WorldWideScience

Sample records for cleanup addressing cultural

  1. Risk newsboy: approach for addressing uncertainty in developing action levels and cleanup limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Site cleanup decisions involve developing action levels and residual limits for key contaminants, to assure health protection during the cleanup period and into the long term. Uncertainty is inherent in the toxicity information used to define these levels, based on incomplete scientific knowledge regarding dose-response relationships across various hazards and exposures at environmentally relevant levels. This problem can be addressed by applying principles used to manage uncertainty in operations research, as illustrated by the newsboy dilemma. Each day a newsboy must balance the risk of buying more papers than he can sell against the risk of not buying enough. Setting action levels and cleanup limits involves a similar concept of balancing and distributing risks and benefits in the face of uncertainty. The newsboy approach can be applied to develop health-based target concentrations for both radiological and chemical contaminants, with stakeholder input being crucial to assessing 'regret' levels. Associated tools include structured expert judgment elicitation to quantify uncertainty in the dose-response relationship, and mathematical techniques such as probabilistic inversion and iterative proportional fitting. (authors)

  2. Address Forms in Chinese and English-Speaking Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓茹

    2015-01-01

    Address forms is one of markers of politeness and is an indispensable part of communication. An appropriate address form promotes interpersonal communication smoothly. An address form is polite in one culture, but might be inappropriate in an⁃other culture. The paper contrasts address forms in English and Chinese culture and explores the reasons for their different choice of address terms.

  3. Building organizational technical capabilities: a new approach to address the office of environmental management cleanup challenges in the 21. century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Management (EM) is responsible for the nations nuclear weapons program legacy wastes cleanup. The EM cleanup efforts continue to progress, however the cleanup continues to be technologically complex, heavily regulated, long-term, and a high life cycle cost estimate (LCCE) effort. Over the past few years, the EM program has undergone several changes to accelerate its cleanup efforts with varying degrees of success. Several cleanup projects continued to experience schedule delays and cost growth. The schedule delays and cost growth have been attributed to several factors such as changes in technical scope, regulatory and safety considerations, inadequacy of acquisition approach and project management. This article will briefly review the background and schools of thought on strategic management and organizational change practiced in the United States over the last few decades to improve an organisation's competitive edge and cost performance. The article will briefly review examples such as the change at General Electric, and the recent experience obtained from the nuclear industry, namely the long-term response to the 1986 Chernobyl accident. The long-term response to Chernobyl, though not a case of organizational change, could provide some insight in the strategic management approaches used to address people issues. The article will discuss briefly EM attempts to accelerate cleanup over the past few years, and the subsequent paradigm shift. The paradigm shift targets enhancing and/or creating organizational capabilities to achieve cost savings. To improve its ability to address the 21. century environmental cleanup challenges and achieve cost savings, EM has initiated new corporate changes to develop new and enhance existing capabilities. These new and enhanced organizational capabilities include a renewed emphasis on basics, especially technical capabilities including safety, project management

  4. Addressing Community Concerns about Lead Contamination in Soil: Insights for Site Cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Health risks associated with contaminated sites are a key driver for cleanup decisions and determinations about alternate land use of areas released to the public, particularly in heavily populated metropolitan areas. To guide risk management and future use decisions at contaminated sites, insights can be gained from community-based research. These evaluations can also help ensure that assessments and decisions developed for urban sites consider input received from community members. In order to evaluate the potential risk due to consumption of plants home-grown in lead-contaminated soil, a pilot study was conducted over a period of two summers in a Chicago, IL neighborhood. This survey included analyses of lead concentrations in a convenience sampling of edible fruits, vegetables, and herbs and also examined how the sample preparation method affected the lead concentrations detected in plant materials. A pattern of lead transfer from soil through the root to the stem and leaves of garden crops was found. This pattern is a concern particularly for plants in which the roots, stems, stalks, or leaves are consumed. Analyses of fruiting vegetables indicated that concentrations were below the limit of detection. Depending on the soil lead level and specific plant, the contamination found in some leafy vegetables and herbs may exceed the body's daily excretion rate and could contribute to the total body burden of lead, especially in children. Finally, washing edible portions did not necessarily eliminate the risk, indicating that the lead was located both on and in the plant tissue. This research was conducted in coordination with health experts from the community, and local citizens were involved in discussions on the research and implications for their health protection measures. In certain residential locations, identifying and understanding the potential source of lead contamination provides information for the community such that simple measures can be applied for

  5. Addressing Cultural and Native Language Interference in Second Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, Daniele; Bourdeau, Jacqueline; Mizoguchi, Riichiro

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of cultural and native language interference in second/foreign language acquisition. More specifically, it examines issues of interference that can be traced to a student's native language and that also have a cultural component. To this effect, an understanding of what actually comprises both interference and…

  6. Cultural dimensions of learning: Addressing the challenges of multicultural instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Parrish

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The growing multicultural nature of education and training environments makes it critical that instructors and instructional designers, especially those working in online learning environments, develop skills to deliver culturally sensitive and culturally adaptive instruction. This article explores research into cultural differences to identify those dimensions of culture that are most likely to impact instructional situations. It presents these in the cultural dimensions of learning framework (CDLF, which describes a set of eight cultural parameters regarding social relationships, epistemological beliefs, and temporal perceptions, and illustrates their spectrums of variability as they might be exhibited in instructional situations. The article also explores the literature on instructional design and culture for guidelines on addressing the cross-cultural challenges faced by instructional providers. It suggests that these challenges can be overcome through increased awareness, culturally sensitive communication, modified instructional design processes, and efforts to accommodate the most critical cultural differences. Finally, it describes the use of the CDLF questionnaire as a tool to illuminate the range of preferences existing among learners and to discover the potential range of strategies and tactics that might be useful for a given set of learners.

  7. Addressing the challenges of tetracycline analysis in soil: extraction, clean-up, and matrix effects in LC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Seamus; Locke, Jonas; Aga, Diana S

    2007-11-01

    An optimized extraction and clean-up method for the analysis of chlortetracycline, doxycycline, oxytetracycline, and tetracycline antibiotics in soil is presented in this work. Soil extraction using different solvents was performed, but the use of a 50 : 50 (v/v) methanol : acetate buffer (pH 8) solvent mixture in a pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) system proved to give the best extraction efficiency and reproducibility. The effect of soil composition on the PLE extraction efficiency was also examined, and results indicated that recovery data for one soil is not necessarily consistent with other soil types containing different compositions of clay and organic matter content. The percent recoveries of the optimized PLE method varied between the soils and ranged from 22-99%, depending on soil type, and more specifically clay content. In addition, the extent of ionization suppression caused by co-extracted humic acids was examined in an ion trap mass spectrometer (MS), and a single quadrupole MS. It was found that under positive electrospray ionization, the single quadrupole MS was less susceptible to ionization suppression than the ion trap MS. Therefore, various sample clean-up procedures were evaluated to selectively reduce the amount of co-extracted humic acids in the soil extracts. The most effective clean-up was obtained from the use of StrataX sorbent in combination with a strong anion exchange cartridge. PMID:17968453

  8. Addressing Unconscious Bias: Steps toward an Inclusive Scientific Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Abigail

    2011-01-01

    In this talk I will outline the nature of unconscious bias, as it operates to exclude or marginalize some participants in the scientific community. I will show how bias results from non-conscious expectations about certain groups of people, including scientists and astronomers. I will outline scientific research in psychology, sociology and economics that has identified the impact these expectations have on interpersonal judgments that are at the heart of assessment of individuals' qualifications. This research helps us understand not only how bias operates within a single instance of evaluation, but how evaluation bias can accumulate over a career if not checked, creating an appearance of confirmation of biased expectations. Some research has focused on how best to interrupt and mitigate unconscious bias, and many institutions--including the University of Michigan--have identified strategic interventions at key points of institutional decision-making (particularly hiring, annual review, and promotion) that can make a difference. The NSF ADVANCE Institutional Transformation program encouraged institutions to draw on the social science literature to create experimental approaches to addressing unconscious bias. I will outline four approaches to intervention that have arisen through the ADVANCE program: (1) systematic education that increases awareness among decisionmakers of how evaluation bias operates; (2) development of practices that mitigate the operation of bias even when it is out of conscious awareness; (3) creation of institutional policies that routinize and sanction these practices; and (4) holding leaders accountable for these implementation of these new practices and policies. Although I will focus on ways to address unconscious bias within scientific institutions (colleges and universities, laboratories and research centers, etc.), I will close by considering how scientific organizations can address unconscious bias and contribute to creating an

  9. Cultural Dimensions of Learning: Addressing the Challenges of Multicultural Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Patrick; Linder-VanBerschot, Jennifer A.

    2010-01-01

    The growing multicultural nature of education and training environments makes it critical that instructors and instructional designers, especially those working in online learning environments, develop skills to deliver culturally sensitive and culturally adaptive instruction. This article explores research into cultural differences to identify…

  10. Addressing Cultural Variables in Parent Training Programs with Latino Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Chikira H.; Cook, Katrina L.; Borrego, Joaquin, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    There has recently been increased attention given to understanding how cultural variables may have an impact on the efficacy of treatments with Latino families seeking psychological services. Within parent training programs, understanding the extent to which culture can affect parenting practices is vital to providing quality care. The focus of…

  11. Teacher Transculturalism and Cultural Difference: Addressing Racism in Australian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casinader, Niranjan R.; Walsh, Lucas

    2015-01-01

    The increasing cultural diversity of students in Australia's schools is one of the salient changes in education over the last 30 years. In 2011, nearly half of all Australians had one or more parents born overseas, with migration from China, the Indian subcontinent and Africa increasing during the early 2000s (Australian Bureau of Statistics,…

  12. Presidential Address: Culture and the Future of Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halse, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Recent changes in higher education have confronted education research with a conundrum: how our traditionally multidisciplinary field can refine itself as a unified discipline. In this address I sketch out what this conundrum may mean for education research, both substantively and methodologically, in the future. I propose that one starting point…

  13. Addressing Stereotypes by Moving along the Continuum of Cultural Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Cheryl James

    2013-01-01

    Programs to help middle school students deal with racism and hate have been in place for some years, yet almost monthly we hear of students committing suicide or killing other students due to issues of isolation or harassment. Within the confines of a safe classroom, doctoral students in Educational Leadership addressed issues of stereotypes and…

  14. Addressing Culture in the efl Classroom: A Dialogic Proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvarez Valencia José Aldemar

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Language teaching has gone from a linguistic centered approach towards a lingo-cultural experience in which learning a language goes hand in hand with the understanding of not only the target culture, but the learner’s own culture. This paper attempts to describe and reflect upon a collaborative and dialogical experience carried out between two teachers of the Languages Program of Universidad de la Salle, in Bogotá. The bilateral enrichment of such a pedagogical experience helped the teachers to improve their language teaching contexts and prompted the construction of a theoretical proposal to enhance intercultural awareness. It also opened the way for the development of critical intercultural competence in fl (foreign language learners. Key words: Interculturality, critical intercultural awareness, critical intercultural competence, dialogical process La enseñanza de lengua ha pasado de un enfoque centrado en lo lingüístico hacia uno linguocultural, en el que el aprendizaje de una lengua va de la mano del entendimiento no sólo de la cultura objetivo, sino también de la propia cultura. Este artículo intenta describir y reflexionar alrededor de una experiencia colaborativa y dialógica que se realizó entre dos profesores del Programa de Lenguas de la Universidad de La Salle, en Bogotá. El enriquecimiento recíproco de esta experiencia pedagógica, permitió mejorar los contextos de enseñanza y la construcción de una propuesta teórica para promover la conciencia intercultural. También abrió las puertas para desarrollar competencia crítica intercultural en estudiantes de inglés como lengua extranjera. Palabras clave: Interculturalidad, conciencia crítica intercultural, competencia crítica intercultural, proceso dialógico

  15. A Study of Pragmatic Failure of Address Forms in Cross-cultural Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙美玮

    2012-01-01

      As the process of globalization moves on, cross-cultural communication has been a part of people’ s daily lives. It is quite important for people to know how to behave properly in many situations.The present study analyses the phenomena of pragmatic failure of address forms. The study may help enhance peoples’ awareness on polite address in cross-cultural communi⁃cation and improve their communicative competence. Foreign language teachers can get implications for their teaching methods, paying more attention on cultural teaching. In addition, the author hopes that equal cultural communication and multi-cultural concept can be achieved.

  16. What Teachers Say about Addressing Culture in Their EFL Teaching Practices: The Vietnamese Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Long; Harvey, Sharon; Grant, Lynn

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines Vietnamese EFL teachers' beliefs about the role of culture in language teaching. It also considers how they address culture in their teaching practices in a Vietnamese university. Ethnographic data collected from semi-structured interviews indicated that opportunities for culture to find its way into EFL classroom activities…

  17. The Worker Component At The World Trade Center Cleanup: Addressing Cultural And Language Differences In Emergency Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, B.; Carpenter, C.; Blair. D.

    2003-02-24

    On September 11, 2001, the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center (WTC) caused astronomical loss of life and property. Systems in place to manage disaster response were strained to the limit because key first responders were among the casualties when the twin towers collapsed. In addition, the evolution of events required immediate response in a rapidly changing and extremely hazardous situation. Rescue, recovery, and clean up became an overpowering and sustained effort that would utilize the resources of federal, state and local governments and agencies. One issue during the response to the WTC disaster site that did not receive much attention was that of the limited and non-English speaking worker. The Operating Engineers National HAZMAT Program (OENHP), with its history of a Hispanic Outreach Program, was acutely aware of this issue with the Hispanic worker. The Hispanic population comprises approximately 27% of the population of New York City (1). The extremely unfortunate and tragic events of that day provided an opportunity to not only provide assistance for the Hispanic workers, but also to apply lessons learned and conduct studies on worker training with language barriers in a real life environment. However, due to the circumstances surrounding this tragedy, the study of these issues was conducted primarily by observation. Through partnerships with other organizations such as the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the New York Health Department, the New York Department of Design and Construction (DDC), the New York Committee for Occupational Safety and Health (NYCOSH), and private companies such as 3M and MSA, OENHP was able to provide translated information on hazards, protective measures, fit testing of respirators, and site specific safety and health training. The OENHP translated materials on hazards and how to protect workers into Spanish to assist in getting the information to the limited and non- English speaking workers.

  18. Addressing the Disproportionate Representation of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students in Special Education through Culturally Responsive Educational Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janette K. Klingner

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we present a conceptual framework for addressing the disproportionate representation of culturally and linguistically diverse students in special education. The cornerstone of our approach to addressing disproportionate representation is through the creation of culturally responsive educational systems. Our goal is to assist practitioners, researchers, and policy makers in coalescing around culturally responsive, evidence-based interventions and strategic improvements in practice and policy to improve students’ educational opportunities in general education and reduce inappropriate referrals to and placement in special education. We envision this work as cutting across three interrelated domains: policies, practices, and people. Policies include those guidelines enacted at federal, state, district, and school levels that influence funding, resource allocation, accountability, and other key aspects of schooling. We use the notion of practice in two ways, in the instrumental sense of daily practices that all cultural beings engage in to navigate and survive their worlds, and also in a technical sense to describe the procedures and strategies devised for the purpose of maximizing students’ learning outcomes. People include all those in the broad educational system: administrators, teacher educators, teachers, community members, families, and the children whose opportunities we wish to improve.

  19. Community health workers as cultural producers in addressing gender-based violence in rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lange, Naydene; Mitchell, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    South Africa has been experiencing an epidemic of gender-based violence (GBV) for a long time and in some rural communities health workers, who are trained to care for those infected with HIV, are positioned at the forefront of addressing this problem, often without the necessary support. In this article, we pose the question: How might cultural production through media making with community health workers (CHWs) contribute to taking action to address GBV and contribute to social change in a rural community? This qualitative participatory arts-based study with five female CHWs working from a clinic in a rural district of South Africa is positioned as critical research, using photographs in the production of media posters. We offer a close reading of the data and its production and discuss three data moments: CHWs drawing on insider cultural knowledge; CHWs constructing messages; and CHWs taking action. In our discussion, we take up the issue of cultural production and then offer concluding thoughts on 'beyond engagement' when the researchers leave the community. PMID:27080871

  20. TRANSLATION OF RELIGIOUS-CULTURAL TERMS OF ADDRESS IN THE LUKE’S BIBLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans I Made Brata

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses words and phrases used for addressing in the translation ofreligious-cultural terms of address in the Luke’s Bible. Their profiles and attitudes,techniques, methods, and ideologies applied as well as factors leading to and theirimpacts towards the degree of accuracy, readability, and acceptability were qualitativelydescribed.The data were taken from the Luke’s English Bible and their translations intoBalinese. First, the terms of address found in the source text were compared with thosefound in the target text with reference to the appraisal theoretical framework to identifythe social stratifications to which the addressee belongs to, which was then applied toidentify what translation techniques were applied. The formal and dynamic equivalence(de Ward and Nida, 1986: 36, and V diagram of the translation method (New Mark,1988: 45 were employed to show the translation orientations closely related to thetranslation ideology itself.The findings show that: (1 the choice of the linguistic variants in the targetlanguage was influenced by the dimensions of attitude: affect, judgment, andappreciation, either (positive [+], or negative [-] among the participants; (2 there were12 translation techniques applied, two of which were the technique of calque and literal(0.06% which were oriented towards the source language, 0.02% was ‘gray’, and therest, that is, 99.2% was oriented towards the target language. The dominance of thetranslation techniques which were oriented towards the target language shows that therewas a great cultural difference between the source text and the target text; (3 thedominance of the translation communicative method and the domestication ideologyshows that, when the translation process took place, the translator’s orientation wastowards the target reader; (4 the linguistic factor, the religious-cultural difference, andthe translator’s preference led to the translation techniques, methods and

  1. Methodology for setting cleanup criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has developed guidance for establishing cleanup criteria or authorized limits for sites containing residual radioactive material. The DOE requires that the as-low-as-reasonably-achievable (ALARA) process be applied. This process results in the development of cleanup levels that are as low as practicable giving due consideration to health, environment, economics, cultural, and natural resources and other factors. The process employs a cost-benefit optimization analysis and, where appropriate and feasible, considers multiple attributes. Frequently, some important factors or attributes do not lend themselves to quantification in a cost-benefit study and therefore must be considered qualitatively in the process. While the cost-benefit analysis is not the only consideration, it is an important clement in the establishment of cleanup criteria and selection of remedial alternatives. Key to the cost-benefit process is the relation between cleanup level and dose. This is determined through pathway analysis methodology. This paper discusses the pathway analysis process and will cover radiologically and nonradiologically contaminated sites and building contamination

  2. Pursuing Justice for Refugee Students: Addressing Issues of Cultural (Mis)Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keddie, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    In this paper Nancy Fraser's conceptual tools are drawn on to theorise issues of justice in a culturally diverse primary school in Australia where approximately 30% of the student population are immigrant/refugees. The paper examines justice issues of cultural recognition in relation to refugee student identity, behaviour and assessment. Drawing…

  3. Organizational culture: an important context for addressing and improving hospital to community patient discharge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, G.J.; Vernooij-Dassen, M.J.F.J.; Pijnenborg, L.; Barach, P.; Gademan, P.; Dudzik-Urbaniak, E.; Flink, M.; Orrego, C.; Toccafondi, G.; Johnson, J.K.; Schoonhoven, L.; Wollersheim, H.C.H.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Organizational culture is seen as having a growing impact on quality and safety of health care, but its impact on hospital to community patient discharge is relatively unknown. OBJECTIVES: To explore aspects of organizational culture to develop a deeper understanding of the discharge pro

  4. The Benefits and Challenges of Becoming Cross-Culturally Competent Counseling Psychologists. Presidential Address

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heppner, P. Paul

    2006-01-01

    The central thesis of this article is that focusing on cross-cultural competence will enhance both the science and the practice of counseling psychology. Developing cross-cultural competence is a lifelong journey, replete with many joys and challenges, that will (a) increase the sophistication of our research, (b) expand the utility and…

  5. Addressing Cultural Diversity: Effects of a Problem-Based Intercultural Learning Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busse, Vera; Krause, Ulrike-Marie

    2015-01-01

    This article explores to what extent a problem-based learning unit in combination with cooperative learning and affectively oriented teaching methods facilitates intercultural learning. As part of the study, students reflected on critical incidents, which display misunderstandings or conflicts that arise as a result of cultural differences. In…

  6. Addressing Cultural Competency in Pharmacy Education through International Service Learning and Community Engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemin Kassam

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design, implementation and evaluation of a course in international service learning and community engagement for pharmacy undergraduate students. The course offered students opportunities to cultivate cultural competency in an international setting foreign to their own—Sub-Saharan Africa. The experience consisted of pre-departure preparation seminars followed by subsequent community immersion to experience, explore and confront personal attitudes and perceptions. A key feature of this course was its emphasis on a continuing cycle of learning, community engagement and reflection. Three students participated, a near-maximum cohort. Their daily self-reflections were qualitatively analyzed to document the impact of their cultural learning and experiences and revealed meaningful learning in the domains of self-assessment and awareness of their personal and professional culture, exposure to a participatory health delivery model involving the patient, the community and a multidisciplinary team and opportunities to engage in patient care in a different cultural setting. This proof-of-concept course provided students with experiences that were life-changing on both personal and professional levels and confirmed the viability and relevance of international service learning for the pharmacy field within its university-wide mandate.

  7. Address at the "Seminar on China-Thailand Culture and Economic Prosperity"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LuoHaocai

    2004-01-01

    I'm very delighted to have the opportunity to attend Seminar on "China-Thailand Culture and Economic Prosperity" in this beautiful city of Bangkok. I'd like to extend heartfelt thanks to our Thai friends. At the same time I wish the seminar a complete success.

  8. Addressing Social Injustices, Displacement, and Minority Rights through Cases of Culturally Responsive Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Helga; Chaplin, Shane S.; Dessouky, Shimaa; Aklilu, Liya; Hopson, Rodney K.

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation of programs that address the lingering effects of human rights abuses during times of conflict is necessary to improve program sustainability and create a knowledge bank about the effectiveness of strategies. Outcomes, however, are hard to measure. Evaluators have to gain understanding of the roots of a conflict, surrounding events,…

  9. Addressing Cultural Contexts in the Management of Stress via Narrative and Mobile Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Matthew D; Kang, Xiao; Hanrahan, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    In developing applications for stress management and mental health, developers have largely ignored cultural context in design, opting instead to produce apps for a general audience. However, apps designed without a specific population in mind actually have limited reach. Generally stress trackers and socalled "therapists in your pocket", tend to be lost among a jungle of other generic apps that appeal only to the quantified self population and those already predisposed to help-seeking behavior. To reach a broader audience, designing for a specific population may have appeal. The AppHappy Project's Journey to the West is a mobile app being developed by a multidisciplinary group of students at the University of Pennsylvania. The objective is to promote better stress management and mental health among Asian international college students and facilitate their social integration with the general student population. With a prevalence of depression twice that of domestic college students, a reluctance to engage in help-seeking behavior due to stigma, and the challenge of cultural integration, creating interventions for this population requires a different approach to app-mediated therapy. Journey to the West packages bite-sized pieces of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy techniques within the framework of a role-playing game. Every element of its design-from its characters to its art style, from its narrative to its mechanics to its approach to community features-is rooted in a culturally appropriate context. An avatar serves as a surrogate of self while experiencing externalized stressors. Each quest blends therapeutic elements into gameplay with the goal of building resilience towards stressful events. PMID:24875715

  10. HARVESTING EMSP RESEARCH RESULTS FOR WASTE CLEANUP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extent of environmental contamination created by the nuclear weapons legacy combined with expensive, ineffective waste cleanup strategies at many U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites prompted Congress to pass the FY96 Energy and Water Development Appropriations Act, which directed the DOE to: ''provide sufficient attention and resources to longer-term basic science research, which needs to be done to ultimately reduce cleanup costs'', ''develop a program that takes advantage of laboratory and university expertise, and'' ''seek new and innovative cleanup methods to replace current conventional approaches which are often costly and ineffective.'' In response, the DOE initiated the Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP)-a targeted, long-term research program intended to produce solutions to DOE's most pressing environmental problems. EMSP funds basic research to lower cleanup cost and reduce risk to workers, the public, and the environment; direct the nation's scientific infrastructure towards cleanup of contaminated waste sites; and bridge the gap between fundamental research and technology development activities. EMSP research projects are competitively awarded based on the project's scientific, merit coupled with relevance to addressing DOE site needs. This paper describes selected EMSP research projects with long, mid, and short-term deployment potential and discusses the impacts, focus, and results of the research. Results of EMSP research are intended to accelerate cleanup schedules, reduce cost or risk for current baselines, provide alternatives for contingency planning, or provide solutions to problems where no solutions exist

  11. Enabling cleanup technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technology transfer in the environmental restoration, or cleanup, area has been challenging. While there is little doubt that innovative technologies are needed to reduce the times, risks, and costs associated with the cleanup of federal sites, particularly those of the Departments of Energy (DOE) and Defense, the use of such technologies in actual cleanups has been relatively limited. There are, of course, many reasons why technologies do not reach the implementation phase or do not get transferred from developing entities to the user community. For example, many past cleanup contracts provided few incentives for performance that would compel a contractor to seek improvement via technology applications. While performance-based contracts are becoming more common, they alone will not drive increased technology applications. This paper focuses on some applications of cleanup methodologies and technologies that have been successful and are illustrative of a more general principle. The principle is at once obvious and not widely practiced. It is that, with few exceptions, innovative cleanup technologies are rarely implemented successfully alone but rather are implemented in the context of enabling processes and methodologies. And, since cleanup is conducted in a regulatory environment, the stage is better set for technology transfer when the context includes substantive interactions with the relevant stakeholders. Examples of this principle are drawn from Argonne National Laboratory's experiences in Adaptive Sampling and Analysis Programs (ASAPs), Precise Excavation, and the DOE Technology Connection (TechCon) Program. The lessons learned may be applicable to the continuing challenges posed by the cleanup and long-term stewardship of radioactive contaminants and unexploded ordnance (UXO) at federal sites

  12. A responsive evaluation of mental health treatment in Cambodia: Intentionally addressing poverty to increase cultural responsiveness in therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seponski, Desiree M; Lewis, Denise C; Megginson, Maegan C

    2014-01-01

    Mental health issues are significant contributors to the global burden of disease with the highest incidence in resource poor countries; 90% of those in need of mental health treatment reside in low resource countries but receive only 10% of the world's resources. Cambodia, the eighth least developed country in the world, serves as one example of the need to address mental health concerns in low-income, resource poor countries. The current study utilises responsive evaluation methodology to explore how poverty-stricken Cambodian clients, therapists and supervisors experience Western models of therapy as culturally responsive to their unique needs. Quantitative and qualitative data were triangulated across multiple stakeholders using numerous methods including a focus group, interviews, surveys, case illustrations and live supervision observation and analysed using constant comparative analysis. Emerging findings suggest that poverty, material needs, therapy location and financial situations greatly impact the daily lives and mental health conditions of Cambodians and hinder clients' therapeutic progress. The local community needs and context of poverty greatly hinder clients' therapeutic progress in therapy treatment and when therapy does not directly address the culture of poverty, clients did not experience therapy as valuable despite some temporary decreases in mental health symptoms. PMID:25204750

  13. Cleanup of contaminated areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper deals with the problem of contaminated areas cleanup, in order to eliminate every possible damage for man safety and environment and to site recovery for some utilization, The first step of cleanup operation is site characterization, that is followed by a pianificazion activity for a better definition of staff qualification, technology to be used, protection and prevention instruments for the risks due to contaminants handling. The second section describes the different remedial technologies for contaminated sites. Remedial technologies may be divided into on-site/off-site and in-situ treatments, according to whether materials (waste, soil, water) are moved to another location or not, respectively. Finally, it is outlined that contaminated areas cleanup is a typical multidisciplinary activity because very different competences are required. (author)

  14. Environmental compliance and cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the roles of the principal agencies, organizations, and public in environmental compliance and cleanup of the Hanford Site. Regulatory oversight, the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, the role of Indian tribes, public participation, and CERCLA Natural Resource Damage Assessment Trustee Activities are all discussed

  15. Environmental compliance and cleanup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, D.G.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the roles of the principal agencies, organizations, and public in environmental compliance and cleanup of the Hanford Site. Regulatory oversight, the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, the role of Indian tribes, public participation, and CERCLA Natural Resource Damage Assessment Trustee Activities are all discussed.

  16. HARVESTING EMSP RESEARCH RESULTS FOR WASTE CLEANUP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillen, Donna Post; Nielson, R. Bruce; Phillips, Ann Marie; Lebow, Scott

    2003-02-27

    The extent of environmental contamination created by the nuclear weapons legacy combined with expensive, ineffective waste cleanup strategies at many U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites prompted Congress to pass the FY96 Energy and Water Development Appropriations Act, which directed the DOE to: ''provide sufficient attention and resources to longer-term basic science research, which needs to be done to ultimately reduce cleanup costs'', ''develop a program that takes advantage of laboratory and university expertise, and'' ''seek new and innovative cleanup methods to replace current conventional approaches which are often costly and ineffective.'' In response, the DOE initiated the Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP)-a targeted, long-term research program intended to produce solutions to DOE's most pressing environmental problems. EMSP funds basic research to lower cleanup cost and reduce risk to workers, the public, and the environment; direct the nation's scientific infrastructure towards cleanup of contaminated waste sites; and bridge the gap between fundamental research and technology development activities. EMSP research projects are competitively awarded based on the project's scientific, merit coupled with relevance to addressing DOE site needs. This paper describes selected EMSP research projects with long, mid, and short-term deployment potential and discusses the impacts, focus, and results of the research. Results of EMSP research are intended to accelerate cleanup schedules, reduce cost or risk for current baselines, provide alternatives for contingency planning, or provide solutions to problems where no solutions exist.

  17. An investigation into improving non-NPS cleanup process.

    OpenAIRE

    Whitson, Mark E.

    1992-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This research investigates the process required to remediate (cleanup) non-National Priorities List (non-NPL) hazardous waste sites. The research addresses the many laws and regulations on hazardous waste cleanup specific to Department of Defence and Navy processes to correct and remediate existing sites. The thesis gathered data through survey of the seven Engineering Field Divisions within the Naval Facilities Command organi...

  18. Cleanup contract protest upheld

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleanup of the huge Hanford nuclear weapon site in Washington state, long mired in disputes over contract awards, faces another potential delay. On October 12 the US General Accounting Office upheld a protest to the award of the site's $800-million Environmental Restoration Management Contract (ERMC). GAO has ordered the US DOE to review the contract award to a team led by Bechtel Group Inc., a process observers say could be quick or a quagmire. GAO sustained part of a protest filed in early 1993 by Parsons Environmental Services Inc., Pasadena, California, which led an unsuccessful team bid for the ERMC

  19. Reactor coolant cleanup facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A depressurization device is disposed in pipelines upstream of recycling pumps of a reactor coolant cleanup facility to reduce a pressure between the pressurization device and the recycling pump at the downstream, thereby enabling high pressure coolant injection from other systems by way of the recycling pumps. Upon emergency, the recycling pumps of the coolant cleanup facility can be used in common to an emergency reactor core cooling facility and a reactor shutdown facility. Since existent pumps of the emergency reactor core cooling facility and the reactor shutdown facility which are usually in a stand-by state can be removed, operation confirmation test and maintenance for equipments in both of facilities can be saved, so that maintenance and reliability of the plant are improved and burdens on operators can also be mitigated. Moreover, low pressure design can be adopted for a non-regenerative heat exchanger and recycling coolant pumps, which enables to improve the reliability and economical property due to reduction of possibility of leakage. (N.H.)

  20. Alternatives for Ground Water Cleanup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudak, P. F.

    Aquifer remediation is one of our most difficult environmental challenges; technological limitations and problems arising from the physical and chemical complexities of contaminated subsurface environments thwart our best efforts. A 19-member committee of leaders in environmental engineering, hydrogeology, epidemiology, environmental economics, and environmental policy has written an ambitious book that broadly addresses the groundwater remediation problem. Topics include site characterization, capabilities and limitations of pump-and-treat and alternative technologies, alternative goals for ground water cleanup, and policy implications.One of the book's strengths is its information base, which includes various public and private groups, data from 80 pump-and-treat sites, and an extensive literature review. The text is clearly written and well organized. Specific conclusions are stated at the end of each major chapter, and sound policy recommendations are offered at the end of the final chapter. An appendix summarizes pump-andtreat systems reviewed during the study. Several case studies, diagrams, and photographs effectively illustrate concepts and ideas conveyed in the text.

  1. Collusion and Culture Construction in the Translation of Modest Social Address Terms a case study of "Xiao Ren" in Shui Hu Zhuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡佳

    2009-01-01

    Bassnett believed that collusion exerts influence between the author, translator as well as target reader, thus providing us with a new perspective for translation studies. Enlightened by Susan Bassnett's notion of "collusion" , the writer makes a contemplative study about the social address terms in Chinese classic novel Shui Hu Zhuan. The research studies the translation of modest social address terms in Outlaws of the Marsh and All Men are Brothers from the perspective of collusion and culture construction. Through the study of the source text and target text, the thesis makes analysis as well as comparison of the two English versions, in order to investigate the possible criteria for the translators to evaluate their choices of words in translating the Chinese specific terms. During the research, the writer discovers that collusion plays an im portant role in the process of translation, with a potential result of culture construction in the target readers' mind.

  2. Methodologies for estimating shoreline cleanup costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etkin, D.S. [Environmental Research Consulting, Winchester, MA (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Once oil from an offshore oil spill hits a shoreline, cleanup operations become more complicated, expensive and time consuming because shoreline and intertidal ecosystems are complex and susceptible to serious impacts both from oiling and response functions. This paper described and compared methodologies for estimating shoreline cleanup costs for hypothetical spill scenarios based on projected shoreline oiling from oil spill trajectory modelling and on the factors that influence cost. It is important to estimate cleanup costs in order to optimize the allocation of resources for shoreline response and restoration. The factors that influence the amount of work needed and resulting cost are the characteristics of the impacted shoreline, the type of oil that has been spilled, and the standards to which cleanup is conducted. The cost estimation methods described in this paper were based on algorithms derived from statistical analyses of historical oil spill cost data in the Environmental Research Consulting database. This included modelling of labour requirements for different types of shorelines and types of oils, as well as other research studies. It was noted that there are serious limitations to these cost estimation methods. These include the fact that vessel and facility response plans are required to address worst case scenarios which have never actually occurred in the US or anywhere else in the world. Some strategies were recommended for improving the modelling of shoreline response costs. It was suggested that the predicted costs should be adjusted to take into account variations in spill situations. Also, contingency plans stress the importance of keeping the oil off the shoreline with booms, skimmers and dispersants. 31 refs., 22 figs.

  3. Does the class cleavage still matter? The social composition of participants in demonstrations addressing redistributive and cultural issues in three countries

    OpenAIRE

    Eggert, Nina; Giugni, Marco Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the role of social class for individual participation in social movements, more specifically in street demonstrations. The authors use protest survey data in order to avoid the limitations of previous research by contextualizing the effect of social class on participation in protest. The analysis focuses on demonstrations addressing redistributive and cultural issues, reflecting a well-known distinction between old and new social movements. The authors show that particip...

  4. Teaching the Students and Not the Book: Addressing the Problem of Culture Teaching in EFL in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moirano, María Carolina

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to discover teachers' attitudes towards culture in the EFL classroom in three different institutions in La Plata, Argentina. In order to do this, eleven EFL teachers who were using three different EFL textbooks (World English 3, Laser B1+, and Upstream B2+) were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. Also,…

  5. Implementing a Culturally Attuned Functional Behavioural Assessment to Understand and Address Challenging Behaviours Demonstrated by Students from Diverse Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Gerardo; Wong-Lo, Mickie; Short, Maureen; Bullock, Lyndal M.

    2014-01-01

    As the US student population continues to become increasingly diverse, educators have encountered difficulties in distinguishing between cultural differences and genuine disability indicators. This concern is clearly evident in assisting students from diverse backgrounds who demonstrate chronic challenging behaviours. Past practices (e.g.…

  6. A Task-Based Needs Analysis for Australian Aboriginal Students: Going beyond the Target Situation to Address Cultural Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Rhonda; Grote, Ellen; Rochecouste, Judith; Exell, Michael

    2013-01-01

    While needs analyses underpin the design of second language analytic syllabi, the methodologies undertaken are rarely examined. This paper explores the value of multiple data sources and collection methods for developing a needs analysis model to enable vocational education and training teachers to address the needs of Australian Aboriginal…

  7. Global marketing advertising with cultural differences : How can global companies better address cultural differences in marketing advertising in the Middle East?

    OpenAIRE

    Cimendag, Ismail; Yalcin, Erkan

    2012-01-01

    The authors realized the importance of being flexible in cultural values in the current environment of today’s economy. This environment is called ‘globalization’ that has become an interesting topic in the academic world. Beyond the different challenges, the most important challenge regarding to the thesis topic is the cultural challenge. The authors have combined these elements and  wanted to investigate how these factors influence marketing advertising in the Middle East. Hence, the purpos...

  8. Particulate hot gas stream cleanup technical issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pontius, D.H.; Snyder, T.R.

    1999-09-30

    The analyses of hot gas stream cleanup particulate samples and descriptions of filter performance studied under this contract were designed to address problems with filter operation that have been linked to characteristics of the collected particulate matter. One objective of this work was to generate an interactive, computerized data bank of the key physical and chemical characteristics of ash and char collected from operating advanced particle filters and to relate these characteristics to the operation and performance of these filters. The interactive data bank summarizes analyses of over 160 ash and char samples from fifteen pressurized fluidized-bed combustion and gasification facilities utilizing high-temperature, high pressure barrier filters.

  9. Cleanup of demineralizer resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiocesium is being removed from demineralizers A and B (DA and DB) by a process that was developed from laboratory tests on small samples of resin from the demineralizers. The process was designed to elute the radiocesium from the demineralizer resins and then to resorb it onto the zeolite ion exchangers contained in the Submerged Demineralizer System (SDS). It was also required to limit the maximum cesium activities in the resin eluates (SDSD feeds) so that the radiation field surrounding the pipelines would not be excessive. The process consisted of 17 stages of batch elution. In the initial stage, the resin was contacted with 0.18 M boric acid. Subsequent stages subjected the resin to increasing concentrations of sodium in NaH2BO3-H3BO3 solution (total boron= 0.35 M) and then 1 M sodium hydroxide in the final stages. Results on the performance of the process in the cleanup of the demineralizers at TMI-2 are compared with those obtained from laboratory tests with small samples of the DA and DB resins. To date, 15 stages of batch elution have been completed on the demineralizers at TMI-2, which resulted in the removal of about 750 Ci of radiocesium from DA and about 3300 Ci from DB

  10. Graphite waste pit cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The UP1 plant in Marcoule reprocessed nearly 20,000 tons of used natural uranium gas cooled reactor fuel coming from the first generation of civil nuclear reactors in France. During more than 40 years, the decladding operations produced thousands of tons of processed waste, mainly magnesium and graphite fragments. In the absence of a French repository for the graphite waste, the graphite sludge content of the storage pit had to be retrieved and transferred into a newer and safer pit. So, this project consists in the full retrieval and transfer of 15 m3 of water mixed with graphite dust located in the decladding facility, as well as the complete cleanup and decontamination of the pit. The equipment and process necessary for retrieval operations were designed, built and tested. The process is mainly based on the use of two pumps (one to capture and the other one to transfer the sludge) working one after the other and a robotic arm mounted on a telescopic mast. A dedicated process was also set up for the removal of the biggest fragments. In the pit, the sludge retrieval and transfer operations have been almost completed. Most of the non-pumpable graphite fragments has been removed and transferred to a new storage pit. As irradiant fragments have been discovered in the pit, specific studies are in progress in order to remove them to the laboratory for dissolution. This work is expected to 2014. (authors)

  11. Cleanups in my Community Widget

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Cleanups in my Community widget returns facilities within the area of interest that are in the process of being cleaned up, or have been cleaned up, by programs...

  12. Addressing Disparities in Emergency Communication with the Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing: Cultural Competence and Preparedness for First Responders

    OpenAIRE

    Engelman, Alina Anna

    2012-01-01

    It is critically important to foster a resilient Deaf and hard-of-hearing (Deaf/HH) population empowered to act in a pre-event phase before and respond during and after critical large-scale public health emergencies. Standard all-hazards emergency preparedness risk & response communication efforts don't always reach people with barriers relating to literacy, language, culture or disability. This is a significant problem given that there is a growing body of evidence of higher risk during disa...

  13. Accelerating cleanup: Paths to closure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the status of Environmental Management's (EM's) cleanup program and a direction forward to complete achievement of the 2006 vision. Achieving the 2006 vision results in significant benefits related to accomplishing EM program objectives. As DOE sites accelerate cleanup activities, risks to public health, the environment, and worker safety and health are all reduced. Finding more efficient ways to conduct work can result in making compliance with applicable environmental requirements easier to achieve. Finally, as cleanup activities at sites are completed, the EM program can focus attention and resources on the small number of sites with more complex cleanup challenges. Chapter 1 describes the process by which this report has been developed and what it hopes to accomplish, its relationship to the EM decision-making process, and a general background of the EM mission and program. Chapter 2 describes how the site-by-site projections were constructed, and summarizes, for each of DOE's 11 Operations/Field Offices, the projected costs and schedules for completing the cleanup mission. Chapter 3 presents summaries of the detailed cleanup projections from three of the 11 Operations/Field Offices: Rocky Flats (Colorado), Richland (Washington), and Savannah River (South Carolina). The remaining eight Operations/Field Office summaries are in Appendix E. Chapter 4 reviews the cost drivers, budgetary constraints, and performance enhancements underlying the detailed analysis of the 353 projects that comprise EM's accelerated cleanup and closure effort. Chapter 5 describes a management system to support the EM program. Chapter 6 provides responses to the general comments received on the February draft of this document

  14. Accelerating cleanup: Paths to closure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    This report describes the status of Environmental Management`s (EM`s) cleanup program and a direction forward to complete achievement of the 2006 vision. Achieving the 2006 vision results in significant benefits related to accomplishing EM program objectives. As DOE sites accelerate cleanup activities, risks to public health, the environment, and worker safety and health are all reduced. Finding more efficient ways to conduct work can result in making compliance with applicable environmental requirements easier to achieve. Finally, as cleanup activities at sites are completed, the EM program can focus attention and resources on the small number of sites with more complex cleanup challenges. Chapter 1 describes the process by which this report has been developed and what it hopes to accomplish, its relationship to the EM decision-making process, and a general background of the EM mission and program. Chapter 2 describes how the site-by-site projections were constructed, and summarizes, for each of DOE`s 11 Operations/Field Offices, the projected costs and schedules for completing the cleanup mission. Chapter 3 presents summaries of the detailed cleanup projections from three of the 11 Operations/Field Offices: Rocky Flats (Colorado), Richland (Washington), and Savannah River (South Carolina). The remaining eight Operations/Field Office summaries are in Appendix E. Chapter 4 reviews the cost drivers, budgetary constraints, and performance enhancements underlying the detailed analysis of the 353 projects that comprise EM`s accelerated cleanup and closure effort. Chapter 5 describes a management system to support the EM program. Chapter 6 provides responses to the general comments received on the February draft of this document.

  15. Innovative technologies for groundwater cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These notes provide a broad overview of current developments in innovative technologies for groundwater cleanup. In this context, groundwater cleanup technologies include site remediation methods that deal with contaminants in ground water or that may move from the vadose zone into ground water. This discussion attempts to emphasize approaches that may be able to achieve significant improvements in groundwater cleanup cost or effectiveness. However, since data for quantitative performance and cost comparisons of new cleanup methods are scarce, preliminary comparisons must be based on the scientific approach used by each method and on the site-specific technical challenges presented by each groundwater contamination situation. A large number of technical alternatives that are now in research, development, and testing can be categorized by the scientific phenomena that they employ and by the site contamination situations that they treat. After reviewing a representative selection of these technologies, one of the new technologies, the Microbial Filter method, is discussed in more detail to highlight a promising in situ groundwater cleanup technology that is now being readied for field testing

  16. Innovative technologies for soil cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These notes provide a broad overview of current developments in innovative technologies for soil cleanup. In this context, soil cleanup technologies include site remediation methods that deal primarily with the vadose zone and with relatively shallow, near-surface contamination of soil or rock materials. This discussion attempts to emphasize approaches that may be able to achieve significant improvements in soil cleanup cost or effectiveness. However, since data for quantitative performance and cost comparisons of new cleanup methods are scarce, preliminary comparisons must be based on the scientific approach used by each method and on the sits-specific technical challenges presented by each sold contamination situation. A large number of technical alternatives that are now in research, development, and testing can be categorized by the scientific phenomena that they employ and by the site contamination situations that they treat. After cataloging a representative selection of these technologies, one of the new technologies, Dynamic Underground Stripping, is discussed in more detail to highlight a promising soil cleanup technology that is now being field tested

  17. United States Policies for Cleanup at Radioactively Contaminated Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Superfund Remediation and Technology Innovation is responsible for implementing the long term (non-emergency) portion of a key law regulating cleanup: the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, CERCLA, nicknamed ‘Superfund.’ This paper provides a brief overview of the approach used by EPA to conduct Superfund cleanups at contaminated sites, including those that are contaminated with radionuclides, and to ensure protection of human health and the environment. The theme emphasized throughout the paper is that within the Superfund remediation framework, radioactive contamination is dealt with in a manner consistent with chemical contamination, except to account for the technical differences between radionuclides and chemicals. This consistency is important since at every radioactively contaminated site being addressed under Superfund’s primary programme for long term cleanup (the National Priorities List), chemical contamination is also present. (author)

  18. Hanford Long Term Stewardship Program and Transition [Preparing for Environmental Management Cleanup Completion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long-term stewardship (LTS) at the Hanford Site begins at the completion of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Management (EM) cleanup mission and is the management of the risks (human health and environmental) associated with any residual contamination and the management of the Site's cultural, biological, and natural resources that remain after the Site is reduced to its post-cleanup-mission size. This document describes the anticipated post-cleanup LTS program, the preparations planned to facilitate the safe and timely transition from the completion of the cleanup program to a future LTS program, and when LTS is complete. Although the completion of cleanup remains several decades away, actions are being taken now to ensure the following: DOE's commitment to meet its long-term, post-cleanup obligations is reaffirmed and that its planning efforts to comply with those obligations are visible; The interface between the cleanup program and the LTS program will be clearly defined; Cleanup decisions will include careful and well-documented consideration of their long-term ramifications (e.g., long-term effectiveness and costs) and Potential impediments to a safe and timely turnover from cleanup to LTS are anticipated and a risk management approach is developed and implemented

  19. Worldwide analysis of marine oil spill cleanup cost factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The many factors that influence oil spill response costs were discussed with particular emphasis on how spill responses differ around the world because of differing cultural values, socio-economic factors and labor costs. This paper presented an analysis of marine oil spill cleanup costs based on the country, proximity to shoreline, spill size, oil type, degree of shoreline oiling and cleanup methodology. The objective was to determine how each factor impacts per-unit cleanup costs. Near-shore spills and in-port spills were found to be 4-5 times more expensive to clean than offshore spills. Responses to spills of heavy fuels also cost 10 times more than for lighter crudes and diesel. Spill responses for spills under 30 tonnes are 10 times more costly than on a per-unit basis, for spills of 300 tonnes. A newly developed modelling technique that can be used on different types of marine spills was described. It is based on updated cost data acquired from case studies of more than 300 spills in 40 countries. The model determines a per-unit cleanup cost estimation by taking into consideration oil type, location, spill size, cleanup methodology, and shoreline oiling. It was concluded that the actual spill costs are totally dependent on the actual circumstances of the spill. 13 refs., 10 tabs., 3 figs

  20. Consolidating federal facility cleanup: Some pros and cons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been suggested that Congress establish a permanent, full-time, independent national commission for radioactive waste management activities at DOE's Nuclear Weapons Complex. DOE regulates certain aspects of its treatment, storage, and disposal of radioactive waste by orders that are not promulgated by ''notice and comment'' or other procedures in the Administration Procedures Act. Because many agencies are not legally and technologically structured to handle their own cleanup problems, these activities might be conducted by one entity that can share information and staff among these agencies. There are rational arguments for both sides of this issue. Some of the advantages of such an organization include: focusing Congress's attention on an integrated federal facility cleanup instead of a fragmented, agency by agency approach, and an ability to prioritize cleanup decisions among agencies. Some significant obstacles include: reluctance by Congress and the executive branch to create any new bureaucracy at a time of budget deficits, and a loss of momentum from the progress already being made by the agencies. Given that more than $9 billion was proposed for FY 93 alone for federal facilities' cleanup programs and that decades will pass before all problems are addressed, it is appropriate to consider new approaches to environmental cleanup. This paper begins the dialogue about new ways to improve decision-making and government spending

  1. Shoreline clean-up methods : biological treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massoura, S.T. [Oil Spill Response Limited, Southampton (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01

    The cleanup of oil spills in shoreline environments is a challenging issue worldwide. Oil spills receive public and media attention, particularly in the event of a coastal impact. It is important to evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness of cleanup methods when defining the level of effort and consequences that are appropriate to remove or treat different types of oil on different shoreline substrates. Of the many studies that have compared different mechanical, chemical and biological treatments for their effectiveness on various types of oil, biological techniques have received the most attention. For that reason, this paper evaluated the effectiveness and effects of shoreline cleanup methods using biological techniques. It summarized data from field experiments and oil spill incidents, including the Exxon Valdez, Sea Empress, Prestige, Grand Eagle, Nakhodka, Guanabara Bay and various Gulf war oil spills. Five major shoreline types were examined, notably rocky intertidal, cobble/pebble/gravel, sand/mud, saltmarsh, and mangrove/sea-grass. The biological techniques that were addressed were nutrient enrichment, hydrocarbon-utilizing bacteria, vegetable oil biosolvents, plants, surf washing, oil-particle interactions and natural attenuation. The study considered the oil type, volume and fate of stranded oil, location of coastal materials, extent of pollution and the impact of biological techniques. The main factors that affect biodegradation of hydrocarbons are the volume, chemical composition and weathering state of the petroleum product as well as the temperature, oxygen availability of nutrients, water salinity, pH level, water content, and microorganisms in the shoreline environment. The interaction of these factors also affect the biodegradation of oil. It was concluded that understanding the fate of stranded oil can help in the development of techniques that improve the weathering and degradation of oil on complex shoreline substrates. 39 refs.

  2. Oil spills and their cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oil spills are an unfortunately common occurrence in the world's seas and can have extensive damaging environmental consequences. This article examines various methods of cleaning up oil spills, evaluates their effectiveness in various situations, and identifies areas where, current methods being inadequate, further research is needed. Containment, mechanical removal, shoreline cleanup, chemical treating agents, in situ burning, natural recovery and enhanced bioremediation are all assessed. The cleanup method must be selected to match environmental conditions. Results are good in quiet, sheltered waters, but need extensive development in open waters and high seas. (UK)

  3. Transition of the U.S. Department of Energy Fernald Closure Project (FCP) from Cleanup to Legacy Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fernald Closure Project encompasses a 1,050-acre tract of land northwest of Cincinnati, Ohio. Dedicated to the production of uranium feed materials from 1952 until 1989, the site was subsequently included on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Priorities List and slated for cleanup. Except for contaminated ground water, cleanup of the site will be completed in 2006; remediation of the aquifer will continue for 20 years. Transition of the project from the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management to the Office of Legacy Management will be effected when site cleanup is completed, surface restoration is complete, and aquifer remediation is on-going. Office of Legacy Management activities will focus on the monitoring and maintenance of the on-site disposal facility, enforcement of restrictions on site access and use, and the protection of natural and cultural resources. The Site Transition Plan, developed in accordance with Site Transition Framework guidance, identifies organizational and financial responsibilities for attaining closeout. A Transition Matrix details more than 1,000 activities necessary for site transition and allows each task to be tracked. Responsibility Transition Plans address major areas of scope to be transferred, such as records and information management, infrastructure, and environmental monitoring. Much effort has been placed on the retention of staff to perform the identified Office of Legacy Management scope. (authors)

  4. Recycling Facilities - Land Recycling Cleanup Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Land Recycling Cleanup Location Land Recycling Cleanup Locations (LRCL) are divided into one or more sub-facilities categorized as media: Air, Contained Release or...

  5. Historical research in the Hanford site waste cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper will acquaint the audience with role of historical research in the Hanford Site waste cleanup - the largest waste cleanup endeavor ever undertaken in human history. There were no comparable predecessors to this massive waste remediation effort, but the Hanford historical record can provide a partial road map and guide. It can be, and is, a useful tool in meeting the goal of a successful, cost-effective, safe and technologically exemplary waste cleanup. The Hanford historical record is rich and complex. Yet, it poses difficult challenges, in that no central and complete repository or data base exists, records contain obscure code words and code numbers, and the measurement systems and terminology used in the records change many times over the years. Still, these records are useful to the current waste cleanup in technical ways, and in ways that extend beyond a strictly scientific aspect. Study and presentations of Hanford Site history contribute to the huge educational and outreach tasks of helping the Site's work force deal with 'culture change' and become motivated for the cleanup work that is ahead, and of helping the public and the regulators to place the events at Hanford in the context of WWII and the Cold War. This paper traces historical waste practices and policies as they changed over the years at the Hanford Site, and acquaints the audience with the generation of the major waste streams of concern in Hanford Site cleanup today. It presents original, primary-source research into the waste history of the Hanford Site. The earliest, 1940s knowledge base, assumptions and calculations about radioactive and chemical discharges, as discussed in the memos, correspondence and reports of the original Hanford Site (then Hanford Engineer Works) builders and operators, are reviewed. The growth of knowledge, research efforts, and subsequent changes in Site waste disposal policies and practices are traced. Examples of the strengths and limitations of the

  6. Cleanup standards for inland oil spills : a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are a wide range of issues that should be addressed in the development of oil spill cleanup criteria and standards, yet there is currently no clear and concise decision procedure that can be applied by a spill response management team. This paper presented three inland spill cases which demonstrated different parts of the spectrum of cleanup standards. These case study examples showed that there is a progression with increasing levels of concern and increasing levels of treatment or cleanup effort. The first case study described the removal of mobile oil in a remote location. It involved a series of large crude oil spills in 1994 from sections of the Vosei-Golovnye pipeline in the Komi Republic of Russia. The second case study described multiple standards for the removal of oil residues and oiled vegetation in a populated rural region. It involved a spill of 29,000 bbl of mixed crude oil and condensate in January 2000 from the OSSA II pipeline at the Rio Desaguadero river crossing in Bolivia. The third case study described the restoration of a salmon spawning stream to a lowest effects concentration. It involved a gasoline release, explosion and fire that resulted from the Olympic Pipe Line rupture in June 1999 in Bellingham, Washington. Each of the three response operations was based on different objectives and different cleanup standards for the completion of the cleanup. The process by which criteria are developed for inland oil spills was described. The choice of treatment ranges from no treatment to a zero tolerance position. Deciding which measure is appropriate is a social and political process that is not based on science alone. While soil and water quality standards have been established by government agencies, these are intended mostly for chronic situations rather than for one-time events such as oil spills. Almost all assessments of an appropriate cleanup program consider the net environmental benefits (NEB) and risk associated with different

  7. Accelerating cleanup: Paths to closure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, C.

    1998-06-30

    This document was previously referred to as the Draft 2006 Plan. As part of the DOE`s national strategy, the Richland Operations Office`s Paths to Closure summarizes an integrated path forward for environmental cleanup at the Hanford Site. The Hanford Site underwent a concerted effort between 1994 and 1996 to accelerate the cleanup of the Site. These efforts are reflected in the current Site Baseline. This document describes the current Site Baseline and suggests strategies for further improvements in scope, schedule and cost. The Environmental Management program decided to change the name of the draft strategy and the document describing it in response to a series of stakeholder concerns, including the practicality of achieving widespread cleanup by 2006. Also, EM was concerned that calling the document a plan could be misconstrued to be a proposal by DOE or a decision-making document. The change in name, however, does not diminish the 2006 vision. To that end, Paths to Closure retains a focus on 2006, which serves as a point in time around which objectives and goals are established.

  8. Keynote address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Good morning ladies and gentlemen. I am truly honored to be your keynote speaker at the first International Oil Spill R ampersand D Forum. This Forum is cosponsored by the Coast Guard, on behalf of the OPA 90 Interagency Coordinating Committee on Oil Spill Research, and the International Maritime Organization. The fact that IMO is jointly sponsoring the Forum truly reflects the global nature of our concerns for the marine environment. I was asked to speak to you today because of my purview over the entire Coast Guard R ampersand D Program, a significant portion of which is oil spill related. Our environmental awareness was renewed on March 24, 1990 when the tankship Exxon Valdez ran aground on Bligh Reef in Prince William Sound, Alaska, and caused the largest vessel related oil spill in U.S. history. During the next 15 months there were three other large oil spills that threatened the U.S. shorelines. The U.S. flag tank vessel American Trader suffered a three foot diameter hole in a cargo tank near Huntington Beach California; the Mega Borg, a Norwegian flag tank vessel, exploded and caught fire off the coast of Texas in the Gulf of Mexico; and the Greek flag tanker World Prodigy ran aground in Narragensett Bay near Rhode Island. Each spill presented a unique set of challenges to our response operations. Despite intense response and cleanup actions, which included excellent international cooperation for the Exxon Valdez spill, it was apparent that existing world-wide catastrophic spill response capabilities could easily be exceeded and that there was no international mechanism which promoted and facilitated cooperations

  9. Yakama Indian Nation Treaty rights and development of cleanup standards for D and D and ER actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Yakama Indian Nation (YIN) is a sovereign government located in the Northwestern United States. In 1855, the US government recognized Yakama Nation dominion on 12.2 million acres of land, or more than one-quarter of present-day Washington State. In the Treaty of 1855 between US and Yakama representatives, the YIN ceded control on 10.8 million acres of its ancestral land to the US government, but retained certain perpetual rights to that land. The Hanford Nuclear Site is located on Yakama ceded land, upon which the YIN retains rights to fish, hunt, gather roots and berries, and to pasture horses and cattle. The YIN has been recognized by the US Department of Energy as having regulatory authority concerning Hanford operations. This authority requires incorporation of YIN Treaty rights in the development of environmental cleanup standards for D and D and ER actions. The legal and policy framework upon which YIN environmental protection standards are based includes protection of the health, safety and well-being of YIN Tribal members, protection of the environment necessary to support Treaty protected resources, and preservation of the culture which sustains the unique YIN lifestyle and religion. The basis for Yakama cleanup standards will address risk, environmental, and cultural factors. It is recognized that the unique Yakama lifestyle and diet create specific exposure pathways for hazardous and radioactive materials which are not routinely factored into risk models used to calculate doses

  10. Assessing mixtures risks for cleanup and stewardship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for addressing contamination from past research, production, and disposal activities at over 100 sites and facilities across the country. Use of emerging science to assess risks for these facilities is the key to defining appropriate solutions. Safely managing contamination is a priority to protect workers in the near term, and sustained protection is a priority for local communities over the long term. The Department conducts its environmental management program with input from a number of groups who have expressed concern about the safety of DOE sites over time and the possible conversion of some lands to other uses. In general, past facility activities and disposal operations have contaminated about 10% of the total collective area of DOE sites while surrounding lands have served as buffer zones. Portions of several sites have been released for other uses, such as wildlife preserves. Soil, surface water, and groundwater have been contaminated in most instances, and on-site waste disposal is targeted for many sites. Wastes and contamination that will remain in the environment are at the heart of ongoing future use and long-term management deliberations. For this reason, oversight groups and local citizens are scrutinizing the risk assessments being conducted to support decisions on final cleanup and long-term stewardship. Contaminants exist throughout the world not as individual chemicals but as combinations. The standard risk assessment process broadly applied to support cleanup decisions for contaminated sites is based on single-chemical analyses that do not consider joint toxicity. That is, possible nonadditive effects (commonly termed synergistic or antagonistic) of multiple exposures to multiple chemicals are not generally addressed. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been developing a process to assess risks of multiple chemicals (EPA 1990, 2000), but it is not yet being applied to address

  11. Bioreactors Addressing Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Minteer, Danielle M.; Gerlach, Jorg C; Marra, Kacey G.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor develop...

  12. IP Addressing

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    tut quiz anim This interactive tutorial covers the following: The concept of halving a binary number space., Using the halving concept to explain how the Internet IP space is segmented into the A, B, and C address classifications., How the first octet ranges for the A, B, and C IP space are produced.In this tutorial, explanations are illustrated by simple animations. Students are asked to observe number patterns, and check their observations against automated 'answers.' There is a qu...

  13. Inaugural Address

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Yousaf Raza Gilani

    2008-01-01

    Sardar Aseff Ahmad Ali, Deputy Chairman, Planning Commission, Dr Rashid Amjad, President, Pakistan Society of Development Economists, Honourable Ministers, Excellencies, Ladies and Gentlemen! It is indeed a privilege and honour to address this distinguished gathering of economists. I am very happy that this meeting is being attended by internationally acclaimed economists and academics from both within and outside the country. I am especially heartened to see that students of economics from a...

  14. Archaeological site protection: An integral component of the Exxon Valdez shoreline cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A major cultural site identification and protection program in Prince William Sound and the Gulf of Alaska was conducted as part of the Exxon Valdez spill response. In cooperation with state and federal agencies and Native corporations with historic preservation mandates, the four-year program was designed to identify archaeological sites in the area of the spill, determine the effect of planned cleanup on them, and mitigate impacts to sites during cleanup. Archaeological site protection constraints, augmented by an extensive cultural resource training program, were an integral part of each shoreline-specific cleanup plan. As a result, impacts attributable to the cleanup were limited to minor disturbances and two vandalism incidents. Impacts from oiling were minimal largely because most intertidal cultural sites had lost their fragile constituents and contextual integrity as a result of prespill erosion. State and federal studies confirmed the efficacy of the site identification and protection program, finding negligible impacts attributable to either direct oiling or the cleanup at intact sites. The Cultural Resource Program also developed innovative management strategies with implications for future emergency responses involving complex land management and site protection issues. The program greatly enhanced the knowledge of the area's history by collecting and synthesizing considerable new archaeological information. 27 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  15. Using a cognitive architecture for addressing the question of cognitive universals in cross-cultural psychology: The example of awalé

    OpenAIRE

    Gobet, F.

    2008-01-01

    A central theme in cross-cultural psychology is the extent to which cognitive mechanisms are universal, or, alternatively, are specific to a given culture. We propose a new way to tackle this question: to use the same cognitive architecture, implemented as a computer program, for simulating phenomena in which individuals from different cultures perform a task familiar to their own culture. The CHREST architecture (Gobet et al., 2001; Gobet & Simon, 2000) has simulated a number of empirical ph...

  16. Options for improving hazardous waste cleanups using risk-based criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper explores how risk- and technology-based criteria are currently used in the RCRA and CERCLA cleanup programs. It identifies ways in which risk could be further incorporated into RCRA and CERCLA cleanup requirements and the implications of risk-based approaches. The more universal use of risk assessment as embodied in the risk communication and risk improvement bills before Congress is not addressed. Incorporating risk into the laws and regulations governing hazardous waste cleanup, will allow the use of the best scientific information available to further the goal of environmental protection in the United States while containing costs. and may help set an example for other countries that may be developing cleanup programs, thereby contributing to enhanced global environmental management

  17. Chairperson's address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In nuclear power industry responsibilities for generation, transmission and retailing have been split and many nuclear power stations have been transferred to private companies. This has produced a clear focus on good management and the need for a top class safety culture if nuclear stations are to be run successfully. There are, however, two specific aspects of nuclear power generation which appear to cause private companies considerable concern: the unique health and safety issue related to ionizing radiation in normal operation and potential accidents; and the technical, economic and socio-political problems attached to disposing of radioactive waste

  18. Keynote address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper addresses various aspects of the bases underlying the nuclear third party liability regime, and also analyses the distinction between danger and risk and the manner in which damage caused by flood, mass unemployment (economic damage mainly) and certain diseases is dealt with in the absence of liability provisions similar to those applicable to nuclear incidents. It also is suggested that the State because of its duty under the Basic Law to ensure adequate energy supplies, should be co-responsible for liability questions along with the nuclear operator. (NEA)

  19. Addressivity in cogenerative dialogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Pei-Ling

    2014-03-01

    Ashraf Shady's paper provides a first-hand reflection on how a foreign teacher used cogens as culturally adaptive pedagogy to address cultural misalignments with students. In this paper, Shady drew on several cogen sessions to showcase his journey of using different forms of cogens with his students. To improve the quality of cogens, one strategy he used was to adjust the number of participants in cogens. As a result, some cogens worked and others did not. During the course of reading his paper, I was impressed by his creative and flexible use of cogens and at the same time was intrigued by the question of why some cogens work and not others. In searching for an answer, I found that Mikhail Bakhtin's dialogism, especially the concept of addressivity, provides a comprehensive framework to address this question. In this commentary, I reanalyze the cogen episodes described in Shady's paper in the light of dialogism. My analysis suggests that addressivity plays an important role in mediating the success of cogens. Cogens with high addressivity function as internally persuasive discourse that allows diverse consciousnesses to coexist and so likely affords productive dialogues. The implications of addressivity in teaching and learning are further discussed.

  20. Enhancing aquifer cleanup with reinjection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Injection of water or steam, with or without chemical surfactants, is a common petroleum industry technique to enhance product recovery. In the geothermal industry, reinjection (reinjection is used to mean the injection of ground water that was previously injected) of heat- depleted subsurface fluids is commonly used to maintain reservoir pressure, thus prolonging field productivity. The use reinjection in ground-water remediation projects allows for the application of both traditional production field management and a variety of additional enhancements to the cleanup process. Development of the ideas in this paper was stimulated by an initial suggestion by Dr. Jacob Bear (personal discussions, 1990--1991) that reinjected water might be heated to aid the desorption process

  1. HANFORD SITE RIVER CORRIDOR CLEANUP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2005, the US Department of Energy (DOE) launched the third generation of closure contracts, including the River Corridor Closure (RCC) Contract at Hanford. Over the past decade, significant progress has been made on cleaning up the river shore that bordes Hanford. However, the most important cleanup challenges lie ahead. In March 2005, DOE awarded the Hanford River Corridor Closure Contract to Washington Closure Hanford (WCH), a limited liability company owned by Washington Group International, Bechtel National and CH2M HILL. It is a single-purpose company whose goal is to safely and efficiently accelerate cleanup in the 544 km2 Hanford river corridor and reduce or eliminate future obligations to DOE for maintaining long-term stewardship over the site. The RCC Contract is a cost-plus-incentive-fee closure contract, which incentivizes the contractor to reduce cost and accelerate the schedule. At $1.9 billion and seven years, WCH has accelerated cleaning up Hanford's river corridor significantly compared to the $3.2 billion and 10 years originally estimated by the US Army Corps of Engineers. Predictable funding is one of the key features of the new contract, with funding set by contract at $183 million in fiscal year (FY) 2006 and peaking at $387 million in FY2012. Another feature of the contract allows for Washington Closure to perform up to 40% of the value of the contract and subcontract the balance. One of the major challenges in the next few years will be to identify and qualify sufficient subcontractors to meet the goal

  2. Mechanism involved in trichloroethylene-induced liver cancer: Importance to environmental cleanup. 1997 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'The Pacific Northwest National Lab. was awarded ten (10) Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) research grants in Fiscal Year 1996. This section gives a summary of how each grant is addressing significant DOE cleanup issues, including those at the Hanford Site. The technical progress made to date in each of these research projects is addressed in more detail in the individual progress reports contained in this document. This research is primarily focused in three areas-Tank Waste Remediation, Soil and Groundwater Cleanup, and Health Effects.'

  3. Mechanism involved in trichloroethylene-induced liver cancer: Importance to environmental cleanup. 1997 annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bull, R.J.

    1997-06-01

    'The Pacific Northwest National Lab. was awarded ten (10) Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) research grants in Fiscal Year 1996. This section gives a summary of how each grant is addressing significant DOE cleanup issues, including those at the Hanford Site. The technical progress made to date in each of these research projects is addressed in more detail in the individual progress reports contained in this document. This research is primarily focused in three areas-Tank Waste Remediation, Soil and Groundwater Cleanup, and Health Effects.'

  4. Welcome Address

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@  On behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute, I welcome you to Beijing and to the Third Asian Conference on Food Safety and Nutrition. Many of you will remember the first Asian conference on Food Safety held in Kuala Lumpur in 1990 and the second held in Bangkok in 1994. These meetings have been so successful that ILSI made the commitment to host such a conference periodically in order to provide a forum to share the latest information and to set new goals and priorities.   This year, we have broadened the scope of the agenda to include issues on nutrition. I want to thank all of our co-sponsors and members of the Planning Committee for preparing such a comprehensive and timely program. Some of the issues and challenges facing Asia that will be addressed at this meeting are:

  5. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact of the Chernobyl accident on health has been dramatic but different than expected. It has posed a tremendous health, social and economic burden on the people of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. Now the picture of the impact of the accident on health and environment is clearer and the agenda can further move towards development and focused health programmes. The work of the Chernobyl Forum, which allowed this important objective to be reached, is an example of the multiplied added value that different United Nations agencies working together can achieve when addressing complex problems affecting large communities in an independent, comprehensive and credible way. This model should be the basis for future action with the Member States towards reconstruction, development and better health

  6. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The International Labour Organization (ILO), is very pleased to be associated with this International Conference on National Infrastructures for Radiation Safety. On behalf of the Director General, Mr. J. Somavia, I would like to congratulate the national organizer and host, the University Mohammed V, Agdal, and the Government of Morocco, the IAEA and the other co-operating organizations: the World Health Organization, the Pan American Health Organization, the European Commission and the OECD/Nuclear Energy Agency for taking this initiative. When flying here to Morocco yesterday, I read newspaper reports about the results of the investigations related to the disaster of the Columbia space shuttle. The findings were as follows: the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), must establish a safety culture within itself. NASA was well aware of the problem of falling insulation material but did not take it seriously before the disaster. The workers in the Chernobyl power plant knew the hazards and safety rules but did not take them seriously. Every day, more than 5000 people die from occupational accidents and work related diseases as the hazards are not taken seriously. Some of them are caused by ionizing radiation. We in the ILO expect enterprises and workplaces to follow proper occupational safety and health management systems so as to avoid accidents, diseases and other problems at work. Equally, we must expect national leadership, sound nationwide management, for radiation safety, which means: National policy setting, which usually results in national standards and laws; National structures and mechanisms, that is, who is in charge of what; Responsibilities and accountabilities set, and resources allocated; National action plans, a national programme;Implementation of these plans;Follow-up, monitoring, review, feedback to enhance the process using selected indicators; Continuous improvement in measurable steps at national level

  7. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: I have the pleasure to welcome you, on behalf of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency to this important International Conference on National infrastructures for Radiation Safety. Let me congratulate the organizers of this conference for their decision to approach the Government of Morocco to host this meeting in the beautiful city of Rabat but, first of all, let me thank our host, His Majesty King Mohammed VI and the Government of Morocco, and the University Mohammed V, Agdal, for the kind hospitality and the beautiful setting here in Rabat, and for making this dream become a pleasant reality. We are convening here to discuss 'radiation safety infrastructure', a term which for outsiders - and probably also many of us - seems to be a bit fuzzy. Over the last decades, considerable progress has been made in radiation safety techniques, in measurement, monitoring, exposure prevention, and intervention techniques. In general, occupational exposure for workers has dropped continuously, as data from the Information System on Occupational Exposure (ISOE) system can demonstrate. Today, it is becoming clear that further progress cannot rely on improving hard techniques alone, but also has to focus on the soft issues: on institutional aspects, on aspects of information, organization, and finally, a safety culture - in a word, on infrastructure. On one side, sustainable infrastructures - at both the international and the national level - are essential in order to maintain the positive trend in radiation safety, in occupational exposure and, thus, to support the safe use of nuclear energy and radiation. On the other hand, effective national and international infrastructures are required to ensure the radiation safety and security of radioactive sources, and to avoid incidents and accidents with 'orphan' sources, which have become a major concern in recent years. The OECD/NEA is happy to provide the experience of its 28 member countries from Europe, North America and the

  8. Particulate hot gas stream cleanup technical issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    This is the tenth in a series of quarterly reports describing the activities performed under Contract No. DE-AC21-94MC31160. Analyses of Hot Gas Stream Cleanup (HGCU) ashes and descriptions of filter performance address aspects of filter operation that are apparently linked to the characteristics of the collected ash or the performance of the ceramic bed filter elements. Task I is designed to generate a data base of the key characteristics of ashes collected from operating advanced particle filters (APFS) and to relate these ash properties to the operation and performance of these filters. Task 2 concerns testing and failure analysis of ceramic filter elements. Under Task I during the past quarter, analyses were performed on a particulate sample from the Transport Reactor Demonstration Unit (TRDU) located at the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center. Analyses are in progress on ash samples from the Advanced Particulate Filter (APF) at the Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustor (PFBC) that was in operation at Tidd and ash samples from the Pressurized Circulating Fluid Bed (PCFB) system located at Karhula, Finland. A site visit was made to the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) to collect ash samples from the filter vessel and to document the condition of the filter vessel with still photographs and videotape. Particulate samples obtained during this visit are currently being analyzed for entry into the Hot Gas Cleanup (HGCU) data base. Preparations are being made for a review meeting on ash bridging to be held at Department of Energy Federal Energy Technology Center - Morgantown (DOE/FETC-MGN) in the near future. Most work on Task 2 was on hold pending receipt of additional funds; however, creep testing of Schumacher FT20 continued. The creep tests on Schumacher FT20 specimens just recently ended and data analysis and comparisons to other data are ongoing. A summary and analysis of these creep results will be sent out shortly. Creep

  9. Inaugural address

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, P. S.

    2014-03-01

    From jets to cosmos to cosmic censorship P S Joshi Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005, India E-mail: psj@tifr.res.in 1. Introduction At the outset, I should like to acknowledge that part of the title above, which tries to capture the main flavour of this meeting, and has been borrowed from one of the plenary talks at the conference. When we set out to make the programme for the conference, we thought of beginning with observations on the Universe, but then we certainly wanted to go further and address deeper questions, which were at the very foundations of our inquiry, and understanding on the nature and structure of the Universe. I believe, we succeeded to a good extent, and it is all here for you in the form of these Conference Proceedings, which have been aptly titled as 'Vishwa Mimansa', which could be possibly translated as 'Analysis of the Universe'! It is my great pleasure and privilege to welcome you all to the ICGC-2011 meeting at Goa. The International Conference on Gravitation and Cosmology (ICGC) series of meetings are being organized by the Indian Association for General Relativity and Gravitation (IAGRG), and the first such meeting was planned and conducted in Goa in 1987, with subsequent meetings taking place at a duration of about four years at various locations in India. So, it was thought appropriate to return to Goa to celebrate the 25 years of the ICGC meetings. The recollections from that first meeting have been recorded elsewhere here in these Proceedings. The research and teaching on gravitation and cosmology was initiated quite early in India, by V V Narlikar at the Banares Hindu University, and by N R Sen in Kolkata in the 1930s. In course of time, this activity grew and gained momentum, and in early 1969, at the felicitation held for the 60 years of V V Narlikar at a conference in Ahmedabad, P C Vaidya proposed the formation of the IAGRG society, with V V Narlikar being the first President. This

  10. Summary of Model Toxics Control Act (MTCA) Potential Impacts Related to Hanford Cleanup and the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    IWATATE, D.F.

    2000-07-14

    This white paper provides an initial assessment of the potential impacts of the Model Toxics Control Act (MTCA) regulations (and proposed revisions) on the Hanford site cleanup and addresses concerns that MTCA might impose inappropriate or unachievable clean-up levels and drive clean-up costs higher. The white paper and supporting documentation (Appendices A and B) provide DOE with a concise and up-to-date review of potential MTCA impacts to cost and schedule for the Hanford site activities. MTCA, Chapter 70.105D RCW, is the State of Washington's risk based law governing clean-up of contaminated sites and is implemented by The Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology) under the MTCA Clean-up Regulations, Chapter 173-340 WAC. Hanford cleanup is subject to the MTCA requirements as Applicable, Relevant and Appropriate Requirements (ARARs) for those areas of Hanford being managed under the authority of the Federal Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), and the state Dangerous Waste Regulations. MTCA provides Ecology with authority to implement site clean-up actions under both the federal RCRA and CERCLA regulations as well as the state regulations. Most of the Hanford clean-up actions are being implemented under the CERCLA program, however, there is a trend is toward increased use of MTCA procedures and standards. The application of MTCA to the Hanford clean-up has been an evolving process with some of the Hanford clean-up actions considering MTCA standards as an ARAR and using MTCA procedures for remedy selection. The increased use and application of MTCA standards and procedures could potentially impact both cost and schedule for the Hanford cleanup.

  11. HANFORD SITE CENTRAL PLATEAU CLEANUP COMPLETION STRATEGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BERGMAN TB

    2011-01-14

    Cleanup of the Hanford Site is a complex and challenging undertaking. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a comprehensive vision for completing Hanford's cleanup mission including transition to post-cleanup activities. This vision includes 3 principle components of cleanup: the {approx}200 square miles ofland adjacent to the Columbia River, known as the River Corridor; the 75 square miles of land in the center of the Hanford Site, where the majority of the reprocessing and waste management activities have occurred, known as the Central Plateau; and the stored reprocessing wastes in the Central Plateau, the Tank Wastes. Cleanup of the River Corridor is well underway and is progressing towards completion of most cleanup actions by 2015. Tank waste cleanup is progressing on a longer schedule due to the complexity of the mission, with construction of the largest nuclear construction project in the United States, the Waste Treatment Plant, over 50% complete. With the progress on the River Corridor and Tank Waste, it is time to place increased emphasis on moving forward with cleanup of the Central Plateau. Cleanup of the Hanford Site has been proceeding under a framework defmed in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement). In early 2009, the DOE, the State of Washington Department of Ecology, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency signed an Agreement in Principle in which the parties recognized the need to develop a more comprehensive strategy for cleanup of the Central Plateau. DOE agreed to develop a Central Plateau Cleanup Completion Strategy as a starting point for discussions. This DOE Strategy was the basis for negotiations between the Parties, discussions with the State of Oregon, the Hanford Advisory Board, and other Stakeholder groups (including open public meetings), and consultation with the Tribal Nations. The change packages to incorporate the Central Plateau Cleanup Completion Strategy were

  12. Opening Address

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, T.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, it is my great honor and pleasure to present an opening address of the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3). On the behalf of the organizing committee, I certainly welcome all your visits to KGU Kannai Media Center belonging to Kanto Gakuin University, and stay in Yokohama. In particular, to whom come from abroad more than 17 countries, I would appreciate your participations after long long trips from your homeland to Yokohama. The first international workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics", called SOTANCP, was held in Strasbourg, France, in 2008, and the second one was held in Brussels, Belgium, in 2010. Then the third workshop is now held in Yokohama. In this period, we had the traditional 10th cluster conference in Debrecen, Hungary, in 2012. Thus we have the traditional cluster conference and SOTANCP, one after another, every two years. This obviously shows our field of nuclear cluster physics is very active and flourishing. It is for the first time in about 10 years to hold the international workshop on nuclear cluster physics in Japan, because the last cluster conference held in Japan was in Nara in 2003, about 10 years ago. The president in Nara conference was Prof. K. Ikeda, and the chairpersons were Prof. H. Horiuchi and Prof. I. Tanihata. I think, quite a lot of persons in this room had participated at the Nara conference. Since then, about ten years passed. So, this workshop has profound significance for our Japanese colleagues. The subjects of this workshop are to discuss "the state of the art in nuclear cluster physics" and also discuss the prospect of this field. In a couple of years, we saw significant progresses of this field both in theory and in experiment, which have brought better and new understandings on the clustering aspects in stable and unstable nuclei. I think, the concept of clustering has been more important than ever. This is true also in the

  13. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Honourable Representatives of His Majesty King Mohammed VI and of the Government of Morocco, representatives of sponsoring organizations, distinguished participants, on behalf of the Director General of the IAEA, it is my pleasure and privilege to welcome you to this International Conference on National Infrastructures for Radiation Safety: Towards Effective and Sustainable Systems. I would like to express my sincere appreciation to His Majesty King Mohammed VI for his patronage, to the Government of Morocco and the University Mohammed V, Agdal, for hosting this conference in the beautiful and historic city of Rabat, and to the local organizers for their diligent planning and gracious hospitality. I would also like to thank the four organizations that are co-operating with the IAEA in holding this conference: the World Health Organization, the Pan American Health Organization, the International Labour Organization, the European Commission and the OECD/Nuclear Energy Agency. National infrastructure for radiation safety has emerged as an issue of international concern over the last two decades. Systematic and strategic consideration of infrastructure has become widely recognized as an essential prerequisite for safety. The first IAEA conference to address the topic was in Munich, Germany, in 1990. The 1996 edition of the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (known as the Basic Safety Standards or BSS) highlighted the issue, and the IAEA's technical co-operation Model Project for Upgrading Radiation Protection Infrastructure was introduced to help address it. The Model Project has helped, and continues to help, more than 85 IAEA Member States to work towards the goal of a radiation safety infrastructure in accordance with the Basic Safety Standards. A great deal has been achieved, but this work is not complete. Furthermore, not all States are members of the IAEA or the Model

  14. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This opening address covers two main areas: first, a snapshot of the continuing threat and the recent changes having been made to the United Kingdom's counterterrorism structures to respond to it; and second, how the United Kingdom is combating nuclear terrorism through a range of measures covering physical security, decreasing vulnerability to attack and increasing resilience. Combating the threat of nuclear terrorism requires an international effort. Radiological and fissile materials are present throughout the world and, as such, it should be secured wherever it is found. All countries are encouraged to continue to enhance security and protection mechanisms for radiological and fissile material; and to develop contingency plans should the worst happen. The United Kingdom has responded to the very serious and real threat by consolidating and strengthening elements of its counterterrorist planning via the creation in May this year of the Office for Security and Counter-Terrorism (OSCT). These changes have been coupled with an unprecedented level of investment to enable the delivery of the United Kingdom counterterrorist strategy - known as CONTEST - through which we aim to (a) stop terrorist attacks; (b) where it cannot be stopped, to mitigate its impact; (c) strengthen our overall protection against terrorist attack; (d) stop people becoming terrorists or supporting violent extremism. In the case of radiological and nuclear terrorism, it is not sufficient merely to prepare for such an attack; one must also devote efforts to preventing such attacks in the first instance by intercepting dangerous materials before they reach their intended target; and by strengthening the protection of vulnerable places and detecting or mitigating any devices before they are placed or activated. As such, in terms of the United Kingdom's efforts on radiological and nuclear terrorism, there are three main strands to this work: physical protection of materials including the global

  15. Keynote address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This keynote address describes the reasons why Ontario restructured its electricity sector to include open market competition. Much effort, time, money and expertise have been devoted to developing the Ontario competitive market. The 1997 White Paper issued by the Ontario Ministry of Energy, Science and Technology was the first paper to express the urgent need for change because the old system was failing. Prices increased by 60 per cent between 1986 and 1993. Although governments imposed a price freeze, it is recognized that such prices freezes cannot be sustained. Between 1980 and 1986, Ontario Hydro's debt rose from $12 billion to over $30 billion. The cause was attributed to poor business performance which was putting the taxpayers at risk. The author states that the potential and social benefits of competitive electricity markets are significant. Opening the power markets improves the efficiency of electricity systems and offers significant benefits. It is noted that restructuring does not mean deregulation. The Ontario Energy Board and the Independent Market Operator continue to regulate the market to ensure its proper operation and to protect consumers. In a properly functioning competitive market, prices change in response to market conditions. Electricity prices have generally declined where competitive markets have been introduced in other jurisdictions around the world. The author also cautions that it is easy to create unfounded fears about a competitive market and cited California as an example. California's problems arose from a lack of generating capacity, regulation which discouraged new power generation, inadequate transmission capacity, lack of snow in the northeast where hydropower is produced, and a consumer price cap that encouraged power consumption at a time when supply was short. The author notes that these factors do not exist in Ontario and that the competitive market should not be abandoned

  16. Keynote address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DOE biomass R ampersand D programs have the potential to provide America with both plentiful, clean-burning domestic transportation fuels and cost-competitive industrial and utility fuels, benefiting energy security in the United States. Biofuels developed under our programs will also help improve air quality, reduce greenhouse gases, reduce the large daily quantities of waste we produce, and revitalize rural America. These research motivations have been documented in the National Energy Strategy. DOE looks forward to expanding its biofuels research program and to forging a partnership with private sector for cost-shared commercialization of new fuels and vehicle technologies. Many alternative fuels (e.g., ethanol, methanol, compressed natural gas, propane, or electricity) are candidates for gaining market share. Indeed, there may be significant regional variation in the future fuel mix. Alcohol fuels from biomass, particularly ethanol, have the potential to make a major contribution. Currently, ethanol in the United States is almost entirely made from corn; and the limitations of that process are well known (e.g., costly feedstock, end product requiring subsidy to be competitive, use of fossil fuels in renewable feedstock production and processing, and potential adverse impact of corn ethanol production on the price of food). To address these concerns, the DOE biofuels program is pursuing an ambitious research program to develop the technologies needed to convert these crops into alternative transportation fuels, primarily cellulose-based ethanol and methanol. Program R ampersand D has reduced the estimated cost per gallon of cellulose-based ethanol from $3.60 in 1980 to the current $1.35, with a program goal of $0.60 by the year 2000. DOE is also investigating the thermochemical conversion of biomass to methanol. The program goal is to achieve commercial production of methanol (like ethanol) at the gasoline equivalent of $0.90 per gallon by the year 2000. 4 figs

  17. Presidential address.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vohra, U

    1993-07-01

    The Secretary of India's Ministry of Health and Family Welfare serves as Chair of the Executive Council of the International Institute for Population Sciences in Bombay. She addressed its 35th convocation in 1993. Global population stands at 5.43 billion and increases by about 90 million people each year. 84 million of these new people are born in developing countries. India contributes 17 million new people annually. The annual population growth rate in India is about 2%. Its population size will probably surpass 1 billion by the 2000. High population growth rates are a leading obstacle to socioeconomic development in developing countries. Governments of many developing countries recognize this problem and have expanded their family planning programs to stabilize population growth. Asian countries that have done so and have completed the fertility transition include China, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, and Thailand. Burma, Malaysia, North Korea, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam have not yet completed the transition. Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Iran, Nepal, and Pakistan are half-way through the transition. High population growth rates put pressure on land by fragmenting finite land resources, increasing the number of landless laborers and unemployment, and by causing considerable rural-urban migration. All these factors bring about social stress and burden civic services. India has reduced its total fertility rate from 5.2 to 3.9 between 1971 and 1991. Some Indian states have already achieved replacement fertility. Considerable disparity in socioeconomic development exists among states and districts. For example, the states of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh have female literacy rates lower than 27%, while that for Kerala is 87%. Overall, infant mortality has fallen from 110 to 80 between 1981 and 1990. In Uttar Pradesh, it has fallen from 150 to 98, while it is at 17 in Kerala. India needs innovative approaches to increase contraceptive prevalence rates

  18. From Cleanup to Stewardship. A companion report to Accelerating Cleanup: Paths to Closure and background information to support the scoping process required for the 1998 PEIS Settlement Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-10-01

    Long-term stewardship is expected to be needed at more than 100 DOE sites after DOE's Environmental Management program completes disposal, stabilization, and restoration operations to address waste and contamination resulting from nuclear research and nuclear weapons production conducted over the past 50 years. From Cleanup to stewardship provides background information on the Department of Energy (DOE) long-term stewardship obligations and activities. This document begins to examine the transition from cleanup to long-term stewardship, and it fulfills the Secretary's commitment to the President in the 1999 Performance Agreement to provide a companion report to the Department's Accelerating Cleanup: Paths to Closure report. It also provides background information to support the scoping process required for a study on long-term stewardship required by a 1998 Settlement Agreement.

  19. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Last week we were reminded once again of the after-effects of Chernobyl. Unexpectedly high values of the radioactive substance caesium were found in moose meat from the south of Vaesterbotten County. A moose cow shot in Aengersjoe had 2000 becquerel per kilo meat, and a moose calf had almost 4000 becquerel. The caesium content in Swedish moose has varied after the 1986 reactor breakdown at Chernobyl. The explanation for this year's unusually high content appears to be that, due to the warm weather, the moose have eaten blueberries which contain more caesium than plants in wood clearings. Moose meat containing caesium reminds us of the vulnerability of our society. It reminds us that emissions cross borders and that ambitious, long term environmental policies must be adopted at the national but above all at the international level. Work on environmental objectives is an important component of Swedish efforts to overcome our environmental problems within a generation. In Sweden, our work is based on 15 environmental quality objectives. We have established subgoals, action strategies and follow-up mechanisms. In an international context it is, I venture to say, unique in its systematic structure. The Swedish Government and Riksdag have laid down that: - Human health and biological diversity shall be protected against harmful effects of radiation in the outdoor environment. - By the year 2010, the content in the environment of radioactive substances emitted from all activities and operations shall be so low that human health and biological diversity are protected. - By the year 2020 the annual number of cases of skin cancer caused by the sun shall not be higher than the figure for the year 2000. The risks involved in electromagnetic fields shall be continuously reviewed and necessary measures taken when such risks are identified. These objectives describe the quality and conditions for Sweden's environmental, natural and cultural resources that are ecologically

  20. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The opening address by the host country started by thanking to the International Atomic Energy Agency for holding this important scientific event in in Morocco. The themes to be considered by this conference are among the priorities of the Scientific Research Department in its endeavour to promote scientific research in the field of nuclear science and technology for peaceful uses in Morocco. By so doing, this Department is following and supporting the efforts being made by our country to provide training, and elaborate rules and regulations, and to create infrastructure, acquire material and, equipment and encourage qualified and active researchers. Hence, the convening of this conference responds to a strategic interest of our country, which, similar to other countries, is committed to the achievement of comprehensive and sustainable development for the protection of human kind and the environment. This is considered nowadays as a strategic and vital objective as it entails the protection of people from radiation and against all kinds of professional risks and health hazards. Morocco attaches great importance to radiation safety issues. Our country adhered to all international conventions related to nuclear safety. It is in the process of adapting its internal regulations to international norms and standards, and it is making progress towards the establishment of a national safety body which meets those norms and standards, with the assistance of the IAEA. For this purpose, a standing committee for the follow-up of nuclear affairs has been created on the basis of Royal Instructions, and placed under the authority of the Prime Minister. Its task is to serve as a think-tank on nuclear safety issues and to make proposals on ways and means of reinforcing radiation safety measures. It goes without saying that the peaceful uses of nuclear energy must meet the safety standards elaborated by the IAEA. However, we are convinced that the elaboration of safety standards

  1. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    and become more technical. Involving experts from all fields is then crucial for success. This perception is reflected in the goals of this meeting. It is designed as an extensive information exchange forum between decision makers, regulators, radiation and waste safety specialists, and the nuclear industry. It is this mix which promises high efficiency with respect to solving the problems that you are addressing. I am sure that the safe termination of practices involving radioactive materials during the decommissioning of nuclear installations is one of the major challenges that industrialized nations will have to face during the next decades

  2. Welcome Address

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiku, H.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, It is an honor for me to present my welcome address in the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3), as the president of Kanto Gakuin University. Particularly to those from abroad more than 17 countries, I am very grateful for your participation after long long trips from your home to Yokohama. On the behalf of the Kanto Gakuin University, we certainly welcome your visit to our university and stay in Yokohama. First I would like to introduce Kanto Gakuin University briefly. Kanto Gakuin University, which is called KGU, traces its roots back to the Yokohama Baptist Seminary founded in 1884 in Yamate, Yokohama. The seminary's founder was Albert Arnold Bennett, alumnus of Brown University, who came to Japan from the United States to establish a theological seminary for cultivating and training Japanese missionaries. Now KGU is a major member of the Kanto Gakuin School Corporation, which is composed of two kindergartens, two primary schools, two junior high schools, two senior high schools as well as KGU. In this university, we have eight faculties with graduate school including Humanities, Economics, Law, Sciences and Engineering, Architecture and Environmental Design, Human and Environmental Studies, Nursing, and Law School. Over eleven thousands students are currently learning in our university. By the way, my major is the geotechnical engineering, and I belong to the faculty of Sciences and Engineering in my university. Prof. T. Yamada, here, is my colleague in the same faculty. I know that the nuclear physics is one of the most active academic fields in the world. In fact, about half of the participants, namely, more than 50 scientists, come from abroad in this conference. Moreover, I know that the nuclear physics is related to not only the other fundamental physics such as the elementary particle physics and astrophysics but also chemistry, medical sciences, medical cares, and radiation metrology

  3. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear terrorism has been recognized as a potential threat to human security and economic prosperity since at least the 1970s. Evidence of Al Qaeda's interest in acquiring nuclear material came to light during the 1990s. However, it is since the attacks of 11 September 2001 that the risk of nuclear terrorist acts has come to be a widespread public and governmental concern, for understandable reasons, and that efforts to combat illicit trafficking, which could lead to nuclear or other radioactive materials falling into the hands of terrorists, have intensified. Six years on, it makes sense to take stock of what has been achieved in the combat to stem illicit trafficking and of where further actions - actions of individual States and cooperative international actions - might usefully be initiated. The IAEA has maintained an Illicit Trafficking Database since 1995. Information reported to this database confirms that concerns about illicit trafficking in nuclear material are justified. Database information points to persistent theft and loss of radioactive sources. States' international obligations relevant to international nuclear trafficking are based on the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (CPPNM), the International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism, the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1540, which deals with weapons of mass destruction, including nuclear weapons and non-State actors, and the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1375, which requires all States to take the necessary steps to prevent the commission of terrorist acts, including early warning to other States. In addition to these legally binding instruments, there is the non-binding Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources, which Member States of the IAEA agreed in 2003. The Code addresses the establishment of an adequate system of regulatory control, from the production of radioactive sources to their final

  4. Bioventing reduces soil cleanup costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An offshoot technology from soil venting, bioventing offers a win-win solution for soils contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nonvolatile contaminants such as diesel and fuel oil. Using low air flowrates through permeable soils, bioventing injects sufficient oxygen to support naturally-occurring bacteria, which biodegraded the VOCs and other contaminants into benign byproducts. Waste gas can be directly discharged to atmosphere without further treatment. This results in no offgas treatment required. Bioventing is a cost-effective alternative to traditional soil-venting techniques. Soil venting uses air to volatilize organic-compound contamination from the vadose zone, the unsaturated soil layer above groundwater. Unfortunately, this simple-and-fast approach creates a waste offgas that requires further treatment before discharge, thus adding significantly to overall project costs. In contrast, bioventing uses low air flowrates, which require lower capital and operating costs. No offgas treatment further reduces equipment and operating costs and often eliminates air permitting. As in all treatment strategies, the process must meet the cleanup objectives. Bioventing is an alternative technique making inroads into refining and petrochemical soil-remediation applications

  5. Increased leukemia risk in Chernobyl cleanup workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new study found a significantly elevated risk for chronic lymphocytic leukemia among workers who were engaged in recovery and clean-up activities following the Chernobyl power plant accident in 1986.

  6. Nuclear radiation cleanup and uranium prospecting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariella, Jr., Raymond P.; Dardenne, Yves M.

    2016-02-02

    Apparatus, systems, and methods for nuclear radiation cleanup and uranium prospecting include the steps of identifying an area; collecting samples; sample preparation; identification, assay, and analysis; and relating the samples to the area.

  7. Assessment, Cleanup and Redevelopment Exchange System (ACRES)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Assessment, Cleanup and Redevelopment Exchange System (ACRES) is an online database for Brownfields Grantees to electronically submit data directly to EPA.

  8. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Being fully aware of the IAEA's central and important roles in the field of nuclear security, Japan has cooperated closely with the IAEA in the field of nuclear security. One of Japan's efforts was holding a seminar on strengthening nuclear security in Asian countries in November 2006, making use of Japan's contribution to the IAEA Nuclear Security Fund. The seminar was organized for the first time in Asia to address nuclear security matters, in which more than 100 experts from 19 countries participated. Japan also hosted a seminar, aimed at promoting the accession to the international counterterrorism conventions and protocols, inviting government officials and experts from Asia Pacific countries. At the seminar, Japan presented its experience and lessons learned with regard to its ratification of relevant international conventions such as the International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism and the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material. Japan has also provided assistance for capacity building in the field of physical protection measures, and is preparing three projects for Asian countries through the IAEA Nuclear Security Fund. In Thailand, Japan has a project aimed at improving physical protection of nuclear research facilities. In Vietnam, Japan plans to host a workshop on radiation detection equipment for border officials and is also preparing for a seminar aimed at capacity building of control on nuclear material in Vietnam. Japan is committed to continue its efforts to make the IAEA Comprehensive Safeguards Agreement together with an Additional Protocol the universally accepted verification standard for the peaceful use undertakings of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. Japan's basic policy on bilateral nuclear cooperation agreements is as follows. Considering the dual nature of nuclear material and technology, Japan is of the view that three Ss, that is, S for 'safeguards' (non-proliferation), S for 'safety

  9. Bioavailability: implications for science/cleanup policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denit, Jeffery; Planicka, J. Gregory

    1998-12-01

    This paper examines the role of bioavailability in risk assessment and cleanup decisions. Bioavailability refers to how chemicals ''behave'' and their ''availability'' to interact with living organisms. Bioavailability has significant implications for exposure risks, cleanup goals, and site costs. Risk to human health and the environment is directly tied to the bioavailability of the chemicals of concern.

  10. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is now universal recognition of the illicit trafficking problem and more uniform agreement on the need to take action to combat nuclear terrorism. In the past, security issues were considered strictly a national responsibility. It is now recognized that illicit trafficking not only concerns the protection of national borders but that there are vital international parameters. The IAEA's activities in the nuclear security field took a quantum leap in 2002 when it established its first Nuclear Security Plan for 2002-2005, including protection against illicit trafficking. We are now implementing the second plan for 2006-2009, which has been approved by our Board of Governors and the General Conference in 2005. The current Nuclear Security Plan for 2006-2009, which ranges over two bi-annual programme and budget periods, is comprehensive and identifies three activity areas, as well as activities supporting nuclear security. The first activity area is entitled 'Needs assessment, analysis and coordination' and is 'horizontal' in that it supports the implementation of the entire plan, and provides nuclear security relevant information, for purposes of information exchange to help prioritize activities and in support of operational activities. The ITDB programme is a cornerstone in the work to combat illicit trafficking. The second activity area, namely, prevention, aims at supporting sustainable capacity building in IAEA Member States to meet the threat of nuclear terrorism and of other criminal activities involving nuclear and other radioactive substances. Core activities include an effective accounting registry and physical protection, the implementation of a nuclear security culture and measures to sustain effective systems in the long term. Should prevention fail, it will be important to have a second line of defence, which is the third activity area in the plan, referred to as detection and response. This is the area which is of particular concern at this

  11. Document image cleanup and binarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Victor; Manmatha, Raghaven

    1998-04-01

    Image binarization is a difficult task for documents with text over textured or shaded backgrounds, poor contrast, and/or considerable noise. Current optical character recognition (OCR) and document analysis technology do not handle such documents well. We have developed a simple yet effective algorithm for document image clean-up and binarization. The algorithm consists of two basic steps. In the first step, the input image is smoothed using a low-pass filter. The smoothing operation enhances the text relative to any background texture. This is because background texture normally has higher frequency than text does. The smoothing operation also removes speckle noise. In the second step, the intensity histogram of the smoothed image is computed and a threshold automatically selected as follows. For black text, the first peak of the histogram corresponds to text. Thresholding the image at the value of the valley between the first and second peaks of the histogram binarizes the image well. In order to reliably identify the valley, the histogram is smoothed by a low-pass filter before the threshold is computed. The algorithm has been applied to some 50 images from a wide variety of source: digitized video frames, photos, newspapers, advertisements in magazines or sales flyers, personal checks, etc. There are 21820 characters and 4406 words in these images. 91 percent of the characters and 86 percent of the words are successfully cleaned up and binarized. A commercial OCR was applied to the binarized text when it consisted of fonts which were OCR recognizable. The recognition rate was 84 percent for the characters and 77 percent for the words.

  12. Bakhtin’s Theory of Speech Genres and the Addressivity in Cultural Pragmatics of Genres in Literature: “Genus” vs. “Genre”

    OpenAIRE

    Grübel, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    This paper suggests a new approach to literary genres and modes via the addressivity of texts and performances, which takes it starting point from Bakhtin’s concept of speech genres. First it deals with Bakhtin’s publications on literary genres, which are interpreted differently by literary theoreticians and critics, and the problematic status of his texts on speech genres, which were not prepared for publication by the author. It then takes Jan-Luc Nancy’s concept of addressing – with its co...

  13. The future of the past: Cultural revitalization as a means of addressing the unjust dialogue with indigenous peoples in Canada (and elsewhere)

    OpenAIRE

    Samson, C.; Expert Seminar on Indigenous Cultures and Languages in collaboration with the UN

    2012-01-01

    This presentation was given as part of the Expert Seminar on Indigenous Cultures and Languages in collaboration with the UN by Professor Colin Samson from the University of Essex. The seminar, hosted at Brunel University, took place on the 8th and 9th March 2012 and was organised by Brunel Law School's Human Rights Research Centre. The initiative, fronted by Dr Alexandra Xanthaki of Brunel Law School, represents a positive example of how academia, the civil society and the international commu...

  14. Technical approach to finalizing sensible soil cleanup levels at the Fernald Environmental Management Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The remedial strategy for addressing contaminated environmental media was recently finalized for the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) following almost 10 years of detailed technical analysis. The FEMP represents one of the first major nuclear facilities to successfully complete the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) phase of the environmental restoration process. A critical element of this success was the establishment of sensible cleanup levels for contaminated soil and groundwater both on and off the FEMP property. These cleanup levels were derived based upon a strict application of Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) regulations and guidance, coupled with positive input from the regulatory agencies and the local community regarding projected future land uses for the site. The approach for establishing the cleanup levels was based upon a Feasibility Study (FS) strategy that examined a bounding range of viable future land uses for the site. Within each land use, the cost and technical implications of a range of health-protective cleanup levels for the environmental media were analyzed. Technical considerations in driving these cleanup levels included: direct exposure routes to viable human receptors; cross- media impacts to air, surface water, and groundwater; technical practicality of attaining the levels; volume of affected media; impact to sensitive environmental receptors or ecosystems; and cost. This paper will discuss the technical approach used to support the finalization of the cleanup levels for the site. The final cleanup levels provide the last remaining significant piece to the puzzle of establishing a final site-wide remedial strategy for the FEMP, and positions the facility for the expedient completion of site-wide remedial activities

  15. Restoration principles and criteria: superfund program policy for cleanup at radiation contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Superfund Remediation and Technology Innovation (OSRTI) is responsible for implementing the long-term (non-emergency) portion of a key U.S. law regulating cleanup: the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, CERCLA, nicknamed 'Superfund'. The purpose of the Superfund program is to protect human health and the environment over the long term from releases or potential releases of hazardous substances from abandoned or uncontrolled hazardous waste sites. The focus of this paper is on Superfund, including how radiation is addressed by the Superfund program. This paper provides a brief overview of the approach used by EPA to conduct Superfund cleanups at contaminated sites, including those that are contaminated with radionuclides, to ensure protection of human health and the environment. The paper addresses how EPA Superfund determines if a site poses a risk to human health and the framework used to determine cleanup levels. The theme emphasized throughout the paper is that within the Superfund remediation framework, radioactive contamination is dealt with in a consistent manner as with chemical contamination, except to account for the technical differences between radionuclides and chemicals. This consistency is important since at every radioactively contaminated site being addressed under Superfund's primary program for long-term cleanup, the National Priorities List (NPL), chemical contamination is also present. (author)

  16. Retroactive insurance may fund TMI-2 cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Pennsylvania task force recommended that nuclear utilities insure their plants with a mandatory national property insurance program. The proposed Nuclear Powerplant Property Damage Insurance Act of 1981 will cover the cleanup costs of onsite damage in excess of $350 million for a single accident ($50 million when private insurance is added on) and a ceiling of two billion dollars. Participation in the insurance pool would be in conjunction with licensing and would permit no grandfathering. Total payout for Three Mile Island-2 would cover 75% of the cleanup costs, the remainder to be apportioned among other parties. The insurance pool will have a $750 million goal supported by utility premiums

  17. Particulate hot gas stream cleanup technical issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    This is the eleventh in a series of quarterly reports describing the activities performed under Contract No. DE-AC21-94MC31160. Analyses of Hot Gas Stream Cleanup (HGCU) ashes and descriptions of filter performance address aspects of filter operation that are apparently linked to the characteristics of the collected ash or the performance of the ceramic bed filter elements. Task 1 is designed to generate a data base of the key characteristics of ashes collected from operating advanced particle filters (APFS) and to relate these ash properties to the operation and performance of these filters. Task 2 concerns testing and failure analysis of ceramic filter elements. Under Task 1 during the past quarter, analyses were completed on samples obtained during a site visit to the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF). Analyses are in progress on ash samples from the Advanced Particulate Filter (APF) at the Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustor (PFBC) that was in operation at Tidd and ash samples from the Pressurized Circulating Fluid Bed (PCFB) system located at Karhula, Finland. An additional analysis was performed on a particulate sample from the Transport Reactor Demonstration Unit (TRDU) located at the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center. A manuscript and poster were prepared for presentation at the Advanced Coal-Based Power and Environmental Systems `97 Conference scheduled for July 22 - 24, 1997. A summary of recent project work covering the mechanisms responsible for ash deposit consolidation and ash bridging in APF`s collecting PFB ash was prepared and presented at FETC-MGN in early July. The material presented at that meeting is included in the manuscript prepared for the Contractor`s Conference and also in this report. Task 2 work during the past quarter included mechanical testing and microstructural examination of Schumacher FT20 and Pall 326 as- manufactured, after 540 hr in service at Karhula, and after 1166 hr in service at

  18. Use of decision analysis techniques to determine Hanford cleanup priorities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In January 1991, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Richland Field Office, Westinghouse Hanford Company, and the Pacific Northwest Laboratory initiated the Hanford Integrated Planning Process (HIPP) to ensure that technically sound and publicly acceptable decisions are made that support the environmental cleanup mission at Hanford. One of the HIPP's key roles is to develop an understanding of the science and technology (S and T) requirements to support the cleanup mission. This includes conducting an annual systematic assessment of the S and T needs at Hanford to support a comprehensive technology development program and a complementary scientific research program. Basic to success is a planning and assessment methodology that is defensible from a technical perspective and acceptable to the various Hanford stakeholders. Decision analysis techniques were used to help identify and prioritize problems and S and T needs at Hanford. The approach used structured elicitations to bring many Hanford stakeholders into the process. Decision analysis, which is based on the axioms and methods of utility and probability theory, is especially useful in problems characterized by uncertainties and multiple objectives. Decision analysis addresses uncertainties by laying out a logical sequence of decisions, events, and consequences and by quantifying event and consequence probabilities on the basis of expert judgments

  19. Final report: Fuel spill cleanup at the Del Air Unit

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the cleanup of a fuel spill on the Delair Unit of Great River NWR in 1994. Soil test results are provided, the cleanup process is summarized,...

  20. US nuclear cleanup shows signs of progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy's program for dealing with the radioactive and hazardous wastes at its former nuclear weapons production sites and at the national laboratories has been criticized for its expense and slow pace of cleanup. The largest environmental restoration and waste management program in the world faces formidable technical and scientific problems and these, according to numerous investigative committees and commissions, have been compounded by poor management, misuse of technology, and failure to appreciate the need for new basic scientific knowledge to solve many of the cleanup problems. In the past three years, DOE's Office of Environmental Management (EM), often spurred by congressional action, has begun to trim costs and accomplish more. New measures have been introduced to improve contract efficiency, better utilize existing remediation technologies, renegotiate compliance agreements, and begin basic research. Environmental Management Assistant Undersecretary Alvin Alm, appointed in May 1996, is seeking to solidify these changes into an ambitious plan to clean up most of DOE's 130 sites by 2006. But there are widespread doubts that EM has the money, skill, and will to turn itself around. There are also concerns that, in the name of efficiency and economy, EM may be negotiating lower cleanup standards and postponing some difficult cleanup tasks. This article discusses these issues. 7 refs

  1. CONOCO DOLOMITE HOT GAS CLEANUP SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report analyzes a proposal that EPA sponsor a large-scale pilot plant to develop the Conoco (formerly Consol) Dolomite Hot Gas Clean-up system. The report includes a history of the prior development program, the technology involved comparisons with competitive technologies i...

  2. Experience in mining plutonium for soil cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plutonium contamination from nuclear tests in 1962 is present at Johnston Atoll in soil throughout a 10-ha site. Since the middle 1980s, the Defense Nuclear Agency has been developing a mining operation to cleanup the contaminated soil. A plant now routinely mines plutonium from soil to make most of the soil clean and suitable for beneficial use. Before this initiative, the mining paradigm was to concentrate a valuable substance and leave waste tailings. Mining for cleanup represents a paradigm shift as it concentrates the radioactive substance for waste disposal and leaves the valuable substance, clean soil. The cleanup plant combines conventional mining and milling technology, radiation detection equipment, and microprocessor computer controls. A variety of technologies have been evaluated since the plant was first started in 1990. Success has come from soil sorters and classifiers. To May 1993, there were 37 weeks with some soil cleanup. The plant processed 17,000 tons of soil and made 98% clean. Production at 1,000 tons/week is routine. The plant concentrate will be further processed to reduce waste below 2%

  3. Evaluation of contaminated groundwater cleanup objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Environmental Restoration Program will be responsible for remediating the approximately 230 contaminated groundwater sites across the DOE Complex. A major concern for remediation is choosing the appropriate cleanup objective. The cleanup objective chosen will influence the risk to the nearby public during and after remediation; risk to remedial and non-involved workers during remediation; and the cost of remediation. This paper discusses the trends shown in analyses currently being performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratories' (ORNL's) Center for Risk Management (CRM). To evaluate these trends, CRM is developing a database of contaminated sites. This paper examines several contaminated groundwater sites selected for assessment from CRM's data base. The sites in this sample represent potential types of contaminated groundwater sites commonly found at an installation within DOE. The baseline risk from these sites to various receptors is presented. Residual risk and risk during remediation is reported for different cleanup objectives. The cost associated with remediating to each of these objectives is also estimated for each of the representative sites. Finally, the general trends of impacts as a function of cleanup objective will be summarized. The sites examined include the Savannah River site, where there was substantial ground pollution from radionuclides, oil, coal stockpiles, and other forms of groundwater contamination. The effects of various types of groundwater contamination on various types of future user is described. 4 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Radioactive Waste and Clean-up Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objectives of the Radioactive Waste and Clean-up division of SCK-CEN are outlined. The division's programme consists of research, development and demonstration projects and aims to contribute to the objectives of Agenda 21 on sustainable development in the field of radioactive waste and rehabilitation of radioactively contaminated sites

  5. Cleanups In My Community (CIMC) - Recovery Act Funded Cleanups, National Layer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer provides access to Recovery Act Funded Cleanup sites as part of the CIMC web service. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act was signed into law...

  6. The Fort McMurray Historic Uranium Cleanup Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geddes, R.B. [AMEC Earth and Environmental, Environmental Div., Oakville, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: brian.geddes@amec.com; Case, G.G. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Port Hope, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: caseg@aecl.ca; Doney, R. [Marshall Macklin Moaghan Limited, Environmental Management, Thornhill, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: Doneyr@mmm.ca

    2006-07-01

    The Fort McMurray Historic Uranium Cleanup Project involved the removal of 42,000 m{sup 3} of soils contaminated with uranium ores and ore concentrates from various properties in the City of Fort McMurray, Alberta. These soils were placed into long-term management in a dedicated, locally developed and secure facility. The soil contamination addressed by the program was the result of incidental spillage and tracking of ores during the unloading of barges and the loading of rail cars as materials were transported via Fort McMurray from uranium mines in the Northwest Territories to a refinery in Port Hope, Ontario. The project was executed over a 10- year time period, involved the participation of the local community at critical junctures, and restored 28 ha of land to productive use. (author)

  7. cultural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Kreutz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Es un estudio cualitativo que adoptó como referencial teorico-motodológico la antropología y la etnografía. Presenta las experiencias vivenciadas por mujeres de una comunidad en el proceso salud-enfermedad, con el objetivo de comprender los determinantes sócio-culturales e históricos de las prácticas de prevención y tratamiento adoptados por el grupo cultural por medio de la entrevista semi-estructurada. Los temas que emergieron fueron: la relación entre la alimentación y lo proceso salud-enfermedad, las relaciones con el sistema de salud oficial y el proceso salud-enfermedad y lo sobrenatural. Los dados revelaron que los moradores de la comunidad investigada tienen un modo particular de explicar sus procedimientos terapéuticos. Consideramos que es papel de los profesionales de la salud en sus prácticas, la adopción de abordajes o enfoques que consideren al individuo en su dimensión sócio-cultural e histórica, considerando la enorme diversidad cultural en nuestro país.

  8. Address Points - Volusia County Addresses (Point)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Situs Addresses for Volusia County. Maintained by Growth and Resource Management. Addresses are determined by the cities for their jurisdiction and by the County...

  9. GPU seeks new funding for TMI cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    General Public Utilities (GPU) wants approval for annual transfer of money from base rate increases in other accounts to pay for the cleanup at Three Mile Island (TMI) until TMI-1 returns to service or the public utility commission takes further action. This proposal confirms fears of a delay in TMI-1 startup and demonstrates that the January negotiated settlement will produce little funding for TMI-2 cleanup. A review of the settlement terms outlines the three-step process for base rate increases and revenue adjustments after the startup of TMI-1, and points out where controversy and delays due to psychological stress make a new source of money essential. GPU thinks customer funding will motivate other parties to a broad-based cost-sharing agreement

  10. Cleanup around an old waste site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    42,500 m3 of contaminated soil were removed from off-site areas around an old, low-level radioactive waste site near Port Hope, Ontario. The cleanup was done by means of conventional excavation equipment to criteria developed by Eldorado specific to the land use around the company's waste management facility. These cleanup criteria were based on exposure analyses carried out for critical receptors in two different scenarios. The excavated soils, involving eight different landowners, were placed on the original burial area of the waste management facility. Measures were also undertaken to stabilize the soils brought on-site and to ensure that there would be no subsequent recontamination of the off-site areas

  11. Accelerating cleanup. Paths to closure Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document was previously referred to as the Draft 2006 Plan. As part of the DOE's national strategy, the Richland Operations Office's Paths to Closure summarizes an integrated path forward for environmental cleanup at the Hanford Site. The Hanford Site underwent a concerted effort between 1994 and 1996 to accelerate the cleanup of the Site. These efforts are reflected in the current Site Baseline. This document describes the current Site Baseline and suggests strategies for further improvements in scope, schedule and cost. The Environmental Management program decided to change the name of the draft strategy and the document describing it in response to a series of stakeholder concerns, including the practicality of achieving widespread cleanup by 2006. Also, EM was concerned that calling the document a plan could be misconstrued to be a proposal by DOE or a decision-making document. The change in name, however, does not diminish the 2006 vision. To that end, Paths to Closure retains a focus on 2006, which serves as a point in time around which objectives and goals are established

  12. Repellent Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Jeffrey

    2001-01-01

    Considers defining "culture," noting how it is difficult to define because those individuals defining it cannot separate themselves from it. Relates these issues to student writing and their writing improvement. Addresses violence in relation to culture. (SG)

  13. Soil and groundwater cleanup: benefits and limits of emerging technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caliman, Florentina Anca; Robu, Brindusa Mihaela; Smaranda, Camelia; Pavel, Vasile Lucian; Gavrilescu, Maria [Technical University of Iasi, Department of Environmental Engineering and Management, Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Protection, Iasi (Romania)

    2011-04-15

    Contaminated soil and groundwater have been the subject of study and research, so that the field of remediation has grown and evolved, continually developing and adopting new technologies in attempts to improve the decontamination. The cleanup of environmental pollution involves a variety of techniques, ranging from simple biological processes to advanced engineering technologies. Cleanup activities may also address a wide range of contaminants. This article is a short analysis of the technologies for cleaning up groundwater and soil, highlighting knowledge and information gaps. Challenges and strategies for cleaning up different types of contaminants, mainly heavy metals and persistent organic compounds are described. Included are technologies that treat ground water contaminants in place in the subsurface and soil technologies that treat the soil either in place or on site in a treatment unit. Emerging technologies such as those based on oxidation-reduction, bioremediation, and nanotechnologies are covered. It is evident that for a good efficiency of remediation, techniques or even whole new technologies may be incorporated into an existing technology as a treatment train, improving its performance or overcome limitations. Several economic and decision-making elements are developed in the final part, based on the analysis carried out throughout the article. The work highlights the fact that excellence in research and technology progress could be attained by the development of technologies to deal more effectively and economically with certain toxic contaminants such as heavy metals, volatile organic compounds, and persistent organic pollutants, associated with optimization of technologies under field remediation conditions and requirements, improving capacity and yields, and reducing costs. Moreover, increasing knowledge of the scope and problem of equipment development could improve the benefits. (orig.)

  14. EFFECTIVE ENVIRONMENTAL COMPLIANCE STRATEGY FOR THE CLEANUP OF K BASINS AT HANFORD SITE WASHINGTON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K Basins, consisting of two water-filled storage basins (KW and KE) for spent nuclear fuel (SNF), are part of the 100-K Area of the Hanford Site, along the shoreline of the Columbia River, situated approximately 40 km (25 miles) northwest of the City of Richland, Washington. The KW contained 964 metric tons of SNF in sealed canisters and the KE contained 1152 metric tons of SNF under water in open canisters. The cladding on much of the fuel was damaged allowing the fuel to corrode and degrade during storage underwater. An estimated 1,700 cubic feet of sludge, containing radionuclides and sediments, have accumulated in the KE basin. Various alternatives for removing and processing the SNF, sludge, debris and water were originally evaluated, by USDOE (DOE), in the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) with a preferred alternative identified in the Record of Decision. The SNF, sludge, debris and water are ''hazardous substances'' under the Comprehensive, Environmental, Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Leakage of radiologically contaminated water from one of the basins and subsequent detection of increased contamination in a down-gradient monitoring well helped to form the regulatory bases for cleanup action under CERCLA. The realization that actual or threatened release of hazardous substances from the waste sites and K Basins, if not addressed in a timely manner, may present an imminent and substantial endangerment to public health, welfare and environment led to action under CERCLA, with EPA as the lead regulatory agency. Clean-up of the K Basins as a CERCLA site required SNF retrieval, processing, packaging, vacuum drying and transport to a vaulted storage facility for storage, in conformance with a quality assurance program approved by the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). Excluding the facilities built for SNF drying and vaulted storage, the scope of CERCLA interim remedial action was limited to the removal of fuel

  15. Allegheny County Address Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains address points which represent physical address locations assigned by the Allegheny County addressing authority. Data is updated by County...

  16. The ecological impact of land restoration and cleanup. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report is concerned with the ecological impacts of specific cleanup treatment on the land where they were carried out. The cleanup procedures given apply equally to chemical or radioactive materials. Guidance is provided for cleanup procedures likely to be suggested by government, industry, or environmental groups. The basic types of cleanup procedures for removing or deactiving spilled contamination involve moving people and animals from the affected area, scraping and grading the contaminated soil into windrows, plowing the contamination under, or digging up the contamination and hauling it away. The report describes and evaluates the various land-type cleanup effects in terms of impact of the techniques on the environment. Part I defines several natural ecosystems and some of their natural derivations. Part II presents managed ecosystems which are imposed on natural ecosystems and are no longer bound by the initial native ecosystem balances. Part III deals with avion and mammilian wild life displaced by cleanup

  17. Preplanning of early cleanup. Annual report 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pre-study 'Pre-planning of early cleanup after fallout of radioactive material' made by Studvik EcoSafe has pointed out the need and request for pre-planning of actions. Based on the pre-study this project was started with the goal to work out guidelines and checklists. Because of the common interest between the Nordic countries NKS is the organization responsible for the project. The results of the project will be a document pointing out what can be planned in advance, including guidelines and checklists, regarding early cleanup actions after a nuclear plant accident in or in the vicinity of the Nordic countries. In this work 'early' means the three first weeks after an accident. The project only deals with questions concerning external radiation. The document shall be usable by persons in charge of planning or decision makers on the appropriate level of organization for each country. The document shall principally be aimed towards persons without professional competence in the field of radiology. The result will be presented for a limited number of generalized environments and fallout situations: urban/suburban/rural (concentrating on urban/suburban); regional differences (in for example house types and constructing material); dry or wet deposition. Five housing environments, ten cleanup actions and wet or dry deposition are treated. For 66 combinations calculations are made and the results are documented as data sheets, each describing the beneficial effects, costs and disadvantages of application of a feasible method for cleaning in the early phase of a specific type of surface in one of five different urban or suburban environments. This data forms the foundation for the recommendations on guidelines, which are the ultimate goal of the EKO-5 project. (EG)

  18. Oil spill cleanup method and apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayes, F.M.

    1980-06-24

    A method for removing oil from the surface of water where an oil spill has occurred, particularly in obstructed or shallow areas, which comprises partially surrounding a hovercraft with a floating oil-collecting barrier, there being no barrier at the front of the hovercraft, moving the oil-barrier-surrounded-hovercraft into oil contaminated water, and collecting oil gathered within the barrier behind the hovercraft through a suction line which carries the oil to a storage tank aboard the hovercraft. The invention also embodies the hovercraft adapted to effect an oil spill cleanup.

  19. Landfill gas cleanup for fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    EPRI is to test the feasibility of using a carbonate fuel cell to generate electricity from landfill gas. Landfills produce a substantial quantity of methane gas, a natural by-product of decaying organic wastes. Landfill gas, however, contains sulfur and halogen compounds, which are known contaminants to fuel cells and their fuel processing equipment. The objective of this project is to clean the landfill gas well enough to be used by the fuel cell without making the process prohibitively expensive. The cleanup system tested in this effort could also be adapted for use with other fuel cells (e.g., solid oxide, phosphoric acid) running on landfill gas.

  20. Data clean-up and management a practical guide for librarians

    CERN Document Server

    Hogarth, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Data use in the library has specific characteristics and common problems. Data Clean-up and Management addresses these, and provides methods to clean up frequently-occurring data problems using readily-available applications. The authors highlight the importance and methods of data analysis and presentation, and offer guidelines and recommendations for a data quality policy. The book gives step-by-step how-to directions for common dirty data issues.focused towards libraries and practicing librariansdeals with practical, real-life issues and addresses common problems that all libraries faceoffe

  1. Making Connections through Cultural Memory, Cultural Performance, and Cultural Translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Rita L.; Rogers, Tony; Wan, Yuh-Yao

    1999-01-01

    Addresses the need for making connections between cultures, especially among Aboriginal and dominant cultures. Focuses on these themes: cultural memory, cultural performance, and cultural translation. Highlights three Aboriginal cultures on three continents (South Australia, Canada, and Taiwan) to encourage art educators and students to engage in…

  2. Restoration principles and criteria: Superfund programme policy for cleanup at radiation contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response is responsible for implementing two key US laws regulating waste management and cleanup: the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, CERCLA, nicknamed ''Superfund''. The purpose of the Superfund programme is to protect human health and the environment over the long term from releases or potential releases of hazardous substances from abandoned or uncontrolled hazardous waste sites. The focus of this paper is on Superfund, including how radiation is addressed by the Superfund programme. This paper provides a brief overview of the approach used by EPA to conduct Superfund cleanups at contaminated sites, including those that are contaminated with radionuclides, to ensure protection of human health and the environment. The paper addresses how EPA Superfund determines if a site poses a risk to human health and the framework used to determine cleanup levels. The theme emphasized throughout the paper is that within the Superfund remediation framework, radioactive contamination is dealt with in the identical way as chemical contamination. (author)

  3. Risk assessment applications for determining cleanup limits for uranium in treated and untreated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium-contaminated soils are present at various locations across the US where uranium was processed for nuclear fuels or atomic weapons. Important issues relative to such contamination include the assessment of potential health risks associated with human exposures to the residual uranium and the determination of safe levels of uranium in soils that have been treated by a given technology. This paper discusses various risk assessment considerations that must be dealt with when developing cleanup limits for uranium in treated and untreated soils. Key issues addressed include alternative land use scenarios, potential exposure pathways, characterization of the bioavailability of uranium compounds in food and water, a brief overview of health risks associated with uranium and its daughter products as well as a summary of considerations for development of risk-based cleanup limits for uranium in soils

  4. Hanford Site Cleanup Challenges and Opportunities for Science and Technology--A Strategic Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Thomas W.; Johnson, Wayne L.; Kreid, Dennis K.; Walton, Terry L.

    2001-02-01

    The sheer expanse of the Hanford Site, the inherent hazards associated with the significant inventory of nuclear materials and wastes, the large number of aging contaminated facilities, the diverse nature and extent of environmental contamination, and the proximity to the Columbia River make Hanford perhaps the world's largest and most complex environmental cleanup project. It is not possible to address the more complex elements of this enormous challenge in a cost-effective manner without strategic investments in science and technology. Success requires vigorous and sustained efforts to enhance the science and technology basis, develop and deploy innovative solutions, and provide firm scientific bases to support site cleanup and closure decisions at Hanford.

  5. Air pathway analysis for cleanup at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Weldon Spring site is a mixed waste site located in St. Charles County, Missouri. Cleanup of the site is in the planning and design stage, and various engineering activities were considered for remedial action, including excavating soils, dredging sludge, treating various contaminated media in temporary facilities, transporting and staging supplies and contaminated material, and placing waste in an engineered disposal cell. Both contaminated and uncontaminated emissions from these activities were evaluated to assess air quality impacts and potential health effects for workers and the general public during the cleanup period. A site-specific air quality modeling approach was developed to address several complex issues, such as a variety of emission sources, an array of source/receptor configurations, and complicated sequencing/scheduling. This approach can be readily adapted to reflect changes in the expected activities as engineering plans are finalized

  6. Risk assessment applications for determining cleanup limits for uranium in treated and untreated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, A.Q. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Layton, D.W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Rutz, E.E. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1994-06-01

    Uranium-contaminated soils are present at various locations across the US where uranium was processed for nuclear fuels or atomic weapons. Important issues relative to such contamination include the assessment of potential health risks associated with human exposures to the residual uranium and the determination of safe levels of uranium in soils that have been treated by a given technology. This paper discusses various risk assessment considerations that must be dealt with when developing cleanup limits for uranium in treated and untreated soils. Key issues addressed include alternative land use scenarios, potential exposure pathways, characterization of the bioavailability of uranium compounds in food and water, a brief overview of health risks associated with uranium and its daughter products as well as a summary of considerations for development of risk-based cleanup limits for uranium in soils.

  7. Air pathway analysis for cleanup at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Y.S.

    1994-01-01

    The Weldon Spring site is a mixed waste site located in St. Charles County, Missouri. Cleanup of the site is in the planning and design stage, and various engineering activities were considered for remedial action, including excavating soils, dredging sludge, treating various contaminated media in temporary facilities, transporting and staging supplies and contaminated material, and placing waste in an engineered disposal cell. Both contaminated and uncontaminated emissions from these activities were evaluated to assess air quality impacts and potential health effects for workers and the general public during the cleanup period. A site-specific air quality modeling approach was developed to address several complex issues, such as a variety of emission sources, an array of source/receptor configurations, and complicated sequencing/scheduling. This approach can be readily adapted to reflect changes in the expected activities as engineering plans are finalized.

  8. Bioavailability: implications for science/cleanup policy; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the role of bioavailability in risk assessment and cleanup decisions. Bioavailability refers to how chemicals ''behave'' and their ''availability'' to interact with living organisms. Bioavailability has significant implications for exposure risks, cleanup goals, and site costs. Risk to human health and the environment is directly tied to the bioavailability of the chemicals of concern

  9. Architecture synthesis basis for the Hanford Cleanup system: First issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes a set of candidate alternatives proposed to accomplish the Hanford Cleanup system functions defined in a previous work. Development of alternatives is part of a sequence of system engineering activities which lead to definition of all the products which, when completed, accomplish the cleanup mission. The alternative set is developed to functional level four or higher depending on need

  10. Radioactive Waste and Clean-up: Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary mission of the Radioactive Waste and Clean-up division is to propose, to develop and to evaluate solutions for a safe, acceptable and sustainable management of radioactive waste. The Radioactive Waste and Clean-up division programme consists in research, studies, development and demonstration aiming to realise the objective of Agenda 21 on sustainable development in the field of radioactive waste and rehabilitation on radioactively contaminated sites. Indeed, it participates in the realisation of an objective which is to ensure that radioactive wastes are safely managed, transported, stored and disposed of, with a view to protecting human health and the environment, within a wider framework of an interactive and integrated approach to radioactive waste management and safety. We believe that nuclear energy will be necessary for the sustainable development of mankind in the 21st century, but we well understand that it would not be maintained if it is not proven that within benefits of nuclear energy a better protection of the environment is included. Although the current waste management practices are both technically and from the environmental point of view adequate, efforts in relation of future power production and waste management technologies should be put on waste minimisation. Therefore, the new and innovative reactors, fuel cycle and waste management processes and installations should be designed so that the waste generation can be kept in minimum. In addition to the design, the installations should be operated so as to create less waste; consideration should be given e.g. to keeping water chemistry clean and other quality factors. SCK-CEN in general and the Radioactive Waste and Clean-up division in particular are present in international groups preparing the development of innovative nuclear reactors, as Generation 4 and INPRO. Because performance assessments are often black boxes for the public, demonstration is needed for the acceptation of

  11. Reach Address Database (RAD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Reach Address Database (RAD) stores the reach address of each Water Program feature that has been linked to the underlying surface water features (streams,...

  12. Saudis map $450 million gulf spill cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on Saudi Arabia which has earmarked about $450 million to clean up Persian Gulf beaches polluted by history's worst oil spills, created during the Persian Gulf crisis. Details of the proposed cleanup measures were outlined by Saudi environmental officials at a seminar on the environment in Dubai, OPEC News Agency reported. The seminar was sponsored by the Gulf Area Oil Companies Mutual Aid Organization, an environmental cooperative agency set up by Persian Gulf governments. Meantime, a Saudi government report has outlined early efforts designed to contain the massive oil spills that hit the Saudi coast before oil could contaminate water intakes at the huge desalination plants serving Riyadh and cooling water facilities at Al Jubail

  13. Improving oiled shoreline cleanup with COREXIT 9580

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiocco, R.J.; Lessard, R.R. [Exxon Research and Engineering Co., Florham Park, NJ (United States); Canevari, G.P. [G.P. Canevari Associates, Cranford, NJ (United States)

    1996-08-01

    The cleanup of oiled shorelines has generally been by mechanical, labor-intensive means. The use of a chemical shoreline cleaner to assist in water-flushing oil from the surfaces can result in more complete and more rapid cleaning. Not only is the cleaning process more efficient, but it can also be less environmentally damaging since there is potentially much less human intrusion and stress on the biological community. This paper describes research and applications of COREXIT 9580 shoreline cleaner for treatment of oiled shorelines, including four recent applications in Puerto Rico, Bermuda, Texas and Nova Scotia. Research work on shoreline vegetation, such as mangroves, has also demonstrated the potential use of this product to save and restore oiled vegetation.

  14. Helping with the clean-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Successes in public involvement efforts for nuclear waste management are so few that they deserve careful documentation and analysis. This paper chronicles the goals, process, problems and outcomes of one such success, the Northwest Defense Waste Citizens Forum (CF), created by the DOE-Richland manager in 1986 to advise DOE on its plans for nuclear waste disposal and cleanup of the Hanford site n eastern Washington state. In the evolving, often-controversial, highly-visible area of agency-public interactions, citizen task forces (TFs) have been shown to be useful in developing public policy at the local level. Making them work at the state level is more problematic. This case shows that a diverse, two-state citizen group can make significant contributions to complex EIS evaluations with heavy technical components. The CFs principal contribution to public policy was communication of its findings to business and professional groups, to area political representatives and state agencies, thereby laying the ground work for refocusing the Northwest upon the need for action on DW cleanup at Hanford. In going well beyond NEPA requirements for public involvement in agency decision making, DOE-Richland demonstrated innovative ways of dealing with the difficult issues of public confidence and public trust by means of agency openness, responsiveness to citizen needs for information, and good faith two-way communication. The success of this pro-active DOE initiative was due to many factors including selecting the right issue (existing wastes), structuring the CF at a broad, regional level, and intensive implementation of trust-building strategies

  15. Science to support DOE site cleanup: The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Environmental Management Science Program awards. Fiscal year 1998 mid-year progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was awarded ten (10) Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) research grants in Fiscal Year 1996 and six (6) in Fiscal Year 1997. This section summarizes how each grant addresses significant US Department of Energy (DOE) cleanup issues, including those at the Hanford Site. The technical progress made to date in each of these research projects is addressed in more detail in the individual progress reports contained in this document. This research is focused primarily in four areas: Tank Waste Remediation, Spent Nuclear Fuel and Nuclear Materials, Soil and Groundwater Cleanup, and Health Effects.

  16. Science to support DOE site cleanup: The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Environmental Management Science Program awards. Fiscal year 1997, mid-year progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was awarded ten Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) research grants in Fiscal Year 1996. This report gives a summary of how each grant is addressing significant DOE cleanup issues, including those at the Hanford Site. The technical progress made to date in each of these research projects is addressed in more detail in the individual progress reports contained in this document. This research is primarily focused in three areas--Tank Waste Remediation, Soil and Groundwater Cleanup, and Health Effects

  17. Science to support DOE site cleanup: The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Environmental Management Science Program awards. Fiscal year 1998 mid-year progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was awarded ten (10) Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) research grants in Fiscal Year 1996 and six (6) in Fiscal Year 1997. This section summarizes how each grant addresses significant US Department of Energy (DOE) cleanup issues, including those at the Hanford Site. The technical progress made to date in each of these research projects is addressed in more detail in the individual progress reports contained in this document. This research is focused primarily in four areas: Tank Waste Remediation, Spent Nuclear Fuel and Nuclear Materials, Soil and Groundwater Cleanup, and Health Effects

  18. Science to support DOE site cleanup: The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Environmental Management Science Program awards. Fiscal year 1997 mid-year progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was awarded ten Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) research grants in Fiscal Year 1996. This report gives a summary of how each grant is addressing significant DOE cleanup issues, including those at the Hanford Site. The technical progress made to date in each of these research projects is addressed in more detail in the individual progress reports contained in this document. This research is primarily focused in three areas--Tank Waste Remediation, Soil and Groundwater Cleanup, and Health Effects.

  19. Tephra fall clean-up in urban environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Josh L.; Wilson, Thomas M.; Magill, Christina

    2015-10-01

    Tephra falls impact urban communities by disrupting transport systems, contaminating and damaging buildings and infrastructures, and are potentially hazardous to human health. Therefore, prompt and effective tephra clean-up measures are an essential component of an urban community's response to tephra fall. This paper reviews case studies of tephra clean-up operations in urban environments around the world, spanning 50 years. It identifies methods used in tephra clean-up and assesses a range of empirical relationships between level of tephra accumulation and clean-up metrics such as collected tephra volume, costs, and duration of operations. Results indicate the volume of tephra collected from urban areas is proportional to tephra accumulation. Urban areas with small tephra accumulations (1,000 m3/km2 or an average of 1 mm thickness) may collect 50,000 m3/km2 or an average of 50 mm thickness) remove up to 80%. This relationship can inform impact and risk assessments by providing an estimate of the likely response required for a given tephra fall. No strong relationship was found between tephra fall accumulation and clean-up cost or duration for urban environments which received one-off tephra falls, suggesting that these aspects of tephra fall clean-up operations are context specific. Importantly, this study highlights the advantage of effective planning for tephra clean-up and disposal in potentially exposed areas.

  20. Eye pathologies of Chernobyl clean-up workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diseases of the nervous system and sense organs have become the most significant pathologies of Chernobyl clean-up workers during the last four years. The aim of this work was to evaluate the incidence of eye disorders among Chernobyl clean-up workers to provide more information for health specialists. During the last 10 years, the most common eye pathology has been angiopathia retinae, followed by myopia and cataracta. Statistical analyses showed that the clean-up workers have higher risk to develop angiopathia retinae than the control group. (author)

  1. Tritium research laboratory cleanup and transition project final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Tritium Research Laboratory Cleanup and Transition Project Final Report provides a high-level summary of this project's multidimensional accomplishments. Throughout this report references are provided for in-depth information concerning the various topical areas. Project related records also offer solutions to many of the technical and or administrative challenges that such a cleanup effort requires. These documents and the experience obtained during this effort are valuable resources to the DOE, which has more than 1200 other process contaminated facilities awaiting cleanup and reapplication or demolition

  2. Tritium research laboratory cleanup and transition project final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, A.J.

    1997-02-01

    This Tritium Research Laboratory Cleanup and Transition Project Final Report provides a high-level summary of this project`s multidimensional accomplishments. Throughout this report references are provided for in-depth information concerning the various topical areas. Project related records also offer solutions to many of the technical and or administrative challenges that such a cleanup effort requires. These documents and the experience obtained during this effort are valuable resources to the DOE, which has more than 1200 other process contaminated facilities awaiting cleanup and reapplication or demolition.

  3. Coordinating NRC License Closure/Termination and Army Corps of Engineers FUSRAP Cleanups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overlapping regulatory cleanup programs present a significant challenge for business entities seeking to close and redevelop properties in an environmentally-appropriate but cost-effective manner. In the nuclear decontamination context, this challenge has been recognized in Memoranda of Understanding ('MOUs') between regulators with overlapping responsibilities seeking to minimize duplicative efforts/costs while fulfilling their respective regulatory obligations. For instance, an MOU between the Army Corps of Engineers (the 'Corps') and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission ('NRC') for coordinating Corps' cleanups under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program ('FUSRAP') and NRC D and D to close and terminate an NRC license was reached in July 2001. Similarly, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ('EPA') and NRC entered into an MOU in October 2002 addressing the interaction between NRC decontamination and decommissioning ('D and D') oversight and EPA's authority under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act ('CERCLA') at NRC-licensed sites. Yet, despite these MOU agreements, the simultaneous application of different regulatory programs, differing perspectives on their respective objectives and limited experience in addressing such circumstances often can lead to issues that demand creative solutions. This paper examines the interplay of these regulatory programs, the MOU of the agencies seeking to address their responsibilities under them and the coordination of the cleanups and license closure/termination process under the programs. It also offers technical and practical suggestions and insight to cost-effectively manage such efforts based on experiences with these programs and the regulators and stakeholders involved (at the federal, state and local levels). (authors)

  4. Central Plateau Cleanup at DOE's Hanford Site - 12504

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The discussion of Hanford's Central Plateau includes significant work in and around the center of the Hanford Site - located about 7 miles from the Columbia River. The Central Plateau is the area to which operations will be shrunk in 2015 when River Corridor cleanup is complete. This work includes retrieval and disposal of buried waste from miles of trenches; the cleanup and closure of massive processing canyons; the clean-out and demolition to 'slab on grade' of the high-hazard Plutonium Finishing Plant; installation of key groundwater treatment facilities to contain and shrink plumes of contaminated groundwater; demolition of all other unneeded facilities; and the completion of decisions about remaining Central Plateau waste sites. A stated goal of EM has been to shrink the footprint of active cleanup to less than 10 square miles by 2020. By the end of FY2011, Hanford will have reduced the active footprint of cleanup by 64 percent exceeding the goal of 49 percent. By 2015, Hanford will reduce the active footprint of cleanup by more than 90 percent. The remaining footprint reduction will occur between 2015 and 2020. The Central Plateau is a 75-square-mile region near the center of the Hanford Site including the area designated in the Hanford Comprehensive Land Use Plan Environmental Impact Statement (DOE 1999) and Record of Decision (64 FR 61615) as the Industrial-Exclusive Area, a rectangular area of about 20 square miles in the center of the Central Plateau. The Industrial-Exclusive Area contains the 200 East and 200 West Areas that have been used primarily for Hanford's nuclear fuel processing and waste management and disposal activities. The Central Plateau also encompasses the 200 Area CERCLA National Priorities List site. The Central Plateau has a large physical inventory of chemical processing and support facilities, tank systems, liquid and solid waste disposal and storage facilities, utility systems, administrative facilities, and groundwater monitoring

  5. Science To Support DOE Site Cleanup: The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Environmental Management Science Program Awards; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was awarded ten Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) research grants in fiscal year 1996, six in fiscal year 1997, nine in fiscal year 1998, seven in fiscal year 1999, and five in fiscal year 2000. All of the fiscal year 1996 award projects have published final reports. The 1997 and 1998 award projects have been completed or are nearing completion. Final reports for these awards will be published, so their annual updates will not be included in this document. This section summarizes how each of the 1999 and 2000 grants address significant U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) cleanup issues, including those at the Hanford Site. The technical progress made to date in each of these research projects is addressed in more detail in the individual progress reports contained in this document. The 1999 and 2000 EMSP awards at PNNL are focused primarily in two areas: Tank Waste Remediation, and Soil and Groundwater Cleanup

  6. Reactor cavity cleanup system shielded filter installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Seabrook Station reactor cavity cleanup system provides a flow path for refueling pool purification and drain down during plant refueling evolutions. The original system design included refueling pool surface skimmers and drains, a skimmer pump, an unshielded duplex basket type pump suction strainer and interconnecting stainless steel piping. The piping design utilized socket welded joints in small bore pipe with diaphragm values installed in the horizontal pipe runs downstream of the skimmer pump. The previously installed unshielded strainer in addition to the skimmer pump downstream piping components were determined to be inconsistent with Seabrook's proactive approach to dose reduction. To be consistent with ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) policy, a plant design change was authorized to install a lead shielded filter unit as a replacement for the existing duplex strainer. This filter unit, which utilizes multiple micron rating disposable basket type cartridges, has a threefold function of protecting the skimmer pump from large solids, providing bulk filtration of activated corrosion products from the refueling water in order to minimize CRUD buildup in downstream components, and enabling retrieval of foreign material drawn into the refueling pool drains

  7. Oil spill cleanup for soft sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of experimental trials are in progress to investigate the effectiveness and consequences of oil spill cleanup methods for areas of mud flats and salt marsh. Trials have shown that wheeled and tracked vehicles have limited utility. Field measurements of the load bearing capacity of the mud can show where such vehicles may be used. Lightweight hover craft provide a useful means of transport. Shallow-draft boats can have a useful transport role: whether such craft can be used depends on the local topography and tidal regime. The trials showed that practical problems associated with implementing low-pressure flushing operations (lack of water for flushing, recovery of the flushed oil) can be overcome - although the environmental effects have yet to be assessed. The use of straw matting as a sorbent material was also demonstrated. The objective of the first two phases of the project, reported here, was to select workable methods with a view to subsequently employing them in larger-scale trials. The environmental consequences of using the selected methods will be examined in the later trials

  8. Dillingham plan attacks oil spill cleanup problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1970-07-27

    A detailed scheme has been proposed for combating oil spills in U.S. offshore waters, hopefully moving oil spill control out of its infancy and at least into the toddler stage. In a comprehensive one-year systems study for the American Petroleum Institute (API), the results of which were released this week, Dillingham Environmental Co., studied major past oil spills and analyzed equipment and control techniques currently available to deal with them. The project director and his 5-man group recommend a multicomponent scheme including booms, absorbents, sinking agents, and chemical dispersants for oil containment and cleanup. The first phase, definition of the nature and scope of the problem, includes analysis of past oil spills to determine the basic characteristics of major oil spills; delineation of geographic regions where oil spills are likely to occur; and analysis of how oil spills affect, and are affected by the environment. The Dillingham report examines the effect of past oil spills on the environment. It concludes that isolated oil spills do not appear to present a major environmental threat resulting in lasting damage.

  9. Cleanup of a jet fuel spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesko, Steve

    1996-11-01

    Eaton operates a corporate aircraft hanger facility in Battle Creek, Michigan. Tests showed that two underground storage tanks leaked. Investigation confirmed this release discharged several hundred gallons of Jet A kerosene into the soil and groundwater. The oil moved downward approximately 30 feet and spread laterally onto the water table. Test results showed kerosene in the adsorbed, free and dissolved states. Eaton researched and investigated three clean-up options. They included pump and treat, dig and haul and bioremediation. Jet fuel is composed of readily biodegradable hydrocarbon chains. This fact coupled with the depth to groundwater and geologic setting made bioremediation the low cost and most effective alternative. A recovery well was installed at the leading edge of the dissolved contamination. A pump moved water from this well into a nutrient addition system. Nutrients added included nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium. Additionally, air was sparged into the water. The water was discharged into an infiltration gallery installed when the underground storage tanks were removed. Water circulated between the pump and the infiltration basin in a closed loop fashion. This oxygenated, nutrient rich water actively and aggressively treated the soils between the bottom of the gallery and the top of the groundwater and the groundwater. The system began operating in August of 1993 and reduced jet fuel to below detection levels. In August of 1995 The State of Michigan issued a clean closure declaration to the site.

  10. Molten metal, Martin Marietta target DOE, DOD cleanup markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article describes a joint venture between Martin Marietta Corp. and Molten Metal Technology, Inc. to sell MMT innovative waste processing technology to the Energy and Defense departments, environmental cleanup programs

  11. The Secretary's Vision of the Cleanup Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golan, Paul

    2003-02-24

    This paper discusses the Secretary of Energy's vision of the cleanup program. Topics include development a new plan to swiftly clean up serious problems at sites and reduce the risks to human health, safety and the environment.

  12. Cleanup Verification Package for the 300-18 Waste Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 300-18 waste site. This site was identified as containing radiologically contaminated soil, metal shavings, nuts, bolts, and concrete

  13. IMPROVED SILICA GEL CLEANUP METHOD FOR ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quantitative recovery of some organophosphorus pesticide residues has not been possible with existing silica gel-cleanup procedures. The authors have developed a modification that permits quantitative recovery of all organophosphorus pesticides tested, except those with a carbama...

  14. Geographical information system (GIS) support for shoreline cleanup operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A GIS-based system was introduced which was capable of simplifying map production. The importance of an accurate map in shoreline cleanup operations was emphasized. Maps are used to analyze data and are also an effective communication tool, simplifying work coordination between teams. A GIS-based system allows spatial representations to be used much more extensively in integrating information. Two software products, SHORECLEAN and MAPINFO, were used to create a set of maps to be evaluated. The four main categories of tasks involved in shoreline operations were: (1) to collect data on the state of oiling, (2) to plan cleanup operations, (3) to keep track of cleanup operations, and (4) to monitor long-term changes in the state of the shoreline. It was suggested that electronic data captured directly with the portable computer on site on an oiled shoreline, helps accelerate the cleanup decision making process. 14 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs

  15. Budgeting for environmental clean-up of Army bases

    OpenAIRE

    Goette, Herbert

    1996-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The United States Army obtained congressional approval in 1995 to close or realign 40 installations. These actions create a unique opportunity for the civilian communities surrounding the installations to reuse them to satisfy commercial or community needs. However, future reuse can be impeded by the need for environmental clean-up, which is an expensive business. The current clean-up cost estimate for 32 of the 40 installations is $1 ...

  16. Optimal Discounting of Benefits From Cleanup at Waste Sites

    OpenAIRE

    Lyon, Kenneth S.; Caliendo, Frank

    2005-01-01

    This paper uses a general equilibrium optimal growth model to discuss the role of optimal discounting of future benefits from cleanup at high level toxic waste sites. Cleanup simultaneously generates two streams of benefits. One of these is directly from utility and the other is indirectly from the added productivity of workers. We note that the optimal discount rate is different for these two types of benefits. Along the optimal path, the former are discounted at the rate of time preference ...

  17. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-F-2 Burial Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action, sampling activities, and compliance with cleanup criteria for the 118-F-2 Burial Ground. This burial ground, formerly called Solid Waste Burial Ground No. 1, was the original solid waste disposal site for the 100-F Area. Eight trenches contained miscellaneous solid waste from the 105-F Reactor and one trench contained solid waste from the biology facilities

  18. Solvent degradation and cleanup: a survey and recent ORNL studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper surveys the mechanisms for degradation of the tributyl phosphate and diluent components of Purex solvent by acid and radiation, reviews the problems encountered in plant operations resulting from the presence of these degradation products, and discusses methods for minimizing the formation of degradation products and accomplishing their removal. Scrubbing solutions containing sodium carbonate or hydroxylamine salts and secondary cleanup of solvents using solid sorbents are evaluated. Finally, recommendations for improved solvent cleanup are presented. 50 references, 4 figures, 3 tables

  19. A Comparative Study of Chinese and American Ways of Address

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静

    2009-01-01

    From a cross-cultural pragmatic perspective,this paper nakes a comparative study on American and Chinese ways of address,and finds that due to different cultural values,languages differ in the actual realization of address strategies and modifications,which leads to varied interactional styles,and thus holds that there exist distinctive cultural differences in the interactional styles of verbal behaviors,which challenges the universality of pragmatic rules among different languages and cultures.

  20. Addressing the nuclear misconception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a perception, fostered and encouraged by the anti-nuclear groups, that the nuclear industry generates large quantities of waste with no idea how to deal with it, that it is unsafe, uneconomic, and environmentally damaging. The task is to change these perceptions, by demonstrating that the industry is not a problem in itself, but in fact provides solutions to problems. This paper, while primarily concerned with waste, addresses all of these issues as each has a bearing on the perception of the industry and therefore must be considered when addressing the issue of waste. The paper concludes that evidence exists to support the industry view, but that the mission of the industry should be to change the perception of the industry, by influencing and working together with its stake holders to address their concerns, rather than merely presenting more and more facts. (author)

  1. Addressing the nuclear misconception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a perception, fostered and encouraged by the anti-nuclear groups, that the nuclear industry generates large quantities of waste with no idea how to deal with it, is unsafe, uneconomic, and environmentally damaging. The task of the industry is to change the perception by demonstrating that the industry provides solutions to problems, and is not a problem in itself. This paper, whilst primarily concerned with waste, addresses all of these issues as each has a bearing on the perception of the industry and therefore must be considered when addressing the issue of waste. The paper concludes that evidence exists to support the industry, but that the mission of the industry should be to change the perception of it, by influencing and working together with its stakeholders to address their concerns, rather than merely presenting more and more facts. (author)

  2. Addressing Sexual Harassment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses ways on how to address the problem of sexual harassment in schools. Sexual harassment--simply defined as any unwanted and unwelcome sexual behavior--is a sensitive topic. Merely providing students, parents, and staff members with information about the school's sexual harassment policy is insufficient; schools must take…

  3. The "Depreciation" and "Appreciation" of Some Address Terms in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhucheng, Ju

    1991-01-01

    Examines how the cultural revolution in China has changed, to some extent, the rules governing the use of address terms, discussing the close interrelation between the use of address terms and cultural values and how the change in mental outlook has led to the depreciation or appreciation of certain terms. (Author/CB)

  4. Deriving cleanup guidelines for radionuclides at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Past activities at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) resulted in soil and groundwater contamination. As a result, BNL was designated a Superfund site under the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). BNL's Office of Environmental Restoration (OER) is overseeing environmental restoration activities at the Laboratory. With the exception of radium, there are no regulations or guidelines to establish cleanup guidelines for radionuclides in soils at BNL. BNL must derive radionuclide soil cleanup guidelines for a number of Operable Units (OUs) and Areas of Concern (AOCs). These guidelines are required by DOE under a proposed regulation for radiation protection of public health and the environment as well as to satisfy the requirements of CERCLA. The objective of this report is to propose a standard approach to deriving risk-based cleanup guidelines for radionuclides in soil at BNL. Implementation of the approach is briefly discussed

  5. Implications of the KONVERGENCE Model for Difficult Cleanup Decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piet, Steven James; Dakins, Maxine Ellen; Gibson, Patrick Lavern; Joe, Jeffrey Clark; Kerr, Thomas A; Nitschke, Robert Leon

    2002-08-04

    Abstract—Some cleanup decisions, such as cleanup of intractable contaminated sites or disposal of spent nuclear fuel, have proven difficult to make. Such decisions face high resistance to agreement from stakeholders possibly because they do not trust the decision makers, view the consequences of being wrong as too high, etc. Our project’s goal is to improve sciencebased cleanup decision-making. This includes diagnosing intractable situations, as a step to identifying a path toward sustainable solutions. Companion papers describe the underlying philosophy of the KONVERGENCE Model for Sustainable Decisions,1 and the overall framework and process steps.2 Where knowledge, values, and resources converge (the K, V, and R in KONVERGENCE), you will find a sustainable decision – a decision that works over time. For intractable cases, serious consideration of the adaptable class of alternatives is warranted – if properly implemented and packaged.

  6. Coolant clean-up method in PWR type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To perform coolant clean-up while climinating the need of replacing boric acid with plant primary coolants and using anionic exchange resins in which the amount of Cl anionic exchange resins as impurities is decreased. Method: OH type anionic exchange resins are previously treated with an aqueous boric acid not containing radioactivity at a place other than the equipment for use (that is desalting tower) into boric acid type anionic ion exchange resins and, thereafter, the boric acid type anionic exchange resins are filled into a desalting tower of the clean-up system to perform primary coolant clean-up. In this case, since the resins can be used directly for the purpose without performing boric acid replacement after charging into the equipment for use, the procedures in the plant being in operation can be saved. (Yoshino, Y.)

  7. Interim Site Assessment and Clean-up Guidebook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In April 1995 an Interim Site Investigation and Clean-up Guidebook (for petroleum hydrocarbon and volatile organic compound impacted sites) was developed for public use. The purpose of the Guidebook was to offer a new approach to the site cleanup process: one that reduces time, cuts costs, and establishes a defined endpoint for investigations and cleanup actions. The Guidebook provided a matrix to screen for low-risk contaminated sites. After a year of use, the Guidebook was revised in May 1996. The most notable change was in the Petroleum Hydrocarbon Section and the modification of the screening table for petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sites. The changes considered the strong influence of lithology on contaminant transport and recognized the large attenuation of the long chain, heavy oil and tar, hydrocarbons in soils

  8. Uranium mill tailings cleanup: Federal leadership at last

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy has proposed legislation that would allow it to enter into cooperative agreements with various States to clean up residual radioactive materials--commonly called uranium mill tailings--at 22 inactive uranium mills. About 25 million tons of mill tailings have accumulated at these sites since the 1940s. GAO analyzed the need for, and adequacy of, the proposed legislation and recommends that the cleanup program be endorsed. While the Federal Government has no apparent legal responsibility for such a cleanup, it does have a moral responsibility since the mills primarily produced uranium for Federal programs. Further, it is the only organization able to undertake such a cleanup program on a comprehensive basis. GAO also suggests several areas where the proposed legislation could be strengthened

  9. Deriving cleanup guidelines for radionuclides at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinhold, A.F.; Morris, S.C.; Dionne, B.; Moskowitz, P.D.

    1997-01-01

    Past activities at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) resulted in soil and groundwater contamination. As a result, BNL was designated a Superfund site under the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). BNL`s Office of Environmental Restoration (OER) is overseeing environmental restoration activities at the Laboratory. With the exception of radium, there are no regulations or guidelines to establish cleanup guidelines for radionuclides in soils at BNL. BNL must derive radionuclide soil cleanup guidelines for a number of Operable Units (OUs) and Areas of Concern (AOCs). These guidelines are required by DOE under a proposed regulation for radiation protection of public health and the environment as well as to satisfy the requirements of CERCLA. The objective of this report is to propose a standard approach to deriving risk-based cleanup guidelines for radionuclides in soil at BNL. Implementation of the approach is briefly discussed.

  10. Environmental Remediation to Address Childhood Lead Poisoning Epidemic due to Artisanal Gold Mining in Zamfara, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirima, Simba; Bartrem, Casey; von Lindern, Ian; von Braun, Margrit; Lind, Douglas; Anka, Shehu Mohammed; Abdullahi, Aishat

    2016-01-01

    Background: From 2010 through 2013, integrated health and environmental responses addressed an unprecedented epidemic lead poisoning in Zamfara State, northern Nigeria. Artisanal gold mining caused widespread contamination resulting in the deaths of > 400 children. Socioeconomic, logistic, and security challenges required remediation and medical protocols within the context of local resources, labor practices, and cultural traditions. Objectives: Our aim was to implement emergency environmental remediation to abate exposures to 17,000 lead poisoned villagers, to facilitate chelation treatment of children ≤ 5 years old, and to establish local technical capacity and lead health advocacy programs to prevent future disasters. Methods: U.S. hazardous waste removal protocols were modified to accommodate local agricultural practices. Remediation was conducted over 4 years in three phases, progressing from an emergency response by international personnel to comprehensive cleanup funded and accomplished by the Nigerian government. Results: More than 27,000 m3 of contaminated soils and mining waste were removed from 820 residences and ore processing areas in eight villages, largely by hand labor, and disposed in constructed landfills. Excavated areas were capped with clean soils (≤ 25 mg/kg lead), decreasing soil lead concentrations by 89%, and 2,349 children received chelation treatment. Pre-chelation geometric mean blood lead levels for children ≤ 5 years old decreased from 149 μg/dL to 15 μg/dL over the 4-year remedial program. Conclusions: The unprecedented outbreak and response demonstrate that, given sufficient political will and modest investment, the world’s most challenging environmental health crises can be addressed by adapting proven response protocols to the capabilities of host countries. Citation: Tirima S, Bartrem C, von Lindern I, von Braun M, Lind D, Anka SM, Abdullahi A. 2016. Environmental remediation to address childhood lead poisoning epidemic

  11. Superfund at work: Hazardous waste cleanup efforts nationwide, spring 1993 (Old Midland Products Site Profile, Yell County, Arkansas). Fact sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Old Midland Products site in Yell County, Arkansas was contaminated by hazardous chemicals from operations of a wood preserving plant. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) worked closely with the Arkansas Department of Pollution Control and Ecology (ADPCE) to select a cleanup plan to remediate the site, allowing unrestricted use by 1998. EPA and ADPCE actions consisted of: treating over 11 million gallons of contaminated surface water and lagoon liquids; employing a highly efficient, transportable incinerator to destroy more than 85,000 tons of contaminated soil and lagoon sludges over a short period of time; installing recovery wells to treat an estimated 450,000 gallons of contaminated ground water; and maintaining effective community relations with local residents to address their concerns and involve them in the cleanup process. The site serves as an example of how EPA, state agencies, and local residents can work together to restore the environment polluted by hazardous waste

  12. Methodology and data used for estimating the complex-wide impacts of alternative environmental restoration clean-up goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the methodologies and data used for estimating the complex-wide impacts of alternative strategies for conducting remediation of all DOE sites and facilities, but does not address issues relating to Waste Management capabilities. Clean-up strategies and their corresponding goals for contaminated media may be driven by concentration-based regulatory standards, land-use standards (e.g., residential, industrial, wild life reserve, or totally restricted), risk-based standards, or other standards determined through stakeholder input. Strategies implemented to achieve these goals usually require the deployment of (a) clean-up technologies to destroy, remove, or contain the contaminants of concern; (b) institutional controls to prevent potential receptors from coming into contact with the contaminants; or (c) a combination of the above

  13. UTILIZING THE RIGHT MIX OF ENVIRONMENTAL CLEANUP TECHNOLOGIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) Figure 1 is a 310-square-mile United States Department of Energy nuclear facility located along the Savannah River near Aiken, South Carolina. During operations, which started in 1951, hazardous substances (chemicals and radionuclides) were released to the environment. The releases occurred as a result of inadvertent spills and waste disposal in unlined pits and basins which was common practice before environmental regulations existed. The hazardous substances have migrated to the vadose zone and groundwater in many areas of the SRS, resulting in 515 waste units that are required by environmental regulations, to undergo characterization and, if needed, remediation. In the initial years of the SRS environmental cleanup program (early 1990s), the focus was to use common technologies (such as pump and treat, air stripping, excavation and removal) that actively and tangibly removed contamination. Exclusive use of these technologies required continued and significant funding while often failing to meet acceptable clean-up goals and objectives. Recognizing that a more cost-effective approach was needed, SRS implemented new and complementary remediation methods focused on active and passive technologies targeted to solve specific remediation problems. Today, SRS uses technologies such as chemical/pH-adjusting injection, phytoremediation, underground cutoff walls, dynamic underground stripping, soil fracturing, microbial degradation, baroballs, electrical resistance heating, soil vapor extraction, and microblowers to more effectively treat contamination at lower costs. Additionally, SRS's remediation approach cost effectively maximizes cleanup as SRS works proactively with multiple regulatory agencies. Using GIS, video, animation, and graphics, SRS is able to provide an accurate depiction of the evolution of SRS groundwater and vadose zone cleanup activities to convince stakeholders and regulators of the effectiveness of various cleanup

  14. Cleanup/stimulation of a horizontal wellbore using propellants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rougeot, J.E.; Lauterbach, K.A.

    1993-01-01

    This report documents the stimulation/cleanup of a horizontal well bore (Wilson 25) using propellants. The Wilson 25 is a Bartlesville Sand well located in the Flatrock Field, Osage County, Oklahoma. The Wilson 25 was drilled to determine if horizontal drilling could be used as a means to economically recover primary oil that had been left in place in a mostly abandoned oil field because of the adverse effects of water coning. Pump testing of the Wilson 25 horizontal well bore before cleanup or stimulation produced 6 barrels of oil and .84 barrels of water per day. The high percentage of daily oil production to total daily fluid production indicated that the horizontal well bore had accessed potentially economical oil reserves if the fluid production rate could be increased by performing a cleanup/stimulation treatment. Propellants were selected as an inexpensive means to stimulate and cleanup the near well bore area in a uniform manner. The ignition of a propellant creates a large volume of gas which penetrates the formation, creating numerous short cracks through which hydrocarbons can travel into the well bore. More conventional stimulation/cleanup techniques were either significantly more expensive, less likely to treat uniformly, or could not be confined to the near well bore area. Three different propellant torpedo designs were tested with a total of 304' of horizontal well bore being shot and producible. The initial test shot caused 400' of the horizontal well bore to become plugged off, and subsequently it could not be production tested. The second and third test shots were production tested, with the oil production being increased 458% and 349%, respectively, on a per foot basis. The Wilson 25 results indicate that a propellant shot treatment is an economically viable means to cleanup/stimulate a horizontal well bore.

  15. UTILIZING THE RIGHT MIX OF ENVIRONMENTAL CLEANUP TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergren, C; Wade Whitaker, W; Mary Flora, M

    2007-05-25

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) Figure 1 is a 310-square-mile United States Department of Energy nuclear facility located along the Savannah River near Aiken, South Carolina. During operations, which started in 1951, hazardous substances (chemicals and radionuclides) were released to the environment. The releases occurred as a result of inadvertent spills and waste disposal in unlined pits and basins which was common practice before environmental regulations existed. The hazardous substances have migrated to the vadose zone and groundwater in many areas of the SRS, resulting in 515 waste units that are required by environmental regulations, to undergo characterization and, if needed, remediation. In the initial years of the SRS environmental cleanup program (early 1990s), the focus was to use common technologies (such as pump and treat, air stripping, excavation and removal) that actively and tangibly removed contamination. Exclusive use of these technologies required continued and significant funding while often failing to meet acceptable clean-up goals and objectives. Recognizing that a more cost-effective approach was needed, SRS implemented new and complementary remediation methods focused on active and passive technologies targeted to solve specific remediation problems. Today, SRS uses technologies such as chemical/pH-adjusting injection, phytoremediation, underground cutoff walls, dynamic underground stripping, soil fracturing, microbial degradation, baroballs, electrical resistance heating, soil vapor extraction, and microblowers to more effectively treat contamination at lower costs. Additionally, SRS's remediation approach cost effectively maximizes cleanup as SRS works proactively with multiple regulatory agencies. Using GIS, video, animation, and graphics, SRS is able to provide an accurate depiction of the evolution of SRS groundwater and vadose zone cleanup activities to convince stakeholders and regulators of the effectiveness of various cleanup

  16. Needs for Risk Informing Environmental Cleanup Decision Making - 13613

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the needs for risk informing decision making by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM). The mission of the DOE EM is to complete the safe cleanup of the environmental legacy brought about from the nation's five decades of nuclear weapons development and production and nuclear energy research. This work represents some of the most technically challenging and complex cleanup efforts in the world and is projected to require the investment of billions of dollars and several decades to complete. Quantitative assessments of health and environmental risks play an important role in work prioritization and cleanup decisions of these challenging environmental cleanup and closure projects. The risk assessments often involve evaluation of performance of integrated engineered barriers and natural systems over a period of hundreds to thousands of years, when subject to complex geo-environmental transformation processes resulting from remediation and disposal actions. The requirement of resource investments for the cleanup efforts and the associated technical challenges have subjected the EM program to continuous scrutiny by oversight entities. Recent DOE reviews recommended application of a risk-informed approach throughout the EM complex for improved targeting of resources. The idea behind this recommendation is that by using risk-informed approaches to prioritize work scope, the available resources can be best utilized to reduce environmental and health risks across the EM complex, while maintaining the momentum of the overall EM cleanup program at a sustainable level. In response to these recommendations, EM is re-examining its work portfolio and key decision making with risk insights for the major sites. This paper summarizes the review findings and recommendations from the DOE internal reviews, discusses the needs for risk informing the EM portfolio and makes an attempt to identify topics for R and D in integrated

  17. Accelerated cleanup Initiatives Putting the Acceleration Plans into Action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes project successes during the last year and presents strategies for accomplishing work required to accelerate waste retrieval, treatment and closure of 177 large underground waste tanks at the Hanford Site. The tanks contain approximately 53 million gallons of liquid, sludge, and solid waste resulting from decades of national defense production. The Hanford Site is a 560 square-mile area in southeastern Washington State. One of the nation's largest rivers, the Columbia River, flows through the site and within seven miles of the waste tanks. The US. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of River Protection and CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. (CH2M HILL) drew upon the recommendations in the DOE's Top-To-Bottom Review and the ideas that emerged from the Cleanup Challenges and Constraints Team (C3T) when creating new initiatives last fall in accelerated tank cleanup. The initiatives reflect discussions and planning during the last year by the DOE, regulatory,agencies, Hanford stakeholders, and CH2M HILL on how to accelerate tank cleanup and closure. The initiatives focus on near-term risk reduction, deployment of proven cleanup technologies, and completing the feed delivery and waste storage systems needed to support Hanford's Waste Treatment Plant. Working with the Office of River Protection, CH2M HILL is changing the way it does business to align with the new focus on accelerated tank cleanup initiatives. A key concept of this new approach is to deploy simple, proven technologies whenever possible to accomplish program goals. Finding existing technologies and evaluating whether they can be applied to or adapted to Hanford tank cleanup provide the best chance for success in achieving treatment of all of Hanford's tank waste by 2028

  18. Holographic content addressable storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Lu, Thomas; Reyes, George

    2015-03-01

    We have developed a Holographic Content Addressable Storage (HCAS) architecture. The HCAS systems consists of a DMD (Digital Micromirror Array) as the input Spatial Light Modulator (SLM), a CMOS (Complementary Metal-oxide Semiconductor) sensor as the output photodetector and a photorefractive crystal as the recording media. The HCAS system is capable of performing optical correlation of an input image/feature against massive reference data set stored in the holographic memory. Detailed system analysis will be reported in this paper.

  19. Addressing mathematics & statistics anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Kotecha, Meena

    2015-01-01

    This paper should be of interest to mathematics and statistics educators ranging from pre-university to university education sectors. It will discuss some features of the author’s teaching model developed over her longitudinal study conducted to understand and address mathematics and statistics anxiety, which is one of the main barriers to engaging with these subjects especially in non-specialist undergraduates. It will demonstrate how a range of formative assessments are used to kindle, as w...

  20. Bioremediation: environmental clean-up through pathway engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shailendra; Kang, Seung Hyun; Mulchandani, Ashok; Chen, Wilfred

    2008-10-01

    Given the immense risk posed by widespread environmental pollution by inorganic and organic chemicals, novel methods of decontamination and clean-up are required. Owing to the relatively high cost and the non-specificity of conventional techniques, bioremediation is a promising alternative technology for pollutant clean-up. Advances in bioremediation harness molecular, genetic, microbiology, and protein engineering tools and rely on identification of novel metal-sequestering peptides, rational and irrational pathway engineering, and enzyme design. Recent advances have been made for enhanced inorganic chemical remediation and organic chemical degradation using various pathway-engineering approaches and these are discussed in this review. PMID:18760355

  1. Sodium cleanup system of fast reactor NPP (retrospectively - prospective outlook)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When reasoned the coolant cleanup system of perspective fast reactor NPPs the traditional methods of coolant purification (cold traps, sorbents for cesium) as well as possibility to use hot traps for sodium purification from oxygen have been analyzed. It is shown that cold trap must be a mandatory element of cleanup system built in tank; hot traps can provide sodium coolant purification from oxygen during NPP nominal condition. Recommendations on further lines of work for improving cold traps characteristics are given, and further lines of work for hot traps parameters optimization are considered

  2. Gender: addressing a critical focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, L; Wegner, M N

    1995-01-01

    The definition of gender was addressed at the Fourth World Conference on Women (Beijing, China). After extensive debate, the definition developed by the UN Population Fund in 1995 was adopted: "a set of qualities and behaviors expected from a female or male by society." The sustainability of family planning (FP) programs depends on acknowledgment of the role gender plays in contraceptive decision-making and use. For example, programs must consider the fact that women in many cultures do not make FP decisions without the consent of their spouse. AVSC is examining providers' gender-based ideas about clients and the effects of these views on the quality of reproductive health services. Questions such as how service providers can encourage joint responsibility for contraception without requiring spousal consent or how they can make men feel comfortable about using a male method in a society where FP is considered a woman's issue are being discussed. Also relevant is how service providers can discuss sexual matters openly with female clients in cultures that do not allow women to enjoy their sexuality. Another concern is the potential for physical violence to a client as a result of the provision of FP services. PMID:12294397

  3. Culture Seen, Culture Experienced and Culture Rediscovered

    OpenAIRE

    Mac an Airchinnigh, Mícheál; Tonta, Yaşar; Ünal, Yurdagül

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present an account of the (digitized/digital) “culture seen” and the “culture experienced”. For each cultural artefact, digitized and brought online, we assume both 1) a formal description (using OWL-DL for example) and 2) a folksonomical description (short text with keywords) will be provided. We anticipate said descriptions to be accommodated within the CIDOC-CRM ISO Standard and expect compatible re-alignments with respect to the Getty Vocabularies. We address the basic re...

  4. Address delivered in Vilnius

    OpenAIRE

    Piłsudski, Józef

    2013-01-01

    Title: Przemówienie w Wilnie 20 kwietnia 1922 roku (Address delivered in Vilnius, 20 April, 1922) Originally published: Pisma-mowy-rozkazy, vol. V, Warsaw, Instytut Józefa Piłsudskiego, 1933, pp. 255–260. Language: PolishThe excerpt used is from the original About the author Józef Piłsudski [1867, Zułów (in the district of Święciany, Lit. Zalave/Švenčionys, present-day Lithuania) – 1935, Warsaw]: politician. Piłsudski was born to a family belonging to the Polish-speaking gentry in the Lithuan...

  5. Issues in UK cleanup and decommissioning; a strategic R and D programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nexia Solutions is contracted to manage and carry out research on behalf of the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA). This paper will describe the nuclear research ongoing and how it fits in with the UK cleanup and decommissioning strategy. The aim of the strategic R and D programme is to assist the NDA in maintaining a technical portfolio which will:- - identify and address challenges and clean-up problems that do not have an existing solution; - resolve potential inconsistencies between sites in the technical bases for certain strategic decisions and their implementation; - maintain options while developing strategy (emerging risks); - save costs by developing multi-site solutions; - provide technology, skills and facilities on the timescale required. The strategy for the R and D programme has been developed from a top-level approach by understanding the challenges which need to be addressed and prioritising these according to the objectives of the programme. The programme has demonstrated that a technical portfolio comprising six areas, each containing a number of key themes, is appropriate to address the technical challenges which the NDA faces and aligns with the NDA's technical issues register. An important aspect of the R and D programme is that it should create opportunities for undertaking the NDA mission more effectively. This arises from the emphasis given in those technical programmes which define the challenge more precisely and thus provide a platform from which to produce innovative solutions. The paper will present an overview of the strategic R and D programme along with the key technical programme areas. Examples will be provided of the technical work ongoing, and the results obtained so far. (author)

  6. Address Terms among University Students in Ghana: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afful, Joseph Benjamin Archibald

    2006-01-01

    An important feature of the interface between language and society is the use of address terms. Following Brown and Gilman (1960), research studies of address terms have been extended to several cultural settings. This study contributes to this fertile area of sociolinguistic studies by describing the address terms used among undergraduates in an…

  7. Application of radiation protection principles to the cleanup of contaminated areas. Interim report for comment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recognizing that there was a general lack of guidance on protection from ionizing radiation in the case of protracted or chronic exposures and prompted by the clear need for such guidance for aiding decision making in the particular case of the rehabilitation of areas affected by residual deposits of radioactive materials from past activities, the IAEA started a project in 1993 to address the problem. A small working group was established and met on several occasions over a three year period. The working group used, as it starting point, the Recommendations of the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) (Publication 60) and the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources. The approach emphasizes the use of risk to individuals from existing contamination and from the residual contamination after cleanup actions as a basis for decision making. Nevertheless, links are maintained with the basic ICRP radiation protection system by recognizing that, in many situations, cleanup actions may be influenced by more than only individual risk consideration; there will be radiological and non-radiological constraints which will differ depending on whether the situation is more 'intervention like' or 'practice like'. The framework for decision making being proposed by the working group is being published in this report to allow for a period of review and comment by experts and decision makers in Member States

  8. Planning for cleanup of large areas contaminated as a result of a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cleanup of large areas of contaminated as a result of an accident at a nuclear facility could cost hundreds of millions of dollars and cause inconvenience to the public. Such a cleanup programme would be undertaken only if the detriment to health and social life resulting from cleanup activities would be less than that resulting from further exposures. All reasonable means should, however, be used to minimize the costs and detriment to humans of such a cleanup. For such a cleanup to be carried out safely, efficiently and as quickly as possible under adverse conditions requires: Good preliminary and final planning; A cleanup team having a well defined management structure and well trained personnel; and Suitable cleanup methods and equipment and cleanup criteria. 35 refs, 8 figs, 5 tabs

  9. Technical papers presented at a DOE meeting on criteria for cleanup of transuranium elements in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transuranium element soil contamination cleanup experience gained from nuclear weapons accidents and cleanup at Eniwetok Atoll was reviewed. Presentations have been individually abstracted for inclusion in the data base

  10. Technical papers presented at a DOE meeting on criteria for cleanup of transuranium elements in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-09-01

    Transuranium element soil contamination cleanup experience gained from nuclear weapons accidents and cleanup at Eniwetok Atoll was reviewed. Presentations have been individually abstracted for inclusion in the data base. (ACR)

  11. ITER task T299 (1996) : fuel cleanup system demonstration tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this task is to demonstrate processes for efficient cleanup and detritiation of the plasma exhaust. In this subtask, the objectives were to provide further design data on the HITEX process, and to build and demonstrate 2-stage high-detritiation HITEX performance. (author). 9 refs., 1 tab., 11 figs

  12. Enewetak fact book (a resume of pre-cleanup information)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book contains a group of short treatises on the precleanup condition of the islands in Enewetak Atoll. Their purpose was to provide brief guidance to the radiological history and radiological condition of the islands for use in cleanup of the atoll

  13. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-F-6 Burial Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-F-6 Burial Ground located in the 100-FR-2 Operable Unit of the 100-F Area on the Hanford Site. The trenches received waste from the 100-F Experimental Animal Farm, including animal manure, animal carcasses, laboratory waste, plastic, cardboard, metal, and concrete debris as well as a railroad tank car

  14. Enewetak fact book (a resume of pre-cleanup information)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bliss, W. (comp.)

    1982-09-01

    The book contains a group of short treatises on the precleanup condition of the islands in Enewetak Atoll. Their purpose was to provide brief guidance to the radiological history and radiological condition of the islands for use in cleanup of the atoll. (ACR)

  15. Cleanup at Los Alamos National Laboratory - the challenges - 9493

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stiger, Susan G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hargis, Kenneth M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Graham, Michael J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rael, George J [NNSL/LASO

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of environmental cleanup at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and some of the unique aspects and challenges. Cleanup of the 65-year old Department of Energy Laboratory is being conducted under a RCRA Consent Order with the State of New Mexico. This agreement is one of the most recent cleanup agreements signed in the DOE complex and was based on lessons learned at other DOE sites. A number of attributes create unique challenges for LANL cleanup -- the proximity to the community and pueblos, the site's topography and geology, and the nature of LANL's on-going missions. This overview paper will set the stage for other papers in this session, including papers that present: Plans to retrieve buried waste at Material Disposal Area B, across the street from oen of Los Alamos' commercial districts and the local newspaper; Progress to date and joint plans with WIPP for disposal of the remaining inventory of legacy transuranic waste; Reviews of both groundwater and surface water contamination and the factors complicating both characterization and remediation; Optimizing the disposal of low-level radioactive waste from ongoing LANL missions; A stakeholder environmental data transparency project (RACER), with full public access to all available information on contamination at LANL, and A description of the approach to waste processing cost recovery from the programs that generate hazardous and radioactive waste at LANL.

  16. Cleanup at the Los Alamos National Laboratory - The Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides an overview of environmental cleanup at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and some of the unique aspects and challenges. Cleanup of the 65-year old Department of Energy laboratory is being conducted under a RCRA Consent Order with the State of New Mexico. This agreement is one of the most recent cleanup agreements signed in the DOE complex and was based on lessons learned at other DOE sites. A number of attributes create unique challenges for LANL cleanup - the proximity to the community and pueblos, the site's topography and geology, and the nature of LANL's on-going missions. This overview paper will set the stage for other papers in this session, including papers that present: - Plans to retrieve buried waste at Material Disposal Area B, across the street from one of Los Alamos' commercial districts and the local newspaper; - Progress to date and joint plans with WIPP for disposal of the remaining inventory of legacy transuranic waste; - Reviews of both groundwater and surface water contamination and the factors complicating both characterization and remediation; - Optimizing the disposal of low-level radioactive waste from ongoing LANL missions; - A stakeholder environmental data transparency project (RACER), with full public access to all available information on contamination at LANL, and - A description of the approach to waste processing cost recovery from the programs that generate hazardous and radioactive waste at LANL. (authors)

  17. Modeling of vapour generator for clean-up separator module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    233U clean-up process plays an important role in the thorium fuel cycle. This process is based on laser isotope separation (LIS) using atomic vapour, where the impure 233U (containing 232U) is evaporated in high vacuum environment. The vapour is interacted with laser beam to selectively ionize 232U, which is removed by electrostatic means

  18. Cleanup Verification Package for the 618-2 Burial Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 618-2 Burial Ground, also referred to as Solid Waste Burial Ground No. 2; Burial Ground No. 2; 318-2; and Dry Waste Burial Site No. 2. This waste site was used primarily for the disposal of contaminated equipment, materials and laboratory waste from the 300 Area Facilities

  19. Environmental Cleanup of the East Tennessee Technology Park Year One - Execution with Certainty SM - 13120

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    work, UCOR's safety record goes hand in hand with its excellent project performance. Through calendar year 2012, UCOR's recordable injury rate was 0.33, and the company has worked close to 4 million hours without a lost work day injury. UCOR's safety record is one of the best in the DOE EM Complex. This performance was due, in large part, to the people and processes URS and CH2M HILL, the parent companies of UCOR, brought to the project. Key approaches included: - Selected and deployed experienced staff in key leadership positions throughout the organization; - Approached 'Transition' as the 'true' beginning of the cleanup project - kicking off a number of project initiatives such as Partnering, PMB development, D and D Plan execution, etc. - Established a project baseline for performance measurement and obtained EVMS certification in record time; - Determined material differences and changed conditions that warranted contract change - then quickly addressed these changes with the DOE client; - Aligned the project and the contract within one year - also done in record time; - Implemented Safety Trained Supervisor and Safety Conscious Work Environment Programs, and kicked off the pursuit of certification under DOE's Voluntary Protection Program. (authors)

  20. Spatial Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeh, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Spatial Culture – A Humanities Perspective Abstract of introductory essay by Henrik Reeh Secured by alliances between socio-political development and cultural practices, a new field of humanistic studies in spatial culture has developed since the 1990s. To focus on links between urban culture and...... modern society is, however, an intellectual practice which has a much longer history. Already in the 1980s, the debate on the modern and the postmodern cited Paris and Los Angeles as spatio-cultural illustrations of these major philosophical concepts. Earlier, in the history of critical studies, the work...... Michel Foucault considered a constitutive feature of 20th-century thinking and one that continues to occupy intellectual and cultural debates in the third millennium. A conceptual framework is, nevertheless, necessary, if the humanities are to adequa-tely address city and space – themes that have long...

  1. 77 FR 9847 - Safety Zone; Kinnickinnic River Containment and Cleanup; Milwaukee, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Kinnickinnic River Containment and Cleanup... presented by the containment and cleanup of petroleum product are immediate and do not allow time for a... Michigan, has determined that the containment and cleanup poses a serious risk of injury to persons...

  2. 2020 Vision for Tank Waste Cleanup (One System Integration) - 12506

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mission of the Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (ORP) is to safely retrieve and treat the 56 million gallons of Hanford's tank waste and close the Tank Farms to protect the Columbia River. The millions of gallons of waste are a by-product of decades of plutonium production. After irradiated fuel rods were taken from the nuclear reactors to the processing facilities at Hanford they were exposed to a series of chemicals designed to dissolve away the rod, which enabled workers to retrieve the plutonium. Once those chemicals were exposed to the fuel rods they became radioactive and extremely hot. They also couldn't be used in this process more than once. Because the chemicals are caustic and extremely hazardous to humans and the environment, underground storage tanks were built to hold these chemicals until a more permanent solution could be found. The Cleanup of Hanford's 56 million gallons of radioactive and chemical waste stored in 177 large underground tanks represents the Department's largest and most complex environmental remediation project. Sixty percent by volume of the nation's high-level radioactive waste is stored in the underground tanks grouped into 18 'tank farms' on Hanford's central plateau. Hanford's mission to safely remove, treat and dispose of this waste includes the construction of a first-of-its-kind Waste Treatment Plant (WTP), ongoing retrieval of waste from single-shell tanks, and building or upgrading the waste feed delivery infrastructure that will deliver the waste to and support operations of the WTP beginning in 2019. Our discussion of the 2020 Vision for Hanford tank waste cleanup will address the significant progress made to date and ongoing activities to manage the operations of the tank farms and WTP as a single system capable of retrieving, delivering, treating and disposing Hanford's tank waste. The initiation of hot operations and subsequent full operations of the WTP are not only dependent upon the successful

  3. Hanford Cleanup... Restore the Columbia River Corridor Transition the Central Plateau Prepare and Plan for the End State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State was established during World War II to produce plutonium for nuclear weapons as part of the top-secret Manhattan Project. In 1989, Hanford's mission changed to cleanup and closure; today the site is engaged in one of the world's largest and most aggressive programs to clean up radioactive and hazardous wastes. The size and complexity of Hanford's environmental problems are made even more challenging by the overlapping technical, political, regulatory, financial and cultural issues associated with the cleanup. The physical challenges at the Hanford Site are daunting. More than 50 million gallons of liquid radioactive waste in 177 underground storage tanks; 2,300 tons of spent nuclear fuel;12 tons of plutonium in various forms; 25 million cubic feet of buried or stored solid waste; 270 billion gallons of groundwater contaminated above drinking-water standards spread out over about 80 square miles; more than 1,700 waste sites; and approximately 500 contaminated facilities. With a workforce of approximately 7,000 and a budget of about $1.8 billion dollars this fiscal year, Hanford cleanup operations are expected to be complete by 2035, at a cost of $60 billion dollars. (authors)

  4. Short report on an accident during sodium cleanup with ethyl carbitol in a storage tank of a research facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief description is given of an accident which happened on 8 March 1996 during cleanup of a small amount of sodium (about 3 kg) within a 500 l storage tank of an FZK research facility, using ethyl carbitol (EC) as a reactant. An unexpected rapid decomposition of the compounds into ignitable gases which were then released through a safety valve into the building caused a deflagration event and, as a consequence, some damage to the building walls and to the research facility. The personnel were evacuated from the building before the event happened, and so nobody was injured. Sodium cleanup with ethyl carbitol was a well-established method, and cleaning procedures of the research facility were carried out since 1991 for more than twenty times without any problem. The advantage of heavy alcohol is low vapour pressure, high ignition point and mild reaction with sodium. In the paper, a short description is given of the main features of the research facility, of the usual cleanup procedure, and of the accident including its conditions. An analysis of the event (which is incomplete of course) is presented with regard to pressure, temperature and chemical composition. Finally, the consequences are addressed. The most important one is that sodium decommissioning with EC as reactant should be avoided until possible runaway reactions are sufficiently understood. (author)

  5. Cleanup procedures at the Nevada Test Site and at other radioactively contaminated sites including representative costs of cleanup and treatment of contaminated areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review summarizes available information on cleanup procedures at the Nevada Test Site and at other radioactively contaminated sites. Radionuclide distribution and inventory, size of the contaminated areas, equipment, and cleanup procedures and results are included. Information about the cost of cleanup and treatment for contaminated land is presented. Selected measures that could be useful in estimating the costs of cleaning up radioactively contaminated areas are described. 76 refs., 16 tabs

  6. Addressing Culture in the EFL Classroom: A Dialogic Proposal El abordaje de la cultura en la clase de inglés como lengua extranjera: una propuesta dialógica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Aldemar Álvarez Valencia

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Language teaching has gone from a linguistic centered approach towards a lingo-cultural experience in which learning a language goes hand in hand with the understanding of not only the target culture, but the learner's own culture. This paper attempts to describe and reflect upon a collaborative and dialogical experience carried out between two teachers of the Languages Program of Universidad de la Salle, in Bogotá. The bilateral enrichment of such a pedagogical experience helped the teachers to improve their language teaching contexts and prompted the construction of a theoretical proposal to enhance intercultural awareness. It also opened the way for the development of critical intercultural competence in fl (foreign language learners.La enseñanza de lengua ha pasado de un enfoque centrado en lo lingüístico hacia uno linguocultural, en el que el aprendizaje de una lengua va de la mano del entendimiento no sólo de la cultura objetivo, sino también de la propia cultura. Este artículo intenta describir y reflexionar alrededor de una experiencia colaborativa y dialógica que se realizó entre dos profesores del Programa de Lenguas de la Universidad de La Salle, en Bogotá. El enriquecimiento recíproco de esta experiencia pedagógica, permitió mejorar los contextos de enseñanza y la construcción de una propuesta teórica para promover la conciencia intercultural. También abrió las puertas para desarrollar competencia crítica intercultural en estudiantes de inglés como lengua extranjera.

  7. Accelerating Cleanup: Focus on 2006. Discussion draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This executive summary addresses the activities associated with the National Transuranic (TRU) Program managed by the Carlsbad Area Office (CAO). The CAO programmatically reports to the Assistant Secretary for Environmental Management and receives administrative support through the Albuquerque Operations Office. The mission of the Carlsbad Area Office (CAO) is to protect human health and the environment by opening and operating the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant for site disposal of TRU waste and by establishing an effective system for management of TRU waste from generation to disposal. It includes personnel assigned to the CAO, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site operations, and other activities associated with the National TRU Program. The CAO develops and directs implementation of the program, while the DOE Headquarters establishes policy and guidelines. The CAO assesses compliance with the program guidance, as well as the commonality of activities and assumptions among all the sites. Since the development of the February 28, 1997, database used to develop this Discussion Draft, the opening of the WIPP facility for receipt of Contact Handled waste has been delayed from November 1997 to May 1998. This slippage is significant enough to require a change in the milestones and volumes included in the documents to be reviewed by our stakeholders. Changes have been incorporated into this Discussion Draft and its supporting Project Baseline Summaries (PBSs)

  8. Utilizing the right mix of environmental cleanup technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a 310-square-mile United States Department of Energy nuclear facility located along the Savannah River near Aiken, South Carolina. During operations, which started in 1951, hazardous substances (chemicals and radionuclides) were released to the environment. The releases occurred as a result of inadvertent spills and waste disposal in unlined pits and basins which was common practice before environmental regulations existed. The hazardous substances have migrated to the vadose zone and groundwater in many areas of the SRS, resulting in 515 waste units that are required by environmental regulations, to undergo characterization and, if needed, remediation. In the initial years of the SRS environmental cleanup program (early 1990's), the focus was to use common technologies (such as pump and treat, air stripping, excavation and removal) that actively and tangibly removed contamination. Exclusive use of these technologies required continued and significant funding while often failing to meet acceptable clean-up goals and objectives. Recognizing that a more cost-effective approach was needed, SRS implemented new and complementary remediation methods focused on active and passive technologies targeted to solve specific remediation problems. Today, SRS uses technologies such as chemical / pH-adjusting injection, phyto-remediation, underground cutoff walls, dynamic underground stripping, soil fracturing, microbial degradation, baro-balls, electrical resistance heating, soil vapor extraction, and micro-blowers to more effectively treat contamination at lower costs. Additionally, SRS's remediation approach cost effectively maximizes cleanup as SRS works pro-actively with multiple regulatory agencies. Using GIS, video, animation, and graphics, SRS is able to provide an accurate depiction of the evolution of SRS groundwater and vadose zone cleanup activities to convince stakeholders and regulators of the effectiveness of various cleanup

  9. CALCULATING ECONOMIC RISK AFTER HANFORD CLEANUP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, M.J.

    2003-02-27

    Since late 1997, researchers at the Hanford Site have been engaged in the Groundwater Protection Project (formerly, the Groundwater/Vadose Zone Project), developing a suite of integrated physical and environmental models and supporting data to trace the complex path of Hanford legacy contaminants through the environment for the next thousand years, and to estimate corresponding environmental, human health, economic, and cultural risks. The linked set of models and data is called the System Assessment Capability (SAC). The risk mechanism for economics consists of ''impact triggers'' (sequences of physical and human behavior changes in response to, or resulting from, human health or ecological risks), and processes by which particular trigger mechanisms induce impacts. Economic impacts stimulated by the trigger mechanisms may take a variety of forms, including changes in either costs or revenues for economic sectors associated with the affected resource or activity. An existing local economic impact model was adapted to calculate the resulting impacts on output, employment, and labor income in the local economy (the Tri-Cities Economic Risk Model or TCERM). The SAC researchers ran a test suite of 25 realization scenarios for future contamination of the Columbia River after site closure for a small subset of the radionuclides and hazardous chemicals known to be present in the environment at the Hanford Site. These scenarios of potential future river contamination were analyzed in TCERM. Although the TCERM model is sensitive to river contamination under a reasonable set of assumptions concerning reactions of the authorities and the public, the scenarios show low enough future contamination that the impacts on the local economy are small.

  10. NRC plan for cleanup operations at Three Mile Island Unit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This NRC Plan, which defines NRC's functional role in cleanup operations at Three Mile Island Unit 2 and outlines NRC's regulatory responsibilities in fulfilling this role, is the first revision to the initial plan issued in July 1980 (NUREG-0698). Since 1980, a number of policy developments have occurred which will have an impact on the course of cleanup operations. This revision reflects these developments in the area of NRC's review and approval process with regard to cleanup operations as well as NRC's interface with the Department of Energy's involvement in the cleanup and waste disposal. This revision is also intended to update the cleanup schedule by presenting the cleanup progress that has taken place and NRC's role in ongoing and future cleanup activities

  11. Conference President's address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the Conference is to promote the development of a coherent international policy on the protection of the environment from the effects of ionizing radiation and to foster information exchange on this subject. The organizers, the IAEA in cooperation with United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), the European Commission (EC) and the International Union of Radioecology (IUR), as well as the hosts of the conference, the Government of Sweden through the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI), are pleased that so nearly 300 delegates from 53 countries have been nominated by their governments to attend this meeting. Another objective is to discuss the implications of the ICRP's proposal for a framework to assess radiation effects in the environment. A framework for radiological protection of the environment must be practical and simple, as should be international standards for discharges into the environment that take account of such an approach. This is a task for the IAEA, in cooperation with other international organizations. This conference therefore provides an opportunity for you to influence the development of both ICRP and IAEA policy in this area. The background session today will give information on the current situation as well as social and political drivers for change. A number of organizations will provide an insight to the present status of international policies on the radiological protection related to releases to the environment. During the course of the conference, there will be five topical sessions that will cover selected subjects related to protection of the environment, such as stakeholders' views, case studies, approaches for non-radioactive pollutants, the state of current scientific knowledge and, finally, the implications of ICRP proposals for international safety standards. Keynote speakers will address key issues within each topical session, and a rapporteur will summarize the

  12. Combining innovative technology demonstrations with dense nonaqueous phase liquids cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactively contaminated acidic aqueous wastes and organic liquids were discharged to the soil column at three disposal sites within the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site, Washington. As a result, a portion of the underlying groundwater is contaminated with carbon tetrachloride several orders of magnitude above the maximum contaminant level accepted for a drinking water supply. Treatability testing and cleanup actions have been initiated to remove the contamination from both the unsaturated soils to minimize further groundwater contamination and the groundwater itself. To expedite cleanup, innovative technologies for (1) drilling, (2) site characterization, (3) monitoring, (4) well field development, and (5) contaminant treatment are being demonstrated and subsequently used where possible to improve the rates and cost savings associated with the removal of carbon tetrachloride from the soils and groundwater

  13. Science to Support DOE Site Cleanup: The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Environmental Management Science Program Awards -- Fiscal Year 2002 Mid-Year Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bredt, Paul R.; Ainsworth, Calvin C.; Brockman, Fred J.; Camaioni, Donald M.; Egorov, Oleg B.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Gorby, Yuri A.; Grate, Jay W.; Greenwood, Margaret S.; Hay, Benjamin P.; Hess, Nancy J.; Hubler, Timothy L.; Icenhower, Jonathan P.; Mattigod, Shas V.; McGrail, B. Peter; Meyer, Philip D.; Murray, Christopher J.; Panetta, Paul D.; Pfund, David M.; Rai, Dhanpat; Su, Yali; Sundaram, S. K.; Weber, William J.; Zachara, John M.

    2002-06-11

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has been awarded a total of 80 Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) research grants since the inception of the program in 1996. The Laboratory has collaborated on an additional 14 EMSP awards with funding received through other institution. This report describes how each of the projects awarded in 1999, 2000, and 2001 addresses significant U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) cleanup issues, including those at the Hanford Site. The technical progress made to date in each of these research projects is addressed in the individual project reports included in this document. Projects are under way in three main areas: Tank Waste Remediation, Decontamination and Decommissioning, and Soil and Groundwater Cleanup.

  14. Science to Support DOE Site Cleanup: The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Environmental Management Science Program Awards - Fiscal Year 2000 Mid-Year Progress Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was awarded ten Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) research grants in fiscal year 1996, six in fiscal year 1997, eight in fiscal year 1998, and seven in fiscal year 1999. All of the fiscal year 1996 award projects have been completed and will publish final reports, so their annual updates will not be included in this document. This section summarizes how each of the currently funded grants addresses significant US Department of Energy (DOE) cleanup issues, including those at the Hanford Site. The technical progress made to date in each of these research projects is addressed in more detail in the individual progress reports contained in this document. This research performed at PNNL is focused primarily in four areas: Tank Waste Remediation; Decontamination and Decommissioning; Spent Nuclear Fuel and Nuclear Materials; and Soil and Groundwater Cleanup

  15. Science to Support DOE Site Cleanup: The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Environmental Management Science Program Awards - Fiscal Year 2000 Mid-Year Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Clark D.; Bennett, Sheila Q.

    2000-07-25

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was awarded ten Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) research grants in fiscal year 1996, six in fiscal year 1997, eight in fiscal year 1998 and seven in fiscal year 1999.(a) All of the fiscal year 1996 awards have been completed and the Principal Investigators are writing final reports, so their summaries will not be included in this document. This section summarizes how each of the currently funded grants addresses significant U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) cleanup issues, including those at the Hanford Site. The technical progress made to date in each of these research projects is addressed in more detail in the individual progress reports contained in this document. This research performed at PNNL is focused primarily in four areas: Tank Waste Remediation, Decontamination and Decommissioning, Spent Nuclear Fuel and Nuclear Materials, and Soil and Groundwater Cleanup.

  16. Science to Support DOE Site Cleanup: The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Environmental Management Science Program Awards - Fiscal Year 2000 Mid-Year Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CD Carlson; SQ Bennett

    2000-07-25

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was awarded ten Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) research grants in fiscal year 1996, six in fiscal year 1997, eight in fiscal year 1998, and seven in fiscal year 1999. All of the fiscal year 1996 award projects have been completed and will publish final reports, so their annual updates will not be included in this document. This section summarizes how each of the currently funded grants addresses significant US Department of Energy (DOE) cleanup issues, including those at the Hanford Site. The technical progress made to date in each of these research projects is addressed in more detail in the individual progress reports contained in this document. This research performed at PNNL is focused primarily in four areas: Tank Waste Remediation; Decontamination and Decommissioning; Spent Nuclear Fuel and Nuclear Materials; and Soil and Groundwater Cleanup.

  17. Cleanup Verification Package for the 600-259 Waste Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. M. Capron

    2006-02-09

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 600-259 waste site. The site was the former site of the Special Waste Form Lysimeter, consisting of commercial reactor isotope waste forms in contact with soils within engineered caissons, and was used by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to collect data regarding leaching behavior for target analytes. A Grout Waste Test Facility also operated at the site, designed to test leaching rates of grout-solidified low-level radioactive waste.

  18. Cleanup Verification Package for the 618-8 Burial Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 618-8 Burial Ground, also referred to as the Solid Waste Burial Ground No. 8, 318-8, and the Early Solid Waste Burial Ground. During its period of operation, the 618-8 site is speculated to have been used to bury uranium-contaminated waste derived from fuel manufacturing, and construction debris from the remodeling of the 313 Building

  19. Cleanup Verification Package for the 618-3 Burial Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. J. Appel

    2006-09-12

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 618-3 Solid Waste Burial Ground, also referred to as Burial Ground Number 3 and the Dry Waste Burial Ground Number 3. During its period of operation, the 618-3 site was used to dispose of uranium-contaminated construction debris from the 311 Building and construction/demolition debris from remodeling of the 313, 303-J and 303-K Buildings.

  20. Cleanup Verification Package for the 618-3 Burial Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 618-3 Solid Waste Burial Ground, also referred to as Burial Ground Number 3 and the Dry Waste Burial Ground Number 3. During its period of operation, the 618-3 site was used to dispose of uranium-contaminated construction debris from the 311 Building and construction/demolition debris from remodeling of the 313, 303-J and 303-K Buildings

  1. Public participation in the evaluation of innovative environmental cleanup technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technologies for remediation of contamination are urgently needed to clean up US Department of Energy (DOE) sites across the country. DOE is managing a national program to develop, demonstrate, and deploy new technologies with promise to expedite this cleanup. The Integrated Demonstration for Cleanup of Volatile Organic Compounds at Arid Sites (VOC-Arid ID) is one such effort. Time and resources, however, are too limited to be invested in methods of remediation that will never be deployed because they have not been rigorously evaluated or because they face the withering opposition of stakeholders. Therefore the VOC-Arid ID is assessing technology both in terms of its technical effectiveness and its stakeholder acceptability. Only if a technology performs as required and is acceptable to regulators, users of technology, and the public will the VOC-Arid ID recommend its use. What distinguishes public involvement in the VOC-Arid ID is the direct influence stakeholders have on the design of technology demonstrations by working directly with technology developers. Stakeholders participated in defining the criteria with which innovative environmental cleanup technology is being evaluated. The integrated demonstration is committed to providing stakeholders with the information they've indicated they need to reach reasoned judgments about the use of specific cleanup technologies. A guiding principle of the VOC-Arid ID is that stakeholder participation improves the technologies being developed, enhances the acceptance of the technologies, and will lead to the broad and timely deployment of appropriate and effective methods of environmental remediation. The VOC-Arid ID has involved stakeholders from the host demonstration site, Hanford, Washington, and from other and sites where the ID technologies may be deployed

  2. Characterization of plutonium contamination at Maralinga: Dosimetry and cleanup criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An area of South Australia remained contaminated following British atomic tests at Maralinga during 1955-1963. Of importance is the long lived 239Pu of which some 24 kg was explosively dispersed in several 'minor trials'. The extent, quantities and physical characteristics of the plutonium have been assessed and estimates of dose, dominated by the inhalation pathway in the critical group of Aborigines living a semi-traditional lifestyle, have been made for potential occupants. Dosimetry, together with social and economic factors, underpins the setting of cleanup criteria in terms of activity concentrations averaged over large areas and permissible concentrations of contaminated particles. The possibility of intentional behaviour such as fragment scavenging has also influenced limits on particulate contamination. Rehabilitation of the most contaminated areas is underway, with scraping of surface soil and burial on site completed. Vehicular-mounted radiation detector systems for wide area and particle monitoring have been developed, and procedures established for determining cleanup boundaries and for the verification monitoring to ensure that the cleanup process has met the specified criteria. Data are being obtained for a final dose and health risk assessment of the cleaned up site. (author)

  3. A risk-based cleanup criterion for PCE in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most important attribute of a chemical contaminant at a hazardous-wastes site for decision makers to consider with regard to its cleanup is the potential risk associated with human exposure. For this reason we have developed a strategy for establishing a risk-based cleanup criterion for chemicals in soil. We describe this strategy by presenting a cleanup criterion for tetrachloroethylene (PCE) in soil associated with a representative California landscape. We being by discussing the environmental fate and transport model, developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), that we used to predict the equilibrium concentration of PCE in five environmental media from a steady-state source in soil. Next, we explain the concept and application of pathway-exposure factors (PEFs), the hazard index, and cancer-potency factors (CPFs) for translating the predicted concentrations of PCE into estimated potential hazard or risk for hypothetically exposed individuals. Finally, the relationship between concentration and an allowable level of risk is defined and the societal and financial implications are discussed. 22 refs., 6 tabs

  4. Rocky Flats Cleanup Agreement implementation successes and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On July 19, 1996 the US Department of Energy (DOE), State of Colorado (CDPHE), and US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) entered into an agreement called the Rocky Flats Cleanup Agreement (RFCA) for the cleanup and closure of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS or Rocky Flats). Major elements of the agreement include: an Integrated Site-Wide Baseline; up to twelve significant enforceable milestones per year; agreed upon soil and water action levels and standards for cleanup; open space as the likely foreseeable land use; the plutonium and TRU waste removed by 2015; streamlined regulatory process; agreement with the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) to coordinate activities; and a risk reduction focus. Successful implementation of RFCA requires a substantial effort by the parties to change their way of thinking about RFETS and meet the deliverables and commitments. Substantial progress toward Site closure through the implementation of RFCA has been accomplished in the short time since the signing, yet much remains to be done. Much can be learned from the Rocky Flats experience by other facilities in similar situations

  5. Observations of IPv6 Addresses

    OpenAIRE

    Malone, David

    2008-01-01

    IPv6 addresses are longer than IPv4 addresses, and are so capable of greater expression. Given an IPv6 address, conventions and standards allow us to draw conclusions about how IPv6 is being used on the node with that address. We show a technique for analysing IPv6 addresses and apply it to a number of datasets. The datasets include addresses seen at a busy mirror server, at an IPv6-enabled TLD DNS server and when running traceroute across the production IPv6 network. The technique quantif...

  6. Cleanup Verification Package for the 300-8 Waste Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 300-8 waste site. This waste site was formerly used to stage scrap metal from the 300 Area in support of a program to recycle aluminum. This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 300-8 waste site. The 300-8 site is located within the 300-FF-2 Operable Unit in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The site was formerly used to stage scrap metal from the 300 Area in support of a program to recycle aluminum. Staging and loading activities at the site scattered scrap metal over an approximately 34,000-m2 (366,000-ft2) area, with residual metallic debris generally present within the top 0.4 m (1.5 ft) of soil. Site excavation and waste disposal are complete, and post-excavation geophysical surveys confirm the removal of residual metallic debris. The exposed surfaces have been sampled and analyzed to verify attainment of the remedial action goals. Results of the sampling, laboratory analyses, and data evaluations for the 300-8 site indicate that all remedial action objectives and goals for direct exposure, protection of groundwater, and protection of the Columbia River have been met for industrial land use (Table ES-1). Because residual soil concentrations indicated that cleanup levels for more stringent land uses may have been achieved for the 300-8 site, a supplemental evaluation was performed against unrestricted land-use cleanup objectives established in the Explanation of Significant Differences for the 300-FF-2 Operable Unit Record of Decision (EPA 2004). Results of the evaluation (Table ES-2) demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses (as bounded by the rural-residential scenario) and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils (i.e., surface to 4.6 m (15 ft) deep). This site does not have a deep zone; therefore, no deep zone institutional controls are required. The site

  7. Chernobyl cleanup workers from Estonia: cohort description and related epidemiological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahu, Kaja; Rahu, Mati; Tekkel, Mare; Veidebaum, Toomas; Hakulinen, Timo; Auvinen, Anssi; Bigbee, William L; Hartshorne, Michael F; Inskip, Peter D; Boice, John D

    2015-12-01

    The Estonian study of Chernobyl cleanup workers was one of the first investigations to evaluate the possible health consequences of working in the Chernobyl area (the 30 km exclusion zone and/or adjacent territories) after the 1986 reactor accident. The cohort consists of 4831 men who were dispatched in 1986-1991 for tasks involving decontamination, construction of buildings, transport, radiation measurement, guard duty or other activities. By 31 December 2012, the follow-up of the cohort yielded 102 158 person-years of observation. Exposure and health data were collected by postal questionnaires, biodosimetry evaluations, thyroid screenings, and record-linkages with cancer, causes of death and health insurance reimbursement registers and databases. These data cover socio-demographic factors, employment history, aspects of health behaviour, medical history, work and living conditions in the Chernobyl area, biomarkers of exposure, cancer and non-cancer disease occurrence and causes of death. Cancer incidence data were obtained for 1986-2008, mortality data for 1986-2011 and non-cancer morbidity data for 2004-2012. Although the cohort is relatively small, it has been extensively examined and benefited from comprehensive nationwide population and health registers. The major finding was an increased risk of suicide. Thyroid examinations did not reveal an association with thyroid nodular disease and radiation dose, but did indicate the importance of accounting for screening when making comparisons with unscreened populations. No risk of leukaemia was observed and risks higher than 2.5-fold could be excluded with 95% confidence. Biodosimetry included GPA analyses and chromosomal translocation analyses and indicated that the Estonian cleanup workers experienced a relatively low mean exposure of the order of 0.1 Gy. One value of the Estonian study is in the methodologic processes brought to bear in addressing possible health effects from the Chernobyl accident. Twenty

  8. EBR-II cover-gas cleanup system upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technology advances in the past few years have prompted an effort at Argonne National Laboratory to replace existing equipment with high-performance digital computers and color-graphic displays. Improved operation of process systems can be achieved by utilizing state-of-the-art computer technology in the areas of process control and process monitoring. The cover-gas cleanup system (CGCS) at the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) is the first system to be upgraded with high-performance digital equipment. The upgrade consisted of a main control computer, a distributed control computer, a front-end input/output computer, a main graphics interface terminal, and a remote graphics interface terminal. This paper describes the main control computer and the operator interface control software. Argonne National Laboratory's EBR-II is a pool-type nuclear reactor demonstration facility that uses liquid sodium as the primary system and secondary system coolant. The primary system tank contains ∼330000 ell of liquid sodium blanketed with an argon cover gas. Despite this inert atmosphere, the primary system requires a cover-gas monitoring and cleanup system, the CGCS. The CGCS maintains low levels of impurities in the cover gas so that even small levels of impurities can be detected to flag a failed fuel element and to support mass spectrometer analysis to identify a failed fuel element. Impurities can be introduced to the argon cover gas by the failure of fuel element cladding and the subsequent release of gaseous fission products or xenon open-quotes tag gasclose quotes placed in the fuel elements for the purpose of signaling a fuel element breach. The CGCS consists of a main cleanup loop and a gas analysis system

  9. Hanford: A Conversation About Nuclear Waste and Cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author takes us on a journey through a world of facts, values, conflicts, and choices facing the most complex environmental cleanup project in the United States, the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. Starting with the top-secret Manhattan Project, Hanford was used to create tons of plutonium for nuclear weapons. Hundreds of tons of waste remain. In an easy-to-read, illustrated text, Gephart crafts the story of Hanford becoming the world's first nuclear weapons site to release large amounts of contaminants into the environment. This was at a time when radiation biology was in its infancy, industry practiced unbridled waste dumping, and the public trusted what it was told. The plutonium market stalled with the end of the Cold War. Public accountability and environmental compliance ushered in a new cleanup mission. Today, Hanford is driven by remediation choices whose outcomes remain uncertain. It's a story whose epilogue will be written by future generations. This book is an information resource, written for the general reader as well as the technically trained person wanting an overview of Hanford and cleanup issues facing the nuclear weapons complex. Each chapter is a topical mini-series. It's an idea guide that encourages readers to be informed consumers of Hanford news, to recognize that knowledge, high ethical standards, and social values are at the heart of coping with Hanford's past and charting its future. Hanford history is a window into many environmental conflicts facing our nation; it's about building upon success and learning from failure. And therein lies a key lesson, when powerful interests are involved, no generation is above pretense. Roy E. Gephart is a geohydrologist and senior program manager at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington. He has 30 years experience in environmental studies and the nuclear waste industry

  10. The value of superfund cleanups : evidence from U.S. Environmental Protection Agency decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Shreekant; Van Houtven, George; Cropper, Maureen L.; DEC

    1994-01-01

    Under the Superfund law, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is responsible for inspecting hazardous waste sites and for putting those with the most serious contamination problems on a national priorities list. The EPA then oversees the cleanup of these sites, suing potentially responsible parties for the costs of cleanup when possible, and funding the cleanup of"orphaned"sites out of the Superfund, money raised taxing chemical and petroleum products. The Superfund program is contr...

  11. EBR-II cover-gas cleanup system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Operation of EBR-II with breached elements results in the continuous release of fission gases to the argon cover gas. To control activity in the reactor, a cover-gas cleanup system (CGCS) was installed to remove xenon and krypton from the cover gas by cryogenic distillation. Although only one breached fuel element will, by intention, be in-core during the early stages of the run-beyond-cladding-breach (RBCB) program now under way, the CGCS is designed to handle the activity released by up to 12 mixed-oxide elements

  12. NHC's contribution to cleanup of the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The one billion dollars per year Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC), managed by Fluor Daniel Hanford, calls for cleanup of the Hanford Site for the Department of Energy. Project Hanford comprises four major subprojects, each managed by a different major contractor. Numatec Hanford Corporation (NHC) is a fifth major subcontractor which provides energy and technology to each of the Hanford projects. NHC draws on the experience and capabilities of its parent companies, COGEMA and SGN, and relies on local support from its sister Company in Richland, COGEMA Engineering Corporation, to bring the best commercial practices and new technology to the Project

  13. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-F-1 Burial Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-F-1 Burial Ground on the Hanford Site. This burial ground is a combination of two locations formerly called Minor Construction Burial Ground No. 2 and Solid Waste Burial Ground No. 2. This waste site received radioactive equipment and other miscellaneous waste from 105-F Reactor operations, including dummy elements and irradiated process tubing; gun barrel tips, steel sleeves, and metal chips removed from the reactor; filter boxes containing reactor graphite chips; and miscellaneous construction solid waste

  14. Fernald restoration: ecologists and engineers integrate restoration and cleanup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, Eric; Homer, John

    2002-07-15

    As cleanup workers excavate pits and tear down buildings at the Fernald site in southwest Ohio, site ecologists are working side-by-side to create thriving wetlands and develop the early stages of forest, prairie, and savanna ecosystems to restore natural resources that were impacted by years of site operations. In 1998, the U.S. Department of Energy-Fernald Office (DOE-FN) and its cleanup contractor, Fluor Fernald, Inc., initiated several ecological restoration projects in perimeter areas of the site (e.g., areas not used for or impacted by uranium processing or waste management). The projects are part of Fernald's final land use plan to restore natural resources over 904 acres of the 1,050-acre site. Pete Yerace, the DOE-FN Natural Resource Trustee representative is working with the Fernald Natural Resource Trustees in an oversight role to resolve the state of Ohio's 1986 claim against DOE for injuries to natural resources. Fluor Fernald, Inc., and DOE-FN developed the ''Natural Resource Restoration Plan'', which outlines 15 major restoration projects for the site and will restore injured natural resources at the site. In general, Fernald's plan includes grading to maximize the formation of wetlands or expanded floodplain, amending soil where topsoil has been removed during excavation, and establishing native vegetation throughout the site. Today, with cleanup over 35 percent complete and site closure targeted for 2006, Fernald is entering a new phase of restoration that involves heavily remediated areas. By working closely with engineers and cleanup crews, site ecologists can take advantage of remediation fieldwork (e.g., convert an excavated depression into a wetland) and avoid unnecessary costs and duplication. This collaboration has also created opportunities for relatively simple and inexpensive restoration of areas that were discovered during ongoing remediation. To ensure the survival of the plant material in heavily

  15. Risky business: Assessing cleanup plans for waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ORNL was chosen to perform human health and ecological risk assessments for DOE because of its risk assessment expertise. The U.S. Department of Energy's many production and research sites contain radioactive and hazardous wastes. These waste sites pose potential risks to the health and safety of remediation and waste management workers and the public. The risks, however, vary from site to site. Some sites undoubtedly present larger risks than others and should be cleaned up first. However, before the cleanup begins, DOE is required by law to prepare an environmental impact statement on any actions that may significantly affect the environment-even actions that would clean it up

  16. The TMI-2 clean-up project collection and databases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A publicly accessible collection containing several thousand of the videotapes, photographs, slides and technical reports generated during the clean-up of the TMI-2 reactor has been established by the Pennsylvania State University Libraries. The collection is intended to serve as a technical resource for the nuclear industry as well as the interested public. Two Internet-searchable databases describing the videotapes and technical reports have been created. The development and use of these materials and databases are described in this paper. (orig.)

  17. Cleanup Verification Package for the 116-K-2 Effluent Trench

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. M. Capron

    2006-04-04

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 116-K-2 effluent trench, also referred to as the 116-K-2 mile-long trench and the 116-K-2 site. During its period of operation, the 116-K-2 site was used to dispose of cooling water effluent from the 105-KE and 105-KW Reactors by percolation into the soil. This site also received mixed liquid wastes from the 105-KW and 105-KE fuel storage basins, reactor floor drains, and miscellaneous decontamination activities.

  18. RCRA and CERCLA requirements affecting cleanup activities at a federal facility superfund site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) achieved success on an integrated groundwater monitoring program which addressed both RCRA and CERCLA requirements. The integrated plan resulted in a cost savings of approximately $2.6 million. At present, the FEMP is also working on an integrated closure process to address Hazardous Waste Management Units (HWMUs) at the site. To date, Ohio EPA seems willing to discuss an integrated program with some stipulations. If an integrated program is implemented, a cost savings of several million dollars will be realized since the CERCLA documents can be used in place of a RCRA closure plan. The success of an integrated program at the FEMP is impossible without the support of DOE and the regulators. Since DOE is an owner/operator of the facility and Ohio EPA regulates hazardous waste management activities at the FEMP, both parties must be satisfied with the proposed integration activities. Similarly, US EPA retains CERCLA authority over the site along with a signed consent agreement with DOE, which dictates the schedule of the CERCLA activities. Another federal facility used RCRA closure plans to satisfy CERCLA activities. This federal facility was in a different US EPA Region than the FEMP. While this approach was successful for this site, an integrated approach was required at the FEMP because of the signed Consent Agreement and Consent Decree. For federal facilities which have a large number of HWMUs along with OUs, an integrated approach may result in a timely and cost-effective cleanup

  19. Science to Support DOE Site Cleanup: The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Environmental Management Science Program Awards-Fiscal Year 1999 Mid-Year Progress Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was awarded ten Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) research grants in fiscal year 1996, six in fiscal year 1997, and eight in fiscal year 1998. This section summarizes how each grant addresses significant U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) cleanup issues, including those at the Hanford Site. The technical progress made to date in each of these research projects is addressed in more detail in the individual progress reports contained in this document. This research is focused primarily in five areas: Tank Waste Remediation, Decontamination and Decommissioning, Spent Nuclear Fuel and Nuclear Materials, Soil and Groundwater Clean Up, and Health Effects

  20. Science to Support DOE Site Cleanup: The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Environmental Management Science Program Awards-Fiscal Year 1999 Mid-Year Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peurrung, L.M.

    1999-06-30

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was awarded ten Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) research grants in fiscal year 1996, six in fiscal year 1997, and eight in fiscal year 1998. This section summarizes how each grant addresses significant U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) cleanup issues, including those at the Hanford Site. The technical progress made to date in each of these research projects is addressed in more detail in the individual progress reports contained in this document. This research is focused primarily in five areas: Tank Waste Remediation, Decontamination and Decommissioning, Spent Nuclear Fuel and Nuclear Materials, Soil and Groundwater Clean Up, and Health Effects.

  1. Land Use and Land Cover - MO 2008 Brownfields Voluntary Cleanup Program Sites (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — The Brownfields/Voluntary Cleanup Program (BVCP) provides property buyers, sellers, developers, bankers, development agencies, local government and other voluntary...

  2. Port virtual addressing for PC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instruments for nuclear signal measurements based on add-on card for a personal computer (PC) are designed often. Then one faces the problem of the addressing of data input/output devices which show an integration level or intelligence that makes the use of several port address indispensable, and these are limited in the PC. The virtual addressing offers the advantage of the occupation of few addresses to accede to many of these devices. The principles of this technique and the appliances of a solution in radiometric in a radiometric card based on programmed logic are discussed in this paper

  3. Reclaiming unused IPv4 addresses

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2016-01-01

    As many people might know, the number of IPv4 addresses is limited and almost all have been allocated (see here and here for more information).   Although CERN has been allocated some 340,000 addresses, the way these are allocated across the site is not as efficient as we would like. As we face an increasing demand for IPv4 addresses with the growth in virtual machines, the IT Department’s Communication Systems Group will be reorganising address allocation during 2016 to make more efficient use of the IPv4 address ranges that have been allocated to CERN. We aim, wherever possible, to avoid giving out fixed IP addresses, and have all devices connected to the campus network obtain an address dynamically each time they connect. As a first stage, starting in February, IP addresses that have not been used for more than 9 months will be reclaimed. No information about the devices concerned will be deleted from LANDB, but a new IP address will have to be requested if they are ever reconnected to t...

  4. The strategic planning initiative for accelerated cleanup of Rocky Flats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The difficulties associated with the congressional funding cycles, regulatory redirection, remediation schedule deadlines, and the lack of a mixed waste (MW) repository have adversely impacted the environmental restoration (ER) program across the entire U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex including Rocky Flats Plant (RFP). In an effort to counteract and reduce the impacts of these difficulties, RFP management saw the need for developing a revised ER Program. The objective of the revised ER approach is to identify an initiative that would accelerate the cleanup process and reduce costs without compromising either protection of human health or the environment. A special analysis with that assigned objective was initiated in June 1993 using a team that included DOE Headquarters and Rocky Flats Field Office (RFFO), EG ampersand G personnel, and experts from nationally recognized ER firms. The analysis relied on recent regulatory and process innovations such as DOE's Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) and EPA's Superfund Accelerated Cleanup Model (SACM) and Corrective Action Management Units (CAMU). The analysis also incorporated other ongoing improvements efforts initiated by RFP, such as the Quality Action Team and the Integrated Planning Process

  5. Solvent cleanup using base-treated silica gel solid adsorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A solvent cleanup method using silica gel columns treated with either sodium hydroxide (NaOH) or lithium hydroxide (LiOH) has been investigated. Its effectiveness compares favorably with that of traditional wash methods. After treatment with NaOH solution, the gels adsorb HNO3, dibutyl phosphate (DBP), UO22+, Pu4+, various metal-ion fission products, and other species from the solvent. Adsorption mechanisms include neutralization, hydrolysis, polymerization, and precipitation, depending on the species adsorbed. Sodium dibutyl phosphate, which partially distributes to the solvent from the gels, can be stripped with water; the stripping coefficient ranges from 280 to 540. Adsorption rates are diffusion controlled such that temperature effects are relatively small. Recycle of the gels is achieved either by an aqueous elution and recycle sequence or by a thermal treatment method, which may be preferable. Potential advantages of this solvent cleanup method are that (1) some operational problems are avoided and (2) the amount of NaNO3 waste generated per metric ton of nuclear fuel reprocessed would be reduced significantly. 19 references, 6 figures, 12 tables

  6. Hydrophobic modification of polyurethane foam for oil spill cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To improve the oleophilic/hydrophobic properties of polyurethane (PU) foams for oil spill cleanup, PU samples were modified by grafting with oleophilic monomer Lauryl methacrylate (LMA) in solvent and/or coating with LMA microspheres through heating and curing. Modified PU cubes were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The water sorption of modified PU cubes was decreased by 24–50%, while the diesel or kerosene sorption of modified PU cubes was increased by 18–27%. In water–oil system, compared with blank PU cubes, the sorption capacity of PU cubes grafted with LMA was increased by 44% for diesel and 100% for kerosene. The sorption capacity of PU cubes coated with LMA microspheres was increased by 20% for diesel and 7% for kerosene. The solvent sorption of modified PU cubes could reach 50–69 g/g. The modified PU cubes can be effectively used in oil/solvent spill cleanup.

  7. A software tool for soil clean-up technology selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil remediation is a difficult, time-consuming and expensive operation. A variety of mature and emerging soil remediation technologies is available and future trends in remediation will include continued competition among environmental service companies and technology developers, which will definitely result in further increase in the clean-up options. Consequently, the demand has enhanced developing decision support tools that could help the decision makers to select the most appropriate technology for the specific contaminated site, before the costly remedial actions are taken. Therefore, a software tool for soil clean-up technology selection is currently being developed with the aim of closely working with human decision makers (site owners, local community representatives, environmentalists, regulators, etc.) to assess the available technologies and preliminarily select the preferred remedial options. The analysis for the identification of the best remedial options is based on technical, financial, environmental, and social criteria. These criteria are ranked by all involved parties to determine their relative importance for a particular project. (author)

  8. A computer program for deriving soil cleanup criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has issued a new order, DOE Order 5400.5, for Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment. In this order, the DOE sets forth radiological protection guidelines for the cleanup of residual radioactive materials. Radionuclide concentrations and radioactivity levels have been established that are acceptable if a site is to be used without radiological restrictions. The guidelines can be categorized as either generic (site independent), that is, taken from existing radiation protection standards, or site specific, that is, derived from the basic dose limit using site-specific data and models. The generic guidelines for soil concentrations of 226Ra, 228Ra, 230Th, and 232Th adopted in DOE Order 5400.5 are generally consistent with US Environmental Protection Agency standards in Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 192. Procedures and data for deriving site-specific guidelines for other radionuclides in soil have been coded in a microcomputer program called RESRAD. The RESRAD code has been used by the DOE and its contractors to calculate postremediation doses and cleanup guidelines. The RESRAD code is a useful, easy to run, and very user-friendly tool

  9. Aviation safely management, Valdez oil spill clean-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The March 24, 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill in Alaska's Prince William Sound (PWS) resulted in an unprecedented mobilization of personnel and oil spill clean-up equipment. This paper describes the comprehensive safety management system implemented for aviation operations supporting the clean-up response in PWS and the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). Aviation support operations quickly expanded to over 100 aircraft obtained from numerous sources. Beginning with early surveillance flights, aviation operations were subject to comprehensive safety management programs, including safety assessments, minimum flight weather criteria, operational standards and procedures, air carrier qualifications, equipment and procedure audits, and emergency response. Communication networks and flight following procedures were established, arctic survival training was conducted, and a full complement of survival equipment was required. These programs were largely responsible for safety performance of the spill response effort-during the 1989-92 response activities, over 56,000 flight hours, 159,000 equivalent passengers, and 20,000 tons of cargo were handled without an aviation related injury. The programs are applicable to offshore development and operational activities, particularly those located in more remote, severe environments

  10. An address by AECL's president

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This complete address given by Reid Morden, the President of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, at the June 1997 meeting of the Canadian Nuclear Association. In his address, Morden discusses Canada's success in at home and abroad. He also corrects myths about nuclear energy

  11. Cultural Approaches to Parenting

    OpenAIRE

    Bornstein, Marc H.

    2012-01-01

    This article first introduces some main ideas behind culture and parenting and next addresses philosophical rationales and methodological considerations central to cultural approaches to parenting, including a brief account of a cross-cultural study of parenting. It then focuses on universals, specifics, and distinctions between form (behavior) and function (meaning) in parenting as embedded in culture. The article concludes by pointing to social policy implications as well as future directio...

  12. Mapping diasporic media across the EU: addressing cultural exclusion

    OpenAIRE

    GEORGIOU, Myria

    2003-01-01

    Peoples who at some stage in their history migrated from an original homeland and settled in a European country – that is, diasporic groups – is estimated to be between ten and 30 million across a total population in the European Union (EU) of about 380 million. In addition to that millions of members of the older diasporas – for instance, Jewish, Roma, Armenians – have been integral components of the European past and present. Almost five million out of the world’s 20 million refugees are ho...

  13. Creating Communities of Professionalism: Addressing Cultural and Structural Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this narrative synthesis is twofold. The purpose of this paper is to understand the barriers and constraints that hinder or prevent the growth of professional community. The author also want to form an empirical understanding of how educators can be successful in meeting these challenges. In both cases, the author wish to grow…

  14. 40 CFR 312.25 - Searches for recorded environmental cleanup liens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... local law. (b) All information collected regarding the existence of such environmental cleanup liens... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Searches for recorded environmental cleanup liens. 312.25 Section 312.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...

  15. Preliminary cleanup activities at vicinity properties near Salt Lake City, Utah: Environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the preliminary cleanup activities and their impacts for the approximately 100 properties in Salt Lake Valley that have been contaminated by radioactive tailings from the site of the inactive Vitro uranium mill. The 23 properties already included on the official list for cleanup have been used as the basis for estimating impacts at all 100 sites

  16. Development of a risk-based approach to Hanford Site cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In response to a request from Mr. Thomas Grumbly, Assistant Secretary of Energy for Environmental Management, the Hanford Site contractors developed a conceptual set of risk-based cleanup strategies that (1) protect the public, workers, and environment from unacceptable risks; (2) are executable technically; and (3) fit within an expected annual funding profile of 1.05 billion dollars. These strategies were developed because (1) the US Department of Energy and Hanford Site budgets are being reduced, (2) stakeholders are dissatisfied with the perceived rate of cleanup, (3) the US Congress and the US Department of Energy are increasingly focusing on risk and riskreduction activities, (4) the present strategy is not integrated across the Site and is inconsistent in its treatment of similar hazards, (5) the present cleanup strategy is not cost-effective from a risk-reduction or future land use perspective, and (6) the milestones and activities in the Tri-Party Agreement cannot be achieved with an anticipated funding of 1.05 billion dollars annually. The risk-based strategies described herein were developed through a systems analysis approach that (1) analyzed the cleanup mission; (2) identified cleanup objectives, including risk reduction, land use, and mortgage reduction; (3) analyzed the existing baseline cleanup strategy from a cost and risk perspective; (4) developed alternatives for accomplishing the cleanup mission; (5) compared those alternatives against cleanup objectives; and (6) produced conclusions and recommendations regarding the current strategy and potential risk-based strategies

  17. Techniques for laser spectroscopy of actinide elements: developments in the clean-up process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Configuration of an efficient laser clean-up process requires a large amount of basic atomic data provided by careful high resolution spectroscopic experiments involving one or several lasers, both pulsed and cw. Efforts in developing such sources for high resolution spectroscopy in the context of the clean-up process are discussed

  18. Full automatic clean-up robot for dioxin/PCB analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumura, T.; Masuzaki, Y.; Takahashi, A.; Koizumi, A. [METOCEAN Environment Inc., Shizuoka (Japan). Environmental Risk Research Center, Inst. of General Science for Environment; Okuyama, H.; Kawada, Y.; Higashiguchi, T. [Moritex Corporation, Yokohama (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Dioxin analysis requires several steps of clean-up procedures by combination of several column chromatography (e.g. silica gel column chromatography, carbon column chromatography) and sulfuric acid treatment. Full Automatic Clean-up Robot for Dioxin and PCB were developed.

  19. Development of a risk-based approach to Hanford Site cleanup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hesser, W.A.; Daling, P.M. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Baynes, P.A. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)] [and others

    1995-06-01

    In response to a request from Mr. Thomas Grumbly, Assistant Secretary of Energy for Environmental Management, the Hanford Site contractors developed a conceptual set of risk-based cleanup strategies that (1) protect the public, workers, and environment from unacceptable risks; (2) are executable technically; and (3) fit within an expected annual funding profile of 1.05 billion dollars. These strategies were developed because (1) the US Department of Energy and Hanford Site budgets are being reduced, (2) stakeholders are dissatisfied with the perceived rate of cleanup, (3) the US Congress and the US Department of Energy are increasingly focusing on risk and riskreduction activities, (4) the present strategy is not integrated across the Site and is inconsistent in its treatment of similar hazards, (5) the present cleanup strategy is not cost-effective from a risk-reduction or future land use perspective, and (6) the milestones and activities in the Tri-Party Agreement cannot be achieved with an anticipated funding of 1.05 billion dollars annually. The risk-based strategies described herein were developed through a systems analysis approach that (1) analyzed the cleanup mission; (2) identified cleanup objectives, including risk reduction, land use, and mortgage reduction; (3) analyzed the existing baseline cleanup strategy from a cost and risk perspective; (4) developed alternatives for accomplishing the cleanup mission; (5) compared those alternatives against cleanup objectives; and (6) produced conclusions and recommendations regarding the current strategy and potential risk-based strategies.

  20. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-F-5 PNL Sawdust Pit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. D. Habel

    2008-05-20

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action, sampling activities, and compliance with cleanup criteria for the 118-F-5 Burial Ground, the PNL (Pacific Northwest Laboratory) Sawdust Pit. The 118-F-5 Burial Ground was an unlined trench that received radioactive sawdust from the floors of animal pens in the 100-F Experimental Animal Farm.

  1. Monitoring methods for determining compliance with decommissioning cleanup criteria at uranium recovery sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decommissioning of a uranium processing site requires radiological surveys to: (1) identify buildings, equipment, and open land areas that require cleanup; (2) verify that cleanup operations have been successful; and (3) provide a record of the radiological condition of the site following cleanup. This report describes the instruments, measurements, quality assurance, and statistical procedures that can be used to perform pre- and post-cleanup surveys. The procedures described include: (1) gamma-radiation exposure-rate measurements using micro-R-meters, (2) beta-gamma measurements using Geiger-Mueller tubes, (3) wipe tests for surface contamination, and (4) soil analyses for 226Ra and other 238U daughters. During the pre-cleanup survey, locations likely to have 226Ra concentrations that exceed standards can be identified by gamma-radiation exposure-rate measurements. Samples of soil or other material from locations showing elevated exposure rates then can be analyzed for 226Ra to determine the boundaries of areas that exceed standards. Measurements of 238U in the samples can be used to determine whether the 226Ra is due to mill tailings. Beta-gamma measurements and wipe-sample analyses at locations that are suspected of being contaminated with uranium can be used to determine whether uranium concentrations exceed standards for either fixed or removable contamination. A post-cleanup survey that is similar to the pre-cleanup survey can be used to verify that cleanup has been successful. 16 refs

  2. Pursing other deep pockets: California's underground storage tank cleanup fund and insurance policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When faced with a potentially very expensive environmental cleanup, most companies and individuals try to do the only sensible thing, which is to find out if anyone else will pay the bill. This presentation will outline two avenues that may provide a substantial financial contribution to environmental cleanups: (a) California's Underground Storage Tank Cleanup Fund and (b) insurance policies. The Underground Storage Tank Cleanup Fund was established in 1989 to help eligible owners and operators of petroleum underground storage tanks (USTs) to: (a) get reimbursed for costs of unauthorized releases of petroleum from USTs; (b) get reimbursed for damages awarded to third parties as a result of unauthorized releases of petroleum from USTs; and (c) meet federal and state requirements that the UST owner and/or operator be able to pay for cleanup costs and damages to third parties caused by unauthorized releases of petroleum

  3. Statistical design and analysis in the cleanup of environmental radionuclide contamination. DRI publication No. 45012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cleanup of Eniwetok Island before the return of former residents is discussed. Of the contaminants in the soil of the atoll, the most important for cleanup are Pu-238, 239,240, and Am-241, which are present in sufficient quantities to require cleanup, and isotopes of Sr and Cs which also are present and must be considered since these elements can be taken up by food plants such as coconut, pandanus, and breadfruit, and passed on to man. The design of the cleanup sampling program is described. In addition to soil contamination, much metal and concrete debris, not all of it contaminated, as well as buildings and equipment, remain from the testing. The clean-up agreement covered all of this material, contaminated or not

  4. MANAGEMENT OF CULTURAL DIFFERENCES IN MULTINATIONAL TEAMS

    OpenAIRE

    Zeynep Gultekin; Cemil Ulukan

    2012-01-01

    Assurance of efficiency and productivity of multinational teams necessitates policies, rules, and procedures covering underlying characteristics of team members’ home country cultures, potential cross-cultural conflicts and their solutions, cultural awareness in the organization, and harmonization mechanisms for different cultures with the organizational culture, etc. In spite of ever-increasing importance, studies addressing multinational teams and cultural differences simultaneously are ins...

  5. Investing in International Information Exchange Activities to Improve the Safety, Cost Effectiveness and Schedule of Cleanup - 13281

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seed, Ian; James, Paula [Cogentus Consulting (United States); Mathieson, John [NDA United Kingdom (United Kingdom); Judd, Laurie [NuVision Engineering, Inc. (United States); Elmetti-Ramirez, Rosa; Han, Ana [US DOE (United States)

    2013-07-01

    With decreasing budgets and increasing pressure on completing cleanup missions as quickly, safely and cost-effectively as possible, there is significant benefit to be gained from collaboration and joint efforts between organizations facing similar issues. With this in mind, the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the UK Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) have formally agreed to share information on lessons learned on the development and application of new technologies and approaches to improve the safety, cost effectiveness and schedule of the cleanup legacy wastes. To facilitate information exchange a range of tools and methodologies were established. These included tacit knowledge exchange through facilitated meetings, conference calls and Site visits as well as explicit knowledge exchange through document sharing and newsletters. A DOE web-based portal has been established to capture these exchanges and add to them via discussion boards. The information exchange is operating at the Government-to-Government strategic level as well as at the Site Contractor level to address both technical and managerial topic areas. This effort has resulted in opening a dialogue and building working relationships. In some areas joint programs of work have been initiated thus saving resource and enabling the parties to leverage off one another activities. The potential benefits of high quality information exchange are significant, ranging from cost avoidance through identification of an approach to a problem that has been proven elsewhere to cost sharing and joint development of a new technology to address a common problem. The benefits in outcomes significantly outweigh the costs of the process. The applicability of the tools and methods along with the lessons learned regarding some key issues is of use to any organization that wants to improve value for money. In the waste management marketplace, there are a multitude of challenges being addressed by multiple organizations and

  6. Investing in International Information Exchange Activities to Improve the Safety, Cost Effectiveness and Schedule of Cleanup - 13281

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With decreasing budgets and increasing pressure on completing cleanup missions as quickly, safely and cost-effectively as possible, there is significant benefit to be gained from collaboration and joint efforts between organizations facing similar issues. With this in mind, the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the UK Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) have formally agreed to share information on lessons learned on the development and application of new technologies and approaches to improve the safety, cost effectiveness and schedule of the cleanup legacy wastes. To facilitate information exchange a range of tools and methodologies were established. These included tacit knowledge exchange through facilitated meetings, conference calls and Site visits as well as explicit knowledge exchange through document sharing and newsletters. A DOE web-based portal has been established to capture these exchanges and add to them via discussion boards. The information exchange is operating at the Government-to-Government strategic level as well as at the Site Contractor level to address both technical and managerial topic areas. This effort has resulted in opening a dialogue and building working relationships. In some areas joint programs of work have been initiated thus saving resource and enabling the parties to leverage off one another activities. The potential benefits of high quality information exchange are significant, ranging from cost avoidance through identification of an approach to a problem that has been proven elsewhere to cost sharing and joint development of a new technology to address a common problem. The benefits in outcomes significantly outweigh the costs of the process. The applicability of the tools and methods along with the lessons learned regarding some key issues is of use to any organization that wants to improve value for money. In the waste management marketplace, there are a multitude of challenges being addressed by multiple organizations and

  7. Clean-up criteria for remediation of contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'How clean is clean?' is a question commonly raised in the remediation of contaminated soils. To help with the answer, criteria are proposed to serve as guidelines for remedial actions and to define a clean-up level such that the remaining contaminant residuals in the soil will not violate the Drinking Water Standards (DWS). The equations for computing those criteria are developed from the principle of conservation of mass and are functions of the maximum concentration level in the water (MCL) and the sorption coefficient. A multiplier, ranging from 10 to 1000, is also factored into the soil standard equation to reflect the effectiveness of various remediation techniques. Maximum allowable concentration in the soil (MSCL) is presented for several contaminants which are being regulated at the present time. Future modifications are recommended for better estimates of the MSCLs as additional transport mechanisms are incorporated to account for other potentially dominant effects

  8. Statistical methods for evaluating the attainment of cleanup standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, R.O.; Simpson, J.C.

    1992-12-01

    This document is the third volume in a series of volumes sponsored by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Statistical Policy Branch, that provide statistical methods for evaluating the attainment of cleanup Standards at Superfund sites. Volume 1 (USEPA 1989a) provides sampling designs and tests for evaluating attainment of risk-based standards for soils and solid media. Volume 2 (USEPA 1992) provides designs and tests for evaluating attainment of risk-based standards for groundwater. The purpose of this third volume is to provide statistical procedures for designing sampling programs and conducting statistical tests to determine whether pollution parameters in remediated soils and solid media at Superfund sites attain site-specific reference-based standards. This.document is written for individuals who may not have extensive training or experience with statistical methods. The intended audience includes EPA regional remedial project managers, Superfund-site potentially responsible parties, state environmental protection agencies, and contractors for these groups.

  9. Soil, groundwater cleanup takes the gamble out of casino operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colorado's rich stores of gold and silver sparked development of towns like Black Hawk and Central City in the 1890s. Today, these communities are the homes of limited-stakes gaming operations. However casino operators are discovering that having gold and silver underground in the form of tailings is not as desirable as collecting it aboveground in slot machines. A unique environmental engineering approach allowed construction of two new casinos and reclamation of the tailings, as well as cleanup of petroleum-saturated soils and groundwater. A treatment system was designed and constructed to treat groundwater at the Black Hawk site. The most economical alternative for disposing treated groundwater was to discharge it into nearby North Clear Creek. An NPDES permit was obtained requiring treatment of the groundwater for petroleum, heavy metals and pH before discharging it

  10. Hot Chili Peppers: Extraction, Cleanup, and Measurement of Capsaicin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiping; Mabury, Scott A.; Sagebiel, John C.

    2000-12-01

    Capsaicin, the pungent ingredient of the red pepper or Capsicum annuum, is widely used in food preparation. The purpose of this experiment was to acquaint students with the active ingredients of hot chili pepper (capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin), the extraction, cleanup, and analysis of these chemicals, as a fun and informative analytical exercise. Fresh peppers were prepared and extracted with acetonitrile, removing plant co-extractives by addition to a C-18 solid-phase extraction cartridge. Elution of the capsaicinoids was accomplished with a methanol-acetic acid solution. Analysis was completed by reverse-phase HPLC with diode-array or variable wavelength detection and calibration with external standards. Levels of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin were typically found to correlate with literature values for a specific hot pepper variety. Students particularly enjoyed relating concentrations of capsaicinoids to their perceived valuation of "hotness".

  11. RCRA corrective action: Action levels and media cleanup standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Information Brief describes how action levels (ALs), which are used to determine if it is necessary to perform a Corrective Measures Study (CMS), and media cleanup standards (MCSs), which are used to set the standards for remediation performed in conjunction with Corrective Measures Implementation (CMI) are set. It is one of a series of Information Briefs on RCRA Corrective Action. ALs are health-and-environmentally-based levels of hazardous constituents in ground water, surface water, soil, or air, determined to be indicators for protection of human health and the environment. In the corrective action process, the regulator uses ALs to determine if the owner/operator of a treatment, storage, or disposal facility is required to perform a CMS

  12. Williston Reservoir: Site preparation and post-flood cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williston Reservoir is the second largest in Canada and ranks ninth on the world scale. It was formed by the construction of the W.A.C. Bennet Dam and is the most important hydroelectric storage reservoir and largest body of fresh water in British Columbia. Site preparation for the reservoir began in 1962, with pre-flood clearing involving salvage of merchantable timber, handfalling, machine downing, burning of slash and burial. Post-flood cleanup included timber salvage, bailing and burning debris, tractor piling and burning, crane piling in shallows, underwater cutting, and hand cutting during low drawdown. Various types of floating debris have presented problems for recreational use, log booming and transport, waterways and aviation. Protection of the spillway is accomplished with a floating boom upstream of the channel. Administration, funding, forest clearance, salvage methods, clearing standards, wood volumes, project costs, environmental concerns, and future priorities are discussed. 5 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Technologies for environmental cleanup: Toxic and hazardous waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the second in a series of EUROCOURSES conducted under the title, ''Technologies for Environmental Cleanup.'' To date, the series consist of the following courses: 1992, soils and groundwater; 1993, Toxic and Hazardous Waste Management. The 1993 course focuses on recent technological developments in the United States and Europe in the areas of waste management policies and regulations, characterization and monitoring of waste, waste minimization and recycling strategies, thermal treatment technologies, photolytic degradation processes, bioremediation processes, medical waste treatment, waste stabilization processes, catalytic organic destruction technologies, risk analyses, and data bases and information networks. It is intended that this course ill serve as a resource of state-of-the-art technologies and methodologies for the environmental protection manager involved in decisions concerning the management of toxic and hazardous waste

  14. Plutonium contamination at Maralinga - dosimetry and clean-up criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An area of South Australia remained contaminated following British nuclear weapons tests at Maralinga during 1955 - 1963. Of importance is the long-lived 239-Pu of which some 24 kg was explosively dispersed in several 'minor trials'. The extent, quantities and physical characteristics of the plutonium have been assessed and estimates of dose, dominated by the inhalation pathway in the critical group of Aborigines living a semi-traditional lifestyle, have been made for potential occupants. Rehabilitation of the most contaminated areas is underway, involving scraping of surface soil and burial at depth on site. Dosimetry, together with social and economic factors, underpins the setting of clean-up criteria in terms of activity concentrations averaged over large areas and permissible concentrations of contaminated particles. The possibility of intentional behaviour such as fragment scavenging has also influenced limits on particulate contamination.The standard for this intervention is that the annual committed dose, for any scenario involving permanent occupancy by semi-traditional Aborigines, will be less than 5 mSv. In fact, following the clean-up, annual doses are not expected to exceed 1 mSv for all realistic scenarios. The possibility of intentional behaviour, such as fragment scavenging, has led to limits on particulate contamination. Three plutonium-contaminated sites have been treated by soil-removal. At Taranaki, the most contaminated site, by limiting the activity of the remaining soil to below about 400 kBq/m2 of 239Pu, and by limiting occupancy factors to those typical of hunting activities in a particular location (0.8%), the dose criteria will be met. An area of about 1.5 km2 has been treated by removal of surface soil at Taranaki. At the other two sites, with no occupancy constraints, more stringent soil-removal criteria have been applied

  15. Oil spill cleanup in severe weather and open ocean conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most serious oil spills occur in open water under severe weather conditions. At first the oil stays on the surface, where it is spread by winds and water currents. The action of the waves then mixes the oil into the water column. With time the light elements of crude oil evaporate. The remaining residue is of very low commercial value, but of significant environmental impact. The oil spill can move either out to sea or inshore, where it ends up on the beaches. Normal procedures are to let outbound oil disperse by evaporation and mixing into the water column, and to let the inbound oil collect on the beaches, where the cleanup operations are concentrated. The reason for this is that there is no capability to clean the surface of the water in wave conditions-present-day oil skimmers are ineffective in waves approaching 4 ft in height. It would be simpler, more effective and environmentally more beneficial to skim the oil right at the spill location. This paper describes a method to do this. In the case of an oil spill in open water and high wave conditions, it is proposed to reduce the height of the ocean waves by the use of floating breakwaters to provide a relatively calm area. In such protected areas existing oil skimmers can be used to recover valuable oil and clean up the spill long before it hits the beaches. A floating breakwater developed at the University of Rhode Island by the author can be of great benefit in oil spill cleanup for open ocean conditions. This breakwater is constructed from scrap automobile tires. It is built in units of 20 tires each, which are easily transportable and can be connected together at the spill site to form any desired configuration

  16. Plutonium contamination at Maralinga - dosimetry and clean-up criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, M.B.; Martin, L.J.; O`Brien, R.S.; Williams, G.A. [Australian Radiation Laboratory, Yallambie, VIC (Australia)

    1998-12-31

    An area of South Australia remained contaminated following British nuclear weapons tests at Maralinga during 1955 - 1963. Of importance is the long-lived 239-Pu of which some 24 kg was explosively dispersed in several `minor trials`. The extent, quantities and physical characteristics of the plutonium have been assessed and estimates of dose, dominated by the inhalation pathway in the critical group of Aborigines living a semi-traditional lifestyle, have been made for potential occupants. Rehabilitation of the most contaminated areas is underway, involving scraping of surface soil and burial at depth on site. Dosimetry, together with social and economic factors, underpins the setting of clean-up criteria in terms of activity concentrations averaged over large areas and permissible concentrations of contaminated particles. The possibility of intentional behaviour such as fragment scavenging has also influenced limits on particulate contamination.The standard for this intervention is that the annual committed dose, for any scenario involving permanent occupancy by semi-traditional Aborigines, will be less than 5 mSv. In fact, following the clean-up, annual doses are not expected to exceed 1 mSv for all realistic scenarios. The possibility of intentional behaviour, such as fragment scavenging, has led to limits on particulate contamination. Three plutonium-contaminated sites have been treated by soil-removal. At Taranaki, the most contaminated site, by limiting the activity of the remaining soil to below about 400 kBq/m2 of 239Pu, and by limiting occupancy factors to those typical of hunting activities in a particular location (0.8%), the dose criteria will be met. An area of about 1.5 km{sup 2} has been treated by removal of surface soil at Taranaki. At the other two sites, with no occupancy constraints, more stringent soil-removal criteria have been applied

  17. Prospects for pyrolysis technologies in managing municipal, industrial, and DOE cleanup wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reaven, S.J. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    1994-12-01

    Pyrolysis converts portions of municipal solid wastes, hazardous wastes, and special wastes such as tires, medical wastes, and even old landfills into solid carbon and a liquid or gaseous hydrocarbon stream. Pyrolysis heats a carbonaceous waste stream typically to 290--900 C in the absence of oxygen, and reduces the volume of waste by 90% and its weight by 75%. The solid carbon char has existing markets as an ingredient in many manufactured goods, and as an adsorbent or filter to sequester certain hazardous wastes. Pyrolytic gases may be burned as fuel by utilities, or liquefied for use as chemical feedstocks, or low-pollution motor vehicle fuels and fuel additives. This report analyzes the potential applications of pyrolysis in the Long Island region and evaluates for the four most promising pyrolytic systems their technological and commercial readiness, their applicability to regional waste management needs, and their conformity with DOE requirements for environmental restoration and waste management. This summary characterizes their engineering performance, environmental effects, costs, product applications, and markets. Because it can effectively treat those wastes that are inadequately addressed by current systems, pyrolysis can play an important complementing role in the region`s existing waste management strategy. Its role could be even more significant if the region moves away from existing commitments to incineration and MSW composting. Either way, Long Island could become the center for a pyrolysis-based recovery services industry serving global markets in municipal solid waste treatment and hazardous waste cleanup. 162 refs.

  18. Public comments and responses to the 1991 Hanford Cleanup Five-Year Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Richland Field Office (RL) updated its Site-Specific Plan (DOE-RL 1991a) dealing with cleanup and operation of the Hanford Site in September 1991. The plan provides direction as to how DOE will carry out the national strategy for managing and cleaning up the Hanford Site wastes resulting from production of nuclear weapons. The plan is updated annually. We asked the public to comment on the plan during its 60-day public comment period. This report presents the comments and provides responses. The introduction explains how the comments were gathered and how we responded. This report is in four main sections: (1) comments and responses addressed locally; (2) comments forwarded to DOE-Headquarters for their response (these responses will appear in the National Five-Year Plan [DOE 1991a]); (3) comments we did not respond to here because they were outside the scope, or about how we gathered the public's comments; and (4) the appendices, which include a glossary, a list of acronyms used in the document, and the letters and cards we received reproduced in their entirety

  19. Prospects for pyrolysis technologies in managing municipal, industrial, and DOE cleanup wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyrolysis converts portions of municipal solid wastes, hazardous wastes, and special wastes such as tires, medical wastes, and even old landfills into solid carbon and a liquid or gaseous hydrocarbon stream. Pyrolysis heats a carbonaceous waste stream typically to 290--900 C in the absence of oxygen, and reduces the volume of waste by 90% and its weight by 75%. The solid carbon char has existing markets as an ingredient in many manufactured goods, and as an adsorbent or filter to sequester certain hazardous wastes. Pyrolytic gases may be burned as fuel by utilities, or liquefied for use as chemical feedstocks, or low-pollution motor vehicle fuels and fuel additives. This report analyzes the potential applications of pyrolysis in the Long Island region and evaluates for the four most promising pyrolytic systems their technological and commercial readiness, their applicability to regional waste management needs, and their conformity with DOE requirements for environmental restoration and waste management. This summary characterizes their engineering performance, environmental effects, costs, product applications, and markets. Because it can effectively treat those wastes that are inadequately addressed by current systems, pyrolysis can play an important complementing role in the region's existing waste management strategy. Its role could be even more significant if the region moves away from existing commitments to incineration and MSW composting. Either way, Long Island could become the center for a pyrolysis-based recovery services industry serving global markets in municipal solid waste treatment and hazardous waste cleanup. 162 refs

  20. A Life’s Addresses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balle, Søren Hattesen

    2006-01-01

    number of different aspects of Koch’s own life such as marijuana, the Italian language, World War Two, etc. In this way, the book quite conventionally inscribes itself in the tradition of post-enlightenment apostrophic poetry as characterized by Culler, just as all its poems belong to the favourite......, are literally troped as and addressed in the manner of so many acquaintances, personal connections, relatives, friends, lovers, and family members in Koch’s life. My main claim is that Koch’s poetics in New Addresses is one that slightly dislocates the romantic dichotomy between the world of things...

  1. Cleanup of areas contaminated as a result of a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In spite of all precautions, the possibility of an accident at a nuclear power plant which would result in the release of unacceptable amounts of radioactive material and cause serious contamination of surrounding areas cannot be excluded. One protective measure which may be required during the intermediate and late phases of an accident is the cleanup of contaminated areas. The term cleanup includes decontamination, stabilization or isolation of the contamination, along with the transport and disposal of the wastes arising form cleanup. If the Emergency Director decides to implement cleanup after a serious accident, all reasonable means should be used to minimize the huge costs and the detriment to humans. To ensure that the cleanup can be quickly and efficiently carried out requires good preliminary planning, clear strategies, a good managerial team, well trained workers and suitable equipment. To assist Member States in the development of their emergency preparedness plans for cleanup, the IAEA is preparing publications which provide an integrated overview of the overall operational planning for cleanup, methods and equipment to carry out these actions and the means to transport safely and dispose of the large volumes of waste. The paper provides an overview of the information in those reports. (author). 27 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  2. Development of a new chemical technology for cleanup of VVER steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As shows the maintenance experience of SG's, the long-time maintenance them without chemical cleanup on secondary-side results in accumulation of considerable amounts of depositions of oxides of iron with a high content of copper on outside of tubes. The deposit accumulation creates conditions for concentrating of salts which promote corrosion and, then, the loosing of inter-contour tightness. Therefore the experts do not have any doubts in necessity of chemical cleanups and the chemical cleanups were carried out at some NPP's with VVER during last years. However it is possible to say, that these cleanups were carried out not by the best mode - the same main reagents had been used in order to dissolve the copper and iron oxides. For example, all cleanups at Balakovo NPP in 1996-1997 years had the common deficiency - even during 5. final stage of process the copper prolongs to be washed. By our opinion, the reasons of it are the poor scientific and technical justification of this process. Therefore at various NPP's with VVER cleanups realize by various techniques. The process of chemical cleanup, close to offered in the present work, was repeated many times utilized at BN-600 Belojarsk NPP and at BN-350 Shevtchenko NPP. The purposes of the present work are: 1. Research the behaviours of physicochemical processes during dissolution of components of depositions and their mixtures with use of the various formulas; 2. Analysis of the carried out chemical cleanups of PGV-1000M at an example of Balakovo NPP; 3. Development of a new process of SG's cleanup on the base of experimental researches and analysis; 4. Check of this process on the samples of full-scale depositions from SG Balakovo NPP. (authors)

  3. Development of a new chemical technology for cleanup of VVER steam generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smykov, V.B.; Yermolaev, N.P. [IPPE, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Ivanov, V.N. [Balakovo NPP (Russian Federation)

    2002-07-01

    As shows the maintenance experience of SG's, the long-time maintenance them without chemical cleanup on secondary-side results in accumulation of considerable amounts of depositions of oxides of iron with a high content of copper on outside of tubes. The deposit accumulation creates conditions for concentrating of salts which promote corrosion and, then, the loosing of inter-contour tightness. Therefore the experts do not have any doubts in necessity of chemical cleanups and the chemical cleanups were carried out at some NPP's with VVER during last years. However it is possible to say, that these cleanups were carried out not by the best mode - the same main reagents had been used in order to dissolve the copper and iron oxides. For example, all cleanups at Balakovo NPP in 1996-1997 years had the common deficiency - even during 5. final stage of process the copper prolongs to be washed. By our opinion, the reasons of it are the poor scientific and technical justification of this process. Therefore at various NPP's with VVER cleanups realize by various techniques. The process of chemical cleanup, close to offered in the present work, was repeated many times utilized at BN-600 Belojarsk NPP and at BN-350 Shevtchenko NPP. The purposes of the present work are: 1. Research the behaviours of physicochemical processes during dissolution of components of depositions and their mixtures with use of the various formulas; 2. Analysis of the carried out chemical cleanups of PGV-1000M at an example of Balakovo NPP; 3. Development of a new process of SG's cleanup on the base of experimental researches and analysis; 4. Check of this process on the samples of full-scale depositions from SG Balakovo NPP. (authors)

  4. Keynote Address: Rev. Mark Massa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Mark S.

    2011-01-01

    Rev. Mark S. Massa, S.J., is the dean and professor of Church history at the School of Theology and Ministry at Boston College. He was invited to give a keynote to begin the third Catholic Higher Education Collaborative Conference (CHEC), cosponsored by Boston College and Fordham University. Fr. Massa's address posed critical questions about…

  5. Agenda to address climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document looks at addressing climate change in the 21st century. Topics covered are: Responding to climate change; exploring new avenues in energy efficiency; energy efficiency and alternative energy; residential sector; commercial sector; industrial sector; transportation sector; communities; renewable energy; understanding forests to mitigate and adapt to climate change; the Forest Carbon budget; mitigation and adaptation

  6. Introduction to IP address management

    CERN Document Server

    Rooney, Tim

    2010-01-01

    "The book begins with a basic overview of IP networking, followed by chapters describing each of the three core IPAM technologies: IPv4 and IPv6 addressing, DHCP, and DNS. The next three chapters describe IPAM management techniques and practice, followed by chapters on IPv4-IPv6 co-existence, security and the IPAM business case"--

  7. Communities Address Barriers to Connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers, Anne

    1996-01-01

    Rural areas lag behind urban areas in access to information technologies. Public institutions play a critical role in extending the benefits of information technologies to those who would not otherwise have access. The most successful rural telecommunications plans address barriers to use, such as unawareness of the benefits, technophobia, the…

  8. Improved Secure Address Resolution Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Abhishek Samvedi; Sparsh Owlak; Vijay Kumar Chaurasia

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, an improved secure address resolution protocol is presented where ARP spoofing attack is prevented. The proposed methodology is a centralised methodology for preventing ARP spoofing attack. In the proposed model there is a central server on a network or subnet which prevents ARP spoofing attack.

  9. Depleted uranium in the air during the cleanup operations at Cape Arza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PERKO VUKOTIC

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Cape Arza was contaminated with depleted uranium (DU in the air strikes of NATO aeroplanes on May 30, 1999. The cleanup and decontamination of the site started in 2001. Here the results of air monitoring performed during the cleanup operations in Spring 2002. are presented. The collected air samples were analyzed by high-resolution alpha spectrometry. The obtained concentrations of airborne uranium are about ten times higher than the average value usually reported for air. The ratio of the 234U/238U activities indicates the presence of depleted uranium in the air during the cleanup action, due to resuspension and soil disturbance in the contaminated teritory.

  10. Phylogenetically Distinct Bacteria Involve Extensive Dechlorination of Aroclor 1260 in Sediment-Free Cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Shanquan; He, Jianzhong

    2013-01-01

    Microbial reductive dechlorination of the persistent polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is attracting much attention in cleanup of the contaminated environment. Nevertheless, most PCB dechlorinating cultures require presence of sediment or sediment substitutes to maintain their dechlorination activities which hinders subsequent bacterial enrichment and isolation processes. The information on enriching sediment-free PCB dechlorinating cultures is still limited. In this study, 18 microcosms estab...

  11. How Social Movements Do Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, William G.

    2010-01-01

    While much social science literature has analyzed the cultural bases of social movement, activity, and the content of cultural production by social movements, relatively little has been written about the concrete social relations within which social movements do culture. This paper addresses the issue of what social movements are doing when they produce culture. Four dimensions of social relations within which culture is enacted are identified: the division of labor, the relations of power, t...

  12. Identifying and Addressing Vaccine Hesitancy

    OpenAIRE

    Kestenbaum, Lori A.; Feemster, Kristen A

    2015-01-01

    In the 20th century, the introduction of multiple vaccines significantly reduced childhood morbidity, mortality, and disease outbreaks. Despite, and perhaps because of, their public health impact, an increasing number of parents and patients are choosing to delay or refuse vaccines. These individuals are described as vaccine hesitant. This phenomenon has developed due to the confluence of multiple social, cultural, political and personal factors. As immunization programs continue to expand, u...

  13. Some statistical aspects of the cleanup of Enewetak Atoll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleaning up the radionuclide contamination at Enewetak Atoll has involved a number of statistical design problems. Theoretical considerations led to choosing a grid sampling pattern; practical problems sometimes lead to resampling on a finer grid. Other problems associated with using grids have been both physical and statistical. The standard sampling system is an in situ intrinsic gamma detector which measures americium concentration. The cleanup guidelines include plutonium concentration, so additional sampling of soil is required to establish Pu/Am ratios. The soil sampling design included both guidelines for location of the samples and also a special pattern of subsamples making up composite samples. The large variance of the soil, sample results makes comparison between the two types difficult anyway, but this is compounded by vegetation attenuation of the in situ readings, soil disturbance influences, and differences in devegetation methods. The constraints inherent in doing what amounts to a research and development project, on a limited budget of time and money, in a field engineering environment are also considered

  14. High-level waste vitrification off-gas cleanup technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This brief overview is intended to be a basis for discussion of needs and problems existing in the off-gas clean-up technology. A variety of types of waste form and processes are being developed in the United States and abroad. A description of many of the processes can be found in the Technical Alternative Documents (TAD). Concurrently, off-gas processing systems are being developed with most of the processes. An extensive review of methodology as well as decontamination factors can be found in the literature. Since it is generally agreed that the most advanced solidification process is vitrification, discussion here centers about the off-gas problems related to vitrification. With a number of waste soldification facilities around the world in operation, it can be shown that present technology can satisfy the present requirement for off-gas control. However, a number of areas within the technology base show potential for improvement. Fundamental as well as verification studies are needed to obtain the improvements

  15. Clean-up of a jet fuel spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eaton operates a corporate aircraft hangar facility in Battle Creek, Michigan. Tests showed that two underground storage tanks leaked. Investigation confirmed this release discharged several hundred gallons of Jet A kerosene into the soil and groundwater. The oil moved downward approximately 30 feet and spread laterally onto the water table. Test results showed kerosene in the adsorbed, free and dissolved states. Eaton researched and investigated three clean-up options. They included pump and treat, dig and haul and bioremediation. Jet fuel is composed of readily biodegradable hydrocarbon chains. This fact coupled with the depth to groundwater and geologic setting made bioremediation the low cost and most effective alternative. A recovery well was installed at the leading edge of the dissolved contamination. A pump moved water from this well into a nutrient addition system. Nutrients added included nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. Additionally, air was sparged into the water. The water was discharged into an infiltration gallery installed when the underground storage tanks were removed. Water circulated between the pump and the infiltration basin in a closed loop fashion. This oxygenated, nutrient rich water actively and aggressively treated the soils between the bottom of the gallery and the top of the groundwater and the groundwater. The system began operating in August of 19923 and reduced jet fuel to below detection levels. In August of 1995 The State of Michigan issued a clean closure declaration to the site

  16. Thermal cleanups using dynamic underground stripping and hydrous pyrolysis oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aines, R D; Knauss, K; Leif, R; Newmark, R L

    1999-05-01

    In the early 1990s, in collaboration with the School of Engineering at the University of California, Berkeley, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory developed dynamic underground stripping (DUS), a method for treating subsurface contaminants with heat that is much faster and more effective than traditional treatment methods. more recently, Livermore scientists developed hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation (HPO), which introduces both heat and oxygen to the subsurface to convert contaminants in the ground to such benign products as carbon dioxide, chloride ion, and water. This process has effectively destroyed all contaminants it encountered in laboratory tests. With dynamic underground stripping, the contaminants are vaporized and vacuumed out of the ground, leaving them still to be destroyed elsewhere. Hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation technology takes the cleanup process one step further by eliminating the treatment, handling, and disposal requirements and destroying the contamination in the ground. When used in combination, HPO is especially useful in the final polishing of a site containing significant free-product contaminant, once the majority of the contaminant has been removed.

  17. Cleanup of the Millstone 2 spent fuel pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1987, Millstone Nuclear Power Station developed a need for cleanup of their Unit 2 spent fuel pool (SFP). This pool had lost normal water chemistry due to high concentrations of TOC and had lost clarity and viewing capabilities required for fuel handling. After reviewing the various technologies that could be utilized to remove these contaminants, Millstone personnel determined that the reverse osmosis (RO) technology was the most reliable, cost effective, and efficient method for resolving their spent fuel pool clarity problems. The complete water restoration program was accomplished in less than 40 days including mobilization, setup, operation, maintenance, and teardown time. Over 1.38 million gallons of water were processed in 24 days of processing. The program resulted in the successful restoration of water clarity and reduction of the contaminants while maintaining a large percentage of the boron in the water. USE achieved TOC rejection rates of up to 99 percent during the program. The results of the program verify that RO technology is a viable alternative for carrying out water restoration programs in the nuclear industry

  18. Alternative formulations of regenerable flue gas cleanup catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, M.B.; White, M.G.

    1991-01-01

    The major source of man-made SO{sub 2} in the atmosphere is the burning of coal for electric power generation. Coal-fired utility plants are also large sources of NO{sub x} pollution. Regenerable flue gas desulfurization/NO{sub x} abatement catalysts provide one mechanism of simultaneously removing SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} species from flue gases released into the atmosphere. The purpose of this project is to examine routes of optimizing the adsorption efficiency, the adsorption capacity, and the ease of regeneration of regenerable flue gas cleanup catalysts. We are investigating two different mechanisms for accomplishing this goal. The first involves the use of different alkali and alkaline earth metals as promoters for the alumina sorbents to increase the surface basicity of the sorbent and thus adjust the number and distribution of adsorption sites. The second involves investigation of non-aqueous impregnation, as opposed to aqueous impregnation, as a method to obtain an evenly dispersed monolayer of the promoter on the surface.

  19. How the K(d) Approach Undermines Groundwater Cleanup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bethke, Craig M.; Brady, Patrick V.

    1999-07-19

    Environmental scientists have long appreciated that the distribution coefficient (the ''K{sub d}'' or ''constant K{sub d}'') approach predicts the partitioning of heavy metals between sediment and groundwater inaccurately; nonetheless, transport models applied to problems of environmental protection and groundwater remediation almost invariably employ this technique. To examine the consequences of this practice, we consider transport in one dimension of Pb and other heavy metals through an aquifer containing hydrous ferric oxide, onto which heavy metals sorb strongly. We compare the predictions of models calculated using the K{sub d} approach to those given by surface complexation theory, which is more realistic physically and chemically. The two modeling techniques give qualitatively differing results that lead to divergent cleanup strategies. The results for surface complexation theory show that water flushing is ineffective at displacing significant amounts of Pb from the sorbing surface. The effluent from such treatment contains a ''tail'' of small but significant levels of contamination that persists indefinitely. Subsurface zones of Pb contamination, furthermore, are largely immobile in flowing groundwater. These results stand in sharp contrast to the predictions of models constructed using the k{sub d} approach, yet are consistent with experience in the laboratory and field.

  20. Zooremediation, a new biotechnology solution for shoreline protection and cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presented the results of a field study in which a zooremediation method was used to clean up an oil spill in the shoreline of Kola Bay in the Barents Sea. The objective was to confirm that the next generation of environmental remediation tools will include remediation and restoration technology based on phytoremediation, bioremediation and zooremediation for the in situ treatment of polluted sites. These techniques are promising, offering effective and ecologically sound cleanup of spill affected sites. The direct effect of zooremediation is uptake, accumulation, and transformation. The main indirect effect of zooremediation is stimulation on microbial population due to the release of nutrients, enzymes and some bio-active metabolites. In this study, oil degradation in the intertidal zone was accelerated 10 to 20 times using zooremediation in which littoral bivalves M. edulis and M. balthica were used. Survival of the bivalves in this area was much higher than in the control area. It was concluded that the bivalves can take up hydrocarbons from oil contaminated sites and treat them in a manner which makes the petroleum hydrocarbons more biologically available for biodegradation. It was concluded that the presence of bivalves in the shoreline can increase oil bioremediation capacity of natural ecosystems. 21 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs

  1. Selecting protective gloves for oil spill response and cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oil spill responders and cleanup workers must be provided with gloves that prevent skin contact while permitting them to do their job safely and efficiently. Glove selection is largely based on professional judgment, considering permeation, resistance to puncture and abrasion, and whether the material gets slick when coated with oil. This paper consolidates the most useful information from various studies and presents a selection rationale. In general, we found neoprene, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and nitrile to be the glove materials of choice for protection in oil spills. The skin toxicity potential for most petroleum materials encountered in a spill is low. Some fresh crudes may contain hydrocarbon molecules that may penetrate the skin and cause some systemic toxicity with high enough exposure. However, as crude weathers, the more volatile hydrocarbons evaporate rapidly, leaving behind the heavier fraction, which often contains polynuclear aromatic (PNA) compounds. Some PNAs have caused skin cancer in animals after prolonged and repeated contact. As a reference, most weathered crude is similar to used motor oil in skin toxicity; prolonged and repeated skin contact should be avoided, but there is no cause for concern if some gets on the skin. The typical skin problems from excessive skin contact are drying and cracking from the defatting action of the oil itself or from the soap or hand cleaners used to remove the oil, and pustules (similar to boils) if the oil plugs the sweat glands in the skin

  2. Major clean-up effort in the ATLAS cavern

    CERN Multimedia

    Marzio Nessi

    On Tuesday 10 October, 58 ATLAS collaborators volunteered to give a hand for a major clean-up of the ATLAS detector prior to the toroid magnet ramp-up. This special task monopolised all of the technical coordination team and eight supervisors to oversee the volunteers who were assigned to two separate five-hour shifts. The volunteers removed all sorts of loose material inside and outside the detector, focusing mainly on potentially magnetic material lost inside the detector and dirt accumulated over several months, not to mention zillions of clipped cable ties! The technical crew provided 120 garbage bags and all were used. All sorts of material that had been lost inside the detector by various people was retrieved, in particular small tools which could potentially damage the detector, as well as metallic fillings hazardous for the electronics once the magnet will be ramped up. A more detailed inspection followed for all the inside of the detector, making sure the current on the magnet could be raised to 5KA ...

  3. Answers to frequently asked questions about cleanup activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This question-and-answer report provides answers in nontechnical language to frequently asked questions about the status of cleanup activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2. The answers update information first prepared in 1981, shortly after the cleanup got under way. Since then, a variety of important developments in the cleanup has occurred. The information in the report should be read in conjunction with NUREG 1060, a discussion of increased occupational exposure estimates for the cleanup. The questions and answers in this report cover purpose and community involvement, decontamination of water and reactor, fuel removal, radwaste transport, environmental impact, social and economic effects, worker exposures and safety, radiation monitoring, potential for accidents, and schedule and funding

  4. Cleanup and treatment of radioactively contaminated land including areas near nuclear facilities. A selected bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annotated bibliography of 337 references summarizes the literature published on the cleanup and treatment of radioactively contaminated land. Specifically, this bibliography focuses on literature concerned with the methods of cleanup and treatment being applied - chemical, physical, or vegetative stabilization; the types of equipment being used; and the influence of climatic conditions on the method selected for use. The emphasis in such literature is placed on hazardous site cleanup efforts that have been completed as well as those that are in progress and are being planned. Appendix A includes 135 additional references to literature identified but not included in the bibliography because of time and funding constraints. Appendix B consists of a table that identifies the cleanup and treatment research conducted at specific sites. All of the information included in this bibliography is stored in a computerized form that is readily available upon request

  5. Luminous Processes Co.: the cleanup of a low-level radioactive waste site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luminous Processes Co., located in Athens, Georgia, painted luminous watch dials and clock faces with paint containing radium-226 and tritium. Following bankruptcy, Luminous left the site in a contaminated condition. The State of Georgia ultimately declared the site their number one priority for cleanup under Superfund. In the bidding process, O.H. Materials Co., of Findlay, Ohio, was judged as having the most technically superior cleanup approach in addition to being the low bidder. Decontamination of the site included excavation of soil adjacent to the main building, removal of interior walls and fixtures from inside the building, and decontamination of various items on the premises. The decontamination of the site was successfully completed, well under budget. All cleanup objectives were met and the site was rehabilitated without a single incident of exposure to any of the participants in the cleanup operation

  6. Potential impact of licensee default on cleanup of TMI-2. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Financial repercussions of the accident at Three Mile Island Unit 2 on the ability of the Licensee, Metropolitan Edison Co., to complete cleanup of the facility are examined. Potential impacts of licensee default on cleanup and alternatives to minimize the potential of bankruptcy are discussed. Specific recommendations are made regarding steps the Nuclear Regulatory Commission might take in keeping with its regulatory functions and its mission to protect the public health and safety

  7. Depleted uranium in the air during the cleanup operations at Cape Arza

    OpenAIRE

    PERKO VUKOTIC; MILOJKO KOVACEVIC; TOMISLAV ANDJELIC; MIRJANA RADENKOVIC

    2004-01-01

    Cape Arza was contaminated with depleted uranium (DU) in the air strikes of NATO aeroplanes on May 30, 1999. The cleanup and decontamination of the site started in 2001. Here the results of air monitoring performed during the cleanup operations in Spring 2002. are presented. The collected air samples were analyzed by high-resolution alpha spectrometry. The obtained concentrations of airborne uranium are about ten times higher than the average value usually reported for air. The ratio of the 2...

  8. Spreading, retention and clean-up of oil spills. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Jr, M P

    1976-05-01

    This study reviews and assesses the technology of oil spill spreading, retention and cleanup and proposes research needs in these areas. Sources of oil spills are analyzed and the difficulty of gathering meaningful statistics is discussed. Barrier technology is reviewed and problem areas analyzed. Natural and forced biodegradation and natural and chemical dispersion of oil spills are considered. Research recommendations are categorized under the following two headings (1) Preventive techniques and (2) Containment, Cleanup and Dispersion.

  9. Administrative practices to limit dose in environmental cleanup operations involving plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Rocky Flats Plant is a U.S. Federal Government-owned contractor-operated facility utilizing plutonium, uranium, beryllium and other metals to fabricate nuclear components for the United States weapons programme. The plant is located 26km from Denver, Colorado. During the history of plant operations, various events occurred which allowed radioactivity to reach the environment. When these events occurred, plutonium operations in the United States were conducted under the guidance of ICRP 2 recommendations. Radioactivity concentrations measured in air, water, and soil, together with calculations of doses to workers and the population, were well within guide values. The advent of ALARA in 1973 (ICRP 22) and further development of dose limitation concepts (ICRP 26), necessitated reevaluation of contaminated areas to determine improvements that might be needed. Heightened public environmental interest and increased legal regulations emphasized the need to ensure that doses were limited to the lowest levels reasonably achievable. Documentation of past releases and a radiometric survey of the plant site identified areas where environmental cleanup could be beneficial. Cleanup priorities were established, and scope of work to be accomplished was defined for funding request. Stringent, but achievable, criteria were developed for environmental cleanup activities. Action limits far below existing legal limitations were defined based on background measurements and plant operating experience. Exposure and emission data were periodically reported. No measurable exposures resulted to workers involved in environmental cleanup efforts. Monitoring stations near cleanup areas show a decline in activity following cleanup efforts. (author)

  10. Assessment of coal gasification/hot gas cleanup based advanced gas turbine systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    The major objectives of the joint SCS/DOE study of air-blown gasification power plants with hot gas cleanup are to: (1) Evaluate various power plant configurations to determine if an air-blown gasification-based power plant with hot gas cleanup can compete against pulverized coal with flue gas desulfurization for baseload expansion at Georgia Power Company's Plant Wansley; (2) determine if air-blown gasification with hot gas cleanup is more cost effective than oxygen-blown IGCC with cold gas cleanup; (3) perform Second-Law/Thermoeconomic Analysis of air-blown IGCC with hot gas cleanup and oxygen-blown IGCC with cold gas cleanup; (4) compare cost, performance, and reliability of IGCC based on industrial gas turbines and ISTIG power island configurations based on aeroderivative gas turbines; (5) compare cost, performance, and reliability of large (400 MW) and small (100 to 200 MW) gasification power plants; and (6) compare cost, performance, and reliability of air-blown gasification power plants using fluidized-bed gasifiers to air-blown IGCC using transport gasification and pressurized combustion.

  11. Addressing the workforce pipeline challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundations to enable future economic growth. To meet this goal the next generation energy workforce in the U.S., in particular those needed to support instrumentation, controls and advanced operations and maintenance, is a critical element. The workforce is aging and a new workforce pipeline, to support both current generation and new build has yet to be established. The paper reviews the challenges and some actions being taken to address this need. (authors)

  12. Addressing the workforce pipeline challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard Bond; Kevin Kostelnik; Richard Holman

    2006-11-01

    A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundations to enable future economic growth. To meet this goal the next generation energy workforce in the U.S., in particular those needed to support instrumentation, controls and advanced operations and maintenance, is a critical element. The workforce is aging and a new workforce pipeline, to support both current generation and new build has yet to be established. The paper reviews the challenges and some actions being taken to address this need.

  13. Nanoscale content-addressable memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Bryan (Inventor); Principe, Jose C. (Inventor); Fortes, Jose (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A combined content addressable memory device and memory interface is provided. The combined device and interface includes one or more one molecular wire crossbar memories having spaced-apart key nanowires, spaced-apart value nanowires adjacent to the key nanowires, and configurable switches between the key nanowires and the value nanowires. The combination further includes a key microwire-nanowire grid (key MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart key nanowires, and a value microwire-nanowire grid (value MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart value nanowires. A key or value MNGs selects multiple nanowires for a given key or value.

  14. Addressing concrete cracking in NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phenomenon of concrete cracking is one of the most frequently encountered deterioration at NPPs as it has been shown by a wide Survey of NPPs performed by IAEA in 1994-95 It can be due to a multitude of causes such as the normal ageing process (shrinkage, creep, prestressing force loss) as well as exposure to the environment (temperature variation, moisture, freeze/thaw, etc) The above mentioned Survey has also shown that in 64% of cases, no action was taken or required. It became also obvious that there is a lack of guidance as when remedial actions are needed. The paper describes, with the help of a Flow Chart, the various stages to be considered, from the first step of identification of cracks, to the definition of causes, evaluation of extent of damage, evaluation of effect/implications (safety, reliability), to the final step of deciding if repair action is required. Finally, based upon a wide literature survey the paper proposes in a Chart format, Criteria for addressing concrete cracks in NPPs., when taking in considerations all these factors. This paper discusses the process which should lead to the selection of an effective repair method and proposes, based upon worldwide standards and literature, criteria which should lead to the decision whether to repair or not concrete cracks, after the cracks have been identified and evaluated, addressing the entire range of aspects involved. (author)

  15. CORTICAL CLEANUP WITHOUT SIDE PORT IN SMALL INCISION CATARACT SURGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udaya Kumar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to achieve complete cortical cleanup and avoid problems related with sideport during Small Incision Cataract Surgery (SICS so as to have a good visual out come with minimal recovery period, and a better quality of life. After nucleus delivery, cortical cleanup is an important step in any cataract surgical procedure. Cortex especially subincisional area (11 to 1 o’clock is difficult to manage intraoperatively. Bimanual irrigation aspiration through two side ports, aspiration by J cannula, iris massage manoeuver, ice cream scoop manoeuver are various techniques of cortical matter aspiration. We acquired the technique of aspiration of subincisional cortex without using side port in all cases by paying attention on type of cataract, status of pupil, use of Adrenalin mixed BSS intraoperatively, Tunnel construction, Capsulorhexis size and capsular rim size at 12 o’clock. MATERIAL AND METHODS In this retrospective study of 1 year from 2013 to 2014, 60 patients (60 eyes aged 40 years or older attending the General Ophthalmic Department were included in the study group with another group of 60 patients (60 eyes as controls. The study was on age related cataracts which are basically. 1 Cortical cataract 2 Nuclear cataract 3 Subcapsular cataract. Proper assessment of cortical cataract based on its maturity such as a Immature b Mature c Hyper mature and d Morgagnian cataract, nucleus for its opalescence and color, size of posterior subcapsular opacity and pupillary status (Dilating well or not with mydriatics were taken into consideration. Eyes with pseudoexfoliation having poor pupillary dilation were also included. Eyes with congenital anomalies, congenital cataract, gross corneal and retinal pathologies, and glaucoma were excluded. RESULTS Among 60 study eyes in the study group 35 presented with cortical, 20 with nuclear cataract and 5 with posterior subcapsular cataracts. In 58(96.6% cases, sideport was not required; 3(5% eyes

  16. PROGRESS and CHALLENGES IN CLEANUP OF HANFORDS TANK WASTES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The River Protection Project (RPP), which is managed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of River Protection (ORP), is highly complex from technical, regulatory, legal, political, and logistical perspectives and is the largest ongoing environmental cleanup project in the world. Over the past three years, ORP has made significant advances in its planning and execution of the cleanup of the Hartford tank wastes. The 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs), 28 double-shell tanks (DSTs), and 60 miscellaneous underground storage tanks (MUSTs) at Hanford contain approximately 200,000 m3 (53 million gallons) of mixed radioactive wastes, some of which dates back to the first days of the Manhattan Project. The plan for treating and disposing of the waste stored in large underground tanks is to: (1) retrieve the waste, (2) treat the waste to separate it into high-level (sludge) and low-activity (supernatant) fractions, (3) remove key radionuclides (e.g., Cs-137, Sr-90, actinides) from the low-activity fraction to the maximum extent technically and economically practical, (4) immobilize both the high-level and low-activity waste fractions by vitrification, (5) interim store the high-level waste fraction for ultimate disposal off-site at the federal HLW repository, (6) dispose the low-activity fraction on-site in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF), and (7) close the waste management areas consisting of tanks, ancillary equipment, soils, and facilities. Design and construction of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP), the cornerstone of the RPP, has progressed substantially despite challenges arising from new seismic information for the WTP site. We have looked closely at the waste and aligned our treatment and disposal approaches with the waste characteristics. For example, approximately 11,000 m3 (2-3 million gallons) of metal sludges in twenty tanks were not created during spent nuclear fuel reprocessing and have low fission product concentrations. We plan to

  17. Cleanup under Airlock of an Old Uranium Foundry - 13273

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 2004, AREVA's subsidiary SICN has been conducting the cleanup and dismantling of an old uranium foundry located in the town of Annecy (France). The first operations consisted in the removal of the foundry's production equipment, producing more than 300 metric tons (MT) of waste. The second step consisted in performing the radiological characterization of the 1,600 m2 (17,200 ft2) building, including underground trenches and galleries. The building was precisely inventoried, based on operations records and direct measurements. All sub-surfaces, which needed to be cleaned up were characterized, and a determination of the contamination migration was established, in particular with trenches and galleries. The wall thicknesses to be treated were empirically justified, knowing that the maximal migration depth inside concrete is 5 mm for a liquid transfer vector. All singularities such as cracks, anchoring points, etc. were spotted for a complete and systematic treatment. Building structures not laying directly on the soil, such as floor slabs, were not cleaned up but directly deconstructed and disposed of as waste. The facility was located within the town of Annecy. Therefore, in order to avoid the risk of dusts dispersion and public exposure during the building deconstruction and the soil treatment, a third of the building's surface was confined in a sliding airlock built from a metal structure capable of resisting to wind and snow, which are frequent in this area. This particular structure provided a static confinement over the half of the building which was covered and a dynamic confinement using a ventilation and high efficiency air filtration system, sized to provide 2.5 air changes per hour. The enclosure and its metallic structure is 33 m long (108 feet), 25 m wide (82 feet), and 13 m high (42 feet), for a volume of 10,000 m3 (353,000 ft3). It was made up of a double skin envelope, allowing the recycling of its structure and outside envelope. After cleaning

  18. New technologies aid DOE in site characterization, cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy is using what reportedly is the world's largest remotely operated mobile-work system to excavate a landfill contaminated with radioactive materials at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The 1,500-ton, self-propelled machine made by Sonsub Inc. (Houston) will span and excavate landfills up to 120 feet wide. As the unit digs, it will separate waste from the soil, package the waste for transport, then backfill the pit. DOE will use the machine to excavate Pit 9, a 400-foot-long, 120-foot-wide landfill that was used as a waste-disposal site in the 1960s. Using computer modeling applications to identify hazardous and radioactive wastes can protect workers from exposure and, in some cases, reduce remediation costs. Canberra Industries (Meridien, Conn.) in November was awarded a contract by EG and G Mound Applied Technologies to perform gamma spectroscopy radiological waste characterization on waste containers that have been stored since 1978 at the Mound site in Ohio. The 55-gallon drums and boxes at the site reportedly contain transuranic waste; however, officials say they anticipate that, once characterization is performed, about 25% of the waste will be downgraded to low-level waste (below 100nCI/gm). In another application involving landfill cleanup, Komar Industries Inc. (Groveport, Ohio) in late 1995 was contracted to design and construct a system for processing radioactive waste from an unnamed DOE landfill. The company says it will design a triauger with injector configuration to serve as a fully contained size-reduction, blending and feeding system that will allow engineers to blend a variety of wastes found at the site. Machined, O-ring, sealed surfaces will maintain a negative water column under normal operations. The system will be designed to handle pressures up to 10 bar, while the processor will have a 6-cubic-yard charge capacity and the ability to accept 15 to 20 charges per hour

  19. North Slope (Wahluke Slope) expedited response action cleanup plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    The purpose of this action is to mitigate any threat to public health and the environment from hazards on the North Slope and meet the expedited response action (ERA) objective of cleanup to a degree requiring no further action. The ERA may be the final remediation of the 100-I-3 Operable Unit. A No Action record of decision (ROD) may be issued after remediation completion. The US Department of Energy (DOE) currently owns or administers approximately 140 mi{sup 2} (about 90,000 acres) of land north and east of the Columbia River (referred to as the North Slope) that is part of the Hanford Site. The North Slope, also commonly known as the Wahluke Slope, was not used for plutonium production or support facilities; it was used for military air defense of the Hanford Site and vicinity. The North Slope contained seven antiaircraft gun emplacements and three Nike-Ajax missile positions. These military positions were vacated in 1960--1961 as the defense requirements at Hanford changed. They were demolished in 1974. Prior to government control in 1943, the North Slope was homesteaded. Since the initiation of this ERA in the summer of 1992, DOE signed the modified Hanford Federal Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) with the Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in which a milestone was set to complete remediation activities and a draft closeout report by October 1994. Remediation activities will make the North Slope area available for future non-DOE uses. Thirty-nine sites have undergone limited characterization to determine if significant environmental hazards exist. This plan documents the results of that characterization and evaluates the potential remediation alternatives.

  20. North Slope (Wahluke Slope) expedited response action cleanup plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this action is to mitigate any threat to public health and the environment from hazards on the North Slope and meet the expedited response action (ERA) objective of cleanup to a degree requiring no further action. The ERA may be the final remediation of the 100-I-3 Operable Unit. A No Action record of decision (ROD) may be issued after remediation completion. The US Department of Energy (DOE) currently owns or administers approximately 140 mi2 (about 90,000 acres) of land north and east of the Columbia River (referred to as the North Slope) that is part of the Hanford Site. The North Slope, also commonly known as the Wahluke Slope, was not used for plutonium production or support facilities; it was used for military air defense of the Hanford Site and vicinity. The North Slope contained seven antiaircraft gun emplacements and three Nike-Ajax missile positions. These military positions were vacated in 1960--1961 as the defense requirements at Hanford changed. They were demolished in 1974. Prior to government control in 1943, the North Slope was homesteaded. Since the initiation of this ERA in the summer of 1992, DOE signed the modified Hanford Federal Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) with the Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in which a milestone was set to complete remediation activities and a draft closeout report by October 1994. Remediation activities will make the North Slope area available for future non-DOE uses. Thirty-nine sites have undergone limited characterization to determine if significant environmental hazards exist. This plan documents the results of that characterization and evaluates the potential remediation alternatives

  1. Cultural Journalism and Cultural Critique in a changing Media Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard Kristensen, Nete; From, Unni

    2015-01-01

    “journalism” and “critique”; (2) the dialectic of globalisation’s cultural homogenisation, on the one hand, and the specificity of local/national cultures, on the other; and (3) the digital media landscape seen in terms of the need to rethink, perhaps even redefine cultural journalism and cultural critique......This special issue addresses a topic of journalism studies that has previously been somewhat neglected but which has gained increasing scholarly attention since the mid-2000s: the coverage and evaluation of art and culture, or what we term “cultural journalism and cultural critique.” In this...... introduction, we highlight three issues that serve to frame the study of cultural journalism and cultural critique more generally and the eight articles of this special issue more specifically: (1) the constant challenge of demarcating cultural journalism and cultural critique, including the interrelations of...

  2. On construction of quality culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper mainly addresses the formation, the function and the structure of Quality Culture, and the content, objective and method for the construction of Quality Culture. It gives a train of thoughts to the construction of Quality Culture in NPIC. (authors)

  3. Carbon formation and metal dusting in hot-gas cleanup systems of coal gasifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tortorelli, P.F.; DeVan, H.J.; Judkins, R.R. [and others

    1995-06-01

    The product gas resulting from the partial oxidation of carboniferous materials in a gasifier consists predominantly of CO, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, CH{sub 4}, and, for air-blown units, N{sub 2} in various proportions at temperatures ranging from about 400 to 1000{degree}C. Depending on the source of the fuel, smaller concentrations of H{sub 2}S, COS, and NH{sub 3} can also be present. The gas phase is typically characterized by high carbon and sulfur, but low oxygen, activities and, consequently, severe degradation of the structural and functional materials used in the gasifier can occur. Therefore, there are numerous concerns about materials performance in coal gasification systems, particularly at the present time when demonstration-scale projects are in or nearing the construction and operation phases. This study focused on the subset of materials degradation phenomena resulting from carbon formation and carburization processes, which are related to potential operating problems in certain gasification components and subsystems. More specifically, it examined the current state of knowledge regarding carbon deposition and a carbon-related degradation phemonenon known as metal dusting as they affect the long-term operation of the gas clean-up equipment downstream of the gasifier and addressed possible means to mitigate the degradation processes. These effects would be primarily associated with the filtering and cooling of coal-derived fuel gases from the gasifier exit temperature to as low as 400{degree}C. However, some of the consideratins are sufficiently general to cover conditions relevant to other parts of gasification systems.

  4. Addressing failures in exascale computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snir, Marc; Wisniewski, Robert W.; Abraham, Jacob A.; Adve, Sarita; Bagchi, Saurabh; Balaji, Pavan; Belak, Jim; Bose, Pradip; Cappello, Franck; Carlson, William; Chien, Andrew A.; Coteus, Paul; Debardeleben, Nathan A.; Diniz, Pedro; Engelmann, Christian; Erez, Mattan; Saverio, Fazzari; Geist, Al; Gupta, Rinku; Johnson, Fred; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Leyffer, Sven; Liberty, Dean; Mitra, Subhasish; Munson, Todd; Schreiber, Robert; Stearly, Jon; Van Hensbergen, Eric

    2014-05-01

    We present here a report produced by a workshop on “Addressing Failures in Exascale Computing” held in Park City, Utah, August 4–11, 2012. The charter of this workshop was to establish a common taxonomy about resilience across all the levels in a computing system; discuss existing knowledge on resilience across the various hardware and software layers of an exascale system; and build on those results, examining potential solutions from both a hardware and software perspective and focusing on a combined approach. The workshop brought together participants with expertise in applications, system software, and hardware; they came from industry, government, and academia; and their interests ranged from theory to implementation. The combination allowed broad and comprehensive discussions and led to this document, which summarizes and builds on those discussions.

  5. Addressing Failures in Exascale Computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snir, Marc [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Wisniewski, Robert [Intel Corporation; Abraham, Jacob [unknown; Adve, Sarita [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Bagchi, Saurabh [Purdue University; Balaji, Pavan [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Belak, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Bose, Pradip [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center; Cappello, Franck [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Carlson, Bill [unknown; Chien, Andrew [University of Chicago; Coteus, Paul [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center; DeBardeleben, Nathan [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Diniz, Pedro [University of Southern California; Engelmann, Christian [ORNL; Erez, Mattan [University of Texas at Austin; Fazzari, Saverio [Booz Allen Hamilton; Geist, Al [ORNL; Gupta, Rinku [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Johnson, Fred [Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), Oak Ridge, TN; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Leyffer, Sven [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Liberty, Dean [AMD; Mitra, Subhasish [Stanford University; Munson, Todd [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Schreiber, Rob [HP Labs; Stearley, Jon [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Van Hensbergen, Eric [ARM

    2014-01-01

    We present here a report produced by a workshop on Addressing failures in exascale computing' held in Park City, Utah, 4-11 August 2012. The charter of this workshop was to establish a common taxonomy about resilience across all the levels in a computing system, discuss existing knowledge on resilience across the various hardware and software layers of an exascale system, and build on those results, examining potential solutions from both a hardware and software perspective and focusing on a combined approach. The workshop brought together participants with expertise in applications, system software, and hardware; they came from industry, government, and academia, and their interests ranged from theory to implementation. The combination allowed broad and comprehensive discussions and led to this document, which summarizes and builds on those discussions.

  6. Addressing viral resistance through vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, Catherine; Schleif, Amanda; Heilman, Carole A

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a serious healthcare concern affecting millions of people around the world. Antiviral resistance has been viewed as a lesser threat than antibiotic resistance, but it is important to consider approaches to address this growing issue. While vaccination is a logical strategy, and has been shown to be successful many times over, next generation viral vaccines with a specific goal of curbing antiviral resistance will need to clear several hurdles including vaccine design, evaluation and implementation. This article suggests that a new model of vaccination may need to be considered: rather than focusing on public health, this model would primarily target sectors of the population who are at high risk for complications from certain infections. PMID:26604979

  7. Building Footprints - Montana Structures/Addresses Framework

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — The Montana Structures/Addresses Framework is a statewide spatial database of structure and address points in the State of Montana. The Montana Structures/Addresses...

  8. Comparison study for the CCME reference method for determination of PHC in soil by using internal and external standard methods and by using silica gel column cleanup and in-situ silica gel cleanup methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The assessment, cleanup, and remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated sites is covered in the Reference Method for Canada-Wide Standard for Petroleum Hydrocarbons-Tier 1 Method. It replaces several analytical methods used in the past by some laboratories and jurisdictions in Canada. The authors conducted two comparative evaluations to validate the Tier 1 Analytical Method. The first compared the Internal and External Standard Methods, and the second compared the Silica Gel Column Cleanup Method with the In-situ Silica Gel Cleanup Method. The Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME) Tier 1 Method recommends and requires the External Standard Method to determine petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) in soil samples. The Internal Method is widely used to quantify various organic and inorganic pollutants in environmental samples. The Tier 1 Method offers two options for the same extract cleanup. They are: Option A - In-situ Silica Gel Cleanup, and Option B - Silica Gel Column Cleanup. Linearity, precision, and PHC quantification results were the parameters considered for diesel and motor oil solutions, for diesel spiked soil samples, and for motor oil spiked soil samples. It was concluded that both the External and Internal Standard Methods for gas chromatograph (GC) determination of PHC in soil possess their own advantages. The PHC results obtained using the In-Situ Silica Gel Cleanup Method were lower than those obtained with the Silica Gel Column Cleanup Methods. The more efficient and effective sample cleanup method proved to be the Silica Gel Column Method. 13 refs., 7 tabs., 7 figs

  9. Modeling emissions and dispersion of contaminants from cleanup activities at a mixed waste site to estimate air impacts and risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transport and dispersion of contaminants via the air pathway is a major concern during cleanup of contaminated sites. Impacts to air quality and human health during cleanup were evaluated for the Weldon Spring site by using site-specific information for source areas, activities, and receptor locations. In order to ensure protection of human health and the environment, results are being used to focus on those cleanup activities for which release controls should be emphasized

  10. Eliciting Public Attitudes Regarding Bioremediation Cleanup Technologies: Lessons Learned from a Consensus Workshop in Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the summer of 2002, we developed and implemented a ''consensus workshop'' with Idaho citizens to elicit their concerns and issues regarding the use of bioremediation as a cleanup technology for radioactive nuclides and heavy metals at Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The consensus workshop is a derivation of a technology assessment method designed to ensure dialogue between experts and lay people. It has its origins in the United States in the form of ''consensus development conferences'' used by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to elicit professional knowledge and concerns about new medical treatments. Over the last 25 years, NIH has conducted over 100 consensus development conferences. (Jorgensen 1995). The consensus conference is grounded in the idea that technology assessment and policy needs to be socially negotiated among many different stakeholders and groups rather than narrowly defined by a group of experts. To successfully implement new technology, the public requires access to information that addresses a full complement of issues including understanding the organization proposing the technology. The consensus conference method creates an informed dialogue, making technology understandable to the general public and sets it within perspectives and priorities that may differ radically from those of the expert community. While specific outcomes differ depending on the overall context of a conference, one expected outcome is that citizen panel members develop greater knowledge of the technology during the conference process and, sometimes, the entire panel experiences a change in attitude toward the technology and/or the organization proposing its use (Kluver 1995). The purpose of this research project was to explore the efficacy of the consensus conference model as a way to elicit the input of the general public about bioremediation of radionuclides and heavy metals at Department of Energy sites. Objectives of the research included: (1

  11. Surface and subsurface cleanup protocol for radionuclides, Gunnison, Colorado, UMTRA project processing site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surface and subsurface soil cleanup protocols for the Gunnison, Colorado, processing sits are summarized as follows: In accordance with EPA-promulgated land cleanup standards (40 CFR 192), in situ Ra-226 is to be cleaned up based on bulk concentrations not exceeding 5 and 15 pCi/g in 15-cm surface and subsurface depth increments, averaged over 100-m2 grid blocks, where the parent Ra-226 concentrations are greater than, or in secular equilibrium with, the Th-230 parent. A bulk interpretation of these EPA standards has been accepted by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and while the concentration of the finer-sized soil fraction less than a No. 4 mesh sieve contains the higher concentration of radioactivity, the bulk approach in effect integrates the total sample radioactivity over the entire sample mass. In locations where Th-230 has differentially migrated in subsoil relative to Ra-226, a Th-230 cleanup protocol has been developed in accordance with Supplemental Standard provisions of 40 CFR 192 for NRC/Colorado Department of Health (CDH) approval for timely implementation. Detailed elements of the protocol are contained in Appendix A, Generic Protocol from Thorium-230 Cleanup/Verification at UMTRA Project Processing Sites. The cleanup of other radionuclides or nonradiological hazards that pose a significant threat to the public and the environment will be determined and implemented in accordance with pathway analysis to assess impacts and the implications of ALARA specified in 40 CFR 192 relative to supplemental standards

  12. Evaluation of containment failure and cleanup time for Pu shots on the Z machine.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darby, John L.

    2010-02-01

    Between November 30 and December 11, 2009 an evaluation was performed of the probability of containment failure and the time for cleanup of contamination of the Z machine given failure, for plutonium (Pu) experiments on the Z machine at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Due to the unique nature of the problem, there is little quantitative information available for the likelihood of failure of containment components or for the time to cleanup. Information for the evaluation was obtained from Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) at the Z machine facility. The SMEs provided the State of Knowledge (SOK) for the evaluation. There is significant epistemic- or state of knowledge- uncertainty associated with the events that comprise both failure of containment and cleanup. To capture epistemic uncertainty and to allow the SMEs to reason at the fidelity of the SOK, we used the belief/plausibility measure of uncertainty for this evaluation. We quantified two variables: the probability that the Pu containment system fails given a shot on the Z machine, and the time to cleanup Pu contamination in the Z machine given failure of containment. We identified dominant contributors for both the time to cleanup and the probability of containment failure. These results will be used by SNL management to decide the course of action for conducting the Pu experiments on the Z machine.

  13. Surface and subsurface cleanup protocol for radionuclides, Gunnison, Colorado, UMTRA project processing site. Final [report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    Surface and subsurface soil cleanup protocols for the Gunnison, Colorado, processing sits are summarized as follows: In accordance with EPA-promulgated land cleanup standards (40 CFR 192), in situ Ra-226 is to be cleaned up based on bulk concentrations not exceeding 5 and 15 pCi/g in 15-cm surface and subsurface depth increments, averaged over 100-m{sup 2} grid blocks, where the parent Ra-226 concentrations are greater than, or in secular equilibrium with, the Th-230 parent. A bulk interpretation of these EPA standards has been accepted by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and while the concentration of the finer-sized soil fraction less than a No. 4 mesh sieve contains the higher concentration of radioactivity, the bulk approach in effect integrates the total sample radioactivity over the entire sample mass. In locations where Th-230 has differentially migrated in subsoil relative to Ra-226, a Th-230 cleanup protocol has been developed in accordance with Supplemental Standard provisions of 40 CFR 192 for NRC/Colorado Department of Health (CDH) approval for timely implementation. Detailed elements of the protocol are contained in Appendix A, Generic Protocol from Thorium-230 Cleanup/Verification at UMTRA Project Processing Sites. The cleanup of other radionuclides or nonradiological hazards that pose a significant threat to the public and the environment will be determined and implemented in accordance with pathway analysis to assess impacts and the implications of ALARA specified in 40 CFR 192 relative to supplemental standards.

  14. Providing support for day-to-day monitoring of shoreline cleanup operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiences gained during the 'Cape Mohican' incident in October 1996, in San Francisco Bay, were recounted and proposed as a potential example of day-to-day monitoring, evaluation and reporting of shoreline cleanup effort. During this cleanup a set of communications procedures, progress reports and maps were developed which should be equally useful in other similar situations. The cartographic representations were specially highlighted as they focused on ways to provide a clear picture of the short term modifications in oiling conditions of the affected shoreline. The most important lesson learned from this oil spill was the importance of having personnel and equipment sufficiently matched to the task in order to evaluate oil conditions, produce cleanup recommendations, execute and communicate the status of the cleanup effort as fast, and as efficiently and effectively as possible. It was clearly demonstrated that unless the decision process is streamlined and supported with the best, most up-to-date information, the efforts of the cleanup team would be seriously undermined. 8 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs

  15. Sectored Clean-up Work Plan for Housekeeping Category Waste Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sectored Clean-up Work Plan (SCWP) replaces the Housekeeping Category Corrective Action Unit Work Plan and provides a strategy to be used for conducting housekeeping activities using a sectored clean-up approach. This work plan provides a process by which one or more existing housekeeping category Corrective Action Sites (CASS) from the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order and/or non-FFACO designated waste site(s) are grouped into a sector for simultaneous remediation and cleanup. This increases effectiveness and efficiencies in labor, materials, equipment, cost, and time. This plan is an effort by the U.S. Department of Energy to expedite work in a more organized and efficient approach. The objectives of this plan are to: Group housekeeping FFACO CASS and non-FFACO housekeeping sites into sectors and remediate during the same field visit; Provide consistent documentation on FFACO CAS and non-FFACO clean-up activities; Perform similar activities under one approved document; Remediate areas inside the Deactivation and Decommissioning facilities and compounds in a campaign-style remediation; and Increase efficiencies and cost-effectiveness, accelerate cleanups, reduce mobilization, demobilization, and remediation costs

  16. Groundwater clean-up: The Savannah River Site experience (U)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A full scale pump and treat groundwater remediation program which addresses a large plume of volatile organics has been ongoing at the Savannah River Site since 1985. The system has recovered over 100,000 kilograms of solvent and is containing the center of the plume. While overall protection is being achieved, reducing the concentration of contaminants to very low levels is problematic

  17. The politics of cultural policy

    OpenAIRE

    Schlesinger, P

    2009-01-01

    This article addresses the roles of intellectuals in the shaping of cultural policy. Three distinct but interrelated political levels are discussed: the EU, the UK as a member state and Scotland as a stateless nation. The cultural and political space of the European Union is contradictory: it has a cultural presence but member states have full cultural competence. The EU’s public sphere is fragmented, poised between regulation and federation. The member state therefore remains the principal f...

  18. A Formal Definition of Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Birukou, Aliaksandr; Blanzieri, Enrico; Giorgini, Paolo; Giunchiglia, Fausto

    2009-01-01

    Globalization makes culture no more bound to a geographical area, race or religion. Multi-national companies, software developers, scientists need to take into account cultural differences when delivering products to people. The first step in dealing with culture consists in defining and representing culture of the targeted community. AI literature addressed issues of sociality, collaboration, and coordination in agent societies, but did not target the problem of defining and representing cul...

  19. New Generation Dresden NPP Demineralizer Vault Cleanup Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    show that the actual volumetric fraction of solids produced are relatively small. In order to estimate the amount of material (Al or Fe depending on the electrode material) added by the EC process, a rough rule of thumb has been found to be ∼15 ppm per amp-minute. It was found with most wastewaters that Cs seeding (if that step is required) added ∼ 100 ppm Cs Seed and 10-15 ppm/amp minute additional floc from the electrodes. In a typical BWR wastewater case, where the TSS represented ≤ 0.15 wt% (∼1500 ppm). At 1.5 amp-min., the Al (III) added by the EC process would be ∼ 20 ppm, or ∼ 60 ppm as Al(OH)3. It was found the relatively low floc [∼ 40 ppm as dried Al(OH)3] worked quite well for the high colloid level present (∼1500 ppm), and would be even more enhanced with the use of recycle. Even at that relatively low treatment dose, the colloidal TSS in the wastewater was effectively flocculated to yield agglomerates that were easily filtered and dewatered. Another rule of thumb is that, empirically, TDS (in mg/l) is typically ∼0.5 X conductivity (in umho/cm). For instance, a conductivity reading of 100 umho/cm corresponds to about 50 ppm of TDS. As can be seen, the amount of material actually added in this vault cleanup of ∼15 ppm per amp-min compared to the existing ∼1500 ppm of TDS present (0.5 X conductivity of 3000 μmho/cm) is minimal. In this vault cleanup, as a precautionary measure, the HIC was a specially designed Press-Pak with internal sheet filters, final dewatering leg, and a expandable, outer bladder if needed for final dewatering. It was found after filling the first HIC, of two, that the material dewatered and passed final dewatering tests without the need for the precautionary Press-Pak feature. Original estimates by the evaluation team estimated it would take some 11 to 12 HICs to remove the vault contents to a remote location for treatment, dewatering and final shipment. With the use of the SAFETM Solution, the project was

  20. Neurochip Based on Light-addressable Potentiometric Sensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qingjun Liu; Hua Cai; Ying Xu; Lifeng Qin; Lijiang Wang; Ping Wang

    2006-01-01

    A novel neurochip based on light addressable potentiometric sensor (LAPS) is designed. Using its light addressable characteristic. The problems of the limitations of restricted discrete active sites of current neurochips, such as microelectrode array and field effect transistor array can be settled easily. Based on the theoretical analysis of the interface between cells and LAPS, spontaneously discharges of hippocampal neurons induced by Mg2+-free media treatment were recorded by LAPS. The results demonstrate that this kind of neurochip has potential to monitor electrophysiology of cultured cells in a non-invasive way.

  1. A Contrastive Study of Honorific and Depreciatory Address Forms in Chinese,English and Japanese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田艳萍

    2010-01-01

    Honorific and depreciatory address forms,as an indispensable part of speech communication,occur in all languages.But due to the cultural diversity,different languages require different laws and regularities in the choice of them.This paper is firstly to make a contrastive analysis of honorific and depreciatory address forms in Chinese,English and Japanese,then explore the different basic values in Chinese,American and Japanese culture and discuss their influences on honorific and depreciatory address forms in the hope of a better understanding of their pragmatic and cultural differences and an avoidance of miscommunication in intercultural interactions.

  2. Addressing verification challenges [International safeguards symposium on addressing verification challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In his welcome address the Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Mr. M. ElBaradei, stated that safeguards activities are probably the most difficult task entrusted to an international organization and to determine all the details of a country's nuclear programme is a daunting challenge that raises a number of questions. There is an increase in nuclear power around the globe as a result of shortages of energy and concerns about energy independence and climate change. On the one hand, this is good, because without energy there is no hope for development on the other hand, however, it means that nuclear know-how and nuclear technology will continue to spread to more and more countries. There is also an increase in the number of countries interested in developing nuclear fuel cycle capabilities: sensitive fuel cycle activities, reprocessing and above all uranium enrichment. It even seems that some countries might be hedging their bets in order to have the know-how should they need to develop their own deterrence. Verifying enrichment or reprocessing facilities is quite difficult, and the so-called conversion time is extremely short. Thus, the IAEA is dealing with what is called 'virtual nuclear weapon States'. The IAEA has been talking for a number of years about the need to develop a new international or multinational approach to the fuel cycle in order to avoid a situation with nine nuclear weapon States and another 20 or 30 States having the capacity to develop nuclear weapons in a very short period of time. There is a need to remember that there is a linkage between nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation. Furthermore safeguards activities, though fundamentally technical in nature, are carried out in a political charged environment. The security dimension - that is, nuclear terrorism - also presents a new challenge, because State systems of accounting for and control of nuclear material are no longer simply tools for safeguards, but

  3. An address geocoding solution for Chinese cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuehu; Ma, Haoming; Li, Qi

    2006-10-01

    We introduce the challenges of address geocoding for Chinese cities and present a potential solution along with a prototype system that deal with these challenges by combining and extending current geocoding solutions developed for United States and Japan. The proposed solution starts by separating city addresses into "standard" addresses which meet a predefined address model and non-standard ones. The standard addresses are stored in a structured relational database in their normalized forms, while a selected portion of the non-standard addresses are stored as aliases to the standard addresses. An in-memory address index is then constructed from the address database and serves as the basis for real-time address matching. Test results were obtained from two trials conducted in the city Beijing. On average 80% matching rate were achieved. Possible improvements to the current design are also discussed.

  4. Thyroid cancers and benign thyroid pathologies among Chernobyl clean-up workers from Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the work is to detect the frequency and the character of thyroid diseases manly with thyroid cancer diagnosed among Chernobyl clean-up workers from Latvia. Conclusions: Usually, in Latvia every year there are 2-3 thyroid cancer cases per 100 thousand inhabitants, but there are 3 cases per 5 thousands Chernobyl clean-up workers - that mean 20 times more than in general population. The first case of thyroid follicular and papillary carcinoma in the Chernobyl clean-up workers from Latvia was diagnosed after a latent period of 10 years. Among benign thyroid lesions, cystic colloid goiter and nodular colloid goiter seem to be commonly associated with radiation exposure to the thyroid gland

  5. Clean-up and disposal process of polluted sediments from urban rivers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, the discussion is concentrated on the properties of the polluted sediments and the combination of clean-up and disposal process for the upper layer heavily polluted sediments with good flowability. Based on the systematic analyses of various clean-up processes, a suitable engineering process has been evaluated and recommended. The process has been applied to the river reclamation in Yangpu District of Shanghai metropolis. An improved centrifuge is used for dewatering the dredged sludge,which plays an important role in the combination of clean-up and disposal process. The assessment of the engineering process shows its environmental and technical economy feasibility, which is much better than that of traditional dredging-disposal processes.

  6. Studies of Plutonium Aerosol Resuspension at the Time of the Maralinga Cleanup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinn, J

    2003-08-01

    At the former nuclear test site at Maralinga, South Australia, soil cleanup began in October 1996 with the objective to remove the potential for residual plutonium (Pu) exposures to the public. In this case the cleanup was to restore access to the closed test site. The proposed long-term land use was primarily to be a hunting area for Pitjantjatjara (Aboriginal) people, but also presumably to be available to the public who might have an interest in the history of the site. The long-term management objective for the site was to allow casual use, but to prohibit habitation. The goal of this study is to provide an evaluation of the Maralinga soil cleanup in terms of potential long-term public inhalation exposures to particulate Pu, and in terms of a contribution to planning and conducting any such soil Pu-cleanup. Such cleanups might be carried out for example, on the Nevada Test Site in the United States. For Pu that has been deposited on the soil by atmospheric sources of finely divided particles, the dominant exposure pathway to humans is by inhalation. Other exposure pathways are less important because the Pu particles become oxidized into a nearly insoluble form, do not easily enter into the food chain, nor are they significantly transferred through the intestine to the bloodstream should Pu become ingested. The purpose of this report is to provide results of the Pu resuspension measurements made before, during, and after the Pu cleanup at Maralinga, to compare these against similar measurements made elsewhere, and to interpret the results as they relate to potential long-term public exposures. (Exposures to Pu in dust plumes produced by mechanical disturbance during cleanup are considered short-term, unlikely to be significant for purposes of this report, and are not included). A considerable amount of research had been conducted at Maralinga by the Australian Radiation Laboratory, now the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA

  7. Impact of Federal R and D funding on Three Mile Island cleanup costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chairman and the Ranking Minority Member of the House Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs requested that GAO respond to several questions concerning the administration's proposed $123 million in Federal funding for data acquisition and research and development activities during the cleanup of the Three Mile Island nuclear reactor Unit 2. GAO found that: adequate legislative authority exists to support DOE's proposed data acquisition and research and development activities during the cleanup process; adherence to the estimated timetable for cleanup completion will allow DOE to meet its program objectives within the proposed budget, but slippages would probably make additional funding necessary; and the DOE program will reduce the utility company's financial needs by an estimated $66 to $69 million, about one-third of the Federal share proposed by the Governor of Pennsylvania on July 9, 1981

  8. Tool Path Generation for Clean-up Machining of Impeller by Point-searching Based Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Ming; ZHANG Dinghua; LUO Ming; WU Baohai

    2012-01-01

    Machining quality of clean-up region has a strong influence on the performances of the impeller.In order to plan clean-up tool paths rapidly and obtain good finish surface quality,an efficient and robust tool path generation method is presented,which employs an approach based on point-searching.The clean-up machining mentioned in this paper is pencil-cut and multilayer fillet-cut for a free-form model with a ball-end cutter.For pencil-cut,the cutter center position can be determined via judging whether it satisfies the distance requirement.After the searching direction and the tracing direction have been determined,by employing the point-searching algorithm with the idea of dichotomy,all the cutter contact (CC) points and cutter location (CL)points can be found and the clean-up boundaries can also be defined rapidly.Then the tool path is generated.Based on the main concept of pencil-cut,a multilayer fillet-cut method is proposed,which utilizes a ball-end cuter with its radius less than the design radius of clean-up region.Using a sequence of intermediate virtual cutters to divide the clean-uP region into several layersand given a cusp-height tolerance for the final layer,then the tool paths for all layers are calculated.Finally,computer implementation is also presented in this paper,and the result shows that the proposed method is feasible.

  9. Cleanup/stimulation of a horizontal wellbore using propellants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rougeot, J.E.; Lauterbach, K.A.

    1993-01-01

    This report documents the stimulation/cleanup of a horizontal well bore (Wilson 25) using propellants. The Wilson 25 is a Bartlesville Sand well located in the Flatrock Field, Osage County, Oklahoma. The Wilson 25 was drilled to determine if horizontal drilling could be used as a means to economically recover primary oil that had been left in place in a mostly abandoned oil field because of the adverse effects of water coning. Pump testing of the Wilson 25 horizontal well bore before cleanup or stimulation produced 6 barrels of oil and .84 barrels of water per day. The high percentage of daily oil production to total daily fluid production indicated that the horizontal well bore had accessed potentially economical oil reserves if the fluid production rate could be increased by performing a cleanup/stimulation treatment. Propellants were selected as an inexpensive means to stimulate and cleanup the near well bore area in a uniform manner. The ignition of a propellant creates a large volume of gas which penetrates the formation, creating numerous short cracks through which hydrocarbons can travel into the well bore. More conventional stimulation/cleanup techniques were either significantly more expensive, less likely to treat uniformly, or could not be confined to the near well bore area. Three different propellant torpedo designs were tested with a total of 304` of horizontal well bore being shot and producible. The initial test shot caused 400` of the horizontal well bore to become plugged off, and subsequently it could not be production tested. The second and third test shots were production tested, with the oil production being increased 458% and 349%, respectively, on a per foot basis. The Wilson 25 results indicate that a propellant shot treatment is an economically viable means to cleanup/stimulate a horizontal well bore.

  10. DECOMMISSIONING AND ENVRIONMENTAL CLEANUP OF SMALL ARMS TRAINING FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kmetz, T.

    2012-12-04

    constituents posed a migration risk to groundwater. The NTCR action involved removal of approximately 12,092 m3 (15,816 yd3) of spent bullets and lead-impacted soil and off-site disposal. The removal action included soils from the berm area, a fill area that received scraped soils from the berm, and soil from a drainage ditch located on the edge of the berm area. Also included in the removal action was a mixture of soil, concrete, and asphalt from the other three range areas. Under this action, 11,796 m3 (15,429 yd3) of hazardous waste and impacted soil were removed from the SATA and transported to a permitted hazardous waste disposal facility (Lone Mountain Facility in Oklahoma) and 296 m3 (387 yd3) of nonhazardous waste (primarily concrete debris) were removed and transported to a local solid waste landfill for disposal. During the excavation process, the extent was continuously assessed through the use of a hand-held, field-portable X-ray fluorescence unit with results verified using confirmation sampling with certified laboratory analysis. Following the completion of the excavation and confirmation sampling, final contouring, grading, and establishment of vegetative cover was performed to stabilize the affected areas. The NTCR action began on August 17, 2010, and mechanical completion was achieved on April 27, 2011. The selected removal action met the removal action objectives (RAOs), is protective of human health and the environment both in the short- and long-term, was successful in removing potential ecological risks, and is protective of surface water and groundwater. Furthermore, the selected NTCR action met residential cleanup goals and resulted in the release of the SEA from restricted use contributing to the overall footprint reduction at SRS.

  11. Tax Incentives for Cultural Heritage Conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Federico Revelli

    2013-01-01

    Cultural heritage is a complex and elusive concept, constantly evolving through time, and combining cultural, aesthetic, symbolic, spiritual, historical and economic values. The Handbook on the Economics of Cultural Heritage outlines the contribution of economics to the design and analysis of cultural heritage policies and to addressing issues related to the conservation, management and enhancement of heritage.

  12. Underside dropwise condensation of liquid metal in the clean-up separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 233U clean-up process uses laser isotope separation method based on the atomic route. The handling of metal vapour in the clean-up separator involves condensing of metal vapour and recycling of the liquid metal over long hours of operation. In the internal recycle mode of operation it is necessary to estimate the liquid hold up on the hot condensing substrate before it trickles back to the vapour generator. This paper describes a novel method of estimating the retained mass, based on self similar patterns

  13. Glufosinate ammonium clean-up procedure from water samples using SPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayeb M., A.; Ismail B., S.; Mardiana-Jansar, K.; Ta, Goh Choo; Agustar, Hani Kartini

    2015-09-01

    For the determination of glufosinate ammonium residue in soil and water samples, different solid phase extraction (SPE) sorbent efficiency was studied. Four different SPE sorbents i.e.: CROMABOND PS-H+, CROMABOND PS-OH-, ISOLUTE ENV+, Water Sep-Pak and OASIS HLB were used. Sample clean-up performance was evaluated using high performance liquid chromatography (Agilent 1220 infinity LC) with fluorescence detector. Detection of FMO-derivatives was done at λ ex = 260 nm and λ em= 310 nm. OASIS HLB column was the most suitable for the clean-up in view of the overall feasibility of the analysis.

  14. EBR-II Cover Gas Cleanup System upgrade distributed control and front end computer systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) Cover Gas Cleanup System (CGCS) control system was upgraded in 1991 to improve control and provide a graphical operator interface. The upgrade consisted of a main control computer, a distributed control computer, a front end input/output computer, a main graphics interface terminal, and a remote graphics interface terminal. This paper briefly describes the Cover Gas Cleanup System and the overall control system; gives reasons behind the computer system structure; and then gives a detailed description of the distributed control computer, the front end computer, and how these computers interact with the main control computer. The descriptions cover both hardware and software

  15. Fuel cleanup system for the tritium systems test assembly: design and experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, E.C.; Bartlit, J.R.; Sherman, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    A major subsystem of the Tritium Systems Test Assembly is the Fuel Cleanup System (FCU) whose functons are to: (1) remove impurities in the form of argon and tritiated methane, water, and ammonia from the reactor exhaust stream and (2) recover tritium for reuse from the tritiated impurities. To do this, a hybrid cleanup system has been designed which utilizes and will test concurrently two differing technologies - one based on disposable, hot metal (U and Ti) getter beds and a second based on regenerable cryogenic asdorption beds followed by catalytic oxidation of impurities to DTO and stackable gases and freezout of the resultant DTO to recover essentially all tritium for reuse.

  16. EBR-II Cover Gas Cleanup System upgrade process control system structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) Cover Gas Cleanup System (CGCS) control system was upgraded in 1991 to improve control and provide a graphical operator interface. The upgrade consisted of a main control computer, a distributed control computer, a front end input/output computer, a main graphics interface terminal, and a remote graphics interface terminal. This paper briefly describes the Cover Gas Cleanup System and the overall control system; describes the main control computer hardware and system software features in more detail; and, then, describes the real-time control tasks, and how they interact with each other, and how they interact with the operator interface task

  17. ''How clean is clean'' in the United States federal and Washington State cleanup regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The enactment of legislation and promulgation of implementing regulations generally involves the resolution of conflicting goals. Defining ''How Clean is Clean?'' in federal and state cleanup laws, regulations, and policies is no exception. Answering the ''How Clean is Clean?'' question has resulted in the identification of some important and sometimes conflicting goals. Continuing resolution of the following conflicting goals is the key to effect cleanup of hazardous waste sites: Expediency vs. Fairness; Flexibility vs. Consistency; Risk Reduction vs. Risk Causation; and Permanence vs. Cost Effectiveness

  18. Post-accident cleanup of radioactivity at the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technical staff of the President's Commission on the Accident at Three Mile Island (TMI) requested that Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) prepare documentation concerned with the cleanup of radioactivity on the Three Mile Island site following the March 28, 1979 accident. The objective of this report is to provide information in a summarized form, which will be of direct usefulness to the commissioners. The information contained herein includes discussion of on-site assistance and accomplishments following the accident, flowsheet development for the TMI recovery team (by the Technical Advisory Group), and the numerous reports already generated on the TMI cleanup and recovery

  19. Fixed-bed gasifier and cleanup system engineering summary report through Test Run No. 100

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pater, K. Jr.; Headley, L.; Kovach, J.; Stopek, D.

    1984-06-01

    The state-of-the-art of high-pressure, fixed-bed gasification has been advanced by the many refinements developed over the last 5 years. A novel full-flow gas cleanup system has been installed and tested to clean coal-derived gases. This report summarizes the results of tests conducted on the gasifier and cleanup system from its inception through 1982. Selected process summary data are presented along with results from complementary programs in the areas of environmental research, process simulation, analytical methods development, and component testing. 20 references, 32 figures, 42 tables.

  20. Advanced catalytic plasma exhaust clean-up process for ITER-EDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glugla, M. [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Inst. fuer Radiochemie (Germany); Penzhorn, R.D. [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Inst. fuer Radiochemie (Germany); Hermann, P. [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Inst. fuer Radiochemie (Germany); Ache, H.J. [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Inst. fuer Radiochemie (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    A new catalyst reactor (PERMCAT) has been developed to further improve the catalytic conversion / permeation based plasma exhaust clean-up process realized in the facility CAPRICE at the Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK). The reactor directly combines a nickel catalyst with permeation tubes and removes residual amounts of tritium from tritiated species by isotopic swamping with hydrogen. Succesful integration of such a unit into the CAPRICE catalytic clean-up approach could lead to a fully continuous process and bring about a considerable reduction in non-recoverable tritium. (orig.).

  1. Advanced catalytic plasma exhaust clean-up process for ITER-EDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new catalyst reactor (PERMCAT) has been developed to further improve the catalytic conversion / permeation based plasma exhaust clean-up process realized in the facility CAPRICE at the Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK). The reactor directly combines a nickel catalyst with permeation tubes and removes residual amounts of tritium from tritiated species by isotopic swamping with hydrogen. Succesful integration of such a unit into the CAPRICE catalytic clean-up approach could lead to a fully continuous process and bring about a considerable reduction in non-recoverable tritium. (orig.)

  2. EBR-II Cover Gas Cleanup System upgrade distributed control and front end computer systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, R.B.

    1992-01-01

    The Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) Cover Gas Cleanup System (CGCS) control system was upgraded in 1991 to improve control and provide a graphical operator interface. The upgrade consisted of a main control computer, a distributed control computer, a front end input/output computer, a main graphics interface terminal, and a remote graphics interface terminal. This paper briefly describes the Cover Gas Cleanup System and the overall control system; gives reasons behind the computer system structure; and then gives a detailed description of the distributed control computer, the front end computer, and how these computers interact with the main control computer. The descriptions cover both hardware and software.

  3. EBR-II Cover Gas Cleanup System upgrade distributed control and front end computer systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, R.B.

    1992-05-01

    The Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) Cover Gas Cleanup System (CGCS) control system was upgraded in 1991 to improve control and provide a graphical operator interface. The upgrade consisted of a main control computer, a distributed control computer, a front end input/output computer, a main graphics interface terminal, and a remote graphics interface terminal. This paper briefly describes the Cover Gas Cleanup System and the overall control system; gives reasons behind the computer system structure; and then gives a detailed description of the distributed control computer, the front end computer, and how these computers interact with the main control computer. The descriptions cover both hardware and software.

  4. E6 Addressing Scheme and Network Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Dmitry Anatolyevich Zaitsev; Sergey Ivanovich Bolshakov

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes new E6 addressing scheme for the creation of world-wide networks totally constructed on the base of Ethernet technology. Hierarchic E6 addresses with the length of 6 octets are used instead of both Ethernet MAC-addresses and IP-addresses that allows the routing within world-wide networks and cuts overhead of TCP, IP headers; the address space is extended in 16K times regarding IP addresses. Standard Ethernet LLC2 facilities are employed for guaranteed delivery of informati...

  5. Volume Overload Cleanup: An Approach for On-line SPE-GC, GPC-GC and GPC-SPE-GC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkdijk, H.; Mol, J.G.J.; Nagel, van der B.

    2007-01-01

    A new concept for cleanup, based on volume overloading of the cleanup column, has been developed for on-line coupling of gel permeation chromatography (GPC), solid-phase extraction (SPE), or both, to gas chromatography (GC). The principle is outlined and the applicability demonstrated by the determi

  6. Idaho Cleanup Project CPP-603A basin deactivation waste management 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CPP-603A basin facility is located at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Idaho National Laboratory (INL). CPP-603A operations are part of the Idaho Cleanup Project (ICP) that is managed by CH2M-WG Idaho, LLC (CWI). Once the inventoried fuel was removed from the basins, they were no longer needed for fuel storage. However, they were still filled with water to provide shielding from high activity debris and contamination, and had to either be maintained so the basins did not present a threat to public or worker health and safety, or be isolated from the environment. The CPP-603A basins contained an estimated 50,000 kg (110,200 lbs) of sludge. The sludge was composed of desert sand, dust, precipitated corrosion products, and metal particles from past cutting operations. The sediment also contained hazardous constituents and radioactive contamination, including cadmium, lead, and U-235. An Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis (EE/CA), conducted pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), evaluated the risks associated with deactivation of the basins and the alternatives for addressing those risks. The recommended action identified in the Action Memorandum was to perform interim stabilization of the basins. The sludge in the basins was removed and treated in accordance with the Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (HWMA/RCRA) and disposed at the INL Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). A Non-Time Critical Removal Action (NTCRA) was conducted under CERCLA to reduce or eliminate other hazards associated with maintaining the facility. The CERCLA NTCRA included removing a small high-activity debris object (SHADO 1); consolidating and mapping the location of debris objects containing Co-60; removing, treating, and disposing of the basin water; and filling the basins with grout/controlled low strength material (CLSM

  7. A Novel Approach for TNA Address Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    We present a new scheme to allocate/de-allocate Transport Network Assigned (TN A) address using Link Management Protocol (LMP) and to register/resolution these addresses using Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) for Automatically Switched Optical Network (ASON).

  8. SAVI: The IETF Standard in Address Validation

    OpenAIRE

    Bagnulo, Marcelo; García-Martínez, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    In this article we describe Source Address Validation Implementation (SAVI), a security architecture being standardized by the IETF to prevent source address spoofing within a link. SAVI devices, usually layer 2 switches, create bindings between the IP address of a node and a property of the host¿s network attachment, such as the port through which the packet is received. Bindings are created by monitoring the packet exchange associated with IP address configuration mechanisms such as DHCP, S...

  9. Address allocation to mobile ad hoc networks

    OpenAIRE

    Sakander, Zeeshan

    2006-01-01

    Addressing in MANETs is of significant importance, as a mobile device cannot participate in unicast communications until it is assigned a conflict-free IP address. All routing protocols assume nodes to be configured a priori with a unique IP address. Allocating addresses to mobile nodes is a fundamental and difficult problem. Unlike infrastructure based networks, MANETs support autonomous and spontaneous networking and therefore, should be capable of self-organization and self-configuration. ...

  10. Religion and Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabih, Joshua

    group breaks totally with the existing Arabic Bible translations that they were in the habit of using. In this translation, the previously strenuous relationship between culture and religion is flattened in a binary sets of oppositions between an unaltered Devine message preserved in ancient Bible...... of this paper to shed some light on Jehovah’s Witnesses theological perception of religion and culture within the context of modern Arab Christianity; a subject that has not received the scholarly attention it deserves. This paper shall also look into Jehovah’s Witnesses’ Arabic Bible Translation New World...... translation of the Holy Scriptures, and address how an originally-American Christian group re-constructs the relationship of religion –universality of one truth and its embodiment in one community of faith – and culture; and specifically, Arabic culture. Culture, in its manifold forms -Jehovah’s witnesses...

  11. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-C-1, 105-C Solid Waste Burial Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. J. Appel and J. M. Capron

    2007-07-25

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-C-1, 105-C Solid Waste Burial Ground. This waste site was the primary burial ground for general wastes from the operation of the 105-C Reactor and received process tubes, aluminum fuel spacers, control rods, reactor hardware, spent nuclear fuel and soft wastes.

  12. Cleanup Verification Package for the 126-F-1, 184-F Powerhouse Ash Pit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. W. Clark and H. M Sulloway

    2007-10-31

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 126-F-1, 184-F Powerhouse Ash Pit. This waste site received coal ash from the 100-F Area coal-fired steam plant. Leakage of process effluent from the 116-F-14 , 107-F Retention Basins flowed south into the ash pit, contaminating the northern portion.

  13. Chromosome aberrations and rogue cells in lymphocytes of Chernobyl clean-up workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cytogenetic analysis was performed on peripheral blood lymphocytes from 183 Chernobyl clean-up workers and 27 control individuals. Increased frequencies of chromosome aberrations were associated with exposure to radiation at Chernobyl, alcohol abuse and a history of recent influenza infection. However, only approximately 20% of Chernobyl clean-up workers had an increased frequency of dicentric and ring chromosomes. At the same time, an increased frequency of acentric fragments in lymphocytes of clean-up workers was characteristic. The use of multivitamins as dietary supplement significantly decreased the frequency of chromosome aberrations, especially of chromatid breaks. Rogue cells were found in lymphocytes of 28 clean-up workers and 3 control individuals. The appearance of rogue cells was associated with a recent history of acute respiratory disease (presumably caused by adenoviral infection) and, probably, alcohol abuse. Dicentric chromosomes in rogue cells were distributed according to a negative binomial distribution. Occurrence of rogue cells due to a perturbation of cell cycle control and abnormal apoptosis is suggested

  14. Cancer incidence and thyroid disease among Estonian Chernobyl clean-up workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes the development and summarizes the results of the project Cancer incidence and thyroid disease among Estonian Chernobyl clean-up workers. One of the goals of the report is to give research protocols and questionnaires for researchers involved in other studies. Eight previously published articles are also included summarizing the results. The development of the collaboration work of the project is described in the introduction of the report. Epidemiological methods are described in an article complemented by the protocol and English version of the questionnaire administered to all cleanup workers, as well as the data collection form of the thyroid study. The results from biological biodosimetry using both glycophorin A and FISH methods have shown that the radiation doses received by the Chernobyl cleanup workers were relatively low. Thyroid nodularity was not associated with any radiation exposure characteristic in the thyroid screening study. Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers were followed up for cancer incidence through the Estonian Cancer Registry. No cases of leukemia or thyroid cancer were observed by the end of 1993. It is too early to observe possible effect on other types of cancer. However, mortality from suicides was increased compared with general population. Further follow-up and the extension to other Baltic countries in the future will undoubtedly strengthen the study. There are also plans for future projects covering areas from psychosocial factors to radiation biology

  15. Beam cleanup of a 532-nm pulsed solid-state laser using a bimorph mirror

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Lei; Bing Xu; Ping Yang; Lizhi Dong; Wenjin Liu; Hu Yan

    2012-01-01

    A successful beam cleanup of a 5-mJ/200-μs pulsed solid-state laser system operating at 532-nm wavelength is demonstrated. In this beam cleanup system, a wave-front sensor-less adaptive optics (AO) system is set up with a 20-element bimorph mirror (BM), a high-voltage amplifier, a charge-coupled device camera, and a control software implementing the stochastic parallel gradient descent (SPGD) algorithm. The brightness of the laser focal spot is improved because the wave-front distortions have been compensated. The performance of this system is presented and the experimental results are analyzed.%A successful beam cleanup of a 5-mJ/200-μs pulsed solid-state laser system operating at 532-nm wavelength is demonstrated.In this beam cleanup system,a wave-front sensor-less adaptive optics (AO) system is set up with a 20-element bimorph mirror (BM),a high-voltage amplifier,a charge-coupled device camera,and a control software implementing the stochastic parallel gradient descent (SPGD) algorithm.The brightness of the laser focal spot is improved because the wave-front distortions have been compensated.The performance of this system is presented and the experimental results are analyzed.

  16. Firms vie to offer DOE a prize-winning recipe for cleanup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, M.B.

    1994-04-25

    Eager to get the most bang for its waste cleanup bucks, the US Department of Energy is conducting its own version of the Pillsbury bake-off. DOE is pitting two environmental contractors, Rust International Corp. and Lockheed Environmental Systems and Technologies Co., against each other to come up with the prize-winning recipe for cleaning up some nasty waste problems.

  17. Firms vie to offer DOE a prize-winning recipe for cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eager to get the most bang for its waste cleanup bucks, the US Department of Energy is conducting its own version of the Pillsbury bake-off. DOE is pitting two environmental contractors, Rust International Corp. and Lockheed Environmental Systems and Technologies Co., against each other to come up with the prize-winning recipe for cleaning up some nasty waste problems

  18. Methods for assessing environmental impacts of a FUSRAP property-cleanup/interim-storage remedial action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides a description of a property-cleanup/interim-storage action, explanation of how environmental impacts might occur, comprehensive treatment of most potential impacts that might occur as a result of this type of action, discussion of existing methodologies for estimating and assessing impacts, justification of the choice of specific methodologies for use in FUSRAP environmental reviews, assessments of representative impacts (or expected ranges of impacts where possible), suggested mitigation measures, and some key sources of information. The major topical areas covered are physical and biological impacts, radiological impacts, and socioeconomic impacts. Some project-related issues were beyond the scope of this document, including dollar costs, specific accident scenarios, project funding and changes in Congressional mandates, and project management (contracts, labor relations, quality assurance, liability, emergency preparedness, etc.). These issues will be covered in other documents supporting the decision-making process. Although the scope of this document covers property-cleanup and interim-storage actions, it is applicable to other similar remedial actions. For example, the analyses discussed herein for cleanup activities are applicable to any FUSRAP action that includes site cleanup

  19. Cancer incidence and thyroid disease among Estonian Chernobyl clean-up workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auvinen, A.; Salomaa, S. [eds.] [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland); Rahu, M.; Veidebaum, T.; Tekkel, M. [eds.] [Inst. of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, Tallinn (Estonia); Hakulinen, T. [ed.] [Finnish Cancer Registry, Helsinki (Finland); Boice, J.D. Jr. [ed.] [Int. Epidemiology Inst., MD (United States)

    1998-09-01

    The report describes the development and summarizes the results of the project Cancer incidence and thyroid disease among Estonian Chernobyl clean-up workers. One of the goals of the report is to give research protocols and questionnaires for researchers involved in other studies. Eight previously published articles are also included summarizing the results. The development of the collaboration work of the project is described in the introduction of the report. Epidemiological methods are described in an article complemented by the protocol and English version of the questionnaire administered to all cleanup workers, as well as the data collection form of the thyroid study. The results from biological biodosimetry using both glycophorin A and FISH methods have shown that the radiation doses received by the Chernobyl cleanup workers were relatively low. Thyroid nodularity was not associated with any radiation exposure characteristic in the thyroid screening study. Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers were followed up for cancer incidence through the Estonian Cancer Registry. No cases of leukemia or thyroid cancer were observed by the end of 1993. It is too early to observe possible effect on other types of cancer. However, mortality from suicides was increased compared with general population. Further follow-up and the extension to other Baltic countries in the future will undoubtedly strengthen the study. There are also plans for future projects covering areas from psychosocial factors to radiation biology

  20. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-C-1, 105-C Solid Waste Burial Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-C-1, 105-C Solid Waste Burial Ground. This waste site was the primary burial ground for general wastes from the operation of the 105-C Reactor and received process tubes, aluminum fuel spacers, control rods, reactor hardware, spent nuclear fuel and soft wastes

  1. Cleanup Verification Package for the 126-F-1, 184-F Powerhouse Ash Pit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 126-F-1, 184-F Powerhouse Ash Pit. This waste site received coal ash from the 100-F Area coal-fired steam plant. Leakage of process effluent from the 116-F-14 , 107-F Retention Basins flowed south into the ash pit, contaminating the northern portion

  2. Cleanup Verification Package for the 100-F-20, Pacific Northwest Laboratory Parallel Pits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 100-F-20, Pacific Northwest Laboratory Parallel Pits waste site. This waste site consisted of two earthen trenches thought to have received both radioactive and nonradioactive material related to the 100-F Experimental Animal Farm

  3. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-F-7, 100-F Miscellaneous Hardware Storage Vault

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-F-7, 100-F Miscellaneous Hardware Storage Vault. The site consisted of an inactive solid waste storage vault used for temporary storage of slightly contaminated reactor parts that could be recovered and reused for the 100-F Area reactor operations

  4. Technical basis for EPA's proposed regulation on the cleanup of sites contaminated with radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Environmental Protection Agency is proposing a regulation for the protection of the public and radioactive contamination at sites that are to be cleaned up and released for public use. The rule will apply to sites under the control of Federal agencies, and will impose limits on radiation doses to individuals living or working on a site following cleanup; it will thereby provide site owners and managers with uniform, consistent cleanup criteria for planning and carrying out remediation. This paper presents an overview of EPA's approach to assessing some of the beneficial and adverse effects associated with various possible values for the annual dose limit. In particular, it discusses the method developed to determine how the choice of cleanup criterion affects (1) the time-integrated potential numbers of non-fatal and fatal radiogenic cancers averted among future populations, (2) the occurrence of radiogenic cancers among remediation workers and the public caused by the cleanup process itself, and (3) the volumes of contaminated soil that may require remediation. The analytic methods described here were used to provide input data and assumptions for the Regulatory Impact Analysis (RIA) that supports the proposed regulation; the RIA also considered non-radiological benefits and costs (i.e., public health, economic, and ecological) of the standards. 56 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs

  5. Assessment and recommendations for the oil spill cleanup of Guanabara Bay, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential impact of an oil spill consisting of a blend of diesel and a heavy residual fuel oil on water column resources, benthic resources, intertidal habitats and communities, birds, and socio-economic resources was assessed and recommendations for clean-up given. The oil spill occurred in the bay on January 18, 2000

  6. Legal aspects of the clean-up and reclamation of the manufactured gas plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joldzic, V. [Belgrade University, Belgrade (Yugoslavia). Inst. for Criminology and Sociological Research

    1995-12-31

    The laws associated with the cleanup of manufactured gas plants in Yugoslavia is described. These comprise the Environmental Protection Act; the Law about Space Planning and Organizing; Building Law; and Agricultural Land Use Law. Joint remedial action in the Danube Basin is discussed. 13 refs.

  7. Reedy Creek Cleanup: The Evolution of a University Geography Service-Learning Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parece, Tammy E.; Aspaas, Helen Ruth

    2007-01-01

    Service-learning courses within a university setting help students to better understand their roles as members of civil society. This article examines the evolution of an urban stream cleanup project that has been part of a world regions geography course for six years. After connecting course goals with the current best practice literature on…

  8. Cleanup Verification Package for the 126-F-1, 184-F Powerhouse Ash Pit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. W. Clark and H. M. Sulloway

    2007-09-26

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 126-F-1, 184-F Powerhouse Ash Pit. This waste site received coal ash from the 100-F Area coal-fired steam plant. Leakage of process effluent from the 116-F-14 , 107-F Retention Basins flowed south into the ash pit, contaminating the northern portion.

  9. Latvian Chernobyl clean-up workers dynamics of morbidity 15 years of the post radiation period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nearly 1.0% of the male population of Latvia were sent (1986-1991) to Chernobyl to assist in the clean-up activities after the nuclear power plant accident (1986). The prevalence of all types of diseases, dynamic of breaking out of the key symptoms and interferon status were evaluated in respect to date of work, duration of work and kind of work in the whole clean-up workers group and in the particular group with seizures of unconsciousness. The disease incidence in clean-up workers from Latvia exceeds that observed in age and sex matched male population. Most had several diseases each and their poly-symptomatic sicknesses exhibited tendency to progress even 10-14 years after the exposure (during 1996-2000). Diseases of nervous, digestive and circulatory system, mental disorders and diseases of muscles and connective tissue were the most frequent. The primary outset of symptoms being low in the first 2-3 years after the work gradually increased during the following 10 years. Leukopenia was predominant in 1990-1993 and leucocytosis in 1997-2000. Ability of leukocytes to produce interferons was significantly decreased. Since the external radiation doses did not exceed 50 centyGy (cGy) there is sufficient reasons to believe that the principal cause of the gradually increased frequency of health problems is the long-life radioisotopes incorporated in the clean-up workers bodies as permanent radiation and toxic compounds source. (authors)

  10. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-B-6, 108-B Solid Waste Burial Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. L. Proctor

    2006-06-13

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-B-6, 108-B Solid Waste Burial Ground. The 118-B-6 site consisted of 2 concrete pipes buried vertically in the ground and capped by a concrete pad with steel lids. The site was used for the disposal of wastes from the "metal line" of the P-10 Tritium Separation Project.

  11. 32 CFR 516.7 - Mailing addresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Mailing addresses. 516.7 Section 516.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION General § 516.7 Mailing addresses. Mailing addresses for organizations referenced...

  12. An approach for addressing hard-to-detect hot spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelquist, Eric W; King, David A; Miller, Laurence F; Viars, James A

    2013-05-01

    The Multi-Agency Radiation Survey and Site Investigation Manual (MARSSIM) survey approach is comprised of systematic random sampling coupled with radiation scanning to assess acceptability of potential hot spots. Hot spot identification for some radionuclides may not be possible due to the very weak gamma or x-ray radiation they emit-these hard-to-detect nuclides are unlikely to be identified by field scans. Similarly, scanning technology is not yet available for chemical contamination. For both hard-to-detect nuclides and chemical contamination, hot spots are only identified via volumetric sampling. The remedial investigation and cleanup of sites under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act typically includes the collection of samples over relatively large exposure units, and concentration limits are applied assuming the contamination is more or less uniformly distributed. However, data collected from contaminated sites demonstrate contamination is often highly localized. These highly localized areas, or hot spots, will only be identified if sample densities are high or if the environmental characterization program happens to sample directly from the hot spot footprint. This paper describes a Bayesian approach for addressing hard-to-detect nuclides and chemical hot spots. The approach begins using available data (e.g., as collected using the standard approach) to predict the probability that an unacceptable hot spot is present somewhere in the exposure unit. This Bayesian approach may even be coupled with the graded sampling approach to optimize hot spot characterization. Once the investigator concludes that the presence of hot spots is likely, then the surveyor should use the data quality objectives process to generate an appropriate sample campaign that optimizes the identification of risk-relevant hot spots. PMID:23528274

  13. Cultural diversity for virtual characters investigating behavioral aspects across cultures

    CERN Document Server

    Endrass, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    Culture plays a crucial role in our lives. Depending on our cultural background, we judge on and react to everything that we encounter. Subtle differences in behavior can lead to misunderstandings or even culture shock. In a similar manner, virtual characters can be declined by certain user groups when showing culturally inappropriate behavior. But how can social aspects such as culture be integrated into the behavioral models of virtual characters Birgit Endrass addresses this question by carrying out a hybrid approach that is based on theoretical background from the social sciences as well a

  14. Language, culture and cognition: The view from space

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, P.

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the vexed questions of how language relates to culture, and what kind of notion of culture is important for linguistic explanation. I first sketch five perspectives - five different construals - of culture apparent in linguistics and in cognitive science more generally. These are: (i) culture as ethno-linguistic group, (ii) culture as a mental module, (iii) culture as knowledge, (iv) culture as context, and (v) culture as a process emergent in interaction. I then present ...

  15. PSY 450 ENTIRE COURSE *DIVERSITY AND CULTURAL FACTORS IN PSYCHOLOGY*

    OpenAIRE

    PSY 450 ENTIRE COURSE http://www.helperstudy.com/product/psy-450-entire-course-diversity-and-cultural-factors-in-psychology

    2016-01-01

    http://www.helperstudy.com/product/psy-450-entire-course-diversity-and-cultural-factors-in-psychology Week One: Introduction to Cross-Cultural Psychology Individual Introduction to Cross-Cultural Psychology Paper Prepare a 1,050- to 1,400-word paper in which you analyze cross-cultural psychology. As a part of your analysis, be sure to address the following items: Define cultural and cross-cultural psychology. Analyze the relationship between cultural and cross-cultural psy...

  16. Thyroid Nodularity and cancer in Chernobyl clean-up workers from Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident on April 26, 1986, resulted in massive radioactive contamination of the surrounding area. Radiation exposure was from rapidly decaying radioactive iodines, as well as from 137CS and other long-lived radioisotopes. About 6000 clean-up workers of the Chernobyl Power Plant accident were from Latvia. External radiation exposure was defined for 40% of them and the doses were 0.01-0.5 Grey (Gy). Although according to conclusions of authoritative experts of different countries, the actual doses of radiation might be at least 3-4 times higher. Because the thyroid is highly susceptible to cancer induction by ionizing radiation, our examination was conducted in 2001 to determine the prevalence of thyroid tumors in 1990-2000 and other nodular thyroid disease 14 years after the accident in Latvia's Chernobyl clean-up workers. The Latvian State Register for persons who have received ionising radiation in Chernobyl and Latvia's Cancer Register were used in this work as well as 1000 Chernobyl accident clean-up workers medical ambulatory cards were analysed. We have received that occurrence of thyroid cancer in Chernobyl clean-up workers was 10,6 times higher than in Latvia's population (men) in 1990-2000 and also it occurs at earlier age in comparison with population data (40-50 and 55-65 accordingly). This can be explained in two ways: either due to effect of the short-term or long-term external and internal radiation exposure (including, from the incorporated 131I) on the thyroid tissue, or due to a better dispensarisation (obligatory thyroid ultrasound examination once per year) of the examined group. The first thyroid cancer was discovered in 1996 -after ten years of latent period. The relative risk of thyroid cancer in Chernobyl clean-up workers in 1996 was 33.27, and in 1997 -42.64. Then, the morbidity of the thyroid cancer exhibits tendency to decrease (RR 18.27 in 1998, and 9.42 in 1999). The presence of thyroid benign nodules was

  17. UTILIZING INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL CLEAN-UP AT SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a 310-square-mile United States Department of Energy nuclear facility located along the Savannah River near Aiken, South Carolina. During operations, which started in 1951, hazardous substances (chemicals and radionuclides) were released to the environment. The releases occurred as a result of inadvertent spills and waste disposal in unlined pits and basins which was common practice before environmental regulations existed. The hazardous substances have migrated to the vadose zone and groundwater in many areas of the SRS, resulting in 515 waste units and facilities that are required by environmental regulations, to undergo characterization and, if needed, remediation. In the initial years of the SRS environmental cleanup program (early 1990s), the focus was to use common technologies (such as pump and treat, air stripping, excavation and removal) that actively and tangibly removed contamination. Exclusive use of these technologies required continued and significant funding while often failing to meet acceptable clean-up goals and objectives. Recognizing that a more cost-effective approach was needed, SRS implemented new and complementary remediation methods focused on active and passive technologies targeted to solve specific remediation problems. Today, SRS uses technologies such as chemical/pH-adjusting injection, phytoremediation, underground cutoff walls, dynamic underground stripping, soil fracturing, microbial degradation, baroballs, electrical resistance heating, soil vapor extraction, and microblowers to more effectively treat contamination at lower costs. Additionally, SRS's remediation approach cost effectively maximizes cleanup as SRS works proactively with multiple regulatory agencies. Using GIS, video, animation, and graphics, SRS is able to provide an accurate depiction of the evolution of SRS groundwater and vadose zone cleanup activities to convince stakeholders and regulators of the effectiveness of various cleanup

  18. UTILIZING INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL CLEAN-UP, SAVAHHAH RIVER SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergren, C

    2009-01-07

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a 310-square-mile United States Department of Energy nuclear facility located along the Savannah River near Aiken, South Carolina. During operations, which started in 1951, hazardous substances (chemicals and radionuclides) were released to the environment. The releases occurred as a result of inadvertent spills and waste disposal in unlined pits and basins which was common practice before environmental regulations existed. The hazardous substances have migrated to the vadose zone and groundwater in many areas of the SRS, resulting in 515 waste units and facilities that are required by environmental regulations, to undergo characterization and, if needed, remediation. In the initial years of the SRS environmental cleanup program (early 1990s), the focus was to use common technologies (such as pump and treat, air stripping, excavation and removal) that actively and tangibly removed contamination. Exclusive use of these technologies required continued and significant funding while often failing to meet acceptable clean-up goals and objectives. Recognizing that a more cost-effective approach was needed, SRS implemented new and complementary remediation methods focused on active and passive technologies targeted to solve specific remediation problems. Today, SRS uses technologies such as chemical/pH-adjusting injection, phytoremediation, underground cutoff walls, dynamic underground stripping, soil fracturing, microbial degradation, baroballs, electrical resistance heating, soil vapor extraction, and microblowers to more effectively treat contamination at lower costs. Additionally, SRS's remediation approach cost effectively maximizes cleanup as SRS works proactively with multiple regulatory agencies. Using GIS, video, animation, and graphics, SRS is able to provide an accurate depiction of the evolution of SRS groundwater and vadose zone cleanup activities to convince stakeholders and regulators of the effectiveness of various

  19. Global partnership - a tool for Nuclear Legacy clean-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dismantling of nuclear submarines and remediation of radiation-hazardous facilities that make up Soviet nuclear legacy are the topics of the article. The paper presents the decisions that were made a decade ago by the G-8 head of states signed the declaration to initiate the Programme of Global Partnership Against the Spread of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction, progress with achievement of the initiative's objectives and its prospects for the near future. The issues of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste management during nuclear submarine dismantling are highlighted. The long-term projects to continue cooperation in the field of further addressing the nuclear legacy that may be of concern for international community are described

  20. Hanford Site cleanup and transition: Risk data needs for decision making (Hanford risk data gap analysis decision guide)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Given the broad array of environmental problems, technical alternatives, and outcomes desired by different stakeholders at Hanford, DOE will have to make difficult resource allocations over the next few decades. Although some of these allocations will be driven purely by legal requirements, almost all of the major objectives of the cleanup and economic transition missions involve choices among alternative pathways. This study examined the following questions: what risk information is needed to make good decisions at Hanford; how do those data needs compare to the set(s) of risk data that will be generated by regulatory compliance activities and various non-compliance studies that are also concerned with risk? This analysis examined the Hanford Site missions, the Hanford Strategic Plan, known stakeholder values, and the most important decisions that have to be made at Hanford to determine a minimum domain of risk information required to make good decisions that will withstand legal, political, and technical scrutiny. The primary risk categories include (1) public health, (2) occupational health and safety, (3) ecological integrity, (4) cultural-religious welfare, and (5) socio-economic welfare

  1. Improving IPV6 Addressing Types and Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaldoun Batiha

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available IPv6 protocol is the next candidate protocol after IPv4 protocolthatused foralong time. For this protocoltheaddressing types and address sizeare discussedto list some modifications that could improve itsperformancethrough the internet. Atthe same time, we prove that multicast addressing type is the mostimportant addressing type since it can mimic any other addressing type. Finally,a short studyis developedin order to reduce the current IPv6 address size to haveless overhead in the basic header packet, thisreductionomitsabout 40% of the over all basic IPv6 basic packet overhead.

  2. Development of a risk-based approach to Hanford site cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In response to a request from Mr. Thomas Grumbly, Assistant Secretary of Energy for Environmental Management, the Hanford Site contractors developed a set of risk-based cleanup strategies that (1) protect the public, workers, and environment from unacceptable risks; (2) are executable technically; and (3) fit within currently expected annual funding profiles. These strategies were developed because (1) the U.S. Department of Energy and Hanford Site budgets are being reduced, (2) stakeholders are dissatisfied with the perceived rate of cleanup, (3) the U.S. Congress and the U.S. Department of Energy are increasingly focusing on risk and risk-reduction activities, (4) the present strategy is not integrated across the Site and is inconsistent in its treatment of similar hazards, (5) the present cleanup strategy is not cost-effective from a risk-reduction or future land use perspective, and (6) the milestones and activities in the Tri-Party Agreement cannot be achieved with an anticipated funding of 1.05 billion dollars, or less, annually. This analysis produced a framework and a set of tools that are available for dealing with changes to anticipated funding levels, changes in risk cleanup standards, and Congressional initiatives and inquiries. The tools include land-supply curves, cost profiles, risk profiles, mortgage reduction curves, and minimum operations costs. This paper describes the methodology used to develop mortgage-based, risk-based, and land-based cleanup strategies and how those strategies differ in terms of the work to be performed, its sequence, and the resulting end states

  3. Urine culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture and sensitivity - urine ... when urinating. You also may have a urine culture after you have been treated for an infection. ... when bacteria or yeast are found in the culture. This likely means that you have a urinary ...

  4. Endocervical culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaginal culture; Female genital tract culture; Culture - cervix ... During a vaginal examination, the health care provider uses a ... fungus grow. Further tests may be done to identify the specific ...

  5. Fecal culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stool culture; Culture - stool ... stool tests are done in addition to the culture, such as: Gram stain of stool Fecal smear ... Giannella RA. Infectious enteritis and proctocolitis and bacterial food poisoning. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, ...

  6. Introducing the Cultural and Globalization Series and the Cultural Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Anheier, Helmut K.; Isar, Raj

    2014-01-01

    Volume 3 of the Cultures & Globalization series, Creativity and Innovations, explores the interactions between globalization and the forms of cultural expression that are their basic resource. Bringing together over 25 high-profile authors from around the world, this volume addresses such questions as: What impacts does globalization have on cultural creativity and innovation? How is the evolving world ‘map’ of creativity related to the drivers and patterns of globalization? What are the rela...

  7. Organizational Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Adrian HUDREA

    2006-01-01

    Cultural orientations of an organization can be its greatest strength, providing the basis for problem solving, cooperation, and communication. Culture, however, can also inhibit needed changes. Cultural changes typically happen slowly – but without cultural change, many other organizational changes are doomed to fail. The dominant culture of an organization is a major contributor to its success. But, of course, no organizational culture is purely one type or another. And the existence of sec...

  8. Safeguards Culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazar, Sarah L.; Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2012-07-01

    The concepts of nuclear safety and security culture are well established; however, a common understanding of safeguards culture is not internationally recognized. Supported by the National Nuclear Security Administration, the authors prepared this report, an analysis of the concept of safeguards culture, and gauged its value to the safeguards community. The authors explored distinctions between safeguards culture, safeguards compliance, and safeguards performance, and evaluated synergies and differences between safeguards culture and safety/security culture. The report concludes with suggested next steps.

  9. Culture Regions in Geography Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehn, Dieter L.

    One of the demands imposed on geography instruction is to inform about the world, but there is some disagreement on how this is to be achieved. Criticism is most frequently directed at the regional geography approach of subdividing the world into culture regions. This paper addresses the question of whether global subdivision by culture regions…

  10. Organizational Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian HUDREA

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Cultural orientations of an organization can be its greatest strength, providing the basis for problem solving, cooperation, and communication. Culture, however, can also inhibit needed changes. Cultural changes typically happen slowly – but without cultural change, many other organizational changes are doomed to fail. The dominant culture of an organization is a major contributor to its success. But, of course, no organizational culture is purely one type or another. And the existence of secondary cultures can provide the basis for change. Therefore, organizations need to understand the cultural environments and values.

  11. Accelerated Clean-up of the United States Department of Energy, Mound Nuclear Weapons Facility in Miamisburg, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CH2M HILL is executing a performance-based contract with the United States Department of Energy to accelerate the safe closure of the nuclear facilities at the former Mound plant in Miamisburg, Ohio. The contract started in January 2003 with a target completion date of March 31, 2006. Our accelerated baseline targets completion of the project 2 years ahead of the previous baseline schedule, by spring 2006, and for $200 million less than previous estimates. This unique decommissioning and remediation project is located within the City of Miamisburg proper and is designed for transfer of the property to the Miamisburg Mound Community Improvement Corporation for industrial reuse. The project is being performed with the Miamisburg Mound Community Improvement Corporation and their tenants co-located on the site creating significant logistical, safety and stakeholder challenges. The project is also being performed in conjunction with the United States Department of Energy, United States Environmental Protection Agency, and the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency under the Mound 2000 regulatory cleanup process. The project is currently over 95% complete. To achieve cleanup and closure of the Mound site, CH2M HILL's scope includes: - Demolition of 64 nuclear, radiological and commercial facilities - Preparation for Transfer of 9 facilities (including a Category 2 nuclear facility) to the Miamisburg Mound Community Improvement Corporation for industrial reuse - Removal of all above ground utility structures and components, and preparation for transfer of 9 utility systems to Miamisburg Mound Community Improvement Corporation - Investigation, remediation, closure, and documentation of all known Potential Release Sites contaminated with radiological and chemical contamination (73 identified in original contract) - Storage, characterization, processing, packaging and shipment of all waste and excess nuclear materials - Preparation for Transfer of the 306 acre site to the

  12. Ninth annual coal-fueled heat engines, advanced pressurized fluidized bed combustion, and gas stream cleanup systems contractors review meeting: Welcoming address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The market for retrofit and new capacity in the electric utility is expected to be very large: 250 gigawatt (GW) and 500 GW by the year 2030--an amount which equals the presently installed capacity in the US Overseas, the market is even larger exclamation point This large market will be driven by a number of key ''drivers.'' In order for power generation systems to compete in this market, they will have to satisfy the market drivers. This will lead us inevitably to modular, low cost, super clean, efficient, and reliable products which are fuel flexible and can meet either retrofit, repowering, or new capacity applications. I believe clean coal technologies that we are developing will meet these market demands and will penetrate--and eventually dominate--the power generation market of the next century. But for this market penetration and widespread deployment to take place, the products we are jointly developing must be continuously improved. We must together set our goals on a rapid march down the learning curve from the present high ''projected costs'' of these systems to an acceptable market clearing price on the order of $1000 to $1200 per kilowatt (kw) and with heat rates approaching 7500 Btu per kilowatt-hour (kWh). The projected learning curve for integrated gasification combined cycle systems is a good illustration of the aggressive goals we need to achieve

  13. Cultural expression, creativity and innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Anheier, Helmut K.; Isar, Yudhishthir Raj

    2010-01-01

    Volume 3 of the Cultures & Globalization series, Creativity and Innovations, explores the interactions between globalization and the forms of cultural expression that are their basic resource. Bringing together over 25 high-profile authors from around the world, this volume addresses such questions as: What impacts does globalization have on cultural creativity and innovation? How is the evolving world 'map' of creativity related to the drivers and patterns of globalization? What are the rela...

  14. LEGAL CULTURES AND MEDIATION. INTERACTIONS AND EVOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Ramon D. BUTCULESCU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Mediation, as an alternative dispute resolution method, is closely connected with the system of legal cultures. Mediation is an important link between legal culture and the judicial system. Mediation also acts as an interface between internal legal culture and external legal culture. This paper addresses the issues regarding the links and interactions between mediation and legal cultures, as well as the effects that arise from these interactions.

  15. Eliciting Public Attitudes Regarding Bioremediation Cleanup Technologies: Lessons Learned from a Consensus Workshop in Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denise Lach, Principle Investigator; Stephanie Sanford, Co-P.I.

    2003-03-01

    During the summer of 2002, we developed and implemented a ''consensus workshop'' with Idaho citizens to elicit their concerns and issues regarding the use of bioremediation as a cleanup technology for radioactive nuclides and heavy metals at Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The consensus workshop is a derivation of a technology assessment method designed to ensure dialogue between experts and lay people. It has its origins in the United States in the form of ''consensus development conferences'' used by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to elicit professional knowledge and concerns about new medical treatments. Over the last 25 years, NIH has conducted over 100 consensus development conferences. (Jorgensen 1995). The consensus conference is grounded in the idea that technology assessment and policy needs to be socially negotiated among many different stakeholders and groups rather than narrowly defined by a group of experts. To successfully implement new technology, the public requires access to information that addresses a full complement of issues including understanding the organization proposing the technology. The consensus conference method creates an informed dialogue, making technology understandable to the general public and sets it within perspectives and priorities that may differ radically from those of the expert community. While specific outcomes differ depending on the overall context of a conference, one expected outcome is that citizen panel members develop greater knowledge of the technology during the conference process and, sometimes, the entire panel experiences a change in attitude toward the technology and/or the organization proposing its use (Kluver 1995). The purpose of this research project was to explore the efficacy of the consensus conference model as a way to elicit the input of the general public about bioremediation of radionuclides and heavy metals at Department of Energy sites

  16. Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup, and Oxygen Separation Equipment; Task 2: Gas Cleanup Design and Cost Estimates -- Wood Feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nexant Inc.

    2006-05-01

    As part of Task 2, Gas Cleanup and Cost Estimates, Nexant investigated the appropriate process scheme for treatment of wood-derived syngas for use in the synthesis of liquid fuels. Two different 2,000 metric tonne per day gasification schemes, a low-pressure, indirect system using the gasifier, and a high-pressure, direct system using gasification technology were evaluated. Initial syngas conditions from each of the gasifiers was provided to the team by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Nexant was the prime contractor and principal investigator during this task; technical assistance was provided by both GTI and Emery Energy.

  17. IP MASQUERADING: A Network Address Translation Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Chiranji Lal Chowdhary; Prashant P.J.

    2010-01-01

    IP Masquerade, called "IPMASQ" or "MASQ" for short, is a form of Network Address Translation (NAT) which allows internally connected computers that do not have one or more registered Internet IP addresses to communicate to the Internet via the server's Internet IP address. Since IPMASQ is a generic technology, you can connect the server's internal and external to other computers through LAN technologies like Ethernet, Token Ring, and FDDI, as well as dialup connections line PPP or SLIP links....

  18. Organization of Control Units with Operational Addressing

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander A. Barkalov; Roman M. Babakov; Larysa A. Titarenko

    2012-01-01

    The using of operational addressing unit as the block of control unit is proposed. The new structure model of Moore finite-state machine with reduced hardware amount is developed. The generalized structure of operational addressing unit is suggested. An example of synthesis process for Moore finite-state machine with operational addressing unit is given. The analytical researches of proposed structure of control unit are executed.

  19. Investigation of post hydraulic fracturing well cleanup physics in the Cana Woodford Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Rong

    Hydraulic fracturing was first carried out in the 1940s and has gained popularity in current development of unconventional resources. Flowing back the fracturing fluids is critical to a frac job, and determining well cleanup characteristics using the flowback data can help improve frac design. It has become increasingly important as a result of the unique flowback profiles observed in some shale gas plays due to the unconventional formation characteristics. Computer simulation is an efficient and effective way to tackle the problem. History matching can help reveal some mechanisms existent in the cleanup process. The Fracturing, Acidizing, Stimulation Technology (FAST) Consortium at Colorado School of Mines previously developed a numerical model for investigating the hydraulic fracturing process, cleanup, and relevant physics. It is a three-dimensional, gas-water, coupled fracture propagation-fluid flow simulator, which has the capability to handle commonly present damage mechanisms. The overall goal of this research effort is to validate the model on real data and to investigate the dominant physics in well cleanup for the Cana Field, which produces from the Woodford Shale in Oklahoma. To achieve this goal, first the early time delayed gas production was explained and modeled, and a simulation framework was established that included all three relevant damage mechanisms for a slickwater fractured well. Next, a series of sensitivity analysis of well cleanup to major reservoir, fracture, and operational variables was conducted; five of the Cana wells' initial flowback data were history matched, specifically the first thirty days' gas and water producing rates. Reservoir matrix permeability, net pressure, Young's modulus, and formation pressure gradient were found to have an impact on the gas producing curve's shape, in different ways. Some moderately good matches were achieved, with the outcome of some unknown reservoir information being proposed using the

  20. Addressing contrasting cognitive models in scientific collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diviacco, P.

    2012-04-01

    If the social aspects of scientific communities and their internal dynamics is starting to be recognized and acknowledged in the everyday lives of scientists, it is rather difficult for them to find tools that could support their activities consistently with this perspective. Issues span from gathering researchers to mutual awareness, from information sharing to building meaning, with the last one being particularly critical in research fields as the geo-sciences, that deal with the reconstruction of unique, often non-reproducible, and contingent processes. Reasoning here is, in fact, mainly abductive, allowing multiple and concurrent explanations for the same phenomenon to coexist. Scientists bias one hypothesis over another not only on strictly logical but also on sociological motivations. Following a vision, scientists tend to evolve and isolate themselves from other scientists creating communities characterized by different cognitive models, so that after some time these become incompatible and scientists stop understanding each other. We address these problems as a communication issue so that the classic distinction into three levels (syntactic, semantic and pragmatic) can be used. At the syntactic level, we highlight non-technical obstacles that condition interoperability and data availability and transparency. At the semantic level, possible incompatibilities of cognitive models are particularly evident, so that using ontologies, cross-domain reconciliation should be applied. This is a very difficult task to perform since the projection of knowledge by scientists, in the designated community, is political and thus can create a lot of tension. The strategy we propose to overcome these issues pertains to pragmatics, in the sense that it is intended to acknowledge the cultural and personal factors each partner brings into the collaboration and is based on the idea that meaning should remain a flexible and contingent representation of possibly divergent views

  1. Industrial cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    1996-01-01

    The chapter deals with different paradigms andtheories of cultural development. The problem toexplain change and methods to analyse developmentin different cultures are presented and discussed.......The chapter deals with different paradigms andtheories of cultural development. The problem toexplain change and methods to analyse developmentin different cultures are presented and discussed....

  2. Culture matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Zeba

    Zebaa Arif reflects on changes during her career as a mental health nurse in relation to cultural care issues: Cultural awareness is becoming embedded in patient care. All aspects of care are influenced by cultural beliefs and should form part of assessment. Leadership is essential in influencing cultural care, as is organisational commitment. PMID:16262169

  3. IP Address Management Principles and Practice

    CERN Document Server

    Rooney, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    This book will be the first covering the subject of IP address management (IPAM). The practice of IPAM includes the application of network management disciplines to IP address space and associated network services, namely DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) and DNS (Domain Name System). The consequence of inaccurately configuring DHCP is that end users may not be able to obtain IP addresses to access the network. Without proper DNS configuration, usability of the network will greatly suffer as the name-to-address lookup process may fail. Imagine having to navigate to a website or send a

  4. Novel Duplicate Address Detection with Hash Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, GuangJia; Ji, ZhenZhou

    2016-01-01

    Duplicate address detection (DAD) is an important component of the address resolution protocol (ARP) and the neighbor discovery protocol (NDP). DAD determines whether an IP address is in conflict with other nodes. In traditional DAD, the target address to be detected is broadcast through the network, which provides convenience for malicious nodes to attack. A malicious node can send a spoofing reply to prevent the address configuration of a normal node, and thus, a denial-of-service attack is launched. This study proposes a hash method to hide the target address in DAD, which prevents an attack node from launching destination attacks. If the address of a normal node is identical to the detection address, then its hash value should be the same as the "Hash_64" field in the neighboring solicitation message. Consequently, DAD can be successfully completed. This process is called DAD-h. Simulation results indicate that address configuration using DAD-h has a considerably higher success rate when under attack compared with traditional DAD. Comparative analysis shows that DAD-h does not require third-party devices and considerable computing resources; it also provides a lightweight security resolution. PMID:26991901

  5. Ethnocentric approach to address South Asian health issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, A

    2012-09-01

    South Asian populations have distinct healthcare requirements to other ethnic demographics. Epidemiologically they constitute a high-risk group for many public health diseases such as cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease and diabetes mellitus. Despite individuals of South Asian backgrounds encompassing many individual countries, cultures, religions and backgrounds they share many common health concerns that are poorly tackled in established models of healthcare delivery. To successfully address this burgeoning public health burden, it is important for healthcare professionals and providers to appreciate the need for an ethnocentric approach to South Asian health requirements. Key stakeholders need to understand the need for an integrated ethnocentric approach to challenge the poor health status of this population. Appreciation of the socio-cultural dimension to South Asian healthcare requirements should help guide targeted and focused strategies to improve the outlook for this unique population at high public health risk. PMID:22753671

  6. Cultural Collision and Collusion: Reflections on Hip-Hop Culture, Values, and Schools. Educational Psychology: Critical Pedagogical Perspectives. Volume 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beachum, Floyd D.; McCray, Carlos R.

    2011-01-01

    "Cultural Collision and Collusion" addresses the complexity of problems that surround youth culture and school culture. By broadening the scholarly dialogue and examining and disseminating relevant research to practitioners, the book seeks to provide insight into youth culture and some manifestations of popular culture (e.g., hip-hop). In…

  7. Plan for addressing issues relating to oil shale plant siting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noridin, J. S.; Donovan, R.; Trudell, L.; Dean, J.; Blevins, A.; Harrington, L. W.; James, R.; Berdan, G.

    1987-09-01

    The Western Research Institute plan for addressing oil shale plant siting methodology calls for identifying the available resources such as oil shale, water, topography and transportation, and human resources. Restrictions on development are addressed: land ownership, land use, water rights, environment, socioeconomics, culture, health and safety, and other institutional restrictions. Descriptions of the technologies for development of oil shale resources are included. The impacts of oil shale development on the environment, socioeconomic structure, water availability, and other conditions are discussed. Finally, the Western Research Institute plan proposes to integrate these topics to develop a flow chart for oil shale plant siting. Western Research Institute has (1) identified relative topics for shale oil plant siting, (2) surveyed both published and unpublished information, and (3) identified data gaps and research needs. 910 refs., 3 figs., 30 tabs.

  8. An Experimental of IPv6 Address Assignment for Global Unicast Address Using NS-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. P. Sumathi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6 is the next generation protocol and in the near future, routers are going to become more faster and new technologies are going to reduce the Internet delay. IPv6 global unicast address is similar to IPv4 public address and globally routable. This Global unicast address assignment process provides new function called Stateless Address Auto Configuration (SLAAC is a significant feature for host itself generating and configuring own addresses to enable communication. In this paper aims to describe experimental about IPv6 address assignment for global unicast address and evaluation of a host using various parameters such as Default router IP address, Throughput, Average End to End Delay and Domain Name Server (DNS IP address. The study was carried out using an open source Network Simulator (NS-3 to study and analyses the behavior of IPv6 address assignment.

  9. Previous International Experience, Cross-Cultural Training, and Expatriates' Cross-Cultural Adjustment: Effects of Cultural Intelligence and Goal Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo Moon, Hyoung; Kwon Choi, Byoung; Shik Jung, Jae

    2012-01-01

    Although various antecedents of expatriates' cross-cultural adjustment have been addressed, previous international experience, predeparture cross-cultural training, and cultural intelligence (CQ) have been most frequently examined. However, there are few attempts that explore the effects of these antecedents simultaneously or consider the possible…

  10. The Use of Culture Portfolio Project in a Korean Culture Classroom: Evaluating Stereotypes and Enhancing Cross-Cultural Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byon, Andrew Sangpil

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates a case of designing, implementing, and evaluating a semester-long culture portfolio project in a Korean culture class in an American university setting. The paper addresses the following four issues: (1) How does the project help the students gain insights into a particular aspect of Korean culture and encourage them to…

  11. A Novel Approach for TNA Address Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaodong Wang; Yaohui Jin; Weishen Hu; Shenli Zhu

    2003-01-01

    We present a new scheme to allocate/de- allocate Transport Network Assigned (TNA) address using Link ManagementProtocol (LMP) and to register/resolution these addresses using Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) forAutomatically Switched Optical Network (ASON).

  12. Tradition and Change in Swedish Address Forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Stephen A.

    In most European languages, choice of address form classifies the relation between speakers. The first theoretical framework for analyzing address form usage was established by Brown and Gilman (1960) in their investigation of the semantics of pronoun use in a wide variety of Indo-European languages, which concluded that Europeans use the informal…

  13. Approaches for Resolving Dynamic IP Addressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Schubert; Hui, Siu Cheung; Yip, See Wai; He, Yulan

    1997-01-01

    A problem with dynamic Internet protocol (IP) addressing arises when the Internet connection is through an Internet provider since the IP address is allocated only at connection time. This article examines a number of online and offline methods for resolving the problem. Suggests dynamic domain name system (DNS) and directory service look-up are…

  14. 7 CFR 1730.3 - RUS addresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false RUS addresses. 1730.3 Section 1730.3 Agriculture... ELECTRIC SYSTEM OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE General § 1730.3 RUS addresses. (a) Persons wishing to obtain...) Documents required to be submitted to RUS under this part are to be sent to the office of the...

  15. An Experimental of IPv6 Address Assignment for Global Unicast Address Using NS-3

    OpenAIRE

    DR.P.SUMATHI; Dr. Saroj Patel; Prabhakaran,, Dorairaj

    2015-01-01

    Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) is the next generation protocol and in the near future, routers are going to become more faster and new technologies are going to reduce the Internet delay. IPv6 global unicast address is similar to IPv4 public address and globally routable. This Global unicast address assignment process provides new function called Stateless Address Auto Configuration (SLAAC) is a significant feature for host itself generating and configuring own addresses to enable communi...

  16. Technical support for the EPA cleanup rule on radioactively contaminated sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, H.B.; Newman, A.; Wolbarst, A.B. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing a radiation site cleanup regulation for the protection of the public from radionuclide contamination at sites that are to be cleaned up and released for public use. The regulation will apply to sites under the control of Federal agencies, and to sites licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) or NRC Agreement States. The agency is therefore conducting a comprehensive technical analysis aimed at developing information that will be used to support the rule. This presentation describes the regulation and the approach developed to determine how radiological health impacts and volumes of soil requiring remediation vary as functions of the possible cleanup dose or risk level.

  17. Determining the open-quotes Rclose quotes in ALARA: A parametric study to establish cleanup criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the use of a tool for establishing criteria for cleanup of low-level radioactive contamination that will result in cost-effective remedial action. Central to this tool is the application of the principles of ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable). ALARA goals are driven by a desire to remediate a site to meet the strictest criteria practicable; to meet economic requirements, waste volumes must be minimized. The result of using this tool is the development of a remedial action program that satisfies ALARA requirements while limiting health and environmental risks to acceptable levels. Topics discussed in depth include the ALARA process, its principles, and its application to remedial action programs. The paper concludes with a case study in which the tool is applied to establishing cleanup criteria for the Department of Energy's Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP)

  18. Investigations in justification of reactor tank built-in sodium cleanup system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At developing future nuclear power plants the decision is taken on installation of coolant cleanup system in reactor vessel. The main element of the cleanup system is in-vessel cold traps. The first versions of such traps are designed and corresponding calculational data on mass transfer in the trap is obtained using different codes. On the base of calculational results for various versions of industrial cold traps (with sodium and argon cooling) refinement of engineering solutions is suggested with account for measures increasing production and impurity capacity of cold traps. The conclusion is done on preference of sodium cooled trap variant. Recommendations are given on improving cold trap design in order to increase its production and impurity capacity

  19. Computer models used to support cleanup decision-making at hazardous and radioactive waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massive efforts are underway to cleanup hazardous and radioactive waste sites located throughout the US To help determine cleanup priorities, computer models are being used to characterize the source, transport, fate and effects of hazardous chemicals and radioactive materials found at these sites. Although, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the US Department of Energy (DOE), and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) have provided preliminary guidance to promote the use of computer models for remediation purposes, no Agency has produced directed guidance on models that must be used in these efforts. To identify what models are actually being used to support decision-making at hazardous and radioactive waste sites, a project jointly funded by EPA, DOE and NRC was initiated. The purpose of this project was to: (1) Identify models being used for hazardous and radioactive waste site assessment purposes; and (2) describe and classify these models. This report presents the results of this study

  20. Hot particulate removal and desulfurization results from the METC integrated gasification and hot gas cleanup facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rockey, J.M.

    1995-06-01

    The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) is conducting experimental testing using a 10-inch diameter fluid-bed gasifier (FBG) and modular hot gas cleanup rig (MGCR) to develop advanced methods for removing contaminants in hot coal gasifier gas streams for commercial development of integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power systems. The program focus is on hot gas particulate removal and desulfurization technologies that match the temperatures and pressures of the gasifier, cleanup system, and power generator. The purpose of this poster is to present the program objectives and results of the work conducted in cooperation with industrial users and vendors to meet the vision for IGCC of reducing the capital cost per kilowatt to $1050 and increasing the plant efficiency to 52% by the year 2010.

  1. A cost benefit review of applying quality assurance principles to project management of environmental cleanup programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper shows the cost/benefit mechanism used for applying the theory and practical aspects of QA principles as a management tool to project management of environmental cleanup projects. This includes reviewing and guidelines and requirements to determine the practical aspects of applying these requirements to environmental project management. Thus, there is a feedback loop for comparison of the cost/benefits of application of each stage of the project. The project's major stages include planning, environmental sampling, analysis of data samples, data/information management to include reporting, and follow- up, post-cleanup sampling with continued data management. A comparison is also made of the theory with the practical aspects of each of these stages

  2. Radiological assessment in case of an incident at the hot cells clean-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragolici Cristian A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The clean-up and decontamination of the hot cells will be performed in the second phase of the WWR-S research reactor decommissioning. Identification of possible incidents or accidents is the key element in radiological assessment and prevention. As major incident it was considered a fire burst that occurred during the progress of the clean-up operations. The postulated incident has, as a consequence, thick smoke generation from the burned radioactive material and the dispersion of this material in the environment through the technological ventilation system and the evacuation chimney. From the performed analysis it can be seen that in the case of an incident to the reactor hot cells, an operator engaged in intervention operations could take an effective dose of 5.29 Sv per event, coming from both external and internal exposure. Such an incident, if it happens, would be classified of level 3 on the INES scale.

  3. Method of regenerating desalination type filters in condensate clean-up systems of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To significantly decrease the amounts of solid wastes, particularly those of wasted powder resins produced in a desalination type filters in a condensate clean-up system. Constitution: The desalination type filters provided in a condensate clean-up system are subjected to back-washing and then precoated with fresh powder resins for the regeneration of the filters. In this case, the contaminated powder resins obtained in the back-washing are removed with contaminates through magnetic filters and then they are precoated at least as a part of the fresh powder resins on the desalination filters. This can significantly decrease the amount of wasted powder resins, as well as reduce the amount of the fresh resins to be used. (Furukawa, Y.)

  4. ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE AND MANAGEMENT CULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Tudor Hobeanu; Loredana Vacarescu Hobeanu

    2010-01-01

    Communication reveals the importance of organizational culture and management culture supported by the remarkable results in economic and social level of organization. Their functions are presented and specific ways of expression levels of organizational culture and ways of adapting to the requirements of the organization's management culture.

  5. Data structure, method and system for address lookup

    OpenAIRE

    Stefanakis, G.; Sourdis, I.; Nedeltchev, G.G.; De Smet, R.

    2010-01-01

    Method and computer system for constructing a decision tree for use in address lookup of a requested address in an address space. The address space is arranged as a set of basic address ranges. Each basic address range is defined by a lower and an upper bound address, and an address in the address space is represented by a predetermined number of bits.

  6. Modeling culture in intelligent virtual agents

    OpenAIRE

    Mascarenhas, S.; Degens, N.; Paiva, A; Prada, R.; Hofstede, G.J.; Beulens, A.J.M.; Aylett, R.

    2015-01-01

    This work addresses the challenge of creating virtual agents that are able to portray culturally appropriate behavior when interacting with other agents or humans. Because culture influences how people perceive their social reality it is important to have agent models that explicitly consider social elements, such as existing relational factors. We addressed this necessity by integrating culture into a novel model for simulating human social behavior. With this model, we operationalized a par...

  7. Efficiency of different protocols for enamel clean-up after bracket debonding: an in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Carvalho Freitas Sigilião

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to assess the efficiency of six protocols for cleaning-up tooth enamel after bracket debonding.Methods:A total of 60 premolars were divided into six groups, according to the tools used for clean-up: 12-blade bur at low speed (G12L, 12-blade bur at high speed (G12H, 30-blade bur at low speed (G30L, DU10CO ORTHO polisher (GDU, Renew System (GR and Diagloss polisher (GD. Mean roughness (Ra and mean roughness depth (Rz of enamel surface were analyzed with a profilometer. Paired t-test was used to assess Ra and Rz before and after enamel clean-up. ANOVA/Tukey tests were used for intergroup comparison. The duration of removal procedures was recorded. The association between time and variation in enamel roughness (∆Ra, ∆Rz were evaluated by Pearson's correlation test. Enamel topography was assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM.Results:In Groups G12L and G12H, original enamel roughness did not change significantly. In Groups G30L, GDU, GR and GD, a smoother surface (p < 0.05 was found after clean-up. In Groups G30L and GD, the protocols used were more time-consuming than those used in the other groups. Negative and moderate correlation was observed between time and (∆Ra, ∆Rz; Ra and (∆Ra, ∆Rz; Rz (r = - 0.445, r = - 0.475, p < 0.01.Conclusion:All enamel clean-up protocols were efficient because they did not result in increased surface roughness. The longer the time spent performing the protocol, the lower the surface roughness.

  8. An alternative clean-up column for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in solid matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndunda, Elizabeth N; Madadi, Vincent O; Mizaikoff, Boris

    2015-12-01

    The need for continuous monitoring of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has necessitated the development of analytical techniques that are sensitive and selective with minimal reagent requirement. In light of this, we developed a column for clean-up of soil and sediment extracts, which is less demanding in terms of the amount of solvent and sorbent. The dual-layer column consists of acidified silica gel and molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs). MIPs were synthesized via aqueous suspension polymerization using PCB 15 as the dummy template, 4-vinylpyridine as the functional monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the cross-linker and the obtained particles characterized via SEM, BET, and batch rebinding assays. Pre-concentration of the spiked real-world water sample using MISPE gave recoveries between 85.2 and 104.4% (RSD < 8.69). On the other hand, the specific dual-layer column designed for clean-up of extracts from complex matrices provided recoveries of 91.6-102.5% (RSD < 4%) for spiked soil, which was comparable to clean-up using acidified silica (70.4-90.5%; RSD < 3.72%) and sulfoxide modified silica (89.7-103.0%; RSD < 13.0%). However, the polymers were reusable maintaining recoveries of 79.8-111.8% after 30 cycles of regeneration and re-use, thereby availing a cost-effective clean-up procedure for continuous monitoring of PCBs. Method detection limits were 0.01-0.08 ng g(-1) and 0.002-0.01 ng mL(-1) for solid matrices and water, respectively. PMID:26560633

  9. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-B-1, 105-B Solid Waste Burial Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action, sampling activities, and compliance criteria for the 118-B-1, 105-B Solid Waste Burial Ground. This waste site was the primary burial ground for general wastes from the operation of the 105-B Reactor and P-10 Tritium Separation Project and also received waste from the 105-N Reactor. The burial ground received reactor hardware, process piping and tubing, fuel spacers, glassware, electrical components, tritium process wastes, soft wastes and other miscellaneous debris

  10. A Preliminary Study of Biodegradable Waste as Sorbent Material for Oil-Spill Cleanup

    OpenAIRE

    Idris, J.; Eyu, G. D.; Mansor, A. M.; Ahmad, Z; C. S. Chukwuekezie

    2014-01-01

    Oil spill constitutes a major source of fresh and seawater pollution as a result of accidental discharge from tankers, marine engines, and underwater pipes. Therefore, the need for cost-effective and environmental friendly sorbent materials for oil spill cleanup cannot be overemphasized. The present work focuses on the preliminary study of empty palm fruit bunch fibre as a promising sorbent material. The morphology of the unmodified empty palm fruit bunch, EPFB fibre, was examined using an op...

  11. Systems engineering product description report for the Hanford Cleanup Mission: First issue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, J.J.; Bailey, K.B. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Collings, J.L.; Hubbard, A.B.; Niepke, T.M. [Science Applications International Corp. (United States)

    1994-06-01

    This document describes the upper level physical and administrative (nonphysical) products that, when delivered, complete the Hanford Cleanup Mission. Development of product descriptions is a continuation of the Sitewide Systems Engineering work described in the Sitewide functional analysis, the architecture synthesis, and is consistent with guidance contained in the mission plan. This document provides a bridge between all three documents and the products required to complete the mission of cleaning up the Hanford Site.

  12. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-F-3, Minor Construction Burial Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-F-3, Minor Construction Burial Ground waste site. This site was an open field covered with cobbles, with no vegetation growing on the surface. The site received irradiated reactor parts that were removed during conversion of the 105-F Reactor from the Liquid 3X to the Ball 3X Project safety systems and received mostly vertical safety rod thimbles and step plugs

  13. Systems engineering product description report for the Hanford Cleanup Mission: First issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the upper level physical and administrative (nonphysical) products that, when delivered, complete the Hanford Cleanup Mission. Development of product descriptions is a continuation of the Sitewide Systems Engineering work described in the Sitewide functional analysis, the architecture synthesis, and is consistent with guidance contained in the mission plan. This document provides a bridge between all three documents and the products required to complete the mission of cleaning up the Hanford Site

  14. Immunological status in participants of Chernobyl accident clean-up with chronic bronchitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immunological status in participants of Chernobyl accident clean-up with chronic bronchitis was investigated. Patients had more tension elements of immune system at increased level of obstruction. Adaptive reaction in the liquidators was formed on lower level of organism reaction and imbalance in immune competence subsystems developed. This phenomenon is a negative prognostic sign of more serious disease and can cause invalidation of the patients

  15. Risk assessment: A cost effective approach for establishing cleanup goals at petroleum contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Site-specific health risk assessments (RAs) are regularly used to provide focus and direction for remedial activities. RAs are required as part of the remedial response for sites subject to CERCLA and RCRA regulations. Often RA is not required for petroleum releases from underground storage tanks (USTs), however, RA is becoming an increasingly popular cost-effective approach for setting cleanup goals for such sites. Because remediation of UST sites requires a full understanding of the fate and transport of petroleum contaminants, fate and transport analysis is an integral part of the exposure assessment of the RA to determine the level or need of remediation. Since the promulgation of EPA's UST regulations, which established minimum upgrade and financial assurance requirements for owners and operators of USTS, the number of UST sites requiring corrective action has dramatically increased. However, many states do not have adequate resources to finance the remediation of all UST sites to meet overly stringent uniform standards, thus, industry and environmental regulatory agencies are recognizing the value of basing cleanups on site-specific health risks. RA provides a scientifically defensible justification for supporting no action, limited action, or ''monitoring only'' options at a site. In addition, RA is used to establish risk-based cleanup levels that are protective of human health and the environment. Through RA, the responsible party is provided with cost-saving options, which allows for conservation of funds which may then be directed to additional environmental concerns. A discussion of RA and how it can directly benefit contractors and potentially responsible parties in justifying site-specific cleanup goals is presented

  16. The Use of the Hanford Onsite Packaging and Transportation Safety Program to Meet Cleanup Milestones Under the Hanford Site Cleanup 2015 Vision and the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 - 12403

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavender, John C. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA 99354 (United States); Edwards, W. Scott [Areva Federal Services, Richland, WA 99354 (United States); Macbeth, Paul J.; Self, Richard J. [U.S. Department of Energy Richland Operations Office, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); West, Lori D. [Materials and Energy Corporation, Richland, WA 99354 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The Hanford Site presents unique challenges in meeting the U.S. Department of Energy Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) 2015 Cleanup Vision. CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC), its subcontractors, and DOE-RL were challenged to retrieve, transport and remediate a wide range of waste materials. Through a collaborative effort by all Hanford Onsite Central Plateau Cleanup Team Members, disposition pathways for diverse and seemingly impossible to ship wastes were developed under a DOE Order 460.1C-compliant Hanford Onsite Transportation Safety Program. The team determined an effective method for transporting oversized compliant waste payloads to processing and disposition facilities. The use of the onsite TSD packaging authorizations proved to be vital to safely transporting these materials for processing and eventual final disposition. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) provided additional resources to expedite planning and execution of these important cleanup milestones. Through the innovative and creative use of the TSD, the Hanford Onsite Central Plateau Cleanup Team Members have developed and are executing an integrated project plan that enables the safe and compliant transport of a wide variety of difficult-to-transport waste items, accelerating previous cleanup schedules to meet cleanup milestones. (authors)

  17. The Use of the Hanford Onsite Packaging and Transportation Safety Program to Meet Cleanup Milestones Under the Hanford Site Cleanup 2015 Vision and the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 - 12403

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford Site presents unique challenges in meeting the U.S. Department of Energy Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) 2015 Cleanup Vision. CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC), its subcontractors, and DOE-RL were challenged to retrieve, transport and remediate a wide range of waste materials. Through a collaborative effort by all Hanford Onsite Central Plateau Cleanup Team Members, disposition pathways for diverse and seemingly impossible to ship wastes were developed under a DOE Order 460.1C-compliant Hanford Onsite Transportation Safety Program. The team determined an effective method for transporting oversized compliant waste payloads to processing and disposition facilities. The use of the onsite TSD packaging authorizations proved to be vital to safely transporting these materials for processing and eventual final disposition. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) provided additional resources to expedite planning and execution of these important cleanup milestones. Through the innovative and creative use of the TSD, the Hanford Onsite Central Plateau Cleanup Team Members have developed and are executing an integrated project plan that enables the safe and compliant transport of a wide variety of difficult-to-transport waste items, accelerating previous cleanup schedules to meet cleanup milestones. (authors)

  18. Superfund at work: Hazardous waste cleanup efforts nationwide, spring 1993 (Radium Chemical Site profile, Queens, New York)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radium Chemical hazardous waste site in Queens, New York was contaminated with radium, posing a grave potential threat to the community. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) used the Superfund program to design a long-term cleanup for the site using input from citizens and the business community. Superfund staff: Mobilized a quick cleanup action to remove 10,000 small containers of radium; Developed a streamlined approach to long-term cleanup; Secured the site to reduce the possibility of radiation exposure to the local residents; Cooperated with the community to design a well-organized emergency response plan; and Educated local citizens about site hazards, incorporating community concerns into the cleanup process. The Radium Chemical site is a clear example of EPA's effective management and problem-solving strategies at Superfund sites

  19. LITERATURE REVIEW ON THE USE OF COMMERCIAL BIOREMEDIATION AGENTS FOR CLEAN-UP OF OIL-CONTAMINATED ESTUARINE ENVIRONMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this document is to conduct a comprehensive review of the use of commercial bioremediation products treating oil spills in all environments, Literature assessed includes peer-reviewed articles, company reports, government reports, and reports by cleanup contracto...

  20. Risk culture: an outgrowth of safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper builds on the principal themes addressed in previous Accident Prevention Group (APG) papers on the subject of Nuclear Safety Culture: Nuclear Safety Imperatives including the Human Dimension, IAEA Safety Culture Initiatives, a U.S. Utility Safety Culture and Integrated Risk Management. It recognizes that the safety culture in the U.S. nuclear utility settings has been achieved in many instances with costly solutions. The U.S. National Energy Act, signed into law by President Bush, began deregulation of the electric utility industry creating a competitive climate heretofore never known and in particular affecting those utilities with large imbedded costs from nuclear generation units. The authors perceive that there are three major ingredients or a tripod for a survival strategy for the nuclear power plant option in the U.S. as a part of larger energy security strategy: (1) Integrated rather than fragmented Risk Management by nuclear utilities; (2) Risk Based Regulation by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to free up resources for more productive uses in nuclear safety regulation, and (3) Due emphasis to be placed in Operational Risk Management on controlling swings in the Core Damage Frequency with time by virtue of building an effective operational risk model. The paper makes an attempt to raise awareness regarding the human dimension component in the operational risk model. It concludes that the proposed tripod is achievable only if accompanied by a swift shift to a risk culture which is introduced in a conceptual form. (author)

  1. Beyond "Culture Clash" Understandings of Immigrant Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Bic

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses the ways in which the experiences of immigrant youth and families in U.S. schools and society have been conceptualized primarily as conflicts between immigrant cultures and dominant U.S. culture. Exemplified by the discourse of culture clash or of immigrants being torn between two worlds, this prevalent understanding…

  2. Cultural and Contextual Issues in Exemplar Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Pamela Ebstyne; Oakes Mueller, Ross A.; Furrow, James

    2013-01-01

    This chapter specifically addresses how exemplar methods are especially relevant to examining cultural and contextual issues. Cross-cultural, cultural, and indigenous psychologies are discussed in order to highlight how studying actual exemplars in their unique and complex developmental contexts has the potential to identify themes that either…

  3. Curriculum Integration and Cross-Cultural Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Susan B.

    While many undergraduate disciplines are revising curricula to address issues of diversity more effectively, it is commonly assumed that courses in cross-cultural psychology are less in need of revision due to their inherent multi-cultural focus. The field of cross-cultural psychology, however, is not immune to Eurocentric and androcentric biases.…

  4. Issues of Cultural Meaningfulness in Emotional Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarni, Carolyn

    1998-01-01

    Asserts that journal's three studies examining cultural influences on emotional development reflect Western cultural model, using Western scripts for how data were collected and meaningfulness attributed. Addresses: (1) search for universals versus cultural specificity; (2) effect of unit of analysis; (3) whose perspective is used when proclaiming…

  5. Cultural commons and cultural evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Giangiacomo Bravo

    2010-01-01

    Culture evolves following a process that is akin to biological evolution, although with some significant differences. At the same time culture has often a collective good value for human groups. This paper studies culture in an evolutionary perspective, with a focus on the implications of group definition for the coexistence of different cultures. A model of cultural evolution is presented where agents interacts in an artificial environment. The belonging to a specific memetic group is a majo...

  6. Houdini: Locomotion analysis-driven design of an in-tank mobile cleanup robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the design and locomotion analysis efforts to develop a new reconfigurable and collapsible working machine, dubbed Houdini, to remotely clean up hazardouswaste and petroleum storage tanks. The tethered robot system is designed to allow remote entry through man-way openings as small as 0.61 m (24 in.) in diameter, after which it expands its locomotors and opens up its collapsible backhoe/manipulator and plow to subsequently perform waste- or product-handling operations. The design is optimized to meet stringent site and safety requirements and represents a viable alternative to the long-reach manipulation systems proposed for hazardous storage tank cleanup and confined-entry manual cleanup approaches. The system development has been funded to provide waste mobilization and removal solutions for the hazardous-waste storage tanks in the U.S. Department of Energy Fernald complex. Another potential application is the cleanup of heavy-crude petroleum storage tanks. The Houdini concept has been submitted to the U.S. Patent Office, and a patent has been issued (patent number pending), which Carnegie Mellon University is currently in the process of licensing to RedZone Robotics, the industrial prime contractor we are subcontracted to. We are developing a fully operational prototype for demonstration at Fernald in the winter of 1996

  7. Simultaneous extraction, derivatization and clean-up of sterols from soil using accelerated solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A one-step extraction, derivatization and clean-up technique for the determination of sterols in soil by accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) is presented. In this method, in situ derivatization of sterols using 99 % N, O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) + 1 % trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS) was carried out inside the extraction cell. The extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detector (GC-MSD) and gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC-FID). The effects of solvent, sorbent and temperature on the in situ derivatization of sterols were investigated using Ottawa sand fortified at 50 ppm sterol mixture (cholestrol, stigmasterol and stigmastanol). The extraction performed using dichloromethane at extraction pressure of 1500 p.s.i, temperature 60 degree Celsius and static extraction time of 15 min gave recoveries from 87 to 96 %. The effect of several types of sorbents as on-line clean-up by inclusion of sorbents in the extraction cell on the extraction efficiencies were investigated using spiked soil sample. Increase in static extraction time significantly improved the recoveries of the analytes. The utilization of integrated extraction, derivatization and clean-up strategy simplify and shorten the sample preparation step in an analysis. (author)

  8. Cleanup of large areas contaminated as a result of a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purposes of the report are to provide an overview of the methodology and technology available to clean up contaminated areas and to give preliminary guidance on matters related to the planning, implementation and management of such cleanups. This report provides an integrated overview of important aspects related to the cleanup of very large areas contaminated as a result of a serious nuclear accident, including information on methods and equipment available to: characterize the affected area and the radioactive fallout; stabilize or isolate the contamination; and clean up contaminated urban, rural and forested areas. The report also includes brief sections on planning and management considerations and the transport and disposal of the large volumes of wastes arising from such cleanups. For the purposes of this report, nuclear accidents which could result in the deposition of decontamination over large areas if the outer containment fails badly include: 1) An accident with a nuclear weapon involving detonation of the chemical high explosive but little, if any, nuclear fission. 2) A major loss of medium/high level liquid waste (HLLW) due to an explosion/fire at a storage site for such waste. 3) An accident at a nuclear power plant (NPP), for example a loss of coolant accident, which results in some core disruption and fuel melting. 4) An accident at an NPP involving an uncontrolled reactivity excursion resulting in the violent ejection of a reactor core material and rupture of the containment building. 117 refs, 32 figs, 12 tabs

  9. Accelerated solvent extraction method with one-step clean-up for hydrocarbons in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) using hexane combined with neutral silica gel and sulfuric acid/ silica gel (SA/ SG) to remove impurities prior to analysis by gas chromatograph with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) was studied. The efficiency of extraction was evaluated based on the three hydrocarbons; dodecane, tetradecane and pentadecane spiked to soil sample. The effect of ASE operating conditions (extraction temperature, extraction pressure, static time) was evaluated and the optimized condition obtained from the study was extraction temperature of 160 degree Celsius, extraction pressure of 2000 psi with 5 minutes static extraction time. The developed ASE with one-step clean-up method was applied in the extraction of hydrocarbons from spiked soil and the amount extracted was comparable to ASE extraction without clean-up step with the advantage of obtaining cleaner extract with reduced interferences. Therefore in the developed method, extraction and clean-up for hydrocarbons in soil can be achieved rapidly and efficiently with reduced solvent usage. (author)

  10. Assessment and cleanup of the Taxi Strip waste storage area at LLNL [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In September 1982 the Hazards Control Department of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) began a final radiological survey of a former low-level radioactive waste storage area called the Taxi Strip so that the area could be released for construction of an office building. Collection of soil samples at the location of a proposed sewer line led to the discovery of an old disposal pit containing soil contaminated with low-level radioactive waste and organic solvents. The Taxi Strip area was excavated leading to the discovery of three additional small pits. The clean-up of Pit No. 1 is considered to be complete for radioactive contamination. The results from the chlorinated solvent analysis of the borehole samples and the limited number of samples analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry indicate that solvent clean-up at this pit is complete. This is being verified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of a few additional soil samples from the bottom sides and ends of the pit. As a precaution, samples are also being analyzed for metals to determine if further excavation is necessary. Clean-up of Pits No. 2 and No. 3 is considered to be complete for radioactive and solvent contamination. Results of analysis for metals will determine if excavation is complete. Excavation of Pit No. 4 which resulted from surface leakage of radioactive contamination from an evaporation tray is complete

  11. Immuno-ultrafiltration as a new strategy in sample clean-up of aflatoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Elisabeth Viktoria; Cichna-Markl, Margit; Chung, Duck-Hwa; Zentek, Jürgen; Razzazi-Fazeli, Ebrahim

    2009-05-01

    The present paper describes the development of a new clean-up strategy for the analysis of aflatoxins (AFs) in food. The sample preparation method is based on immuno-ultrafiltration (IUF) which, in contrast to immunoaffinity chromatography, makes use of antibodies in free form. After selecting an appropriate ultrafiltration (UF) device and optimizing different operation conditions the IUF method was applied to the clean-up of maize and rice. Quantification of AFs was carried out by HPLC and fluorescence detection, after postcolumn derivatization in a Kobracell. The IUF method was shown to be as selective as sample clean-up using commercial immunoaffinity columns. Recovery rates and RSD for the AFs G(2), G(1), B(2) and B(1) in spiked rice were found to be 76 +/- 3, 76 +/- 2, 83 +/- 5 and 99 +/- 14%, respectively. The analysis of a FAPAS (food analysis performance assessment scheme) maize material resulted in AFs concentrations which were in the range assigned by the producer of the reference material. PMID:19472274

  12. Houdini: Site and locomotion analysis-driven design of an in-tank mobile cleanup robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes design and locomotion analysis efforts to develop a new reconfigurable and collapsible working machine, dubbed Houdini, to remotely clean up hazardous-waste and petroleum storage tanks. The tethered robot system is designed to allow remote entry through man-way openings as small as 0.61 m in diameter, after which it expands its locomotors and opens up its collapsible backhoe/manipulator and plow to subsequently perform waste or material handling operations. The design is optimized to meet stringent site and safety requirements, and represents a viable alternative to (1) the long-reach manipulation systems proposed for hazardous storage tank cleanup, and (2) confined-entry manual cleanup approaches. The system development has been funded to provide waste mobilization and removal solutions for the hazardous waste storage tanks in the Department of Energy (DoE) Fernald and Oak Ridge complexes. Other potential applications areas are the cleanup of heavy-crude petroleum storage tanks. The author has developed a fully operational prototype which is currently undergoing testing

  13. Proceedings of the seventh annual gasification and gas stream cleanup systems contractors review meeting: Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghate, M.R.; Markel, K.E. Jr.; Jarr, L.A.; Bossart, S.J. (eds.)

    1987-08-01

    On June 16 through 19, 1987, METC sponsored the Seventh Annual Gasification and Gas Stream Cleanup Systems Contractors Review Meeting which was held at the Sheraton Lakeview Conference Center in Morgantown, West Virginia. The primary purpose of the meeting was threefold: to review the technical progress and current status of the gasification and gas stream cleanup projects sponsored by the Department of Energy; to foster technology exchange among participating researchers and other technical communities; to facilitate interactive dialogues which would identify research needs that would make coal-based gasification systems more attractive economically and environmentally. More than 310 representatives of Government, academia, industry, and foreign energy research organizations attended the 4-day meeting. Fifty-three papers and thirty poster dsplays were presented summarizing recent developments in the gasification and gas stream cleanup programs. Volume II covers papers presented at sessions 5 and 6 on system for the production of synthesis gas, and on system for the production of power. All papers have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  14. Microstructures of superhydrophobic plant leaves - inspiration for efficient oil spill cleanup materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiger, Claudia; Rodrigues da Silva, Isabelle C; Mail, Matthias; Kavalenka, Maryna N; Barthlott, Wilhelm; Hölscher, Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    The cleanup of accidental oil spills in water is an enormous challenge; conventional oil sorbents absorb large amounts of water in addition to oil and other cleanup methods can cause secondary pollution. In contrast, fresh leaves of the aquatic ferns Salvinia are superhydrophobic and superoleophilic, and can selectively absorb oil while repelling water. These selective wetting properties are optimal for natural oil absorbent applications and bioinspired oil sorbent materials. In this paper we quantify the oil absorption capacity of four Salvinia species with different surface structures, water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes) and Lotus leaves (Nelumbo nucifera), and compare their absorption capacity to artificial oil sorbents. Interestingly, the oil absorption capacities of Salvinia molesta and Pistia stratiotes leaves are comparable to artificial oil sorbents. Therefore, these pantropical invasive plants, often considered pests, qualify as environmentally friendly materials for oil spill cleanup. Furthermore, we investigated the influence of oil density and viscosity on the oil absorption, and examine how the presence and morphology of trichomes affect the amount of oil absorbed by their surfaces. Specifically, the influence of hair length and shape is analyzed by comparing different hair types ranging from single trichomes of Salvinia cucullata to complex eggbeater-shaped trichomes of Salvinia molesta to establish a basis for improving artificial bioinspired oil absorbents. PMID:27529805

  15. CRADA opportunities with METC`s gasification and hot gas cleanup facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galloway, E.N.; Rockey, J.M.; Tucker, M.S.

    1995-06-01

    Opportunities exist for Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADA) at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) to support commercialization of IGCC power systems. METC operates an integrated gasifier and hot gas cleanup facility for the development of gasification and hot gas cleanup technologies. The objective of our program is to gather performance data on gasifier operation, particulate removal, desulfurization and regeneration technologies. Additionally, slip streams are provided for developing various technologies such as; alkali monitoring, particulate measuring, chloride removal, and contaminate recovery processes. METC`s 10-inch diameter air blown Fluid Bed Gasifier (FBG) provides 300 lb/hr of coal gas at 1100{degrees}F and 425 psig. The particulate laden gas is transported to METC`s Modular Gas Cleanup Rig (MGCR). The gas pressure is reduced to 285 psig before being fed into a candle filter vessel. The candle filter vessel houses four candle filters and multiple test coupons. The particulate free gas is then desulfurized in a sorbent reactor. Starting in 1996 the MGCR system will be able to regenerate the sorbent in the same vessel.

  16. Proceedings of the seventh annual gasification and gas stream cleanup systems contractors review meeting: Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghate, M.R.; Markel, K.E. Jr.; Jarr, L.A.; Bossart, S.J. (eds.)

    1987-08-01

    On June 16 through 19, 1987, METC sponsored the Seventh Annual Gasification and Gas Stream Cleanup Systems Contractors Review Meeting which was held at the Sheraton Lakeview Conference Center in Morgantown, West Virginia. The primary purpose of the meeting was threefold: to review the technical progress and current status of the gasification and gas stream cleanup projects sponsored by the Department of Energy; to foster technology exchange among participating researchers and other technical communities; to facilitate interactive dialogues which would identify research needs that would make coal-based gasification systems more attractive economically and environmentally. More than 310 representatives of Government, academia, industry, and foreign energy research organizations attended the 4-day meeting. Fifty-three papers and thirty poster displays were presented summarizing recent developments in the gasification and gas stream cleanup programs. Volume I covers information presented at sessions 1 through 4 on systems for the production of Co-products and industrial fuel gas, environmental projects, and components and materials. Individual papers have been processed for the Energy Data Base.

  17. A simplified model of natural and mechanical removal to estimate cleanup equipment efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehr, W. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Oil spill response organizations rely on modelling to make decisions in offshore response operations. Models are used to test different cleanup strategies and to measure the expected cost of cleanup and the reduction in environmental impact. The oil spill response community has traditionally used the concept of worst case scenario in developing contingency plans for spill response. However, there are many drawbacks to this approach. The Hazardous Materials Response Division of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in Cooperation with the U.S. Navy Supervisor of Salvage and Diving has developed a Trajectory Analysis Planner (TAP) which will give planners the tool to try out different cleanup strategies and equipment configurations based upon historical wind and current conditions instead of worst-case scenarios. The spill trajectory model is a classic example in oil spill modelling that uses advanced non-linear three-dimensional hydrodynamical sub-models to estimate surface currents under conditions where oceanographic initial conditions are not accurately known and forecasts of wind stress are unreliable. In order to get better answers, it is often necessary to refine input values rather than increasing the sophistication of the hydrodynamics. This paper described another spill example where the level of complexity of the algorithms needs to be evaluated with regard to the reliability of the input, the sensitivity of the answers to input and model parameters, and the comparative reliability of other algorithms in the model. 9 refs., 1 fig.

  18. A simplified model of natural and mechanical removal to estimate cleanup equipment efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oil spill response organizations rely on modelling to make decisions in offshore response operations. Models are used to test different cleanup strategies and to measure the expected cost of cleanup and the reduction in environmental impact. The oil spill response community has traditionally used the concept of worst case scenario in developing contingency plans for spill response. However, there are many drawbacks to this approach. The Hazardous Materials Response Division of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in Cooperation with the U.S. Navy Supervisor of Salvage and Diving has developed a Trajectory Analysis Planner (TAP) which will give planners the tool to try out different cleanup strategies and equipment configurations based upon historical wind and current conditions instead of worst-case scenarios. The spill trajectory model is a classic example in oil spill modelling that uses advanced non-linear three-dimensional hydrodynamical sub-models to estimate surface currents under conditions where oceanographic initial conditions are not accurately known and forecasts of wind stress are unreliable. In order to get better answers, it is often necessary to refine input values rather than increasing the sophistication of the hydrodynamics. This paper described another spill example where the level of complexity of the algorithms needs to be evaluated with regard to the reliability of the input, the sensitivity of the answers to input and model parameters, and the comparative reliability of other algorithms in the model. 9 refs., 1 fig

  19. The Estonian study of Chernobyl cleanup workers: II. Incidence of cancer and mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cohort of 4,472 men from Estonia who had participated in the cleanup activities in the Chernobyl area sometime between 1986 and 1991 and were followed through 1993 was analyzed with respect to the incidence of cancer and mortality. Incidence and mortality in the cleanup workers were assessed relative to national rates. No increases were found in all cancers (25 incident cases compared to 26.5 expected) or in leukemia (no cases observed, 1.0 expected). Incidence did not differ statistically significantly from expectation for any individual cancer site or type, though lung cancer and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma both occurred slightly more often than expected. A total of 144 deaths were observed [standardized mortality ratio (SMR) = 0.98; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.82-1.14] during an average of 6.5 years of follow-up. Twenty-eight deaths (19.4%) were suicides (SMR = 1.52; 95% CI = 1.01-2.19). Exposure to ionizing radiation while at Chernobyl has not caused a detectable increase in the incidence of cancer among cleanup workers from Estonia. At least for the short follow-up period, diseases directly attributable to radiation appear to be of relatively minor importance when compared with the substantial excess of deaths due to suicide. 28 refs., 3 tabs

  20. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-F-8:4 Fuel Storage Basin West Side Adjacent and Side Slope Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action, sampling activities, and compliance with cleanup criteria for the 118-F-8:4 Fuel Storage Basin West Side Adjacent and Side Slope Soils. The rectangular-shaped concrete basin on the south side of the 105-F Reactor building served as an underwater collection, storage, and transfer facility for irradiated fuel elements discharged from the reactor