrey D.

    2000-01-01

    Advanced Base Functional Components (ABFCs) are pre-planned modular units of equipment and personnel designed to extend or create the logistic infrastructure required to support naval expeditionary operations. The ABFC program is structured to combine trained personnel with the equipment needed to perform a particular logistic mission such as seaport operations and cargo handling, warehousing, or freight terminal operations. If the ABFC must deploy to a theater of operations, individual equip...

  12. On-capillary sample cleanup method for the electrophoretic determination of carbohydrates in juice samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Cid, Gabriel; Simonet, Bartolomé M; Cárdenas, Soledad; Valcárcel, Miguel

    2007-05-01

    On many occasions, sample treatment is a critical step in electrophoretic analysis. As an alternative to batch procedures, in this work, a new strategy is presented with a view to develop an on-capillary sample cleanup method. This strategy is based on the partial filling of the capillary with carboxylated single-walled carbon nanotube (c-SWNT). The nanoparticles retain interferences from the matrix allowing the determination and quantification of carbohydrates (viz glucose, maltose and fructose). The precision of the method for the analysis of real samples ranged from 5.3 to 6.4%. The proposed method was compared with a method based on a batch filtration of the juice sample through diatomaceous earth and further electrophoretic determination. This method was also validated in this work. The RSD for this other method ranged from 5.1 to 6%. The results obtained by both methods were statistically comparable demonstrating the accuracy of the proposed methods and their effectiveness. Electrophoretic separation of carbohydrates was achieved using 200 mM borate solution as a buffer at pH 9.5 and applying 15 kV. During separation, the capillary temperature was kept constant at 40 degrees C. For the on-capillary cleanup method, a solution containing 50 mg/L of c-SWNTs prepared in 300 mM borate solution at pH 9.5 was introduced for 60 s into the capillary just before sample introduction. For the electrophoretic analysis of samples cleaned in batch with diatomaceous earth, it is also recommended to introduce into the capillary, just before the sample, a 300 mM borate solution as it enhances the sensitivity and electrophoretic resolution.

  13. Environmental Assessment For Cleanup and Closure of the Energy Technology Engineering Center. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2003-03-01

    DOE analyzed two cleanup and closure alternatives and the No Action Alternative, in accordance with the Council on Environmental Quality regulations implementing NEPA (40 CFR Parts 1500-1508) and DOE's NEPA implementing regulations (10 CFR Part 1021). Under Alternative 1, DOE is proposing to clean up the remaining ETEC facilities using the existing site specific cleanup standard of 15 mrem/yr. (plus DOE's As Low As Reasonably Achievable--ALARA-principle) for decontamination of radiological facilities and surrounding soils (Alternative 1). An annual 15-millirem additional radiation dose to the maximally exposed individual (assumed to be an individual living in a residential setting on Area IV) from all exposure pathways (air, soil, groundwater) equates to an additional theoretical lifetime cancer risk of no more than 3 x 10-4 (3 in 10,000). For perspective, it is estimated that the average individual in the United States receives a dose of about 300 millirem each year from natural sources of radiation. However, actual exposures generally will be much lower as a result of the application of the ''as low as reasonably achievable'' (ALARA) principle. Based on post-remediation verification sampling previous cleanups have generally resulted in a 2 x 10-6 level of residual risk. DOE would decontaminate, decommission, and demolish the remaining radiological facilities. DOE would also decommission and demolish the one remaining sodium facility and all of the remaining uncontaminated support buildings for which it is responsible. The ongoing RCRA corrective action program, including groundwater treatment (interim measures), would continue. Other environmental impacts would include 2.5 x 10-3 fatalities as a result of LLW shipments and 6.0 x 10-3 fatalities as a result of emission exhaust from all shipments. DOE would also decommission and demolish the remaining sodium facility and decommission and

  14. Advanced Materials for Health Monitoring with Skin-Based Wearable Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Han; Abu-Raya, Yasmin Shibli; Haick, Hossam

    2017-06-01

    Skin-based wearable devices have a great potential that could result in a revolutionary approach to health monitoring and diagnosing disease. With continued innovation and intensive attention to the materials and fabrication technologies, development of these healthcare devices is progressively encouraged. This article gives a concise, although admittedly non-exhaustive, didactic review of some of the main concepts and approaches related to recent advances and developments in the scope of skin-based wearable devices (e.g. temperature, strain, biomarker-analysis werable devices, etc.), with an emphasis on emerging materials and fabrication techniques in the relevant fields. To give a comprehensive statement, part of the review presents and discusses different aspects of these advanced materials, such as the sensitivity, biocompatibility and durability as well as the major approaches proposed for enhancing their chemical and physical properties. A complementary section of the review linking these advanced materials with wearable device technologies is particularly specified. Some of the strong and weak points in development of each wearable material/device are highlighted and criticized. Several ideas regarding further improvement of skin-based wearable devices are also discussed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Advanced Electrical Machines and Machine-Based Systems for Electric and Hybrid Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Cheng

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a number of advanced solutions on electric machines and machine-based systems for the powertrain of electric vehicles (EVs. Two types of systems are considered, namely the drive systems designated to the EV propulsion and the power split devices utilized in the popular series-parallel hybrid electric vehicle architecture. After reviewing the main requirements for the electric drive systems, the paper illustrates advanced electric machine topologies, including a stator permanent magnet (stator-PM motor, a hybrid-excitation motor, a flux memory motor and a redundant motor structure. Then, it illustrates advanced electric drive systems, such as the magnetic-geared in-wheel drive and the integrated starter generator (ISG. Finally, three machine-based implementations of the power split devices are expounded, built up around the dual-rotor PM machine, the dual-stator PM brushless machine and the magnetic-geared dual-rotor machine. As a conclusion, the development trends in the field of electric machines and machine-based systems for EVs are summarized.

  16. Human Factors Engineering (HFE) insights for advanced reactors based upon operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, J.; Nasta, K.

    1997-01-01

    The NRC Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model (HFE PRM, NUREG-0711) was developed to support a design process review for advanced reactor design certification under 10CFR52. The HFE PRM defines ten fundamental elements of a human factors engineering program. An Operating Experience Review (OER) is one of these elements. The main purpose of an OER is to identify potential safety issues from operating plant experience and ensure that they are addressed in a new design. Broad-based experience reviews have typically been performed in the past by reactor designers. For the HFE PRM the intent is to have a more focussed OER that concentrates on HFE issues or experience that would be relevant to the human-system interface (HSI) design process for new advanced reactors. This document provides a detailed list of HFE-relevant operating experience pertinent to the HSI design process for advanced nuclear power plants. This document is intended to be used by NRC reviewers as part of the HFE PRM review process in determining the completeness of an OER performed by an applicant for advanced reactor design certification. 49 refs

  17. Integrated Systems-Based Approach for Reaching Acceptable End Points for Groundwater - 13629

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M. Hope; Wellman, Dawn; Truex, Mike; Freshley, Mark D.; Sorenson, Kent S. Jr.; Wymore, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    The sheer mass and nature of contaminated materials at DOE and DoD sites, makes it impractical to completely restore these sites to pre-disposal conditions. DOE faces long-term challenges, particularly with developing monitoring and end state approaches for clean-up that are protective of the environment, technically based and documented, sustainable, and most importantly cost effective. Integrated systems-based monitoring approaches (e.g., tools for characterization and monitoring, multi-component strategies, geophysical modeling) could provide novel approaches and a framework to (a) define risk-informed endpoints and/or conditions that constitute completion of cleanup and (b) provide the understanding for implementation of advanced scientific approaches to meet cleanup goals. Multi-component strategies which combine site conceptual models, biological, chemical, and physical remediation strategies, as well as iterative review and optimization have proven successful at several DOE sites. Novel tools such as enzyme probes and quantitative PCR for DNA and RNA, and innovative modeling approaches for complex subsurface environments, have been successful at facilitating the reduced operation or shutdown of pump and treat facilities and transition of clean-up activities into monitored natural attenuation remedies. Integrating novel tools with site conceptual models and other lines of evidence to characterize, optimize, and monitor long term remedial approaches for complex contaminant plumes are critical for transitioning active remediation into cost effective, yet technically defensible endpoint strategies. (authors)

  18. The Role Of Land Use In Environmental Decision Making At Three DOE Mega-Cleanup Sites, Fernald, Rocky Flats, and Mound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jewett, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the role that future land use decisions have played in the establishment of cost-effective cleanup objectives and the setting of environmental media cleanup levels for the three major U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites for which cleanup has now been successfully completed: the Rocky Flats, Mound, and Fernald Closure Sites. At each site, there are distinct consensus-building histories throughout the following four phases: (1) the facility shut-down and site investigation phase, which took place at the completion of their Cold War nuclear-material production missions; (2) the decision-making phase, whereby stakeholder and regulatory-agency consensus was achieved for the future land-use-based environmental decisions confronting the sites; (3) the remedy selection phase, whereby appropriate remedial actions were identified to achieve the future land-use-based decisions; and (4) the implementation phase, whereby the selected remedial actions for these high-profile sites were implemented and successfully closed out. At each of the three projects, there were strained relationships and distrust between the local community and the DOE as a result of site contamination and potential health effects to the workers and local residents. To engage citizens and interested stakeholder groups - particularly in the role of final land use in the decision-making process, the site management teams at each respective site developed new public-participation strategies to open stakeholder communication channels with site leadership, technical staff, and the regulatory agencies. This action proved invaluable to the success of the projects and reaching consensus on appropriate levels of cleanup. With the implementation of the cleanup remedies now complete, each of the three DOE sites have become models for future environmental-remediation projects and associated decision making.

  19. The perception and experience of gender-based discrimination related to professional advancement among Japanese physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasukawa, Kosuke; Nomura, Kyoko

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies from the US have found that female physicians often experience gender-based discrimination related to professional advancement. In Japan, female physicians are underrepresented in leadership positions but little is known about the prevalence of gender discrimination. We investigated the perception and prevalence of gender-based career obstacles and discrimination among Japanese physicians. The study was based on surveys of alumnae from 13 medical schools and alumni from 3 medical schools. In total, 1,684 female and 808 male physicians completed a self-administered questionnaire (response rate 83% and 58%). More women than men had the perception of gender-based career obstacles for women (77% vs. 55%; p gender discrimination related to professional advancement (21% vs. 3%; p gender discrimination included age (p gender discrimination compared with younger women (OR 5.77, 95% CI: 1.83-18.24 for women above 50, and OR 3.2, 95% CI: 1.48-7.28 for women between 40 and 49) and women with PhD were more likely to experience gender discrimination (OR 4.23, 95% CI: 1.81-9.89). Our study demonstrated that a significant proportion of Japanese women experienced gender-based discrimination and perceived gender-based career obstacles compared with male physicians.

  20. Turning the Page: Advancing Paper-Based Microfluidics for Broad Diagnostic Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Max M; Sinton, David

    2017-06-28

    Infectious diseases are a major global health issue. Diagnosis is a critical first step in effectively managing their spread. Paper-based microfluidic diagnostics first emerged in 2007 as a low-cost alternative to conventional laboratory testing, with the goal of improving accessibility to medical diagnostics in developing countries. In this review, we examine the advances in paper-based microfluidic diagnostics for medical diagnosis in the context of global health from 2007 to 2016. The theory of fluid transport in paper is first presented. The next section examines the strategies that have been employed to control fluid and analyte transport in paper-based assays. Tasks such as mixing, timing, and sequential fluid delivery have been achieved in paper and have enabled analytical capabilities comparable to those of conventional laboratory methods. The following section examines paper-based sample processing and analysis. The most impactful advancement here has been the translation of nucleic acid analysis to a paper-based format. Smartphone-based analysis is another exciting development with potential for wide dissemination. The last core section of the review highlights emerging health applications, such as male fertility testing and wearable diagnostics. We conclude the review with the future outlook, remaining challenges, and emerging opportunities.

  1. Enhancement of mercury control in flue-gas cleanup systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livengood, C.D.; Huang, Hann S.; Mendelsohn, M.H.; Wu, Jiann M.

    1996-07-01

    This paper summarizes research at Argonne National Laboratory which is focused on techniques to enhance the capture of elemental mercury and integrate its control into existing flue-gas cleanup (FGC) systems. Both laboratory and field tests have shown that very little elemental mercury is captured in a wet scrubber system due to the low solubility of that species. To enhance the ability of wet scrubbers to capture mercury, Argonne has studied improved mass transfer through both mechanical and chemical means, as well as the conversion of elemental mercury into a more soluble species that can be easily absorbed. Current research is investigating the roles of several halogen species either alone or in combination with typical flue-gas components such as sulfur dioxide and nitric oxide in the oxidation of mercury to form compounds that are easily scrubbed from the flue gas.

  2. Williston Reservoir: Site preparation and post-flood cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loose, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    Williston Reservoir is the second largest in Canada and ranks ninth on the world scale. It was formed by the construction of the W.A.C. Bennet Dam and is the most important hydroelectric storage reservoir and largest body of fresh water in British Columbia. Site preparation for the reservoir began in 1962, with pre-flood clearing involving salvage of merchantable timber, handfalling, machine downing, burning of slash and burial. Post-flood cleanup included timber salvage, bailing and burning debris, tractor piling and burning, crane piling in shallows, underwater cutting, and hand cutting during low drawdown. Various types of floating debris have presented problems for recreational use, log booming and transport, waterways and aviation. Protection of the spillway is accomplished with a floating boom upstream of the channel. Administration, funding, forest clearance, salvage methods, clearing standards, wood volumes, project costs, environmental concerns, and future priorities are discussed. 5 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Oil spill cleanup in severe weather and open ocean conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalski, T.

    1993-01-01

    Most serious oil spills occur in open water under severe weather conditions. At first the oil stays on the surface, where it is spread by winds and water currents. The action of the waves then mixes the oil into the water column. With time the light elements of crude oil evaporate. The remaining residue is of very low commercial value, but of significant environmental impact. The oil spill can move either out to sea or inshore, where it ends up on the beaches. Normal procedures are to let outbound oil disperse by evaporation and mixing into the water column, and to let the inbound oil collect on the beaches, where the cleanup operations are concentrated. The reason for this is that there is no capability to clean the surface of the water in wave conditions-present-day oil skimmers are ineffective in waves approaching 4 ft in height. It would be simpler, more effective and environmentally more beneficial to skim the oil right at the spill location. This paper describes a method to do this. In the case of an oil spill in open water and high wave conditions, it is proposed to reduce the height of the ocean waves by the use of floating breakwaters to provide a relatively calm area. In such protected areas existing oil skimmers can be used to recover valuable oil and clean up the spill long before it hits the beaches. A floating breakwater developed at the University of Rhode Island by the author can be of great benefit in oil spill cleanup for open ocean conditions. This breakwater is constructed from scrap automobile tires. It is built in units of 20 tires each, which are easily transportable and can be connected together at the spill site to form any desired configuration

  4. Fiber Optic Surface Plasmon Resonance-Based Biosensor Technique: Fabrication, Advancement, and Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Gaoling; Luo, Zewei; Liu, Kunping; Wang, Yimin; Dai, Jianxiong; Duan, Yixiang

    2016-05-03

    Fiber optic-based biosensors with surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technology are advanced label-free optical biosensing methods. They have brought tremendous progress in the sensing of various chemical and biological species. This review summarizes four sensing configurations (prism, grating, waveguide, and fiber optic) with two ways, attenuated total reflection (ATR) and diffraction, to excite the surface plasmons. Meanwhile, the designs of different probes (U-bent, tapered, and other probes) are also described. Finally, four major types of biosensors, immunosensor, DNA biosensor, enzyme biosensor, and living cell biosensor, are discussed in detail for their sensing principles and applications. Future prospects of fiber optic-based SPR sensor technology are discussed.

  5. Evaluation of Water Quality Renovation by Advanced Soil-Based Wastewater Treatment Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, J.; Loomis, G.; Kalen, D.; Boving, T.; Morales, I.; DeLuca, J.; Amador, J.

    2013-12-01

    25% of US households utilize onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS) for wastewater management. Advanced technologies were designed to overcome the inadequate wastewater treatment by conventional OWTS in critical shallow water table areas, such as coastal zones, in order to protect ground water quality. In addition to the septic tank and soil drainfield that comprise a conventional OWTS, advanced systems claim improved water renovation with the addition of sand filtration, timed dosing controls, and shallow placement of the infiltrative zone. We determined water quality renovation functions under current water table and temperature conditions, in anticipation of an experiment to measure OWTS response to a climate change scenario of 30-cm increase in water table elevation and 4C temperature increase. Replicate (n=3) intact soil mesocosms were used to evaluate the effectiveness of drainfields with a conventional wastewater delivery (pipe-and-stone) compared to two types of pressurized, shallow narrow drainfield. Results under steady state conditions indicate complete removal of fecal coliform bacteria, phosphorus and BOD by all soil-based systems. By contrast, removal of total nitrogen inputs was 16% in conventional and 11% for both advanced drainfields. Effluent waters maintained a steady state pH between 3.2 - 3.7 for all technologies. Average DO readings were 2.9mg/L for conventional drainfield effluent and 4.6mg/L for advanced, showing the expected oxygen uptake with shallow placement of the infiltrative zone. The conventional OWTS is outperforming the advanced with respect to nitrogen removal, but renovating wastewater equivalently for all other contaminants of concern. The results of this study are expected to facilitate development of future OWTS regulation and planning guidelines, particularly in coastal zones and in the face of a changing climate.

  6. Nonintrusive Load Monitoring Based on Advanced Deep Learning and Novel Signature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihyun Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring electricity consumption in the home is an important way to help reduce energy usage. Nonintrusive Load Monitoring (NILM is existing technique which helps us monitor electricity consumption effectively and costly. NILM is a promising approach to obtain estimates of the electrical power consumption of individual appliances from aggregate measurements of voltage and/or current in the distribution system. Among the previous studies, Hidden Markov Model (HMM based models have been studied very much. However, increasing appliances, multistate of appliances, and similar power consumption of appliances are three big issues in NILM recently. In this paper, we address these problems through providing our contributions as follows. First, we proposed state-of-the-art energy disaggregation based on Long Short-Term Memory Recurrent Neural Network (LSTM-RNN model and additional advanced deep learning. Second, we proposed a novel signature to improve classification performance of the proposed model in multistate appliance case. We applied the proposed model on two datasets such as UK-DALE and REDD. Via our experimental results, we have confirmed that our model outperforms the advanced model. Thus, we show that our combination between advanced deep learning and novel signature can be a robust solution to overcome NILM’s issues and improve the performance of load identification.

  7. Recent advances in metal oxide-based electrode architecture design for electrochemical energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Jian; Liu, Jinping; Huang, Xintang [Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Department of Physics, Central China Normal University, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Li, Yuanyuan [School of Optical and Electronic Information, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Yuan, Changzhou; Lou, Xiong Wen [School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (China)

    2012-10-02

    Metal oxide nanostructures are promising electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors because of their high specific capacity/capacitance, typically 2-3 times higher than that of the carbon/graphite-based materials. However, their cycling stability and rate performance still can not meet the requirements of practical applications. It is therefore urgent to improve their overall device performance, which depends on not only the development of advanced electrode materials but also in a large part ''how to design superior electrode architectures''. In the article, we will review recent advances in strategies for advanced metal oxide-based hybrid nanostructure design, with the focus on the binder-free film/array electrodes. These binder-free electrodes, with the integration of unique merits of each component, can provide larger electrochemically active surface area, faster electron transport and superior ion diffusion, thus leading to substantially improved cycling and rate performance. Several recently emerged concepts of using ordered nanostructure arrays, synergetic core-shell structures, nanostructured current collectors, and flexible paper/textile electrodes will be highlighted, pointing out advantages and challenges where appropriate. Some future electrode design trends and directions are also discussed. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Recent advances in metal oxide-based electrode architecture design for electrochemical energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jian; Li, Yuanyuan; Liu, Jinping; Huang, Xintang; Yuan, Changzhou; Lou, Xiong Wen David

    2012-10-02

    Metal oxide nanostructures are promising electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors because of their high specific capacity/capacitance, typically 2-3 times higher than that of the carbon/graphite-based materials. However, their cycling stability and rate performance still can not meet the requirements of practical applications. It is therefore urgent to improve their overall device performance, which depends on not only the development of advanced electrode materials but also in a large part "how to design superior electrode architectures". In the article, we will review recent advances in strategies for advanced metal oxide-based hybrid nanostructure design, with the focus on the binder-free film/array electrodes. These binder-free electrodes, with the integration of unique merits of each component, can provide larger electrochemically active surface area, faster electron transport and superior ion diffusion, thus leading to substantially improved cycling and rate performance. Several recently emerged concepts of using ordered nanostructure arrays, synergetic core-shell structures, nanostructured current collectors, and flexible paper/textile electrodes will be highlighted, pointing out advantages and challenges where appropriate. Some future electrode design trends and directions are also discussed. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. An innovative approach to multimedia waste reduction: Measuring performance for environmental cleanup projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phifer, B.E. Jr.; George, S.M.

    1993-04-01

    One of the greatest challenges we now face in environmental cleanup is measuring the progress of minimizing multimedia transfer releases and achieving waste reduction. Briefly, multimedia transfer refers to the air, land, and water where pollution is not controlled, concentrated, and moved from one medium to another. An example of multimedia transfer would be heavy metals in wastewater sludges moved from water to land disposal. Over $2 billion has been budgeted for environmental restoration site cleanups by the Department of Energy (DOE) for FY 1994. Unless we reduce the huge waste volumes projected to be generated in the near future, then we will devote more and more resources to the management and disposal of these wastes. To meet this challenge, the Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge Environmental Restoration (ER) Program has explored the value of a multimedia approach by designing an innovative Pollution Prevention Life-Cycle Model. The model consists of several fundamental elements (Fig. 1) and addresses the two major objectives of data gathering and establishing performance measures. Because the majority of projects are in the remedial investigation phase, the focus is on the prevention of unnecessary generation of investigation-derived waste and multimedia transfers at the source. A state-of-the-art tool developed to support the life-cycle model for meeting these objectives is the Numerical Scoring System (NSS), which is a computerized, user-friendly data base system for information management, designed to measure the effectiveness of pollution prevention activities in each phase of the ER Program. This report contains a discussion of the development of the Pollution Prevention Life-Cycle Model and the role the NSS will play in the pollution prevention programs in the remedial investigation phase of the ER Program at facilities managed by Energy Systems for DOE

  10. The Savannah River Site Accelerated Cleanup Mission: Sludge Retrieval and Immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marra, S.L.

    2003-01-01

    Approximately 130 million liters of sludge/supernate high-level radioactive waste (HLW) is currently stored in underground carbon steel tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, South Carolina. The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) began immobilizing these wastes in borosilicate glass in 1996. Currently, the radioactive glass is being produced as a sludge-only composition by combining washed high-level sludge with glass frit and melting. The glass is poured into stainless steel canisters for eventual disposal in a permanent geological repository. Recent directives from the U.S. Department of Energy have been focused on accelerated clean-up missions for the various sites around the DOE complex. The Savannah River Site has developed a program to meet this new directive. With respect to the DWPF, a vision case has been developed which reduces the overall immobilization campaign by several years. This reduction is based on several parameters; two of which are increase s in melt rate and waste loading. To support this incentive, the Savannah River Technology Center is focusing on increasing waste loading and/or improving melt rates via strategic glass formulation, changes in acid addition strategies, and reassessing process control models to challenge their extreme conservatism. Glass formulation activities have recently shifted from the strategy of using generic frits developed to process a number of different sludge batches, to the concept of developing a specific frit for each sludge batch in order to obtain higher waste loadings and/or improved melt rates. Increases in waste loading have also been realized by the development of a new liquidus temperature model - a parameter which has typically limited waste loadings in previous processing. Coupling the new liquidus model with strategic glass formulations will result in an increase in overall waste throughput. Assessments are also being made on the potential to minimize the number of sludge w ashing

  11. Harmonic Analysis on Torque Ripple of Brushless DC Motor Based on Advanced Commutation Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanpeng Ji

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the relationship between current, back electromotive force (back-EMF, and torque for permanent-magnet brushless DC (PM BLDC motors under advanced commutation control from the perspective of harmonics. Considering that the phase current is the influencing factor of both torque and torque ripple, this paper firstly analyzes the effects of advanced commutation on phase current and current harmonics. And then, based on the harmonics of the phase current and back-EMF, the torque harmonic expressions are deduced. The expressions reveal the relationship of harmonic order between the torque, phase current, and back-EMF and highlight the different contribution of individual torque harmonic to the total torque ripple. Finally, the proposed harmonic analysis method is verified by the experiments with different speed and load conditions.

  12. Advances and Opportunities in Nanoparticle- and Nanomaterial-Based Vaccines against Bacterial Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Leon Chien-Wei; Chattopadhyay, Saborni; Lin, Jung-Chen; Hu, Che-Ming Jack

    2018-03-06

    As the dawn of the postantibiotic era we approach, antibacterial vaccines are becoming increasingly important for managing bacterial infection and reducing the need for antibiotics. Despite the success of vaccination, vaccines remain unavailable for many pressing microbial diseases, including tuberculosis, chlamydia, and staphylococcus infections. Amid continuing research efforts in antibacterial vaccine development, the advancement of nanomaterial engineering has brought forth new opportunities in vaccine designs. With increasing knowledge in antibacterial immunity and immunologic adjuvants, innovative nanoparticles are designed to elicit the appropriate immune responses for effective antimicrobial defense. Rationally designed nanoparticles are demonstrated to overcome delivery barriers to shape the adaptive immunity. This article reviews the advances in nanoparticle- and nanomaterial-based antibacterial vaccines and summarizes the development of nanoparticulate adjuvants for immune potentiation against microbial pathogens. In addition, challenges and progress in ongoing antibacterial vaccine development are discussed to highlight the opportunities for future vaccine designs. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Advances on Aryldiazonium Salt Chemistry Based Interfacial Fabrication for Sensing Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Chaomin; Zhang, Yin; Jiang, Cheng; Qi, Meng; Liu, Guozhen

    2017-02-15

    Aryldiazonium salts as coupling agents for surface chemistry have evidenced their wide applications for the development of sensors. Combined with advances in nanomaterials, current trends in sensor science and a variety of particular advantages of aryldiazonium salt chemistry in sensing have driven the aryldiazonium salt-based sensing strategies to grow at an astonishing pace. This review focuses on the advances in the use of aryldiazonium salts for modifying interfaces in sensors and biosensors during the past decade. It will first summarize the current methods for modification of interfaces with aryldiazonium salts, and then discuss the sensing applications of aryldiazonium salts modified on different transducers (bulky solid electrodes, nanomaterials modified bulky solid electrodes, and nanoparticles). Finally, the challenges and perspectives that aryldiazonium salt chemistry is facing in sensing applications are critically discussed.

  14. Automated multi-filtration cleanup with nitrogen-enriched activated carbon material as pesticide multi-residue analysis method in representative crop commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yuhong; Zhang, Jingru; Li, Yifan; Wang, Qiuxiao; Wu, Yangliu; Xu, Lanshu; Jin, Xiaojuan; Pan, Canping

    2017-09-15

    An automated multi-filtration cleanup (Auto m-FC) method with nitrogen-enriched activated carbon material based on modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) extracts was developed. It was applied to pesticide multi-residue analysis in six representative crop commodities. The automatic device was aimed to improve the cleanup efficiency and reduce manual operation workload in cleanup step. By controlling extracts volume, flow rate and Auto m-FC cycles, the device could finish cleanup process accurately. In this work, nitrogen-enriched activated carbon mixed with alternative sorbents and anhydrous magnesium sulfate (MgSO 4 ) was packed in a column for Auto m-FC and followed by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) detection. This newly developed carbon material showed excellent cleanup performance. It was validated by analyzing 23 pesticides in six representative matrices spiked at two concentration levels of 10 and 100μg/kg. Water addition volume, salts, sorbents, Auto m-FC procedure including the flow rate and the Auto m-FC cycles for each matrix were optimized. Then, three general Auto m-FC methods were introduced to high water content, high oil and starch content, difficult commodities. Spike recoveries were within 82 and 106% and 1-14% RSD for all analytes in the tested matrices. Matrix-matched calibrations were performed with the coefficients of determination over 0.997 between concentration levels of 10 and 1000μg/kg. The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of pesticide residues in market samples. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Transcription factor-based biosensors in high-throughput screening: advances and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Feng; Tang, Xiao-Ling; Kardashliev, Tsvetan

    2018-02-27

    The molecular mechanisms that cells use to sense changes in the intra- and extracellular environment are increasingly utilized in synthetic biology to build genetic reporter constructs for various applications. Although in nature sensing can be RNA-mediated, most existing genetically-encoded biosensors are based on transcription factors (TF) and cognate DNA sequences. Here, we discuss recent advances in the integration of TF-based biosensors in metabolic and protein engineering screens whereas distinction is made between production-driven and competitive screening systems for enzyme evolution under physiological conditions. Furthermore, the advantages and disadvantages of existing TF-based biosensors are examined with respects to dynamic range, sensitivity and robustness, and compared to other screening approaches. The application examples discussed in this review demonstrate the promising potential TF-based biosensors hold as screening tools in laboratory evolution of proteins and metabolic pathways, alike. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Development of sensors based on advanced micro- and nanostructured carbon materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza Centeno, Frank Willi

    The thesis is focused on the development of sensors based on advanced micro- and nano-structured carbon materials. In particular, we developed prototype diamond-based ultraviolet photodetectors and carbon nanotubes-based gas sensors. We describe the method of preparation and characterization of the active carbon-based materials and their structural and compositional characterizations. This is followed by the corresponding device fabrication and testing. The thesis briefly gives an introduction to our current understanding about carbon materials, with emphasis on synthetic diamond and bamboo-like carbon nanotubes, and to the materials' properties that are useful for ultraviolet photodetectors and gas sensor applications. The thesis also give an overview of the experience gained through this research, and some suggestions for those who would like follow the research methods employ here. It provides experimental information learned through experience that may be helpful and avoid delays to the newer experimentalists.

  17. Advances in Reasoning-Based Image Processing Intelligent Systems Conventional and Intelligent Paradigms

    CERN Document Server

    Nakamatsu, Kazumi

    2012-01-01

    The book puts special stress on the contemporary techniques for reasoning-based image processing and analysis: learning based image representation and advanced video coding; intelligent image processing and analysis in medical vision systems; similarity learning models for image reconstruction; visual perception for mobile robot motion control, simulation of human brain activity in the analysis of video sequences; shape-based invariant features extraction; essential of paraconsistent neural networks, creativity and intelligent representation in computational systems. The book comprises 14 chapters. Each chapter is a small monograph, representing resent investigations of authors in the area. The topics of the chapters cover wide scientific and application areas and complement each-other very well. The chapters’ content is based on fundamental theoretical presentations, followed by experimental results and comparison with similar techniques. The size of the chapters is well-ballanced which permits a thorough ...

  18. Recent Advances in the Synthesis of Graphene-Based Nanomaterials for Controlled Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuqing Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Graphene-based nanomaterials have exhibited wide applications in nanotechnology, materials science, analytical science, and biomedical engineering due to their unique physical and chemical properties. In particular, graphene has been an excellent nanocarrier for drug delivery application because of its two-dimensional structure, large surface area, high stability, good biocompatibility, and easy surface modification. In this review, we present the recent advances in the synthesis and drug delivery application of graphene-based nanomaterials. The modification of graphene and the conjugation of graphene with other materials, such as small molecules, nanoparticles, polymers, and biomacromolecules as functional nanohybrids are introduced. In addition, the controlled drug delivery with the fabricated graphene-based nanomaterials are demonstrated in detail. It is expected that this review will guide the chemical modification of graphene for designing novel functional nanohybrids. It will also promote the potential applications of graphene-based nanomaterials in other biomedical fields, like biosensing and tissue engineering.

  19. Enhancing Reading Comprehension of Iranian Advanced EFL Learners through Task-based Reading Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Fallah Golchin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Language learning has experienced a shift of focus from a form-focused to a meaning-focused approach, and the necessity of using task-based learning, a relatively recent approach, has emerged. The vital role of task-based materials makes it obligatory not to exclude them from the language learning syllabi.  The current study aims at investigating whether task-based reading can contribute significantly to the development of reading comprehension of Iranian advanced EFL learners of English. An experimental study was carried out in order to scrutinize the applicability of task-based language teaching. To this end, 60 female advanced EFL learners, selected from among a pool of 100 learners, were assigned equally and randomly into two groups of thirty, consisting of an experimental and a control group. The selection of the participants was based on the results of a standard and piloted version of Paper-based TOEFL. The participant’s mean age was about 23, ranging from 20 to 27 years of age. Both groups received a pretest and a post-test of reading. During the treatment period the experimental group received task-based reading activities while the control group received reading instructions through traditional methods. The impact of the treatment upon the reading comprehension ability of the participants was analyzed through an independent-samples t-test, and comparisons between groups were made. The results clearly indicated the development of reading comprehension ability of the participants in the first group (the experimental group through the application of task-based reading activities.

  20. Base Stock Policy in a Join-Type Production Line with Advanced Demand Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraiwa, Mikihiko; Tsubouchi, Satoshi; Nakade, Koichi

    Production control such as the base stock policy, the kanban policy and the constant work-in-process policy in a serial production line has been studied by many researchers. Production lines, however, usually have fork-type, join-type or network-type figures. In addition, in most previous studies on production control, a finished product is required at the same time as arrival of demand at the system. Demand information is, however, informed before due date in practice. In this paper a join-type (assembly) production line under base stock control with advanced demand information in discrete time is analyzed. The recursive equations for the work-in-process are derived. The heuristic algorithm for finding appropriate base stock levels of all machines at short time is proposed and the effect of advanced demand information is examined by simulation with the proposed algorithm. It is shown that the inventory cost can decreases with little backlogs by using the appropriate amount of demand information and setting appropriate base stock levels.

  1. Deep Learning for Detection of Object-Based Forgery in Advanced Video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Yao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Passive video forensics has drawn much attention in recent years. However, research on detection of object-based forgery, especially for forged video encoded with advanced codec frameworks, is still a great challenge. In this paper, we propose a deep learning-based approach to detect object-based forgery in the advanced video. The presented deep learning approach utilizes a convolutional neural network (CNN to automatically extract high-dimension features from the input image patches. Different from the traditional CNN models used in computer vision domain, we let video frames go through three preprocessing layers before being fed into our CNN model. They include a frame absolute difference layer to cut down temporal redundancy between video frames, a max pooling layer to reduce computational complexity of image convolution, and a high-pass filter layer to enhance the residual signal left by video forgery. In addition, an asymmetric data augmentation strategy has been established to get a similar number of positive and negative image patches before the training. The experiments have demonstrated that the proposed CNN-based model with the preprocessing layers has achieved excellent results.

  2. A program optimization system for the cleanup of DOE hazardous waste sites an application to FY 1990 funding decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merkhofer, M.W.; Jenni, K.E.; Cotton, T.A.; Lehr, J.C.; Longo, T.P.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes a formal system used by the Department of Energy (DOE) as an aid for allocating funds for cleaning up hazardous waste sites. The system, called the Program Optimization System (POS), is based on multiattribute utility analysis and was developed for DOE's Hazardous Waste and Remedial Actions Division (HWRAD). HWRAD has responsibility for recommending environmental restoration (ER) activities to the Assistant Secretary of Energy. Recently, the POS was used to analyze and recommend funding levels for FY 1990 cleanup activities at DOE defense program facilities

  3. Potential Biotechnological Strategies for the Cleanup of Heavy Metals and Metalloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kareem A. Mosa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Global mechanization, urbanization and various natural processes have led to the increased release of toxic compounds into the biosphere. These hazardous toxic pollutants include a variety of organic and inorganic compounds, which pose a serious threat to the ecosystem. The contamination of soil and water are the major environmental concerns in the present scenario. This leads to a greater need for remediation of contaminated soils and water with suitable approaches and mechanisms. The conventional remediation of contaminated sites commonly involves the physical removal of contaminants, and their disposition. Physical remediation strategies are expensive, non-specific and often make the soil unsuitable for agriculture and other uses by disturbing the microenvironment. Owing to these concerns, there has been increased interest in eco-friendly and sustainable approaches such as bioremediation, phytoremediation and rhizomediation for the cleanup of contaminated sites. This review lays particular emphasis on biotechnological approaches and strategies for heavy metal and metalloid containment removal from the environment, highlighting the advances and implications of bioremediation and phytoremediation as well as their utilization in cleaning-up toxic pollutants from contaminated environments.

  4. Integrated DNA purification, PCR, sample cleanup, and capillary electrophoresis microchip for forensic human identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng; Li, Xiujun; Greenspoon, Susan A; Scherer, James R; Mathies, Richard A

    2011-03-21

    A fully integrated microdevice and process for forensic short tandem repeat (STR) analysis has been developed that includes sequence-specific DNA template purification, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), post-PCR cleanup and inline injection, and capillary electrophoresis (CE). Fragmented genomic DNA is hybridized with biotin-labeled capture oligos and pumped through a fluidized bed of magnetically immobilized streptavidin-coated beads in microchannels where the target DNA is bound to the beads. The bead-DNA conjugates are then transferred into a 250 nL PCR reactor for autosomal STR amplification using one biotin and one fluorescence-labeled primer. The resulting biotin-labeled PCR products are electrophoretically injected through a streptavidin-modified capture gel where they are captured to form a concentrated and purified injection plug. The thermally released sample plug is injected into a 14 cm long CE column for fragment separation and detection. The DNA template capture efficiency provided by the on-chip sequence-specific template purification is determined to be 5.4% using K562 standard DNA. This system can produce full 9-plex STR profiles from 2.5 ng input standard DNA and obtain STR profiles from oral swabs in about 3 hours. This fully integrated microsystem with sample-in-answer-out capability is a significant advance in the development of rapid, sensitive, and reliable micro-total analysis systems for on-site human identification. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  5. Potential Biotechnological Strategies for the Cleanup of Heavy Metals and Metalloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosa, Kareem A; Saadoun, Ismail; Kumar, Kundan; Helmy, Mohamed; Dhankher, Om Parkash

    2016-01-01

    Global mechanization, urbanization, and various natural processes have led to the increased release of toxic compounds into the biosphere. These hazardous toxic pollutants include a variety of organic and inorganic compounds, which pose a serious threat to the ecosystem. The contamination of soil and water are the major environmental concerns in the present scenario. This leads to a greater need for remediation of contaminated soils and water with suitable approaches and mechanisms. The conventional remediation of contaminated sites commonly involves the physical removal of contaminants, and their disposition. Physical remediation strategies are expensive, non-specific and often make the soil unsuitable for agriculture and other uses by disturbing the microenvironment. Owing to these concerns, there has been increased interest in eco-friendly and sustainable approaches such as bioremediation, phytoremediation and rhizoremediation for the cleanup of contaminated sites. This review lays particular emphasis on biotechnological approaches and strategies for heavy metal and metalloid containment removal from the environment, highlighting the advances and implications of bioremediation and phytoremediation as well as their utilization in cleaning-up toxic pollutants from contaminated environments.

  6. Demand driven salt clean-up in a molten salt fast reactor – Defining a priority list

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litskevich, D.; Gregg, R.; Mount, A. R.

    2018-01-01

    The PUREX technology based on aqueous processes is currently the leading reprocessing technology in nuclear energy systems. It seems to be the most developed and established process for light water reactor fuel and the use of solid fuel. However, demand driven development of the nuclear system opens the way to liquid fuelled reactors, and disruptive technology development through the application of an integrated fuel cycle with a direct link to reactor operation. The possibilities of this new concept for innovative reprocessing technology development are analysed, the boundary conditions are discussed, and the economic as well as the neutron physical optimization parameters of the process are elucidated. Reactor physical knowledge of the influence of different elements on the neutron economy of the reactor is required. Using an innovative study approach, an element priority list for the salt clean-up is developed, which indicates that separation of Neodymium and Caesium is desirable, as they contribute almost 50% to the loss of criticality. Separating Zirconium and Samarium in addition from the fuel salt would remove nearly 80% of the loss of criticality due to fission products. The theoretical study is followed by a qualitative discussion of the different, demand driven optimization strategies which could satisfy the conflicting interests of sustainable reactor operation, efficient chemical processing for the salt clean-up, and the related economic as well as chemical engineering consequences. A new, innovative approach of balancing the throughput through salt processing based on a low number of separation process steps is developed. Next steps for the development of an economically viable salt clean-up process are identified. PMID:29494604

  7. Locally advanced pancreatic duct adenocarcinoma: pancreatectomy with planned arterial resection based on axial arterial encasement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perinel, J; Nappo, G; El Bechwaty, M; Walter, T; Hervieu, V; Valette, P J; Feugier, P; Adham, M

    2016-12-01

    Pancreatectomy with arterial resection for locally advanced pancreatic duct adenocarcinoma (PDA) is associated with high morbidity and is thus considered as a contraindication. The aim of our study was to report our experience of pancreatectomy with planned arterial resection for locally advanced PDA based on specific selection criteria. All patients receiving pancreatectomy for PDA between October 2008 and July 2014 were reviewed. The patients were classified into group 1, pancreatectomy without vascular resection (66 patients); group 2, pancreatectomy with isolated venous resection (31 patients), and group 3, pancreatectomy with arterial resection for locally advanced PDA (14 patients). The primary selection criteria for arterial resection was the possibility of achieving a complete resection based on the extent of axial encasement, the absence of tumor invasion at the origin of celiac trunk (CT) and superior mesenteric artery (SMA), and a free distal arterial segment allowing reconstruction. Patient outcomes and survival were analyzed. Six SMA, two CT, four common hepatic artery, and two replaced right hepatic artery resections were undertaken. The preferred arterial reconstruction was splenic artery transposition. Group 3 had a higher preoperative weight loss, a longer operative time, and a higher incidence of intraoperative blood transfusion. Ninety-day mortality occurred in three patients in groups 1 and 2. There were no statistically significant differences in the incidence, grade, and type of complications in the three groups. Postoperative pancreatic fistula and postpancreatectomy hemorrhage were also comparable. In group 3, none had arterial wall invasion and nine patients had recurrence (seven metastatic and two loco-regional). Survival and disease-free survival were comparable between groups. Planned arterial resection for PDA can be performed safely with a good outcome in highly selected patients. Key elements for defining the resectability is based on

  8. Dicer and Drosha expression and response to Bevacizumab-based therapy in advanced colorectal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincenzi, Bruno; Zoccoli, Alice; Schiavon, Gaia; Iuliani, Michele; Pantano, Francesco; Dell'aquila, Emanuela; Ratta, Raffaele; Muda, Andrea Onetti; Perrone, Giuseppe; Brunelli, Chiara; Correale, Pierpaolo; Riva, Elisabetta; Russo, Antonio; Loupakis, Fotios; Falcone, Alfredo; Santini, Daniele; Tonini, Giuseppe

    2013-04-01

    The miRNA-regulating enzymes Dicer and Drosha exhibit aberrant expression in several cancer types. Dicer and Drosha play a crucial role during the angiogenetic process in vitro and, for Dicer, in vivo. We aimed to investigate the potential role of Dicer and Drosha in predicting response to Bevacizumab-based therapy in advanced colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Dicer and Drosha mRNA levels were analysed in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens from patients affected by advanced CRC treated with or without Bevacizumab-containing regimens (n=116 and n=50, respectively) and from patients with diverticulosis as control group (n=20). The experimental data were obtained using qRT-PCR, analysed comparing Dicer and Drosha expression levels in tumour samples versus normal mucosa and then compared to clinical outcome. The tumour samples from Bevacizumab-treated patients showed a significantly higher Drosha expression (P<.001) versus normal mucosa, while Dicer levels did not differ. Intriguingly, we found that low Dicer levels predicted a longer progression-free survival (PFS) (P<.0001) and overall survival (OS) (P=.009). In addition, low Dicer levels were associated with better response to Bevacizumab-based treatments versus high Dicer levels (1.7% complete responses and 53.4% partial responses versus 0% and 32.7%, respectively; P=.0067). Multivariate analysis identified three independent predictors of improved OS: high performance status (PS) (relative risk (RR) 1.45; P=.011), lower organs involvement (RR 0.79; P=.034) and low Dicer expression (RR 0.71; P=.008). Conversely, Drosha levels were not associated with prognosis and outcome associated with treatment. In non-Bevacizumab-treated patients, Dicer and Drosha expression did not correlate with outcome. These findings suggest that low Dicer mRNA levels seem to be independent predictors of favourable outcome and response in patients affected by advanced CRCs treated with Bevacizumab-based therapy. Copyright © 2012

  9. Recent advances in DNA-based electrochemical biosensors for heavy metal ion detection: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidur, M R; Aziz, A R Abdul; Basirun, W J

    2017-04-15

    The presence of heavy metal in food chains due to the rapid industrialization poses a serious threat on the environment. Therefore, detection and monitoring of heavy metals contamination are gaining more attention nowadays. However, the current analytical methods (based on spectroscopy) for the detection of heavy metal contamination are often very expensive, tedious and can only be handled by trained personnel. DNA biosensors, which are based on electrochemical transduction, is a sensitive but inexpensive method of detection. The principles, sensitivity, selectivity and challenges of electrochemical biosensors are discussed in this review. This review also highlights the major advances of DNA-based electrochemical biosensors for the detection of heavy metal ions such as Hg 2+ , Ag + , Cu 2+ and Pb 2+ . Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Recent Advances in Extrusion-Based 3D Printing for Biomedical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Placone, Jesse K; Engler, Adam J

    2017-12-28

    Additive manufacturing, or 3D printing, has become significantly more commonplace in tissue engineering over the past decade, as a variety of new printing materials have been developed. In extrusion-based printing, materials are used for applications that range from cell free printing to cell-laden bioinks that mimic natural tissues. Beyond single tissue applications, multi-material extrusion based printing has recently been developed to manufacture scaffolds that mimic tissue interfaces. Despite these advances, some material limitations prevent wider adoption of the extrusion-based 3D printers currently available. This progress report provides an overview of this commonly used printing strategy, as well as insight into how this technique can be improved. As such, it is hoped that the prospective report guides the inclusion of more rigorous material characterization prior to printing, thereby facilitating cross-platform utilization and reproducibility. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Polymeric AIE-based nanoprobes for biomedical applications: recent advances and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoyong; Wang, Ke; Liu, Meiying; Zhang, Xiqi; Tao, Lei; Chen, Yiwang; Wei, Yen

    2015-07-01

    The development of polymeric luminescent nanomaterials for biomedical applications has recently attracted a large amount of attention due to the remarkable advantages of these materials compared with small organic dyes and fluorescent inorganic nanomaterials. Among these polymeric luminescent nanomaterials, polymeric luminescent nanomaterials based on dyes with aggregation-induced emission (AIE) properties should be of great research interest due to their unique AIE properties, the designability of polymers and their multifunctional potential. In this review, the recent advances in the design and biomedical applications of polymeric luminescent nanomaterials based on AIE dyes is summarized. Various design strategies for incorporation of these AIE dyes into polymeric systems are included. The potential biomedical applications such as biological imaging, and use in biological sensors and theranostic systems of these polymeric AIE-based nanomaterials have also been highlighted. We trust this review will attract significant interest from scientists from different research fields in chemistry, materials, biology and interdisciplinary areas.

  12. Recent advances in electrochemical biosensors based on graphene two-dimensional nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yang; Luo, Yanan; Zhu, Chengzhou; Li, He; Du, Dan; Lin, Yuehe

    2016-02-15

    Graphene as a star among two-dimensional nanomaterials has attracted tremendous research interest in the field of electrochemistry due to their intrinsic properties, including the electronic, optical, and mechanical properties associated with their planar structure. The marriage of graphene and electrochemical biosensors has created many ingenious biosensing strategies for applications in the areas of clinical diagnosis and food safety. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the recent advances in the development of graphene based electrochemical biosensors. Special attention is paid to graphene-based enzyme biosensors, immunosensors, and DNA biosensors. Future perspectives on high-performance graphene-based electrochemical biosensors are also discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Recent advances and challenges of fuel cell based power system architectures and control – A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, Vipin; Sanjeevikumar, Padmanaban; Venkitusamy, Karthikeyan

    2017-01-01

    Renewable energy generation is rapidly growing in the power sector industry and widely used for two categories: grid connected and standalone system. This paper gives the insights about fuel cell operation and application of various power electronics systems. The fuel cell voltage decreases bit...... by bit with expansion in current because of losses associated with fuel cell. It is difficult in handling large rated fuel cell based power system without regulating mechanism. The issue connected with fuel based structural planning and the arrangements are widely investigated for all sorts...... of utilization. In order to improve the reliability of fuel cell based power system, the integration of energy storage system and advanced research methods are focused in this paper. The control algorithms of power architecture for the couple of well-known applications are discussed. Additionally, the paper...

  14. Looking into the Future: Toward Advanced 3D Biomaterials for Stem-Cell-Based Regenerative Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhongmin; Tang, Mingliang; Zhao, Jinping; Chai, Renjie; Kang, Jiuhong

    2018-02-16

    Stem-cell-based therapies have the potential to provide novel solutions for the treatment of a variety of diseases, but the main obstacles to such therapies lie in the uncontrolled differentiation and functional engraftment of implanted tissues. The physicochemical microenvironment controls the self-renewal and differentiation of stem cells, and the key step in mimicking the stem cell microenvironment is to construct a more physiologically relevant 3D culture system. Material-based 3D assemblies of stem cells facilitate the cellular interactions that promote morphogenesis and tissue organization in a similar manner to that which occurs during embryogenesis. Both natural and artificial materials can be used to create 3D scaffolds, and synthetic organic and inorganic porous materials are the two main kinds of artificial materials. Nanotechnology provides new opportunities to design novel advanced materials with special physicochemical properties for 3D stem cell culture and transplantation. Herein, the advances and advantages of 3D scaffold materials, especially with respect to stem-cell-based therapies, are first outlined. Second, the stem cell biology in 3D scaffold materials is reviewed. Third, the progress and basic principles of developing 3D scaffold materials for clinical applications in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine are reviewed. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Improving advanced cardiovascular life support skills in medical students: simulation-based education approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Reihani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this trial, we intend to assess the effect of simulation-based education approach on advanced cardiovascular life support skills among medical students. Methods: Through convenient sampling method, 40 interns of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences in their emergency medicine rotation (from September to December 2012 participated in this study. Advanced Cardiovascular Life Support (ACLS workshops with pretest and post-test exams were performed. Workshops and checklists for pretest and post-test exams were designed according to the latest American Heart Association (AHA guidelines. Results: The total score of the students increased significantly after workshops (24.6 out of 100 to 78.6 out of 100. This demonstrates 53.9% improvement in the skills after the simulation-based education (P< 0.001. Also the mean score of each station had a significant improvement (P< 0.001. Conclusion: Pretests showed that interns had poor performance in practical clinical matters while their scientific knowledge, such as ECG interpretation was acceptable. The overall results of the study highlights that Simulation based-education approach is highly effective in Improving ACLS skills among medical students.

  16. Advances in DMD-based UV application reliability below 320nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Jonathan T.; Winter, Tom W.; Jacobs, S. Josh

    2010-03-01

    Texas Instrument's spatial light modulator chip, the DMD (digital micromirror device, the central chip in all DLP based systems) has been used in multiple maskless lithography applications for the past 5-7 years. Typically these applications have been focused on PCB lithography. Applications using illumination below 320nm have not been feasible due to shortened lifetime of the device at shorter wavelengths. Recent advances in DMD processing have made significant improvements in the operational lifetime of the DMD. This paper will cover the background of UV-A DMD maskless lithography and demonstrate the increased lifetime at 311nm and 266nm with the new processes.

  17. Factors affecting coercivity in rare-earth based advanced permanent magnet materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, L.H. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Sellers, C.H. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Panchanathan, V. [Magnequench International, Inc., Anderson, IN (United States)

    1997-02-01

    The relationships that link microstructural properties of advanced permanent magnet materials with magnetic properties such as the coercivity are often difficult to quantify, especially in materials with nano-scale structures. Recent work on RE{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B-based powders fabricated with rapid-solidification techniques such as inert gas atomization (IGA) and melt-spinning provide insight into the nanostructural features which affect the acquisition and stability of coercivity. In all cases the coercivity is found to be a function of both the scale of the constituent microstructure and of the presence and distribution of minor phases.

  18. Accuracy of depolarization and delay spread predictions using advanced ray-based modeling in indoor scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mani Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article investigates the prediction accuracy of an advanced deterministic propagation model in terms of channel depolarization and frequency selectivity for indoor wireless propagation. In addition to specular reflection and diffraction, the developed ray tracing tool considers penetration through dielectric blocks and/or diffuse scattering mechanisms. The sensitivity and prediction accuracy analysis is based on two measurement campaigns carried out in a warehouse and an office building. It is shown that the implementation of diffuse scattering into RT significantly increases the accuracy of the cross-polar discrimination prediction, whereas the delay-spread prediction is only marginally improved.

  19. A Characteristics-Based Approach to Radioactive Waste Classification in Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djokic, Denia

    The radioactive waste classification system currently used in the United States primarily relies on a source-based framework. This has lead to numerous issues, such as wastes that are not categorized by their intrinsic risk, or wastes that do not fall under a category within the framework and therefore are without a legal imperative for responsible management. Furthermore, in the possible case that advanced fuel cycles were to be deployed in the United States, the shortcomings of the source-based classification system would be exacerbated: advanced fuel cycles implement processes such as the separation of used nuclear fuel, which introduce new waste streams of varying characteristics. To be able to manage and dispose of these potential new wastes properly, development of a classification system that would assign appropriate level of management to each type of waste based on its physical properties is imperative. This dissertation explores how characteristics from wastes generated from potential future nuclear fuel cycles could be coupled with a characteristics-based classification framework. A static mass flow model developed under the Department of Energy's Fuel Cycle Research & Development program, called the Fuel-cycle Integration and Tradeoffs (FIT) model, was used to calculate the composition of waste streams resulting from different nuclear fuel cycle choices: two modified open fuel cycle cases (recycle in MOX reactor) and two different continuous-recycle fast reactor recycle cases (oxide and metal fuel fast reactors). This analysis focuses on the impact of waste heat load on waste classification practices, although future work could involve coupling waste heat load with metrics of radiotoxicity and longevity. The value of separation of heat-generating fission products and actinides in different fuel cycles and how it could inform long- and short-term disposal management is discussed. It is shown that the benefits of reducing the short-term fission

  20. Advances in Base-Free Oxidation of Bio-Based Compounds on Supported Gold Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Wojcieszak

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The oxidation of bio-based molecules in general, and of carbohydrates and furanics in particular, is a highly attractive process. The catalytic conversion of renewable compounds is of high importance. Acids and other chemical intermediates issued from oxidation processes have many applications related, especially, to food and detergents, as well as to pharmaceutics, cosmetics, and the chemical industry. Until now, the oxidation of sugars, furfural, or 5-hydroxymethylfurfural has been mainly conducted through biochemical processes or with strong inorganic oxidants. The use of these processes very often presents many disadvantages, especially regarding products separation and selectivity control. Generally, the oxidation is performed in batch conditions using an appropriate catalyst and a basic aqueous solution (pH 7–9, while bubbling oxygen or air through the slurry. However, there is a renewed interest in working in base-free conditions to avoid the production of salts. Actually, this gives direct access to different acids or diacids without laborious product purification steps. This review focuses on processes applying gold-based catalysts, and on the catalytic properties of these systems in the base-free oxidation of important compounds: C5–C6 sugars, furfural, and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural. A better understanding of the chemical and physical properties of the catalysts and of the operating conditions applied in the oxidation reactions is essential. For this reason, in this review we put emphasis on these most impacting factors.

  1. From Cleanup to Stewardship. A companion report to Accelerating Cleanup: Paths to Closure and background information to support the scoping process required for the 1998 PEIS Settlement Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1999-10-01

    Long-term stewardship is expected to be needed at more than 100 DOE sites after DOE's Environmental Management program completes disposal, stabilization, and restoration operations to address waste and contamination resulting from nuclear research and nuclear weapons production conducted over the past 50 years. From Cleanup to stewardship provides background information on the Department of Energy (DOE) long-term stewardship obligations and activities. This document begins to examine the transition from cleanup to long-term stewardship, and it fulfills the Secretary's commitment to the President in the 1999 Performance Agreement to provide a companion report to the Department's Accelerating Cleanup: Paths to Closure report. It also provides background information to support the scoping process required for a study on long-term stewardship required by a 1998 Settlement Agreement.

  2. A Study on Advanced Lithium-Based Battery Cell Chemistries to Enhance Lunar Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Concha; Bennett, William

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) Energy Storage Project conducted an advanced lithium-based battery chemistry feasibility study to determine the best advanced chemistry to develop for the Altair lunar lander and the Extravehicular Activities (EVA) advanced lunar surface spacesuit. These customers require safe, reliable energy storage systems with extremely high specific energy as compared to today's state-of-the-art batteries. Based on customer requirements, the specific energy goals for the development project are 220 watt-hours per kilogram (Wh/kg) delivered at the battery level at 0 degrees Celsius (degrees Celcius) at a C/10 discharge rate. Continuous discharge rates between C/5 and C/2, operation over 0 to 30 degrees C, and 200 cycles are targeted. The team, consisting of members from NASA Glenn Research Center, Johnson Space Center, and Jet Propulsion laboratory, surveyed the literature, compiled information on recent materials developments, and consulted with other battery experts in the community to identify advanced battery materials that might be capable of achieving the desired results with further development. A variety of electrode materials were considered, including layered metal oxides, spinel oxides, and olivine-type cathode materials, and lithium metal, lithium alloy, and silicon-based composite anode materials. lithium-sulfur systems were also considered. Hypothetical cell constructs that combined compatible anode and cathode materials with suitable electrolytes, separators, current collectors, headers, and cell enclosures were modeled. While some of these advanced materials are projected to obtain the desired electrical performance, there are risks that also factored into the decision making process. The risks include uncertainties due to issues such as safety of a system containing some of these materials, ease of scaling-up of large batches of raw materials, adaptability of the materials to processing using established

  3. Health behavior change in advance care planning: an agent-based model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie C. Ernecoff

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A practical and ethical challenge in advance care planning research is controlling and intervening on human behavior. Additionally, observing dynamic changes in advance care planning (ACP behavior proves difficult, though tracking changes over time is important for intervention development. Agent-based modeling (ABM allows researchers to integrate complex behavioral data about advance care planning behaviors and thought processes into a controlled environment that is more easily alterable and observable. Literature to date has not addressed how best to motivate individuals, increase facilitators and reduce barriers associated with ACP. We aimed to build an ABM that applies the Transtheoretical Model of behavior change to ACP as a health behavior and accurately reflects: 1 the rates at which individuals complete the process, 2 how individuals respond to barriers, facilitators, and behavioral variables, and 3 the interactions between these variables. Methods We developed a dynamic ABM of the ACP decision making process based on the stages of change posited by the Transtheoretical Model. We integrated barriers, facilitators, and other behavioral variables that agents encounter as they move through the process. Results We successfully incorporated ACP barriers, facilitators, and other behavioral variables into our ABM, forming a plausible representation of ACP behavior and decision-making. The resulting distributions across the stages of change replicated those found in the literature, with approximately half of participants in the action-maintenance stage in both the model and the literature. Conclusions Our ABM is a useful method for representing dynamic social and experiential influences on the ACP decision making process. This model suggests structural interventions, e.g. increasing access to ACP materials in primary care clinics, in addition to improved methods of data collection for behavioral studies, e.g. incorporating

  4. Evaluation of gasification and gas cleanup processes for use in molten carbonate fuel cell power plants. Final report. [Contains lists and evaluations of coal gasification and fuel gas desulfurization processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jablonski, G.; Hamm, J.R.; Alvin, M.A.; Wenglarz, R.A.; Patel, P.

    1982-01-01

    This report satisfies the requirements for DOE Contract AC21-81MC16220 to: List coal gasifiers and gas cleanup systems suitable for supplying fuel to molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) in industrial and utility power plants; extensively characterize those coal gas cleanup systems rejected by DOE's MCFC contractors for their power plant systems by virtue of the resources required for those systems to be commercially developed; develop an analytical model to predict MCFC tolerance for particulates on the anode (fuel gas) side of the MCFC; develop an analytical model to predict MCFC anode side tolerance for chemical species, including sulfides, halogens, and trace heavy metals; choose from the candidate gasifier/cleanup systems those most suitable for MCFC-based power plants; choose a reference wet cleanup system; provide parametric analyses of the coal gasifiers and gas cleanup systems when integrated into a power plant incorporating MCFC units with suitable gas expansion turbines, steam turbines, heat exchangers, and heat recovery steam generators, using the Westinghouse proprietary AHEAD computer model; provide efficiency, investment, cost of electricity, operability, and environmental effect rankings of the system; and provide a final report incorporating the results of all of the above tasks. Section 7 of this final report provides general conclusions.

  5. Green Remediation Best Management Practices: Integrating Renewable Energy into Site Cleanup

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Principles for Greener Cleanups outline the Agency's policy for evaluating and minimizing the environmental 'footprint' of activities undertaken when cleaning up a contaminated site.

  6. Effort to earn public support and confidence in Hanford Site cleanup work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M.C.; Edwards, C.; Beers, A.A.

    1991-09-01

    Public involvement is needed for Hanford Site cleanup to succeed. If people do not know about, understand, and support cleanup, it will be more difficult and expensive. The Tri-Party Agreement calls for public involvement in decisions about cleanup options and schedules. This paper defines what public involvement means and how the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and US Department of Energy (DOE) have conducted it. Experience and survey research have shown ways to improve our performance. While we have improved our conduct of public meetings, we must identify other ways to involve the public. Efforts continue to open decision making earlier in the decision process, to share information that is clear and understandable, and to open the channels of communication. We have made good progress. We have many opportunities to continue to improve. This paper describes some of the highlights and lessons learned in public involvement in Hanford Site cleanup. 4 refs

  7. Effectiveness of clean-up procedures on stain susceptibility of different orthodontic adhesives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Pundlik Mane

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Chemical-cure adhesive showed higher stain susceptibility than light-cure adhesive in all clean-up procedures. Both adhesives would show less stain susceptibility with polishing step with rubber cup and pumice.

  8. Cleanup and treatment of radioactively contaminated land including areas near nuclear facilities. A selected bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fore, C.S.; Faust, R.A.; Brewster, R.H.

    1982-09-01

    This annotated bibliography of 337 references summarizes the literature published on the cleanup and treatment of radioactively contaminated land. Specifically, this bibliography focuses on literature concerned with the methods of cleanup and treatment being applied - chemical, physical, or vegetative stabilization; the types of equipment being used; and the influence of climatic conditions on the method selected for use. The emphasis in such literature is placed on hazardous site cleanup efforts that have been completed as well as those that are in progress and are being planned. Appendix A includes 135 additional references to literature identified but not included in the bibliography because of time and funding constraints. Appendix B consists of a table that identifies the cleanup and treatment research conducted at specific sites. All of the information included in this bibliography is stored in a computerized form that is readily available upon request

  9. Answers to frequently asked questions about cleanup activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-03-01

    This question-and-answer report provides answers in nontechnical language to frequently asked questions about the status of cleanup activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2. The answers update information first prepared in 1981, shortly after the cleanup got under way. Since then, a variety of important developments in the cleanup has occurred. The information in the report should be read in conjunction with NUREG 1060, a discussion of increased occupational exposure estimates for the cleanup. The questions and answers in this report cover purpose and community involvement, decontamination of water and reactor, fuel removal, radwaste transport, environmental impact, social and economic effects, worker exposures and safety, radiation monitoring, potential for accidents, and schedule and funding

  10. Design and implementation of a laboratory-based drug design and synthesis advanced pharmacy practice experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Ashok; Stephens, Mark; Mitchell, Sheila L; Watkins, E Blake

    2015-04-25

    To provide students with an opportunity to participate in medicinal chemistry research within the doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) curriculum. We designed and implemented a 3-course sequence in drug design or drug synthesis for pharmacy students consisting of a 1-month advanced elective followed by two 1-month research advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs). To maximize student involvement, this 3-course sequence was offered to third-year and fourth-year students twice per calendar year. Students were evaluated based on their commitment to the project's success, productivity, and professionalism. Students also evaluated the course sequence using a 14-item course evaluation rubric. Student feedback was overwhelmingly positive. Students found the experience to be a valuable component of their pharmacy curriculum. We successfully designed and implemented a 3-course research sequence that allows PharmD students in the traditional 4-year program to participate in drug design and synthesis research. Students report the sequence enhanced their critical-thinking and problem-solving skills and helped them develop as independent learners. Based on the success achieved with this sequence, efforts are underway to develop research APPEs in other areas of the pharmaceutical sciences.

  11. Fuzzy Based Advanced Hybrid Intrusion Detection System to Detect Malicious Nodes in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupinder Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an Advanced Hybrid Intrusion Detection System (AHIDS that automatically detects the WSNs attacks is proposed. AHIDS makes use of cluster-based architecture with enhanced LEACH protocol that intends to reduce the level of energy consumption by the sensor nodes. AHIDS uses anomaly detection and misuse detection based on fuzzy rule sets along with the Multilayer Perceptron Neural Network. The Feed Forward Neural Network along with the Backpropagation Neural Network are utilized to integrate the detection results and indicate the different types of attackers (i.e., Sybil attack, wormhole attack, and hello flood attack. For detection of Sybil attack, Advanced Sybil Attack Detection Algorithm is developed while the detection of wormhole attack is done by Wormhole Resistant Hybrid Technique. The detection of hello flood attack is done by using signal strength and distance. An experimental analysis is carried out in a set of nodes; 13.33% of the nodes are determined as misbehaving nodes, which classified attackers along with a detection rate of the true positive rate and false positive rate. Sybil attack is detected at a rate of 99,40%; hello flood attack has a detection rate of 98, 20%; and wormhole attack has a detection rate of 99, 20%.

  12. The Osseus platform: a prototype for advanced web-based distributed simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschini, Derrick; Riecken, Mark

    2016-05-01

    Recent technological advances in web-based distributed computing and database technology have made possible a deeper and more transparent integration of some modeling and simulation applications. Despite these advances towards true integration of capabilities, disparate systems, architectures, and protocols will remain in the inventory for some time to come. These disparities present interoperability challenges for distributed modeling and simulation whether the application is training, experimentation, or analysis. Traditional approaches call for building gateways to bridge between disparate protocols and retaining interoperability specialists. Challenges in reconciling data models also persist. These challenges and their traditional mitigation approaches directly contribute to higher costs, schedule delays, and frustration for the end users. Osseus is a prototype software platform originally funded as a research project by the Defense Modeling & Simulation Coordination Office (DMSCO) to examine interoperability alternatives using modern, web-based technology and taking inspiration from the commercial sector. Osseus provides tools and services for nonexpert users to connect simulations, targeting the time and skillset needed to successfully connect disparate systems. The Osseus platform presents a web services interface to allow simulation applications to exchange data using modern techniques efficiently over Local or Wide Area Networks. Further, it provides Service Oriented Architecture capabilities such that finer granularity components such as individual models can contribute to simulation with minimal effort.

  13. Electrochemical sensor and biosensor platforms based on advanced nanomaterials for biological and biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maduraiveeran, Govindhan; Sasidharan, Manickam; Ganesan, Vellaichamy

    2018-04-30

    Introduction of novel functional nanomaterials and analytical technologies signify a foremost possibility for the advance of electrochemical sensor and biosensor platforms/devices for a broad series of applications including biological, biomedical, biotechnological, clinical and medical diagnostics, environmental and health monitoring, and food industries. The design of sensitive and selective electrochemical biological sensor platforms are accomplished conceivably by offering new surface modifications, microfabrication techniques, and diverse nanomaterials with unique properties for in vivo and in vitro medical analysis via relating a sensibly planned electrode/solution interface. The advantageous attributes such as low-cost, miniaturization, energy efficient, easy fabrication, online monitoring, and the simultaneous sensing capability are the driving force towards continued growth of electrochemical biosensing platforms, which have fascinated the interdisciplinary research arenas spanning chemistry, material science, biological science, and medical industries. The electrochemical biosensor platforms have potential applications in the early-stage detection and diagnosis of disease as stout and tunable diagnostic and therapeutic systems. The key aim of this review is to emphasize the newest development in the design of sensing and biosensing platforms based on functional nanomaterials for biological and biomedical applications. High sensitivity and selectivity, fast response, and excellent durability in biological media are all critical aspects which will also be wisely addressed. Potential applications of electrochemical sensor and biosensor platforms based on advanced functional nanomaterials for neuroscience diagnostics, clinical, point-of-care diagnostics and medical industries are also concisely presented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Time lens based optical fourier transformation for advanced processing of spectrally-efficient OFDM and N-WDM signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Pengyu; Røge, Kasper Meldgaard; Morioka, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    We review recent progress in the use of time lens based optical Fourier transformation for advanced optical signal processing, with focus on all-optical generation, detection and format conversion of spectrally-efficient OFDM and N-WDM signals.......We review recent progress in the use of time lens based optical Fourier transformation for advanced optical signal processing, with focus on all-optical generation, detection and format conversion of spectrally-efficient OFDM and N-WDM signals....

  15. Cleanup and analysis of sugar phosphates in biological extracts by using solid phase extraction and anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Hans Peter; Cohen, A.; Buttler, T.

    1998-01-01

    A cleanup method based on anion-exchange solid-phase extraction (SPE) was developed to render biological extracts suitable for the analysis of hexose phosphates with a modified anion-exchange chromatography method and pulsed amperometric detection. The method was applied to cell extracts of Sacch......A cleanup method based on anion-exchange solid-phase extraction (SPE) was developed to render biological extracts suitable for the analysis of hexose phosphates with a modified anion-exchange chromatography method and pulsed amperometric detection. The method was applied to cell extracts...... of Saccharomyces cerevisiae obtained by using cold methanol as quenching agent and chloroform as extraction solvent. It was shown that pretreatment of the cell extract with SPE markedly improved the quality of the liquid chromatography analysis with recoveries of the sugar phosphates close to 100%. Furthermore...

  16. Spreading, retention and clean-up of oil spills. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Jr, M P

    1976-05-01

    This study reviews and assesses the technology of oil spill spreading, retention and cleanup and proposes research needs in these areas. Sources of oil spills are analyzed and the difficulty of gathering meaningful statistics is discussed. Barrier technology is reviewed and problem areas analyzed. Natural and forced biodegradation and natural and chemical dispersion of oil spills are considered. Research recommendations are categorized under the following two headings (1) Preventive techniques and (2) Containment, Cleanup and Dispersion.

  17. Hebei Spirit Oil Spill Exposure and Subjective Symptoms in Residents Participating in Clean-Up Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Cheong, Hae-Kwan; Ha, Mina; Lee, Jong Seong; Kwon, Hojang; Ha, Eun-Hee; Hong, Yun-Chul; Choi, Yeyong; Jeong, Woo-Chul; Hur, Jongil; Lee, Seung-Min; Kim, Eun-Jung; Im, Hosub

    2011-01-01

    Objectives This study was conducted to examine the relationship between crude oil exposure and physical symptoms among residents participating in clean-up work associated with the Hebei Spirit oil spill, 2007 in Korea. Methods A total of 288 residents responded to a questionnaire regarding subjective physical symptoms, sociodemographic characteristics and clean-up activities that occurred between two and eight weeks after the accident. Additionally, the urine of 154 of the respondents was ana...

  18. Potential impact of licensee default on cleanup of TMI-2. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, J.O.; Saltzman, J.

    1980-11-01

    Financial repercussions of the accident at Three Mile Island Unit 2 on the ability of the Licensee, Metropolitan Edison Co., to complete cleanup of the facility are examined. Potential impacts of licensee default on cleanup and alternatives to minimize the potential of bankruptcy are discussed. Specific recommendations are made regarding steps the Nuclear Regulatory Commission might take in keeping with its regulatory functions and its mission to protect the public health and safety

  19. Improving conduct of operations in nuclear waste cleanup projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeazel, J.A.; Rowland, T.J.; Gessner, R.F.

    1991-01-01

    The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) is a cleanup effort which is actively removing liquid high-level waste from an underground storage tank, extracting radioactive cesium from the liquid using an iron-exchange system, and stabilizing the resulting low-level waste in an NRC-endorsed cement waste form. Additional activities involve:Volume reduction of low-level waste, Low-level waste treatment, Spent-fuel management, Hazardous waste management, Facility and equipment decontaminating and decommissioning, Vitrification facility construction and testing, Analytical and environmental chemistry, Engineering, construction, and quality-related activities. This project involves managing nuclear and hazardous wastes, with utmost attention to safety of the workforce, public, and environment. An aggressive program in under way to improve conduct of operations in all areas. Implementation of DOE Order 5480.19, open-quotes Conduct of Operations Requirements for DOE Facilitiesclose quotes, is proceeding on schedule. The effective use of champions among first-line supervisors, application of ownership, and effective interaction among the facilities and technological expertise at other Westinghouse divisions has resulted in value added to the Department of Energy at this facility

  20. How the K(d) Approach Undermines Groundwater Cleanup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bethke, Craig M.; Brady, Patrick V.

    1999-07-19

    Environmental scientists have long appreciated that the distribution coefficient (the ''K{sub d}'' or ''constant K{sub d}'') approach predicts the partitioning of heavy metals between sediment and groundwater inaccurately; nonetheless, transport models applied to problems of environmental protection and groundwater remediation almost invariably employ this technique. To examine the consequences of this practice, we consider transport in one dimension of Pb and other heavy metals through an aquifer containing hydrous ferric oxide, onto which heavy metals sorb strongly. We compare the predictions of models calculated using the K{sub d} approach to those given by surface complexation theory, which is more realistic physically and chemically. The two modeling techniques give qualitatively differing results that lead to divergent cleanup strategies. The results for surface complexation theory show that water flushing is ineffective at displacing significant amounts of Pb from the sorbing surface. The effluent from such treatment contains a ''tail'' of small but significant levels of contamination that persists indefinitely. Subsurface zones of Pb contamination, furthermore, are largely immobile in flowing groundwater. These results stand in sharp contrast to the predictions of models constructed using the k{sub d} approach, yet are consistent with experience in the laboratory and field.

  1. Rapid cleanup of bacterial DNA from samples containing aerosol contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menking, Darrell E.; Kracke, Suzanne K.; Emanuel, Peter A.; Valdes, James J.

    1999-01-01

    Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is an in vitro enzymatic, synthetic method used to amplify specific DNA sequences from organisms. Detection of DNA using gene probes allows for absolute identification not only of specific organisms, but also of genetic material in recombinant organisms. PCR is an exquisite biological method for detecting bacteria in aerosol samples. A major challenge facing detection of DNA from field samples is that they are almost sure to contain impurities, especially impurities that inhibit amplification through PCR. DNA is being extracted from air, sewage/stool samples, food, sputum, a water and sediment; however, multi- step, time consuming methods are required to isolate the DNA from the surrounding contamination. This research focuses on developing a method for rapid cleanup of DNA which combines extraction and purification of DNA while, at the same time, removing inhibitors from 'dirty samples' to produce purified, PCR-ready DNA. GeneReleaser produces PCR-ready DNA in a rapid five-minute protocol. GeneReleaser resin was able to clean up sample contain micrograms of typical aerosol and water contaminants. The advantages of using GR are that it is rapid, inexpensive, requires one-step, uses no hazardous material and produces PCR-ready DNA.

  2. Canadian coastal environments, shoreline processes, and oil spill cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owens, E.H.

    1994-03-01

    The coastal zone is a dynamic environment, so that in developing practical and effective oil spill response strategies it is necessary to understand the forces that contribute to shore-zone processs. The coasts of Canada encompass a wide range of environments and are characterized by a variety of shoreline types that include the exposed, resistant cliffs of eastern Newfoundland and the sheltered marshes of the Beaufort Sea. A report is presented to provide an understanding of the dynamics and physical processes as they vary on the different coasts of Canada, including the Great Lakes. An outline of the general character and processes on a regional basis describes the coastal environments and introduces the literature that can be consulted for more specific information. The likely fate and persistence of oil that reaches the shoreline is discussed to provide the framework for development of spill response strategies and for the selection of appropriate shoreline cleanup or treatment countermeasures. Lessons learned from recent experience with major oil spills and field experiments are integrated into the discussion. Separate abstracts have been prepared for each of the four sections of this report. 502 refs., 5 figs

  3. Major clean-up effort in the ATLAS cavern

    CERN Multimedia

    Marzio Nessi

    On Tuesday 10 October, 58 ATLAS collaborators volunteered to give a hand for a major clean-up of the ATLAS detector prior to the toroid magnet ramp-up. This special task monopolised all of the technical coordination team and eight supervisors to oversee the volunteers who were assigned to two separate five-hour shifts. The volunteers removed all sorts of loose material inside and outside the detector, focusing mainly on potentially magnetic material lost inside the detector and dirt accumulated over several months, not to mention zillions of clipped cable ties! The technical crew provided 120 garbage bags and all were used. All sorts of material that had been lost inside the detector by various people was retrieved, in particular small tools which could potentially damage the detector, as well as metallic fillings hazardous for the electronics once the magnet will be ramped up. A more detailed inspection followed for all the inside of the detector, making sure the current on the magnet could be raised to 5KA ...

  4. Simulation of the cleanup of the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludowise, J.D.; Allen, G.K.

    1992-12-01

    The Hanford Site is a 1,450-km 2 (560-mi 2 ) tract of semiarid land in southeastern Washington State. Nuclear materials for the nation's defense programs were manufactured at the Hanford Site for more than 40 years. The waste generated by these activities has been treated, stored, or disposed of in a variety of ways. The Hanford Site strategic analysis provides a general comparison analysis tool to guide selection and future modification of the integrated Site cleanup plan. A key element of the Hanford strategic analysis is a material flow model that tracks 80 individual feed elements containing 60 componentsof interest through 50 functional processing blocks in 12 different configurations. The material flow model was developed for parametric analyses using separation factors and parameters specific to individual feeds. The model was constructed so that the effects of individual feed streams can be traced through a flowsheet, and the performance parameters of each functional block can be varied independently. The material flow model has five major elements: input database, process flow diagrams, sequential modular process simulation, output database, and output summing program

  5. Some statistical aspects of the cleanup of Enewetak Atoll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, M.G.; Giacomini, J.J.; Friesen, H.N.

    1979-01-01

    Cleaning up the radionuclide contamination at Enewetak Atoll has involved a number of statistical design problems. Theoretical considerations led to choosing a grid sampling pattern; practical problems sometimes lead to resampling on a finer grid. Other problems associated with using grids have been both physical and statistical. The standard sampling system is an in situ intrinsic gamma detector which measures americium concentration. The cleanup guidelines include plutonium concentration, so additional sampling of soil is required to establish Pu/Am ratios. The soil sampling design included both guidelines for location of the samples and also a special pattern of subsamples making up composite samples. The large variance of the soil, sample results makes comparison between the two types difficult anyway, but this is compounded by vegetation attenuation of the in situ readings, soil disturbance influences, and differences in devegetation methods. The constraints inherent in doing what amounts to a research and development project, on a limited budget of time and money, in a field engineering environment are also considered

  6. Advanced image based methods for structural integrity monitoring: Review and prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahani, Behzad V.; Sousa, Pedro José; Barros, Francisco; Tavares, Paulo J.; Moreira, Pedro M. G. P.

    2018-02-01

    There is a growing trend in engineering to develop methods for structural integrity monitoring and characterization of in-service mechanical behaviour of components. The fast growth in recent years of image processing techniques and image-based sensing for experimental mechanics, brought about a paradigm change in phenomena sensing. Hence, several widely applicable optical approaches are playing a significant role in support of experiment. The current review manuscript describes advanced image based methods for structural integrity monitoring, and focuses on methods such as Digital Image Correlation (DIC), Thermoelastic Stress Analysis (TSA), Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry (ESPI) and Speckle Pattern Shearing Interferometry (Shearography). These non-contact full-field techniques rely on intensive image processing methods to measure mechanical behaviour, and evolve even as reviews such as this are being written, which justifies a special effort to keep abreast of this progress.

  7. Iron-Based Nanomaterials/Graphene Composites for Advanced Electrochemical Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaveh Movlaee

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Iron oxide nanostructures (IONs in combination with graphene or its derivatives—e.g., graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide—hold great promise toward engineering of efficient nanocomposites for enhancing the performance of advanced devices in many applicative fields. Due to the peculiar electrical and electrocatalytic properties displayed by composite structures in nanoscale dimensions, increasing efforts have been directed in recent years toward tailoring the properties of IONs-graphene based nanocomposites for developing more efficient electrochemical sensors. In the present feature paper, we first reviewed the various routes for synthesizing IONs-graphene nanostructures, highlighting advantages, disadvantages and the key synthesis parameters for each method. Then, a comprehensive discussion is presented in the case of application of IONs-graphene based composites in electrochemical sensors for the determination of various kinds of (biochemical substances.

  8. Iron-Based Nanomaterials/Graphene Composites for Advanced Electrochemical Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movlaee, Kaveh; Ganjali, Mohmmad Reza; Norouzi, Parviz

    2017-01-01

    Iron oxide nanostructures (IONs) in combination with graphene or its derivatives—e.g., graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide—hold great promise toward engineering of efficient nanocomposites for enhancing the performance of advanced devices in many applicative fields. Due to the peculiar electrical and electrocatalytic properties displayed by composite structures in nanoscale dimensions, increasing efforts have been directed in recent years toward tailoring the properties of IONs-graphene based nanocomposites for developing more efficient electrochemical sensors. In the present feature paper, we first reviewed the various routes for synthesizing IONs-graphene nanostructures, highlighting advantages, disadvantages and the key synthesis parameters for each method. Then, a comprehensive discussion is presented in the case of application of IONs-graphene based composites in electrochemical sensors for the determination of various kinds of (bio)chemical substances. PMID:29168771

  9. Advances in electrospun carbon fiber-based electrochemical sensing platforms for bioanalytical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xianwen; Tian, Wenda; Hatton, T Alan; Rutledge, Gregory C

    2016-02-01

    Electrochemical sensing is an efficient and inexpensive method for detection of a range of chemicals of biological, clinical, and environmental interest. Carbon materials-based electrodes are commonly employed for the development of electrochemical sensors because of their low cost, biocompatibility, and facile electron transfer kinetics. Electrospun carbon fibers (ECFs), prepared by electrospinning of a polymeric precursor and subsequent thermal treatment, have emerged as promising carbon systems for biosensing applications since the electrochemical properties of these carbon fibers can be easily modified by processing conditions and post-treatment. This review addresses recent progress in the use of ECFs for sensor fabrication and analyte detection. We focus on the modification strategies of ECFs and identification of the key components that impart the bioelectroanalytical activities, and point out the future challenges that must be addressed in order to advance the fundamental understanding of the ECF electrochemistry and to realize the practical applications of ECF-based sensing devices.

  10. Advanced Therapeutic Strategies for Chronic Lung Disease Using Nanoparticle-Based Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Young Yhee

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic lung diseases include a variety of obstinate and fatal diseases, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, cystic fibrosis (CF, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF, and lung cancers. Pharmacotherapy is important for the treatment of chronic lung diseases, and current progress in nanoparticles offers great potential as an advanced strategy for drug delivery. Based on their biophysical properties, nanoparticles have shown improved pharmacokinetics of therapeutics and controlled drug delivery, gaining great attention. Herein, we will review the nanoparticle-based drug delivery system for the treatment of chronic lung diseases. Various types of nanoparticles will be introduced, and recent innovative efforts to utilize the nanoparticles as novel drug carriers for the effective treatment of chronic lung diseases will also be discussed.

  11. Recent Advances of Graphene-based Hybrids with Magnetic Nanoparticles for Biomedical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegret, Nuria; Criado, Alejandro; Prato, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    The utilization of graphene-based nanomaterials combined with magnetic nanoparticles offers key benefits in the modern biomedicine. In this minireview, we focus on the most recent advances in hybrids of magnetic graphene derivatives for biomedical applications. We initially analyze the several methodologies employed for the preparation of graphene-based composites with magnetic nanoparticles, more specifically the kind of linkage between the two components. In the last section, we focus on the biomedical applications where these magnetic-graphene hybrids are essential and pay special attention on how the addition of graphene improves the resulting devices in magnetic resonance imaging, controlled drug delivery, magnetic photothermal therapy and cellular separation and isolation. Finally, we highlight the use of these magnetic hybrids as multifunctional material that will lead to a next generation of theranostics. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  12. Advanced software development workstation. Knowledge base design: Design of knowledge base for flight planning application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izygon, Michel E.

    1992-01-01

    The development process of the knowledge base for the generation of Test Libraries for Mission Operations Computer (MOC) Command Support focused on a series of information gathering interviews. These knowledge capture sessions are supporting the development of a prototype for evaluating the capabilities of INTUIT on such an application. the prototype includes functions related to POCC (Payload Operation Control Center) processing. It prompts the end-users for input through a series of panels and then generates the Meds associated with the initialization and the update of hazardous command tables for a POCC Processing TLIB.

  13. Clinical Research on Albumin-bound Paclitaxel-based Therapy in Advanced Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu LI

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Albumin-bound paclitaxel is a novel paclitaxel formulation formed by the combination of paclitaxel and human serum albumin (HSA to improve the efficacy of paclitaxel and reduce its adverse reactions. The aim of this retrospective study is to observe the efficacy and safety of albumin-bound paclitaxel-based therapy in the treatment of lung cancer. Methods We have enrolled 50 patients with advanced or unresectable retreatment lung cancer who were admitted from November 2011 to December 2014. All patients were treated with albumin-bound paclitaxel-based therapy with a 21 day cycle (albumin-bound paclitaxel weekly by intravenous dose of 130 mg/m2 on day 1 and day 8. Efficacy was evaluated every two cycles according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST 1.1 and side effects were observed during each cycle. All patients were evaluated. Results The total objective response rate (ORR of albumin-bound paclitaxel-based therapy was 20%, disease control rate (DCR was 68%. In the subgroup analysis, in squamous non-small-cell lung carcinoma groups, ORR and DCR were 26.7% and 80% respectively. Albumin-bound paclitaxel based chemotherapy combined anti-angiogenesis therapy had a promising overall response rate 36.4%. In the patients who had been previously treated with≥4 lines of chemotherapy DCR also reached 69.2%. The most common adverse reactions were hematologic toxicities and were all manageable, no hypersensitivity reactions or treatment-related grade 4 adverse events were reported. Conclusion Weekly albumin-bound paclitaxel is effective and well tolerated in the treatment of advanced lung cancer including all histological subtypes. Albumin-bound paclitaxel was associated with superior efficacy in patients with squamous (SCC histology and combined with anti-angiogenesis therapy. Albumin-bound paclitaxel shown to be an effective and safe regimen for elderly or previous heavily treated patients.

  14. Radioactive waste produced by DEMO and commerical fusion reactors extrapolated from ITER and advanced data bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stacey, W.M.; Hertel, N.E.; Hoffman, E.A.

    1994-01-01

    The potential for providing energy with minimal environmental impact is a powerful motivation for the development of fusion and is the long-term objective of most fusion programs. However, the societal acceptability of magnetic fusion may well be decided in the near-term when decisions are taken on the construction of DEMO to follow ITER (if not when the construction decision is taken on ITER). Component wastes were calculated for DEMOs based on each data base by first calculating reactor sizes needed to satisfy the physics, stress and radiation attenuation requirements, and then calculating component replacement rates based on radiation damage and erosion limits. Then, radioactive inventories were calculated and compared to a number of international criteria for open-quote near-surface close-quote burial. None of the components in either type of design would meet the Japanese LLW criterion ( 3 ) within 10 years of shutdown, although the advanced (V/Li) blanket would do so soon afterwards. The vanadium first wall, divertor and blanket would satisfy the IAEA LLW criterion (<2 mSv/h contact dose) within about 10 years after shutdown, but none of the stainless steel or copper components would. All the components in the advanced data base designs except the stainless steel vacuum vessel and shield readily satisfy the US extended 10CFR61 intruder dose criterion, but none of the components in the open-quotes ITER data baseclose quotes designs do so. It seems unlikely that a stainless steel first wall or a copper divertor plate could satisfy the US (class C) criterion for near surface burial, much less the more stringent international, criteria. On the other hand, the first wall, divertor and blanket of the V/Li system would still satisfy the intruder dose concentration limits even if the dose criterion was reduced by two orders of magnitude

  15. Fuzzy logic-based advanced on–off control for thermal comfort in residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Chang-Soon; Hyun, Chang-Ho; Park, Mignon

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Fuzzy logic-based advanced on–off control is proposed. • An anticipative control mechanism is implemented by using fuzzy theory. • Novel thermal analysis program including solar irradiation as a factor is developed. • The proposed controller solves over-heating and under-heating thermal problems. • Solar energy compensation method is applied to compensate for the solar energy. - Abstract: In this paper, an advanced on–off control method based on fuzzy logic is proposed for maintaining thermal comfort in residential buildings. Due to the time-lag of the control systems and the late building thermal response, an anticipative control mechanism is required to reduce energy loss and thermal discomfort. The proposed controller is implemented based on an on–off controller combined with a fuzzy algorithm. On–off control was chosen over other conventional control methods because of its structural simplicity. However, because conventional on–off control has a fixed operating range and a limited ability for improvements in control performance, fuzzy theory can be applied to overcome these limitations. Furthermore, a fuzzy-based solar energy compensation algorithm can be applied to the proposed controller to compensate for the energy gained from solar radiation according to the time of day. Simulations were conducted to compare the proposed controller with a conventional on–off controller under identical external conditions such as outdoor temperature and solar energy; these simulations were carried out by using a previously reported thermal analysis program that was modified to consider such external conditions. In addition, experiments were conducted in a residential building called Green Home Plus, in which hydronic radiant floor heating is used; in these experiments, the proposed system performed better than a system employing conventional on–off control methods

  16. An Advanced Trajectory-Based Operations Prototype Tool and Focus Group Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerreiro, Nelson M.; Jones, Denise R.; Barmore, Bryan E.; Butler, Ricky W.; Hagen, George E.; Maddalon, Jeffrey M.; Ahmad, Nash'at N.; Rogers, Laura J.; Underwood, Matthew C.; Johnson, Sally C.

    2017-01-01

    Trajectory-based operations (TBO) is a key concept in the Next Generation Air Transportation System transformation of the National Airspace System (NAS) that will increase the predictability and stability of traffic flows, support a common operational picture through the use of digital data sharing, facilitate more effective collaborative decision making between airspace users and air navigation service providers, and enable increased levels of integrated automation across the NAS. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been developing trajectory-based systems to improve the efficiency of the NAS during specific phases of flight and is now also exploring Advanced 4-Dimensional Trajectory (4DT) operational concepts that will integrate these technologies and incorporate new technology where needed to create both automation and procedures to support gate-to-gate TBO. A TBO Prototype simulation toolkit has been developed that demonstrates initial functionality that may reside in an Advanced 4DT TBO concept. Pilot and controller subject matter experts (SMEs) were brought to the Air Traffic Operations Laboratory at NASA Langley Research Center for discussions on an Advanced 4DT operational concept and were provided an interactive demonstration of the TBO Prototype using four example scenarios. The SMEs provided feedback on potential operational, technological, and procedural opportunities and concerns. After viewing the interactive demonstration scenarios, the SMEs felt the operational capabilities demonstrated would be useful for performing TBO while maintaining situation awareness and low mental workload. The TBO concept demonstrated produced defined routings around weather which resulted in a more organized, consistent flow of traffic where it was clear to both the controller and pilot what route the aircraft was to follow. In general, the controller SMEs felt that traffic flow management should be responsible for generating and negotiating the

  17. Critical Evaluation of the New Headway Advanced and the ILI Advanced Series: A Comparison of Curricular Components and CLT Objectives Based on ACTFL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmail Zare-Behtash

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The critical evaluation of systematic planning, development and review practices of instructional materials intend to improve the quality of teaching and learning. This study investigates the objectives of communicative language teaching and curricular components of two important textbooks which are widely studied in Iran: the New Headway Advanced Series (2015, the Iran Language Institute (ILI Advanced1 (2008. The evaluation is done in terms of two prospects; firstly, the interpretation of communicative language teaching objectives and secondly, curricular components of the books. To this aim, a checklist of 5 Cs standards and seven curricular components evaluation developed by American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL was employed. The evaluation reveals that the New Headway advanced series is more preferable and desirable than the ILI Advanced 1 due to the design and organization, authenticity, attractiveness, functionality, practicality and the other qualities mentioned above regarding communication, cultures, connection, comparison, and community in all aspects. The evaluation based on the seven curricular components- language systems, communication strategies, cultural knowledge, learning strategies, content from other subject areas, critical thinking skills, technology and the other features- indicates that the ILI textbook enjoys low standards and is not well developed in all components. The ILI textbook is highly reading and writing oriented and not appropriate for transactional and interactional learning purposes. This study acquaints language teachers and learners with the more desirable and cogent book.

  18. Advancing the Scientific Foundation for Evidence-Based Practice in Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Michael C; Blossom, Jennifer B; Evans, Spencer C; Amaro, Christina M; Kanine, Rebecca M

    2017-01-01

    Evidence-based practice (EBP) has become a central focus in clinical child and adolescent psychology. As originally defined, EBP in psychology is the integration of the best available research evidence, patient characteristics, and clinical expertise. Although evidence-based perspectives have garnered widespread acceptance in recent years, there has also been some confusion and disagreement about the 3-part definition of EBP, particularly the role of research. In this article, we first provide a brief review of the development of EBP in clinical child and adolescent psychology. Next, we outline the following 4 points to help clarify the understanding of EBP: (a) knowledge should not be confused with epistemic processes, (b) research on clinician and client factors is needed for EBP, (c) research on assessment is needed for EBP, and (d) the 3-part conceptualization of EBP can serve as a useful framework to guide research. Based on these principles, we put forth a slightly revised conceptualization of EBP, in which the role of research is expanded and more clearly operationalized. Finally, based on our review of the literature, we offer illustrative examples of specific directions for future research to advance the evidence base for EBP in clinical child and adolescent psychology.

  19. Advanced Emergency Braking Control Based on a Nonlinear Model Predictive Algorithm for Intelligent Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronghui Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on safety, comfort and with an overall aim of the comprehensive improvement of a vision-based intelligent vehicle, a novel Advanced Emergency Braking System (AEBS is proposed based on Nonlinear Model Predictive Algorithm. Considering the nonlinearities of vehicle dynamics, a vision-based longitudinal vehicle dynamics model is established. On account of the nonlinear coupling characteristics of the driver, surroundings, and vehicle itself, a hierarchical control structure is proposed to decouple and coordinate the system. To avoid or reduce the collision risk between the intelligent vehicle and collision objects, a coordinated cost function of tracking safety, comfort, and fuel economy is formulated. Based on the terminal constraints of stable tracking, a multi-objective optimization controller is proposed using the theory of non-linear model predictive control. To quickly and precisely track control target in a finite time, an electronic brake controller for AEBS is designed based on the Nonsingular Fast Terminal Sliding Mode (NFTSM control theory. To validate the performance and advantages of the proposed algorithm, simulations are implemented. According to the simulation results, the proposed algorithm has better integrated performance in reducing the collision risk and improving the driving comfort and fuel economy of the smart car compared with the existing single AEBS.

  20. Designing informed game-based rehabilitation tasks leveraging advances in virtual reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Belinda; Koenig, Sebastian; Chang, Chien-Yen; McConnell, Eric; Suma, Evan; Bolas, Mark; Rizzo, Albert

    2012-01-01

    This paper details a brief history and rationale for the use of virtual reality (VR) technology for clinical research and intervention, and then focuses on game-based VR applications in the area of rehabilitation. An analysis of the match between rehabilitation task requirements and the assets available with VR technology is presented. Low-cost camera-based systems capable of tracking user behavior at sufficient levels for game-based virtual rehabilitation activities are currently available for in-home use. Authoring software is now being developed that aims to provide clinicians with a usable toolkit for leveraging this technology. This will facilitate informed professional input on software design, development and application to ensure safe and effective use in the rehabilitation context. The field of rehabilitation generally stands to benefit from the continual advances in VR technology, concomitant system cost reductions and an expanding clinical research literature and knowledge base. Home-based activity within VR systems that are low-cost, easy to deploy and maintain, and meet the requirements for "good" interactive rehabilitation tasks could radically improve users' access to care, adherence to prescribed training and subsequently enhance functional activity in everyday life in clinical populations.

  1. Recent Advances in Bismuth-Based Nanomaterials for Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Swetha S M; Jang, Ho Won

    2017-08-10

    In recent years, bismuth-based nanomaterials have drawn considerable interest as potential candidates for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting owing to their narrow band gaps, nontoxicity, and low costs. The unique electronic structure of bismuth-based materials with a well-dispersed valence band comprising Bi 6s and O 2p orbitals offers a suitable band gap to harvest visible light. This Review presents significant advancements in exploiting bismuth-based nanomaterials for solar water splitting. An overview of the different strategies employed and the new ideas adopted to improve the PEC performance of bismuth-based nanomaterials are discussed. Morphology control, the construction of heterojunctions, doping, and co-catalyst loading are several approaches that are implemented to improve the efficiency of solar water splitting. Key issues are identified and guidelines are suggested to rationalize the design of efficient bismuth-based materials for sunlight-driven water splitting. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Hyoid bone advancement for improving airway patency: cadaver study of a magnet-based system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbluth, Kathryn H; Kwiat, Dillon A; Harrison, Michael R; Kezirian, Eric J

    2012-03-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of anterior forces applied to the hyoid bone on upper airway dimensions and airflow. The study also evaluated the feasibility of applying these forces using a novel magnet-based system. Human cadaver specimens. Surgical laboratory. Five fresh cadaveric specimens were evaluated using fluoroscopy and computed tomography to examine upper airway opening as well as an airflow model to examine upper airway collapse. Anteriorly directed force was applied to the hyoid bone directly using a wire and with a magnet-based system called the Magnap device. Direct application of force was examined with an axial load frame or suspended weights. The magnet-based system applied similar forces using an internal, implanted magnet secured to the hyoid bone and an external magnet housed within an orthotic brace. A force of 2 N perpendicular to the neck skin advanced the hyoid 1 cm, opened the upper airway, and significantly improved airflow. The implanted magnet-based device generated similar forces, with similar effects on the upper airway. Application of anterior force to the hyoid bone improved upper airway dimensions and airflow in the human cadaver model. These results justify additional study to evaluate the benefits of this magnet-based system as a possible treatment of upper airway obstruction.

  3. 75 FR 82317 - Risk-Based Capital Standards: Advanced Capital Adequacy Framework-Basel II; Establishment of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-30

    ...)(1) and (2) specify that the Federal banking agencies may not establish leverage or risk-based... and to limit temporarily the amount by which a banking organization's risk-based capital requirements... amount by which a banking organization's risk-based capital requirements may decline. Under the advanced...

  4. The Advancement of Family Therapy Theory Based on the Science of Self-Organizing Complex Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey-Kemper, Valerie Ann

    1995-01-01

    Problem. The purpose of this study was to review the literature which presents the latest advancements in the field of family therapy theory. Since such advancement has relied on the scientific developments in the study of autopoietic self-organizing complex systems, then the review began with an historical overview of the development of these natural scientific concepts. The study then examined how the latest scientific concepts have been integrated with family therapy practice. The document is built on the theory that individuals are living, complex, self-organizing, autopoietic systems. When individual systems interact with other individual systems (such as in family interaction, or in interaction between therapist and client), then a third system emerges, which is the relationship. It is through interaction in the relationship that transformation of an individual system can occur. Method. The historical antecedents of the field of family therapy were outlined. It was demonstrated, via literature review, that the field of family therapy has traditionally paralleled developments in the hard sciences. Further, it was demonstrated via literature review that the newest understandings of the development of individuals, family systems, and therapeutic systems also parallel recent natural science developments, namely those developments based on the science of self-organizing complex systems. Outcome. The results of the study are twofold. First, the study articulates an expanded theory of the therapist, individual, and family as autopoietic self-organizing complex systems. Second, the study provides an expanded hypothesis which concerns recommendations for future research which will further advance the latest theories of family therapy. More precisely, the expanded hypothesis suggests that qualitative research, rather than quantitative research, is the method of choice for studying the effectiveness of phenomenological therapy.

  5. Efficacy of sorafenib monotherapy versus sorafenib-based loco-regional treatments in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangheun Lee

    Full Text Available Although sorafenib is accepted as the standard of care in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, its therapeutic benefit is marginal. Here, we aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of sorafenib monotherapy (S-M and sorafenib-based loco-regional treatments (S-LRTs in advanced HCC.From 2007 to 2012, 290 patients with advanced HCC (Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage C with S-M (n = 226 or S-LRTs (n = 64 were reviewed retrospectively. Survival outcomes and treatment-related toxicities between two groups were analyzed.Variables related to tumor burden and liver function were similar between the groups (all P > 0.05. Within the entire population, the S-LRTs group had both longer median overall survival (OS (8.5 vs 5.5 months, P = 0.001 and progression-free survival (PFS (5.3 vs 3.0 months, P = 0.002 than the S-M group. Furthermore, the S-LRTs group had longer Os than the S-M group in a subgroup with neither extrahepatic spread (EHS nor regional nodal involvement (RNI (18.0 vs 7.8 months, P = 0.019 and in a subgroup with EHS and/or RNI (8.3 vs 4.8 months, P = 0.028. In addition, the S-LRTs group had longer PFS than the S-M group in the subgroup with neither EHS nor RNI (9.6 vs 3.2 months, P = 0.027.Related toxicity was similar between two groups.Combined use of sorafenib and LRTs may provide better treatment outcomes without significantly increasing treatment-related toxicities, even in patients with EHS and/or RNI. Therefore, addition of active LRTs might be considered, if feasible.

  6. Efficacy of sorafenib monotherapy versus sorafenib-based loco-regional treatments in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangheun; Kim, Beom Kyung; Kim, Seung Up; Park, Yehyun; Chang, Sooyun; Park, Jun Yong; Kim, Do Young; Ahn, Sang Hoon; Chon, Chae Yoon; Han, Kwang-Hyub

    2013-01-01

    Although sorafenib is accepted as the standard of care in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), its therapeutic benefit is marginal. Here, we aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of sorafenib monotherapy (S-M) and sorafenib-based loco-regional treatments (S-LRTs) in advanced HCC. From 2007 to 2012, 290 patients with advanced HCC (Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage C) with S-M (n = 226) or S-LRTs (n = 64) were reviewed retrospectively. Survival outcomes and treatment-related toxicities between two groups were analyzed. Variables related to tumor burden and liver function were similar between the groups (all P > 0.05). Within the entire population, the S-LRTs group had both longer median overall survival (OS) (8.5 vs 5.5 months, P = 0.001) and progression-free survival (PFS) (5.3 vs 3.0 months, P = 0.002) than the S-M group. Furthermore, the S-LRTs group had longer Os than the S-M group in a subgroup with neither extrahepatic spread (EHS) nor regional nodal involvement (RNI) (18.0 vs 7.8 months, P = 0.019) and in a subgroup with EHS and/or RNI (8.3 vs 4.8 months, P = 0.028). In addition, the S-LRTs group had longer PFS than the S-M group in the subgroup with neither EHS nor RNI (9.6 vs 3.2 months, P = 0.027). Related toxicity was similar between two groups. Combined use of sorafenib and LRTs may provide better treatment outcomes without significantly increasing treatment-related toxicities, even in patients with EHS and/or RNI. Therefore, addition of active LRTs might be considered, if feasible.

  7. Teaching Medical Students About "The Conversation": An Interactive Value-Based Advance Care Planning Session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Hillary D; Dukes, Joanna; Church, Skotti; Abbott, Jean; Youngwerth, Jean M

    2018-02-01

    Advance care planning (ACP) promotes care consistent with patient wishes. Medical education should teach how to initiate value-based ACP conversations. To develop and evaluate an ACP educational session to teach medical students a value-based ACP process and to encourage students to take personal ACP action steps. Groups of third-year medical students participated in a 75-minute session using personal reflection and discussion framed by The Conversation Starter Kit. The Conversation Project is a free resource designed to help individuals and families express their wishes for end-of-life care. One hundred twenty-seven US third-year medical students participated in the session. Student evaluations immediately after the session and 1 month later via electronic survey. More than 90% of students positively evaluated the educational value of the session, including rating highly the opportunities to reflect on their own ACP and to use The Conversation Starter Kit. Many students (65%) reported prior ACP conversations. After the session, 73% reported plans to discuss ACP, 91% had thought about preferences for future medical care, and 39% had chosen a medical decision maker. Only a minority had completed an advance directive (14%) or talked with their health-care provider (1%). One month later, there was no evidence that the session increased students' actions regarding these same ACP action steps. A value-based ACP educational session using The Conversation Starter Kit successfully engaged medical students in learning about ACP conversations, both professionally and personally. This session may help students initiate conversations for themselves and their patients.

  8. Process modeling and supply chain design for advanced biofuel production based on bio-oil gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi

    As a potential substitute for petroleum-based fuel, second generation biofuels are playing an increasingly important role due to their economic, environmental, and social benefits. With the rapid development of biofuel industry, there has been an increasing literature on the techno-economic analysis and supply chain design for biofuel production based on a variety of production pathways. A recently proposed production pathway of advanced biofuel is to convert biomass to bio-oil at widely distributed small-scale fast pyrolysis plants, then gasify the bio-oil to syngas and upgrade the syngas to transportation fuels in centralized biorefinery. This thesis aims to investigate two types of assessments on this bio-oil gasification pathway: techno-economic analysis based on process modeling and literature data; supply chain design with a focus on optimal decisions for number of facilities to build, facility capacities and logistic decisions considering uncertainties. A detailed process modeling with corn stover as feedstock and liquid fuels as the final products is presented. Techno-economic analysis of the bio-oil gasification pathway is also discussed to assess the economic feasibility. Some preliminary results show a capital investment of 438 million dollar and minimum fuel selling price (MSP) of $5.6 per gallon of gasoline equivalent. The sensitivity analysis finds that MSP is most sensitive to internal rate of return (IRR), biomass feedstock cost, and fixed capital cost. A two-stage stochastic programming is formulated to solve the supply chain design problem considering uncertainties in biomass availability, technology advancement, and biofuel price. The first-stage makes the capital investment decisions including the locations and capacities of the decentralized fast pyrolysis plants and the centralized biorefinery while the second-stage determines the biomass and biofuel flows. The numerical results and case study illustrate that considering uncertainties can be

  9. Task 3.0: Advanced power systems. Semi-annual report, April 1--June 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCollor, D.P.; Zygarlicke, C.J.; Mann, M.D.; Willson, W.G.; Hurley, J.P.

    1993-07-01

    A variety of activities are incorporated into the Advanced Power Systems program. Tasks included are (1) fuel utilization properties, (2) pressurized combustion, (3) catalytic gasification, and (4) hot-gas cleanup. ATRAN is stochastic and combines initial coal inorganics in a random manner in order to predict the resulting fly ash particle size and composition. ASHPERT, is an expert system yielding a first-order estimate of fly ash size and composition. Both models are designed to emulate pulverized-coal combustion. Input data required include identity, chemistry, size, quantity, and mineral-to-coal associations. The pressurized combustion task has focused on the construction of a versatile reactor system to simulate pressurized fluidized-bed combustion. Both castable and monolithic refractories have been investigated in determining slag prevention under a variety of conditions. Catalytic gasification coupled with a molten carbonate fuel cell offers an extremely efficient and environmentally sound power generating system using coal. Work with an Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal has not been successful. Continued efforts will focus on using the more reactive low-rank coals to try to achieve this goal. Hot-gas cleanup is the critical issue in many of the proposed advanced power system operations on coal. The key to successful ash removal is an understanding of the properties of the ash to be collected as well as the interactions of this material with the barrier itself. The knowledge base under development will assist in assessing many of these barrier material issues for a variety of coal ashes.

  10. Modeling the Behaviour of an Advanced Material Based Smart Landing Gear System for Aerospace Vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varughese, Byji; Dayananda, G. N.; Rao, M. Subba

    2008-01-01

    The last two decades have seen a substantial rise in the use of advanced materials such as polymer composites for aerospace structural applications. In more recent years there has been a concerted effort to integrate materials, which mimic biological functions (referred to as smart materials) with polymeric composites. Prominent among smart materials are shape memory alloys, which possess both actuating and sensory functions that can be realized simultaneously. The proper characterization and modeling of advanced and smart materials holds the key to the design and development of efficient smart devices/systems. This paper focuses on the material characterization; modeling and validation of the model in relation to the development of a Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) based smart landing gear (with high energy dissipation features) for a semi rigid radio controlled airship (RC-blimp). The Super Elastic (SE) SMA element is configured in such a way that it is forced into a tensile mode of high elastic deformation. The smart landing gear comprises of a landing beam, an arch and a super elastic Nickel-Titanium (Ni-Ti) SMA element. The landing gear is primarily made of polymer carbon composites, which possess high specific stiffness and high specific strength compared to conventional materials, and are therefore ideally suited for the design and development of an efficient skid landing gear system with good energy dissipation characteristics. The development of the smart landing gear in relation to a conventional metal landing gear design is also dealt with

  11. Supply chain design under uncertainty for advanced biofuel production based on bio-oil gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Qi; Hu, Guiping

    2014-01-01

    An advanced biofuels supply chain is proposed to reduce biomass transportation costs and take advantage of the economics of scale for a gasification facility. In this supply chain, biomass is converted to bio-oil at widely distributed small-scale fast pyrolysis plants, and after bio-oil gasification, the syngas is upgraded to transportation fuels at a centralized biorefinery. A two-stage stochastic programming is formulated to maximize biofuel producers' annual profit considering uncertainties in the supply chain for this pathway. The first stage makes the capital investment decisions including the locations and capacities of the decentralized fast pyrolysis plants as well as the centralized biorefinery, while the second stage determines the biomass and biofuels flows. A case study based on Iowa in the U.S. illustrates that it is economically feasible to meet desired demand using corn stover as the biomass feedstock. The results show that the locations of fast pyrolysis plants are sensitive to uncertainties while the capacity levels are insensitive. The stochastic model outperforms the deterministic model in the stochastic environment, especially when there is insufficient biomass. Also, farmers' participation can have a significant impact on the profitability and robustness of this supply chain. - Highlights: • Decentralized supply chain design for advanced biofuel production is considered. • A two-stage stochastic programming is formulated to consider uncertainties. • Farmers' participation has a significant impact on the biofuel supply chain design

  12. A Practice-Based Theory of Healing Through Therapeutic Touch: Advancing Holistic Nursing Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Mary Anne; Coppa, Denise; Shields, Deborah

    2017-08-01

    For nearly 50 years, Therapeutic Touch (TT) has contributed to advancing holistic nursing practice and has been recognized as a uniquely human approach to healing. This narrative explores the development of a practice-based theory of healing through TT, which occurred between 2010 and 2016. Through the in-depth self-inquiry of participatory reflective dialogue in concert with constant narrative analysis, TT practitioners revealed the meaning of healing within the context of their TT practice. As the community of TT experts participated in an iterative process of small group and community dialogues with analysis and synthesis of emerging themes, the assumptions and concepts central to a theory of healing emerged, were clarified and verified. Exemplars of practice illustrate the concepts. A model of the theory of healing illuminates the movement and relationship among concepts and evolved over time. Feedback from nursing and inter-professional practitioners indicate that the theory of healing, while situated within the context of TT, may be useful in advancing holistic nursing practice, informing healing and caring approaches, stimulating research and education, and contributing to future transformations in health care.

  13. Failure of the Current Advance Care Planning Paradigm: Advocating for a Communications-Based Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vearrier, Laura

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of advance care planning (ACP) is to allow an individual to maintain autonomy in end-of-life (EOL) medical decision-making even when incapacitated by disease or terminal illness. The intersection of EOL medical technology, ethics of EOL care, and state and federal law has driven the development of the legal framework for advance directives (ADs). However, from an ethical perspective the current legal framework is inadequate to make ADs an effective EOL planning tool. One response to this flawed AD process has been the development of Physician Orders for Life Sustaining Treatment (POLST). POLST has been described as a paradigm shift to address the inadequacies of ADs. However, POLST has failed to bridge the gap between patients and their autonomous, preferred EOL care decisions. Analysis of ADs and POLST reveals that future policy should focus on a communications-based approach to ACP that emphasizes ongoing interactions between healthcare providers and patients to optimize EOL medical care to the individual patient.

  14. Advanced gecko-foot-mimetic dry adhesives based on carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shihao; Xia, Zhenhai; Dai, Liming

    2012-12-01

    Geckos can run freely on vertical walls and even ceilings. Recent studies have discovered that gecko's extraordinary climbing ability comes from a remarkable design of nature with nanoscale beta-keratin elastic hairs on their feet and toes, which collectively generate sufficiently strong van der Waals force to hold the animal onto an opposing surface while at the same time disengaging at will. Vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VA-CNT) arrays, resembling gecko's adhesive foot hairs with additional superior mechanical, chemical and electrical properties, have been demonstrated to be a promising candidate for advanced fibrillar dry adhesives. The VA-CNT arrays with tailor-made hierarchical structures can be patterned and/or transferred onto various flexible substrates, including responsive polymers. This, together with recent advances in nanofabrication techniques, could offer `smart' dry adhesives for various potential applications, even where traditional adhesives cannot be used. A detailed understanding of the underlying mechanisms governing the material properties and adhesion performances is critical to the design and fabrication of gecko inspired CNT dry adhesives of practical significance. In this feature article, we present an overview of recent progress in both fundamental and applied frontiers for the development of CNT-based adhesives by summarizing important studies in this exciting field, including our own work.

  15. Advances based on digital technology named TEDDY+ for inspection of eddy current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barcenilla, V.; Hernandez, J.; Ribes, B.

    2007-01-01

    As a result of the recent developing line of eddy current data acquisition system a new product based on digital technology named TEDDY+, comes to the market. With only 4 kg of weight constitutes a great advance with regards to other equipment's available in the market. These advances, have enabled, among others, to increase considerably the signal to noise (S/N) ratio, avoid typical saturation problems in the eddy current signal, increase the inspection speed, eliminate the reference probe, detect the air/tube signal in real time, and the possibility to integrate the tester inside a push puller thanks to its reduced size and to have integrated as part of the ET equipment the mechanical systems control board. Two product lines have been developed, one oriented to any market and application (nuclear market, industrial and aeronautical, chemical and petrochemical, etc) and other specially dedicated to the massive inspection of tubes, named TEDDY+SP (Suitcase Pusher). Both lines are prepared to use eddy current arrays which clearly constitute the future of the eddy current inspection systems. The new TEDDY+ line of products presented in this paper constitutes one of the most powerful and reliable existing in the market. These improvements and novelties place the new ET inspection system from Tecnatom as one of the most powerful and reliable in the market. (Author)

  16. An Advanced Smoke-Eater for Post-fire Cabin Atmosphere Cleanup, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TDA Research, Inc. (TDA) proposes to develop a post-fire air purification system that consists of a particulate removal assembly, a sorbent bed to remove the...

  17. Proof-of concept testing of the advanced NOXSO flue gas cleanup process. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    The NOXSO Process uses a regenerable sorbent that removes SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} simultaneously from flue gas. The sorbent is a stabilized {gamma}-alumina bed impregnated with sodium carbonate. The process was successfully tested at three different scales, equivalent to 0.017, 0.06 and 0.75 MW of flue gas generated from a coal-fired power plant. The Proof-of-Concept (POC) Test is the last test prior to a full-scale demonstration. A slip stream of flue gas equivalent to a 5 MW coal-fired power plant was used for the POC test. This paper summarizes the NOXSO POC plant and its test results.

  18. Advanced separation technology for flue gas cleanup. Quarterly technical report No. 11, October 1994--December 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhown, A.S.; Alvarado, D.; Pakala, N. [and others

    1994-12-01

    The objective of this work is to develop a novel system for regenerable SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} scrubbing of flue gas that focuses on (a) a novel method for regeneration of spent SO{sub 2} scrubbing liquor and (b) novel chemistry for reversible absorption of NO{sub x}. In addition, high efficiency hollow fiber contactors (HFC) are proposed as the devices for scrubbing the SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} from the flue gas. The system will be designed to remove more than 95% of the SO{sub x} and more than 75% of the NO{sub x} from flue gases typical of pulverized coal-fired power plants at a cost that is at least 20% less than combined wet limestone scrubbing of SO{sub x} and selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x}. In addition, the process will make only marketable byproducts, if any (no waste streams). The major cost item in existing technology is capital investment. Therefore, our approach is to reduce the capital cost by using high efficiency hollow fiber devices for absorbing and desorbing the SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. We will also introduce new process chemistry to minimize traditionally well-known problems with SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} absorption and desorption. For example, we will extract the SO{sub 2} from the aqueous scrubbing liquor into an oligomer of dimethylaniline to avoid the problem of organic liquid losses in the regeneration of the organic liquid.

  19. Advanced separation technology for flue gas cleanup. Final report, February 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhown, A.S.; Alvarado, D.; Pakala, N.; Tagg, T.; Riggs, T.; Ventura, S.; Sirkar, K.K.; Majumdar, S.; Bhaumick, D.

    1998-06-01

    The objective of this work by SRI International was to develop a novel system for regenerable SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} scrubbing of flue gas that focuses on (1) a novel method for regenerating spent SO{sub 2} scrubbing liquor and (2) novel chemistry for reversible absorption of NO{sub x}. High efficiency, hollow fiber contactors (HFCs) were proposed as the devices for scrubbing the SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} from the flue gas. The system would be designed to remove more than 95% of the SO{sub 2} and more than 75% of the NO{sub x} from flue gases typical of pulverized coal-fired power plants at a cost that is at least 20% less than combined wet limestone scrubbing of SO{sub x} and selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x}. In addition, the process would generate only marketable by-products, if any (no waste streams are anticipated). The major cost item in existing technology is capital investment. Therefore, the approach was to reduce the capital cost by using high-efficiency, hollow fiber devices for absorbing and desorbing the SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. The authors also introduced new process chemistry to minimize traditionally well-known problems with SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} absorption and desorption. The process and progress in its development are described.

  20. NiAl-Base Composite Containing High Volume Fraction of AIN Particulate for Advanced Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebsur, Mohan G.; Whittenberger, J. D.; Lowell, C. E.; Garg, A.

    1995-01-01

    Cryomilling of prealloyed NiAl containing 53 at. % AJ was carried out to achieve high nitrogen levels. The consolidation of cryomilled powder by extrusion or hot pressing/ hot isostatic pressing resulted in a fully dense NiAl-base composite containing 30 vol. % of inhomogeneously distributed, nanosized AIN particulate. The NiAl-30AIN composite exhibited the highest compression yield strengths at all temperatures between 300 and 1300 K as compared with other compositions of NiAl-AIN composite. The NiAl-30AIN specimens tested under compressive creep loading between 1300 and 1500 K also exhibited the highest creep resistance with very little surface oxidation indicating also their superior elevated temperature oxidation resistance. In the high stress exponent regime, the strength is proportional to the square root of the AIN content and in the low stress exponent regime, the influence of AIN content on strength appears to be less dramatic. The specific creep strength of this material at 1300 K is superior to a first generation Ni-base single crystal superalloy. The improvements in elevated temperature creep strength and oxidation resistance have been achieved without sacrificing the room temperature fracture toughness of the NiAl-base material. Based on its attractive combination of properties, the NiAl-30AIN composite is a potential candidate for advanced engine applications,

  1. Advances in lanthanide-based luminescent peptide probes for monitoring the activity of kinase and phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, Elena; Vázquez, M Eugenio

    2014-02-01

    Signaling pathways based on protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation play critical roles in the orchestration of complex biochemical events and form the core of most signaling pathways in cells (i.e. cell cycle regulation, cell motility, apoptosis, etc.). The understanding of these complex signaling networks is based largely on the biochemical study of their components, i.e. kinases and phosphatases. The development of luminescent sensors for monitoring kinase and phosphatase activity is therefore an active field of research. Examples in the literature usually rely on the modulation of the fluorescence emission of organic fluorophores. However, given the exceptional photophysical properties of lanthanide ions, there is an increased interest in their application as emissive species for monitoring kinase and phosphatase activity. This review summarizes the advances in the development of lanthanide-based luminescent peptide sensors as tools for the study of kinases and phosphatases and provides a critical description of current examples and synthetic approaches to understand these lanthanide-based luminescent peptide sensors. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Industrial wastewater advanced treatment via catalytic ozonation with an Fe-based catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xufang; Chen, Weiyu; Ma, Luming; Wang, Hongwu; Fan, Jinhong

    2018-03-01

    An Fe-based catalyst was used as a heterogeneous catalyst for the ozonation of industrial wastewater, and key operational parameters (pH and catalyst dosage) were studied. The results indicated that the Fe-based catalyst significantly improved the mineralization of organic pollutants in wastewater. TOC (total organic carbon) removal was high, at 78.7%, with a catalyst concentration of 200 g/L, but only 31.6% with ozonation alone. The Fe-based catalyst significantly promoted ozone decomposition by 70% in aqueous solution. Hydroxyl radicals (·OH) were confirmed to be existed directly via EPR (electron paramagnetic resonance) experiments, and ·OH were verified to account for about 34.4% of TOC removal with NaHCO 3 as a radical scavenger. Through characterization by SEM-EDS (field emission scanning electron microscope with energy-dispersive spectrometer), XRD (X-ray powder diffraction) and XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy), it was deduced that FeOOH on the surface of the catalyst was the dominant contributor to the catalytic efficiency. The catalyst was certified as having good stability and excellent reusability based on 50 successive operations and could be used as a filler simultaneously. Thereby, it is a promising catalyst for practical industrial wastewater advanced treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Advancing team-based primary health care: a comparative analysis of policies in western Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, Esther; Mallinson, Sara; Misfeldt, Renee; Boakye, Omenaa; Nasmith, Louise; Wong, Sabrina T

    2017-07-17

    We analyzed and compared primary health care (PHC) policies in British Columbia, Alberta and Saskatchewan to understand how they inform the design and implementation of team-based primary health care service delivery. The goal was to develop policy imperatives that can advance team-based PHC in Canada. We conducted comparative case studies (n = 3). The policy analysis included: Context review: We reviewed relevant information (2007 to 2014) from databases and websites. Policy review and comparative analysis: We compared and contrasted publically available PHC policies. Key informant interviews: Key informants (n = 30) validated narratives prepared from the comparative analysis by offering contextual information on potential policy imperatives. Advisory group and roundtable: An expert advisory group guided this work and a key stakeholder roundtable event guided prioritization of policy imperatives. The concept of team-based PHC varies widely across and within the three provinces. We noted policy gaps related to team configuration, leadership, scope of practice, role clarity and financing of team-based care; few policies speak explicitly to monitoring and evaluation of team-based PHC. We prioritized four policy imperatives: (1) alignment of goals and policies at different system levels; (2) investment of resources for system change; (3) compensation models for all members of the team; and (4) accountability through collaborative practice metrics. Policies supporting team-based PHC have been slow to emerge, lacking a systematic and coordinated approach. Greater alignment with specific consideration of financing, reimbursement, implementation mechanisms and performance monitoring could accelerate systemic transformation by removing some well-known barriers to team-based care.

  4. Improving preterm infant outcomes: implementing an evidence-based oral feeding advancement protocol in the neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kish, Mary Z

    2014-10-01

    The ability of a preterm infant to exclusively oral feed is a necessary standard for discharge readiness from the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Many of the interventions related to oral feeding advancement currently employed for preterm infants in the NICU are based on individual nursing observations and judgment. Studies involving standardized feeding protocols for oral feeding advancement have been shown to decrease variability in feeding practices, facilitate shortened transition times from gavage to oral feedings, improve bottle feeding performance, and significantly decrease the length of stay (LOS) in the NICU. This project critically evaluated the implementation of an oral feeding advancement protocol in a 74-bed level III NICU in an attempt to standardize the process of advancing oral feedings in medically stable preterm infants. A comprehensive review of the literature identified key features for successful oral feeding in preterm infants. Strong levels of evidence suggested an association between both nonnutritive sucking (NNS) opportunities and standardized feeding advancement protocols with successful oral feeding in preterm infants. These findings prompted a pilot practice change using a feeding advancement protocol and consisted of NNS and standardized oral feeding advancement opportunities. Time to exclusive oral feedings and LOS were compared pre- and postprotocol implementation during more than a 2-month evaluation period. Infants using NNS and the standardized oral feeding advancement protocol had an observed reduction in time to exclusive oral feedings and LOS, although statistical significance was not achieved.

  5. Advanced neural network-based computational schemes for robust fault diagnosis

    CERN Document Server

    Mrugalski, Marcin

    2014-01-01

    The present book is devoted to problems of adaptation of artificial neural networks to robust fault diagnosis schemes. It presents neural networks-based modelling and estimation techniques used for designing robust fault diagnosis schemes for non-linear dynamic systems. A part of the book focuses on fundamental issues such as architectures of dynamic neural networks, methods for designing of neural networks and fault diagnosis schemes as well as the importance of robustness. The book is of a tutorial value and can be perceived as a good starting point for the new-comers to this field. The book is also devoted to advanced schemes of description of neural model uncertainty. In particular, the methods of computation of neural networks uncertainty with robust parameter estimation are presented. Moreover, a novel approach for system identification with the state-space GMDH neural network is delivered. All the concepts described in this book are illustrated by both simple academic illustrative examples and practica...

  6. Final Report - ADVANCED LASER-BASED SENSORS FOR INDUSTRIAL PROCESS CONTROL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Manish; Baer, Douglas

    2013-09-30

    The objective of this work is to capture the potential of real-time monitoring and overcome the challenges of harsh industrial environments, Los Gatos Research (LGR) is fabricating, deploying, and commercializing advanced laser-based gas sensors for process control monitoring in industrial furnaces (e.g. electric arc furnaces). These sensors can achieve improvements in process control, leading to enhanced productivity, improved product quality, and reduced energy consumption and emissions. The first sensor will utilize both mid-infrared and near-infrared lasers to make rapid in-situ measurements of industrial gases and associated temperatures in the furnace off-gas. The second sensor will make extractive measurements of process gases. During the course of this DOE project, Los Gatos Research (LGR) fabricated, tested, and deployed both in-situ tunable diode laser absorption spectrometry (TDLAS) analyzers and extractive Off-Axis Integrated Cavity Output Spectroscopy (Off-Axis ICOS) analyzers.

  7. Treatment outcome in performance status 2 advanced NSCLC patients administered platinum-based combination chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helbekkmo, Nina; Aasebø, Ulf; Sundstrøm, Stein H

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is no consensus regarding chemotherapy to patients with advanced NSCLC (ANSCLC) and performance status (PS) 2. Using data from a national multicenter study comparing two third-generation carboplatin-based regimens in ANSCLC patients, we evaluated the outcome of PS 2 patients....... PATIENTS AND METHODS: The 123 PS 2 patients were compared to 309 PS 0/1 patients regarding survival, quality of life (QOL) and treatment toxicity. RESULTS: PS 2 patients had lower haemoglobin, lower global QOL and more pain, nausea/vomiting and dyspnea at inclusion. 68% of PS 2 patients received three...... chemotherapy courses vs. 85% in the PS 0/1 group (PPS 2 group, 4.5 vs. 8.9 months and 10% vs. 37% (PPS 2 patients needed blood transfusions (P=0.03) and hospitalization (PPS 2 patients had better relief of pain and dyspnea...

  8. Advances in light-based imaging of three-dimensional cellular ultrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchanawong, Pakorn; Waterman, Clare M

    2012-02-01

    Visualization methods are key to gaining insights into cellular structure and function. Since diffraction has long confined optical microscopes to a resolution no better than hundreds of nanometers, the observation of ultrastructural features has traditionally been the domain of electron microscopes (EM). In the past decade, however, advances in super-resolution fluorescence microscopy have considerably expanded the capability of light-based imaging techniques. Advantages of fluorescent labeling such as high sensitivity, specificity, and multichannel capability, can now be exploited to dissect ultrastructural features of cells. With recent methods capable of imaging specific proteins with a resolution on the order of a few tens of nanometers in 3-dimensions, this has made it possible to elucidate the molecular organization of many complex cellular structures. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. IPAD 2: Advances in Distributed Data Base Management for CAD/CAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostic, S. W. (Compiler)

    1984-01-01

    The Integrated Programs for Aerospace-Vehicle Design (IPAD) Project objective is to improve engineering productivity through better use of computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology. The focus is on development of technology and associated software for integrated company-wide management of engineering information. The objectives of this conference are as follows: to provide a greater awareness of the critical need by U.S. industry for advancements in distributed CAD/CAM data management capability; to present industry experiences and current and planned research in distributed data base management; and to summarize IPAD data management contributions and their impact on U.S. industry and computer hardware and software vendors.

  10. Quantum-Dot-Based Solar Cells: Recent Advances, Strategies, and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mee Rahn; Ma, Dongling

    2015-01-02

    Among next-generation photovoltaic systems requiring low cost and high efficiency, quantum dot (QD)-based solar cells stand out as a very promising candidate because of the unique and versatile characteristics of QDs. The past decade has already seen rapid conceptual and technological advances on various aspects of QD solar cells, and diverse opportunities, which QDs can offer, predict that there is still ample room for further development and breakthroughs. In this Perspective, we first review the attractive advantages of QDs, such as size-tunable band gaps and multiple exciton generation (MEG), beneficial to solar cell applications. We then analyze major strategies, which have been extensively explored and have largely contributed to the most recent and significant achievements in QD solar cells. Finally, their high potential and challenges are discussed. In particular, QD solar cells are considered to hold immense potential to overcome the theoretical efficiency limit of 31% for single-junction cells.

  11. Eco-friendly carbon-nanodot-based fluorescent paints for advanced photocatalytic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young Park, So; Uk Lee, Hyun; Lee, Young-Chul; Choi, Saehae; Hyun Cho, Dae; Sik Kim, Hee; Bang, Sunghee; Seo, Soonjoo; Chang Lee, Soon; Won, Jonghan; Son, Byung-Chul; Yang, Mino; Lee, Jouhahn

    2015-07-01

    Fluorescent carbon nanomaterials, especially zero-dimensional (0D) carbon nanodots (CDs), are widely used in broad biological and optoelectronic applications. CDs have unique characteristics such as strong fluorescence, biocompatibility, sun-light response, and capability of mass-production. Beyond the previous green CD obtained from harmful natural substances, we report a new type of fluid-based fluorescent CD paints (C-paints) derived from polyethylene glycol (PEG; via simple ultrasound irradiation at room temperatures) and produced in quantum yields of up to ~14%. Additionally, C-paints possess a strong, UV- and visible-light-responsive photoluminescent (PL) property. Most especially, C-paints, by incorporation into a photocatalytic system, show additional roles in the emission of fluorescent light for activation of TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) and the resultant detoxification of most organic dyes, thus further enabling embarkation in advanced water purification.

  12. Advances in ground vehicle-based LADAR for standoff detection of road-side hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollinger, Jim; Vessey, Alyssa; Close, Ryan; Middleton, Seth; Williams, Kathryn; Rupp, Ronald; Nguyen, Son

    2016-05-01

    Commercial sensor technology has the potential to bring cost-effective sensors to a number of U.S. Army applications. By using sensors built for a widespread of commercial application, such as the automotive market, the Army can decrease costs of future systems while increasing overall capabilities. Additional sensors operating in alternate and orthogonal modalities can also be leveraged to gain a broader spectrum measurement of the environment. Leveraging multiple phenomenologies can reduce false alarms and make detection algorithms more robust to varied concealment materials. In this paper, this approach is applied to the detection of roadside hazards partially concealed by light-to-medium vegetation. This paper will present advances in detection algorithms using a ground vehicle-based commercial LADAR system. The benefits of augmenting a LADAR with millimeter-wave automotive radar and results from relevant data sets are also discussed.

  13. Photocatalytic Removal of Microcystin-LR by Advanced WO3-Based Nanoparticles under Simulated Solar Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chao; Li, Dawei; Feng, Chuanping; Zhang, Zhenya; Sugiura, Norio; Yang, Yingnan

    2015-01-01

    A series of advanced WO3-based photocatalysts including CuO/WO3, Pd/WO3, and Pt/WO3 were synthesized for the photocatalytic removal of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) under simulated solar light. In the present study, Pt/WO3 exhibited the best performance for the photocatalytic degradation of MC-LR. The MC-LR degradation can be described by pseudo-first-order kinetic model. Chloride ion (Cl−) with proper concentration could enhance the MC-LR degradation. The presence of metal cations (Cu2+ and Fe3+) improved the photocatalytic degradation of MC-LR. This study suggests that Pt/WO3 photocatalytic oxidation under solar light is a promising option for the purification of water containing MC-LR. PMID:25884038

  14. Eco-friendly carbon-nanodot-based fluorescent paints for advanced photocatalytic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, So Young; Lee, Hyun Uk; Lee, Young-Chul; Choi, Saehae; Cho, Dae Hyun; Kim, Hee Sik; Bang, Sunghee; Seo, Soonjoo; Lee, Soon Chang; Won, Jonghan; Son, Byung-Chul; Yang, Mino; Lee, Jouhahn

    2015-07-23

    Fluorescent carbon nanomaterials, especially zero-dimensional (0D) carbon nanodots (CDs), are widely used in broad biological and optoelectronic applications. CDs have unique characteristics such as strong fluorescence, biocompatibility, sun-light response, and capability of mass-production. Beyond the previous green CD obtained from harmful natural substances, we report a new type of fluid-based fluorescent CD paints (C-paints) derived from polyethylene glycol (PEG; via simple ultrasound irradiation at room temperatures) and produced in quantum yields of up to ~14%. Additionally, C-paints possess a strong, UV- and visible-light-responsive photoluminescent (PL) property. Most especially, C-paints, by incorporation into a photocatalytic system, show additional roles in the emission of fluorescent light for activation of TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) and the resultant detoxification of most organic dyes, thus further enabling embarkation in advanced water purification.

  15. Computer-based regulating control system for the Advanced Test Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, M.R.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes a new control system which has recently been designed and installed at the Advanced Test Reactor at INEL, replacing an older system that had been in service for some 17 years. Based on modern digital technology, the new system provides improved capability, reliability, and an enhanced man/machine interface that includes comprehensive failure and error messages and voice synthesis. In addition to control functions, and transparent to the operator, the system performs continual on-line checks to sense subsystem failures and takes appropriate automatic action. In the maintenance mode, service technicians can carry on a dialog with the controller to quickly identify faulty components. The operational capabilities of the new system are summarized, and reactor operator training, experience, and acceptance of the system are discussed

  16. Conceptual design of an emergency tritium clean-up system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, M.E.

    1978-01-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) has been selected to design, build, and operate a facility to demonstrate the operability of the tritium-related subsystems that would be required to successfully develop fusion reactor systems. Basically, these subsystems would consist of the deuterium-tritium fuel cycle and associated environmental control systems. An emergency tritium clean-up subsystem (ETC) for this facility will be designed to remove tritium from the cell atmosphere if an accident causes the primary and secondary tritium containment to be breached. Conceptually, the ETC will process cell air at the rate of 0.65 actual m 3 /s (1385 ACFM) and will achieve an overall decontamination factor of 10 6 for tritium oxide (T 2 O). Following the maximum credible release of 100 g of tritium, the ETC will restore the cell to operational status within 24 h without a significant release of tritium to the environment. The basic process will include compression of the air to 0.35 MPa (3.5 atm) in a reciprocating compressor followed by oxidation of the tritium to T 2 O in a catalytic reactor. The air will be cooled to 275 K (350 0 F) to remove most of the moisture, including T 2 O, as a condensate. The remaining moisture will be removed by molecular sieve dryer beds that incorporate a water-swamping step between beds, allowing greater T 2 O removal. A portion of the detritiated air will be recirculated to the cell; the remainder will be exhausted to the building ventilation stack to maintain a slight negative pressure in the cell. The ETC will be designed for maximum flexibility so that studies can be performed that involve various aspects of room air detritiation

  17. North Slope (Wahluke Slope) expedited response action cleanup plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    The purpose of this action is to mitigate any threat to public health and the environment from hazards on the North Slope and meet the expedited response action (ERA) objective of cleanup to a degree requiring no further action. The ERA may be the final remediation of the 100-I-3 Operable Unit. A No Action record of decision (ROD) may be issued after remediation completion. The US Department of Energy (DOE) currently owns or administers approximately 140 mi 2 (about 90,000 acres) of land north and east of the Columbia River (referred to as the North Slope) that is part of the Hanford Site. The North Slope, also commonly known as the Wahluke Slope, was not used for plutonium production or support facilities; it was used for military air defense of the Hanford Site and vicinity. The North Slope contained seven antiaircraft gun emplacements and three Nike-Ajax missile positions. These military positions were vacated in 1960--1961 as the defense requirements at Hanford changed. They were demolished in 1974. Prior to government control in 1943, the North Slope was homesteaded. Since the initiation of this ERA in the summer of 1992, DOE signed the modified Hanford Federal Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) with the Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in which a milestone was set to complete remediation activities and a draft closeout report by October 1994. Remediation activities will make the North Slope area available for future non-DOE uses. Thirty-nine sites have undergone limited characterization to determine if significant environmental hazards exist. This plan documents the results of that characterization and evaluates the potential remediation alternatives

  18. North Slope (Wahluke Slope) expedited response action cleanup plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    The purpose of this action is to mitigate any threat to public health and the environment from hazards on the North Slope and meet the expedited response action (ERA) objective of cleanup to a degree requiring no further action. The ERA may be the final remediation of the 100-I-3 Operable Unit. A No Action record of decision (ROD) may be issued after remediation completion. The US Department of Energy (DOE) currently owns or administers approximately 140 mi{sup 2} (about 90,000 acres) of land north and east of the Columbia River (referred to as the North Slope) that is part of the Hanford Site. The North Slope, also commonly known as the Wahluke Slope, was not used for plutonium production or support facilities; it was used for military air defense of the Hanford Site and vicinity. The North Slope contained seven antiaircraft gun emplacements and three Nike-Ajax missile positions. These military positions were vacated in 1960--1961 as the defense requirements at Hanford changed. They were demolished in 1974. Prior to government control in 1943, the North Slope was homesteaded. Since the initiation of this ERA in the summer of 1992, DOE signed the modified Hanford Federal Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) with the Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in which a milestone was set to complete remediation activities and a draft closeout report by October 1994. Remediation activities will make the North Slope area available for future non-DOE uses. Thirty-nine sites have undergone limited characterization to determine if significant environmental hazards exist. This plan documents the results of that characterization and evaluates the potential remediation alternatives.

  19. Advancing land surface model development with satellite-based Earth observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Rene; Dutra, Emanuel; Trigo, Isabel F.; Balsamo, Gianpaolo

    2017-04-01

    The land surface forms an essential part of the climate system. It interacts with the atmosphere through the exchange of water and energy and hence influences weather and climate, as well as their predictability. Correspondingly, the land surface model (LSM) is an essential part of any weather forecasting system. LSMs rely on partly poorly constrained parameters, due to sparse land surface observations. With the use of newly available land surface temperature observations, we show in this study that novel satellite-derived datasets help to improve LSM configuration, and hence can contribute to improved weather predictability. We use the Hydrology Tiled ECMWF Scheme of Surface Exchanges over Land (HTESSEL) and validate it comprehensively against an array of Earth observation reference datasets, including the new land surface temperature product. This reveals satisfactory model performance in terms of hydrology, but poor performance in terms of land surface temperature. This is due to inconsistencies of process representations in the model as identified from an analysis of perturbed parameter simulations. We show that HTESSEL can be more robustly calibrated with multiple instead of single reference datasets as this mitigates the impact of the structural inconsistencies. Finally, performing coupled global weather forecasts we find that a more robust calibration of HTESSEL also contributes to improved weather forecast skills. In summary, new satellite-based Earth observations are shown to enhance the multi-dataset calibration of LSMs, thereby improving the representation of insufficiently captured processes, advancing weather predictability and understanding of climate system feedbacks. Orth, R., E. Dutra, I. F. Trigo, and G. Balsamo (2016): Advancing land surface model development with satellite-based Earth observations. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., doi:10.5194/hess-2016-628

  20. Multi-pesticides residue analysis of grains using modified magnetic nanoparticle adsorbent for facile and efficient cleanup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhenzhen; Qi, Peipei; Wang, Xiangyun; Wang, Zhiwei; Xu, Xiahong; Chen, Wenxue; Wu, Liyu; Zhang, Hu; Wang, Qiang; Wang, Xinquan

    2017-09-01

    A facile, rapid sample pretreatment method was developed based on magnetic nanoparticles for multi-pesticides residue analysis of grains. Magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) nanoparticles modified with 3-(N,N-diethylamino)propyltrimethoxysilane (Fe 3 O 4 -PSA) and commercial C18 were selected as the cleanup adsorbents to remove the target interferences of the matrix, such as fatty acids and non-polar compounds. Rice was used as the representative grain sample for method optimization. The amount of Fe 3 O 4 -PSA and C18 were systematically investigated for selecting the suitable purification conditions, and the simultaneous determination of 50 pesticides and 8 related metabolites in rice was established by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Under the optimal conditions, the method validation was performed including linearity, sensitivity, matrix effect, recovery and precision, which all satisfy the requirement for pesticides residue analysis. Compared to the conventional QuEChERS method with non-magnetic material as cleanup adsorbent, the present method can save 30% of the pretreatment time, giving the high throughput analysis possible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Remediation strategies after nuclear or radiological accidents: part 2 - accident scenarios for assessing effectiveness of cleanup procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochedo, Elaine R.R.

    2009-01-01

    The selection of protective measures and remediation strategies after an accident needs to be based on previously established criteria, to minimize unnecessary stress and the exposures involved in cleanup operations that are not effective in reducing doses to the public. In a first stage, a database describing the countermeasures has been developed including their efficiency on removing contamination from surfaces. However, to assess the effectiveness of cleanup procedures in reducing doses to members of the public, it was necessary to derive specific scenarios in order to simulate the long term behavior of the material in the environment, since the contribution of different surfaces to doses changes with time after contamination. A basic release and exposure scenario was developed to assess the dose reduction due to the mostly used procedures. Exposure scenarios were selected to fit the surroundings of the Brazilian nuclear power plants in Angra dos Reis. Simulations were performed using SIEM, the integrated system for dose assessment after contamination events, developed at IRD. The contamination of urban environments was assessed for Cs-137, as this was found to be the most relevant long term radionuclide to contribute to doses to member of the public. The effects on reducing external exposures were assessed for periods up to 50 years after the contamination. For agricultural areas, the focus was on ingestion doses from contamination with I-131 for periods up to 1 year after contamination. Results will be complemented on the database in order to support multi-criteria decision making processes after accidents. (author)

  2. Yakama Indian Nation Treaty rights and development of cleanup standards for D and D and ER actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jim, R.; Barry, B.

    1995-01-01

    The Yakama Indian Nation (YIN) is a sovereign government located in the Northwestern United States. In 1855, the US government recognized Yakama Nation dominion on 12.2 million acres of land, or more than one-quarter of present-day Washington State. In the Treaty of 1855 between US and Yakama representatives, the YIN ceded control on 10.8 million acres of its ancestral land to the US government, but retained certain perpetual rights to that land. The Hanford Nuclear Site is located on Yakama ceded land, upon which the YIN retains rights to fish, hunt, gather roots and berries, and to pasture horses and cattle. The YIN has been recognized by the US Department of Energy as having regulatory authority concerning Hanford operations. This authority requires incorporation of YIN Treaty rights in the development of environmental cleanup standards for D and D and ER actions. The legal and policy framework upon which YIN environmental protection standards are based includes protection of the health, safety and well-being of YIN Tribal members, protection of the environment necessary to support Treaty protected resources, and preservation of the culture which sustains the unique YIN lifestyle and religion. The basis for Yakama cleanup standards will address risk, environmental, and cultural factors. It is recognized that the unique Yakama lifestyle and diet create specific exposure pathways for hazardous and radioactive materials which are not routinely factored into risk models used to calculate doses

  3. Remediation strategies after nuclear or radiological accidents: part 2 - accident scenarios for assessing effectiveness of cleanup procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rochedo, Elaine R.R. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao de Instalacoes Nucleares], e-mail: erochedo@cnen.gov.br; Silva, Diogo N.G.; Wasserman, Maria A.V.; Conti, Luiz F.C. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: dneves@ird.gov.br, e-mail: angelica@ird.gov.br, e-mail: lfcconti@ird.gov.br

    2009-07-01

    The selection of protective measures and remediation strategies after an accident needs to be based on previously established criteria, to minimize unnecessary stress and the exposures involved in cleanup operations that are not effective in reducing doses to the public. In a first stage, a database describing the countermeasures has been developed including their efficiency on removing contamination from surfaces. However, to assess the effectiveness of cleanup procedures in reducing doses to members of the public, it was necessary to derive specific scenarios in order to simulate the long term behavior of the material in the environment, since the contribution of different surfaces to doses changes with time after contamination. A basic release and exposure scenario was developed to assess the dose reduction due to the mostly used procedures. Exposure scenarios were selected to fit the surroundings of the Brazilian nuclear power plants in Angra dos Reis. Simulations were performed using SIEM, the integrated system for dose assessment after contamination events, developed at IRD. The contamination of urban environments was assessed for Cs-137, as this was found to be the most relevant long term radionuclide to contribute to doses to member of the public. The effects on reducing external exposures were assessed for periods up to 50 years after the contamination. For agricultural areas, the focus was on ingestion doses from contamination with I-131 for periods up to 1 year after contamination. Results will be complemented on the database in order to support multi-criteria decision making processes after accidents. (author)

  4. An overview of methods for evaluating the attainment of cleanup standards for soils, solid media, and groundwater, EPA. Volumes 1, 2, and 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, R.O.; LeGore, T.; O`Brien, R.F.

    1996-01-01

    The cleanup of a contaminated site is not complete until a defensible data-driven decision is made that residual concentrations of hazardous chemicals at the site are less than required by all applicable cleanup standards and guidelines. Statistical tests are important aids for making such decisions. They provide a formal and objective procedure for making quantitative decisions while taking into account the total variability among the measurements. They also control the probability of making incorrect decisions to acceptable levels, specified a priori.The use of selected statistical tests to evaluate the attainment of risk-based or reference-based cleanup standards for soil, solid media or groundwater is described in three reports published by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The purpose of this document is to provide an executive summary and overview of these three volumes for use by EPA Headquarters staff, EPA regional remedial project managers, potentially responsible parties for Superfund sites, the staff of State environmental protection agencies, and contractors for these groups. The primary goal of this overview is to provide the reader with an understanding of why these volumes are useful and how to use them.

  5. Recent advances in centrifugal contactors design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, R.A.

    1987-10-01

    Advances in thedesign of the Argonne centrifugal contactor for solvent extaction are being realized as these contactors are built, tested, and used to implement the TRUEX process for the cleanup of nuclear waste liquids. These advances include (1) using off-the-shelf, face-mounted motors, (2) modifying the contractor so that relatively volatile solvents can be used, (3) adding a high-level liquid detector that can be used to alert the plant operator of process upsets, (4) providing secondary feed ports, (5) optimizing support frame design, (6) maintaining a linear design with external interstage lines so the stages can be allocated as needed for extraction, scrub, strip, and solvent cleanup operations, and (7) developing features that facilitate contractor operation in remote facilities. 11 refs., 8 figs

  6. Advances in the molecular modeling and quantitative structure-activity relationship-based design for antihistamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvez, Jorge; Galvez-Llompart, Maria; Zanni, Riccardo; Garcia-Domenech, Ramon

    2013-03-01

    Nowadays the use of antihistamines (AH) is increasing steadily. These drugs are able to act on a variety of pathological conditions of the organism. A number of computer-aided (in silico) approaches have been developed to discover and develop novel AH drugs. Among these methods stand the ones based on drug-receptor docking, thermodynamics, as well as the quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR). This review collates the most recent advances in the use of computer approaches for the search and characterization of novel AH drugs. Within the QSAR methods, particular attention will be paid to those based on molecular topology (MT) because of their demonstrated efficacy in discovering new drugs. Collateral topics will also be dealt with including: docking studies, thermodynamic aspects, molecular modeling and so on. These issues will be treated to the extent that they have interest as complementary to QSAR-MT. Given the importance of the use of AHs, the search for new drugs in this field has become imperative today. In this regard, the use of QSAR methods based on MT, namely QSAR-MT, has proven to be a powerful tool when the goal is discovering new hit or lead structures. It has been shown that antihistaminic activity is complex and different for the four known types of receptors (H1 to H4) and that electronic, steric and physicochemical issues determine drug activity. These factors, along with the purely structural ones, can be deduced from topological and topochemical information.

  7. Projected constraints on the dispersion of gravitational waves using advanced ground- and space-based interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samajdar, Anuradha; Arun, K. G.

    2017-11-01

    Certain alternative theories of gravity predict that gravitational waves will disperse as they travel from the source to the observer. The recent binary black hole observations by Advanced-LIGO have set limits on a modified dispersion relation from the constraints on their effects on gravitational-wave propagation. Using an identical modified dispersion, of the form E2=p2c2+A pαcα , where A denotes the magnitude of dispersion and E and p are the energy and momentum of the gravitational wave, we estimate the projected constraints on the modified dispersion from observations of compact binary mergers by third-generation ground-based detectors such as the Einstein Telescope and Cosmic Explorer as well as the space-based detector Laser Interferometer Space Antenna. We find that third-generation detectors would bound dispersion of gravitational waves much better than their second-generation counterparts. The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna, with its extremely good low-frequency sensitivity, would place stronger constraints than the ground-based detectors for α ≤1 , whereas for α >1 , the bounds are weaker. We also study the effect of the spins of the compact binary constituents on the bounds.

  8. Advanced Graphene-Based Binder-Free Electrodes for High-Performance Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Junyi; Li, Yang; Peng, Wenchao; Zhang, Guoliang; Zhang, Fengbao; Fan, Xiaobin

    2015-09-23

    The increasing demand for energy has triggered tremendous research effort for the development of high-performance and durable energy-storage devices. Advanced graphene-based electrodes with high electrical conductivity and ion accessibility can exhibit superior electrochemical performance in energy-storage devices. Among them, binder-free configurations can enhance the electron conductivity of the electrode, which leads to a higher capacity by avoiding the addition of non-conductive and inactive binders. Graphene, a 2D material, can be fabricated into a porous and flexible structure with an interconnected conductive network. Such a conductive structure is favorable for both electron and ion transport to the entire electrode surface. In this review, the main processes used to prepare binder-free graphene-based hybrids with high porosity and well-designed electron conductive networks are summarized. Then, the applications of free-standing binder-free graphene-based electrodes in energy-storage devices are discussed. Future research aspects with regard to overcoming the technological bottlenecks are also proposed. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Recent Advances for Flame Retardancy of Textiles Based on Phosphorus Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalifah A. Salmeia

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at updating the progress on the phosphorus-based flame retardants specifically designed and developed for fibers and fabrics (particularly referring to cotton, polyester and their blends over the last five years. Indeed, as clearly depicted by Horrocks in a recent review, the world of flame retardants for textiles is still experiencing some changes that are focused on topics like the improvement of its effectiveness and the replacement of toxic chemical products with counterparts that have low environmental impact and, hence, are more sustainable. In this context, phosphorus-based compounds play a key role and may lead, possibly in combination with silicon- or nitrogen-containing structures, to the design of new, efficient flame retardants for fibers and fabrics. Therefore, this review thoroughly describes the advances and the potentialities offered by the phosphorus-based products recently developed at a lab-scale, highlighting the current limitations, open challenges and some perspectives toward their possible exploitation at a larger scale.

  10. Lateral Flow Technology for Field-Based Applications-Basics and Advanced Developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O׳Farrell, Brendan

    2015-12-01

    In terms of their ability to provide accurate information there is a traditional continuum in diagnostics that ranges from highly accurate methods requiring infrastructure and a centralized approach to testing to less accurate technologies that can be used in a decentralized or point of care testing strategy and that require little to no supporting infrastructure. Today's lateral flow assays marry the utility of a truly field deployable, simple to use technology with the high performance of many laboratory based assay formats. Advances in recent years have allowed for the extension of performance of lateral flow assays into applications that require high accuracy and sensitivity while still maintaining the advantages of the technology from the perspective of infrastructure requirements and user friendliness. This has allowed for improved application of this technology in decentralized testing environments; veterinary, medical and otherwise. The lateral flow assay, once considered less accurate and less capable than infrastructure-heavy, laboratory based formats, is being viewed more and more as a truly versatile technology, capable of more than adequate performance at all ends of the diagnostic continuum. This article discusses the state of the art in lateral flow technology and outlines the utility of the technology in a variety of field based applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Recent Advances in Nucleic Acid Targeting Probes and Supramolecular Constructs Based on Pyrene-Modified Oligonucleotides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga A. Krasheninina

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we summarize the recent advances in the use of pyrene-modified oligonucleotides as a platform for functional nucleic acid-based constructs. Pyrene is of special interest for the development of nucleic acid-based tools due to its unique fluorescent properties (sensitivity of fluorescence to the microenvironment, ability to form excimers and exciplexes, long fluorescence lifetime, high quantum yield, ability to intercalate into the nucleic acid duplex, to act as a π-π-stacking (including anchoring moiety, and others. These properties of pyrene have been used to construct novel sensitive fluorescent probes for the sequence-specific detection of nucleic acids and the discrimination of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, aptamer-based biosensors, agents for binding of double-stranded DNAs, and building blocks for supramolecular complexes. Special attention is paid to the influence of the design of pyrene-modified oligonucleotides on their properties, i.e., the structure-function relationships. The perspectives for the applications of pyrene-modified oligonucleotides in biomolecular studies, diagnostics, and nanotechnology are discussed.

  12. Platinum based doublet cross over therapy for advanced stage non small cell lung cancer? A better survival option

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Garg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Platinum based doublet chemotherapy namely the cisplatin/carboplatin based etopiside or gemcitabine therapy forms the therapy of choice, for patients with advanced non small cell carcinoma of the lung. Here we report two cases were unusual cross over was done from gemcitabine-to cisplatin-doublet chemotherapy resulting in unexpectedly better clinical and radiological response.

  13. Strategic Plan for Nuclear Energy -- Knowledge Base for Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NE-KAMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimberlyn C. Mousseau

    2011-10-01

    The Nuclear Energy Computational Fluid Dynamics Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NE-CAMS) system is being developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in collaboration with Bettis Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratory (SNL), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Utah State University (USU), and other interested parties with the objective of developing and implementing a comprehensive and readily accessible data and information management system for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) verification and validation (V&V) in support of nuclear energy systems design and safety analysis. The two key objectives of the NE-CAMS effort are to identify, collect, assess, store and maintain high resolution and high quality experimental data and related expert knowledge (metadata) for use in CFD V&V assessments specific to the nuclear energy field and to establish a working relationship with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to develop a CFD V&V database, including benchmark cases, that addresses and supports the associated NRC regulations and policies on the use of CFD analysis. In particular, the NE-CAMS system will support the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Program, which aims to develop and deploy advanced modeling and simulation methods and computational tools for reliable numerical simulation of nuclear reactor systems for design and safety analysis. Primary NE-CAMS Elements There are four primary elements of the NE-CAMS knowledge base designed to support computer modeling and simulation in the nuclear energy arena as listed below. Element 1. The database will contain experimental data that can be used for CFD validation that is relevant to nuclear reactor and plant processes, particularly those important to the nuclear industry and the NRC. Element 2. Qualification standards for data evaluation and classification will be incorporated and applied such that validation data sets will result in well

  14. Advanced Science/Event-based Data Service Framework at GES DISC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shie, C. L.; Shen, S.; Kempler, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Service Center (GES DISC) has provided numerous Earth science data, information, and services to various research communities and general publics for decades. To maintain an overall fine service including improving serving our users with advanced data services has been our primary goal. We are developing an advanced science/event-based data service framework. The framework aims to effectively provide users with a sophisticatedly integrated data package via user-friendly discovering and selecting a system-preset science/event topic (e.g., hurricane, volcano, etc.) from an in-developing knowledge database of the framework. A data recipe page related to the Hurricane topic has been developed to demo the concept. More showcases of various subjects such as Volcano, Dust Storm, and Forest Fire are also under development. This framework is in developing on top of existing data services at GES DISC, such as Mirador (data search engine), Giovanni (visualization), OPeNDAP, and data recipes. It also involves other data tools, such as Panoply, GrADS, IDL, etc. The Hurricane Sandy (Oct 22-31 2012) event is used here for a sample description. As Hurricane Sandy being selected as a user case, a table containing nine system-preset data variables (i.e., precipitation, winds, sea surface temperature, sea level pressure, air temperature, relative humidity, aerosols, soil moisture and surface runoff, and trace gases) linked to the respective data products with fine temporal and spatial resolutions from various in-house sources is provided. The "bundled" variable data can thus be readily downloaded through Mirador. The in-house Giovanni is accessible for users to acquire quick views of Level 3 (gridded) variables. For Level 2 (swath) or the Giovanni-unavailable Level 3 data, the system provides a link to data recipes that give a how-to guide to read and visualize the data using offline tools, such as Panoply, GrADS, or IDL.

  15. Biomarker-Based Phase II Trial of Savolitinib in Patients With Advanced Papillary Renal Cell Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choueiri, Toni K; Plimack, Elizabeth; Arkenau, Hendrik-Tobias; Jonasch, Eric; Heng, Daniel Y C; Powles, Thomas; Frigault, Melanie M; Clark, Edwin A; Handzel, Amir A; Gardner, Humphrey; Morgan, Shethah; Albiges, Laurence; Pal, Sumanta Kumar

    2017-09-10

    Purpose Patients with advanced papillary renal cell carcinoma (PRCC) have limited therapeutic options. PRCC may involve activation of the MET pathway, for example, through gene amplification or mutations. Savolitinib (AZD6094, HMPL-504, volitinib) is a highly selective MET tyrosine kinase inhibitor. We report results of a single-arm, multicenter, phase II study evaluating the safety and efficacy of savolitinib in patients with PRCC according to MET status. Patients and Methods Patients with histologically confirmed locally advanced or metastatic PRCC were enrolled and received savolitinib 600 mg orally once daily. MET-driven PRCC was defined as any of the following: chromosome 7 copy gain, focal MET or HGF gene amplification, or MET kinase domain mutations. Efficacy was assessed according to MET status. Safety, toxicity, and patient-reported health-related quality-of-life outcomes were assessed in all patients. Results Of 109 patients treated, PRCC was MET driven in 44 (40%) and MET independent in 46 (42%); MET status was unknown in 19 (17%). MET-driven PRCC was strongly associated with response; there were eight confirmed partial responders with MET-driven disease (18%), but none with MET-independent disease ( P = .002). Median progression-free survival for patients with MET-driven and MET-independent PRCC was 6.2 months (95% CI, 4.1 to 7.0 months) and 1.4 months (95% CI, 1.4 to 2.7 months), respectively (hazard ratio, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.20 to 0.52; log-rank P < .001). The most frequent adverse events associated with savolitinib were nausea, fatigue, vomiting, and peripheral edema. Conclusion These data show activity and tolerability of savolitinib in the subgroup of patients with MET-driven PRCC. Furthermore, molecular characterization of MET status was more predictive of response to savolitinib than a classification based on pathology. These findings justify investigating savolitinib in MET-driven PRCC.

  16. Research investigations in oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, and advanced fuels research: Volume 1 -- Base program. Final report, October 1986--September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, V.E.

    1994-05-01

    Numerous studies have been conducted in five principal areas: oil shale, tar sand, underground coal gasification, advanced process technology, and advanced fuels research. In subsequent years, underground coal gasification was broadened to be coal research, under which several research activities were conducted that related to coal processing. The most significant change occurred in 1989 when the agreement was redefined as a Base Program and a Jointly Sponsored Research Program (JSRP). Investigations were conducted under the Base Program to determine the physical and chemical properties of materials suitable for conversion to liquid and gaseous fuels, to test and evaluate processes and innovative concepts for such conversions, to monitor and determine environmental impacts related to development of commercial-sized operations, and to evaluate methods for mitigation of potential environmental impacts. This report is divided into two volumes: Volume 1 consists of 28 summaries that describe the principal research efforts conducted under the Base Program in five topic areas. Volume 2 describes tasks performed within the JSRP. Research conducted under this agreement has resulted in technology transfer of a variety of energy-related research information. A listing of related publications and presentations is given at the end of each research topic summary. More specific and detailed information is provided in the topical reports referenced in the related publications listings.

  17. Advance care planning, culture and religion: an environmental scan of Australian-based online resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira-Salgado, Amanda; Mader, Patrick; Boyd, Leanne M

    2017-04-20

    Objectives Culture and religion are important in advance care planning (ACP), yet it is not well understood how this is represented in ACP online resources. The aim of the present study was to identify the availability of Australian-based ACP websites and online informational booklets containing cultural and religious information. Methods An environmental scanning framework was used with a Google search conducted from 30 June 2015 to 5 July 2015. Eligible Australian-based ACP websites and online informational booklets were reviewed by two analysts (APS & PM) for information pertaining to at least one culture or religion. Common characteristics were agreed upon and tabulated with narrative description. Results Seven Australian-based ACP websites were identified with varying degrees of cultural and religious information. Seven Australian-based ACP informational booklets were identified addressing culture or religion, namely of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (n=5), Sikh (n=1) and Italian (n=1) communities. Twenty-one other online resources with cultural and religious information were identified, developed within the context of health and palliative care. Conclusions There is no comprehensive Australian-based ACP website or informational booklet supporting ACP across several cultural and religious contexts. Considering Australia's multicultural and multifaith population, such a resource may be beneficial in increasing awareness and uptake of ACP. What is known about the topic? Health professionals and consumers frequently use the Internet to find information. Non-regulation has resulted in the proliferation of ACP online resources (i.e. ACP websites and online informational booklets). Although this has contributed to raising awareness of ACP, the availability of Australian-based ACP online resources with cultural and religious information is not well known. What does this paper add? This paper is the first to use an environmental scanning methodology to identify

  18. Development of rolled joint detachment system for low enriched uranium based advanced heavy water reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatterjee, S., E-mail: subrata@barc.gov.in; Madhusoodanan, K.

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • Life limiting mechanism of low enriched uranium based advanced heavy water reactor. • The coolant channels need to be designed as easily replaceable for long life of the reactor. • To meet the above design feature rolled joint detachment system has been developed. • The system works on the principle of shock heating and fast cooling. • The paper describes the design basis and observations from the experimental trials. - Abstract: Advanced heavy water reactor-low enriched uranium (AHWR-LEU) is designed for high discharge burnup and large scale commercial utilization of thorium with LEU as an external feed in a once through fuel cycle. It is a 300 MWe vertical pressure tube type, thorium based reactor, cooled by boiling light water and moderated by heavy water. The reactor incorporates a number of passive safety features and is associated with a fuel cycle having reduced environmental impact and offers more proliferation resistance compared to contemporary light water reactors (LWRs). Some distinguishing features which make AHWR-LEU unique from other conventional nuclear power reactors are core heat removal by natural circulation, negative void coefficient of reactivity under all event scenarios, easily replaceable pressure tubes, long design life, passive safety features, etc. The long design life of the reactor is possible to be met only when the pressure tube which has a limited life of 15–20 full power years (FPYs) due to a life limiting mechanism called irradiation enhanced creep and growth is easily replaceable. Pressure tube is joined at its ends to SS 403 end fittings through rolled joints. A system has been designed and developed for detachment of pressure tubes from the end fitting and its associated hardware without disturbing the surrounding components or coolant channels so that the end fitting can be reused. The system works on the principle of shock heating and fast cooling of the pressure tube in the rolled joint region and

  19. Sectored Clean-up Work Plan for Housekeeping Category Waste Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nacht, S. J.

    2000-01-01

    The Sectored Clean-up Work Plan (SCWP) replaces the Housekeeping Category Corrective Action Unit Work Plan and provides a strategy to be used for conducting housekeeping activities using a sectored clean-up approach. This work plan provides a process by which one or more existing housekeeping category Corrective Action Sites (CASS) from the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order and/or non-FFACO designated waste site(s) are grouped into a sector for simultaneous remediation and cleanup. This increases effectiveness and efficiencies in labor, materials, equipment, cost, and time. This plan is an effort by the U.S. Department of Energy to expedite work in a more organized and efficient approach. The objectives of this plan are to: Group housekeeping FFACO CASS and non-FFACO housekeeping sites into sectors and remediate during the same field visit; Provide consistent documentation on FFACO CAS and non-FFACO clean-up activities; Perform similar activities under one approved document; Remediate areas inside the Deactivation and Decommissioning facilities and compounds in a campaign-style remediation; and Increase efficiencies and cost-effectiveness, accelerate cleanups, reduce mobilization, demobilization, and remediation costs

  20. Evaluation of containment failure and cleanup time for Pu shots on the Z machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darby, John L.

    2010-01-01

    Between November 30 and December 11, 2009 an evaluation was performed of the probability of containment failure and the time for cleanup of contamination of the Z machine given failure, for plutonium (Pu) experiments on the Z machine at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Due to the unique nature of the problem, there is little quantitative information available for the likelihood of failure of containment components or for the time to cleanup. Information for the evaluation was obtained from Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) at the Z machine facility. The SMEs provided the State of Knowledge (SOK) for the evaluation. There is significant epistemic- or state of knowledge- uncertainty associated with the events that comprise both failure of containment and cleanup. To capture epistemic uncertainty and to allow the SMEs to reason at the fidelity of the SOK, we used the belief/plausibility measure of uncertainty for this evaluation. We quantified two variables: the probability that the Pu containment system fails given a shot on the Z machine, and the time to cleanup Pu contamination in the Z machine given failure of containment. We identified dominant contributors for both the time to cleanup and the probability of containment failure. These results will be used by SNL management to decide the course of action for conducting the Pu experiments on the Z machine.