WorldWideScience

Sample records for cleaning equipment

  1. Sodium cleaning device for nuclear reactor equipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujisawa, Morio.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To enable sodium cleaning over the entire length of large size equipments such as control rod drives and primary coolant recycling pumps for use in FBR type reactors. Constitution: A plurality of warm water supply nozzles each having a valve are connected at varying height on the side of a cleaning tank, to which an exhaust line is connected. These nozzles are connected with an exhaust port at the bottom of the tank to constitute a pipeway for cleaning warm water recycling line including a water feed pump and a feedwater heater. The water level in the tank is changed stepwise by successively selecting the warm water feed nozzles. Further, the warm water in the tank is recyclically fed through the nozzles selected at each step of the water level through the recycle line while warming. On the other hand, the pressure inside the tank is reduced through the exhaust line, whereby the warm water in the tank is boiled at low temperature to clean-up sodium on the equipments to be cleaned over the entire length. (Horiuchi, T.)

  2. 21 CFR 211.67 - Equipment cleaning and maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Equipment cleaning and maintenance. 211.67 Section 211.67 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Equipment cleaning and maintenance. (a) Equipment and utensils shall be cleaned, maintained, and, as...

  3. 21 CFR 211.182 - Equipment cleaning and use log.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Equipment cleaning and use log. 211.182 Section 211.182 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Reports § 211.182 Equipment cleaning and use log. A written record of major equipment cleaning...

  4. Cleaning and sterilisation of anaesthetic equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chitra Sanjeev Juwarkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this review article is to bring up what has been known (practiced about decontamination, disinfection, and sterilisation of anaesthetic equipment. It also discusses how this evidence-based information on infection prevention and control impacts care of patient in routine anaesthesia practice. This review underscores the role played by us, anaesthetists in formulating guidelines, implementing the same, monitoring the outcome and training post-graduate trainees and coworkers in this regard. The article re-emphasises that certain guidelines when followed strictly will go a long way in reducing transmission of hospital acquired infection between patient and anaesthetist or between patients. Anaesthetists do not restrict their work to operating room but are involved in disaster management, interventional radiological procedures and in trauma care. They should ensure that the patients are cared for in clean and safe environment so as to reduce healthcare associated infections (HCAIs simultaneously taking preventive measures against the various health hazards associated with clinical practice. They should ensure that the coworkers too adopt all the preventive measures while delivering their duties. For this review, we conducted literature searches in Medline (PubMed and also searched for relevant abstracts and full texts of related articles that we came across. There is much to be learned from the western world where, health care organisations now have legal responsibility to implement changes in accordance with the newer technology to reduce health care associated infection. There is a need to develop evidence-based infection prevention and control programs and set national guidelines for disinfection and sterilisation of anaesthesia equipment which all the institutions should comply with.

  5. Cleaning and sterilisation of infant feeding equipment: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renfrew, Mary J; McLoughlin, Marie; McFadden, Alison

    2008-11-01

    To assess the clinical and cost-effectiveness of different methods of cleaning and sterilisation of infant feeding equipment used in the home. Systematic review of studies from developed countries on the effectiveness of methods of cleaning and sterilisation of infant feeding equipment used in the home. A brief telephone survey of UK-based manufacturers of infant feeding equipment and formula to ascertain the evidence base used for their recommendations, and a comparison of current relevant guidelines in developed countries, informed the work. National guidelines from six countries demonstrated variation and lack of evidence to support current guidance. Manufacturers did not report evidence of effectiveness to support their recommendations. Nine studies were identified; eight conducted between 1962 and 1985 and one in 1997. All had methodological weaknesses. Hand-washing was identified as fundamentally important. Health professionals were reported as not providing appropriate education on the importance and methods of cleaning and sterilisation. Mothers of subsequent babies and women from lower socio-economic groups were less likely to follow recommended procedures. There is a lack of good-quality evidence on effective ways of cleaning and sterilising infant feeding equipment in the home. The evidence base does not answer the question about which of the methods in common use is most effective or most likely to be used by parents. Hand-washing before handling feeding equipment remains important. Further research on the range of methods used in the home environment, including assessment of the views of parents and carers, is required.

  6. 40 CFR 261.35 - Deletion of certain hazardous waste codes following equipment cleaning and replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... codes following equipment cleaning and replacement. 261.35 Section 261.35 Protection of Environment... equipment in accordance with this section; (ii) Prepare and follow an equipment replacement plan and replace equipment in accordance with this section; or (iii) Document cleaning and replacement in accordance with...

  7. Sodium cleaning from sodium contaminated components and operation for experimental equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, B. H.; Kim, J. M.; Kim, T. J.; Nam, H. Y.; Jeong, J. Y.; Choi, B. H.; Choi, J. H

    2007-11-15

    An objective of washing technology development for sodium contaminated equipment is to clean and reuse safely and effectively the used equipment through a washing and maintenance, and recovery of the sodium wastes generated during washing.

  8. 40 CFR 63.5734 - What standards must I meet for resin and gel coat application equipment cleaning operations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and gel coat application equipment cleaning operations? 63.5734 Section 63.5734 Protection of... Pollutants for Boat Manufacturing Standards for Resin and Gel Coat Application Equipment Cleaning Operations § 63.5734 What standards must I meet for resin and gel coat application equipment cleaning operations...

  9. 40 CFR 63.5737 - How do I demonstrate compliance with the resin and gel coat application equipment cleaning...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the resin and gel coat application equipment cleaning standards? 63.5737 Section 63.5737 Protection of... Pollutants for Boat Manufacturing Standards for Resin and Gel Coat Application Equipment Cleaning Operations § 63.5737 How do I demonstrate compliance with the resin and gel coat application equipment cleaning...

  10. 77 FR 41930 - Bleed Air Cleaning and Monitoring Equipment and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-17

    .... Bill 658, requires the FAA to identify bleed air purification technology. Specifically, the FAA seeks... Administration 14 CFR Part 25 [Docket No. FAA-2012-0714] Bleed Air Cleaning and Monitoring Equipment and... developers, manufacturers, and the public related to effective air cleaning technology and sensor technology...

  11. Acceptance test procedure for K basins dose reduction project clean and coat equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creed, R.F.

    1996-01-01

    This document is the Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) for the clean and coat equipment designed by Oceaneering Hanford, Inc. under purchase order MDK-XVC-406988 for use in the 105 K East Basin. The ATP provides the guidelines and criteria to test the equipment's ability to clean and coat the concrete perimeter, divider walls, and dummy elevator pit above the existing water level. This equipment was designed and built in support of the Spent Nuclear Fuel, Dose Reduction Project. The ATP will be performed at the 305 test facility in the 300 Area at Hanford. The test results will be documented in WHC-SD-SNF-ATR-020

  12. Efficiancy of hydrogen peroxide for cleaning production areas and equipments in the radiopharmaceutical production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baptista, Tatyana S.; Batista, Vanessa; Gomes, Antonio; Matsuda, Margareth; Fukumori, Neuza; Araujo, Elaine B. de, E-mail: tsbaptista@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    A great challenge in the radiopharmaceuticals production is to fulfill the Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs), involving the validation of process and of all supporting activities such as cleaning and sanitization. The increasingly strict requirements for quality assurance system, with several norms and normative resolutions has led to a constant concern with programs and cleaning validation in pharmaceutical production. The main goal of GMP is to reduce risks inherent to pharmaceutical production, that is to reduce product contamination with microorganisms and cross-contamination. The basic requirements to prevent contamination is the development and implementation of efficient cleaning programs. In the case of clean rooms for the production of injectable radiopharmaceuticals, the requirement for cleaning programs is evidently higher due to the characteristics of these areas with hot cells for radioactive materials, where sterile radiopharmaceuticals are manipulated and distributed before administration to patients just after minutes or hours of its preparation. In the Radiopharmacy Department at IPEN it was established a cleaning program for clean rooms and hot cells using a hydrogen peroxide solution (20% proxitane alfa). The objective of this work was to assess effectiveness of this cleaning agent in reducing and/or eliminating microbial load in the clean rooms and equipment to acceptable levels in accordance with the current legislation. The analysis was conducted using results of the environmental monitoring program with and settling contact plates in clean rooms after the cleaning procedures. Furthermore, it was possible to evaluate the action of the sanitizing agent on the microbial population on the surface of equipment and clean rooms. It was also evaluated the best way to accomplish the cleaning program considering the dosimetric factor in each production process, as the main concern of pharmaceutical companies is the microbiological contamination, in

  13. Efficiancy of hydrogen peroxide for cleaning production areas and equipments in the radiopharmaceutical production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baptista, Tatyana S.; Batista, Vanessa; Gomes, Antonio; Matsuda, Margareth; Fukumori, Neuza; Araujo, Elaine B. de

    2013-01-01

    A great challenge in the radiopharmaceuticals production is to fulfill the Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs), involving the validation of process and of all supporting activities such as cleaning and sanitization. The increasingly strict requirements for quality assurance system, with several norms and normative resolutions has led to a constant concern with programs and cleaning validation in pharmaceutical production. The main goal of GMP is to reduce risks inherent to pharmaceutical production, that is to reduce product contamination with microorganisms and cross-contamination. The basic requirements to prevent contamination is the development and implementation of efficient cleaning programs. In the case of clean rooms for the production of injectable radiopharmaceuticals, the requirement for cleaning programs is evidently higher due to the characteristics of these areas with hot cells for radioactive materials, where sterile radiopharmaceuticals are manipulated and distributed before administration to patients just after minutes or hours of its preparation. In the Radiopharmacy Department at IPEN it was established a cleaning program for clean rooms and hot cells using a hydrogen peroxide solution (20% proxitane alfa). The objective of this work was to assess effectiveness of this cleaning agent in reducing and/or eliminating microbial load in the clean rooms and equipment to acceptable levels in accordance with the current legislation. The analysis was conducted using results of the environmental monitoring program with and settling contact plates in clean rooms after the cleaning procedures. Furthermore, it was possible to evaluate the action of the sanitizing agent on the microbial population on the surface of equipment and clean rooms. It was also evaluated the best way to accomplish the cleaning program considering the dosimetric factor in each production process, as the main concern of pharmaceutical companies is the microbiological contamination, in

  14. 40 CFR 63.1298 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP emissions from equipment cleaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... polyurethane foam production-HAP emissions from equipment cleaning. 63.1298 Section 63.1298 Protection of... foam production—HAP emissions from equipment cleaning. Each owner or operator of a new or existing...(a)(1) shall not use a HAP or a HAP-based material as an equipment cleaner. ...

  15. Bacterial communities on food court tables and cleaning equipment in a shopping mall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingsdag, S; Coleman, N V

    2013-08-01

    The food court at a shopping mall is a potential transfer point for pathogenic microbes, but to date, this environment has not been the subject of detailed molecular microbiological study. We used a combination of culture-based and culture-independent approaches to investigate the types and numbers of bacteria present on food court tables, and on a food court cleaning cloth. Bacteria were found at 10²-10⁵ c.f.u./m² on food court tables and 10¹⁰ c.f.u./m² on the cleaning cloth. Tag-pyrosequencing of amplified 16S rRNA genes revealed that the dominant bacterial types on the cleaning cloth were genera known to include pathogenic species (Stenotrophomonas, Aeromonas), and that these genera were also evident at lower levels on table surfaces, suggesting possible cross-contamination. The evidence suggests a public health threat is posed by bacteria in the food court, and that this may be due to cross-contamination between cleaning equipment and table surfaces.

  16. Quantification of glibenclamide in cleaning samples of pharmaceutical equipment through high performance liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeza Fonte, Alen Nils; Diaz Aguila, Elsa Eneida; Martinez Alfonso; Nancy

    2012-01-01

    to submit a selective analytical method for quantization of glibenclamide in cleaning samples of pharmaceutical equipment using high performance liquid chromatography. The mobile phase consisted of an equal mixing of acetonitrile/phosphate buffer KH 2 PO 4 ; with 0.037 mol/L concentration pH 5.25 and flow of 1.5 mL/min, in a Nucleosil 100 C8 column. Glibenclamide was injected with progesterone as internal standard and using an UV detector= 230 nm

  17. The influence of furniture and equipment layouts on airflow pattern in a clean room

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheong, K.W.D.; Djunaedy, E.

    2001-01-01

    The layout of the production line in any clean rooms will change according to the production process and this posed a problem for post clean room maintenance. Air velocity is one of the many problematic issues commonly found in clean room environment. It is important to address this on-going problem

  18. Cleaning verification: A five parameter study of a Total Organic Carbon method development and validation for the cleaning assessment of residual detergents in manufacturing equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue; Ahmad, Imad A Haidar; Tam, James; Wang, Yan; Dao, Gina; Blasko, Andrei

    2018-02-05

    A Total Organic Carbon (TOC) based analytical method to quantitate trace residues of clean-in-place (CIP) detergents CIP100 ® and CIP200 ® on the surfaces of pharmaceutical manufacturing equipment was developed and validated. Five factors affecting the development and validation of the method were identified: diluent composition, diluent volume, extraction method, location for TOC sample preparation, and oxidant flow rate. Key experimental parameters were optimized to minimize contamination and to improve the sensitivity, recovery, and reliability of the method. The optimized concentration of the phosphoric acid in the swabbing solution was 0.05M, and the optimal volume of the sample solution was 30mL. The swab extraction method was 1min sonication. The use of a clean room, as compared to an isolated lab environment, was not required for method validation. The method was demonstrated to be linear with a correlation coefficient (R) of 0.9999. The average recoveries from stainless steel surfaces at multiple spike levels were >90%. The repeatability and intermediate precision results were ≤5% across the 2.2-6.6ppm range (50-150% of the target maximum carry over, MACO, limit). The method was also shown to be sensitive with a detection limit (DL) of 38ppb and a quantitation limit (QL) of 114ppb. The method validation demonstrated that the developed method is suitable for its intended use. The methodology developed in this study is generally applicable to the cleaning verification of any organic detergents used for the cleaning of pharmaceutical manufacturing equipment made of electropolished stainless steel material. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Chemical cleaning and decontamination of equipments in Rajasthan Atomic Power Station-2, Kota, NPCIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, P.K.; Saini, S.L.

    2008-01-01

    Heat exchanger of End Shield Cooling System of RAPS-2 made up of 70:30 cupronickel was cleaned with a cleaning solution containing 5% sulphamic acid for periods of around 10 hours at a temperature of 60 deg C. The cleaning was attempted to remove the deposit inside the tube of heat exchanger to make a path of the probe to go inside the tube for eddy current testing for measurement of wall thinning. During the campaign 20 kg of CaCO 3 and 5 kg of SiO 2 were removed. Pre-cooler of heat transport system of RAPS-2 made up of monel was cleaned with a cleaning solution containing 5% citric acid, 1% ascorbic acid and 1% NTA at 50-60 deg C temperature for about 20 hours. The cleaning was attempted to remove the deposit inside the tube of pre cooler to make a path of the probe to go inside the tube for eddy current testing for measurement of wall thinning. For the pre-cooler a decontamination factor of 2 to 3 was obtained. The paper describes about the analysis of the deposit, the cleaning process, and schematic diagram of the process. (author)

  20. Pilot-scale continuous ultrasonic cleaning equipment reduces Listeria monocytogenes levels on conveyor belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolvanen, Riina; Lundén, Janne; Hörman, Ari; Korkeala, Hannu

    2009-02-01

    Ultrasonic cleaning of a conveyor belt was studied by building a pilot-scale conveyor with an ultrasonic cleaning bath. A piece of the stainless steel conveyor belt was contaminated with meat-based soil and Listeria monocytogenes strains (V1, V3, and B9) and incubated for 72 h to allow bacteria to attach to the conveyor belt surfaces. The effect of ultrasound with a potassium hydroxide-based cleaning detergent was determined by using the cleaning bath at 45 and 50 degrees C for 30 s with and without ultrasound. The detachment of L. monocytogenes from the conveyor belt caused by the ultrasonic treatment was significantly greater at 45 degrees C (independent samples t test, P conveyor belt is effective even with short treatment times.

  1. Computer equipment used in patient care within a multihospital system: recommendations for cleaning and disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neely, Alice N; Weber, Joan M; Daviau, Patricia; MacGregor, Alastair; Miranda, Carlos; Nell, Marie; Bush, Patricia; Lighter, Donald

    2005-05-01

    Computer hardware has been implicated as a potential reservoir for infectious agents. Leaders of a 22-hospital system, which spans North America and serves pediatric patients with orthopedic or severe burns, sought to develop recommendations for the cleaning and disinfection of computer hardware within its myriad patient care venues. A task force comprising representatives from infection control, medical affairs, information services, and outcomes management departments was formed. Following a review of the literature and of procedures within the 22 hospitals, criteria for cleaning and disinfection were established and recommendations made. The recommendations are consistent with general environmental infection control cleaning and disinfection guidelines, yet flexible enough to be applicable to the different locales, different computer and cleaning products available, and different patient populations served within this large hospital system.

  2. Design of segmental ultrasonic cleaning equipment for removing the sludge in a steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seok Tae; Jeong, Woo Tae; Byeon, Min Suk; Lee, Ho One

    2010-01-01

    In nuclear power plants, the water in the coolant system is managed to be clean but metallic sludge is accumulated on the top of tube-sheet in a steam generator. The sludge causes the corrosion of the tubesheet. The electric utility company in Korea removes the sludge with a lancing system for every outage of nuclear power plants. But the sludge is not perfectly removed with lancing system because the pressurized water of the lancing system cannot reach all area in a steam generator. Therefore the steam generator cleaning system with ultrasonic energy has been developed in KEPCO Research Institute. In this paper, the ultrasonic cleaning system is designed for removing the sludge on the steam generator

  3. Developing technique for waste water cleaning of a division for equipment decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gromoglasov, A.A.; Solyakov, V.K.; Novikov, V.N.; Pil'shchikov, A.P.; Chekalov, A.G.; Sinyukov, M.A.; Pshenichnykh, V.N.

    1989-01-01

    Results are described of developing technique for radionuclide cleaning solutions after metal product decontamination. The method is based on the adagulation with usage of quicklime. The conclusion is method permits to consider it as the main technique for waste water decontamination. 3 refs.; 2 figs.; 3 tabs

  4. Cleaning of the equipment of residual sodium by means of water-vacuum technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klykov, B.P.; Lednev, A.I.

    1997-01-01

    Results of investigation into a problem of equipment decontamination from sodium, that have been conducted in OKBM since 1960 are given. The investigations performed have shown that a water-vacuum washing process is the most optimal method for equipment decontamination from sodium residues. The essence of the method is in conduction of sodium-water reaction under reduced pressure in a leak-tight tank. Boundary conditions are selected experimentally which not allow sodium to be melted during the process, that gives possibility to control the sodium-water reaction. Continuous removal of H 2 and reaction products creates safe conditions for the process conduction. More that 20-year period of operation of a stationary water-vacuum facility and washing the electromagnetic pump for BN-350 fast nuclear reactor directly at is test rig are the best proofs of the proposed method. This method is well suitable for washing the equipment contaminated by radioactive sodium, because by-products of the process are simply utilized. The method is used in a number of Russian enterprises, and recommended for implementation at BN-350 and BN-600 reactor plants. (author)

  5. Photocatalytic equipment with nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide for air cleaning and disinfecting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le, Thanh Son; Ngo, Quoc Buu; Nguyen, Viet Dung; Nguyen, Hoai Chau; Dao, Trong Hien; Tran, Xuan Tin; Kabachkov, E N; Balikhin, I L

    2014-01-01

    Nitrogen-doped TiO 2 nanoparticle photocatalysts were synthesized by a sol–gel procedure using tetra-n-butyl orthotitanate as a titanium precursor and urea as a nitrogen source. Systematic studies for the preparation parameters and their impact on the material's structure were carried out by multiple techniques: thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetric analysis, x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and UV–Vis diffuse reflectance spectrophotometry showed that the nitrogen-doped TiO 2 calcined at 500 °C for 3 h exhibited a spherical form with a particle size about 15–20 nm and crystal phase presented a mixture of 89.12% anatase. The obtained product was deposited on a porous quartz tube (D = 74 mm; l = 418 mm) to manufacture an air photocatalytic cleaner as a prototype of the TIOKRAFT company's equipment. The created air cleaner was able to remove 60% of 10 ppm acetone within 390 min and degrade 98.5% of bacteria (total aerobic bacteria and fungi, 300 cfu m −3 ) within 120 min in a 10 m 3 box. These photodegradation activities of N-TiO 2 are higher than that of the commercial nano-TiO 2 (Skyspring Inc., USA, particle size of 5–10 nm). (paper)

  6. A 100-Year Review: A century of dairy processing advancements-Pasteurization, cleaning and sanitation, and sanitary equipment design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, S A; Bradley, R L; Miller, G; Mildenhall, K B

    2017-12-01

    Over the past century, advancements within the mainstream dairy foods processing industry have acted in complement with other dairy-affiliated industries to produce a human food that has few rivals with regard to safety, nutrition, and sustainability. These advancements, such as milk pasteurization, may appear commonplace in the context of a modern dairy processing plant, but some consideration of how these advancements came into being serve as a basis for considering what advancements will come to bear on the next century of processing advancements. In the year 1917, depending on where one resided, most milk was presented to the consumer through privately owned dairy animals, small local or regional dairy farms, or small urban commercial dairies with minimal, or at best nascent, processing capabilities. In 1917, much of the retail milk in the United States was packaged and sold in returnable quart-sized clear glass bottles fitted with caps of various design and composition. Some reports suggest that the cost of that quart of milk was approximately 9 cents-an estimated $2.00 in 2017 US dollars. Comparing that 1917 quart of milk to a quart of milk in 2017 suggests several differences in microbiological, compositional, and nutritional value as well as flavor characteristics. Although a more comprehensive timeline of significant processing advancements is noted in the AppendixTable A1 to this paper, we have selected 3 advancements to highlight; namely, the development of milk pasteurization, cleaning and sanitizing technologies, and sanitary specifications for processing equipment. Finally, we provide some insights into the future of milk processing and suggest areas where technological advancements may need continued or strengthened attention and development as a means of securing milk as a food of high safety and value for the next century to come. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Use of a CO2 pellet non-destructive cleaning system to decontaminate radiological waste and equipment in shielded hot cells at the Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bench, T.R.

    1997-01-01

    This paper details how the Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory modified and utilized a commercially available, solid carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) pellet, non-destructive cleaning system to support the disposition and disposal of radioactive waste from shielded hot cells. Some waste materials and equipment accumulated in the shielded hot cells cannot be disposed directly because they are contaminated with transuranic materials (elements with atomic numbers greater than that of uranium) above waste disposal site regulatory limits. A commercially available CO 2 pellet non-destructive cleaning system was extensively modified for remote operation inside a shielded hot cell to remove the transuranic contaminants from the waste and equipment without generating any secondary waste in the process. The removed transuranic contaminants are simultaneously captured, consolidated, and retained for later disposal at a transuranic waste facility

  8. Worst-case study for cleaning validation of equipment in the radiopharmaceutical production of lyophilized reagents: Methodology validation of total organic carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porto, Luciana Valeria Ferrari Machado

    2015-01-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals are defined as pharmaceutical preparations containing a radionuclide in their composition, mostly intravenously administered, and therefore compliance with the principles of Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) is essential and indispensable. Cleaning validation is a requirement of the current GMP, and consists of documented evidence, which demonstrates that the cleaning procedures are able to remove residues to pre-determined acceptance levels, ensuring that no cross contamination occurs. A simplification of cleaning processes validation is accepted, and consists in choosing a product, called 'worst case', to represent the cleaning processes of all equipment of the same production area. One of the steps of cleaning validation is the establishment and validation of the analytical method to quantify the residue. The aim of this study was to establish the worst case for cleaning validation of equipment in the radiopharmaceutical production of lyophilized reagent (LR) for labeling with 99m Tc, evaluate the use of Total Organic Carbon (TOC) content as indicator of equipment cleaning used in the LR manufacture, validate the method of Non-Purgeable Organic Carbon (NPOC), and perform recovery tests with the product chosen as worst case. Worst case product's choice was based on the calculation of an index called 'Worst Case Index' (WCI), using information about drug solubility, difficulty of cleaning the equipment and occupancy rate of the products in line production. The products indicated 'worst case' was the LR MIBI-TEC. The method validation assays were performed using carbon analyser model TOC-Vwp coupled to an autosampler model ASI-V, both from Shimadzu®, controlled by TOC Control-V software. It was used the direct method for NPOC quantification. The parameters evaluated in the validation method were: system suitability, robustness, linearity, detection limit (DL) and quantification limit (QL), precision

  9. Operator dermal exposure and protection provided by personal protective equipment and working coveralls during mixing/loading, application and sprayer cleaning in vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thouvenin, Isabelle; Bouneb, Françoise; Mercier, Thierry

    2017-06-01

    The efficiency of a working coverall combined with personal protective equipment to protect operators against dermal exposure to plant protection products under field conditions was studied. Operators wore a non-certified water-repellent finish polyester/cotton coverall plus a certified gown during the mixing/loading and the cleaning phases. Insecticide foliar application to a vineyard was selected as the exposure scenario. The overall dermal residue levels measured in this study were in the range of data recently collected in Europe. The water-repellent finish working coverall reduced body exposure by a factor of approximately 95%. Wearing a Category III Type 3 partial body gown during mixing/loading and cleaning of the application equipment led to a further protective effect of 98.7%. The combination of a water-repellent finish working coverall and partial body protection during specific tasks provided satisfactory levels of protection and can be considered as suitable protection for the conditions of use studied.

  10. Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Commercial Lawn Equipment (Spanish version); Clean Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Erik

    2015-06-01

    Powering commercial lawn equipment with alternative fuels or advanced engine technology is an effective way to reduce U.S. dependence on petroleum, reduce harmful emissions, and lessen the environmental impacts of commercial lawn mowing. Numerous alternative fuel and fuel-efficient advanced technology mowers are available. Owners turn to these mowers because they may save on fuel and maintenance costs, extend mower life, reduce fuel spillage and fuel theft, and demonstrate their commitment to sustainability.

  11. Total Quality Control Points on Clean Area of Renewable Equipment%探讨再生器械回收清洗区全程质量控制点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹秋莲; 赵玛丽

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore all the quality control problems on clean area of renewable equipment. Methods The causes were analyzed, such as the manipulation of cleaning personnel capacity, personal protective measures, recovery of pre-treatment, classification before cleaning, cleaning and disinfection reagent configuration and use of clean water for the quality of scientific management. Results The previous recovery of clean supply room management of ambiguous situation was changed and the cost of medical equipment was reduced. Conclusion The complete recovery of cleaning process will not only lay the foundation for follow-up work, but also improve the use security.%目的:探讨回收清洗区全程质量控制的问题.方法:通过对清洗人员的操控能力、个人防护措施、回收预处理、器械清洗前分类、清洗消毒试剂的配置及使用、清洗用水质量进行控制,并进行因为分析,以迭到科学管理.结果:改变了以往供应室回收清洗管理模糊的状况,降低了医疗器械成本.结论:完善的回收清洗流程不仅为后续工作打好了基础,而且提高了使用安全性.

  12. Determination of Anthracycline Drug Residual in Cleaning Validation Swabs of Stainless-Steel Equipment after Production of Cytostatic Injections Using HPLC Analytical Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Slivová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Standard cleaning procedures of production line equipment were verified after manufacture of cytostatic injections containing Anthracycline derivate substance. Residual content of Anthracycline drug substance on stainless-steel equipment surface was determined using swab sampling with a specific HPLC-DAD analysis. The acceptance limit was decided as 200.0 μg/100 cm2. Recovery from the stainless-steel surface was 90.1%. Linearity of the method was observed in the concentration range of 0.155–194 μg/mL when estimated using Zorbax TMS (5 μm, 0.25 m × 4.6 mm ID column at 1.3 mL/min flow rate and 254 nm (DAD 190–600 nm. The mobile phase consisted of lauryl hydrogen sulphate solution (3.7 g/L : methanol : acetonitrile (54 : 16 : 30, v/v/v with pH adjusted to 2.5 using phosphoric acid (85%. The LOD and LOQ for Anthracycline derivate were found to be 0.047 and 0.155 μg/mL, respectively. The method validation confirmed the method provides acceptable degree of selectivity, linearity, accuracy, and precision for the intended purposes.

  13. Heat exchanger cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatewood, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    A survey covers the various types of heat-exchange equipment that is cleaned routinely in fossil-fired generating plants, the hydrocarbon-processing industry, pulp and paper mills, and other industries; the various types, sources, and adverse effects of deposits in heat-exchange equipment; some details of the actual procedures for high-pressure water jetting and chemical cleaning of some specific pieces of equipment, including nuclear steam generators. (DN)

  14. Green Cleaning Label Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balek, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Green cleaning plays a significant and supportive role in helping education institutions meet their sustainability goals. However, identifying cleaning products, supplies and equipment that truly are environmentally preferable can be daunting. The marketplace is inundated with products and services purporting to be "green" or environmentally…

  15. Replacement of Hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) -225 Solvent for Cleaning and Verification Sampling of NASA Propulsion Oxygen Systems Hardware, Ground Support Equipment, and Associated Test Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Mark A.; Lowrey, Nikki M.

    2015-01-01

    Since the 1990's, when the Class I Ozone Depleting Substance (ODS) chlorofluorocarbon-113 (CFC-113) was banned, NASA's rocket propulsion test facilities at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Stennis Space Center (SSC) have relied upon hydrochlorofluorocarbon-225 (HCFC-225) to safely clean and verify the cleanliness of large scale propulsion oxygen systems. Effective January 1, 2015, the production, import, export, and new use of HCFC-225, a Class II ODS, was prohibited by the Clean Air Act. In 2012 through 2014, leveraging resources from both the NASA Rocket Propulsion Test Program and the Defense Logistics Agency - Aviation Hazardous Minimization and Green Products Branch, test labs at MSFC, SSC, and Johnson Space Center's White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) collaborated to seek out, test, and qualify a replacement for HCFC-225 that is both an effective cleaner and safe for use with oxygen systems. Candidate solvents were selected and a test plan was developed following the guidelines of ASTM G127, Standard Guide for the Selection of Cleaning Agents for Oxygen Systems. Solvents were evaluated for materials compatibility, oxygen compatibility, cleaning effectiveness, and suitability for use in cleanliness verification and field cleaning operations. Two solvents were determined to be acceptable for cleaning oxygen systems and one was chosen for implementation at NASA's rocket propulsion test facilities. The test program and results are summarized. This project also demonstrated the benefits of cross-agency collaboration in a time of limited resources.

  16. Determination of the worst case for cleaning validation of equipment used in the radiopharmaceutical production of lyophilized reagents for {sup 99m}Tc labelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porto, Luciana Valeria Ferrari Machado; Fukumori, Neuza Taeko Okasaki; Matsuda, Margareth Mie Nakamura, E-mail: luciana.porto@anvisa.gov.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Radiofarmacia

    2016-01-15

    Cleaning validation, a requirement of the current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMP) for Drugs, consists of documented evidence that cleaning procedures are capable of removing residues to predetermined acceptance levels. This report describes a strategy for the selection of the worst case product for the production of lyophilized reagents (LRs) for labeling with {sup 99m}Tc from the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/Sao Paulo). The strategy is based on the calculation of a 'worst case index' that incorporates information about drug solubility, cleaning difficulty, and occupancy rate in the production line. It allowed a reduction in the required number of validations considering the possible manufacturing flow of a given product and the subsequent flow, thus facilitating the process by reducing operation time and cost. The products identified as 'worst case' were LRs PUL-TEC and MIBI-TEC. (author). (author)

  17. Determination of the worst case for cleaning validation of equipment used in the radiopharmaceutical production of lyophilized reagents for 99mTc labelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porto, Luciana Valeria Ferrari Machado; Fukumori, Neuza Taeko Okasaki; Matsuda, Margareth Mie Nakamura

    2016-01-01

    Cleaning validation, a requirement of the current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMP) for Drugs, consists of documented evidence that cleaning procedures are capable of removing residues to predetermined acceptance levels. This report describes a strategy for the selection of the worst case product for the production of lyophilized reagents (LRs) for labeling with 99m Tc from the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/Sao Paulo). The strategy is based on the calculation of a 'worst case index' that incorporates information about drug solubility, cleaning difficulty, and occupancy rate in the production line. It allowed a reduction in the required number of validations considering the possible manufacturing flow of a given product and the subsequent flow, thus facilitating the process by reducing operation time and cost. The products identified as 'worst case' were LRs PUL-TEC and MIBI-TEC. (author). (author)

  18. Plasma Cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintze, Paul E.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Kennedy Space Center has developed two solvent-free precision cleaning techniques: plasma cleaning and supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2), that has equal performance, cost parity, and no environmental liability, as compared to existing solvent cleaning methods.

  19. Implementation of measurement methods over the process of cleaning and disinfection of cooling equipment and dispensing of beer in keg of type 'Fast Chiller', installed at points of sale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matus Ramirez, Adrian Francisco

    2014-01-01

    The Cerveceria de Costa Rica has launched a project to improve the controls over the process of cleaning and disinfection of dispensing equipments in keg beer of type 'fast chiller' installed at points of sale. The development of some methods have been used to verify the effectiveness of the procedure. The study of the initial situation of the company has been the starting point of the project. One study, updating and summarizing has performed of maintenance manual used by technicians responsible for performing cleaning of equipments. The selection and evaluation at laboratory level has been made of the container used to hold 30 mL dose of disinfectant with which the equipments maintenance is performed. Additional controls have been specifically established to ensure food quality CO 2 that was used to dislodge the keg beer. A specification sheet has been prepared containing the necessary parameters to product quality is preserved by contact with the gas. A method of reception of cylinders in the plant has been standardized to ensure that they meet specifications. The most important phase of the project has been the implementation of the use of bioluminescence tests, to determine whether the process of cleaning and disinfection has been effective. The critical control points have been selected and standardized for testing the detection of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), then the training of personnel. A number of documents and specifications have been standardized in different control procedures, a specification sheet of ingredient for CO 2 and different registers that are expected to establish an effective control mechanism to ensure customer satisfaction by consuming a quality beverage. Monitor the records that are generated has been the recommendation to ensure that all outlets is served a product without alterations by contamination present in the dispensing system. (author) [es

  20. CV equipment responsibilities

    CERN Document Server

    Pirollet, B

    2008-01-01

    This document describes the limits of the responsibilities of the TS/CV for fire fighting equipment at the LHC. The various interfaces, providers and users of the water supply systems and clean water raising systems are described.

  1. Clean data

    CERN Document Server

    Squire, Megan

    2015-01-01

    If you are a data scientist of any level, beginners included, and interested in cleaning up your data, this is the book for you! Experience with Python or PHP is assumed, but no previous knowledge of data cleaning is needed.

  2. Study on applicability of evaluation model of manpower needs for dismantling of equipments in FUGEN-2. Preparation and clean-up process in 3rd/4th feedwater heater room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibahara, Yuji; Izumi, Masanori; Nanko, Takashi; Tachibana, Mitsuo

    2011-06-01

    Manpower needs for the preparation and clean-up process on the dismantling of equipments in FUGEN 3rd/4th feedwater heater room conducted in 2008 were calculated with the management data evaluation system: PRODIA Code, and it was inspected whether a conventional evaluation model had applicability for large nuclear facilities such as FUGEN or not. It was confirmed that the conventional evaluation model had no applicability for FUGEN causing by the difference in the plant scale between JPDR and FUGEN bringing expansion of working area. The difference between the actual data and the calculated value was improved by reviewing of the evaluation model, and this reviewing process also brought a new evaluation model. (author)

  3. Environmental cleaning and disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traverse, Michelle; Aceto, Helen

    2015-03-01

    The guidelines in this article provide veterinarians, veterinary technicians, and veterinary health care workers with an overview of evidence-based recommendations for the best practices associated with environmental cleaning and disinfection of a veterinary clinic that deals with small animals. Hospital-associated infections and the control and prevention programs necessary to alleviate them are addressed from an environmental perspective. Measures of hospital cleaning and disinfection include understanding mechanisms and types of contamination in veterinary settings, recognizing areas of potential concern, addressing appropriate decontamination techniques and selection of disinfectants, the management of potentially contaminated equipment, laundry, and waste management, and environmental surveillance strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Manometria esofágica: limpeza e desinfecção do equipamento com glutaraldeído. Protocolo do Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, RS Esophageal manometry: equipment cleaning and disinfection with glutaraldehyde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana MÜLLER

    2001-10-01

    intended to prevent cross infections. As the endoscope the esophageal manometry catheters are considered as semicritical materials and must be free of microrganisms. Aim - To standardize the esophageal manometry materials cleaning and disinfection process to guarantee the safety of patients when reusing semicritical materials. It was based on international protocols and according to recommendations of the Hospital Infection Control Commission of the "Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre", Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. Materials and Methods - Enzymatic detergent was used for catheter cleaning, followed by immersion with 2% glutaraldehyde solution during 20 minutes for high-level disinfection. The water reservatory was kept clean and dry to prevent microorganisms proliferation. Conclusions: The high level disinfection with 2% glutaraldehyde, preceded by enzymatic detergent cleaning, is a safe and simple technique that avoids cross infection in the esophageal manometry equipment. This care must be taken after each manometric procedure. The transducers must be resterilized in ethylene oxide. The professionals of this area must work in concordance with the Hospital Infection Control Commission, being acquainted with the country laws and regulations and keeping sterilizing process and materials updated.

  5. Mixing systems for wet and dry plumes and cleaning equipment for the heat exchangers of the dry section. Two indispensible components of an effective and safe hybrid cooling tower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alt, W.

    1990-01-01

    At first glance, the hybrid cooling tower seems to be an ingenious combination of the well known components of an evaporative cooling tower and a dry cooling tower. The calculation of the air mass flows for both the wet and dry sections required to achieve an invisible plume does not represent an unsolvable problem to the engineer experienced in thermodynamics. The same also applies to the dimensioning of the heat exchangers and cooling fills. The hybrid cooling tower requires a well designed mixing system in order to ideally mix, the dry plume into the wet plume. If the cooling tower proves its efficiency during commissioning it is important that the ratio of the performance of the wet section to that of the dry section be maintained also in the long term. The performance of the fill in a wet cooling tower is consistently stable. Dirt deposits can form very quickly on the inner and outer surfaces of the heat exchangers of the dry section. In this case the thermal resistance increases rapidly. The respective performance of the wet and dry sections is then no longer balanced and the invisibility of the plume is no longer assured. This can be avoided by providing appropriate cleaning equipment

  6. 40 CFR 63.744 - Standards: Cleaning operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... system with equivalent emission control. (e) Exempt cleaning operations. The following cleaning...) Cleaning of aircraft and ground support equipment fluid systems that are exposed to the fluid, including... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards: Cleaning operations. 63.744...

  7. 49 CFR 230.74 - Time of cleaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Tenders Brake and Signal Equipment § 230.74 Time of cleaning. All valves in the air brake system, including related dirt collectors and filters, shall be cleaned and tested in accordance with accepted brake...

  8. Cleaning Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpton, James L.

    This curriculum guide provides cleaning services instructional materials for a ninth- and tenth-grade Coordinated Vocational Education and Training: Home and Community Services program. It includes 2 sections and 11 instructional units. Each unit of instruction consists of eight basic components: performance objectives, teacher activities,…

  9. Gas plant cleaning case history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, B

    1971-03-22

    Basic steps to be taken before using any cleaning method are select a responsible group and give it full responsibility; know the problem, what type of fouling, lab samples, amount of material, time and cost; sell the idea to management; maintain the cleaning equipment; and follow up each cleaning operation. These principles have been applied to advantage in the amine contractor at Taylor, a vessel 60 ft high with 78-in. OD, containing carbon steel deck trays with stainless steel caps. The original attempt to clean with wire scrapers manually involved much lost time and several crews. There was limited space in the tray vessels, design created areas difficult to clean, working conditions were unpleasant, equipment downtime was extended, labor cost was high, and the final result was not satisfactory. Chemical cleaning was substituted, preceded by a water wash. Five hours of caustic wash with a 3% solution at 170$F were followed by a water wash, an acid wash, 1-hr neutralization with a weak soda ash solution, and finally passivation to eliminate iron oxide. For the acid wash, sulfamic acid was found best, in 10% concentration for 4 hr. Cascading was most economical, but flooding has been employed sometimes at 2-1/2 times the cost, to reach all the dark corners.

  10. Clean cars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piffaretti, M.

    2008-07-01

    This well-illustrated presentation made at the Swiss 2008 research conference on traffic by the Protoscar company takes a look at research, design, engineering and communication topics in the area of 'clean cars'. The present situation with electrically driven and hybrid-drive cars is reviewed and the chances and problems of the present-day vehicles are examined. New developments and a number of vehicles that should be on the market in the period from 2012 to 2015 are presented. Also, 'clean' specialist vehicles such as trucks and buses are reviewed. Battery systems and associated problems and new developments are looked at. The promotion scheme in Mendrisio, Switzerland is reviewed. Bottom-up and top-down approaches are discussed and future market developments are looked at, as are promotional activities in various countries.

  11. Portable sandblaster cleans small areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severin, H. J.

    1966-01-01

    Portable sandblasting unit rapidly and effectively cleans localized areas on a metal surface. The unit incorporates a bellows enclosure, masking plate, sand container, and used sand accummulator connected to a vacuum system. The bellows is equipped with an inspection window and light for observation of the sanding operation.

  12. Cleaning of boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rautio, T.; Alaverronen, M.; Lohva, K.; Teivaala, V.

    2004-09-01

    In terms of long-term safety it is a risk that the boreholes can eventually function as short-circuits between the repository and ground surface. Therefore sealing of investigation boreholes is an important issue for the long- term safety of high-level nuclear waste repositories. In order to seal a borehole properly, the conditions of the borehole have to meet certain predetermined requirements. One of the requirements is that no instruments or materials endangering the plugging operation or the long-term function of the sealing materials, are allowed to be left in the borehole. Sometimes drilling equipment will be left in the hole or it cannot be recovered from the hole with the given constraints of time, cost and resources in spite of attempts. Additionally various measurements may be carried out in the holes after the drilling has been completed and measuring devices may get stuck in holes. Consequently cleaning of the borehole is carried out as an essential activity before sealing can be implemented. There are two common reasons identified for the drill strings to get stuck in holes. First the drill string may get stuck due to acute drilling problems. The second case is where rods are left as casing in a hole either based on the structure of the upper part of the hole or in order to support the hole. To remove the drilling or measuring equipment lost in a borehole, special techniques and professional skill must be applied. Removing measuring equipment from a hole is often demanding and time consuming work. A vital part of the cleaning operation is planning the work in advance. In order to make the plan and to select the suitable methods it is important to know the condition of the stuck material. It is also important to know the exact depth where the equipment are stuck and to have an estimate of the reasons why they have got stuck. It is also very important to know the correct dimensions of the equipment or drill string before commencing the cleaning work

  13. Worst-case study for cleaning validation of equipment in the radiopharmaceutical production of lyophilized reagents: Methodology validation of total organic carbon; Estudo do pior caso na validação de limpeza de equipamentos de produção de radiofármacos de reagentes liofilizados: validação de metodologia de carbono orgânico total

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porto, Luciana Valeria Ferrari Machado

    2015-07-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals are defined as pharmaceutical preparations containing a radionuclide in their composition, mostly intravenously administered, and therefore compliance with the principles of Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) is essential and indispensable. Cleaning validation is a requirement of the current GMP, and consists of documented evidence, which demonstrates that the cleaning procedures are able to remove residues to pre-determined acceptance levels, ensuring that no cross contamination occurs. A simplification of cleaning processes validation is accepted, and consists in choosing a product, called 'worst case', to represent the cleaning processes of all equipment of the same production area. One of the steps of cleaning validation is the establishment and validation of the analytical method to quantify the residue. The aim of this study was to establish the worst case for cleaning validation of equipment in the radiopharmaceutical production of lyophilized reagent (LR) for labeling with {sup 99m}Tc, evaluate the use of Total Organic Carbon (TOC) content as indicator of equipment cleaning used in the LR manufacture, validate the method of Non-Purgeable Organic Carbon (NPOC), and perform recovery tests with the product chosen as worst case. Worst case product's choice was based on the calculation of an index called 'Worst Case Index' (WCI), using information about drug solubility, difficulty of cleaning the equipment and occupancy rate of the products in line production. The products indicated 'worst case' was the LR MIBI-TEC. The method validation assays were performed using carbon analyser model TOC-Vwp coupled to an autosampler model ASI-V, both from Shimadzu®, controlled by TOC Control-V software. It was used the direct method for NPOC quantification. The parameters evaluated in the validation method were: system suitability, robustness, linearity, detection limit (DL) and quantification limit (QL), precision

  14. Cleaning of Sodium in the Cold Trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byung Ho; Jeong, Ji Young; Kim, Jong Man; Choi, Byung Hae; Nam, Ho Yun

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of a cleaning process is to remove the residual sodium adhering to the component walls once it has been properly drained. It is necessary to clean and decontaminate a component, especially the large components of the primary coolant system; such as the intermediate heat exchangers and the primary pump. Improper and inadequate cleaning has in a number of cases resulted in problems in the storage, handling, and reuse of components. Several types of failures due to improper cleaning procedures have been defined in the past. Inadequate and incomplete removal of sodium results in residues which may contain metallic sodium and alkaline compounds such as sodium hydroxide, sodium oxide, sodium carbonate, and various types of alcoholates. Reinsertion of components containing these compounds into a high-temperature sodium system can result in either the intergranular penetration characteristic of a high- oxygen sodium or an accelerated corrosion due to oxygen. The methods used for cleaning sodium equipment depend on the condition and types of equipment to be cleaned and whether the equipment is to be reused. Cleaning methods are needed that will avoid a deleterious local overheating, material surface degradation or deposits, chemical, physical, or mechanical damage, and external effects. This paper discusses a steam-nitrogen gas cleaning method for the routine applications that permits the reuse of the cold trap in sodium

  15. Efficient methods of piping cleaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Vladimir Aleksandrovich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article contains the analysis of the efficient methods of piping cleaning of water supply and sanitation systems. Special attention is paid to the ice cleaning method, in course of which biological foil and various mineral and organic deposits are removed due to the ice crust buildup on the inner surface of water supply and drainage pipes. These impurities are responsible for the deterioration of the organoleptic properties of the transported drinking water or narrowing cross-section of drainage pipes. The co-authors emphasize that the use of ice compared to other methods of pipe cleaning has a number of advantages due to the relative simplicity and cheapness of the process, economical efficiency and lack of environmental risk. The equipment for performing ice cleaning is presented, its technological options, terms of cleansing operations, as well as the volumes of disposed pollution per unit length of the water supply and drainage pipelines. It is noted that ice cleaning requires careful planning in the process of cooking ice and in the process of its supply in the pipe. There are specific requirements to its quality. In particular, when you clean drinking water system the ice applied should be hygienically clean and meet sanitary requirements.In pilot projects, in particular, quantitative and qualitative analysis of sediments adsorbed by ice is conducted, as well as temperature and the duration of the process. The degree of pollution of the pipeline was estimated by the volume of the remote sediment on 1 km of pipeline. Cleaning pipelines using ice can be considered one of the methods of trenchless technologies, being a significant alternative to traditional methods of cleaning the pipes. The method can be applied in urban pipeline systems of drinking water supply for the diameters of 100—600 mm, and also to diversion collectors. In the world today 450 km of pipelines are subject to ice cleaning method.Ice cleaning method is simple

  16. Clean Cities Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-01-01

    This fact sheet explains the Clean Cities Program and provides contact information for all coalitions and regional offices. It answers key questions such as: What is the Clean Cities Program? What are alternative fuels? How does the Clean Cities Program work? What sort of assistance does Clean Cities offer? What has Clean Cities accomplished? What is Clean Cities International? and Where can I find more information?

  17. Method of cleaning alkaline metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, Yukio; Naito, Kesahiro; Iizawa, Katsuyuki; Nakasuji, Takashi

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent scattering of used sodium and aqueous alkaline solution when cleaning used sodium and metallic sodium adhering to equipment with an aqueous alkaline solution. Method: A sodium treating container is filled with an aqueous alkaline solution, and stainless steel gauze is sunk in the container. Equipment to be cleaned such as equipment with sodium adhering to it are retained under the gauze and are thus cleaned. On the other hand, the surface of the aqueous alkaline solution is covered with a fluid paraffin liquid covering material. Thus, the hydrogen produced by the reaction of the sodium and the aqueous alkaline solution will float up, pass through the liquid covering material and be discharged. The sodium will pass through the gauze and float upwardly while reacting with the aqueous alkaline solution in a partic ulate state to the boundary between the aqueous alkaline solution and up to the covering material, and thus the theratment reaction will continue. Thus, the cover material prevents the sodium and the aqueous alkaline solution from scattering. (Kamimura, M.)

  18. Optimization of Ultrasonic Fabric Cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hand, T.E.

    1998-05-13

    The fundamental purpose of this project was to research and develop a process that would reduce the cost and improve the environmental efficiency of the present dry-cleaning industry. This second phase of research (see report KCP-94-1006 for information gathered during the first phase) was intended to allow the optimal integration of all factors of ultrasonic fabric cleaning. For this phase, Garment Care performed an extensive literature search and gathered data from other researchers worldwide. The Garment Care-AlliedSignal team developed the requirements for a prototype cleaning tank for studies and acquired that tank and the additional equipment required to use it properly. Garment Care and AlliedSignal acquired the transducers and generators from Surftran Martin-Walter in Sterling Heights, Michigan. Amway's Kelly Haley developed the test protocol, supplied hundreds of test swatches, gathered the data on the swatches before and after the tests, assisted with the cleaning tests, and prepared the final analysis of the results. AlliedSignal personnel, in conjunction with Amway and Garment Care staff, performed all the tests. Additional planning is under way for future testing by outside research facilities. The final results indicated repeatable performance and good results for single layered fabric swatches. Swatches that were cleaned as a ''sandwich,'' that is, three or more layers.

  19. Performances in Tank Cleaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanel-Viorel Panaitescu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available There are several operations which must do to maximize the performance of tank cleaning. The new advanced technologies in tank cleaning have raised the standards in marine areas. There are many ways to realise optimal cleaning efficiency for different tanks. The evaluation of tank cleaning options means to start with audit of operations: how many tanks require cleaning, are there obstructions in tanks (e.g. agitators, mixers, what residue needs to be removed, are cleaning agents required or is water sufficient, what methods can used for tank cleaning. After these steps, must be verify the results and ensure that the best cleaning values can be achieved in terms of accuracy and reliability. Technology advancements have made it easier to remove stubborn residues, shorten cleaning cycle times and achieve higher levels of automation. In this paper are presented the performances in tank cleaning in accordance with legislation in force. If tank cleaning technologies are effective, then operating costs are minimal.

  20. 消毒供应中心设置总质检班对物品清洗消毒灭菌质量的影响%Effect of a general quality inspection group on quality of cleaning, disinfection,and sterilization of medical equipment in central sterile supply department

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱云娟; 刘经纬; 朱玉华; 周美玲

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨消毒供应中心设立总质检班次对提高各种污染物品清洗和灭菌质量的作用.方法 2009年10月始重新调整班次职责,设置专职总质检班,依据卫生部对消毒供应中心清洗消毒灭菌质量的规定,建立“日常监测记录表”对污染器械、物品清洗质量进行监测并记录,以确保清洗、消毒、灭菌各环节的工作质量,为全院提供合格的无菌产品.结果 2009年10月至2012年3月设立总质检班后污染器械清洗不合格数下降;无菌物品采样细菌培养均为无菌生长,100%合格.结论 总质检班护士每日实行常态化检查督促,及时发现并纠正清洗环节的问题,协助护士长做好难点、弱点、重点的质量管理,能在第一时间纠正偏差,使消毒供应中心器械清洗工作质量得以及时有效的持续改进.%Objective To explore the effect of a general quality inspection group on quality of cleaning,disinfection,and sterilization of medical equipment in central sterile supply department (CSSD).Methods In accordance with Ministry of Health,we reorganized the responsibilities of working groups and assigned a specific general quality inspection group in October 2009.The group formed a daily checking table and were designated to inspect and track down the cleaning process of contaminated equipment and articles,thereby ensuring appropriate cleaning,disinfection and sterilization to provide qualified sterile products for the hospital.Results Numbers of unqualified equipment and articles after cleaning enjoyed a downward trend from October 2009 through March 2012.Bacterial cultures found no germs grew in samples of sterile products.All the equipment and articles that went through processing in CSSD were qualified.Conclusion The general quality inspection group made regular checking and inspection a daily routine,which corrected problems in cleaning timely and helped the head nurse to manage the thorny points,the blind sides

  1. 40 CFR 63.463 - Batch vapor and in-line cleaning machine standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... (3) Each cleaning machine shall have an automated parts handling system capable of moving parts or... of parts through removal of cleaned parts. (4) Each vapor cleaning machine shall be equipped with a...) and appendix A to this part. (2) Each owner or operator of a batch vapor cleaning machine with a...

  2. Equipment considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Trace or ultratrace analyses require that the HPLC equipment used, including the detector, be optimal for such determinations. HPLC detectors are discussed at length in Chapter 4; discussion here is limited to the rest of the equipment. In general, commercial equipment is adequate for trace analysis; however, as the authors approach ultratrace analysis, it becomes very important to examine the equipment thoroughly and optimize it, where possible. For this reason they will review the equipment commonly used in HPLC and discuss the optimization steps. Detectability in HPLC is influenced by two factors (1): (a) baseline noise or other interferences that lead to errors in assigning the baseline absorbance; (b) peak width. 87 refs

  3. Chemical cleaning, decontamination and corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadiyar, H.S.; Das Chintamani; Gaonkar, K.B.

    1991-01-01

    Chemical cleaning of process equipments and pipings in chemical/petrochemical industries is necessitated for improving operation, for preventing premature failures and for avoiding contamination. In developing a chemical formulation for cleaning equipments, the important aspects to be considered include (i) effective removal of corrosion products and scales, (ii) minimum corrosion of the base metal, (iii) easy to handle chemicals and (iv) economic viability. As on date, a wide variety of chemical formulations are available, many of them are either proprietory or patented. For evolving an effective formulation, knowledge of the oxides of various metals and alloys on the one hand and acid concentration, complexing agents and inhibitors to be incorporated on the other, is quite essential. Organic acids like citric acid, acetic acid and formic acid are more popular ones, often used with EDTA for effective removal of corrosion products from ferrous components. The report enumerates some of the concepts in developing effective formulations for chemical cleaning of carbon steel components and further, makes an attempt to suggest simple formulations to be developed for chemical decontamination. (author). 6 refs., 3 fi gs., 4 tabs

  4. WWW expert system on producer gas cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schouten, E.J.; Lammers, G.; Beenackers, A.A.C.M. [University of Groningen (Netherlands)

    1999-07-01

    The University of Groningen (RUG) has developed an expert system on cleaning of biomass producer gas. This work was carried out in close co-operation with the Biomass Technology Group B.V. (BTG) in Enschede, The Netherlands within the framework of the EC supported JOR3-CT95-0084 project. The expert system was developed as a tool for the designer-engineer of downstream gas cleaning equipment and consists of an information package and a flowsheet package. The packages are integrated in a client/server system. The flowsheeting package of the expert system has been designed for the evaluation of different gas cleaning methods. The system contains a number of possible gas cleaning devices such as: cyclone, fabric filter, ceramic filter, venturi scrubber and catalytic cracker. The user can select up to five cleaning steps in an arbitrary order for his specific gas cleaning problem. After specification of the required design parameters, the system calculates the main design characteristics of the cleaning device. The information package is a collection of HTML{sup TM} files. It contains a large amount of information, tips, experience data, literature references and hyperlinks to other interesting Internet sites. This information is arranged per cleaning device. (orig.)

  5. Rudimentary Cleaning Compared to Level 300A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpin, Christina Y. Pina; Stoltzfus, Joel

    2012-01-01

    A study was done to characterize the cleanliness level achievable when using a rudimentary cleaning process, and results were compared to JPR 5322.1G Level 300A. While it is not ideal to clean in a shop environment, some situations (e.g., field combat operations) require oxygen system hardware to be maintained and cleaned to prevent a fire hazard, even though it cannot be sent back to a precision cleaning facility. This study measured the effectiveness of basic shop cleaning. Initially, three items representing parts of an oxygen system were contaminated: a metal plate, valve body, and metal oxygen bottle. The contaminants chosen were those most likely to be introduced to the system during normal use: oil, lubricant, metal shavings/powder, sand, fingerprints, tape, lip balm, and hand lotion. The cleaning process used hot water, soap, various brushes, gaseous nitrogen, water nozzle, plastic trays, scouring pads, and a controlled shop environment. Test subjects were classified into three groups: technical professionals having an appreciation for oxygen hazards; professional precision cleaners; and a group with no previous professional knowledge of oxygen or precision cleaning. Three test subjects were in each group, and each was provided with standard cleaning equipment, a cleaning procedure, and one of each of the three test items to clean. The results indicated that the achievable cleanliness level was independent of the technical knowledge or proficiency of the personnel cleaning the items. Results also showed that achieving a Level 300 particle count was more difficult than achieving a Level A nonvolatile residue amount.

  6. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... has been rented. This feature is not available right now. Please try again later. Published on May ... 34 How The Clean Hands - Safe Hands System Works - Duration: 3:38. Clean Hands-Safe Hands 5, ...

  7. Chemical cleaning review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dow, B.L.; Thomas, R.C.

    1995-01-01

    Three main chemical processes for cleaning steam generators have evolved from the early work of the industry. Of the more than 50 chemical cleanings carried out to date most have been considered a success by the utilities performing them. (author)

  8. What is Clean Cities? October 2011 (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-10-01

    Brochure describes the Clean Cities program and includes the contact information for its 85 coalitions. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Vehicle Technologies Program (VTP), Clean Cities is a government-industry partnership that reduces petroleum consumption in the transportation sector. Clean Cities contributes to the energy, environmental, and economic security of the United States by supporting local decisions to reduce our dependence on imported petroleum. Established in 1993 in response to the Energy Policy Act (EPAct) of 1992, the partnership provides tools and resources for voluntary, community-centered programs to reduce consumption of petroleum-based fuels. In nearly 100 coalitions, government agencies and private companies voluntarily come together under the umbrella of Clean Cities. The partnership helps all parties identify mutual interests and meet the objectives of reducing the use of petroleum, developing regional economic opportunities, and improving air quality. Clean Cities deploys technologies and practices developed by VTP. These include idle-reduction equipment, electric-drive vehicles, fuel economy measures, and renewable and alternative fuels, such as natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas (propane), electricity, hydrogen, biofuels, and biogas. Idle-reduction equipment is targeted primarily to buses and heavy-duty trucks, which use more than 2 billion gallons of fuel every year in the United States while idling. Clean Cities fuel economy measures include public education on vehicle choice and fuel-efficient driving practices.

  9. 17th DOE nuclear air cleaning conference: proceedings. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First, M.W.

    1983-02-01

    Volume 2 contains papers presented at the following sessions: adsorption; noble gas treatment; personnel education and training; filtration and filter testing; measurement and instrumentation; air cleaning equipment response to accident related stress; containment venting air cleaning; and an open end session. Twenty-eight papers were indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. Ten papers had been entered earlier

  10. 17th DOE nuclear air cleaning conference: proceedings. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    First, M.W. (ed.)

    1983-02-01

    Volume 2 contains papers presented at the following sessions: adsorption; noble gas treatment; personnel education and training; filtration and filter testing; measurement and instrumentation; air cleaning equipment response to accident related stress; containment venting air cleaning; and an open end session. Twenty-eight papers were indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. Ten papers had been entered earlier.

  11. Fiscal 1997 survey report. Subtask 5 (hydrogen utilization worldwide clean energy system technology) (WE-NET) (development of hydrogen transportation/storage technology. 3. development of liquid hydrogen storage equipment); 1997 nendo seika hokokusho. Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) subtask 5 suiso yuso chozo gijutsu no kaihatsu dai 3 hen ekitai suiso chozo setsubi no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    For the WE-NET development of large capacity liquid hydrogen storage technology, a study has been continued with a target of 50000 m{sup 3} storage development. As to the result of conceptual design and various types of the thermal insulating structure, to confirm the performance, studies were made on the thermal insulating performance test and the strength test on thermal insulating materials to be started in fiscal 1998. The large-capacity common testing equipment for thermal insulation performance to be used in and after fiscal 1998 was fabricated, and the basic performance of the equipment was confirmed by the preliminary cooling test. Further, the test pieces simulated of various thermal insulating structures were designed to study the thermal insulation performance, reformation during the test, strength, etc. It is required to solve problems such as weight reduction of test pieces, prevention of reformation, retention of vacuum, etc. In the test on strength of thermal insulating materials, a test is conducted to confirm strength of thermal insulating materials at temperatures of hydrogen by the extremely low temperature strength test equipment. The studies on test pieces to be used were summed up including the items to be paid attention to during the test because the test situation is different from that in testing metal materials. Since hydrogen is a very flammable gas, much attention should be paid to safety during the test. 13 refs., 63 figs., 32 tabs.

  12. Clean Energy Infrastructure Educational Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallinan, Kevin; Menart, James; Gilbert, Robert

    2012-08-31

    new research in the renewable and clean energy area. The educational outreach provided as a result of the grant included activities to introduce renewable and clean energy design projects into the Mechanical and Materials Engineering senior design class, the development of a geothermal energy demonstration unit, and the development of renewable energy learning modules for high school students. Finally, this grant supported curriculum development by Sinclair Community College for seven new courses and acquisition of necessary related instrumentation and laboratory equipment. These new courses, EGV 1201 Weatherization Training, EGV 1251 Introduction to Energy Management Principles, EGV 2301 Commercial and Industrial Assessment, EGV 2351 LEED Green Associate Exam Preparation, EGV 2251 Energy Control Strategies, EGV Solar Photovoltaic Design and Installation, and EGV Solar Thermal Systems, enable Sinclair to offer complete Energy Technology Certificate and an Energy Management Degree programs. To date, 151 students have completed or are currently registered in one of the seven courses developed through this grant. With the increasing interest in the Energy Management Degree program, Sinclair has begun the procedure to have the program approved by the Ohio Board of Regents.

  13. Clean Energy Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    For the past several years, the IEA and others have been calling for a clean energy revolution to achieve global energy security, economic growth and climate change goals. This report analyses for the first time progress in global clean energy technology deployment against the pathways that are needed to achieve these goals. It provides an overview of technology deployment status, key policy developments and public spending on RDD&D of clean energy technologies.

  14. Ultra-clean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hergenroether, K.

    1987-01-01

    No other method guarantees such a thorough cleaning of contaminated materials' surfaces. Only ultrasound can reach those cavities crevices and corners where any manual cleaning fails. Furthermore there is no cumbersome and time-consuming manual decontamination which often has to be carried out in glove boxes and hot cells. Depending on the design the cleaning effect can reach from removing adhering dirt particles to removing complete surface layers. (orig./PW) [de

  15. 9 CFR 91.18 - Cleaning and disinfection of transport carriers for export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cleaning and disinfection of transport....18 Cleaning and disinfection of transport carriers for export. All fittings, utensils and equipment... port. Such disinfection of halters, ropes, and similar equipment used in handling and tying of animals...

  16. How clean is clean?---How clean is needed?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hays, A.K.

    1991-01-01

    This paper will provide an overview of cleaning qualifications used in a variety of industries: from small-scale manufacturer's of precision-machined products to large-scale manufacturer's of electronics (printed wiring boards and surface mount technology) and microelectronics. Cleanliness testing techniques used in the production of precision-machined products, will be described. The on-going DOD program to obtain high-reliability electronics, through the use of military specifications for cleaning and cleanliness levels, will be reviewed. In addition, the continually changing cleanroom/materials standards of the microelectronics industry will be discussed. Finally, we will speculate on the role that new and improved analytical techniques and sensor technologies will play in the factories of the future. 4 refs., 1 tab

  17. Carbon pricing comes clean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Wit, Elisa

    2011-01-01

    Together with the Clean Energy Bill, the implications of the Australian Federal Government's climate change legislative package are far reaching. Norton Rose gives business a heads-up in this breakdown of the draft legislation underpinning the carbon pricing and clean energy scheme. It is a summary of Norton Rose's full analysis.

  18. Mechanical cleaning of graphene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, A.M.; Calado, V.E.; Barreiro, A.; Watanabe, K.; Taniguchi, T.; Vandersypen, L.M.K.

    2012-01-01

    Contamination of graphene due to residues from nanofabrication often introduces background doping and reduces electron mobility. For samples of high electronic quality, post-lithography cleaning treatments are therefore needed. We report that mechanical cleaning based on contact mode atomic force

  19. Laser surface cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freiwald, J.G.; Freiwald, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this work is a laboratory demonstration that red-lead primer and two-part epoxy paints can be stripped from concrete and metal surfaces using surface cleaning systems based on pulsed-repetition CO 2 lasers. The three goals are to: (1) demonstrate coatings removal, including surface pore cleaning; (2) demonstrate that there is negligible release of ablated contaminants to the environment; and (3) demonstrate that the process will generate negligible amounts of additional waste compared to competing technologies. Phase 1 involved site visits to RMI and Fernald to assess the cleaning issues for buildings and parts. In addition, Phase 1 included detailed designs of a more powerful system for industrial cleaning rates, including laser, articulating optics, ablated-material capture suction nozzle attached to a horizontal raster scanner for floor cleaning, and filtration system. Some concept development is also being done for using robots, and for parts cleaning. In Phase 2 a transportable 6 kW system will be built and tested, with a horizontal surface scanner for cleaning paint from floors. The laboratory tests will again be instrumented. Some concept development will continue for using robots, and for parts cleaning. This report describes Phase 1 results

  20. Fiscal 1997 survey report. Subtask 5 (hydrogen utilization worldwide clean energy system technology) (WE-NET) (development of hydrogen transportation/storage technology. 4. Development of various kinds of common equipment); 1997 nendo seika hokokusho. Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) subtask 5 suiso yuso chozo gijutsu no kaihatsu dai 4 hen kakushu kyotsu kikirui no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    For the WE-NET development of a large-capacity liquid hydrogen pump, a magnetic bearing was studied. The test piece is a 1/3 scale model of the actual equipment, in which two radial bearings and one thrust were combined, and the impeller and turbine blade were distributed in both ends. Ti was used to the rotor and turbine, permalloy to the electromagnet, and aluminum to the case. The flotation control is made by 5-axial control, and each control coefficient was so selected that rigid body primary and secondary modes can enter into the safe domain in control. Further, as the position sensor used for control, the one used to the liquid hydrogen turbo pump of the rocket engine was made opposite and was used with the temperature characteristic compensated. The test was conducted under the extremely low temperature environment of liquid nitrogen/hydrogen temperature. It was confirmed that the sensor and electromagnet work favorably. The rotation experiment was carried out under the extremely low temperature environment and enabled the rotation up to approximately 19000 rpm. The dangerous speed of the axial rigid body is in around 6000 to 10000 rpm, and it was possible to pass this. Further improvement will be made by the tuning of control. 70 figs., 8 tabs.

  1. Improving the hygienic design of closed equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Alan; Jensen, Bo Boye Busk

    2005-01-01

    Maintenance of proper hygiene in closed process equipment is in many ways a complex task. The interaction between the physical design and the nature of fluid flow is of main concern. During cleaning the main performance of the flow is to bring cleaning agents in the right doses to all parts of th...... computational fluid dynamics models to be able to predict the cleaning efficiency in especially complex parts of process plants has excellent potentials for desktop improvements and computer pre-validation of the hygienic performance of process plants....

  2. Correlating Cleaning Thoroughness with Effectiveness and Briefly Intervening to Affect Cleaning Outcomes: How Clean Is Cleaned?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Clifford

    Full Text Available The most efficient approach to monitoring and improving cleaning outcomes remains unresolved. We sought to extend the findings of a previous study by determining whether cleaning thoroughness (dye removal correlates with cleaning efficacy (absence of molecular or cultivable biomaterial and whether one brief educational intervention improves cleaning outcomes.Before-after trial.Newly built community hospital.90 minute training refresher with surface-specific performance results.Dye removal, measured by fluorescence, and biomaterial removal and acquisition, measured with culture and culture-independent PCR-based assays, were clandestinely assessed for eight consecutive months. At this midpoint, results were presented to the cleaning staff (intervention and assessments continued for another eight consecutive months.1273 surfaces were sampled before and after terminal room cleaning. In the short-term, dye removal increased from 40.3% to 50.0% (not significant. For the entire study period, dye removal also improved but not significantly. After the intervention, the number of rooms testing positive for specific pathogenic species by culturing decreased from 55.6% to 36.6% (not significant, and those testing positive by PCR fell from 80.6% to 53.7% (P = 0.016. For nonspecific biomaterial on surfaces: a removal of cultivable Gram-negatives (GN trended toward improvement (P = 0.056; b removal of any cultivable growth was unchanged but acquisition (detection of biomaterial on post-cleaned surfaces that were contaminant-free before cleaning worsened (P = 0.017; c removal of PCR-based detection of bacterial DNA improved (P = 0.046, but acquisition worsened (P = 0.003; d cleaning thoroughness and efficacy were not correlated.At this facility, a minor intervention or minimally more aggressive cleaning may reduce pathogen-specific contamination, but not without unintended consequences.

  3. Development of S/G Lancing System for Upper Bundle Hydraulic Cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Woo Tae; Kim, Suk Tae; Hong, Sung Yull

    2005-01-01

    Steam generators of nuclear power plants are recommended to be cleaned during plant outages. Various lancing equipments are developed for the cleaning of tube sheet area of nuclear steam generators. However, no lancing system has been developed in Korea for cleaning upper bundle area of steam generators. Therefore, we developed an upper bundle cleaning system for removing sludge deposited on the tube support plates of nuclear steam generators

  4. Ductless personalized ventilation with local air cleaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalewski, Mariusz; Vesely, Michal; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2012-01-01

    An experiment with 28 human subjects was performed to examine effects of using a local air cleaning device combined with ductless personalized ventilation (DPV) on perceived air quality. Experiments were performed in a test room with displacement ventilation. The DPV at one of two desks was equip......An experiment with 28 human subjects was performed to examine effects of using a local air cleaning device combined with ductless personalized ventilation (DPV) on perceived air quality. Experiments were performed in a test room with displacement ventilation. The DPV at one of two desks...... was equipped with an activated carbon filter installed at the air intake, while the DPV at the second desk was without such a filter. The air temperature in the occupied zone (1.1 m above the floor) was 29 °C. The pollution load in the room was simulated by PVC floor covering. The subjects assessed...

  5. [Hydrotherapy equipment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsibikov, V B; Ragozin, S I; Mikheeva, L V

    1985-01-01

    A flow-chart is developed demonstrating the relation between medical and prophylactic institutions within the organizational structure of the rehabilitation system and main types of rehabilitation procedures. In order to ascertain the priority in equipping rehabilitation services with adequate hardware the special priority criterion is introduced. The highest priority is assigned to balneotherapeutic and fangotherapeutic services. Based on the operation-by-operation analysis of clinical processes related to service and performance of balneologic procedures the preliminary set of clinical devices designed for baths, basins and showers in hospitals and rehabilitation departments is defined in a generalized form.

  6. Clean coal technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslanyan, G.S.

    1993-01-01

    According to the World Energy Council (WEC), at the beginning of the next century three main energy sources - coal, nuclear power and oil will have equal share in the world's total energy supply. This forecast is also valid for the USSR which possesses more than 40% of the world's coal resources and continuously increases its coal production (more than 700 million tons of coal are processed annually in the USSR). The stringent environmental regulations, coupled with the tendency to increase the use of coal are the reasons for developing different concepts for clean coal utilization. In this paper, the potential efficiency and environmental performance of different clean coal production cycles are considered, including technologies for coal clean-up at the pre-combustion stage, advanced clean combustion methods and flue gas cleaning systems. Integrated systems, such as combined gas-steam cycle and the pressurized fluidized bed boiler combined cycle, are also discussed. The Soviet National R and D program is studying new methods for coal utilization with high environmental performance. In this context, some basic research activities in the field of clean coal technology in the USSR are considered. Development of an efficient vortex combustor, a pressurized fluidized bed gasifier, advanced gas cleaning methods based on E-beam irradiation and plasma discharge, as well as new catalytic system, are are presented. In addition, implementation of technological innovations for retrofitting and re powering of existing power plants is discussed. (author)

  7. Diamond-cleaning investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derry, T.E.

    Four parcels of diamonds which either had or had not been cleaned using the usual techniques, chiefly involving etch in molten potassium nitrate were supplied by De Beers Diamond Research Laboratories. Each parcel contained about 40 stones, amounting to about 10 carats. Half the diamonds in each parcel were cleaned by a standard procedure involving half an hours ultrasonic agitation in a 20% solution of the commercial detergent 'Contrad' which is effectively a surfactant and chelating agent. Visual comparisons by a number of observers who were not told the stones' histories, established that these diamonds generally had a more sparkling appearance after the cleaning procedure had been applied

  8. Controlling the clean room atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meeks, R.F.

    1979-01-01

    Several types of clean rooms are commonly in use. They include the conventional clean room, the horizontal laminar flow clean room, the vertical laminar flow clean room and a fourth type that incorporates ideas from the previous types and is known as a clean air bench or hood. These clean rooms are briefly described. The origin of contamination and methods for controlling the contamination are discussed

  9. Appalachian clean coal technology consortium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutz, K.; Yoon, Roe-Hoan

    1995-01-01

    The Appalachian Clean Coal Technology Consortium (ACCTC) has been established to help U.S. coal producers, particularly those in the Appalachian region, increase the production of lower-sulfur coal. The cooperative research conducted as part of the consortium activities will help utilities meet the emissions standards established by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, enhance the competitiveness of U.S. coals in the world market, create jobs in economically-depressed coal producing regions, and reduce U.S. dependence on foreign energy supplies. The research activities will be conducted in cooperation with coal companies, equipment manufacturers, and A ampersand E firms working in the Appalachian coal fields. This approach is consistent with President Clinton's initiative in establishing Regional Technology Alliances to meet regional needs through technology development in cooperation with industry. The consortium activities are complementary to the High-Efficiency Preparation program of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, but are broader in scope as they are inclusive of technology developments for both near-term and long-term applications, technology transfer, and training a highly-skilled work force

  10. Appalachian clean coal technology consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutz, K.; Yoon, Roe-Hoan [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The Appalachian Clean Coal Technology Consortium (ACCTC) has been established to help U.S. coal producers, particularly those in the Appalachian region, increase the production of lower-sulfur coal. The cooperative research conducted as part of the consortium activities will help utilities meet the emissions standards established by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, enhance the competitiveness of U.S. coals in the world market, create jobs in economically-depressed coal producing regions, and reduce U.S. dependence on foreign energy supplies. The research activities will be conducted in cooperation with coal companies, equipment manufacturers, and A&E firms working in the Appalachian coal fields. This approach is consistent with President Clinton`s initiative in establishing Regional Technology Alliances to meet regional needs through technology development in cooperation with industry. The consortium activities are complementary to the High-Efficiency Preparation program of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, but are broader in scope as they are inclusive of technology developments for both near-term and long-term applications, technology transfer, and training a highly-skilled work force.

  11. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Clean Hands Count Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Loading... Unsubscribe from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)? Cancel Unsubscribe Working... Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 65K ...

  12. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Clean Hands Count Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Loading... Unsubscribe from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)? Cancel Unsubscribe Working... Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 66K ...

  13. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to promote or encourage adherence to CDC hand hygiene recommendations. It is a component of the Clean ... aims to address myths and misperceptions about hand hygiene and empower patients to play a role in ...

  14. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... intended to promote or encourage adherence to CDC hand hygiene recommendations. It is a component of the Clean ... also aims to address myths and misperceptions about hand hygiene and empower patients to play a role in ...

  15. Clean Hands Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... intended to promote or encourage adherence to CDC hand hygiene recommendations. It is a component of the Clean ... also aims to address myths and misperceptions about hand hygiene and empower patients to play a role in ...

  16. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... reminding healthcare providers to clean their hands. See: https://www.cdc.gov/handhygiene/campa... . Comments on this ... are allowed in accordance with our comment policy: http://www.cdc.gov/SocialMedia/Tools/... This video can ...

  17. Clean Water Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent geographic terms used within the Clean Water Act (CWA). The CWA establishes the basic structure for regulating the addition of pollutants...

  18. 6 Home Cleaning Recipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... aluminum, brass, ceramics, chrome, copper, fiberglass, glass/quartz, plastic, and steel. GLASS CLEANER 1 cup vinegar 1 ... originally filled with commercial cleaning products. Instead, reuse plastic water bottles.  Always place a label on the ...

  19. Nuclear air cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellamy, R.R.

    1994-01-01

    This report briefly describes the history of the use of high- efficiency particulate air filters for air cleaning at nuclear installations in the United States and discusses future uses of such filters

  20. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... empower patients to play a role in their care by asking or reminding healthcare providers to clean ... It's in your hands - prevent sepsis in health care' A 5 May 2018 advocacy message from WHO - ...

  1. Clean Energy Finance Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    State and local governments interested in developing a financing program can use this Excel tool to support energy efficiency and clean energy improvements for large numbers of buildings within their jurisdiction.

  2. Steam cleaning device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karaki, Mikio; Muraoka, Shoichi.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To clean complicated and long objects to be cleaned having a structure like that of nuclear reactor fuel assembly. Constitution: Steams are blown from the bottom of a fuel assembly and soon condensated initially at the bottom of a vertical water tank due to water filled therein. Then, since water in the tank is warmed nearly to the saturation temperature, purified water is supplied from a injection device below to the injection device above the water tank on every device. In this way, since purified water is sprayed successively from below to above and steams are condensated in each of the places, the entire fuel assembly elongated in the vertical direction can be cleaned completely. Water in the reservoir goes upward like the steam flow and is drained together with the eliminated contaminations through an overflow pipe. After the cleaning has been completed, a main steam valve is closed and the drain valve is opened to drain water. (Kawakami, Y.)

  3. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... why Close Clean Hands Count Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Loading... Unsubscribe from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)? Cancel Unsubscribe Working... Subscribe Subscribed ...

  4. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Published on May 5, 2017 This video for healthcare providers is intended to promote or encourage adherence ... role in their care by asking or reminding healthcare providers to clean their hands. See: https://www. ...

  5. Cryogenic equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leger, L.; Javellaud, J.; Caro, C.; Gilguy, R.; Testard, O.

    1966-06-01

    The cryostats presented here were built from standard parts; this makes it possible to construct a great variety of apparatus at minimum cost. The liquid nitrogen and helium reservoirs were designed so as to reduce losses to a minimum, and so as to make the cryostats as autonomous as possible. The experimental enclosure which is generally placed in the lower part of the apparatus requires a separate study in every case. Furthermore, complete assemblies such as transfer rods, isolated traps and high vacuum valves, were designed with a similar regard for the economic aspects and for the need for standardization. This equipment thus satisfies a great variety of experimental needs; it is readily adaptable and the consumptions of helium and liquid nitrogen are very low. (authors) [fr

  6. Hot gas cleaning, a targeted project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romey, I. [University of Essen, Essen (Germany)

    1998-11-01

    Advanced hot gas cleaning systems will play a key role in future integrated combined cycle technologies. IGCC demonstration plants in operation or under construction are at present equipped with conventional wet gas scrubbing and cleaning systems. Feasibility studies for those IGCC plants have shown that the total efficiency of the processes can be improved using hot gas cleaning systems. However, this technology has not been developed and tested at a technical scale. Six well-known European industrial companies and research centres jointly worked together since January 1996 on a Targeted Project `Hot Gas Cleaning` to investigate and develop new hot gas cleaning systems for advanced clean coal power generation processes. In addition project work on chemical analysis and modelling was carried out in universities in England and Germany. The latest main findings were presented at the workshop. The main project aims are summarised as follows: to increase efficiency of advanced power generation processes; to obtain a reduction of alkalis and environmental emissions e.g. SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, CO{sub 2} and dust; and to develop the design basis for future industrial plants based on long-term operation of laboratory, pilot and demo-plants. To cover a range of possible process routes for future hot gas cleaning systems the following research programme is under investigation: removal of trace elements by different commercial and self developed sorbents; gas separation by membranes; separation of gas turbine relevant pollutants by hot filter dust and; H{sub 2}S removal and gas dedusting at high temperatures. 13 figs.

  7. Cleaning up our act: Alternatives for hazardous solvents used in cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoemaker, J.D.; Meltzer, M.; Miscovich, D.; Montoya, D.; Goodrich, P.; Blycker, G.

    1994-01-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has studied more than 70 alternative cleaners as potential replacements for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), halogenated hydrocarbons (e.g., trichloroethylene and trichloroethane), hydrocarbons (e.g., toluene and Stoddard Solvent), and volatile organic compounds (e.g., acetone, alcohols). This report summarizes LLNL`s findings after testing more than 45 proprietary formulations on bench-scale testing equipment and in more than 60 actual shops and laboratories. Cleaning applications included electronics fabrication, machine shops, optical lenses and hardware, and general cleaning. Most of the alternative cleaners are safer than the solvents previously used and many are nonhazardous, according to regulatory criteria.

  8. Cleaning up our act: Alternatives for hazardous solvents used in cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoemaker, J.D.; Meltzer, M.; Miscovich, D.; Montoya, D.; Goodrich, P.; Blycker, G.

    1994-01-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has studied more than 70 alternative cleaners as potential replacements for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), halogenated hydrocarbons (e.g., trichloroethylene and trichloroethane), hydrocarbons (e.g., toluene and Stoddard Solvent), and volatile organic compounds (e.g., acetone, alcohols). This report summarizes LLNL's findings after testing more than 45 proprietary formulations on bench-scale testing equipment and in more than 60 actual shops and laboratories. Cleaning applications included electronics fabrication, machine shops, optical lenses and hardware, and general cleaning. Most of the alternative cleaners are safer than the solvents previously used and many are nonhazardous, according to regulatory criteria

  9. Ecological effectiveness of oil spill countermeasures: how clean is clean?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    This paper with 94 references examines background levels of hydrocarbons and the difficulty of defining clean. Processes and timescales for natural cleaning, and factors affecting natural cleaning timescales are considered. Ecological advantages and disadvantages of clean-up methods are highlighted, and five case histories of oil spills are summarised. The relationships between ecological and socio-economic considerations, and the need for a net environmental benefit analysis which takes into account the advantages and disadvantages of clean-up responses and natural clean-up are discussed. A decision tree for evaluating the requirement for shore clean-up is illustrated. (UK)

  10. [Analysis and research on cleaning points of HVAC systems in public places].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiaolan; Han, Xu; Chen, Dongqing; Jin, Xin; Dai, Zizhu

    2010-03-01

    To analyze cleaning points of HVAC systems, and to provides scientific base for regulating the cleaning of HVAC systems. Based on the survey results on the cleaning situation of HVAC systems around China for the past three years, we analyzes the cleaning points of HVAC systems from various aspects, such as the major health risk factors of HVAC systems, the formulation strategy of the cleaning of HVAC systems, cleaning methods and acceptance points of the air ducts and the parts of HVAC systems, the onsite protection and individual protection, the waste treatment and the cleaning of the removed equipment, inspection of the cleaning results, video record, and the final acceptance of the cleaning. The analysis of the major health risk factors of HVAC systems and the formulation strategy of the cleaning of HVAC systems is given. The specific methods for cleaning the air ducts, machine units, air ports, coil pipes and the water cooling towers of HVAC systems, the acceptance points of HVAC systems and the requirements of the report on the final acceptance of the cleaning of HVAC systems are proposed. By the analysis of the points of the cleaning of HVAC systems and proposal of corresponding measures, this study provides the base for the scientific and regular launch of the cleaning of HVAC systems, a novel technology service, and lays a foundation for the revision of the existing cleaning regulations, which may generate technical and social benefits to some extent.

  11. Environmental cleaning resources and activities in Canadian acute care hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoutman, Dick E; Ford, B Douglas; Sopha, Keith

    2014-05-01

    Environmental cleaning interventions have increased cleaning effectiveness and reduced antibiotic-resistant organisms in hospitals. This study examined cleaning in Canadian acute care hospitals with the goal of developing strategies to improve cleaning and reduce antibiotic-resistant organism rates. Managers most responsible for environmental services (EVS) completed an extensive online survey that assessed EVS resources and cleaning practices. The response rate was 50.5%; 96 surveys were completed, representing 103 of 204 hospitals. Whereas 86.3% (82/95) of managers responsible for EVS reported their staff was adequately trained and 76.0% (73/96) that supplies and equipment budgets were sufficient, only 46.9% (45/96) reported that EVS had enough personnel to satisfactorily clean their hospital. A substantial minority (36.8%, 35/95) of EVS departments did not audit the cleaning of medical surgical patient rooms on at least a monthly basis. Cleaning audits of medical surgical patient rooms frequently included environmental marking methods in only one third (33.3%, 31/93) of hospitals and frequently included the measurement of residual bioburden in only 13.8% (13/94). There was a general need for increased and improved auditing of environmental cleaning in Canadian hospitals, and there were perceived EVS staffing deficits in the majority of hospitals. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Is dry cleaning all wet?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, M.

    1993-01-01

    Chemical solvents from dry cleaning, particularly perchloroethylene (perc), have contributed to groundwater contamination, significant levels of air pollution in and around cleaners, and chemical accumulation in food. Questions are being raised about the process of cleaning clothes with chemical, and other less toxic cleaning methods are being explored. The EPA has focused attention on the 50 year old Friedburg method of cleaning, Ecoclean, which uses no dangerous chemicals and achieves comparable results. Unfortunately, the cleaning industry is resistant to change, so cutting back on amount of clothes that need dry cleaning and making sure labels aren't exaggerating when they say dry clean only, is frequently the only consumer option now

  13. Clean utilization of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yueruem, Y.

    1992-01-01

    This volume contains 23 lectures presented at the Advanced Study Institute on 'Chemistry and Chemical Engineering of Catalytic Solid Fuel Conversion for the Production of Clean Synthetic Fuels', which was held at Akcay, Edremit, Turkey, between 21 July and August 3, 1991. Three main subjects: structure and reactivity of coal; cleaning of coal and its products, and factors affecting the environmental balance of energy usage and solutions for the future, were discussed in the Institute and these are presented under six groups in the book: Part 1. Structure and reactivity of coal; Part 2. Factors affecting environmental balance; Part 3. Pre-usage cleaning operations and processes; Part 4. Upgrading of coal liquids and gases; Part 5. Oxygen enriched processes; and Part 6. Probable future solution for energy and pollution problems. Separate abstracts have been prepared for all the lectures

  14. Clean room actuators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higuchi, Toshiro

    1987-06-01

    This report explains on the present status of the clean room actuators including the author's research results. In a clean room, there exists a possibility of dust generation, even when a direct human work is eliminated by the use of robots or automatic machines, from the machines themselves. For this, it is important to develop such clean robots and transfer/positioning mechanism that do not generate dusts, and to develop an actuator and its control technique. Topics described in the report are as follows: 1. Prevention of dust diffusion by means of sealing. 2. Elimination of mechanical contact (Linear induction motor and pneumatic float, linear motor and magnetic attraction float, linear motor and air bearing, and magnetic bearing). 3. Contactless actuator having a positioning mechanism (Use of linear step motor and rotary contactless actuator). (15 figs, 11 refs)

  15. The Clean Air Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coburn, L.L.

    1990-01-01

    The Clean Air Act amendments alter the complex laws affecting atmospheric pollution and at the same time have broad implications for energy. Specifically, the Clean Air Act amendments for the first time deal with the environmental problem of acid deposition in a way that minimizes energy and economic impacts. By relying upon a market-based system of emission trading, a least cost solution will be used to reduce sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) emissions by almost 40 percent. The emission trading system is the centerpiece of the Clean Air Act (CAA) amendments effort to resolve energy and environmental interactions in a manner that will maximize environmental solutions while minimizing energy impacts. This paper will explore how the present CAA amendments deal with the emission trading system and the likely impact of the emission trading system and the CAA amendments upon the electric power industry

  16. Pool water cleaning facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, Kazuhiro; Kinoshita, Shoichiro [Hitachi Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Asano, Takashi

    1998-05-29

    Only one system comprising a suppression poor water cleaning system (SPCU) and a filtration desalting tower (F/D) is connected for a plurality of nuclear power plants. Pipelines/valves for connecting the one system of the SPCU pump, the F/D and the plurality of nuclear power plants are disposed, and the system is used in common with the plurality of nuclear power plants. Pipelines/valves for connecting a pipeline for passing SP water to the commonly used SPCU pump and a skimmer surge tank are disposed, and fuel pool water is cooled and cleaned by the commonly used SPCU pump and the commonly used F/D. The number of SPCU pumps and the F/D facilities can be reduced, and a fuel pool water cooling operation mode and a fuel pool water cleaning operation mode which were conducted by an FPC pump so far are conducted by the SPCU pump. (N.H.)

  17. Keeping condensers clean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wicker, K.

    2006-04-15

    The humble condenser is among the biggest contributors to a steam power plant's efficiency. But although a clean condenser can provide great economic benefit, a dirty one can raise plant heat rate, resulting in large losses of generation revenue and/or unnecessarily high fuel bills. Conventional methods for cleaning fouled tubes range form chemicals to scrapers to brushes and hydro-blasters. This article compares the available options and describes how one power station, Omaha Public Power District's 600 MW North Omaha coal-fired power station, cleaned up its act. The makeup and cooling water of all its five units comes from the Missouri River. 6 figs.

  18. Medical Issues: Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Packets Equipment Pool Living With SMA Medical Issues Palliative Breathing Orthopedics Nutrition Equipment Daily Life At ... curesma.org > support & care > living with sma > medical issues > equipment Equipment Individuals with SMA often require a ...

  19. Clean Economy, Living Planet. The Race to the Top of Global Clean Energy Technology Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Slot, A.; Van den Berg, W. [Roland Berger Strategy Consultants RBSC, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-05-15

    For four years, WWF and Roland Berger have tracked developments in the global clean energy technology (cleantech) sector and ranked countries according to their cleantech sales. The 3rd annual 'Clean Economy, Living Planet' report ranks 40 countries based on the 2011 sales value of the clean energy technology products they manufacture. The report shows that the EU has lost its position to China as the leader in the fast growing global cleantech energy manufacturing sector. However, when cleantech sales are weighted as a percentage of GDP, Denmark and Germany occupied the first and third position globally. Last year the sector's global sales value rose by 10% to almost 200 billion euros, close to the scale of consumer electronics manufacturing. It is projected to overtake oil and gas equipment in the next three years.

  20. CLEANING OF FRENCH SITES

    CERN Multimedia

    Mauro Nonis

    2002-01-01

    In the last two weeks some cleaning problems have been remarked in several CERN buildings on the French part of CERN sites. This is mainly due to the start up of the new cleaning contract from the 1st July. These problems are not related to a budgetary reduction of the activity. We excuse for the malfunctions that have been created to CERN community and we assure you that we have taken all the needed measures to solve the problem in the shortest delay. Mauro Nonis (ST/FM)

  1. Semiconductor Manufacturing equipment introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Im, Jong Sun

    2001-02-01

    This book deals with semiconductor manufacturing equipment. It is comprised of nine chapters, which are manufacturing process of semiconductor device, history of semiconductor manufacturing equipment, kinds and role of semiconductor manufacturing equipment, construction and method of semiconductor manufacturing equipment, introduction of various semiconductor manufacturing equipment, spots of semiconductor manufacturing, technical elements of semiconductor manufacturing equipment, road map of technology of semiconductor manufacturing equipment and semiconductor manufacturing equipment in the 21st century.

  2. Development of clean coal and clean soil technologies using advanced agglomeration techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignasiak, B.; Ignasiak, T.; Szymocha, K.

    1990-01-01

    Three major topics are discussed in this report: (1) Upgrading of Low Rank Coals by the Agflotherm Process. Test data, procedures, equipment, etc., are described for co-upgrading of subbituminous coals and heavy oil; (2) Upgrading of Bituminous Coals by the Agflotherm Process. Experimental procedures and data, bench and pilot scale equipments, etc., for beneficiating bituminous coals are described; (3) Soil Clean-up and Hydrocarbon Waste Treatment Process. Batch and pilot plant tests are described for soil contaminated by tar refuse from manufactured gas plant sites. (VC)

  3. 21 CFR 1210.15 - Pasteurization; equipment and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pasteurization; equipment and methods. 1210.15... UNDER THE FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Inspection and Testing § 1210.15 Pasteurization; equipment and methods... into the United States shall employ adequate pasteurization machinery of a type easily cleaned and of...

  4. Cleaning of dismantled metals by electropolishing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, T.Y.; Chung, Z.J.; Lu, D.L.; Hsieh, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    A project of cleaning dismantled metals is going on at INER. The test work has been performed. Results showed that the activity decreased from 45 microSv/h to background level after 20 minutes electrolytic polishing. These cleaned metals could be reused through melting and fabricating. These metals could also be classified as BRC waste to facilitate the waste management if they can pass the identification and be admitted by the government authority. In order to achieve the planned target, some electro-decontamination facilities have been established. An automatic electropolishing facility with six cells was designed to clean the contaminated metals in plate type with dimensions less than 50 cm x 50 cm. Another automatic electropolishing facility was specially designed for treating the contaminated pipes. In addition, mobile electropolishing facilities were also established for large pieces of metal and some fixed equipment. In this cleaning project, a practical recycling and treatment method for electrolyte has been developed in order to comply with the requirement of secondary waste minimization

  5. Noncontact COS charge analysis for in-line monitoring of wet cleaning processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiafang; Juang, Min; Tai, Sung-Shan; Chen, Kuo-in; Wossen, Ejigu; Horner, Gregory

    1998-08-01

    Contamination levels in chemical cleaning equipment and wafer cleanliness in general are very critical to semiconductor manufacturers. In this work, a Keithley Instruments non contact electrical tester (Quantox) is used to measure the mobile ion (Qm) contamination in a variety of cleaning processes. Results show that photoresist strip cleaning process has a higher mobile ion concentration than standard pre-diffusion cleaning process. RCA1, RCA2 and HF solutions mapping measured by the Quantox indicates some negative static charges on the surface after cleaning. This negative field appears to assist Qm removal during wet chemical cleaning. The dependence of flatband voltage and other oxide charges on various cleaning processes has also been investigated using the Quantox. The data suggests that a dipole layer has been formed by a surface reaction during chemical cleaning.

  6. Laser-assisted cleaning

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Experiments conducted with loose contamination on metal and transparent dielectric surfaces proved conclusively the dominant role played by the absorption of the incident radiation by the surface towards the generation of the cleaning force as against the absorption in the particulates alone. Further, the presence of ...

  7. Road-Cleaning Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    Roadways are literally soaked with petrochemical byproducts, oils, gasoline, and other volatile substances that eventually run off into sewers and end up in rivers, waterways, and other undesirable places. Can the roads be cleaned of these wastes, with their proper disposal? Can vehicles, robots, or other devices be designed that could be driven…

  8. Clean energy microgrids

    CERN Document Server

    Obara, Shin'ya

    2017-01-01

    This book describes the latest technology in microgrids and economic, environmental and policy aspects of their implementation, including microgrids for cold regions, and future trends. The aim of this work is to give this complete overview of the latest technology around the world, and the interrelation with clean energy systems.

  9. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... starting stop Loading... Watch Queue Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with ... ads? Get YouTube Red. Working... Not now Try it free Find out why Close Clean Hands Count ...

  10. WINDOW-CLEANING

    CERN Multimedia

    Environmental Section / ST-TFM

    2001-01-01

    The two-month window-cleaning session on the Meyrin, Prévessin and LEP sites will soon begin. The cleaning contractors will work from Monday to Saturday, every week from 4.00 a.m. to 8.00 p.m. The work will be organised so as to disturb users as little as possible. In any event, a work notice will be left in each office 24 hours beforehand. To prevent any damage to documents or items which could occur despite the precautions taken, please clear completely the window-sills and the area immediately around them. If, however, for valid reasons, the work cannot be done on the scheduled day, please inform the Environmental Section by telephoning: 73753 / 74233 / 72242 If you are going to be absent during this two-month period, we should be grateful if you would clear the above mentioned areas before your departure. REMINDER To allow more thorough cleaning of the entrance doors to buildings and also facilitate the weekly work of the cleaning contractors, we ask you to make use of the notice boards at the...

  11. Acrylic vessel cleaning tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earle, D.; Hahn, R.L.; Boger, J.; Bonvin, E.

    1997-01-01

    The acrylic vessel as constructed is dirty. The dirt includes blue tape, Al tape, grease pencil, gemak, the glue or residue form these tapes, finger prints and dust of an unknown composition but probably mostly acrylic dust. This dirt has to be removed and once removed, the vessel has to be kept clean or at least to be easily cleanable at some future stage when access becomes much more difficult. The authors report on the results of a series of tests designed: (a) to prepare typical dirty samples of acrylic; (b) to remove dirt stuck to the acrylic surface; and (c) to measure the optical quality and Th concentration after cleaning. Specifications of the vessel call for very low levels of Th which could come from tape residues, the grease pencil, or other sources of dirt. This report does not address the concerns of how to keep the vessel clean after an initial cleaning and during the removal of the scaffolding. Alconox is recommended as the cleaner of choice. This acrylic vessel will be used in the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

  12. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is starting stop Loading... Watch Queue Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos ... empower patients to play a role in their care by asking or reminding healthcare providers to clean ...

  13. TA-60-1 Heavy Equipment Shop Areas SWPPP Rev 2 Jan 2017-Final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgin, Jillian Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-07

    The primary activities and equipment areas at the facility that are potential stormwater pollution sources include; The storage of vehicles and heavy equipment awaiting repair; or repaired vehicles waiting to be picked up; The storage and handling of oils, anti-freeze, solvents, degreasers, batteries and other chemicals for the maintenance of vehicles and heavy equipment; and Equipment cleaning operations including exterior vehicle wash-down. Steam cleaning is only done on the steam cleaning pad area located at the north east end of Building 60-0001.

  14. Clean Energy Solutions Center: Assisting Countries with Clean Energy Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    advice on financing instruments. In a recent keynote to the Climate and Clean Energy Investment Forum renewable energy technologies in the country. Informing Energy Access and Clean Energy Project Finance understanding and knowledge of how to design policies that enable financing and encourage investment in clean

  15. Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Commercial Lawn Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-10-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program produced this guide to help inform the commercial mowing industry about product options and potential benefits. This guide provides information about equipment powered by propane, ethanol, compressed natural gas, biodiesel, and electricity, as well as advanced engine technology. In addition to providing an overview for organizations considering alternative fuel lawn equipment, this guide may also be helpful for organizations that want to consider using additional alternative fueled equipment.

  16. Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Commercial Lawn Equipment (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program produced this guide to help inform the commercial mowing industry about product options and potential benefits. This guide provides information about equipment powered by propane, ethanol, compressed natural gas, biodiesel, and electricity, as well as advanced engine technology. In addition to providing an overview for organizations considering alternative fuel lawn equipment, this guide may also be helpful for organizations that want to consider using additional alternative fueled equipment.

  17. Plasma cleaning for waste minimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, P.P.

    1993-07-01

    Although plasma cleaning is a recognized substitute for solvent cleaning in removing organic contaminants, some universal problems in plasma cleaning processes prevent wider use of plasma techniques. Lack of understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of the process, unreliable endpoint detection techniques, and slow process times make plasma cleaning processes less than desirable. Our approach to address these plasma cleaning problems is described. A comparison of plasma cleaning rates of oxygen and oxygen/sulfur hexafluoride gases shows that fluorine-containing plasmas can enhance etch rates by 400% over oxygen alone. A discussion of various endpoint indication techniques is discussed and compared for application suitability. Work toward a plasma cleaning database is discussed. In addition to the global problems of plasma cleaning, an experiment where the specific mixed-waste problem of removal of machine oils from radioactive scrap metal is discussed.

  18. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  19. Automated cleaning of electronic components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drotning, W.; Meirans, L.; Wapman, W.; Hwang, Y.; Koenig, L.; Petterson, B.

    1994-01-01

    Environmental and operator safety concerns are leading to the elimination of trichloroethylene and chlorofluorocarbon solvents in cleaning processes that remove rosin flux, organic and inorganic contamination, and particulates from electronic components. Present processes depend heavily on these solvents for manual spray cleaning of small components and subassemblies. Use of alternative solvent systems can lead to longer processing times and reduced quality. Automated spray cleaning can improve the quality of the cleaning process, thus enabling the productive use of environmentally conscious materials, while minimizing personnel exposure to hazardous materials. We describe the development of a prototype robotic system for cleaning electronic components in a spray cleaning workcell. An important feature of the prototype system is the capability to generate the robot paths and motions automatically from the CAD models of the part to be cleaned, and to embed cleaning process knowledge into the automatically programmed operations

  20. Selection of equipment for equipment qualification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torr, K.G.

    1989-01-01

    This report describes the methodology applied in selecting equipment in the special safety systems for equipment qualification in the CANDU 600 MW nuclear generating stations at Gentilly 2 and Point Lepreau. Included is an explanation of the selection procedure adopted and the rationale behind the criteria used in identifying the equipment. The equipment items on the list have been grouped into three priority categories as a planning aid to AECB staff for a review of the qualification status of the special safety systems

  1. Cuantificación de glibenclamida en muestras de limpieza de equipos farmacéuticos mediante cromatografía líquida de alta resolución Quantification of glibenclamide in cleaning samples of pharmaceutical equipment through high performance liquid chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alen Nils Baeza Fonte

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: proponer un procedimiento analítico selectivo para la cuantificación de glibenclamida en muestras de limpieza de equipos farmacéuticos mediante cromatografía líquida de alta resolución. Métodos: la fase móvil consistió en una mezcla equivalente de volúmenes de acetonitrilo y solución amortiguadora KH2PO4 de concentración 0,037 mol/L a pH 5,25 y flujo 1,5 mL/min, en una columna Nucleosil 100 C8. La glibenclamida se inyectó con progesterona como estándar interno y empleando detector UV a una l= 230 nm. Resultados: el método resultó lineal en el intervalo de concentraciones de 0,4-150 mg/mL, teniendo como límites de detección y cuantificación 10 y 40 ng/mL respectivamente y siendo específico al analito en presencia del placebo, sus productos de degradación y a otros ingredientes farmacéuticamente activos. Se consideraron potenciales de interferencias para el método propuesto: captopril, clortalidona, dexametasona, digoxina, 8-cloroteofilina, difenhidramina HCl, fenobarbital, haloperidol, hidroclorotiazida, ácido fumárico, ketotifeno, metoclopramida HCl, piridoxina HCl, piroxicam, prednisona y nifedipino. Se identificaron: ibuprofeno, indometacina, trifluoperazina HCl, tioridazina HCl e imipramina HCl, como interferentes del procedimiento en concentraciones cercanas a 10 mg/mL. Conclusiones: el método desarrollado es sensible, rápido y especialmente selectivo para la evaluación de residuales del principio activo glibenclamida en equipos de producción de tabletas, empleando un muestreo por hisopado, y pudiera utilizarse potencialmente cuando exista sospecha de contaminación cruzada de glibenclamida con otros fármacos de los aquí descritos.Objective: to submit a selective analytical method for quantization of glibenclamide in cleaning samples of pharmaceutical equipment using high performance liquid chromatography. Methods: the mobile phase consisted of an equal mixing of acetonitrile/phosphate buffer KH2PO4

  2. Sustainable development with clean coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    This paper discusses the opportunities available with clean coal technologies. Applications include new power plants, retrofitting and repowering of existing power plants, steelmaking, cement making, paper manufacturing, cogeneration facilities, and district heating plants. An appendix describes the clean coal technologies. These include coal preparation (physical cleaning, low-rank upgrading, bituminous coal preparation); combustion technologies (fluidized-bed combustion and NOx control); post-combustion cleaning (particulate control, sulfur dioxide control, nitrogen oxide control); and conversion with the integrated gasification combined cycle.

  3. Canyon solvent cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reif, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    The HM Process at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) uses 7.5% tributylphosphate in n-paraffin as an extraction solvent. During use, the solvent is altered due to hydrolysis and radiolysis, forming materials that influence product losses, produce decontamination, and separation efficiencies. Laboratory studies to improve online solvent cleaning have shown the carbonate washing, although removing residual solvent activity does not remove binding ligands that hold fission products in the solvent. Treatment of solvent by an alumina adsorption process removes binding ligands and significantly improves recycle solvent performance. Both laboratory work defining a full-scale alumina adsorption process and the use of the process to clean HM Process first cycle solvent are presented

  4. Solar panel cleaning robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalladhimmu, Pavan Kumar Reddy; Priyadarshini, S.

    2018-04-01

    As the demand of electricity is increasing, there is need to using the renewable sources to produce the energy at present of power shortage, the use of solar energy could be beneficial to great extent and easy to get the maximum efficiency. There is an urgent in improving the efficiency of solar power generation. Current solar panels setups take a major power loss when unwanted obstructions cover the surface of the panels. To make solar energy more efficiency of solar array systems must be maximized efficiency evaluation of PV panels, that has been discussed with particular attention to the presence of dust on the efficiency of the PV panels have been highlighted. This paper gives the how the solar panel cleaning system works and designing of the cleaning system.

  5. Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma Cleaning of Contaminated Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, Robert F.; Herrmann, Hans W.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this work is to demonstrate a practical, atmospheric pressure plasma tool for the surface decontamination of radioactive waste. Decontamination of radioactive materials that have accumulated on the surfaces of equipment and structures is a challenging and costly undertaking for the US Department of Energy. Our technology shows great potential for accelerating this clean up effort

  6. Evaporator Cleaning Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmarth, W.R.

    1999-01-01

    Operation of the 242-16H High Level Waste Evaporator proves crucial to liquid waste management in the H-Area Tank Farm. Recent operational history of the Evaporator showed significant solid formation in secondary lines and in the evaporator pot. Additional samples remain necessary to ensure material identity in the evaporator pot. Analysis of these future samples will provide actinide partitioning information and dissolution characteristics of the solid material from the pot to ensure safe chemical cleaning

  7. Cleanly: trashducation urban system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reif, Inbal; Alt, Florian; Ramos, Juan David Hincapie

    Half the world's population is expected to live in urban areas by 2020. The high human density and changes in peoples' consumption habits result in an ever-increasing amount of trash that must be handled by governing bodies. Problems created by inefficient or dysfunctional cleaning services are e......, which not only motivates our research but also provides useful information on reasons and possible solutions for trash problems....

  8. Transforming Global Markets for Clean Energy Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This paper looks at three clean energy product categories: equipment energy efficiency; low-carbon transport, including high-efficiency vehicles and electric/plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (EV/PHEVs); and solar photovoltaic (PV) power. Each section identifies ways to enhance global co-operation among major economies through case studies and examples, and ends with specific suggestions for greater international collaboration on market transformation efforts. An annex with more detailed case studies on energy-efficient electric motors, televisions, external power supplies and compact fluorescent lights is included in the paper.

  9. Laser cleaning of Rakowicze sandstone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijland, T.G.; Wijffels, T.J.

    2003-01-01

    Decisions about the cleaning of natural stone should always be made within the awareness of direct and indirect damage that may be the result of cleaning. During the last decade, laser cleaning of objects and monuments of natural stone has become increasingly popular. Whereas a considerable amount

  10. An experience of cleaning and decontamination of the BN-350 reactor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilenko, K.T.; Kochetkov, L.A.; Arkhipov, V.M.; Baklushin, R.P.; Gorlov, A.I.; Kiselev, G.V.; Rezinkin, P.S.; Samarkin, A.A.; Tverdovsky, N.D.

    1978-01-01

    In the course of start-up, adjustment and operation of the BN-350 reactor there arose a need for cleaning from sodium and decontamination of primary and secondary equipment components. Design schemes of the systems provided for this purpose as well as those specially designed for cleaning of steam generator evaporators are considered. Technological processes of cleaning and decontamination for some reactor components (removable parts of circulating pumps, evaporators, valves) are described, the results are presented. (author)

  11. Clean energy utilization technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honma, Takuya

    1992-01-01

    The technical development of clean energy including the utilization of solar energy was begun in 1973 at the time of the oil crisis, and about 20 years elapsed. Also in Japan, the electric power buying system by electric power companies for solar light electric power and wind electric power has been started in 1992, namely their value as a merchandise was recognized. As for these two technologies, the works of making the international standards and JIS were begun. The range of clean energy or natural energy is wide, and its kinds are many. The utilization of solar heat and the electric power generation utilizing waves, tide and geotherm already reached the stage of practical use. Generally in order to practically use new energy, the problem of price must be solved, but the price is largely dependent on the degree of spread. Also the reliability, durability and safety must be ensured, and the easiness of use, effectiveness and trouble-saving maintenance and operation are required. For the purpose, it is important to packaging those skillfully in a system. The cases of intelligent natural energy systems are shown. Solar light and wind electric power generation systems and the technology of transporting clean energy are described. (K.I.)

  12. Clean steels for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelles, D.S.

    1995-03-01

    Fusion energy production has an inherent advantage over fission: a fuel supply with reduced long term radioactivity. One of the leading candidate materials for structural applications in a fusion reactor is a tungsten stabilized 9% chromium Martensitic steel. This alloy class is being considered because it offers the opportunity to maintain that advantage in the reactor structure as well as provide good high temperature strength and radiation induced swelling and embrittlement resistance. However, calculations indicate that to obtain acceptable radioactivity levels within 500 years after service, clean steel will be required because the niobium impurity levels must be kept below about 2 appm and nickel, molybdenum, nitrogen, copper, and aluminum must be intentionally restricted. International efforts are addressing the problems of clean steel production. Recently, a 5,000 kg heat was vacuum induction melted in Japan using high purity commercial raw materials giving niobium levels less than 0.7 appm. This paper reviews the need for reduced long term radioactivity, defines the advantageous properties of the tungsten stabilized Martensitic steel class, and describes the international efforts to produce acceptable clean steels

  13. Utility view of the source term and air cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Littlefield, P.S.

    1985-01-01

    The utility view of the source term and air cleaning is discussed. The source term is made up of: (1) noble gases, which there has been a tendency to ignore in the past because it was thought there was nothing that could be done with them anyway, (2) the halogens, which have been dealt with in Air Cleaning Conferences in the past in terms of charcoal and other systems for removing them, and (3) the solid components of the source term which particulate filters are designed to handle. Air cleaning systems consist of filters, adsorbers, containment sprays, suppression pools in boiling water reactors and ice beds in ice condenser-equipped plants. The feasibility and cost of air cleaning systems are discussed

  14. Monitoring and improving the effectiveness of surface cleaning and disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutala, William A; Weber, David J

    2016-05-02

    Disinfection of noncritical environmental surfaces and equipment is an essential component of an infection prevention program. Noncritical environmental surfaces and noncritical medical equipment surfaces may become contaminated with infectious agents and may contribute to cross-transmission by acquisition of transient hand carriage by health care personnel. Disinfection should render surfaces and equipment free of pathogens in sufficient numbers to prevent human disease (ie, hygienically clean). Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. AX Tank Farm ancillary equipment study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SKELLY, W.A.

    1999-01-01

    This report examines the feasibility of remediating ancillary equipment associated with the 241-AX Tank Farm at the Hanford Site. Ancillary equipment includes surface structures and equipment, process waste piping, ventilation components, wells, and pits, boxes, sumps, and tanks used to make waste transfers to/from the AX tanks and adjoining tank farms. Two remedial alternatives are considered: (1) excavation and removal of all ancillary equipment items, and (2) in-situ stabilization by grout filling, the 241-AX Tank Farm is being employed as a strawman in engineering studies evaluating clean and landfill closure options for Hanford single-shell tanks. This is one of several reports being prepared for use by the Hanford Tanks Initiative Project to explore potential closure options and to develop retrieval performance evaluation criteria for tank farms

  16. NOVEL GAS CLEANING/CONDITIONING FOR INTEGRATED GASIFICATION COMBINED CYCLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis A. Horazak; Richard A. Newby; Eugene E. Smeltzer; Rachid B. Slimane; P. Vann Bush; James L. Aderhold Jr; Bruce G. Bryan

    2005-12-01

    individual gas cleaning stages, and the probable operating conditions of the gas cleaning stages to conceptually satisfy the gas cleaning requirements; (2) Estimate process material & energy balances for the major plant sections and for each gas cleaning stage; (3) Conceptually size and specify the major gas cleaning process equipment; (4) Determine the resulting overall performance of the application; and (5) Estimate the investment cost and operating cost for each application. Analogous evaluation steps were applied for each application using conventional gas cleaning technology, and comparison was made to extract the potential benefits, issues, and development needs of the Filter-Reactor Novel Gas Cleaning technology. The gas cleaning process and related gas conditioning steps were also required to meet specifications that address plant environmental emissions, the protection of the gas turbine and other Power Island components, and the protection of the methanol synthesis reactor. Detailed material & energy balances for the gas cleaning applications, coupled with preliminary thermodynamic modeling and laboratory testing of candidate sorbents, identified the probable sorbent types that should be used, their needed operating conditions in each stage, and their required levels of performance. The study showed that Filter-Reactor Novel Gas Cleaning technology can be configured to address and conceptually meet all of the gas cleaning requirements for IGCC, and that it can potentially overcome several of the conventional IGCC power plant availability issues, resulting in improved power plant thermal efficiency and cost. For IGCC application, Filter-Reactor Novel Gas Cleaning yields 6% greater generating capacity and 2.3 percentage-points greater efficiency under the Current Standards case, and more than 9% generating capacity increase and 3.6 percentage-points higher efficiency in the Future Standards case. While the conceptual equipment costs are estimated to be only slightly

  17. Clean electricity from photovoltaics

    CERN Document Server

    Green, Martin A

    2015-01-01

    The second edition of Clean Electricity from Photovoltaics , first published in 2001, provides an updated account of the underlying science, technology and market prospects for photovoltaics. All areas have advanced considerably in the decade since the first edition was published, which include: multi-crystalline silicon cell efficiencies having made impressive advances, thin-film CdTe cells having established a decisive market presence, and organic photovoltaics holding out the prospect of economical large-scale power production. Contents: The Past and Present (M D Archer); Limits to Photovol

  18. TORR system polishes oily water clean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mowers, J.

    2002-01-01

    The TORR (total oil recovery and remediation) system utilizes a specially patented polymer material, similar to styrofoam, which is used to get rid of non-soluble hydrocarbons from water. An application in Fort Smith, Northwest Territories, is described where it was used to recover diesel oil, which had been seeping into the groundwater over a period of 20 years. About 100,000 gallons of heating oil had leached into the water; TORR removed the non-soluble hydrocarbons, while another piece of equipment removed the soluble portions. After treatment the water tested consistently at non-detectable levels and was clean enough to be discharged into the town's sewer system. The system is considered ideal for oil spills clean-up underground, onshore, or the open sea, but it also has many potentially useful applications in industrial and oilfield applications. Water used in steam injection and water floods to produce heavy oil and SAGD applications are some of the obvious ones that come to mind. Cleaning up the huge tailings ponds at the mining and processing of oil sands, and removing diluent from water that is used to thin out bitumen in pipelines so that it can be transported to processing plants, are other promising areas of application. Several field trials to test the effectiveness of the system in these type of applications are scheduled for the summer and fall of 2002

  19. Clean coal: Global opportunities for small businesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The parallel growth in coal demand and environmental concern has spurred interest in technologies that burn coal with greater efficiency and with lower emissions. Clean Coal Technologies (CCTs) will ensure that continued use of the world's most abundant energy resource is compatible with a cleaner, healthier environment. Increasing interest in CCTs opens the door for American small businesses to provide services and equipment for the clean and efficient use of coal. Key players in most coal-related projects are typically large equipment manufacturers, power project developers, utilities, governments, and multinational corporations. At the same time, the complexity and scale of many of these projects creates niche markets for small American businesses with high-value products and services. From information technology, control systems, and specialized components to management practices, financial services, and personnel training methods, small US companies boast some of the highest value products and services in the world. As a result, American companies are in a prime position to take advantage of global niche markets for CCTs. This guide is designed to provide US small businesses with an overview of potential international market opportunities related to CCTs and to provide initial guidance on how to cost-effectively enter that growing global market

  20. Clean coal: Global opportunities for small businesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    The parallel growth in coal demand and environmental concern has spurred interest in technologies that burn coal with greater efficiency and with lower emissions. Clean Coal Technologies (CCTs) will ensure that continued use of the world`s most abundant energy resource is compatible with a cleaner, healthier environment. Increasing interest in CCTs opens the door for American small businesses to provide services and equipment for the clean and efficient use of coal. Key players in most coal-related projects are typically large equipment manufacturers, power project developers, utilities, governments, and multinational corporations. At the same time, the complexity and scale of many of these projects creates niche markets for small American businesses with high-value products and services. From information technology, control systems, and specialized components to management practices, financial services, and personnel training methods, small US companies boast some of the highest value products and services in the world. As a result, American companies are in a prime position to take advantage of global niche markets for CCTs. This guide is designed to provide US small businesses with an overview of potential international market opportunities related to CCTs and to provide initial guidance on how to cost-effectively enter that growing global market.

  1. International Clean Energy Coalition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erin Skootsky; Matt Gardner; Bevan Flansburgh

    2010-09-28

    In 2003, the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) and National Energy Technology Laboratories (NETL) collaboratively established the International Clean Energy Coalition (ICEC). The coalition consisting of energy policy-makers, technologists, and financial institutions was designed to assist developing countries in forming and supporting local approaches to greenhouse gas mitigation within the energy sector. ICEC's work focused on capacity building and clean energy deployment in countries that rely heavily on fossil-based electric generation. Under ICEC, the coalition formed a steering committee consisting of NARUC members and held a series of meetings to develop and manage the workplan and define successful outcomes for the projects. ICEC identified India as a target country for their work and completed a country assessment that helped ICEC build a framework for discussion with Indian energy decisionmakers including two follow-on in-country workshops. As of the conclusion of the project in 2010, ICEC had also conducted outreach activities conducted during United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Ninth Conference of Parties (COP 9) and COP 10. The broad goal of this project was to develop a coalition of decision-makers, technologists, and financial institutions to assist developing countries in implementing affordable, effective and resource appropriate technology and policy strategies to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. Project goals were met through international forums, a country assessment, and in-country workshops. This project focused on countries that rely heavily on fossil-based electric generation.

  2. Application of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) for cleaning verification in pharmaceutical manufacture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Damion K; Cauchi, Michael; Piletsky, Sergey; Mccrossen, Sean

    2009-01-01

    Cleaning verification is the process by which pharmaceutical manufacturing equipment is determined as sufficiently clean to allow manufacture to continue. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is a very sensitive spectroscopic technique capable of detection at levels appropriate for cleaning verification. In this paper, commercially available Klarite SERS substrates were employed in order to obtain the necessary enhancement of signal for the identification of chemical species at concentrations of 1 to 10 ng/cm2, which are relevant to cleaning verification. The SERS approach was combined with principal component analysis in the identification of drug compounds recovered from a contaminated steel surface.

  3. New NOx cleaning technology helps the government fulfil promise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The Norwegian, Bergen-based company ECO Energy has recently launched a new cleaning technology halving NO x emissions from industry plants without requiring large investments. Thus, governmental promises to finance NO x cleaning equipment for Norwegian industry have become a less expensive to reach. ECO Energy has ensured world patent on the 'stopNOx' technology. Its method consists of adding water and urea to oil before the combustion process. The technology has been applied in Italy, reducing NO x emissions from industry in average with above 50 percent (ml)

  4. Cleaning the soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stegmann, R.

    1993-01-01

    Volume 6 of the Hamburg Reports contains contributions from scientists from the Special Research Field 188 'Cleaning up Contaminated Soils' of the Technical University of Hamburg-Harburg and the University of Hamburg and of experts from science and from the practical field. The soil science and analytical aspects of the biological and chemical/physical treatment processes are shown and open questions specific to processes are dealt with. Scientific results are compared with practical experience here. The evaluation of treated soils for reuse in the environment is a very important question, which is explained in the first articles here. Examples of case studies are shown in the last part of the volume. (orig.) [de

  5. Flue gas cleaning chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutberlet, H [VEBA Kraftwerke Ruhr AG, Gelsenkirchen (Germany)

    1996-12-01

    The introduction of modern flue gas cleaning technology into fossil-fueled power stations has repeatedly confronted the power station chemists with new and interesting problems over the last 15 - 20 years. Both flue gas desulphurization by lime washing and catalytic removal of nitrogen oxides are based on simple basic chemical reactions. Owing to the use of readily available starting materials, the production of safe, useful end products and, last but not least, the possibility of implementing all this on an industrial scale by means of efficient process engineering, limestone desulphurization and catalytic removal of nitrogen oxides dominate the world market and, little by little, are becoming still more widespread. The origin and thus the quality of fuels and starting materials, the firing method, the mode of operation and engineering peculiarities in each plant interact in a complex manner. Simple cause/effect relationships are frequently incapable of explaining phenomena; thinking in complex interrelationships is needed. (EG)

  6. Ultrasound cleaning of microfilters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Jens; Bjørnø, Irina; Jensen, Leif Bjørnø

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to develop, design, and manufacture a high-power ultrasound transducer module to be used for preventing the blocking of plastic-based microfilters by organic materials, and possibly to prolong the lifetime of the filters in industry using the cavitation on the surface...... suitable for cleaning of microfilters without damaging the filter structure. The filter surface was studied using an optical microscope before and after the experiment. When high-power ultrasound (max. 75 W/cm2) was applied to the surface of some microfilters, no visible damage was found, while others...... of the filter. A numerical, FE- and BE-based model for calculation of the response of ultrasonic transducers of various geometries formed the basis for the design of such transducers. During laboratory experiments frequency and output power have been varied in order to find the optimal transducer design...

  7. Cleaning fluid emulsions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prikryl, J; Kotyza, R; Krulikovsky, J; Mjartan, V; Valisova, I

    1981-09-15

    Composition of cleaning fluid emulsion are presented for drilling small diameter wells in clay soils, at high drill bit rotation velocity. The emulsions have lubricating properties and the abilty to improve stability of the drilled soil. The given fluids have a high fatty acid content with 12-24 carbon atoms in a single molecule, with a predominance of resinous acids 1-5% in mass, and having been emulsified in water or clay suspension without additives, or in a clay suspension with high-molecular polymer additives (glycobate cellulose compounds and/or polysaccharides, and/or their derivatives) in an amount of 0.1-3% per mass; thinning agents - huminite or lignite compounds in the amount of 0.01 to 0.5% in mass; weighting material - barite or lime 0.01 to 50% per mass; medium stabilizers - organic poly-electrolyte with polyacrylate in the amount of 0.05 to 2% in mass, or alkaline chloride/alkaline-ground metals 1-10% per mass. A cleaning emulsion fluid was prepared in the laboratory according to the given method. Add 3 kg tall oil to a solution of 1 kg K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ per 100 l of water. Dynamic viscosity was equal to 1.4 x 10-/sup 3/ Pa/s. When drilling in compacted clay soils, when the emulsions require improved stability, it is necessary to add the maximum amount of tall oil whose molecules are absorbed by the clay soil and increase its durability.

  8. Nondestructive inspection of the condition of oil pipeline cleaning units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berdonosov, V.A.; Boiko, D.A.; Lapshin, B.M.; Chakhlov, V.L.

    1989-01-01

    One of the reasons for shutdowns of main oil pipelines is stoppage of the cleaning unit in cleaning of the inner surface of paraffin deposits caused by damage to the cleaning unit. The authors propose a method of searching for and determining the condition of the cleaning unit not requiring dismantling of the pipeline according to which the initial search for the cleaning unit is done with acoustic instruments (the increased acoustic noise at the point of stoppage of its is recorded) and subsequent inspection by a radiographic method. An experimental model of an instrument was developed making it possible to determine the location of a cleaning unit in an oil pipeline in stoppage of it from the acoustic noise. The instrument consists of two blocks, the remote sensor and the indicator block, which are connected to each other with a cable up to 10 m long. The design makes it possible to place the sensor at any accessible point of a linear part of the pipeline (in a pit, on a valve, etc.) while the indicator block may remain on the surface of the ground. The results obtained make it possible to adopt the optimum solutions on elimination of their malfunctioning and to prevent emergency situations without dismantling of the pipeline. With the equipment developed it is possible to inspect oil and gas pipelines with different reasons for a reduction in their throughput

  9. Limonene and tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol cleaning agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W.; Carter, Richard D.; Hand, Thomas E.; Powers, Michael T.

    1996-05-07

    The present invention is a tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol and limonene or terpineol cleaning agent and method for formulating and/or using the cleaning agent. This cleaning agent effectively removes both polar and nonpolar contaminants from various electrical and mechanical parts and is readily used without surfactants, thereby reducing the need for additional cleaning operations. The cleaning agent is warm water rinsable without the use of surfactants. The cleaning agent can be azeotropic, enhancing ease of use in cleaning operations and ease of recycling.

  10. Limonene and tetrahydrofurfurly alcohol cleaning agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W.; Carter, Richard D.; Hand, Thomas E.; Powers, Michael T.

    1997-10-21

    The present invention is a tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol and limonene cleaning agent and method for formulating and/or using the cleaning agent. This cleaning agent effectively removes both polar and nonpolar contaminants from various electrical and mechanical parts and is readily used without surfactants, thereby reducing the need for additional cleaning operations. The cleaning agent is warm water rinsable without the use of surfactants. The cleaning agent can be azeotropic, enhancing ease of use in cleaning operations and ease of recycling.

  11. Fossil fuels. Commercializing clean coal technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fultz, Keith O.; Sprague, John W.; Kirk, Roy J.; Clark, Marcus R. Jr.; Greene, Richard M.; Buncher, Carole S.; Kleigleng, Robert G.; Imbrogno, Frank W.

    1989-03-01

    , President Bush told the Congress that he plans to propose legislation for a new, more effective Clean Air Act, which will include a plan to reduce, by a specific date, the emissions that cause acid rain. DOE experienced difficulties in negotiating cooperative agreements with round-one project sponsors, which delayed completing agreements for five projects and resulted in the termination of negotiations for three projects. One of the main problems was that project sponsors had difficulty in completing financial and other business arrangements to fund their share of project costs. Negotiations were also delayed because of (1) sponsors' reluctance to agree to repay the federal share of project costs should the technology become commercialized and (2) sponsors' and other project participants' reluctance to release proprietary data to DOE. Further, DOE headquarters review and approval process to ensure negotiation consistency added time to the agreement formalization process. Although DOE made changes for round two of the program, federal repayment requirements and proprietary data rights could continue to cause delays in completing agreements with project sponsors. Seven of the nine funded round-one projects are not progressing as planned because of equipment failure, delays in obtaining equipment, project financing problems, and delays in obtaining permits. DOE said it is too early to tell whether the slippage will affect the timing of the commercial availability of the clean coal technologies. The CCT program can play an important role in reducing emissions from fossil fuel-fired power plants. The new administration has indicated its commitment to full funding of the program. Enactment of legislation that prescribes stringent deadlines and/or reduced levels of emissions to control acid rain could affect the program's potential effectiveness by diverting investment from emerging clean coal technologies into available conventional technologies. On the other hand, enactment of

  12. Overview of shoreline cleaning agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, J.

    1992-01-01

    Chemical cleaning agents may be used to promote release of stranded oil from shorelines for reasons including biological sensitivity of indigenous fauna and flora to the oil, amenity considerations of the shoreline, or concern about refloating of the oil and subsequent stranding on adjacent shorelines. While use of chemical cleaning agents may be appropriate under proper toxic responses in circumstances, certain limitations should be recognized. The potential for toxic responses in indigenous fauna and flora to the cleaning agents must be considered. Enhanced penetration of oil into permeable shorelines following treatment with chemical cleaning agents also is not desirable. However, if conditions related to toxicity and substrate permeability are determined to be acceptable, the use of chemical cleaning agents for treatment of stranded oil can be considered. Chemical agents for cleaning oiled shorelines can be grouped into three categories: (1) non-surfactant-based solvents, (2) chemical dispersants, and (3) formulations especially designed to release stranded oil from shoreline substrates (i.e., shoreline-cleaning-agents). Depending on the specific circumstances present on an oiled shoreline, it is generally desirable that chemical agents used for cleaning will release oil from shoreline substrate(s) to surface waters. Recovery of the oil can then be accomplished by mechanical procedures such as booming and skimming operations

  13. Programmed Cleaning and Environmental Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, John C., Ed.

    Maintenance of sanitation in buildings, plants, offices, and institutions; the selection of cleaning materials for these purposes; and the organization and supervision of the cleaning program are becoming increasingly complex and needful of a higher cost of handling. This book describes these problems and gives helpful information and guidance for…

  14. Shipboard and laboratory equipment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shyamprasad, M.; Ramaswamy, V.

    The polymetallic nodules occur at an average depth of 4500 m. Adequate equipment and techniques are required for the exploration at such depths. Shipboard and various laboratory equipments for the sampling of polymetallic nodules is described...

  15. Remote handling equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, G.

    1984-01-01

    After a definition of intervention, problems encountered for working in an adverse environment are briefly analyzed for development of various remote handling equipments. Some examples of existing equipments are given [fr

  16. Fire protection for clean rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirson, D.

    1990-01-01

    The fire protection engineer often must decide what size fire can be tolerated before automatic fire suppression systems actuate. Is it a wastepaper basket fire, a bushel basket fire...? In the case of state-of-the-art clean rooms, the answer clearly is not even an incipient fire. Minor fires in clean rooms can cause major losses. This paper discusses what a clean room is and gives a brief overview of the unique fire protection challenges encountered. The two major causes of fire related to clean rooms in the semiconductor industry are flammable/pyrophoric gas fires in plastic ducts and polypropylene wet bench fires. This paper concentrates on plastic ductwork in clean rooms, sprinkler protection in ductwork, and protection for wet benches

  17. Exercise Equipment: Neutral Buoyancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackelford, Linda; Valle, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Load Bearing Equipment for Neutral Buoyancy (LBE-NB) is an exercise frame that holds two exercising subjects in position as they apply counter forces to each other for lower extremity and spine loading resistance exercises. Resistance exercise prevents bone loss on ISS, but the ISS equipment is too massive for use in exploration craft. Integrating the human into the load directing, load generating, and motion control functions of the exercise equipment generates safe exercise loads with less equipment mass and volume.

  18. BP volume reduction equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Yoshinori; Muroo, Yoji; Hamanaka, Isao

    2003-01-01

    A new type of burnable poison (BP) volume reduction system is currently being developed. Many BP rods, a subcomponent of spent fuel assemblies are discharged from nuclear power reactors. This new system reduces the overall volume of BP rods. The main system consists of BP rod cutting equipment, equipment for the recovery of BP cut pieces, and special transport equipment for the cut rods. The equipment is all operated by hydraulic press cylinders in water to reduce operator exposure to radioactivity. (author)

  19. Development of a method to determine the effectiveness of cleaning agents in removal of biofilm derived spores in milking system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ievgeniia Ostrov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Microbial damages caused by biofilm forming bacteria in the dairy industry are a fundamental threat to safety and quality of dairy products. In order to ensure the optimal level of equipment hygiene in the dairy industry, it is necessary to determine the biofilm removal efficiency of cleaning agents used for cleaning-in-place procedures. However, currently there is no standard method available for evaluating and comparing cleaning agents for use in cleaning-in-place procedures in the dairy industry under realistic conditions. The present study aims to establish a cleaning-in-place model system to evaluate the effectiveness of cleaning agents in removal of biofilm derived spores from the surfaces of stainless steel which is the predominant substrate in milking equipment on dairy farms. The system is based on Bacillus subtilis spores surrounded with exopolymeric substances produced by bacteria during biofilm formation. The spores applied on sampling plates were mounted on T-junctions protruding 1.5 – 11-times the milk pipe diameter from the main loop to resemble different levels of cleaning difficulty. The cleaning tests were conducted using commercial alkaline detergents and caustic soda at conditions which are relevant to actual farm environment. The spores removal effect was evaluated by comparing the number of viable spores (attached to sampling plates before and after cleaning. Evaluation of the cleaning and disinfecting effect of cleaning agents towards biofilm derived spores was further performed, which indicates whether spores elimination effect of an agent is due to killing the spores or removing them from the surfaces of dairy equipment. Moreover, it was established that the presence of extracellular matrix is an important factor responsible for high level of cleaning difficulty characteristic for surface attached spores. In overall, the results of this study suggest that the developed model system simulates actual farm conditions for

  20. Use of accident experience in developing criteria for teleoperator equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallario, E.J.; Selby, J.M.

    1985-10-01

    The 1961 SL-1 reactor accident in Idaho and the Recuplex accident at Hanford are reviewed to identify problems common to emergency situations, lessons learned from accidents, criteria for emergency equipment, and recommendations for using robotics to solve problems during emergencies. Teleoperator equipment could be used to assess the extent of the damage and the condition of the reactor, retrieve dosimeters, evacuate and treat accident victims, clean up debris and decontaminate accident areas. 2 refs., 9 figs

  1. Air-cleaning apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, A.G.

    1981-01-01

    An air-cleaning, heat-exchange apparatus includes a main housing portion connected by means of an air inlet fan to the kitchen exhaust stack of a restaurant. The apparatus includes a plurality of heat exchangers through which a heat-absorptive fluid is circulated, simultaneously, by means of a suitable fluid pump. These heat exchangers absorb heat from the hot exhaust gas, out of the exhaust stack of the restaurant, which flows over and through these heat exchangers and transfers this heat to the circulating fluid which communicates with remote heat exchangers. These remote heat exchangers further transfer this heat to a stream of air, such as that from a cold-air return duct for supplementing the conventional heating system of the restaurant. Due to the fact that such hot exhaust gas is heavily grease laden , grease will be deposited on virtually all internal surfaces of the apparatus which this exhaust gas contacts. Consequently, means are provided for spraying these contacted internal surfaces , as well as the hot exhaust gas itself, with a detergent solution in which the grease is soluble, thereby removing grease buildup from these internal surfaces

  2. Clean coal technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abelson, P.H.

    1990-01-01

    One of the major technology challenges in the next decade will be to develop means of using coal imaginatively as a source of chemicals and in a more energy-efficient manner. The Clean Air Act will help to diminish the acid rain but will not reduce CO 2 emissions. The Department of Energy (DOE) is fostering many innovations that are likely to have a positive effect on coal usage. Of the different innovations in the use of coal fostered by DOE, two are of particular interest. One is the new pressurized fluid bed combustion (PFBC) combined-cycle demonstration. The PFBC plant now becoming operational can reduce SO 2 emissions by more than 90% and NO x emissions by 50-70%. A second new technology co-sponsored by DOE is the Encoal mild coal gasification project that will convert a sub-bituminous low-BTU coal into a useful higher BTU solid while producing significant amounts of a liquid fuel

  3. Clean Metal Casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makhlouf M. Makhlouf; Diran Apelian

    2002-02-05

    The objective of this project is to develop a technology for clean metal processing that is capable of consistently providing a metal cleanliness level that is fit for a given application. The program has five tasks: Development of melt cleanliness assessment technology, development of melt contamination avoidance technology, development of high temperature phase separation technology, establishment of a correlation between the level of melt cleanliness and as cast mechanical properties, and transfer of technology to the industrial sector. Within the context of the first task, WPI has developed a standardized Reduced Pressure Test that has been endorsed by AFS as a recommended practice. In addition, within the context of task1, WPI has developed a melt cleanliness sensor based on the principles of electromagnetic separation. An industrial partner is commercializing the sensor. Within the context of the second task, WPI has developed environmentally friendly fluxes that do not contain fluorine. Within the context of the third task, WPI modeled the process of rotary degassing and verified the model predictions with experimental data. This model may be used to optimize the performance of industrial rotary degassers. Within the context of the fourth task, WPI has correlated the level of melt cleanliness at various foundries, including a sand casting foundry, a permanent mold casting foundry, and a die casting foundry, to the casting process and the resultant mechanical properties. This is useful in tailoring the melt cleansing operations at foundries to the particular casting process and the desired properties of cast components.

  4. Clean tracks for ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    First cosmic ray tracks in the integrated ATLAS barrel SCT and TRT tracking detectors. A snap-shot of a cosmic ray event seen in the different layers of both the SCT and TRT detectors. The ATLAS Inner Detector Integration Team celebrated a major success recently, when clean tracks of cosmic rays were detected in the completed semiconductor tracker (SCT) and transition radiation tracker (TRT) barrels. These tracking tests come just months after the successful insertion of the SCT into the TRT (See Bulletin 09/2006). The cosmic ray test is important for the experiment because, after 15 years of hard work, it is the last test performed on the fully assembled barrel before lowering it into the ATLAS cavern. The two trackers work together to provide millions of channels so that particles' tracks can be identified and measured with great accuracy. According to the team, the preliminary results were very encouraging. After first checks of noise levels in the final detectors, a critical goal was to study their re...

  5. Clean Metal Casting; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhlouf M. Makhlouf; Diran Apelian

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a technology for clean metal processing that is capable of consistently providing a metal cleanliness level that is fit for a given application. The program has five tasks: Development of melt cleanliness assessment technology, development of melt contamination avoidance technology, development of high temperature phase separation technology, establishment of a correlation between the level of melt cleanliness and as cast mechanical properties, and transfer of technology to the industrial sector. Within the context of the first task, WPI has developed a standardized Reduced Pressure Test that has been endorsed by AFS as a recommended practice. In addition, within the context of task1, WPI has developed a melt cleanliness sensor based on the principles of electromagnetic separation. An industrial partner is commercializing the sensor. Within the context of the second task, WPI has developed environmentally friendly fluxes that do not contain fluorine. Within the context of the third task, WPI modeled the process of rotary degassing and verified the model predictions with experimental data. This model may be used to optimize the performance of industrial rotary degassers. Within the context of the fourth task, WPI has correlated the level of melt cleanliness at various foundries, including a sand casting foundry, a permanent mold casting foundry, and a die casting foundry, to the casting process and the resultant mechanical properties. This is useful in tailoring the melt cleansing operations at foundries to the particular casting process and the desired properties of cast components

  6. Canada's Clean Air Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This paper provided an outline of Canada's Clean Air Act and examined some of the regulatory changes that will occur as a result of its implementation. The Act is being introduced to strengthen the legislative basis for taking action on reducing air pollution and GHGs, and will allow the government to regulate both indoor and outdoor air pollutants and GHGs. The Act will require the Ministers of the Environment and Health to establish national air quality objectives, as well as to monitor and report on their attainment. The Canadian Environmental Protection Act will be amended to enable the government to regulate the blending of fuels and their components. The Motor Vehicle Fuel Consumption Standards Act will also be amended to enhance the government's authority to regulate vehicle fuel efficiency. The Energy Efficiency Act will also be expanded to allow the government to set energy efficiency standards and labelling requirements for a wider range of consumer and commercial products. The Act will commit to short, medium and long-term industrial air pollution targets. Regulations will be proposed for emissions from industry; on-road and off-road vehicles and engines; and consumer and commercial products. It was concluded that the Government of Canada will continue to consult with provinces, territories, industries and Canadians to set and reach targets for the reduction of both indoor and outdoor air pollutants and GHG emissions. 6 figs

  7. Electrical equipment qualification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmer, W.S.

    1983-01-01

    Electrical equipment qualification research programs being carried out by CEA, JAERI, and Sandia Laboratories are discussed. Objectives of the program are: (1) assessment of accident simulation methods for electrical equipment qualification testing; lower coarse (2) evaluation of equipment aging and accelerated aging methods; (3) determine radiation dose spectrum to electrical equipment and assess simulation methods for qualification; (4) identify inadequacies in electrical equipment qualification procedures and standards and potential failure modes; and (5) provide data for verifying and improving standards, rules and regulatory guides

  8. Pickering Unit 1 chemical cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smee, J.L.; Fiola, R.J.; Brennenstuhl, K.R.; Zerkee, D.D.; Daniel, C.M.

    1995-01-01

    The secondary sides of all 12 boilers at Pickering Unit 1 were chemically cleaned in 1994 by the team of Ontario Hydro, B and W International (Cambridge, Ontario) and B and W Nuclear Technologies (Lynchburg, Virginia). A multi-step EPRI/SGOG process was employed in a similar manner to previous clearings at Units 5 and 6 in 1992 and 1993, respectively. A major innovation with the Unit 1 cleaning was the incorporation of a crevice cleaning step, the first time this had been done on Ontario Hydro plants. In addition, six boilers were cleaned in parallel compared to three at a time in previous Pickering cleanings. This significantly reduced cleaning time. A total of 6,770 kg of sludge was removed through direct chemical dissolution. It consisted of 66% iron/nickel oxides and 28% copper metal. A total of 1,600,000 L (420,000 US gallons) of liquid waste was produced. It was processed through the spent solvent treatment facility located at the Bruce Nuclear Power Development site. Visual inspection performed after the cleaning indicated that the crevices between the boiler tubes and the tube support structure were completely clear of deposit and the general condition of the tubing and lattice bars appeared to be in 'as new' condition. (author)

  9. Space Heating Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, Kevin D.

    1998-01-01

    The performance evaluation of space heating equipment for a geothermal application is generally considered from either of two perspectives: (a) selecting equipment for installation in new construction, or (b) evaluating the performance and retrofit requirements of an existing system. With regard to new construction, the procedure is relatively straightforward. Once the heating requirements are determined, the process need only involve the selection of appropriately sized hot water heating equipment based on the available water temperature. It is important to remember that space heating equipment for geothermal applications is the same equipment used in non-geothermal applications. What makes geothermal applications unique is that the equipment is generally applied at temperatures and flow rates that depart significantly from traditional heating system design. This chapter presents general considerations for the performance of heating equipment at non-standard temperature and flow conditions, retrofit of existing systems, and aspects of domestic hot water heating.

  10. Sodium cleaning and disposal methods in experimental facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajan, K.K.; Gurumoorthy, K.; Rajan, M.; Kale, R.D.

    1997-01-01

    At Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, major sodium facilities are designed and operated at Engineering Development Group as a part of development programme towards experimental and Prototype Fast Reactor. After the test programme many equipment and components were removed from the sodium facilities and sodium removal and disposal was carried out. The experience gained in different cleaning methods and waste sodium disposal are discussed. (author)

  11. Renewal of radiological equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    In this century, medical imaging is at the heart of medical practice. Besides providing fast and accurate diagnosis, advances in radiology equipment offer new and previously non-existing options for treatment guidance with quite low morbidity, resulting in the improvement of health outcomes and quality of life for the patients. Although rapid technological development created new medical imaging modalities and methods, the same progress speed resulted in accelerated technical and functional obsolescence of the same medical imaging equipment, consequently creating a need for renewal. Older equipment has a high risk of failures and breakdowns, which might cause delays in diagnosis and treatment of the patient, and safety problems both for the patient and the medical staff. The European Society of Radiology is promoting the use of up-to-date equipment, especially in the context of the EuroSafe Imaging Campaign, as the use of up-to-date equipment will improve quality and safety in medical imaging. Every healthcare institution or authority should have a plan for medical imaging equipment upgrade or renewal. This plan should look forward a minimum of 5 years, with annual updates. Teaching points • Radiological equipment has a definite life cycle span, resulting in unavoidable breakdown and decrease or loss of image quality which renders equipment useless after a certain time period.• Equipment older than 10 years is no longer state-of-the art equipment and replacement is essential. Operating costs of older equipment will be high when compared with new equipment, and sometimes maintenance will be impossible if no spare parts are available.• Older equipment has a high risk of failure and breakdown, causing delays in diagnosis and treatment of the patient and safety problems both for the patient and the medical staff.• Every healthcare institution or authority should have a plan for medical imaging equipment upgrade or replacement. This plan should look forward a

  12. Revised Clean Air Act - Consequent enforcement necessary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keel, A.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the stipulations of the Swiss Clean Air Act regarding wood-fired combustion systems. In particular, the regulations on fine-dust emissions from wood-fired systems are discussed and its influence on the market for wood-fired heating systems is examined. Conformity statements can be issued for heating systems with a power of less than 70 kW that are tested to meet EN standards by accredited testing facilities. The history of the Swiss Association for Wood Energy and its efforts to introduce quality labels in this area of business are discussed. The situation regarding equipment with a power of less than 70 kW is addressed, as are large-scale wood-fired furnaces with ratings up to over 1,000 kW.

  13. Dry-cleaning of graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algara-Siller, Gerardo; Lehtinen, Ossi; Kaiser, Ute; Turchanin, Andrey

    2014-01-01

    Studies of the structural and electronic properties of graphene in its pristine state are hindered by hydrocarbon contamination on the surfaces. Also, in many applications, contamination reduces the performance of graphene. Contamination is introduced during sample preparation and is adsorbed also directly from air. Here, we report on the development of a simple dry-cleaning method for producing large atomically clean areas in free-standing graphene. The cleanness of graphene is proven using aberration-corrected high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron spectroscopy

  14. Dry-cleaning of graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Algara-Siller, Gerardo [Central Facility for Electron Microscopy, Group of Electron Microscopy of Materials Science, Ulm University, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, Ulm 89081 (Germany); Department of Chemistry, Technical University Ilmenau, Weimarer Strasse 25, Ilmenau 98693 (Germany); Lehtinen, Ossi; Kaiser, Ute, E-mail: ute.kaiser@uni-ulm.de [Central Facility for Electron Microscopy, Group of Electron Microscopy of Materials Science, Ulm University, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, Ulm 89081 (Germany); Turchanin, Andrey [Faculty of Physics, University of Bielefeld, Universitätsstr. 25, Bielefeld 33615 (Germany)

    2014-04-14

    Studies of the structural and electronic properties of graphene in its pristine state are hindered by hydrocarbon contamination on the surfaces. Also, in many applications, contamination reduces the performance of graphene. Contamination is introduced during sample preparation and is adsorbed also directly from air. Here, we report on the development of a simple dry-cleaning method for producing large atomically clean areas in free-standing graphene. The cleanness of graphene is proven using aberration-corrected high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron spectroscopy.

  15. The development of clean coal technology is the main way to control of atmospheric pollution in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Lixin; Xu Hong [Clean Coal Engineering & Research Center of Coal Industry (China)

    1999-11-01

    Atmospheric pollution in China and its causes are analysed. Power stations, industrial boilers and kilns and domestic coal combustion are the main pollution sources. Clean coal technologies are urgently needed. Main clean coal technologies which can improve the present situation of industrial coal combustion are coal cleaning, blending and briquetting; boiler retrofitting; advanced technologies to improve combustion efficiency and reduce pollution - fluidized bed combustion and pulverized coal desulfurization; and advanced desulfurization and dedusting technologies and equipment.

  16. CleanFleet. Final report: Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    CleanFleet, formally known as the South Coast Alternative Fuels Demonstration, was a comprehensive demonstration of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) in daily commercial service. Between April 1992 and September 1994, five alternative fuels were tested in 84 panel vans: compressed natural gas (CNG), propane gas, methanol as M-85, California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline (RFG), and electricity. The AFVs were used in normal FedEx package delivery service in the Los Angeles basin alongside 27 {open_quotes}control{close_quotes} vans operating on regular gasoline. The liquid and gaseous fuel vans were model year 1992 vans from Ford, Chevrolet, and Dodge. The two electric vehicles (EVs) were on loan to FedEx from Southern California Edison. The AFVs represented a snapshot in time of 1992 technologies that (1) could be used reliably in daily FedEx operations and (2) were supported by the original equipment manufacturers (OEMs). A typical van is shown in Figure 2. The objective of the project was to demonstrate and document the operational, emissions, and economic status of alternative fuel, commercial fleet delivery vans in the early 1990s for meeting air quality regulations in the mid to late 1990s. During the two-year demonstration, CleanFleet`s 111 vehicles travelled more than three million miles and provided comprehensive data on three major topics: fleet operations, emissions, and fleet economics. Fleet operations were examined in detail to uncover and resolve problems with the use of the fuels and vehicles in daily delivery service. Exhaust and evaporative emissions were measured on a subset of vans as they accumulated mileage. The California Air Resources Board (ARB) measured emissions to document the environmental benefits of these AFVs. At the same time, CleanFleet experience was used to estimate the costs to a fleet operator using AFVs to achieve the environmental benefits of reduced emissions.

  17. ROSEE cleans up after the Cold War

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valenti, M.

    1994-01-01

    This article describes a robot named ROSEE, designed by engineers at the DOE's Hanford site to minimize the risk of radiation exposure to workers cleaning up to residue left by America's manufacture of nuclear weapons. ROSEE is the acronym for Remotely Operated Sediment Extraction Equipment, a robot designed to vacuum sediment and debris from a nuclear fuels storage pool at the Department of Energy's Hanford nuclear waste storage site in Richland, Wash. The task facing ROSEE involves cleaning out the N basin at Hanford. Work is schedules to begin before the fall. The basin houses nuclear fuel refined during 24 years of the Cold War era. This water-filled structure is 24 feet deep, 87 feet long, and 56 feet wide, approximately three times larger than an Olympic-size swimming pool. Nuclear fuel was contained in honeycomb cells mounted 1 inch from the bottom of the pool. The cells rise 10 feet from the bottom of the basin, and each cell is 21 inches deep and 14 inches wide. The cells now hold radioactive residues that must be removed for final safe disposal

  18. Ultrasonic cleaning of conveyor belt materials using Listeria monocytogenes as a model organism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolvanén, Riina; Lunden, Janne; Korkeala, Hannu; Wirtanen, Gun

    2007-03-01

    Persistent Listeria monocytogenes contamination of food industry equipment is a difficult problem to solve. Ultrasonic cleaning offers new possibilities for cleaning conveyors and other equipment that are not easy to clean. Ultrasonic cleaning was tested on three conveyor belt materials: polypropylene, acetal, and stainless steel (cold-rolled, AISI 304). Cleaning efficiency was tested at two temperatures (30 and 45 degrees C) and two cleaning times (30 and 60 s) with two cleaning detergents (KOH, and NaOH combined with KOH). Conveyor belt materials were soiled with milk-based soil and L. monocytogenes strains V1, V3, and B9, and then incubated for 72 h to attach bacteria to surfaces. Ultrasonic cleaning treatments reduced L. monocytogenes counts on stainless steel 4.61 to 5.90 log units; on acetal, 3.37 to 5.55 log units; and on polypropylene, 2.31 to 4.40 log units. The logarithmic reduction differences were statistically analyzed by analysis of variance using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software. The logarithmic reduction was significantly greater in stainless steel than in plastic materials (P conveyor belt materials.

  19. 21 CFR 1250.33 - Utensils and equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... SANITATION Food Service Sanitation on Land and Air Conveyances, and Vessels § 1250.33 Utensils and equipment... of food or beverages, and the cleaning of food utensils, shall be so constructed as to be easily...

  20. Prediction of hygiene in food processing equipment using flow modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Alan; Jensen, Bo Boye Busk

    2002-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been applied to investigate the design of closed process equipment with respect to cleanability. The CFD simulations were validated using the standardized cleaning test proposed by the European Hygienic Engineering and Design Group. CFD has been proven as a ...

  1. Development of a sludge lancing equipment and FOSAR technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, W. T.; Choi, Y. S.; Son, S. Y.; Hong, S. Y.

    2003-01-01

    A program for developing steam generator lancing equipment was started in 1999 on the request of the Chemistry Division of KHNP of Kori NPP No.1. Based on the program, KALANS r -I lancing system was developed firstly in Korea. Lancing equipments for Ulchin NPP No.2(KSNP) and Youngkwang NPP No.1 have been being developed since 2001. A project for developing FOSAR(Foreign Object Search and Retrieval) equipment has been being developed since 2001. The FOSAR equipment is going to automate the search and retrieval operation which has been manual, thus minimizes radiation exposure and improves the performance of inspection work. Besides, a research to evaluate the feasibility of an ultrasonic cleaning method is also under consideration. A project to develop an Upper Bundle Hydraulic Cleaning (UBHC) system was started on May 2003. In this paper, a steam generator lancing system for Kori NPP No.1 is presented. A research activities for developing FOSAR(Foreign Object Search and Retrieval) system, UBHC(Upper Bundle Hydraulic Cleaning) system, and ultrasonic cleaning system are also presented briefly

  2. 7 CFR 58.128 - Equipment and utensils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... cleaning and inspection. Any opening at the top of the tank or vat including the entrance of the shaft... equally noncorrosive metal it shall be properly tinned over the entire surface. Sanitary seal assemblies at the shaft ends of coil vats shall be of the removable type, except that existing equipment not...

  3. Tracking Clean Energy Progress 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    Tracking Clean Energy Progress 2013 (TCEP 2013) examines progress in the development and deployment of key clean energy technologies. Each technology and sector is tracked against interim 2020 targets in the IEA Energy Technology Perspectives 2012 2°C scenario, which lays out pathways to a sustainable energy system in 2050. Stark message emerge: progress has not been fast enough; large market failures are preventing clean energy solutions from being taken up; considerable energy efficiency remains untapped; policies need to better address the energy system as a whole; and energy-related research, development and demonstration need to accelerate. Alongside these grim conclusions there is positive news. In 2012, hybrid-electric vehicle sales passed the 1 million mark. Solar photovoltaic systems were being installed at a record pace. The costs of most clean energy technologies fell more rapidly than anticipated.

  4. Uniquely Strongly Clean Group Rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG XIU-LAN

    2012-01-01

    A ring R is called clean if every element is the sum of an idempotent and a unit,and R is called uniquely strongly clean (USC for short) if every element is uniquely the sum of an idempotent and a unit that commute.In this article,some conditions on a ring R and a group G such that RG is clean are given.It is also shown that if G is a locally finite group,then the group ring RG is USC if and only if R is USC,and G is a 2-group.The left uniquely exchange group ring,as a middle ring of the uniquely clean ring and the USC ring,does not possess this property,and so does the uniquely exchange group ring.

  5. Emulsion type dry cleaning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohanawa, Osamu; Matsumoto, Hiroyo.

    1988-01-01

    Protective clothing against radioactive contamination used in the radiation controlled areas of nuclear plants has been washed by the same wet washing as used for underwear washing, but recently dry cleaning is getting used in place of wet washing, which generates a large quantity of laundry drain. However, it was required to use wet washing once every five to ten dry cleanings for washing protective clothing, because conventional dry cleaning is less effective in removing water-soluble soils. Therefore, in order to eliminate wet washing, and to decrease the quantity of laundry drains, the emulsion type dry cleaning system capable of removing both oil-soluble and water-soluble soils at a time has been developed. The results of developmental experiments and actual application are presented in this paper. (author)

  6. I'm dreaming of a white clean room...

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2014-01-01

    New HIE-ISOLDE cryomodules are now under construction in a state-of-the-art clean room facility in SM18.   The HIE-ISOLDE clean rooms in SM18. HIE-ISOLDE is set to be the world's leading nuclear physics site, ultimately accelerating radioactive nuclei to an impressive 10 MeV/u. Helping the facility reach this energy are new superconducting cryomodules, the first quarter-wave cavity module to be assembled at CERN and necessitating a custom clean-room in SM18. At a towering five metres tall, the new clean room houses a custom assembly frame and associated equipment, moving the components of the 6 tonne cryomodules both vertically and horizontally while they are being assembled. "Each cryomodule is made up of some 10,000 parts, which have come from across the continents to be assembled here," says CERN TE engineer Lloyd Williams, who is managing quality assurance for the project. "Each part is checked by the CERN team, catalogued and thoroughly cleaned, befor...

  7. Update-processing steam generator cleaning solvent at Palo Verde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, G.

    1996-01-01

    Framatome Technologies Inc.(FTI) recently completed the steam generator chemical cleanings at the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station Units 1, 2 and 3. Over 500,000 gallons of low-level radioactive solvents were generated during these cleanings and were processed on-site. Chemical cleaning solutions containing high concentrations of organic chelating wastes are difficult to reduce in volume using standard technologies. The process that was ultimately used at Palo Verde involved three distinct processing steps: The evaporation step was conducted using FTI's submerged combustion evaporator (SCE) that has also been successfully used at Arkansas Nuclear One - Unit 1, Three Mile Island - Unit 1, and Oconee on similar waste. The polishing step of the distillate used ultrafiltration (UF) and reverse osmosis (RO) technology that was also used extensively by Ontario Hydro to assist in their processing of chemical cleaning solvent. This technology, equipment, and operations personnel were provided by Zenon Environmental, Inc. The concentrate from the evaporator was absorbed with a special open-quotes peat mossclose quotes based media that allowed it to be shipped and buried at the Environcare of Utah facility. This is the first time that this absorption media or burial site has been used for chemical cleaning solvent

  8. Clean Energy Solutions Center (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reategui, S.

    2012-07-01

    The Clean Energy Ministerial launched the Clean Energy Solutions Center in April, 2011 for major economy countries, led by Australia and U.S. with other CEM partners. Partnership with UN-Energy is extending scope to support all developing countries: 1. Enhance resources on policies relating to energy access, small to medium enterprises (SMEs), and financing programs; 2. Offer expert policy assistance to all countries; 3. Expand peer to peer learning, training, and deployment and policy data for developing countries.

  9. Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freihaut, Jim [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2013-09-30

    The Mid Atlantic Clean Energy Application Center (MACEAC), managed by The Penn State College of Engineering, serves the six states in the Mid-Atlantic region (Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia and West Virginia) plus the District of Columbia. The goals of the Mid-Atlantic CEAC are to promote the adoption of Combined Heat and Power (CHP), Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) and District Energy Systems (DES) in the Mid Atlantic area through education and technical support to more than 1,200 regional industry and government representatives in the region. The successful promotion of these technologies by the MACEAC was accomplished through the following efforts; (1)The MACEAC developed a series of technology transfer networks with State energy and environmental offices, Association of Energy Engineers local chapters, local community development organizations, utilities and, Penn State Department of Architectural Engineering alumni and their firms to effectively educate local practitioners about the energy utilization, environmental and economic advantages of CHP, WHR and DES; (2) Completed assessments of the regional technical and market potential for CHP, WHR and DE technologies application in the context of state specific energy prices, state energy and efficiency portfolio development. The studies were completed for Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Maryland and included a set of incentive adoption probability models used as a to guide during implementation discussions with State energy policy makers; (3) Using the technical and market assessments and adoption incentive models, the Mid Atlantic CEAC developed regional strategic action plans for the promotion of CHP Application technology for Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Maryland; (4) The CHP market assessment and incentive adoption model information was discussed, on a continuing basis, with relevant state agencies, policy makers and Public Utility Commission organizations resulting in CHP favorable incentive

  10. RETRIEVAL EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. Steinhoff

    1997-01-01

    The objective and the scope of this document are to list and briefly describe the major mobile equipment necessary for waste package (WP) retrieval from the proposed subsurface nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Primary performance characteristics and some specialized design features of the equipment are explained and summarized in the individual subsections of this document. There are no quality assurance requirements or QA controls in this document. Retrieval under normal conditions is accomplished with the same fleet of equipment as is used for emplacement. Descriptions of equipment used for retrieval under normal conditions is found in Emplacement Equipment Descriptions, DI: BCAF00000-01717-5705-00002 (a document in progress). Equipment used for retrieval under abnormal conditions is addressed in this document and consists of the following: (1) Inclined Plane Hauler; (2) Bottom Lift Transporter; (3) Load Haul Dump (LHD) Loader; (4) Heavy Duty Forklift for Emplacement Drifts; (5) Covered Shuttle Car; (6) Multipurpose Vehicle; and (7) Scaler

  11. Discharge cleaning for a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Shigeyuki

    1983-01-01

    Various methods of discharge cleaning for tokamaks are described. The material of the first walls of tokamaks is usually stainless steel, inconel, titanium and so on. Hydrogen is exclusively used as the discharge gas. Glow discharge cleaning (GDC), Taylor discharge cleaning (TDC), and electron cyclotron resonance discharge cleaning (ECR-DC) are discussed in this paper. The cleaning by GDC is made by moving a movable anode to the center of a tokamak vassel. Taylor found the good cleaning effect of induced discharge by high pressure and low power discharge. This is called TDC. When the frequency of high frequency discharge in a magnetic field is equal to that of the electron cyclotron resonance, the break down potential is lowered if the pressure is sufficiently low. The ECR-CD is made by using this effect. In TDC and ECR-DC, the electron temperature, which has a close relation to the production rate of H 0 , can be controlled by the pressure. In GDC, the operating pressure was improved by the radio frequency glow (RG) method. However, there is still the danger of arcing. In case of GDC and ECR-DC, the position of plasma can be controlled, but not in case of TDC. The TDC is accepted by most of takamak devices in the world. (Kato, T.)

  12. Medical equipment management

    CERN Document Server

    Willson, Keith; Tabakov, Slavik

    2013-01-01

    Know What to Expect When Managing Medical Equipment and Healthcare Technology in Your Organization As medical technology in clinical care becomes more complex, clinical professionals and support staff must know how to keep patients safe and equipment working in the clinical environment. Accessible to all healthcare professionals and managers, Medical Equipment Management presents an integrated approach to managing medical equipment in healthcare organizations. The book explains the underlying principles and requirements and raises awareness of what needs to be done and what questions to ask. I

  13. Data communication equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hak Seon; Lee, Sang Mok

    1998-02-01

    The contents of this book are introduction of data communication on definition, purpose and history, information terminal about data communication system and data transmission system, data transmit equipment of summary, transmission cable, data port, concentrator and front-end processor, audio communication equipment like phones, radio communication equipment of summary on foundation of electromagnetic waves, AM transmitter, AM receiver, FM receiver and FM transmitter, a satellite and mobile communication equipment such as earth station, TT and C and Cellular phone, video telephone and new media apparatus.

  14. Evaluation of technology modifications required to apply clean coal technologies in Russian utilities. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The report describes the following: overview of the Russian power industry; electric power equipment of Russia; power industry development forecast for Russia; clean coal technology demonstration program of the US Department of Energy; reduction of coal TPS (thermal power station) environmental impacts in Russia; and base options of advanced coal thermal power plants. Terms of the application of clean coal technology at Russian TPS are discussed in the Conclusions.

  15. Wheelchair cleaning and disinfection in Canadian health care facilities: "That's wheelie gross!".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Paula; Muller, Matthew P; Prior, Betty; So, Ken; Tooze, Jane; Eum, Linda; Kachur, Oksana

    2014-11-01

    Wheelchairs are complex equipment that come in close contact with individuals at increased risk of transmitting and acquiring antibiotic-resistant organisms and health care-associated infection. The purpose of this study was to determine the status of wheelchair cleaning and disinfection in Canadian health care facilities. Acute care hospitals (ACHs), chronic care hospitals (CCHs), and long-term care facilities (LTCFs) were contacted and the individual responsible for oversight of wheelchair cleaning and disinfection was identified. A structured interview was conducted that focused on current practices and concerns, barriers to effective wheelchair cleaning and disinfection, and potential solutions. Interviews were completed at 48 of the 54 facilities contacted (89%), including 18 ACHs, 16 CCHs, and 14 LTCFs. Most (n = 24) facilities had 50-200 in-house wheelchairs. Respondents were very concerned about wheelchair cleaning as an infection control issue. Specific concerns included the lack of reliable systems for tracking and identifying dirty and clean wheelchairs (71%, 34/48), failure to clean and disinfect wheelchairs between patients (52%, 25/48), difficulty cleaning cushions (42%, 20/48), lack of guidelines (35%, 27/48), continued use of visibly soiled wheelchairs (29%, 14/48) and lack of resources (25%, 12/48). Our results suggest that wheelchair cleaning and disinfection is not optimally performed at many Canadian hospitals and LTCFs. Specific guidance on wheelchair cleaning and disinfection is necessary. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Cooling of electronic equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A. Kristensen, Anders Schmidt

    2003-01-01

    Cooling of electronic equipment is studied. The design size of electronic equipment decrease causing the thermal density to increase. This affect the cooling which can cause for example failures of critical components due to overheating or thermal induced stresses. Initially a pin fin heat sink...

  17. Capital Equipment Replacement Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Batterham, Robert L.; Fraser, K.I.

    1995-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the optimal replacement of capital equipment, especially farm machinery. It also considers the influence of taxation and capital rationing on replacement decisions. It concludes that special taxation provisions such as accelerated depreciation and investment allowances are unlikely to greatly influence farmers' capital equipment replacement decisions in Australia.

  18. High-resolution clean-sc

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsma, P.; Snellen, M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper a high-resolution extension of CLEAN-SC is proposed: HR-CLEAN-SC. Where CLEAN-SC uses peak sources in “dirty maps” to define so-called source components, HR-CLEAN-SC takes advantage of the fact that source components can likewise be derived from points at some distance from the peak,

  19. Clean coal technologies: A business report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The book contains four sections as follows: (1) Industry trends: US energy supply and demand; The clean coal industry; Opportunities in clean coal technologies; International market for clean coal technologies; and Clean Coal Technology Program, US Energy Department; (2) Environmental policy: Clean Air Act; Midwestern states' coal policy; European Community policy; and R ampersand D in the United Kingdom; (3) Clean coal technologies: Pre-combustion technologies; Combustion technologies; and Post-combustion technologies; (4) Clean coal companies. Separate abstracts have been prepared for several sections or subsections for inclusion on the data base

  20. Advances in telescope mirror cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanken, Maarten F.; Chopping, Alan K.; Dee, Kevin M.

    2004-09-01

    Metrology and cleaning techniques for telescope mirrors are generally well established. CO2 cleaning and water washing are mainly used. Water washing has proven to be the best method of removing oil and water stains and restoring the aluminium to nearly fresh values. The risk of water getting to unwanted places such as electronics or other optics prevents this method from being employed more often. Recently the Isaac Newton Group introduced a new cleaning technique for their telescope mirrors, which reduces the risks discussed above. This technique uses water vapour instead of water to wash the mirror. The advantage of this method is that the amount of water needed is drastically reduced. In addition the pressure of the vapour will blow away any large dust particles on the mirror and the temperature shock between the vapour and the mirror will help to de-bond the dust particles. Adding a soapy solution will help to clean oil and watermarks of the mirror. This paper describes the vapour cleaning method, tests that have been done and the overall findings.

  1. Nuclear criticality safety evaluation of large cylinder cleaning operations in X-705, Portsmouth Gaseous diffusion Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheaffer, M.K.; Keeton, S.C.; Lutz, H.F.

    1995-06-01

    This report evaluates nuclear criticality safety for large cylinder cleaning operations in the Decontamination and Recovery Facility, X-705, at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. A general description of current cleaning procedures and required hardware/equipment is presented, and documentation for large cylinder cleaning operations is identified and described. Control parameters, design features, administrative controls, and safety systems relevant to nuclear criticality are discussed individually, followed by an overall assessment based on the Double Contingency Principle. Recommendations for enhanced safety are suggested, and issues for increased efficiency are presented

  2. 46 CFR 109.301 - Operational readiness, maintenance, and inspection of lifesaving equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and cleaning each fuel tank, and refilling it with fresh fuel. (2) Each davit, winch, fall and other...(e); (ii) Maintenance and repair instructions; (iii) A schedule of periodic maintenance; (iv) A... repair equipment. Spare parts and repair equipment must be provided for each lifesaving appliance and...

  3. Instrumental parameters' determination in a fluorescences X-ray Philips PW 1400 equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, J.M.; Fasio, I.; Baronio, N.; Viola, M.

    1987-01-01

    The instrumental parameters of a Philips PW 1400 equipment wavelengths dispersive are determined; fundamentally, those related to the equipment's accuracy (stability at a very short, short and long term drift) as well as to those related to the detection system (dead time, detector's cleaning and detection limit). (S.M.) [es

  4. Surface cleaning in thin film technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattox, D.M.

    1978-01-01

    A ''clean surface'' is one that contains no significant amounts of undesirable material. This paper discusses the types and origin of various contaminants. Since cleaning is often equated with adhesion, the mechanisms of adhesion to oxide, metal, and organic surfaces are reviewed and cleaning processes for these surfaces are outlined. Techniques for monitoring surface cleaning are presented, and the importance of storage of clean surfaces is discussed. An extensive bibliography is given. 4 figs., 89 references

  5. Air cleaning using regenerative silica gel wheel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Lei

    2011-01-01

    This paper discussed the necessity of indoor air cleaning and the state of the art information on gas-phase air cleaning technology. The performance and problems of oxidation and sorption air cleaning technology were summarized and analysed based on the literature studies. Eventually, based...... on an experimental study, a technology called clean air heat pump is proposed as a practical approach for indoor air cleaning....

  6. Clean air in the Anthropocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelieveld, Jos

    2017-08-24

    In atmospheric chemistry, interactions between air pollution, the biosphere and human health, often through reaction mixtures from both natural and anthropogenic sources, are of growing interest. Massive pollution emissions in the Anthropocene have transformed atmospheric composition to the extent that biogeochemical cycles, air quality and climate have changed globally and partly profoundly. It is estimated that mortality attributable to outdoor air pollution amounts to 4.33 million individuals per year, associated with 123 million years of life lost. Worldwide, air pollution is the major environmental risk factor to human health, and strict air quality standards have the potential to strongly reduce morbidity and mortality. Preserving clean air should be considered a human right, and is fundamental to many sustainable development goals of the United Nations, such as good health, climate action, sustainable cities, clean energy, and protecting life on land and in the water. It would be appropriate to adopt "clean air" as a sustainable development goal.

  7. Clean-room robot implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comeau, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    A robot has been incorporated in a clean room operation in which vacuum tube parts are cleaned just prior to final assembly with a 60 lb/in 2 blast of argon gas. The robot is programmed to pick up the parts, manipulate/rotate them as necessary in the jet pattern and deposit them in a tray precleaned by the robot. A carefully studied implementation plan was followed in the procurement, installation, modification and programming of the robot facility. An unusual configuration of one tube part required a unique gripper design. A study indicated that the tube parts processed by the robot are 12% cleaner than those manually cleaned by an experienced operator

  8. Clean Coal Diesel Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Wilson

    2006-10-31

    A Clean Coal Diesel project was undertaken to demonstrate a new Clean Coal Technology that offers technical, economic and environmental advantages over conventional power generating methods. This innovative technology (developed to the prototype stage in an earlier DOE project completed in 1992) enables utilization of pre-processed clean coal fuel in large-bore, medium-speed, diesel engines. The diesel engines are conventional modern engines in many respects, except they are specially fitted with hardened parts to be compatible with the traces of abrasive ash in the coal-slurry fuel. Industrial and Municipal power generating applications in the 10 to 100 megawatt size range are the target applications. There are hundreds of such reciprocating engine power-plants operating throughout the world today on natural gas and/or heavy fuel oil.

  9. Stethoscope Cleaning During Patient Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghumman, Ghazi Wahla; Ahmad, Nina; Pop-Vicas, Aurora; Iftikhar, Sadia

    2018-05-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional survey of healthcare workers in two community teaching hospitals to better understand clinicians' beliefs and practices related to cleaning of their stethoscopes. The study was conducted from September 2015 to May 2016. Among the total 358 responses received, 45%, 40%, 10% and 5% were from attending physicians, medical students, nurses, and resident physicians, respectively. Although the majority of the respondents (76%) frequently used a stethoscope at work, and almost all (93%) believed that stethoscopes can be involved in pathogen transmission, only 29% of participants reported cleaning their stethoscopes after every use. Hospitals should include stethoscope cleaning into their overall infection prevention efforts. [Full article available at http://rimed.org/rimedicaljournal-2018-05.asp].

  10. Cleaning and dewatering fine coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Roe-Hoan; Eraydin, Mert K.; Freeland, Chad

    2017-10-17

    Fine coal is cleaned of its mineral matter impurities and dewatered by mixing the aqueous slurry containing both with a hydrophobic liquid, subjecting the mixture to a phase separation. The resulting hydrophobic liquid phase contains coal particles free of surface moisture and droplets of water stabilized by coal particles, while the aqueous phase contains the mineral matter. By separating the entrained water droplets from the coal particles mechanically, a clean coal product of substantially reduced mineral matter and moisture contents is obtained. The spent hydrophobic liquid is separated from the clean coal product and recycled. The process can also be used to separate one type of hydrophilic particles from another by selectively hydrophobizing one.

  11. Controlling the cost of clean air - A new clean coal technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindig, J.K.; Godfrey, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    This article presents the authors' alternative to expensive coal combustion products clean-up by cleaning the coal, removing the sulfur, before combustion. Topics discussed include sulfur in coal and the coal cleaning process, the nature of a new coal cleaning technology, the impact on Clean Air Act compliance, and the economics of the new technology

  12. Final status report in preparation for the chemical cleaning of Dresden-1, DNS-D1-034

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-09-01

    This report discusses the status of all of the activities conducted in preparation for the chemical cleaning of the Dresden-1 Nuclear Power Plant of Commonwealth Edison of Illinois. The metallurgical testing of a solvent and its ability to remove radioactivity are reviewed. Included are all engineering details relating to the modifications to the primary system to be able to perform the chemical cleaning and to rinse the cleaning solvent out of the equipment. A facility to store and process spent cleaning solutions is described in detail. Construction activities and preoperational activities are recounted. Licensing activities, quality assurance, safety, and radiation protection are discussed. The report includes recommendations for future actions for restarting the project when approval is received. All of the efforts discussed in this Final Status Report led to the conclusion that the chemical cleaning, as planned, was feasible. All of the necessary modifications and new equipment are in place and are operational

  13. Carbon dioxide cleaning pilot project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, L.; Blackman, T.E.

    1994-01-01

    In 1989, radioactive-contaminated metal at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) was cleaned using a solvent paint stripper (Methylene chloride). One-third of the radioactive material was able to be recycled; two-thirds went to the scrap pile as low-level mixed waste. In addition, waste solvent solutions also required disposal. Not only was this an inefficient process, it was later prohibited by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), 40 CFR 268. A better way of doing business was needed. In the search for a solution to this situation, it was decided to study the advantages of using a new technology - pelletized carbon dioxide cleaning. A proof of principle demonstration occurred in December 1990 to test whether such a system could clean radioactive-contaminated metal. The proof of principle demonstration was expanded in June 1992 with a pilot project. The purpose of the pilot project was three fold: (1) to clean metal so that it can satisfy free release criteria for residual radioactive contamination at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP); (2) to compare two different carbon dioxide cleaning systems; and (3) to determine the cost-effectiveness of decontamination process in a production situation and compare the cost of shipping the metal off site for waste disposal. The pilot project was completed in August 1993. The results of the pilot project were: (1) 90% of those items which were decontaminated, successfully met the free release criteria , (2) the Alpheus Model 250 was selected to be used on plantsite and (3) the break even cost of decontaminating the metal vs shipping the contaminated material offsite for disposal was a cleaning rate of 90 pounds per hour, which was easily achieved

  14. Laser paper cleaning: the method of cleaning historical books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zekou, Evangelini; Tsilikas, Ioannis; Chatzitheodoridis, Elias; Serafetinides, Alexander A.

    2016-01-01

    Conservation of cultural heritage treasures is the most important issue for transferring knowledge to the public through the next generation of students, academics, and researchers. Although this century is authenticating e-books and information by means of electronic text, still historical manuscripts as content as well as objects are the main original recourses of keeping a record of this transformation. The current work focuses on cleaning paper samples by the application of pulsed light, which is interventional. Experiments carried out using paper samples that are artificially colonized with Ulocladium chartarum. Paper is treated by Nd:YAG laser light. The available wavelength is 1064 nm, at various fluences, repetition rates and number of pulses. Two types of paper are stained with fungi colonies, which grow on substrates of clean paper, as well as on paper with ink text. The first type of paper is Whatman No.1056, which is closer to pure cellulose. The second type of paper is a page of a cultural heritage book published in 1926. Cleaning is performed using laser irradiation, thus defining the damage threshold of each sample. The treatment on paper Watman showed a yellowing, especially on areas with high concentration of fungi. The second sample was more durable to the exposure, performing the best results at higher fluences. Eventually, the paper samples are characterized, with optical microscopy and SEM/EDX analyses, prior to and after cleaning.

  15. Condenser performance monitoring and cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walden, J.V.

    1998-01-01

    The main condenser at Ginna Station was retubed from admiralty brass to 316 stainless steel. A condenser performance monitoring spreadsheet was developed using EPRI guidelines after fouling was discovered. PEPSE computer models were used to determine the power loss and confirm the spreadsheet results. Cleaning of the condenser was performed using plastic scrubbers. Condenser performance improved dramatically following the cleaning. PEPSE, condenser spreadsheet performance, and actual observed plant data correlated well together. The fouling mechanism was determined to be a common lake bacteria and fungus growth which was combined with silt. Chlorination of the circulating water system at the allowable limits is keeping the biofouling under control

  16. HVAC systems and equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, S.T. (Linford Air and Refrigeration Company, Oakland, CA (US))

    1990-02-01

    The author discusses the section of the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1989 which addresses HVAC systems and equipment. New features of HVAC systems mandatory general requirements are described. New prescriptive requirements are detailed.

  17. Personal Protective Equipment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    ... of personal protective equipment A safety program for new employees is a necessary part of any orientation program An on-going safety program should be used to motivate employees to continue to use...

  18. Electronic equipment packaging technology

    CERN Document Server

    Ginsberg, Gerald L

    1992-01-01

    The last twenty years have seen major advances in the electronics industry. Perhaps the most significant aspect of these advances has been the significant role that electronic equipment plays in almost all product markets. Even though electronic equipment is used in a broad base of applications, many future applications have yet to be conceived. This versatility of electron­ ics has been brought about primarily by the significant advances that have been made in integrated circuit technology. The electronic product user is rarely aware of the integrated circuits within the equipment. However, the user is often very aware of the size, weight, mod­ ularity, maintainability, aesthetics, and human interface features of the product. In fact, these are aspects of the products that often are instrumental in deter­ mining its success or failure in the marketplace. Optimizing these and other product features is the primary role of Electronic Equipment Packaging Technology. As the electronics industry continues to pr...

  19. Equipment for hydraulic testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsson, L.; Norlander, H.

    1981-07-01

    Hydraulic testing in boreholes is one major task of the hydrogeological program in the Stripa Project. A new testing equipment for this purpose was constructed. It consists of a downhole part and a surface part. The downhole part consists of two packers enclosing two test-sections when inflated; one between the packers and one between the bottom packer and the bottom of the borehole. A probe for downhole electronics is also included in the downhole equipment together with electrical cable and nylon tubing. In order to perform shut-in and pulse tests with high accuracy a surface controlled downhole valve was constructed. The surface equipment consists of the data acquisition system, transducer amplifier and surface gauges. In the report detailed descriptions of each component in the whole testing equipment are given. (Auth.)

  20. Classification of methods and equipment recovery secondary waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Kalashnikov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The issues of purification of secondary waters of industrial production have an important place and are relevant in the environmental activities of all food and chemical industries. For cleaning the transporter-washing water of beet-sugar production the key role is played by the equipment of treatment plants. A wide variety of wastewater treatment equipment is classified according to various methods. Typical structures used are sedimentation tanks, hydrocyclones, separators, centrifuges. In turn, they have a different degree of purification, productivity through the incoming suspension and purified secondary water. This is equipment is divided into designs, depending on the range of particles to be removed. A general classification of methods for cleaning the transporter-washing water, as well as the corresponding equipment, is made. Based on the analysis of processes and instrumentation, the main methods of wastewater treatment are identified: mechanical, physicochemical, combined, biological and disinfection. To increase the degree of purification and reduce technical and economic costs, a combined method is widely used. The main task of the site for cleaning the transporter-washing waters of sugar beet production is to provide the enterprise with water in the required quantity and quality, with economical use of water resources, taking into account the absence of pollution of surface and groundwater by industrial wastewater. In the sugar industry is currently new types of washing equipment of foreign production are widely used, which require high quality and a large amount of purified transporter-washing water for normal operation. The proposed classification makes it possible to carry out a comparative technical and economic analysis when choosing the methods and equipment for recuperation of secondary waters. The main equipment secondary water recovery used at the beet-sugar plant is considered. The most common beet processing plant is a

  1. Measures of International Manufacturing and Trade of Clean Energy Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engel-Cox, Jill; Sandor, Debbie; Keyser, David; Mann, Margaret

    2017-05-25

    The technologies that produce clean energy, such as solar photovoltaic panels and lithium ion batteries for electric vehicles, are globally manufactured and traded. As demand and deployment of these technologies grows exponentially, the innovation to reach significant economies of scale and drive down energy production costs becomes less in the technology and more in the manufacturing of the technology. Manufacturing innovations and other manufacturing decisions can reduce costs of labor, materials, equipment, operating costs, and transportation, across all the links in the supply chain. To better understand the manufacturing aspect of the clean energy economy, we have developed key metrics for systematically measuring and benchmarking international manufacturing of clean energy technologies. The metrics are: trade, market size, manufacturing value-added, and manufacturing capacity and production. These metrics were applied to twelve global economies and four representative technologies: wind turbine components, crystalline silicon solar photovoltaic modules, vehicle lithium ion battery cells, and light emitting diode packages for efficient lighting and other consumer products. The results indicated that clean energy technologies are being developed via complex, dynamic, and global supply chains, with individual economies benefiting from different technologies and links in the supply chain, through both domestic manufacturing and global trade.

  2. Cleaning Validation of Fermentation Tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salo, Satu; Friis, Alan; Wirtanen, Gun

    2008-01-01

    Reliable test methods for checking cleanliness are needed to evaluate and validate the cleaning process of fermentation tanks. Pilot scale tanks were used to test the applicability of various methods for this purpose. The methods found to be suitable for validation of the clenlinees were visula...

  3. Clean fuels from fossil sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanfilippo, D.

    2000-01-01

    Energy availability is determining to sustain the social development, but energy production involves environmental impacts at regional and global level. The central role of oil, natural gas, coal for energy supply will be kept for decades. The development of the engine-fuel combination to satisfy more stringent emissions limitations, is the challenge for an environmentally clean transportation system [it

  4. Cleaning Massive Sonar Point Clouds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arge, Lars Allan; Larsen, Kasper Green; Mølhave, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    We consider the problem of automatically cleaning massive sonar data point clouds, that is, the problem of automatically removing noisy points that for example appear as a result of scans of (shoals of) fish, multiple reflections, scanner self-reflections, refraction in gas bubbles, and so on. We...

  5. Clean coal initiatives in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, B.H.; Irwin, M.W.; Sparrow, F.T.; Mastalerz, Maria; Yu, Z.; Kramer, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - Indiana is listed among the top ten coal states in the USA and annually mines about 35 million short tons (million tons) of coal from the vast reserves of the US Midwest Illinois Coal Basin. The implementation and commercialization of clean coal technologies is important to the economy of the state and has a significant role in the state's energy plan for increasing the use of the state's natural resources. Coal is a substantial Indiana energy resource and also has stable and relatively low costs, compared with the increasing costs of other major fuels. This indigenous energy source enables the promotion of energy independence. The purpose of this paper is to outline the significance of clean coal projects for achieving this objective. Design/methodology/approach - The paper outlines the clean coal initiatives being taken in Indiana and the research carried out at the Indiana Center for Coal Technology Research. Findings - Clean coal power generation and coal for transportation fuels (coal-to-liquids - CTL) are two major topics being investigated in Indiana. Coking coal, data compilation of the bituminous coal qualities within the Indiana coal beds, reducing dependence on coal imports, and provision of an emissions free environment are important topics to state legislators. Originality/value - Lessons learnt from these projects will be of value to other states and countries.

  6. Meeting the clean air demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hocker, C.

    1991-01-01

    This article addresses the impacts to the emissions control industry and the future of small independent projects of the Clean Air Act. Topics discussed include technological and market niche of pollution control companies, risk reduction by owning and operating the emission control portion of the plant as a separate entity, the diversity of technologies, and legislative effects

  7. Laser cleaning on Roman coins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakaki, E.; Karydas, A. G.; Klinkenberg, B.; Kokkoris, M.; Serafetinides, A. A.; Stavrou, E.; Vlastou, R.; Zarkadas, C.

    Ancient metal objects react with moisture and environmental chemicals to form various corrosion products. Because of the unique character and high value of such objects, any cleaning procedure should guarantee minimum destructiveness. The most common treatment used is mechanical stripping, in which it is difficult to avoid surface damage when employed. Lasers are currently being tested for a wide range of conservation applications. Since they are highly controllable and can be selectively applied, lasers can be used to achieve more effective and safer cleaning of archaeological artifacts and protect their surface details. The basic criterion that motivated us to use lasers to clean Roman coins was the requirement of pulsed emission, in order to minimize heat-induced damages. In fact, the laser interaction with the coins has to be short enough, to produce a fast removal of the encrustation, avoiding heat conduction into the substrate. The cleaning effects of three lasers operating at different wavelengths, namely a TEA CO2 laser emitting at 10.6 μm, an Er:YAG laser at 2.94 μm, and a 2ω-Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm have been compared on corroded Romans coins and various atomic and nuclear techniques have also been applied to evaluate the efficiency of the applied procedure.

  8. Discharge cleaning of carbon deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozetic, M.; Vesel, A.; Drenik, A.

    2006-01-01

    Experimental results of discharge cleaning of carbon deposits are presented. Deposits were prepared by creating plasma in pure methane. The methane was cracked in RF discharge at the output power of 250 W. The resultant radicals were bonded to the wall of discharge vessel forming a thin film of hydrogenated black carbon with the thickness of about 200nm. The film was then cleaned in situ by oxygen plasma with the density of about 1x10 16 m -3 , electron temperature of 5 eV, neutral gas kinetic temperature of about 100 0 C and neutral atom density of 6x10 21 m -3 . The treatment time was 30 minutes. The efficiency of plasma cleaning was monitored by optical emission spectroscopy. As long as the wall was contaminated with carbon deposit, substantial emission of the CO molecules was detected. As the cleaning was in progress, the CO emission was decreasing and vanished after 30 minutes when the discharge vessel became free of any carbon. The results are explained by interaction of plasma radicals with carbon deposits. (author)

  9. Sociology: Clean-energy conservatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCright, Aaron M.

    2017-03-01

    US conservatives receive a steady stream of anti-environmental messaging from Republican politicians. However, clean-energy conservatives sending strong counter-messages on energy issues could mobilize moderate conservatives to break away from the dominant right-wing defence of fossil fuels.

  10. Establishment of a clean chemistry laboratory at JAERI. Clean laboratory for environmental analysis and research (CLEAR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanzawa, Yukiko; Magara, Masaaki; Watanabe, Kazuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; and others

    2003-02-01

    The JAERI has established a facility with a cleanroom: the Clean Laboratory for Environmental Analysis and Research (CLEAR). This report is an overview of the design, construction and performance evaluation of the CLEAR in the initial stage of the laboratory operation in June 2001. The CLEAR is a facility to be used for analyses of ultra trace amounts of nuclear materials in environmental samples for the safeguards, for the CTBT verification and for researches on environmental sciences. One of the special features of the CLEAR is that it meets double requirements of a cleanroom and for handling of nuclear materials. As another feature of the CLEAR, much attention was paid to the construction materials of the cleanroom for trace analysis of metal elements using considerable amounts of corrosive acids. The air conditioning and purification system, specially designed experimental equipment to provide clean work surfaces, utilities and safety systems are also demonstrated. The potential contamination from the completed cleanroom atmosphere during the analytical procedure was evaluated. It can be concluded that the CLEAR has provided a suitable condition for reliable analysis of ultra trace amounts of nuclear materials and other heavy elements in environmental samples. (author)

  11. Sensitive Equipment Decontamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    a ceramic-like material Polonium - 210 Metallic foil Radium-226 Radium bromide or radium chloride Strontium-90 Metallic strontium, strontium...extremely toxic toxins. 3.1.1.5 Routes of Infection Pathogenic microorganisms are transferred to human beings largely via air and food (including...regularly in the pharmaceutical industry to decontaminate manufacturing clean rooms. It is also used to sterilize packages used to store foods . It has

  12. Benchmarks of Global Clean Energy Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandor, Debra [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chung, Donald [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Keyser, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mann, Margaret [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Engel-Cox, Jill [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center (CEMAC), sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), provides objective analysis and up-to-date data on global supply chains and manufacturing of clean energy technologies. Benchmarks of Global Clean Energy Manufacturing sheds light on several fundamental questions about the global clean technology manufacturing enterprise: How does clean energy technology manufacturing impact national economies? What are the economic opportunities across the manufacturing supply chain? What are the global dynamics of clean energy technology manufacturing?

  13. Normal Conducting Separation Dipoles for the LHC Beam Cleaning Insertions

    CERN Document Server

    Bidon, S; Hans, O; Kalbreier, Willi; Kiselev, O; Petrov, V; Protopopov, I V; Pupkov, Yu A; Ramberger, S; de Rijk, G; Ruvinsky, E; Sukhanov, A

    2004-01-01

    In the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), two straight sections, IR3 and IR7, will be dedicated to beam cleaning. These cleaning insertions will be equipped with normal conducting magnets. MBW magnets are dipole magnets used to increase the separation of the two beams. They have a core length of 3.4 m and a gap height of 52 mm and will operate at a magnetic field ranging from 0.09 T to 1.53 T. Limitations on the dimensions and total weight of the magnet resulted in a special design with a common yoke for the two beams. The orbits of the two beams will be separated horizontally by a distance between 194 mm and 224 mm in the gap of the magnet. The magnet was designed in collaboration between CERN and BINP. The report presents the main design issues and results of the pre-series acceptance tests including mechanical, electrical and magnetic field measurements.

  14. Aviation safely management, Valdez oil spill clean-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friesenhahn, M.J.; McKeown, W.L.; Williams, R.G.

    1993-01-01

    The March 24, 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill in Alaska's Prince William Sound (PWS) resulted in an unprecedented mobilization of personnel and oil spill clean-up equipment. This paper describes the comprehensive safety management system implemented for aviation operations supporting the clean-up response in PWS and the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). Aviation support operations quickly expanded to over 100 aircraft obtained from numerous sources. Beginning with early surveillance flights, aviation operations were subject to comprehensive safety management programs, including safety assessments, minimum flight weather criteria, operational standards and procedures, air carrier qualifications, equipment and procedure audits, and emergency response. Communication networks and flight following procedures were established, arctic survival training was conducted, and a full complement of survival equipment was required. These programs were largely responsible for safety performance of the spill response effort-during the 1989-92 response activities, over 56,000 flight hours, 159,000 equivalent passengers, and 20,000 tons of cargo were handled without an aviation related injury. The programs are applicable to offshore development and operational activities, particularly those located in more remote, severe environments

  15. Development of clean chemical mechanical polishing systems; Clean CMP system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsujimura, M.; Hosokawa, M. [Ebara Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-10-20

    Described herein are clean chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) systems developed by Ebara. A CMP system needs advanced peripheral techniques, in addition to those for grinding adopted by the conventional system, in order to fully exhibit its inherent functions. An integrated design concept is essential for the CMP steps, including slurry supplying, polishing, washing, process controlling and waste fluid treatment. The Ebara has adopted a standard concept `Clean CMP, dry-in and dry-out of wafers,` and provided world`s highest grades of techniques for inter-layer insulating film, shallow trench isolation, plug and wiring. The head for the polishing module is specially designed by FEM, to improve homogeneity of wafers from the center to edges. The dresser is also specially designed, to improve pad surface topolody after dressing. A slurry dipsersing method is developed to reduce slurry consumption. Various washing modules, designed to have the same external shape, can be allocated to various functions. 10 figs.

  16. Clean vehicles as an enabler for a clean electricity grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coignard, Jonathan; Saxena, Samveg; Greenblatt, Jeffery; Wang, Dai

    2018-05-01

    California has issued ambitious targets to decarbonize transportation through the deployment of electric vehicles (EVs), and to decarbonize the electricity grid through the expansion of both renewable generation and energy storage. These parallel efforts can provide an untapped synergistic opportunity for clean transportation to be an enabler for a clean electricity grid. To quantify this potential, we forecast the hourly system-wide balancing problems arising out to 2025 as more renewables are deployed and load continues to grow. We then quantify the system-wide balancing benefits from EVs modulating the charging or discharging of their batteries to mitigate renewable intermittency, without compromising the mobility needs of drivers. Our results show that with its EV deployment target and with only one-way charging control of EVs, California can achieve much of the same benefit of its Storage Mandate for mitigating renewable intermittency, but at a small fraction of the cost. Moreover, EVs provide many times these benefits if two-way charging control becomes widely available. Thus, EVs support the state’s renewable integration targets while avoiding much of the tremendous capital investment of stationary storage that can instead be applied towards further deployment of clean vehicles.

  17. Ultrasonic aqueous cleaning as a replacement for chlorinated solvent cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, L.M.; Simandl, R.F.

    1992-01-01

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant has been involved in the replacement of chlorinated solvents since 1982. One of the most successful replacement efforts has been the substitution of vapor degreasers or soak tanks using chlorinated solvents with ultrasonic cleaning using aqueous detergents. Recently, funding was obtained from the Department of Energy Office (DOE) of Technology Development to demonstrate this technology. A unit has been procured and installed in the vacuum pump shop area to replace the use of a solvent soak tank. Initially, the solvents used in the shop were CFC-113 and a commercial brand cleaner which contained both perchloroethylene and methylene chloride. While the ultrasonic unit was being procured, a terpene-based solvent was used. Generally, parts were soaked overnight in order to soften baked-on vanish. Many times, wire brushing was used to help remove remaining contamination. Initial testing with the ultrasonic cleaner indicated cleaning times of 20 min were as effective as the overnight solvent soaks in removing contamination. Wire brushing was also not required following the ultrasonic cleaning as was sometimes required with the solvent soak

  18. Equipment abnormality monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Yasumasa

    1991-01-01

    When an operator hears sounds in a plantsite, the operator compares normal sounds of equipment which he previously heard and remembered with sounds he actually hears, to judge if they are normal or abnormal. According to the method, there is a worry that abnormal conditions can not be appropriately judged in a case where the number of objective equipments is increased and in a case that the sounds are changed gradually slightly. Then, the device of the present invention comprises a plurality of monitors for monitoring the operation sound of equipments, a recording/reproducing device for recording and reproducing the signals, a selection device for selecting the reproducing signals among the recorded signals, an acoustic device for converting the signals to sounds, a switching device for switching the signals to be transmitted to the acoustic device between to signals of the monitor and the recording/reproducing signals. The abnormality of the equipments can be determined easily by comparing the sounds representing the operation conditions of equipments for controlling the plant operation and the sounds recorded in their normal conditions. (N.H.)

  19. Prioritizing equipment for replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuano, Mike

    2010-01-01

    It is suggested that clinical engineers take the lead in formulating evaluation processes to recommend equipment replacement. Their skill, knowledge, and experience, combined with access to equipment databases, make them a logical choice. Based on ideas from Fennigkoh's scheme, elements such as age, vendor support, accumulated maintenance cost, and function/risk were used.6 Other more subjective criteria such as cost benefits and efficacy of newer technology were not used. The element of downtime was also omitted due to the data element not being available. The resulting Periop Master Equipment List and its rationale was presented to the Perioperative Services Program Council. They deemed the criteria to be robust and provided overwhelming acceptance of the list. It was quickly put to use to estimate required capital funding, justify items already thought to need replacement, and identify high-priority ranked items for replacement. Incorporating prioritization criteria into an existing equipment database would be ideal. Some commercially available systems do have the basic elements of this. Maintaining replacement data can be labor-intensive regardless of the method used. There is usually little time to perform the tasks necessary for prioritizing equipment. However, where appropriate, a clinical engineering department might be able to conduct such an exercise as shown in the following case study.

  20. Ventilation cost and air cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodfellow, H. D.

    The components associated with the costs of the purchase of pollution control equipment are discussed. These include the capital cost to purchase the equipment and installation, and the costs incurred to operate the control device on an annual basis. Although the capital costs can represent a significant outlay of money, typically these costs are spread out over the life of the equipment. In general, this amortized cost is combined with the operating cost and is referred to as an 'annualized cost'. The annualized cost is a commonly used indicator to demonstrate the actual year to year cost that the equipment and operation will represent. Values and methods used to estimate costs, typical cost indicators, and sources of computerized costing models are presented. A comparison of the capital cost expenditure required for a model case (a cement kiln operation), using three control device alternatives is made.

  1. Chemical cleaning specification: few tube test model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hampton, L.V.; Simpson, J.L.

    1979-09-01

    The specification is for the waterside chemical cleaning of the 2 1/4 Cr - 1 Mo steel steam generator tubes. It describes the reagents and conditions for post-chemical cleaning passivation of the evaporator tubes

  2. Clean Cities Now Vol. 17, No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-05-24

    Biannual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on advanced vehicle deployment, idle reduction, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

  3. Clean Cities Now Vol. 16.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-05-01

    Biannual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on advanced vehicle deployment, idle reduction, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

  4. Improving Overall Equipment Effectiveness Using CPM and MOST: A Case Study of an Indonesian Pharmaceutical Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omega, Dousmaris; Andika, Aditya

    2017-12-01

    This paper discusses the results of a research conducted on the production process of an Indonesian pharmaceutical company. The company is experiencing low performance in the Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE) metric. The OEE of the company machines are below world class standard. The machine that has the lowest OEE is the filler machine. Through observation and analysis, it is found that the cleaning process of the filler machine consumes significant amount of time. The long duration of the cleaning process happens because there is no structured division of jobs between cleaning operators, differences in operators’ ability, and operators’ inability in utilizing available cleaning equipment. The company needs to improve the cleaning process. Therefore, Critical Path Method (CPM) analysis is conducted to find out what activities are critical in order to shorten and simplify the cleaning process in the division of tasks. Afterwards, The Maynard Operation and Sequence Technique (MOST) method is used to reduce ineffective movement and specify the cleaning process standard time. From CPM and MOST, it is obtained the shortest time of the cleaning process is 1 hour 28 minutes and the standard time is 1 hour 38.826 minutes.

  5. Radioactive decontamination of equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-03-01

    After a recall of some definitions relating to decontamination techniques and of the regulation into effect, the principles to be respected to arrange rationally work zones are quoted while insisting more particularly on the types of coatings which facilitate maintenance operations and the dismantling of these installations. Then, the processes and equipments to use in decontamination units for routine or particular operations are described; the list of recommended chemical products to decontaminate the equipment is given. The influence of these treatments on the state and the duration of life of equipments is studied, and some perfectible methods are quoted. In the appendix, are given: the limits of surface contamination accepted in the centers; a standard project which defines the criteria of admissible residual contamination in wastes considered as cold wastes; some remarks on the interest that certain special ventilation and air curtain devices for the protection of operators working on apparatus generating contaminated dusts [fr

  6. Equipment Operational Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwalt, B; Henderer, B; Hibbard, W; Mercer, M

    2009-06-11

    The Iraq Department of Border Enforcement is rich in personnel, but poor in equipment. An effective border control system must include detection, discrimination, decision, tracking and interdiction, capture, identification, and disposition. An equipment solution that addresses only a part of this will not succeed, likewise equipment by itself is not the answer without considering the personnel and how they would employ the equipment. The solution should take advantage of the existing in-place system and address all of the critical functions. The solutions are envisioned as being implemented in a phased manner, where Solution 1 is followed by Solution 2 and eventually by Solution 3. This allows adequate time for training and gaining operational experience for successively more complex equipment. Detailed descriptions of the components follow the solution descriptions. Solution 1 - This solution is based on changes to CONOPs, and does not have a technology component. It consists of observers at the forts and annexes, forward patrols along the swamp edge, in depth patrols approximately 10 kilometers inland from the swamp, and checkpoints on major roads. Solution 2 - This solution adds a ground sensor array to the Solution 1 system. Solution 3 - This solution is based around installing a radar/video camera system on each fort. It employs the CONOPS from Solution 1, but uses minimal ground sensors deployed only in areas with poor radar/video camera coverage (such as canals and streams shielded by vegetation), or by roads covered by radar but outside the range of the radar associated cameras. This document provides broad operational requirements for major equipment components along with sufficient operational details to allow the technical community to identify potential hardware candidates. Continuing analysis will develop quantities required and more detailed tactics, techniques, and procedures.

  7. Private Exploration Primitives for Data Cleaning

    OpenAIRE

    Ge, Chang; Ilyas, Ihab F.; He, Xi; Machanavajjhala, Ashwin

    2017-01-01

    Data cleaning, or the process of detecting and repairing inaccurate or corrupt records in the data, is inherently human-driven. State of the art systems assume cleaning experts can access the data (or a sample of it) to tune the cleaning process. However, in many cases, privacy constraints disallow unfettered access to the data. To address this challenge, we observe and provide empirical evidence that data cleaning can be achieved without access to the sensitive data, but with access to a (no...

  8. Manufacturing of NAA laboratory clean room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwoto; Hasibuan, Djaruddin

    2001-01-01

    The ''NAA laboratory clean room'' has been built in the Reactor Serba Guna G.A. Siwabessy building. The erection of ''AAN laboratory clean room'' doing by started of preparation of the ''manufacturing procedure'' refer to ''Design and manufacturing neutron activation analysis clean room laboratory''. Manufacturing process and erection doing refer to procedures makes. By providing of the ''AAN laboratory clean room'' can be cocluded that the research activity and the user sevises in P2TRR well meet to be done

  9. Southwest Regional Clean Energy Incubation Initiative (SRCEII)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webber, Michael [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2017-10-31

    The Austin Technology Incubator’s (ATI’s) Clean Energy Incubator at the University of Texas at Austin (ATI-CEI) utilized the National Incubator Initiative for Clean Energy (NIICE) funding to establish the Southwest Regional Clean Energy Incubation Initiative, composed of clean energy incubators from The University of Texas at Austin (UT-Austin), The University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP), The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA), and Texas A&M University (TAMU).

  10. Charging equipment. Ladegeraet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann, E

    1981-09-17

    The invention refers to a charging equipment, particularly on board charging equipment for charging traction batteries of an electric vehicle from the AC mains supply, consisting of a DC converter, which contains a controlled power transistor, a switching off unloading circuit and a power transmitter, where the secondary winding is connected in series with a rectifier diode, and a smoothing capacitor is connected in parallel with this series circuit. A converter module is provided, which consists of two DC voltage converters, whose power transistors are controlled by a control circuit in opposition with a phase displacement of 180/sup 0/.

  11. ABORT GAP CLEANING IN RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DREES, A.; AHRENS, L.; III FLILLER, R.; GASSNER, D.; MCINTYRE, G.T.; MICHNOFF, R.; TRBOJEVIC, D.

    2002-01-01

    During the RHIC Au-run in 2001 the 200 MHz storage cavity system was used for the first time. The rebucketing procedure caused significant beam debunching in addition to amplifying debunching due to other mechanisms. At the end of a four hour store, debunched beam could account for approximately 30%-40% of the total beam intensity. Some of it will be in the abort gap. In order to minimize the risk of magnet quenching due to uncontrolled beam losses at the time of a beam dump, a combination of a fast transverse kicker and copper collimators were used to clean the abort gap. This report gives an overview of the gap cleaning procedure and the achieved performance

  12. Riser equipment decontamination engineering task plan; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOGER, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    On October 15, 1998, two Characterization Project Operations (CPO) employees were found to have contaminated clothing. An operator had 300,000-dpm/100cm2 beta/gamma, no alpha, contamination on his coat sleeve and a Radiation Control Technician (RCT) had 10,000 dpm/100cm2 beta/gamma, no alpha, on his shirt sleeve. The CPO swing shift crew was working in TX tank farm, performing sampling activities at 241-TX-113. TX tank farm is a ''clean farm'' and does not require anti-contamination clothing for entry. The CPO personnel were dressed in normal work clothes. An operator and an RCT were performing a pre-job survey that involved removing bagging around the riser equipment. When the RCT saw that the contamination readings from smear samples of the riser equipment were greater than expected, the job was suspended. Crew members were then directed to areas of lower background radiation for personnel surveys. During personnel surveys, reportable contamination was found on the coat sleeve of the operator who had been involved in the pre-job survey and on the shirt sleeve of the RCT who had been involved in the pre-job survey. No other personnel were found to be contaminated. Because of this off normal event Characterization Engineering was given the following corrective action: Examine the process methodology used for core sampling operations to determine practicality and potential long-term advantages of reducing personnel contact with contaminated equipment. This Engineering Task Plan ensures that LMHC 1998a, Corrective Action No.7 is completely addressed by Characterization Engineering. The deliverable is an Engineering Study that evaluates decontamination of riser equipment components and considers additional engineered features to reduce potential exposure to workers operating the riser equipment. This engineering study shall also address any released design features that have failed to be implemented

  13. Riser equipment decontamination engineering task plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOGER, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    On October 15, 1998, two Characterization Project Operations (CPO) employees were found to have contaminated clothing. An operator had 300,000-dpm/100cm2 beta/gamma, no alpha, contamination on his coat sleeve and a Radiation Control Technician (RCT) had 10,000 dpm/100cm2 beta/gamma, no alpha, on his shirt sleeve. The CPO swing shift crew was working in TX tank farm, performing sampling activities at 241-TX-113. TX tank farm is a ''clean farm'' and does not require anti-contamination clothing for entry. The CPO personnel were dressed in normal work clothes. An operator and an RCT were performing a pre-job survey that involved removing bagging around the riser equipment. When the RCT saw that the contamination readings from smear samples of the riser equipment were greater than expected, the job was suspended. Crew members were then directed to areas of lower background radiation for personnel surveys. During personnel surveys, reportable contamination was found on the coat sleeve of the operator who had been involved in the pre-job survey and on the shirt sleeve of the RCT who had been involved in the pre-job survey. No other personnel were found to be contaminated. Because of this off normal event Characterization Engineering was given the following corrective action: Examine the process methodology used for core sampling operations to determine practicality and potential long-term advantages of reducing personnel contact with contaminated equipment. This Engineering Task Plan ensures that LMHC 1998a, Corrective Action No.7 is completely addressed by Characterization Engineering. The deliverable is an Engineering Study that evaluates decontamination of riser equipment components and considers additional engineered features to reduce potential exposure to workers operating the riser equipment. This engineering study shall also address any released design features that have failed to be implemented

  14. Off-gas and air cleaning systems for accident conditions in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report surveys the design principles and strategies for mitigating the consequences of abnormal events in nuclear power plants by the use of air cleaning systems. Equipment intended for use in design basis accident and severe accident conditions is reviewed, with reference to designs used in IAEA Member States. 93 refs, 48 figs, 23 tabs

  15. Battery Technology Stores Clean Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Headquartered in Fremont, California, Deeya Energy Inc. is now bringing its flow batteries to commercial customers around the world after working with former Marshall Space Flight Center scientist, Lawrence Thaller. Deeya's liquid-cell batteries have higher power capability than Thaller's original design, are less expensive than lead-acid batteries, are a clean energy alternative, and are 10 to 20 times less expensive than nickel-metal hydride batteries, lithium-ion batteries, and fuel cell options.

  16. Clean Air Act. Revision 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-15

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Clean Air Act, as amended, and those regulations that implement the statute and appear to be most relevant to DOE activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. This Reference Book has been completely revised and is current through February 15, 1994.

  17. Users view of the reliability of air cleaning systems in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovach, J.L.

    1975-01-01

    The state of the art of air cleaning systems has advanced, but a wealth of knowledge did not result in a commensurate increase in the improvement of the design, manufacture, and operation of air cleaning systems. Often the developed data is not available or known to the designer, equipment supplier or operator. There are still systems installed where the equipment will operate under the specified criteria only when it is new and little thought is given to the subsequent maintainance and operating problems. The dissemination of available information to all of those concerned with the design, construction, installation, and operation of air cleaning systems through relevant standards, guides, etc. is unsatisfactory at the present time. (U.S.)

  18. How to care for and clean optical surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Cordero

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Many ophthalmic devices have optical components such as windows, lenses, mirrors, filters, and prisms; even very small irregularities (such as scratches can cause unwanted scattering of light which reduces quality. The surfaces of lenses, prisms, and windows are often coated with an antireflective layer to prevent loss of light due to reflection. Mirrors have a highly reflecting coating to get maximum reflection of light. Filters have coatings to cut out undesired wavelengths. The coatings are very thin and delicate and can be damaged by improper handling and cleaning.By following these suggestions, you will help ensure that all of the optical surfaces in your eye care equipment perform optimally.

  19. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Arabic Translation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    This is an Arabic translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  20. Clean Cities Now, Vol. 18, No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-01-19

    This is version 18.2 of Clean Cities Now, the official biannual newsletter of the Clean Cities program. Clean Cities is an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

  1. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Vietnamese Translation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    This is a Vietnamese translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  2. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Portuguese Translation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    This is a Portuguese translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center Services fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  3. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-04-01

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center (Solutions Center) helps governments, advisors and analysts create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. The Solutions Center partners with international organizations to provide online training, expert assistance, and technical resources on clean energy policy.

  4. 49 CFR 174.615 - Cleaning cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cleaning cars. 174.615 Section 174.615... Requirements for Division 6.1 (Poisonous) Materials § 174.615 Cleaning cars. (a) [Reserved] (b) After Division 6.1 (poisonous) materials are unloaded from a rail car, that car must be thoroughly cleaned unless...

  5. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (French Translation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    This is a French translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  6. 7 CFR 51.2083 - Clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 51.2083 Section 51.2083 Agriculture Regulations... FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Almonds in the Shell Definitions § 51.2083 Clean. Clean means that the shell is...

  7. Electric utilities and clean air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that electricity has become essential to American life. Approximately 70 percent of the nation's electricity is produced by burning fossil fuels, with coal, the most abundant, domestically-available, extracted natural resource, providing over 55 percent of the total electricity consumed. Emissions resulting from the burning of fossil fuels are regulated by both the federal and state governments. In 1970, Congress passed the comprehensive Clean Air Act which established a national program to protect the nation's air quality. In 1977, additional strict regulations were passed, which mandated even more stringent emission controls for factories, power plants and auto emissions. Prior to passage of the Clean Air Act of 1990, utilities were required to adhere to three major types of clean air regulations: National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), New Source Performance Standards (NSPS), and Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) review. NAAQS established limits for the maximum concentration levels of specific air pollutants in the ambient atmosphere. For example, for an area to be in compliance with the NAAQS for sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), its annual average SO 2 concentration must not exceed 0.03 ppm of SO 2 and a peak 24 hour level of 0.14 ppm of SO 2 must not be exceeded more than once per year

  8. TCV mirrors cleaned by plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Marot

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Metallic mirrors exposed in TCV tokamak were cleaned by plasma in laboratory. A gold (Au mirror was deposited with 185–285nm of amorphous carbon (aC:D film coming from the carbon tiles of TCV. Another molybdenum (Mo mirror had a thicker deposit due to a different location within the tokamak. The thickness measurements were carried out using ellipsometry and the reflectivity measurements performed by spectrophotometry revealed a decrease of the specular reflectivity in the entire range (250–2500nm for the Mo mirror and specifically in the visible spectrum for the Au. Comparison of the simulated reflectivity using a refractive index of 1.5 and a Cauchy model for the aC:D gives good confidence on the estimated film thickness. Plasma cleaning using radio frequency directly applied to a metallic plate where the mirrors were fixed demonstrated the ability to remove the carbon deposits. A mixture of 50% hydrogen and 50% helium was used with a −200V self-bias. Due to the low sputtering yield of He and the low chemical erosion of hydrogen leading to volatile molecules, 20h of cleaning were needed for Au mirror and more than 60h for Mo mirror. Recovery of the reflectivity was not complete for the Au mirror most likely due to damage of the surface during tokamak exposure (breakdown phenomena.

  9. Development of maintenance equipment for nuclear material fabrication equipment in a highly active hot cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. J.; Yang, M. S.; Kim, K. H. and others

    2000-09-01

    This report presents the development of a maintenance system for a highly contaminated nuclear material handling equipment at a hot-cell. This maintenance system has mainly three subsystems - a gamma-radiation measurement module for detecting a gamma-radiation level and identifying its distribution in-situ, a dry-type decontamination device for cleaning up contaminated particles, and a maintenance chamber for isolating contaminated equipment. The mechanical design considerations, controller, capabilities and remote operation and manipulation of the maintenance system are described. Such subsystems developed were installed and tested in the IMEF (Irradiated Material Examination Facility) M6 hot-cell after mock-up tests and performed their specific tasks successfully.

  10. Development of maintenance equipment for nuclear material fabrication equipment in a highly active hot cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J. J.; Yang, M. S.; Kim, K. H. and others

    2000-09-01

    This report presents the development of a maintenance system for a highly contaminated nuclear material handling equipment at a hot-cell. This maintenance system has mainly three subsystems - a gamma-radiation measurement module for detecting a gamma-radiation level and identifying its distribution in-situ, a dry-type decontamination device for cleaning up contaminated particles, and a maintenance chamber for isolating contaminated equipment. The mechanical design considerations, controller, capabilities and remote operation and manipulation of the maintenance system are described. Such subsystems developed were installed and tested in the IMEF (Irradiated Material Examination Facility) M6 hot-cell after mock-up tests and performed their specific tasks successfully

  11. Experimental equipment, ch. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boomstra, F.; Hoogenboom, A.M.; Prins, C.M.; Strasters, B.A.; Vermeer, A.; Wit, P. de; Zwol, N.A. van.

    1977-01-01

    The experimental equipment in use at Utrecht university is discussed. Attention is paid to the tandem Van de Graaff accelerator and the 4MV and 1MV accelerators. The detection systems for gamma-ray spectroscopy are reviewed with emphasis on the compton-suppression spectrometer. The data-handling system used for experiments with the tandem is also briefly discussed

  12. Equipment gift to Monaco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    Research work at the Agency's Laboratory of Marine Radioactivity in Monaco, including that concerned with pollution of the sea, has been made more effective by its latest acquisition of equipment. This is a spectrophotometer donated by the Federal Republic of Germany. (author)

  13. Lifetime of Mechanical Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leland, K.

    1999-07-01

    The gas plant at Kaarstoe was built as part of the Statpipe gas transport system and went on stream in 1985. In 1993 another line was routed from the Sleipner field to carry condensate, and the plant was extended accordingly. Today heavy additional supply- and export lines are under construction, and the plant is extended more than ever. The main role of the factory is to separate the raw gas into commercial products and to pump or ship it to the markets. The site covers a large number of well-known mechanical equipment. This presentation deals with piping, mechanical and structural disciplines. The lifetime of mechanical equipment is often difficult to predict as it depends on many factors, and the subject is complex. Mechanical equipment has been kept in-house, which provides detailed knowledge of the stages from a new to a 14 years old plant. The production regularity has always been very high, as required. The standard of the equipment is well kept, support systems are efficient, and human improvisation is extremely valuable.

  14. Safeguards techniques and equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The current booklet is intended to give a full and balanced description of the techniques and equipment used for both nuclear material accountancy and containment and surveillance measures, and for the new safeguards measure of environmental sampling. As new verification measures continue to be developed, the material in the booklet will be periodically reviewed and updated versions issued. (author)

  15. Equipping tomorrow's fire manager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher A. Dicus

    2008-01-01

    Fire managers are challenged with an ever-increasing array of both responsibilities and critics. As in the past, fire managers must master the elements of fire behavior and ecology using the latest technologies. In addition, today’s managers must be equipped with the skills necessary to understand and liaise with a burgeoning group of vocal stakeholders while also...

  16. Electrical equipment design library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This book guides the design supervision, construction order for electrical equipment. The contents of this library are let's use electricity like this, leading-in-pole and casual power, electric pole install below 300KVA, electric pole install below 301∼1000KVA, electric pole install exceed 1000KVA, rooftop install exceed 1000KVA, CUBICLE type, 154KV services. It adds an appendix.

  17. Orphee reactor experimental equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Experimental equipment around the ORPHEE reactor is presented. The neutron source; and the spectrometers and sample environment (inelastic and quasi-elastic scattering, elastic scattering, spread scattering, small angle scattering) are described. An experiment proposal and reports guide is supplied [fr

  18. Seismic qualification of equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidebrecht, A.C.; Tso, W.K.

    1983-03-01

    This report describes the results of an investigation into the seismic qualification of equipment located in CANDU nuclear power plants. It is particularly concerned with the evaluation of current seismic qualification requirements, the development of a suitable methodology for the seismic qualification of safety systems, and the evaluation of seismic qualification analysis and testing procedures

  19. Underground coal equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chadwick, J.

    2002-12-01

    This paper reports on increasing automation and enhanced productivity on longwalls, new development cutting and bolting technologies and haulage systems. Amongst equipment discussed is DBT's Electra series EL3000 shearer, the Dosco LH1400 roadheader with onboard bolters, and Joy 12 CM30 continuous miners. 4 photos.

  20. Chemical cleaning of UK AGR boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudge, A.; Turner, P.; Ghosh, A.; Clary, W.; Tice, D.

    2002-01-01

    For the first time in their operational lives, UK advanced gas-cooled reactor once-through boilers have been chemically cleaned. Chemical cleaning was necessary to avoid lost output resulting from boiler pressure drops, which had been increasing for a number of years. Chemical cleaning of these boilers presents a number of unique difficulties. These include lack of access to the boilers, highly sensitised 316H superheater sections that cannot be excluded from the cleaning flow path, relatively thin boiler tube walls and an intolerance to boiler tube failure because of the role of the boilers in nuclear decay heat removal. The difficulties were overcome by implementing the clean in a staged manner, starting with an extensive materials testwork programme to select and then to substantiate the cleaning process. The selected process was based on ammoniated citric acid plus formic acid for the principal acid cleaning stage. Materials testwork was followed by an in-plant trial clean of six boiler tubes, further materials testwork and the clean of a boiler tube in a full-scale test rig. An overview is presented of the work that was carried out to demonstrate that the clean could be carried out safely, effectively and without leading to unacceptable corrosion losses. Full-scale chemical cleaning was implemented by using as much of the existing plant as possible. Careful control and monitoring was employed to ensure that the cleaning was implemented according to the specified design, thus ensuring that a safe and effective clean was carried out. Full-scale cleaning has resulted in significant boiler pressure drop recovery, even though the iron burden was relatively low and cleaning was completed in a short time. (orig.)

  1. Cleaning, disassembly, and requalification of the FFTF in vessel handling machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coops, W.J.

    1977-10-01

    The Engineering Model In Vessel Handling Machine (IVHM) was successfully removed, cleaned, disassembled, inspected, reassembled and reinstalled into the sodium test vessel at Richland, Washington. This was the first time in the United States a full size operational sodium wetted machine has been cleaned by the water vapor nitrogen process and requalified for operation. The work utilized an atmospheric control system during removal, a tank type water vapor nitrogen cleaning system and an open ''hands on'' disassembly and assembly stand. Results of the work indicate the tools, process and equipment are adequate for the non-radioactive maintenance sequence. Additionally, the work proves that a machine of this complexity can be successfully cleaned, maintained and re-used without the need to replace a large percentage of the sodium wetted parts

  2. A study of drying and cleaning methods used in preparation for fluorescent penetrant inspection - Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brasche, L.; Lopez, R.; Larson, B.

    2003-01-01

    Fluorescent penetrant inspection is the most widely used method for aerospace components such as critical rotating components of gas turbine engines. Successful use of FPI begins with a clean and dry part, followed by a carefully controlled and applied FPI process, and conscientious inspection by well trained personnel. A variety of cleaning methods are in use for cleaning of titanium and nickel parts with selection based on the soils or contamination to be removed. Cleaning methods may include chemical or mechanical methods with sixteen different types studied as part of this program. Several options also exist for use in drying parts prior to FPI. Samples were generated and exposed to a range of conditions to study the effect of both drying and cleaning methods on the flaw response of FPI. Low cycle fatigue (LCF) cracks were generated in approximately 40 nickel and 40 titanium samples for evaluation of the various cleaning methods. Baseline measurements were made for each of the samples using a photometer to measure sample brightness and a UVA videomicroscope to capture digital images of the FPI indications. Samples were exposed to various contaminants, cleaned and inspected. Brightness measurements and digital images were also taken to compare to the baseline data. A comparison of oven drying to flash dry in preparation for FPI has been completed and will be reported in Part I. Comparison of the effectiveness of various cleaning methods for the contaminants will be presented in Part II. The cleaning and drying studies were completed in cooperation with Delta Airlines using cleaning, drying and FPI processes typical of engine overhaul processes and equipment. The work was completed as part of the Engine Titanium Consortium and included investigators from Honeywell, General Electric, Pratt and Whitney, and Rolls Royce

  3. A study of drying and cleaning methods used in preparation for fluorescent penetrant inspection - Part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brasche, L.; Lopez, R.; Larson, B.

    2003-01-01

    Fluorescent penetrant inspection is the most widely used method for aerospace components such as critical rotating components of gas turbine engines. Successful use of FPI begins with a clean and dry part, followed by a carefully controlled and applied FPI process, and conscientious inspection by well trained personnel. A variety of cleaning methods are in use for cleaning of titanium and nickel parts with selection based on the soils or contamination to be removed. Cleaning methods may include chemical or mechanical methods with sixteen different types studied as part of this program. Several options also exist for use in drying parts prior to FPI. Samples were generated and exposed to a range of conditions to study the effect of both drying and cleaning methods on the flaw response of FPI. Low cycle fatigue (LCF) cracks were generated in approximately 40 nickel and 40 titanium samples for evaluation of the various cleaning methods. Baseline measurements were made for each of the samples using a photometer to measure sample brightness and a UVA videomicroscope to capture digital images of the FPI indications. Samples were exposed to various contaminants, cleaned and inspected. Brightness measurements and digital images were also taken to compare to the baseline data. A comparison of oven drying to flash dry in preparation for FPI has been completed and will be reported in Part I. Comparison of the effectiveness of various cleaning methods for the contaminants will be presented in Part II. The cleaning and drying studies were completed in cooperation with Delta Airlines using cleaning, drying and FPI processes typical of engine overhaul processes and equipment. The work was completed as part of the Engine Titanium Consortium and included investigators from Honeywell, General Electric, Pratt and Whitney, and Rolls Royce

  4. The point of view of thermal equipment users; Le point de vue des gestionnaires d`equipements thermiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barroyer, P. [Compagnie Generale de Chauffe, 59 - Saint Andre Lez Lille (France)

    1997-12-31

    The influence of new pollution regulations in France on the operation of thermal equipment for central heating systems or industrial heat process systems, is examined. The main French regulations concerning air pollution control and energy rational consumption are reviewed, and their effects on the design, equipment, operation and costs of heat plants are discussed: impacts of the decree on upgrading and disposal of fossil fuel ashes, the decree on special protection zone (large cities), the clean air law, the compulsory declaration for classified combustion plants and limit air pollution emission levels

  5. Bio diesel- the Clean, Green Fuel for Diesel Engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkareish, S.M.M.

    2004-01-01

    Natural, renewable resources such as vegetable oils, animal fats and recycled restaurant greases can be chemically transformed into clean burning bio diesel fuels (1). Just like petroleum diesel, bio diesel operates in combustion-ignition engines. Blends of up to 20% bio diesel (mixed with petroleum diesel fuels) can be used in nearly all diesel equipment and are compatible with most storage and distribution equipment. Using bio diesel in a conventional diesel engine substantially reduces emissions of unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, sulphates, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and particulate matter. The use of bio diesel has grown dramatically during the last few years. Egypt has a promising experiment in promoting forestation by cultivation of Jatropha plant especially in luxor and many other sites of the country. The first production of the Egyptian Jatropha seeds oil is now under evaluation to produce a cost-competitive bio diesel fuel

  6. L-Reactor 186-basin cleaning alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turcotte, M.D.S.

    1983-01-01

    Operation of L Reactor will necessitate annual cleaning of the L Area 186 basins. Alternatives are presented for sediment discharge due to 186-basin cleaning activities as a basis for choosing the optimal cleaning method. Current cleaning activities (i.e. removal of accumulated sediments) for the P, C and K-Area 186 basins result in suspended solids concentrations in the effluent waters above the NPDES limits, requiring an exemption from the NPDES permit for these short-term releases. The objective of mitigating the 186-basin cleaning activities is to decrease the suspended solids concentrations to within permit limits while continuing satisfactory operation of the basins

  7. Use of fluorescent tagging for assessment of environmental cleaning and disinfection in a veterinary hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weese, J S; Lowe, T; Walker, M

    2012-09-01

    Environmental cleaning was assessed at a small animal veterinary referral hospital and associated primary healthcare facility. A convenience sample of surfaces was contaminated with fluorescent dye, and then cleaning was assessed 24 hours later by UV light visualisation. Five hundred sixty-three sites were assessed; however, 70 sites were unable to be evaluated 24 hours later because equipment had been removed or because rooms were occupied at the time of re-evaluation. Overall, dye was removed from 212/493 (43%) of sites. Site-specific rates ranged from 14% (computer keyboards and mice, 9/66 site cleaned) to 81% (examination tables, 44/54 sites cleaned). There was a significant difference in the prevalence of successful cleaning by general location (P cleaning practices. Results prompted further infection control investigations to explain selected deficiencies, leading to identification of inadequacies in protocols and practices. Environmental tagging may be a useful infection control tool for establishing baseline cleaning rates, identifying deficiencies in protocols, evaluating the effects of interventions and education of personnel.

  8. Apparatuses, Systems and Methods for Cleaning Photovoltaic Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Eitelhuber, Georg

    2013-01-01

    Embodiments of solar panel cleaning apparatuses, solar panel cleaning systems, and solar panel cleaning methods are disclosed. In certain embodiments, the disclosed solar panel cleaning apparatuses, systems and methods do may not require any water

  9. Visual communication and terminal equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Cheol Hui

    1988-06-01

    This book is divided two parts about visual communication and terminal equipment. The first part introduces visual communication, which deals with foundation of visual communication, technique of visual communication, equipment of visual communication, a facsimile and pictorial image system. The second part contains terminal equipment such as telephone, terminal equipment for data transmission on constitution and constituent of terminal equipment for data transmission, input device and output device, terminal device and up-to-date terminal device.

  10. Visual communication and terminal equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Cheol Hui

    1988-06-15

    This book is divided two parts about visual communication and terminal equipment. The first part introduces visual communication, which deals with foundation of visual communication, technique of visual communication, equipment of visual communication, a facsimile and pictorial image system. The second part contains terminal equipment such as telephone, terminal equipment for data transmission on constitution and constituent of terminal equipment for data transmission, input device and output device, terminal device and up-to-date terminal device.

  11. IDEA Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, Robert P. [International District Energy Association, Westborough, MA (United States)

    2013-12-20

    The DOE Clean Energy Application Centers were launched with a goal of focusing on important aspects of our nation’s energy supply including Efficiency, Reliability and Resiliency. Clean Energy solutions based on Combined Heat & Power (CHP), District Energy and Waste Heat Recovery are at the core of ensuring a reliable and efficient energy infrastructure for campuses, communities, and industry and public enterprises across the country. IDEA members which include colleges and universities, hospitals, airports, downtown utilities as well as manufacturers, suppliers and service providers have long-standing expertise in the planning, design, construction and operations of Clean Energy systems. They represent an established base of successful projects and systems at scale and serve important and critical energy loads. They also offer experience, lessons learned and best practices which are of immense value to the sustained growth of the Clean Energy sector. IDEA has been able to leverage the funds from the project award to raise the visibility, improve the understanding and increase deployment CHP, District Energy and Waste Heat Recovery solutions across the regions of our nation, in collaboration with the regional CEAC’s. On August 30, 2012, President Obama signed an Executive Order to accelerate investments in industrial energy efficiency (EE), including CHP and set a national goal of 40 GW of new CHP installation over the next decade IDEA is pleased to have been able to support this Executive Order in a variety of ways including raising awareness of the goal through educational workshops and Conferences and recognizing the installation of large scale CHP and district energy systems. A supporting key area of collaboration has involved IDEA providing technical assistance on District Energy/CHP project screenings and feasibility to the CEAC’s for multi building, multi-use projects. The award was instrumental in the development of a first-order screening

  12. Clean nuclear power (2. part)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocherolles, R.

    1998-01-01

    The 450 nuclear power plants which produce 24% of world electricity do not generate greenhouse gas effects, but 8,000 tonnes per year of irradiated, radioactive fuel. The first article which was published in the July-August 1997 issue of this journal, described the composition and management of these fuels. This article wish to show the advantage of 'advanced re-processing', which would separate fission products from actinides, in order to incinerate them separately in dedicated fuels and reactors, which, from an ecological point of view, seems more efficient than burying them underground in deep, geological layers. To rid the planet of waste which is continuing to build up, the first step is to build 'incinerators' which will eliminate fission products by slow neutron assisted neutronic capture, and actinides by fast neutron assisted fission. Various projects have been set up, in particular, in Los Alamos, Japan and the CERN. The Carlo Rubbia hybrid machine operating on the well-known thorium cycle is the most advanced project. An incinerator connected up to standard PWR reactor produces no actinide, and reduces the existing stock of plutonium. However, the proper solution, obviously, is to no longer produce waste along with power; second generation nuclear fission will do this. The CERN team bas studied a clean reactor, producing practically no actinides, or fission products, more or less. Thus, the solution to the problem of waste is at hand, and nuclear power will be cleaner that all other types of power. The world market opening up to clean nuclear power is about 1,300 Gigawatts, or 1,300 plants of 1,000 Megawatts. Remarkable progress is taking place under our very eyes; soon we will have clean power in sufficient quantities, at a lower cost than that of other forms of power. (authors)

  13. Advances in ultrasonic fuel cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blok, J.; Frattini, P.; Moser, T.

    2002-01-01

    The economics of electric generation is requiring PWR plant operators to consider higher fuel duty and longer cycles. As a result, sub-cooled nucleate boiling is now an accepted occurrence in the upper spans of aggressively driven PWR cores. Thermodynamic and hydraulic factors determine that the boiling surfaces of the fuel favor deposition of corrosion products. Thus, the deposits on high-duty fuel tend to be axially distributed in an inhomogeneous manner. Axial offset anomaly (AOA) is the result of axially non-homogeneous distribution of boron compounds in these axially variable fuel deposits. Besides their axial asymmetry, fuel deposits in boiling cores tend to be qualitatively different from deposits on non-boiling fuel. Thus, deposits on moderate-duty PWR fuel are generally iron rich, predominating in nickel ferrites. Deposits on cores with high boiling duty, on the other hand, tend to be rich in nickel, with sizeable fractions of NiO or elemental nickel. Other unexpected compounds such as m-ZrO 2 and Ni-Fe oxy-borates have been found in significant quantity in deposits on boiling cores. This paper describes the ultrasonic fuel cleaning technology developed by EPRI. Data will be presented to confirm that the method is effective for removing fuel deposits from both high-duty and normal-duty fuel. The report will describe full-core fuel cleaning using the EPRI technology for Callaway Cycle 12 reload fuel. The favorable impact of fuel cleaning on Cycle 12 AOA performance will also be presented. (authors)

  14. Equipment cost optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, E.M.; Farias, M.A.; Dreyer, S.R.B.

    1995-01-01

    Considering the importance of the cost of material and equipment in the overall cost profile of an oil company, which in the case of Petrobras, represents approximately 23% of the total operational cost or 10% of the sales, an organization for the optimization of such costs has been established within Petrobras. Programs are developed aiming at: optimization of life-cycle cost of material and equipment; optimization of industrial processes costs through material development. This paper describes the methodology used in the management of the development programs and presents some examples of concluded and ongoing programs, which are conducted in permanent cooperation with suppliers, technical laboratories and research institutions and have been showing relevant results

  15. X-ray equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redmayne, I.G.B.

    1988-01-01

    The patent concerns a warning and protection system for mobile x-ray equipment used for 'on site' radiography, so that workers in the vicinity of such a working unit can be alerted to its presence. The invention is a local repeater warning system which gives a preliminary warning that energisation of the tubehead is imminent, as well as a switch near the tubehead to abort or inhibit energisation. The latter switch allows personnel caught in the vicinity of the tubehead to prevent energisation. The preliminary warning may be flashing lamps or by a klaxon. The control unit for the equipment may include a monitoring circuit to detect failure of the warning light or klaxon. (U.K.)

  16. X-ray equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redmayne, I.G.B.

    1988-01-06

    The patent concerns a warning and protection system for mobile x-ray equipment used for 'on site' radiography, so that workers in the vicinity of such a working unit can be alerted to its presence. The invention is a local repeater warning system which gives a preliminary warning that energisation of the tubehead is imminent, as well as a switch near the tubehead to abort or inhibit energisation. The latter switch allows personnel caught in the vicinity of the tubehead to prevent energisation. The preliminary warning may be flashing lamps or by a klaxon. The control unit for the equipment may include a monitoring circuit to detect failure of the warning light or klaxon. (U.K.).

  17. Tube for irradiation equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goehrich, K.; Vogt, H.

    1979-01-01

    This patent describes a tube for irradiation equipment for limiting an emergent beam, with a baseplate, possessing a central aperture, intended for attaching to the equipment, as well as four carrier plates, each of which possesses a limiting edge and a sliding edge located at right angles thereto. The carrier plates are located parallel to the baseplate, the limiting edge of each carrier plate resting against the sliding edge of the adjacent carrier plate and each of the two mutually opposite pairs of carrier plates being displaceable, parallel to the direction of its sliding edges and symmetrically to the center of the transmission aperture, for the purpose of continuously varying the transmission aperture defined by the limiting edges, during which displacement each of the displaced carrier plates carries with it the carrier plate, resting against the limiting edge of the former plate, parallel to the direction of the limiting edge of the latter plate. 8 claims

  18. Cleaning Insertions and Collimation Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redaelli, S.; Appleby, R. B.; Bertarelli, A.; Bruce, R.; Jowett, J. M.; Lechner, A.; Losito, R.

    High-performance collimation systems are essential for operating efficiently modern hadron machine with large beam intensities. In particular, at the LHC the collimation system ensures a clean disposal of beam halos in the superconducting environment. The challenges of the HL-LHC study pose various demanding requests for beam collimation. In this paper we review the present collimation system and its performance during the LHC Run 1 in 2010-2013. Various collimation solutions under study to address the HL-LHC requirements are then reviewed, identifying the main upgrade baseline and pointing out advanced collimation concept for further enhancement of the performance.

  19. Exhaust gas clean up process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, R.J.

    1988-06-16

    A method of cleaning an exhaust gas containing particulates, SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ is described. The method involves prescrubbing with water to remove HCl and most of the particulates, scrubbing with an aqueous absorbent containing a metal chelate and dissolved sulfite salt to remove NO/sub x/ and SO/sub 2/, and regenerating the absorbent solution by controlled heating, electrodialysis and carbonate salt addition. The NO/sub x/ is removed as N/sub 2/ gas or nitrogen sulfonate ions and the oxides of sulfur are removed as a valuable sulfate salt. 4 figs.

  20. Cleaning the Diesel Engine Emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Budde

    This paper examines how technologies for cleaning of diesel emission from road vehicles can be supported by facilitating a technology push in the Danish automotive emission control industry. The European commission is at present preparing legislation for the euro 5 emission standard (to be enforced...... in 2010). The standard is expected to include an 80% reduction of the maximum particulate emissions from diesel cars. The fulfillment of this requirement entails development and production of particulate filters for diesel cars and trucks. Theoretically the paper suggests a rethinking of public industry...

  1. Method of continuously cleaning condensers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Akira; Takahashi, Sankichi.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent marine livings from depositing to the inside of ball recycling pipeways. Method: Copper electrodes are provided to the downstream of a sponge ball collector in a sponge ball recycling pipeways for cleaning through the cooling pipes of a condenser. Electrical current is supplied by way of a variable resister to the electrodes and copper ions resulted from the dissolution of the electrodes are fed in the pipes to kill the marine livings such as barnacles and prevent the marine livings from depositing to the inside of the sponge ball recycling pipeways. (Seki, T.)

  2. Equipment for isotope diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platz, W.

    1976-01-01

    The invention concerns an improvement of equipment for isotope diagnostics allowing to mark special intensity ranges of the recorded measurements by means of different colors. For undisturbed operation it is of advantage to avoid electric circuits between movable and unmovable parts of the color recorder. According to the invention, long gear wheels of glass fiber-reinforced polyamide are used for these connections. (ORU) [de

  3. Soviet equipment flies in

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1978-01-01

    End of February 1977 a Soviet Ilyushin-76 heavy freight aircraft landed at Cointrin airport having on board fifty large wire proprtional chambers and associated apparatus, together weighing 10 tons, supplied by the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, USSR. The equipment was for the CERN- Dubna-Munich-Saclay experiment NA4 on deep inelastic muon scattering being set up in the North Area of SPS. See Weekly Bulletin 11/78.

  4. Labelling of equipment dispensers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, D C

    1993-01-01

    A new labelling system for use on medical equipment dispensers is tested. This system uses one of the objects stored in each unit of the dispenser as the 'label', by attaching it to the front of the dispenser with tape. The new system was compared to conventional written labelling by timing subjects asked to select items from two dispensers. The new system was 27% quicker than the conventional system. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8110335

  5. Equipment Obsolescence Management Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redmond, J.

    2014-07-01

    Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) Operators are challenged with securing reliable supply channels for safety related equipment due to equipment obsolescence. Many Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) have terminated production of spare parts and product life-cycle support. The average component life cycles are much shorter than the NPP design life, which means that replacement components and parts for the original NPP systems are not available for the complete design life of the NPPs. The lack or scarcity of replacement parts adversely affects plant reliability and ultimately the profitability of the affected NPPs. This problem is further compounded when NPPs pursue license renewal and approval for plant-life extension. A reliable and predictable supply of replacement co components is necessary for NPPs to remain economically competitive and meet regulatory requirements and guidelines. Electrical and I and C components, in particular, have short product life cycles and obsolescence issues must be managed pro actively and not reactively in order to mitigate the risk to the NPP to ensure reliable and economic NPP operation. (Author)

  6. Personal protective equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This Practical Radiation Technical Manual is one of a series that has been designed to provide guidance on radiological protection for employers, radiation protection officers, managers and other technically competent persons who have responsibility for ensuring the safety of employees working with ionizing radiation. The Manual may be used with the appropriate IAEA Practical Radiation Safety Manuals to provide training, instruction and information for all employees engaged in work with ionizing radiation. Personal protective equipment (PPE) includes clothing or other special equipment that is issued to individual workers to provide protection against actual or potential exposure to ionizing radiations. It is used to protect each worker against the prevailing risk of external or internal exposure in circumstances in which it is not reasonably practicable to provide complete protection by means of engineering controls or administrative methods. Adequate personal protection depends on PPE being correctly selected, fitted and maintained. Appropriate training for the users and arrangements to monitor usage are also necessary to ensure that PPE provides the intended degree of protection effectively. This Manual explains the principal types of PPE, including protective clothing and respiratory protective equipment (RPE). Examples of working procedures are also described to indicate how PPE should be used within a safe system of work. The Manual will be of most benefit if it forms part of a more comprehensive training programme or is supplemented by the advice of a qualified expert in radiation protection. Some of the RPE described in this Manual should be used under the guidance of a qualified expert

  7. Investigation of cleaning reagents for calcium chromate spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dillard, B.M.

    1979-01-01

    Cleaning of calcium chromate spills can be a problem due to the insolubility of the material and the corrosiveness of several possible cleaning agents on the stainless steel equipment. Because of OSHA Standards for Cr(VI) exposure, it is necessary to remove spills as efficiently as possible in order to prevent the contaminant from becoming airborne. This study involved the comparison of several possible cleaning agents by studying the solubility of calcium chromate in each reagent. Two general types of reagents for dissolution of calcium chromate were investigated; those which act by conversion of the insoluble calcium chromate to a more soluble salt and to H 2 CrO 4 , and those which appear to act as complexing agents and thereby dissolve the calcium chromate. The most efficient of the reagents investigated was hydrochloric acid. However, even dilute solutions of halide acids destroy passivity of stainless steel causing pitting and stress-corrosion. Acetic acid and nitric acid were somewhat less efficient than hydrochloric acid in dissolving calcium chromate. However, both reagents are noncorrosive with stainless steel, nitric acid tending to favor passivity of the materials. Therefore, it is recommended that dilute solutions of either of these two acids be used for removal of calcium chromate spills in conjunction with mechanical methods that might be necessary, depending on the magnitude of the spill

  8. Neonatal resuscitation equipment: A hidden risk for our babies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winckworth, Lucinda C; McLaren, Emma; Lingeswaran, Arvin; Kelsey, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Neonatal infections carry a heavy burden of morbidity and mortality. Poor practice can result in unintentional colonisation of medical equipment with potentially pathogenic organisms. This study will determine the prevalence and type of bacterial contamination on exposed neonatal resuscitation equipment in different clinical settings and explore simple measures to reduce contamination risk. A survey determined the rates of resuscitation equipment usage. All environmentally exposed items were identified on resuscitaires hospital-wide and swabbed for bacterial contamination. A new cleaning and storage policy was implemented and the prevalence of environmentally exposed equipment re-measured post-intervention. Resuscitation equipment was used in 28% of neonatal deliveries. Bacterial colony forming units were present on 44% of the 236 exposed equipment pieces swabbed. There was no significant difference in contamination rates between equipment types. Coagulase negative staphylococcus was the most prevalent species (59 pieces, 25%) followed by Escherichia coli and Enterobacter cloacae (20 pieces, 9% each). Opened items stored inside plastic remained sterile, whilst those in low-use areas had significantly less contamination than those in high-use areas (22% vs. 51%, P reducing microbial colonisation opportunities. © 2016 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  9. Krakow clean fossil fuels and energy efficiency project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, T.A.; Pierce, B.L. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The Support for Eastern European Democracy (SEED) Act of 1989 directed the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to undertake an equipment assessment project aimed at developing the capability within Poland to manufacture or modify industrial-scale combustion equipment to utilize fossil fuels cleanly. This project is being implemented in the city of Krakow as the `Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficiency Project.` Funding is provided through the U.S. Agency for International Development (AID). The project is being conducted in a manner that can be generalized to all of Poland and to the rest of Eastern Europe. The historic city of Krakow has a population of 750,000. Almost half of the heating energy used in Krakow is supplied by low-efficiency boilerhouses and home coal stoves. Within the town, there are more than 1,300 local boilerhouses and 100,000 home stoves. These are collectively referred to as the `low emission sources` and they are the primary sources of particulates and hydrocarbon emissions in the city and major contributors of sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide.

  10. Chemical cleaning of AGR boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, S.V.; Moore, W.; Rantell, A.

    1978-01-01

    AGR boilers are likely to require post service chemical cleaning to remove accumulated oxides at intervals of 15 - 35 kh. The need to clean will be based on an assessment of such factors as the development of flow imbalances through parallel tubes induced by the formation of rough oxide surfaces, an increasing risk of localised corrosion as the growth of porous oxides proceeds and the risk of tube blockage caused by the exfoliation of steam-grown oxides. The study has shown what heterogeneous multilayer oxides possessing a range of physical and chemical properties form on the alloy steels. They include porous and compact magnetites, chromium spinels and sesquioxide. Ammoniated citric acid has been shown to remove deposited and water-grown magnetites from the carbon and alloy steels but will not necessarily remove the substituted spinels grown on the alloy steels or the potentially spalling steam-grown magnetite on the A1SI 316 superheater. Citric acid supplemented with the reducing agent glyoxal completely removes all oxides from the boiler except the protective inner spinel formed on the 316. Removal of the spinels and compact magnetites occurs more by undercutting and physical detachment than by the dissolution. (author)

  11. Clean Coal Program Research Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry Baxter; Eric Eddings; Thomas Fletcher; Kerry Kelly; JoAnn Lighty; Ronald Pugmire; Adel Sarofim; Geoffrey Silcox; Phillip Smith; Jeremy Thornock; Jost Wendt; Kevin Whitty

    2009-03-31

    Although remarkable progress has been made in developing technologies for the clean and efficient utilization of coal, the biggest challenge in the utilization of coal is still the protection of the environment. Specifically, electric utilities face increasingly stringent restriction on the emissions of NO{sub x} and SO{sub x}, new mercury emission standards, and mounting pressure for the mitigation of CO{sub 2} emissions, an environmental challenge that is greater than any they have previously faced. The Utah Clean Coal Program addressed issues related to innovations for existing power plants including retrofit technologies for carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) or green field plants with CCS. The Program focused on the following areas: simulation, mercury control, oxycoal combustion, gasification, sequestration, chemical looping combustion, materials investigations and student research experiences. The goal of this program was to begin to integrate the experimental and simulation activities and to partner with NETL researchers to integrate the Program's results with those at NETL, using simulation as the vehicle for integration and innovation. The investigators also committed to training students in coal utilization technology tuned to the environmental constraints that we face in the future; to this end the Program supported approximately 12 graduate students toward the completion of their graduate degree in addition to numerous undergraduate students. With the increased importance of coal for energy independence, training of graduate and undergraduate students in the development of new technologies is critical.

  12. Evaluation of the combined betatron and momentum cleaning in point 3 in terms of cleaning efficiency and energy deposition for the LHC Collimation upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Lari, L; Boccone, V; Brugger, M; Cerutti, F; Ferrari, A; Rossi, A; Versaci, R; Vlachoudis, V; Wollmann, D; Mereghetti, A; Faus-Golfe, A

    2011-01-01

    The Phase I LHC Collimation System Upgrade could include moving part of the Betatron Cleaning from LHC Point 7 to Point 3 to improve both operation flexibility and intensity reach. In addition, the partial relocation of beam losses from the current Betatron cleaning region at Point 7 will mitigate the risks of Single Event Upsets to equipment installed in adjacent and partly not sufficient shielded areas. The combined Betatron and Momentum Cleaning at Point 3 implies that new collimators have to be added as well as to implement a new collimator aperture layout. This paper shows the whole LHC Collimator Efficiency variation with the new layout at different beam energies. As part of the evaluation, energy deposition distribution in the IR3 region give indications about the effect of this new implementations not only on the collimators themselves but also on the other beam line elements as well as in the IR3 surrounding areas.

  13. The possibility of using clean coal in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, H.K.; Khairudin, M.Y. [Tenaga Nasional Berhad, Perai (Malaysia)

    1994-12-31

    The Asia-Pacific region will see tremendous growth in demand for electricity in the next few decades and will be an important market for generation equipment and associated services. The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries alone anticipate additional power demand of more than 37,000 NM by the year 2000, with an estimated total expenditure of US $85 billion. Trends in recent years show natural gas-fired combined cycle in plants to be fast gaining in popularity over conventional thermal plants. The advantages include increased primary energy conversion efficiency coupled with significant reduction in pollutant emissions, shorter construction times, faster loading rates and reduced staffing requirements. In the computer model used for generation capacity expansion planning in Tenaga Nasional Berhad, clean coal technology models are not used as candidate plants. In the opinion of the authors, this results from a lack of comprehensive data regarding the operating characteristics and the capital and operating costs of such plants, making it difficult to compare to more proven technologies. We also believe that the economics of such plants have not been sufficiently demonstrated at full scale. The authors believe, however, that in the future, coal-fired combined cycle plants will offer enormous possibilities in Malaysia as an urgency to develop this form of clean coal technology in other countries will assure widespread commercial realization of the technology. The anticipated increase in electricity demand brings to the region many business opportunities. As an example, gas turbine component parts, which are used both in conventional systems and clean coal systems, initially can be locally manufactured with technology transfer from original equipment manufacturers; these technology transfers can progress into fall-licenses to local manufacturers.

  14. PWR steam generator chemical cleaning. Phase I: solvent and process development. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larrick, A.P.; Paasch, R.A.; Hall, T.M.; Schneidmiller, D.

    1979-01-01

    A program to demonstrate chemical cleaning methods for removing magnetite corrosion products from the annuli between steam generator tubes and the tube support plates in vertical U-tube steam generators is described. These corrosion products have caused steam generator tube ''denting'' and in some cases have caused tube failures and support plate cracking in several PWR generating plants. Laboratory studies were performed to develop a chemical cleaning solvent and application process for demonstration cleaning of the Indian Point Unit 2 steam generators. The chemical cleaning solvent and application process were successfully pilot-tested by cleaning the secondary side of one of the Indian Point Unit 1 steam generators. Although the Indian Point Unit 1 steam generators do not have a tube denting problem, the pilot test provided for testing of the solvent and process using much of the same equipment and facilities that would be used for the Indian Point Unit 2 demonstration cleaning. The chemical solvent selected for the pilot test was an inhibited 3% citric acid-3% ascorbic acid solution. The application process, injection into the steam generator through the boiler blowdown system and agitation by nitrogen sparging, was tested in a nuclear environment and with corrosion products formed during years of steam generator operation at power. The test demonstrated that the magnetite corrosion products in simulated tube-to-tube support plate annuli can be removed by chemical cleaning; that corrosion resulting from the cleaning is not excessive; and that steam generator cleaning can be accomplished with acceptable levels of radiation exposure to personnel

  15. National Clean Fleets Partnership (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-01-01

    Provides an overview of Clean Cities National Clean Fleets Partnership (NCFP). The NCFP is open to large private-sector companies that have fleet operations in multiple states. Companies that join the partnership receive customized assistance to reduce petroleum use through increased efficiency and use of alternative fuels. This initiative provides fleets with specialized resources, expertise, and support to successfully incorporate alternative fuels and fuel-saving measures into their operations. The National Clean Fleets Partnership builds on the established success of DOE's Clean Cities program, which reduces petroleum consumption at the community level through a nationwide network of coalitions that work with local stakeholders. Developed with input from fleet managers, industry representatives, and Clean Cities coordinators, the National Clean Fleets Partnership goes one step further by working with large private-sector fleets.

  16. Scientific Equipment Division - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halik, J.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The Scientific Equipment Division consists of the Design Group and the Mechanical Workshop. The activity of the Division includes the following: - designing of devices and equipment for experiments in physics, their mechanical construction and assembly. In particular, there are vacuum chambers and installations for HV and UHV; - maintenance and upgrading of the existing installations and equipment in our Institute; - participation of our engineers and technicians in design works, equipment assembly and maintenance for experiments in foreign laboratories. The Design Group is equipped with PC-computers and AutoCAD graphic software (release 2000 and Mechanical Desktop 4.0) and a AO plotter, what allows us to make drawings and 2- and 3-dimensional mechanical documentation to the world standards. The Mechanical Workshop can offer a wide range of machining and treatment methods with satisfactory tolerances and surface quality. It offers the following possibilities: - turning - cylindrical elements of a length up to 2000 mm and a diameter up to 400 mm, and also disc-type elements of a diameter up to 600 mm and a length not exceeding 300 mm; - milling - elements of length up to 1000 mm and gear wheels of diameter up to 300 mm; - grinding - flat surfaces of dimensions up to 300 mm x 1000 mm and cylindrical elements of a diameter up to 200 mm and a length up to 800 mm; - drilling - holes of a diameter up to 50 mm; - welding - electrical and gas welding, including TIG vacuum-tight welding; - soft and hard soldering; - mechanical works including precision engineering; - plastics treatment - machining and polishing using diamond milling, modelling, lamination of various shapes and materials, including plexiglas, scintillators and light-guides; - painting - paint spraying with possibility of using furnace-fred drier of internal dimensions of 800 mm x 800 mm x 800 mm. Our workshop posses CNC milling machine which can be used for machining of work-pieces up to 500 kg

  17. Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program. Program update 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    The Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCT Program) is a $7.14 billion cost-shared industry/government technology development effort. The program is to demonstrate a new generation of advanced coal-based technologies, with the most promising technologies being moved into the domestic and international marketplace. Clean coal technologies being demonstrated under the CCT program are creating the technology base that allows the nation to meet its energy and environmental goals efficiently and reliably. The fact that most of the demonstrations are being conducted at commercial scale, in actual user environments, and under conditions typical of commercial operations allows the potential of the technologies to be evaluated in their intended commercial applications. The technologies are categorized into four market sectors: advanced electric power generation systems; environmental control devices; coal processing equipment for clean fuels; and industrial technologies. Sections of this report describe the following: Role of the Program; Program implementation; Funding and costs; The road to commercial realization; Results from completed projects; Results and accomplishments from ongoing projects; and Project fact sheets. Projects include fluidized-bed combustion, integrated gasification combined-cycle power plants, advanced combustion and heat engines, nitrogen oxide control technologies, sulfur dioxide control technologies, combined SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} technologies, coal preparation techniques, mild gasification, and indirect liquefaction. Industrial applications include injection systems for blast furnaces, coke oven gas cleaning systems, power generation from coal/ore reduction, a cyclone combustor with S, N, and ash control, cement kiln flue gas scrubber, and pulse combustion for steam coal gasification.

  18. Clean Coal Technologies - Accelerating Commerical and Policy Drivers for Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Coal is and will remain the world's most abundant and widely distributed fossil fuel. Burning coal, however, can pollute and it produces carbon dioxide. Clean coal technologies address this problem. The widespread deployment of pollution-control equipment to reduce sulphur dioxide, Nox and dust emissions from industry is just one example which has brought cleaner air to many countries. Since the 1970s, various policy and regulatory measures have created a growing commercial market for these clean coal technologies, with the result that costs have fallen and performance has improved. More recently, the need to tackle rising CO2 emissions to address climate change means that clean coal technologies now extend to include those for CO2 capture and storage (CCS). This short report from the IEA Coal Industry Advisory Board (CIAB) presents industry's considered recommendations on how to accelerate the development and deployment of this important group of new technologies and to grasp their very signifi cant potential to reduce emissions from coal use. It identifies an urgent need to make progress with demonstration projects and prove the potential of CCS through government-industry partnerships. Its commercialisation depends upon a clear legal and regulatory framework,public acceptance and market-based financial incentives. For the latter, the CIAB favours cap-and-trade systems, price supports and mandatory feed-in tariffs, as well as inclusion of CCS in the Kyoto Protocol's Clean Development Mechanism to create demand in developing economies where coal use is growing most rapidly. This report offers a unique insight into the thinking of an industry that recognises both the threats and growing opportunities for coal in a carbon constrained world.

  19. Clean Coal Technologies - Accelerating Commerical and Policy Drivers for Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Coal is and will remain the world's most abundant and widely distributed fossil fuel. Burning coal, however, can pollute and it produces carbon dioxide. Clean coal technologies address this problem. The widespread deployment of pollution-control equipment to reduce sulphur dioxide, Nox and dust emissions from industry is just one example which has brought cleaner air to many countries. Since the 1970s, various policy and regulatory measures have created a growing commercial market for these clean coal technologies, with the result that costs have fallen and performance has improved. More recently, the need to tackle rising CO2 emissions to address climate change means that clean coal technologies now extend to include those for CO2 capture and storage (CCS). This short report from the IEA Coal Industry Advisory Board (CIAB) presents industry's considered recommendations on how to accelerate the development and deployment of this important group of new technologies and to grasp their very signifi cant potential to reduce emissions from coal use. It identifies an urgent need to make progress with demonstration projects and prove the potential of CCS through government-industry partnerships. Its commercialisation depends upon a clear legal and regulatory framework,public acceptance and market-based financial incentives. For the latter, the CIAB favours cap-and-trade systems, price supports and mandatory feed-in tariffs, as well as inclusion of CCS in the Kyoto Protocol's Clean Development Mechanism to create demand in developing economies where coal use is growing most rapidly. This report offers a unique insight into the thinking of an industry that recognises both the threats and growing opportunities for coal in a carbon constrained world.

  20. Advanced mask cleaning for 0.20-μm technology: an integrated user-supplier approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poschenrieder, Rudolf; Hay, Bernd; Beier, Matthias; Hourd, Andrew C.; Stuemer, Harald; Gairing, Thomas M.

    1998-12-01

    A newly developed photomask final cleaning system, STEAG HamaTech's Advanced Single Substrate Cleaner, ASC 500, was assessed and optimized at the Siemens mask shop in Munich, Germany, under production conditions within the Esprit European Semiconductor Equipment Assessment programme (SEA). The project was carried out together with the active participation of Compugraphics Intl. Ltd. (UK), DuPont Photomasks, Inc. (Germany; Photronics-MZD, Germany). The results of the assessment are presented, focusing on the cleaning performance at the 0.25 micrometer defect level on photomasks, equipment reliability and Cost of Ownership data. A reticle free of soft defects on glass and on chrome down to the 0.25 micrometer level requires an excellent cleaning process and the use of high-end inspection tools like the KLA STARlight. In order to get a full understanding of the nature of the detected features additional investigations on the blank quality have been carried out. These investigations include the questions whether a detection is a hard or a soft defect and whether small defects on chrome are able to move on the reticle surface. Final cleaning recipes have been optimized in respect to cleaning efficiency while maintaining high throughput and low Cost of Ownership. A benchmark comparison against other final cleaning tools at the partner's maskshops showed the leading data of the ASC 500. It was found that a cleaning program which includes several substrate flips and a combination of the available cleaning methods acid- dispense, water pressure jet clean, brush and megasonic clean was best suitable to achieve these goals. In particular the use of the brush unit was shown to improve the yield while not adding damage to the plate.

  1. Mining face equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G, Litvinskiy G; Babyuk, G V; Yakovenko, V A

    1981-01-07

    Mining face equipment includes drilling advance wells, drilling using explosives on the contour bore holes, loading and transporting the crushed mass, drilling reinforcement shafts, injecting reinforcement compounds and moving the timber. Camouflet explosives are used to form relaxed rock stress beyond the mining area to decrease costs of reinforcing the mining area by using nonstressed rock in the advance well as support. The strengthening solution is injected through advanced cementing wells before drilling the contour bores as well as through radial cementing wells beyond the timbers following loading and transport of the mining debris. The advance well is 50-80 m.

  2. Coal ash monitoring equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, C G; Wormald, M R

    1978-10-02

    The monitoring equipment is used to determine the remainder from combustion (ash slack) of coal in wagons designed for power stations. Next to the rails, a neutron source (252 Cf, 241 Am/Be) is situated, which irradiates the coal with neutrons at a known dose, which produces the reaction 27 Al (n ..gamma..) Al 28. The aluminium content is a measure of the remainder. The 1.78 MeV energy is measured downstream of the rail with a detector. The neutron source can only act in the working position of a loaded wagon.

  3. Management of Transportation Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-11-01

    Record% % %. "jP -M -. M LIh TRANSPORTATION MAENTKENAI4CE SHOP WORKLOAD CONTROL WORK CENTER SADR A-OR .a’* tLR 4.,R53 8114LM 0 o 251 50 75 100 125 ISO ...PDBP 06 7 4892 TRACTOR, WHEEL, INDUST, 14001-20000 PDBP 06 7 4893 TRACTOR, WHEEL, INDUST, 20001-27000 PDBP 06 7 4894 TRACTOR, WHEEL, INDUST, 27001 PDBP...27K TRACTOR, WHEEL, INDUST, 27001 PDBP & UP P-i LINE ITEM 07 LIGHTING AND POWER GENERATION EQUIPMENT 5110 T FLOODLIGHT ELEC FLOODLIGHT, ELEC, TRUCK

  4. National Clean Fleets Partnership (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2014-01-01

    Clean Cities' National Clean Fleets Partnership establishes strategic alliances with large fleets to help them explore and adopt alternative fuels and fuel economy measures to cut petroleum use. The initiative leverages the strength of nearly 100 Clean Cities coalitions, nearly 18,000 stakeholders, and more than 20 years of experience. It provides fleets with top-level support, technical assistance, robust tools and resources, and public acknowledgement to help meet and celebrate fleets' petroleum-use reductions.

  5. Canyon solvent cleaning with activated alumina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reif, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents recent work at SRL concerning the cleaning of solvent extraction solvent used at SRP. The paper explains why we undertook the work, and some laboratory studies on two approaches to solvent cleaning, namely extended carbonate washing and use of solid adsorbents. The paper then discusses scale-up of the preferred method and the results of the full-scale cleaning. 19 figs

  6. Environmental cleaning and disinfection of patient areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Doll

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The healthcare setting is predisposed to harbor potential pathogens, which in turn can pose a great risk to patients. Routine cleaning of the patient environment is critical to reduce the risk of hospital-acquired infections. While many approaches to environmental cleaning exist, manual cleaning supplemented with ongoing assessment and feedback may be the most feasible for healthcare facilities with limited resources.

  7. Environmental cleaning and disinfection of patient areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doll, Michelle; Stevens, Michael; Bearman, Gonzalo

    2018-02-01

    The healthcare setting is predisposed to harbor potential pathogens, which in turn can pose a great risk to patients. Routine cleaning of the patient environment is critical to reduce the risk of hospital-acquired infections. While many approaches to environmental cleaning exist, manual cleaning supplemented with ongoing assessment and feedback may be the most feasible for healthcare facilities with limited resources. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Decontamination by cleaning with fluorocarbon surfactant solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, R.; Benson, C.E.; Meyers, E.S.; Vaughen, V.C.A.

    1994-02-01

    In the nuclear industry, facilities and their components inevitably become contaminated with radioactive materials. This report documents the application of a novel particle-removal process developed by Entropic Systems, Inc. (ESI), to decontaminate critical instruments and parts that are contaminated with small radioactive particles that adhere to equipment surfaces. The tests were performed as a cooperative effort between ESI and the Chemical Technology Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). ESI developed a new, environmentally compatible process to remove small particles from solid surfaces that is more effective than spraying or sonicating with CFC-113. This process uses inert perfluorinated liquids as working media; the liquids have zero ozone-depleting potential, are nontoxic and nonflammnable, and are generally recognized as nonhazardous materials. In the ESI process, parts to be cleaned are first sprayed or sonicated with a dilute solution of a high-molecular-weight fluorocarbon surfactant in an inert perfluorinated liquid to effect particle removal. The parts are then rinsed with the perfluorinated liquid to remove the fluorocarbon surfactant applied in the first step, and the residual rinse liquid is then evaporated from the parts into an air or nitrogen stream from which it is recovered. Nuclear contamination is inherently a surface phenomenon. The presence of radioactive particles is responsible for all ''smearable'' contamination and, if the radioactive particles are small enough, for some of the fixed contamination. Because radioactivity does not influence the physical chemistry of particle adhesion, the ESI process should be just as effective in removing radioactive particles as it is in removing nonradioactive particles

  9. High level radioactive waste vitrification process equipment component testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siemens, D.H.; Heath, W.O.; Larson, D.E.; Craig, S.N.; Berger, D.N.; Goles, R.W.

    1985-04-01

    Remote operability and maintainability of vitrification equipment were assessed under shielded-cell conditions. The equipment tested will be applied to immobilize high-level and transuranic liquid waste slurries that resulted from plutonium production for defense weapons. Equipment tested included: a turntable for handling waste canisters under the melter; a removable discharge cone in the melter overflow section; a thermocouple jumper that extends into a shielded cell; remote instrument and electrical connectors; remote, mechanical, and heat transfer aspects of the melter glass overflow section; a reamer to clean out plugged nozzles in the melter top; a closed circuit camera to view the melter interior; and a device to retrieve samples of the glass product. A test was also conducted to evaluate liquid metals for use in a liquid metal sealing system

  10. Clean Cities Annual Metrics Report 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergeron, P.; Putsche, V.

    2007-07-01

    Report summarizes Clean Cities coalition accomplishments, including membership, funding, sales of alternative fuel blends, deployment of AFVs and HEVs, idle reduction initiatives, and fuel economy activities.

  11. Maryland Cleaning & Abatement Services Corp. Information Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryland Cleaning & Abatement Services Corp. (the Company) is located in Baltimore, Maryland. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at property constructed prior to 1978, located in Baltimore, Maryland.

  12. Californium-252 Program Equipment Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chattin, Fred Rhea [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wilson, Kenton [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ezold, Julie G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-12-01

    To successfully continue the 252Cf production and meet the needs of the customers, a comprehensive evaluation of the Building 7920 processing equipment was requested to identify equipment critical to the operational continuity of the program.

  13. Pollution Law - Clean Air Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt Glaeser, W.; Meins, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    This volume deals with how the living space air is kept clean by means of the pollution law, focussing on the documentation of central problems of pollution law by means of selected articles and court decisions. The literature and jurisdiction available on this sector of which we can hardly keep track makes such a documentation look useful and necessary. It will make working easier for those who do not have direct access to large libraries. The only intention of the guide for the pollution law which preceeds the documentation is to outline basic problems. It is intended to provide basic information in this complex field of law. At the same time, it also constitutes a 'guide' for the documentation: By naming the documentation number in the margin of the respective passage reference is made to the documented publications which deal with the legal issues considered. Using this guide, the documentation can be easily tapped. (orig.) [de

  14. Beam Cleaning and Collimation Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Redaelli, S

    2016-01-01

    Collimation systems in particle accelerators are designed to dispose of unavoidable losses safely and efficiently during beam operation. Different roles are required for different types of accelerator. The present state of the art in beam collimation is exemplified in high-intensity, high-energy superconducting hadron colliders, like the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), where stored beam energies reach levels up to several orders of magnitude higher than the tiny energies required to quench cold magnets. Collimation systems are essential systems for the daily operation of these modern machines. In this document, the design of a multistage collimation system is reviewed, taking the LHC as an example case study. In this case, unprecedented cleaning performance has been achieved, together with a system complexity comparable to no other accelerator. Aspects related to collimator design and operational challenges of large collimation systems are also addressed.

  15. Containment air cleaning for LMFBRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilliard, R.K.; McCormack, J.D.; Owen, R.K.; Postma, A.K.

    1979-01-01

    A variety of air cleaning concepts was evaluated for potential use in future sodium-cooled breeder reactors. A 3-stage aqueous scrubber system was selected for large-scale demonstration testing under conditions similar to those postulated for containment venting and purging during reactor melt-through accidents. Two tests were performed in the Containment Systems Test Facility using a quench tank, a jet venturi scrubber and a high efficiency fibrous scrubber in series. The results of two tests with Na/sub 2/O/sub 2/ and NaOH aerosol and NaI vapor are presented showing >99.9% removal of Na/sub 2/O/sub 2/ and NaOH and >99.7% for NaI. 7 refs

  16. Cleaning lady saves the day

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    At lunch time on Wednesday 21 January a guest at the CERN hostel put her food in the microwave oven and switched it on. "Within seconds I smelt plastic. I looked into the oven and saw flames. I switched it off, took my food out. But the flames continued and so I ran for the door." In the corridor she ran into Jane Kiranga, a cleaning lady working for the company ISS. Without hesitation Jane picked up a portable fire extinguisher, returned to the kitchen and stopped the fire. The Fire Brigade arrived a few minutes later and only needed to ventilate the kitchen. "Jane was just in time, because the flames had not left the oven yet. Her model behaviour deserves recognition," said the team leader on duty for the CERN Fire Brigade. A few days later Jane received a gift voucher from the Prevention and Training section of the Safety Commission (photo).

  17. The NOXSO clean coal project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, J.B.; Woods, M.C.; Friedrich, J.J.; Browning, J.P. [NOXSO Corp., Bethel Park, PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The NOXSO Clean Coal Project will consist of designing, constructing, and operating a commercial-scale flue-gas cleanup system utilizing the NOXSO Process. The process is a waste-free, dry, post-combustion flue-gas treatment technology which uses a regenerable sorbent to simultaneously adsorb sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) from flue gas from coal-fired boilers. The NOXSO plant will be constructed at Alcoa Generating Corporation`s (AGC) Warrick Power Plant near Evansville, Indiana and will treat all the flue gas from the 150-MW Unit 2 boiler. The NOXSO plant is being designed to remove 98% of the SO{sub 2} and 75% of the NO{sub x} when the boiler is fired with 3.4 weight percent sulfur, southern-Indiana coal. The NOXSO plant by-product will be elemental sulfur. The elemental sulfur will be shipped to Olin Corporation`s Charleston, Tennessee facility for additional processing. As part of the project, a liquid SO{sub 2} plant has been constructed at this facility to convert the sulfur into liquid SO{sub 2}. The project utilizes a unique burn-in-oxygen process in which the elemental sulfur is oxidized to SO{sub 2} in a stream of compressed oxygen. The SO{sub 2} vapor will then be cooled and condensed. The burn-in-oxygen process is simpler and more environmentally friendly than conventional technologies. The liquid SO{sub 2} plant produces 99.99% pure SO{sub 2} for use at Olin`s facilities. The $82.8 million project is co-funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under Round III of the Clean Coal Technology program. The DOE manages the project through the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC).

  18. Webinar: Green Cleaning for Improved Health: The Return on Investment of Green Cleaning in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    A page to register to view the June 22, 2017, webinar in the IAQ Knowledge-to-Action Professional Training Webinar Series: Green Cleaning for Improved Health: The Return on Investment of Green Cleaning in Schools

  19. Efficient methods of nanoimprint stamp cleaning based on imprint self-cleaning effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng Fantao; Chu Jinkui [Key Laboratory for Micro/Nano Technology and System of Liaoning Province, Dalian University of Technology, 116024 Dalian (China); Luo Gang; Zhou Ye; Carlberg, Patrick; Heidari, Babak [Obducat AB, SE-20125 Malmoe (Sweden); Maximov, Ivan; Montelius, Lars; Xu, H Q [Division of Solid State Physics, Lund University, Box 118, S-22100 Lund (Sweden); Nilsson, Lars, E-mail: ivan.maximov@ftf.lth.se [Department of Food Technology, Engineering and Nutrition, Lund University, Box 117, S-22100 Lund (Sweden)

    2011-05-06

    Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) is a nonconventional lithographic technique that promises low-cost, high-throughput patterning of structures with sub-10 nm resolution. Contamination of nanoimprint stamps is one of the key obstacles to industrialize the NIL technology. Here, we report two efficient approaches for removal of typical contamination of particles and residual resist from stamps: thermal and ultraviolet (UV) imprinting cleaning-both based on the self-cleaning effect of imprinting process. The contaminated stamps were imprinted onto polymer substrates and after demolding, they were treated with an organic solvent. The images of the stamp before and after the cleaning processes show that the two cleaning approaches can effectively remove contamination from stamps without destroying the stamp structures. The contact angles of the stamp before and after the cleaning processes indicate that the cleaning methods do not significantly degrade the anti-sticking layer. The cleaning processes reported in this work could also be used for substrate cleaning.

  20. CLEAN-AIR heat pump. Reduced energy consumption for ventilation in buildings by integrating air cleaning and heat pump. Final Report; CLEAN-AIR heat pump - Reduceret energiforbrug til ventilation af bygninger ved luftrensning integreret med luft varmepumpe. Slut rapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, L.; Olesen, Bjarne W.; Molinaro, G.; Simmonsen, P.; Skocajic, S. [Danmarks Tekniske Univ. Institut for Byggeri og Anlaeg, Lyngby (Denmark); Hummelshoej, R.M.; Carlassara, L. [COWI A/S, Lyngby, (Denmark); Groenbaek, H.; Hansen, Ole R. [Exhausto A/S, Langeskov (Denmark)

    2011-07-01

    much lower than the domestic price. For the extremely hot and humid climate, the clean air heat pump has the maximum ability of the energy saving for ventilation. The calculations showed that annual energy saving of using the clean air heat pump for ventilation in Sri Lanka is 62%. In general, the clean air heat pump system is suitable for ventilation in all kind of climates around the world except for the hot and dry climate. The annual energy saving is expected in the range between 30% and 60% depending on the climate. It is worth noting that the calculated energy reduction of a ventilation system using the clean air heat pump technology was an extra saving compared to a ventilation system that equipped with the high efficiency counter flow heat recovery equipment with a temperature efficiency of 80%. Based on this simulation, it can be concluded that the energy saving of the clean air heat pump for ventilation is remarkable. Therefore, the technology is highly recommended provided that this simulation results are further validated by experiments. (Author)

  1. The Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center (CEMAC): Providing Analysis and Insights on Clean Technology Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Nicholi S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-28

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center (CEMAC) provides objective analysis and up-to-date data on global supply chains and manufacturing of clean energy technologies. Policymakers and industry leaders seek CEMAC insights to inform choices to promote economic growth and the transition to a clean energy economy.

  2. Characterization equipment essential drawing plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WILSON, G.W.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to list the Characterization equipment drawings that are classified as Essential Drawings. Essential Drawings: Are those drawings identified by the facility staff as necessary to directly support the safe operation of the facility or equipment (HNF 1997a). The Characterization equipment drawings identified in this report are deemed essential drawings as defined in HNF-PRO-242, Engineering Drawing Requirements (HNF 1997a). These drawings will be prepared, revised, and maintained per HNF-PRO-440, Engineering Document Change Control (HNF 1997b). All other Characterization equipment drawings not identified in this document will be considered Support drawings until the Characterization Equipment Drawing Evaluation Report is completed

  3. Coal mining equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, R.R.; Martin, T.W.

    1991-01-01

    The word in longwall components is big, and these larger components have price tags to match. The logic behind the greater investment is that it will yield high production rates and good uptime statistics. This is true in most cases. More important than single-shift tonnage records, average shift production continues to climb upwards. This paper reports on the quality, and more significantly, the quantity of service supplied for long-wall equipment, which has reached levels that would have been seen as unachievable when longwall mining was first introduced in the U.S. The school of thought then was that longwall would increase productivity in part by reducing the number of production units and thus reducing the number of personnel employed underground. The expectation of fewer employees turned out to be unrealistic. That was probably one reason that some early attempts to install longwall system looked more like failures than vision of the future

  4. Reactor fuel charging equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, Elman.

    1977-01-01

    In many types of reactor fuel charging equipment, tongs or a grab, attached to a trolley, housed in a guide duct, can be used for withdrawing from the core a selected spent fuel assembly or to place a new fuel assembly in the core. In these facilities, the trolley may have wheels that roll on rails in the guide duct. This ensures the correct alignment of the grab, the trolley and fuel assembly when this fuel assembly is being moved. By raising or lowering such a fuel assembly, the trolley can be immerged in the coolant bath of the reactor, whereas at other times it can be at a certain level above the upper surface of the coolant bath. The main object of the invention is to create a fuel handling apparatus for a sodium cooled reactor with bearings lubricated by the sodium coolant and in which the contamination of these bearings is prevented [fr

  5. Clean fuel technologies and clean and reliable energy: a summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulatov, Igor; Klemes, Jiri Jaromir

    2011-01-01

    There are two major areas covered by this current Special Issue: Cleaner Fuel Technologies and Waste Processing. In addition, the Special Issue, also includes some recent developments in various fields of energy efficiency research. The first group of contributions considers in detail, hydrogen production from biomass and hydrogen production by the sorption-enhanced steam methane reforming process (SE-SMR). Biomass-related technologies are also discussed for a design of an integrated biorefinery, production of clean diesel fuel by co-hydrogenation of vegetable oil with gas oil and utilization of microwave and ultrasound pretreatments in the production of bioethanol from corn. Waste Processing aspects are considered in the second group of papers. This section includes integrated waste-to-energy plants, utilisation of municipal solid waste in the cement industry and urban supply and disposal systems. The third topic is intentionally made rather loose: it includes different research topics on various aspects of energy efficiency, e.g. resource-saving network design, new research on divided wall columns, vehicle logistics as process-network synthesis for energy consumption and CO 2 reduction.

  6. LDRD report: Smoke effects on electrical equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TANAKA, TINA J.; BAYNES, EDWARD E. JR.; NOWLEN, STEVEN P.; BROCKMANN, JOHN E.; GRITZO, LOUIS A.; SHADDIX, Christopher R.

    2000-01-01

    Smoke is known to cause electrical equipment failure, but the likelihood of immediate failure during a fire is unknown. Traditional failure assessment techniques measure the density of ionic contaminants deposited on surfaces to determine the need for cleaning or replacement of electronic equipment exposed to smoke. Such techniques focus on long-term effects, such as corrosion, but do not address the immediate effects of the fire. This document reports the results of tests on the immediate effects of smoke on electronic equipment. Various circuits and components were exposed to smoke from different fields in a static smoke exposure chamber and were monitored throughout the exposure. Electrically, the loss of insulation resistance was the most important change caused by smoke. For direct current circuits, soot collected on high-voltage surfaces sometimes formed semi-conductive soot bridges that shorted the circuit. For high voltage alternating current circuits, the smoke also tended to increase the likelihood of arcing, but did not accumulate on the surfaces. Static random access memory chips failed for high levels of smoke, but hard disk drives did not. High humidity increased the conductive properties of the smoke. The conductivity does not increase linearly with smoke density as first proposed; however, it does increase with quantity. The data can be used to give a rough estimate of the amount of smoke that will cause failures in CMOS memory chips, dc and ac circuits. Comparisons of this data to other fire tests can be made through the optical and mass density measurements of the smoke

  7. Clean Cities Now Vol. 17, No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-10-23

    The Fall 2013 issue of the biannual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on deployment of alternative fuels and advanced vehicles, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

  8. Advancing clean energy technology in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munro, G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of clean energy technology in Canada. Energy is a major source of Canadian prosperity. Energy means more to Canada than any other industrialized country. It is the only OECD country with growing oil production. Canada is a stable and secure energy supplier and a major consumer. Promoting clean energy is a priority to make progress in multiple areas.

  9. Allegheny County Clean Indoor Air Act Exemptions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — List and location of all the businesses and social clubs who have received an exemption from the Pennsylvania Clean Indoor Air Act. “The Clean Indoor Air Act, Act...

  10. Gas turbine cleaning upgrade (compressor wash)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, P. [Gas Turbine Efficiency, Jarfalla (Sweden)

    1998-12-31

    The influence of gas turbine degradation on operating costs is high. Gas turbine cleaning is one of many actions taken for power recovery and is to consider as preventive maintenance. It is generally performed within the industrial field and occasionally within the aero sector. In order to meet the gas turbine development win high blade loads and ever-increasing temperatures, together with emission Aces and environmental regulations, more efficient and careful cleaning methods are needed. Following a survey about potentials for cost reduction in gas turbine operation a new man-hour and water saving cleaning method has been evaluated for a standard process. Compared with traditional cleaning methods, the new method is water,- cost,- weight and space saving due to a new washing technique. Traditional methods are based on using different nozzles for ON and OFF-line cleaning, which rise the demand for complicated systems. In the new method the same nozzle installation, same liquid flow and pressure is used for both ON and OFF-line cleaning. This gives a cost reduction of appr. 20.000 - 30.000 USD per gas turbine depending on installation and size. Evaluation of the new method shows significantly improved ON -line cleaning performance and thus OFF -line cleaning is required only during scheduled stops. (orig.) 10 refs.

  11. Clean Cities Now Vol. 19, No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-12-18

    Clean Cities Now is the official bi-annual newsletter of Clean Cities, an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

  12. Clean Cities Now Vol. 20, No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-01-13

    Clean Cities Now is the official semi-annual newsletter of Clean Cities, an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

  13. The Clean Development Mechanism and Technology Transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aggarwal, Aradhna

    2017-01-01

    This study assesses the impact of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) on the transfer of clean technology in India. The reason this study is unique is because firstly, it adopts an outcome-oriented approach to define ‘technology transfer’, which means that technology transfer occurs if firms...

  14. Reactor water clean-up device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Koji; Egashira, Yasuo; Shimada, Fumie; Igarashi, Noboru.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To save a low temperature reactor water clean-up system indispensable so far and significantly simplify the system by carrying out the reactor water clean-up solely in a high temperature reactor water clean-up system. Constitution: The reactor water clean-up device comprises a high temperature clean-up pump and a high temperature adsorption device for inorganic adsorbents. The high temperature adsorption device is filled with amphoteric ion adsorbing inorganic adsorbents, or amphoteric ion adsorbing inorganic adsorbents and anionic adsorbing inorganic adsorbents. The reactor water clean-up device introduces reactor water by the high temperature clean-up pump through a recycling system to the high temperature adsorption device for inorganic adsorbents. Since cations such as cobalt ions and anions such as chlorine ions in the reactor water are simultaneously removed in the device, a low temperature reactor water clean-up system which has been indispensable so far can be saved to realize the significant simplification for the entire system. (Seki, T.)

  15. Clean Cities Now, Vol. 18, No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-04-30

    The Spring 2014 edition of the semi-annual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on deployment of alternative fuels and advanced vehicles, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

  16. Clean Cities 2011 Annual Metrics Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.

    2012-12-01

    This report details the petroleum savings and vehicle emissions reductions achieved by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program in 2011. The report also details other performance metrics, including the number of stakeholders in Clean Cities coalitions, outreach activities by coalitions and national laboratories, and alternative fuel vehicles deployed.

  17. Clean Cities 2010 Annual Metrics Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.

    2012-10-01

    This report details the petroleum savings and vehicle emissions reductions achieved by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program in 2010. The report also details other performance metrics, including the number of stakeholders in Clean Cities coalitions, outreach activities by coalitions and national laboratories, and alternative fuel vehicles deployed.

  18. Gas turbine cleaning upgrade (compressor wash)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, P [Gas Turbine Efficiency, Jarfalla (Sweden)

    1999-12-31

    The influence of gas turbine degradation on operating costs is high. Gas turbine cleaning is one of many actions taken for power recovery and is to consider as preventive maintenance. It is generally performed within the industrial field and occasionally within the aero sector. In order to meet the gas turbine development win high blade loads and ever-increasing temperatures, together with emission Aces and environmental regulations, more efficient and careful cleaning methods are needed. Following a survey about potentials for cost reduction in gas turbine operation a new man-hour and water saving cleaning method has been evaluated for a standard process. Compared with traditional cleaning methods, the new method is water,- cost,- weight and space saving due to a new washing technique. Traditional methods are based on using different nozzles for ON and OFF-line cleaning, which rise the demand for complicated systems. In the new method the same nozzle installation, same liquid flow and pressure is used for both ON and OFF-line cleaning. This gives a cost reduction of appr. 20.000 - 30.000 USD per gas turbine depending on installation and size. Evaluation of the new method shows significantly improved ON -line cleaning performance and thus OFF -line cleaning is required only during scheduled stops. (orig.) 10 refs.

  19. Clean Cities Now Vol. 20, No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-13

    Clean Cities Now is the official semi-annual newsletter of Clean Cities, an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

  20. Should you get your heating ducts cleaned?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation conducted research into duct cleaning during which time several houses were tested for hot air furnace duct performance before and after cleaning. Duct cleaning is a major industry which claims that cleaning of ducts will provide you with better indoor air quality, reduce household molds and allergens, get rid of house dust, result in more airflow and better delivery of warm air and reduce energy costs. This report does not substantiate those claims. Researchers found little or no discernible differences in the concentrations of house airborne particles or in duct airflows due to duct cleaning. This is because ducts are metal passages that cannot create dust. Most household dusts come from outdoors that has been tracked in or blows through windows and other openings. While duct cleaning may be justifiable personally, it does not change the quality of the air you breathe, nor will it significantly affect airflow or heating costs. Some filters effectively clean the air in the ducts but they do not create a dust-free environment because of the above-mentioned dust sources. The only time that duct cleaning may make sense is if you have water in your ducts that can result in mold growth, if you are moving into a newly constructed house to remove drywall dust, if your are having trouble with furnace airflow, or if you see an accumulation of debris in the return air ducts. It was emphasized that broadcast spraying of biocides within the duct system should not be performed.

  1. 49 CFR 174.57 - Cleaning cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cleaning cars. 174.57 Section 174.57... and Loading Requirements § 174.57 Cleaning cars. All hazardous material which has leaked from a package in any rail car or on other railroad property must be carefully removed. ...

  2. Chapter 12. Space Heating Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, Kevin D.

    1998-01-01

    The performance evaluation of space heating equipment for a geothermal application is generally considered from either of two perspectives: (a) selecting equipment for installation in new construction, or (b) evaluating the performance and retrofit requirements of an existing system. With regard to new construction, the procedure is relatively straightforward. Once the heating requirements are determined, the process need only involve the selection of appropriately sized hot water heating equipment based on the available water temperature. It is important to remember that space heating equipment for geothermal applications is the same equipment used in non-geothermal applications. What makes geothermal applications unique is that the equipment is generally applied at temperatures and flow rates that depart significantly from traditional heating system design. This chapter presents general considerations for the performance of heating equipment at non-standard temperature and flow conditions, retrofit of existing systems, and aspects of domestic hot water heating.

  3. Cleaning metal filters by pulse-jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickard, P.; Perry, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    Cleanable metal filters have an established use in the Nuclear Industry. The filters that have been installed in the past have not proved to be sufficiently cleanable. A series of tests were undertaken to study the application of pulse-jet cleaning to metal fibre filter elements. The efficiency of dust removal was examined under various operating conditions. A very high degree of particulate removal was achieved, with a return to almost clean pressure drop. The effectiveness of cleaning was found to vary inversely with blowback pressure. The position of the blowback nozzle with respect to the filter element throat was also found to be important to cleaning efficiency. Under the test conditions the effect of re-entrainment when cleaning on line was found to be minimal. (author)

  4. Decontamination of polypropylene fabrics by dry cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severa, J.; Knajfl, J.

    1983-01-01

    Polypropylene fabrics can efficiently be decontaminated by dry cleaning in benzine or perchloroethylene, this also in case the fabric was greased in addition to radioactive contamination. For heavily soiled fabric, it is advantageous to first dry clean it and then wash it. The positive effect was confirmed of intensifiers on the cleaning process, especially of benzine soap. In practice, its concentration should be selected within 1 and 10 g.dm - 3 . Decontamination by dry cleaning and subsequent washing is advantageous in that that the resulting activity of waste water from the laundry is low. Radioactive wastes from the dry cleaning process have a low weight and can be handled as solid waste. (M.D.)

  5. A centrifuge CO2 pellet cleaning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, C.A.; Fisher, P.W.; Nelson, W.D.; Schechter, D.E.

    1993-01-01

    Centrifuge-based cryogenic pellet accelerator technology, originally developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the purpose of refueling fusion reactors with high-speed pellets of frozen deuterium/tritium,is now being developed as a method of cleaning without the use of conventional solvents. In these applications large quantities of pellets made of frozen CO 2 or argon are accelerated in a high-speed rotor. The accelerated pellet stream is used to clean or etch surfaces. The advantage of this system is that the spent pellets and debris resulting from the cleaning process can be filtered leaving only the debris for disposal. This paper discusses the centrifuge CO 2 pellet cleaning system, the physics model of the pellet impacting the surface, the centrifuge apparatus, and some initial cleaning and etching tests

  6. Atmospheric plasma generation for LCD panel cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gyu-Sik; Won, Chung-Yuen; Choi, Ju-Yeop; Yim, C. H.

    2007-12-01

    UV lamp systems have been used for cleaning of display panels of TFT LCD or Plasma Display Panel (PDP). However, the needs for high efficient cleaning and low cost made high voltage plasma cleaning techniques to be developed and to be improved. Dielectric-barrier discharges (DBDs), also referred to as barrier discharges or silent discharges have for a long time been exclusively related to ozone generation. In this paper, a 6kW high voltage plasma power supply system was developed for LCD cleaning. The -phase input voltage is rectified and then inverter system is used to make a high frequency pulse train, which is rectified after passing through a high-power transformer. Finally, bi-directional high voltage pulse switching circuits are used to generate the high voltage plasma. Some experimental results showed the usefulness of atmospheric plasma for LCD panel cleaning.

  7. Clean Coal Technology Programs: Program Update 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of the Clean Coal Technology Programs: Program Update 2009 is to provide an updated status of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) commercial-scale demonstrations of clean coal technologies (CCT). These demonstrations have been performed under the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP), the Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPII), and the Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI). Program Update 2009 provides: (1) a discussion of the role of clean coal technology demonstrations in improving the nation’s energy security and reliability, while protecting the environment using the nation’s most abundant energy resource—coal; (2) a summary of the funding and costs of the demonstrations; and (3) an overview of the technologies being demonstrated, along with fact sheets for projects that are active, recently completed, or recently discontinued.

  8. Robotic cleaning of a spent fuel pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman, H.T.; Marian, F.A.; Silverman, E.B.; Barkley, V.P.

    1987-01-01

    Spent fuel pools at nuclear power plants are not cleaned routinely, other than by purifying the water that they contain. Yet, debris can collect on the bottom of a pool and should be removed prior to fuel transfer. At Public Service Electric and Gas Company's Hope Creek Nuclear Power Plant, a submersible mobile robot - ARD Corporation's SCAVENGER - was used to clean the bottom of the spent fuel pool prior to initial fuel loading. The robotic device was operated remotely (as opposed to autonomously) with a simple forward/reverse control, and it cleaned 70-80% of the pool bottom. This paper reports that a simple cost-benefit analysis shows that the robotic device would be less expensive, on a per mission basis, than other cleaning alternatives, especially if it were used for other similar cleaning operations throughout the plant

  9. [Evaluation of Medical Instruments Cleaning Effect of Fluorescence Detection Technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Nan; Shen, Yue; Li, Zhen; Li, Huijuan; Zhou, Chaoqun

    2016-01-01

    To compare the cleaning effect of automatic cleaning machine and manual cleaning on coupling type surgical instruments. A total of 32 cleaned medical instruments were randomly sampled from medical institutions in Putuo District medical institutions disinfection supply center. Hygiena System SUREII ATP was used to monitor the ATP value, and the cleaning effect was evaluated. The surface ATP values of the medical instrument of manual cleaning were higher than that of the automatic cleaning machine. Coupling type surgical instruments has better cleaning effect of automatic cleaning machine before disinfection, the application is recommended.

  10. Northeast Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgeois, Tom [Pace Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    2013-09-30

    From October 1, 2009 through September 30, 2013 (“contract period”), the Northeast Clean Energy Application Center (“NE-CEAC”) worked in New York and New England (Connecticut, Rhode Island, Vermont, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Maine) to create a more robust market for the deployment of clean energy technologies (CETs) including combined heat and power (CHP), district energy systems (DES), and waste heat recovery (WHR) systems through the provision of technical assistance, education and outreach, and strategic market analysis and support for decision-makers. CHP, DES, and WHR can help reduce greenhouse gas emissions, reduce electrical and thermal energy costs, and provide more reliable energy for users throughout the United States. The NE-CEAC’s efforts in the provision of technical assistance, education and outreach, and strategic market analysis and support for decision-makers helped advance the market for CETs in the Northeast thereby helping the region move towards the following outcomes: Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and criteria pollutants; Improvements in energy efficiency resulting in lower costs of doing business; Productivity gains in industry and efficiency gains in buildings; Lower regional energy costs; Strengthened energy security; Enhanced consumer choice; Reduced price risks for end-users; and Economic development effects keeping more jobs and more income in our regional economy Over the contract period, NE-CEAC provided technical assistance to approximately 56 different potential end-users that were interested in CHP and other CETs for their facility or facilities. Of these 56 potential end-users, five new CHP projects totaling over 60 MW of install capacity became operational during the contract period. The NE-CEAC helped host numerous target market workshops, trainings, and webinars; and NE-CEAC staff delivered presentations at many other workshops and conferences. In total, over 60 different workshops, conferences

  11. Effect of Time in Chemical Cleaning of Ultrafiltration Membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levitsky, I.; Naim, R.; Duek, A.; Gitis, V.

    2012-01-01

    Chemical cleaning of ultrafiltration membranes is often considered successful when the flux through a cleaned membrane is much higher than through a pristine one. Here, a novel definition of cleaning intensity is proposed as the product of the concentration of the cleaning agent and the cleaning

  12. A clean and healthful condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morse, H.N.

    1990-01-01

    In a suit brought in the District Court of the United States for the SOuthern District of Texas under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980, Amoco Oil Co. (Amoco) sought a declaratory judgment for liablilty and response cost damages from Borden Inc. (Borden), from which Amoco had purchased contaminated industrial property. The property at issue is a 114-acre tract of land in Texas City, TX. FOr many years, Borden operated a phosphate fertilizer plant on the site. As a by-product of the fertilizer manufacturing process, large quantities of phosphogypsum were produced. The site now contains a large inactive pile of phosphogypsum covering approximately 35 acres. Phosphogypsum alone contains low levels of radioactivity. More highly radioactive sludges and scales from processing equipment, however, were dumped into the phosphogypsum pile creating hot areas within the pile. Additionally, during processing, radioactive materials became concentrated in manufacturing equipment, pipe, and filter cloths used in production. These materials constitute off-pile wastes and were left primarily near a junkyard on the property and near the abandoned manufacturing buildings. Some of the off-pile sites contain over 500 times the background level of radiation

  13. 40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart B of... - Standard for Recover Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... protects the earth against harmful ultraviolet radiation. To reduce the emissions of CFCs, the 1990 Clean Air Act requires recycle of CFC-12 (R-12) used in mobile air-conditioning systems to eliminate system... reuse of CFCs in mobile air-conditioning systems. Establishing extraction equipment specifications for...

  14. Midwest Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuttica, John; Haefke, Cliff

    2013-12-31

    The Midwest Clean Energy Application Center (CEAC) was one of eight regional centers that promoted and assisted in transforming the market for combined heat and power (CHP), waste heat to power (WHP), and district energy (DE) technologies and concepts throughout the United States between October 1, 2009 and December 31, 2013. The key services the CEACs provided included: Market Opportunity Analyses – Supporting analyses of CHP market opportunities in diverse markets including industrial, federal, institutional, and commercial sectors. Education and Outreach – Providing information on the energy and non-energy benefits and applications of CHP to state and local policy makers, regulators, energy end-users, trade associations and others. Information was shared on the Midwest CEAC website: www.midwestcleanergy.org. Technical Assistance – Providing technical assistance to end-users and stakeholders to help them consider CHP, waste heat to power, and/or district energy with CHP in their facility and to help them through the project development process from initial CHP screening to installation. The Midwest CEAC provided services to the Midwest Region that included the states of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin.

  15. New catalysts for clean environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maijanen, A; Hase, A [eds.; VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    VTT launched a Research Programme on Chemical Reaction Mechanisms (CREAM) in 1993. The three-year programme (1993-1995) has focused on reaction mechanisms relevant to process industries and aimed at developing novel catalysts and biocatalysts for forest, food, and specialty chemicals industries as well as for energy production. The preliminary results of this programme have already been presented in the first symposium organized in Espoo in September 1994. To conclude the programme the second symposium is organized in Otaniemi, Espoo on January 29 - 30, 1996. Papers by 19 speakers and 17 poster presentations of the 1996 Symposium are included in this book. The Symposium consists of four sessions: Biotechnology for Natural Fibers Processing, New Biocatalysts, Catalysts for Clean Energy, and New Opportunities for Chemical Industry. The CREAM programme has tried to foresee solutions for the problems challenged by the public concern on environmental aspects, especially dealing with industrial processes and novel use of raw materials and energy. The programme has followed the basic routes that can lead to natural and simple solutions to develop processes in the fields of forest, food fine chemicals, and energy industry. This symposium presents the results of the programme to learn and further discuss together with the international experts that have been invited as keynote speakers. (author)

  16. Cleaning Puparia for Forensic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higley, Leon G; Brosius, Tierney R; Reinhard, Karl J; Carter, David

    2016-09-01

    We tested procedures for removing adipocere from insect samples to allow identification. An acceptable procedure was determined: (i) Samples were sorted in petri dishes with 75% alcohol to remove any larvae, adult insects, or other soft-bodied material. (ii) Samples of up to 24 puparia were placed in a vial with 15 mL of 95% acetone, capped, and vortexed for a total of 30-90 sec in 10- to 15-sec bursts. This step removed large masses of adipocere or soil from specimen. (iii) Specimens were removed from acetone and placed in a vial of 15 mL of 2% potassium hydroxide (KOH) and vortexed in 10- to 15-sec bursts until all puparia appeared clean (with our samples this required a total of 60-120 sec). (iv) Specimens were removed from the 2% KOH, placed in 75% ethanol, and examined microscopically. (v) Material was stored in 75% ethanol for identification and long-term preservation. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  17. New catalysts for clean environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maijanen, A.; Hase, A. [eds.] [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    VTT launched a Research Programme on Chemical Reaction Mechanisms (CREAM) in 1993. The three-year programme (1993-1995) has focused on reaction mechanisms relevant to process industries and aimed at developing novel catalysts and biocatalysts for forest, food, and specialty chemicals industries as well as for energy production. The preliminary results of this programme have already been presented in the first symposium organized in Espoo in September 1994. To conclude the programme the second symposium is organized in Otaniemi, Espoo on January 29 - 30, 1996. Papers by 19 speakers and 17 poster presentations of the 1996 Symposium are included in this book. The Symposium consists of four sessions: Biotechnology for Natural Fibers Processing, New Biocatalysts, Catalysts for Clean Energy, and New Opportunities for Chemical Industry. The CREAM programme has tried to foresee solutions for the problems challenged by the public concern on environmental aspects, especially dealing with industrial processes and novel use of raw materials and energy. The programme has followed the basic routes that can lead to natural and simple solutions to develop processes in the fields of forest, food fine chemicals, and energy industry. This symposium presents the results of the programme to learn and further discuss together with the international experts that have been invited as keynote speakers. (author)

  18. Refining's-clean new jingle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that at a time when profit margins are slim and gasoline demand is down, the U.S. petroleum-refining industry is facing one of its greatest challenges; How to meet new federal and state laws for reformulated gasoline, oxygenated fuels, low-sulfur diesel and other measures to improve the environment. The American Petroleum Institute (API) estimates that industry will spend between $15 and $23 billion by the end of the decade to meet the U.S. Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990, and other legislation. ENSR Consulting and Engineering's capital-spending figure runs to between $70 and 100 billion this decade, including $24 billion to produce reformulated fuels and $10-12 billion to reduce refinery emissions. M.W. Kellogg Co. estimates that refiners may have to spend up to $30 billion this decade to meet the demand for reformulated gasoline. The estimates are wide-ranging because refiners are still studying their options and delaying final decisions as long as they can, to try to ensure they are the best and least-costly decisions. Oxygenated fuels will be required next winter, but federal regulations for reformulated gasoline won't go into effect until 1995, while California's tougher reformulated-fuels law will kick in the following year

  19. Cleaning Up Our Drinking Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manke, Kristin L.

    2007-01-01

    Imagine drinking water that you wring out of the sponge you've just used to wash your car. This is what is happening around the world. Rain and snow pass through soil polluted with pesticides, poisonous metals and radionuclides into the underground lakes and streams that supply our drinking water. 'We need to understand this natural system better to protect our groundwater and, by extension, our drinking water,' said Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's Applied Geology and Geochemistry Group Manager, Wayne Martin. Biologists, statisticians, hydrologists, geochemists, geologists and computer scientists at PNNL work together to clean up contaminated soils and groundwater. The teams begin by looking at the complexities of the whole environment, not just the soil or just the groundwater. PNNL researchers also perform work for private industries under a unique use agreement between the Department of Energy and Battelle, which operates the laboratory for DOE. This research leads to new remediation methods and technologies to tackle problems ranging from arsenic at old fertilizer plants to uranium at former nuclear sites. Our results help regulators, policy makers and the public make critical decisions on complex environmental issues

  20. Equipment repair in coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, S

    1982-01-01

    Most equipment in Chinese coal mines consists of machinery and equipment produced in the 1950s; the efficiency of 4-62, CTD-57 and 70B/sub 2/ ventilators is 15% lower than that of new ones; that of SSM and AYaP pumps, 10% lower than of modern ones. Equipment renovation is done in three ways: replacing obsolete equipment with new equipment of the same type; improving the performance of existing equipment by introducing efficiency and reconstruction; and replacing obsolete equipment with advanced equipment. It is indicated that the second way, for example, replacement of 4-62 ventilator blades with a maximum efficiency of 73% by 4-72 ventilator blades raises its efficiency to 90%. Replacing the 8DA-8x3 water pump, having a maximum efficiency of 63%, with the 200D 43x3 pump with a maximum efficiency of 78%, enables an electricity savings of 7000 yuan per year, which exceeds all replacement costs (600 yuan). The need to improve equipment maintenance and preventive work to increase equipment service life and to introduce new techniques and efficiency is noted.

  1. Clean Energy Policy Analysis: Impact Analysis of Potential Clean Energy Policy Options for the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative (HCEI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busche, S.; Doris, E.; Braccio, R.; Lippert, D.; Finch, P.; O' Toole, D.; Fetter, J.

    2010-04-01

    This report provides detailed analyses of 21 clean energy policy options considered by the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative working groups for recommendation to the 2010 Hawaii State Legislature. The report considers the impact each policy may have on ratepayers, businesses, and the state in terms of energy saved, clean energy generated, and the financial costs and benefits. The analyses provide insight into the possible impacts, both qualitative and quantitative, that these policies may have in Hawaii based on the experience with these policies elsewhere. As much as possible, the analyses incorporate Hawaii-specific context to reflect the many unique aspects of energy use in the State of Hawaii.

  2. Towards the development of a rapid, portable, surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy based cleaning verification system for the drug nelarabine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Damion K; Salton, Neale A; Preston, Chris; Piletsky, Sergey

    2010-09-01

    Cleaning verification is a scientific and economic problem for the pharmaceutical industry. A large amount of potential manufacturing time is lost to the process of cleaning verification. This involves the analysis of residues on spoiled manufacturing equipment, with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) being the predominantly employed analytical technique. The aim of this study was to develop a portable cleaning verification system for nelarabine using surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). SERS was conducted using a portable Raman spectrometer and a commercially available SERS substrate to develop a rapid and portable cleaning verification system for nelarabine. Samples of standard solutions and swab extracts were deposited onto the SERS active surfaces, allowed to dry and then subjected to spectroscopic analysis. Nelarabine was amenable to analysis by SERS and the necessary levels of sensitivity were achievable. It is possible to use this technology for a semi-quantitative limits test. Replicate precision, however, was poor due to the heterogeneous drying pattern of nelarabine on the SERS active surface. Understanding and improving the drying process in order to produce a consistent SERS signal for quantitative analysis is desirable. This work shows the potential application of SERS for cleaning verification analysis. SERS may not replace HPLC as the definitive analytical technique, but it could be used in conjunction with HPLC so that swabbing is only carried out once the portable SERS equipment has demonstrated that the manufacturing equipment is below the threshold contamination level.

  3. 21 CFR 866.4540 - Immunonephelometer equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunology Laboratory Equipment and Reagents § 866.4540 Immunonephelometer equipment. (a) Identification. Immunonephelometer equipment for clinical use...

  4. 21 CFR 866.4520 - Immunofluorometer equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunology Laboratory Equipment and Reagents § 866.4520 Immunofluorometer equipment. (a) Identification. Immunofluorometer equipment for clinical use with...

  5. The Use of Intelligent Relays for the Sewer Cleaning Vehicle Control and Automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Chiver

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the way in which the electrical control and automation system of the 5 mc combined sewer and gully cleaning vehicle equipped by a local company was designed, using the intelligent relay of the easy 700 type of Moeller (Eaton company. The control of all the equipments is performed locally from the control panel and some of them can also by remote controlled by means of the radio waves. The program required by the intelligent relay was created, tested and implemented with the help of the dedicated software easy-soft 6, developed by the manufacturing company.

  6. Device and process for cleaning a steam generator plate by a sludge lance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, D.; Berard, P.; Denuit, J.

    1995-01-01

    The cleaning system comprises a carriage which is able to move along a rail and is equipped with a serie of oscillating nozzles. The carriage is made up of a first subassembly with a reversible lance module carrying the nozzles and is equipped at each end with a male hydraulic coupling which is able to connect either with a pressurized water circuit. Its second subassembly comprises the module which connects with and rotates the nozzles, a reversible observation and detection unit and an independent drive mechanism with at least two toothed wheels able to engage with racks. 11 figs

  7. Risk in cleaning: chemical and physical exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolkoff, P; Schneider, T; Kildesø, J; Degerth, R; Jaroszewski, M; Schunk, H

    1998-04-23

    Cleaning is a large enterprise involving a large fraction of the workforce worldwide. A broad spectrum of cleaning agents has been developed to facilitate dust and dirt removal, for disinfection and surface maintenance. The cleaning agents are used in large quantities throughout the world. Although a complex pattern of exposure to cleaning agents and resulting health problems, such as allergies and asthma, are reported among cleaners, only a few surveys of this type of product have been performed. This paper gives a broad introduction to cleaning agents and the impact of cleaning on cleaners, occupants of indoor environments, and the quality of cleaning. Cleaning agents are usually grouped into different product categories according to their technical functions and the purpose of their use (e.g. disinfectants and surface care products). The paper also indicates the adverse health and comfort effects associated with the use of these agents in connection with the cleaning process. The paper identifies disinfectants as the most hazardous group of cleaning agents. Cleaning agents contain evaporative and non-evaporative substances. The major toxicologically significant constituents of the former are volatile organic compounds (VOCs), defined as substances with boiling points in the range of 0 degree C to about 400 degrees C. Although laboratory emission testing has shown many VOCs with quite different time-concentration profiles, few field studies have been carried out measuring the exposure of cleaners. However, both field studies and emission testing indicate that the use of cleaning agents results in a temporal increase in the overall VOC level. This increase may occur during the cleaning process and thus it can enhance the probability of increased short-term exposure of the cleaners. However, the increased levels can also be present after the cleaning and result in an overall increased VOC level that can possibly affect the indoor air quality (IAQ) perceived by

  8. Review of failures in nuclear air cleaning systems (1975--1978)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, D.W.

    1979-01-01

    During the period from January 1, 1975 through June 30, 1978, over 9,000 Licensee Event Reports (LERs) pertaining to the operation of commercial light water nuclear power plants in the US were reported to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Of these reports, over 1,200 (approximately 13%) pertained to failures in air monitoring, ventilating and cleaning systems. For BWR installations, over half of the reported events related to failures in equipment for monitoring the performance of air cleaning systems as contrasted to failures in the systems themselves. In PWR installations, failures in monitoring equipment amounted to about 32% of the total. Reported problem areas in BWR installations included the primary containment and standby gas treatment and off-gas systems, as well as the High Pressure Coolant Injection and Reactor Core Isolation Systems. For PWR installations, reported problem areas included primary containment and associated spray systems and waste processing equipment. Although data on reported failures in power reactor installations can be interpreted in a variety of ways, one message is clear. There is a need for research on the development of more reliable equipment for sampling and monitoring air systems. Equipment that provides inaccurate data on the performance of such systems can lead to as many problems as inadequacies in the systems themselves

  9. Plasma cleaning of ITER first mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, L.; Marot, L.; Steiner, R.; Reichle, R.; Leipold, F.; Vorpahl, C.; Le Guern, F.; Walach, U.; Alberti, S.; Furno, I.; Yan, R.; Peng, J.; Ben Yaala, M.; Meyer, E.

    2017-12-01

    Nuclear fusion is an extremely attractive option for future generations to compete with the strong increase in energy consumption. Proper control of the fusion plasma is mandatory to reach the ambitious objectives set while preserving the machine’s integrity, which requests a large number of plasma diagnostic systems. Due to the large neutron flux expected in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), regular windows or fibre optics are unusable and were replaced by so-called metallic first mirrors (FMs) embedded in the neutron shielding, forming an optical labyrinth. Materials eroded from the first wall reactor through physical or chemical sputtering will migrate and will be deposited onto mirrors. Mirrors subject to net deposition will suffer from reflectivity losses due to the deposition of impurities. Cleaning systems of metallic FMs are required in more than 20 optical diagnostic systems in ITER. Plasma cleaning using radio frequency (RF) generated plasmas is currently being considered the most promising in situ cleaning technique. An update of recent results obtained with this technique will be presented. These include the demonstration of cleaning of several deposit types (beryllium, tungsten and beryllium proxy, i.e. aluminium) at 13.56 or 60 MHz as well as large scale cleaning (mirror size: 200 × 300 mm2). Tests under a strong magnetic field up to 3.5 T in laboratory and first experiments of RF plasma cleaning in EAST tokamak will also be discussed. A specific focus will be given on repetitive cleaning experiments performed on several FM material candidates.

  10. CPV performance versus soiling effects: Cleaning policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, D.; Trujillo, P.; Martinez, M.; Ferrer, J. P.; Rubio, F.

    2012-10-01

    In order to improve the performance of the CPV Plants in a cost effective way it is important to define the best cleaning policies, analyzing the effect of soiling in the surface of CPV modules. The energy generation of a CPV technology based in Fresnel Lens improves up to 7% when the surface of the module is cleaned. Some experimental measurements have been carried out over CPV modules and a model has been defined to analyze what is the best cleaning policy for that Technology in Puertollano. The power losses because of soiling and the critical time until the power losses stabilizes are obtained from the measurements; they are used as an input for the simulation. Using an established cleaning cost and the feeding tariff from Spain in 2007 it has been obtained that cleaning only reports a profit during the summer. The conclusion of the work is that the cleaning tasks have to be carefully planned together with the meteorological forecast in order to maximize the investment made in the cleaning.

  11. Equipment standards for interventional cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowling, A.; Gallagher, A.; Walsh, C.; Malone, J.

    2005-01-01

    Interventional radiology has seen rapid growth in cardiology and represents an alternative to hazardous surgery. Recently there has been a substantial growth in the number of procedures being performed and interventional cardiology (IC) procedures are the most common interventional procedures in Europe. Advances in imaging technology have facilitated the development of increasingly complex radiological IC equipment. Currently, the technology is developing at a rate ahead of supporting research, equipment standards and a regulatory framework. International standards play a key role in the design, manufacture and performance of radiological IC equipment. A survey of 12 IC systems (15 imaging chains) was conducted in Irish hospitals. The aim of the study was to assess the imbalance between rapidly advancing technology and existing standards and to propose recommendations for new IC equipment standards. The results demonstrate the need for definitive equipment requirements and standardisation in the design, manufacture, acceptance and maintenance of IC equipment. (authors)

  12. Generation of equipment response spectrum considering equipment-structure interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Hoon; Yoo, Kwang Hoon

    2005-01-01

    Floor response spectra for dynamic response of subsystem such as equipment, or piping in nuclear power plant are usually generated without considering dynamic interaction between main structure and subsystem. Since the dynamic structural response generally has the narrow-banded shapes, the resulting floor response spectra developed for various locations in the structure usually have high spectral peak amplitudes in the narrow frequency bands corresponding to the natural frequencies of the structural system. The application of such spectra for design of subsystems often leads to excessive design conservatisms, especially when the equipment frequency and structure are at resonance condition. Thus, in order to provide a rational and realistic design input for dynamic analysis and design of equipment, dynamic equipment-structure interaction (ESI) should be considered in developing equipment response spectrum which is particularly important for equipment at the resonance condition. Many analytical methods have been proposed in the past for developing equipment response spectra considering ESI. However, most of these methods have not been adapted to the practical applications because of either the complexities or the lack of rigorousness of the methods. At one hand, mass ratio among the equipment and structure was used as an important parameter to obtain equipment response spectra. Similarly, Tseng has also proposed the analytical method for developing equipment response spectra using mass ratio in the frequency domain. This method is analytically rigorous and can be easily validated. It is based on the dynamic substructuring method as applied to the dynamic soil-structure interaction (SSI) analysis, and can relatively easily be implemented for practical applications without to change the current dynamic analysis and design practice for subsystems. The equipment response spectra derived in this study are also based on Tseng's proposed method

  13. Evaluation of cleaning methods applied in home environments after renovation and remodeling activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yiin, L.-M.; Lu, S.-E.; Sannoh, Sulaiman; Lim, B.S.; Rhoads, G.G.

    2004-01-01

    contractors or homeowners can use a household vacuum cleaner and a household detergent to clean lead-contaminated environments after R and R activities when HUD-recommended equipment is not available

  14. Cleaning products and air fresheners: emissions and resulting concentrations of glycol ethers and terpenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, B C; Destaillats, H; Hodgson, A T; Nazaroff, W W

    2006-06-01

    excessive exposures to these pollutants owing to cleaning product emissions. Mitigation options include screening of product ingredients and increased ventilation during and after cleaning. Certain practices, such as the use of some products in dilute solution vs. full-strength and the prompt removal of cleaning supplies from occupied spaces, can reduce emissions and exposures to 2-butoxyethanol and other volatile constituents. Also, it may be prudent to limit use of products containing ozone-reactive constituents when indoor ozone concentrations are elevated either because of high ambient ozone levels or because of the indoor use of ozone-generating equipment.

  15. Overall Equipment Effectiveness Implementation Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramova, I. G.; Abramov, D. A.

    2018-01-01

    This article documents the methods applied in production control technics specifically focused on commonly used parameter OEE (Overall Equipment Effectiveness). The indicators of extensive and intensive use of equipment are considered. Their appointment this is comparison in the same type of production within the industry and comparison of single-type and / or different types of equipment in terms of capacity. However, it is shown that there is no possibility of revealing the reasons for the machine’s operation: productive / unproductive, with disturbances. Therefore, in the article reveals the approaches to calculating the indicator characterizing the direct operation of the equipment. The Machine Load coefficient is approaching closely to the indicator of the efficiency of the use of equipment. Methods analysis is proceeded through the historically applied techniques such as “Stopwatch” and “Motion” studies. Was performed the analysis of the efficiency index of OEE equipment using the comparable indexes performance of equipment in the Russian practice. An important indicator of OEE contains three components. The meaning of each of them reflects historically applicable indicators. The value of the availability of equipment indicator is close to the value of the equipment extensibility index. The value of the indicator of the efficiency of work can be compared with the characteristic of the capacity of the equipment and the indicator of the quality level can meet the requirements for compliance with the manufacturing technology. Shown that the sum of the values of the coefficient of “Availability” of the equipment and the value of the “Factor of compaction of working hours” are one. As well as the total value of the indicator “level of quality” and the coefficient of marriage given in the result unit. The measurability of the indicators makes it possible to make a prediction about efficiency of the equipment.

  16. Evaluation of 5 Cleaning and Disinfection Methods for Nets Used to Collect Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    OpenAIRE

    Collymore, Chereen; Porelli, Gina; Lieggi, Christine; Lipman, Neil S

    2014-01-01

    Few standardized methods of cleaning and disinfecting equipment in zebrafish facilities have been published, even though the effectiveness of these procedures is vital to preventing the transmission of pathogenic organisms. Four chemical disinfectants and rinsing with municipal tap water were evaluated for their ability to disinfect nets used to capture zebrafish. The disinfectants included benzalkonium chloride+methylene blue, sodium hypochlorite, chlorine dioxide, and potassium peroxymonosu...

  17. Conceptual design review report for K Basin Dose Reduction Project clean and coat task

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackburn, L.D.

    1996-01-01

    The strategy for reducing radiation dose originating from radionuclides absorbed in the concrete is to raise the pool water level to provide additional shielding. The concrete walls need to be coated to prevent future radionuclide absorption into the walls. This report documents a conceptual design review of equipment to clean and coat basin walls. The review concluded that the proposed concepts were and acceptable basis for proceeding with detailed final design

  18. Final design review report for K Basin Dose Reduction Project Clean and Coat Task

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackburn, L.D.

    1996-02-01

    The strategy for reducing radiation dose originating from radionuclides absorbed in the concrete is to raise the pool water level to provide additional shielding. The concrete walls need to be coated to prevent future radionuclide absorption into the walls. This report documents a final design review of equipment to clean and coat basin walls. The review concluded that the design presented was acceptable for release for fabrication

  19. Large-component handling equipment and its use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieg, S.A.; Swannack, D.L.

    1983-01-01

    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) reactor systems have special requirements for component replacements during maintenance servicing. Replacement operations must address handling of equipment within shielded metal containers while maintaining an inert atmosphere to prevent reaction of sodium with air. Plant identification of a failed component results in selecting and assembling the maintenance cask and equipment transport system for transfer from the storage facility to the Reactor Containment Building (RCB). This includes a proper diameter and length cask, inert atmosphere control consoles, component lift fixture and support structure for interface with the facility area surrounding the component. This equipment is staged in modular groups in the Reactor Service Building for transfer through the equipment airlock to the containment interior. The failed component is generally prepared for replacement by installation of the special lifting fixture attachment. Assembly of the cask support structure is performed over the component position on the containment building operating floor. The cask and shroud from the reactor interface are inerted after all manual service connections and handling attachments are completed. The component is lifted from the reactor and into the cask interior through a floor valve which is then closed to isolate the component reactor port. The cask with sodium wetted component is transferred to a service/repair location, either within containment or outside, to the Maintenance Facility cleaning and repair area. The complete equipment and handling operations for replacement of a large reactor component are described

  20. Development of remote automatic equipment for BWR power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Masayoshi

    1984-01-01

    The development of remote control, automatic equipment for nuclear power stations has been promoted to raise the rate of operation of plants by shortening regular inspection period, to improve the safety and reliability of inspection and maintenance works by mechanization, to reduce the radiation exposure dose of workers and to reduce the manpower required for works. The taking-off of control rod drives from reactors and fixing again have been mechanized, but the disassembling, cleaning, inspection and assembling of control rod drives are manually carried out. Therefore, Hitachi Ltd. has exerted effort to develop the automatic equipment for this purpose. The target of development, investigation, the construction and function of the equipment, the performance and the effect of adopting it are reported. The equipment for the volume reduction of spent fuel channel boxes and spent control rods is developed since these are major high level radioactive solid wastes, and their apparent volume is large. Also the target of development, investigated things, the construction and function of the equipment, the performance and the effect of adopting it are reported. (Kako, I.)

  1. New version of VDE 0118 Installation of electrical equipment in underground mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebhardt, L

    1981-10-22

    Preparatory work for the new version of VDE 0188 is reviewed. The major modifications in parts 1 and 2 are mentioned in particular the changes in operating conditions which have been considered and the modified definitions of clean rooms, earthing, underground protective wire system, and mobile operating equipment. Part 2 discusses operating equipment such as motors, inductive voltage transformers, transformers, condensers, lines, lighting units and underground short circuit protection. Part 3 - intrinsically safe electrical equipment, auxiliary circuits, telecommunication systems - will be discussed in a sequel article in Glueckauf.

  2. Cleaning of aluminum after machining with coolants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roop, B.

    1992-01-01

    An x-ray photoemission spectroscopic study was undertaken to compare the cleaning of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) aluminum extrusion storage ring vacuum chambers after machining with and without water soluble coolants. While there was significant contamination left by the coolants, the cleaning process was capable of removing the residue. The variation of the surface and near surface composition of samples machined either dry or with coolants was negligible after cleaning. The use of such coolants in the machining process is therefore recommended

  3. Abort Gap Cleaning for LHC Run 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uythoven, Jan [CERN; Boccardi, Andrea [CERN; Bravin, Enrico [CERN; Goddard, Brennan [CERN; Hemelsoet, Georges-Henry [CERN; Höfle, Wolfgang [CERN; Jacquet, Delphine [CERN; Kain, Verena [CERN; Mazzoni, Stefano [CERN; Meddahi, Malika [CERN; Valuch, Daniel [CERN; Gianfelice-Wendt, Eliana [Fermilab

    2014-07-01

    To minimize the beam losses at the moment of an LHC beam dump the 3 μs long abort gap should contain as few particles as possible. Its population can be minimised by abort gap cleaning using the LHC transverse damper system. The LHC Run 1 experience is briefly recalled; changes foreseen for the LHC Run 2 are presented. They include improvements in the observation of the abort gap population and the mechanism to decide if cleaning is required, changes to the hardware of the transverse dampers to reduce the detrimental effect on the luminosity lifetime and proposed changes to the applied cleaning algorithms.

  4. Abort Gap Cleaning for LHC Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Uythoven, J; Bravin, E; Goddard, B; Hemelsoet, GH; Höfle, W; Jacquet, D; Kain, V; Mazzoni, S; Meddahi, M; Valuch, D

    2015-01-01

    To minimise the beam losses at the moment of an LHC beam dump the 3 μs long abort gap should contain as few particles as possible. Its population can be minimised by abort gap cleaning using the LHC transverse damper system. The LHC Run 1 experience is briefly recalled; changes foreseen for the LHC Run 2 are presented. They include improvements in the observation of the abort gap population and the mechanism to decide if cleaning is required, changes to the hardware of the transverse dampers to reduce the detrimental effect on the luminosity lifetime and proposed changes to the applied cleaning algorithms.

  5. Case study of establishing a clean production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Kun; Nam, Yoon Mi [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    This study was implemented to derive suggestions for improving policies in Korea through the examination and analysis on the present policies related to the clean production and its establishment in enterprises. The characters of concept on clean production presented in pollution prevention, waste minimization, zero emission, environmental friendly design, and industrial ecology were analyzed and the mechanism for implementing clean production and government policy were arranged comprehensively. The related policies of major countries with international organizations including UNEP (United Nations Environment Program) and EU (European Union) were reviewed and compared to those of Korea to propose future policy plan. 73 refs., 3 figs., 30 tabs.

  6. Late washing filter cleaning cycle demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, M.L.; McCabe, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    The DWPF Late Washing Facility will filter cesium and potassium tetraphenyl borate (TPB) solids using a Mott sintered metal filter, identical to the filter now used in the In-tank Precipitation Facility. The purpose of the late wash step is primarily to remove the nitrite salts from the slurry prior to delivery to DWPF. Periodic chemical cleaning of the filter will be required, presumably after each batch although the actual required frequency could not be determined on the lab-scale. Minimization of chemical cleaning solution volumes is key to maximizing the attainment of the Late Wash facility. This report summarizes work completed in experiments designed to identify minimum cleaning solution requirements

  7. The McClean Lake uranium project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaise, J.R.

    2001-01-01

    The McClean Lake Uranium Project, located in the northern part of Saskatchewan, consists of five uranium deposits, Jeb - Sue A - Sue B - Sue C - McClean, scattered in three different locations on the mineral lease. On 16 March 1995, COGEMA Resources Inc and its partners, Denison Mines Ltd and OURD (Canada) Co Ltd, made the formal decision to develop the McClean Lake Project. Construction of the mine and mill started during summer 1995 and should be finished by mid 1997. Mining of the first deposit, Jeb started in 1996, ore being currently mined. The start of the yellowcake production is scheduled to start this fall. (author)

  8. Information technology equipment cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Mark D.

    2014-06-10

    According to one embodiment, a system for removing heat from a rack of information technology equipment may include a sidecar indoor air to liquid heat exchanger that cools warm air generated by the rack of information technology equipment. The system may also include a liquid to liquid heat exchanger and an outdoor heat exchanger. The system may further include configurable pathways to connect and control fluid flow through the sidecar heat exchanger, the liquid to liquid heat exchanger, the rack of information technology equipment, and the outdoor heat exchanger based upon ambient temperature and/or ambient humidity to remove heat from the rack of information technology equipment.

  9. Management methodology for pressure equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bletchly, P. J.

    Pressure equipment constitutes a significant investment in capital and a major proportion of potential high-risk plant in many operations and this is particularly so in an alumina refinery. In many jurisdictions pressure equipment is also subject to statutory regulation that imposes obligations on Owners of the equipment with respect to workplace safety. Most modern technical standards and industry codes of practice employ a risk-based approach to support better decision making with respect to pressure equipment. For a management system to be effective it must demonstrate that risk is being managed within acceptable limits.

  10. Cleaning and sterilization in biotechnological clean system. Biotechnological clean system no senjo sakkin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, M.

    1994-02-20

    Despite their usefulness for mankind, many of microorganisms are generally emphasized of the aspect of their harmfulness as decomposable and pathogenic microorganisms, apt to implant people with wrong preconception. Moreover, the food industries have a habitual practice that they leave unexpectedly unclean conditions unattended. This paper indicates such actual circumstances by quoting various examples, and introduces characteristics and test results on commercially available chemicals having excellent cleansing and sterilizing effects. High-pressure and high-temperature sterilization processes fit the purpose of preservation, but secondary contamination may occur in subsequent processing, for example, from the ceiling and walls of a work room, or operators' fingers. Problems exist there that should be considered in biotechnological clean systems. Technologies have been advanced that mix a small amount of chemicals into plastic sheets, wall materials, and floor materials so that their surfaces are kept away from growth of microorganisms for extended periods of time. About 300 kinds of chemicals have been developed, and are available commercially. 3 refs., 8 figs.

  11. Clean coal technology optimization model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laseke, B.A.; Hance, S.B.

    1992-01-01

    Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 contains provisions for the mitigation of acid rain precipitation through reductions in the annual emission of the acid rain precursors of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and nitrogen oxide (NO x ). These provisions will affect primarily existing coal-fired power-generating plants by requiring nominal reductions of 5 millon and 10 million tons of SO 2 by the years 1995 and 2000, respectively, and 2 million tons of NO x by the year 2000 relative to the 1980 and 1985-87 reference period. The 1990 CAAA Title IV provisions are extremely complex in that they establish phased regulatory milestones, unit-level emission allowances and caps, a mechanism for inter-utility trading of emission allowances, and a system of emission allowance credits based on selection of control option and timing of its implementation. The net result of Title IV of the 1990 CAAA is that approximately 147 gigawatts (GW) of generating capacity is eligible to retrofit SO 2 controls by the year 2000. A number of options are available to bring affected boilers into compliance with Title IV. Market sharewill be influenced by technology performance and costs. These characteristics can be modeled through a bottom-up technology cost and performance optimization exercise to show their impact on the technology's potential market share. Such a model exists in the form of an integrated data base-model software system. This microcomputer (PC)-based software system consists of a unit (boiler)-level data base (ACIDBASE), a cost and performance engineering model (IAPCS), and a market forecast model (ICEMAN)

  12. Drinking and Cleaning Water Use in a Dairy Cow Barn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Krauß

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Water is used in dairy farming for producing feed, watering the animals, and cleaning and disinfecting barns and equipment. The objective of this study was to investigate the drinking and cleaning water use in a dairy cow barn. The water use was measured on a well-managed commercial dairy farm in North-East Germany. Thirty-eight water meters were installed in a barn with 176 cows and two milking systems (an automatic milking system and a herringbone parlour. Their counts were logged hourly over 806 days. On average, the cows in the automatic milking system used 91.1 (SD 14.3 L drinking water per cow per day, while those in the herringbone parlour used 54.4 (SD 5.3 L per cow per day. The cows drink most of the water during the hours of (natural and artificial light in the barn. Previously published regression functions of drinking water intake of the cows were reviewed and a new regression function based on the ambient temperature and the milk yield was developed (drinking water intake (L per cow per day = −27.937 + 0.49 × mean temperature + 3.15 × milk yield (R2 = 0.67. The cleaning water demand had a mean of 28.6 (SD 14.8 L per cow per day in the automatic milking system, and a mean of 33.8 (SD 14.1 L per cow per day in the herringbone parlour. These findings show that the total technical water use in the barn makes only a minor contribution to water use in dairy farming compared with the water use for feed production.

  13. Cryogenic equipment; Materiel cryogenique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leger, L; Javellaud, J; Caro, C; Gilguy, R; Testard, O

    1966-06-01

    The cryostats presented here were built from standard parts; this makes it possible to construct a great variety of apparatus at minimum cost. The liquid nitrogen and helium reservoirs were designed so as to reduce losses to a minimum, and so as to make the cryostats as autonomous as possible. The experimental enclosure which is generally placed in the lower part of the apparatus requires a separate study in every case. Furthermore, complete assemblies such as transfer rods, isolated traps and high vacuum valves, were designed with a similar regard for the economic aspects and for the need for standardization. This equipment thus satisfies a great variety of experimental needs; it is readily adaptable and the consumptions of helium and liquid nitrogen are very low. (authors) [French] De nombreuses experiences utilisant les basses temperatures, necessitent l'emploi d'un materiel cryogenique complexe n'existant pas dans le commerce. Les cryostats presentes ici ont ete realises a partir d'elements standard, ce qui permet, malgre la diversite des appareils, de realiser un ensemble a moindre frais. Les reservoirs d'azote et d'helium liquides ont ete concus de facon a limiter les pertes et a conferer au cryostat la plus grande autonomie possible. L'enceinte experimentale situee en general dans la partie inferieure de l'appareil necessite dans tous les cas une etude speciale. D'autre part des ensembles complets tels que les cannes de transfert, piege isole, robinet pour vide secondaire, ont ete concus dans le meme souci de rentabilite et de standardisation. Ce materiel peut donc repondre a un grand nombre d'exigences experimentales, il est facilement adaptable, et les consommations d'helium et d'azote liquide sont tres reduites. (auteurs)

  14. The climate penalty for clean fossil fuel combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junkermann, W.; Vogel, B.; Sutton, M. A.

    2011-12-01

    To cope with the world's growing demand for energy, a large number of coal-fired power plants are currently in operation or under construction. To prevent environmental damage from acidic sulphur and particulate emissions, many such installations are equipped with flue gas cleaning technology that reduces the emitted amounts of sulphur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). However, the consequences of this technology for aerosol emissions, and in particular the regional scale impact on cloud microphysics, have not been studied until now. We performed airborne investigations to measure aerosol size distributions in the air masses downwind of coal-fired power installations. We show how the current generation of clean technology reduces the emission of sulphur and fine particulate matter, but leads to an unanticipated increase in the direct emission of ultrafine particles (1-10 nm median diameter) which are highly effective precursors of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Our analysis shows how these additional ultrafine particles probably modify cloud microphysics, as well as precipitation intensity and distribution on a regional scale downwind of emission sources. Effectively, the number of small water droplets might be increased, thus reducing the water available for large droplets and rain formation. The possible corresponding changes in the precipitation budget with a shift from more frequent steady rain to occasionally more vigorous rain events, or even a significant regional reduction of annual precipitation, introduce an unanticipated risk for regional climate and agricultural production, especially in semi-arid climate zones.

  15. Normal Conducting Separation Dipoles For The Lhc Beam Cleaning Insertions

    CERN Document Server

    Petrov, V; de Rijk, G; Gerard, D; Hans, O; Kalbreier, Willi; Kiselev, O; Protopopov, I V; Pupkov, Yu; Ramberger, S; Ruvinsky, E; Sukhanov, A

    2004-01-01

    In the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), two straight sections, IR3 and IR7, will be dedicated to beam cleaning [1]. These cleaning insertions will be equipped with normal conducting magnets. MBW magnets are dipole magnets used to increase the separation of the two beams. They have a core length of 3.4 m and a gap height of 52 mm and will operate at a magnetic field ranging from 0.09 T to 1.53 T. Limitations on the dimensions and total weight of the magnet resulted in a special design with a common yoke for the two beams. The orbits of the two beams will be separated horizontally by a distance between 194 mm and 224 mm in the gap of the magnet. The magnet was designed in collaboration between CERN and BINP. The report presents the main design issues and results of the pre-series acceptance tests including mechanical, electrical and magnetic field measurements. Index terms - LHC, normal conducting magnet, twin aperture design, separation dipole

  16. Decrudding and chemical cleaning of carbon steel components - an evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaonkar, K.B.; Elayathu, N.S.D.; Shibad, P.R.; Gadiyar, H.S.

    1982-01-01

    Corrosion and accumulation of corrosion products on the surfaces of structural components and plant equipments can cause se vereoperational problems during service. An illustration is the heat exchanger systems in nuclear power stations. Development and standardisation of appropriate chemical cleaning and decontamination procedures and their evaluation hence merit serious consideration. A number of chemical cleaning procedures using formulations based on hydrochloric and citric acid solutions have been examined to study their crud dissolving and derusting ability in addition to the attack on base material. The compositions were chosen: (1) along with complexing agents EDTA and ammonium citrate, (2) with pH control, and (3) with the use of inhibitors acridine, rhodine, hexamine and phenyl-thiourea. The evaluations have been made at 28 and 60 deg C. Rusted carbon steel coupons having a rust of 10-12 mg/cm 2 on the surface have been used for the purpose of the above evaluations. Data on corrosion rates of monel and cupronickel (70:30) in the descaling solutions have also been presented. Results on the above evaluation studies have been discussed. (author)

  17. Cleaning up the sea bed in the North Sea. 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The yearly raid was executed in an efficient way and without excess technical equipment interruptions. The vessel ''Lance'' owned by the Norwegian Sea Mapping Authorities which was used for the sonar mapping of the sea bed, was equipped with a Klein 531T side seeking sonar, a Simrad echo sounder of the type EM100 (multiray) and differential GPS navigation system. The executive committee has earlier expressed desire for a strengthening of the co-operation with the Norwegian Sea Mapping Authorities. The use of the vessel was in accordance with this wish. Stolt Comex Seaway A/S used the vessel M/S ''Seaway Commander'' and the underwater vessel ''Solo'' for the cleaning up project. The systems worked satisfactory during the entire operation. The cleaning operation was in 1994 carried out in 2 sections. The Petroleum Directorate agreed to letting the M/S ''Seaway Commander'' complete the project for Norsk Hydro at the Troll field in order to avoid delays in the Troll Oil project. In both periods there were good weather conditions. There was no extensive discontinuations due to the weather. During the two periods of 13,5 days 259 out of 370 positions were investigated visually through the systems. This is in average about 20 inspected positions a day. The reason for the high average is that the sailing distances are short between the positions and the findings corresponded to stated positions and sonar interpretations. Also this year there was installed a side seeking sonar in the underwater vessel which resulted in reduced investigation time at each aim. It was possible with this type of sonar to identify the goal quicker and to seek during transit between goals at moderate distances. Few articles with certainty contributed by the petroleum activities were retrieved

  18. Comprehensive work plan for the Well Driller's Steam Cleaning Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-02-01

    The purpose of this Comprehensive Work Plan is to address the history of the site as well as the scope, roles and responsibilities, documentation, training, environmental compliance requirements, and field actions needed to close the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Well Driller's Steam Cleaning Facility, hereinafter referred to as the Facility. The Facility was constructed in 1989 to provide a central area suitable to conduct steam cleaning operations associated with cleaning drilling equipment, containment boxes, and related accessories. Three basins were constructed of crushed stone (with multiple plastic and fabric liners) over a soil foundation to collect drill cuttings and wastewater generated by the cleaning activities. The scope of this task will be to demolish the Facility by using a bulldozer and backhoe to recontour and dismantle the area

  19. [Importance of cleaning and disinfection of critical surfaces in dental health services. Impact of an intervention program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Véliz, Elena; Vergara, Teresa; Pearcy, Mercedes; Dabanch, Jeannette

    Introduction Dental care has become a challenge for healthcare associated infection prevention programs, since the environment, within other factors, plays an important role in the transmission chain. Materials and Methods An intervention program was designed for the Dental Unit of Hospital Militar de Santiago, between years 2014 and 2015. The program contemplated 3 stages: diagnostic, intervention and evaluation stage. Objective To improve the safety of critical surfaces involved in dental healthcare. Results During the diagnostic stage, the cleaning and disinfection process was found to be deficient. The most contaminated critical surface was the instrument holder unit, then the clean area and lamp handle. The surfaces that significantly reduced their contamination, after the intervention, were the clean area and the instrument carrier unit. Conclusion Training in the processes of cleaning and disinfecting surfaces and dental equipment is one of the cost-effective strategies in preventing healthcare-associated infections (HCAI), with simple and easy-to-apply methods.

  20. 29 CFR 1926.952 - Mechanical equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... equipment that are not covered with insulating protective equipment. (c) Derrick trucks, cranes and other lifting equipment. (1) All derrick trucks, cranes and other lifting equipment shall comply with subpart N...

  1. 22 CFR 135.32 - Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... specifically permitted or contemplated by Federal statute. (4) When acquiring replacement equipment, the...) Management requirements. Procedures for managing equipment (including replacement equipment), whether... return. (e) Disposition. When original or replacement equipment acquired under a grant or subgrant is no...

  2. 21 CFR 1403.32 - Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... specifically permitted or contemplated by Federal statute. (4) When acquiring replacement equipment, the...) Management requirements. Procedures for managing equipment (including replacement equipment), whether... return. (e) Disposition. When original or replacement equipment acquired under a grant or subgrant is no...

  3. 45 CFR 602.32 - Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... specifically permitted or contemplated by Federal statute. (4) When acquiring replacement equipment, the...) Management requirements. Procedures for managing equipment (including replacement equipment), whether... return. (e) Disposition. When original or replacement equipment acquired under a grant or subgrant is no...

  4. 49 CFR 18.32 - Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... specifically permitted or contemplated by Federal statute. (4) When acquiring replacement equipment, the...) Management requirements. Procedures for managing equipment (including replacement equipment), whether... return. (e) Disposition. When original or replacement equipment acquired under a grant or subgrant is no...

  5. 34 CFR 80.32 - Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... specifically permitted or contemplated by Federal statute. (4) When acquiring replacement equipment, the...) Management requirements. Procedures for managing equipment (including replacement equipment), whether... return. (e) Disposition. When original or replacement equipment acquired under a grant or subgrant is no...

  6. 10 CFR 600.232 - Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... specifically permitted or contemplated by Federal statute. (4) When acquiring replacement equipment, the...) Management requirements. Procedures for managing equipment (including replacement equipment), whether... return. (e) Disposition. When original or replacement equipment acquired under a grant or subgrant is no...

  7. 45 CFR 1183.32 - Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... specifically permitted or contemplated by Federal statute. (4) When acquiring replacement equipment, the...) Management requirements. Procedures for managing equipment (including replacement equipment), whether... return. (e) Disposition. When original or replacement equipment acquired under a grant or subgrant is no...

  8. Introduction of Small Advertising Cleaning Machine and Its Cleaning Effect Experiments in Beijing%北京市小广告清理设备介绍及清理效果试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡昌夏; 王晓燕; 孙晨阳; 冯伟

    2017-01-01

    对北京市各类小广告清理设备进行了简要介绍,并针对目前广泛使用的移动式小广告清理设备的清理效果进行了试验,在此基础上,对小广告清理设备的选择提出适宜推广使用汽车二类底盘车载小广告清理设备,高压热水清理适应范围最广并且清理效果综合较优,应该作为小广告清理的主要手段.%All kinds of small advertising cleaning machines in Beijing were introduced briefly.Based on the cleaning effect experiment results of small advertising cleaning mobile machines,we offered recornmendatiom on the type selection of the machines that it is suitable for the promotion of the use of two types of chassis car small advertising cleaning equipment;high pressure water cleaning adapts to the widest range and the best comprehensive effect of cleaning,then it should be used as the main means of small advertisements to clean up.

  9. Underwater cleaning techniqued used for removal of zebra mussels at the FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbs, B.; Kahabka, J.

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of a mechanical brush cleaning technology recently used to remove biofouling from the Circulating Water (CW) System at New York Power Authority's James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Plant. The FitzPatrick plant had previously used chemical molluscicide to treat zebra mussels in the CW system. Full system treatment was performed in 1992 with limited forebay/screenwell treatment in 1993. The New York Power Authority (NYPA) decided to conduct a mechanical cleaning of the intake system in 1994. Specific project objectives included: (1) Achieve a level of surface cleaniness greater than 98%; (2) Remove 100% of debris, both existing sediment and debris generated as a result of cleaning; (3) Inspect all surfaces and components, identifying any problem areas; (4) Complete the task in a time frame within the 1994-95 refueling outage schedule window, and; (5) Determine if underwater mechanical cleaning is a cost-effective zebra mussel control method suitable for future application at FitzPatrick. A pre-cleaning inspection, including underwater video photography, was conducted of each area. Cleaning was accomplished using diver-controlled, multi-brush equipment included the electro-hydraulic powered Submersible Cleaning and Maintenance Platform (SCAMP), and several designs of hand-held machines. The brushes swept all zebra mussels off surfaces, restoring concrete and metal substrates to their original condition. Sensitive areas including pump housings, standpipes, sensor piping and chlorine injection tubing, were cleaned without degradation. Submersible vortex vacuum pumps were used to remove debris from the cavity. More than 46,000 ft 2 of surface area was cleaned and over 460 cubic yards of dewatered debris were removed. As each area was completed, a post-clean inspection with photos and video was performed

  10. Clean Air Markets - Monitoring Surface Water Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about how EPA uses Long Term Monitoring (LTM) and Temporily Integrated Monitoring of Ecosystems (TIME) to track the effect of the Clean Air Act Amendments on acidity of surface waters in the eastern U.S.

  11. Clean conditions during the erection phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koschel, P.

    1977-01-01

    Following the basic requirements of the Regulatory Guide 1.37 and ANSI 45.2.1 - Standard on Cleaning of Fluid Systems and Associated Components during the Construction Phase of Nuclear Power Plants as a guideline, the implementation of cleaning operations in the pre-installation phase, the installation phase and the maintenance of clean conditions until the operational phase is covered. Specific information will be given from the practical experience point of view with the work execution under clean conditions of piping and components at the semi-finished product manufacturer, the prefabrication workshop and the on-site installation with specific reference to the various detailed procedures required by individual system builders for nuclear power plants in Germany and abroad. (orig.) [de

  12. SRF Clean Rooms and Cryomodule Assembly

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Three primary cleanroom facilities used for the SRF cryomodule production program are available. All 3 clean rooms have class 10 and class 100 areas. The largest is...

  13. Clean Technology Evaluation & Workforce Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patricia Glaza

    2012-12-01

    The overall objective of the Clean Technology Evaluation portion of the award was to design a process to speed up the identification of new clean energy technologies and match organizations to testing and early adoption partners. The project was successful in identifying new technologies targeted to utilities and utility technology integrators, in developing a process to review and rank the new technologies, and in facilitating new partnerships for technology testing and adoption. The purpose of the Workforce Development portion of the award was to create an education outreach program for middle & high-school students focused on clean technology science and engineering. While originally targeting San Diego, California and Cambridge, Massachusetts, the scope of the program was expanded to include a major clean technology speaking series and expo as part of the USA Science & Engineering Festival on the National Mall in Washington, D.C.

  14. Nuclear waste water being cleaned in Paldinski

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahtinen, A.

    1995-01-01

    The cleaning of nuclear waste water in the former military base of Paldiski, Estonia, has started with Finnish assistance. During the Soviet era, Paldiski served as a site for training nuclear submarine crews. Spent fuel has already been removed from the two nuclear reactors on the base. The volume of water to be cleaned totals some 450 cubic metres. The work is estimated to take till May 1995. The filtering technique used for cleaning has been developed in cooperation by IVO International and the Department of Radiochemistry of the University of Helsinki. The project is one aspect of an extensive international cooperation programme for reducing environmental hazards arising from the base. The experience of the cleaning obtained so far has been positive. In the first water tank, filtering reduced the cesium activity of waste water from 1,500 becquerels to less than one becquerel. Two water tanks, however, have bottom sediment that probably cannot be treated during the present project. (orig.)

  15. Clean Cities Annual Metrics Report 2009 (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.

    2011-08-01

    Document provides Clean Cities coalition metrics about the use of alternative fuels; the deployment of alternative fuel vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), and idle reduction initiatives; fuel economy activities; and programs to reduce vehicle miles driven.

  16. Clean Cities Annual Metrics Report 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.; Bergeron, P.

    2009-09-01

    This report summarizes the Department of Energy's Clean Cities coalition accomplishments in 2008, including petroleum displacement data, membership, funding, sales of alternative fuel blends, deployment of AFVs and HEVs, idle reduction initiatives, and fuel economy activities.

  17. Clean Air Markets - Allowances Query Wizard

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Allowances Query Wizard is part of a suite of Clean Air Markets-related tools that are accessible at http://camddataandmaps.epa.gov/gdm/index.cfm. The Allowances...

  18. Clean Air Markets - Compliance Query Wizard

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Compliance Query Wizard is part of a suite of Clean Air Markets-related tools that are accessible at http://ampd.epa.gov/ampd/. The Compliance module provides...

  19. Clean Water Act Section 404 and Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and EPA have longstanding programs to promote water quality and broader environmental goals identified in both the Agriculture Act of 2014 and the Clean Water Act.

  20. MEMS and Nano-Technology Clean Room

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The MEMS and Nano-Technology Clean Room is a state-of-the-art, 800 square foot, Class 1000-capable facility used for development of micro and sub-micro scale sensors...

  1. Section 404 of the Clean Water Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the Clean Water Act permitting program for dredge or fill material into waters of the US, including roles, 401 certification of permits, state/tribal assumption of 404 program, mitigation requirements, regulations

  2. Clean Air Markets - Quick Facts and Trends

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Quick Facts and Trends module is part of a suite of Clean Air Markets-related tools that are accessible at http://camddataandmaps.epa.gov/gdm/index.cfm. The...

  3. Coolant clean-up and recycle systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Takao.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To increase the service life of mechanical seals in a shaft sealing device, eliminate leakages and improve the safety by providing a recycle pump for feeding coolants to a coolant clean-up device upon reactor shut-down and adapting the pump treat only low temperature and low pressure coolants. Constitution: The system is adapted to partially take out coolants from the pipeways of a recycling pump upon normal operation and feed them to a clean-up device. Upon reactor shut-down, the recycle pump is stopped and coolants are extracted by the recycle pump for shut-down into the clean-up device. Since the coolants are not fed to the clean-up device by the recycle pump during normal operation as conducted so far, high temperature and high pressure coolants are not directly fed to the recycle pump, thereby enabling to avoid mechanical problems in the pump. (Kamimura, M.)

  4. Ultrasonic cleaning of electrodes of wire chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasnov, V.A.; Kurepin, A.B.; Razin, V.I.

    1980-01-01

    A technological process of cleaning electrodes and working volume surfaces of wire chambers from contaminations by the simultaneous mechanical action of the energy of ultrasonic oscillations and the chemical action of detergents is discussed. A device for cleaning wire electrodes of proportional chambers of 0.3x0.4 m is described. The device uses two ultrasonic generators with a total power of 0.5 kW. As a detergent use is made of a mixture of ethyl alcohol, gasoline and freon. In the process of cleaning production defects can be detected in the wire chambers which makes it possible to timely remove the defects. Measurements of the surface resistance of fiberglass laminate of printed drift chamber electrodes at a voltage of 2 kV showed that after completing the cleaning process the resistance increases 15-20%

  5. Environmental and body contamination from cleaning vomitus in a health care setting: A simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Linh; Su, Yu-Min; Weber, Rachel; Fritzen-Pedicini, Charissa; Edomwande, Osayuwamen; Jones, Rachael M

    2018-04-01

    Environmental service workers may be exposed to pathogens during the cleaning of pathogen-containing bodily fluids. Participants with experience cleaning hospital environments were asked to clean simulated, fluorescein-containing vomitus using normal practices in a simulated patient room. Fluorescein was visualized in the environment and on participants under black lights. Fluorescein was quantitatively measured on the floor, in the air, and on gloves and shoe covers. In all 21 trials involving 7 participants, fluorescein was found on the floor after cleaning and on participants' gloves. Lower levels of floor contamination were associated with the use of towels to remove bulk fluid (ρ = -0.56, P = .01). Glove contamination was not associated with the number or frequency of contacts with environmental surfaces, suggesting contamination occurs with specific events, such as picking up contaminated towels. Fluorescein contamination on shoe covers was measured in 19 trials. Fluorescein was not observed on participants' facial personal protective equipment, if worn, or faces. Contamination on other body parts, primarily the legs, was observed in 8 trials. Fluorescein was infrequently quantified in the air. Using towels to remove bulk fluid prior to mopping is part of the recommended cleaning protocol and should be used to minimize residual contamination. Contamination on shoes and the floor may serve as reservoirs for pathogens. Copyright © 2018 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Cleaning efficiency enhancement by ultrasounds for membranes used in dairy industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luján-Facundo, M J; Mendoza-Roca, J A; Cuartas-Uribe, B; Álvarez-Blanco, S

    2016-11-01

    Membrane cleaning is a key point for the implementation of membrane technologies in the dairy industry for proteins concentration. In this study, four ultrafiltration (UF) membranes with different molecular weight cut-offs (MWCOs) (5, 15, 30 and 50kDa) and materials (polyethersulfone and ceramics) were fouled with three different whey model solutions: bovine serum albumin (BSA), BSA plus CaCl2 and whey protein concentrate solution (Renylat 45). The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of ultrasounds (US) on the membrane cleaning efficiency. The influence of ultrasonic frequency and the US application modes (submerging the membrane module inside the US bath or applying US to the cleaning solution) were also evaluated. The experiments were performed in a laboratory plant which included the US equipment and the possibility of using two membrane modules (flat sheet and tubular). The fouling solution that caused the highest fouling degree for all the membranes was Renylat 45. Results demonstrated that membrane cleaning with US was effective and this effectiveness increased at lower frequencies. Although no significant differences were observed between the two different US applications modes tested, slightly higher cleaning efficiencies values placing the membrane module at the bottom of the tank were achieved. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Characterization of Cleaning and Disinfecting Tasks and Product Use Among Hospital Occupations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Rena; Virji, M. Abbas; Henneberger, Paul K.; Humann, Michael J.; LeBouf, Ryan F.; Stanton, Marcia L.; Liang, Xiaoming; Stefaniak, Aleksandr B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Healthcare workers have an elevated prevalence of asthma and related symptoms associated with the use of cleaning/disinfecting products. The objective of this study was to identify and characterize cleaning/disinfecting tasks and products used among hospital occupations. Methods Workers from 14 occupations at five hospitals were monitored for 216 shifts, and work tasks and products used were recorded at five-minute intervals. The major chemical constituents of each product were identified from safety data sheets. Results Cleaning and disinfecting tasks were performed with a high frequency at least once per shift in many occupations. Medical equipment preparers, housekeepers, floor strippers/waxers, and endoscopy technicians spent on average 108–177 min/shift performing cleaning/disinfecting tasks. Many occupations used products containing amines and quaternary ammonium compounds for > 100 min/shift. Conclusions This analysis demonstrates that many occupations besides housekeeping incur exposures to cleaning/disinfecting products, albeit for different durations and using products containing different chemicals. PMID:25351791

  8. Brushless Cleaning of Solar Panels and Windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, H. W.

    1982-01-01

    Machine proposed for cleaning solar panels and reflectors uses multiple vortexes of air, solvent, and water to remove dust and dirt. Uses no brushes that might abrade solar surfaces and thereby reduce efficiency. Machine can be readily automated and can be used on curved surfaces such as aparbolic reflectors as well as on flat ones. Cleaning fluids are recycled, so that large quantities of water and solvent are not needed.

  9. Cleaning power and abrasivity of European toothpastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wülknitz, P

    1997-11-01

    For 41 toothpastes available to European consumers in 1995, the cleaning efficacy was evaluated in comparison with abrasivity on dentin (RDA value). For cleaning power assessment, a modified pellicle cleaning ratio (PCR) measurement method was developed. The method is characterized by a five-day tea-staining procedure on bovine front teeth slabs on a rotating wheel, standardized brushing of the slabs in a V8 cross-brushing machine, and brightness measurement by a chromametric technique. All tested products were in accordance with the new DIN/ISO standard 11,609 for toothpastes in terms of dentin abrasivity. Not a single product exceeded an RDA value of 200. The majority of toothpastes (80%) had an RDA value below 100. Only three products surpassed the reference in cleaning power. Most products (73%) had a cleaning power (PCR value) between 20 and 80. The correlation between cleaning power and dentin abrasion was low (r = 0.66), which can be explained with the different influence on dentin and stains by factors like abrasive type, particle surface and size, as well as the chemical influence of other toothpaste ingredients. Some major trends could be shown on the basis of abrasive types. The ratio PCR to RDA was rather good in most silica-based toothpastes. A lower ratio was found in some products containing calcium carbonate or aluminum trihydrate as the only abrasive. The addition of other abrasives, such as polishing alumina, showed improved cleaning power. Some active ingredients, especially sequenstrants such as sodium tripolyphosphate or AHBP, also improve the PCR/RDA ratio by stain-dissolving action without being abrasive. The data for some special anti-stain products did not differ significantly from standard products. Compared with data measured in 1988, a general trend toward reduced abrasivity without loss of cleaning efficacy could be noticed on the European toothpaste market. This may be mostly due to the increased use of high-performance abrasives such

  10. State perspectives on clean coal technology deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreland, T. [State of Illinois Washington Office, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    State governments have been funding partners in the Clean Coal Technology program since its beginnings. Today, regulatory and market uncertainties and tight budgets have reduced state investment in energy R and D, but states have developed program initiatives in support of deployment. State officials think that the federal government must continue to support these technologies in the deployment phase. Discussions of national energy policy must include attention to the Clean Coal Technology program and its accomplishments.

  11. Comparison of glow discharge cleaning with Taylor-type discharge cleaning on JFT-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokokura, Kenji; Matsuzaki, Yoshimi; Tani, Takashi

    1983-01-01

    Method of glow discharge cleaning (GDC) was applied to JFT-2 tokamak and the cleaning effect of GDC was compared with that of taylor-type discharge cleaning (TDC) on the same machin. Results show clearly their individual characteristics to remove light impurities. Their abilities of surface cleaning were compared each other by observing cleanliness of sample surfaces with a AES and by measuring decay times of produced gas pressures during discharge cleanings with a mass-analyser. It was shown that TDC method is better by several times than GDC method from a mass-analyser measurement. Moreover discharge cleaning time necessary to reduce light impurities in the normal plasma to a certain level was compared by monitoring time evolution of radiation loss power with a bolometer, and the time by TDC was only one fifth of that by GDC. The advantage of TDC may come from the excellently high hydrogen flux which interacts with the limiter and the wall. (author)

  12. Food Service Equipment and Appurtenances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Sanitation Foundation, Ann Arbor, MI.

    Equipment design specifications are presented relating to tables of all kinds, counters, sinks and drainboards, bins, shelves, drawers, hoods and similar kitchen appurtenances, not including baking, roasting, toasting, broiling or frying equipment, food preparation machinery such as slicers, choppers, and cutters, mixers and grinders, steam…

  13. Equipe de trabalho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Gerber Hornink

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available   Equipe de Trabalho 2014 1. Equipe editorial Editor-Chefe Bayardo Bapstista Torres, Instituto de Química - USP, Brasil Eduardo Galembeck, Departamento de Bioquímica Instituto de Biologia UNICAMP, Brasil   Editores Gabriel Gerber Hornink, Depto. Bioquímica, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade - Federal de Alfenas - Unifal-MG, Brasil Vera Maria Treis Trindade, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Departamento de Bioquímica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil   Corpo Editorial Adriana Cassina, Departamento de Bioquímica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República, Uruguai Angel Herráez, Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología molecular, Universidad de Alcalá de Henares, Madrid, Espanha André Amaral Gonçalves Bianco, Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Unifesp, Brasil Denise Vaz de Macedo, Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas - Unicamp, Brasil Eneida de Paula, Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas - Unicamp, Brasil Guilherme Andrade Marson, Instituto de Química - USP, Brasil Jose Antonio Martinez Oyanedel, Universidad de Concepción, Chile Josep Maria Fernández Novell, Dept. Bioquímica i Biologia Molecular Universitat de Barcelona, Espanha Leila Maria Beltramini, Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade Estadual de São Paulo - USP, Brasil Manuel João da Costa, Escola de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade do Minho, Portugal Maria Lucia Bianconi, Instituto de Bioquímica Médica Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ, Brasil María Noel Alvarez, Departamento de Bioquímica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República, Uruguai Miguel Ángel Medina Torres, Department of Molecular Biology & Biochemistry Faculty of Sciences University of Málaga, Espanha Nelma Regina Segnini Bossolan, Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo - USP, Brasil Paulo De Avila

  14. Clean fuel for demanding environmental markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josewicz, W.; Natschke, D.E. [Acurex Environmental Corp., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Acurex Environmental Corporation is bringing Clean Fuel to the environmentally demand Krakow market, through the cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy. Clean fuel is a proprietary clean burning coal-based energy source intended for use in stoves and hand stoked boilers. Clean Fuel is a home heating fuel that is similar in form and function to raw coal, but is more environmentally friendly and lower in cost. The heating value of Clean Fuel is 24,45 kJ/kg. Extensive sets of confirmation runs were conducted in the Academy of Mining and Metallurgy in the Krakow laboratories. It demonstrated up to 54 percent reduction of particulate matter emission, up to 35 percent reduction of total hydrocarbon emissions. Most importantly, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (toxic and carcinogens compounds) emissions were reduced by up to 85 percent, depending on species measured. The above comparison was made against premium chunk coal that is currently available in Krakow for approximately $83 to 93/ton. Clean Fuel will be made available in Krakow at a price approximately 10 percent lower than that of the premium chunk coal.

  15. Sonochemical cleaning efficiencies in dental instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiong, T. Joyce; Walmsley, A. Damien; Price, Gareth J.

    2012-05-01

    Ultrasound has been widely used for cleaning purposes in a variety of situations, including in dental practice. Cleaning is achieved through a combination of acoustically driven streaming effects and sonochemical effects arising from the production of inertial cavitation in a liquid. In our work, various dental instruments used for endodontic (root canal) treatment have been evaluated for their efficiency in producing sonochemical effects in an in-vitro cleaning environment. The areas where cavitation was produced were mapped by monitoring chemiluminescence from luminol solutions and this was correlated with their cleaning efficiencies - assessed by the ability to bleach a dye, to form an emulsion by mixing immiscible components and also to remove ink from a glass surface. The results showed good correlation (Pearson's coefficient > 0.9) between the cavitation and cleaning efficiencies, suggesting that the former plays an important role in cleaning. The methods developed and the results will be beneficial in endodontics research in order to optimise future root canal instruments and treatments.

  16. Information technology equipment cooling method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Mark D.

    2015-10-20

    According to one embodiment, a system for removing heat from a rack of information technology equipment may include a sidecar indoor air to liquid heat exchanger that cools air utilized by the rack of information technology equipment to cool the rack of information technology equipment. The system may also include a liquid to liquid heat exchanger and an outdoor heat exchanger. The system may further include configurable pathways to connect and control fluid flow through the sidecar heat exchanger, the liquid to liquid heat exchanger, the rack of information technology equipment, and the outdoor heat exchanger based upon ambient temperature and/or ambient humidity to remove heat generated by the rack of information technology equipment.

  17. Microbial water quality in clean water tanks following inspection and cleaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Sarah Christine Boesgaard; Esbjørn, Anne; Mollerup, Finn

    Increased bacterial counts are often registered in drinking water leaving clean water tanks after the tanks have been emptied, inspected and cleaned by flushing. To investigate the reason for the increased bacterial concentrations and consequently limit it, samples from two clean water tanks befo...... start-up of the tanks, which may indicate that a substantial part of the bacteria in the drinking water leaving the tanks originated from the sand filter. This was supported by 16S DNA analyses....

  18. Outsourcing Housekeeping: An insight into two cleaning companies, SOL and N-Clean, in Helsinki, Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, Samra

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the author was to find to get an insight into the cleaning companies, in Helsin-ki, Finland, which the hotel industry is using as an external supplier for their housekeeping de-partment. The author has looked into the cleaning companies training process for the cleaning staff, employee demographics, quality control and process of handling complaints. The ad-vantages and disadvantages of outsourcing housekeeping in the hotel sector are also investi-gated. The research method...

  19. Collaboration Mechanism for Equipment Instruction of Multiple Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Wang, Tuo; Wang, Qi; Zhang, Zhao; Zhao, Mingyu; Wang, Yinghui

    2018-01-01

    When multiple energy systems execute optimization instructions simultaneously, and the same equipment is Shared, the instruction conflict may occur. Aiming at the above problems, taking into account the control objectives of each system, the characteristics of different systems, such as comprehensive clean energy, energy efficiency, and peak filling, etc., designed the instruction coordination mechanism for the daemon. This mechanism mainly acts on the main station of the system, and form a final optimization instruction. For some specific scenarios, the collaboration mechanism of unlocking the terminal is supplemented. The mechanism determines the specific execution instructions based on the arrival time of the instruction. Finally, the experiment in Tianjin eco-city shows that this algorithm can meet the instruction and collaboration requirements of multi-energy systems, and ensure the safe operation of the equipment.

  20. ''How clean is clean'' in the United States federal and Washington State cleanup regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landau, H.G.

    1993-01-01

    The enactment of legislation and promulgation of implementing regulations generally involves the resolution of conflicting goals. Defining ''How Clean is Clean?'' in federal and state cleanup laws, regulations, and policies is no exception. Answering the ''How Clean is Clean?'' question has resulted in the identification of some important and sometimes conflicting goals. Continuing resolution of the following conflicting goals is the key to effect cleanup of hazardous waste sites: Expediency vs. Fairness; Flexibility vs. Consistency; Risk Reduction vs. Risk Causation; and Permanence vs. Cost Effectiveness

  1. Effectiveness of disinfectant wipes for decontamination of bacteria on patients' environmental and medical equipment surfaces at Siriraj Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seenama, Chakkraphong; Tachasirinugune, Peenithi; Jintanothaitavorn, Duangporn; Kachintorn, Kanchana; Thamlikitkul, Visanu

    2013-02-01

    To determine the effectiveness of Virusolve+ disinfectant wipes and PAL disinfectant wipes for decontamination of inoculated bacteria on patients' environmental and medical equipment surfaces at Siriraj Hospital. Tryptic soy broths containing MRSA and XDR A. baumannii were painted onto the surfaces of patient's stainless steel bed rail, patient's fiber footboard, control panel of infusion pump machine and control panel of respirator. The contaminated surfaces were cleaned by either tap water, tap water containing detergent, Virusolve+ disinfectant wipes or PAL disinfectant wipes. The surfaces without any cleaning procedures served as the control surface. The contaminated surfaces cleaned with the aforementioned procedures and control surfaces were swabbed with cotton swabs. The swabs were streaked on agar plates to determine the presence of MRSA and XDR A. baumannii. MRSA and XDR A. baumannii were recovered from all control surfaces. All surfaces cleaned with tap water or tap water containing detergent revealed presence of both MRSA and XDR A. baumannii. However the amounts of bacteria on the surfaces cleaned with tap water containing detergent were less than those cleaned with tap water alone. All surfaces cleaned with PAL disinfectant wipes also revealed presence of both MRSA and XDR A. baumannii. However the amounts of bacteria on the surfaces cleaned with PAL disinfectant wipes were less than those cleaned with tap water containing detergent. No bacteria were recovered from all surfaces cleaned with Virusolve+ disinfectant wipes. Virusolve+ disinfectant wipes were more effective than tap water; tap water containing detergent and PAL disinfectant wipes for decontamination of bacteria inoculated on patients environmental and medical equipment surfaces at Siriraj Hospital.

  2. 医院洁净层流(手术)室的维护管理%Maintenance Management of Hospital Operation Room with Clean Laminar Flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马龙飞; 史立; 李源

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduce that maintenance management of hospital operation room with clean laminar flow and its effect. And point out the importance of preventive maintenance prolonging the clean equipment's life.%本文介绍了医院洁净层流(手术)室设备的维护管理方法及效果,简述了预防性保养工作对延长洁净设备使用寿命的重要性.

  3. TRACKING CLEAN UP AT HANFORD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CONNELL, C.W.

    2005-01-01

    The Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, known as the ''Tri-Party Agreement'' (TPA), is a legally binding agreement among the US Department of Energy (DOE), The Washington State Department of Ecology, and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for cleaning up the Hanford Site. Established in the 1940s to produce material for nuclear weapons as part of the Manhattan Project, Hanford is often referred to as the world's large environmental cleanup project. The Site covers more than 580 square miles in a relatively remote region of southeastern Washington state in the US. The production of nuclear materials at Hanford has left a legacy of tremendous proportions in terms of hazardous and radioactive waste. From a waste-management point of view, the task is enormous: 1700 waste sites; 450 billion gallons of liquid waste; 70 billion gallons of contaminated groundwater; 53 million gallons of tank waste; 9 reactors; 5 million cubic yards of contaminated soil; 22 thousand drums of mixed waste; 2.3 tons of spent nuclear fuel; and 17.8 metric tons of plutonium-bearing material and this is just a partial listing. The agreement requires that DOE provide the results of analytical laboratory and non-laboratory tests/readings to the lead regulatory agency to help guide then in making decisions. The agreement also calls for each signatory to preserve--for at least ten years after the Agreement has ended--all of the records in it, or its contractors, possession related to sampling, analysis, investigations, and monitoring conducted. The Action Plan that supports the TPA requires that Ecology and EPA have access to all data that is relevant to work performed, or to be performed, under the Agreement. Further, the Action Plan specifies two additional requirements: (1) that EPA, Ecology and their respective contractor staffs have access to all the information electronically, and (2) that the databases are accessible to, and used by, all personnel doing TPA

  4. Development of manufacturing equipment and QC equipment for DUPIC fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Myung Seung; Park, J.J.; Lee, J.W.; Kim, S.S.; Yim, S.P.; Kim, J.H.; Kim, K.H.; Na, S.H.; Kim, W.K.; Shin, J.M.; Lee, D.Y.; Cho, K.H.; Lee, Y.S.; Sohn, J.S.; Kim, M.J.

    1999-05-01

    In this study, DUPIC powder and pellet fabrication equipment, welding system, QC equipment, and fission gas treatment are developed to fabricate DUPIC fuel at IMEF M6 hot cell. The systems are improved to be suitable for remote operation and maintenance with the manipulator at hot cell. Powder and pellet fabrication equipment have been recently developed. The systems are under performance test to check remote operation and maintenance. Welding chamber and jigs are designed and developed to remotely weld DUPIC fuel rod with manipulators at hot cell. Remote quality control equipment are being tested for analysis and inspection of DUPIC fuel characteristics at hot cell. And trapping characteristics is analyzed for cesium and ruthenium released under oxidation/reduction and sintering processes. The design criteria and process flow diagram of fission gas treatment system are prepared incorporating the experimental results. The fission gas treatment system has been successfully manufactured. (Author). 33 refs., 14 tabs., 91 figs

  5. TRANSPORT AND EMPLACEMENT EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The objective and the scope of this document are to list and briefly describe the major mobile equipment necessary for waste package (WP) Transport and Emplacement in the proposed subsurface nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Primary performance characteristics and some specialized design features of the equipment are explained and summarized in the individual subsections of this document. The Transport and Emplacement equipment described in this document consists of the following: (1) WP Transporter; (2) Reusable Rail Car; (3) Emplacement Gantry; (4) Gantry Carrier; and (5) Transport Locomotive

  6. Containment and Surveillance Equipment Compendium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luetters, F.O.

    1980-02-01

    The Containment and Surveillance Equipment Compendium contains information sections describing the application and status of seals, optical surveillance systems, and monitors for international safeguards systems. The Compendium is a collection of information on equipment in use (generally by the IAEA) or under development in the US in diverse programs being conducted at numerous facilities under different sponsors. The Compendium establishes a baseline for the status and applications of C/S equipment and is a tool to assist in the planning of future C/S hardware development activities. The Appendix contains design concepts which can be developed to meet future goals

  7. National Ignition Facility Incorporates P2/E2 in Aqueous Parts Cleaning of Optics Hardware

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabor, K

    2001-01-01

    When completed, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) National Ignition Facility (NIF) will be the world's largest laser with experimental capabilities applicable to stockpile stewardship, energy research, science and astrophysics. As construction of the conventional facilities nears completion, operations supporting the installation of specialized laser equipment have come online. Playing a critical role in the precision cleaning of mechanical parts from the NIF beamline are three pieces of aqueous cleaning equipment. Housed in the Optics Assembly Building (OAB), adjacent to NIF's laser bay, are the large mechanical parts gross cleaner (LMPGC), the large mechanical parts precision cleaner (LMPPC), and the small mechanical parts gross and precision cleaner (SMPGPC). These aqueous units, designed and built by Sonic Systems, Inc., of Newtown, Pennsylvania, not only accommodate parts that vary greatly in size, weight, geometry, surface finish and material, but also produce cleaned parts that meet the stringent NIF cleanliness standards (MIL-STD-1246C Level 83 for particles and A/10 for non-volatile residue). Each unit was designed with extensive water- and energy-conserving features, and the technology used minimizes hazardous waste generation associated with solvent wipe cleaning, the traditional method for cleaning laser mechanical components. The LMPGC provides preliminary gross cleaning for large mechanical parts. Collection, filtration and reuse of the wash and primary rinse water in the LMPGC limit its routine discharge to the volume of the low-pressure, deionized secondary rinse. After an initial gross cleaning in the LMPGC, a large mechanical part goes to the LMPPC. This piece of equipment, unique because of its size, consists of four 2700-gallon tanks. Parts held securely on specialized metal pallets (jointly weighing up to 1500 pounds) move through the tanks on an automated system. Operators program all movement, speeds and process times to

  8. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Arabic Translation) (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-06-01

    This is the Arabic translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center Services fact sheet. The Clean Energy Solutions Center (Solutions Center) helps governments, advisors and analysts create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. The Solutions Center partners with international organizations to provide online training, expert assistance, and technical resources on clean energy policy.

  9. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Phoenix Cleans Up with Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoenix Cleans Up with Natural Gas to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center : Phoenix Cleans Up with Natural Gas on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Phoenix Cleans Up with Natural Gas on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Phoenix Cleans Up with Natural

  10. Cleaning Management in Higher Education: Value for Money Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scottish Higher Education Funding Council, Edinburgh.

    This report identifies key management issues for senior managers and heads of cleaning departments in developing and reviewing cleaning services to support improvement and enhance cost effectiveness. The cleaning costs incurred by higher education institutions (HEIs) represent 2.7 percent of the total spent nationally on cleaning services for both…

  11. 9 CFR 83.7 - Shipping containers; cleaning and disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... HEMORRHAGIC SEPTICEMIA § 83.7 Shipping containers; cleaning and disinfection. (a) All live fish that are to be... been cleaned and disinfected. (1) Cleaning and disinfection of shipping containers must be monitored by... who issues the ICI. (2) Cleaning and disinfection must be sufficient to neutralize any VHS virus to...

  12. Development of special tools for the cleaning of reactor's interior in HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Y.-G.; Le, J.-H.; Ryu, J.-S.; Wu, J.-S.; Jung, H.-S.

    1999-01-01

    The HANARO (Hi-flux Advanced Neutron Application Reactor) in Korea has been being operated for 5 years, including one year of non-nuclear system commissioning tests since the installation of the reactor in early 1994. The HANARO is an open-tank-in-pool type reactor which has the advantage of free access from the pool top. The HANARO reactor had special cleaning works twice to remove debris from the inside reactor. This paper summarizes the development of special tools for reactor cleaning and how the reactor's inside had been successfully cleaned within short periods. The first cleaning work, after the initial flushing of the reactor system in early 1994, was the removal of the silica-gel sands, contaminated during installation, from the reactor pool and all equipment in the pool, including the reactor structure, the reactivity control units and the primary cooling system. Water-jet, pump suction, vacuum suction and whirl methods were used in combination with specially designed tools. The second one, occurred in February 1997 after two years of reactor operation was the cleaning work for the reactor's interior to remove several metal pieces broken from the parts of a check valve assembly in the primary cooling system. This work required development of many special tools that are all compact in size and remotely operable to reach all areas of the inlet plenum through very limited access holes. The special tools used for this work were two kinds of underwater cameras equipped with lighting, a debris-picking tool named 'revolving dustpan', two kinds of flow tube replacement tools and many other supplementary tools. All work had been successfully accomplished on the in-pool-platform temporarily installed 9m above the pool bottom to maintain the pool water level required in view of radiation shielding. Finally, the reactor internals were inspected using the underwater cameras to confirm the absence of debris and the surface integrity of the plenum as well as all fuel

  13. Quantitative determination and sampling of azathioprine residues for cleaning validation in production area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazio, Tatiana Tatit; Singh, Anil Kumar; Kedor-Hackmann, Erika Rosa Maria; Santoro, Maria Inês Rocha Miritello

    2007-03-12

    Cleaning validation is an integral part of current good manufacturing practices in any pharmaceutical industry. Nowadays, azathioprine and several other pharmacologically potent pharmaceuticals are manufactured in same production area. Carefully designed cleaning validation and its evaluation can ensure that residues of azathioprine will not carry over and cross contaminate the subsequent product. The aim of this study was to validate simple analytical method for verification of residual azathioprine in equipments used in the production area and to confirm efficiency of cleaning procedure. The HPLC method was validated on a LC system using Nova-Pak C18 (3.9 mm x 150 mm, 4 microm) and methanol-water-acetic acid (20:80:1, v/v/v) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min(-1). UV detection was made at 280 nm. The calibration curve was linear over a concentration range from 2.0 to 22.0 microg mL(-1) with a correlation coefficient of 0.9998. The detection limit (DL) and quantitation limit (QL) were 0.09 and 0.29 microg mL(-1), respectively. The intra-day and inter-day precision expressed as relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) were below 2.0%. The mean recovery of method was 99.19%. The mean extraction-recovery from manufacturing equipments was 83.5%. The developed UV spectrophotometric method could only be used as limit method to qualify or reject cleaning procedure in production area. Nevertheless, the simplicity of spectrophotometric method makes it useful for routine analysis of azathioprine residues on cleaned surface and as an alternative to proposed HPLC method.

  14. Commercial-Industrial Cleaning, by Pressure-Washing, Hydro-Blasting and UHP-Jetting The Business Operating Model and How-To Manual for 450 Specific Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Maasberg, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Commercial-Industrial Cleaning, by Pressure-Washing, Hydro-Blasting and UHP-Jetting is the first proprietary manual for cleaning and rehabilitation through pressure-washing, hydro-blasting and ultra high pressure water jetting (UHP).   It examines the cleaning, restoration and rehabilitation of statuary and historical structures; manufacturing hardware; and application technologies for residential, commercial and industrial areas, structures and buildings. Commercial-Industrial Cleaning, by Pressure-Washing, Hydro-Blasting and UHP-Jetting contains over 450 applications from agricultural, marine, municipal, food processing, paper-pulp, pharmaceutical and cosmetic, industrial and power generating maintenance areas. It includes gear lists to help readers easily identify the appropriate tooling and equipment for each specific application and industry.   Commercial-Industrial Cleaning, by Pressure-Washing, Hydro-Blasting and UHP-Jetting supplies readers with the tools to create a successful business model for re...

  15. Technological procedure for chemical cleaning prior to re-pyritization of H2O-H2S isotopic exchange installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanescu, I.; Smaranda, D.; Titescu, Gh.

    1996-01-01

    In normal operation the anti-corrosive shielding of the GS installations undergo a slow, irreversible degradation in time so that after 6 - 8 years their protection characteristics break down. In order to put them back in operation the regeneration of anti-corrosive is required. The procedure achieved at ICIS - Rm.Valcea consists in chemical cleaning of the impaired layers and re-pyritization of the interior surface of installations. Chemical cleaning include the following operations: - mechanical cleaning; - water washing; - alkaline washing with sodium hydroxide, tri-sodium phosphate and sodium tri-polyphosphate; - final mechanical cleaning; - neutralizing washing; - chemical cleaning with phosphoric acid solution; - neutralizing washing. After applying this procedure, the surface is prepared for the pyritization regeneration of the anti-corrosive shielding which ensures the prolongation of the equipment service lifetime with another six year period

  16. Data Center Equipment Location and Monitoring System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Data center equipment location systems include hardware and software to provide information on the location, monitoring, and security of servers and other equipment in equipment racks. The systems provide a wired alternative to the wireless RFID tag system by using electronic ID tags...... connected to each piece of equipment, each electronic ID tag connected directly by wires to an equipment rack controller on the equipment rack. The equipment rack controllers link to a central control computer that provides an operator ...

  17. Combining a Novel Computer Vision Sensor with a Cleaning Robot to Achieve Autonomous Pig House Cleaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nils Axel; Braithwaite, Ian David; Blanke, Mogens

    2005-01-01

    condition based cleaning. This paper describes how a novel sensor, developed for the purpose, and algorithms for classification and learning are combined with a commercial robot to obtain an autonomous system which meets the necessary quality attributes. These include features to make selective cleaning...

  18. Emerging forward osmosis (FO) technologies and challenges ahead for clean water and clean energy applications

    KAUST Repository

    Chung, Tai-Shung

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this short review is to share our understanding and perspectives with the chemical, environmental, water and osmotic power communities on FO processes in order to conduct meaningful R & D and develop effective and sustainable FO technologies for clean water and clean energy. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Emerging forward osmosis (FO) technologies and challenges ahead for clean water and clean energy applications

    KAUST Repository

    Chung, Tai-Shung; Li, Xue; Ong, Rui Chin; Ge, Qingchun; Wang, Honglei; Han, Gang

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this short review is to share our understanding and perspectives with the chemical, environmental, water and osmotic power communities on FO processes in order to conduct meaningful R & D and develop effective and sustainable FO technologies for clean water and clean energy. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Coolant cleaning facility for nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuboniwa, Takao; Konno, Yasuhiro; Kumaya, Shin; Osumi, Katsumi.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To remove cation of radioactive cobalt 60 produced in a reactor water during the ordinary operation of the reactor and chlorine when sea water is leaked in a condenser as well as to suppress an increase in iron clad containing radioactive cobalt 60 in the reactor water when the reactor is stopped. Constitution: A large flow rate high temperature cleaning system having an electromagnetic filter capable of removing radioactive substance in a reactor water, a low temperature cleaning system having a desalting unit using ion exchanger resin, a turbidity meter for measuring the turbidity of the reactor water and a conductivity meter for measuring the conductivity are provided. Further, flow rate control means are provided in the high and low temperature cleaning systems. The flow rate control means of the high temperature cleaning system is controlled by a measured signal of the turbidity meter, and the flow rete control means of the low temperature cleaning system is controlled by the measured signal of the conductivity meter. (Aizawa, K.)