WorldWideScience

Sample records for cleaning equipment

  1. Cleaning supplies and equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000443.htm Cleaning supplies and equipment To use the sharing features on this page, ... to clean supplies and equipment. Disinfecting Supplies and Equipment Start by wearing the right personal protective equipment ( ...

  2. 21 CFR 211.182 - Equipment cleaning and use log.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... shall be part of the batch record. The persons performing and double-checking the cleaning and... Reports § 211.182 Equipment cleaning and use log. A written record of major equipment cleaning... individual equipment logs that show the date, time, product, and lot number of each batch processed....

  3. Cleaning and sterilisation of anaesthetic equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chitra Sanjeev Juwarkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this review article is to bring up what has been known (practiced about decontamination, disinfection, and sterilisation of anaesthetic equipment. It also discusses how this evidence-based information on infection prevention and control impacts care of patient in routine anaesthesia practice. This review underscores the role played by us, anaesthetists in formulating guidelines, implementing the same, monitoring the outcome and training post-graduate trainees and coworkers in this regard. The article re-emphasises that certain guidelines when followed strictly will go a long way in reducing transmission of hospital acquired infection between patient and anaesthetist or between patients. Anaesthetists do not restrict their work to operating room but are involved in disaster management, interventional radiological procedures and in trauma care. They should ensure that the patients are cared for in clean and safe environment so as to reduce healthcare associated infections (HCAIs simultaneously taking preventive measures against the various health hazards associated with clinical practice. They should ensure that the coworkers too adopt all the preventive measures while delivering their duties. For this review, we conducted literature searches in Medline (PubMed and also searched for relevant abstracts and full texts of related articles that we came across. There is much to be learned from the western world where, health care organisations now have legal responsibility to implement changes in accordance with the newer technology to reduce health care associated infection. There is a need to develop evidence-based infection prevention and control programs and set national guidelines for disinfection and sterilisation of anaesthesia equipment which all the institutions should comply with.

  4. Cleaning High-Voltage Equipment With Corncob Grit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caveness, C.

    1986-01-01

    High electrical resistance of particles makes power shutdown unnecessary. New, inexpensive method of cleaning high-voltage electrical equipment uses plentiful agricultural product - corncob grit. Method removes dirt and debris from transformers, circuit breakers, and similar equipment. Suitable for utilities, large utility customers, and electrical-maintenance services.

  5. Method of cleaning sodium-contaminated equipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To efficiently remove hydrogen resulted from chemical reaction between sodium and cleaning liquid out of a cleaning tank and regenerate the removed hydrogen as water under the safety oxidizing treatment. Constitution: Exhaust gases from a cleaning system from which alcoholic vapors have been separated are conditioned for the flow rate so that the hydrogen concentration is kept higher than 75 volume %, that is, the explosive limit and sent to a hydrogen gas processing device. The hydrogen-containing exhaust gases adjusted to such a safety flow rate are reacted in an oxidizer with oxygen contained in air supplied thereto and converted into steams. The steam, airs or the likes treated in the oxidizer are cooled in contact with a cooling pipe introduced from a cooler and only the steams are condensated and recovered as water. Then, the water is stored from the cooler to a water-store tank and the amount is monitored by a level meter disposed at the upper portion of the tank. Remaining airs are discharged by way of the cooler. (Yoshihara, H.)

  6. Typological provided equipment features of qualifications weightlifters clean and jerk.

    OpenAIRE

    Tovstonoh A.F.

    2011-01-01

    The article presents the scientific data on kinematic characteristics of qualifications weightlifters of different figure tipes in clean and jerk. In particular, the differences in speed, duration and trajectory of a jolt, as well as in terms of phases of weightlifters clean and jerk of different figure types. Set typological provided equipment features of weightlifters in lifting barbell on his chest and push from the chest.

  7. Typological provided equipment features of qualifications weightlifters clean and jerk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tovstonoh A.F.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the scientific data on kinematic characteristics of qualifications weightlifters of different figure tipes in clean and jerk. In particular, the differences in speed, duration and trajectory of a jolt, as well as in terms of phases of weightlifters clean and jerk of different figure types. Set typological provided equipment features of weightlifters in lifting barbell on his chest and push from the chest.

  8. Chapter A3. Cleaning of Equipment for Water Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, Franceska D., (Edited By); Radtke, Dean B.; Gibs, Jacob; Iwatsubo, Rick T.

    1998-01-01

    The National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data (National Field Manual) describes protocols and provides guidelines for U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) personnel who collect data used to assess the quality of the Nation's surface-water and ground-water resources. Chapter A3 describes procedures for cleaning the equipment used to collect and process samples of surface water and ground water and procedures for assessing the efficacy of the equipment-cleaning process. This chapter is designed for use with the other chapters of this field manual. Each chapter of the National Field Manual is published separately and revised periodically. Newly published and revised chapters will be posted on the USGS page 'National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data.' The URL for this page is http://pubs.water.usgs.gov/twri9A/ (accessed September 20, 2004).

  9. Pipeline clean-up : speed, environment drive pipelining equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budd, G.

    2004-08-01

    Horizontal drilling technology is the single most important enhanced oil recovery technology which has resulted in a significant increase in pipeline utilization. Pipeline operators such as Calgary-based Denim Pipeline Construction Ltd. are responding by using the latest equipment, including excavation equipment, to avoid maintenance delays and downtime. The sales of Denim's horizontal pipe bending equipment have increased due to their attention to worker safety. Denim's horizontal bending machine does not require as much technical support, plus it is faster to install and speeds up production. The machine consists of 3 hydraulic jacks that move on a horizontal plate. Curved dies can be modified to accommodate various diameters of pipe. The bending operation is performed very near to the ground, thereby significantly reducing the risk of pipe injury. Environmental damage is minimized through the use of mechanized mulching which has replaced burning of unwanted trees and brush to clean for pipelines. 1 fig.

  10. Overview of cleaning method for sodium wetted equipment from sodium cooled fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodium must be removed from equipment contaminated by sodium during operation and decommissioning of sodium cooled fast reactors. Six cleaning methods, such as water steam process, water spray process, alcohol process and so on are adopted. This paper summarizes cleaning principles, characteristics, applied ranges and disadvantages of these cleaning methods, and provides reference value for choosing cleaning method of different structural equipment under different circumstances. (authors)

  11. Efficiency of cleaning procedure of milking equipment and bacterial quality of milk

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Sandrucci; Lucio Zanini; Milena Brasca; Maddalena Zucali; Luciana Bava

    2010-01-01

    The cleaning and sanitation of milking equipment could be consider a critical point in the milking procedure because a cleaning failure could influence the level of bacteria contamination of bulk tank milk. Aim of the study is to monitor the cleaning procedures of milking systems in 7 dairy cows farms in Lombardy and to find a relation between efficacy of cleaning system and the bacterial quality of bulk tank milk, remaining washing water through milking equipment and teat cup surface. Cleani...

  12. Air pollution and air cleaning equipment in buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Evdokimova, Ekaterina

    2011-01-01

    The subject of this thesis work is air pollution and air cleaners in building. Clean air has big significance for human health because different pollutions can cause allergy and disease. The quality of indoor air affects health and effective working. The aim of this thesis is to present methods and devices for cleaning the air.

  13. Acceptance test procedure for K basins dose reduction project clean and coat equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creed, R.F.

    1996-03-11

    This document is the Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) for the clean and coat equipment designed by Oceaneering Hanford, Inc. under purchase order MDK-XVC-406988 for use in the 105 K East Basin. The ATP provides the guidelines and criteria to test the equipment`s ability to clean and coat the concrete perimeter, divider walls, and dummy elevator pit above the existing water level. This equipment was designed and built in support of the Spent Nuclear Fuel, Dose Reduction Project. The ATP will be performed at the 305 test facility in the 300 Area at Hanford. The test results will be documented in WHC-SD-SNF-ATR-020.

  14. Commissioning of the cleaning loop of sodium contaminated equipment in sodium-cooled fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The water vapor-nitrogen test loop was constructed to study the cleaning technology of sodium contaminated equipment in sodium-cooled fast reactor. The main components of the loop include a liquid nitrogen storage tank, an electric heating steam generator, a cleaning tank, an effluent storage tank, a condenser, a vacuum pump and a hydrogen meter. After a series of commissioning tests, some problems were found and the corresponding improvement measures were taken. The experiment procedure of the loop which was confirmed by the commissioning tests provided a guarantee for the following studies on the cleaning technology of sodium contaminated equipment. A number of experiences gained from the commissioning tests could be used in the equipment cleaning system of China Experimental Fast Reactor (CEFR). (authors)

  15. Efficiency of cleaning procedure of milking equipment and bacterial quality of milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sandrucci

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The cleaning and sanitation of milking equipment could be consider a critical point in the milking procedure because a cleaning failure could influence the level of bacteria contamination of bulk tank milk. Aim of the study is to monitor the cleaning procedures of milking systems in 7 dairy cows farms in Lombardy and to find a relation between efficacy of cleaning system and the bacterial quality of bulk tank milk, remaining washing water through milking equipment and teat cup surface. Cleaning procedures were monitored with Lactocorder, that measured: duration, water temperature, turbulence, percentage of water in pipes, water conductivity of pre- and post-rinse and detergent phases. Results showed that the monitored farms the most of the cleaning parameters were lower than recommendations, in particular maximum water temperature (42.1±9.9°C and percentage of water during detergent phase (76.1±13.9 %. A maximum temperature of detergent phase <40°C determined a high Standard Plate Count (SPC, thermoduric bacteria and Coliform Count (CC of bulk tank milk, SPC and CC of teat cup surface. The research indicated that monitoring the efficiency of cleaning milking equipment with proper tools provide useful information about possible sources of contamination of bulk tank milk. Improving cleaning milking efficiency allow to improve milk quality.

  16. Acceptance test procedure for K basins dose reduction project clean and coat equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is the Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) for the clean and coat equipment designed by Oceaneering Hanford, Inc. under purchase order MDK-XVC-406988 for use in the 105 K East Basin. The ATP provides the guidelines and criteria to test the equipment's ability to clean and coat the concrete perimeter, divider walls, and dummy elevator pit above the existing water level. This equipment was designed and built in support of the Spent Nuclear Fuel, Dose Reduction Project. The ATP will be performed at the 305 test facility in the 300 Area at Hanford. The test results will be documented in WHC-SD-SNF-ATR-020

  17. Efficiancy of hydrogen peroxide for cleaning production areas and equipments in the radiopharmaceutical production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A great challenge in the radiopharmaceuticals production is to fulfill the Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs), involving the validation of process and of all supporting activities such as cleaning and sanitization. The increasingly strict requirements for quality assurance system, with several norms and normative resolutions has led to a constant concern with programs and cleaning validation in pharmaceutical production. The main goal of GMP is to reduce risks inherent to pharmaceutical production, that is to reduce product contamination with microorganisms and cross-contamination. The basic requirements to prevent contamination is the development and implementation of efficient cleaning programs. In the case of clean rooms for the production of injectable radiopharmaceuticals, the requirement for cleaning programs is evidently higher due to the characteristics of these areas with hot cells for radioactive materials, where sterile radiopharmaceuticals are manipulated and distributed before administration to patients just after minutes or hours of its preparation. In the Radiopharmacy Department at IPEN it was established a cleaning program for clean rooms and hot cells using a hydrogen peroxide solution (20% proxitane alfa). The objective of this work was to assess effectiveness of this cleaning agent in reducing and/or eliminating microbial load in the clean rooms and equipment to acceptable levels in accordance with the current legislation. The analysis was conducted using results of the environmental monitoring program with and settling contact plates in clean rooms after the cleaning procedures. Furthermore, it was possible to evaluate the action of the sanitizing agent on the microbial population on the surface of equipment and clean rooms. It was also evaluated the best way to accomplish the cleaning program considering the dosimetric factor in each production process, as the main concern of pharmaceutical companies is the microbiological contamination, in

  18. Efficiancy of hydrogen peroxide for cleaning production areas and equipments in the radiopharmaceutical production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baptista, Tatyana S.; Batista, Vanessa; Gomes, Antonio; Matsuda, Margareth; Fukumori, Neuza; Araujo, Elaine B. de, E-mail: tsbaptista@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    A great challenge in the radiopharmaceuticals production is to fulfill the Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs), involving the validation of process and of all supporting activities such as cleaning and sanitization. The increasingly strict requirements for quality assurance system, with several norms and normative resolutions has led to a constant concern with programs and cleaning validation in pharmaceutical production. The main goal of GMP is to reduce risks inherent to pharmaceutical production, that is to reduce product contamination with microorganisms and cross-contamination. The basic requirements to prevent contamination is the development and implementation of efficient cleaning programs. In the case of clean rooms for the production of injectable radiopharmaceuticals, the requirement for cleaning programs is evidently higher due to the characteristics of these areas with hot cells for radioactive materials, where sterile radiopharmaceuticals are manipulated and distributed before administration to patients just after minutes or hours of its preparation. In the Radiopharmacy Department at IPEN it was established a cleaning program for clean rooms and hot cells using a hydrogen peroxide solution (20% proxitane alfa). The objective of this work was to assess effectiveness of this cleaning agent in reducing and/or eliminating microbial load in the clean rooms and equipment to acceptable levels in accordance with the current legislation. The analysis was conducted using results of the environmental monitoring program with and settling contact plates in clean rooms after the cleaning procedures. Furthermore, it was possible to evaluate the action of the sanitizing agent on the microbial population on the surface of equipment and clean rooms. It was also evaluated the best way to accomplish the cleaning program considering the dosimetric factor in each production process, as the main concern of pharmaceutical companies is the microbiological contamination, in

  19. Report of clean out and flushing of UO3 Plant processing equipment: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The UO3 Plant went through a clean out leading to the deactivation of the facility. This clean out consisted of three phases. Phase 1 consisted of the removal of residual process material and the deactivation of most process equipment and instrumentation. Phase 2 consisted of the fixing or removal of contamination so storm water processing would be no longer required. Phase 3 consisted of the remaining activities that had to be completed before the facility was turned over to the Surplus Facility Program. Since the activities of Phase 2 and 3 were closely related, these two phases were worked simultaneously. The first part of this document summarizes the Phase 1 clean out procedures and their results. Phase 1 was completed on February 28, 1994. The second part summarizes the Phase 2/3 clean out procedures and their results. Phase 2/3 was completed before December 31, 1994. Because tanks and equipment were flushed simultaneously or in a specific sequence, the clean out processes are discussed per workplan

  20. Technological effects of the wheat cleaning equipment of an industrial mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta STOENESCU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Romanian wheat, Dropia variety, was cleaned and tempered in an industrial roller mill. Technological effects of the wheat cleaning equipment were investigated as function of the total impurities removed from the cereals. The impurities separated through combi-cleaner and indented separators were 83.42 and 82.83%, respectively. Through scouring, the reduction of the ash content was 0.0225%, while the grains broken were 0.223%. Correlations between the physical parameters and the impurities content were also established. The results indicated negative correlations between thousand kernel weight and impurities content.

  1. Cleaning and sanitation of Salmonella-contaminated peanut butter processing equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Elizabeth M; Grove, Stephen F; Halik, Lindsay A; Arritt, Fletcher; Keller, Susanne E

    2015-04-01

    Microbial contamination of peanut butter by Salmonella poses a significant health risk as Salmonella may remain viable throughout the product shelf life. Effective cleaning and sanitation of processing lines are essential for preventing cross-contamination. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a cleaning and sanitation procedure involving hot oil and 60% isopropanol, ± quaternary ammonium compounds, to decontaminate pilot-scale processing equipment harboring Salmonella. Peanut butter inoculated with a cocktail of four Salmonella serovars (∼ 7 log CFU/g) was used to contaminate the equipment (∼ 75 L). The system was then emptied of peanut butter and treated with hot oil (90 °C) for 2 h followed by sanitizer for 1 h. Microbial analysis of food-contact surfaces (7 locations), peanut butter, and oil were conducted. Oil contained ∼ 3.2 log CFU/mL on both trypticase soy agar with yeast extract (TSAYE) and xylose lysine deoxycholate (XLD), indicating hot oil alone was not sufficient to inactivate Salmonella. Environmental sampling found 0.25-1.12 log CFU/cm(2) remaining on processing equipment. After the isopropanol sanitation (± quaternary ammonium compounds), no Salmonella was detected in environmental samples on XLD (<0.16 log CFU/cm(2)). These data suggest that a two-step hot oil clean and isopropanol sanitization treatment may eliminate pathogenic Salmonella from contaminated equipment. PMID:25475272

  2. 40 CFR 63.1298 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP emissions from equipment cleaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP emissions from equipment cleaning. 63.1298 Section 63.1298 Protection of... Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1298 Standards for slabstock flexible...

  3. Gas Chromatography Method of Cleaning Validation Process for 2-Propanol Residue Determination in Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Czubak

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Cleaning validation is an integral operation of good manufacturing practice in pharmaceutical industry. The aim of this study was to validate simple analytical method for detection of 2-propanol residue in equipment, which is likely contaminated with 2-propanol, usually used in the production area. The gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID method was validated on a GC system using DB-FFAP capillary column at the flow rate of 4.9 mL/min. The calibration curve was linear over concentration range from 2.8µg/mL to 110.7µg/mL with a correlation coefficient equal to 0.99981. The detection limit (LOD and quantitation limit (LOQ were 1.1µg/mL and 2.8µg/mL, respectively. The simplicity of gas chromatography method makes it useful for routine analysis of 2-propanol residue and is an alternative to corresponding methods.

  4. VALIDATION OF CLEANING PROCEDURE FOR ELIMINATION OF OFLOXACIN AND METRONIDAZOLE BENZOATE FROM MIXING EQUIPMENT BY USING UV SPECTROSCOPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirav B. Patel et al.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This research manuscript describes simple, sensitive, accurate, precise and repeatable UV spectroscopic method for the simultaneous determination of Metronidazole (MET and Ofloxacin (OFL in suspension dosage form. Metronidazole has absorbance maxima at 318.0 nm and Ofloxacin has absorbance maxima at 294 nm in Methanol and Water (50:50 solvent. The linearity was obtained in the concentration range of 1-13 μg/ml for Metronidazole and 1-13 µg/ml for Ofloxacin with mean accuracies 99.73 ± 0.05 and 99.13 ± 0.41 for Metronidazole and Ofloxacin, respectively. This paper presents a useful UV spectroscopic method for validating equipment cleaning procedures and verifying cleaning in a pharmaceutical plant. The study summarizes the initial steps that should be taken into account and focuses particularly on the solutions to some of the most critical considerations (e.g., detection and quantification limits, recovery. Cleaning validation is the process of assuring that cleaning procedures effectively remove the residue from manufacturing equipment/facilities below a predetermined level. This is necessary to assure the quality of future products using the equipment, to prevent cross-contamination, and as a World Health Organization Good Manufacturing Practices requirement. In this article we discuss the UV method that we developed for measuring residual of Ofloxacin and Metronidazole benzoate suspension contain ofloxacin (50mg/5ml and metronidazole benzoate equivalent to metronidazole (100mg/5ml on surface of mixing tank during manufacturing process. The method with correlation coefficient R² = 0.999 and method offers low detection capability and rapid sample analysis time. The accurate recovery values with method precision less than 2%RSD of precision, UV method is applicable for determining residual of suspension on pharmaceutical equipment surfaces and will be useful for cleaning validation.

  5. Study on adsorption equipment with auto-cleaning screen for extraction of gold in resin-in-pulp system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adsorption equipment with auto-cleaning screen for extraction of gold in resin-in-pulp (RIP) system was developed. The experimental results on the adsorption equipment and the result of its industrial production application in a gold plant are described. Two key technical difficult problems in mechanical stirring equipment for RIP system, that is, the uniform resin distribution and the RIP interstage effective separation, have been solved. The industrial application proves that the equipment has good hydrodynamic and kinetic characteristics, the flow rate of pulp through the interstage separating screen achieved to 50-80 m3/(m2·h) without any force from outside system, the content of gold in the adsorption tail solution was less than 0.02 mg/L, and the adsorption efficiency was greater than 99.52%. (authors)

  6. 碱性清洗剂联合超声清洗机在妇科器械清洗中的应用%Application of alkaline cleaning agent combined with ultrasonic cleaning machine in cleaning equipment in gynecology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冉茂勤

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effect of alkaline cleaning agent combined with ultrasonic cleaning machine in cleaning equipment in gynecology.Methods:300 suction head and vaginal speculum were selected.They were randomly divided into A group,B group,C group.A group was given the medical soft brush washing and rinsing with water cannons,and then they were putted into the automatic cleaning machine.B group was soaked for 10 minutes with pH neutral potent multi enzyme cleaning agent,and then washed with A method.C group was shaked for 10 minutes in the ultrasonic vibration machine with alkaline cleaning agent,and then washed with A method.We compared the cleaning effect.Results:After cleaning,the qualified rate of A group was 58%;the qualified rate of B group was 90%;the qualified rate of C group was 100%.Conclusion:Cleaning effect was the best of ultrasound machine vibration plus alkaline cleaning agent plus high-pressure water washing brush.%目的:探讨碱性清洗剂联合超声清洗机清洗妇科复用器械的效果。方法:选择吸引头、窥阴器共300个,随机分成A、B、C 3个组,A组用医用软毛刷刷洗后用高压水枪冲洗,然后放入全自动清洗机清洗;B组用pH值中性的强效多酶清洗剂浸泡10 min后再用A组方法清洗;C组放入已加碱性清洗剂的超声机震动10 min再用A组方法清洗,比较清洗效果。结果:清洗后,A组合格率58%,B组合格率90%,C组合格率100%。结论:采用超声机震动+碱性清洗剂+毛刷+高压水枪冲洗,其清洗消毒效果最佳。

  7. Quality control of equipment cleaning by using ATP bioluminescence%运用ATP生物荧光法监测器械清洗质量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈先军; 张凤娇

    2014-01-01

    目的:提高器械清洗质量,控制医院感染。方法使用ATP生物荧光法监测器械清洗的效果,发现器械清洗过程中存在的问题并找出原因。结果共采集25份样本,合格10份,超标15份,清洗合格率40%。结论要加强器械清洗消毒人员专业培训,实行器械清洗专人负责制,尽量集中清洗,以提高清洗质量。%Objectives To improve the quality of equipment cleaning,control hospital infection.Methods Use the method of ATP bioluminescence monitoring equipment cleaning effect,find problems existing in the equipment cleaning process and find out why.Results A total of 25 samples collected,eligible 10 pieces,exceeding 15 pieces,cleaning the percent of pass is 40%.Conclu-sion To strengthen the professional training in the cleaning and disinfection of the instruments,carrying out responsibility system of equipment cleaning personnel,try to focus on cleaning and to improve the quality of cleaning.

  8. 运用ATP生物荧光法监测器械清洗质量分析%Quality control of equipment cleaning by using ATP bioluminescence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈先军; 张凤娇

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To improve the quality of equipment cleaning,control hospital infection.Methods Use the method of ATP bioluminescence monitoring equipment cleaning effect,find problems existing in the equipment cleaning process and find out why.Results A total of 25 samples collected,eligible 10 pieces,exceeding 15 pieces,cleaning the percent of pass is 40%.Conclu-sion To strengthen the professional training in the cleaning and disinfection of the instruments,carrying out responsibility system of equipment cleaning personnel,try to focus on cleaning and to improve the quality of cleaning.%目的:提高器械清洗质量,控制医院感染。方法使用ATP生物荧光法监测器械清洗的效果,发现器械清洗过程中存在的问题并找出原因。结果共采集25份样本,合格10份,超标15份,清洗合格率40%。结论要加强器械清洗消毒人员专业培训,实行器械清洗专人负责制,尽量集中清洗,以提高清洗质量。

  9. Presence of protein deposits on 'cleaned' re-usable anaesthetic equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D M; Youkhana, I; Karunaratne, W U; Pearce, A

    2001-11-01

    Twenty previously used and supposedly clean, sterilised laryngeal mask airways, five bougies and five Magill forceps from the operating theatre, and 61 laryngoscope blades from different sites within a single hospital were randomly collected and stained with erythrosin B dye, which stains proteins if present on surfaces. All 20 laryngeal mask airways had been used before and were stained: four (20%) showed heavy staining, five (25%) moderate staining and 11 (55%) mild staining. Two unused laryngeal mask airways used as controls were without staining. Thirty-four of 44 (77%) laryngoscope blades taken from the operating theatres, six of seven (86%) from the overnight intensive recovery room and all 10 (100%) from the wards were stained. None of the other items was totally clean. These findings suggest that current cleaning methods do not remove all proteinaceous material. PMID:11703239

  10. Investigation of flushing and clean-out methods for refrigeration equipment to ensure system compatibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrne, J.J.; Shows, M.; Abel, M.W. [Integral Sciences Inc., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1996-04-24

    SECTION 608 of the Clean Air Act Amendments has altered much of the refrigeration service contracting industry. MCLR Project Number 660-52502 was established to examine two areas where the Amendments are influencing contractors to determine if more cost-effective service procedures might be developed. One area where existing service procedures are being revisited involves the removal of contaminants from a refrigeration system after a motor burnout. At one time, a Class 1 substance such as CFC-11 or CFC-113 was used as a flushing agent for cleaning a system after a burnout. On large systems, the compressor was disassembled, and the parts were cleaned using 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA) or a TCA-containing mixture. Such alternatives are seldom possible today, as the manufacture of Class 1 substances was banned on January 1, 1996. This report describes processes for mineral oil removal, process alternatives for servicing burnouts, solvents, and laboratory retrofit tests.

  11. Cleaning of the equipment of residual sodium by means of water-vacuum technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of investigation into a problem of equipment decontamination from sodium, that have been conducted in OKBM since 1960 are given. The investigations performed have shown that a water-vacuum washing process is the most optimal method for equipment decontamination from sodium residues. The essence of the method is in conduction of sodium-water reaction under reduced pressure in a leak-tight tank. Boundary conditions are selected experimentally which not allow sodium to be melted during the process, that gives possibility to control the sodium-water reaction. Continuous removal of H2 and reaction products creates safe conditions for the process conduction. More that 20-year period of operation of a stationary water-vacuum facility and washing the electromagnetic pump for BN-350 fast nuclear reactor directly at is test rig are the best proofs of the proposed method. This method is well suitable for washing the equipment contaminated by radioactive sodium, because by-products of the process are simply utilized. The method is used in a number of Russian enterprises, and recommended for implementation at BN-350 and BN-600 reactor plants. (author)

  12. Photocatalytic equipment with nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide for air cleaning and disinfecting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitrogen-doped TiO2 nanoparticle photocatalysts were synthesized by a sol–gel procedure using tetra-n-butyl orthotitanate as a titanium precursor and urea as a nitrogen source. Systematic studies for the preparation parameters and their impact on the material's structure were carried out by multiple techniques: thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetric analysis, x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and UV–Vis diffuse reflectance spectrophotometry showed that the nitrogen-doped TiO2 calcined at 500 °C for 3 h exhibited a spherical form with a particle size about 15–20 nm and crystal phase presented a mixture of 89.12% anatase. The obtained product was deposited on a porous quartz tube (D = 74 mm; l = 418 mm) to manufacture an air photocatalytic cleaner as a prototype of the TIOKRAFT company's equipment. The created air cleaner was able to remove 60% of 10 ppm acetone within 390 min and degrade 98.5% of bacteria (total aerobic bacteria and fungi, 300 cfu m−3) within 120 min in a 10 m3 box. These photodegradation activities of N-TiO2 are higher than that of the commercial nano-TiO2 (Skyspring Inc., USA, particle size of 5–10 nm). (paper)

  13. Key Points of Cleaning Validation of Drug Manufacturing Equipment%药品生产设备清洁验证关键点的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁毅; 丁越

    2012-01-01

    目的:为药品生产企业开展清洁验证工作提供参考.方法:阐述清洁验证的概念及其重要性,并结合实例探讨在药品生产过程中如何开展设备清洁和清洁验证工作.结果与结论:在清洁及清洁验证工作中应正确选择清洁标记物、清洁溶剂、清洁方法,确定残留物限度以及允许残留物最低限度的分析方法和取样方法,并对分析方法、取样方法进行验证.清洁验证是降低药品污染、提高药品质量的有效途径,药品生产企业应重视这项工作.%OBJECTIVE: To provide reference for drug manufacturers to carry out cleaning validation. METHODS: The concept and importance of cleaning validation were interpreted, and the way to carry out equipment cleaning and cleaning validation during the production process was investigated on the basis of examples. RESULTS & CONCLUSIONS: During cleaning and cleaning validation, cleaning makers, cleaning solvent, cleaning methods, residue limits and analytical methods should be selected correctly; besides, analytical methods and sampling methods should be validated. Cleaning validation is an effective way to reduce contamination and improve drug quality. Drug manufacturers should pay more attention to this job.

  14. Use of a CO2 pellet non-destructive cleaning system to decontaminate radiological waste and equipment in shielded hot cells at the Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper details how the Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory modified and utilized a commercially available, solid carbon dioxide (CO2) pellet, non-destructive cleaning system to support the disposition and disposal of radioactive waste from shielded hot cells. Some waste materials and equipment accumulated in the shielded hot cells cannot be disposed directly because they are contaminated with transuranic materials (elements with atomic numbers greater than that of uranium) above waste disposal site regulatory limits. A commercially available CO2 pellet non-destructive cleaning system was extensively modified for remote operation inside a shielded hot cell to remove the transuranic contaminants from the waste and equipment without generating any secondary waste in the process. The removed transuranic contaminants are simultaneously captured, consolidated, and retained for later disposal at a transuranic waste facility

  15. Overview of Cleaning Method for Sodium Wetted Equipment from Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor%快堆钠设备清洗方法综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢淳; 赵迅; 刘继伟; 李煦; 李君瑜; 禹春利

    2013-01-01

    钠冷快堆在运行和退役期间必须对钠设备进行清洗除钠,国际上采用的清洗方法包括水蒸汽清洗法、水雾清洗法、醇清洗法和真空蒸馏法等六种主要清洗法,本文系统地概述了每种清洗法的清洗原理、特点、应用范围和缺陷,为不同环境下、不同结构形式的钠设备清洗方法的选择提供了参考价值.%Sodium must be removed from equipment contaminated by sodium during operation and decommissioning of sodium cooled fast reactors.Six cleaning methods,such as water steam process,water spray process,alcohol process and so on are adopted.This paper summarizes cleaning principles,characteristics,applied ranges and disadvantages of these cleaning methods,and provides reference value for choosing cleaning method of different structural equipment under different circumstances.

  16. The microbial ecology of processing equipment in different fish industries-analysis of the microflora during processing and following cleaning and disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagge-Ravn, Dorthe; Ng, Yin; Hjelm, Mette; Christiansen, Jesper N; Johansen, Charlotte; Gram, Lone

    2003-11-01

    The microflora adhering to the processing equipment during production and after cleaning and disinfecting procedures was identified in four different processing plants. A total of 1009 microorganisms was isolated from various-agar plates and identified. A stepwise procedure using simple phenotypic tests was used to identify the isolates and proved a fast way to group a large collection of microorganisms. Pseudomonas, Neisseriaceae, Enterobactericeae, Coryneform, Acinetobacter and lactic acid bacteria dominated the microflora of cold-smoked salmon plants, whereas the microflora in a plant processing semi-preserved herring consisted of Pseudomonas, Alcaligenes and Enterobactericeae. Psychrobacter, Staphylococcus and yeasts were found in a caviar processing plant. Overall, many microorganisms that are often isolated from fish were also isolated from the fish processing plants. However, some selection depending on processing parameters occurred, since halo- and osmo-tolerant organisms dominated in the caviar processing. After cleaning and disinfection, yeasts, Pseudomonas, Neisseriaceae and Alcaligenes remained in smokehouses, yeasts and Pseudomonas in the herring plant and Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus and yeasts in the caviar plant. The dominant adhering organisms after cleaning and disinfection were pseudomonads and yeasts independently of the microflora during processing. Knowledge of the adhering microflora is essential in the Good Hygienic Practises programme of food processing plants, as the development and design of improved cleaning and disinfecting procedures should target the microorganisms persisting and potentially contaminating the product. PMID:14527796

  17. DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF CLEANING PROCEDURE OF MIXING EQUIPMENT USED FOR MANUFACTURING CIPROFLOXACIN HCL AND TINIDAZOLE TABLET BY USING UV SPECTROSCOPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansari Sneha K

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Two simple, sensitive, rapid, accurate and economical methods were developed for the estimation of Ciprofloxacin HCl and tinidazole in two components tablet dosage form. First method is based on the simultaneous equation and second method is based on Q-analysis (absorbance ratio method. Ciprofloxacin HCl has absorbance maxima at 279.0 nm and tinidazole has absorbance maxima at 317 nm in Phosphate Buffer: Acetonitrile (80:20 solvent. The linearity was obtained in the concentration range of 1-13 μg/ml for Ciprofloxacin HCl and 1.2-15.6 µg/ml for tinidazole. In the first method, the concentrations of the drugs were determined by using simultaneous equations and in second method, the concentration of the drugs were determined by using ratio of absorbance at isoabsorptive point and at the λ-max of one of the drug. The results of analysis have been validated statistically and by recovery studies. This paper presents a useful UV spectroscopic method for validating equipment cleaning procedures and verifying cleaning in a pharmaceutical plant. The study summarizes the initial steps that should be taken into account and focuses particularly on the solutions to some of the most critical considerations (e.g., detection and quantification limits, recovery. Cleaning procedure validation offers low detection capability and rapid sample analysis time. The accurate recovery values with method precision less than 2% RSD of precision, UV method is applicable for determining residual of powder mixer on pharmaceutical equipment surfaces and will be useful for cleaning validation.

  18. Proposta de mecanismo de lavagem em equipamentos de beneficiamento de tomate de mesa Washing mechanism improvements for fresh market tomatoes cleaning equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele C. Silva

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available A etapa de limpeza no sistema de beneficiamento do tomate de mesa é essencial tanto para a aceitação do produto pelo consumidor, quanto para a conservação da qualidade do fruto. Entretanto, a etapa de lavagem nos atuais sistemas de limpeza utilizados em unidades de beneficiamento, demanda volume excessivo de água, trazendo sérias preocupações econômicas e ambientais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi contribuir com informações para otimizar o sistema de lavagem em equipamentos de beneficiamento de tomate de mesa. Para tanto, comparou-se o sistema convencional de limpeza, utilizado atualmente, e constituído de tubos de PVC com orifícios, com sistema redimensionado utilizando-se sprays comerciais. Foram determinadas as curvas características (vazão versus pressão para ambos os sistemas e comparados os respectivos consumos de água. Os resultados comprovaram o consumo excessivo de água no sistema convencional, e que é possível reduzi-lo significativamente, permitindo o uso racional da água.The cleanness level in fresh market tomatoes cleaning equipment is essential for consumer acceptance and conservation of product quality. However, the washing process in cleaning current equipments demands an excessive volume of water, leading to serious economic and environmental concerns. The objective of this work was to contribute with technical information for the washing system optimization. The conventional washing system currently used in cleaning equipment, which consists of perforated PVC pipes, was compared with a proposed system which uses commercial sprays. Characteristic curves (flow rate versus pressure for both systems were determined in lab conditions and the respective water consumptions were compared. The results confirmed the excess of water consumption in the conventional washing systems, and the proposed system proved that is possible to reduce it, and the use of sprays allowed the rational use of the water.

  19. Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Commercial Lawn Equipment (Spanish version); Clean Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Erik

    2015-06-01

    Powering commercial lawn equipment with alternative fuels or advanced engine technology is an effective way to reduce U.S. dependence on petroleum, reduce harmful emissions, and lessen the environmental impacts of commercial lawn mowing. Numerous alternative fuel and fuel-efficient advanced technology mowers are available. Owners turn to these mowers because they may save on fuel and maintenance costs, extend mower life, reduce fuel spillage and fuel theft, and demonstrate their commitment to sustainability.

  20. Cleaning and disinfection of equipment for gastrointestinal flexible endoscopy: interim recommendations of a Working Party of the British Society of Gastroenterology.

    OpenAIRE

    Casemore, D P; Blewett, D.A.; Wright, S. E.

    1988-01-01

    1. All patients undergoing gastrointestinal endoscopy must be considered 'at risk' for HIV and appropriate cleaning/disinfection measures taken for endoscopes and accessories. 2. Thorough manual cleaning with detergent, of the instrument and its channels is the most important part of the cleaning/disinfection procedure. Without this, blood, mucus and organic material will prevent adequate penetration of disinfectant for inactivation of bacteria and viruses. 3. Aldehyde preparations (2% activa...

  1. Optimization of stimulation and cleaning works with coiled tubing equipments in low productivity wells of the Zuata Field, Junin Block Orinoco oil belt, Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, H.; Amaya, R.; Bernard, J. St. [PDVSA (Venezuela)

    2011-07-01

    The Zuata Field in the Orinoco oil belt, Venezuela, has important recoverable reserves but faces sand production and low reservoir pressures in many cases. Thus solid removal and cleaning are necessary and increase stimulation time and cost. The aim of this paper is to present a new technique for minimizing the rig time/cost. This new scheme of completion uses a cleaning technology with CCTU WellVac SandVac to clean the filling and remove formation damage from low pressure wells. Field tests were conducted in the Zuata Field on two wells operated by PDVSA. The new methodology proved successful in stimulating low pressure reservoirs and results showed that sediments were removed without significant loss of fluids, the CAPEX/OPEX per well was reduced and profitability in low and medium production wells increased. The methodology proposed herein was shown to be a good alternative for stimulating and cleaning low productivity wells.

  2. Green Cleaning Label Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balek, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Green cleaning plays a significant and supportive role in helping education institutions meet their sustainability goals. However, identifying cleaning products, supplies and equipment that truly are environmentally preferable can be daunting. The marketplace is inundated with products and services purporting to be "green" or environmentally…

  3. Implementation of measurement methods over the process of cleaning and disinfection of cooling equipment and dispensing of beer in keg of type 'Fast Chiller', installed at points of sale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cerveceria de Costa Rica has launched a project to improve the controls over the process of cleaning and disinfection of dispensing equipments in keg beer of type 'fast chiller' installed at points of sale. The development of some methods have been used to verify the effectiveness of the procedure. The study of the initial situation of the company has been the starting point of the project. One study, updating and summarizing has performed of maintenance manual used by technicians responsible for performing cleaning of equipments. The selection and evaluation at laboratory level has been made of the container used to hold 30 mL dose of disinfectant with which the equipments maintenance is performed. Additional controls have been specifically established to ensure food quality CO2 that was used to dislodge the keg beer. A specification sheet has been prepared containing the necessary parameters to product quality is preserved by contact with the gas. A method of reception of cylinders in the plant has been standardized to ensure that they meet specifications. The most important phase of the project has been the implementation of the use of bioluminescence tests, to determine whether the process of cleaning and disinfection has been effective. The critical control points have been selected and standardized for testing the detection of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), then the training of personnel. A number of documents and specifications have been standardized in different control procedures, a specification sheet of ingredient for CO2 and different registers that are expected to establish an effective control mechanism to ensure customer satisfaction by consuming a quality beverage. Monitor the records that are generated has been the recommendation to ensure that all outlets is served a product without alterations by contamination present in the dispensing system. (author)

  4. Gas bubbling cleaning method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present invention concerns a gas bubbling cleaning method for objects to be cleaned having complicate shapes such as reactor equipments. For instance, air is used as the gas, while water is used as the cleaning fluid. A jetting air is jetted out to an object to be cleaned from an air bubbling nozzle disposed below the object. This constitutes air/water two phase flow near the object to be cleaned, to generate a three dimensional circulating flow. The distance between the inner wall surface of a cleaning vessel and the object to be cleaned is set to greater than 5 mm, and the ratio between the air flow rate and the horizontal cross section of the cleaning vessel is set to 0.1 to 0.4m/sec. This enables to enter an appropriate amount of bubbles to the air at the inside of the object to be cleaned having a complicate shape. Accordingly, deposits adhered to the inside of the object to be cleaned can be eliminated and cleaned effectively. (I.N.)

  5. 口腔诊疗器械清洗质量检查记录表的设计及应用%The design and application of dental equipment cleaning quality check form

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戚维舒; 周玉竹; 陈悦娜; 詹勤; 陈剑珍; 林丽婷

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the design and application method of quality check form,in or-der to improve the dental clinic bedside pre-cleaning compliance and dental equipment cleaning quality. Metheods Based on the pollution of dental equipment in Hospital of Stomatology of Sun Yat-sen Universi-ty,the quality check form specific for the dental equipment cleaning was designed and applied to the work of classification,recycling,packaging and checking. According to the data and analysis,corresponding measures were taken to control the influencing factors. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS 13.0 to compared with the date in November 2012 and November 2012 those after improvement. Results The unqualified rate cleaned spatulas was significantly reduced from 7.22%to 2.30%(χ2=237.50,P<0.001), whereas that of amalgam pluggers was reduced from 8.29%to 3.09%(χ2=151.01,P<0.001);Dental clinic bedside pre-cleaning unqualified rate of cement pluggers and carbide carvers were both significantly reduced from 10.80%to 3.19%(χ2=247.70,P<0.001),and from 8.06%to 2.89%(χ2=212.31,P<0.001), respectively. Conclusions Dental equipment cleaning quality check form has specialty characteristics and,strong operability,which can provide the basis for the refinement process,revision of quality stan-dards and staff training,as well as improve the bedside pre cleanning compliance,increase the qualified rate of dental equipment cleaning,promoting the continuous improvement of the cleaning quality.%目的 探讨质量检查表的设计应用方法,以提高临床科室椅旁预清洁依从性和口腔诊疗器械的清洗质量.方法 根据中山大学附属口腔医院口腔诊疗器械污染物情况,自行设计专用于口腔器械的清洗质量检查记录表,并应用于器械回收分类及器械包装检查工作中,根据收集的数据,进行科学分析,采取针对性的措施控制影响因素,选取2012年11月与2013年11月改进前后数据进行比较,采用SPSS 13.0

  6. Plasma Cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintze, Paul E.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Kennedy Space Center has developed two solvent-free precision cleaning techniques: plasma cleaning and supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2), that has equal performance, cost parity, and no environmental liability, as compared to existing solvent cleaning methods.

  7. Clean data

    CERN Document Server

    Squire, Megan

    2015-01-01

    If you are a data scientist of any level, beginners included, and interested in cleaning up your data, this is the book for you! Experience with Python or PHP is assumed, but no previous knowledge of data cleaning is needed.

  8. Manometria esofágica: limpeza e desinfecção do equipamento com glutaraldeído. Protocolo do Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, RS Esophageal manometry: equipment cleaning and disinfection with glutaraldehyde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana MÜLLER

    2001-10-01

    intended to prevent cross infections. As the endoscope the esophageal manometry catheters are considered as semicritical materials and must be free of microrganisms. Aim - To standardize the esophageal manometry materials cleaning and disinfection process to guarantee the safety of patients when reusing semicritical materials. It was based on international protocols and according to recommendations of the Hospital Infection Control Commission of the "Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre", Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. Materials and Methods - Enzymatic detergent was used for catheter cleaning, followed by immersion with 2% glutaraldehyde solution during 20 minutes for high-level disinfection. The water reservatory was kept clean and dry to prevent microorganisms proliferation. Conclusions: The high level disinfection with 2% glutaraldehyde, preceded by enzymatic detergent cleaning, is a safe and simple technique that avoids cross infection in the esophageal manometry equipment. This care must be taken after each manometric procedure. The transducers must be resterilized in ethylene oxide. The professionals of this area must work in concordance with the Hospital Infection Control Commission, being acquainted with the country laws and regulations and keeping sterilizing process and materials updated.

  9. Research progress of ship exhaust gas cleaning desulfurization denitration and PM removal equipment%船舶废气洗涤脱硫脱硝和脱PM细颗粒设备研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄博伦; 杨国华

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviewed the research progresses of ship exhaust gas cleaning desulfurization equipment. Advantages and disadvantages of seawater treatment,alkali liquor and modified method of seawater were introduced. The hybrid system combining seawater with alkali liquor is more efficient economically and has a wide applicability range. Products from major manufacturers were discussed, focusing on the parameters and structures of the scrubbers. Effluent standards and its treatment were also introduced. The analysis of the research status of simultaneous removal of various pollutions from ship exhaust indicated that design efficiency,cost effective NOx oxidation device,and improvement of the ultrafine particle capture ability of wet process,are important factors. Simultaneous removal of SOx,NOx and PM by wet process could be the research direction of ship exhaust cleaning equipment in the future.%综述了船舶废气洗涤脱硫设备的研究现状,通过阐述海水法、碱液法、改性海水法的优缺点,指出海水法联合碱液法的混合系统最具经济性和广泛适用性。列举了国际上几大主要厂商设计的洗涤塔,对比研究了各洗涤塔的参数及其结构特点,最后介绍了洗涤残液的排放标准及其处理方式。通过分析船舶废气中多种污染物联合脱除的研究现状,提出设计出高效、廉价的 NOx氧化装置以及提高湿法对于超细颗粒物的捕集能力将是研究的重点和难点,采用湿法联合脱除SOx、NOx和PM是今后船舶废气洗涤净化设备重要的研究方向。

  10. Precision Cleaning - Path to Premier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackler, Scott E.

    2008-01-01

    ITT Space Systems Division s new Precision Cleaning facility provides critical cleaning and packaging of aerospace flight hardware and optical payloads to meet customer performance requirements. The Precision Cleaning Path to Premier Project was a 2007 capital project and is a key element in the approved Premier Resource Management - Integrated Supply Chain Footprint Optimization Project. Formerly precision cleaning was located offsite in a leased building. A new facility equipped with modern precision cleaning equipment including advanced process analytical technology and improved capabilities was designed and built after outsourcing solutions were investigated and found lacking in ability to meet quality specifications and schedule needs. SSD cleans parts that can range in size from a single threaded fastener all the way up to large composite structures. Materials that can be processed include optics, composites, metals and various high performance coatings. We are required to provide verification to our customers that we have met their particulate and molecular cleanliness requirements and we have that analytical capability in this new facility. The new facility footprint is approximately half the size of the former leased operation and provides double the amount of throughput. Process improvements and new cleaning equipment are projected to increase 1st pass yield from 78% to 98% avoiding $300K+/yr in rework costs. Cost avoidance of $350K/yr will result from elimination of rent, IT services, transportation, and decreased utility costs. Savings due to reduced staff expected to net $4-500K/yr.

  11. Clean catch urine sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urine culture - clean catch; Urinalysis - clean catch; Clean catch urine specimen; Urine collection - clean catch ... lips" (labia). You may be given a special clean-catch kit that contains sterile wipes. Sit on ...

  12. 7 CFR 58.626 - Packaging equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packaging equipment. 58.626 Section 58.626 Agriculture....626 Packaging equipment. Packaging equipment designed to mechanically fill and close single service... accessible for cleaning. The design and operation of the machine shall in no way contaminate the container...

  13. Portable sandblaster cleans small areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severin, H. J.

    1966-01-01

    Portable sandblasting unit rapidly and effectively cleans localized areas on a metal surface. The unit incorporates a bellows enclosure, masking plate, sand container, and used sand accummulator connected to a vacuum system. The bellows is equipped with an inspection window and light for observation of the sanding operation.

  14. 46 CFR 197.452 - Oxygen cleaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Oxygen cleaning. 197.452 Section 197.452 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS....452 Oxygen cleaning. The diving supervisor shall ensure that equipment used with oxygen or...

  15. Dry Cleaning

    OpenAIRE

    Shirley, Lindsey; Weller, Chanae

    2010-01-01

    Despite its name, commercial dry cleaning is not actually a “dry” process. Clothes are immersed in a solvent, most commonly perchlorethylene (perc), instead of in water. Perc or other similar solvents are effective in the removal of oil and grease-based stains without damaging or shrinking sensitive fabrics, unlike a regular detergents and fabric softeners.

  16. Cleaning of boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In terms of long-term safety it is a risk that the boreholes can eventually function as short-circuits between the repository and ground surface. Therefore sealing of investigation boreholes is an important issue for the long- term safety of high-level nuclear waste repositories. In order to seal a borehole properly, the conditions of the borehole have to meet certain predetermined requirements. One of the requirements is that no instruments or materials endangering the plugging operation or the long-term function of the sealing materials, are allowed to be left in the borehole. Sometimes drilling equipment will be left in the hole or it cannot be recovered from the hole with the given constraints of time, cost and resources in spite of attempts. Additionally various measurements may be carried out in the holes after the drilling has been completed and measuring devices may get stuck in holes. Consequently cleaning of the borehole is carried out as an essential activity before sealing can be implemented. There are two common reasons identified for the drill strings to get stuck in holes. First the drill string may get stuck due to acute drilling problems. The second case is where rods are left as casing in a hole either based on the structure of the upper part of the hole or in order to support the hole. To remove the drilling or measuring equipment lost in a borehole, special techniques and professional skill must be applied. Removing measuring equipment from a hole is often demanding and time consuming work. A vital part of the cleaning operation is planning the work in advance. In order to make the plan and to select the suitable methods it is important to know the condition of the stuck material. It is also important to know the exact depth where the equipment are stuck and to have an estimate of the reasons why they have got stuck. It is also very important to know the correct dimensions of the equipment or drill string before commencing the cleaning work

  17. On clean ideals

    OpenAIRE

    Miaosen Chen; Huanyin Chen

    2003-01-01

    We introduce the notion of clean ideal, which is a natural generalization of clean rings. It is shown that every matrix ideal over a clean ideal of a ring is clean. Also we prove that every ideal having stable range one of a regular ring is clean. These generalize the corresponding results for clean rings.

  18. 40 CFR 61.152 - Air-cleaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air-cleaning. 61.152 Section 61.152...-cleaning. (a) The owner or operator who uses air cleaning, as specified in §§ 61.142(a), 61.144(b)(2), 61... spun. (2) Properly install, use, operate, and maintain all air-cleaning equipment authorized by...

  19. MODERNIZATION OF CUPOLA EQUIPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Rovin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an automated cupola complex, developed by scientific-production enterprise «Technolit» together with GSTU named after P. O. Sukhoi, launched in the spring of 2015 at the plant «Stroiex» in the city of Chelyabinsk (the Russian Federation. The old cupolas (open type have been replaced by the new cupolas of the closed type, equipped with automatic control and management system and multistage wet gas treatment system. Cupolas are equipped with systems of post-combustion gases and the batch charging, the separate systems of air blast, systems of sludge removal and recirculation of water, the slag granulation installations, mechanized cleaning of cupola furnace and automatic safety system. These activities allowed the company to increase production and improve the quality of cast iron, reduce the coke consumption by 20% and reducing emissions of pollutants into the atmosphere almost 30 times.

  20. Chemical cleaning re-invented: clean, lean and green.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Margaret; Vangeel, Michel

    2014-01-01

    A project undertaken in the Central Cleaning Department of Janssen, a Johnson and Johnson pharmaceutical company, demonstrates how ergonomics, environmental and industrial hygiene risks and quality concerns can be tackled simultaneously. The way equipment was cleaned was re-designed by an in-house cross-functional team to ensure a 'clean, lean and green' process. Initiatives included a new layout of the area, and new work processes and equipment to facilitate cleaning and handling items. This resulted in significant improvements: all ergonomics high risk tasks were reduced to moderate or low risk; hearing protection was no longer required; respirator requirement reduced by 67%; solvent use reduced by 73%; productivity improved, with 55% fewer operator hours required; and quality improved 40-fold. The return on investment was estimated at 3.125 years based on an investment of over €1.5 million (2008 prices). This win-win intervention allowed ergonomics, environmental, industrial hygiene, productivity and quality concerns all to be addressed. PMID:24858515

  1. Magnetic pulse cleaning of products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolentsev, V. P.; Safonov, S. V.; Smolentsev, E. V.; Fedonin, O. N.

    2016-04-01

    The article deals with the application of a magnetic impact for inventing new equipment and methods of cleaning cast precision blanks from fragile or granular thickened surface coatings, which are difficult to remove and highly resistant to further mechanical processing. The issues relating to a rational use of the new method for typical products and auxiliary operations have been studied. The calculation and design methods have been elaborated for load-carrying elements of the equipment created. It has been shown, that the application of the magnetic pulse method, combined with a low-frequency vibration process is perspective at enterprises of general and special machine construction, for cleaning lightweight blanks and containers, used for transporting bulk goods.

  2. Efficient methods of piping cleaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Vladimir Aleksandrovich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article contains the analysis of the efficient methods of piping cleaning of water supply and sanitation systems. Special attention is paid to the ice cleaning method, in course of which biological foil and various mineral and organic deposits are removed due to the ice crust buildup on the inner surface of water supply and drainage pipes. These impurities are responsible for the deterioration of the organoleptic properties of the transported drinking water or narrowing cross-section of drainage pipes. The co-authors emphasize that the use of ice compared to other methods of pipe cleaning has a number of advantages due to the relative simplicity and cheapness of the process, economical efficiency and lack of environmental risk. The equipment for performing ice cleaning is presented, its technological options, terms of cleansing operations, as well as the volumes of disposed pollution per unit length of the water supply and drainage pipelines. It is noted that ice cleaning requires careful planning in the process of cooking ice and in the process of its supply in the pipe. There are specific requirements to its quality. In particular, when you clean drinking water system the ice applied should be hygienically clean and meet sanitary requirements.In pilot projects, in particular, quantitative and qualitative analysis of sediments adsorbed by ice is conducted, as well as temperature and the duration of the process. The degree of pollution of the pipeline was estimated by the volume of the remote sediment on 1 km of pipeline. Cleaning pipelines using ice can be considered one of the methods of trenchless technologies, being a significant alternative to traditional methods of cleaning the pipes. The method can be applied in urban pipeline systems of drinking water supply for the diameters of 100—600 mm, and also to diversion collectors. In the world today 450 km of pipelines are subject to ice cleaning method.Ice cleaning method is simple

  3. P-clean rings

    OpenAIRE

    Weixing Chen

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we unify the structures of various clean rings by introducing the notion of P-clean rings. Some properties of P-clean rings are investigated, which generalize the known results on clean rings, semiclean rings, n-clean rings, and so forth. By the way, we answer a question of Xiao and Tong on n-clean rings in the negative.

  4. Solar Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    A medical refrigeration and a water pump both powered by solar cells that convert sunlight directly into electricity are among the line of solar powered equipment manufactured by IUS (Independent Utility Systems) for use in areas where conventional power is not available. IUS benefited from NASA technology incorporated in the solar panel design and from assistance provided by Kerr Industrial Applications Center.

  5. Research on Silicon Wafer Cleaning Equipments of Producing High Concentration Ozone Water%用于硅片清洗高浓度臭氧水产生设备研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白敏菂

    2015-01-01

    由于高浓度臭氧水的氧化电位高达 2.07 V、反应速率常数高达2.2×106 L/(m ol·s),因而臭氧水具有无选择性快速(几秒钟)氧化分解有机污染;并能在几分钟时间内完成硅片清洗、光刻、刻蚀和成膜. 采用强电场电离放电把氧离解成高浓度O 3,再用强激励溶解方法把高浓度臭氧溶解于水中形成高浓度臭氧水,臭氧水浓度达到34.2 m g/L ,满足了硅片清洗所要求的浓度≥30 m g/L. 分别阐述了强电离放电规模制取高浓度臭氧水溶液方法;强激励溶解高浓度臭氧的理论基础;形成臭氧水溶液的工艺系统及其应用举例.%Scientific and technical com m unity has drew attention to the research of producing high concentration ozone w ater recently.B ecause the oxidation potential of high concentration ozone w ater reach up to 2.07 V and the reaction rate constant reach up to 2.2 ×106 L/ (m ol·s),ozone w ater can high-effectively and quickly (a few seconds) oxidization disintegrate organic pollution;and can finish silicon w afer cleaning,photoetching,etching and film form ation in a few seconds. A large num ber of oxygen species produced high concentration O 3 by strong electric field ionization discharge,high concentration ozone could dissolve in w ater to form high concentration ozone w ater by strong incentive m ethod,the concentration of ozone w ater reached 34.2 m g/L ,and could m eet the concentration dem and of silicon w afer cleaning that m ore than 30 m g/L . In this study, it explains that high concentration ozone w ater liquor is scale-produced by strong ionization discharge m ethod;the theory basic of resolving high concentration ozone by strong incentive m ethod;the process system and its applied cases of form ation ozone w ater liquor.

  6. Automated spray cleaning using flammable solvents in a glovebox

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, P.; Meirans, L.

    1998-05-01

    The phase-out of the ozone-depleting solvents has forced industry to look to solvents such as alcohol, terpenes and other flammable solvents to perform the critical cleaning processes. These solvents are not as efficient as the ozone-depleting solvents in terms of soil loading, cleaning time and drying when used in standard cleaning processes such as manual sprays or ultrasonic baths. They also require special equipment designs to meet part cleaning specifications and operator safety requirements. This paper describes a cleaning system that incorporates the automated spraying of flammable solvents to effectively perform precision cleaning processes. Key to the project`s success was the development of software that controls the robotic system and automatically generates robotic cleaning paths from three dimensional CAD models of the items to be cleaned.

  7. Chemical cleaning, decontamination and corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical cleaning of process equipments and pipings in chemical/petrochemical industries is necessitated for improving operation, for preventing premature failures and for avoiding contamination. In developing a chemical formulation for cleaning equipments, the important aspects to be considered include (i) effective removal of corrosion products and scales, (ii) minimum corrosion of the base metal, (iii) easy to handle chemicals and (iv) economic viability. As on date, a wide variety of chemical formulations are available, many of them are either proprietory or patented. For evolving an effective formulation, knowledge of the oxides of various metals and alloys on the one hand and acid concentration, complexing agents and inhibitors to be incorporated on the other, is quite essential. Organic acids like citric acid, acetic acid and formic acid are more popular ones, often used with EDTA for effective removal of corrosion products from ferrous components. The report enumerates some of the concepts in developing effective formulations for chemical cleaning of carbon steel components and further, makes an attempt to suggest simple formulations to be developed for chemical decontamination. (author). 6 refs., 3 fi gs., 4 tabs

  8. r-clean rings

    OpenAIRE

    Ashrafi, Nahid; Nasibi, Ebrahim

    2011-01-01

    An element of a ring R is called clean if it is the sum of an idempotent and a unit. A ring R is called clean if each of its element is clean. An element r \\in R called regular if r = ryr for some y \\in R. The ring R is regular if each of its element is regular. In this paper we define a ring is r-clean if each of its elements is the sum of a regular and an idempotent element. We give some relations between r-clean and clean rings. Finally we investigate some properties of r-clean rings.

  9. 基于时间序列分析的输变电设备状态大数据清洗方法%Cleaning Method for Big Data of Power Transmission and Transformation Equipment State Based on Time Sequence Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严英杰; 盛戈皞; 陈玉峰; 江秀臣; 郭志红; 秦少鹏

    2015-01-01

    数据清洗是输变电设备状态评估数据预处理的一个关键步骤,有助于提高数据质量和数据利用率。文中将设备状态信息等效成各状态量的时间序列,提出了一种基于时间序列分析的双循环迭代检验法。首先,将时间序列中的异常数据进行了分类,并将缺失值归纳为其中一类异常值。然后,分析了不同类别异常值对时间序列模型的影响,并阐述了迭代检验法的实现步骤。最后,利用所述方法对南网某变压器和线路的监测数据进行了数据清洗,结果表明该方法能识别并修正数据中的噪声点,填补缺失值,满足数据清洗要求。%Data cleaning is a key step in data preprocessing for state assessment of power equipment to help improve data quality and utilization.As the device status information can be made equivalent to the multivariate time sequence of each state,an iterative data cleaning method based on time sequence analysis is proposed.First,the abnormal data in time sequence is classified with the missing values treated as one of the types of the anomalies.Then the impact of different types of anomalies on the sequential model is quantified and several implementation steps of the iterative method are described.Finally,the approach is tested on the on-line monitoring data of a power equipment of the China Southern power grid.The results show that this method is capable of not only effectively identifying the abnormal data,but also repairing the noise points and missing values in meeting the data cleaning requirement.

  10. Transition to Clean Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Acemoglu, Daron; Akcigit, Ufuk; Hanley, Douglas; Kerr,William Robert

    2014-01-01

    We develop a microeconomic model of endogenous growth where clean and dirty technologies compete in production and innovation-in the sense that research can be directed to either clean or dirty technologies. If dirty technologies are more advanced to start with, the potential transition to clean technology can be difficult both because clean research must climb several steps to catch up with dirty technology and because this gap discourages research effort directed towards clean technologies....

  11. CO2-pellet cleaning process cuts costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Non Destructive Cleaning (NDC) process is truly a ''dry process'' that generates no secondary waste streams. Since no solid grit or aggregate is used, there is no need for bulk radioactive solid waste handling equipment. Moreover, since no chemicals are used, the mobile decontamination facility requires no radioactive chemical processing or mixed waste handling facilities. Instead the NDC process uses solid carbon dioxide particles propelled by dry compressed air as the cleaning medium. The carbon dioxide particles shatter upon impact with the surface of the material to be cleaned and flash into dry carbon dioxide gas. This flashing into gas results in a rapid volume expansion of about ten to one. The cleaning action is due to the rapidly expanding carbon dioxide gas flashing into the surface of the item to be cleaned (which is porous at the microscopic level) and flushing foreign materials out. The microscopic particles of foreign material are captured on high efficiency particulate filters. Larger sized fragments are lifted off the surface by the flashing carbon dioxide gas, fall to the bottom of the cleaning area and are vacuumed away to dry air filters. The NDC process also has the advantage that it does not attack the surface of the material being cleaned, making it unique among cleaning processes. (author)

  12. High-voltage live cleaning robot design based on security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Xiao-peng; XIA Hong-wei; YANG Ru-qing

    2005-01-01

    High-Voltage Live Cleaning Robot works in a hot-line environment (220 kV/330 kV), and so the safety of its application and equipment is most important. In terms of safety, the designs of robot mechanism and control system have been discussed, and the test data are given regarding the control system of a model machine. The model machine of a high-voltage live cleaning robot can satisfy the needs of basic cleaning in common conditions. From manual operation to automation, the cleaning efficiency is improved. The robot can decrease the amount of work, and guarantee security. Among high-voltage live cleaning equipment in China, the cleaning robot is advanced in automation and intelligence.

  13. Rudimentary Cleaning Compared to Level 300A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpin, Christina Y. Pina; Stoltzfus, Joel

    2012-01-01

    A study was done to characterize the cleanliness level achievable when using a rudimentary cleaning process, and results were compared to JPR 5322.1G Level 300A. While it is not ideal to clean in a shop environment, some situations (e.g., field combat operations) require oxygen system hardware to be maintained and cleaned to prevent a fire hazard, even though it cannot be sent back to a precision cleaning facility. This study measured the effectiveness of basic shop cleaning. Initially, three items representing parts of an oxygen system were contaminated: a metal plate, valve body, and metal oxygen bottle. The contaminants chosen were those most likely to be introduced to the system during normal use: oil, lubricant, metal shavings/powder, sand, fingerprints, tape, lip balm, and hand lotion. The cleaning process used hot water, soap, various brushes, gaseous nitrogen, water nozzle, plastic trays, scouring pads, and a controlled shop environment. Test subjects were classified into three groups: technical professionals having an appreciation for oxygen hazards; professional precision cleaners; and a group with no previous professional knowledge of oxygen or precision cleaning. Three test subjects were in each group, and each was provided with standard cleaning equipment, a cleaning procedure, and one of each of the three test items to clean. The results indicated that the achievable cleanliness level was independent of the technical knowledge or proficiency of the personnel cleaning the items. Results also showed that achieving a Level 300 particle count was more difficult than achieving a Level A nonvolatile residue amount.

  14. Gaseous cleaning in enrichment installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium hexafluoride (UF6), either pure or mixed to other gases, is widely used as a process gas in the great majority of the known uranium isotopic enrichment processes. Due to a long term operation of the enrichment facilities there is a decomposition of the UF6, which solid products like UO2F2 and UF5, deposit on the walls of the reservoirs. This work describe a cleaning process used to remove the solid products of the UF6 decomposition from one of the reservoirs (V = 620 l) of the Jet Nozzle enrichment project facilities of the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear, CDTN/Belo Horizonte. It was used a gaseous mixture which presented the advantage of cleaning up the reservoir without dismounting the equipment. The yielded products are all gaseous and can be easily pumped out. (author)

  15. Improving the hygienic design of closed equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Alan; Jensen, Bo Boye Busk

    2005-01-01

    cleaning action of fluid flow and the interaction between flow characteristics and soil attached to surfaces. Ideally, such information can be contained in fluid dynamics models or rules of thumb which can be used to assist in design of process equipment and when optimising cleaning procedures. Extending...... process plant. In turn the adhesion mechanisms between the soil and the surface of the process equipment must be overcome. In closed processes validation proves rather difficult, as inspection often is not possible. Hence, we benefit from a greater basic understanding of the influence of the mechanical...

  16. What is Clean Cities? October 2011 (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-10-01

    Brochure describes the Clean Cities program and includes the contact information for its 85 coalitions. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Vehicle Technologies Program (VTP), Clean Cities is a government-industry partnership that reduces petroleum consumption in the transportation sector. Clean Cities contributes to the energy, environmental, and economic security of the United States by supporting local decisions to reduce our dependence on imported petroleum. Established in 1993 in response to the Energy Policy Act (EPAct) of 1992, the partnership provides tools and resources for voluntary, community-centered programs to reduce consumption of petroleum-based fuels. In nearly 100 coalitions, government agencies and private companies voluntarily come together under the umbrella of Clean Cities. The partnership helps all parties identify mutual interests and meet the objectives of reducing the use of petroleum, developing regional economic opportunities, and improving air quality. Clean Cities deploys technologies and practices developed by VTP. These include idle-reduction equipment, electric-drive vehicles, fuel economy measures, and renewable and alternative fuels, such as natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas (propane), electricity, hydrogen, biofuels, and biogas. Idle-reduction equipment is targeted primarily to buses and heavy-duty trucks, which use more than 2 billion gallons of fuel every year in the United States while idling. Clean Cities fuel economy measures include public education on vehicle choice and fuel-efficient driving practices.

  17. 17th DOE nuclear air cleaning conference: proceedings. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    First, M.W. (ed.)

    1983-02-01

    Volume 2 contains papers presented at the following sessions: adsorption; noble gas treatment; personnel education and training; filtration and filter testing; measurement and instrumentation; air cleaning equipment response to accident related stress; containment venting air cleaning; and an open end session. Twenty-eight papers were indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. Ten papers had been entered earlier.

  18. 17th DOE nuclear air cleaning conference: proceedings. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume 2 contains papers presented at the following sessions: adsorption; noble gas treatment; personnel education and training; filtration and filter testing; measurement and instrumentation; air cleaning equipment response to accident related stress; containment venting air cleaning; and an open end session. Twenty-eight papers were indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. Ten papers had been entered earlier

  19. On Perfectly Clean Rings

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, H.; Halicioglu, S.; Kose, H.

    2013-01-01

    An element $a$ of a ring $R$ is called perfectly clean if there exists an idempotent $e\\in comm^2(a)$ such that $a-e\\in U(R)$. A ring $R$ is perfectly clean in case every element in $R$ is perfectly clean. In this paper, we investigate conditions on a local ring $R$ that imply that $2\\times 2$ matrix rings and triangular matrix rings are perfectly clean. We shall show that for these rings perfect cleanness and strong cleanness coincide with each other, and enhance many known results. We also ...

  20. Weak Nil Clean Rings

    OpenAIRE

    Basnet, Dhiren Kumar; Bhattacharyya, Jayanta

    2015-01-01

    We introduce the concept of a weak nil clean ring, a generalization of nil clean ring, which is nothing but a ring with unity in which every element can be expressed as sum or difference of a nilpotent and an idempotent. Further if the idempotent and nilpotent commute the ring is called weak* nil clean. We characterize all $n\\in \\mathbb{N}$, for which $\\mathbb{Z}_n$ is weak nil clean but not nil clean. We show that if $R$ is a weak* nil clean and $e$ is an idempotent in $R$, then the corner r...

  1. Worldwide clean energy system technology using hydrogen (WE-NET). Subtask 5. Development of hydrogen transfer and storage technology (development of various common equipment); Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET). subtask 5. Suiso yuso chozo gijutsu no kaihatsu (kakushu kyotsu kikirui no kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This report describes large pumps for liquid hydrogen, large-size vacuum-insulated tubes, valves for liquid hydrogen, and instrumentation equipment. In the WE-NET Project, large pumps for liquid hydrogen are to be used for feeding pressurized liquid hydrogen to the combustors in power generative facilities as well as transferring large amounts of liquid hydrogen in liquefying facilities, and to or from tankers, etc. As a result of the examination, axial flow pump and mixed flow pump are to be applied to the large pumps, and centrifugal pump is to be applied to the pressurized pump. A vertical shaft wet motor pump which is directly connected to wound-rotor induction motor has been adopted as a basic specification. For the large-size vacuum-insulated tubes, examination has been conducted with the emphasis on method of relaxing the thermal stress from the viewpoint of transferring the liquid hydrogen at large flow-rate and cryogenic temperature in a stable and safe manner over long distances. It has been shown that the development of marine loading arm is indispensable. For the valves for liquid hydrogen, a ball valve and a butterfly valve, which are operated pneumatically, have been investigated. For the instrumentation equipment, level sensor for tanks, flow meter, and method of leakage detection have been examined. 315 refs., 50 figs., 16 tabs.

  2. CO2 (dry ice) cleaning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Donald M.

    1995-01-01

    Tomco Equipment Company has participated in the dry ice (solid carbon dioxide, CO2) cleaning industry for over ten years as a pioneer in the manufacturer of high density, dry ice cleaning pellet production equipment. For over four years Tomco high density pelletizers have been available to the dry ice cleaning industry. Approximately one year ago Tomco introduced the DI-250, a new dry ice blast unit making Tomco a single source supplier for sublimable media, particle blast, cleaning systems. This new blast unit is an all pneumatic, single discharge hose device. It meters the insertion of 1/8 inch diameter (or smaller), high density, dry ice pellets into a high pressure, propellant gas stream. The dry ice and propellant streams are controlled and mixed from the blast cabinet. From there the mixture is transported to the nozzle where the pellets are accelerated to an appropriate blasting velocity. When directed to impact upon a target area, these dry ice pellets have sufficient energy to effectively remove most surface coatings through dry, abrasive contact. The meta-stable, dry ice pellets used for CO2 cleaning, while labeled 'high density,' are less dense than alternate, abrasive, particle blast media. In addition, after contacting the target surface, they return to their equilibrium condition: a superheated gas state. Most currently used grit blasting media are silicon dioxide based, which possess a sharp tetrahedral molecular structure. Silicon dioxide crystal structures will always produce smaller sharp-edged replicas of the original crystal upon fracture. Larger, softer dry ice pellets do not share the same sharp-edged crystalline structures as their non-sublimable counterparts when broken. In fact, upon contact with the target surface, dry ice pellets will plastically deform and break apart. As such, dry ice cleaning is less harmful to sensitive substrates, workers and the environment than chemical or abrasive cleaning systems. Dry ice cleaning system

  3. Cleaning of process and utility systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cleaning of the process and utility equipment and systems forms part of the underlying strategy of planning and implementation. General observation shows that planning is the first essential element to a successful project. A prerequisite to good planning is establishing the goals and objectives at the very outset of the Abandonment Planning. These goals and objectives must be measurable against preestablished criteria so that the project can be evaluated to establish the level of success. Good planning can be viewed as a series of hurdles that one must clear to achieve the pre-set goals and objectives. Understanding of the legal, safety, environmental and legislative requirements allows the perimeters and constraints to be established before the final implementation of the, ''CLEANING OF PROCESS AND UTILITY EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS'' activities. The very subject of ''CLEANING OF PROCESS AND UTILITY EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS'' that may be considered straight forward, because some of these activities often form part of the normal platform operations performed from time to time on these systems. Before implementation of these activities, there must be an understanding of the ground rules and terminology used together with the resultant implications. A question that demonstrates the inherent problems, what does the term ''Clean'' mean? A limited list has been compiled to give some examples of what the dictionary defines the term clean to be; NOT DIRTY; UN-POLLUTED; DECONTAMINATED; STAINLESS; UNCONTAMINATED; SPOTLESS; VIRGIN; UNSTAINED; UNADULTERATED; STERILE; Liaison with Government departments during recent planning activities established a consensus for understanding the term ''Clean'' so that unreasonable expectation with regards to the level of cleanliness would not be greater than that which is practicable

  4. Preperation for a Clean Surface

    OpenAIRE

    Aurimas Ralys; Valdemar Prokopovič; Vytautas Striška

    2013-01-01

    The article reviews techniques for preparing clean surfaces used in the manufacturing process, considers the types of clean surfaces and their role in modern production and provides the classification methods of arranging such surfaces. The paper also discusses the principles of methods for solvent cleaning, aqueous cleaning, ultrasonic cleaning, precision cleaning and mechanical cleaning. The study focuses on the possibility of adjusting a clean surface using a water flow, including cavitati...

  5. Preperation for a Clean Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurimas Ralys

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews techniques for preparing clean surfaces used in the manufacturing process, considers the types of clean surfaces and their role in modern production and provides the classification methods of arranging such surfaces. The paper also discusses the principles of methods for solvent cleaning, aqueous cleaning, ultrasonic cleaning, precision cleaning and mechanical cleaning. The study focuses on the possibility of adjusting a clean surface using a water flow, including cavitation.Article in Lithuanian

  6. Clean Energy Infrastructure Educational Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallinan, Kevin; Menart, James; Gilbert, Robert

    2012-08-31

    new research in the renewable and clean energy area. The educational outreach provided as a result of the grant included activities to introduce renewable and clean energy design projects into the Mechanical and Materials Engineering senior design class, the development of a geothermal energy demonstration unit, and the development of renewable energy learning modules for high school students. Finally, this grant supported curriculum development by Sinclair Community College for seven new courses and acquisition of necessary related instrumentation and laboratory equipment. These new courses, EGV 1201 Weatherization Training, EGV 1251 Introduction to Energy Management Principles, EGV 2301 Commercial and Industrial Assessment, EGV 2351 LEED Green Associate Exam Preparation, EGV 2251 Energy Control Strategies, EGV Solar Photovoltaic Design and Installation, and EGV Solar Thermal Systems, enable Sinclair to offer complete Energy Technology Certificate and an Energy Management Degree programs. To date, 151 students have completed or are currently registered in one of the seven courses developed through this grant. With the increasing interest in the Energy Management Degree program, Sinclair has begun the procedure to have the program approved by the Ohio Board of Regents.

  7. Cleaning with solvents methods and machinery

    CERN Document Server

    Durkee, John

    2014-01-01

    High-precision cleaning is required across many sectors, including aerospace, defense, medical device manufacturing, pharmaceutical processing, semiconductor/electronics, and more. In this comprehensive reference work, solvent cleaning equipment is thoroughly covered with a focus on the engineering details of its operation and selection. Key data is provided alongside practical guidance, giving scientists and engineers in multiple sectors the information they need not only to choose the correct machine in the first place, but also how to operate it effectively and efficiently. Low emission

  8. Clean Energy Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    For the past several years, the IEA and others have been calling for a clean energy revolution to achieve global energy security, economic growth and climate change goals. This report analyses for the first time progress in global clean energy technology deployment against the pathways that are needed to achieve these goals. It provides an overview of technology deployment status, key policy developments and public spending on RDD&D of clean energy technologies.

  9. Infrared steam laser cleaning

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Pascal; Lang, Florian; Mosbacher, Mario; Boneberg, Johannes; Leiderer, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Steam Laser Cleaning with a pulsed infrared laser source is investigated. The infrared light is tuned to the absorption maximum of water (λ = 2.94 µm, 10 ns), whereas the substrates used are transparent (glass, silicon). Thus a thin liquid water layer condensed on top of the contaminated substrate is rapidly heated. The pressure generated during the subsequent phase explosion generates a cleaning force which exceeds the adhesion of the particles. We examine the cleaning threshold in single sh...

  10. Cleaning and surface properties

    CERN Document Server

    Taborelli, M

    2007-01-01

    Principles of precision cleaning for ultra high vacuum applications are reviewed together with the techniques for the evaluation of surface cleanliness. Methods to verify the effectiveness of cleaning procedures are discussed. Examples are presented to illustrate the influence of packaging and storage on the recontamination of the surface after cleaning. Finally, the effect of contamination on some relevant surface properties, like secondary electron emission and wettability is presented.

  11. Evaluation of the Draeger Anaesthetic Equipment Washing Machine (ANDA 9002).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, R S; Wolfe, R; Malcolm-Smith, N; Bowick, G

    1989-05-01

    An evaluation was made of an anaesthetic equipment washing machine. Our results largely substantiated the manufacturers claims. A clean, dry, disinfected load could be produced within 75 min. After minor modifications were made to the machine by the manufacturers, potential users were satisfied with its performance. We recommend consideration of this type of equipment for use in hospitals. PMID:2567771

  12. Cleaning methods and philosophy of cleaning to prevent or mitigate microbiological influenced corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well established that clean material surfaces remain free of most forms of debilitating corrosion, including microbiological influenced corrosion (MIC). Therefore, the prevention of MIC depends on effective treatments and service conditions which precludes various fouling mechanisms, especially biofouling. Mitigation of MIC must begin by removal of fouling deposits which contribute to colonization of material surfaces by bacteria which influence corrosion. There are many cleaning methods and alternatives to consider which can be generally classified as chemical or mechanical processes. Selection of the cleaning process(es) involves technical, economic, and practical factors. Deposit characterization and cleaning trials are essential tot he success of any cleaning project. Procedures should identify all major steps of the cleaning, however, the project manager must have the latitude and technical support to facilitate changes to protect plant equipment and optimize the cleaning effectiveness. This review is most applicable to raw cooling water systems, where much of the emphasis on mitigation of MIC is needed. Closed loop cooling water systems are discussed briefly, as are fire protection systems and high purity water systems

  13. Cleaning verification by air/water impingement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lisa L.; Littlefield, Maria D.; Melton, Gregory S.; Caimi, Raoul E. B.; Thaxton, Eric A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper will discuss how the Kennedy Space Center intends to perform precision cleaning verification by Air/Water Impingement in lieu of chlorofluorocarbon-113 gravimetric nonvolatile residue analysis (NVR). Test results will be given that demonstrate the effectiveness of the Air/Water system. A brief discussion of the Total Carbon method via the use of a high temperature combustion analyzer will also be given. The necessary equipment for impingement will be shown along with other possible applications of this technology.

  14. Classes of almost clean rings

    OpenAIRE

    Akalan, Evrim; Vas, Lia

    2013-01-01

    A ring is clean (almost clean) if each of its elements is the sum of a unit (regular element) and an idempotent. A module is clean (almost clean) if its endomorphism ring is clean (almost clean). We show that every quasi-continuous and nonsingular module is almost clean and that every right CS and right nonsingular ring is almost clean. As a corollary, all right strongly semihereditary rings, including finite $AW^*$-algebras and noetherian Leavitt path algebras in particular, are almost clean...

  15. Laser surface cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work is a laboratory demonstration that red-lead primer and two-part epoxy paints can be stripped from concrete and metal surfaces using surface cleaning systems based on pulsed-repetition CO2 lasers. The three goals are to: (1) demonstrate coatings removal, including surface pore cleaning; (2) demonstrate that there is negligible release of ablated contaminants to the environment; and (3) demonstrate that the process will generate negligible amounts of additional waste compared to competing technologies. Phase 1 involved site visits to RMI and Fernald to assess the cleaning issues for buildings and parts. In addition, Phase 1 included detailed designs of a more powerful system for industrial cleaning rates, including laser, articulating optics, ablated-material capture suction nozzle attached to a horizontal raster scanner for floor cleaning, and filtration system. Some concept development is also being done for using robots, and for parts cleaning. In Phase 2 a transportable 6 kW system will be built and tested, with a horizontal surface scanner for cleaning paint from floors. The laboratory tests will again be instrumented. Some concept development will continue for using robots, and for parts cleaning. This report describes Phase 1 results

  16. Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-04-01

    The initiative will strategically focus and rally EERE’s clean energy technology offices and Advanced Manufacturing Office around the urgent competitive opportunity for the United States to be the leader in the clean energy manufacturing industries and jobs of today and tomorrow.

  17. Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Commercial Lawn Equipment (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program produced this guide to help inform the commercial mowing industry about product options and potential benefits. This guide provides information about equipment powered by propane, ethanol, compressed natural gas, biodiesel, and electricity, as well as advanced engine technology. In addition to providing an overview for organizations considering alternative fuel lawn equipment, this guide may also be helpful for organizations that want to consider using additional alternative fueled equipment.

  18. Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Commercial Lawn Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-10-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program produced this guide to help inform the commercial mowing industry about product options and potential benefits. This guide provides information about equipment powered by propane, ethanol, compressed natural gas, biodiesel, and electricity, as well as advanced engine technology. In addition to providing an overview for organizations considering alternative fuel lawn equipment, this guide may also be helpful for organizations that want to consider using additional alternative fueled equipment.

  19. Nil-clean matrix rings

    OpenAIRE

    S. Breaz; Călugăreanu, G.; Danchev, P.; Micu, T.

    2013-01-01

    We characterize the nil clean matrix rings over fields. As a by product, it is proved that the full matrix rings with coefficients in commutative nil-clean rings are nil-clean, and we obtain a complete characterization of the finite rank Abelian groups with nil clean endomorphism ring and the Abelian groups with strongly nil clean endomorphism ring, respectively.

  20. Correlating Cleaning Thoroughness with Effectiveness and Briefly Intervening to Affect Cleaning Outcomes: How Clean Is Cleaned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosford, Eve; Ong, Ana; Richesson, Douglas; Fraser, Susan; Kwak, Yoon; Miller, Sonia; Julius, Michael; McGann, Patrick; Lesho, Emil

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The most efficient approach to monitoring and improving cleaning outcomes remains unresolved. We sought to extend the findings of a previous study by determining whether cleaning thoroughness (dye removal) correlates with cleaning efficacy (absence of molecular or cultivable biomaterial) and whether one brief educational intervention improves cleaning outcomes. Design Before-after trial. Setting Newly built community hospital. Intervention 90 minute training refresher with surface-specific performance results. Methods Dye removal, measured by fluorescence, and biomaterial removal and acquisition, measured with culture and culture-independent PCR-based assays, were clandestinely assessed for eight consecutive months. At this midpoint, results were presented to the cleaning staff (intervention) and assessments continued for another eight consecutive months. Results 1273 surfaces were sampled before and after terminal room cleaning. In the short-term, dye removal increased from 40.3% to 50.0% (not significant). For the entire study period, dye removal also improved but not significantly. After the intervention, the number of rooms testing positive for specific pathogenic species by culturing decreased from 55.6% to 36.6% (not significant), and those testing positive by PCR fell from 80.6% to 53.7% (P = 0.016). For nonspecific biomaterial on surfaces: a) removal of cultivable Gram-negatives (GN) trended toward improvement (P = 0.056); b) removal of any cultivable growth was unchanged but acquisition (detection of biomaterial on post-cleaned surfaces that were contaminant-free before cleaning) worsened (P = 0.017); c) removal of PCR-based detection of bacterial DNA improved (P = 0.046), but acquisition worsened (P = 0.003); d) cleaning thoroughness and efficacy were not correlated. Conclusion At this facility, a minor intervention or minimally more aggressive cleaning may reduce pathogen-specific contamination, but not without unintended consequences. PMID

  1. Appalachian clean coal technology consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutz, K.; Yoon, Roe-Hoan [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The Appalachian Clean Coal Technology Consortium (ACCTC) has been established to help U.S. coal producers, particularly those in the Appalachian region, increase the production of lower-sulfur coal. The cooperative research conducted as part of the consortium activities will help utilities meet the emissions standards established by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, enhance the competitiveness of U.S. coals in the world market, create jobs in economically-depressed coal producing regions, and reduce U.S. dependence on foreign energy supplies. The research activities will be conducted in cooperation with coal companies, equipment manufacturers, and A&E firms working in the Appalachian coal fields. This approach is consistent with President Clinton`s initiative in establishing Regional Technology Alliances to meet regional needs through technology development in cooperation with industry. The consortium activities are complementary to the High-Efficiency Preparation program of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, but are broader in scope as they are inclusive of technology developments for both near-term and long-term applications, technology transfer, and training a highly-skilled work force.

  2. Air Cleaning Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective This health technology policy assessment will answer the following questions: When should in-room air cleaners be used? How effective are in-room air cleaners? Are in-room air cleaners that use combined HEPA and UVGI air cleaning technology more effective than those that use HEPA filtration alone? What is the Plasmacluster ion air purifier in the pandemic influenza preparation plan? The experience of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) locally, nationally, and internationally underscored the importance of administrative, environmental, and personal protective infection control measures in health care facilities. In the aftermath of the SARS crisis, there was a need for a clearer understanding of Ontario’s capacity to manage suspected or confirmed cases of airborne infectious diseases. In so doing, the Walker Commission thought that more attention should be paid to the potential use of new technologies such as in-room air cleaning units. It recommended that the Medical Advisory Secretariat of the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care evaluate the appropriate use and effectiveness of such new technologies. Accordingly, the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee asked the Medical Advisory Secretariat to review the literature on the effectiveness and utility of in-room air cleaners that use high-efficiency particle air (HEPA) filters and ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) air cleaning technology. Additionally, the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee prioritized a request from the ministry’s Emergency Management Unit to investigate the possible role of the Plasmacluster ion air purifier manufactured by Sharp Electronics Corporation, in the pandemic influenza preparation plan. Clinical Need Airborne transmission of infectious diseases depends in part on the concentration of breathable infectious pathogens (germs) in room air. Infection control is achieved by a combination of administrative, engineering

  3. Clean coal technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the World Energy Council (WEC), at the beginning of the next century three main energy sources - coal, nuclear power and oil will have equal share in the world's total energy supply. This forecast is also valid for the USSR which possesses more than 40% of the world's coal resources and continuously increases its coal production (more than 700 million tons of coal are processed annually in the USSR). The stringent environmental regulations, coupled with the tendency to increase the use of coal are the reasons for developing different concepts for clean coal utilization. In this paper, the potential efficiency and environmental performance of different clean coal production cycles are considered, including technologies for coal clean-up at the pre-combustion stage, advanced clean combustion methods and flue gas cleaning systems. Integrated systems, such as combined gas-steam cycle and the pressurized fluidized bed boiler combined cycle, are also discussed. The Soviet National R and D program is studying new methods for coal utilization with high environmental performance. In this context, some basic research activities in the field of clean coal technology in the USSR are considered. Development of an efficient vortex combustor, a pressurized fluidized bed gasifier, advanced gas cleaning methods based on E-beam irradiation and plasma discharge, as well as new catalytic system, are are presented. In addition, implementation of technological innovations for retrofitting and re powering of existing power plants is discussed. (author)

  4. Cleaning up our act: Alternatives for hazardous solvents used in cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoemaker, J.D.; Meltzer, M.; Miscovich, D.; Montoya, D.; Goodrich, P.; Blycker, G.

    1994-01-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has studied more than 70 alternative cleaners as potential replacements for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), halogenated hydrocarbons (e.g., trichloroethylene and trichloroethane), hydrocarbons (e.g., toluene and Stoddard Solvent), and volatile organic compounds (e.g., acetone, alcohols). This report summarizes LLNL`s findings after testing more than 45 proprietary formulations on bench-scale testing equipment and in more than 60 actual shops and laboratories. Cleaning applications included electronics fabrication, machine shops, optical lenses and hardware, and general cleaning. Most of the alternative cleaners are safer than the solvents previously used and many are nonhazardous, according to regulatory criteria.

  5. Cleaning up our act: Alternatives for hazardous solvents used in cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has studied more than 70 alternative cleaners as potential replacements for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), halogenated hydrocarbons (e.g., trichloroethylene and trichloroethane), hydrocarbons (e.g., toluene and Stoddard Solvent), and volatile organic compounds (e.g., acetone, alcohols). This report summarizes LLNL's findings after testing more than 45 proprietary formulations on bench-scale testing equipment and in more than 60 actual shops and laboratories. Cleaning applications included electronics fabrication, machine shops, optical lenses and hardware, and general cleaning. Most of the alternative cleaners are safer than the solvents previously used and many are nonhazardous, according to regulatory criteria

  6. Research for a clean and large throughput differential pumping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research is to design a differential pumping system not only to achieve the pressure transition with a large throughput, but also to achieve a clean system without oil vapour contamination. In the paper, the pressure in differential stages are calculated; the differential pumping system design and equipment choice are introduced; the tests of MBP, a new kind of molecular-drag pump with large throughout and clean vacuum are described and the system experiment result and analysis is presented

  7. Easy to clean nanocomposite metal coatings for food processing

    OpenAIRE

    Becker-Willinger, Carsten; Heppe, Gisela; Krämer, Pamela; Schmidt, Helmut K.

    2002-01-01

    Cleaning and keeping clean of food processing equipment is of extremely high importance for hygienic reasons and, in many cases, also a cost factor for the whole process. Various low surface free energy coatings have been developed which show an antiadhesive behaviour to grease or food components, such as mustard, ketchup or fruit juices, even if baked at elevated temperatures on the coating surface. These coatings are composed of sol-gel derived hybrid materials, ceramic nanoparticles for me...

  8. AX Tank Farm ancillary equipment study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report examines the feasibility of remediating ancillary equipment associated with the 241-AX Tank Farm at the Hanford Site. Ancillary equipment includes surface structures and equipment, process waste piping, ventilation components, wells, and pits, boxes, sumps, and tanks used to make waste transfers to/from the AX tanks and adjoining tank farms. Two remedial alternatives are considered: (1) excavation and removal of all ancillary equipment items, and (2) in-situ stabilization by grout filling, the 241-AX Tank Farm is being employed as a strawman in engineering studies evaluating clean and landfill closure options for Hanford single-shell tanks. This is one of several reports being prepared for use by the Hanford Tanks Initiative Project to explore potential closure options and to develop retrieval performance evaluation criteria for tank farms

  9. Generalization of Strongly Clean Rings

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Abhay K.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, strongly clean ring defined by W. K. Nicholson in 1999 has been generalized to n-strongly clean, {\\Sigma}-strongly clean and with the help of example it has been shown that there exists a ring, which is n-strongly clean and {\\Sigma}-strongly clean but not strongly clean. It has been shown that for a commutative ring R formal power series R[(x)] of R is n-strongly clean if and only if R is n- strongly clean. We also discussed the structure of homomorphic image of n- strongly cle...

  10. The design of underwater hull-cleaning robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Fu-cai; GUO Li-bin; MENG Qing-xin; LIU Fu-qiang

    2004-01-01

    The research on underwater ship-hull cleaning robot was conducted on the purpose of realizing the automation of cleaning underwater ship hull so that service life of ship will be prolonged and ship speed will raised. Moreover, fuel consumption and the work intensity of divers will be reduced. In this paper, the current situation and the latest technology in China and abroad were analyzed;meanwhile, the typical characteristics of the underwater cleaning robot were introduced. According to the work principle of the underwater cleaning robot, the emphasis was put on the analysis and study of permanent-magnetic absorption, magnetic wheel, airproof and anticorrosion, underwater cleaning equipment and control system. The robot is easy in rotation and simple in control.

  11. Clean Water Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Clean Water Act (CWA) establishes the basic structure for regulating discharges of pollutants into U.S. waters and regulating quality standards for surface...

  12. Nuclear air cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report briefly describes the history of the use of high- efficiency particulate air filters for air cleaning at nuclear installations in the United States and discusses future uses of such filters

  13. Development of clean coal and clean soil technologies using advanced agglomeration techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ignasiak, B.; Ignasiak, T.; Szymocha, K.

    1990-01-01

    Three major topics are discussed in this report: (1) Upgrading of Low Rank Coals by the Agflotherm Process. Test data, procedures, equipment, etc., are described for co-upgrading of subbituminous coals and heavy oil; (2) Upgrading of Bituminous Coals by the Agflotherm Process. Experimental procedures and data, bench and pilot scale equipments, etc., for beneficiating bituminous coals are described; (3) Soil Clean-up and Hydrocarbon Waste Treatment Process. Batch and pilot plant tests are described for soil contaminated by tar refuse from manufactured gas plant sites. (VC)

  14. Development of clean coal and clean soil technologies using advanced agglomeration techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three major topics are discussed in this report: (1) Upgrading of Low Rank Coals by the Agflotherm Process. Test data, procedures, equipment, etc., are described for co-upgrading of subbituminous coals and heavy oil; (2) Upgrading of Bituminous Coals by the Agflotherm Process. Experimental procedures and data, bench and pilot scale equipments, etc., for beneficiating bituminous coals are described; (3) Soil Clean-up and Hydrocarbon Waste Treatment Process. Batch and pilot plant tests are described for soil contaminated by tar refuse from manufactured gas plant sites. (VC)

  15. Clean Economy, Living Planet. The Race to the Top of Global Clean Energy Technology Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Slot, A.; Van den Berg, W. [Roland Berger Strategy Consultants RBSC, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-05-15

    For four years, WWF and Roland Berger have tracked developments in the global clean energy technology (cleantech) sector and ranked countries according to their cleantech sales. The 3rd annual 'Clean Economy, Living Planet' report ranks 40 countries based on the 2011 sales value of the clean energy technology products they manufacture. The report shows that the EU has lost its position to China as the leader in the fast growing global cleantech energy manufacturing sector. However, when cleantech sales are weighted as a percentage of GDP, Denmark and Germany occupied the first and third position globally. Last year the sector's global sales value rose by 10% to almost 200 billion euros, close to the scale of consumer electronics manufacturing. It is projected to overtake oil and gas equipment in the next three years.

  16. Clean Elements in Abelian Rings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Angelina Y M Chin

    2009-04-01

    Let be a ring with identity. An element in is said to be clean if it is the sum of a unit and an idempotent. is said to be clean if all of its elements are clean. If every idempotent in is central, then is said to be abelian. In this paper we obtain some conditions equivalent to being clean in an abelian ring.

  17. Preliminary Equipment List

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The methodology for assigning equipment identifiers and component identifiers for the MGR Site Recommendation or License Application is presented below. Engineering Computer Support (ECS) assigns all equipment and component identifiers and is responsible for entering equipment identifiers into the Plant Design System (PDS) Master Equipment List. A sample report from the PDS Master Equipment List is attached. The attached report is representative of the information that will be provided by the PDS system. Since the equipment list presented is only preliminary, actual equipment numbers are not assigned. It contains information required to maintain control of the equipment and components for MGR important to safety systems. Definitions for the fields that currently exist on the PDS Master Equipment List are given

  18. Is dry cleaning all wet?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical solvents from dry cleaning, particularly perchloroethylene (perc), have contributed to groundwater contamination, significant levels of air pollution in and around cleaners, and chemical accumulation in food. Questions are being raised about the process of cleaning clothes with chemical, and other less toxic cleaning methods are being explored. The EPA has focused attention on the 50 year old Friedburg method of cleaning, Ecoclean, which uses no dangerous chemicals and achieves comparable results. Unfortunately, the cleaning industry is resistant to change, so cutting back on amount of clothes that need dry cleaning and making sure labels aren't exaggerating when they say dry clean only, is frequently the only consumer option now

  19. Chemical cleaning processes - present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrosion products and impurities can accumulate in the secondary side of steam generators causing accelerated corrosion, steam flow disruption and heat transfer loss. Traditionally, chemical cleaning processes have been performed using multi-step processes that employ relatively concentrated reagents (e.g. EPRI-SGOG, 10-20 wt.%), that are applied at elevated temperatures. The use of such reagents dictates the use of large and relatively complex reagent handling systems for both reagent preparation and disposal. The significant duration and cost of each chemical clean has dictated that these cleaning processes are only applied on a remedial basis. An assessment of existing technology was carried out and improvements to the EPRI-SGOG processes are being developed. Results of these assessments are reported. Advanced processes are being developed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited that use lower concentrations of reagents, require shorter application times and generate lower amounts of waste. This technology can be used on a preventive basis to keep steam generators clean. Included are: A dilute regenerative process that is applied during shutdown. The dilute reagent is continuously recirculated and regenerated during the cleaning process, resulting in shorter application times using modular and portable equipment. The low reagent concentration results in a significantly reduced waste volume. For deposits containing both magnetite and copper a pseudo one-step process (using the same base electrolyte and pH) is used with alternate addition of oxidizing or reducing agents; A dilute on-line process that can be used while the reactor is operating. Such a process would be used on a periodic basis and dislodged oxides removed by blowdown or by mechanical means; Additives that can be used to keep steam generators clean. A demonstration of this technology is currently being planned. Details of these technologies will be described. (author)

  20. Laser cleaning of Rakowicze sandstone

    OpenAIRE

    Nijland, T.G.; Wijffels, T.J.

    2003-01-01

    Decisions about the cleaning of natural stone should always be made within the awareness of direct and indirect damage that may be the result of cleaning. During the last decade, laser cleaning of objects and monuments of natural stone has become increasingly popular. Whereas a considerable amount of literature has been devoted to the effect of laser cleaning on marble and limestone, research into the effects on sandstone is limited. In the present paper, the effect of two cleaning methods, v...

  1. LensClean revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Wucknitz, O

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the LensClean algorithm which for a given gravitational lens model fits a source brightness distribution to interferometric radio data in a similar way as standard Clean does in the unlensed case. The lens model parameters can then be varied in order to minimize the residuals and determine the best model for the lens mass distribution. Our variant of this method is improved in order to be useful and stable even for high dynamic range systems with nearly degenerated lens model parameters. Our test case B0218+357 is dominated by two bright images but the information needed to constrain the unknown parameters is provided only by the relatively smooth and weak Einstein ring. The new variant of LensClean is able to fit lens models even in this difficult case. In order to allow the use of general mass models with LensClean, we develop the new method LenTil which inverts the lens equation much more reliably than any other method. This high reliability is essential for the use as part of LensClean. Finally...

  2. Electromagnetically Clean Solar Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stem, Theodore G.; Kenniston, Anthony E.

    2008-01-01

    The term 'electromagnetically clean solar array' ('EMCSA') refers to a panel that contains a planar array of solar photovoltaic cells and that, in comparison with a functionally equivalent solar-array panel of a type heretofore used on spacecraft, (1) exhibits less electromagnetic interferences to and from other nearby electrical and electronic equipment and (2) can be manufactured at lower cost. The reduction of electromagnetic interferences is effected through a combination of (1) electrically conductive, electrically grounded shielding and (2) reduction of areas of current loops (in order to reduce magnetic moments). The reduction of cost is effected by designing the array to be fabricated as a more nearly unitary structure, using fewer components and fewer process steps. Although EMCSAs were conceived primarily for use on spacecraft they are also potentially advantageous for terrestrial applications in which there are requirements to limit electromagnetic interference. In a conventional solar panel of the type meant to be supplanted by an EMCSA panel, the wiring is normally located on the back side, separated from the cells, thereby giving rise to current loops having significant areas and, consequently, significant magnetic moments. Current-loop geometries are chosen in an effort to balance opposing magnetic moments to limit far-0field magnetic interactions, but the relatively large distances separating current loops makes full cancellation of magnetic fields problematic. The panel is assembled from bare photovoltaic cells by means of multiple sensitive process steps that contribute significantly to cost, especially if electomagnetic cleanliness is desired. The steps include applying a cover glass and electrical-interconnect-cell (CIC) sub-assemble, connecting the CIC subassemblies into strings of series-connected cells, laying down and adhesively bonding the strings onto a panel structure that has been made in a separate multi-step process, and mounting the

  3. Control system design of high-voltage live cleaning robot based on security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢霄鹏; 夏红卫; 杨汝清

    2004-01-01

    High-voltage live cleaning robot works in the hot-line environment (220 kV/330 kV), and so the safety of its application and equipment is most important. In terms of safety, the designs of robot mechanism and control system have been discussed, and the test data are given in control system of model machine. The model machine of high-voltage live cleaning robot can meet the need of cleaning basically in common condition. From manual operation to automation, the cleaning efficiency is improved. The robot can decrease amount of work, and ensure the security. Among high-voltage live cleaning equipment in China, the cleaning robot is advanced in automation and intelligence.

  4. The Clean Air Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Clean Air Act amendments alter the complex laws affecting atmospheric pollution and at the same time have broad implications for energy. Specifically, the Clean Air Act amendments for the first time deal with the environmental problem of acid deposition in a way that minimizes energy and economic impacts. By relying upon a market-based system of emission trading, a least cost solution will be used to reduce sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions by almost 40 percent. The emission trading system is the centerpiece of the Clean Air Act (CAA) amendments effort to resolve energy and environmental interactions in a manner that will maximize environmental solutions while minimizing energy impacts. This paper will explore how the present CAA amendments deal with the emission trading system and the likely impact of the emission trading system and the CAA amendments upon the electric power industry

  5. On f-clean rings and f-clean elements

    OpenAIRE

    Ali H. Handam

    2011-01-01

    An associative ring R with identity is called f -clean ring if every element in R is the sum of an idempotent and a full element. In this paper, various basic properties of f -clean rings and f -clean elements are proved. Also, we give some new charaterizations of f -clean rings. In addition, we prove that the ring of skew Hurwitz series T = (HR, σ) where σ is an automorphism of R is f -clean if and only if R is f -clean.

  6. Ductless personalized ventilation with local air cleaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalewski, Mariusz; Vesely, Michal; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2012-01-01

    An experiment with 28 human subjects was performed to examine effects of using a local air cleaning device combined with ductless personalized ventilation (DPV) on perceived air quality. Experiments were performed in a test room with displacement ventilation. The DPV at one of two desks was...... equipped with an activated carbon filter installed at the air intake, while the DPV at the second desk was without such a filter. The air temperature in the occupied zone (1.1 m above the floor) was 29 °C. The pollution load in the room was simulated by PVC floor covering. The subjects assessed...... acceptability of air quality, odour intensity and air freshness at both desks in random order. Lower odour intensity and higher air freshness was reported at the desk with DPV with the activated carbon filter. The results suggest that using local air cleaning devices integrated with DPV may improve perceived...

  7. CLEANING OF FRENCH SITES

    CERN Document Server

    Mauro Nonis

    2002-01-01

    In the last two weeks some cleaning problems have been remarked in several CERN buildings on the French part of CERN sites. This is mainly due to the start up of the new cleaning contract from the 1st July. These problems are not related to a budgetary reduction of the activity. We excuse for the malfunctions that have been created to CERN community and we assure you that we have taken all the needed measures to solve the problem in the shortest delay. Mauro Nonis (ST/FM)

  8. Mobile Equipment Expands Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGough, Robert L.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Describes the Mobile Equipment Modules (MEM) system in Duluth, Minnesota. MEM is a way to hold down costs and increase learning opportunities by consolidating purchases of expensive shop equipment within the school district, grouping the equipment in modules, and scheduling and moving it from school to school as needed. (MF)

  9. An experience of cleaning and decontamination of the BN-350 reactor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the course of start-up, adjustment and operation of the BN-350 reactor there arose a need for cleaning from sodium and decontamination of primary and secondary equipment components. Design schemes of the systems provided for this purpose as well as those specially designed for cleaning of steam generator evaporators are considered. Technological processes of cleaning and decontamination for some reactor components (removable parts of circulating pumps, evaporators, valves) are described, the results are presented. (author)

  10. Fiber and seed loss from seed cotton cleaning machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiber and seed loss from seed cotton cleaning equipment in cotton gins occurs, but the quantity of material lost, factors affecting fiber and seed loss, and the mechanisms that cause material loss are not well understood. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of different factors on...

  11. Water supply quality for use infood and for cleaning

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Corina Visan; Rodica Segal

    2009-01-01

    : Drinking water from the supply network of the city of Foc�ani, Vrancea county is used in food preparation and also for cleaning the production areas, equipments and working tools. Data obtained from the analysis of microbiological parameters of reference of water supply quality are presented in this pape

  12. Coolant clean-up method in PWR type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To perform coolant clean-up while climinating the need of replacing boric acid with plant primary coolants and using anionic exchange resins in which the amount of Cl anionic exchange resins as impurities is decreased. Method: OH type anionic exchange resins are previously treated with an aqueous boric acid not containing radioactivity at a place other than the equipment for use (that is desalting tower) into boric acid type anionic ion exchange resins and, thereafter, the boric acid type anionic exchange resins are filled into a desalting tower of the clean-up system to perform primary coolant clean-up. In this case, since the resins can be used directly for the purpose without performing boric acid replacement after charging into the equipment for use, the procedures in the plant being in operation can be saved. (Yoshino, Y.)

  13. Electrical equipment qualification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrical equipment qualification research programs being carried out by CEA, JAERI, and Sandia Laboratories are discussed. Objectives of the program are: (1) assessment of accident simulation methods for electrical equipment qualification testing; lower coarse (2) evaluation of equipment aging and accelerated aging methods; (3) determine radiation dose spectrum to electrical equipment and assess simulation methods for qualification; (4) identify inadequacies in electrical equipment qualification procedures and standards and potential failure modes; and (5) provide data for verifying and improving standards, rules and regulatory guides

  14. Clean coal technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent developments and implementations in clean coal technologies foe power generation and industry are reviewed in the present work. The requirements of the Clean Air Act in the United States, and the Directives of the European communities, on the limitations of emissions of pollutants from coal uses are firstly briefly reviewed, and later technological means that are available to coal producers and utilizers to comply with them. Coal cleaning, before combustion may be achieved by physical, chemical and biotechnological methods, these technologies are then examined as well as coal refining. The developments in clean coal combustion are extremely rapid, particularly in regard to poor coals, they are reviewed and in particular fluidized bed combustion, in its varieties, as well as coal gasification and combined cycle and the utilization of the gas in fuel cells. A further chapter is devoted to the control of emissions of gases from coal combustion, to reduce SO2 and NOx emitted in the atmosphere. The economic implications of the technologies are evaluated according to the most recent information available from published literature and from industry publications, and the results compared. The implications of meand to reduced the emission of CO2 to the atmosphere are also evaluated. (authors)

  15. Road-Cleaning Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    Roadways are literally soaked with petrochemical byproducts, oils, gasoline, and other volatile substances that eventually run off into sewers and end up in rivers, waterways, and other undesirable places. Can the roads be cleaned of these wastes, with their proper disposal? Can vehicles, robots, or other devices be designed that could be driven…

  16. Mechanism of clean development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanism of clean development represents an opportunity to attract significant foreign investment for the realization of projects in a country like Colombia, characterized by its forest vocation and with enormous potential to reduce emissions in sectors of energy generation, industry, transport and agro-industry

  17. Burning clean and green

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new style of oil burner has been developed for use on exploration platforms offshore. The design improves oil combustion through enhanced air induction, producing stable flames in the clean burn region which do not generate smoke and oil fallout. Successful tests have led to it now being ready for commercial exploitation. (UK)

  18. Acrylic vessel cleaning tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The acrylic vessel as constructed is dirty. The dirt includes blue tape, Al tape, grease pencil, gemak, the glue or residue form these tapes, finger prints and dust of an unknown composition but probably mostly acrylic dust. This dirt has to be removed and once removed, the vessel has to be kept clean or at least to be easily cleanable at some future stage when access becomes much more difficult. The authors report on the results of a series of tests designed: (a) to prepare typical dirty samples of acrylic; (b) to remove dirt stuck to the acrylic surface; and (c) to measure the optical quality and Th concentration after cleaning. Specifications of the vessel call for very low levels of Th which could come from tape residues, the grease pencil, or other sources of dirt. This report does not address the concerns of how to keep the vessel clean after an initial cleaning and during the removal of the scaffolding. Alconox is recommended as the cleaner of choice. This acrylic vessel will be used in the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

  19. Clean Cities Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-12-19

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities offers a large collection of Web-based tools on the Alternative Fuels Data Center. These calculators, interactive maps, and data searches can assist fleets, fuels providers, and other transportation decision makers in their efforts to reduce petroleum use.

  20. Neutrino Detection With CLEAN

    CERN Document Server

    McKinsey, D N

    2005-01-01

    This article describes CLEAN, an approach to the detection of low-energy solar neutrinos and neutrinos released from supernovae. The CLEAN concept is based on the detection of elastic scattering events (neutrino-electron scattering and neutrino-nuclear scattering) in liquified noble gases such as liquid helium, liquid neon, and liquid xenon, all of which scintillate brightly in the ultraviolet. Key to the CLEAN technique is the use of a thin film of wavelength-shifting fluor to convert the ultraviolet scintillation light to the visible. This allows the same liquid to be used as both a passive shielding medium and an active self-shielding detector, allowing lower intrinsic radioactive backgrounds at low energies. Liquid neon is a particularly promising medium for CLEAN. Because liquid neon has a high scintillation yield, has no long-lived radioactive isotopes, and can be easily purified by use of cold traps, it is an ideal medium for the detection of rare nuclear events. In addition, neon is inexpensive, dense...

  1. WINDOW-CLEANING

    CERN Multimedia

    Environmental Section / ST-TFM

    2001-01-01

    The two-month window-cleaning session on the Meyrin, Prévessin and LEP sites will soon begin. The cleaning contractors will work from Monday to Saturday, every week from 4.00 a.m. to 8.00 p.m. The work will be organised so as to disturb users as little as possible. In any event, a work notice will be left in each office 24 hours beforehand. To prevent any damage to documents or items which could occur despite the precautions taken, please clear completely the window-sills and the area immediately around them. If, however, for valid reasons, the work cannot be done on the scheduled day, please inform the Environmental Section by telephoning: 73753 / 74233 / 72242 If you are going to be absent during this two-month period, we should be grateful if you would clear the above mentioned areas before your departure. REMINDER To allow more thorough cleaning of the entrance doors to buildings and also facilitate the weekly work of the cleaning contractors, we ask you to make use of the notice boards at the...

  2. CLEAN_LNAME: Stata module to clean lastname variables

    OpenAIRE

    Adrien Bouguen

    2015-01-01

    This program removes blanks, accents, full stops, hyphens and apostrophes within a string variable. It also returns the uppercased version of the variable. clean_lname (together with clean_fname) is particularly useful for name matching procedure.

  3. CLEAN_FNAME: Stata module to clean firstname variables

    OpenAIRE

    Adrien Bouguen

    2015-01-01

    This program removes blanks, accents, full stops, hyphens and apostrophes from a string variable. It returns the proper version of the variable. clean_fname (together with clean_lname) is particularly useful for name matching procedure.

  4. Space Heating Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, Kevin D.

    1998-01-01

    The performance evaluation of space heating equipment for a geothermal application is generally considered from either of two perspectives: (a) selecting equipment for installation in new construction, or (b) evaluating the performance and retrofit requirements of an existing system. With regard to new construction, the procedure is relatively straightforward. Once the heating requirements are determined, the process need only involve the selection of appropriately sized hot water heating equipment based on the available water temperature. It is important to remember that space heating equipment for geothermal applications is the same equipment used in non-geothermal applications. What makes geothermal applications unique is that the equipment is generally applied at temperatures and flow rates that depart significantly from traditional heating system design. This chapter presents general considerations for the performance of heating equipment at non-standard temperature and flow conditions, retrofit of existing systems, and aspects of domestic hot water heating.

  5. Transforming Global Markets for Clean Energy Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This paper looks at three clean energy product categories: equipment energy efficiency; low-carbon transport, including high-efficiency vehicles and electric/plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (EV/PHEVs); and solar photovoltaic (PV) power. Each section identifies ways to enhance global co-operation among major economies through case studies and examples, and ends with specific suggestions for greater international collaboration on market transformation efforts. An annex with more detailed case studies on energy-efficient electric motors, televisions, external power supplies and compact fluorescent lights is included in the paper.

  6. Ductless personalized ventilation with local air cleaning

    OpenAIRE

    Dalewski, Mariusz; Vesely, Michal; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2012-01-01

    An experiment with 28 human subjects was performed to examine effects of using a local air cleaning device combined with ductless personalized ventilation (DPV) on perceived air quality. Experiments were performed in a test room with displacement ventilation. The DPV at one of two desks was equipped with an activated carbon filter installed at the air intake, while the DPV at the second desk was without such a filter. The air temperature in the occupied zone (1.1 m above the floor) was 29 °C....

  7. Renewal of radiological equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    In this century, medical imaging is at the heart of medical practice. Besides providing fast and accurate diagnosis, advances in radiology equipment offer new and previously non-existing options for treatment guidance with quite low morbidity, resulting in the improvement of health outcomes and quality of life for the patients. Although rapid technological development created new medical imaging modalities and methods, the same progress speed resulted in accelerated technical and functional obsolescence of the same medical imaging equipment, consequently creating a need for renewal. Older equipment has a high risk of failures and breakdowns, which might cause delays in diagnosis and treatment of the patient, and safety problems both for the patient and the medical staff. The European Society of Radiology is promoting the use of up-to-date equipment, especially in the context of the EuroSafe Imaging Campaign, as the use of up-to-date equipment will improve quality and safety in medical imaging. Every healthcare institution or authority should have a plan for medical imaging equipment upgrade or renewal. This plan should look forward a minimum of 5 years, with annual updates. Teaching points • Radiological equipment has a definite life cycle span, resulting in unavoidable breakdown and decrease or loss of image quality which renders equipment useless after a certain time period.• Equipment older than 10 years is no longer state-of-the art equipment and replacement is essential. Operating costs of older equipment will be high when compared with new equipment, and sometimes maintenance will be impossible if no spare parts are available.• Older equipment has a high risk of failure and breakdown, causing delays in diagnosis and treatment of the patient and safety problems both for the patient and the medical staff.• Every healthcare institution or authority should have a plan for medical imaging equipment upgrade or replacement. This plan should look forward a

  8. Utility view of the source term and air cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The utility view of the source term and air cleaning is discussed. The source term is made up of: (1) noble gases, which there has been a tendency to ignore in the past because it was thought there was nothing that could be done with them anyway, (2) the halogens, which have been dealt with in Air Cleaning Conferences in the past in terms of charcoal and other systems for removing them, and (3) the solid components of the source term which particulate filters are designed to handle. Air cleaning systems consist of filters, adsorbers, containment sprays, suppression pools in boiling water reactors and ice beds in ice condenser-equipped plants. The feasibility and cost of air cleaning systems are discussed

  9. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  10. Handwashing: Clean Hands Save Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Handwashing: Clean Hands Save Lives Note: Javascript is disabled or ... and what you can do if soap and clean, running water are not available. Whether you are ...

  11. Automated cleaning of electronic components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental and operator safety concerns are leading to the elimination of trichloroethylene and chlorofluorocarbon solvents in cleaning processes that remove rosin flux, organic and inorganic contamination, and particulates from electronic components. Present processes depend heavily on these solvents for manual spray cleaning of small components and subassemblies. Use of alternative solvent systems can lead to longer processing times and reduced quality. Automated spray cleaning can improve the quality of the cleaning process, thus enabling the productive use of environmentally conscious materials, while minimizing personnel exposure to hazardous materials. We describe the development of a prototype robotic system for cleaning electronic components in a spray cleaning workcell. An important feature of the prototype system is the capability to generate the robot paths and motions automatically from the CAD models of the part to be cleaned, and to embed cleaning process knowledge into the automatically programmed operations

  12. A microwave plasma cleaning apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, C. C.; Nelson, W. D.; Schechter, D. E.; Thompson, L. M.; Glover, A. L.

    1995-01-01

    In a microwave electron cyclotron resonance plasma source, reactive plasmas of oxygen and its mixtures of argon have been used for evaluating plasma cleaning technologies. Small aluminum samples (0.95 x 1.9 cm) were coated with thin films (less than or equal to 20 micrometers in thickness) of Shell Vitrea oil and cleaned with reactive plasmas. The discharge parameters, such as gas pressure, magnetic field, substrate biasing, and microwave power, were varied to change cleaning conditions. A mass spectroscopy (or residual gas analyzer) was used to monitor the status of plasma cleaning. Mass loss of the samples after plasma cleaning was measured to estimate cleaning rates. Measured cleaning rates of low-pressure (0.5-m torr) argon/oxygen plasmas were as high as 2.7 micrometers/min. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to determine cleanliness of the sample surfaces. In this paper, significant results of the plasma cleaning are reported and discussed.

  13. Laser cleaning of steam generator tubing based on acoustic emission technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a physical method, laser cleaning technology in equipment maintenance will be a good prospect. The experimental apparatus for laser cleaning of heat tubes in the steam generator was designed according to the results of theoretical analysis. There are two conclusions; one is that laser cleaning technology is attached importance to traditional methods. Which has advantages in saving on much manpower and material resource and it is a good cleaning method for heat tubes. The other is that the acoustic emission signal includes lots of information on the laser cleaning process, which can be used as real-time monitoring in laser cleaning processes. When the laser acts for 350 s, 100 % contaminants of heat tubes is cleaned off, and the sensor only receives weak AE signal at that time.

  14. Laser cleaning of steam generator tubing based on acoustic emission technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Su-xia; Luo, Ji-jun; Shen, Tao; Li, Ru-song [Xi' an Hi-Tech Institute, Xi' an (China)

    2015-12-15

    As a physical method, laser cleaning technology in equipment maintenance will be a good prospect. The experimental apparatus for laser cleaning of heat tubes in the steam generator was designed according to the results of theoretical analysis. There are two conclusions; one is that laser cleaning technology is attached importance to traditional methods. Which has advantages in saving on much manpower and material resource and it is a good cleaning method for heat tubes. The other is that the acoustic emission signal includes lots of information on the laser cleaning process, which can be used as real-time monitoring in laser cleaning processes. When the laser acts for 350 s, 100 % contaminants of heat tubes is cleaned off, and the sensor only receives weak AE signal at that time.

  15. Sustainable development with clean coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    This paper discusses the opportunities available with clean coal technologies. Applications include new power plants, retrofitting and repowering of existing power plants, steelmaking, cement making, paper manufacturing, cogeneration facilities, and district heating plants. An appendix describes the clean coal technologies. These include coal preparation (physical cleaning, low-rank upgrading, bituminous coal preparation); combustion technologies (fluidized-bed combustion and NOx control); post-combustion cleaning (particulate control, sulfur dioxide control, nitrogen oxide control); and conversion with the integrated gasification combined cycle.

  16. Laser cleaning of Rakowicze sandstone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijland, T.G.; Wijffels, T.J.

    2003-01-01

    Decisions about the cleaning of natural stone should always be made within the awareness of direct and indirect damage that may be the result of cleaning. During the last decade, laser cleaning of objects and monuments of natural stone has become increasingly popular. Whereas a considerable amount o

  17. RETRIEVAL EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective and the scope of this document are to list and briefly describe the major mobile equipment necessary for waste package (WP) retrieval from the proposed subsurface nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Primary performance characteristics and some specialized design features of the equipment are explained and summarized in the individual subsections of this document. There are no quality assurance requirements or QA controls in this document. Retrieval under normal conditions is accomplished with the same fleet of equipment as is used for emplacement. Descriptions of equipment used for retrieval under normal conditions is found in Emplacement Equipment Descriptions, DI: BCAF00000-01717-5705-00002 (a document in progress). Equipment used for retrieval under abnormal conditions is addressed in this document and consists of the following: (1) Inclined Plane Hauler; (2) Bottom Lift Transporter; (3) Load Haul Dump (LHD) Loader; (4) Heavy Duty Forklift for Emplacement Drifts; (5) Covered Shuttle Car; (6) Multipurpose Vehicle; and (7) Scaler

  18. Method of cleaning solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a solvent cleanup step for regenerating solvents released from the solvent extraction process in a reprocessing plan, fuel production plant, etc., extracted solvents are separated by means of freeze vacuum drying method into liquid concentrate comprising water, nitric acid, sublimaitng nuclides, n-dodecane, etc. and TPB residues, etcc. comprising tri-n-butylphosphate (TBP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), butyl phosphate (MBP) and not-sublimating nuclear fuel materials and nuclear fission products. Then, the liquid concentrates are separated into an aqueous phase comprising water, nitric acid, etc. and an organic phase comprising n-dodecane, etc. The TBP residues, etc. are cleaned with a nitric acid solution to separate entraining nuclear fuel materials and nuclear fission products to re-utilize TBP. This can avoid the use of cleaning liquid and decrease the amount of liquid wastes generated to moderate burdens in the liquid wastes processing. Further, apparatus safety for corrosion, fire or explosion can be improved. (T.M.)

  19. Fuel assemblies chemical cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NPP Paks found a thermal-hydraulic anomaly in the reactor core during cycle 14 that was caused by corrosion product deposits on fuel assemblies (FAs) that increased the hydraulic resistance of the FAs. Consequently, the coolant flow through the FAs was insufficient resulting in a temperature asymmetry inside the reactor core. Based on this fact NPP Paks performed differential pressure measurements of all fuel assemblies in order to determine the hydraulic resistance and subsequently the limit values for the hydraulic acceptance of FAs to be used. Based on the hydraulic investigations a total number of 170 FAs was selected for cleaning. The necessity for cleaning the FAs was explained by the fact that the FAs were subjected to a short term usage in the reactor core only maximum of 1,5 years and had still a capacity for additional 2 fuel cycles. (authors)

  20. A Clean Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAGGIECHEN

    2004-01-01

    If you have US$1 million, do you invest in car production or cleaning car emissions? More cars than ever are hitting the roads and demand is rising.Cleaner cars are being called for, as the government strives to reduce car emission. So there is an obvious market both for cars and for new emission control technologies.Theoretically, you should make money by investing in either of them in China today.

  1. Clean Power on Tap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China adopts the most advanced nuclear power technologies to meet long-term energy needs Nuclear power has taken center stage in China’s nationwide cam-paign to develop new and clean energy sources. In the latest effort, Chinese state-owned nuclear power giants invested over 40 billion yuan ($5.86 billion) as an initial funding injection to build a new plant under the

  2. Cleanly: trashducation urban system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reif, Inbal; Alt, Florian; Ramos, Juan David Hincapie;

    exacerbated by a poor personal trash management culture. In this paper we present Cleanly, an urban trashducation system aimed at creating awareness of garbage production and management, which may serve as an educational plat-form in the urban environment. We report on data collected from an online survey......, which not only motivates our research but also provides useful information on reasons and possible solutions for trash problems....

  3. Indonesia's Clean Air Program

    OpenAIRE

    Budy P. Resosudarmo

    2002-01-01

    Unprecedented industrial development in Indonesia during the last two decades, accompanied by a growing population, has increased the amount of environmental damage. One of the most important environmental problems is that the level of air pollution in several large cities has become alarming, particularly in the last few years. This high pollution level has stimulated the government to develop a national clean air program designed to control the quantity of pollutants in the air. However, th...

  4. Operating Sulfiban desulfurization equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, T.; Sekikawa, N.; Matsumura, S.; Tawara, T.

    1982-01-01

    A report on the equipment referred to in the title, which has been operating smoothly during the two years since its construction at the Keihin Iron Works. The flowsheet of the Sulfiban process is outlined, with explanations of the design conditions, equipment characteristics, and operational record. Coke oven gas is brought into contact with a 15% solution of monoethanolamine in the desulfurization tower and the contained H/sub 2/S, HCN and some of the CO/sub 2/ is removed by absorption. The equipment maintains a high desulfurization percentage of over 97%. Corrosion control of the equipment is touched upon.

  5. Data communication equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contents of this book are introduction of data communication on definition, purpose and history, information terminal about data communication system and data transmission system, data transmit equipment of summary, transmission cable, data port, concentrator and front-end processor, audio communication equipment like phones, radio communication equipment of summary on foundation of electromagnetic waves, AM transmitter, AM receiver, FM receiver and FM transmitter, a satellite and mobile communication equipment such as earth station, TT and C and Cellular phone, video telephone and new media apparatus.

  6. NOVEL GAS CLEANING/CONDITIONING FOR INTEGRATED GASIFICATION COMBINED CYCLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis A. Horazak; Richard A. Newby; Eugene E. Smeltzer; Rachid B. Slimane; P. Vann Bush; James L. Aderhold Jr; Bruce G. Bryan

    2005-12-01

    individual gas cleaning stages, and the probable operating conditions of the gas cleaning stages to conceptually satisfy the gas cleaning requirements; (2) Estimate process material & energy balances for the major plant sections and for each gas cleaning stage; (3) Conceptually size and specify the major gas cleaning process equipment; (4) Determine the resulting overall performance of the application; and (5) Estimate the investment cost and operating cost for each application. Analogous evaluation steps were applied for each application using conventional gas cleaning technology, and comparison was made to extract the potential benefits, issues, and development needs of the Filter-Reactor Novel Gas Cleaning technology. The gas cleaning process and related gas conditioning steps were also required to meet specifications that address plant environmental emissions, the protection of the gas turbine and other Power Island components, and the protection of the methanol synthesis reactor. Detailed material & energy balances for the gas cleaning applications, coupled with preliminary thermodynamic modeling and laboratory testing of candidate sorbents, identified the probable sorbent types that should be used, their needed operating conditions in each stage, and their required levels of performance. The study showed that Filter-Reactor Novel Gas Cleaning technology can be configured to address and conceptually meet all of the gas cleaning requirements for IGCC, and that it can potentially overcome several of the conventional IGCC power plant availability issues, resulting in improved power plant thermal efficiency and cost. For IGCC application, Filter-Reactor Novel Gas Cleaning yields 6% greater generating capacity and 2.3 percentage-points greater efficiency under the Current Standards case, and more than 9% generating capacity increase and 3.6 percentage-points higher efficiency in the Future Standards case. While the conceptual equipment costs are estimated to be only slightly

  7. Saltstone Clean Cap Formulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C

    2005-04-22

    The current operation strategy for using Saltstone Vault 4 to receive 0.2 Ci/gallon salt solution waste involves pouring a clean grout layer over the radioactive grout prior to initiating pour into another cell. This will minimize the radiating surface area and reduce the dose rate at the vault and surrounding area. The Clean Cap will be used to shield about four feet of Saltstone poured into a Z-Area vault cell prior to moving to another cell. The minimum thickness of the Clean Cap layer will be determined by the cesium concentration and resulting dose levels and it is expected to be about one foot thick based on current calculations for 0.1 Ci Saltstone that is produced in the Saltstone process by stabilization of 0.2 Ci salt solution. This report documents experiments performed to identify a formulation for the Clean Cap. Thermal transient calculations, adiabatic temperature rise measurements, pour height, time between pour calculations and shielding calculations were beyond the scope and time limitations of this study. However, data required for shielding calculations (composition and specific gravity) are provided for shielding calculations. The approach used to design a Clean Cap formulation was to produce a slurry from the reference premix (10/45/45 weight percent cement/slag/fly ash) and domestic water that resembled as closely as possible the properties of the Saltstone slurry. In addition, options were investigated that may offer advantages such as less bleed water and less heat generation. The options with less bleed water required addition of dispersants. The options with lower heat contained more fly ash and less slag. A mix containing 10/45/45 weight percent cement/slag/fly ash with a water to premix ratio of 0.60 is recommended for the Clean Cap. Although this mix may generate more than 3 volume percent standing water (bleed water), it has rheological, mixing and flow properties that are similar to previously processed Saltstone. The recommended

  8. Saltstone Clean Cap Formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current operation strategy for using Saltstone Vault 4 to receive 0.2 Ci/gallon salt solution waste involves pouring a clean grout layer over the radioactive grout prior to initiating pour into another cell. This will minimize the radiating surface area and reduce the dose rate at the vault and surrounding area. The Clean Cap will be used to shield about four feet of Saltstone poured into a Z-Area vault cell prior to moving to another cell. The minimum thickness of the Clean Cap layer will be determined by the cesium concentration and resulting dose levels and it is expected to be about one foot thick based on current calculations for 0.1 Ci Saltstone that is produced in the Saltstone process by stabilization of 0.2 Ci salt solution. This report documents experiments performed to identify a formulation for the Clean Cap. Thermal transient calculations, adiabatic temperature rise measurements, pour height, time between pour calculations and shielding calculations were beyond the scope and time limitations of this study. However, data required for shielding calculations (composition and specific gravity) are provided for shielding calculations. The approach used to design a Clean Cap formulation was to produce a slurry from the reference premix (10/45/45 weight percent cement/slag/fly ash) and domestic water that resembled as closely as possible the properties of the Saltstone slurry. In addition, options were investigated that may offer advantages such as less bleed water and less heat generation. The options with less bleed water required addition of dispersants. The options with lower heat contained more fly ash and less slag. A mix containing 10/45/45 weight percent cement/slag/fly ash with a water to premix ratio of 0.60 is recommended for the Clean Cap. Although this mix may generate more than 3 volume percent standing water (bleed water), it has rheological, mixing and flow properties that are similar to previously processed Saltstone. The recommended

  9. 7 CFR 58.418 - Automatic cheese making equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... curd conveying system, conveying lines and cyclone separator shall be constructed of stainless steel or other equally corrosion resistant metal and in such manner that it can be satisfactorily cleaned. The... steel or other equally corrosion resistant metal. This equipment shall be constructed to...

  10. Superiority of chlorhexidine 2%/alcohol 70% wipes in decontaminating ultrasound equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Bhavin; Howell, Victoria; Griffiths, Alicia; Thoppil, Anita; Liu, Monica; Carter, Joseph; Young, Peter

    2014-08-01

    Ultrasound equipment is known to act as a reservoir for potentially pathogenic organisms. The aims of these studies were to establish current cleaning practices, to review the extent of bacterial contamination of ultrasound equipment in our hospital, to establish an effective cleaning regimen and to ensure that cleaning does not cause damage. A questionnaire was sent to all acute NHS hospitals in England to establish current cleaning practices. A review of our current practice was performed to establish the extent of bacterial contamination of ultrasound equipment currently in use. Laboratory studies compared cleaning the probes with soap and water with decontaminating with a chlorhexidine 2% and alcohol 70% wipe, including quantifying the residual effect. Accelerated aging was performed on the probe and staff surveyed to establish potential problems with using the wipes on the probe. The survey revealed that a variety of cleaning methods were used to decontaminate ultrasound probes; 57% of our ultrasound machines were contaminated with bacteria. The laboratory studies showed superiority of the chlorhexidine and alcohol wipes over soap and water due to a residual effect, both immediately after cleaning and after 24 hours. The staff survey demonstrated no apparent change in function of the probe after cleaning with the chlorhexidine wipes. Cleaning ultrasound probes with chlorhexidine and alcohol wipes is effective and provides additional protection against bacterial contamination due to its residual effect, and appears in the short term to have no detrimental effect on the probe. PMID:27433210

  11. Clean coal: Global opportunities for small businesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The parallel growth in coal demand and environmental concern has spurred interest in technologies that burn coal with greater efficiency and with lower emissions. Clean Coal Technologies (CCTs) will ensure that continued use of the world's most abundant energy resource is compatible with a cleaner, healthier environment. Increasing interest in CCTs opens the door for American small businesses to provide services and equipment for the clean and efficient use of coal. Key players in most coal-related projects are typically large equipment manufacturers, power project developers, utilities, governments, and multinational corporations. At the same time, the complexity and scale of many of these projects creates niche markets for small American businesses with high-value products and services. From information technology, control systems, and specialized components to management practices, financial services, and personnel training methods, small US companies boast some of the highest value products and services in the world. As a result, American companies are in a prime position to take advantage of global niche markets for CCTs. This guide is designed to provide US small businesses with an overview of potential international market opportunities related to CCTs and to provide initial guidance on how to cost-effectively enter that growing global market

  12. Clean coal: Global opportunities for small businesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    The parallel growth in coal demand and environmental concern has spurred interest in technologies that burn coal with greater efficiency and with lower emissions. Clean Coal Technologies (CCTs) will ensure that continued use of the world`s most abundant energy resource is compatible with a cleaner, healthier environment. Increasing interest in CCTs opens the door for American small businesses to provide services and equipment for the clean and efficient use of coal. Key players in most coal-related projects are typically large equipment manufacturers, power project developers, utilities, governments, and multinational corporations. At the same time, the complexity and scale of many of these projects creates niche markets for small American businesses with high-value products and services. From information technology, control systems, and specialized components to management practices, financial services, and personnel training methods, small US companies boast some of the highest value products and services in the world. As a result, American companies are in a prime position to take advantage of global niche markets for CCTs. This guide is designed to provide US small businesses with an overview of potential international market opportunities related to CCTs and to provide initial guidance on how to cost-effectively enter that growing global market.

  13. TORR system polishes oily water clean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The TORR (total oil recovery and remediation) system utilizes a specially patented polymer material, similar to styrofoam, which is used to get rid of non-soluble hydrocarbons from water. An application in Fort Smith, Northwest Territories, is described where it was used to recover diesel oil, which had been seeping into the groundwater over a period of 20 years. About 100,000 gallons of heating oil had leached into the water; TORR removed the non-soluble hydrocarbons, while another piece of equipment removed the soluble portions. After treatment the water tested consistently at non-detectable levels and was clean enough to be discharged into the town's sewer system. The system is considered ideal for oil spills clean-up underground, onshore, or the open sea, but it also has many potentially useful applications in industrial and oilfield applications. Water used in steam injection and water floods to produce heavy oil and SAGD applications are some of the obvious ones that come to mind. Cleaning up the huge tailings ponds at the mining and processing of oil sands, and removing diluent from water that is used to thin out bitumen in pipelines so that it can be transported to processing plants, are other promising areas of application. Several field trials to test the effectiveness of the system in these type of applications are scheduled for the summer and fall of 2002

  14. Prediction of hygiene in food processing equipment using flow modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Alan; Jensen, Bo Boye Busk

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been applied to investigate the design of closed process equipment with respect to cleanability. The CFD simulations were validated using the standardized cleaning test proposed by the European Hygienic Engineering and Design Group. CFD has been proven as a...... tool which can be used by manufacturers to facilitate their equipment design for high hygienic standards before constructing any prototypes. The study of hydrodynamic cleanability of closed processing equipment was discussed based on modelling the flow in a valve house, an up-stand and various...

  15. Prediction of hygiene in food processing equipment using flow modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Alan; Jensen, Bo Boye Busk

    2002-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been applied to investigate the design of closed process equipment with respect to cleanability. The CFD simulations were validated using the standardized cleaning test proposed by the European Hygienic Engineering and Design Group. CFD has been proven as a...... tool which can be used by manufacturers to facilitate their equipment design for high hygienic standards before constructing any prototypes. The study of hydrodynamic cleanability of closed processing equipment was discussed based on modelling the flow in a valve house, an up-stand and various...

  16. Cooling of electronic equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A. Kristensen, Anders Schmidt

    2003-01-01

    Cooling of electronic equipment is studied. The design size of electronic equipment decrease causing the thermal density to increase. This affect the cooling which can cause for example failures of critical components due to overheating or thermal induced stresses. Initially a pin fin heat sink...

  17. Cleaning of parts for new manufacturing and parts rebuilding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Jeff

    1994-06-01

    Parts cleaning is the largest single expense, and the most time consuming activity, in rebuilding and new manufacturing. On average, 25% to 40% of the total labor and overhead burden is spent on cleaning. EPA and OSHA pressures add to the burden by making some methods and chemicals obsolete. Some of the processes and chemicals in current use will be curtailed and or outlawed in the future. How can a shops and industries make long term decisions or capital investments in cleaning and process improvements when the government keeps changing its rules? At the MART Corporation in Saint Louis, Missouri, we manufacture a line of cabinet-style batch cleaning machines known as Power Washers. Twenty years ago MART invented and patented the Power Washer process, a cleaning method that recycles wash solution and blasts contaminates as they are washed off the more heavily contaminated parts. Since the initial invention MART has continued to R&D the washing process and develop ancillary systems that comply with EPA and OSHA regulations. For applications involving new industrial parts or items requiring specification cleaned surfaces. MART provides filtration and solution conditioning systems, part drying operations, and triple rinsing. Units are available in stainless steel or higher alloys. We are not alone in the washer manufacturing business. You have many choices of cleaning solutions (no pun intended) which will perform in your operations and yield good results. As a manufacturer, we are interested in your success with our equipment. We have all heard the horror stories of companies having selected inappropriate cleaning systems and or processes which then brought the company to its knees, production wise. Assembly, appearance, warranty, and performance shortcomings of finished products can often be directly related to the cleaning process and its shortcomings.

  18. Equipment maintenance and repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walia DS

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The repair and maintenance of ophthalmic equipment, including surgical instruments and diagnostic devices, can be compared to the maintenance of a motor vehicle, something many of us understand well.If you had a car, would you drive it until the fuel runs out or until a tyre punctures, and then abandon it to buy a new car? Of course not. However, many eye care units purchase (or receive as a donation expensive and delicate equipment which, because of poor maintenance, ends up breaking down. If there is not a system in place to report breakdowns and to plan or carry out repairs, equipment can remain unusable for long periods of time. Sometimes, this equipment ends up being dumped. Good maintenance habits and an effective repair system will minimise the amount of time equipment is unusable.

  19. Characterization of the cleaning process on a transferred graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intrinsic graphene possesses many outstanding physical and chemical properties, but their full explorations are often hindered by the effects of substrate and/or contamination. The authors employ the ultrahigh vacuum transmission electron microscopy equipped with a residual gas analyzer to in-situ characterize an effective decontamination process on a suspended graphene. Raman spectroscopic spectra further verify the cleanness of the resultant graphene membrane. The authors also present two contrasting growth morphologies of copper nanoparticles obtained on both clean and unclean graphene surfaces and show that the intrinsic growth dynamics can only manifest on the surface without contaminations

  20. Cleaning of contaminated XUV-optics at BESSY II

    CERN Document Server

    Eggenstein, F; Zeschke, T; Gudat, W

    2001-01-01

    Carbon contaminations as observed on XUV-optics can be removed by an in situ plasma discharge process. The method developed at BESSY is based on waterfree oxygen/argon mixture and avoids water contamination of the UHV-equipment. The radio frequency based plasma cleaning method has been used at several undulator beamlines at BESSY II with a gain in flux at the carbon K-edge. At the UE56-I-plane grating monochromator, a gain in flux up to a factor 20 is observed. No loss in flux has been observed across the whole energy ranges of the 'cleaned' beamlines.

  1. Clean electricity from photovoltaics

    CERN Document Server

    Green, Martin A

    2015-01-01

    The second edition of Clean Electricity from Photovoltaics , first published in 2001, provides an updated account of the underlying science, technology and market prospects for photovoltaics. All areas have advanced considerably in the decade since the first edition was published, which include: multi-crystalline silicon cell efficiencies having made impressive advances, thin-film CdTe cells having established a decisive market presence, and organic photovoltaics holding out the prospect of economical large-scale power production. Contents: The Past and Present (M D Archer); Limits to Photovol

  2. Clean fuels from biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Y.-Y.

    1976-01-01

    The paper discusses the U.S. resources to provide fuels from agricultural products, the present status of conversion technology of clean fuels from biomass, and a system study directed to determine the energy budget, and environmental and socioeconomic impacts. Conversion processes are discussed relative to pyrolysis and anaerobic fermentation. Pyrolysis breaks the cellulose molecules to smaller molecules under high temperature in the absence of oxygen, wheras anaerobic fermentation is used to convert biomass to methane by means of bacteria. Cost optimization and energy utilization are also discussed.

  3. Clean electricity from photovoltaics

    CERN Document Server

    Archer, Mary D

    2001-01-01

    Photovoltaic cells provide clean, reversible electrical power from the sun. Made from semiconductors, they are durable, silent in operation and free of polluting emissions. In this book, experts from all sectors of the PV community - materials scientists, physicists, production engineers, economists and environmentalists - give their critical appraisals of where the technology is now and what its prospects are. Sample Chapter(s). Chapter 2.1: Introduction (306 KB). Chapter 2.2: Semiconductor device equations (121 KB). Chapter 2.3: The p-n junction model of Shockley (1,017 KB). Chapter 2.4: Rea

  4. Flue Gas Cleaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fehrmann, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    and sulfuric acid in the atmosphere causing precipitation of acid rain resulting in death of forests and destruction of buildings and monuments in addition to human health problems. The most common state-of-the-art methods applied today industrially for cleaning of flue gases will be addressed, including wet......-time. But the problems may also be attacked by new materials like supported ionic liquid phase (SILP) gas absorbers where the pollutants may be selectively absorbed, desorbed and finally converted to useful mineral acids of commercial grade – really a green waste-to-value approach that we persue instead...

  5. Clean coal technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal is the major source of energy in India at present as well as in foreseeable future. With gradual deterioration in coal quality as well as increased awareness on environmental aspects, clean coal technologies have to be adopted by major coal consuming sectors. The probable routes of restricting environmental degradation in power generation include beneficiation of power coal for maintaining consistency in coal supply and reducing pollutant emission, adoption of fluidized bed combustion on a larger scale, adoption of technologies for controlling SOx and NOx emission during and after combustion, adoption of larger capacity and improved and non-recovery type coke ovens

  6. International Clean Energy Coalition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erin Skootsky; Matt Gardner; Bevan Flansburgh

    2010-09-28

    In 2003, the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) and National Energy Technology Laboratories (NETL) collaboratively established the International Clean Energy Coalition (ICEC). The coalition consisting of energy policy-makers, technologists, and financial institutions was designed to assist developing countries in forming and supporting local approaches to greenhouse gas mitigation within the energy sector. ICEC's work focused on capacity building and clean energy deployment in countries that rely heavily on fossil-based electric generation. Under ICEC, the coalition formed a steering committee consisting of NARUC members and held a series of meetings to develop and manage the workplan and define successful outcomes for the projects. ICEC identified India as a target country for their work and completed a country assessment that helped ICEC build a framework for discussion with Indian energy decisionmakers including two follow-on in-country workshops. As of the conclusion of the project in 2010, ICEC had also conducted outreach activities conducted during United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Ninth Conference of Parties (COP 9) and COP 10. The broad goal of this project was to develop a coalition of decision-makers, technologists, and financial institutions to assist developing countries in implementing affordable, effective and resource appropriate technology and policy strategies to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. Project goals were met through international forums, a country assessment, and in-country workshops. This project focused on countries that rely heavily on fossil-based electric generation.

  7. Instrumental parameters' determination in a fluorescences X-ray Philips PW 1400 equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The instrumental parameters of a Philips PW 1400 equipment wavelengths dispersive are determined; fundamentally, those related to the equipment's accuracy (stability at a very short, short and long term drift) as well as to those related to the detection system (dead time, detector's cleaning and detection limit). (S.M.)

  8. Online soot cleaning using infrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torra i Fernandez, Eric; Ellebro, Martin [Infrafone AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-10-01

    The company Infrafone has been using infrasound as a soot cleaning method for more than 30 years. Infrasonic soot cleaning increases the efficiency, the availability and the lifetime of marine and industrial boilers. The properties and the description of infrasound and Infrafone's soot cleaning method are presented. Moreover, a brief comparison with audible sonic horns is carried out. The results and the savings of installing Infrafone's infrasonic cleaners are presented here with several case studies. (orig.)

  9. Medical Issues: Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... strollers also have trays to carry medical equipment. Bath Chairs Specialized bath chairs provide comfortable and secure bathing for children and small adults with special needs. Bath chairs are adjustable, with multiple seat and back angles. ...

  10. Equipment for hydraulic testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydraulic testing in boreholes is one major task of the hydrogeological program in the Stripa Project. A new testing equipment for this purpose was constructed. It consists of a downhole part and a surface part. The downhole part consists of two packers enclosing two test-sections when inflated; one between the packers and one between the bottom packer and the bottom of the borehole. A probe for downhole electronics is also included in the downhole equipment together with electrical cable and nylon tubing. In order to perform shut-in and pulse tests with high accuracy a surface controlled downhole valve was constructed. The surface equipment consists of the data acquisition system, transducer amplifier and surface gauges. In the report detailed descriptions of each component in the whole testing equipment are given. (Auth.)

  11. Electronic equipment packaging technology

    CERN Document Server

    Ginsberg, Gerald L

    1992-01-01

    The last twenty years have seen major advances in the electronics industry. Perhaps the most significant aspect of these advances has been the significant role that electronic equipment plays in almost all product markets. Even though electronic equipment is used in a broad base of applications, many future applications have yet to be conceived. This versatility of electron­ ics has been brought about primarily by the significant advances that have been made in integrated circuit technology. The electronic product user is rarely aware of the integrated circuits within the equipment. However, the user is often very aware of the size, weight, mod­ ularity, maintainability, aesthetics, and human interface features of the product. In fact, these are aspects of the products that often are instrumental in deter­ mining its success or failure in the marketplace. Optimizing these and other product features is the primary role of Electronic Equipment Packaging Technology. As the electronics industry continues to pr...

  12. Ultrasound cleaning of microfilters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Jens; Bjørnø, Irina; Jensen, Leif Bjørnø

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to develop, design, and manufacture a high-power ultrasound transducer module to be used for preventing the blocking of plastic-based microfilters by organic materials, and possibly to prolong the lifetime of the filters in industry using the cavitation on the surface...... design suitable for cleaning of microfilters without damaging the filter structure. The filter surface was studied using an optical microscope before and after the experiment. When high-power ultrasound (max. 75 W/cm2) was applied to the surface of some microfilters, no visible damage was found, while...... others filters were damaged. The results of the laboratory experiments formed background for the final design of an ultrasound transducer module for use by foodstuff filtration plants. [This work was financed by the EU Project WAMBIO PL96-3257 (FAIR Programme).]...

  13. Flue gas cleaning chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutberlet, H. [VEBA Kraftwerke Ruhr AG, Gelsenkirchen (Germany)

    1996-12-01

    The introduction of modern flue gas cleaning technology into fossil-fueled power stations has repeatedly confronted the power station chemists with new and interesting problems over the last 15 - 20 years. Both flue gas desulphurization by lime washing and catalytic removal of nitrogen oxides are based on simple basic chemical reactions. Owing to the use of readily available starting materials, the production of safe, useful end products and, last but not least, the possibility of implementing all this on an industrial scale by means of efficient process engineering, limestone desulphurization and catalytic removal of nitrogen oxides dominate the world market and, little by little, are becoming still more widespread. The origin and thus the quality of fuels and starting materials, the firing method, the mode of operation and engineering peculiarities in each plant interact in a complex manner. Simple cause/effect relationships are frequently incapable of explaining phenomena; thinking in complex interrelationships is needed. (EG)

  14. Clean Salt integrated flowsheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Clean Salt Process (CSP) is a novel waste management scheme that removes sodium nitrate and aluminum nitrate nonahydrate as decontaminated (low specific activity) salts from Hanford's high-level waste (HLW). The full scale process will separate the bulk of the waste that exists as sodium salts from the small portion of the waste that is by definition radioactive and dangerous. This report presents initial conceptual CSP flowsheets and demonstrates the benefit of integrating the process into the Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) Reference Flowsheet. Total HLW and low-level (LLW) volumes are reported for two different CSP integration options and are compared to the TWRS Reference Flowsheet values. The results for a single glass option eliminating LLW disposal are also reported

  15. Clean air Hamilton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarry, B.E. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    The industrial City of Hamilton is located on Lake Ontario, downwind from the Ohio Valley. The Hamilton Air Quality Initiative (HAQI) was divided in several phases, one of which is Clean Air Hamilton. This most recent phase was described in this presentation. Two major goals of this phase were: to ensure that the City of Hamilton has the best air quality of any major urban area in Ontario, and to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases by 20 per cent compared to the levels in 1990. There were five main objectives to this initiative, namely: (1) the identification of priority air quality issues, (2) achieving an understanding of air quality issues, (3) the identification of sources, the evaluation of impacts and the recommendation of solutions, (4) the assessment of human health, and (5) the identification of further research. The reduction of air quality impacts is progressing through the support provided to the Drive Clean Program, the discouragement of vehicle idling, the support to car pooling initiatives, and the promotion of green vehicles. The implementation of pollution control technologies is taking place on the industrial side, as well as the development of plans to reduce steel industry emissions, the development of energy conservation measures and the promotion of green building practices. Efforts are being deployed over fleet greening partnerships, community tree planting program, an international air conference, an electronic information network linking the United States and the communities of Southern Ontario, a road dust study, a truck emissions research project, the assessment of human health impacts, and finally methods for the monitoring of local improvements. figs.

  16. Sodium cleaning and disposal methods in experimental facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, major sodium facilities are designed and operated at Engineering Development Group as a part of development programme towards experimental and Prototype Fast Reactor. After the test programme many equipment and components were removed from the sodium facilities and sodium removal and disposal was carried out. The experience gained in different cleaning methods and waste sodium disposal are discussed. (author)

  17. About Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Equipment for Infection Control Questions About Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Print Q1. How do manufacturers ensure personal protective equipment (PPE) is safe and effective? A1. To help ...

  18. Programmed Cleaning and Environmental Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, John C., Ed.

    Maintenance of sanitation in buildings, plants, offices, and institutions; the selection of cleaning materials for these purposes; and the organization and supervision of the cleaning program are becoming increasingly complex and needful of a higher cost of handling. This book describes these problems and gives helpful information and guidance for…

  19. Reactor vessel stud cleaning machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A device is described for cleaning and decontaminating an elongate member having a three dimensional surface topography comprising: an enclosure; means for rotatingly supporting the elongate member proximate the ends thereof within the enclosure; means for driving the elongate member supporting means, to rotate the elongate member; a supply tank for holding water; a spray nozzle connected to the supply tank and disposed within the enclosure operable to move transversely with respect to the elongate member for spraying a cleaning agent comprising high pressure water and abrasive grit against the rotating elongate member; a self-contained means for supplying the cleaning agent to the spray nozzle and removing spent cleaning agent from the enclosure, the self-contained means including the supply tank and means for disposing of any contaminated solids in the spent cleaning agent. The means for disposing further comprises means for removing spent cleaning agent from the enclosure, means for removing solid particles from the spent cleaning agent and means for recycling water from the spent cleaning agent back to the spray nozzle; and a control system for selectively controlling at least one of the rate of rotation of the elongate member and rate of trasversal of the elongate member and by the spray nozzle in accordance with the topography of the elongate member

  20. [Medical Equipment Maintenance Methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongbin

    2015-09-01

    Due to the high technology and the complexity of medical equipment, as well as to the safety and effectiveness, it determines the high requirements of the medical equipment maintenance work. This paper introduces some basic methods of medical instrument maintenance, including fault tree analysis, node method and exclusive method which are the three important methods in the medical equipment maintenance, through using these three methods for the instruments that have circuit drawings, hardware breakdown maintenance can be done easily. And this paper introduces the processing methods of some special fault conditions, in order to reduce little detours in meeting the same problems. Learning is very important for stuff just engaged in this area. PMID:26904890

  1. Equipment Operational Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwalt, B; Henderer, B; Hibbard, W; Mercer, M

    2009-06-11

    The Iraq Department of Border Enforcement is rich in personnel, but poor in equipment. An effective border control system must include detection, discrimination, decision, tracking and interdiction, capture, identification, and disposition. An equipment solution that addresses only a part of this will not succeed, likewise equipment by itself is not the answer without considering the personnel and how they would employ the equipment. The solution should take advantage of the existing in-place system and address all of the critical functions. The solutions are envisioned as being implemented in a phased manner, where Solution 1 is followed by Solution 2 and eventually by Solution 3. This allows adequate time for training and gaining operational experience for successively more complex equipment. Detailed descriptions of the components follow the solution descriptions. Solution 1 - This solution is based on changes to CONOPs, and does not have a technology component. It consists of observers at the forts and annexes, forward patrols along the swamp edge, in depth patrols approximately 10 kilometers inland from the swamp, and checkpoints on major roads. Solution 2 - This solution adds a ground sensor array to the Solution 1 system. Solution 3 - This solution is based around installing a radar/video camera system on each fort. It employs the CONOPS from Solution 1, but uses minimal ground sensors deployed only in areas with poor radar/video camera coverage (such as canals and streams shielded by vegetation), or by roads covered by radar but outside the range of the radar associated cameras. This document provides broad operational requirements for major equipment components along with sufficient operational details to allow the technical community to identify potential hardware candidates. Continuing analysis will develop quantities required and more detailed tactics, techniques, and procedures.

  2. MODERNIZATION OF CUPOLA EQUIPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Rovin, S. L.; L. E. Rovin; T. M. Zayats; L. N. Rusaya

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an automated cupola complex, developed by scientific-production enterprise «Technolit» together with GSTU named after P. O. Sukhoi, launched in the spring of 2015 at the plant «Stroiex» in the city of Chelyabinsk (the Russian Federation). The old cupolas (open type) have been replaced by the new cupolas of the closed type, equipped with automatic control and management system and multistage wet gas treatment system. Cupolas are equipped with systems of post-combustion ga...

  3. ROSEE cleans up after the Cold War

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article describes a robot named ROSEE, designed by engineers at the DOE's Hanford site to minimize the risk of radiation exposure to workers cleaning up to residue left by America's manufacture of nuclear weapons. ROSEE is the acronym for Remotely Operated Sediment Extraction Equipment, a robot designed to vacuum sediment and debris from a nuclear fuels storage pool at the Department of Energy's Hanford nuclear waste storage site in Richland, Wash. The task facing ROSEE involves cleaning out the N basin at Hanford. Work is schedules to begin before the fall. The basin houses nuclear fuel refined during 24 years of the Cold War era. This water-filled structure is 24 feet deep, 87 feet long, and 56 feet wide, approximately three times larger than an Olympic-size swimming pool. Nuclear fuel was contained in honeycomb cells mounted 1 inch from the bottom of the pool. The cells rise 10 feet from the bottom of the basin, and each cell is 21 inches deep and 14 inches wide. The cells now hold radioactive residues that must be removed for final safe disposal

  4. I'm dreaming of a white clean room...

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2014-01-01

    New HIE-ISOLDE cryomodules are now under construction in a state-of-the-art clean room facility in SM18.   The HIE-ISOLDE clean rooms in SM18. HIE-ISOLDE is set to be the world's leading nuclear physics site, ultimately accelerating radioactive nuclei to an impressive 10 MeV/u. Helping the facility reach this energy are new superconducting cryomodules, the first quarter-wave cavity module to be assembled at CERN and necessitating a custom clean-room in SM18. At a towering five metres tall, the new clean room houses a custom assembly frame and associated equipment, moving the components of the 6 tonne cryomodules both vertically and horizontally while they are being assembled. "Each cryomodule is made up of some 10,000 parts, which have come from across the continents to be assembled here," says CERN TE engineer Lloyd Williams, who is managing quality assurance for the project. "Each part is checked by the CERN team, catalogued and thoroughly cleaned, befor...

  5. Prototype air cleaning system for a firing range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glissmeyer, J.A.; Mishima, J.; Bamberger, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    This report recommends air cleaning system components for the US Army Ballistics Research Laboratory's new large-caliber firing range, which is used for testing depleted uranium (DU) penetrators. The new air cleaning system has lower operating costs during the life of the system compared to that anticipated for the existing air cleaning system. The existing system consists of three banks of filters in series; the first two banks are prefilters and the last are high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. The principal disadvantage of the existing filters is that they are not cleanable and reusable. Pacific Northwest Laboratory focused the search for alternate air cleaning equipment on devices that do not employ liquids as part of the particle collection mechanism. Collected dry particles were assumed preferable to a liquid waste stream. The dry particle collection devices identified included electrostatic precipitators; inertial separators using turning vanes or cyclones; and several devices employing a filter medium such as baghouses, cartridge houses, cleanable filters, and noncleanable filters similar to those in the existing system. The economics of practical air cleaning systems employing the dry particle collection devices were evaluated in 294 different combinations. 7 references, 21 figures, 78 tables.

  6. Canada's Clean Air Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provided an outline of Canada's Clean Air Act and examined some of the regulatory changes that will occur as a result of its implementation. The Act is being introduced to strengthen the legislative basis for taking action on reducing air pollution and GHGs, and will allow the government to regulate both indoor and outdoor air pollutants and GHGs. The Act will require the Ministers of the Environment and Health to establish national air quality objectives, as well as to monitor and report on their attainment. The Canadian Environmental Protection Act will be amended to enable the government to regulate the blending of fuels and their components. The Motor Vehicle Fuel Consumption Standards Act will also be amended to enhance the government's authority to regulate vehicle fuel efficiency. The Energy Efficiency Act will also be expanded to allow the government to set energy efficiency standards and labelling requirements for a wider range of consumer and commercial products. The Act will commit to short, medium and long-term industrial air pollution targets. Regulations will be proposed for emissions from industry; on-road and off-road vehicles and engines; and consumer and commercial products. It was concluded that the Government of Canada will continue to consult with provinces, territories, industries and Canadians to set and reach targets for the reduction of both indoor and outdoor air pollutants and GHG emissions. 6 figs

  7. Clean Metal Casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makhlouf M. Makhlouf; Diran Apelian

    2002-02-05

    The objective of this project is to develop a technology for clean metal processing that is capable of consistently providing a metal cleanliness level that is fit for a given application. The program has five tasks: Development of melt cleanliness assessment technology, development of melt contamination avoidance technology, development of high temperature phase separation technology, establishment of a correlation between the level of melt cleanliness and as cast mechanical properties, and transfer of technology to the industrial sector. Within the context of the first task, WPI has developed a standardized Reduced Pressure Test that has been endorsed by AFS as a recommended practice. In addition, within the context of task1, WPI has developed a melt cleanliness sensor based on the principles of electromagnetic separation. An industrial partner is commercializing the sensor. Within the context of the second task, WPI has developed environmentally friendly fluxes that do not contain fluorine. Within the context of the third task, WPI modeled the process of rotary degassing and verified the model predictions with experimental data. This model may be used to optimize the performance of industrial rotary degassers. Within the context of the fourth task, WPI has correlated the level of melt cleanliness at various foundries, including a sand casting foundry, a permanent mold casting foundry, and a die casting foundry, to the casting process and the resultant mechanical properties. This is useful in tailoring the melt cleansing operations at foundries to the particular casting process and the desired properties of cast components.

  8. Air-cleaning apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An air-cleaning, heat-exchange apparatus includes a main housing portion connected by means of an air inlet fan to the kitchen exhaust stack of a restaurant. The apparatus includes a plurality of heat exchangers through which a heat-absorptive fluid is circulated, simultaneously, by means of a suitable fluid pump. These heat exchangers absorb heat from the hot exhaust gas, out of the exhaust stack of the restaurant, which flows over and through these heat exchangers and transfers this heat to the circulating fluid which communicates with remote heat exchangers. These remote heat exchangers further transfer this heat to a stream of air, such as that from a cold-air return duct for supplementing the conventional heating system of the restaurant. Due to the fact that such hot exhaust gas is heavily grease laden , grease will be deposited on virtually all internal surfaces of the apparatus which this exhaust gas contacts. Consequently, means are provided for spraying these contacted internal surfaces , as well as the hot exhaust gas itself, with a detergent solution in which the grease is soluble, thereby removing grease buildup from these internal surfaces

  9. Clean tracks for ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    First cosmic ray tracks in the integrated ATLAS barrel SCT and TRT tracking detectors. A snap-shot of a cosmic ray event seen in the different layers of both the SCT and TRT detectors. The ATLAS Inner Detector Integration Team celebrated a major success recently, when clean tracks of cosmic rays were detected in the completed semiconductor tracker (SCT) and transition radiation tracker (TRT) barrels. These tracking tests come just months after the successful insertion of the SCT into the TRT (See Bulletin 09/2006). The cosmic ray test is important for the experiment because, after 15 years of hard work, it is the last test performed on the fully assembled barrel before lowering it into the ATLAS cavern. The two trackers work together to provide millions of channels so that particles' tracks can be identified and measured with great accuracy. According to the team, the preliminary results were very encouraging. After first checks of noise levels in the final detectors, a critical goal was to study their re...

  10. Riser equipment decontamination engineering task plan; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On October 15, 1998, two Characterization Project Operations (CPO) employees were found to have contaminated clothing. An operator had 300,000-dpm/100cm2 beta/gamma, no alpha, contamination on his coat sleeve and a Radiation Control Technician (RCT) had 10,000 dpm/100cm2 beta/gamma, no alpha, on his shirt sleeve. The CPO swing shift crew was working in TX tank farm, performing sampling activities at 241-TX-113. TX tank farm is a ''clean farm'' and does not require anti-contamination clothing for entry. The CPO personnel were dressed in normal work clothes. An operator and an RCT were performing a pre-job survey that involved removing bagging around the riser equipment. When the RCT saw that the contamination readings from smear samples of the riser equipment were greater than expected, the job was suspended. Crew members were then directed to areas of lower background radiation for personnel surveys. During personnel surveys, reportable contamination was found on the coat sleeve of the operator who had been involved in the pre-job survey and on the shirt sleeve of the RCT who had been involved in the pre-job survey. No other personnel were found to be contaminated. Because of this off normal event Characterization Engineering was given the following corrective action: Examine the process methodology used for core sampling operations to determine practicality and potential long-term advantages of reducing personnel contact with contaminated equipment. This Engineering Task Plan ensures that LMHC 1998a, Corrective Action No.7 is completely addressed by Characterization Engineering. The deliverable is an Engineering Study that evaluates decontamination of riser equipment components and considers additional engineered features to reduce potential exposure to workers operating the riser equipment. This engineering study shall also address any released design features that have failed to be implemented

  11. Pickering Unit 1 chemical cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The secondary sides of all 12 boilers at Pickering Unit 1 were chemically cleaned in 1994 by the team of Ontario Hydro, B and W International (Cambridge, Ontario) and B and W Nuclear Technologies (Lynchburg, Virginia). A multi-step EPRI/SGOG process was employed in a similar manner to previous clearings at Units 5 and 6 in 1992 and 1993, respectively. A major innovation with the Unit 1 cleaning was the incorporation of a crevice cleaning step, the first time this had been done on Ontario Hydro plants. In addition, six boilers were cleaned in parallel compared to three at a time in previous Pickering cleanings. This significantly reduced cleaning time. A total of 6,770 kg of sludge was removed through direct chemical dissolution. It consisted of 66% iron/nickel oxides and 28% copper metal. A total of 1,600,000 L (420,000 US gallons) of liquid waste was produced. It was processed through the spent solvent treatment facility located at the Bruce Nuclear Power Development site. Visual inspection performed after the cleaning indicated that the crevices between the boiler tubes and the tube support structure were completely clear of deposit and the general condition of the tubing and lattice bars appeared to be in 'as new' condition. (author)

  12. Safeguards techniques and equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current booklet is intended to give a full and balanced description of the techniques and equipment used for both nuclear material accountancy and containment and surveillance measures, and for the new safeguards measure of environmental sampling. As new verification measures continue to be developed, the material in the booklet will be periodically reviewed and updated versions issued. (author)

  13. Dairy Equipment Lubrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Lake To Lake Dairy Cooperative, Manitowoc, Wisconsin, operates four plants in Wisconsin for processing milk, butter and cheese products from its 1,300 member farms. The large co-op was able to realize substantial savings by using NASA information for improved efficiency in plant maintenance. Under contract to Marshall Space Flight Center, Midwest Research Institute compiled a handbook consolidating information about commercially available lubricants. The handbook details chemical and physical properties, applications, specifications, test procedures and test data for liquid and solid lubricants. Lake To Lake's plant engineer used the handbook to effect savings in maintenance labor and materials costs by reducing the number of lubricants used on certain equipment. Strict U.S. Department of Agriculture and Food and Drug Administration regulations preclude lubrication changes n production equipment, but the co-op's maintenance chief was able to eliminate seven types of lubricants for ancillary equipment, such as compressors and high pressure pumps. Handbook data enabled him to select comparable but les expensive lubricants in the materials consolidation process, and simplified lubrication schedules and procedures. The handbook is in continuing use as a reference source when a new item of equipment is purchased.

  14. Lifetime of Mechanical Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leland, K.

    1999-07-01

    The gas plant at Kaarstoe was built as part of the Statpipe gas transport system and went on stream in 1985. In 1993 another line was routed from the Sleipner field to carry condensate, and the plant was extended accordingly. Today heavy additional supply- and export lines are under construction, and the plant is extended more than ever. The main role of the factory is to separate the raw gas into commercial products and to pump or ship it to the markets. The site covers a large number of well-known mechanical equipment. This presentation deals with piping, mechanical and structural disciplines. The lifetime of mechanical equipment is often difficult to predict as it depends on many factors, and the subject is complex. Mechanical equipment has been kept in-house, which provides detailed knowledge of the stages from a new to a 14 years old plant. The production regularity has always been very high, as required. The standard of the equipment is well kept, support systems are efficient, and human improvisation is extremely valuable.

  15. Extract and cleaning of contaminated air in commercial kitchens : Ultraviolet technology

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandrova, Alevtina

    2009-01-01

    The subject of the project was a research about cleaning of contaminated air in commercial kitchens. Kitchen hoods must be cleaned from heat, moisture, smoke, and vaporized grease all the time. Accumulations of grease on kitchen equipment can easily be the reason of fire. The thesis presents literature review of various sources like books, reports, and Internet articles. Most of the articles and tests were maid by research institutes or big manufacture companies connected with ventilation ...

  16. Evaluation of technology modifications required to apply clean coal technologies in Russian utilities. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The report describes the following: overview of the Russian power industry; electric power equipment of Russia; power industry development forecast for Russia; clean coal technology demonstration program of the US Department of Energy; reduction of coal TPS (thermal power station) environmental impacts in Russia; and base options of advanced coal thermal power plants. Terms of the application of clean coal technology at Russian TPS are discussed in the Conclusions.

  17. A note on clean abelian groups

    OpenAIRE

    Goldsmith, Brendan; Vamos, P.

    2007-01-01

    Nicholson defined a ring to be clean if every element is the sum of a unit and an idempotent. A module is clean if its endomorphism algebra is clean. We show that torsion-complete Abelian p-groups are clean and characterize the clean groups among the class of totally projective p-groups. An example is given of a clean p-group which is neither totally projective nor torsion- complete

  18. CLEAN Technique for Polarimetric ISAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Martorella

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR images are often used for classifying and recognising targets. To reduce the amount of data processed by the classifier, scattering centres are extracted from the ISAR image and used for classifying and recognising targets. This paper addresses the problem of estimating the position and the scattering vector of target scattering centres from polarimetric ISAR images. The proposed technique is obtained by extending the CLEAN technique, which was introduced in radar imaging for extracting scattering centres from single-polarisation ISAR images. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, namely, the Polarimetric CLEAN (Pol-CLEAN is tested on simulated and real data.

  19. Advances in ultrasonic fuel cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultrasonic fuel cleaning has been demonstrated to be effective for avoiding or postponing the axial offset anomaly (AOA) in high-duty PWRs. In addition, the reduction in corrosion product inventory achieved by this method of fuel cleaning has been shown to reduce ex-core dose rates, and hence reduce personnel exposure. Through laboratory mock-up tests as well as tests on discharged fuel in the Callaway spent fuel pool, the EPRI ultrasonic fuel cleaning system was demonstrated to clean crud from fuel rods throughout the assembly without deleterious effects on fuel integrity. This paper presents details of the evaluation tests at AmerenUE's Callaway PWR, as well as the full-reload ultrasonic cleaning for Cycle 12. Ninety-six once-burned fuel assemblies were cleaned via the EPRI ultrasonic process during refueling outage 11 in April 2001. Fuel cleaning activities presented no special problems in or around the fuel pool, neither in terms of activity nor in terms of turbidity of the pool water, nor were special radiological situations encountered by personnel working in the area. The corrosion products were captured on cartridge filters designed to avoid loss of material into the fuel pool water during interim storage. Activity levels on the cartridges were maintained sufficiently low for ease of handling, processing, and shipment in Radwaste. The fuel cleaning operation was completed within a time window of approximately 48 hours. The cleaned fuel was returned to service in May 2001 for Cycle 12. To date, this fuel cycle remains free of AOA (Axial Offset Anomaly). This result is in contrast to earlier cycles of similar design and power duty, but without reload fuel cleaning. These cycles were operated at a reduced TAVE in order to mitigate AOA. Nevertheless, Cycle 11 experienced AOA starting as early as 6 GWD/MTU. Based on the favorable Cycle 12 data, the utility intends to institute fuel cleaning as a routine outage activity, thus expecting to recover the TAVE

  20. On strongly clean matrices over commutative clean rings

    OpenAIRE

    Burgess, Walter

    2014-01-01

    The literature about strongly clean matrices over commutative rings is quite extensive. The sharpest results are about matrices over commutative local rings, for example those by Borooah, Diesl and Dorsey. The purpose of this note is to show that, using Pierce sheaf techniques, many of the known results about matrices over commutative local rings can be extended to those over commutative clean rings in general.

  1. Visual communication and terminal equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is divided two parts about visual communication and terminal equipment. The first part introduces visual communication, which deals with foundation of visual communication, technique of visual communication, equipment of visual communication, a facsimile and pictorial image system. The second part contains terminal equipment such as telephone, terminal equipment for data transmission on constitution and constituent of terminal equipment for data transmission, input device and output device, terminal device and up-to-date terminal device.

  2. Tracking Clean Energy Progress 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    Tracking Clean Energy Progress 2013 (TCEP 2013) examines progress in the development and deployment of key clean energy technologies. Each technology and sector is tracked against interim 2020 targets in the IEA Energy Technology Perspectives 2012 2°C scenario, which lays out pathways to a sustainable energy system in 2050. Stark message emerge: progress has not been fast enough; large market failures are preventing clean energy solutions from being taken up; considerable energy efficiency remains untapped; policies need to better address the energy system as a whole; and energy-related research, development and demonstration need to accelerate. Alongside these grim conclusions there is positive news. In 2012, hybrid-electric vehicle sales passed the 1 million mark. Solar photovoltaic systems were being installed at a record pace. The costs of most clean energy technologies fell more rapidly than anticipated.

  3. KNFC Fuel cleaning technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The filtration system to collect crud particles detached from the fuel assemblies was also developed. The fuel cleaning system connected with the filtration system was successfully demonstrated at Ulchin plant 2. Within several minutes detachable crud deposits were effectively removed from the clad surfaces of the fuel assembly. Also to characterize the crud particles for each fuel assembly, a small crud sampling device was connected with the filtration system during the cleaning operation. Crud samples were acquired from crud sampling device of fuel cleaning and fuel rod using sticky tape and steel knife analysis at two plants, respectively. Crud analysis in pie facility showed that 95wt% crud particles can be collected by a 0.5μm filtering system and major compositions were Ni, Fe, and Cr. KNFC constructed and qualified the complete fuel cleaning system

  4. First cleaning with LHC collimators

    CERN Document Server

    Wollmann, D; Arnau-Izquiedo, G; Assmann, R; Bacher, J P; Baglin, V; Bellodi, G; Bertarelli, A; Bouzoud, A; Bracco, C; Bruce, R; Brugger, M; Calatroni, S; Cerruti, F; Chamizo, R; Cherif, A; Chiaveri, E; Chiggiato, P; Dallochio, A; Dehning, B; Donze, M; Ferrari, A; Folch, R; Francon, P; Gander, P; Geisser, J M; Grudiev, A; Holzer, EB; Jacquet, D; Jeanneret, J B; Jimenez, J M; Jonker, M; Jowett, J; Kershaw, K; Lari, L; Lendaro, J; Loprete, F; Losito, R; Magistris, M; Malabaila, M; Mayer, M; Marsili, A; Masi, A; Mathot, S; Métral, E; Mitifiot, C; Mounet, N; de Morais Amaral, R; Nordt, A; Perret, R; Perrollaz, S; Rathjen, C; Redaelli, S; Robert-Demolaize, G; Roesler, S; Rossi, A; Salvant, B; Santana, M; Sexton, I; Sievers, P; Tardy, T; Timmins, M; Tsoulou, K; Veyrunes, E; Vincke, H; Vlachoudis, V; Vuillemin, V; Weiler, T; Zimmermann, F; Baishev, I; Kurochkin, I; Kaltchev, D; Caspers, F; Kadi, Y

    2010-01-01

    The LHC has two dedicated cleaning insertions: IR3 for momentum cleaning and IR7 for betatron cleaning. The collimation system has been specified and built with tight mechanical tolerances (e.g. jaw flatness ~ 40 μm ) and is designed to achieve a high accuracy and reproducibility of the jaw positions (~ 20 μm). The practically achievable cleaning efficiency of the present Phase-I system depends on the precision of the jaw centering around the beam, the accuracy of the gap size and the jaw parallelism against the beam. The reproducibility and stability of the collimation system is important to avoid the frequent repetition of beam based alignment which is currently a lengthy procedure. Within this paper we describe the method used for the beam based alignment of the LHC collimation system, its achieved accuracy and stability and its performance at 450GeV.

  5. Ultrasonic cleaning of root canals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaagen, Bram; Boutsioukis, Christos; Jiang, Lei-Meng; Macedo, Ricardo; van der Sluis, Luc; Versluis, Michel

    2011-11-01

    A crucial step during a dental root canal treatment is irrigation, where an antimicrobial fluid is injected into the root canal system to eradicate all bacteria. Agitation of the fluid using an ultrasonically vibrating miniature file has shown significant improvement in cleaning efficacy over conventional syringe irrigation. However, the physical mechanisms underlying the cleaning process, being acoustic streaming, cavitation or chemical activity, and combinations thereof, are not fully understood. High-speed imaging allows us to visualize the flow pattern and cavitation in a root canal model at microscopic scales, at timescales relevant to the cleaning processes (microseconds). MicroPIV measurements of the induced acoustic streaming are coupled to the oscillation characteristics of the file as simulated numerically and measured with a laser vibrometer. The results give new insight into the role of acoustic streaming and the importance of the confinement for the cleaning of root canals.

  6. Hansen Cleaning Solvent Research Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Environmental regulation will force current baseline  precision cleaning solvent (AK-225) to be phased out starting 2015. We plan to develop  a new...

  7. Optimizing process and equipment efficiency using integrated methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Elia, Michael J.; Alfonso, Ted F.

    1996-09-01

    The semiconductor manufacturing industry is continually riding the edge of technology as it tries to push toward higher design limits. Mature fabs must cut operating costs while increasing productivity to remain profitable and cannot justify large capital expenditures to improve productivity. Thus, they must push current tool production capabilities to cut manufacturing costs and remain viable. Working to continuously improve mature production methods requires innovation. Furthermore, testing and successful implementation of these ideas into modern production environments require both supporting technical data and commitment from those working with the process daily. At AMD, natural work groups (NWGs) composed of operators, technicians, engineers, and supervisors collaborate to foster innovative thinking and secure commitment. Recently, an AMD NWG improved equipment cycle time on the Genus tungsten silicide (WSi) deposition system. The team used total productive manufacturing (TPM) to identify areas for process improvement. Improved in-line equipment monitoring was achieved by constructing a real time overall equipment effectiveness (OEE) calculator which tracked equipment down, idle, qualification, and production times. In-line monitoring results indicated that qualification time associated with slow Inspex turn-around time and machine downtime associated with manual cleans contributed greatly to reduced availability. Qualification time was reduced by 75% by implementing a new Inspex monitor pre-staging technique. Downtime associated with manual cleans was reduced by implementing an in-situ plasma etch back to extend the time between manual cleans. A designed experiment was used to optimize the process. Time between 18 hour manual cleans has been improved from every 250 to every 1500 cycles. Moreover defect density realized a 3X improvement. Overall, the team achieved a 35% increase in tool availability. This paper details the above strategies and accomplishments.

  8. Contributions to Optimize the Operation of a Thermoelectric Conversion Equipment

    OpenAIRE

    Ioan Mircea GORDAN; PURCARU Dorina Mioara; VANCEA Cristian

    2014-01-01

    Geothermal energy is an important renewable energy source, is accessible and clean. University of Oradea has important contributions in this area. Therefore we aimed to achieve a new method of converting geothermal energy into electricity. Studies have removed shortcomings in existing plants. As such a model was made functional, laboratory, fully automatic, low power, superior to existing technologies through: removal of harmful substances (e.g. CO2), increase equipment reliability and increa...

  9. Nuclear criticality safety evaluation of large cylinder cleaning operations in X-705, Portsmouth Gaseous diffusion Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report evaluates nuclear criticality safety for large cylinder cleaning operations in the Decontamination and Recovery Facility, X-705, at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. A general description of current cleaning procedures and required hardware/equipment is presented, and documentation for large cylinder cleaning operations is identified and described. Control parameters, design features, administrative controls, and safety systems relevant to nuclear criticality are discussed individually, followed by an overall assessment based on the Double Contingency Principle. Recommendations for enhanced safety are suggested, and issues for increased efficiency are presented

  10. The point of view of thermal equipment users; Le point de vue des gestionnaires d`equipements thermiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barroyer, P. [Compagnie Generale de Chauffe, 59 - Saint Andre Lez Lille (France)

    1997-12-31

    The influence of new pollution regulations in France on the operation of thermal equipment for central heating systems or industrial heat process systems, is examined. The main French regulations concerning air pollution control and energy rational consumption are reviewed, and their effects on the design, equipment, operation and costs of heat plants are discussed: impacts of the decree on upgrading and disposal of fossil fuel ashes, the decree on special protection zone (large cities), the clean air law, the compulsory declaration for classified combustion plants and limit air pollution emission levels

  11. 2012 Clean Energy: Project Summaries

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes the investments in clean energy made by the operations departments of the Asian Development Bank (ADB) in 2012, condensing information from project databases and formal reports in an easy-to-reference format. This report was prepared by ADB’s Clean Energy Program which provides the cohesive agenda that encompasses and guides ADB’s lending and non-lending assistance, initiatives, and plan of action for sustainable growth in Asia and the Pacific.

  12. Efficient methods of piping cleaning

    OpenAIRE

    Orlov Vladimir Aleksandrovich; Nechitaeva Valentina Anatol'evna; Bogomolova Irina Olegovna; Shaykhetdinova Yuliya Aleksandrovna; Daminova Yuliya Farikhovna

    2014-01-01

    The article contains the analysis of the efficient methods of piping cleaning of water supply and sanitation systems. Special attention is paid to the ice cleaning method, in course of which biological foil and various mineral and organic deposits are removed due to the ice crust buildup on the inner surface of water supply and drainage pipes. These impurities are responsible for the deterioration of the organoleptic properties of the transported drinking water or narrowing cross-section of d...

  13. Clean Energy Solutions Center (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reategui, S.

    2012-07-01

    The Clean Energy Ministerial launched the Clean Energy Solutions Center in April, 2011 for major economy countries, led by Australia and U.S. with other CEM partners. Partnership with UN-Energy is extending scope to support all developing countries: 1. Enhance resources on policies relating to energy access, small to medium enterprises (SMEs), and financing programs; 2. Offer expert policy assistance to all countries; 3. Expand peer to peer learning, training, and deployment and policy data for developing countries.

  14. Hyperbolic Divergence Cleaning for SPH

    OpenAIRE

    Tricco, Terrence S.; Price, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    We present SPH formulations of Dedner et al's hyperbolic/parabolic divergence cleaning scheme for magnetic and velocity fields. Our implementation preserves the conservation properties of SPH which is important for stability. This is achieved by deriving an energy term for the Psi field, and imposing energy conservation on the cleaning subsystem of equations. This necessitates use of conjugate operators for divB and gradPsi in the numerical equations. For both the magnetic and velocity fields...

  15. Europe's clean technology investment challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Veugelers, Reinhilde

    2011-01-01

    Development and deployment of clean-energy technologies is crucial if climate targets are to be met cost-effectively. The European Union already has a plan that deals with these issues: the Strategic Energy Technology Plan, which has become central to the achievement of the EU's ambitions. In a period of constrained public finances, if governments want to leverage the necessary private innovation for clean-energy technologies, they will have to provide well-designed time-consistent policies, ...

  16. Cleaning services in local authorities

    OpenAIRE

    Klungseth, Nora Johanne

    2015-01-01

    This thesis discusses cleaning services in local authorities and is a response to calls for new knowledge on public facility management (FM). The research was financed by the Norwegian Ministry of Local Government and Regional Development (KRD). The aim is to describe and explore cleaning in order to provide new knowledge which may contribute to developing and improving FM in local authorities. The research undertaken was based on a descriptive and exploratory mixed-method approach consisting...

  17. Final status report in preparation for the chemical cleaning of Dresden-1, DNS-D1-034

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses the status of all of the activities conducted in preparation for the chemical cleaning of the Dresden-1 Nuclear Power Plant of Commonwealth Edison of Illinois. The metallurgical testing of a solvent and its ability to remove radioactivity are reviewed. Included are all engineering details relating to the modifications to the primary system to be able to perform the chemical cleaning and to rinse the cleaning solvent out of the equipment. A facility to store and process spent cleaning solutions is described in detail. Construction activities and preoperational activities are recounted. Licensing activities, quality assurance, safety, and radiation protection are discussed. The report includes recommendations for future actions for restarting the project when approval is received. All of the efforts discussed in this Final Status Report led to the conclusion that the chemical cleaning, as planned, was feasible. All of the necessary modifications and new equipment are in place and are operational

  18. Equipment cost optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Considering the importance of the cost of material and equipment in the overall cost profile of an oil company, which in the case of Petrobras, represents approximately 23% of the total operational cost or 10% of the sales, an organization for the optimization of such costs has been established within Petrobras. Programs are developed aiming at: optimization of life-cycle cost of material and equipment; optimization of industrial processes costs through material development. This paper describes the methodology used in the management of the development programs and presents some examples of concluded and ongoing programs, which are conducted in permanent cooperation with suppliers, technical laboratories and research institutions and have been showing relevant results

  19. The Search for Nonflammable Solvent Alternatives for Cleaning Aerospace Oxygen Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Mark; Lowrey, Nikki

    2012-01-01

    Oxygen systems are susceptible to fires caused by particle and nonvolatile residue (NVR) contaminants, therefore cleaning and verification is essential for system safety. . Cleaning solvents used on oxygen system components must be either nonflammable in pure oxygen or complete removal must be assured for system safety. . CFC -113 was the solvent of choice before 1996 because it was effective, least toxic, compatible with most materials of construction, and non ]reactive with oxygen. When CFC -113 was phased out in 1996, HCFC -225 was selected as an interim replacement for cleaning propulsion oxygen systems at NASA. HCFC-225 production phase-out date is 01/01/2015. HCFC ]225 (AK ]225G) is used extensively at Marshall Space Flight Center and Stennis Space Center for cleaning and NVR verification on large propulsion oxygen systems, and propulsion test stands and ground support equipment. . Many components are too large for ultrasonic agitation - necessary for effective aqueous cleaning and NVR sampling. . Test stand equipment must be cleaned prior to installation of test hardware. Many items must be cleaned by wipe or flush in situ where complete removal of a flammable solvent cannot be assured. The search for a replacement solvent for these applications is ongoing.

  20. Stochastic Overall Equipment Effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Zammori, Francesco Aldo; Braglia, Marcello; Frosolini, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This paper focuses on the Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE), a key performance indicator typically adopted to support Lean Manufacturing and Total Productive Maintenance. Unfortunately, being a deterministic metric, the OEE only provides a static representation of a process, but fails to capture the real variability of manufacturing performances. To take into account the stochastic nature of the OEE, an approximated procedure based on the application of the Central Lim...

  1. Renewal of radiological equipment

    OpenAIRE

    ,

    2014-01-01

    In this century, medical imaging is at the heart of medical practice. Besides providing fast and accurate diagnosis, advances in radiology equipment offer new and previously non-existing options for treatment guidance with quite low morbidity, resulting in the improvement of health outcomes and quality of life for the patients. Although rapid technological development created new medical imaging modalities and methods, the same progress speed resulted in accelerated technical and functional o...

  2. Soviet equipment flies in

    CERN Multimedia

    1978-01-01

    End of February 1977 a Soviet Ilyushin-76 heavy freight aircraft landed at Cointrin airport having on board fifty large wire proprtional chambers and associated apparatus, together weighing 10 tons, supplied by the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, USSR. The equipment was for the CERN- Dubna-Munich-Saclay experiment NA4 on deep inelastic muon scattering being set up in the North Area of SPS. See Weekly Bulletin 11/78.

  3. Equipment Obsolescence Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) Operators are challenged with securing reliable supply channels for safety related equipment due to equipment obsolescence. Many Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) have terminated production of spare parts and product life-cycle support. The average component life cycles are much shorter than the NPP design life, which means that replacement components and parts for the original NPP systems are not available for the complete design life of the NPPs. The lack or scarcity of replacement parts adversely affects plant reliability and ultimately the profitability of the affected NPPs. This problem is further compounded when NPPs pursue license renewal and approval for plant-life extension. A reliable and predictable supply of replacement co components is necessary for NPPs to remain economically competitive and meet regulatory requirements and guidelines. Electrical and I and C components, in particular, have short product life cycles and obsolescence issues must be managed pro actively and not reactively in order to mitigate the risk to the NPP to ensure reliable and economic NPP operation. (Author)

  4. Personal protective equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Practical Radiation Technical Manual is one of a series that has been designed to provide guidance on radiological protection for employers, radiation protection officers, managers and other technically competent persons who have responsibility for ensuring the safety of employees working with ionizing radiation. The Manual may be used with the appropriate IAEA Practical Radiation Safety Manuals to provide training, instruction and information for all employees engaged in work with ionizing radiation. Personal protective equipment (PPE) includes clothing or other special equipment that is issued to individual workers to provide protection against actual or potential exposure to ionizing radiations. It is used to protect each worker against the prevailing risk of external or internal exposure in circumstances in which it is not reasonably practicable to provide complete protection by means of engineering controls or administrative methods. Adequate personal protection depends on PPE being correctly selected, fitted and maintained. Appropriate training for the users and arrangements to monitor usage are also necessary to ensure that PPE provides the intended degree of protection effectively. This Manual explains the principal types of PPE, including protective clothing and respiratory protective equipment (RPE). Examples of working procedures are also described to indicate how PPE should be used within a safe system of work. The Manual will be of most benefit if it forms part of a more comprehensive training programme or is supplemented by the advice of a qualified expert in radiation protection. Some of the RPE described in this Manual should be used under the guidance of a qualified expert

  5. Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freihaut, Jim

    2013-09-30

    The Mid Atlantic Clean Energy Application Center (MACEAC), managed by The Penn State College of Engineering, serves the six states in the Mid-Atlantic region (Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia and West Virginia) plus the District of Columbia. The goals of the Mid-Atlantic CEAC are to promote the adoption of Combined Heat and Power (CHP), Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) and District Energy Systems (DES) in the Mid Atlantic area through education and technical support to more than 1,200 regional industry and government representatives in the region. The successful promotion of these technologies by the MACEAC was accomplished through the following efforts; (1)The MACEAC developed a series of technology transfer networks with State energy and environmental offices, Association of Energy Engineers local chapters, local community development organizations, utilities and, Penn State Department of Architectural Engineering alumni and their firms to effectively educate local practitioners about the energy utilization, environmental and economic advantages of CHP, WHR and DES; (2) Completed assessments of the regional technical and market potential for CHP, WHR and DE technologies application in the context of state specific energy prices, state energy and efficiency portfolio development. The studies were completed for Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Maryland and included a set of incentive adoption probability models used as a to guide during implementation discussions with State energy policy makers; (3) Using the technical and market assessments and adoption incentive models, the Mid Atlantic CEAC developed regional strategic action plans for the promotion of CHP Application technology for Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Maryland; (4) The CHP market assessment and incentive adoption model information was discussed, on a continuing basis, with relevant state agencies, policy makers and Public Utility Commission organizations resulting in CHP favorable incentive

  6. Mechanisms of single bubble cleaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Fabian; Mettin, Robert

    2016-03-01

    The dynamics of collapsing bubbles close to a flat solid is investigated with respect to its potential for removal of surface attached particles. Individual bubbles are created by nanosecond Nd:YAG laser pulses focused into water close to glass plates contaminated with melamine resin micro-particles. The bubble dynamics is analysed by means of synchronous high-speed recordings. Due to the close solid boundary, the bubble collapses with the well-known liquid jet phenomenon. Subsequent microscopic inspection of the substrates reveals circular areas clean of particles after a single bubble generation and collapse event. The detailed bubble dynamics, as well as the cleaned area size, is characterised by the non-dimensional bubble stand-off γ=d/Rmax, with d: laser focus distance to the solid boundary, and Rmax: maximum bubble radius before collapse. We observe a maximum of clean area at γ≈0.7, a roughly linear decay of the cleaned circle radius for increasing γ, and no cleaning for γ>3.5. As the main mechanism for particle removal, rapid flows at the boundary are identified. Three different cleaning regimes are discussed in relation to γ: (I) For large stand-off, 1.8flows touch down onto the substrate and remove particles without significant contact of the gas phase. (II) For small distances, γflows at the substrate are driven by the jet impact with its subsequent radial spreading, and by the liquid following the motion of the collapsing and rebounding bubble wall. Both flows remove particles. Their relative timing, which depends sensitively on the exact γ, appears to determine the extension of the area with forces large enough to cause particle detachment. (III) At intermediate stand-off, 1.1cleaning mechanisms similar to an effective small γ collapse: particles are removed by the jet flow and the flow induced by the bubble wall oscillation. Furthermore, the observations reveal that the extent of direct bubble gas phase contact to the solid is partially

  7. A method and device for cleaning air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method and device for cleaning pollution from air wherin the air to be cleaned is subjected to a sequence of physical and chemical treatments.......The present invention relates to a method and device for cleaning pollution from air wherin the air to be cleaned is subjected to a sequence of physical and chemical treatments....

  8. Scientific Equipment Division - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Scientific Equipment Division consists of the Design Group and the Mechanical Workshop. The activity of the Division includes the following: - designing of devices and equipment for experiments in physics, their mechanical construction and assembly. In particular, there are vacuum chambers and installations for HV and UHV; - maintenance and upgrading of the existing installations and equipment in our Institute; - participation of our engineers and technicians in design works, equipment assembly and maintenance for experiments in foreign laboratories. The Design Group is equipped with PC-computers and AutoCAD graphic software (release 2000 and Mechanical Desktop 4.0) and a AO plotter, what allows us to make drawings and 2- and 3-dimensional mechanical documentation to the world standards. The Mechanical Workshop can offer a wide range of machining and treatment methods with satisfactory tolerances and surface quality. It offers the following possibilities: - turning - cylindrical elements of a length up to 2000 mm and a diameter up to 400 mm, and also disc-type elements of a diameter up to 600 mm and a length not exceeding 300 mm; - milling - elements of length up to 1000 mm and gear wheels of diameter up to 300 mm; - grinding - flat surfaces of dimensions up to 300 mm x 1000 mm and cylindrical elements of a diameter up to 200 mm and a length up to 800 mm; - drilling - holes of a diameter up to 50 mm; - welding - electrical and gas welding, including TIG vacuum-tight welding; - soft and hard soldering; - mechanical works including precision engineering; - plastics treatment - machining and polishing using diamond milling, modelling, lamination of various shapes and materials, including plexiglas, scintillators and light-guides; - painting - paint spraying with possibility of using furnace-fred drier of internal dimensions of 800 mm x 800 mm x 800 mm. Our workshop posses CNC milling machine which can be used for machining of work-pieces up to 500 kg

  9. Guideline implementation: surgical instrument cleaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowperthwaite, Liz; Holm, Rebecca L

    2015-05-01

    Cleaning, decontaminating, and handling instructions for instruments vary widely based on the type of instrument and the manufacturer. Processing instruments in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions can help prevent damage and keep devices in good working order. Most importantly, proper cleaning and disinfection may prevent transmission of pathogenic organisms from a contaminated device to a patient or health care worker. The updated AORN "Guideline for cleaning and care of surgical instruments" provides guidance on cleaning, decontaminating, transporting, inspecting, and storing instruments. This article focuses on key points of the guideline to help perioperative personnel implement appropriate instrument care protocols in their practice settings. The key points address timely cleaning and decontamination of instruments after use; appropriate heating, ventilation, and air conditioning parameters for the decontamination area; processing of ophthalmic instruments and laryngoscopes; and precautions to take with instruments used in cases of suspected prion disease. Perioperative RNs should review the complete guideline for additional information and for guidance when writing and updating policies and procedures. PMID:25946180

  10. Senate passes clean air bill

    Science.gov (United States)

    In an 89 to 11 vote the Senate passed a clean air bill aimed at reducing pollution by the turn of the century by imposing tougher controls on American industry. The bill is the first revision of the Clean Air Act of 1970 in 13 years and calls for new limits on auto pollution to clean up smog in most U.S. cities, decreasing by half emissions by power plants that cause acid rain to protect the ecology, and increasing technological controls on factories to protect against cancer-causing and toxic substances. The bill will add about $20 billion per year to the estimated $33 billion cost of complying with current pollution laws.

  11. Clean Coal Diesel Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Wilson

    2006-10-31

    A Clean Coal Diesel project was undertaken to demonstrate a new Clean Coal Technology that offers technical, economic and environmental advantages over conventional power generating methods. This innovative technology (developed to the prototype stage in an earlier DOE project completed in 1992) enables utilization of pre-processed clean coal fuel in large-bore, medium-speed, diesel engines. The diesel engines are conventional modern engines in many respects, except they are specially fitted with hardened parts to be compatible with the traces of abrasive ash in the coal-slurry fuel. Industrial and Municipal power generating applications in the 10 to 100 megawatt size range are the target applications. There are hundreds of such reciprocating engine power-plants operating throughout the world today on natural gas and/or heavy fuel oil.

  12. The Mini-CLEAN experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because liquid neon is easily purified, has no intrinsic radioactivity, and scintillates brightly in response to ionizing radiation, it is a promising material for the detection of rare low-energy events. The Mini-CLEAN experiment will contain an active mass of approximately 100 kg of liquid neon viewed by 32 photomultiplier tubes and will serve as a prototype for the 10-100 ton CLEAN detector. Mini-CLEAN will be used to test the practicality of liquid neon as a scintillation material for neutrino detection. Additionally, the liquid neon can be replaced with liquid argon to provide improved sensitivity to dark matter in the form of weakly interacting massive particles. The ability to exchange the two cryogens, with different sensitivities to dark matter and fast neutrons, will allow the two event types to be accurately characterized. Radioactive backgrounds from gamma rays and 39Ar beta-decay will be rejected through pulse-shape discrimination

  13. Laser cleaning of tungsten ribbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Aniruddha, E-mail: nontee65@rediffmail.com [Advanced Fuel Fabrication Facility, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Tarapur, Maharashtra, 401504 (India); Sonar, V.R.; Das, D.K.; Bhatt, R.B.; Behere, P.G.; Afzal, Mohd.; Kumar, Arun [Advanced Fuel Fabrication Facility, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Tarapur, Maharashtra, 401504 (India); Nilaya, J.P.; Biswas, D.J. [Laser and Plasma Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, 400085 (India)

    2014-07-01

    Removal of a thin oxide layer from a tungsten ribbon was achieved using the fundamental, second and third harmonic radiation from a Q- switched Nd-YAG laser. It was found that beyond the threshold, oxide removal was achieved at all wavelengths for a wide range of fluence values. The removal mechanism of the oxide layer was found to be critically dependent on both wavelength and fluence of the incident radiation and has been identified as ejection or sublimation. The un-cleaned and cleaned surfaces were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Laser cleaned tungsten ribbons were used in a thermal ionization mass spectrometer (TIMS) to determine isotopic composition of Neodymium atoms.

  14. Hyperbolic Divergence Cleaning for SPH

    CERN Document Server

    Tricco, Terrence S

    2012-01-01

    We present SPH formulations of Dedner et al's hyperbolic/parabolic divergence cleaning scheme for magnetic and velocity fields. Our implementation preserves the conservation properties of SPH which is important for stability. This is achieved by deriving an energy term for the Psi field, and imposing energy conservation on the cleaning subsystem of equations. This necessitates use of conjugate operators for divB and gradPsi in the numerical equations. For both the magnetic and velocity fields, the average divergence error in the system is reduced by an order of magnitude with our cleaning algorithm. Divergence errors in SPMHD are maintained to < 1%, even for realistic 3D applications with a corresponding gain in numerical stability. Density errors for an oscillating elliptic water drop using weakly compressible SPH are reduced by a factor of two.

  15. Clean-room robot implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A robot has been incorporated in a clean room operation in which vacuum tube parts are cleaned just prior to final assembly with a 60 lb/in2 blast of argon gas. The robot is programmed to pick up the parts, manipulate/rotate them as necessary in the jet pattern and deposit them in a tray precleaned by the robot. A carefully studied implementation plan was followed in the procurement, installation, modification and programming of the robot facility. An unusual configuration of one tube part required a unique gripper design. A study indicated that the tube parts processed by the robot are 12% cleaner than those manually cleaned by an experienced operator

  16. Laser cleaning of tungsten ribbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Removal of a thin oxide layer from a tungsten ribbon was achieved using the fundamental, second and third harmonic radiation from a Q- switched Nd-YAG laser. It was found that beyond the threshold, oxide removal was achieved at all wavelengths for a wide range of fluence values. The removal mechanism of the oxide layer was found to be critically dependent on both wavelength and fluence of the incident radiation and has been identified as ejection or sublimation. The un-cleaned and cleaned surfaces were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Laser cleaned tungsten ribbons were used in a thermal ionization mass spectrometer (TIMS) to determine isotopic composition of Neodymium atoms.

  17. Aviation safely management, Valdez oil spill clean-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The March 24, 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill in Alaska's Prince William Sound (PWS) resulted in an unprecedented mobilization of personnel and oil spill clean-up equipment. This paper describes the comprehensive safety management system implemented for aviation operations supporting the clean-up response in PWS and the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). Aviation support operations quickly expanded to over 100 aircraft obtained from numerous sources. Beginning with early surveillance flights, aviation operations were subject to comprehensive safety management programs, including safety assessments, minimum flight weather criteria, operational standards and procedures, air carrier qualifications, equipment and procedure audits, and emergency response. Communication networks and flight following procedures were established, arctic survival training was conducted, and a full complement of survival equipment was required. These programs were largely responsible for safety performance of the spill response effort-during the 1989-92 response activities, over 56,000 flight hours, 159,000 equivalent passengers, and 20,000 tons of cargo were handled without an aviation related injury. The programs are applicable to offshore development and operational activities, particularly those located in more remote, severe environments

  18. Carbon dioxide cleaning pilot project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1989, radioactive-contaminated metal at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) was cleaned using a solvent paint stripper (Methylene chloride). One-third of the radioactive material was able to be recycled; two-thirds went to the scrap pile as low-level mixed waste. In addition, waste solvent solutions also required disposal. Not only was this an inefficient process, it was later prohibited by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), 40 CFR 268. A better way of doing business was needed. In the search for a solution to this situation, it was decided to study the advantages of using a new technology - pelletized carbon dioxide cleaning. A proof of principle demonstration occurred in December 1990 to test whether such a system could clean radioactive-contaminated metal. The proof of principle demonstration was expanded in June 1992 with a pilot project. The purpose of the pilot project was three fold: (1) to clean metal so that it can satisfy free release criteria for residual radioactive contamination at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP); (2) to compare two different carbon dioxide cleaning systems; and (3) to determine the cost-effectiveness of decontamination process in a production situation and compare the cost of shipping the metal off site for waste disposal. The pilot project was completed in August 1993. The results of the pilot project were: (1) 90% of those items which were decontaminated, successfully met the free release criteria , (2) the Alpheus Model 250 was selected to be used on plantsite and (3) the break even cost of decontaminating the metal vs shipping the contaminated material offsite for disposal was a cleaning rate of 90 pounds per hour, which was easily achieved

  19. Survey of industrial coal conversion equipment capabilities: rotating components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, W. R.; Horton, J. R.; Boudreau, W. F.; Siman-Tov, M.

    1978-04-01

    At the request of the Major Facilities Project Management Division of the Energy Research and Development Administration, Fossil Energy Division, a study was undertaken to determine the capabilities of U.S. industry to supply the rotating equipment needed for future coal conversion facilities. Furthermore, problem areas were to be identified and research and development needs determined for producing advanced designs of the required equipment: Pumps, compressors, hydraulic turbines, and gas expanders. It has been concluded that equipment for essentially all clean-stream applications likely to be encountered in coal conversion facilities is generally available except high-pressure oxygen compressors. These oxygen compressors as well as slurry pumps need to be developed or significantly upgraded. Also, fans and blower for dirty-gas streams need developmental work, as do expanders for high-temperature service. Hydraulic turbines, which were not specified but which might be used for slurry applications in future coal conversion plants, are not available.

  20. High level radioactive waste vitrification process equipment component testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remote operability and maintainability of vitrification equipment were assessed under shielded-cell conditions. The equipment tested will be applied to immobilize high-level and transuranic liquid waste slurries that resulted from plutonium production for defense weapons. Equipment tested included: a turntable for handling waste canisters under the melter; a removable discharge cone in the melter overflow section; a thermocouple jumper that extends into a shielded cell; remote instrument and electrical connectors; remote, mechanical, and heat transfer aspects of the melter glass overflow section; a reamer to clean out plugged nozzles in the melter top; a closed circuit camera to view the melter interior; and a device to retrieve samples of the glass product. A test was also conducted to evaluate liquid metals for use in a liquid metal sealing system

  1. Technological improvements in the equipment for manufacturing of heavy water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most important improvements in this direction are: isotope separation technology of heavy water on a hot-cold stage with column of equilibration; anticorrosion protection technology against the action of hydrogen sulfide through sulphide coating of the internal surfaces of installations; chemical cleaning technology of the H2 O-H2 S isotope exchange equipment; maintenance technology with gaseous medium of nitrogen and hydrogen sulfide of the corrosion-sensitive equipment; monitoring and leak testing system of the H2 O-H2 S isotope exchange equipment. These developments were applied in the operation of GS Rm. Valcea pilot plant and transferred to ROMAG Drobeta, the Romanian heavy water production plant

  2. Establishment of a clean chemistry laboratory at JAERI. Clean laboratory for environmental analysis and research (CLEAR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The JAERI has established a facility with a cleanroom: the Clean Laboratory for Environmental Analysis and Research (CLEAR). This report is an overview of the design, construction and performance evaluation of the CLEAR in the initial stage of the laboratory operation in June 2001. The CLEAR is a facility to be used for analyses of ultra trace amounts of nuclear materials in environmental samples for the safeguards, for the CTBT verification and for researches on environmental sciences. One of the special features of the CLEAR is that it meets double requirements of a cleanroom and for handling of nuclear materials. As another feature of the CLEAR, much attention was paid to the construction materials of the cleanroom for trace analysis of metal elements using considerable amounts of corrosive acids. The air conditioning and purification system, specially designed experimental equipment to provide clean work surfaces, utilities and safety systems are also demonstrated. The potential contamination from the completed cleanroom atmosphere during the analytical procedure was evaluated. It can be concluded that the CLEAR has provided a suitable condition for reliable analysis of ultra trace amounts of nuclear materials and other heavy elements in environmental samples. (author)

  3. Establishment of a clean chemistry laboratory at JAERI. Clean laboratory for environmental analysis and research (CLEAR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanzawa, Yukiko; Magara, Masaaki; Watanabe, Kazuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment] [and others

    2003-02-01

    The JAERI has established a facility with a cleanroom: the Clean Laboratory for Environmental Analysis and Research (CLEAR). This report is an overview of the design, construction and performance evaluation of the CLEAR in the initial stage of the laboratory operation in June 2001. The CLEAR is a facility to be used for analyses of ultra trace amounts of nuclear materials in environmental samples for the safeguards, for the CTBT verification and for researches on environmental sciences. One of the special features of the CLEAR is that it meets double requirements of a cleanroom and for handling of nuclear materials. As another feature of the CLEAR, much attention was paid to the construction materials of the cleanroom for trace analysis of metal elements using considerable amounts of corrosive acids. The air conditioning and purification system, specially designed experimental equipment to provide clean work surfaces, utilities and safety systems are also demonstrated. The potential contamination from the completed cleanroom atmosphere during the analytical procedure was evaluated. It can be concluded that the CLEAR has provided a suitable condition for reliable analysis of ultra trace amounts of nuclear materials and other heavy elements in environmental samples. (author)

  4. Nuclear power industry needs to know: How clean is clean?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Management and Resources Council (NUMARC) provides a unified nuclear power industry approach on generic nuclear regulatory and technical issues and interacts with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) or other government agencies, as appropriate, on those issues. NUMARC's membership includes every U.S. utility that has a license to build or operate a commercial nuclear plant. The reactor vendors and major architect/engineering firms are also of NUMARC. The NRC has made determined efforts over the past several years to establish a coherent risk-based policy to govern decisions on applications of radioactivity of such low levels that they do not warrant the same regulatory controls as do higher levels of radioactivity. All agencies responsible for environmental quality have struggled with the question 'How clean is clean?' The NRC is preparing to conduct a participative rule-making process on one aspect of this question, residual contamination criteria. This is an area for which the nuclear power industry needs to know 'how clean is clean.' NUMARC fully supports the NRC's efforts to establish technically correct residual contamination criteria that have public acceptance and plans to actively participate on behalf of the nuclear power industry

  5. Remanufacturing strategy for chemical equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xian-cheng; XU Bin-shi; WANG Hai-dou; JIANG Yi; WU Yi-xiong; GONG Jian-ming; TU Shan-dong

    2005-01-01

    Failure, especially induced by cracks, usually occurred in the service process of chemical equipment, which could cause the medium leakage, fire hazard and explosion and induced the personnel casualty and economic losses. To assure the long-term and safety service, it is necessary to apply the remanufacturing technology on the chemical equipment containing cracks. The recent research advances on the remanufacturing, the failure modes and the life extension technology for chemical equipment were reviewed. The engineering strategy of the remanufacturing for the chemical equipment was proposed, which could provide a reasonable and reliable technical route for the remanufacturing operation of chemical equipment. In the strategy, the redesign was also been considered.

  6. Characterization equipment essential drawing plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this document is to list the Characterization equipment drawings that are classified as Essential Drawings. Essential Drawings: Are those drawings identified by the facility staff as necessary to directly support the safe operation of the facility or equipment (HNF 1997a). The Characterization equipment drawings identified in this report are deemed essential drawings as defined in HNF-PRO-242, Engineering Drawing Requirements (HNF 1997a). These drawings will be prepared, revised, and maintained per HNF-PRO-440, Engineering Document Change Control (HNF 1997b). All other Characterization equipment drawings not identified in this document will be considered Support drawings until the Characterization Equipment Drawing Evaluation Report is completed

  7. Contact cleaning of polymer film solar reflectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansom, Christopher; Fernández-García, Aránzazu; Sutter, Florian; Almond, Heather; King, Peter

    2016-05-01

    This paper describes the accelerated ageing of polymer film reflecting surfaces under the conditions to be found during contact cleaning of Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) collectors in the presence of dust and sand particles. In these situations, contact cleaning using brushes and water is required to clean the reflecting surfaces. Whilst suitable for glass reflectors, this paper discusses the effects of existing cleaning processes on the optical and visual properties of polymer film surfaces, and then describes the development of a more benign but effective contact cleaning process for cleaning polymer reflectors. The effects of a range of cleaning brushes are discussed, with and without the presence of water, in the presence of sand and dust particles from selected representative locations. Reflectance measurements and visual inspection shows that a soft cleaning brush with a small amount of water can clean polymer film reflecting surfaces without inflicting surface damage or reducing specular reflectance.

  8. Off-gas and air cleaning systems for accident conditions in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report surveys the design principles and strategies for mitigating the consequences of abnormal events in nuclear power plants by the use of air cleaning systems. Equipment intended for use in design basis accident and severe accident conditions is reviewed, with reference to designs used in IAEA Member States. 93 refs, 48 figs, 23 tabs

  9. Development of service equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sant Singh

    1952-07-01

    Full Text Available Wars have been fought throughout the ages; at no period, however. In history has there been such phenomenal progress in the development of new equipment as during the present half century needless to add, on account of the unprecedented pace of scientific and technological advancement; for instance, until the beginning of the present century, the mobility and fire-power of the defence forces were very limited and they had no mechanization. tanks, mortars, shaped charges, atomic and guided missiles,  chemical, microbiological and psychological warfare, wireless communications, electronic devices, radar, magnetic, acoustic and oyster mines, to mention only a few  and above all they lacked our colleagues of the third Service, namely, the Air Force.

  10. 移动式铁路油罐车液力清洗装置%Mobile Hydraulic Cleaning System of the Rail Tank Car

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓松圣; 周明来; 王小强; 杜渐; 焦光伟; 土明林; 陈有亮

    2000-01-01

    This paper illustrates a new mobile cleaning equipment for the rail tank car, as well as its structure characteristic and cleaning process.%阐述新型移动式铁路油罐车清洗装置的结构特点及清洗工艺流程。

  11. Chapter 12. Space Heating Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, Kevin D.

    1998-01-01

    The performance evaluation of space heating equipment for a geothermal application is generally considered from either of two perspectives: (a) selecting equipment for installation in new construction, or (b) evaluating the performance and retrofit requirements of an existing system. With regard to new construction, the procedure is relatively straightforward. Once the heating requirements are determined, the process need only involve the selection of appropriately sized hot water heating equipment based on the available water temperature. It is important to remember that space heating equipment for geothermal applications is the same equipment used in non-geothermal applications. What makes geothermal applications unique is that the equipment is generally applied at temperatures and flow rates that depart significantly from traditional heating system design. This chapter presents general considerations for the performance of heating equipment at non-standard temperature and flow conditions, retrofit of existing systems, and aspects of domestic hot water heating.

  12. Implanter Source Life and Stability Improvement Using In-Situ Chemical Cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current 300 mm fabs rely heavily on automation to provide manufacturing efficiency. While implant processes and equipment follow this trend, tool availability and maintenance cycles are often driven by the ion source and adjacent areas which suffer from premature failures due to unwanted material deposits. While working in a high volume production environment, side by side comparative data has been collected on two tools running similar processes, with one tool having integrated in-situ cleaning cycles and the other with no in-situ cleaning. This paper will discuss significant improvements achieved in beam stability, glitch rate, ion source lifetime and maintenance cycles which were achieved on the tool with integrated in-situ cleaning. A program was established at Texas Instruments' DMOS6 wafer fab in early 2007 to explore and document process and equipment performance. Other critical areas, such as particle and metals contamination will be discussed with inferences as to potential yield improvements.

  13. On some constructions of nil-clean, clean, and exchange rings

    OpenAIRE

    Stancu, Alin

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we discuss several constructions that lead to new examples of nil-clean, clean, and exchange rings. A characterization of the idempotents in the algebra defined by a 2-cocycle is given and used to prove some of the algebra's properties (the infinitesimal deformation case). From infinitesimal deformations we go to full deformations and prove that any formal deformation of a clean (exchange) ring is itself clean (exchange). Examples of nil-clean, clean, and exchange rings arising ...

  14. Evaluation of different cleaning agents used for cleaning ultra tiltration membranes fouled by surface water

    OpenAIRE

    Zondervan, Edwin; Roffel, Brian

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews the published literature on potential membrane fouling components, available cleaning agents and possible interactions between cleaning agents and fouling components. It also lists the cleaning models available in the literature, and evaluates the advantages and disadvantages of these models. Based on this outcome, a new cleaning model is proposed to capture cleaning dynamics for 10 different cleaning agents, varying from acidic, alkali and oxidizing to sequestering agents ...

  15. Teaming up for Clean Energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    On October 22, the China Institute of Strategy and Management and the U.S. Brookings Institution jointly held the China-U.S. Strategic Forum on Clean Energy Cooperation. At the opening session of the forum, Zheng Bijian, Chairman of the China Institute of Strategy and Management, gave a keynote speech. Edited excerpts follow:

  16. Wanted: Clean Coal Burning Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    China is intent on developing clean coal burning technology, an objective it can achieve through installing desulfurization facilities at coal-burning power plants that will control SO2 emissions and environmental pollution. According to kuo Yi, deputy director general of the Department of Science and Technology of the State Environmental Protection Agency, China is a major coal-buming country:

  17. Cleaning Validation of Fermentation Tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salo, Satu; Friis, Alan; Wirtanen, Gun

    2008-01-01

    Reliable test methods for checking cleanliness are needed to evaluate and validate the cleaning process of fermentation tanks. Pilot scale tanks were used to test the applicability of various methods for this purpose. The methods found to be suitable for validation of the clenlinees were visula o...

  18. Green Solvents for Precision Cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandelli, Heather; Maloney, Phillip; DeVor, Robert; Surma, Jan; Hintze, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Aerospace machinery used in liquid oxygen (LOX) fuel systems must be precision cleaned to achieve a very low level of non-volatile residue (solvent-replacement is non-flammable, environmentally benign, non-corrosive, inexpensive, effective and evaporates completely, leaving no residue. Highlighted is a green precision cleaning process, which is contaminant removal using supercritical carbon dioxide as the environmentally benign solvent. In this process, the contaminant is dissolved in carbon dioxide, and the parts are recovered at the end of the cleaning process completely dry and ready for use. Typical contaminants of aerospace components include hydrocarbon greases, hydraulic fluids, silicone fluids and greases, fluorocarbon fluids and greases and fingerprint oil. Metallic aerospace components range from small nuts and bolts to much larger parts, such as butterfly valves 18 in diameter. A fluorinated grease, Krytox, is investigated as a model contaminant in these preliminary studies, and aluminum coupons are employed as a model aerospace component. Preliminary studies are presented in which the experimental parameters are optimized for removal of Krytox from aluminum coupons in a stirred-batch process. The experimental conditions investigated are temperature, pressure, exposure time and impeller speed. Temperatures of 308 - 423 K, pressures in the range of 8.3 - 41.4 MPa, exposure times between 5 - 60 min and impeller speeds of 0 - 1000 rpm were investigated. Preliminary results showed up to 86 cleaning efficiency with the moderate processing conditions of 323 K, 13.8 MPa, 30 min and 750 rpm.

  19. Clean coal initiatives in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, B.H.; Irwin, M.W.; Sparrow, F.T.; Mastalerz, Maria; Yu, Z.; Kramer, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - Indiana is listed among the top ten coal states in the USA and annually mines about 35 million short tons (million tons) of coal from the vast reserves of the US Midwest Illinois Coal Basin. The implementation and commercialization of clean coal technologies is important to the economy of the state and has a significant role in the state's energy plan for increasing the use of the state's natural resources. Coal is a substantial Indiana energy resource and also has stable and relatively low costs, compared with the increasing costs of other major fuels. This indigenous energy source enables the promotion of energy independence. The purpose of this paper is to outline the significance of clean coal projects for achieving this objective. Design/methodology/approach - The paper outlines the clean coal initiatives being taken in Indiana and the research carried out at the Indiana Center for Coal Technology Research. Findings - Clean coal power generation and coal for transportation fuels (coal-to-liquids - CTL) are two major topics being investigated in Indiana. Coking coal, data compilation of the bituminous coal qualities within the Indiana coal beds, reducing dependence on coal imports, and provision of an emissions free environment are important topics to state legislators. Originality/value - Lessons learnt from these projects will be of value to other states and countries.

  20. Partnership for a Clean Future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG HAIRONG

    2010-01-01

    @@ Having lived in China for almost three decades,Sabina Brady is a de facto China hand.Currently,she is the cxecutive director of the U.S.-China Energy Cooperation Program (ECP),a nonprofit organization that engages in market development and promotion of clean energy within the framework of China-U.S.bilateral government commitments on the environrnent and energy.

  1. Laser cleaning on Roman coins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakaki, E.; Karydas, A. G.; Klinkenberg, B.; Kokkoris, M.; Serafetinides, A. A.; Stavrou, E.; Vlastou, R.; Zarkadas, C.

    Ancient metal objects react with moisture and environmental chemicals to form various corrosion products. Because of the unique character and high value of such objects, any cleaning procedure should guarantee minimum destructiveness. The most common treatment used is mechanical stripping, in which it is difficult to avoid surface damage when employed. Lasers are currently being tested for a wide range of conservation applications. Since they are highly controllable and can be selectively applied, lasers can be used to achieve more effective and safer cleaning of archaeological artifacts and protect their surface details. The basic criterion that motivated us to use lasers to clean Roman coins was the requirement of pulsed emission, in order to minimize heat-induced damages. In fact, the laser interaction with the coins has to be short enough, to produce a fast removal of the encrustation, avoiding heat conduction into the substrate. The cleaning effects of three lasers operating at different wavelengths, namely a TEA CO2 laser emitting at 10.6 μm, an Er:YAG laser at 2.94 μm, and a 2ω-Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm have been compared on corroded Romans coins and various atomic and nuclear techniques have also been applied to evaluate the efficiency of the applied procedure.

  2. LDRD report: Smoke effects on electrical equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TANAKA,TINA J.; BAYNES JR.,EDWARD E.; NOWLEN,STEVEN P.; BROCKMANN,JOHN E.; GRITZO,LOUIS A.; SHADDIX,CHRISTOPHER R.

    2000-03-01

    Smoke is known to cause electrical equipment failure, but the likelihood of immediate failure during a fire is unknown. Traditional failure assessment techniques measure the density of ionic contaminants deposited on surfaces to determine the need for cleaning or replacement of electronic equipment exposed to smoke. Such techniques focus on long-term effects, such as corrosion, but do not address the immediate effects of the fire. This document reports the results of tests on the immediate effects of smoke on electronic equipment. Various circuits and components were exposed to smoke from different fields in a static smoke exposure chamber and were monitored throughout the exposure. Electrically, the loss of insulation resistance was the most important change caused by smoke. For direct current circuits, soot collected on high-voltage surfaces sometimes formed semi-conductive soot bridges that shorted the circuit. For high voltage alternating current circuits, the smoke also tended to increase the likelihood of arcing, but did not accumulate on the surfaces. Static random access memory chips failed for high levels of smoke, but hard disk drives did not. High humidity increased the conductive properties of the smoke. The conductivity does not increase linearly with smoke density as first proposed; however, it does increase with quantity. The data can be used to give a rough estimate of the amount of smoke that will cause failures in CMOS memory chips, dc and ac circuits. Comparisons of this data to other fire tests can be made through the optical and mass density measurements of the smoke.

  3. LDRD report: Smoke effects on electrical equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smoke is known to cause electrical equipment failure, but the likelihood of immediate failure during a fire is unknown. Traditional failure assessment techniques measure the density of ionic contaminants deposited on surfaces to determine the need for cleaning or replacement of electronic equipment exposed to smoke. Such techniques focus on long-term effects, such as corrosion, but do not address the immediate effects of the fire. This document reports the results of tests on the immediate effects of smoke on electronic equipment. Various circuits and components were exposed to smoke from different fields in a static smoke exposure chamber and were monitored throughout the exposure. Electrically, the loss of insulation resistance was the most important change caused by smoke. For direct current circuits, soot collected on high-voltage surfaces sometimes formed semi-conductive soot bridges that shorted the circuit. For high voltage alternating current circuits, the smoke also tended to increase the likelihood of arcing, but did not accumulate on the surfaces. Static random access memory chips failed for high levels of smoke, but hard disk drives did not. High humidity increased the conductive properties of the smoke. The conductivity does not increase linearly with smoke density as first proposed; however, it does increase with quantity. The data can be used to give a rough estimate of the amount of smoke that will cause failures in CMOS memory chips, dc and ac circuits. Comparisons of this data to other fire tests can be made through the optical and mass density measurements of the smoke

  4. Nuclear air cleaning R and D programs in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All CANDU reactor generating stations are equipped with various gas treatment systems. The off-gas management system, the reactor ventilation system (or containment exhaust system), and the heavy water vapor recovery system reduce gaseous radioactive emissions during normal station operation whereas the emergency filtered air discharge system is designed for post-accident containment clean-up. The paper discusses the following research programs studying gaseous radionuclides in Canadian facilities: carbon-14 research and development program; tritium research and development program; iodine research and development program; aerosol research program; noble gases research and development program

  5. Clean Energy Manufacturing: U.S. Competitiveness and State Policy Strategies (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, E.

    2014-02-01

    The capital intensive nature of clean energy technologies suggests that manufacturing clean energy equipment has the potential to support state and local economic development efforts. However, manufacturing siting decisions tend to be complex and multi-variable decision processes that require in-depth knowledge of specific markets, the logistical requirements of a given technology, and insight into global clean tech trends. This presentation highlights the potential of manufacturing in supporting economic development opportunities while also providing examples of the financial considerations affecting manufacturing facility siting decisions for wind turbine blades and solar PV. The presentation also includes discussion of other more qualitative drivers of facility siting decisions as gleaned from NREL industry interviews and discusses strategies state and local policymakers may employee to bolster their chances of successfully attracting clean energy manufacturers to their localities.

  6. 14 CFR 29.1431 - Electronic equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... equipment. (a) Radio communication and navigation equipment installations must be free from hazards in... environmental conditions. (b) Radio communication and navigation equipment, controls, and wiring must...

  7. Development of clean chemical mechanical polishing systems; Clean CMP system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsujimura, M.; Hosokawa, M. [Ebara Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-10-20

    Described herein are clean chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) systems developed by Ebara. A CMP system needs advanced peripheral techniques, in addition to those for grinding adopted by the conventional system, in order to fully exhibit its inherent functions. An integrated design concept is essential for the CMP steps, including slurry supplying, polishing, washing, process controlling and waste fluid treatment. The Ebara has adopted a standard concept `Clean CMP, dry-in and dry-out of wafers,` and provided world`s highest grades of techniques for inter-layer insulating film, shallow trench isolation, plug and wiring. The head for the polishing module is specially designed by FEM, to improve homogeneity of wafers from the center to edges. The dresser is also specially designed, to improve pad surface topolody after dressing. A slurry dipsersing method is developed to reduce slurry consumption. Various washing modules, designed to have the same external shape, can be allocated to various functions. 10 figs.

  8. Bio diesel- the Clean, Green Fuel for Diesel Engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural, renewable resources such as vegetable oils, animal fats and recycled restaurant greases can be chemically transformed into clean burning bio diesel fuels (1). Just like petroleum diesel, bio diesel operates in combustion-ignition engines. Blends of up to 20% bio diesel (mixed with petroleum diesel fuels) can be used in nearly all diesel equipment and are compatible with most storage and distribution equipment. Using bio diesel in a conventional diesel engine substantially reduces emissions of unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, sulphates, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and particulate matter. The use of bio diesel has grown dramatically during the last few years. Egypt has a promising experiment in promoting forestation by cultivation of Jatropha plant especially in luxor and many other sites of the country. The first production of the Egyptian Jatropha seeds oil is now under evaluation to produce a cost-competitive bio diesel fuel

  9. More efficient cleaning concepts for stepping up availability of lignite-fired power plants (Ligpower)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Wiechers; B. Wessel; S. Goudanis; F. Kluger; G. Riley [RWE Power AG, Koeln (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The quality of lignite extracted in various deposits differs considerably in part. The impact of changed major coal quality parameters on steam generator operation became evident in the form of increased deposit formation on the boiler's heating surfaces. Successful countermeasures were launched, but the bottleneck of the problem continues to be the cleaning of the first convection heating surfaces downstream of the furnace. As the cleaning facilities available so far (soot blowers) have not proved sufficient for these areas of application despite all optimisation efforts made, new processes have to be developed. In contrast to the methods applied so far, these processes do not use the common cleaning medium steam but work on the basis of alternative cleaning media. Within the scope of the Ligpower project, such alternative cleaning methods were selected and subjected to extensive testing on commercial utility boilers. Since a more intensive cleaning of superheater tubes involves increased stress of the tube material, we developed new, more resistant, superheater designs and installed these in a 600 MW unit. The transferability of the findings made was ensured by a comparison of the lignites used. To permit the cleaning device to be controlled as needed, we developed a programme that analyses the degree of fouling of the boiler and generates suggestions for its cleaning. In addition, a tube-fin superheater design was calculated and optimised in terms of fluid dynamics. The extensive tests showed which cleaning methods have suitable approaches to cleaning. By testing them over several years, we gained important information about equipment design. The superheater design could be tested only to a limited degree. Thus, we obtained additional findings in tests using a test heating surface that was mounted on a 300 MW boiler. 77 figs., 5 tabs., 3 apps.

  10. [Survey of methods of cleaning, decontamination, disinfection and sterilization in dental health services in tropical areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapeau, G; Decroix, B; Bakayoko-Ly, R; Varenne, B; Dosso-Hien, D; Decroix, M O

    1997-01-01

    The International Aid for Ontology (IAO) carried out this survey of hygiene in the dental health services of 5 French-speaking African countries in 1994, in association with the Faculty of Pharmaceutical and Biological Sciences of Paris. This study received support from the World Health Organization (WHO), the French Ministry for Cooperation and the European Community and the Ivory Coast Oral and Dental Hygiene and Health Committee (CIHSBD). Twenty-nine dental services from Benin (3), Burkina Faso (6), Ivory Coast (12), Mali (5), Niger (3) participated in this survey which gives an insight into the daily hygiene routines of these services. The cleaning, decontamination, disinfection and sterilization procedures for premises, dental equipment, instruments, hands and disposable items were investigated. No individual protocols are reported. Bench tops were cleaned or disinfected daily in 73% of centers and floors were cleaned or disinfected daily in 59% of centers. Walls were cleaned once per week in 44% of the centers. Hands were always washed between patients, with 68% of dental surgeons using only solid or liquid cleansing soaps and the others using antiseptic or disinfectant solutions. The dentist's chair was cleaned or disinfected daily in 68% of centers, mostly with soap (43%) or diluted bleach (23%). Vacuum equipment was cleaned with soap (50%) or diluted bleach (57%), with some surgeries using a combination of the two. Hand pieces and turbines were cleaned and disinfected after each use with alcohol (35%) or diluted bleach (26%) and were sterilized in 9% of centers. Instruments were sterilized with a Poupinel (63%), unspecified sterilizer (26%), autoclave (7%) or low temperature disinfection procedure (4%). Instruments were regularly sterilized in all centers. Single-use disposable items were often reused: 88% of centers reused gloves, 64% anesthetic cartridges and 32% disposable needles. This survey demonstrates that dentists do attempt to achieve appropriate

  11. Clean Cities Now Vol. 16.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-05-01

    Biannual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on advanced vehicle deployment, idle reduction, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

  12. Chemical cleaning specification: few tube test model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The specification is for the waterside chemical cleaning of the 2 1/4 Cr - 1 Mo steel steam generator tubes. It describes the reagents and conditions for post-chemical cleaning passivation of the evaporator tubes

  13. Clean Hands Save Lives: Emergency Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis Volcanoes Wildfires Winter Weather Clean Hands Save Lives: Emergency Situations DISASTER RECOVERY FACT ... water can be difficult. However, keeping your hands clean helps you avoid getting sick. It is best ...

  14. Clean Cities Program Contacts (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-03-01

    This fact sheet provides contact information for program staff of the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program, as well as contact information for the nearly 100 local Clean Cities coalitions across the country.

  15. Clean Cities Now Vol. 17, No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-05-24

    Biannual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on advanced vehicle deployment, idle reduction, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

  16. Ultrasonic aqueous cleaning as a replacement for chlorinated solvent cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant has been involved in the replacement of chlorinated solvents since 1982. One of the most successful replacement efforts has been the substitution of vapor degreasers or soak tanks using chlorinated solvents with ultrasonic cleaning using aqueous detergents. Recently, funding was obtained from the Department of Energy Office (DOE) of Technology Development to demonstrate this technology. A unit has been procured and installed in the vacuum pump shop area to replace the use of a solvent soak tank. Initially, the solvents used in the shop were CFC-113 and a commercial brand cleaner which contained both perchloroethylene and methylene chloride. While the ultrasonic unit was being procured, a terpene-based solvent was used. Generally, parts were soaked overnight in order to soften baked-on vanish. Many times, wire brushing was used to help remove remaining contamination. Initial testing with the ultrasonic cleaner indicated cleaning times of 20 min were as effective as the overnight solvent soaks in removing contamination. Wire brushing was also not required following the ultrasonic cleaning as was sometimes required with the solvent soak

  17. Review On Automatic-Cleaning Basket Strainer

    OpenAIRE

    Deepak Gothwal; Abhijit Dhumal; Anand Gang; Siddharth Gavali; Sandip Shinde

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Clean water is a basic need of every individual. Today in numerous cities of India large number of waste water is produced. Such waste water is polluting natural water bodies like rivers lakes etc. Hence waste water filtration amp waters final purification is need of hour. In conventional type of filters when strainer gets clogged we have to manually clean it which takes time amp filtration processes stops during cleaning process. While in Self-Cleaning Basket Strainer when strainer ...

  18. Tax Adjusted for Imported Equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Ministry of Finance, Central Administration of Customs, and State Administration of Taxation of P.R. of China jointly issued a "Notice on the Lists Related to the Interim Provisions on the Adjustment of Import Tax Policy on Major Technical Equipment" (the Notice) on April 13rd to adjust the list of equipment catalog and merchandise attached to the "Interim Provisions on the Import Tax Policy on Major Technical Equipment", as well as the preferential scope and extent of the import tax on a number of major technical equipment.

  19. Information technology equipment cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Mark D.

    2014-06-10

    According to one embodiment, a system for removing heat from a rack of information technology equipment may include a sidecar indoor air to liquid heat exchanger that cools warm air generated by the rack of information technology equipment. The system may also include a liquid to liquid heat exchanger and an outdoor heat exchanger. The system may further include configurable pathways to connect and control fluid flow through the sidecar heat exchanger, the liquid to liquid heat exchanger, the rack of information technology equipment, and the outdoor heat exchanger based upon ambient temperature and/or ambient humidity to remove heat from the rack of information technology equipment.

  20. Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center (CEMAC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center (CEMAC) provides objective analysis and up-to-date data on global supply chains and manufacturing of clean energy technologies. Policymakers and industry leaders seek CEMAC insights to inform choices to promote economic growth and the transition to a clean energy economy.

  1. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Portuguese Translation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    This is a Portuguese translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center Services fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  2. 7 CFR 51.2083 - Clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 51.2083 Section 51.2083 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Almonds in the Shell Definitions § 51.2083 Clean. Clean means that the shell...

  3. 7 CFR 51.2965 - Fairly clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fairly clean. 51.2965 Section 51.2965 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Walnuts in the Shell Definitions § 51.2965 Fairly clean. Fairly clean means...

  4. 7 CFR 29.2256 - Clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 29.2256 Section 29.2256 Agriculture Regulations... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2256 Clean. Tobacco is described as clean when it contains only a normal amount of sand or soil particles....

  5. 7 CFR 51.3061 - Clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 51.3061 Section 51.3061 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Florida Avocados Definitions § 51.3061 Clean. Clean means that the avocado is practically...

  6. 7 CFR 51.1275 - Clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 51.1275 Section 51.1275 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Summer and Fall Pears 1 Definitions § 51.1275 Clean. Clean means free from excessive...

  7. 7 CFR 51.1581 - Fairly clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fairly clean. 51.1581 Section 51.1581 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Consumer Standards for Potatoes Definitions § 51.1581 Fairly clean. Fairly clean means that from...

  8. 7 CFR 51.606 - Clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 51.606 Section 51.606 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Consumer Standards for Celery Stalks Definitions § 51.606 Clean. Clean means that the stalk is...

  9. 7 CFR 51.2654 - Clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 51.2654 Section 51.2654 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades for Sweet Cherries 1 Definitions § 51.2654 Clean. Clean means that the cherries...

  10. 7 CFR 29.1004 - Clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 29.1004 Section 29.1004 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1004 Clean. Tobacco is described as clean when it contains only a normal amount of...

  11. 7 CFR 51.1552 - Clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 51.1552 Section 51.1552 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Potatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1552 Clean. Clean means that at least 90 percent of...

  12. 7 CFR 51.2288 - Clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 51.2288 Section 51.2288 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Shelled English Walnuts (Juglans Regia) Definitions § 51.2288 Clean. Clean means that...

  13. 7 CFR 51.570 - Clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 51.570 Section 51.570 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.570 Clean. Clean means that the stalk is practically free from dirt...

  14. 7 CFR 51.1316 - Clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 51.1316 Section 51.1316 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Winter Pears 1 Definitions § 51.1316 Clean. Clean means free from excessive dirt, dust,...

  15. 7 CFR 29.3507 - Clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 29.3507 Section 29.3507 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3507 Clean. Tobacco is described as clean when it contains only a normal amount of...

  16. 7 CFR 51.1553 - Fairly clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fairly clean. 51.1553 Section 51.1553 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Potatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1553 Fairly clean. Fairly clean means that at least...

  17. 7 CFR 51.2118 - Clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 51.2118 Section 51.2118 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Shelled Almonds Definitions § 51.2118 Clean. Clean means that the kernel...

  18. 7 CFR 29.6007 - Clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 29.6007 Section 29.6007 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6007 Clean. Tobacco is described as clean when it contains only...

  19. 7 CFR 51.1867 - Clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 51.1867 Section 51.1867 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Fresh Tomatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1867 Clean. Clean means that the tomato is practically...

  20. 7 CFR 29.3009 - Clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 29.3009 Section 29.3009 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Clean. Tobacco is described as clean when it contains only a normal amount of sand or soil...

  1. Air cleaning using regenerative silica gel wheel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Lei

    2011-01-01

    This paper discussed the necessity of indoor air cleaning and the state of the art information on gas-phase air cleaning technology. The performance and problems of oxidation and sorption air cleaning technology were summarized and analysed based on the literature studies. Eventually, based on an...

  2. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-04-01

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center (Solutions Center) helps governments, advisors and analysts create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. The Solutions Center partners with international organizations to provide online training, expert assistance, and technical resources on clean energy policy.

  3. 48 CFR 36.512 - Cleaning up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cleaning up. 36.512... CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 36.512 Cleaning up. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 52.236-12, Cleaning Up, in solicitations and contracts when a...

  4. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Arabic Translation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    This is an Arabic translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  5. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (French Translation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    This is a French translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  6. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Vietnamese Translation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    This is a Vietnamese translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  7. Clean Cities Now, Vol. 18, No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-01-19

    This is version 18.2 of Clean Cities Now, the official biannual newsletter of the Clean Cities program. Clean Cities is an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

  8. 49 CFR 174.615 - Cleaning cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cleaning cars. 174.615 Section 174.615... Requirements for Division 6.1 (Poisonous) Materials § 174.615 Cleaning cars. (a) (b) After Division 6.1 (poisonous) materials are unloaded from a rail car, that car must be thoroughly cleaned unless the car...

  9. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Chinese Translation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    This is a Mandarin translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  10. Quantitative determination of residual active pharmaceutical ingredients and intermediates on equipment surfaces by ion mobility spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, C; Granger, A; Papov, V; McCaffrey, J; Norwood, D L

    2010-01-01

    Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) is an analytical technique that separates ions based on their gas phase mobility at atmospheric pressure. Since gas phase ion mobility is a function of the shape and structure of the ion, this technique has the potential to provide unique specificity and selectivity. Furthermore, IMS is very sensitive (subnanogram detection limits for many small molecules), and a single analysis is typically completed within 1 min. In principle, these features of IMS should make it an ideal choice for use in cleaning verification analysis of pharmaceutical manufacturing equipment. This report describes the successful development and validation of three different equipment cleaning verification methods using IMS. The methods were developed for a specific intermediate (Compound A) in the synthetic route for a drug substance as well as for final drug substances (active pharmaceutical ingredients Compounds B and C). The cleaning verification methods were validated with respect to specificity, linearity, precision, accuracy, stability, and limit-of-quantitation. In all cases, the limits-of-quantitation were determined to be at the nanogram or sub-nanogram level. Both swab and rinse samples collected from the equipment surfaces were successfully analyzed and manufacturing equipment down-time was significantly minimized due to the reduction in cleaning verification analysis time (for example, the total analysis time for more than 30 samples using IMS was reduced to less than 2h). PMID:19758781

  11. Air cleaning in accident situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) through its subsidiaries the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and the Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) established in 1979 a Group of Experts or Air Cleaning in Accident Situations. This group met seven times to establish a draft report based on its Terms of Reference which were to: 1) review the performance of off-gas cleaning systems in accident conditions; 2) collect information about operating experience with these systems; 3) seek to establish common principles for the design of off-gas systems; 4) review methods used in the different countries for testing filters from the standpoint of accident conditions; and 5) suggest specific mechanisms for improving cooperation, with regard, for example, to filter testing. The conclusions and recommendations of the Group are summarized

  12. Cleaning Massive Sonar Point Clouds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arge, Lars Allan; Larsen, Kasper Green; Mølhave, Thomas;

    2010-01-01

    We consider the problem of automatically cleaning massive sonar data point clouds, that is, the problem of automatically removing noisy points that for example appear as a result of scans of (shoals of) fish, multiple reflections, scanner self-reflections, refraction in gas bubbles, and so on. We...... describe a new algorithm that avoids the problems of previous local-neighbourhood based algorithms. Our algorithm is theoretically I/O-efficient, that is, it is capable of efficiently processing massive sonar point clouds that do not fit in internal memory but must reside on disk. The algorithm is also...... relatively simple and thus practically efficient, partly due to the development of a new simple algorithm for computing the connected components of a graph embedded in the plane. A version of our cleaning algorithm has already been incorporated in a commercial product....

  13. Battery Technology Stores Clean Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Headquartered in Fremont, California, Deeya Energy Inc. is now bringing its flow batteries to commercial customers around the world after working with former Marshall Space Flight Center scientist, Lawrence Thaller. Deeya's liquid-cell batteries have higher power capability than Thaller's original design, are less expensive than lead-acid batteries, are a clean energy alternative, and are 10 to 20 times less expensive than nickel-metal hydride batteries, lithium-ion batteries, and fuel cell options.

  14. Clean Air Act. Revision 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-15

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Clean Air Act, as amended, and those regulations that implement the statute and appear to be most relevant to DOE activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. This Reference Book has been completely revised and is current through February 15, 1994.

  15. Clean Evidence on Peer Pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Falk, Armin; Ichino, Andrea

    2003-01-01

    While confounding factors typically jeopardize the possibility of using observational data to measure peer effects, field experiments over the potential for obtaining clean evidence. In this paper we measure the output of subjects who were asked to stuff letters into envelopes, with a remuneration completely independent of output. We study two treatments. In the 'pair' treatment two subjects work at the same time in the same room. Peer effects are possible in this situation and imply that out...

  16. Large-component handling equipment and its use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) reactor systems have special requirements for component replacements during maintenance servicing. Replacement operations must address handling of equipment within shielded metal containers while maintaining an inert atmosphere to prevent reaction of sodium with air. Plant identification of a failed component results in selecting and assembling the maintenance cask and equipment transport system for transfer from the storage facility to the Reactor Containment Building (RCB). This includes a proper diameter and length cask, inert atmosphere control consoles, component lift fixture and support structure for interface with the facility area surrounding the component. This equipment is staged in modular groups in the Reactor Service Building for transfer through the equipment airlock to the containment interior. The failed component is generally prepared for replacement by installation of the special lifting fixture attachment. Assembly of the cask support structure is performed over the component position on the containment building operating floor. The cask and shroud from the reactor interface are inerted after all manual service connections and handling attachments are completed. The component is lifted from the reactor and into the cask interior through a floor valve which is then closed to isolate the component reactor port. The cask with sodium wetted component is transferred to a service/repair location, either within containment or outside, to the Maintenance Facility cleaning and repair area. The complete equipment and handling operations for replacement of a large reactor component are described

  17. Development of remote automatic equipment for BWR power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of remote control, automatic equipment for nuclear power stations has been promoted to raise the rate of operation of plants by shortening regular inspection period, to improve the safety and reliability of inspection and maintenance works by mechanization, to reduce the radiation exposure dose of workers and to reduce the manpower required for works. The taking-off of control rod drives from reactors and fixing again have been mechanized, but the disassembling, cleaning, inspection and assembling of control rod drives are manually carried out. Therefore, Hitachi Ltd. has exerted effort to develop the automatic equipment for this purpose. The target of development, investigation, the construction and function of the equipment, the performance and the effect of adopting it are reported. The equipment for the volume reduction of spent fuel channel boxes and spent control rods is developed since these are major high level radioactive solid wastes, and their apparent volume is large. Also the target of development, investigated things, the construction and function of the equipment, the performance and the effect of adopting it are reported. (Kako, I.)

  18. Physical and chemical coal cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelock, T. D.; Markuszewski, R.

    1981-02-01

    Coal is cleaned industrially by freeing the occluded mineral impurities and physically separating the coal and refuse particles on the basis of differences in density, settling characteristics, or surface properties. While physical methods are very effective and low in cost when applied to the separation of coarse particles, they are much less effective when applied to the separation of fine particles. Also they can not be used to remove impurities which are bound chemically to the coal. These deficiencies may be overcome in the future by chemical cleaning. Most of the chemical cleaning methods under development are designed primarily to remove sulfur from coal, but several methods also remove various trace elements and ash-forming minerals. Generally these methods will remove most of the sulfur associated with inorganic minerals, but only a few of the methods seem to remove organically bound sulfur. A number of the methods employ oxidizing agents as air, oxygen, chlorine, nitrogen dioxide, or a ferric salt to oxidize the sulfur compounds to soluble sulfates which are then extracted with water. The sulfur in coal may also be solubilized by treatment with caustic. Also sulfur can be removed by reaction with hydrogen at high temperature. Furthermore, it is possible to transform the sulfur bearing minerals in coal to materials which are easily removed by magnetic separation.

  19. 'How To' Clean Room Video

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Kaley Corinne

    2013-01-01

    One of the projects that I am completing this summer is a Launch Services Program intern 'How to' set up a clean room informational video. The purpose of this video is to go along with a clean room kit that can be checked out by employees at the Kennedy Space Center and to be taken to classrooms to help educate students and intrigue them about NASA. The video will include 'how to' set up and operate a clean room at NASA. This is a group project so we will be acting as a team and contributing our own input and ideas. We will include various activities for children in classrooms to complete, while learning and having fun. Activities that we will explain and film include: helping children understand the proper way to wear a bunny suit, a brief background on cleanrooms, and the importance of maintaining the cleanliness of a space craft. This project will be shown to LSP management and co-workers; we will be presenting the video once it is completed.

  20. Nuclear air cleaning programs in USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes air cleaning research activities in the United States nuclear program other than those described in the various papers presented at the conference. First described are those related to aerosol and particulate cleaning generic programs. Discussed next are air cleaning regulations and standards. Specific activities underway in developing air cleaning information and processes for specific areas are discussed beginning with the support of nuclear reactors, e.g., the Electric Power Research Institute programs on reactor accident phenomena and the Savannah River Site program related to aerosol and adsorber research. Finally, the limited research activities in support of air cleaning systems for nuclear fuel reprocessing are described

  1. On strongly $g(x)$-clean rings

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Lingling; Yang, Xiande

    2008-01-01

    Let $R$ be an associative ring with identity, $C(R)$ denote the center of $R$, and $g(x)$ be a polynomial in the polynomial ring $C(R)[x]$. $R$ is called strongly $g(x)$-clean if every element $r \\in R$ can be written as $r=s+u$ with $g(s)=0$, $u$ a unit of $R$, and $su=us$. The relation between strongly $g(x)$-clean rings and strongly clean rings is determined, some general properties of strongly $g(x)$-clean rings are given, and strongly $g(x)$-clean rings generated by units are discussed.

  2. Very clean matrices over local rings

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, H.; Ungor, B.; Halicioglu, S.

    2014-01-01

    An element $a\\in R$ is very clean provided that there exists an idempotent $e\\in R$ such that $ae=ea$ and either $a-e$ or $a+e$ is invertible. A ring $R$ is very clean in case every element in $R$ is very clean. We explore the necessary and sufficient conditions under which a triangular $2\\times 2$ matrix ring over local rings is very clean. The very clean $2\\times 2$ matrices over commutative local rings are completely determined. Applications to matrices over power series are also obtained.

  3. Tips for Buying Exercise Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... esta página en español Tips for Buying Exercise Equipment Related Items Weight Loss Challenge Free Trials Can ... photo? What to Do Before You Buy Exercise Equipment You’ve done your job and looked at ...

  4. 23 CFR 140.910 - Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Equipment. 140.910 Section 140.910 Highways FEDERAL... Railroad Work § 140.910 Equipment. (a) Company owned equipment. Cost of company-owned equipment may be... equipment. Where company owned equipment is not available, reimbursement will be limited to the amount...

  5. NON-SPECIFIC METHODS FOR DETECTING RESIDUES OF CLEANING AGENTS DURING CLEANING VALIDATION

    OpenAIRE

    DRAGAN M. MILENOVIĆ; DRAGAN S. PEŠIĆ; SNEŽANA S. MITIĆ

    2011-01-01

    Cleaning validation procedures are carried out in order to assure that residues of cleaning agents are within acceptable limits after the cleaning process. Cleaning agents often consist of a mixture of various surfactants which are in a highly diluted state after the water rinsing procedure has been completed. This makes it difficult to find appropriate analytical methods that are sensitive enough to detect the cleaning agents. In addition, it is advantageous for the analytical methods to be ...

  6. Clean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何伟文

    2005-01-01

    Core competitiveness is a notion familiar to most managers with an MBA degree, These days, this is what is taught at renowned business schools and colleges. And in the real world,large and small enterprises are increasingly following this course of action, To concentrate on one or two single lines of business in most cases makes sense and boosts profit, There are, however,

  7. Krakow clean fossil fuels and energy efficiency project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, B.L.; Butcher, T.A.

    1994-06-01

    Almost half of the energy used for beating in Krakow is supplied by low-efficiency boilerhouses and home coal stoves. Within the town, there are more than 1,300 boilerhouses with a total capacity of 1,071 MW, and about 100,000 home furnaces with a total capacity of about 300 MW. More than 600 boilerhouses and 60 percent of the home furnaces are situated near the city center. These facilities are referred to as ``low emission sources`` because they have low stacks. They are the primary sources of particulates and hydrocarbons in the city, and major contributors of sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide. The Support for Eastern European Democracy (SEED) Act of 1989 directed the US Department of Energy (DOE) to undertake an equipment assessment project aimed at developing the capability within Poland to manufacture or modify industrial-scale combustion equipment to utilize fossil fuels cleanly. This project is being implemented in Krakow as the ``Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficiency Project.`` Funding is provided through the US Agency for International Development (AID). The project is being conducted in a manner that can be generalized to all of Poland and to the rest of Eastern Europe.

  8. Krakow clean fossil fuels and energy efficiency project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, T.A.; Pierce, B.L. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The Support for Eastern European Democracy (SEED) Act of 1989 directed the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to undertake an equipment assessment project aimed at developing the capability within Poland to manufacture or modify industrial-scale combustion equipment to utilize fossil fuels cleanly. This project is being implemented in the city of Krakow as the `Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficiency Project.` Funding is provided through the U.S. Agency for International Development (AID). The project is being conducted in a manner that can be generalized to all of Poland and to the rest of Eastern Europe. The historic city of Krakow has a population of 750,000. Almost half of the heating energy used in Krakow is supplied by low-efficiency boilerhouses and home coal stoves. Within the town, there are more than 1,300 local boilerhouses and 100,000 home stoves. These are collectively referred to as the `low emission sources` and they are the primary sources of particulates and hydrocarbon emissions in the city and major contributors of sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide.

  9. Krakow clean fossil fuels and energy efficiency project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Support for Eastern European Democracy (SEED) Act of 1989 directed the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to undertake an equipment assessment project aimed at developing the capability within Poland to manufacture or modify industrial-scale combustion equipment to utilize fossil fuels cleanly. This project is being implemented in the city of Krakow as the 'Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficiency Project.' Funding is provided through the U.S. Agency for International Development (AID). The project is being conducted in a manner that can be generalized to all of Poland and to the rest of Eastern Europe. The historic city of Krakow has a population of 750,000. Almost half of the heating energy used in Krakow is supplied by low-efficiency boilerhouses and home coal stoves. Within the town, there are more than 1,300 local boilerhouses and 100,000 home stoves. These are collectively referred to as the 'low emission sources' and they are the primary sources of particulates and hydrocarbon emissions in the city and major contributors of sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide

  10. Aeration equipment for small depths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluše, Jan; Pochylý, František

    2015-05-01

    Deficit of air in water causes complications with cyanobacteria mainly in the summer months. Cyanobacteria is a bacteria that produces poison called cyanotoxin. When the concentration of cyanobacteria increases, the phenomena "algal bloom" appears, which is very toxic and may kill all the organisms. This article describes new equipment for aeration of water in dams, ponds and reservoirs with small depth. This equipment is mobile and it is able to work without any human factor because its control is provided by a GPS module. The main part of this equipment consists of a floating pump which pumps water from the surface. Another important part of this equipment is an aerator where water and air are blended. Final aeration process runs in the nozzles which provide movement of all this equipment and aeration of the water. Simulations of the flow are solved by multiphase flow with diffusion in open source program called OpenFOAM. Results will be verified by an experiment.

  11. Information technology equipment cooling method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Mark D.

    2015-10-20

    According to one embodiment, a system for removing heat from a rack of information technology equipment may include a sidecar indoor air to liquid heat exchanger that cools air utilized by the rack of information technology equipment to cool the rack of information technology equipment. The system may also include a liquid to liquid heat exchanger and an outdoor heat exchanger. The system may further include configurable pathways to connect and control fluid flow through the sidecar heat exchanger, the liquid to liquid heat exchanger, the rack of information technology equipment, and the outdoor heat exchanger based upon ambient temperature and/or ambient humidity to remove heat generated by the rack of information technology equipment.

  12. Evaluation of the combined betatron and momentum cleaning in point 3 in terms of cleaning efficiency and energy deposition for the LHC Collimation upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Lari, L; Boccone, V; Brugger, M; Cerutti, F; Ferrari, A; Rossi, A; Versaci, R; Vlachoudis, V; Wollmann, D; Mereghetti, A; Faus-Golfe, A

    2011-01-01

    The Phase I LHC Collimation System Upgrade could include moving part of the Betatron Cleaning from LHC Point 7 to Point 3 to improve both operation flexibility and intensity reach. In addition, the partial relocation of beam losses from the current Betatron cleaning region at Point 7 will mitigate the risks of Single Event Upsets to equipment installed in adjacent and partly not sufficient shielded areas. The combined Betatron and Momentum Cleaning at Point 3 implies that new collimators have to be added as well as to implement a new collimator aperture layout. This paper shows the whole LHC Collimator Efficiency variation with the new layout at different beam energies. As part of the evaluation, energy deposition distribution in the IR3 region give indications about the effect of this new implementations not only on the collimators themselves but also on the other beam line elements as well as in the IR3 surrounding areas.

  13. Review On Automatic-Cleaning Basket Strainer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Gothwal

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Clean water is a basic need of every individual. Today in numerous cities of India large number of waste water is produced. Such waste water is polluting natural water bodies like rivers lakes etc. Hence waste water filtration amp waters final purification is need of hour. In conventional type of filters when strainer gets clogged we have to manually clean it which takes time amp filtration processes stops during cleaning process. While in Self-Cleaning Basket Strainer when strainer gets clogged a pressure difference is created between inlet amp outlet nozzle which is sensed by the differential pressure gauges. A differential pressure gauge activates backwash assembly which automatically cleans the strainer. Hence Self-Cleaning Basket Strainer is used to save cleaning time amp it automates the filtering process.

  14. True Cost of Amateur Clean rooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, W. Lawrence

    2005-01-01

    This viewgraph document reviews the cost factors for clean rooms that are not professionally built, monitored or maintained. These amateur clean rooms are built because scientist and engineers desire to create a clean room to build a part of an experiment that requires a clean room, and the program manager is looking to save money. However, in the long run these clean rooms may not save money, as the cost of maintenance may be higher due to the cost of transporting the crews, and if the materials were of lesser quality, the cost of modifications may diminish any savings, and the product may not be of the same quality. Several examples are shown of the clean rooms that show some of the problems that can arise from amateur clean rooms.

  15. Contributions to Optimize the Operation of a Thermoelectric Conversion Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GORDAN Ioan Mircea

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Geothermal energy is an important renewable energy source, is accessible and clean. University of Oradea has important contributions in this area. Therefore we aimed to achieve a new method of converting geothermal energy into electricity. Studies have removed shortcomings in existing plants. As such a model was made functional, laboratory, fully automatic, low power, superior to existing technologies through: removal of harmful substances (e.g. CO2, increase equipment reliability and increase system efficiency. In the creation of this product is the invention of the University of Oradea which won the 2008 Inventions Exhibition in Cluj-Napoca, the gold medal.

  16. Mobile pilot-plant for the production of environmentally clean steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An equipment flow sheet has been developed for a mobile pilot-plant (MPP) to produce environmentally clean steam. The unit consists of a single-stage heat transformer (SSHT) coupled to a mechanical vapour recompression system (MVR) with a nominal output capacity of 260 kg/h of saturated steam at 3 bar absolute pressure for a liquid feed at a temperature of 80oC. It is proposed to have the unit on skids to be transported by a pickup truck or lorry to various industrial locations for demonstration and training purposes, in order to acquaint industrialists with an environmentally clean and energy-efficient technology. (author)

  17. IDEA Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, Robert

    2013-09-30

    The DOE Clean Energy Application Centers were launched with a goal of focusing on important aspects of our nation’s energy supply including Efficiency, Reliability and Resiliency. Clean Energy solutions based on Combined Heat & Power (CHP), District Energy and Waste Heat Recovery are at the core of ensuring a reliable and efficient energy infrastructure for campuses, communities, and industry and public enterprises across the country. IDEA members which include colleges and universities, hospitals, airports, downtown utilities as well as manufacturers, suppliers and service providers have long-standing expertise in the planning, design, construction and operations of Clean Energy systems. They represent an established base of successful projects and systems at scale and serve important and critical energy loads. They also offer experience, lessons learned and best practices which are of immense value to the sustained growth of the Clean Energy sector. IDEA has been able to leverage the funds from the project award to raise the visibility, improve the understanding and increase deployment CHP, District Energy and Waste Heat Recovery solutions across the regions of our nation, in collaboration with the regional CEAC’s. On August 30, 2012, President Obama signed an Executive Order to accelerate investments in industrial energy efficiency (EE), including CHP and set a national goal of 40 GW of new CHP installation over the next decade IDEA is pleased to have been able to support this Executive Order in a variety of ways including raising awareness of the goal through educational workshops and Conferences and recognizing the installation of large scale CHP and district energy systems A supporting key area of collaboration has involved IDEA providing technical assistance on District Energy/CHP project screenings and feasibility to the CEAC’s for multi building, multi-use projects. The award was instrumental in the development of a first-order screening

  18. Clean Coal Technologies - Accelerating Commerical and Policy Drivers for Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Coal is and will remain the world's most abundant and widely distributed fossil fuel. Burning coal, however, can pollute and it produces carbon dioxide. Clean coal technologies address this problem. The widespread deployment of pollution-control equipment to reduce sulphur dioxide, Nox and dust emissions from industry is just one example which has brought cleaner air to many countries. Since the 1970s, various policy and regulatory measures have created a growing commercial market for these clean coal technologies, with the result that costs have fallen and performance has improved. More recently, the need to tackle rising CO2 emissions to address climate change means that clean coal technologies now extend to include those for CO2 capture and storage (CCS). This short report from the IEA Coal Industry Advisory Board (CIAB) presents industry's considered recommendations on how to accelerate the development and deployment of this important group of new technologies and to grasp their very signifi cant potential to reduce emissions from coal use. It identifies an urgent need to make progress with demonstration projects and prove the potential of CCS through government-industry partnerships. Its commercialisation depends upon a clear legal and regulatory framework,public acceptance and market-based financial incentives. For the latter, the CIAB favours cap-and-trade systems, price supports and mandatory feed-in tariffs, as well as inclusion of CCS in the Kyoto Protocol's Clean Development Mechanism to create demand in developing economies where coal use is growing most rapidly. This report offers a unique insight into the thinking of an industry that recognises both the threats and growing opportunities for coal in a carbon constrained world.

  19. Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program. Program update 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    The Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCT Program) is a $7.14 billion cost-shared industry/government technology development effort. The program is to demonstrate a new generation of advanced coal-based technologies, with the most promising technologies being moved into the domestic and international marketplace. Clean coal technologies being demonstrated under the CCT program are creating the technology base that allows the nation to meet its energy and environmental goals efficiently and reliably. The fact that most of the demonstrations are being conducted at commercial scale, in actual user environments, and under conditions typical of commercial operations allows the potential of the technologies to be evaluated in their intended commercial applications. The technologies are categorized into four market sectors: advanced electric power generation systems; environmental control devices; coal processing equipment for clean fuels; and industrial technologies. Sections of this report describe the following: Role of the Program; Program implementation; Funding and costs; The road to commercial realization; Results from completed projects; Results and accomplishments from ongoing projects; and Project fact sheets. Projects include fluidized-bed combustion, integrated gasification combined-cycle power plants, advanced combustion and heat engines, nitrogen oxide control technologies, sulfur dioxide control technologies, combined SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} technologies, coal preparation techniques, mild gasification, and indirect liquefaction. Industrial applications include injection systems for blast furnaces, coke oven gas cleaning systems, power generation from coal/ore reduction, a cyclone combustor with S, N, and ash control, cement kiln flue gas scrubber, and pulse combustion for steam coal gasification.

  20. Containment and Surveillance Equipment Compendium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Containment and Surveillance Equipment Compendium contains information sections describing the application and status of seals, optical surveillance systems, and monitors for international safeguards systems. The Compendium is a collection of information on equipment in use (generally by the IAEA) or under development in the US in diverse programs being conducted at numerous facilities under different sponsors. The Compendium establishes a baseline for the status and applications of C/S equipment and is a tool to assist in the planning of future C/S hardware development activities. The Appendix contains design concepts which can be developed to meet future goals

  1. TRANSPORT AND EMPLACEMENT EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective and the scope of this document are to list and briefly describe the major mobile equipment necessary for waste package (WP) Transport and Emplacement in the proposed subsurface nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Primary performance characteristics and some specialized design features of the equipment are explained and summarized in the individual subsections of this document. The Transport and Emplacement equipment described in this document consists of the following: (1) WP Transporter; (2) Reusable Rail Car; (3) Emplacement Gantry; (4) Gantry Carrier; and (5) Transport Locomotive

  2. Cleaning insertions and collimation challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Redaelli, S; Bertarelli, A; Bruce, R; Jowett, J M; Lechner, A; Losito, R

    2015-01-01

    High-performance collimation systems are essential for operating efficiently modern hadron machine with large beam intensities. In particular, at the LHC the collimation system ensures a clean disposal of beam halos in the superconducting environment. The challenges of the HL-LHC study pose various demanding requests for beam collimation. In this paper we review the present collimation system and its performance during the LHC Run 1 in 2010–2013. Various collimation solutions under study to address the HL-LHC requirements are then reviewed, identifying the main upgrade baseline and pointing out advanced collimation concept for further enhancement of the performance.

  3. Markkinointisuunnitelma case: Clean Water Oy

    OpenAIRE

    Jussila, Ida-Sofia

    2015-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena on luoda Clean Water Oy:n uudelle tuoteryhmälle markkinointisuunnitelma. Tuoteryhmänä on kuluttajakäyttöön suunnitellut jätevesijärjestelmät. Markkinointisuunnitelman tavoitteena on löytää markkinoinnilliset ratkaisut uuden tuoteryhmän lanseeraukseen. Opinnäytetyön teoreettisessa viitekehyksessä käsitellään niitä osa-alueita, joita käsitellään myös itse markkinointisuunnitelmassa. Markkinointi on jaettu perinteisiin markkinointikeinoihin ja digitaaliseen markk...

  4. Bio-Inspired Self-Cleaning Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kesong; Jiang, Lei

    2012-08-01

    Self-cleaning surfaces have drawn a lot of interest for both fundamental research and practical applications. This review focuses on the recent progress in mechanism, preparation, and application of self-cleaning surfaces. To date, self-cleaning has been demonstrated by the following four conceptual approaches: (a) TiO2-based superhydrophilic self-cleaning, (b) lotus effect self-cleaning (superhydrophobicity with a small sliding angle), (c) gecko setae-inspired self-cleaning, and (d) underwater organisms-inspired antifouling self-cleaning. Although a number of self-cleaning products have been commercialized, the remaining challenges and future outlook of self-cleaning surfaces are also briefly addressed. Through evolution, nature, which has long been a source of inspiration for scientists and engineers, has arrived at what is optimal. We hope this review will stimulate interdisciplinary collaboration among material science, chemistry, biology, physics, nanoscience, engineering, etc., which is essential for the rational design and reproducible construction of bio-inspired multifunctional self-cleaning surfaces in practical applications.

  5. Equipment for removal of contaminated concrete surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory is investigating and developing equipment that will rapidly and economically remove contaminated concrete surfaces while producing a minimal amount of contaminated rubble. Evaluation of various methods for removing concrete surfaces shows that many of the techniques presently used for decontamination require excessive manpower, time, or energy, or they remove more material than is necessary to clean the surface. Excess material removal increases the quantity of waste that must be handled under controlled conditions. Three unique decontamination methods are presented here: the water cannon, the concrete spaller, and the high-pressure water jet. The water cannon fires a small, high-velocity jet of fluid to spall the concrete surface. The concrete spaller ships away the concrete by exerting radial pressure against the sides of a shallow cylindrical hole drilled into the concrete surface. The high-pressure water jet is a 50,000-psi spray that blasts away the concrete surface. Each method includes means for containing airborne contamination. Results of tests show that these techniques can rapidly and economically remove surfaces, leaving minimal rubble for controlled disposal. Also presented are cost comparisons between the water cannon and the concrete spaller

  6. Decontamination by cleaning with fluorocarbon surfactant solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the nuclear industry, facilities and their components inevitably become contaminated with radioactive materials. This report documents the application of a novel particle-removal process developed by Entropic Systems, Inc. (ESI), to decontaminate critical instruments and parts that are contaminated with small radioactive particles that adhere to equipment surfaces. The tests were performed as a cooperative effort between ESI and the Chemical Technology Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). ESI developed a new, environmentally compatible process to remove small particles from solid surfaces that is more effective than spraying or sonicating with CFC-113. This process uses inert perfluorinated liquids as working media; the liquids have zero ozone-depleting potential, are nontoxic and nonflammnable, and are generally recognized as nonhazardous materials. In the ESI process, parts to be cleaned are first sprayed or sonicated with a dilute solution of a high-molecular-weight fluorocarbon surfactant in an inert perfluorinated liquid to effect particle removal. The parts are then rinsed with the perfluorinated liquid to remove the fluorocarbon surfactant applied in the first step, and the residual rinse liquid is then evaporated from the parts into an air or nitrogen stream from which it is recovered. Nuclear contamination is inherently a surface phenomenon. The presence of radioactive particles is responsible for all ''smearable'' contamination and, if the radioactive particles are small enough, for some of the fixed contamination. Because radioactivity does not influence the physical chemistry of particle adhesion, the ESI process should be just as effective in removing radioactive particles as it is in removing nonradioactive particles

  7. ENERGY STAR Certified Imaging Equipment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 2.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Imaging Equipment that are effective as of...

  8. Further development of overcast equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlitz, G.; Scholze, U.

    1987-04-01

    Spoil overcast technology is outlined in surface mines by excavator, mobile transfer conveyor and boom spreader combinations. The technology is regarded as adequate for small to medium sited mines with either thin, disturbed, split or multiple seams. The TAKRAF manufacturer, GDR, produces a variety of spreaders (series A/sub 2/ Rs) and transfer conveyors (series BRs). Spoil removal capacity ranges up to 18,000 m/sup 3//h. Schemes of general spreader design are provided. Technological advantages compared to overburden conveyor bridges are noted. Specifications including conveyor boom length, spreading height, equipment mobility, equipment positioning for multiple bench mining and other aspects are discussed. New TAKRAF mobile transfer conveyors (BRs 1200 to BRs 1600) are being developed with extended spreading booms for direct spoil overcast and low equipment height (to fit beneath belt conveyor booms of other surface mining equipment). 4 refs.

  9. EMP simulation for equipment testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A bounded wave simulator is described with which digital aircraft electronics is irradiated. Irradiation findings suggest that 'operative' equipment is more sensitive to EMP. Signs of EMP influence are functional disturbances, including failure of certain sublunits. (HP)

  10. COMPARISON OF CLEAN DIESEL BUSES TO CNG BUSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowell, D.; Parsley, W.; Bush,C; Zupo, D.

    2003-08-24

    Using previously published data on regulated and unregulated emissions, this paper will compare the environmental performance of current generation transit buses operated on compressed natural gas (CNG) to current generation transit buses operated on ultra low sulfur diesel fuel (ULSD) and incorporating diesel particulate filters (DPF). Unregulated emissions evaluated include toxic compounds associated with adverse health effects (carbonyl, PAH, NPAH, benzene) as well as PM particle count and size distribution. For all regulated and unregulated emissions, both technologies are shown to be comparable. DPF equipped diesel buses and CNG buses have virtually identical levels of PM mass emissions and particle number emissions. DPF-equipped diesel buses have lower HC and CO emissions and lower emissions of toxic substances such as benzene, carbonyls and PAHs than CNG buses. CNG buses have lower NOx emissions than DPF-equipped buses, though CNG bus NOx emissions are shown to be much more variable. In addition, this paper will compare the capital and operating costs of CNG and DPF-equipped buses. The cost comparison is primarily based on the experience of MTA New York City Transit in operating CNG buses since 1995 and DPF-equipped buses fueled with ULSD since 2001. Published data on the experience of other large transit agencies in operating CNG buses is used to validate the NYCT experience. The incremental cost (compared to ''baseline'' diesel) of operating a typical 200-bus depot is shown to be six times higher for CNG buses than for ''clean diesel'' buses. The contributors to this increased cost for CNG buses are almost equally split between increased capital costs for purchase of buses and installation of fueling infrastructure, and increased operating costs for purchase of fuel, bus maintenance, and fuel station maintenance.

  11. Scaleable Clean Aluminum Melting Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Q.; Das, S.K. (Secat, Inc.)

    2008-02-15

    The project entitled 'Scaleable Clean Aluminum Melting Systems' was a Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADAs) between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Secat Inc. The three-year project was initially funded for the first year and was then canceled due to funding cuts at the DOE headquarters. The limited funds allowed the research team to visit industrial sites and investigate the status of using immersion heaters for aluminum melting applications. Primary concepts were proposed on the design of furnaces using immersion heaters for melting. The proposed project can continue if the funding agency resumes the funds to this research. The objective of this project was to develop and demonstrate integrated, retrofitable technologies for clean melting systems for aluminum in both the Metal Casting and integrated aluminum processing industries. The scope focused on immersion heating coupled with metal circulation systems that provide significant opportunity for energy savings as well as reduction of melt loss in the form of dross. The project aimed at the development and integration of technologies that would enable significant reduction in the energy consumption and environmental impacts of melting aluminum through substitution of immersion heating for the conventional radiant burner methods used in reverberatory furnaces. Specifically, the program would couple heater improvements with furnace modeling that would enable cost-effective retrofits to a range of existing furnace sizes, reducing the economic barrier to application.

  12. Clean Coal Program Research Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry Baxter; Eric Eddings; Thomas Fletcher; Kerry Kelly; JoAnn Lighty; Ronald Pugmire; Adel Sarofim; Geoffrey Silcox; Phillip Smith; Jeremy Thornock; Jost Wendt; Kevin Whitty

    2009-03-31

    Although remarkable progress has been made in developing technologies for the clean and efficient utilization of coal, the biggest challenge in the utilization of coal is still the protection of the environment. Specifically, electric utilities face increasingly stringent restriction on the emissions of NO{sub x} and SO{sub x}, new mercury emission standards, and mounting pressure for the mitigation of CO{sub 2} emissions, an environmental challenge that is greater than any they have previously faced. The Utah Clean Coal Program addressed issues related to innovations for existing power plants including retrofit technologies for carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) or green field plants with CCS. The Program focused on the following areas: simulation, mercury control, oxycoal combustion, gasification, sequestration, chemical looping combustion, materials investigations and student research experiences. The goal of this program was to begin to integrate the experimental and simulation activities and to partner with NETL researchers to integrate the Program's results with those at NETL, using simulation as the vehicle for integration and innovation. The investigators also committed to training students in coal utilization technology tuned to the environmental constraints that we face in the future; to this end the Program supported approximately 12 graduate students toward the completion of their graduate degree in addition to numerous undergraduate students. With the increased importance of coal for energy independence, training of graduate and undergraduate students in the development of new technologies is critical.

  13. CLEAN-AIR heat pump. Reduced energy consumption for ventilation in buildings by integrating air cleaning and heat pump. Final Report; CLEAN-AIR heat pump - Reduceret energiforbrug til ventilation af bygninger ved luftrensning integreret med luft varmepumpe. Slut rapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, L.; Olesen, Bjarne W.; Molinaro, G.; Simmonsen, P.; Skocajic, S. [Danmarks Tekniske Univ. Institut for Byggeri og Anlaeg, Lyngby (Denmark); Hummelshoej, R.M.; Carlassara, L. [COWI A/S, Lyngby, (Denmark); Groenbaek, H.; Hansen, Ole R. [Exhausto A/S, Langeskov (Denmark)

    2011-07-01

    much lower than the domestic price. For the extremely hot and humid climate, the clean air heat pump has the maximum ability of the energy saving for ventilation. The calculations showed that annual energy saving of using the clean air heat pump for ventilation in Sri Lanka is 62%. In general, the clean air heat pump system is suitable for ventilation in all kind of climates around the world except for the hot and dry climate. The annual energy saving is expected in the range between 30% and 60% depending on the climate. It is worth noting that the calculated energy reduction of a ventilation system using the clean air heat pump technology was an extra saving compared to a ventilation system that equipped with the high efficiency counter flow heat recovery equipment with a temperature efficiency of 80%. Based on this simulation, it can be concluded that the energy saving of the clean air heat pump for ventilation is remarkable. Therefore, the technology is highly recommended provided that this simulation results are further validated by experiments. (Author)

  14. Equipment for ion beam production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An equipment has been designed to extend the scope of control of ion beam flux for an intensive ion beam source used for plasma injection in magnetic vessels. The control equipment is connected to the electromagnet power supply. A consumption regulator is fitted in the operating gas supply to the hollow cathode of the ion source. A circuit is also included for discharge voltage maintenance consisting of a control element and a discharge voltage pick-up. (M.D.). 1 fig

  15. FUSRAP equipment concept development study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under DOE contract, Dalton-Dalton-Newport, Inc. is performing an engineering evaluation of three selected FUSRAP sites in an effort to generate equipment concepts to perform remedial action for retrieval, packaging, storing, and transporting contaminated soil and other debris. Along with this engineering evaluation, an analysis of state and Federal regulations was made which had significant impact on the selected equipment and costs for each remedial action concept

  16. Water-Using Equipment: Domestic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solana, Amy E.; Mcmordie, Katherine

    2006-01-24

    Water management is an important aspect of energy engineering. This article addresses water-using equipment primarily used for household purposes, including faucets, showers, toilets, urinals, dishwashers, and clothes washers, and focuses on how the equipment can be optimized to save both water and energy. Technology retrofits and operation and maintenance changes are the primary methods discussed for water and energy conservation. Auditing to determine current consumption rates is also described for each technology.

  17. National Clean Fleets Partnership (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-01-01

    Provides an overview of Clean Cities National Clean Fleets Partnership (NCFP). The NCFP is open to large private-sector companies that have fleet operations in multiple states. Companies that join the partnership receive customized assistance to reduce petroleum use through increased efficiency and use of alternative fuels. This initiative provides fleets with specialized resources, expertise, and support to successfully incorporate alternative fuels and fuel-saving measures into their operations. The National Clean Fleets Partnership builds on the established success of DOE's Clean Cities program, which reduces petroleum consumption at the community level through a nationwide network of coalitions that work with local stakeholders. Developed with input from fleet managers, industry representatives, and Clean Cities coordinators, the National Clean Fleets Partnership goes one step further by working with large private-sector fleets.

  18. Glow discharge cleaning of vacuum switch tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, T.; Toya, H. (Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Amagasaki, Hyogo (Japan). Central Research Lab.)

    1991-10-01

    This paper reports that glow discharge cleaning has ben advancing as a means of degassing vacuum chambers constructed for a large accelerator or for nuclear fusion research. To clean the whole surface of parts inside a vacuum switch tube (VST), a new technique is tried which generates glow discharge between the inner electrodes and copper grid surrounding it. Photographic observation reveals that the glow discharge spreads out and cleans the whole surface inside the VST. A breakdown test between the inner electrodes shows the effect of the cleaning with this technique. Higher breakdown voltage between the inner electrodes is attained by performing this glow discharge cleaning in argon rather than hydrogen gas. The difference of the cleaning effect seems to be attributed to that of the energy transfer from ion species to the absorbed molecules and microprotrusions on the surfaces.

  19. 77 FR 41930 - Bleed Air Cleaning and Monitoring Equipment and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-17

    ... technology for the engine and auxiliary power unit bleed air supplied to the passenger cabin and flight deck... Privacy Act Statement can be found in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478... of removing oil-based contaminants from the bleed air supplied to the passenger cabin and flight...

  20. An automated cleaning system for hospitals

    OpenAIRE

    Griffin, Colin

    2009-01-01

    Insufficient hygienic practices in Irish hospitals coupled with one of the highest number of reported cases of MRSA in Europe have highlighted the need for solutions to aid in the task of cleaning. This automated cleaning system consisted of two robots: a core robot developed separately with navigational and task scheduling capabilities integrated. The cleaning task was carried out by making use of a commercially available Roomba vacuum cleaner which had been adapted to operate in conju...

  1. Deep cleaning--valid or publicity stunt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2008-03-01

    While deep cleaning is not new--hospitals have undertaken deep cleans ward-by-ward for some time, often following a "superbug" outbreak, Health Secretary Alan Johnson and Prime Minister Gordon Brown both emphasised on announcing the mandate that this was the first time all English NHS hospitals had been asked to deep clean their entire site, "restoring surfaces and fabrics to as close as possible as their original condition". PMID:18411818

  2. National Clean Fleets Partnership (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-01-01

    Clean Cities' National Clean Fleets Partnership establishes strategic alliances with large fleets to help them explore and adopt alternative fuels and fuel economy measures to cut petroleum use. The initiative leverages the strength of nearly 100 Clean Cities coalitions, nearly 18,000 stakeholders, and more than 20 years of experience. It provides fleets with top-level support, technical assistance, robust tools and resources, and public acknowledgement to help meet and celebrate fleets' petroleum-use reductions.

  3. Selling Australia as 'Clean and Green'

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Hui-Shung (Christie); Kristiansen, Paul

    2004-01-01

    'Green and clean' has been used as a key marketing tool to promote Australian products overseas. The rationale is that consumers are generally concerned about personal health and the environment and will choose, and pay price premiums, for products that are, or perceived to be, clean (good for them) and green (good for the environment) over alternative products. But is Australia seen as clean and green? Is it really why people buy Australian products? And how effective is it as a marketing to...

  4. Cleaning Animals' Cages With Little Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, Benjamin J.

    1989-01-01

    Proposed freeze/thaw method for cleaning animals' cages requires little extra weight and consumes little power and water. Cleaning concept developed for maintaining experimental rat cages on extended space missions. Adaptable as well to similar use on Earth. Reduces cleaning time. Makes use of already available facilities such as refrigerator, glove box, and autoclave. Rat waste adheres to steel-wire-mesh floor of cage. Feces removed by loosening action of freezing-and-thawing process, followed by blast of air.

  5. 7 CFR 550.38 - Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equipment. 550.38 Section 550.38 Agriculture... Equipment/property Standards § 550.38 Equipment. (a) The Cooperator shall not use equipment acquired with... the Federal Government retains an interest in the equipment. (b) The Cooperator shall use...

  6. 14 CFR 23.1415 - Ditching equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ditching equipment. 23.1415 Section 23.1415... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Safety Equipment § 23.1415 Ditching equipment. (a) Emergency flotation and signaling equipment required by any operating rule in...

  7. 14 CFR 25.1415 - Ditching equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ditching equipment. 25.1415 Section 25.1415... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Safety Equipment § 25.1415 Ditching equipment. (a) Ditching equipment used in airplanes to be certificated for ditching under § 25.801, and required by...

  8. 21 CFR 606.60 - Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Equipment. 606.60 Section 606.60 Food and Drugs... GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR BLOOD AND BLOOD COMPONENTS Equipment § 606.60 Equipment. (a) Equipment... maintenance. The equipment shall be observed, standardized and calibrated on a regularly scheduled basis...

  9. 21 CFR 225.30 - Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Equipment. 225.30 Section 225.30 Food and Drugs... Equipment § 225.30 Equipment. (a) Equipment which is designed to perform its intended function and is properly installed and used is essential to the manufacture of medicated feeds. Such equipment...

  10. 21 CFR 226.30 - Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Equipment. 226.30 Section 226.30 Food and Drugs... Facilities and Equipment § 226.30 Equipment. Equipment used for the manufacture, processing, packaging, bulk... facilitate maintenance and operation for its intended purpose. The equipment shall: (a) Be so...

  11. 14 CFR 27.1415 - Ditching equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ditching equipment. 27.1415 Section 27.1415... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Safety Equipment § 27.1415 Ditching equipment. (a) Emergency flotation and signaling equipment required by any operating rule in this chapter must meet the...

  12. Research on Selection of Equipment Maintenance Modes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHANG Wen-li; SHI Hai-bo; HE Bai-tao

    2006-01-01

    The development of equipment maintenance management is introduced, and equipment maintenance concept is defined. Equipment maintenance modes are classified, analyzed and compared, which merits and demerits are pointed out. At last, a decision-making frame to select equipment maintenance modes is advanced, and steps to select and implement equipment maintenance are given.

  13. 14 CFR 29.1415 - Ditching equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ditching equipment. 29.1415 Section 29.1415... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Safety Equipment § 29.1415 Ditching equipment. (a) Emergency flotation and signaling equipment required by any operating rule of this chapter must meet...

  14. Clean Cities Annual Metrics Report 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergeron, P.; Putsche, V.

    2007-07-01

    Report summarizes Clean Cities coalition accomplishments, including membership, funding, sales of alternative fuel blends, deployment of AFVs and HEVs, idle reduction initiatives, and fuel economy activities.

  15. Ear cleaning: the UK and US perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttall, Tim; Cole, Lynette K

    2004-04-01

    Ear cleaning helps maintain the normal otic environment and is important in the treatment of otitis. Over cleaning, however, may trigger otitis through maceration of the epidermal lining. Simple manual cleaning is useful for routine cleansing but doesn't remove tightly adherent debris. Bulb syringes are more vigorous but may damage the ear in inexperienced hands. Devices using mains water pressure or dental machines are also available. Thorough cleaning of the ear canals and middle ear cavity can only be achieved by retrograde flushing using specially adapted catheters, feeding tubes or video otoscopes under anaesthesia. Myringotomy, inspection and cleaning of the middle should be performed if the tympanic membrane appears abnormal. There are a wide variety of cleaning fluids available. Ceruminolytics soften and dissolve cerumen to facilitate cleaning. Surfactants emulsify debris, breaking it up and keeping it in solution. Astringents dry the ear canal surface, preventing maceration. Maintaining a low pH and incorporating antimicrobial agents can inhibit microbial proliferation and glucocorticoids can be used to reduce inflammation. Adverse effects and contraindications following ear cleaning can include maceration, contact reactions, otitis media, ear canal avulsion, vestibular syndrome, Horner's syndrome, facial nerve paralysis and deafness. Care should be exercised in selecting cleaning fluids if the tympanic membranes are ruptured. PMID:15030561

  16. Chemistry in Clean Marine Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundja, J. O.; Tshiala, M.

    2009-05-01

    Model-measurement comparisons of HOx in extremely clean air ([NO]Measurements were made during the second Southern Ocean Photochemistry Experiment (SOAPEX-2), The free-radical chemistry was studied using a zero-dimensional box-model based upon the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM). Two versions of the model were used, with different levels of chemical complexity, to explore the role of hydrocarbons upon free-radical budgets under very clean conditions. The "detailed" model was constrained to measurements of CO, CH4 and 17 NMHCs, while the "simple" model contained only the CO and CH4 oxidation mechanisms, together with inorganic chemistry. The OH and HO2 (HOx) concentrations predicted by the two models agreed to within 5-10%. The model results were compared with the HOx concentrations measured by the FAGE (Fluorescence Assay by Gas Expansion) technique during four days of clean Southern Ocean marine boundary layer (MBL) air. The models overestimated OH concentrations by about 10% on two days and about 20% on the other two days. HO2 concentrations were measured during two of these days and the models overestimated the measured concentrations by about 40%. Better agreement with measured HO2 was observed by using data from several MBL aerosol measurements to estimate the aerosol surface area and by increasing the HO2 uptake coefficient to unity. This reduced the modelled HO2 overestimate by ~40%, with little effect on OH, because of the poor HO2 to OH conversion at the low ambient NOx concentrations. Local sensitivity analysis and Morris One-At-A-Time analysis were performed on the "simple" model, and showed the importance of reliable measurements of j(O1D) and [HCHO] and of the kinetic parameters that determine the efficiency of O(1D) to OH and HCHO to HO2 conversion. A 2σ standard deviation of 30-40% for OH and 25-30% for HO2 was estimated for the model calculations using a Monte Carlo technique coupled with Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS).

  17. Efficient methods of nanoimprint stamp cleaning based on imprint self-cleaning effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) is a nonconventional lithographic technique that promises low-cost, high-throughput patterning of structures with sub-10 nm resolution. Contamination of nanoimprint stamps is one of the key obstacles to industrialize the NIL technology. Here, we report two efficient approaches for removal of typical contamination of particles and residual resist from stamps: thermal and ultraviolet (UV) imprinting cleaning-both based on the self-cleaning effect of imprinting process. The contaminated stamps were imprinted onto polymer substrates and after demolding, they were treated with an organic solvent. The images of the stamp before and after the cleaning processes show that the two cleaning approaches can effectively remove contamination from stamps without destroying the stamp structures. The contact angles of the stamp before and after the cleaning processes indicate that the cleaning methods do not significantly degrade the anti-sticking layer. The cleaning processes reported in this work could also be used for substrate cleaning.

  18. Combining a Novel Computer Vision Sensor with a Cleaning Robot to Achieve Autonomous Pig House Cleaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nils Axel; Braithwaite, Ian David; Blanke, Mogens;

    2005-01-01

    condition based cleaning. This paper describes how a novel sensor, developed for the purpose, and algorithms for classification and learning are combined with a commercial robot to obtain an autonomous system which meets the necessary quality attributes. These include features to make selective cleaning...... where dirty areas are detected, that operator assistance is called only when cleanness hypothesis cannot be made with confidence. The paper describes the design of the system where learning from experience maps and operator instructions are combined to obtain a smart and autonomous cleaning robot.......Cleaning of livestock buildings is the single most health-threatening task in the agricultural industry and a transition to robot-based cleaning would be instrumental to improving working conditions for employees. Present cleaning robots fall short on cleanness quality, as they cannot perform...

  19. Multi-Scale CLEAN: A comparison of its performance against classical CLEAN in galaxies using THINGS

    OpenAIRE

    Rich, J. W.; Blok, W. J. G. de; Cornwell, T. J.; Brinks, E.; Walter, F.; Bagetakos, I.; Kennicutt Jr., R. C.

    2008-01-01

    A practical evaluation of the Multi-Scale CLEAN algorithm is presented. The data used in the comparisons are taken from The HI Nearby Galaxy Survey (THINGS). The implementation of Multi-Scale CLEAN in the CASA software package is used, although comparisons are made against the very similar Multi-Resolution CLEAN algorithm implemented in AIPS. Both are compared against the classical CLEAN algorithm (as implemented in AIPS). The results of this comparison show that several of the well-known cha...

  20. Microbial water quality in clean water tanks following inspection and cleaning

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, Sarah Christine Boesgaard; Esbjørn, Anne; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    Increased bacterial counts are often registered in drinking water leaving clean water tanks after the tanks have been emptied, inspected and cleaned by flushing. To investigate the reason for the increased bacterial concentrations and consequently limit it, samples from two clean water tanks before, during and after cleaning of the tanks were analysed. Bacteria were quantified, the dominating bacterial groups were identified and re-growth potential in the water was estimated. Bacterial counts...

  1. Restoration to serviceability of Bruce 'A' heat transfer equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruce Units 1 to 4 were shut down during the 1990s by the former Ontario Hydro, due in part to a long list of system and equipment deficiencies and concerns, including steam generator tube degradation as a consequence of the then-existing steam generator secondary side water chemistry conditions. Upon its creation in 2001, and following a program of condition assessment, Bruce Power was able to determine that Units 3 and 4 could return to service; but that Units 1 and 2 would require refurbishment. That Refurbishment Program, which is currently well advanced, included the re-assessment of the condition of equipment throughout the plant including the heat transfer equipment; and determination item-by-item as to what inspection, cleaning, repair, or even replacement would be required to put the equipment into a condition where it could be expected to operate reliably for the additional 30 years expected from the plant. Clearly the objective is to suitably restore the equipment to serviceability without doing more refurbishment work than is warranted - without replacing equipment except where absolutely necessary. The first task in such a program is determination of its scope - i.e. a listing of all heat exchangers. That list included everything from the steam generators (which required replacement, now completed), to much smaller heat exchangers in the heavy water upgrader systems (which were found to be in very good overall condition). There is also a very large number of other so-called 'balance-of-plant' heat exchangers; these include the maintenance coolers, moderator heat exchangers, shutdown coolers and a whole raft of smaller coolers - many of which are cooled directly by lake water with its potential for bio-fouling and 'BIC' (Biologically Induced Corrosion). This paper focuses primarily on the engineering assessment, inspection, repair and general refurbishment of the balance-of-plant heat exchangers. As will be discussed in the paper, the assessment of the

  2. The MiniCLEAN Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Christopher; Miniclean Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The MiniCLEAN (Cryogenic Low-Energy Astrophysics with Noble liquids) detector is a prototype experiment in the search for weakly interacting massive particle dark matter. A target of single phase liquid argon with a fiducial mass of 150 kg is being deployed in a spherical detector surrounded by cryogenic temperature photomultiplier tubes. This design maximizes light yield and allows pulse shape discrimination to be used to separate nuclear recoils from electron recoil background events. The detector will demonstrate the technologies necessary for a future generation dark matter and low energy solar neutrino experiment using, interchangeably, targets of argon and neon. This talk will summarize the status of the ongoing commissioning and first physics runs at SNOLAB in Sudbury, Canada.

  3. Cleaning the Diesel Engine Emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Budde

    This paper examines how technologies for cleaning of diesel emission from road vehicles can be supported by facilitating a technology push in the Danish automotive emission control industry. The European commission is at present preparing legislation for the euro 5 emission standard (to be enforced...... in 2010). The standard is expected to include an 80% reduction of the maximum particulate emissions from diesel cars. The fulfillment of this requirement entails development and production of particulate filters for diesel cars and trucks. Theoretically the paper suggests a rethinking of public...... industry policy based on Michael Porters cluster theory. The paper however suggest that the narrow focus on productivity and economic growth in Porters theory should be qualified and integrated with a broader scope of societal policy aims including social and environmental issues. This suggestion also...

  4. Cleaning lady saves the day

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    At lunch time on Wednesday 21 January a guest at the CERN hostel put her food in the microwave oven and switched it on. "Within seconds I smelt plastic. I looked into the oven and saw flames. I switched it off, took my food out. But the flames continued and so I ran for the door." In the corridor she ran into Jane Kiranga, a cleaning lady working for the company ISS. Without hesitation Jane picked up a portable fire extinguisher, returned to the kitchen and stopped the fire. The Fire Brigade arrived a few minutes later and only needed to ventilate the kitchen. "Jane was just in time, because the flames had not left the oven yet. Her model behaviour deserves recognition," said the team leader on duty for the CERN Fire Brigade. A few days later Jane received a gift voucher from the Prevention and Training section of the Safety Commission (photo).

  5. Carbon nanotubes – becoming clean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Grobert

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs are now well into their teenage years. Early on, theoretical predictions and experimental data showed that CNTs possess chemical and mechanical properties that exceed those of many other materials. This has triggered intense research into CNTs. A variety of production methods for CNTs have been developed; chemical modification, functionalization, filling, and doping have been achieved; and manipulation, separation, and characterization of individual CNTs is now possible. Today, products containing CNTs range from tennis rackets and golf clubs to vehicle fenders, X-ray tubes, and Li ion batteries. Breakthroughs for CNT-based technologies are anticipated in the areas of nanoelectronics, biotechnology, and materials science. In this article, I review the current situation in CNT production and highlight the importance of clean CNT material for the success of future applications.

  6. Containment air cleaning for LMFBRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A variety of air cleaning concepts was evaluated for potential use in future sodium-cooled breeder reactors. A 3-stage aqueous scrubber system was selected for large-scale demonstration testing under conditions similar to those postulated for containment venting and purging during reactor melt-through accidents. Two tests were performed in the Containment Systems Test Facility using a quench tank, a jet venturi scrubber and a high efficiency fibrous scrubber in series. The results of two tests with Na202 and Na0H aerosol and NaI vapor are presented showing >99.9% removal of Na202 and Na0H and >99.7% for NaI

  7. Beam Cleaning and Collimation Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Redaelli, S

    2016-01-01

    Collimation systems in particle accelerators are designed to dispose of unavoidable losses safely and efficiently during beam operation. Different roles are required for different types of accelerator. The present state of the art in beam collimation is exemplified in high-intensity, high-energy superconducting hadron colliders, like the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), where stored beam energies reach levels up to several orders of magnitude higher than the tiny energies required to quench cold magnets. Collimation systems are essential systems for the daily operation of these modern machines. In this document, the design of a multistage collimation system is reviewed, taking the LHC as an example case study. In this case, unprecedented cleaning performance has been achieved, together with a system complexity comparable to no other accelerator. Aspects related to collimator design and operational challenges of large collimation systems are also addressed.

  8. Medical Equipment at Home After the NICU

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medical equipment at home after the NICU Medical equipment at home after the NICU E-mail to ... care unit (NICU) don’t need special medical equipment, like monitors or feeding tubes, when they leave ...

  9. The NOXSO clean coal project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, J.B.; Woods, M.C.; Friedrich, J.J.; Browning, J.P. [NOXSO Corp., Bethel Park, PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The NOXSO Clean Coal Project will consist of designing, constructing, and operating a commercial-scale flue-gas cleanup system utilizing the NOXSO Process. The process is a waste-free, dry, post-combustion flue-gas treatment technology which uses a regenerable sorbent to simultaneously adsorb sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) from flue gas from coal-fired boilers. The NOXSO plant will be constructed at Alcoa Generating Corporation`s (AGC) Warrick Power Plant near Evansville, Indiana and will treat all the flue gas from the 150-MW Unit 2 boiler. The NOXSO plant is being designed to remove 98% of the SO{sub 2} and 75% of the NO{sub x} when the boiler is fired with 3.4 weight percent sulfur, southern-Indiana coal. The NOXSO plant by-product will be elemental sulfur. The elemental sulfur will be shipped to Olin Corporation`s Charleston, Tennessee facility for additional processing. As part of the project, a liquid SO{sub 2} plant has been constructed at this facility to convert the sulfur into liquid SO{sub 2}. The project utilizes a unique burn-in-oxygen process in which the elemental sulfur is oxidized to SO{sub 2} in a stream of compressed oxygen. The SO{sub 2} vapor will then be cooled and condensed. The burn-in-oxygen process is simpler and more environmentally friendly than conventional technologies. The liquid SO{sub 2} plant produces 99.99% pure SO{sub 2} for use at Olin`s facilities. The $82.8 million project is co-funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under Round III of the Clean Coal Technology program. The DOE manages the project through the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC).

  10. AVM branch vibration test equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An inventory of the test equipment of the AVM Branch ''Acoustic and Vibratory Mechanics Analysis Methods'' group has been undertaken. The purpose of this inventory is to enable better acquaintance with the technical characteristics of the equipment, providing an accurate definition of their functionalities, ad to inform potential users of the possibilities and equipment available in this field. The report first summarizes the various experimental surveys conduced. Then, using the AVM equipment database to draw up an exhaustive list of available equipment, it provides a full-scope picture of the vibration measurement systems (sensors, conditioners and exciters) and data processing resources commonly used on industrial sites and in laboratories. A definition is also given of a mobile test unit, called 'shelter', and a test bench used for the testing and performance rating of the experimental analysis methods developed by the group. The report concludes with a description of two fixed installations: - the calibration bench ensuring the requisite quality level for the vibration measurement systems ; - the training bench, whereby know-how acquired in the field in the field of measurement and experimental analysis processes is made available to others. (author). 27 refs., 15 figs., 2 appends

  11. Aeration equipment for small depths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sluše Jan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Deficit of air in water causes complications with cyanobacteria mainly in the summer months. Cyanobacteria is a bacteria that produces poison called cyanotoxin. When the concentration of cyanobacteria increases, the phenomena „algal bloom“ appears, which is very toxic and may kill all the organisms. This article describes new equipment for aeration of water in dams, ponds and reservoirs with small depth. This equipment is mobile and it is able to work without any human factor because its control is provided by a GPS module. The main part of this equipment consists of a floating pump which pumps water from the surface. Another important part of this equipment is an aerator where water and air are blended. Final aeration process runs in the nozzles which provide movement of all this equipment and aeration of the water. Simulations of the flow are solved by multiphase flow with diffusion in open source program called OpenFOAM. Results will be verified by an experiment.

  12. Evaluation of different cleaning agents used for cleaning ultra tiltration membranes fouled by surface water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zondervan, Edwin; Roffel, Brian

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews the published literature on potential membrane fouling components, available cleaning agents and possible interactions between cleaning agents and fouling components. It also lists the cleaning models available in the literature, and evaluates the advantages and disadvantages of t

  13. How Do We Clean Our Water and How Clean Does It Need to Be?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitburn, Niki

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, in the United Kingdom, citizens take for granted clean water pumped directly into their homes, but it was not always the case, and is still not so in many countries. Could people clean water themselves if they had to and what could they then use it for? Would it actually be "clean enough" to drink? The author presents children…

  14. Use of a cutting and cleaning system at the West Valley Demonstration Project, March 1985-January 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the use of a commercially available ultra high pressure water cutting an cleaning system at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) Facility. This system, known as the Ultra High Pressure System (UHP), has been successfully used at the WVDP in such applications as removing concrete from the internals of a cement mixer drum, cutting conventional and high density concrete in both clean and radioactively contaminated areas of the Facility and underwater cutting of aluminum canisters previously used for storage of spent nuclear fuel assemblies. The advantages of the system include savings in manpower, reduction in radiation exposure, adaptability to remote operations, and no structural damage to surrounding materials. This report describes the equipment associated with the UHP System and the cost expected for the capital equipment, consumable materials and special tooling. Details of the various cutting and cleaning operations performed at the WVDP are provided as well as a list of future projects

  15. Final design review report for K Basin Dose Reduction Project Clean and Coat Task

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The strategy for reducing radiation dose originating from radionuclides absorbed in the concrete is to raise the pool water level to provide additional shielding. The concrete walls need to be coated to prevent future radionuclide absorption into the walls. This report documents a final design review of equipment to clean and coat basin walls. The review concluded that the design presented was acceptable for release for fabrication

  16. Conceptual design review report for K Basin Dose Reduction Project clean and coat task

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The strategy for reducing radiation dose originating from radionuclides absorbed in the concrete is to raise the pool water level to provide additional shielding. The concrete walls need to be coated to prevent future radionuclide absorption into the walls. This report documents a conceptual design review of equipment to clean and coat basin walls. The review concluded that the proposed concepts were and acceptable basis for proceeding with detailed final design

  17. Aerodynamics Laboratory Facilities, Equipment, and Capabilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The following facilities, equipment, and capabilities are available in the Aerodynamics Laboratory Facilities and Equipment (1) Subsonic, open-jet wind tunnel with...

  18. Another donation of computer equipment

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2014-01-01

    On Thursday 27 February, CERN was pleased to donate computer equipment to a physics institute in the Philippines.   H.E. Leslie J. Baja and Rolf Heuer. Following donations of computer equipment to institutes in Morocco, Ghana, Bulgaria, Serbia and Egypt, CERN is to send 50 servers and 4 network switches to the National Institute of Physics at the University of the Philippines Diliman. CERN’s Director-General Rolf Heuer and the Ambassador of the Philippines to Switzerland and Lichtenstein, H.E. Leslie J. Baja, spoke of their enthusiasm for the project during an official ceremony. The equipment will be used for various high energy physics research programmes in the Philippines and for the University’s development of digital resources for science.

  19. Clean tech sector in Oost-Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijleveld, P.C. (Paul)

    2011-01-01

    Het doel van dit onderzoek is het in kaart brengen van de private clean tech sector in Oost-Nederland (Gelderland en Overijssel). Clean tech is de verzamelnaam voor producten en diensten die een bijdrage leveren aan een schonere aarde. Als basis voor het onderzoek is een zo volledig mogelijke lijst

  20. Electro-impulse Method of Surface Cleaning

    OpenAIRE

    Bekbolat R. Nussupbekov; Kappas Kussaynov; Аyanbergen К. Khassenov

    2013-01-01

    This article is focused on the qualitative assessment of the electro-impulse method of surface cleaning efficiency. Heat exchanger tubes are cleaned under the action of blast waves created by the high voltage discharge in the liquid. The article presents dependences of degree of surface purification on the impulse voltage at switching device and on spark rate

  1. Electro-impulse Method of Surface Cleaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekbolat R. Nussupbekov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is focused on the qualitative assessment of the electro-impulse method of surface cleaning efficiency. Heat exchanger tubes are cleaned under the action of blast waves created by the high voltage discharge in the liquid. The article presents dependences of degree of surface purification on the impulse voltage at switching device and on spark rate

  2. Clean Cities Now, Vol. 18, No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-04-30

    The Spring 2014 edition of the semi-annual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on deployment of alternative fuels and advanced vehicles, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

  3. Gas turbine cleaning upgrade (compressor wash)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, P. [Gas Turbine Efficiency, Jarfalla (Sweden)

    1998-12-31

    The influence of gas turbine degradation on operating costs is high. Gas turbine cleaning is one of many actions taken for power recovery and is to consider as preventive maintenance. It is generally performed within the industrial field and occasionally within the aero sector. In order to meet the gas turbine development win high blade loads and ever-increasing temperatures, together with emission Aces and environmental regulations, more efficient and careful cleaning methods are needed. Following a survey about potentials for cost reduction in gas turbine operation a new man-hour and water saving cleaning method has been evaluated for a standard process. Compared with traditional cleaning methods, the new method is water,- cost,- weight and space saving due to a new washing technique. Traditional methods are based on using different nozzles for ON and OFF-line cleaning, which rise the demand for complicated systems. In the new method the same nozzle installation, same liquid flow and pressure is used for both ON and OFF-line cleaning. This gives a cost reduction of appr. 20.000 - 30.000 USD per gas turbine depending on installation and size. Evaluation of the new method shows significantly improved ON -line cleaning performance and thus OFF -line cleaning is required only during scheduled stops. (orig.) 10 refs.

  4. Clean Cities Now Vol. 17, No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-10-23

    The Fall 2013 issue of the biannual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on deployment of alternative fuels and advanced vehicles, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

  5. 7 CFR 29.2506 - Clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 29.2506 Section 29.2506 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2506 Clean. Tobacco is described as...

  6. 7 CFR 51.314 - Clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 51.314 Section 51.314 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Apples Definitions § 51.314 Clean. “Clean” means that the apples are free...

  7. 7 CFR 51.3155 - Clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 51.3155 Section 51.3155 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Nectarines Definitions § 51.3155 Clean. “Clean” means that the fruit is...

  8. 7 CFR 51.2956 - Practically clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Practically clean. 51.2956 Section 51.2956 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Walnuts in the Shell Definitions § 51.2956 Practically clean. Practically...

  9. 7 CFR 51.1529 - Clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 51.1529 Section 51.1529 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Fresh Plums and Prunes Definitions § 51.1529 Clean. “Clean” means that the fruit...

  10. Clean Cities Now Vol. 19, No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-12-18

    Clean Cities Now is the official bi-annual newsletter of Clean Cities, an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

  11. Advancing clean energy technology in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the development of clean energy technology in Canada. Energy is a major source of Canadian prosperity. Energy means more to Canada than any other industrialized country. It is the only OECD country with growing oil production. Canada is a stable and secure energy supplier and a major consumer. Promoting clean energy is a priority to make progress in multiple areas.

  12. State Grid Contributes to Clean Energy Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao

    2010-01-01

    The development of clean energy is an inevitable choice for China to achieve sustainable development.The article presents the strategic thinking and measures for the promotion of clean energy development in grids, which shows that the company will bear its responsibilities for the development as a large state-owned enterprise.

  13. Clean Cities 2011 Annual Metrics Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.

    2012-12-01

    This report details the petroleum savings and vehicle emissions reductions achieved by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program in 2011. The report also details other performance metrics, including the number of stakeholders in Clean Cities coalitions, outreach activities by coalitions and national laboratories, and alternative fuel vehicles deployed.

  14. Clean Cities 2010 Annual Metrics Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.

    2012-10-01

    This report details the petroleum savings and vehicle emissions reductions achieved by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program in 2010. The report also details other performance metrics, including the number of stakeholders in Clean Cities coalitions, outreach activities by coalitions and national laboratories, and alternative fuel vehicles deployed.

  15. 49 CFR 174.57 - Cleaning cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cleaning cars. 174.57 Section 174.57... and Loading Requirements § 174.57 Cleaning cars. All hazardous material which has leaked from a package in any rail car or on other railroad property must be carefully removed....

  16. Clean Cities Now Vol. 20, No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-13

    Clean Cities Now is the official semi-annual newsletter of Clean Cities, an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

  17. Mechanical (turbines and auxiliary equipment)

    CERN Document Server

    Sherry, A; Cruddace, AE

    2013-01-01

    Modern Power Station Practice, Volume 3: Mechanical (Turbines and Auxiliary Equipment) focuses on the development of turbines and auxiliary equipment used in power stations in Great Britain. Topics covered include thermodynamics and steam turbine theory; turbine auxiliary systems such as lubrication systems, feed water heating systems, and the condenser and cooling water plants. Miscellaneous station services, and pipework in power plants are also described. This book is comprised of five chapters and begins with an overview of thermodynamics and steam turbine theory, paying particular attenti

  18. Equipment for radioactive waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The equipment is used for the concentration, calcination, possibly denitration of high, medium and low level radioactive wastes. It is provided with a heated body and driving mechanism. In the heated body there is a horizontal or oblique shaft with a system of vanes, possibly with a screw. On one side of the heated body there is an opening for drop and vapour extraction. A lead screen may be placed in this area, opposite to it a shielding and between them a deactivation slot. The advantage of the discovery is in that the shaft including the bearings are placed outside of the working part of the equipment. (M.D.)

  19. The development of superconducting equipment

    CERN Document Server

    Ueda, T; Hiue, H

    2003-01-01

    Fuji Electric has been developing various types of superconducting equipment for over a quarter of a century. This paper describes the development results achieved for superconducting equipment and especially focuses on large-capacity current leads and superconducting transmission systems, the development of which is being promoted for application to the field of nuclear fusion. High temperature superconductor (HTS) is becoming the mainstream in the field of superconductivity, and the HTS floating coil and conduction-cooled HTS transformed are also introduced as recent developments for devices that utilize this technology. (author)

  20. 19 CFR 151.71 - Laboratory testing for clean yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Laboratory testing for clean yield. 151.71 Section... Laboratory testing for clean yield. (a) Test and report by Customs laboratory. The clean yield of all general... clean yield. A report of the percentage clean yield of each general sample as established by the...

  1. Effect of Time in Chemical Cleaning of Ultrafiltration Membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Levitsky; R. Naim; A. Duek; V. Gitis

    2012-01-01

    Chemical cleaning of ultrafiltration membranes is often considered successful when the flux through a cleaned membrane is much higher than through a pristine one. Here, a novel definition of cleaning intensity is proposed as the product of the concentration of the cleaning agent and the cleaning tim

  2. Surface decontamination using dry ice snow cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The water washing and steam blast cleaning method are currently used in nuclear power plants in decontamination. These methods produce lots of secondary wastes and tend to damage the work surface. A dry ice snow cleaning device with an adjustable nozzle was developed for the decontamination purpose. Glass with finger prints and scratched acrylic plastics surface with adsorbed oil-dust mixture were tested to see the cleaning ability of the developed device. Traces of finger prints and oil-dust mixture could not be detected after cleaning. The radioactivity of pump housing in a primary system of Wolsung Nuclear Power Plant was also tested. The maximum of 82% of radioactivity was reduced after dry ice snow cleaning. This device is expected to be used in decontamination of expensive electronic and optical instruments and detectors that cannot be decontaminated by water

  3. Clean Coal Technology Programs: Program Update 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of the Clean Coal Technology Programs: Program Update 2009 is to provide an updated status of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) commercial-scale demonstrations of clean coal technologies (CCT). These demonstrations have been performed under the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP), the Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPII), and the Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI). Program Update 2009 provides: (1) a discussion of the role of clean coal technology demonstrations in improving the nation’s energy security and reliability, while protecting the environment using the nation’s most abundant energy resource—coal; (2) a summary of the funding and costs of the demonstrations; and (3) an overview of the technologies being demonstrated, along with fact sheets for projects that are active, recently completed, or recently discontinued.

  4. Clean fuel technologies and clean and reliable energy: a summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are two major areas covered by this current Special Issue: Cleaner Fuel Technologies and Waste Processing. In addition, the Special Issue, also includes some recent developments in various fields of energy efficiency research. The first group of contributions considers in detail, hydrogen production from biomass and hydrogen production by the sorption-enhanced steam methane reforming process (SE-SMR). Biomass-related technologies are also discussed for a design of an integrated biorefinery, production of clean diesel fuel by co-hydrogenation of vegetable oil with gas oil and utilization of microwave and ultrasound pretreatments in the production of bioethanol from corn. Waste Processing aspects are considered in the second group of papers. This section includes integrated waste-to-energy plants, utilisation of municipal solid waste in the cement industry and urban supply and disposal systems. The third topic is intentionally made rather loose: it includes different research topics on various aspects of energy efficiency, e.g. resource-saving network design, new research on divided wall columns, vehicle logistics as process-network synthesis for energy consumption and CO2 reduction.

  5. Clean fuel technologies and clean and reliable energy: a summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulatov, Igor [The University of Manchester, Centre for Process Integration, CEAS, Manchester (United Kingdom); Klemes, Jiri Jaromir [University of Pannonia, Centre for Process Integration and Intensification (CPI2), Research Institute of Chemical and Process Engineering, Faculty of Information Technology, Veszprem (Hungary)

    2011-08-15

    There are two major areas covered by this current Special Issue: Cleaner Fuel Technologies and Waste Processing. In addition, the Special Issue, also includes some recent developments in various fields of energy efficiency research. The first group of contributions considers in detail, hydrogen production from biomass and hydrogen production by the sorption-enhanced steam methane reforming process (SE-SMR). Biomass-related technologies are also discussed for a design of an integrated biorefinery, production of clean diesel fuel by co-hydrogenation of vegetable oil with gas oil and utilization of microwave and ultrasound pretreatments in the production of bioethanol from corn. Waste Processing aspects are considered in the second group of papers. This section includes integrated waste-to-energy plants, utilisation of municipal solid waste in the cement industry and urban supply and disposal systems. The third topic is intentionally made rather loose: it includes different research topics on various aspects of energy efficiency, e.g. resource-saving network design, new research on divided wall columns, vehicle logistics as process-network synthesis for energy consumption and CO{sub 2} reduction.

  6. Clean-up actions in food industry plants and their surroundings in a radioactive contamination situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radioactive fallout following a nuclear power plant accident, nuclear weapon explosion or other radiation hazard situation can contaminate foodstuff and food industry plants either directly from the fallout or through contaminated raw materials or air used for pneumatic transport of products and raw materials. Radioactive contamination usually appears as dust which can only contaminate foodstuff, raw materials and water if it gets into contact with them. In case of a threat of radioactive contamination situation, measures to prevent or diminish contamination of foodstuff must be immediately started. Ventilation of the plant must be stopped and the plant including storehouses must be isolated by closing all doors and windows. Unprotected foodstuff and raw materials can be covered. The production is usually best to be interrupted. Clean-up actions carried out after the radiation situation can be made easier, and their duration shorter, by appropriate protective measures taken beforehand. After the radiation situation is over the food plant must be decontaminated so that the production can be restarted, and the products are proved clean and safe and it is safe for the employees to work again in the plant. Clean-up actions must be planned thoroughly before starting them. The quality of the actions depends on the amount and characteristics of radioactive substances in the fallout, current weather and season, characteristics of the area to be decontaminated and available resources. Decontamination of the plant and the production machines must be accompanied by decontamination of vehicles and equipment used for transportation of products and raw materials, as well as the outdoor areas from where contamination can spread into the plant and the products. Vacuum-cleaning, washing of floors, walls and roofs and dusting can be used to clean up inner surfaces of the plant. It seems that clean-up methods normally used for the plant and the production machines, when intensified

  7. Comprehensive work plan for the Well Driller's Steam Cleaning Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this Comprehensive Work Plan is to address the history of the site as well as the scope, roles and responsibilities, documentation, training, environmental compliance requirements, and field actions needed to close the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Well Driller's Steam Cleaning Facility, hereinafter referred to as the Facility. The Facility was constructed in 1989 to provide a central area suitable to conduct steam cleaning operations associated with cleaning drilling equipment, containment boxes, and related accessories. Three basins were constructed of crushed stone (with multiple plastic and fabric liners) over a soil foundation to collect drill cuttings and wastewater generated by the cleaning activities. The scope of this task will be to demolish the Facility by using a bulldozer and backhoe to recontour and dismantle the area

  8. Dilute chemical cleaning of PWR steam generators off-line cleaning process evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project evaluated the feasibility of using a low-concentration (approx. 0.5 wt %) chemical cleaning process to remove corrosion product deposits from steam generator surfaces and magnetite from tube-to-support plate crevices of PWR steam generators. The primary objective was to develop a dilute process that could be safely applied at scheduled intervals, such as during normal refueling outages, to maintain a clean operating condition in the steam generator. The dilute chemical cleaning process developed in this project was demonstrated successfully on two model generators which were operated on faulted chemistry by DOE/CRC at Commonwealth's State Line Facility. Unit 5 was cleaned after 48 days of operation with 1% seawater fouling, and Unit 6 was cleaned after 112 days of operations with Lake Michigan water. This report describes work leading to the model generator cleaning demonstrations and provides details of the cleaning operation for each model steam generator

  9. Northeast Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgeois, Tom

    2013-09-30

    From October 1, 2009 through September 30, 2013 (“contract period”), the Northeast Clean Energy Application Center (“NE-CEAC”) worked in New York and New England (Connecticut, Rhode Island, Vermont, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Maine) to create a more robust market for the deployment of clean energy technologies (CETs) including combined heat and power (CHP), district energy systems (DES), and waste heat recovery (WHR) systems through the provision of technical assistance, education and outreach, and strategic market analysis and support for decision-makers. CHP, DES, and WHR can help reduce greenhouse gas emissions, reduce electrical and thermal energy costs, and provide more reliable energy for users throughout the United States. The NE-CEAC’s efforts in the provision of technical assistance, education and outreach, and strategic market analysis and support for decision-makers helped advance the market for CETs in the Northeast thereby helping the region move towards the following outcomes: • Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and criteria pollutants • Improvements in energy efficiency resulting in lower costs of doing business • Productivity gains in industry and efficiency gains in buildings • Lower regional energy costs • Strengthened energy security • Enhanced consumer choice • Reduced price risks for end-users • Economic development effects keeping more jobs and more income in our regional economy Over the contract period, NE-CEAC provided technical assistance to approximately 56 different potential end-users that were interested in CHP and other CETs for their facility or facilities. Of these 56 potential end-users, five new CHP projects totaling over 60 MW of install capacity became operational during the contract period. The NE-CEAC helped host numerous target market workshops, trainings, and webinars; and NE-CEAC staff delivered presentations at many other workshops and conferences. In total, over 60 different workshops

  10. Equipment and methods for examinations of fuel rods in the MIR reactor storage pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A wide range of tests of fuel rods and structural materials of water-cooled power reactors is performed in the loop facilities (LFs) of the MIR reactor. Depending on the objectives and tasks of different experiments, the performance of periodical interim examinations of irradiated items is required. However, as a result of some circumstances, it is not always possible to conduct them in hot cells. In this context, JSC 'SSC RIAR' has developed the equipment for interim examinations of fuel rods and design components of the experimental fuel assemblies (EFAs) in the MIR reactor storage pool (SP). Besides, this equipment can be used for cleaning of the examined items from surface deposits prior to the measurements. The paper describes the main characteristics and capabilities of the developed equipment, methodical aspects of the performed interim examinations, as well as some experimental results obtained using this equipment. In future, its upgrade is planned. (author)

  11. The Westinghouse equipment lifetime monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Westinghouse Equipment LIFETIME Monitor addresses a long-standing need in the nuclear industry-A way to continuously and passively monitor the temperature and radiation environment of components located throughout the plant. This compact device (approximately 2.5 x 2.3 x 1.3 inches) is capable of performing up to six different functions. Each function is designed to measure a different type or range of environmental parameter. Monitoring options include peak temperature, integrated temperature, low and high range gamma ray dose, beta particle dose, and neutron radiation. These various functions allow flexibility in selecting the precise environmental parameters to be monitored to meet plant specific requirements and budget constraints. The data acquired from the Equipment LIFETIME Monitor can be used in a variety of ways, including: - Extending the qualified life of safety-related equipment by improving on initial assumptions regarding service environment, - Conducting long term temperature and radiation surveys to ensure operation within qualified limits, - Assessing potential age-related degradation of major high cost components for purposes of plant life extension, and - Justifying continued use of equipment following an accidental excursion in environmental radiation or temperature. (author)

  12. X-ray diagnostic equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lateral and orbital scanning movements can be carried out with the equipment. The assessment is carried out by a computer. Differences in sensitivity of the detectors can be compensated for by displacement of the electron beam of the X-ray tube compared to the anti-cathode or by bending of the electron beam by electromagnetic coils. (RW)

  13. Microleasing : Overcoming Equipment Financing Barriers

    OpenAIRE

    Goldberg , Mike

    2008-01-01

    As their businesses grow, many microbusiness owners would like to purchase new machinery from a microfinance institution (MFI), since such equipment can hold the key to increasing production. However, MFIs are often not able or willing to lend for longer periods of time, with grace periods that long term lending for machinery requires. Long term financing from other sources is usually not ...

  14. X-ray diagnostic equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An X-ray tube is connected to several different image processing devices in X-ray diagnostic equipment. Only a single organ selector is allocated to it, for which the picture parameters for each image processing device are selected. The choice of the correct combination of picture parameters is made by means of a selector switch. (DG)

  15. Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigum, Marianne Kristine Kjærgaard; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is one of the fastest growing special waste types with an estimated growth of 3–5% per year (Cui and Forssberg, 2003). WEEE is a very heterogeneous waste type that contains many compounds that are considered to be harmful to both humans and the...

  16. Hydraulic turbines and auxiliary equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo Gaorong [Organization of the United Nations, Beijing (China). International Centre of Small Hydroelectric Power Plants

    1995-07-01

    This document presents a general overview on hydraulic turbines and auxiliary equipment, emphasizing the turbine classification, in accordance with the different types of turbines, standard turbine series in China, turbine selection based on the basic data required for the preliminary design, general hill model curves, chart of turbine series and the arrangement of application for hydraulic turbines, hydraulic turbine testing, and speed regulating device.

  17. Lifting operations and lifting equipment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douwes, M.

    2013-01-01

    Lifting operations are inherent to many occupations in the construction industry. They can be performed manually or using lifting equipment. Both manual lifting and mechanical lifting operations can put construction workers at great risk of injury or health symptoms causing sick leave or disability.

  18. Using Gaming Equipment to Teach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curriculum Review, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Gaming equipment (such as Nintendo's Wii[TM]) is making its way to schools and classrooms. However, most of the discussion regarding how to use this technology and integrate it into lesson plans is happening in blogs on the Internet. An advocate of interactive media in the classroom, Dr. Dawn Hawkins, a faculty member for the Art Institute of…

  19. Pocket dictionary of laboratory equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This pocket dictionary contains the 2500 most common terms for scientific and technical equipment in chemical laboratories. It is a useful tool for those who are used to communicating in German and English, but have to learn the special terminology in this field. (orig.)

  20. Cleaning up the sea bed in the North Sea. 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The yearly raid was executed in an efficient way and without excess technical equipment interruptions. The vessel ''Lance'' owned by the Norwegian Sea Mapping Authorities which was used for the sonar mapping of the sea bed, was equipped with a Klein 531T side seeking sonar, a Simrad echo sounder of the type EM100 (multiray) and differential GPS navigation system. The executive committee has earlier expressed desire for a strengthening of the co-operation with the Norwegian Sea Mapping Authorities. The use of the vessel was in accordance with this wish. Stolt Comex Seaway A/S used the vessel M/S ''Seaway Commander'' and the underwater vessel ''Solo'' for the cleaning up project. The systems worked satisfactory during the entire operation. The cleaning operation was in 1994 carried out in 2 sections. The Petroleum Directorate agreed to letting the M/S ''Seaway Commander'' complete the project for Norsk Hydro at the Troll field in order to avoid delays in the Troll Oil project. In both periods there were good weather conditions. There was no extensive discontinuations due to the weather. During the two periods of 13,5 days 259 out of 370 positions were investigated visually through the systems. This is in average about 20 inspected positions a day. The reason for the high average is that the sailing distances are short between the positions and the findings corresponded to stated positions and sonar interpretations. Also this year there was installed a side seeking sonar in the underwater vessel which resulted in reduced investigation time at each aim. It was possible with this type of sonar to identify the goal quicker and to seek during transit between goals at moderate distances. Few articles with certainty contributed by the petroleum activities were retrieved

  1. Drinking and Cleaning Water Use in a Dairy Cow Barn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Krauß

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Water is used in dairy farming for producing feed, watering the animals, and cleaning and disinfecting barns and equipment. The objective of this study was to investigate the drinking and cleaning water use in a dairy cow barn. The water use was measured on a well-managed commercial dairy farm in North-East Germany. Thirty-eight water meters were installed in a barn with 176 cows and two milking systems (an automatic milking system and a herringbone parlour. Their counts were logged hourly over 806 days. On average, the cows in the automatic milking system used 91.1 (SD 14.3 L drinking water per cow per day, while those in the herringbone parlour used 54.4 (SD 5.3 L per cow per day. The cows drink most of the water during the hours of (natural and artificial light in the barn. Previously published regression functions of drinking water intake of the cows were reviewed and a new regression function based on the ambient temperature and the milk yield was developed (drinking water intake (L per cow per day = −27.937 + 0.49 × mean temperature + 3.15 × milk yield (R2 = 0.67. The cleaning water demand had a mean of 28.6 (SD 14.8 L per cow per day in the automatic milking system, and a mean of 33.8 (SD 14.1 L per cow per day in the herringbone parlour. These findings show that the total technical water use in the barn makes only a minor contribution to water use in dairy farming compared with the water use for feed production.

  2. Underwater cleaning techniqued used for removal of zebra mussels at the FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the use of a mechanical brush cleaning technology recently used to remove biofouling from the Circulating Water (CW) System at New York Power Authority's James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Plant. The FitzPatrick plant had previously used chemical molluscicide to treat zebra mussels in the CW system. Full system treatment was performed in 1992 with limited forebay/screenwell treatment in 1993. The New York Power Authority (NYPA) decided to conduct a mechanical cleaning of the intake system in 1994. Specific project objectives included: (1) Achieve a level of surface cleaniness greater than 98%; (2) Remove 100% of debris, both existing sediment and debris generated as a result of cleaning; (3) Inspect all surfaces and components, identifying any problem areas; (4) Complete the task in a time frame within the 1994-95 refueling outage schedule window, and; (5) Determine if underwater mechanical cleaning is a cost-effective zebra mussel control method suitable for future application at FitzPatrick. A pre-cleaning inspection, including underwater video photography, was conducted of each area. Cleaning was accomplished using diver-controlled, multi-brush equipment included the electro-hydraulic powered Submersible Cleaning and Maintenance Platform (SCAMP), and several designs of hand-held machines. The brushes swept all zebra mussels off surfaces, restoring concrete and metal substrates to their original condition. Sensitive areas including pump housings, standpipes, sensor piping and chlorine injection tubing, were cleaned without degradation. Submersible vortex vacuum pumps were used to remove debris from the cavity. More than 46,000 ft2 of surface area was cleaned and over 460 cubic yards of dewatered debris were removed. As each area was completed, a post-clean inspection with photos and video was performed

  3. Underwater cleaning techniqued used for removal of zebra mussels at the FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, B. [Seaward Marine Services, Inc., Fairfax, VA (United States); Kahabka, J. [New York Power Authority, White Plains, NY (United States)

    1995-06-01

    This paper discusses the use of a mechanical brush cleaning technology recently used to remove biofouling from the Circulating Water (CW) System at New York Power Authority`s James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Plant. The FitzPatrick plant had previously used chemical molluscicide to treat zebra mussels in the CW system. Full system treatment was performed in 1992 with limited forebay/screenwell treatment in 1993. The New York Power Authority (NYPA) decided to conduct a mechanical cleaning of the intake system in 1994. Specific project objectives included: (1) Achieve a level of surface cleaniness greater than 98%; (2) Remove 100% of debris, both existing sediment and debris generated as a result of cleaning; (3) Inspect all surfaces and components, identifying any problem areas; (4) Complete the task in a time frame within the 1994-95 refueling outage schedule window, and; (5) Determine if underwater mechanical cleaning is a cost-effective zebra mussel control method suitable for future application at FitzPatrick. A pre-cleaning inspection, including underwater video photography, was conducted of each area. Cleaning was accomplished using diver-controlled, multi-brush equipment included the electro-hydraulic powered Submersible Cleaning and Maintenance Platform (SCAMP), and several designs of hand-held machines. The brushes swept all zebra mussels off surfaces, restoring concrete and metal substrates to their original condition. Sensitive areas including pump housings, standpipes, sensor piping and chlorine injection tubing, were cleaned without degradation. Submersible vortex vacuum pumps were used to remove debris from the cavity. More than 46,000 ft{sup 2} of surface area was cleaned and over 460 cubic yards of dewatered debris were removed. As each area was completed, a post-clean inspection with photos and video was performed.

  4. Clean Energy Policy Analysis: Impact Analysis of Potential Clean Energy Policy Options for the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative (HCEI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busche, S.; Doris, E.; Braccio, R.; Lippert, D.; Finch, P.; O' Toole, D.; Fetter, J.

    2010-04-01

    This report provides detailed analyses of 21 clean energy policy options considered by the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative working groups for recommendation to the 2010 Hawaii State Legislature. The report considers the impact each policy may have on ratepayers, businesses, and the state in terms of energy saved, clean energy generated, and the financial costs and benefits. The analyses provide insight into the possible impacts, both qualitative and quantitative, that these policies may have in Hawaii based on the experience with these policies elsewhere. As much as possible, the analyses incorporate Hawaii-specific context to reflect the many unique aspects of energy use in the State of Hawaii.

  5. The climate penalty for clean fossil fuel combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Junkermann

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available To cope with the world's growing demand for energy, a large number of coal-fired power plants are currently in operation or under construction. To prevent environmental damage from acidic sulphur and particulate emissions, many such installations are equipped with flue gas cleaning technology that reduces the emitted amounts of sulphur dioxide (SO2 and nitrogen dioxide (NO2. However, the consequences of this technology for aerosol emissions, and in particular the regional scale impact on cloud microphysics, have not been studied until now. We performed airborne investigations to measure aerosol size distributions in the air masses downwind of coal-fired power installations. We show how the current generation of clean technology reduces the emission of sulphur and fine particulate matter, but leads to an unanticipated increase in the direct emission of ultrafine particles (1–10 nm median diameter which are highly effective precursors of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN. Our analysis shows how these additional ultrafine particles modify cloud microphysics, as well as precipitation intensity and distribution on a regional scale downwind of emission sources. Effectively, the number of small water droplets is increased, thus reducing the water available for large droplets and rain formation. The corresponding changes in the precipitation budget with a shift from more frequent steady rain to occasionally more vigorous rain events, or even a significant regional reduction of annual precipitation, introduce an unanticipated risk for regional climate and agricultural production, especially in semi-arid climate zones.

  6. Decrudding and chemical cleaning of carbon steel components - an evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrosion and accumulation of corrosion products on the surfaces of structural components and plant equipments can cause se vereoperational problems during service. An illustration is the heat exchanger systems in nuclear power stations. Development and standardisation of appropriate chemical cleaning and decontamination procedures and their evaluation hence merit serious consideration. A number of chemical cleaning procedures using formulations based on hydrochloric and citric acid solutions have been examined to study their crud dissolving and derusting ability in addition to the attack on base material. The compositions were chosen: (1) along with complexing agents EDTA and ammonium citrate, (2) with pH control, and (3) with the use of inhibitors acridine, rhodine, hexamine and phenyl-thiourea. The evaluations have been made at 28 and 60 deg C. Rusted carbon steel coupons having a rust of 10-12 mg/cm2 on the surface have been used for the purpose of the above evaluations. Data on corrosion rates of monel and cupronickel (70:30) in the descaling solutions have also been presented. Results on the above evaluation studies have been discussed. (author)

  7. Tidd hot gas clean up program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    This Final Report on the Tidd Hot Gas Clean Up Program covers the period from initial Proof-of-Concept testing in August, 1990, through final equipment inspections in May, 1995. The Tidd Hot Gas Clean Up (HGCU) system was installed in the Tidd Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) Demonstration Plant, which is the first utility-scale PFBC plant in the United States. Detailed design work on the project began in July, 1990, and site construction began in December, 1991. Initial operation of the system occurred in May, 1992, and the hot gas filter was commissioned in October, 1992. The test program ended in March, 1995, when the Tidd Plant was shut down following its four-year test program. Section 1.0 of this report is an executive summary of the project covering the project background, system description, test results and conclusions. Section 2.0 is an introduction covering the program objectives and schedule. Section 3.0 provides detailed descriptions of the system and its major components. Section 4.0 provides detailed results of all testing including observations and posttest inspection results. Sections 5.0 and 6.0 list the program conclusions and recommendations, respectively. Appendix I is a report prepared by Southern Research Institute on the properties of Tidd PFBC ash sampled during the test program. Appendix II is a report prepared by Westinghouse STC on the performance of candle filter fail-safe regenerator devices.

  8. Lifecycle Management of Safeguards Equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, traditional procurement procedures for safeguards equipment have experienced major setbacks that have led to costly and time-consuming re-design and re-evaluation periods, as well as delays in the delivery and deployment of urgently needed equipment. A common element of all encountered problems is the rapid development of technical components. The accelerated pace of 69 safeguards systems development, when coupled with the absence of a disciplined lifecycle approach to design and development, leads to early technical obsolescence as well as the inability to support a safeguards system over its operational lifecycle. This condition is further aggravated by safeguards equipment suppliers who wrestle with economies of scale associated with a unique safeguards market that generally does not provide sufficient margins to stay in business. As a result, international agencies charged with safeguards responsibilities find it difficult to secure the supply of identical safeguards equipment over periods of ten or more years. However, all these problems are merely symptoms of the lack of an integrated lifecycle management approach with early involvement of all parties: vendors and their suppliers, national laboratories and contracted developers, national support programs, and international agencies with nonproliferation responsibilities. The following paper will describe the unique constellation of players within the safeguards community, and why this constellation is a cause of most of the problems inherent in traditional procurement procedures. Further, it will offer a comprehensive lifecycle management approach that will ensure the availability of identical safeguards equipment over its required lifespan (ten to fifteen years). It should be noted that an integrated lifecycle management approach will be difficult to implement and will require a fundamental re-orientation of efforts in: need identification, system design and development, funding, and

  9. Cleaning efficiency enhancement by ultrasounds for membranes used in dairy industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luján-Facundo, M J; Mendoza-Roca, J A; Cuartas-Uribe, B; Álvarez-Blanco, S

    2016-11-01

    Membrane cleaning is a key point for the implementation of membrane technologies in the dairy industry for proteins concentration. In this study, four ultrafiltration (UF) membranes with different molecular weight cut-offs (MWCOs) (5, 15, 30 and 50kDa) and materials (polyethersulfone and ceramics) were fouled with three different whey model solutions: bovine serum albumin (BSA), BSA plus CaCl2 and whey protein concentrate solution (Renylat 45). The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of ultrasounds (US) on the membrane cleaning efficiency. The influence of ultrasonic frequency and the US application modes (submerging the membrane module inside the US bath or applying US to the cleaning solution) were also evaluated. The experiments were performed in a laboratory plant which included the US equipment and the possibility of using two membrane modules (flat sheet and tubular). The fouling solution that caused the highest fouling degree for all the membranes was Renylat 45. Results demonstrated that membrane cleaning with US was effective and this effectiveness increased at lower frequencies. Although no significant differences were observed between the two different US applications modes tested, slightly higher cleaning efficiencies values placing the membrane module at the bottom of the tank were achieved. PMID:27245952

  10. MODERN QUESTIONS OF POTATO HARVESTING EQUIPMENT PERFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simdyankin A. A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Potato is cultivated in 130 countries on an area of over 18 million hectares; it annually gives more than 300 million tons of tubers. The share of the Russian Federation accounts is about 11% ... 14% of total production. The resulting potatoes consumed in food, animal feed, technical purposes, seed fund. According to the Ministry of agriculture of Russia, the largest number of potatoes in our country (89 % is produced in peasant farms and personal farms of citizens, the area of cultivation of which make up about 2.7 million hectares. At such farms for the harvest, they use mainly potatodiggers, followed by selection of crops manually. The use of diggers in small areas of planting is more costefficiently in relation to the harvesting combine. In addition, the parameters requested for ATT to damage potatoes when harvesting with the diggers (3% are higher than during harvesting by combine harvester (5%. As practice shows, for the use of cleaning units, even under optimal harvesting conditions in the hopper of the combine, there are soil and vegetable impurities. There are many different devices intended to localize the problem. Based on the foregoing, we can conclude that it is necessary to pay considerable attention to the quality of work of excavating working bodies, because it affects the productivity of the functioning of the whole machine. Currently, there are widespread potato aggregates with the receiving part, equipped with side disks, spaced along the edges of the plowshares. The disks cut off the raised layer of soil from between the rows. This entails improving the performance of the potato harvester. The most efficient and economical from the point of view of energy consumption, is the work of passive disks with hooks. The quality of potato harvesters depends on the design and performance of excavating bodies. The proposed design solution for an excavating body increases the productivity of harvesting machines

  11. Cleaning up Wismut's waste dumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The intensive uranium ore mining activities in Saxony and Thuringia up until 1990 have produced not only some 220,000 t of uranium, but also a multitude of shafts, dumps, sludge ponds, and a big hole left over from open-cast mining, on a total plant area of approx. 37 square kilometers. Decommissioning and disposing of these installations, and cleaning up and recultivating the plant areas, is the purposes and sole activity of Wismut GmbH. Under applicable law, the strategy of the firm is aimed at using modern technical procedures to decommission and dispose of the mining and dressing facilities and make plant areas and the site available for other uses and, in doing so, strike an optimum balance between ecological, economic, and social aspects of cleanup. For this purpose, international exerience is utilized by the firm in arranging workshops on important problems. After flooding of the mines and clearing of the tailings had been treated in previous years, a workshop on dump cleanup was organized in Chemniti in November 1995. The paper deals with aspects of preparing for dump cleanup on the Aue and Ronneburg sites. (orig.)

  12. Condensate cleaning-up method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upon cleaning-up condensates by filtration through thread-like hollow porous membranes in BWR type reactors, the thread-like hollow porous membranes used have average pore size of 0.01 - 1 μm and porosity of 40 to 80 % , having ionic exchange capacity corresponding to 0.05 to 2 meq of sulfonic groups introduced per one gram of the thread-like hollow porous membranes, in which the sulfonic groups at the outer surface are in the form of salts of non-dissociating metals. By using the thread-like hollow porous membranes capable of satisfying such conditions, it is possible to prevent the formation of solid-like iron deposited to the inner and the outer surfaces of the thread-like hollow membranes even when the condensates in a nuclear power plant are filtered for a long period of time. Further, since there is no scarce reduction in the water permeation rate, stable operation is possible. (T.M.)

  13. New catalysts for clean environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maijanen, A.; Hase, A. [eds.] [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    VTT launched a Research Programme on Chemical Reaction Mechanisms (CREAM) in 1993. The three-year programme (1993-1995) has focused on reaction mechanisms relevant to process industries and aimed at developing novel catalysts and biocatalysts for forest, food, and specialty chemicals industries as well as for energy production. The preliminary results of this programme have already been presented in the first symposium organized in Espoo in September 1994. To conclude the programme the second symposium is organized in Otaniemi, Espoo on January 29 - 30, 1996. Papers by 19 speakers and 17 poster presentations of the 1996 Symposium are included in this book. The Symposium consists of four sessions: Biotechnology for Natural Fibers Processing, New Biocatalysts, Catalysts for Clean Energy, and New Opportunities for Chemical Industry. The CREAM programme has tried to foresee solutions for the problems challenged by the public concern on environmental aspects, especially dealing with industrial processes and novel use of raw materials and energy. The programme has followed the basic routes that can lead to natural and simple solutions to develop processes in the fields of forest, food fine chemicals, and energy industry. This symposium presents the results of the programme to learn and further discuss together with the international experts that have been invited as keynote speakers. (author)

  14. Midwest Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuttica, John; Haefke, Cliff

    2013-12-31

    The Midwest Clean Energy Application Center (CEAC) was one of eight regional centers that promoted and assisted in transforming the market for combined heat and power (CHP), waste heat to power (WHP), and district energy (DE) technologies and concepts throughout the United States between October 1, 2009 and December 31, 2013. The key services the CEACs provided included: Market Opportunity Analyses – Supporting analyses of CHP market opportunities in diverse markets including industrial, federal, institutional, and commercial sectors. Education and Outreach – Providing information on the energy and non-energy benefits and applications of CHP to state and local policy makers, regulators, energy end-users, trade associations and others. Information was shared on the Midwest CEAC website: www.midwestcleanergy.org. Technical Assistance – Providing technical assistance to end-users and stakeholders to help them consider CHP, waste heat to power, and/or district energy with CHP in their facility and to help them through the project development process from initial CHP screening to installation. The Midwest CEAC provided services to the Midwest Region that included the states of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin.

  15. Cleaning Up Our Drinking Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imagine drinking water that you wring out of the sponge you've just used to wash your car. This is what is happening around the world. Rain and snow pass through soil polluted with pesticides, poisonous metals and radionuclides into the underground lakes and streams that supply our drinking water. 'We need to understand this natural system better to protect our groundwater and, by extension, our drinking water,' said Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's Applied Geology and Geochemistry Group Manager, Wayne Martin. Biologists, statisticians, hydrologists, geochemists, geologists and computer scientists at PNNL work together to clean up contaminated soils and groundwater. The teams begin by looking at the complexities of the whole environment, not just the soil or just the groundwater. PNNL researchers also perform work for private industries under a unique use agreement between the Department of Energy and Battelle, which operates the laboratory for DOE. This research leads to new remediation methods and technologies to tackle problems ranging from arsenic at old fertilizer plants to uranium at former nuclear sites. Our results help regulators, policy makers and the public make critical decisions on complex environmental issues

  16. Midwest Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuttica, John; Haefke, Cliff

    2013-12-31

    The Midwest Clean Energy Application Center (CEAC) was one of eight regional centers that promoted and assisted in transforming the market for combined heat and power (CHP), waste heat to power (WHP), and district energy (DE) technologies and concepts throughout the United States between October 1, 2009 and December 31, 2013. The key services the CEACs provided included:  Market Opportunity Analyses – Supporting analyses of CHP market opportunities in diverse markets including industrial, federal, institutional, and commercial sectors.  Education and Outreach – Providing information on the energy and non-energy benefits and applications of CHP to state and local policy makers, regulators, energy end-users, trade associations and others. Information was shared on the Midwest CEAC website: www.midwestcleanergy.org.  Technical Assistance – Providing technical assistance to end-users and stakeholders to help them consider CHP, waste heat to power, and/or district energy with CHP in their facility and to help them through the project development process from initial CHP screening to installation. The Midwest CEAC provided services to the Midwest Region that included the states of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin.

  17. 43 CFR 12.934 - Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equipment. 12.934 Section 12.934 Public....934 Equipment. (a) Title to equipment acquired by a recipient with Federal funds shall vest in the recipient, subject to conditions of this section. (b) The recipient shall not use equipment acquired...

  18. 29 CFR 95.34 - Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Equipment. 95.34 Section 95.34 Labor Office of the Secretary... Equipment. (a) Title to equipment acquired by a recipient with Federal funds shall vest in the recipient, subject to conditions of this section. (b) The recipient shall not use equipment acquired with...

  19. 34 CFR 74.34 - Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equipment. 74.34 Section 74.34 Education Office of the... Equipment. (a) Title to equipment acquired by a recipient with Federal funds shall vest in the recipient, subject to conditions of this section. (b) The recipient may not use equipment acquired with Federal...

  20. 40 CFR 46.225 - Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equipment. 46.225 Section 46.225... After the Fellowship § 46.225 Equipment. (a) If EPA authorizes you to purchase equipment (see § 46.140(b)) and the equipment retains a fair market value of more than $5,000, you must request...

  1. 49 CFR 19.34 - Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equipment. 19.34 Section 19.34 Transportation... Requirements Property Standards § 19.34 Equipment. (a) Title to equipment acquired by a recipient with Federal... use equipment acquired with Federal funds to provide services to non-Federal outside organizations...

  2. 14 CFR 25.1561 - Safety equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety equipment. 25.1561 Section 25.1561....1561 Safety equipment. (a) Each safety equipment control to be operated by the crew in emergency, such... other life saving equipment must be marked accordingly. (c) Stowage provisions for required...

  3. 14 CFR 27.1561 - Safety equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety equipment. 27.1561 Section 27.1561... Safety equipment. (a) Each safety equipment control to be operated by the crew in emergency, such as... saving equipment, must be so marked....

  4. 30 CFR 56.7002 - Equipment defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equipment defects. 56.7002 Section 56.7002... Piercing Drilling § 56.7002 Equipment defects. Equipment defects affecting safety shall be corrected before the equipment is used....

  5. 32 CFR 32.34 - Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equipment. 32.34 Section 32.34 National Defense... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 32.34 Equipment. (a) Title to equipment acquired by a... recipient shall not use equipment acquired with Federal funds to provide services to non-Federal...

  6. 10 CFR 600.134 - Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equipment. 600.134 Section 600.134 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Nonprofit Organizations Post-Award Requirements § 600.134 Equipment. (a) Title to equipment acquired by a... recipient shall not use equipment acquired with Federal funds to provide services to non-Federal...

  7. 27 CFR 19.272 - Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Equipment. 19.272 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Construction, Equipment and Security § 19.272 Equipment. The proprietor shall provide equipment suitable for the operations conducted on the distilled...

  8. 14 CFR 27.1307 - Miscellaneous equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Miscellaneous equipment. 27.1307 Section 27... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment General § 27.1307 Miscellaneous equipment. The following is the required miscellaneous equipment: (a) An approved seat for each occupant. (b) An...

  9. 15 CFR 14.34 - Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equipment. 14.34 Section 14.34... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 14.34 Equipment. (a) Title to equipment acquired by a... recipient shall not use equipment acquired with Federal funds to provide services to non-Federal...

  10. 14 CFR 23.1561 - Safety equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety equipment. 23.1561 Section 23.1561... Markings and Placards § 23.1561 Safety equipment. (a) Safety equipment must be plainly marked as to method of operation. (b) Stowage provisions for required safety equipment must be marked for the benefit...

  11. 22 CFR 518.34 - Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Equipment. 518.34 Section 518.34 Foreign... Property Standards § 518.34 Equipment. (a) Title to equipment acquired by a recipient with Federal funds... equipment acquired with Federal funds to provide services to non-Federal outside organizations for a...

  12. 20 CFR 435.34 - Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Equipment. 435.34 Section 435.34 Employees...-Award Requirements Property Standards § 435.34 Equipment. (a) Title to equipment acquired by a recipient... may not use equipment acquired with Federal funds to provide services to non-Federal...

  13. 14 CFR 29.1307 - Miscellaneous equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Miscellaneous equipment. 29.1307 Section 29... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment General § 29.1307 Miscellaneous equipment. The following is required miscellaneous equipment: (a) An approved seat for each occupant. (b) A master...

  14. 7 CFR 3019.34 - Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equipment. 3019.34 Section 3019.34 Agriculture....34 Equipment. (a) Title to equipment acquired by a recipient with Federal funds shall vest in the recipient, subject to conditions of this section. (b) The recipient shall not use equipment acquired...

  15. 18 CFR 367.57 - Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Equipment. 367.57... Property Instructions § 367.57 Equipment. (a) The cost of equipment chargeable to the service company property accounts, unless otherwise indicated in the text of an equipment account, includes the related...

  16. 14 CFR 23.1431 - Electronic equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Electronic equipment. 23.1431 Section 23... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1431 Electronic equipment. (a) In showing compliance with § 23.1309(b)(1) and (2)...

  17. 45 CFR 74.34 - Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equipment. 74.34 Section 74.34 Public Welfare... COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 74.34 Equipment. (a) Title to equipment... section. (b)(1) The recipient shall not use equipment acquired with HHS funds to provide services to...

  18. 14 CFR 25.1307 - Miscellaneous equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Miscellaneous equipment. 25.1307 Section 25... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment General § 25.1307 Miscellaneous equipment. The following is required miscellaneous equipment: (a) (b) Two or more independent sources of electrical...

  19. 14 CFR 25.1431 - Electronic equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Electronic equipment. 25.1431 Section 25... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 25.1431 Electronic equipment. (a) In showing compliance with § 25.1309 (a) and (b) with respect to radio and...

  20. 14 CFR 23.1307 - Miscellaneous equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Miscellaneous equipment. 23.1307 Section 23... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment General § 23.1307 Miscellaneous equipment. The equipment necessary for an airplane to operate at the maximum operating...