WorldWideScience

Sample records for clean water acts

  1. Clean Water Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Clean Water Act (CWA) establishes the basic structure for regulating discharges of pollutants into U.S. waters and regulating quality standards for surface...

  2. Clean Water Act (excluding Section 404)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-15

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Clean Water Act (excluding Section 404) and those regulations that implement the statutes and appear to be most relevant to US Department of Energy (DOE) activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Updates that include important new requirements will be provided periodically. Questions concerning this Reference Book may be directed to Mark Petts, EH-231 (202/586-2609).

  3. Assessed Clean Water Act 305(b) Water Sources of Impairment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Identifies the sources of impairment for assessed waters under the Clean Water Act 305(b) program. This view can be used for viewing the details at the assessment...

  4. 77 FR 54909 - Clean Water Act: Availability of List Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... AGENCY Clean Water Act: Availability of List Decisions AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... certain water quality limited waters and the associated pollutant to be listed pursuant to the Clean Water... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act (CWA) requires that each state identify...

  5. 78 FR 20912 - Clean Water Act: Availability of List Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ... AGENCY Clean Water Act: Availability of List Decisions AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice and initial request for public input. SUMMARY: The Clean Water Act requires that States... Richardson at (215) 814-5675. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act requires...

  6. 77 FR 15368 - Clean Water Act; Availability of List Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ... AGENCY Clean Water Act; Availability of List Decisions AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... segments and associated pollutants in Oregon to be listed pursuant to section 303(d)(2) of the Clean Water... INFORMATION: Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act (CWA) (hereinafter referred to as ``Section...

  7. 75 FR 11560 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act and Clean Air Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act and Clean Air Act Notice is hereby given that... violations of the Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq., and the Clean Air Act, 42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq....

  8. 78 FR 70960 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act, Clean Water Act, and the Resource...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-27

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act, Clean Water Act, and the Resource Conservation... the United States and the State of Illinois under the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, the Resource... and Natural Resource Division. BILLING CODE 4410-15-P...

  9. 78 FR 45925 - Clean Water Act: Availability of List Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Clean Water Act: Availability of List Decisions AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act (CWA) requires that each state identify...

  10. 78 FR 27233 - Clean Water Act: Availability of List Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ... decree, or settlement agreement required EPA to take action on a list in 2000 (65 FR 17170). Consistent... AGENCY Clean Water Act: Availability of List Decisions AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... Clean Water Act Section 303(d), and request for public comment. Section 303(d) requires that...

  11. California's 2002 Clean Water Act Section 303(d) - Impaired Waterbodies

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This dataset contains California's 2002 Clean Water Act Section 303(d) list which is submitted by the California State Water Resources Control Board. The layer has...

  12. Has Surface Water Quality Improved Since the Clean Water Act?

    OpenAIRE

    V. Kerry Smith; Carlos Valcarcel Wolloh

    2012-01-01

    On the fortieth anniversary of the Clean Water Act this paper reports the first quantitative assessment of the aggregate trends in water quality in the U.S. using a single standard over the years 1975 to 2011. The analysis suggests that fresh water lakes for the nation as a whole are about at the same quality levels as they were in 1975. In short, viewed in the aggregate, nothing has changed. An assessment of the factors influencing the aggregates also suggests that water quality appears to b...

  13. 45 CFR 2543.86 - Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution... Water Pollution Control Act. Contracts and subgrants of amounts in excess of $100,000 shall contain a... regulations issued pursuant to the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.) and the Federal Water...

  14. Dealing with the Clean Water Act pending reauthorization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report addresses probable changes in the Clean Water Act that may affect federal facilities such as those under the DOE. These changes will be included in a reauthorization of the act. The author draws upon the 1992 National Water Quality Inventory Report to Congress as a source to identify changes in the focus of the reauthorized act on non-point source issues, watershed management, new enforcement mechanisms and an assortment of smaller issues that will have indirect effects on federal facilities

  15. 76 FR 72973 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act and Safe Drinking Water Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    ... ``Fort Gay'') for permanent injunctive relief and civil penalties under the Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1251-387; the Safe Drinking Water Act, 42 U.S.C. 300f-300j-26; the West Virginia Water Pollution... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act and Safe Drinking Water Act Notice is...

  16. Clean Water Act 303(d) Listed Impaired Waters and their Causes of Impairment from All Years

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Waters identified as impaired as well as their associated causes of impairment from all approved Clean Water Act 303(d) lists submitted by the states. Includes all...

  17. 14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts...-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002 If this cooperative... Violating Facilities” published pursuant to 40 CFR 15.20. By acceptance of a cooperative agreement in...

  18. 78 FR 79692 - Clean Water Act; Contractor Access to Confidential Business Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ... AGENCY Clean Water Act; Contractor Access to Confidential Business Information AGENCY: Environmental... access to CBI submitted to EPA under Section 308 of the Clean Water Act (CWA) and in connection with... of water-related initiatives for a variety of industries. To obtain assistance in responding to...

  19. 75 FR 55577 - Clean Water Act; Contractor Access to Confidential Business Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-13

    ... AGENCY Clean Water Act; Contractor Access to Confidential Business Information AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Office of Water... of section 308 of the Clean Water Act (CWA). Some information being transferred from the pulp,...

  20. 76 FR 51397 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    ...., at its sewer system and water pollution control plant. To resolve the United States' claims, the... pollution control plant to eliminate violations of the Clean Water Act. The Department of Justice will... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act Notice is hereby given that on August 11,...

  1. 77 FR 71633 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-03

    ... Sections 301, 309, and 402 of the Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1251, et seq. and under the Mississippi Air and Water Pollution Control Law (``MAWPCL'') (Miss. Code Ann. Sec. Sec. 49-17-1 through 49-17-45... of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act On November 20, 2012, the...

  2. The clean water act -- (Federal Water Pollution Control Act), what it means to utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talt, L.A. [Howard and Howard Attorneys, Bloomfield Hills, MI (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Departing from previous policy, in August 1993 the USEPA`s Water Office recommended that the agency regulate a proposed electric power plant`s cooling pond as a water of the US. At issue was a proposal by Florida Power corp. to build a new electric power plant in Polk County, Florida. A 2,600 acre cooling pond to collect heated and discharged water was included in the proposal. Region 4 USEPA staff asked USEPA Headquarters in Washington, DC to decide whether the pond was exempt from the CWA or a water of the US. The pond could be a habitat for migratory birds according to a memo prepared by Region 4 staff. The USEPA Water Office used the presence of migratory birds to claim a nexus to interstate commerce and therefore concluded that the pond should be regulated under the CWA. Electric power industry proponents have argued that an overly expansive definition of waters of the US may result in any new power plant being required to construct cooling towers. Cooling towers are said to be a more expensive and wasteful method to cool heated water. Region 4 ultimately recanted its earlier position after considerable discussions with various other Environmental Protection Agency offices and, no doubt industry pressure. Florida Power Corp. was not required to obtain an NPDES permit for the cooling pond. The lesson of Florida Power Corp. is that the regulatory environment for utilities can be uncertain under the Clean Water Act even in the face of a relatively straightforward exemption from regulation.

  3. 76 FR 74057 - Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of List Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-30

    ... decree, or settlement agreement required EPA to take action on a list in 2000 (65 FR 17170). Consistent... AGENCY Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of List Decisions AGENCY: Environmental Protection... pursuant to Clean Water Act Section 303(d), and request for public comment. Section 303(d) requires...

  4. 76 FR 20664 - Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of List Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... decree, or settlement agreement required EPA to take action on a list in 2000 (65 FR 17170). Consistent... AGENCY Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of List Decisions AGENCY: Environmental Protection... pursuant to Clean Water Act Section 303(d), and request for public comment. Section 303(d) requires...

  5. 75 FR 49949 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    ... Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act Notice is hereby given that on August 10... Water Act and its National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permits at its publicly owned... assessments and a systematic cleaning program for gravity mains; and development of a control program for...

  6. 77 FR 51826 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree under the Clean Water Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree under the Clean Water Act Notice is hereby given that on August 22, 2012, a proposed Consent Decree in United States v. Sterling Suffolk Racecourse, LLC, Civil Action No. 12... Consent Decree resolves the United States' claims under Section 301 of the Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C....

  7. 23 CFR 633.211 - Implementation of the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Pollution Control Act. Pursuant to regulations of the Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR part 15) implementing requirements with respect to the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act are... Water Pollution Control Act. 633.211 Section 633.211 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION,...

  8. Clean Water Act (Section 404) and Rivers and Harbors Act (Sections 9 and 10)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Clean Water Act (Section 404) and the Rivers and Harbors Act (Sections 9 and 10) and those regulations that implement those sections of the statutes and appear to be most relevant to DOE activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Updates that include important new requirements will be provided periodically. Questions concerning this Reference Book may be directed to Mark Petts, IH-231 (FTS 896-2609 or Commercial 202/586-2609)

  9. Clean Water Act (Section 404) and Rivers and Harbors Act (Sections 9 and 10)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Clean Water Act (Section 404) and the Rivers and Harbors Act (Sections 9 and 10) and those regulations that implement those sections of the statutes and appear to be most relevant to DOE activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Updates that include important new requirements will be provided periodically. Questions concerning this Reference Book may be directed to Mark Petts, IH-231 (FTS 896-2609 or Commercial 202/586-2609).

  10. California's 2002 Clean Water Act Section 303(d) - Impaired Streams and Rivers

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This dataset contains California's 2002 Clean Water Act Section 303(d) list which is submitted by the California State Water Resources Control Board. The layer has...

  11. Lakes in Iowa Listed as Impaired in 2010 Under the Clean Water Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Under Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act, states are required from "time to time" to submit a list of waters for which effluent limits will not be sufficient to...

  12. Streams in Iowa Listed as Impaired in 2010 Under the Clean Water Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Under Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act, states are required from "time to time" to submit a list of waters for which effluent limits will not be sufficient to...

  13. 76 FR 68788 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ...) Sections 301(a), 309(b) and (d), and 402 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, also known as the... of Water Pollution, 7 Del. Admin. Code Sec. 7201. The United States and Delaware contend that Dupont... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act Notice is hereby given that on October...

  14. 78 FR 79484 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-30

    ... the treatment plant, including measures involving the pretreatment of wastewater. The Consent Decree... Crawfordsville (``City'') has violated the Clean Water Act, because discharges from the City's wastewater treatment plant have violated conditions of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System...

  15. 75 FR 43554 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (“Clean Water...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (``Clean Water Act... Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1311 and 1318, at thirteen of its facilities in Massachusetts by discharging pollutants in storm water associated with construction activity without a permit, failing to timely ]...

  16. 77 FR 34064 - Notice of Lodging of the Consent Decree under the Clean Water Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ... of Lodging of the Consent Decree under the Clean Water Act Notice is hereby given that on June 4... coverage under the Small MS4 General Permit; (2) Arecibo discharged storm water into waters of the United... requiring Arecibo to conduct the following: Implement a Storm Water Management Plan (SWMP); provide...

  17. Navigating the Clean Water Act: Connectivity and Legal Protection of Aquatic Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, D. M.; Raanan Kiperwas, H.

    2012-12-01

    The Clean Water Act is the principal federal law protecting the integrity of waters in the United States (e.g., rivers, streams, wetlands, lakes). Clean Water Act protection after U.S. Supreme Court decisions in Solid Waste Agency of Northern Cook County (SWANCC) (2001) and Rapanos (2006) is determined based on case-by-case analyses of connections among waters. Determining a water's status as a "water of the US" protected by the Act typically requires data and analysis of characteristics such as its flow, and biological and chemical relationships with downstream waters. When such data is not available, the Clean Water Act might not protect the quality and integrity of the water in question. This raises a number of legal and technical challenges for implementation, as well as questions regarding underlying aquatic sciences. In addition, many of the terms used by the court are not fully consistent with similar scientific terms, potentially causing confusion among policymakers and scientists alike. This presentation will discuss the Clean Water Act, and how currently its protections for aquatic resources are dependent on connectivity with larger downstream waters, particularly for those that do not flow perennially. The presentation will focus on the role science has played in forming and informing policy making, areas where science and policy may not be fully consistent, areas where research is still needed, and provide a policy "dictionary" for scientists interested in working on this evolving issue.

  18. 77 FR 60962 - Clean Water Act; Contractor Access to Confidential Business Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 2 Clean Water Act; Contractor Access to Confidential Business Information AGENCY...) Office of Water's (OW's) Office of Science and Technology (OST) has authorized Eastern Research Group... of Water in the preparation of effluent guidelines and standards for certain industries. We...

  19. CORAL REEF BIOLOGICAL CRITERIA: USING THE CLEAN WATER ACT TO PROTECT A NATIONAL TREASURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coral reefs are declining at unprecedented rates worldwide due to multiple interactive stressors including climate change and land-based sources of pollution. The Clean Water Act (CWA) can be a powerful legal instrument for protecting water resources, including the biological inh...

  20. 78 FR 42942 - Clean Water Act Class II: Proposed Administrative Settlement, Penalty Assessment and Opportunity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-18

    ... corporate audit agreement pursuant to EPA's policy on Incentives for Self- Policing: Discovery, Disclosure, Correction and Prevention of Violations (Audit Policy), 65 FR 19618 (Apr. 11, 2000), regarding 88 office... AGENCY Clean Water Act Class II: Proposed Administrative Settlement, Penalty Assessment and...

  1. 75 FR 4552 - Clean Water Act Class II: Proposed Administrative Settlement, Penalty Assessment, and Opportunity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-28

    ... Violations Final Policy Statement (Audit Policy), 65 FR 19618 (Apr. 11, 2000). Hydro also provided supplemental audit reports in 2006 and 2007. EPA and Hydro have signed an administrative Consent Agreement... AGENCY Clean Water Act Class II: Proposed Administrative Settlement, Penalty Assessment, and...

  2. 78 FR 5800 - Clean Water Act Class II: Proposed Administrative Settlement, Penalty Assessment and Opportunity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ..., Correction and Prevention of Violations (Audit Policy), 65 FR 19,618 (April 11, 2000). EPA determined that AboveNet's disclosures satisfied all the conditions set forth in the Audit Policy, and therefore qualify... AGENCY Clean Water Act Class II: Proposed Administrative Settlement, Penalty Assessment and...

  3. Clean Water Act (excluding Section 404). Environmental guidance program reference book: Revision 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-15

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Clean Water Act (excluding Section 404) and those regulations that implement the statutes and appear to be most relevant to US Department of Energy (DOE) activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Updates that include important new requirements will be provided periodically. Questions concerning this Reference Book may be directed to Mark Petts, EH-231 (202/586-2609).

  4. The Clean Air Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Clean Air Act amendments alter the complex laws affecting atmospheric pollution and at the same time have broad implications for energy. Specifically, the Clean Air Act amendments for the first time deal with the environmental problem of acid deposition in a way that minimizes energy and economic impacts. By relying upon a market-based system of emission trading, a least cost solution will be used to reduce sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions by almost 40 percent. The emission trading system is the centerpiece of the Clean Air Act (CAA) amendments effort to resolve energy and environmental interactions in a manner that will maximize environmental solutions while minimizing energy impacts. This paper will explore how the present CAA amendments deal with the emission trading system and the likely impact of the emission trading system and the CAA amendments upon the electric power industry

  5. Canada's Clean Air Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provided an outline of Canada's Clean Air Act and examined some of the regulatory changes that will occur as a result of its implementation. The Act is being introduced to strengthen the legislative basis for taking action on reducing air pollution and GHGs, and will allow the government to regulate both indoor and outdoor air pollutants and GHGs. The Act will require the Ministers of the Environment and Health to establish national air quality objectives, as well as to monitor and report on their attainment. The Canadian Environmental Protection Act will be amended to enable the government to regulate the blending of fuels and their components. The Motor Vehicle Fuel Consumption Standards Act will also be amended to enhance the government's authority to regulate vehicle fuel efficiency. The Energy Efficiency Act will also be expanded to allow the government to set energy efficiency standards and labelling requirements for a wider range of consumer and commercial products. The Act will commit to short, medium and long-term industrial air pollution targets. Regulations will be proposed for emissions from industry; on-road and off-road vehicles and engines; and consumer and commercial products. It was concluded that the Government of Canada will continue to consult with provinces, territories, industries and Canadians to set and reach targets for the reduction of both indoor and outdoor air pollutants and GHG emissions. 6 figs

  6. 75 FR 2860 - Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Call for Data for the Illinois River Watershed in Oklahoma and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-19

    ... AGENCY Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Call for Data for the Illinois River Watershed in Oklahoma and... developing a watershed model for the Illinois River watershed in Oklahoma and Arkansas to address nutrient water quality impairments. The results of this watershed model may be used to develop one or more...

  7. Water Quality attainment Information from Clean Water Act Statewide Statistical Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Designated uses assessed by statewide statistical surveys and their state and national attainment categories. Statewide statistical surveys are water quality...

  8. Clean Water Act (Section 404) and Rivers and Harbors Act (Sections 9 and 10). Environmental Guidance Program Reference Book, Revision 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Clean Water Act (Section 404) and the Rivers and Harbors Act (Sections 9 and 10) and those regulations that implement those sections of the statutes and appear to be most relevant to DOE activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Updates that include important new requirements will be provided periodically. Questions concerning this Reference Book may be directed to Mark Petts, IH-231 (FTS 896-2609 or Commercial 202/586-2609).

  9. Clean Air Act. Revision 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-15

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Clean Air Act, as amended, and those regulations that implement the statute and appear to be most relevant to DOE activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. This Reference Book has been completely revised and is current through February 15, 1994.

  10. Application of Clean Water (CWA) Section 404 compensatory wetland mitigation under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pursuant to Section 404 of the Clean Water Act (CWA), activities resulting in the discharge of dredge or fill material into waters of the US, including wetlands, require permit authorization from the US Army Corps of Engineers (ACOE). As part of the Section 404 permitting process, compensatory wetland mitigation in the form of wetland enhancement, restoration, or construction may be required to off-set impacts sustained under a Section 404 permit. Under normal circumstances, compensatory mitigation is a relatively straight forward process; however, issues associated with mitigation become more complex at sites undergoing remediation under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), because on-site response/remedial actions involving dredged and fill material are not subject to the formal Section 404 permitting process. These actions are conducted in accordance with the substantive permitting requirements of the ACOE's Nationwide and individual permitting programs. Wetland mitigatory requirements are determined through application of the US Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA's) 040(b) (1) Guidelines promulgated in 40 CFR Part 230 and are implemented through compliance with substantive permitting requirements during the conduct of response/remedial actions. A programmatic approach for implementing wetland mitigatory requirements is being developed at a former US Department of Energy (DOE) uranium refinery undergoing CERCLA remediation in southwestern Ohio. The approach is designed to define the regulatory mechanism that will be used to integrate CWA driven wetland mitigatory requirements into the CERCLA process

  11. 75 FR 27580 - Notice of Lodging of the Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-17

    ..., a proposed Consent Decree in United States v. Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority (``PRASA... with the Surface Water Treatment Rule (``SWTR''), at three Water Treatment Plants (``WTPs'') owned and... treatment plant improvement projects over the next 15 years valued at $195 million. These projects...

  12. 75 FR 52735 - Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of List Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-27

    ...: Waggoner Lake (Haakon County), Bierman Dam (Spink County), Lake Carthage (Miner County), Lake Isabel (Dewey... pollutants causing the impairment, and must identify the waters targeted for TMDL development during the...

  13. Impact on the steam electric power industry of deleting Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act: Capital costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many power plants discharge large volumes of cooling water. In some cases, the temperature of the discharge exceeds state thermal requirements. Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act (CWA) allows a thermal discharger to demonstrate that less stringent thermal effluent limitations would still protect aquatic life. About 32% of total US steam electric generating capacity operates under Section 316(a) variances. In 1991, the US Senate proposed legislation that would delete Section 316(a) from the CWA. This study, presented in two companion reports, examines how this legislation would affect the steam electric power industry. This report describes alternatives available to nuclear and coal-fired plants currently operating under variances. Data from 38 plants representing 14 companies are used to estimate the national cost of implementing such alternatives. Although there are other alternatives, most affected plants would be retrofitted with cooling towers. Assuming that all plants currently operating under variances would install cooling towers, the national capital cost estimate for these retrofits ranges from $22.7 billion to $24.4 billion (in 1992 dollars). The second report quantitatively and qualitatively evaluates the energy and environmental impacts of deleting the variance. Little justification has been found for removing the Section 316(a) variance from the CWA

  14. 77 FR 27770 - Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of List Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ... decision to not include Kanab Creek and tributaries, from the state line to irrigation diversion at... disapproved Utah's decision to not include Kanab Creek and tributaries, from state line to irrigation... pollution controls are not stringent enough to attain or maintain State water quality standards and...

  15. Cure for the nation`s water pollution problem: Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCune, J.F.

    1998-08-31

    This paper discusses federal and state implementation of the water quality-based strategy. It focuses on the development and implementation of water quality standards-based limitations (namely, total maximum daily loads or TMDLs) under section 303(d). It addresses the impact of such limitations on entities and activities that generate water pollution.

  16. Status of metal contamination in surface waters of the coastal ocean off Los Angeles, California since the implementation of the Clean Water Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smail, Emily A; Webb, Eric A; Franks, Robert P; Bruland, Kenneth W; Sañudo-Wilhelmy, Sergio A

    2012-04-17

    In order to establish the status of metal contamination in surface waters in the coastal ocean off Los Angeles, California, we determined their dissolved and particulate pools and compared them with levels reported in the 1970s prior the implementation of the Clean Water Act. These measurements revealed a significant reduction in particulate toxic metal concentrations in the last 33 years with decreases of ∼100-fold for Pb and ∼400-fold for Cu and Cd. Despite these reductions, the source of particulate metals appears to be primarily anthropogenic as enrichment factors were orders of magnitude above what is considered background crustal levels. Overall, dissolved trace metal concentrations in the Los Angeles coastal waters were remarkably low with values in the same range as those measured in a pristine coastal environment off Mexico's Baja California peninsula. In order to estimate the impact of metal contamination on regional phytoplankton, the internalization rate of trace metals in a locally isolated phytoplankton model organism (Synechococcus sp. CC9311) was also determined showing a rapid internalization (in the order of a few hours) for many trace metals (e.g., Ag, Cd, Cu, Pb) suggesting that those metals could potentially be incorporated into the local food webs. PMID:22420576

  17. Odor and the Clean Air Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The case described in this paper involves the interpretation of language contained in the Texas Clean Air Act Texas Health and Safety Code Ann. Sections 382.001-382.141. The State of Texas, on behalf of the Texas Air Control Board, brought suit in the District Court of Erath County, Texas against the F/R Cattle Company, Inc., alleging that, because of odors emanating from the company's cattle feeding facility, the company was violating the Clean Air Act. The Board is granted the power and duty to administer the Clean Air Act and is directed to accomplish the purposes of the Act through the control of air contaminants by all practical and economically feasible methods. Described here is the evidence presented at and proceedings of the trial

  18. Solar photocatalytic cleaning of polluted water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alternatively to biological, physical and chemical methods of waste water cleaning, photocatalysis can be employed. In this residue-free method, titanium dioxide particles are brought into contact with polluted water as photocatalysts. Under UV irradiation at wave-lengths below 400 nm, change carriers are generated in the semiconductor particles that act so intensely oxidizing as to completely degrade almost all organic pollutants in waste water. In this process, the ultra-violet part of the solar spectrum can be harnessed to generate oxidation equivalents. Thus, solar photocatalytic waste water cleaning is excellently suited for developing countries. (BWI)

  19. Aviation, Carbon, and the Clean Air Act

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, Nathan

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the policy options available to the United States for regulating greenhouse gas emissions from aircraft under existing law: the Clean Air Act (CAA). Europe has unilaterally and controversially moved to include aviation emissions in its Emissions Trading System. The United States can, however, allow its airlines to escape this requirement by imposing “equivalent” regulation. U.S. aviation emissions rules could also have significant environmental benefits and would limit dom...

  20. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The natural gas liquids industry and specifically the gas processing business has not been rosy the last several years. processors have been faced with low NGL prices, high inventories and more regulations which have forced product margins to all time lows and have resulted in plant closings, mergers and a determined search for those processors that are left for ways to make ends meet until times get better. Whether a barometer for the future or merely a fluke in the economy, things got better in 1990. Last year represented a change for the positive in all the indicators characterizing the gas processing business. An early winter in 1989, propane distribution problems, overall increases in petrochemical demand for NGLs and the fear brought on by events in Kuwait all contributed to changes in the marketplace. For the gas processor, these events combined with relatively low natural gas prices to produce wider processing margins and a degree of prosperity. The biggest regulatory event in 1990 however was without a doubt the Clean Air Act Amendments. These sweeping changes to the 1970 Clean Air Act promise to affect the economy and public health well into the next century. The purpose of this paper is to examine first the major provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and then relate those anticipated changes to the gas processing industry. As will be examined later, the Amendments will create both threats and opportunities for gas processors

  1. Science-based restoration monitoring of coastal habitats, Volume One: A framework for monitoring plans under the Estuaries and Clean Waters Act of 2000 (Public Law 160-457)

    OpenAIRE

    Thayer, Gordon W.; McTigue, Teresa A.; Bellmer, Russell J.; Burrows, Felicity M.; Merkey, David H.; Nickens, Amy D.; Lozano, Stephen J.; Gayaldo, Perry F.; Polmateer, Pamela J.; Pinit, P. Thomas

    2003-01-01

    Executive Summary: The Estuary Restoration Act of 2000 (ERA), Title I of the Estuaries and Clean Waters Act of 2000, was created to promote the restoration of habitats along the coast of the United States (including the US protectorates and the Great Lakes). The NOAA National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science was charged with the development of a guidance manual for monitoring plans under this Act. This guidance manual, titled Science-Based Restoration Monitoring of Coastal Habitats, ...

  2. Environmental Compliance Guide. Guidance manual for Department of Energy compliance with the Clean Water Act: National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-07-01

    This manual provides general guidance for Department of Energy (DOE) officials for complying with Sect. 402 of the Clean Water Act (CWA) of 1977 and amendments. Section 402 authorizes the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) or states with EPA approved programs to issue National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits for the direct discharge of waste from a point source into waters of the United States. Although the nature of a project dictates the exact information requirements, every project has similar information requirements on the environmental setting, type of discharge(s), characterization of effluent, and description of operations and wastewater treatment. Additional information requirements for projects with ocean discharges, thermal discharges, and cooling water intakes are discussed. Guidance is provided in this manual on general methods for collecting, analyzing, and presenting information for an NPDES permit application. The NPDES program interacts with many sections of the CWA; therefore, background material on pertinent areas such as effluent limitations, water quality standards, toxic substances, and nonpoint source pollutants is included in this manual. Modifications, variances, and extensions applicable to NPDES permits are also discussed.

  3. The 1990 Clean Air Act amendments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impacts of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments on utilities are substantial, presenting a host of new technical challenges, introducing new business risks, changing costs of electric generation, creating new winners and losers, and calling for new organizational responses capable of dealing with the complexity and short time for decisions. The magnitude of costs and unknowns puts clean air compliance into a new league of energy issues, in which the decisions utilities must make are not simply technological or engineering economic choices, but rather are very complex business decisions with numerous stakeholders, pitfalls, and opportunities. This paper summarizes the key regulatory requirements of the CAAA, outlines compliance options and questions facing the utility industry, and addresses how utility strategic business decisions could be affected

  4. Impact on the steam electric power industry of deleting Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act: Energy and environmental impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many power plants discharge large volumes of cooling water. In some cases, the temperature of the discharge exceeds state thermal requirements. Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act (CWA) allows a thermal discharger to demonstrate that less stringent thermal effluent limitations would still protect aquatic life. About 32% of the total steam electric generating capacity in the United States operates under Section 316(a) variances. In 1991, the US Senate proposed legislation that would delete Section 316(a) from the CWA. This study, presented in two companion reports, examines how this legislation would affect the steam electric power industry. This report quantitatively and qualitatively evaluates the energy and environmental impacts of deleting the variance. No evidence exists that Section 316(a) variances have caused any widespread environmental problems. Conversion from once-through cooling to cooling towers would result in a loss of plant output of 14.7-23.7 billion kilowatt-hours. The cost to make up the lost energy is estimated at $12.8-$23.7 billion (in 1992 dollars). Conversion to cooling towers would increase emission of pollutants to the atmosphere and water loss through evaporation. The second report describes alternatives available to plants that currently operate under the variance and estimates the national cost of implementing such alternatives. Little justification has been found for removing the 316(a) variance from the CWA

  5. Nutrient, organic carbon, and chloride concentrations and loads in selected Long Island Sound tributaries—Four decades of change following the passage of the Federal Clean Water Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullaney, John R.

    2016-01-01

    Trends in long-term water-quality and streamflow data from 14 water-quality monitoring sites in Connecticut were evaluated for water years 1974–2013 and 2001–13, coinciding with implementation of the Clean Water Act of 1972 and the Connecticut Nitrogen Credit Exchange program, as part of an assessment of nutrient and chloride concentrations and loads discharged to Long Island Sound. In this study, conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Connecticut Department of Energy and Environmental Protection, data were evaluated using a recently developed methodology of weighted regressions with time, streamflow, and season. Trends in streamflow were evaluated using a locally weighted scatterplot smoothing method. Annual mean streamflow increased at 12 of the 14 sites averaging 8 percent during the entire study period, primarily in the summer months, and increased by an average of 9 percent in water years 2001–13, primarily during summer and fall months. Downward trends in flow-normalized nutrient concentrations and loads were observed during both periods for most sites for total nitrogen, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen, total phosphorus, and total organic carbon. Average flow-normalized loads of total nitrogen decreased by 23.9 percent for the entire period and 10.9 percent for the period of water years 2001‒13. Major factors contributing to decreases in flow-normalized loads and concentrations of these nutrients include improvements in wastewater treatment practices, declining atmospheric wet deposition of nitrogen, and changes in land management and land use.

  6. 75 FR 58023 - Guidelines Establishing Test Procedures for the Analysis of Pollutants Under the Clean Water Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... FR 18166, April 6, 2004) requested that EPA allow use of Method 624 for definitive determination of... water analyses (73 FR 31616, June 3, 2008). 11. EPA is proposing to add SM 4500 O B, D, E and F-2001... versions for drinking water use (73 FR 31616, June 3, 2008). 18. EPA is proposing to add SM 4500...

  7. 75 FR 57776 - Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Notice for the Public Review of the Draft Total Maximum Daily...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    ... and actions that together ensure that pollution controls needed to restore Bay water quality are.... Thursday, October 7, 2010: VA Watershed meeting from 6 to 8 p.m. at the Crowne Plaza Hampton Marina Hotel... and other pollution controls required by the CWA are not stringent enough to attain or maintain...

  8. Heeding a Call to Action for U.S. Coral Reefs: the Untapped Potential of the Clean Water Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    A recently published call to action by Dodge et al. (2008) identifies nine actions needed to protect coral reefs. The authors identify several management goals that cannot be accomplished with MPAs alone, the traditional approach to coral reef protection. For U.S. waters, the Cle...

  9. Clean Air and Water

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-04-10

    The air we breathe and the water we drink are both vital components of our health. Nevertheless, bacteria, pollutants, and other contaminates can alter life-giving air and water into health-threatening hazards. Learn about how scientists at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention work to protect the public from air and water-related health risks.  Created: 4/10/2007 by CDC National Center for Environmental Health.   Date Released: 4/13/2007.

  10. Clean Air Act compliance issues/panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This morning, four panelists will discuss the birth of the free market allowance trading system, how it was formed, when it was formed, how it was sold, how allowance trading has worked, how it is expected to work, and how utilities are planning based on allowance trading. We will also hear from a utility commissioner who will make some of the final decisions on cost recovery. So we will have various perspectives today on allowance trading. Many of you are here to learn more about how to comply with the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Allowance trading is the cornerstone of the entire Title 4, the acid deposition title of the amendments, in which SO2 emission allowances are a tradeable right. Following the four presentations, we will entertain questions to the four participants from the audience

  11. EPA Office of Water (OW): Clean Watersheds Needs Survey NHDPlus Indexed Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Clean Watersheds Needs Survey (CWNS) is a comprehensive assessment of the capital needs to the water quality goals set in the Clean Water Act. Every four years,...

  12. Markkinointisuunnitelma case: Clean Water Oy

    OpenAIRE

    Jussila, Ida-Sofia

    2015-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena on luoda Clean Water Oy:n uudelle tuoteryhmälle markkinointisuunnitelma. Tuoteryhmänä on kuluttajakäyttöön suunnitellut jätevesijärjestelmät. Markkinointisuunnitelman tavoitteena on löytää markkinoinnilliset ratkaisut uuden tuoteryhmän lanseeraukseen. Opinnäytetyön teoreettisessa viitekehyksessä käsitellään niitä osa-alueita, joita käsitellään myös itse markkinointisuunnitelmassa. Markkinointi on jaettu perinteisiin markkinointikeinoihin ja digitaaliseen markk...

  13. Cleaning Up Our Drinking Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imagine drinking water that you wring out of the sponge you've just used to wash your car. This is what is happening around the world. Rain and snow pass through soil polluted with pesticides, poisonous metals and radionuclides into the underground lakes and streams that supply our drinking water. 'We need to understand this natural system better to protect our groundwater and, by extension, our drinking water,' said Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's Applied Geology and Geochemistry Group Manager, Wayne Martin. Biologists, statisticians, hydrologists, geochemists, geologists and computer scientists at PNNL work together to clean up contaminated soils and groundwater. The teams begin by looking at the complexities of the whole environment, not just the soil or just the groundwater. PNNL researchers also perform work for private industries under a unique use agreement between the Department of Energy and Battelle, which operates the laboratory for DOE. This research leads to new remediation methods and technologies to tackle problems ranging from arsenic at old fertilizer plants to uranium at former nuclear sites. Our results help regulators, policy makers and the public make critical decisions on complex environmental issues

  14. Microbial water quality in clean water tanks following inspection and cleaning

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, Sarah Christine Boesgaard; Esbjørn, Anne; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    Increased bacterial counts are often registered in drinking water leaving clean water tanks after the tanks have been emptied, inspected and cleaned by flushing. To investigate the reason for the increased bacterial concentrations and consequently limit it, samples from two clean water tanks before, during and after cleaning of the tanks were analysed. Bacteria were quantified, the dominating bacterial groups were identified and re-growth potential in the water was estimated. Bacterial counts...

  15. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act: Clean Cities Project Awards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-08-01

    Each Clean Cities project award under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act included a diverse group of stakeholders who worked together to lay the foundation for their communities to adopt alternative fuels and petroleum reduction strategies. This document provides a snapshot of the impact of each project and highlights the partners and Clean Cities coalitions who helped transform local and regional transportation markets through 25 projects impacting 45 states.

  16. Clean Water Action Plan: Restoring and protecting America`s waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    On October 18, 1997, the 25th anniversary of the enactment of the Clean Water Act, the Vice President called for a renewed effort to restore and protect water quality. The Vice President asked that the Secretary of Agriculture and the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), working with other affected agencies, develop a Clean Water Action Plan that builds on clean water successes and addresses three major goals: (1) enhanced protection from public health threats posed by water pollution; (2) more effective control of polluted runoff; and (3) promotion of water quality protection on a watershed basis.

  17. 75 FR 35025 - Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC); Request for Nominations for 2010 Clean Air Excellence...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... AGENCY Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC); Request for Nominations for 2010 Clean Air Excellence... Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC) Web site at http://www.epa.gov/oar/caaac by clicking on Awards.... ] Dated: June 15, 2010. Patrick Childers, Designated Federal Official for Clean Air Act Advisory...

  18. Cleaning Animals' Cages With Little Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, Benjamin J.

    1989-01-01

    Proposed freeze/thaw method for cleaning animals' cages requires little extra weight and consumes little power and water. Cleaning concept developed for maintaining experimental rat cages on extended space missions. Adaptable as well to similar use on Earth. Reduces cleaning time. Makes use of already available facilities such as refrigerator, glove box, and autoclave. Rat waste adheres to steel-wire-mesh floor of cage. Feces removed by loosening action of freezing-and-thawing process, followed by blast of air.

  19. Technology: New Ways for Clean Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Amanda S.

    2012-01-01

    Water purification promotes healthy living. While the developing world is working to provide its citizens with future access to clean water sources, the demand for that water is a pressing need today. It should be understood that drinking water, sanitation, and hygiene are interwoven and are all necessary for the overall improved standard of…

  20. 76 FR 40728 - Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC); Request for Nominations for 2011 Clean Air Excellence...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-11

    ... AGENCY Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC); Request for Nominations for 2011 Clean Air Excellence Awards Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Request for nominations for Clean Air Excellence Awards. ] SUMMARY: EPA established the Clean Air Excellence Awards Program in...

  1. Evidence of recovery of Juniperus virginiana trees from sulfur pollution after the Clean Air Act

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Richard B.; Spal, Scott E.; Smith, Kenneth R.; Nippert, Jesse B.

    2013-01-01

    This study shows that red cedar trees growing in the Central Appalachian Mountains of West Virginia are recovering from decades of acidic pollution. Our study shows the efficacy of the Clean Air Act in a region where acidic pollution levels were some of the highest in the United States before the Clean Air Act. We demonstrate that a large portion of the increase in water use efficiency of trees that is often attributed to increasing atmospheric CO2 over the last century may be caused by acid ...

  2. 15 CFR 30.70 - Violation of the Clean Diamond Trade Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Clean Diamond Trade Act. Public Law 108-19, the Clean Diamond Trade Act (the Act), section 8(c...) of the Act, Executive Order 13312, and Rough Diamonds Control Regulations (31 CFR 592). CBP, ICE, and... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Violation of the Clean Diamond...

  3. 78 FR 11682 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 and the Clean...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ... of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 and the Clean Water Act On... Pollution Act of 1990 (``OPA''), 33 U.S.C. 2702(a), incurred by the United States Oil Spill Liability Trust... and July 1, 2007 discharge of approximately 2,145 barrels of crude oil, diesel fuel, and oily...

  4. TOMATO CLEANING AND WATER RECYCLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    A full-scale dump tank water recycle system was developed and demonstrated. A false bottom-ejector transport system removed soil from the water. Clarified water was either recycled back to the dump tank or discharged to the sewer. A vacuum belt was developed for dewatering the mu...

  5. 40 CFR 131.41 - Bacteriological criteria for those states not complying with Clean Water Act section 303(i)(1)(A).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY STANDARDS Federally Promulgated Water Quality Standards § 131.41 Bacteriological criteria for those states not complying with... unimpaired natural connection with the open sea. (2) Designated bathing beach waters are those...

  6. Hawaii Clean Water Branch (CWB) Beach Water Quality Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Exposure to sewage contaminated recreational waters may cause gastrointestinal illnesses in swimmers. The State of Hawaii Department of Health (HIDOH) Clean Water...

  7. 40 CFR 131.36 - Toxics criteria for those states not complying with Clean Water Act section 303(c)(2)(B).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... function of the water effect ratio, WER, as defined in 40 CFR 131.36(c). CMC = column B1 or C1 value × WER... the Water Quality Regulations for Water Pollution Control adopted under Chapters 46-12, 42-17.1, and...—#23, 30, 37, 42, 87, 89, 93 and 105 at a 10−5 risk level. 2. PL (Saline Water Pinelands), SE1,...

  8. Microbial water quality in clean water tanks following inspection and cleaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Sarah Christine Boesgaard; Esbjørn, Anne; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    Increased bacterial counts are often registered in drinking water leaving clean water tanks after the tanks have been emptied, inspected and cleaned by flushing. To investigate the reason for the increased bacterial concentrations and consequently limit it, samples from two clean water tanks before......, during and after cleaning of the tanks were analysed. Bacteria were quantified, the dominating bacterial groups were identified and re-growth potential in the water was estimated. Bacterial counts did not exceed drinking water guideline values but ATP concentrations in the water were high right after...... start-up of the tanks, which may indicate that a substantial part of the bacteria in the drinking water leaving the tanks originated from the sand filter. This was supported by 16S DNA analyses....

  9. 75 FR 79369 - Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC): Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-20

    ... AGENCY Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC): Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Environmental Protection... Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC) on November 19, 1990, to provide independent advice and counsel to EPA on policy issues associated with implementation of the Clean Air Act of 1990. The...

  10. 78 FR 77448 - Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC): Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... AGENCY Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC): Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Environmental Protection... public meetings of the Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC). The EPA established the CAAAC on... implementation of the Clean Air Act of 1990. The Committee advises on economic, environmental,...

  11. 75 FR 1379 - Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC): Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-11

    ... AGENCY Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC): Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Environmental Protection... Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC) on November 19, 1990, to provide independent advice and counsel to EPA on policy issues associated with ] implementation of the Clean Air Act of 1990. The...

  12. 78 FR 49511 - Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC): Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-14

    ... AGENCY Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC): Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Environmental Protection... public meeting of the Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC). The EPA established the CAAAC on November... implementation of the Clean Air Act of 1990. The Committee advises on economic, environmental,...

  13. 75 FR 25855 - Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC): Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-10

    ... AGENCY Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC): Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Environmental Protection... Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC) on November 19, 1990, to provide independent advice and counsel to EPA on policy issues associated with implementation of the Clean Air Act of 1990. The...

  14. 77 FR 66462 - Clean Air Act Advisory Committee; Notice of Charter Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-05

    ... AGENCY Clean Air Act Advisory Committee; Notice of Charter Renewal AGENCY: Environmental Protection...'s Clean Air Act Advisory committee (CAAAC) will be renewed for an additional two-year period, as a... recommendations to the EPA Administrator on policy issues associated with implementation of the Clean Air Act....

  15. In-Water Hull Cleaning & Filtration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Dan

    2015-04-01

    Dan George R & D Mining Technology LinkedIn GRD Franmarine have received the following prestigious awards in 2014 for their research & development of an in-water hull cleaning and filtration system "The Envirocart: Golden Gecko Award for Environmental Excellence; WA Innovator of the Year - Growth Sector; Department of Fisheries - Excellence in Marine Biosecurity Award - Innovation Category; Lloyd's List Asia Awards - Environmental Award; The Australian Innovation Challenge - Environment, Agriculture and Food Category; and Australian Shipping and Maritime Industry Award - Environmental Transport Award. The Envirocart developed and patented by GRD Franmarine is a revolutionary new fully enclosed capture and containment in-water hull cleaning technology. The Envirocart enables soft Silicon based antifouling paints and coatings containing pesticides such as Copper Oxide to be cleaned in situ using a contactless cleaning method. This fully containerised system is now capable of being deployed to remote locations or directly onto a Dive Support Vessel and is rated to offshore specifications. This is the only known method of in-water hull cleaning that complies with the Department of Agriculture Fisheries and Forestry (DAFF) and Department of Fisheries WA (DoF) Guidelines. The primary underwater cleaning tool is a hydraulically powered hull cleaning unit fitted with rotating discs. The discs can be fitted with conventional brushes for glass or epoxy based coatings or a revolutionary new patented blade system which can remove marine biofouling without damaging the antifouling paint (silicone and copper oxide). Additionally there are a patented range of fully enclosed hand cleaning tools for difficult to access niche areas such as anodes and sea chests, providing an innovative total solution that enables in-water cleaning to be conducted in a manner that causes no biological risk to the environment. In full containment mode or when AIS are present, material is pumped

  16. Cleaning verification by air/water impingement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lisa L.; Littlefield, Maria D.; Melton, Gregory S.; Caimi, Raoul E. B.; Thaxton, Eric A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper will discuss how the Kennedy Space Center intends to perform precision cleaning verification by Air/Water Impingement in lieu of chlorofluorocarbon-113 gravimetric nonvolatile residue analysis (NVR). Test results will be given that demonstrate the effectiveness of the Air/Water system. A brief discussion of the Total Carbon method via the use of a high temperature combustion analyzer will also be given. The necessary equipment for impingement will be shown along with other possible applications of this technology.

  17. TORR system polishes oily water clean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The TORR (total oil recovery and remediation) system utilizes a specially patented polymer material, similar to styrofoam, which is used to get rid of non-soluble hydrocarbons from water. An application in Fort Smith, Northwest Territories, is described where it was used to recover diesel oil, which had been seeping into the groundwater over a period of 20 years. About 100,000 gallons of heating oil had leached into the water; TORR removed the non-soluble hydrocarbons, while another piece of equipment removed the soluble portions. After treatment the water tested consistently at non-detectable levels and was clean enough to be discharged into the town's sewer system. The system is considered ideal for oil spills clean-up underground, onshore, or the open sea, but it also has many potentially useful applications in industrial and oilfield applications. Water used in steam injection and water floods to produce heavy oil and SAGD applications are some of the obvious ones that come to mind. Cleaning up the huge tailings ponds at the mining and processing of oil sands, and removing diluent from water that is used to thin out bitumen in pipelines so that it can be transported to processing plants, are other promising areas of application. Several field trials to test the effectiveness of the system in these type of applications are scheduled for the summer and fall of 2002

  18. Evaluating impacts of Clean Air Act compliance strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 requires that by the year 2000, US SO2 emissions must be reduced by 10 million tons. This requirement will have significant impact on coal-fired electric utilities. As a result, most utilities are currently evaluating numerous compliance options, including buying allowances, coal cleaning/blending/switching, and flue gas scrubbing. Moreover, each utility must address its own unique circumstances with regard to competition, efficiency, capital expenditures, reliability, etc. and many utilities may choose a combination of compliance options to simultaneously satisfy their environmental, performance, and financial objectives. The Coal Quality Expert, which is being developed under a clean coal technology project funded by US DOE and EPRI, will predict the economic, operational, and environmental benefits of using higher-quality coals and provides an assessment of the merits of various post-combustion control technologies for specific utility applications. This paper presents background on how utilities evaluate their compliance options, and it describes how the Coal Quality Expert could be used for such evaluations in the future to assure that each utility can select the best combination of coal specifications and emission control technologies to meet its compliance objectives

  19. Microhydro: Clean power from water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A self-help book for the environmentally conscious citizen who is interested in a range of solutions to supplying energy on a small scale from flowing water, or the citizen with specific interests in the practical aspects of developing a specific site, and the opportunities, obstacles and costs involved in small hydro generation. The book begins with a short introduction to electricity and hydraulics, and continues by providing helpful suggestions for assessing the kind of system needed, the suitability of a given site, and by describing various technologies that may be brought together to make a successful microhydro system, ranging from a battery charging system to systems that are large enough to supply the electrical needs of a small village. Other chapters cover details of how to get started, the various incentives available and the regulations governing the construction and operation of microhydro systems. A glossary of relevant terms, a list of information sources, suppliers and publications, and a collection of case studies are also included, the latter to illustrate important elements in successful microhyro developments. tabs., illus

  20. How Do We Clean Our Water and How Clean Does It Need to Be?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitburn, Niki

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, in the United Kingdom, citizens take for granted clean water pumped directly into their homes, but it was not always the case, and is still not so in many countries. Could people clean water themselves if they had to and what could they then use it for? Would it actually be "clean enough" to drink? The author presents children…

  1. Some impacts of the 1990 Clean Air Act and state clean-air regulations on the fertilizer industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Clean Air Act amendments of 1990 will intensify national efforts to reduce air pollution. They will have major impacts on governmental agencies and on industrial and commercial facilities throughout the country. As with other industries, it is essential for fertilizer dealers and producers to understand how these changes to the Clean Air Act can significantly change the way they do business. This paper is proffered as an overview of ways in which the 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act may impact the fertilizer industry. The nonattainment, toxics, and permit provisions of the amended act will be three areas of particular concern to the fertilizer industry. Implementation of the new regulatory requirements of this legislation promises to be a long and onerous process for all concerned. However, it appears that state and local regulations may have a much more profound impact on the fertilizer industry than the new Clean Air Act

  2. Making Waves with the Clean Water Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    A letter to Science Magazine addressing the letter of R. E. Dodge et al., "A Call to Action for Coral Reefs" (10 October, p. 189). It provides information on the use of biocriteria and responds to a published need to provide better protection.

  3. 77 FR 46756 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-06

    ... above. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Kendra Sagoff, Air and Radiation Law Office (2344A), Office of... AGENCY Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``CAA'' or the ``Act''), 7413(g), notice is hereby...

  4. A Review of Adsorbents Used for Storm Water Runoff Cleaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrius Agintas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals, petroleum products, sediments and other pollutants get in the environment with insufficiently cleaned storm water runoff. Contaminated storm water runoff is one of the most significant sources for pollution in rivers, lakes and estuaries. Storm water runoff must be treated using not only simple methods but also using adsorption processes. Adsorbents can be natural organic, natural nonorganic and synthetic. Main adsorption characteristic, way of utilization and storm water runoff inflow rate, quantity and pollution need to be investigated when trying to use adsorbents in reasonably way. It is very important to treat storm water properly during the primary mechanical treatment otherwise adsorbents will act as mechanical filters.Article in Lithuanian

  5. Separations Technology for Clean Water and Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvinen, Gordon D [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-22

    Providing clean water and energy for about nine billion people on the earth by midcentury is a daunting challenge. Major investments in efficiency of energy and water use and deployment of all economical energy sources will be needed. Separations technology has an important role to play in producing both clean energy and water. Some examples are carbon dioxide capture and sequestration from fossil energy power plants and advanced nuclear fuel cycle scemes. Membrane separations systems are under development to improve the economics of carbon capture that would be required at a huge scale. For nuclear fuel cycles, only the PUREX liquid-liquid extraction process has been deployed on a large scale to recover uranium and plutonium from used fuel. Most current R and D on separations technology for used nuclear fuel focuses on ehhancements to a PUREX-type plant to recover the minor actinides (neptunium, americiu, and curium) and more efficiently disposition the fission products. Are there more efficient routes to recycle the actinides on the horizon? Some new approaches and barriers to development will be briefly reviewed.

  6. 75 FR 18239 - Notice of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act Notice is hereby given that on March 31, 2010, two proposed Consent Decrees were lodged. United States et al. v. Shell Chemical LP, Civil Action No. 4:10-cv... District Court for the District of Puerto Rico. The Consent Decrees in these Clean Air Act...

  7. 77 FR 46757 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-06

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: David Orlin, Air and Radiation Law Office (2344A), Office of General Counsel, U.S... AGENCY Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``CAA''), notice is hereby given of a proposed...

  8. Emerging forward osmosis (FO) technologies and challenges ahead for clean water and clean energy applications

    KAUST Repository

    Chung, Tai-Shung

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this short review is to share our understanding and perspectives with the chemical, environmental, water and osmotic power communities on FO processes in order to conduct meaningful R & D and develop effective and sustainable FO technologies for clean water and clean energy. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Impact of emerging clean vehicle system on water stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Clean vehicles may increase US water consumption up to 2810 billion gallons/year. • Large-scale clean vehicle adoption could lead to severe regional water stress. • Fuel choice for clean vehicle is crucial in minimizing regional water stress. • Regional optimization illustrated the importance of regional consideration. - Abstract: While clean vehicles (i.e., vehicles powered by alternative fuels other than fossil fuels) offer great potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from gasoline-based vehicles, the associated impact on water resources has not yet been fully assessed. This research provides a systematic evaluation of the impact of a fully implemented clean vehicle system on national and state-level water demand and water stress. On the national level, based on existing policies, transitioning the current gasoline-based transportation into one with clean vehicles will increase national annual water consumption by 1950–2810 billion gallons of water, depending on the market penetration of electric vehicles. On the state level, variances of water efficiency in producing different fuels are significant. The fuel choice for clean vehicle development is especially crucial for minimizing water stress increase in states with already high water stress, high travel demands, and significant variations in water efficiency in producing different alternative fuels. Current development of clean vehicle infrastructure, however, has not reflected these state-level variations. This study takes an optimization approach to further evaluate impacts on state-level water stress from a fully implemented clean vehicle system and identified potential roles (fuel producer or consumer) states may play in real world clean vehicle development scenario. With an objective of minimizing overall water stress impact, our optimization model aims to provide an analytical framework to better assess impacts on state-level water

  10. Chemical cleaning of potable water membranes: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Porcelli, Nicandro; Judd, Simon J.

    2010-01-01

    The literature on chemical cleaning of polymeric hollow fibre ultrafiltration and microfiltration membranes used in the filtration of water for municipal water supply is reviewed. The review considers the chemical cleaning mechanism, and the perceived link between this and membrane fouling by natural organic matter (NOM)—the principal foulant in municipal potable water applications. Existing chemical cleaning agents used for this duty are considered individually and their cl...

  11. Flow-specific trends in river-water quality resulting from the effects of the clean air act in three mesoscale, forested river basins in the northeastern United States through 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, Peter S.; Shanley, J.B.

    2006-01-01

    Two new methods for assessing temporal trends in stream-solute concentrations at specific streamflow ranges were applied to long (40 to 50-year) but sparse (bi-weekly to quarterly sampling) stream-water quality data collected at three forested mesoscale basins along an atmospheric deposition gradient in the northeastern United States (one in north-central Pennsylvania, one in southeastern New York, and one in eastern Maine). The three data sets span the period since the implementation of the Clean Air Act in 1970 and its subsequent amendments. Declining sulfate (SO2-4) trends since the mid 1960s were identified for all 3 rivers by one or more of the 4 methods of trend detection used. Flow-specific trends were assessed by segmenting the data sets into 3-year and 6-year blocks, then determining concentration-discharge relationships for each block. Declining sulfate (SO2-4) trends at median flow were similar to trends determined using a Seasonal Kendall Tau test and Sen slope estimator. The trend of declining SO2-4 concentrations differed at high, median and low flow since the mid 1980s at YWC and NR, and at high and low flow at WR, but the trends leveled or reversed at high flow from 1999 through 2002. Trends for the period of record at high flows were similar to medium- and low-flow trends for Ca2+ + Mg2+ concentrations at WR, non-significant at YWC, and were more negative at low flow than at high flow at NR; trends in nitrate (NO-3), and alkalinity (ALK) concentrations were different at different flow conditions, and in ways that are consistent with the hydrology and deposition history at each watershed. Quarterly sampling is adequate for assessing average-flow trends in the chemical parameters assessed over long time periods (???decades). However, with even a modest effort at sampling a range of flow conditions within each year, trends at specified flows for constituents with strong concentration-discharge relationships can be evaluated and may allow early

  12. An experimental and numerical study of water jet cleaning process

    OpenAIRE

    Guha, Anirban; Barron, Ronald M.; Balachandar, Ram

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we have experimentally, numerically and theoretically investigated the water jet cleaning process. Very high speed water jets (~80-200 m/s) are typically used in such cleaning operations. These jets diffuse in the surrounding atmosphere by the process of air entrainment and this contributes to the spreading of the jet and subsequent decay of pressure. Estimation of this pressure decay and subsequent placement of the cleaning object is of paramount importance in manufacturing an...

  13. Solar photocatalytic cleaning of polluted water. Solare Reinigung verschmutzter Waesser mittels Photokatalyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bockelmann, D.

    1994-01-01

    Alternatively to biological, physical and chemical methods of waste water cleaning, photocatalysis can be employed. In this residue-free method, titanium dioxide particles are brought into contact with polluted water as photocatalysts. Under UV irradiation at wave-lengths below 400 nm, change carriers are generated in the semiconductor particles that act so intensely oxidizing as to completely degrade almost all organic pollutants in waste water. In this process, the ultra-violet part of the solar spectrum can be harnessed to generate oxidation equivalents. Thus, solar photocatalytic waste water cleaning is excellently suited for developing countries. (BWI)

  14. 3 CFR - State of California Request for Waiver Under 42 U.S.C. 7543(b), the Clean Air Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....C. 7543(b), the Clean Air Act Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of January 26, 2009 State of California Request for Waiver Under 42 U.S.C. 7543(b), the Clean Air Act Memorandum for the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency Under the Clean Air Act (42...

  15. 76 FR 5609 - Notice of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    ... of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act Notice is hereby given that on January 26, 2011, a proposed Consent Decree was lodged with the District Court of the Virgin Islands, Division of St. Croix, in United States et al. v. HOVENSA L.L.C., Civil Action No. 1:11-cv-6. The Consent Decree in this Clean...

  16. Federal-state partnership: An overview of the Clean Air Act through the 1980s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter examines the experience with Clean Air Act regulation over the past two decades as a means of understanding the multiple layers of regulatory requirements that now exist since the enactment of the 1990 Amendments to the Act. The efforts of Congress and the EPA to deal with the complexities of clean air regulation suggest several themes for the 1990s: more federal oversight, more complex regulatory issues, an emphasis on alternatives to traditional rulemaking proceedings, and a search for innovative ways to control the escalating costs of clean air regulation

  17. Cleaning up our act: Alternatives for hazardous solvents used in cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoemaker, J.D.; Meltzer, M.; Miscovich, D.; Montoya, D.; Goodrich, P.; Blycker, G.

    1994-01-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has studied more than 70 alternative cleaners as potential replacements for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), halogenated hydrocarbons (e.g., trichloroethylene and trichloroethane), hydrocarbons (e.g., toluene and Stoddard Solvent), and volatile organic compounds (e.g., acetone, alcohols). This report summarizes LLNL`s findings after testing more than 45 proprietary formulations on bench-scale testing equipment and in more than 60 actual shops and laboratories. Cleaning applications included electronics fabrication, machine shops, optical lenses and hardware, and general cleaning. Most of the alternative cleaners are safer than the solvents previously used and many are nonhazardous, according to regulatory criteria.

  18. Cleaning up our act: Alternatives for hazardous solvents used in cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has studied more than 70 alternative cleaners as potential replacements for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), halogenated hydrocarbons (e.g., trichloroethylene and trichloroethane), hydrocarbons (e.g., toluene and Stoddard Solvent), and volatile organic compounds (e.g., acetone, alcohols). This report summarizes LLNL's findings after testing more than 45 proprietary formulations on bench-scale testing equipment and in more than 60 actual shops and laboratories. Cleaning applications included electronics fabrication, machine shops, optical lenses and hardware, and general cleaning. Most of the alternative cleaners are safer than the solvents previously used and many are nonhazardous, according to regulatory criteria

  19. Can carpooling clean the air? The economics of HOV lanes, hybrid cars and the Clean Air Act.

    OpenAIRE

    Shewmake, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    Private vehicles are a significant source of air pollution in many areas of the United States. Areas with already high levels of air pollution are required by the Clean Air Act to take steps to reduce automobile use and the associated emissions. The behavioral implications of many travel demand management techniques are poorly understood. In this dissertation I focus on carpooling. Policy makers encourage commuters to carpool through High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lanes, fre...

  20. 77 FR 281 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-04

    ... AGENCY Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Supplemental Notice of Proposed Consent Decree; Request for Public Comment. SUMMARY: On December... (``CAA'' or the ``Act''), 42 U.S.C. 7413(g), of a proposed consent decree to address a lawsuit filed...

  1. 78 FR 21419 - Notice of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act On April 4, 2013, the Department of Justice lodged a proposed Consent Decree with the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Missouri...'') requirements of Section 112(r)(7) of the Act. The proposed Consent Decree, which resolves all of these...

  2. An experimental and numerical study of water jet cleaning process

    CERN Document Server

    Guha, Anirban; Balachandar, Ram

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we have experimentally, numerically and theoretically investigated the water jet cleaning process. Very high speed water jets (~80-200 m/s) are used in such cleaning operations. These jets diffuse in the surrounding atmosphere by the process of air entrainment and this contributes to the spreading of the jet and subsequent decay of pressure. Estimation of this pressure decay and subsequent placement of the cleaning object is of paramount importance in manufacturing and material processing industries. Also, the pressure distribution on the cleaning surface needs to be assessed in order to understand and optimize the material removal process. Experimental study is performed to understand the pressure characteristics. A Semi-empirical model for capturing the air entrainment has been added to the commercial CFD package FLUENT. The simulation results are validated against ours as well as previous experimental findings. The numerical results have shown that the optimal stand-off distance in cleaning ...

  3. 75 FR 7627 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Notice is hereby... requirements of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (Clean Water Act), 40 CFR part 403 and 33 U.S.C....

  4. New Hampshire's clean power act: why, what and how

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A map depicting acid deposition levels in the United States, and a table on acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) of New Hampshire Lakes and remote ponds were displayed. The air quality in New Hampshire is a concern, especially as tourism represents the second largest industry. Several graphs were shown concerning the effects of contaminants with regard to air quality. The impact of ozone on human health was discussed. Anthropogenic mercury deposition rates in the United States was discussed, as was temperature change in New England. The economic impacts to forest products industry were examined under climate scenarios. Environmental leadership is required to mitigate the effects of acid rain and ozone, mercury levels for fish and climate change effects in New Hampshire. The design principles comprised cooperative development based on sound science with applicability and integrated and comprehensive approach. The legislation considered pollutants, levels and timetables. The pollutants included sulphur dioxide, nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide and mercury. The compliance date was set for December 31, 2006. Flexibility and incentives were built into the legislation. Cost estimates are in the order of 5 million dollars per year. The political process was explained, from the preparation of the Clean Power Strategy to its introduction in 2001 session. It was signed by the Governor on May 9, 2002. The author indicated renewable energy sources favor the environment and jobs. The new economics or environment and energy are beginning to be understood by States. A brief overview of initiatives from other States was provided. refs., tabs., figs

  5. Air toxics and the 1990 Clean Air Act: Managing trace element emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has historically regulated air toxics (hazardous air pollutants) under Section 112 of the Clean Air Act. To date, EPA has established emission standards for 8 hazardous air pollutants (arsenic, asbestos, benzene, beryllium, mercury, radionuclides, coke oven emissions and vinyl chloride). The US electric utility industry was not determined to be a source category requiring regulation for any of the eight chemicals. Of the eight, radionuclides were the last species for which EPA established hazardous emissions standards. In this instance, EPA determined that the risks associated with electric utility fossil fuel power plant emissions were sufficiently low that they should not be regulated. However, the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments require a new evaluation of the electric utility industry emissions of hazardous air pollutants. This paper summarizes the key features of the air toxics provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendments, describes EPRI's activities on the subject, and provides some preliminary insights from EPRI's research to date

  6. Evaluation of pressurized water cleaning systems for hardware refurbishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillard, Terry W.; Deweese, Charles D.; Hoppe, David T.; Vickers, John H.; Swenson, Gary J.; Hutchens, Dale E.

    1995-01-01

    Historically, refurbishment processes for RSRM motor cases and components have employed environmentally harmful materials. Specifically, vapor degreasing processes consume and emit large amounts of ozone depleting compounds. This program evaluates the use of pressurized water cleaning systems as a replacement for the vapor degreasing process. Tests have been conducted to determine if high pressure water washing, without any form of additive cleaner, is a viable candidate for replacing vapor degreasing processes. This paper discusses the findings thus far of Engineering Test Plan - 1168 (ETP-1168), 'Evaluation of Pressurized Water Cleaning Systems for Hardware Refurbishment.'

  7. A Review of Adsorbents Used for Storm Water Runoff Cleaning

    OpenAIRE

    Andrius Agintas; Marina Valentukevičienė

    2011-01-01

    Heavy metals, petroleum products, sediments and other pollutants get in the environment with insufficiently cleaned storm water runoff. Contaminated storm water runoff is one of the most significant sources for pollution in rivers, lakes and estuaries. Storm water runoff must be treated using not only simple methods but also using adsorption processes. Adsorbents can be natural organic, natural nonorganic and synthetic. Main adsorption characteristic, way of utilization and storm water runoff...

  8. Water supply quality for use infood and for cleaning

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Corina Visan; Rodica Segal

    2009-01-01

    : Drinking water from the supply network of the city of Foc�ani, Vrancea county is used in food preparation and also for cleaning the production areas, equipments and working tools. Data obtained from the analysis of microbiological parameters of reference of water supply quality are presented in this pape

  9. Chapter A3. Cleaning of Equipment for Water Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, Franceska D., (Edited By); Radtke, Dean B.; Gibs, Jacob; Iwatsubo, Rick T.

    1998-01-01

    The National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data (National Field Manual) describes protocols and provides guidelines for U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) personnel who collect data used to assess the quality of the Nation's surface-water and ground-water resources. Chapter A3 describes procedures for cleaning the equipment used to collect and process samples of surface water and ground water and procedures for assessing the efficacy of the equipment-cleaning process. This chapter is designed for use with the other chapters of this field manual. Each chapter of the National Field Manual is published separately and revised periodically. Newly published and revised chapters will be posted on the USGS page 'National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data.' The URL for this page is http://pubs.water.usgs.gov/twri9A/ (accessed September 20, 2004).

  10. The Clean Coal Program's contributions to addressing the requirements of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the potential contributions of the US Department of Energy's Clean Coal Program (CCP) to addressing the requirements of the Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments of 1990 (CAA90). Initially funded by Congress in 1985, the CCP is a government and industry co-funded effort to demonstrate a new generation of more efficient, economically feasible, and environmentally acceptable coal technologies in a series of full- scale ''showcase'' facilities built across the country. The CCP is expected to provide funding for more than $5 billion of projects during five rounds of competition, with at least half of the funding coming from the private sector. To date, 42 projects have been selected in the first 4 rounds of the CCP. The CAA and amendments form the basis for regulating emissions of air pollutants to protect health and the environment throughout the United States. Although the origin of the CAA can be traced back to 1955, many amendments passed since that time are testimony to the iterative process involved in the regulation of air pollution. Three key components of CAA90, the first major amendments to the CAA since 1977, include mitigation measures to reduce levels of (1) acid deposition, (2) toxic air pollutants, and (3) ambient concentrations of air pollutants. This paper focuses on the timeliness of clean coal technologies in contributing to these provisions of CAA90

  11. Learning from 25 years of experience with the United States clean air act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze, R.H. [Trinity Consultants Incorporated, Dallas, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Twenty-five years ago, the United States embarked on a quest to attain clean air. President Nixon, in signing the Clean Air Act of 1970, defined clean air as the objective for the `70s. Although enormous progress has been made, much remains to be done. Newly constructed industry is quite clean, but many older facilities continue to operate with antiquated controls. Significant advances have been made in cleaning up the emissions from new automobiles, but two factors have impaired progress. First, cars last longer than they did in 1970, so the average age of the fleet has increased. Second, travel has increased as people have moved to the suburbs. Thus, the emission decreases from clean cars have not been as great as expected. This presentation will address some of the lessons learned from the efforts in the United States to implement clean air programs. In a large number of countries, excessively elaborate studies have been substituted for action programs. Since much is now known about air quality, fairly brief studies can define programs that should be undertaken. What may take longer is developing public support and enthusiasm for improved air quality. In most cases, it is desirable to reduce spending on studies and increase spending on devising and implementing plans, as well as effectively communicating the necessary changes to the public. Balanced spending on studies- and action programs is essential to a sound air quality control program. (author)

  12. 77 FR 49023 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-15

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act Notice is hereby given that on August 9, 2012, a proposed Consent Decree signed by the plaintiff, the United States of America, and the defendants, Icicle... Consent Decree requires the defendants to pay a civil penalty of $430,000.00 and to perform...

  13. 76 FR 51030 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    ... AGENCY Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of Proposed Consent Decree; Request for Public Comment. SUMMARY: In accordance with... hereby given of a proposed consent decree to address a lawsuit filed by Sierra Club in the United...

  14. 75 FR 74048 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... AGENCY Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of proposed consent decree; request for public comment. SUMMARY: In accordance with... hereby given of a proposed consent decree to address a lawsuit filed by Sierra Club and...

  15. 77 FR 65684 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-30

    ... AGENCY Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of proposed consent decree; request for public comment. SUMMARY: In accordance with... decree, to address a lawsuit filed by Sierra Club in the United States District Court for the District...

  16. 77 FR 61027 - Notice of Lodging Proposed Consent Decree Clean Air Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ... of Lodging Proposed Consent Decree Clean Air Act On October 1, 2012, the Department of Justice lodged a proposed Consent Decree with the United States District Court for the District of New Jersey in... injunctive relief. Pursuant to the Decree, Durand will pay a civil penalty of $300,000 (based on...

  17. 77 FR 73029 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-07

    ... AGENCY Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of proposed consent decree; request for public comment. SUMMARY: In accordance with... proposed consent decree to address a lawsuit filed by Sierra Club in the United States District Court...

  18. 77 FR 39493 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ... AGENCY Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of proposed consent decree; request for public comment. SUMMARY: In accordance with... decree, to address a lawsuit filed by Sierra Club in the United States District Court for the District...

  19. 76 FR 58808 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-22

    ... AGENCY Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of proposed consent decree; Request for public comment. SUMMARY: In accordance with... proposed partial consent decree, to address a lawsuit filed by Sierra Club in the United States...

  20. 76 FR 75544 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-02

    ... AGENCY Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of Proposed Consent Decree; Request for Public Comment. SUMMARY: In accordance with... hereby given of a proposed consent decree to address a lawsuit filed by National Parks...

  1. 75 FR 49947 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    ... of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act Notice is hereby given that on August 6, 2010, a proposed Consent Decree in United States v. Premix, Inc., Civil Action No. 1:10-cv- 01732-DAP... Section 114 of the CAA, 33 U.S.C. 7414. Under the proposed Consent Decree, Premix is required to...

  2. 75 FR 74046 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... AGENCY Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of Proposed Consent Decree; Request for Public Comment. SUMMARY: In accordance with... proposed consent decree, to address a lawsuit filed by WildEarth Guardians: WildEarth Guardians v....

  3. 78 FR 24436 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-25

    ... of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act On April 19, 2013, the Department of Justice lodged a proposed consent decree with the United States District Court for the District of... No. 202-1. The proposed consent decree between the United States and CEMEX, Inc. settles...

  4. 78 FR 16667 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    ... AGENCY Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of proposed consent decree; request for public comment. SUMMARY: In accordance with... proposed consent decree to address a lawsuit filed by Preserve Pepe'ekeo Health and Environment in...

  5. 77 FR 45605 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ... AGENCY Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of Proposed Consent Decree; Request for Public Comment. SUMMARY: In accordance with... hereby given of a proposed consent decree to address a lawsuit filed by Sierra Club in the United...

  6. 77 FR 66978 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-08

    ... AGENCY Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of proposed consent decree; request for public comment. SUMMARY: In accordance with... decree to resolve a lawsuit filed by the Environmental Integrity Project, Sierra Club, and Texas...

  7. 78 FR 51186 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... AGENCY Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of Proposed Consent Decree; Request for Public Comment. SUMMARY: In accordance with... decree, to resolve a deadline suit filed by Air Alliance Houston, California Communities Against...

  8. 77 FR 43859 - Notice of Lodging of a Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-26

    ... of Lodging of a Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act Notice is hereby given that on July 2, 2012, a proposed Consent Decree in the case of United States v. Hercules Incorporated, No. 3:12CV483, was lodged... proposed Consent Decree requires the Defendant to pay a civil penalty of $175,000, and to implement...

  9. 76 FR 75545 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-02

    ... AGENCY Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of proposed consent decree; request for public comment. SUMMARY: In accordance with... hereby given of a proposed consent decree to address a lawsuit filed by El Comit para el Bienestar...

  10. Cleaning up our mining act: A north-south dialogue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Historically, the availability of natural resources has been a pivotal element in the pursuit of political power and economic development. It contributed to improving people's standard of living, which translated into better health and increased life expectancy. Paradoxically, this road to riches and collective material prosperity was built at the expense of the long term well-being of the mining community by degrading its environment. Mining is first and foremost a risky business and a temporary activity. It is derided as a boom-bust industry. For both North and South, mining should be a boon and not a liability. This impact of mining is two-pronged. On the one hand, the impact is felt on the physical environment, mainly our support system, land, soil, water, ocean, and air, and on the other hand on our economic, social cultural and political milieu. The latter is far reaching and its implications are felt far beyond the performance of the sector. Mining can effectively foster sustainable development if the accrued rent from the depletion of mineral resources is continuously reinvested into other forms of economic and social development, inclusive of health and education, which in turn are more sustainable than mining. A healthy and continued multi-stakeholder consultation will go a long way towards 'sustainability'. Consensus should be built over the need to reconcile the collective interest with the local socio-economic expectations. (author)

  11. 75 FR 34673 - Approval of the Clean Air Act, Section 112(l), Authority for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-18

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 63 Approval of the Clean Air Act, Section 112(l), Authority for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Air Emission Standards for Halogenated Solvent Cleaning Machines: State of Rhode Island... Emissions from Organic Solvent Cleaning (``RI Regulation No. 36'') and Rhode Island Air Pollution...

  12. for the Waste Water Cleaning Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Grigorieva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A model of a waste water treatment plant is investigated. The model is described by a nonlinear system of two differential equations with one bounded control. An optimal control problem of minimizing concentration of the polluted water on the given time interval is stated and solved analytically with the use of the Pontryagin Maximum Principle and Green's Theorem. Computer simulations of a model of an industrial waste water treatment plant show the advantage of using our optimal strategy. Possible applications are discussed.

  13. Technology of complex cleaning of mine acidic waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown, that problem of complex use of mine waters includes two tasks: its cleaning and use of these waters in capacity of hydro-mineral raw. The floatation-extraction technology of mine acidic waters reprocessing is developed. The possibility of extraction processing of foam products of floatation with purpose of selective isolation of valuable components (Co, Ni, Sc, numerous of rare elements) is considered, optimum modes of metal extraction are defined. (author)

  14. Cleaning of polluted water using biological techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ground-water at many Danish locations has been polluted by organic substances. This pollution has taken place in relation to leaks or spills of, for example, petrol from leaky tanks or oil separators. The article describes a new biological technique for the purification of ground-water polluted by petrol and diesel oils leaked at a petrol station. The technique involves decompostion by bacteria. During decompostion the biomass in the filter increases and carbon dioxide and water is produced, so there is no waste product from this process. The two units consist of an oil-separator which separates the diesel oil and petrol from the water, and a bio-filter which is constructed as an aired-through inverted filter to which nutrient salts are continually added. The filter-material used is in the form of plastic rings on which the oil-decomposing bacteria grow and reproduce themselves. The system is further described. It is claimed that the bio-filter can decompose 7 kg of petrol and diesel oil in one week, larger ones decompose more. The servicelife of the system is expected to be 4-6 years. Current installation costs are 20.000 - 100.000 Danish kroner, according to size. (AB)

  15. Clean, Safe Water. For How Long?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenke, Pam

    The document presents research and project-oriented activities at the secondary school level for studying Illinois' streams, water pollution, and methods for controlling pollution. Social, economic, and political issues are examined as part of the planning for pollution prevention. Following six teaching objectives, background information traces…

  16. 78 FR 1759 - Notice of Approval of Clean Air Act Outer Continental Shelf Minor Source/Title V Minor Permit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR PART 52 Notice of Approval of Clean Air Act Outer Continental Shelf Minor Source/Title V... for minor modifications of Clean Air Act Outer Continental Shelf (``OCS'') Minor Source/Title V...

  17. 40 CFR 463.20 - Applicability; description of the cleaning water subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... cleaning water subcategory. 463.20 Section 463.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Water Subcategory § 463.20 Applicability; description of the cleaning water subcategory. This subpart applies to discharges of pollutants from processes in the cleaning water subcategory to waters of...

  18. CLEAN WATER STATE REVOLVING FUND NATIONAL INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (NIMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resource Purpose:Data collected annually from EPA Regional Offices and States on the 51 Clean Water State Revolving Fund (CWSRF) programs. The data provides the Agency with information on sources and uses of CWSRF funds to finance wastewater management projects, nonpoint ...

  19. Clean/alternative fueled fleet programs - 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act, the Colorado Air Pollution Prevention and Control Act, and Denver City and County regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite substantial regulations for nearly two decades, attainment of this ambient standards for ozone and carbon monoxide (CO) remain difficult goals to achieve, Even with of ozone precursors and CO. The 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act (CAA90) prescribe further reductions of mobile source emissions. One such reduction strategy is using clean fuels, such as methanol, ethanol, or other alcohols (in blends of 85 percent or more alcohol with gasoline or other fuel), reformulated gasoline or diesel, natural gas, liquified petroleum gas, hydrogen, or electricity. There are regulatory measures involving special fuels which will be required in areas heavily polluted with ozone and CO. The state of Colorado recently passed the 1992 Air Pollution Prevention and Control Act which included provisions for the use of alternative fuels which will be implemented in 1994. In addition to adhering to the Colorado state regulations, the city and county of Denver also have regulations pertaining to the use of alternative fuels in fleets of 10 or more vehicles. Denver's program began in 1992. This paper will address the issue of fleet conversion and its impact on industry in Colorado, and Denver in particular

  20. Drinking and Cleaning Water Use in a Dairy Cow Barn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Krauß

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Water is used in dairy farming for producing feed, watering the animals, and cleaning and disinfecting barns and equipment. The objective of this study was to investigate the drinking and cleaning water use in a dairy cow barn. The water use was measured on a well-managed commercial dairy farm in North-East Germany. Thirty-eight water meters were installed in a barn with 176 cows and two milking systems (an automatic milking system and a herringbone parlour. Their counts were logged hourly over 806 days. On average, the cows in the automatic milking system used 91.1 (SD 14.3 L drinking water per cow per day, while those in the herringbone parlour used 54.4 (SD 5.3 L per cow per day. The cows drink most of the water during the hours of (natural and artificial light in the barn. Previously published regression functions of drinking water intake of the cows were reviewed and a new regression function based on the ambient temperature and the milk yield was developed (drinking water intake (L per cow per day = −27.937 + 0.49 × mean temperature + 3.15 × milk yield (R2 = 0.67. The cleaning water demand had a mean of 28.6 (SD 14.8 L per cow per day in the automatic milking system, and a mean of 33.8 (SD 14.1 L per cow per day in the herringbone parlour. These findings show that the total technical water use in the barn makes only a minor contribution to water use in dairy farming compared with the water use for feed production.

  1. Chemical Cleaning Process for Porable Water Distrubution Pipe Systems

    OpenAIRE

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2007-01-01

    Aging potable water distribution pipe systems are becoming a major concern throughout the world. Deterioration of water quality and service as a result of micro biological tuberculation and corrosion continues to increase. Major costs for replacement or rehabilitation of distribution systems are being faced by most communities. The chemical cleaning solution is an organic oxide scavenger which is mixed with a predetermined quantity of muriatic acid and circulated through an isolated section o...

  2. Food-Growing, Air- And Water-Cleaning Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, R. L.; Scheld, H. W.; Mafnuson, J. W.

    1988-01-01

    Apparatus produces fresh vegetables and removes pollutants from air. Hydroponic apparatus performs dual function of growing fresh vegetables and purifying air and water. Leafy vegetables rooted in granular growth medium grow in light of fluorescent lamps. Air flowing over leaves supplies carbon dioxide and receives fresh oxygen from them. Adaptable to production of food and cleaning of air and water in closed environments as in underwater research stations and submarines.

  3. Emission allowance trading under the Clean Air Act Amendments: An incentive mechanism for the adoption of Clean Coal Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (P.L. 101-549) uses tradeable SO2 allowances as a means of reducing acidic emissions from the electricity generating industry. The use of emission allowances generates two important results; first, utilities are given the flexibility to choose their optimal (least cost) compliance strategies and second, the use of emission allowances creates greater incentives for the development and commercialization of innovative emissions control technology. Clean Coal Technologies (CCTs) are able to generate electricity more efficiently, use a wide variety of coal grades and types, and dramatically reduce emissions of SO2, NOx, CO2, and PM per kWh. However, development and adoption of the technology is limited by a variety of regulatory and technological risks. The use of SO2 emission allowances may be able to provide incentives for utility (and nonutility) adoption of this innovative technology. Emission allowances permit the utility to minimize costs on a systemwide basis and provides rewards for addition emission reductions. As CCTs are a more efficient and low emitting source of electricity, the development and implementation of this technology is desirable. This paper will explore the relationship between the incentives created by the SO2 allowance market and CCT development. Regulatory hindrances and boons for the allowance market shall also be identified to analyze how market development, state mandates, and incentive regulation will effect the ability of allowances to prompt CCT adoption

  4. Chicago Clean Air, Clean Water Project: Environmental Monitoring for a Healthy, Sustainable Urban Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none, none; Tuchman, Nancy [Institute of Environmental Sustainability (IES), Chicago, IL (United States)

    2015-11-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy awarded Loyola University Chicago and the Institute of Environmental Sustainability (IES) $486,000.00 for the proposal entitled “Chicago clean air, clean water project: Environmental monitoring for a healthy, sustainable urban future.” The project supported the purchase of analytical instruments for the development of an environmental analytical laboratory. The analytical laboratory is designed to support the testing of field water and soil samples for nutrients, industrial pollutants, heavy metals, and agricultural toxins, with special emphasis on testing Chicago regional soils and water affected by coal-based industry. Since the award was made in 2010, the IES has been launched (fall 2013), and the IES acquired a new state-of-the-art research and education facility on Loyola University Chicago’s Lakeshore campus. Two labs were included in the research and education facility. The second floor lab is the Ecology Laboratory where lab experiments and analyses are conducted on soil, plant, and water samples. The third floor lab is the Environmental Toxicology Lab where lab experiments on environmental toxins are conducted, as well as analytical tests conducted on water, soil, and plants. On the south end of the Environmental Toxicology Lab is the analytical instrumentation collection purchased from the present DOE grant, which is overseen by a full time Analytical Chemist (hired January 2016), who maintains the instruments, conducts analyses on samples, and helps to train faculty and undergraduate and graduate student researchers.

  5. Impact of the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments to the biomass industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The direct impacts of the Clean Air Act on the existing biomass industry will be focused in four areas: Title I (nonattainment), Title III (air toxics), Title V (operating permits) and Title VII (enforcement). These four Titles will result in tighter emission limitations and other requirements on existing sources of air pollution. Two other areas should provide incentives for new biomass utilization. Title II (mobile sources) will promote the development of a clean fuels program; biomass is expected to play a key role as ethanol fuel resources are explicitly promoted by the Act. Title IV (acid rain control) will encourage the generation of power through renewable energy sources, including biomass. While there are several new requirements which will require industry to tighten controls and reduce emissions, there are also significant benefits to the biomass industry as well. A Title by Title description explains the applicable new requirements and the potential economic opportunities

  6. Regulating Greenhouse Gases from Coal Power Plants under the Clean Air Act

    OpenAIRE

    Joshua Linn; Erin Mastrangelo; Dallas Burtraw

    2014-01-01

    The Clean Air Act has assumed the central role in US climate policy, directing the development of regulations governing greenhouse gas emissions from existing coal-fired power plants. This paper uses a model of power plant operation and efficiency investments to compare the cost-effectiveness of alternative policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from coal plants. We empirically estimate the key model parameters from a data set of the operation of coal-fired generating units over 25 years...

  7. Plants Clean Air and Water for Indoor Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Wolverton Environmental Services Inc., founded by longtime government environmental scientist B.C. "Bill" Wolverton, is an environmental consulting firm that gives customers access to the results of his decades of cutting-edge bioremediation research. Findings about how to use plants to improve indoor air quality have been published in dozens of NASA technical papers and in the book, "How to Grow Fresh Air: 50 Houseplants That Purify Your Home or Office." The book has now been translated into 12 languages and has been on the shelves of bookstores for nearly 10 years. A companion book, "Growing Clean Water: Nature's Solution to Water Pollution," explains how plants can clean waste water. Other discoveries include that the more air that is allowed to circulate through the roots of the plants, the more effective they are at cleaning polluted air; and that plants play a psychological role in welfare in that people recover from illness faster in the presence of plants. Wolverton Environmental is also working in partnership with Syracuse University, to engineer systems consisting of modular wicking filters tied into duct work and water supplies, essentially tying plant-based filters into heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. Also, the company has recently begun to assess the ability of the EcoPlanter to remove formaldehyde from interior environments. Wolverton Environmental is also in talks with designers of the new Stennis Visitor's Center, who are interested in using its designs for indoor air-quality filters

  8. Legal consideration on draft water act

    OpenAIRE

    Ayanoğlu, Sedat; Yıldırım, Hülya Deniz

    2014-01-01

    Legal consideration on draft  water actAbstract: Very old regulations are found on water which is an indispensible natural spring and a need for the continuation of life.  Nowadays the importance of water law is increasing as a new branch of law. Although recognition of the right of ownership on springs, this branch of law as a sub branch of  law of natural springs has a character of public law  due to the importance of the subject which is regulated by it. Since water has different propertie...

  9. Evaluation of different cleaning agents used for cleaning ultra tiltration membranes fouled by surface water

    OpenAIRE

    Zondervan, Edwin; Roffel, Brian

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews the published literature on potential membrane fouling components, available cleaning agents and possible interactions between cleaning agents and fouling components. It also lists the cleaning models available in the literature, and evaluates the advantages and disadvantages of these models. Based on this outcome, a new cleaning model is proposed to capture cleaning dynamics for 10 different cleaning agents, varying from acidic, alkali and oxidizing to sequestering agents ...

  10. A Preliminary Review of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act’s Clean Energy Package

    OpenAIRE

    Aldy, Joseph Edgar

    2011-01-01

    The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act included more than $90 billion in strategic clean energy investments intended to promote job creation and promote deployment of low-carbon technologies. In terms of spending, the clean energy package has been described as the nation’s “biggest energy bill in history.†To provide a preliminary assessment of the Recovery Act’s clean energy package, this paper reviews the rationale, design, and implementation of the act. The paper surveys the pol...

  11. Brown coal coke in biological waste water cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological sewage plants working by the activated sludge process are often confronted by the following problems: the formation of expanded bubbles, lack of decomposition performance, unstable operation and insufficient excess sludge dewatering. In the former East Germany, there is also the problem of too little nitrificaion/denitrification, caused by obsolete plant. The use of brown coal coke guarantees efficient cleaning of waste water. (orig.)

  12. 76 FR 30604 - Approval of the Clean Air Act, Section 112(l), Authority for Hazardous Air Pollutants...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-26

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 63 Approval of the Clean Air Act, Section 112(l), Authority for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Perchloroethylene Air Emission Standards for Dry Cleaning Facilities: State of Maine Department... substitution for the amended National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for...

  13. Algal Turf Scrubbers: Cleaning Water While Capturing Solar Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algal Turfs and Algal Turf Scrubbers (ATS) Algal Turfs are bio diverse communities of unicellular to filamentous algae of all major algal phyla. Algal Turf Scrubbers (ATS) are bioengineered ecosystems dominated by algal turfs. They clean water to very high quality, and remove CO2 from the atmosphere by capturing solar energy at rates 10 times that of agriculture and 50 times that of forestry. ATS was invented at the Smithsonian Institution, by scientist, Walter Adey in the 1980s as a tool for controlling water quality in highly diverse model ecosystems. The technology received extensive R and D for aqua cultural, municipal, and industrial water cleaning by Dr. Adey, using venture capital, through the 1990s. Later, Hydro Mentia, Inc., of Ocala, Florida, engineered ATS to landscape scale of 20-50 Mgpd (it is important to note that this is a modular system, capable of expanding to any size.) A 2005 independent study of ATS, by the South Florida Water Management District and the IFAS Institute of the University of Florida, certified ATS as 5-100 times more cost efficient at removing nutrients from Everglades canal waters than the next competitor, the STA, a managed marsh system. ATS and STA were the final contestants in a 15-year study of nine technologies, and ATS was the only technology that created a use able byproduct.

  14. Does Clean Water Make You Dirty? Water Supply and Sanitation in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Water supply investments in developing countries may inadvertently worsen sanitation if clean water and sanitation are substitutes. This paper examines the negative correlation between the provision of piped water and household sanitary behavior in Cebu, the Philippines. In a model of household sanitation, a local externality leads to a sanitation…

  15. 75 FR 26098 - Safety Zone; Under Water Clean Up of Copper Canyon, Lake Havasu, AZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Under Water Clean Up of Copper Canyon, Lake... vessels. Basis and Purpose The Lake Havasu Divers Association is sponsoring the Under Water Copper Canyon Clean up, which will involve 40 divers cleaning the river bottom in Lake Havasu. The Coast Guard...

  16. Evaluation of different cleaning agents used for cleaning ultra tiltration membranes fouled by surface water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zondervan, Edwin; Roffel, Brian

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews the published literature on potential membrane fouling components, available cleaning agents and possible interactions between cleaning agents and fouling components. It also lists the cleaning models available in the literature, and evaluates the advantages and disadvantages of t

  17. Oil spill clean-up system using hot water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The process of hot water extraction of tar sand was modified and adapted for removal of heavy oil from bottom tank petroleum sludges, and was submitted to a laboratory feasibility study. This process can also be utilized to clean beach sands contaminated by accidental heavy oil spills. The process mainly consists of a hot-water extraction (digestion), extruding the oil particles from their support of sand or clay. In the case of oil contaminated sands, a single stage extraction yielded a total recovery of hydrocarbons of 99% and a clean sand (hardly containing 0.1% of hydrocarbons), thus safe to be returned to the environment. In the case of heavy oil from bottom tank petroleum sludges, it was necessary to proceed with a double stage extraction with the addition of wetting agents: the utilization of Na2SiO3 aqueous solution of 1% in weight was proven efficient, allowing a 82% recovery of hydrocarbons, with only 0.5% hydrocarbons in the solid residues. 21 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs

  18. Optimisation of water-cannon cleaning for deposit removal on water walls inside waste incinerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graube, Franziska; Grahl, Sebastian; Rostkowski, Slawomir; Beckmann, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Deposits in municipal waste incinerators are very inhomogeneous in structure and constitution. They cause corrosion and reduce the efficiency, so they need to be removed frequently. Among other systems, operators use water cannons for the deposit removal. Two different removal mechanisms of water-cannon cleaning are suggested: A direct shattering of the deposit by the impact of the water jet, as well as the cracking caused by thermal stresses where droplets cool the deposits. As the contribution of each of the aforementioned mechanisms to the overall cleaning efficiency is unknown, we performed empirical investigations to determine the dominating effect. In a first experimental setup focusing on thermal stress, cold droplets were applied onto hot deposits taken from a waste incinerator. Results showed that the cleaning effect strongly depends on the deposit thickness and structure, so that the deposits could be categorised in three different groups. A second measurement campaign focused on the influence of deposit material, deposit temperature and water jet momentum. It could be shown that both deposit material and temperature have a significant effect on the cleaning efficiency, whereas an increase in water jet momentum only led to modest improvements. The combination of these two parameter studies implies that the influence of the thermal stress outweighs that of the momentum. This knowledge is applicable to the cleaning setup by increasing the temperature gradient. PMID:26608897

  19. Physical chemistry of water droplets in wafer cleaning with low water use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donck, J.C.J. van der; Bakker, J.; Smeltink, J.A.; Kolderweij, R.B.J.; Zon, B.C.M.B. van der; Kleef, M.H. van

    2015-01-01

    Reduction of water and energy consumption is of importance for keeping viable industry in Europe. In 2012 the Eniac project Silver was started in order to reduce water and energy consumption in the semiconductor industry by 10% [1]. Cleaning of wafers is one of the key process steps that require a h

  20. Clean Water Act Approved Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) Documents

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Information from Approved and Established TMDL Documents as well as TMDLs that have been Withdrawn. This includes the pollutants identified in the TMDL Document,...

  1. OTEC technology -- a world of clean energy and water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magesh, R. [Coastal Energen Pvt. Ltd., Chennai, Tamilnadu (India)

    2010-07-01

    Scientists all over the world are making predictions about the ill effects of global warming and its consequences on mankind. Conventional fuel fired electric power stations contribute nearly 21.3% of the global greenhouse gas emission annually. Hence, an alternative for such power stations is a must to prevent global warming. One fine alternative that comes to the rescue is the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) power plant, the complete renewable energy power station for obtaining cleaner and greener power. Even though the concept is simple and old, recently it has gained momentum due to the worldwide search for clean continuous energy sources to replace fossil fuel. The design of a 5 megawatt OTEC pre-commercial plant is clearly protrayed to brief the OTEC technical feasibility along with economic consideration studies for installing OTEC across the world. OTEC plan can be seen as a combined power plant and desalination plant. Practically, for every megawatt of power generated by hybrid OTEC plant, nearly 2.28 million litres of desalinated water is obtained every day. Its value is thus increased because many parts of the globe are facing absolute water scarcity. OTEC could produce enough drinking water to ease the crisis drought-stricken areas. The water can be used for local agriculture and industry, any excess water being given or sold to neighboring communities.

  2. Interaction between Titles 2 and 3 of the Clean Air Act as amended, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szpunar, C.B.

    1996-02-01

    This report examines Some issues that would I affect the refining industry if the requirements for hazardous air pollutants set out in Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments were to impede the market entrance of oxygenated fuels, as me; required by Title II. It describes the mandate for reformulated gasoline; considers gasoline characteristics in light of component shifts in refining; examines the supply of, demand for, and cost of various feedstocks and blendstocks; and identifies the emissions and atmospheric impacts that might result from the production and use of reformulated gasoline. Attention is focused on methanol and MTBE, two potential blendstocks that are also hazardous air pollutants, and on maximum achievable control technology standards, which might be applied to the stationary sources that produce them.

  3. Interaction between Titles 2 and 3 of the Clean Air Act as amended, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report examines Some issues that would I affect the refining industry if the requirements for hazardous air pollutants set out in Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments were to impede the market entrance of oxygenated fuels, as me; required by Title II. It describes the mandate for reformulated gasoline; considers gasoline characteristics in light of component shifts in refining; examines the supply of, demand for, and cost of various feedstocks and blendstocks; and identifies the emissions and atmospheric impacts that might result from the production and use of reformulated gasoline. Attention is focused on methanol and MTBE, two potential blendstocks that are also hazardous air pollutants, and on maximum achievable control technology standards, which might be applied to the stationary sources that produce them

  4. Implications of the Clean Air Act acid rain title on industrial boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the impacts of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments related to acid rain controls, as they apply to industrial boilers. Emphasis is placed on explaining the Title IV provisions of the Amendments that permit nonutility sources to participate in the SO2 allowance system. The allowance system, as it pertains to industrial boiler operators, is described, and the opportunities for operators to trade and/or sell SO2 emission credits is discussed. The paper also reviews flue gas desulfurization system technologies available for industrial boiler operators who may choose to participate in the system. Furnace sorbent injection, advanced silicate process, lime spray drying, dry sorbent injection, and limestone scrubbing are described, including statements of their SO2 removing capability, commercial status, and costs. Capital costs, levelized costs and cost-effectiveness are presented for these technologies

  5. Preliminary assessment of future refining impacts of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preliminary assessment of the future refining impacts of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 has been performed with the Navy Mobility Fuels Forecasting Systems. The assessment suggests that gasoline reformulation costs in domestic coastal and near-coastal refining regions in the year 2000 could be 3.5 to 5.6 cents per gallon (in terms of 1989 currency). For heating value equivalent to one gallon of conventional gasoline, the regional total added costs (including reformulation costs) for reformulated gasoline could be 5.9 to 8.0 cents. In blending reformulated gasolines, the reduction of butane for lower Reid vapor pressure and the reduction of reformate for lower aromatics are generally compensated by increased percentages of alkylate and/or straight run naphthas. Relatively larger refinery process capacity additions are required for butane isomerization, alkylation, aromatics recovery, and distillate hydrotreating. 21 refs., 3 figs., 18 tabs

  6. Survivability study of a Water Cleaning Facility using Fluid Stochastic Petri Nets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, van den J.G.; Remke, A.; Gribaudo, M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the survivability of a water cleaning facility using Fluid Stochastic Petri Nets (FSPNs). Water cleaning facilities are responsible for providing drinking water to a specific district. The provided service is very important and makes such facilities belong to a nation's criti

  7. An activated fluid stream - New techniques for cold water cleaning

    OpenAIRE

    Birkin, Peter; Offin, Douglas; Leighton, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Electrochemical, acoustic and imaging techniques are used to characterise surface cleaning with particular emphasis on the understanding of the key phenomena relevant to surface cleaning. A range of novel techniques designed to enhance and monitor the effective cleaning of a solid/liquid interface is presented. Among the techniques presented, mass transfer of material to a sensor embedded in a surface is demonstrated to be useful in the further exploration of ultrasonic cleaning of high asp...

  8. Chemical cleaning of potable water membranes: The cost benefit of optimisation

    OpenAIRE

    Porcelli, Nicandro; Judd, Simon J.

    2010-01-01

    A study of the variability in chemical cleaning factors on permeability recovery for potable water microfiltration (MF) and ultrafiltration (UF) systems has been carried out employing a cost model simulating plant fouling and cleaning regimes. The impact of a range of operating and cleaning factors on operating cost variation was computed using algorithms describing operational and cleaning factor relationships with permeability recovery data measured from bench scale tests on fibres sampled ...

  9. Petroleum industry is cleaning up its act -- Self-cleaning filters to maximize profits, minimize waste and reduce liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent steps taken by the petroleum industry to control end-of-pipe pollution and to minimize waste at the source by changing over to self-cleaning, backwashable filters instead of the traditional disposable filters such as bags or cartridges, are discussed. Various self-cleaning filter systems and their advantages are described, using REACTOGARD which provides total protection for catalysts in fixed-bed reactors and EROSIONGARD, used in fluidized catalytic crackers, as examples. Both filter systems have been developed by RPA Process Technologies, Inc., a global leader in industrial filtration systems. Major advantages attributed to self-cleaning filters include significantly reduced costs through reducing the number of catalyst change-out cycles, maximized platform productivity through virtually eliminating the risk of plugged wells, reduced waste through ability to recycle cleaning liquids, increased profits through shorter return-on-investment cycles, reduced emissions and reduced future liability through higher safety in the workplace; also reduced pollution of landfill sites. 1 photo

  10. Water Power for a Clean Energy Future (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-03-01

    This fact sheet provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's Wind and Water Power Program's water power research activities. Water power is the nation's largest source of clean, domestic, renewable energy. Harnessing energy from rivers, manmade waterways, and oceans to generate electricity for the nation's homes and businesses can help secure America's energy future. Water power technologies fall into two broad categories: conventional hydropower and marine and hydrokinetic technologies. Conventional hydropower facilities include run-of-the-river, storage, and pumped storage. Most conventional hydropower plants use a diversion structure, such as a dam, to capture water's potential energy via a turbine for electricity generation. Marine and hydrokinetic technologies obtain energy from waves, tides, ocean currents, free-flowing rivers, streams and ocean thermal gradients to generate electricity. The United States has abundant water power resources, enough to meet a large portion of the nation's electricity demand. Conventional hydropower generated 257 million megawatt-hours (MWh) of electricity in 2010 and provides 6-7% of all electricity in the United States. According to preliminary estimates from the Electric Power Resource Institute (EPRI), the United States has additional water power resource potential of more than 85,000 megawatts (MW). This resource potential includes making efficiency upgrades to existing hydroelectric facilities, developing new low-impact facilities, and using abundant marine and hydrokinetic energy resources. EPRI research suggests that ocean wave and in-stream tidal energy production potential is equal to about 10% of present U.S. electricity consumption (about 400 terrawatt-hours per year). The greatest of these resources is wave energy, with the most potential in Hawaii, Alaska, and the Pacific Northwest. The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Water Power Program works with industry

  11. Development of membrane technology for production of concentrated fertilizer and clean water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Camilleri Rumbau, Maria Salud

    membranes, it was observed that 99% of the fouling resistance could be removed by flushing the membrane with water, suggesting that most fouling might be due to a transient gel layer. Furthermore, water flux could be recovered in more than 98% by using alkaline cleaning alone (NaOH), alkaline cleaning with...... anionic surfactants (SDS) or alkaline cleaning with chelating agents (EDTA). This suggests that NaOH could be a good and cheap strategy for cleaning RO membranes. Membrane soaking further helped in increasing the membrane water flux recovery. Forward osmosis (FO) was done using aquaporin based membranes...

  12. Water supply, waste water cleaning and waste disposal. 2. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first part of the book contains fundamentals of chemistry, always having environmental protection in mind. Numerous examples are calculated. The second part gives detailed explanations of the material-scientific and analytical bases of the indispensable resource water and its conditioning, waste water cleaning and sludge treatment. Collection, transport, handling, disposal and recycling of unavoidable wastes and toxic wastes are finally dealt with. (orig./EF)

  13. Industrial cleaning with Qlean Water : a case study of printed circuit boards

    OpenAIRE

    Lindahl, Mattias; Svensson, Niclas; Svensson, Bo; Sundin, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Many manufacturing companies are looking for ways to substitute environmentally problematic cleaning methods for surface treatments with more environmentally friendly ones. In this paper, one potential solution is described. The Qlean method, based on cleaning with highly pure water (in this paper defined as Qlean Water), is a novel cleaning method. This method, now utilized at one plant at a leading major international electronic company, has substituted previous chemical-based methods for c...

  14. The Political Economy of Clean Air Legislation. An Analysis of Voting in the U.S. Senate on Amendments to the 1990 Clean Air Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Much research in political science and economics has attempted to explain voting patterns among members of legislative bodies. In this paper we extend the existing analysis in three ways. First, we address the subject of voting on air quality regulation by the U.S. Senate. A subject of great importance and significance, such votes have not previously been the focus of much empirical investigation. Second, we develop an arguably more correct and effective methodology for measuring and understanding the ideological preferences of individual Senators, as revealed by their voting patterns on 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act. Third, we apply the minimum chi-square methodology for estimating the determinants of Senator voting patterns on the issue. In Section 2, the economic theory of regulation is elaborated as it is specifically related to 1990 senate voting on amendments to the Clean Air Act. In Section 3, we provide a brief literature review, focusing on the principal-agent model and how voting patterns are influenced by campaign contributions, constituent socio-economic characteristics, and individual legislator ideology. In Section 4 we present a very simple model of the principal-agent relationship which underlies legislative voting behavior. In this section (supplemented by information in an appendix) we introduce a new methodology for creating a proxy variable to represent legislator ideology, comparing the new method with those previously used. Section 5 provides a chronological background on clean air legislation, and Section 6 discusses the data and proxy variables used for the empirical estimations. Section 7 contains a presentation and evaluation of three empirical techniques, including one not previously used, the minimum chi-square method which, we argue, is both appropriate and easily interpretable. This claim is based upon the fact that the dependent variable, SCORE, is neither continuous nor dichotomous, but ordered and categorical, constructed

  15. 2D Accessibility Analysis for Water Jet Cleaning

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Wei; Garg, Saurabh; McMains, Sara

    2009-01-01

    Effective cleaning with high pressure waterjets requires direct impact of jets and sufficiently high impact pressure. The objective of this research is to find all such cleanable regions, given a CAD model of a workpiece, by means of geometric accessibility analysis. We use a configuration space (C-space) approach for addressing the problems of both optimum surface proximity for effective cleaning and collision avoidance between the cleaning lance and the workpiece. Minkowski sums are used ...

  16. A cup of coffee with biodiversity and clean drinking water, please

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bosselmann, Aske Skovmand

    2012-01-01

    Sales of clean water, CO2 credits and the protection of biodiversity can benefit the environment and provide an extra income for farmers who grow coffee under the shade of trees.......Sales of clean water, CO2 credits and the protection of biodiversity can benefit the environment and provide an extra income for farmers who grow coffee under the shade of trees....

  17. 78 FR 51184 - Air Pollution Control: Proposed Actions on Clean Air Act Section 105 Grant to the Lane Regional...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... AGENCY Air Pollution Control: Proposed Actions on Clean Air Act Section 105 Grant to the Lane Regional... Lane Regional Air Protection Agency (LRAPA) in Eugene, Oregon is a result of agency wide non-selective...-selective reduction on September 30, 2011. In consideration of legislative history, the guidance...

  18. 75 FR 75463 - Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Petition To Object to Title V Permit for Luke Paper...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIROMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Petition To Object to Title V Permit for Luke Paper... issues during the comment period or that the grounds for objection or other issue arose after the...

  19. 75 FR 22400 - Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Petition To Object to Title V Permit for Wheelabrator...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIROMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Petition To Object to Title V Permit for Wheelabrator... period or that the grounds for objection or other issue arose after the comment period. EPA received...

  20. 78 FR 16630 - Clean Air Act Grant: South Coast Air Quality Management District; Opportunity for Pubic Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 35 Clean Air Act Grant: South Coast Air Quality Management District; Opportunity for... Quality Management District (SCAQMD) in support of its continuing air program under section 105 of the... expenditures in the programs of the South Coast Air Quality Management District. The shortfall stems from...

  1. 76 FR 4662 - Partial Grant of Clean Air Act Waiver Application Submitted by Growth Energy To Increase the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    ... AGENCY Partial Grant of Clean Air Act Waiver Application Submitted by Growth Energy To Increase the... Allowable Ethanol Content of Gasoline to 15 Percent; Decision of the Administrator. See 75 FR 68094.... All of the conditions are discussed in Section X of the October Waiver Decision (see 75 FR...

  2. 75 FR 68093 - Partial Grant and Partial Denial of Clean Air Act Waiver Application Submitted by Growth Energy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-04

    ...The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is partially granting Growth Energy's waiver request application submitted under section 211(f)(4) of the Clean Air Act. This partial waiver allows fuel and fuel additive manufacturers to introduce into commerce gasoline that contains greater than 10 volume percent ethanol and no more than 15 volume percent ethanol (E15) for use in certain motor......

  3. 76 FR 53452 - Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Response to Petition To Reopen the 2001 Title V Permit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-26

    ... AGENCY Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Response to Petition To Reopen the 2001 Title V Permit for...: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of action denying petition to reopen Title V permit... 2001 Title V permit issued by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PADEP)...

  4. 78 FR 45272 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Third Amendment to Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    .... Lafarge North America et al, Civil Action No. 3:10-cv- 44. Following public notice and opportunity for... federal Clean Air Act, 42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq. by Lafarge North America, Lafarge Building Materials, and Lafarge Midwest (collectively, the ``Lafarge Companies'') alleged by Plaintiff United States and...

  5. 77 FR 38830 - Notice of Lodging of an Amendment to Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... June 25, 2012, a proposed Second Amendment to the consent decree in United States et al. v. Lafarge... and twelve states or state agencies against Lafarge North America, Inc., Lafarge Midwest, Inc., and Lafarge Building Materials, Inc. (``Lafarge'') for alleged violations of the Clean Air Act (``CAA''...

  6. Sulfur dioxide emissions and market effects under the Clean Air Act Acid Rain Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA90) established a national program to control sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from electricity generation. CAAA90's market-based approach includes trading and banking of SO2-emissions allowances. The paper presents an analysis of data describing electric utility SO2 emissions in 1995, the first year of the program's Phase I, and market effects over the 1990-95 period. Fuel switching and flue-gas desulfurization were the dominant means used in 1995 by targeted generators to reduce emissions to 51% of 1990 levels. Flue-gas desulfurization costs, emissions allowance prices, low-sulfur coal prices, and average sulfur contents of coals shipped to electric utilities declined over the 1990-95 period. Projections indicate that 13-15 million allowances will have been banked during the programs' Phase I, which ends in 1999, a quantity expected to last through the first decade of the program's stricter Phase II controls. In 1995, both allowance prices and SO2 emissions were below pre-CAAA90 expectations. The reduction of SO2 emissions beyond pre-CAAA90 expectations, combined with lower-than-expected allowance prices and declining compliance costs, can be viewed as a success for market-based environmental controls. 21 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  7. Decision-making for complying with SO2 provisions of the Clean Air Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prior to the Clean Air Act of 1990 (CAA), SO2 removal options were based on a command and control approach for each plant. This approach usually resulted in the addition of an FGD system. However, the CAA offers a market based emission allowance program which offers considerable flexibility for compliance with the new regulations. The flexibility for compliance introduces more available options into the evaluation and increases the complexity of the decision-making process. This paper discusses the methodology of a recent analysis which evaluated various strategies for meeting SO2 compliance. The importance of evaluating options based on certain goals is discussed. An overall goal was established to develop a flexible and least cost compliance plan. However, these goals need to be balanced against constraints for the utility which may include: minimizing SO2 allowance market risk; optimizing the availability, cost and timing of capital expenditures into the analysis; minimizing site impacts and construction lead time; and coordinating strategies from various units and stations into a cohesive plan

  8. Air toxics provisions of the Clean Air Act: Potential impacts on energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hootman, H.A.; Vernet, J.E.

    1991-11-01

    This report provides an overview of the provisions of the Clean Air Act and its Amendments of 1990 that identify hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions and addresses their regulation by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It defines the major energy sector sources of these HAPs that would be affected by the regulations. Attention is focused on regulations that would cover coke oven emissions; chromium emission from industrial cooling towers and the electroplating process; HAP emissions from tank vessels, asbestos-related activities, organic solvent use, and ethylene oxide sterilization; and emissions of air toxics from municipal waste combustors. The possible implications of Title III regulations for the coal, natural gas, petroleum, uranium, and electric utility industries are examined. The report discusses five major databases of HAP emissions: (1) TRI (EPA`s Toxic Release Inventory); (2) PISCES (Power Plant Integrated Systems: Chemical Emissions Studies developed by the Electric Power Research Institute); (3) 1985 Emissions Inventory on volatile organic compounds (used for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program); (4) Particulate Matter Species Manual (EPA); and (5) Toxics Emission Inventory (National Aeronautics and Space Administration). It also offers information on emission control technologies for municipal waste combustors.

  9. Air toxics provisions of the Clean Air Act: Potential impacts on energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hootman, H.A.; Vernet, J.E.

    1991-11-01

    This report provides an overview of the provisions of the Clean Air Act and its Amendments of 1990 that identify hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions and addresses their regulation by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It defines the major energy sector sources of these HAPs that would be affected by the regulations. Attention is focused on regulations that would cover coke oven emissions; chromium emission from industrial cooling towers and the electroplating process; HAP emissions from tank vessels, asbestos-related activities, organic solvent use, and ethylene oxide sterilization; and emissions of air toxics from municipal waste combustors. The possible implications of Title III regulations for the coal, natural gas, petroleum, uranium, and electric utility industries are examined. The report discusses five major databases of HAP emissions: (1) TRI (EPA's Toxic Release Inventory); (2) PISCES (Power Plant Integrated Systems: Chemical Emissions Studies developed by the Electric Power Research Institute); (3) 1985 Emissions Inventory on volatile organic compounds (used for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program); (4) Particulate Matter Species Manual (EPA); and (5) Toxics Emission Inventory (National Aeronautics and Space Administration). It also offers information on emission control technologies for municipal waste combustors.

  10. Airborne lidar mapping of vertical ozone distributions in support of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments mandated attainment of the ozone standard established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Improved photochemical models validated by experimental data are needed to develop strategies for reducing near surface ozone concentrations downwind of urban and industrial centers. For more than 10 years, lidar has been used on large aircraft to provide unique information on ozone distributions in the atmosphere. However, compact airborne lidar systems are needed for operation on small aircraft of the type typically used on regional air quality investigations to collect data with which to develop and validate air quality models. Data presented in this paper will consist of a comparison between airborne differential absorption lidar (DIAL) and airborne in-situ ozone measurements. Also discussed are future plans to improve the airborne ultraviolet-DIAL for ozone and other gas observations and addition of a Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) emission spectrometer to investigate the effects of other gas species on vertical ozone distribution

  11. Air toxics provisions of the Clean Air Act: Potential impacts on energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides an overview of the provisions of the Clean Air Act and its Amendments of 1990 that identify hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions and addresses their regulation by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It defines the major energy sector sources of these HAPs that would be affected by the regulations. Attention is focused on regulations that would cover coke oven emissions; chromium emission from industrial cooling towers and the electroplating process; HAP emissions from tank vessels, asbestos-related activities, organic solvent use, and ethylene oxide sterilization; and emissions of air toxics from municipal waste combustors. The possible implications of Title III regulations for the coal, natural gas, petroleum, uranium, and electric utility industries are examined. The report discusses five major databases of HAP emissions: (1) TRI (EPA's Toxic Release Inventory); (2) PISCES (Power Plant Integrated Systems: Chemical Emissions Studies developed by the Electric Power Research Institute); (3) 1985 Emissions Inventory on volatile organic compounds (used for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program); (4) Particulate Matter Species Manual (EPA); and (5) Toxics Emission Inventory (National Aeronautics and Space Administration). It also offers information on emission control technologies for municipal waste combustors

  12. The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments and the Great Lakes economy: Challenges and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with the market for SO2 emission allowances over time and electric utility compliance choices. For currently high emitting plants ( > 2.5 lb SO2/MMBtu), the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) provide for about twice as many SO2 allowances to be issued per year in Phase 1 (1995--1999) than in Phase 2. Also, considering the scrubber incentives in Phase 1, there is likely to be substantial emission banking for use in Phase 2. Allowance prices are expected to increase over time at a rate less than the return on alternative investments, so utilities which are risk neutral or other potential speculators in the allowance market are not expected to bank allowances. The allowances will be banked by risk averse utilities or the utilities may buy forward contracts for SO2 allowances. However, speculators may play an important role by selling forward contracts for SO2 allowances to the risk averse utilities. The Argonne Utility Simulation Model (ARGUS) is being revised to incorporate the provisions of the CAAA acid rain title and to simulate SO2 allowance prices, compliance choices, capacity expansion, system dispatch, fuel use, and emissions. The revised model (ARGUS2) incorporates unit-level performance data and can incorporate unit-specific compliance decisions when these are known. The model has been designed for convenience in analyzing alternatives scenarios (demand growth rates, technology mix, economic parameters, etc). 1 ref., 5 figs

  13. Pollution prevention incentives and disincentives created by the Clean Air Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental laws and regulations have not always been implemented in a manner that allows for the consideration of pollution prevention (P2) alternatives as a means of achieving progress toward air quality goals. Recently, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been making strides to reinterpret laws and regulations to be more flexible and encourage P2 projects that do not involve end-of-the-pipe controls. For instance, when conducting control technology evaluations such as best available control technology (BACT) and lowest achievable emission rate (LAER), facilities can and should take into consideration P2 options that accomplish the same emission reduction goals as traditional end-of-the-pipe controls. There are also new emissions trading provisions building on those allowed in the acid rain and offset trading programs that promise to make P2 projects much more cost-effective. Several traditional 'command-and-control' programs of the Clean Air Act (CAA) also promote P2 projects. For instance, emission reductions realized through P2 projects show managers a direct cost savings due to reductions in Title V facility annual emissions fees and possibly a direct cost benefit through sale of emission credits. Furthermore, the CAA encourages P2 indirectly through the detail understanding of processes gained from emissions inventories and risk management plans (RMPs). However, many CAA prescriptive programs create disincentives for industry to select P2 alternatives. 30 refs

  14. Public Utility Commission implementation of the Clean Air Act's allowance trading program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA), 'Acid Deposition Control,' will reduce by the year 2000 annual sulfur dioxide emissions by 10 million tons below the 1980 level, and nitrogen oxide emissions by 2 million tons. Emissions of sulfur dioxide will then be limited to 8.95 million tons per year after 2000. To control sulfur dioxide emissions, Title IV created a new regulatory instrument -- an emission allowance or credit -- that electric power producers (utilities and others) will be required to possess and expend to emit sulfur dioxide into the atmosphere. Electric utilities and others will be allowed to buy and sell the emission allowances in an allowance trading system. Cost estimates of implementing Title IV provisions put the cost 50 to 75 percent higher than with the allowance trading system. Estimates of this potential savings vary from 1 to 3 billion dollars annually. This report discusses the administrative roles of various agencies in implementing Title IV and allocating the emission allowance. The cost of compliance and the effect of compliance on the utilities industry is discussed

  15. Recreational demand for clean water: Evidence from geotagged photographs by visitors to lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeler, B.; Wood, S.; Polasky, S.; Kling, C.; Filstrup, C.; Downing, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    More than 41,000 waters are listed as impaired by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency under the Clean Water Act. Regulations designed to address these impairments can be costly, raising questions about the value of the public benefits that would result from additional investments in improving surface water quality. Benefit studies often rely on costly surveys or other detailed data collection, limiting the ability to apply nonmarket valuation methods to address policy needs. We assessed the recreational value of changes in water quality using freely-available geotagged photographs as a proxy for recreational visits to lakes. We find that improved water clarity is associated with greater lake photo-visitation and that lake users are willing to travel further to visit clearer lakes. We estimate a one-meter increase in lake clarity in Minnesota and Iowa lakes is associated with $22 in increased willingness-to-pay per trip and generates 1,400 additional annual visits per lake, holding all other lake attributes constant. Our approach demonstrates the potential of data from social media to inform human responses to environmental change.

  16. Survivability study of a Water Cleaning Facility using Fluid Stochastic Petri Nets

    OpenAIRE

    Broek, van den, E.; Remke, A.; Gribaudo, M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the survivability of a water cleaning facility using Fluid Stochastic Petri Nets (FSPNs). Water cleaning facilities are responsible for providing drinking water to a specific district. The provided service is very important and makes such facilities belong to a nation's critical infrastructures. Therefore, such a facility should be able to recover in a timely manner after the occurrence of disasters. The use of FSPNs in survivability research is new and promising due t...

  17. The Mechanical Analysis and Experimental Study of Shock Wave Effect of Electrical Discharge under Water In Filth Cleaning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deng Qilin; Zhang Lei; Zhou Jinjin

    2004-01-01

    Filth adhering to metal pipes can be cleaned by shock wave generated by electrical discharge under water. The mechanism of shock wave effect of electrical discharge under water on filth cleaning is analyzed by building a mechanical model. A metal pipe coated with cement to simulate real filth is cleaned by using electrical discharge under water. The experimental results confirm the mechanical analysis and also show the technology of electrical discharge under water is an very effective method for filth cleaning.

  18. Regulatory policy issues and the Clean Air Act: Issues and papers from the state implementation workshops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, K. [ed.; Burns, R.E.

    1993-07-01

    The National Regulatory Research Institute (NRRI), with funding from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the US Department of Energy (DOE), conducted four regional workshops` on state public utility commission implementation of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA). The workshops had four objectives: (1) to discuss key issues and concerns on CAAA implementation, (2) to encourage a discussion among states on issues of common interests, (3) to attempt to reach consensus, where possible, on key issues, and (4) to provide the workshop participants with information and materials to assist in developing state rules, orders, and procedures. From the federal perspective, a primary goal was to ensure that workshop participants return to their states with a comprehensive background and understanding of how state commission actions may affect implementation of the CAAA and to be able to provide guidance to their jurisdictional utilities. It was hoped that this would reduce some of the uncertainty utilities face and assist in the development of an efficient allowance market. This report is divided into two main sections. In Section II, eleven principal issues are identified and discussed. These issues were chosen because they were either the most frequently discussed or they were related to the questions asked in response to the speakers` presentations. This section does not cover all the issues relevant to state implementation nor all the issues discussed at the workshops; rather, Section II is intended to provide an overview of the,planning, ratemaking, and multistate issues. Part III is a series of workshop papers presented by some of the speakers. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  19. Allowance trading under the Clean Air Act: Who should regulate, and when?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lock, R. [LeBoeuf, Lamb, Leiby & MacRae, Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-07-01

    The goal of this paper is to explore how compliance with the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA), especially Title IV and emission trading under it, will affect the current relationship between state and federal regulation. It is difficult, with the limited experience we have had under Title IV, to be definitive about or to be a very strong advocate of too many policy positions. What may be most helpful at this point is to identify where the difficult issues in state/federal relations might arise; and then to explore ways in which tensions might be either avoided or resolved. One anticipated conclusion is that a traditional regulatory mindset could be very destructive if applied to this new area of oversight without due sensitivity to what Congress is trying to achieve in Title IV. That concern pervaded the early legislative debates; and it persists today. Title IV presents some unique challenges to state regulators and will require some creative solutions and fresh thinking if the goals of Congress are to be realized and the full benefits that allowance trading can offer are to be reaped by electricity consumers. In the ultimate analysis, Title IV amounts to a massive internalization of the external costs imposed on society by acid rain deposition. (This places in serious question the notion of additional externality {open_quotes}adders{close_quotes} for sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrous oxide (NO{sub x}) at the state level for utility supply planning purposes.) The whole point of Title IV is to give those directly charged with compliance, namely power producers, the maximum flexibility to pursue least-cost compliance solutions. Perhaps the biggest single factor in how well they do this will be how state regulators respond to their compliance and allowance trading initiatives.

  20. An analysis of SO2 emission compliance under the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effectiveness of SO2 emission allowance trading under Title 4 of the 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act (CAA) is of great interest due to the innovative nature of this market incentive approach. However, it may be a mistake to frame the compliance problem for a utility as a decision to trade or not. Trading of allowances should be the consequence, not the decision. The two meaningful decision variables for a utility are the control approaches chosen for its units and the amount of allowances to hold in its portfolio of assets for the future. The number allowances to be bought or sold (i.e. traded) is determined by the emission reduction and banking decisions. Our preferred approach is to think of the problem in terms of ABC's of the 1990 CAA Amendments: abatement strategy, banking, and cost competitiveness. The implications of the general principles presented in this paper on least cost emission reductions and emissions banking to hedge against risk are being simulated with version 2 of the ARGUS model representing the electric utility sector and regional coal supplies and transportation rates. A rational expectations forecast for allowances prices is being computed. The computed allowance price path has the property that demand for allowances by electric utilities for current use or for banking must equal the supply of allowances issued by the federal government or provided as forward market contracts in private market transactions involving non-utility speculators. From this rational expectations equilibrium forecast, uncertainties are being explored using sensitivity tests. Some of the key issues are the amount of scrubbing and when it is economical to install it, the amount of coal switching and how much low sulfur coal premiums will be bid up; and the amount of emission trading within utilities and among different utilities

  1. Interactions between energy efficiency and emission trading under the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments affect electric utilities in numerous ways. The feature that probably has received the greatest attention is the provision to let utilities trade emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2), while at the same time requiring them to reduce S02 emissions in 2000 by an aggregate 43%. The emission trading system was welcomed by many as a way of reducing the cost of reducing emissions, by providing greater flexibility than past approaches. This report examines some of the potential interactions between trading emissions and increasing end-use energy efficiency. The analysis focuses on emission trading in the second phase of the trading program, which begins in 2000. The aggregate effects, calculated by an emission compliance and trading model, turn out to be rather small. Aggressive improvement of end-use efficiency by all utilities might reduce allowance prices by $22/ton (1990 dollars), which is small compared to the reduction that has occurred in the estimates of future allowance prices and when compared to the roughly $400/ton price we estimate as a base case. However, the changes in the allowance market that result are large enough to affect some compliance decisions. If utilities in only a few states improve end-use efficiency aggressively, their actions may not have a large effect on the price of an allowance, but they could alter the demand for allowances and thereby the compliance decisions of utilities in other states. The analysis shows how improving electricity end-use efficiency in some states can cause smaller emission reductions in other states, relative to what would have happened without the improvements. Such a result, while not surprising given the theory behind the emission trading system, is upsetting to people who view emissions, environmental protection, and energy efficiency in moral rather than strictly economic terms

  2. Regulatory policy issues and the Clean Air Act: An interim report on the state implementation workshops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, K.; Burns, R.E.

    1992-08-01

    The National Regulatory Research Institute (NRRI), with funding from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), conducted two workshops on state public utility commission implementation of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA). The first workshop was held in Charlotte, North Carolina for southern and eastern states in April 1992 and the second was held in St. Louis, Missouri for Midwestern states in May. The workshops had four objectives: (1) discuss key issues and concerns on CAAA implementation, (2) encourage a discussion among states on issues of common interest, (3) attempt to reach consensus, where possible, on some key issues, and (4) provide the workshop participants with information and materials to assist in developing rules, orders, and procedures in their state. Of primary interest from the federal perspective was for workshop participants to return to their states with additional background and understanding of how state commission actions may affect implementation of the CAAA and enable them to provide guidance to their jurisdictional utilities. It was hoped this would reduce some of the uncertainty utilities face and assist in the development of an efficient allowance market. The basic format of the workshops was that invited speakers made presentations on specific issues. {open_quotes}Primary participants{close_quotes} from each state and other workshop attendees then discussed the issues raised by the speakers and other related concerns. The primary participants were state commissioners, commission staff, representatives from state consumer advocate organizations, EPA, DOE, and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC). Other attendees were utility representatives, consultants, and other interested parties. All participants were given a workbook with excerpts from an NRRI report on CAAA implementation and papers or outlines from speakers.

  3. Development of a dynamic model for cleaning ultra filtration membranes fouled by surface water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zondervan, Edwin; Betlem, Ben H.L.; Roffel, Brian

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a dynamic model for cleaning ultra filtration membranes fouled by surface water is proposed. A model that captures the dynamics well is valuable for the optimization of the cleaning process. The proposed model is based on component balances and contains three parameters that can be de

  4. The effect of the recently enacted Clean Air Act amendments on the need for reviving the nuclear energy option

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sillin, J.O. (Management Analysis Co., San Diego, CA (United States))

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) which accelerate the time table for reviving the nuclear energy option. While the full implications of the CAAA cannot be ascertained, it will certainly make it difficult (and in some regions, impossible) to increase electrical output from coal-fired power plants to meet growing electrical requirements. If nuclear energy is not available to meet these increased requirements, economic growth could falter and perhaps stagnate.

  5. EnviroAtlas - Clean and Plentiful Water Metrics for the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas web service supports research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas). The Clean and Plentiful Water...

  6. The infusion of fauna of water cleaning installations working with mechanical method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to our investigations 77 kinds of infusions are determined in the watercleaning installations, working with mechanical method. In the given article the description of watercleaning installations, spreading of infusions on taxons in water purifying basins, their changes according to the seasons, the number of dynamics on biotops, the comparison of siliofauna of cleaning installations on their role in the cleaning of water are analyzed

  7. Water wash apparatus for cleaning radioactively contaminated garments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This patent describes an apparatus for water washing fabrics and removing radioactive contaminants therefrom without the generation of liquid effluents. It comprises: a washing machine means for washing the fabrics having a wash water inlet, a rinse water inlet, and an outlet, and a hydraulically closed wash water system which includes a reservoir means of polished water connected to the wash water inlet of the machine means, a particulate filtration means connected to the outlet for removing particulate impurities from the wash water discharged from the outlet, and a water polishing means connected between the particulate filtration means and the wash water inlet for supplying the reservoir means with filtered and polished water

  8. The impact of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments on biofuels usage and waste-to-energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments represent the most sweeping revisions to the Act to date and the impact of these changes will alter the environmental framework within which waste-to-energy facilities currently operate. This paper discusses the most important aspects of the Amendments as they affect waste-to-energy systems including new major source provisions, siting in non-attainment areas, Title III treatment of municipal waste combustion, special incentive allowances under Title IV for use of renewable resources, alternative fuel usage, and the harsh enforcement regime. The paper also will provide conference attendees with guidance on how the new Act will change the way facilities structure their deals including prospects for creative financing, the market for allowances, retrofitting potential fuel-switching options, impact on construction contracts and costs to the industry

  9. Air emission points for facilities in Iowa with operating permits for Title V of the Federal Clean Air Act_considered MAJOR permits

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Air emission points for facilities in Iowa with operating permits for Title V of the Federal Clean Air Act, considered "major" permits. Also includes emission...

  10. 78 FR 38074 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... Puget Sound Clean Air Agency are parties to the proposed Decree. To reduce NO X emissions, the proposed Decree would require Ash Grove to install new, modern pollution controls on nine of the kilns; shut down... reduce SO 2 emissions and would require modern pollution controls to reduce PM emissions at all...

  11. Standard Test Method for Preparing Aircraft Cleaning Compounds, Liquid Type, Water Base, for Storage Stability Testing

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the stability in storage, of liquid, water-base chemical cleaning compounds, used to clean the exterior surfaces of aircraft. 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  12. A self-cleaning underwater superoleophobic mesh for oil-water separation

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Lianbin

    2013-07-31

    Oil-water separation has recently become a global challenging task because of the frequent occurrence of oil spill accidents due to the offshore oil production and transportation, and there is an increasing demand for the development of effective and inexpensive approaches for the cleaning-up of the oily pollution in water system. In this study, a self-cleaning underwater superoleophobic mesh that can be used for oil-water separation is prepared by the layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of sodium silicate and TiO2 nanoparticles on the stainless steel mesh. The integration of the self-cleaning property into the all-inorganic separation mesh by using TiO2 enables the convenient removal of the contaminants by ultraviolet (UV) illumination, and allows for the facile recovery of the separation ability of the contaminated mesh, making it promising for practial oil-water separation applications.

  13. A self-cleaning underwater superoleophobic mesh for oil-water separation

    OpenAIRE

    Lianbin ZHANG; Zhong, Yujiang; Cha, Dongkyu; Wang, Peng

    2013-01-01

    Oil–water separation has recently become a global challenging task because of the frequent occurrence of oil spill accidents due to the offshore oil production and transportation, and there is an increasing demand for the development of effective and inexpensive approaches for the cleaning-up of the oily pollution in water system. In this study, a self-cleaning underwater superoleophobic mesh that can be used for oil-water separation is prepared by the layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of sodium ...

  14. Sorbent biomaterials for cleaning up hydrocarbon spills on soil and bodies of water

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Paola Ortíz González; Fabio Andrade Fonseca; Gerardo Rodríguez Niño; Luis Carlos Montenegro Ruiz

    2010-01-01

    This study was aimed at identifying and evaluating natural organic materials which could be used as sorbents in clean-up operations following hydrocarbons spills on both soils and bodies of water. The sorption capacity of three materials (sugarcane fibre, coco fibre and water Eichornia crassipies was evaluated with three hydrocarbons (35°, 30° and 25°API) and two types of water (distilled and artificial marine water) adopting the ASTM F-726 standard and following the methodology suggested i...

  15. A cross-sectional survey of water and clean faces in trachoma endemic communities in Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Kiboko Steven; Mchiwe Wilson; Cajas-Monson Luis C; Swenor Bonnielin; Rog Morgan; Mkocha Harran; West Sheila

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Face washing is important to interrupt the transmission of trachoma, the leading infectious cause of blindness worldwide. We aimed to assess the household and personal factors that affected water use and face washing practices in Kongwa, Tanzania. Methods We conducted a household water use survey in 173 households (329 children) in January, 2010. Self reported data on water use practices, observed water in the household, and observed clean faces in children were collected....

  16. Contextual and sociopsychological factors in predicting habitual cleaning of water storage containers in rural Benin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocker, Andrea; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2015-04-01

    Recontamination of drinking water occurring between water collection at the source and the point of consumption is a current problem in developing countries. The household drinking water storage container is one source of contamination and should therefore be cleaned regularly. First, the present study investigated contextual factors that stimulate or inhibit the development of habitual cleaning of drinking water storage containers with soap and water. Second, based on the Risk, Attitudes, Norms, Abilities, and Self-regulation (RANAS) Model of behavior, the study aimed to determine which sociopsychological factors should be influenced by an intervention to promote habitual cleaning. In a cross-sectional study, 905 households in rural Benin were interviewed by structured face-to-face interviews. A forced-entry regression analysis was used to determine potential contextual factors related to habitual cleaning. Subsequently, a hierarchical regression was conducted with the only relevant contextual factor entered in the first step (R2 = 6.7%) and the sociopsychological factors added in the second step (R2 = 62.5%). Results showed that households using a clay container for drinking water storage had a significantly weaker habit of cleaning their water storage containers with soap and water than did households using other types of containers (β = -0.10). The most important sociopsychological predictors of habitual cleaning were commitment (β = 0.35), forgetting (β = -0.22), and self-efficacy (β = 0.14). The combined investigation of contextual and sociopsychological factors proved beneficial in terms of developing intervention strategies. Possible interventions based on these findings are recommended.

  17. SCIENTIFIC AND PRACTICAL ASPECTS OF WATER BASIN CLEANING FROM CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS

    OpenAIRE

    T. M. Tiavlovskaya; V. F. Tamelo

    2011-01-01

    The paper contains an analysis of reasons that explain pollution of World Ocean waters by chemical warfare agents and ecological dangers which can arise due to their emission. Possible methods for liquidation of chemical warfare agents and water basin cleaning from them have been considered in the paper.

  18. SUN, BOTTLES AND BEESWAX: LOCAL SOLUTIONS FOR CLEAN WATER USING SOLAR DISINFECTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lack of clean drinking water poses a serious health threat in the developing world, especially to children under the age of five. Point-of-Use (POU) water treatment has been shown to decrease the incidence of diarrhea by 30-40% in some studies. The focus of this proposal is so...

  19. A cross-sectional survey of water and clean faces in trachoma endemic communities in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiboko Steven

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Face washing is important to interrupt the transmission of trachoma, the leading infectious cause of blindness worldwide. We aimed to assess the household and personal factors that affected water use and face washing practices in Kongwa, Tanzania. Methods We conducted a household water use survey in 173 households (329 children in January, 2010. Self reported data on water use practices, observed water in the household, and observed clean faces in children were collected. Contingency table analyses and logistic regression analyses were used to measure associations between unclean faces and risk factors. Results We found that women are recognized as primary decision makers on water use in a household, and respondents who reported laziness as a reason that others do not wash children's faces were significantly more likely to have children with clean faces. Washing was reported as a priority for water use in most households. Sixty four percent (95% Confidence Interval = 59%-70% of children had clean faces. Conclusions Attitudes toward face washing and household water use appear to have changed dramatically from 20 years ago when clean faces were rare and men made decisions on water use in households. The sources of these attitudinal changes are not clear, but are positive changes that will assist the trachoma control program in strengthening its hygiene efforts.

  20. Perceptions of Water Ownership, Water Management, and the Responsibility of Providing Clean Water

    OpenAIRE

    Jacqueline Noga; Gregor Wolbring

    2013-01-01

    Perceptions of water and water related issues still render many under-researched topics. This study aims to further our knowledge regarding people’s perceptions of water and our understanding about the different ways individuals use water. The authors asked the question: Does the way an individual perceives water (i.e., as a commodity, a human right, private resource, public resource and/or natural resource) influence consumption and conservation of water, and sentiments towards control and a...

  1. Produced water management - clean and safe oil and gas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conference contains 22 presentations on topics within pollution sources and abatement, discharge reductions, water analysis and monitoring, water production, treatment and injection, enhanced recovery, condensate water, produced water markets, separation technologies for oil/gas/condensate and water, oil removal from solids, environmental risks of oil and gas production and environmental impacts on ecosystems and fisheries. Some oil field case histories are presented. The main focus is on the northern areas such as the North Sea, the north Atlantic Ocean and the Barents Sea, and technological aspects (tk)

  2. Produced water management - clean and safe oil and gas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The conference contains 22 presentations on topics within pollution sources and abatement, discharge reductions, water analysis and monitoring, water production, treatment and injection, enhanced recovery, condensate water, produced water markets, separation technologies for oil/gas/condensate and water, oil removal from solids, environmental risks of oil and gas production and environmental impacts on ecosystems and fisheries. Some oil field case histories are presented. The main focus is on the northern areas such as the North Sea, the north Atlantic Ocean and the Barents Sea, and technological aspects (tk)

  3. Legal financial institutions in the Water Law Act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Borodo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Some fees and payments are connected with obligatory participation in the cost of public projects and public investment. In the framework of the Water Law Act there are diverse public payments and fees. In this law there is the drainage fee and the investment fee. There are also contributions and other payments to the water companies. In the regulations of the Water Law Act there are also legal financial solutions for sharing the public costs, the use of budget subsidies, fixing and allocation of public expenditure.

  4. Water Power for a Clean Energy Future (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    Water power technologies harness energy from rivers and oceans to generate electricity for the nation's homes and businesses, and can help the United States meet its pressing energy, environmental, and economic challenges. Water power technologies; fall into two broad categories: conventional hydropower and marine and hydrokinetic technologies. Conventional hydropower uses dams or impoundments to store river water in a reservoir. Marine and hydrokinetic technologies capture energy from waves, tides, ocean currents, free-flowing rivers, streams, and ocean thermal gradients.

  5. Perceptions of Water Ownership, Water Management, and the Responsibility of Providing Clean Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Noga

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Perceptions of water and water related issues still render many under-researched topics. This study aims to further our knowledge regarding people’s perceptions of water and our understanding about the different ways individuals use water. The authors asked the question: Does the way an individual perceives water (i.e., as a commodity, a human right, private resource, public resource and/or natural resource influence consumption and conservation of water, and sentiments towards control and allocation of water? An exploratory online questionnaire was designed to generate qualitative and quantitative data of survey participants’ perceptions, beliefs and actions towards water issues, such as overconsumption and scarcity. Data analysis included comparison of the quantitative data regarding the non-statistical association between how an individual perceives water and the individual’s beliefs, as well as qualitative analysis of the comments using an iterative pattern coding technique. One hundred and sixty four individuals participated in the survey (75% completion rate and over 430 comments were made. Themes that emerged from the comments included: responsibility, scarcity, the value of water, knowledge gained and education needed. Comparison of the different perceptions of water revealed that different perceptions of what water is resulted in different beliefs about what the cost of water should be. These findings have implications for future water use, including what needs to change in order to increase appreciation for water issues.

  6. Intensification of the process of cleaning ballast water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepaneks, L.

    1983-01-01

    A large part of the waste water at offshore bulk plants is oil-containing ballast water of tankers. Its volume can reach 40-50% of their tonnage. In order to purify this water, mainly two-stage plans are currently used with mechanical methods in the first stage and physical mechanical in the second. In this case the concentration of petroleum products in the purified waste water is 15-20 mg/1. The need to improve the efficiency of the active treatment complexes (TC) results in considerable increase in cost of TC construction. In order to intensify the process of purification of waste water, the Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas of the Ukrainian SSR Academy of Sciences has conducted laboratory studies to investigate the filtering activity of Black Sea mussles, a study was made of the viability of filtering organisms under different conditions of contamination. Studies of these processes made it possible to develop a biological method for purification of oil-containing waste water with the use of marine organisms. Based on many years of practical operation of structures to purify oil-containing ballast water of tankers at the active treatment complex of the offshore bulk plant ''Sheskharis'' and studies to improve the operating efficiency of the TC, a plan was developed for purifying the oil-containing ballast water of tankers with the use of the biological method.

  7. Clean Water for the 1970's, A Status Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior, Washington, DC. Federal Water Quality Administration.

    This report describes the past activities and future plans of the Federal Water Quality Administration (FWQA). The first of the four sections in the report provides general discussion about these forms of water pollution: municipal wastes, industrial wastes, thermal pollution, oil and hazardous substances, mine drainage, sedimentation and erosion,…

  8. The U.S. clean air act amendments of 1990: final contours of the acid rain program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990, enacted on November 15, 1990, created a revolutionary new approach to the control of acidic deposition, more commonly called acid rain. With the electric power industry responsible for 60 to 70 percent of the Nation's emissions of sulphur dioxide (SO2), the precursor element of acid rain, the initial program is directed toward controlling SO2 emissions from electric powerplants. Gone is the old command and control regime that relied upon governmentally mandated control techniques, often on a case-by-case basis. Instead, the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) rely upon a market-based emission trading system that introduces flexibility and low cost solutions for powerplant compliance strategies. The implementation process by the U.S Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is moving forward rapidly. One rule already has been finalized, dealing with auctions and sales. The core rules, four rules that deal with the central elements of the program, have been issued for comment and will be finalized in May or June of 1992. Other rules are still in the development stage; however, they deal with less central elements of the program and will not slow down the introduction of the emission trading system in time to meet the CAAA's statutory deadlines. 4 refs

  9. Monitoring of discharge cleaning for fusion devices by microwave spectroscopy of water molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The monitoring method of discharge cleaning which was based on microwave spectroscopy was developed in order to apply it to fusion devices and availability of this method was experimentally investigated. Water molecules are one of the major residual molecules in a vacuum vessel, and hence the partial pressure of water is a good index of progress in conditioning. Temporal changes in the partial pressure were measured by using this method during discharge cleaning consequently. Three subjects were studied with a Stark modulated microwave spectrometer, namely, proportionality between the spectrum intensity and the partial pressure, resolving power of the spectrometer for isotopic water molecules and applicability of this method to the measurement of radioactive water molecules. Rotational spectra of the light water H2O (22.235 GHz) and the hydrogen isotopic waters HDO (22.307 GHz) and HTO (16.563 GHz) were observed in several plasma devices for these purposes. (orig.)

  10. Glufosinate ammonium clean-up procedure from water samples using SPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayeb M., A.; Ismail B., S.; Mardiana-Jansar, K.; Ta, Goh Choo; Agustar, Hani Kartini

    2015-09-01

    For the determination of glufosinate ammonium residue in soil and water samples, different solid phase extraction (SPE) sorbent efficiency was studied. Four different SPE sorbents i.e.: CROMABOND PS-H+, CROMABOND PS-OH-, ISOLUTE ENV+, Water Sep-Pak and OASIS HLB were used. Sample clean-up performance was evaluated using high performance liquid chromatography (Agilent 1220 infinity LC) with fluorescence detector. Detection of FMO-derivatives was done at λ ex = 260 nm and λ em= 310 nm. OASIS HLB column was the most suitable for the clean-up in view of the overall feasibility of the analysis.

  11. Optimal control of a waste water cleaning plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellina V. Grigorieva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a model of a waste water treatment plant is investigated. The model is described by a nonlinear system of two differential equations with one bounded control. An optimal control problem of minimizing concentration of the polluted water at the terminal time T is stated and solved analytically with the use of the Pontryagin Maximum Principle. Dependence of the optimal solution on the initial conditions is established. Computer simulations of a model of an industrial waste water treatment plant show the advantage of using our optimal strategy. Possible applications are discussed.

  12. Spring cleaning: rural water impacts, valuation, and property rights institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Michael; Leino, Jessica; Miguel, Edward; Zwane, Alix Peterson

    2011-01-01

    Using a randomized evaluation in Kenya, we measure health impacts of spring protection, an investment that improves source water quality. We also estimate households' valuation of spring protection and simulate the welfare impacts of alternatives to the current system of common property rights in water, which limits incentives for private investment. Spring infrastructure investments reduce fecal contamination by 66%, but household water quality improves less, due to recontamination. Child diarrhea falls by one quarter. Travel-cost based revealed preference estimates of households' valuations are much smaller than both stated preference valuations and health planners' valuations, and are consistent with models in which the demand for health is highly income elastic. We estimate that private property norms would generate little additional investment while imposing large static costs due to above-marginal-cost pricing, private property would function better at higher income levels or under water scarcity, and alternative institutions could yield Pareto improvements. PMID:21853618

  13. Spring Cleaning: Rural Water Impacts, Valuation and Property Rights Institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Kremer; Jessica Leino; Edward Miguel; Alix Peterson Zwane

    2009-01-01

    In many societies, social norms create common property rights in natural resources, limiting incentives for private investment. This paper uses a randomized evaluation in Kenya to measure the health impacts of investments to improve source water quality through spring protection, estimate the value that households place on spring protection, and simulate the welfare impacts of alternative water property rights norms and institutions, including common property, freehold private property, and a...

  14. Seeing Through Smoke: Sorting through the Science and Politics in the Making of the 1956 British Clean Air Act (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, D. A.

    2010-12-01

    The 1952 “Killer Smog” left over 4000 citizens of Greater London dead in a single week. It was a highly visible environmental disaster, which pinned the British government with responsibility over factory and domestic coal smoke pollution. Within four years of the Smog, the British parliament passed the 1956 Clean Air Act, which was designed primarily to prevent the release of dark smoke from the chimneys of private dwellings and factories. This act is considered a significant turning point in the history of environmental regulation. Through the analysis of confidential documents from government ministries and Members of Parliament, my research has focused on how decisions were made following this man-made environmental catastrophe. The primary focus of this presentation will be to explore why the British government appeared lethargic in the face of its long-standing coal pollution problem and why it finally passed the first clean air act in the world. In this case, establishing responsibility and organizing research were the major time constraints on policy action. In the months following the 1952 Smog, government departments passed off responsibility and quarreled over jurisdiction in the smog matter. Ministries held responsible for air pollution jointly established the Committee on Air Pollution to find a solution to urban smog. In the years following, the Committee on Air Pollution compiled research on the health effects and economic impact of air pollution, deriving its information from a variety of sources. In its 1954 final report, the committee named smoke and sulfur dioxide the most likely culprits of the 1952 deaths, and it recommended the elimination of smoke-producing coal from the British market, a major change to how the British fueled their homes and factories. The resulting 1956 Clean Air Act was the product of numerous compromises over the economic, political, and social issues present in Great Britain at the time. The British government

  15. Clean Reliable Water for the 21st Century (Paper#69880)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tompson, A F B; Hudson, G B; Maxwell, R M

    2003-02-25

    It is well recognized that half the countries in the world will face significant fresh water shortages in the next 20 years, due largely to growing populations and increased agricultural and industrial demands. These shortages will significantly limit economic growth, decrease the quality of life and human health for billions of people, and could potentially lead to violence and conflict over securing scarce supplies of water. These concerns are not limited to the water-poor countries, of course, as many parts of China and the US face similar problems. Such problems can be exacerbated by fluctuating imbalances between need and supply, poor management practices, and pollution. The future is one that will require significant scientific and technological advances in conservation, preservation, and movement of fresh water, as well as in the development of new or alternative supplies. As an example, these issues are discussed in terms of California, and a case study related to the scientific issues associated with a groundwater banking project in Southern California is provided.

  16. Optimizing UF Cleaning in UF-SWRO System Using Red Sea Water

    KAUST Repository

    Bahshwan, Mohanad

    2012-07-01

    Increasing demand for fresh water in arid and semi-arid areas, similar to the Middle East, pushed for the use of seawater desalination techniques to augment freshwater. Seawater Reverse Osmosis (SWRO) is one of the techniques that have been commonly used due to its cost effectiveness. Recently, the use of Ultrafiltration (UF) was recommended as an effective pretreatment for SWRO membranes, as opposed to conventional methods (i.e. sand filtration). During UF operation, intermittent cleaning is required to remove particles and contaminants from the membrane\\'s surface and pores. The different cleaning steps consume chemicals and portion of the product water, resulting in a decrease in the overall effectiveness of the process and hence an increase in the production cost. This research focused on increasing the plant\\'s efficiency through optimizing the cleaning protocol without jeopardizing the effectiveness of the cleaning process. For that purpose, the design of experiment (DOE) focused on testing different combinations of these cleaning steps while all other parameters (such as filtration flux or backwash flux) remained constant. The only chemical used was NaOCI during the end of each experiment to restore the trans-membrane pressure (TMP) to its original state. Two trains of Dow™ Ultrafiltration SFP-2880 were run in parallel for this study. The first train (named UF1) was kept at the manufacturer\\'s recommended cleaning steps and frequencies, while the second train (named UF2) was varied according to the DOE. The normalized final TMP was compared to the normalized initial TMP to measure the fouling rate of the membrane at the end of each experiment. The research was supported by laboratory analysis to investigate the cause of the error in the data by analyzing water samples collected at different locations. Visual inspection on the results from the control unit showed that the data cannot be reproduced with the current feed water quality. Statistical analysis

  17. Governance by green taxes: Implementing clean water policies in Europe 1970 - 1990

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    1999-01-01

    This article analyzes the use of economic instruments for environmental policy in four European countries. The study employs data from national and international sources for an ex post evaluation of the effects of economic policy instruments in the clean water programs of Denmark, France, Germany...

  18. Ion-containing polymers: new energy & clean water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Hickner

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available New generations of materials are being sought as solid-state electrolytes that facilitate fast ion conduction in mechanically robust, yet thin, polymer membranes. Breakthroughs in device performance will usher in new applications and wide-spread adoption of novel power source technology as ion-conducting polymers are engineered to lower the ionic resistance in fuel cells and batteries, facilitate ion transfer and increase reaction rates at the electrolyte-electrode interface, and increase a device's tolerance to environmental excursions of temperature and relative humidity. This article describes the current state-of-the-art in our understanding of water-facilitated ion transport in polymeric membranes and provides some directions for future endeavors in the field, such as anion exchange membranes. Additionally, ties between ion-conducting polymer electrolytes and water treatment membranes are made to illustrate that the underlying mechanisms that control ion transport in fuel cell membranes may also be harnessed to catalyze the development of new membrane materials for water purification.

  19. A numerical study on high-pressure water-spray cleaning for CSP reflectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anglani, Francesco; Barry, John; Dekkers, Willem

    2016-05-01

    Mirror cleaning for concentrated solar thermal (CST) systems is an important aspect of operation and maintenance (O&M), which affects solar field efficiency. The cleaning process involves soil removal by erosion, resulting from droplet impingement on the surface. Several studies have been conducted on dust accumulation and CSP plant reflectivity restoration, demonstrating that parameters such as nozzle diameter, jet impingement angle, interaxial distance between nozzles, standoff distance, water velocity, nozzle pressure and others factors influence the extent of reflectance restoration. In this paper we aim at identifying optimized cleaning strategies suitable for CST plants, able to restore mirror reflectance by high-pressure water-spray systems through the enhancement of shear stress over reflectors' surface. In order to evaluate the forces generated by water-spray jet impingement during the cleaning process, fluid dynamics simulations have been undertaken with ANSYS CFX software. In this analysis, shear forces represent the "critical phenomena" within the soil removal process. Enhancing shear forces on a particular area of the target surface, varying the angle of impingement in combination with the variation of standoff distances, and managing the interaxial distance of nozzles can increase cleaning efficiency. This procedure intends to improve the cleaning operation for CST mirrors reducing spotted surface and increasing particles removal efficiency. However, turbulence developed by adjacent flows decrease the shear stress generated on the reflectors surface. The presence of turbulence is identified by the formation of "fountain regions" which are mostly responsible of cleaning inefficiency. By numerical analysis using ANSYS CFX, we have modelled a stationary water-spray system with an array of three nozzles in line, with two angles of impingement: θ = 90° and θ = 75°. Several numerical tests have been carried out, varying the interaxial distance of

  20. Impacts of motor vehicle operation on water quality - Clean-up Costs and Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Nixon, Hilary; Saphores, Jean-Daniel M

    2007-01-01

    Environmental studies of motor vehicles typically focus on air pollution or noise, but ignore water pollution. In this paper, we investigate the costs of reversing some of the environmental impacts of motor vehicle transportation on surface waters and groundwater. Our estimates of the cost of cleaning-up leaking underground storage tanks range from $6.5 billion to $19.6 billion, while control costs for highway runoff from major arterials in the United States are an order of magnitude larger...

  1. The effects of Title IV of the Clean Air Act amendments of 1990 on electric utilities: An update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This report presents data and analyses related to Phase I implementation of the Clean Air Act Amendment by electric utilities. It describes the strategies used to comply with the Acid Rain Program in 1995, the effect of compliance on sulfur dioxide emissions levels, the cost of compliance, and the effects of the program on coal supply and demand. The first year of Phase I demonstrated that the market-based sulfur dioxide emissions control system could achieve significant reductions in emissions at lower than expected costs. Some utilities reduced aggregate emissions below legal requirements due to economic incentives; other utilities purchased additional allowances to avoid noncompliance. More than half of the utilities switched to or blended with lower sulfur coal, due to price reductions in the coal market which were partially due to the allowance trading program. 21 figs., 20 tabs.

  2. 75 FR 34647 - Approval of the Clean Air Act, Section 112(l), Authority for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-18

    .... See 64 FR 67793. Continuous web cleaning machines are solvent cleaning machines in which parts such as... Pollutants: Air Emission Standards for Halogenated Solvent Cleaning Machines: State of Rhode Island... Emissions from Organic Solvent Cleaning (``RI Regulation No. 36''), and the Rhode Island Air...

  3. Supply of clean water to the bearings and mechanical seals of the backup pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the backup pumps is to cool the primary circuit and pressurised water reactor containment in the case of a primary cooler loss accident. The water taken in by these pumps in the case of accident is loaded with solid particles. In order to ensure correct operation of the bearings and mechanical seals of these machines, they must be supplied with clean water. In other words, the solid particles must be removed from the water intake. Manufacturers generally use cyclonic separators to achieve this. (author)

  4. Hydraulic Elevator Installation Estimation for the Water Source Well Sand-Pack Cleaning Up

    OpenAIRE

    V. V. Ivashechkin

    2016-01-01

    The article offers design of a hydraulic elevator installation for cleaning up water-source wells of sand packs. It considerers the installation hydraulic circuit according to which the normal pump feeds the high-level tank water into the borehole through two parallel water lines. The water-jet line with washing nozzle for destroying the sand-pack and the supply pipe-line coupled with the operational nozzle of the hydraulic elevator containing the inlet and the supply pipelines for respective...

  5. Cleaning Genesis Solar Wind Collectors with Ultrapure Water: Residual Contaminant Particle Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allton, J. H.; Wentworth, S. J.; Rodriquez, M. C.; Calaway, M. J.

    2008-01-01

    Additional experience has been gained in removing contaminant particles from the surface of Genesis solar wind collectors fragments by using megasonically activated ultrapure water (UPW)[1]. The curatorial facility has cleaned six of the eight array collector material types to date: silicon (Si), sapphire (SAP), silicon-on-sapphire (SOS), diamond-like carbon-on-silicon (DOS), gold-on-sapphire (AuOS), and germanium (Ge). Here we make estimates of cleaning effectiveness using image analysis of particle size distributions and an SEM/EDS reconnaissance of particle chemistry on the surface of UPW-cleaned silicon fragments (Fig. 1). Other particle removal techniques are reported by [2] and initial assessment of molecular film removal is reported by [3].

  6. Cold water cleaning of brain proteins, biofilm and bone - harnessing an ultrasonically activated stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkin, P R; Offin, D G; Vian, C J B; Howlin, R P; Dawson, J I; Secker, T J; Hervé, R C; Stoodley, P; Oreffo, R O C; Keevil, C W; Leighton, T G

    2015-08-28

    In the absence of sufficient cleaning of medical instruments, contamination and infection can result in serious consequences for the health sector and remains a significant unmet challenge. In this paper we describe a novel cleaning system reliant on cavitation action created in a free flowing fluid stream where ultrasonic transmission to a surface, through the stream, is achieved using careful design and control of the device architecture, sound field and the materials employed. Cleaning was achieved with purified water at room temperature, moderate fluid flow rates and without the need for chemical additives or the high power consumption associated with conventional strategies. This study illustrates the potential in harnessing an ultrasonically activated stream to remove biological contamination including brain tissue from surgical stainless steel substrates, S. epidermidis biofilms from glass, and fat/soft tissue matter from bone structures with considerable basic and clinical applications. PMID:26200694

  7. Wastewater Mediated Activation of Micromotors for Efficient Water Cleaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Sarvesh Kumar; Guix, Maria; Schmidt, Oliver G

    2016-01-13

    We present wastewater-mediated activation of catalytic micromotors for the degradation of nitroaromatic pollutants in water. These next-generation hybrid micromotors are fabricated by growing catalytically active Pd particles over thin-metal films (Ti/Fe/Cr), which are then rolled-up into self-propelled tubular microjets. Coupling of catalytically active Pd particles inside the micromotor surface in the presence of a 4-nitrophenol pollutant (with NaBH4 as reductant) results in autonomous motion via the bubble-recoil propulsion mechanism such that the target pollutant mixture (wastewater) is consumed as a fuel, thereby generating nontoxic byproducts. This study also offers several distinct advantages over its predecessors including no pH/temperature manipulation, limited stringent process control and complete destruction of the target pollutant mixture. The improved intermixing ability of the micromotors caused faster degradation ca. 10 times higher as compared to its nonmotile counterpart. The high catalytic efficiency obtained via a wet-lab approach has promising potential in creating hybrid micromotors comprising of multicatalytic systems assembled into one entity for sustainable environmental remediation and theranostics. PMID:26674098

  8. Building Social Capital : A Field Study of the Active, Beautiful and Clean Waters (ABC Waters) Programme in Singapore

    OpenAIRE

    Tovatt, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    This thesis presents a field study examining the effect of the Active, Beautiful and Clean Waters (ABC Waters) Programme in Singapore on social capital. Based on a multi-disciplinary approach and following the theoretical framework of bonding and bridging social capital developed by Robert Putnam and others, three different cases of the ABC Programme were compared, looking particularly at the level of blue-green landscape integration. The three cases comprised the ABC flagship project ‘Bishan...

  9. Toward the development of erosion-free ultrasonic cavitation cleaning with gas-supersaturated water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Tatsuya; Ando, Keita

    2015-11-01

    In ultrasonic cleaning, contaminant particles attached at target surfaces are removed by liquid flow or acoustic waves that are induced by acoustic cavitation bubbles. However, the inertial collapse of such bubbles often involve strong shock emission or water hammer by re-entrant jets, thereby giving rise to material erosion. Here, we aim at developing an erosion-free ultrasonic cleaning technique with the aid of gas-supersaturated water. The key idea is that (gaseous) cavitation is triggered easily even with low-intensity sonication in water where gases are dissolved beyond Henry's saturation limit, allowing us to buffer violent bubble collapse. In this presentation, we report on observations of the removal of micron/submicron-sized particles attached at glass surfaces by the action of gaseous cavitation bubbles under low-intensity sonication.

  10. Clean subglacial access: prospects for future deep hot-water drilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makinson, Keith; Pearce, David; Hodgson, Dominic A; Bentley, Michael J; Smith, Andrew M; Tranter, Martyn; Rose, Mike; Ross, Neil; Mowlem, Matt; Parnell, John; Siegert, Martin J

    2016-01-28

    Accessing and sampling subglacial environments deep beneath the Antarctic Ice Sheet presents several challenges to existing drilling technologies. With over half of the ice sheet believed to be resting on a wet bed, drilling down to this environment must conform to international agreements on environmental stewardship and protection, making clean hot-water drilling the most viable option. Such a drill, and its water recovery system, must be capable of accessing significantly greater ice depths than previous hot-water drills, and remain fully operational after connecting with the basal hydrological system. The Subglacial Lake Ellsworth (SLE) project developed a comprehensive plan for deep (greater than 3000 m) subglacial lake research, involving the design and development of a clean deep-ice hot-water drill. However, during fieldwork in December 2012 drilling was halted after a succession of equipment issues culminated in a failure to link with a subsurface cavity and abandonment of the access holes. The lessons learned from this experience are presented here. Combining knowledge gained from these lessons with experience from other hot-water drilling programmes, and recent field testing, we describe the most viable technical options and operational procedures for future clean entry into SLE and other deep subglacial access targets. PMID:26667913

  11. The Clean Air Act implementation and the coal industry: A regulator's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utility regulators are responsible for insuring that there is a sufficient supply of electricity to meet consumers needs at a reasonable price. The Pennsylvania Public Utility Commission Act (CAA) compliance strategies are effective at the lowest possible cost. Those potential compliance costs in Pennsylvania may exceed $3 billion by the end of the decade. This does not include worst case estimates of over $750 million per year in added operations and maintenance costs. In the face of these expenses, concerns such as jobs and the health of Pennsylvania's coal industry may carry little weight. The Commission cannot relieve companies of their responsibility for complying. Thus, in order to maintain its market among electric companies, coal will have to be competitive both in offering solutions to the emissions requirements of the CAA and in providing acceptable alternatives for future, new generating plants

  12. California Clean Air Act: A compliance strategy for the City of San Diego`s non-emergency fleet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    Historically, parts of California have had the worst air quality in the nation. The California Energy Commission began experimenting with alternate fuels in the 1970`s in an effort to reduce harmful automobile emissions and hence, improve air quality. It is recognized that the costs to California which result from our air quality problems are immense. Ten to twenty billion dollars each year is the estimated damage in terms of health impacts, materials damages, lost agricultural crop output and forest damages. As the California population increases and health care costs escalate, the total monetary damages from air pollution will increase. The California Energy Commission goal to improve air quality became a mandate in 1988 with the passage of the California Clean Air Act (CCAA). The CCAA requires a revised air quality strategy for the San Diego district since we do not meet State air quality standards for smog, carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide. Smog remains San Diego`s major air quality problem, even though the annual number of days each year over the Federal standard has been reduced by 55 percent in the past ten years. Ten years ago about two-thirds of San Diego`s smog was transported from Los Angeles. Today more than 60 per cent of the days San Diego exceeds the State standard are from locally generated smog. It is estimated that 57% of the reactive hydrocarbon emissions (which react with nitrogen dioxide in the presence of sunlight to form smog) is from cars, trucks and buses. The Air Pollution Control District (part of the County of San Diego) is the office that the Air Resources Board has put in charge of creating regulations and designing strategy to reduce polluting emissions. The purpose of this project is to determine the full cost of acquiring and operating a municipal fleet which meets the mandates of the California Clean Air Act. With that information, a plan to meet the Clear Air Act (CCAA) requirements can be formulated by local government.

  13. Depauperate macroinvertebrates in a mine affected stream: Clean water may be the key to recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is frequently linked with changes in macroinvertebrate assemblages, but the relative contribution of water and sediment to toxicity is equivocal. We have shown that the macroinvertebrate fauna of Neubecks Ck, a mine impacted stream in New South Wales, Australia, was much poorer than in two reference streams. Multivariate RELATE analyses indicated that the patterns in the biological data were more strongly correlated with the concentrations of common metals in the surface water than the pore water of these streams. From this we hypothesised that the water was more toxic to the biota than the sediment and we tested this hypothesis with a sediment transplant experiment. Sediment from Neubecks Ck that was placed in reference streams retained high concentrations of metals throughout the experiment, yet supported a macroinvertebrate assemblage similar to that in the reference streams. Sediment from the reference streams that was placed in Neubecks Ck supported few, if any, animals. This indicates that water in Neubecks Ck is toxic to biota, but that sediment is able to support aquatic biota in clean water. Therefore, remediation should focus on improving water quality rather than sediment quality. - Macroinvertebrates colonise contaminated sediment in clean water

  14. Safe drinking water act: Amendments, regulations and standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book approaches the topic of safe drinking water by communicating how the EPA has responded to the mandates of Congress. Chapter 1 summarizes what is and will be involved in achieving safe drinking water. Chapter 2 describes the historical development of drinking water regulations. Chapter 3 summarizes the directives of the Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments of 1986. Chapters 4 through 9 discuss each phase of the regulatory program in turn. Specific problems associated with volatile organic chemicals, synthetic organics, inorganic chemicals, and microbiological contaminants are assessed in Chapter 4 and 5. The unique characteristics of radionuclides and their regulation are treated in Chapter 6. The disinfection process and its resultant disinfection by-products are presented in Chapter 7. The contaminant selection process and the additional contaminants to be regulated by 1989 and 1991 and in future years are discussed in Chapters 8 and 9. EPA's Office of Drinking Water's Health Advisory Program is explained in Chapter 10. The record of public water system compliance with the primary drinking water regulations is detailed in Chapter 11. Chapter 12 offers a nongovernmental perspective on the general quality of drinking water and how this is affected by a wide range of drinking water treatment technologies. Separate abstracts are processed for 5 chapters in this book for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  15. 40 CFR Appendix H to Subpart A of... - Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 Phaseout Schedule for Production of Ozone-Depleting Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 Phaseout Schedule for Production of Ozone-Depleting Substances H Appendix H to Subpart A of Part 82... STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Production and Consumption Controls Pt. 82, Subpt. A, App. H Appendix H to Subpart A of...

  16. 40 CFR 49.4 - Clean Air Act provisions for which it is not appropriate to treat tribes in the same manner as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... is not appropriate to treat tribes in the same manner as States. 49.4 Section 49.4 Protection of... Tribal Authority § 49.4 Clean Air Act provisions for which it is not appropriate to treat tribes in the same manner as States. Tribes will not be treated as States with respect to the following provisions...

  17. 76 FR 43725 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act, Sections 113(b) and 304(a), 42 U.S.C...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act, Sections 113(b) and 304(a), 42 U.S.C. 7413(b), 7604(a) Notice is hereby given that on July 13, 2009, a proposed Second Amendment Consent Decree...

  18. Precision Cleaning Verification of Fluid Components by Air/Water Impingement and Total Carbon Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barile, Ronald G.; Fogarty, Chris; Cantrell, Chris; Melton, Gregory S.

    1995-01-01

    NASA personnel at Kennedy Space Center's Material Science Laboratory have developed new environmentally sound precision cleaning and verification techniques for systems and components found at the center. This technology is required to replace existing methods traditionally employing CFC-113. The new patent-pending technique of precision cleaning verification is for large components of cryogenic fluid systems. These are stainless steel, sand cast valve bodies with internal surface areas ranging from 0.2 to 0.9 m(exp 2). Extrapolation of this technique to components of even larger sizes (by orders of magnitude) is planned. Currently, the verification process is completely manual. In the new technique, a high velocity, low volume water stream impacts the part to be verified. This process is referred to as Breathing Air/Water Impingement and forms the basis for the Impingement Verification System (IVS). The system is unique in that a gas stream is used to accelerate the water droplets to high speeds. Water is injected into the gas stream in a small, continuous amount. The air/water mixture is then passed through a converging-diverging nozzle where the gas is accelerated to supersonic velocities. These droplets impart sufficient energy to the precision cleaned surface to place non-volatile residue (NVR) contaminants into suspension in the water. The sample water is collected and its NVR level is determined by total organic carbon (TOC) analysis at 880 C. The TOC, in ppm carbon, is used to establish the NVR level. A correlation between the present gravimetric CFC-113 NVR and the IVS NVR is found from experimental sensitivity factors measured for various contaminants. The sensitivity has the units of ppm of carbon per mg-ft(exp 2) of contaminant. In this paper, the equipment is described and data are presented showing the development of the sensitivity factors from a test set including four NVR's impinged from witness plates of 0.05 to 0.75 m(exp 2).

  19. State of Hawaii, Department of Health, Clean Water Branch State-wide Water Quality Sampling Dataset 1999-2006 (NODC Accession 0013723)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Monitoring Section of the State of Hawaii, Department of Health, Clean Water Branch collects water quality data at over 300 coastal locations state-wide using...

  20. State of Hawaii, Department of Health, Clean Water Branch State-wide Water Quality Sampling Dataset 1973-1998 (NODC Accession 0013724)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Monitoring Section of the State of Hawaii, Department of Health, Clean Water Branch collects water quality data at over 300 coastal locations state-wide using...

  1. State of Hawaii, Department of Health, Clean Water Branch Hanalei, Kauai Water Quality Sampling Dataset October 2005 - November 2006 (NODC Accession 0020391)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Monitoring Section of the State of Hawaii, Department of Health, Clean Water Branch collected water quality data at 8 sites centered on Hanalei Bay on the north...

  2. Precision Cleaning Verification of Nonvolatile Residues by Using Water, Ultrasonics, and Turbidity Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, S. Ballou

    1991-01-01

    Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC's) in the atmosphere are believed to present a major environmental problem because they are able to interact with and deplete the ozone layer. NASA has been mandated to replace chlorinated solvents in precision cleaning, cleanliness verification, and degreasing of aerospace fluid systems hardware and ground support equipment. KSC has a CFC phase-out plan which provides for the elimination of over 90 percent of the CFC and halon use by 1995. The Materials Science Laboratory and KSC is evaluating four analytical methods for the determination of nonvolatile residues removal by water: (1) infrared analyses using an attenuated total reflectance; (2) surface tension analyses, (3) total organic content analyses, and (4) turbidity analyses. This research project examined the ultrasonic-turbidity responses for 22 hydrocarbons in an effect to determine: (1) if ultrasonics in heated water (70 C) will clean hydrocarbons (oils, greases, gels, and fluids) from aerospace hardware; (2) if the cleaning process by ultrasonics will simultaneously emulsify the removed hydrocarbons in the water; and (3) if a turbidimeter can be used successfully as an analytical instrument for quantifying the removal of hydrocarbons. Sixteen of the 22 hydrocarbons tested showed that ultrasonics would remove it at least 90 percent of the contaminated hydrocarbon from the hardware in 10 minutes or less giving a good ultrasonic-turbidity response. Six hydrocarbons had a lower percentage removal, a slower removal rate, and a marginal ultrasonic-turbidity response.

  3. Compliance with the Clean Air Act Amendments: Challenge of the 90's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With its 17,593 miles of pipeline, El Paso Natural Gas Company is one of the country's largest interstate natural gas transmission companies. To keep the gas continually moving through the pipeline, it is compressed back to high pressures at 73 stations comprising 1,210,120 horsepower located along the pipeline route. These compressor stations, which operate 24 hours a day every day, house 316 reciprocating engines and 92 gas turbines. As fuel, these engines and turbines burn natural gas. Natural gas combustion releases emissions of nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide with small amounts of particulates, sulfur dioxide and volatile organic compounds. This presentation will describe how one large energy company plans to comply with these new requirements over the next several years. El Paso has developed an extensive Air Program designed to obtain all needed operating permits by the November 1995 deadline. Work is underway to quantify and document emissions at every operating facility. Emissions tests will measure NOx, CO, oxygen, CO2, water, stack temperature, stack velocity and fuel flow rate. Data generated by the Emissions Inventory System will be used not only for permit applications, but to develop alternative emission reduction strategies at facilities located in nonattainment areas. Dispersion modeling will be performed to analyze compliance with PSD increments and National Ambient Air Quality Standards

  4. Development of underwater robot for cleaning cooling water intake channels in thermal and nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To the long intake channels for seawater in thermal and nuclear power stations, marine organisms adhere and grow, and cause resistance to the flow, separate and enter into condensers to cause the clogging or corrosion erosion of cooling tubes. At present, the regular cleaning of the channels is carried out by man power, which requires much cost and many days. The underwater robot developed recently performs this cleaning work by remote control from on the ground. The performance and endurance tests of the robot were carried out in an actual channel, and it was able to be successfully put in practical use with good results. The features of this robot are as follows. It achieves the work safely without anyone entering a channel. It can clean all surfaces including ceiling without any additional structure. It can easily move. It can remove shells of 10 cm thickness. It does not require external power source. The system comprises a robot, a power unit, a hose reel, a control wagon and an underwater monitor. The robot is powered by oil hydraulic motors, and controlled through oil hoses. Cleaning is performed with rotary brushes, while it adheres to a wall by water jet power. The construction and performance of the main components and the results of trial operation are reported. (Kako, I.)

  5. Chemical cleaning of fouled PVC membrane during ultrafiltration of algal-rich water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Zhang; Jiayu Tian; Heng Liang; Jun Nan; Zhonglin Chen; Guibai Li

    2011-01-01

    Cleaning of hollow-fibre polyvinyl chloride (PVC) membrane with different chemical reagents after ultrafiltration of algal-rich water was investigated. Among the tested cleaning reagents (NaOH, HCl, EDTA, and NaClO), 100 mg/L NaClO exhibited the best performance (88.4% ± 1.1%) in removing the irreversible fouling resistance. This might be attributed to the fact that NaClO could eliminate almost all the major foulants such as carbohydrate-like and protein-like materials on the membrane surface, as confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis. However, negligible irreversible resistance (1.5% ± 1.0%) was obtained when the membrane was cleaning by 500 mg/L NaOH for 1.0 hr, although the NaOH solution could also desorb a portion of the major foulants from the fouled PVC membrane. Scanning electronic microscopy and atomic force microscopy analyses demonstrated that 500 mg/L NaOH could change the structure of the residual foulants on the membrane, making them more tightly attached to the membrane surface. This phenomenon might be responsible for the negligible membrane permeability restoration after NaOH cleaning. On the other hand, the microscopic analyses reflected that NaClO could effectively remove the foulants accumulated on the membrane surface.

  6. Denitrification: a Clean-Up Mechanism for High Nitrate Ground Water Near an Active Swine Facility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, M. A.

    2001-05-01

    An active swine facility in south central Kansas appears to be cleaning up nitrate in regional ground water in an area with shallow ground water (water chemistry to determine the impact of a bentonite lined hog lagoon on shallow ground-water chemistry. Regional ground water surrounding the facility had nitrate-nitrogen values routinely measured above 10 ppm. Chloride concentrations in the area ranged from 3 to 25 ppm and bicarbonate values ranged from 45 to 200 ppm. Two periods of sampling in the area showed nitrogen isotope values in the fertilizer range (waste range (+13 to +20) which is similar to the value measured for the waste lagoon (+18). Chloride and bicarbonate values at all of the monitoring wells, except the well downgradient from the lagoon, were similar to the regional ground water. The lagoon water had >500 ppm chloride and >1400 ppm ammonium-N. The downgradient monitoring well had chloride values > 100 ppm and bicarbonate values above 400 ppm for the two sampling periods. Use of chloride ratios showed that approximately 30% of the water contributing to the downgradient well sample was from lagoon leakage. Preliminary calculations of the amount of bicarbonate resulting from denitrification processes, chloride ratios, and nitrogen isotope values suggest that the sampled water is a mixture of denitrified regional ground water plus lagoon water. Although the nitrate values near the swine facility appear to be decreasing, the long-term impact of increased salt load on the regional ground water is unknown at this time.

  7. Section 112 hazardous air pollutants Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990; potential impact of fossil/NUC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Control of hazardous air pollutants under the Clean Air Act (CAA) goes back several decades. Section 112 of the 1970 CAA as amended in 1977 served as the national statutory basis for controlling hazardous air pollutants until the most recent 1990 Amendments. Following severe criticism of the effectiveness of the Act to address hazardous air pollutant issues and a pile of seemingly never ending lawsuits challenging the regulatory process, the U.S. Congress has substantially rewritten Section 112 in the 1990 CAA Amendments. Many provisions heretofore requiring findings or regulatory decisions by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Administrator are now automatic in the sense that the decisions have already been made by the US Congress legislatively. Thus, the new Section 112 has eliminated many of the existing regulatory obstacles, or safeguards; this will likely result in sweeping new regulatory programs mandating extensive controls on many industrial activities. A much needed study program to address fossil fuel fired steam electric generating units' hazardous air emissions and to identify control alternatives to regulate these emissions, if regulation is required, was incorporated into new Section 112. Because of this study, the regulatory fate of these units under the new Section 112 remains highly uncertain. An extensive regulatory program addressing hazardous air pollutants of these utility units under Section 112 would dwarf electric utility costs associated with the new acid rain control program. First, this paper identifies major provisions of the old law and the resulting regulatory status for both coal and nuclear power facilities before addressing the new Section 112 under the 1990 CAA Amendments and potential implications for electric utilities specifically

  8. Cleaning of ammonium-polluted streams of waste water; Reinigung von ammoniumbelasteten Abwasserstroemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breithaupt, A. [Prantner GmbH, Verfahrenstechnik, Reutlingen (Germany); Gulde, A. [Prantner GmbH, Verfahrenstechnik, Reutlingen (Germany); Weigert, M. [Prantner GmbH, Verfahrenstechnik, Reutlingen (Germany)

    1996-02-01

    Heavily ammonium-polluted waste water accrues from many different sectors. Depending on the type of the waste water and special cleaning requirements, it must be treated by biological or physico-chemical processes. A combination method consisting of ammonia stripping and catalytic oxidation is described. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Stark mit Ammonium belastete Abwaesser fallen in einer Vielzahl von verschiedenen Entstehungsbereichen an. Diese muessen, abwasserspezifisch und in Abhaengigkeit von den speziellen Reinigungsanforderungen, durch biologische oder physikalisch-chemische Verfahren behandelt werden. Ein Kombinationsverfahren aus Ammoniakstrippung und katalytischer Oxidation wird beschrieben. (orig.)

  9. Clean and Safe Supply of Fish and Shellfish to Clear the HACCP Regulation by Use of Clean and Cold Deep Ocean Water in Rausu, Hokkaido, Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masayuki Mac Takahashi; Kazunori Yamashita

    2005-01-01

    For the supply of fish and shellfish to consumers in fresh condition, clean handling after catch from the sea is essential. According to HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points), it is important to meet such requirement by keeping fish and shellfish under a certain low temperature and clean conditions after catching. The deep ocean water(DOW) characterized by low temperature and cleanliness has been chosen for fish and shellfish handlings, particularly for planned to be pumped up every day from a depth of about 350 m, and temporarily stored in a large simulated tank on land.DOW is then supplied to fish boats through hydrants distributed throughout the harbor and used for keeping salmon in clean and cold conditions. Ice made from DOW is also used for lowering temperature if necessary. DOW and ice made from DOW are also used during the transportation of fish and shellfish. The entire system is scheduled to be completed by the summer of2005.

  10. Integrating coal cleaning with pulverized coal and fluidized bed boilers to meet the Clean Air Act Amendment and for new plant construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Integrating coal cleaning into a two boiler, pulverized coal-fired/fluidized bed (PC/FBC) power plant can reduce emissions at low cost for both retrofit projects and new power plants. The technology, because it relies on proven equipment and practices, albeit in a novel context, is low risk and near term. Its low cost makes it particularly suitable to retrofit many of the older coal- fired power plants in the US, and also for retrofitting power plants in the less affluent Eastern European and Asian countries that rely on coal for power generation and need to reduce emission but cannot afford scrubbers. In retrofit applications the technology involves a simple coal cleaning plant and the addition of a small fluidized bed boiler with its steam circuitry integrated into the plant's steam cycle. The clean coal stream will be fired in the existing boiler while the fluidized bed will use the low grade (waste) stream from the coal cleaning plant. This paper reports that this approach is particularly applicable to the many power plants along the Ohio River

  11. Self-cleaning, dirt and water-repellent coatings on the basis of nanotechnology (NanoTrust Dossier No. 020en – December 2010)

    OpenAIRE

    Gazsó, André; Nentwich, Michael; Simkó, Myrtill; Greßler, Sabine; Fiedeler, Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    Self-cleaning, water and dirt-repellent coatings have differing properties, functional principles and manufacturing processes. Self- cleaning of the "Lotus Effect®" type has its basis in chemical- physical principles – these surfaces are characterised by a special roughness and are strongly water-repellent; in the ideal case, rain is sufficient for cleaning. "Easy-to-Clean" materials, in contrast, have a particularly flat surface, which is both water and dirt- repellent on the basis of chemic...

  12. Evaluating exposure of pedestrians to airborne contaminants associated with non-potable water use for pavement cleaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidl, M; Da, G; Ausset, P; Haenn, S; Géhin, E; Moulin, L

    2016-04-01

    Climate change and increasing demography press local authorities to look after affordable water resources and replacement of drinking water for city necessities like street and pavement cleaning by more available raw water. Though, the substitution of drinking by non-drinking resources demands the evaluation of sanitary hazards. This article aims therefore to evaluate the contribution of cleaning water to the overall exposure of city dwellers in case of wet pavement cleaning using crossed physical, chemical and biological approaches. The result of tracer experiments with fluorescein show that liquid water content of the cleaning aerosol produced is about 0.24 g m(-3), rending possible a fast estimation of exposure levels. In situ analysis of the aerosol particles indicates a significant increase in particle number concentration and particle diameter, though without change in particle composition. The conventional bacterial analysis using total coliforms as tracer suggests that an important part of the contamination is issued from the pavement. The qPCR results show a more than 20-fold increase of background genome concentration for Escherichia coli and 10-fold increase for Enterococcus but a negligible contribution of the cleaning water. The fluorescence analysis of the cleaning aerosol confirms the above findings identifying pavement surface as the major contributor to aerosol organic load. The physical, chemical and microbiological approaches used make it possible to describe accurately the cleaning bioaerosol and to identify the existence of significantly higher levels of all parameters studied during the wet pavement cleaning. Though, the low level of contamination and the very short time of passage of pedestrian in the zone do not suggest a significant risk for the city dwellers. As the cleaning workers remain much longer in the impacted area, more attention should be paid to their chronic exposure. PMID:26233734

  13. Research for Water Cleaning Technique for Sucker Rod%抽油杆水清洗工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王安林; 苏岩; 安晓东; 廖贵枝; 黄国州; 朱卫平

    2011-01-01

    介绍了抽油杆水清洗工艺研究目的、工艺流程及水清洗装置的设计.从安全环保、清洗能力与清洗效果、生产能耗及现场适应性等方面对该工艺进行了可行性分析.结果表明:研制的“热水浸泡十刷洗”抽油杆水清洗工艺是一种操作简单、经济环保的抽油杆清洗工艺,比较适合油田推广应用.%This article explains the purpose,research principle of water cleaning technique for sucker rod.introduces the water cleaning process flow and supporting totally-closed automatic water cleaning unit which are designed based on the research principle,and makes the feasible demonstration for this technique from such aspects as safety and environment protection,cleaning capacity and effect,energy consumption for production and site suitability. The conclusion finally drawn is that developed water cleaning technique for sucker rod with "hot water immersion + hot water brushing" is an easy-to-use,economic and environmental cleaning technique for sucker rod which is very suitable to the demand in oilfield production.

  14. Sorbent biomaterials for cleaning up hydrocarbon spills on soil and bodies of water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Paola Ortíz González

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at identifying and evaluating natural organic materials which could be used as sorbents in clean-up operations following hydrocarbons spills on both soils and bodies of water. The sorption capacity of three materials (sugarcane fibre, coco fibre and water Eichornia crassipies was evaluated with three hydrocarbons (35°, 30° and 25°API and two types of water (distilled and artificial marine water adopting the ASTM F-726 standard and following the methodology suggested in the “Oil spill sorbents: testing protocol and certification listing programme” Canadian protocol. It was found that the three materials being evaluated had a sorption capacity equal to or greater than that of the commercial material to which they were compared. It was observed that sorption capacity results depended on some variables such as hydrocarbon viscosity, granulometry (particle size in Tyler sieve and the structure of the material. Sugarcane fibre sorption in water showed the greatest hydrophobicity, different to Eichornia crassipies which is extremely hydrophilic. The materials’ sorption kinetics were determined and modelled with the three hydrocarbons (35°, 30° and 25°API. It was found that the materials became saturated in less than a minute, leading to a rapid alternative for cleaning-up and controlling hydrocarbon spills. Materials were also thermally treated for improving their hydrophobicity and behaviour during spills on bodies of water. Sugarcane fibre was the material which presented the best results with the thermal treatment, followed by water Eichornia crassipies. Coco fibre did not present any significant change in its hydrophobicity.

  15. 76 FR 30545 - Approval of the Clean Air Act, Section 112(l), Authority for Hazardous Air Pollutants...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-26

    ...), as amended by 65 FR 55810 (September 14, 2000). Under these regulations, a state air pollution... promulgated the Dry Cleaning NESHAP on September 22, 1993. See 58 FR 49354 (codified at 40 CFR part 63... promulgated amendments to the Dry Cleaning NESHAP. See 71 FR 42724, 71 FR 55280 and 73 FR 39871. In a...

  16. Ultra Pure Water Cleaning Baseline Study on NASA JSC Astromaterial Curation Gloveboxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calaway, Michael J.; Burkett, P. J.; Allton, J. H.; Allen, C. C.

    2013-01-01

    Future sample return missions will require strict protocols and procedures for reducing inorganic and organic contamination in isolation containment systems. In 2012, a baseline study was orchestrated to establish the current state of organic cleanliness in gloveboxes used by NASA JSC astromaterials curation labs [1, 2]. As part of this in-depth organic study, the current curatorial technical support procedure (TSP) 23 was used for cleaning the gloveboxes with ultra pure water (UPW) [3-5]. Particle counts and identification were obtained that could be used as a benchmark for future mission designs that require glovebox decontamination. The UPW baseline study demonstrates that TSP 23 works well for gloveboxes that have been thoroughly degreased. However, TSP 23 could be augmented to provide even better glovebox decontamination. JSC 03243 could be used as a starting point for further investigating optimal cleaning techniques and procedures. DuPont Vertrel XF or other chemical substitutes to replace Freon- 113, mechanical scrubbing, and newer technology could be used to enhance glovebox cleanliness in addition to high purity UPW final rinsing. Future sample return missions will significantly benefit from further cleaning studies to reduce inorganic and organic contamination.

  17. Cleaning of the Moscow SIA ''Radon'' surface water runoff: Problems and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a three-barrier system of engineered safety features for the cleaning of the Moscow SIA ''Radon'' surface water runoff. The three-barrier system is under development, but several components have been put into operation. For example, in 1995 more than 400 cubic meters of radioactive water (containing 1,500 Bk/l initial specific activity of beta-emitting nuclides and 30 Bk/l initial specific activity of alpha-emitting nuclides) was purified using the ''Aqua-express'' filtration and ultrafiltration modules. Since 1990, solid particles have been removed from the surface water runoff by the two pond settlers. It is hoped that the entire system will be put into operation not later than the year 2000

  18. Cleaning the Produced Water in Offshore Oil Production by Using Plant-wide Optimal Control Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhenyu; Pedersen, Simon; Løhndorf, Petar Durdevic

    2014-01-01

    To clean the produced water is always a challenging critical issue in the offshore oil & gas industry. By employing the plant-wide control technology, this paper discussed the opportunity to optimize the most popular hydrocyclone-based Produced Water Treatment (PWT) system. The optimizations of the...... efficiency control of the de-oiling hydrocyclone and the water level control of the upstream separator, are discussed and formulated. Some of our latest research results on the analysis and control of slugging flows in production well-pipeline-riser systems are also presented. The ultimate objective of this...... research is to promote a technical breakthrough in the PWT control design, which can lead to the best environmental protection in the oil & gas production, without sacrificing the production capability and production costs....

  19. Coal-water fuels - a clean coal solution for Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eastern Europe currently faces great economic and environmental problems. Among these problems is energy provision. Coal reserves are large but cause pollution while oil and gas need to be used for export. Formal 'clean coal technologies' are simply too expensive to be implemented on a large scale in the current economic crisis. The promised western investment and technological help has simply not taken place, western Europe must help eastern Europe with coal technology. The cheapest such technology is coal-water fuel slurry. It can substitute for oil, but research has not been carried out because of low oil prices. Coal-water fuel is one of the best methods of exploiting low rank coal. Many eastern European low rank coals have a low sulfur content, and thus make a good basis for a clean fuel. Italy and Russia are involved in such a venture, the slurry being transported in a pipeline. This technology would enable Russia to exploit Arctic coal reserves, thus freeing oil and gas for export. In Serbia the exploitation of sub-Danube lignite deposits with dredging mining produced a slurry. This led to the use and development of hot water drying, which enabled the removal of many of the salts which cause problems in pulverized fuel combustion. The system is economic, the fuel safer to transport then oil, either by rail or in pipelines. Many eastern European oil facilities could switch. 24 refs

  20. Life Cycle Assessment of Ultra-clean Micronized Coal Oil Water Slurry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji Ming; Xu Jing

    2009-01-01

    Life cycle assessment is applied to assess the ultra-clean micronized coal oil water slurry (UCMCOWS) with Si-maPro and the environmental impact of UCMCOWS on its whole life cycle is also analyzed. The result shows that the consumption of energy and products are increasing along with the deepening of UCMCOWS processing, UCMCOWS making and combustion arc the two periods which have a bigger impact on eco-system and hu-man health. As a new substitute of fuel, UCMCOWS merits to be utilized more efficiently and reasonably.

  1. The Economic and Social Benefits and the Barriers of Providing People with Disabilities Accessible Clean Water and Sanitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Wolbring

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Resolution A/HRC/RES/16/2 adopted by the UN Human Rights Council on 8 April 2011 declared access to safe drinking water and sanitation a human right. However many people around the globe including people with disabilities do not have access to safe drinking water, hygiene or sanitation facilities. Inaccessibility of clean water sources, hygiene and sanitation facilities negatively impacts among others health, education, the ability to work, and the ability to partake in social activities. This paper looks at the benefits of, and access barriers to, clean water and sanitation for people with disabilities.

  2. Can environmental investment and expenditure enhance financial performance of US electric utility firms under the clean air act amendment of 1990?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigates the causality from environmental investment (as a long-term effort) and expenditure (as a short-term effort) to financial performance in the US electric utility industry. The industry is one of the large air polluters in the United States. This empirical study finds that the environmental expenditure under the US Clean Air Act has had a negative impact from 1989 to 2001. The negative impact has become much effective after the implementation of the Title IV Program (1995) of the US Clean Air Act. This study cannot find the influence of environmental investment on financial performance by a statistical test although it indicates a positive impact. In the United States, fossil-fueled power plants such as coal-fired ones still produce a large portion of electricity. The generation structure is inconsistent with the betterment in the US environmental protection and imposes a financial burden to electric utility firms. (author)

  3. Analysis of recently enacted national energy legislation and the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 as related to Decontamination and Decommissioning at Federal, State, and private facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a summary of an analysis of recently enacted national energy legislation and the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 as related to Decontamination and Decommissioning (D ampersand D) at Federal, State and private facilities. It is submitted pursuant to Appendix A of subcontract 9-X62-0785E-1, dated July 27, 1992, between the Regents of the University of California and Van Ness, Feldman ampersand Curtis

  4. The Effect of Philadelphia and Pennsylvania Clean Indoor Air Act on Food Services and Drinking Places Sales and Numbers, 1998-2011

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Zhen-qiang; Fisher, Monica A

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Philadelphia enacted its Clean Indoor Air Act (CIAA) nearly 2 years before the statewide CIAA. In this study, we assessed the economic impact of CIAAs on 4 types of food services and drinking places and addressed the predominant limitation of previous pre–post ban studies, namely the lack of control for confounders and changes in secular trends over time. Methods We analyzed data from Pennsylvania Department of Revenue Quarterly 1998–2011 taxable county-level revenue sales and nu...

  5. Piped water consumption in Ghana: A case study of temporal and spatial patterns of clean water demand relative to alternative water sources in rural small towns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulinkina, Alexandra V; Kosinski, Karen C; Liss, Alexander; Adjei, Michael N; Ayamgah, Gilbert A; Webb, Patrick; Gute, David M; Plummer, Jeanine D; Naumova, Elena N

    2016-07-15

    Continuous access to adequate quantities of safe water is essential for human health and socioeconomic development. Piped water systems (PWSs) are an increasingly common type of water supply in rural African small towns. We assessed temporal and spatial patterns in water consumption from public standpipes of four PWSs in Ghana in order to assess clean water demand relative to other available water sources. Low water consumption was evident in all study towns, which manifested temporally and spatially. Temporal variability in water consumption that is negatively correlated with rainfall is an indicator of rainwater preference when it is available. Furthermore, our findings show that standpipes in close proximity to alternative water sources such as streams and hand-dug wells suffer further reductions in water consumption. Qualitative data suggest that consumer demand in the study towns appears to be driven more by water quantity, accessibility, and perceived aesthetic water quality, as compared to microbiological water quality or price. In settings with chronic under-utilization of improved water sources, increasing water demand through household connections, improving water quality with respect to taste and appropriateness for laundry, and educating residents about health benefits of using piped water should be prioritized. Continued consumer demand and sufficient revenue generation are important attributes of a water service that ensure its function over time. Our findings suggest that analyzing water consumption of existing metered PWSs in combination with qualitative approaches may enable more efficient planning of community-based water supplies and support sustainable development. PMID:27070382

  6. Recovery Act: Water Heater ZigBee Open Standard Wireless Controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, William P. [Emerson Electric Co., St. Louis, MO (United States); Buescher, Tom [Emerson Electric Co., St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2014-04-30

    The objective of Emerson's Water Heater ZigBee Open Standard Wireless Controller is to support the DOE's AARA priority for Clean, Secure Energy by designing a water heater control that levels out residential and small business peak electricity demand through thermal energy storage in the water heater tank.

  7. Research in cleaning water-walls of the TP-45 boiler with water during combustion of Angren brown coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zagrutdinov, R.Sh.; Shpakovich, E.Ya.; Guzenko, S.I.; Timofeev, A.P.; Perevezentsev, V.P.; Vasil' ev, V.V.

    1982-08-01

    With the growth of the electric power industry, great significance is placed on combustion of low-grade coals in large deposits with infavorable properties. Angren brown coal is an inexpensive low-grade fuel with 20-22% dry ash. During its combustion in steam generators with a radiant heat surface associated deposits are formed. Research on the problem of preventing slag formation on heating surfaces during the combustion of Angren brown coal is discussed. The use of water to clean these surfaces is also discussed.

  8. 40 CFR 40.140-3 - Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 40... FEDERAL ASSISTANCE RESEARCH AND DEMONSTRATION GRANTS § 40.140-3 Federal Water Pollution Control Act. (a... such safe water and such elimination or control of water pollution for all native villages in the...

  9. Improvement of high-voltage performance of acceleration tubes by cleaning the walls with a high-pressure water jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, S. E-mail: takeuchi@tandem.tokai.jaeri.go.jp; Nakanoya, T.; Kabumoto, H.; Yoshida, T

    2003-11-11

    We cleaned electrostatic accelerator tubes by applying a high-pressure water jet and examined their high-voltage performances at 1 and 3 MV. The cleaning was very effective in reducing discharge activities at their rated voltages. We did some experimental investigations with the tubes and their ceramic insulators. We found that removal of microparticles loosely bound on the vacuum-side ceramic surfaces had an important effect in eliminating the discharge activities.

  10. 77 FR 44672 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water and Clean Air Acts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ... install certain interim measures at its wastewater treatment plant and, after issuance of a new and... treatment in the wastewater treatment plant. In addition, Shenango will pay a civil penalty of $1,750,000 to... Ohio River, and that Shenango failed to properly operate and maintain its wastewater treatment plant...

  11. 78 FR 17229 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Amendment Under the Clean Air Act; the Clean Water...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ...-owned wastewater treatment plant. The violations occurred at a chemical manufacturing facility located...; conduct vacuum stripping of wastewater streams to remove methylene chloride; install an automated diffused aeration rate system in its wastewater treatment plant; implement an enhanced leak detection program;...

  12. Water cleaning ability and local structure of iron-containing soda-lime silicate glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A relationship between waste-water cleaning ability and local structure of iron-containing soda-lime silicate glass, 15Na2O·15CaO·xFe2O3·(70-x)SiO2 (x = 10–50 in mass%), abbreviated as NCFSx glass, was investigated by means of 57Fe-Mössbauer spectroscopy, redox titration with KMnO4 for the determination of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Mössbauer spectra of NCFSx glass with “x” of 10 and 30 were composed of two doublets: one due to FeIIIO4 tetrahedra (Td) with isomer shift (δ) of 0.23–0.26 mm s − 1 and quadrupole splitting (Δ) 1.01–1.04 mm s − 1, and the other due to FeIIO6 octahedra (Oh) with δ of 1.00–1.03 mm s − 1 and Δ of 2.03–2.05 mm s − 1. Absorption area for FeII(Td) was decreased from 9.7 to 6.5 and 0.0 % when “x” was increased from 10 to 30 and 50. A leaching test performed with 500 mL of artificial waste water and 2.0 g of NCFS50 revealed waste-water cleaning ability of soda-lime glass, e.g., COD was reduced from 280 to 55.2 mg L − 1 after 10 day-leaching. After 10 day-leaching, it proved that iron was dissolved into waste water to a level of 5.3 7 x 10-1 mg L − 1. These results prove that organic matter could be effectively decomposed with iron-containing soda-lime silicate glass.

  13. Towards a better hydraulic cleaning strategy for ultrafiltration membrane fouling by humic acid: Effect of backwash water composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Haiqing; Liang, Heng; Qu, Fangshu; Ma, Jun; Ren, Nanqi; Li, Guibai

    2016-05-01

    As a routine measurement to alleviate membrane fouling, hydraulic cleaning is of great significance for the steady operation of ultrafiltration (UF) systems in water treatment processes. In this work, a comparative study was performed to investigate the effects of the composition of backwash water on the hydraulic cleaning performance of UF membranes fouled by humic acid (HA). Various types of backwash water, including UF permeate, Milli-Q water, NaCl solution, CaCl2 solution and HA solution, were compared in terms of hydraulically irreversible fouling index, total surface tension and residual HA. The results indicated that Milli-Q water backwash was superior to UF permeate backwash in cleaning HA-fouled membranes, and the backwash water containing Na(+) or HA outperformed Milli-Q water in alleviating HA fouling. On the contrary, the presence of Ca(2+) in backwash water significantly decreased the backwash efficiency. Moreover, Ca(2+) played an important role in foulant removal, and the residual HA content closely related to the residual Ca(2+) content. Mechanism analysis suggested that the backwash process may involve fouling layer swelling, ion exchange, electric double layer release and competitive complexation. Ion exchange and competitive complexation played significant roles in the efficient hydraulic cleaning associated with Na(+) and HA, respectively. PMID:27155423

  14. Can Water Hyacinth Clean Highly Polluted Waters? —A Short Paper for Discussion

    OpenAIRE

    Hucai Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Recently local government and environmental protection authorities in China have turned to the water hyacinth, one of the world’s worst aquatic weeds, to reduce nutrient concentrations in highly eutrophic lake waters, especially in Lake Dian in southwestern China’s Yunnan Province. Although we do not reject using water hyacinth to reduce lake eutrophication, it is not a complete solution. In our view, a more complete solution requires a holistic consideration of watershed or drainage characte...

  15. 75 FR 70020 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior ACTION: Notice of Availability. SUMMARY: The following Water Management Plans are... on Central Valley Project water conservation best management practices that shall ``* * *...

  16. 78 FR 21414 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The following Water Management Plans are... an office on Central Valley Project water conservation best management practices that shall...

  17. A comparison of ultrasonically activated water stream and ultrasonic bath immersion cleaning of railhead leaf-film contaminant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodes, L. R.; Harvey, T. J.; Symonds, N.; Leighton, T. G.

    2016-09-01

    Leaf-film adhered to the railway track is a major issue during the autumn/fall season, as leaves fall onto the track and are entrained into the wheel-rail interface. This results in the development of a smooth, black layer. Presently, pressure washers must be used to clean the residue to prevent loss of traction, which can cause crashes or delays by forcing a reduced speed. These pressure washers consume large amounts of water and energy. In this study, use of an ultrasonic cleaning apparatus equipped with a 100 W transducer is investigated, using a low volume of water in the order of 1 l min‑1. This was applied to leaf-film samples generated in the laboratory, whose surface properties and thickness were confirmed with optical and stylus profilometry methods. Cleaning achieved by an ultrasonically activated water stream was compared to (a) non-activated water and (b) an ultrasonic bath with comparable power consumption. Cleaning efficacy was found to be much greater than that afforded by the ultrasonic bath; a rate of 14.3 mm2 s‑1 compared to 0.37 mm2 s‑1, and the ultrasonic bath only cleaned off around 20% of the leaf-film coverage even after 3 min of exposure.

  18. Algal Turf Scrubbers: Cleaning Water while Capturing Solar Energy for Bio fuel Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algal Turfs are bio diverse communities of unicellular to filamentous algae of all major algal phyla. Algal Turf Scrubbers (ATS) are bioengineered ecosystems dominated by algal turfs. They clean water to very high quality, and remove CO2 from the atmosphere by capturing solar energy at rates 10 times that of agriculture and 50 times that of forestry. Since they are controlled ecosystems, using local algae, ATS does not suffer the major disadvantages of agricultural crops, which for maximum efficiency require fertilizers, herbicides and pesticides. ATS removes CO2 from water and the atmosphere, and can be configured to remove CO2 from power plant stack gases. As a normal part of operations, ATS removes heavy metals, break down toxic hydrocarbons, and oxygenates treated waters. ATS systems are capable of removing nitrogen and phosphorous from surface waters in the mid latitude US at $0.60/kg and $10.60/kg respectively (10% of the cost certified by the Chesapeake Bay Commission), and independently producing an energy product at $0.85/gallon. Given a nutrient credit system for rewarding nutrient removal from rivers and lakes, this price can be driven down to below $.40/gallon. Conservatively ATS can produce the equivalent of US imported oil on less than 30 M acres of land along major rivers

  19. Chemical dynamics of acidity and heavy metals in a mine water-polluted soil during decontamination using clean water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, A; Lin, C; Lu, W; Ma, Y; Bai, Y; Chen, H; Li, J

    2010-03-15

    A column leaching experiment was conducted to investigate the chemical dynamics of the percolating water and washed soil during decontamination of an acidic mine water-polluted soil. The results show that leaching of the contaminated soil with clean water rapidly reduced soluble acidity and ion concentrations in the soils. However, only <20% of the total actual acidity in the soil column was eliminated after 30 leaching cycles. It is likely that the stored acidity continues to be released to the percolating water over a long period of time. During the column leaching, dissolved Cu and Pb were rapidly leached out, followed by mobilization of colloidal Cu and Pb from the exchangeable and the oxide-bound fractions as a result of reduced ionic strength in the soil solution. The soluble Fe contained in the soil was rare, probably because the soil pH was not sufficiently low; marked mobility of colloidal Fe took place after the ionic strength of the percolating water was weakened and the mobilized Fe was mainly derived from iron oxides. In contrast with Cu, Pb and Fe, the concentration of leachate Zn and Mn showed a continuously decreasing trend during the entire period of the experiment. PMID:19913356

  20. Clean and safe supply of fish and shellfish to clear the HACCP regulation by use of clean and cold deep ocean water in Rausu, Hokkaido, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Takahashi, Masayuki; Yamashita, Kazunori

    2005-07-01

    For the supply of fish and shellfish to consumers in fresh condition, clean handling after catch from the sea is essential. According to HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points), it is important to meet such requirement by keeping fish and shellfish under a certain low temperature and clean conditions after catching. The deep ocean water (DOW) characterized by low temperature and cleanliness has been chosen for fish and shellfish handlings, particularly for salmon, cod, and sea urchin in Town ‘Rausu’ in Hokkaido, Japan. DOW below 2.9’C of an amount of nearly 5 000m3 is planned to be pumped up every day from a depth of about 350 m, and temporarily stored in a large simulated tank on land. DOW is then supplied to fish boats through hydrants distributed throughout the harbor and used for keeping salmon in clean and cold conditions. Ice made from DOW is also used for lowering temperature if necessary. DOW and ice made from DOW are also used during the transportation of fish and shellfish. The entire system is scheduled to be completed by the summer of 2005.

  1. A Note on the Collection and Cleaning of Water Temperature Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Sowder

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Inexpensive remote temperature data loggers have allowed for a dramatic increase of data describing water temperature regimes. This data is used in understanding the ecological functioning of natural riverine systems and in quantifying changes in these systems. However, an increase in the quantity of yearly temperature data necessitates complex data management, efficient summarization, and an effective data-cleaning regimen. This note focuses on identifying events where data loggers failed to record correct temperatures using data from the Sauk River in Northwest Washington State as an example. By augmenting automated checks with visual comparisons against air temperature, related sites, multiple years, and available flow data, dewatering events can be more accurately and efficiently identified.

  2. Cleaning Surface Particle Contamination with Ultrapure Water (UPW) Megasonic Flow on Genesis Array Collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allton, J. H.; Calaway, Michael J.; Hittle, J. D.; Rodriquez, M. C.; Stansbery, E. K.; McNamara, K. M.

    2006-01-01

    The hard landing experienced by the Genesis sample return capsule breached the science canister containing the solar wind collectors. This impact into the damp lakebed contaminated collector surfaces with pulverized collector and spacecraft materials and Utah sediment and brine residue. The gold foil, polished aluminum, and bulk metallic glass remained intact, but the solar wind bulk and regime-specific array collectors were jarred loose from their frames and fractured into greater than 10,000 specimens. After a year of investigation and cleaning experimentation, the Genesis Science Team determined that array collectors had 4 classes of contaminants: particles, molecular film, submicron inorganic particulate ("aerosol"), and pre-launch surface contamination. We discuss here use of megasonically energized ultrapure water (UPW) for removing particulate debris from array collector fragments.

  3. Case study: recovering clean water and pure ammonium alum from uranium mine acid waste in the Czech republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A huge underground deposit of sulfuric acid and salt is the result of nearly 30 years of uranium mining in the Northern Bohemia region of the Czech Republic. Because of the danger to the local water supply, this deposit is now being cleaned up in a desalination plant which began operation in August, 1996. Acid waste is pumped to the surface, where 80% is converted to clean water for disposal to the Ploucnice river. The remaining waste is converted to pure ammonium alum crystals which will eventually be reprocessed into aluminium oxide for sale. (author) 4 figs., 1 tab

  4. 40 CFR 40.145-2 - Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 40... FEDERAL ASSISTANCE RESEARCH AND DEMONSTRATION GRANTS § 40.145-2 Federal Water Pollution Control Act. (a... or control of acid or other mine water pollution; and (2) That the State shall provide legal...

  5. The Economic and Social Benefits and the Barriers of Providing People with Disabilities Accessible Clean Water and Sanitation

    OpenAIRE

    Gregor Wolbring; Jacqueline Noga

    2012-01-01

    Resolution A/HRC/RES/16/2 adopted by the UN Human Rights Council on 8 April 2011 declared access to safe drinking water and sanitation a human right. However many people around the globe including people with disabilities do not have access to safe drinking water, hygiene or sanitation facilities. Inaccessibility of clean water sources, hygiene and sanitation facilities negatively impacts among others health, education, the ability to work, and the ability to partake in social activities. Thi...

  6. Preperation for a Clean Surface

    OpenAIRE

    Aurimas Ralys; Valdemar Prokopovič; Vytautas Striška

    2013-01-01

    The article reviews techniques for preparing clean surfaces used in the manufacturing process, considers the types of clean surfaces and their role in modern production and provides the classification methods of arranging such surfaces. The paper also discusses the principles of methods for solvent cleaning, aqueous cleaning, ultrasonic cleaning, precision cleaning and mechanical cleaning. The study focuses on the possibility of adjusting a clean surface using a water flow, including cavitati...

  7. Preperation for a Clean Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurimas Ralys

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews techniques for preparing clean surfaces used in the manufacturing process, considers the types of clean surfaces and their role in modern production and provides the classification methods of arranging such surfaces. The paper also discusses the principles of methods for solvent cleaning, aqueous cleaning, ultrasonic cleaning, precision cleaning and mechanical cleaning. The study focuses on the possibility of adjusting a clean surface using a water flow, including cavitation.Article in Lithuanian

  8. Cattle, clean water, and climate change: policy choices for the Brazilian Agricultural Frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Andrew Reid; Lemos, Maria Carmen; Scavia, Donald

    2010-11-15

    In the Amazonian agricultural frontier, pasture for cattle ranching is an important and potentially hazardous form of land use because of sediment erosion as pastures degrade. This relationship between ranching, sediment load, and water quality is likely to further exacerbate environmental impacts, particularly in the context of climate change. We examine the role that river basin councils (RBCs) - a water governance option of Brazil's 1997 National Water Act - might play in managing this nonpoint-source pollution in the Amazônian state of Rondônia. We implement a simple coupled rancher-water system model to compare two potential governance options: a bulk water cleanup charge (BWC) implemented by RBCs and a land-use fine (LUF) for failing to maintain riparian buffers. We find no significant advantage of BWC over LUF in reducing sediment loading while keeping ranching profitable, under a changing climate. We also fail to find in Rondônia the important stake in water issues that has driven water reform elsewhere in Brazil. Moreover, the comparative success of reforestation programs suggests these programs may, in fact, have the potential to manage nonpoint-source agricultural pollution in the region. PMID:20961050

  9. Electrospun N-Substituted Polyurethane Membranes with Self-Healing Ability for Self-Cleaning and Oil/Water Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wenyuan; Liu, Libin; Li, Ting; Dang, Zhao; Qiao, Congde; Xu, Jinku; Wang, Yanyan

    2016-01-18

    Membranes with special functionalities, such as self-cleaning, especially those for oil/water separation, have attracted much attention due to their wide applications. However, they are difficult to recycle and reuse after being damaged. Herein, we put forward a new N-substituted polyurethane membrane concept with self-healing ability to address this challenge. The membrane obtained by electrospinning has a self-cleaning surface with an excellent self-healing ability. Importantly, by tuning the membrane composition, the membrane exhibits different wettability for effective separation of oil/water mixtures and water-in-oil emulsions, whilst still displaying a self-healing ability and durability against damage. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to demonstrate a self-healing membrane for oil/water separation, which provides the fundamental research for the development of advanced oil/water separation materials. PMID:26603820

  10. Feasibility, safety, and economic implications of whey-recovered water in cleaning-in-place systems: A case study on water conservation for the dairy industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, Yulie E; Flores, Rolando A

    2016-05-01

    Water scarcity is threatening food security and business growth in the United States. In the dairy sector, most of the water is used in cleaning applications; therefore, any attempt to support water conservation in these processes will have a considerable effect on the water footprint of dairy products. This study demonstrates the viability for recovering good quality water from whey, a highly pollutant cheese-making by-product, to be reused in cleaning-in-place systems. The results obtained in this study indicate that by using a combined ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis system, 47% of water can be recovered. This system generates protein and lactose concentrates, by-products that once spray-dried fulfill commercial standards for protein and lactose powders. The physicochemical and microbiological quality of the recovered permeate was also analyzed, suggesting suitable properties to be reused in the cleaning-in-place system without affecting the quality and safety of the product manufactured on the cleaned equipment. A cost analysis was conducted for 3 cheese manufacturing levels, considering an annual production of 1, 20, and 225 million liters of whey. Results indicate the feasibility of this intervention in the dairy industry, generating revenues of $0.18, $3.05, and $33.4 million per year, respectively. The findings provide scientific evidence to promote the safety of reuse of reconditioned water in food processing plants, contributing to building a culture of water conservation and sustainable production throughout the food supply chain. PMID:26923044

  11. A guide for determining compliance with the Clean Air Act Standards for radionuclide emissions from NRC-licensed and non-DOE federal facilities (Rev. 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued standards under Section 112 of the Clean Air Act of February 6, 1985 that limit airborne emissions of radionuclides to the atmosphere. In February 1989 these standards were re proposed , and in November 1989 final standards may be promulgated. This document provides guidance for determining compliance with one of the National Emissions for Hazardous Air Pollutants covering facilities that are licensed by NRC, and federal facilities not operated by the DOE, that could emit radionuclides to the air

  12. Nonpoint Source Pollution: Agriculture, Forestry, and Mining. Instructor Guide. Working for Clean Water: An Information Program for Advisory Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buskirk, E. Drannon, Jr.

    Nonpoint sources of pollution have diffuse origins and are major contributors to water quality problems in both urban and rural areas. Addressed in this instructor's manual are the identification, assessment, and management of nonpoint source pollutants resulting from mining, agriculture, and forestry. The unit, part of the Working for Clean Water…

  13. 78 FR 63491 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The following Water Management Plans are... achievable by project contractors using best available cost-effective technology and best...

  14. Improving water quality through California's Clean Beach Initiative: an assessment of 17 projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, John H

    2010-07-01

    California's Clean Beach Initiative (CBI) funds projects to reduce loads of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) impacting beaches, thus providing an opportunity to judge the effectiveness of various CBI water pollution control strategies. Seventeen initial projects were selected for assessment to determine their effectiveness on reducing FIB in the receiving waters along beaches nearest to the projects. Control strategies included low-flow diversions, sterilization facilities, sewer improvements, pier best management practices (BMPs), vegetative swales, and enclosed beach BMPs. Assessments were based on statistical changes in pre- and postproject mean densities of FIB at shoreline monitoring stations targeted by the projects. Most low-flow diversions and the wetland swale project were effective in removing all contaminated runoff from beaches. UV sterilization was effective when coupled with pretreatment filtration and where effluent was released within a few hundred meters of the beach to avoid FIB regrowth. Other BMPs were less effective because they treated only a portion of contaminant sources impacting their target beach. These findings should be useful to other coastal states and agencies faced with similar pollution control problems. PMID:19496001

  15. Fabrication of polydopamine-coated superhydrophobic fabrics for oil/water separation and self-cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhanglian; Miyazaki, Koji; Hori, Teruo

    2016-05-01

    We report a fabric coating method inspired the superhydrophobic properties of lotus leaves and the strong adhesion of the adhesive proteins in mussels. Dopamine, which mimics the single units of the adhesive mussel proteins, was polymerized in an alkaline aqueous solution to coat the surface of fabrics. The versatile reactivity of polydopamine allows subsequent Ag deposition to form a lotus-leaf-like rough structure on the fabric surface. The composite fabric exhibited high water repellence after fluorination. Because dopamine can adhere to all kinds of materials, this method can be applied to many fabrics regardless of their properties and chemical compositions using a universal process. The modified fabrics exhibited excellent anti-wetting and self-cleaning properties with contact angles of >150° and sliding angles lower than 9°. The fabrics also efficiently separated oil from oil/water mixtures under various conditions. Our method is versatile and simple compared with other hydrophobic treatment methods, which usually only work on one type of fabric.

  16. 76 FR 709 - Guidelines for Awarding Clean Water Act Section 319 Base Grants to Indian Tribes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-06

    ..., and performance of non-maintenance actions needed to keep the completed practice safe and functioning as intended. Maintenance includes work to prevent deterioration of the practice, repairing damage, or... Regional Tribal NPS Coordinator identified in section XIII and also listed on EPA's Web site under...

  17. 76 FR 79710 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-22

    ..., and the State of Illinois requires the following: (1) A schedule for completion of the Tunnel and... Attorney General, Environment and Natural Resources Division, P.O. Box 7611, U.S. Department of Justice.... Maureen Katz, Assistant Chief, Environmental Enforcement Section, Environment and Natural...

  18. 75 FR 82072 - Notice of Lodging of a Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... the construction of seven deep underground tunnel systems--to reduce its CSO discharges--and.... Comments should be addressed to the Assistant Attorney General, Environment and Natural Resources Division... address. Maureen M. Katz, Assistant Chief, Environmental Enforcement Section, Environment and...

  19. 77 FR 5570 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ... Consent Decree to provide for construction of a Kaneohe-Kailua Tunnel and an associated influent pump... be needed following completion of the tunnel project. The Department of Justice will receive, for a... Consent Decree. Comments should be addressed to the Assistant Attorney General, Environment and...

  20. Coral Reef Biological Criteria: Using Clean Water Act to Protect a National Treasure

    Science.gov (United States)

    A collaborative Environmental Protection Agency effort is underway to elucidate the technical aspects of coral reef biocriteria implementation. A stony coral rapid bioassessment protocol has been introduced and applied in the Florida Keys and U.S. Virgin Islands, where several in...

  1. 76 FR 53941 - Notice of Lodging of a Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... Euclid's operation of its municipal wastewater and sewer system. The Complaint alleges that the City discharges combined sewer overflows (``CSOs'') and sanitary sewer overflows (``SSOs'') in violation of the... alleges that the City bypasses treatment processes at its treatment plants, which also violate its...

  2. 77 FR 24515 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Pursuant to the Clean Water Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    .... Stiles Wastewater Treatment Plant discharge point and a sewer GPS mapping project. The Department of... sewer management, operation and maintenance programs, including: A sewer overflow response plan, a...

  3. 78 FR 69441 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-19

    ... complaint against The City of Shreveport, for Shreveport's sanitary sewer overflows in violation of Sections... and perform remediation of its wastewater collection treatment system, including the Lucas and North Regional treatment plants, estimated to cost approximately $141 million. The publication of this...

  4. 78 FR 44599 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... flowback fluid contain contaminants such as barium, calcium, iron, magnesium, manganese, potassium, sodium, strontium, bromide, chloride, ] and total dissolved solids. The Decree requires Defendant to...

  5. 77 FR 1948 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-12

    ..., 2011, a proposed Consent Decree in United States of America v. International Hospitality Associates, S..., International Hospitality Associates S. en C. Por A. (SE.) and International Hospitality Associates, Inc., for... 20530, and should refer to United States of America v. International Hospitality Associates, S. en...

  6. 75 FR 39041 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-07

    ... 16, 2010, a Consent Decree in United States of America, et al. v. JBS Souderton, Inc., Civil Action... Pennsylvania. The proposed Consent Decree obligates JBS Souderton, Inc. (``JBS''), a large beef processing and... conveys that wastewater to its wastewater treatment plant. The Consent Decree further obligates JBS...

  7. 78 FR 23957 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    ... Pervious Concrete Project, as specified in the CD. Torromeo shall pay a civil penalty in the amount of $135..., and redi-mix concrete operation at 18 Dorre Road, Kingston, New Hampshire (``the Facility'')....

  8. 77 FR 42332 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Modification Under the Clean Water Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    ... combined sewer overflow (``CSO'') outfalls, propose a schedule for construction of a secondary wastewater treatment facility for approval by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, and upon inclusion of... constructing secondary treatment facilities. The Modification requires the City to complete construction...

  9. 77 FR 28897 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-16

    ... Discharge Elimination System Permit (``NPDES Permit'') for its wastewater treatment plant. The Consent Decree requires the City to construct and operate four upgrades to its wastewater treatment system that will enable it to comply with the permit, which include upgrading its treatment plant to...

  10. 78 FR 24777 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ... County, Washington (``County'') operation of its wastewater treatment and collection system in King... a series of storage tanks or pipes and treatment facilities, as set forth in its approved Long Term... treatment and storage of wet weather flow. The County will also pay a total of $400,000.00 in...

  11. 78 FR 35315 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under The Clean Water Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ... south of the City of Miami Beach that conveys untreated wastewater from the City of Miami Beach under Biscayne Bay to the Central District Wastewater Treatment Plant. The proposed Consent Decree includes an estimated $1.55 billion in capital improvements to Miami-Dade's wastewater collection and...

  12. 76 FR 46325 - Notice of Lodging of Stipulated Order Under the Clean Water Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-02

    ... as a result of the failure of the Figtree Pump Station located on St. Croix, and (b) implement repairs at the Figtree Pump Station, the Barren Spot Pump Station, also located on St. Croix, and the Cancryn Pump Station, located on St. Thomas. On March 18, 2010, the Court issued an order for...

  13. 75 FR 37838 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-30

    ... proposed Consent Decree (the ``Decree'') in United States v. Granite Construction Company, successor-in-interest to Wilder Construction Company, Civil Case No. 3:10-cv-00117-RRB, was lodged with the United... alleged that Granite Construction Company (``Granite'') was liable, pursuant to Section 309(b) and (d)...

  14. 76 FR 75913 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-05

    ..., 2011, a proposed Consent Decree in United States of America et al. v. Lafarge North America Inc., et al... 21 facilities in Alabama, Colorado, Georgia, Maryland, and New York owned and operated by Lafarge North America Inc., Lafarge Building Materials, Inc., Lafarge West, Inc., Lafarge Mid-Atlantic, LLC,...

  15. 76 FR 36919 - Proof of Concept Demonstration for Electronic Reporting of Clean Water Act Compliance Monitoring...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-23

    ... a successful transmission of DMR data to EPA. See Appendix A, ``Technical Proof of Concept Objective... demonstration will focus the electronic transmission of NPDES DMRs from a third-party commercial software... reporting, which uses third-party software providers for tax data collection and transmission (e.g.,...

  16. Use of Equivalent Loss Models Under Section 316(b of the Clean Water Act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Dey

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Equivalent loss models encompass a variety of life table-based approaches that can be used to convert age- and life stage-specific estimates of entrainment and impingement loss to a common, easily understood currency. This common currency can be expressed in terms of numbers of individuals, yield to the fishery, or biomass to the ecosystem. These models have at least two key uses in the Section 316(b assessment process: screening for adverse environmental impact (AEI and determination of environmental benefits associated with intake alternatives. This paper reviews the various forms of equivalent loss models, their data input requirements, and their assumptions and limitations. In addition, it describes how these models can be used as a second-level screening tool as part of the assessment of the potential for AEI. Given their relative simplicity and ease of use, equivalent loss models should prove to be an important tool in the arsenal of impact assessment methods for Section 316(b.

  17. Use of Equivalent Loss Models Under Section 316(b) of the Clean Water Act

    OpenAIRE

    William Dey

    2002-01-01

    Equivalent loss models encompass a variety of life table-based approaches that can be used to convert age- and life stage-specific estimates of entrainment and impingement loss to a common, easily understood currency. This common currency can be expressed in terms of numbers of individuals, yield to the fishery, or biomass to the ecosystem. These models have at least two key uses in the Section 316(b) assessment process: screening for adverse environmental impact (AEI) and determination of en...

  18. Use of equivalent loss models under Section 316(b) of the Clean Water Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, William

    2002-06-13

    Equivalent loss models encompass a variety of life table-based approaches that can be used to convert age- and life stage-specific estimates of entrainment and impingement loss to a common, easily understood currency. This common currency can be expressed in terms of numbers of individuals, yield to the fishery, or biomass to the ecosystem. These models have at least two key uses in the Section 316(b) assessment process: screening for adverse environmental impact (AEI) and determination of environmental benefits associated with intake alternatives. This paper reviews the various forms of equivalent loss models, their data input requirements, and their assumptions and limitations. In addition, it describes how these models can be used as a second-level screening tool as part of the assessment of the potential for AEI. Given their relative simplicity and ease of use, equivalent loss models should prove to be an important tool in the arsenal of impact assessment methods for Section 316(b). PMID:12805898

  19. Evaluation of vost and semivost methods for halogenated compounds in the Clean Air Act amendments title III. Validation study at fossil fuel plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA), Title III, present a need for stationary source sampling and analytical methods for the list of 189 toxic air pollutants. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has used VOST and SemiVOST sampling and analytical methods for a wide variety of volatile and semivolatile organic compounds in the past, but these methodologies have been completely validated for only a few of the organic compounds. The applicability of VOST and SemiVOST techniques to the halogenated organic compounds listed in Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 has been evaluated under laboratory conditions for chromatographic separation, mass spectrometric response, sorbent recovery and analytical method detection limit. Dynamic spiking techniques for the sampling trains (both gaseous and liquid dynamic spiking) were also evaluated in the laboratory. In the study, the VOST and SemiVOST methods were evaluated in the field at a fossil fuel power plant. The source was selected to provide actual stationary source emissions with the compounds of interest present in trace amounts or not present. The paper presents the results of the field validation of the VOST and SemiVOST sampling and analytical methods

  20. Analysis of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990: A forecast of the electric utility industry response to Title IV, Acid Deposition Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 incorporate, for the first time, provisions aimed specifically at the control of acid rain. These provisions restrict emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) from electric power generating stations. The restrictions on SO2 take the form of an overall cap on the aggregate emissions from major generating plants, allowing substantial flexibility in the industry's response to those restrictions. This report discusses one response scenario through the year 2030 that was examined through a simulation of the utility industry based on assumptions consistent with characterizations used in the National Energy Strategy reference case. It also makes projections of emissions that would result from the use of existing and new capacity and of the associated additional costs of meeting demand subject to the emission limitations imposed by the Clean Air Act. Fuel-use effects, including coal-market shifts, consistent with the response scenario are also described. These results, while dependent on specific assumptions for this scenario, provide insight into the general character of the likely utility industry response to Title IV

  1. The clean air act amendments of 1990 and the national energy strategy of 1991 in relation to district heating and cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    District heating and cooling (DHC) has a good side with regard to the environment, as one system replaces many individual boilers and furnaces that together would emit a larger amount of uncontrolled, environmentally damaging substances than the DHC power plant. However, the more controlled emissions from the power plant are more visible and concentrated and are carried on by winds to longer distances. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 set definite goals for reducing harmful emissions, and the power plants must gradually improve their plants and operations to follow these new guidelines. Similarly, the National Energy Strategy calls for adherence to the purposes of the Clean Air Act, but at the same time it provides some trade-offs in order to allow more time for the construction and installation of more effective equipment. As the use of electricity has increased tenfold in the United States during the past 40 years and the electricity producing power plants are usually only about 30 % fuel efficient, the emissions from the fuel that is used to burn and generate electricity-with two-thirds of it wasted-have multiplied enormously. To harness the wasted energy by utilizing district heating and cooling could greatly improve environmental conditions and conserve large amounts of energy

  2. Microcredit for rural water supply and sanitation in the Mekong Delta: Policy implementation between the needs for clean water and beautiful latrines

    OpenAIRE

    Reis, Nadine; Mollinga, Peter P.

    2009-01-01

    The rural population of the Mekong Delta is facing increasing problems due to the contamination of domestic water sources. Around half of the population lacks year round access to clean water. In combination with bad hygiene behaviour and poor sanitation there is a high risk for water-related diseases. On the policy level, microcredit schemes have globally become a popular element in addressing such problems. The present paper analyses the effectiveness of such a microcredit programme for rur...

  3. 76 FR 58840 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act; Refuge Water Management Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-22

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Central Valley Project Improvement Act; Refuge Water Management Plans AGENCY... Refuge Water Management Plans (Refuge Criteria). Several entities have each developed a Refuge Water...) 978-5281 (TDD 978-5608). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The following Refuge Water Management Plans...

  4. A self-cleaning polybenzoxazine/TiO2 surface with superhydrophobicity and superoleophilicity for oil/water separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenfei; Lu, Xin; Xin, Zhong; Zhou, Changlu

    2015-11-01

    Two important properties--the low surface free energy of polybenzoxazine (PBZ) and the photocatalysis-induced self-cleaning property of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles--are combined to develop a promising approach for oil/water separation. They are integrated into a multifunctional superhydrophobic and superoleophilic material, PBZ/TiO2 modified polyester non-woven fabrics (PBZT), through a simple dip coating and subsequent thermal curing method. The resulting PBZT reveals excellent mechanical durability and strong resistance to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation as well as acid and alkali. This durable superhydrophobic and superoleophilic fabric is efficient for separating oil/water mixtures by gravity with high separation efficiency, and it can also purify wastewater that contains soluble dyes, which makes it more effective and promising in treating water pollution. Importantly, PBZT demonstrates an integrated self-cleaning performance on the removal of both oil and particle contamination. It is expected that this simple process can be readily adopted for the design of multifunctional PBZ/TiO2 based materials for oil/water separation.Two important properties--the low surface free energy of polybenzoxazine (PBZ) and the photocatalysis-induced self-cleaning property of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles--are combined to develop a promising approach for oil/water separation. They are integrated into a multifunctional superhydrophobic and superoleophilic material, PBZ/TiO2 modified polyester non-woven fabrics (PBZT), through a simple dip coating and subsequent thermal curing method. The resulting PBZT reveals excellent mechanical durability and strong resistance to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation as well as acid and alkali. This durable superhydrophobic and superoleophilic fabric is efficient for separating oil/water mixtures by gravity with high separation efficiency, and it can also purify wastewater that contains soluble dyes, which makes it more effective and

  5. Minimization of water and chemical usage in the cleaning in place process of a milk pasteurization plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathit Niamsuwan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Cleaning in place (CIP is a method of cleaning inner surfaces of piping, vessel, equipment, and associated fitting withdisassembly. Although, the CIP processes have been studied continually to improve efficiency for chemical and water consumption,the real conventional plant operations of this process still have been considered as a large amount of consumption.The objectives of this work are to study process behaviors and to find out the optimal draining ratio of the CIP cleaningchemicals in a pasteurized milk plant. To achieve these, mathematical models of the CIP process have been developed andvalidated by the actual process data. With these models, simulation study has been carried out to describe the dynamicbehaviors of the process with respect to the concentrations and contaminations in CIP cleaning chemicals. The optimizationproblem has been formulated and solved using written programs based on MATLAB application program.

  6. Plants + microbes: Innovative food crop systems that also clean air and water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Mark; Wolverton, B. C.

    The limitations that will govern bioregenerative life support applications in space, especially volume and weight, make multi-purpose systems advantageous. This paper outlines two systems which utilize plants and associated microbial communities of root or growth medium to both produce food crops and clean air and water. Underlying these approaches are the large numbers and metabolic diversity of microbes associated with roots and found in either soil or other suitable growth media. It is known that most biogeochemical cycles have a microbial link, and the ability of microbes to metabolize virtually all trace gases, whether of technogenic or biogenic origin, have long been established. Wetland plants and soil/media also been extensively researched for their ability to purify wastewaters of all kinds of potential water pollutants, from nutrients like N and P, to heavy metals and a range of complex industrial pollutants. There is a growing body of research on the ability of higher plants to purify air and water. Associated benefits of these approaches is that by utilizing natural ecological processes, the cleansing of air and water can be done with little or no energy inputs. Soil and root microorganisms respond to changing pollutant types by an increase of the types of organisms with the capacity to use these compounds. Thus living systems have an extraordinary adaptive capacity as long as the starting populations are sufficiently diverse. It is known that tightly sealed environments, from office buildings to spacecraft, can have hundreds or even thousands of potential air pollutants, depending on the materials and machines enclosed. Human waste products carry a plethora of microbes can are readily used in the process of converting its organic load to forms that can be utilized by green plants. Having endogenous means of responding to changing air and water quality conditions represents safety factors which operate without the need for human direction. We will

  7. Plants + soil/wetland microbes: Food crop systems that also clean air and water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Mark; Wolverton, B. C.

    2011-02-01

    The limitations that will govern bioregenerative life support applications in space, especially volume and weight, make multi-purpose systems advantageous. This paper outlines two systems which utilize plants and associated microbial communities of root or growth medium to both produce food crops and clean air and water. Underlying these approaches are the large numbers and metabolic diversity of microbes associated with roots and found in either soil or other suitable growth media. Biogeochemical cycles have microbial links and the ability of microbes to metabolize virtually all trace gases, whether of technogenic or biogenic origin, has long been established. Wetland plants and the rootzone microbes of wetland soils/media also been extensively researched for their ability to purify wastewaters of a great number of potential water pollutants, from nutrients like N and P, to heavy metals and a range of complex industrial pollutants. There is a growing body of research on the ability of higher plants to purify air and water. Associated benefits of these approaches is that by utilizing natural ecological processes, the cleansing of air and water can be done with little or no energy inputs. Soil and rootzone microorganisms respond to changing pollutant types by an increase of the types of organisms with the capacity to use these compounds. Thus living systems have an adaptive capacity as long as the starting populations are sufficiently diverse. Tightly sealed environments, from office buildings to spacecraft, can have hundreds or even thousands of potential air pollutants, depending on the materials and equipment enclosed. Human waste products carry a plethora of microbes which are readily used in the process of converting its organic load to forms that can be utilized by green plants. Having endogenous means of responding to changing air and water quality conditions represents safety factors as these systems operate without the need for human intervention. We review

  8. Full scale evaluation of diffuser ageing with clean water oxygen transfer tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krampe, J

    2011-01-01

    Aeration is a crucial part of the biological wastewater treatment in activated sludge systems and the main energy user of WWTPs. Approximately 50 to 60% of the total energy consumption of a WWTP can be attributed to the aeration system. The performance of the aeration system, and in the case of fine bubble diffused aeration the diffuser performance, has a significant impact on the overall plant efficiency. This paper seeks to isolate the changes of the diffuser performance over time by eliminating all other influencing parameters like sludge retention time, surfactants and reactor layout. To achieve this, different diffusers have been installed and tested in parallel treatment trains in two WWTPs. The diffusers have been performance tested in clean water tests under new conditions and after one year of operation. A set of material property tests describing the diffuser membrane quality was also performed. The results showed a significant drop in the performance of the EPDM diffuser in the first year which resulted in similar oxygen transfer efficiency around 16 g/m3/m for all tested systems. Even though the tested silicone diffusers did not show a drop in performance they had a low efficiency in the initial tests. The material properties indicate that the EPDM performance loss is partly due to the washout of additives. PMID:22097050

  9. Industrial Cleaning with ultra-clean water according to the Qlean-method – a case study of printed circuit boards

    OpenAIRE

    Svensson, Niclas; Sundin, Erik; Lindahl, Mattias

    2011-01-01

    The manufacturing industry today uses many kinds of chemicals in its cleaning processes. The industrial cleaners often contain some sort of degreasing chemical to clean parts and components before the main processes, for instance assembly or surface treatment. These types of cleaning methods are often expensive and involve hazardous handling of chemicals in manufacturing, as well as in the transportation of hazardous waste. In addition, the cleaning processes often use a substantial amount of...

  10. Dry Cleaning

    OpenAIRE

    Shirley, Lindsey; Weller, Chanae

    2010-01-01

    Despite its name, commercial dry cleaning is not actually a “dry” process. Clothes are immersed in a solvent, most commonly perchlorethylene (perc), instead of in water. Perc or other similar solvents are effective in the removal of oil and grease-based stains without damaging or shrinking sensitive fabrics, unlike a regular detergents and fabric softeners.

  11. Resistance of cyanobacterial fouling on architectural paint films to cleaning by water jet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirakawa, Marcia Aiko; Loh, Kai; John, Vanderley Moacir; Gaylarde, Christine Claire

    2012-04-01

    Mortar panels painted with three different white acrylic coatings were exposed to the environment in urban (São Paulo) and rural (Pirassununga) sites in Brazil for 7 years. After this time, all panels were almost equally discoloured, and paint detachment was observed to only a small degree. The biofilms were composed mainly of cyanobacteria and filamentous fungi, principal genera being Gloeocapsa and Chroococcidiopsis of the cyanobacteria, and Cladosporium and Alternaria of the fungi. Two of the three paints in Pirassununga became covered by a pink film that contained red-encapsulated Gloeocapsa and clay particles. The third, an 800% elastomeric matt formulation, became discoloured with a grey, only slightly pink, film, although the same cyanobacteria were present. The levels of paint detachments from all films in both locations were low, with rating range of 0-1 of a maximum 5 (100% detachment). After high-pressure water jetting, paint detachments increased at both locations, up to 2 in Pirassununga and 3 in São Paulo. Discoloration decreased; L*A*B* analysis of surface discoloration showed that ΔE (alteration in colour from the original paint film) changed from 28-39 before cleaning to 13-16 afterwards. The pink coloration was not entirely removed from Pirassununga samples, suggesting that cyanobacterial cells are difficult to detach, and microscopic analysis of the biofilms confirmed that Gloeocapsa was still present as the principal contaminant on all surfaces, with Chroococcidiopsis being present as the second most common. Almost no fungi were detected after water jet application. PMID:22215483

  12. Experience with primary water cleaning and waste water treatment plant in nuclear power stations with pressurised and boiling water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powder resin alluvial filtration using structured filter layers permits constantly improving adaption of the water treatment technology to even the most demanding problem situations - particularly in the field of primary water and waste water treatment in nuclear power stations. From experience in operation the authors show the advantages of this technique compared to other techniques, which can be deduced from theoretical concepts, taking into account the various target figures decisive in operating nuclear power stations. (orig.)

  13. The economic impacts of the 1986 Safe Drinking Water Act amendments

    OpenAIRE

    Gaw, Christopher D.

    1991-01-01

    During the early 1980s, concern over the poor quality of the nation's drinking water began to arise. Though the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) had been passed almost a decade earlier, many problems still existed. These problems included the inability of the Environmental Protection Agency to promulgate new drinking water standards and to enforce new and existing standards. To address the shortcomings of the original act, Congress passed the 1986 SDWA Amendments. This d...

  14. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act industrial site environmental restoration site characterization plan. Area 6 Steam Cleaning Effluent Ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This plan presents the strategy for the characterization of the Area 6 South and North Steam Cleaning Effluent Ponds (SCEPs) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) to be conducted for the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), Environmental Restoration Division (ERD). The purposes of the planned activities are to: obtain sufficient, sample analytical data from which further assessment, remediation, and/or closure strategies may be developed for the site; obtain sufficient, sample analytical data for management of investigation-derived waste (IDW). The scope of the characterization may include excavation, drilling, and sampling of soil in and around both ponds; sampling of the excavated material; in situ sampling of the soil at the bottom and on the sides of the excavations as well as within subsurface borings; and conducting sample analysis for both characterization and waste management purposes. Contaminants of concern include RCRA-regulated VOCs and metals

  15. The South Australian Safe Drinking Water Act: summary of the first year of operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froscio, Suzanne M; Bolton, Natalie; Cooke, Renay; Wittholz, Michelle; Cunliffe, David

    2016-06-01

    The Safe Drinking Water Act 2011 was introduced in South Australia to provide clear direction to drinking water providers on how to achieve water safety. The Act requires drinking water providers to register with SA Health and develop a risk management plan (RMP) for their water supply that includes operational and verification monitoring plans and an incident notification and communication protocol. During the first year of operation, 212 drinking water providers registered under the Act, including one major water utility and a range of small to medium sized providers in regional and remote areas of the State. Information was captured on water source(s) used and water treatment. Rainwater was the most frequently reported drinking water source (66%), followed by bore water (13%), on-supply or carting of mains water (13%), mixed source (rainwater with bore water backup) (6%) and surface water (3%). The majority of providers (91%) treated the water supply, 87% used disinfection. During the first year of operation, 16 water quality incidents were formally reported to SA Health. These included both microbial and chemical incidents. Case studies presented highlight how the RMPs are assisting drinking water providers to identify incidents of potential health concern and implement corrective actions. PMID:27280611

  16. Criminal provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and their interface with the United States sentencing guidelines. Master's thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowen, W.P.

    1991-09-30

    The growing severity of our societal response to environmental misconduct is reflected, in part, by the criminalization of environmental wrongs by both state and Federal governments. Indeed, the recently enacted Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 continue this trend, giving the Environmental Protection Agency, via the Department of Justice, significant new criminal enforcement tools. The importance attached to law enforcement of environmental laws is a relatively recent phenomenon and took a significant upswing in 1982 when the department of Justice created what is today the Environmental Crimes Section in what is now the Environment and Natural Resources Division, which section has grown steadily and now has over 25 attorneys who prosecute or assist in the prosecution of environmental crimes in the U.S.

  17. Paraffin dispersant application for cleaning subsea flow lines in the deep water Gulf of Mexico cottonwood development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennings, David; White, Jake; Pogoson, Oje [Baker Hughes Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Barros, Dalmo; Ramachandran, Kartik; Bonin, George; Waltrich, Paulo; Shecaira, Farid [PETROBRAS America, Houston, TX (United States); Ziglio, Claudio [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (CENPES/PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento

    2012-07-01

    This paper discusses a paraffin dispersant (in seawater) application to clean paraffin deposition from a severely restricted 17.4-mile dual subsea flow line system in the Gulf of Mexico Cottonwood development. In principle, dispersant treatments are simple processes requiring effective dispersant packages and agitation to break-up and disperse deposition. Dispersants have been used onshore for treating wax deposition for decades. Implementation of a treatment in a long deep water production system, however, poses numerous challenges. The Cottonwood application was one of the first ever deep water dispersant applications. The application was designed in four separate phases: pre-treatment displacement for hydrate protection, dispersant treatment for paraffin deposition removal, pigging sequence for final flow line cleaning, and post-treatment displacement for hydrate protection. In addition, considerable job planning was performed to ensure the application was executed in a safe and environmentally responsible manner. Two dynamically positioned marine vessels were used for pumping fluids and capturing returns. The application was extremely successful in restoring the deep water flow lines back to near pre-production state. Final pigging operations confirmed the flow lines were cleaned of all restrictions. Significant paraffin deposition was removed in the application. Approximately 900 bbls of paraffin sludge was recovered from the 4000 bbl internal volume flow line loop. Furthermore, the application was completed with zero discharge of fluids. The application provided significant value for the Cottonwood development. It allowed production from wells to be brought on-line at a higher capacity, thereby generating increased revenue. It also allowed resumption of routine pigging operations. As such, the Cottonwood dispersant application illustrates that with proper planning and execution, paraffin dispersant treatments can be highly effective solutions for cleaning

  18. Enabling clean access into Subglacial Lake Whillans: development and use of the WISSARD hot water drill system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rack, Frank R

    2016-01-28

    Clean hot water drill systems (CHWDSs) are used with clean access protocols for the exploration of subglacial lakes and other subglacial aquatic environments (e.g. ice-shelf cavities) in Antarctica. A CHWDS developed for the Whillans Ice Stream Subglacial Access Research Drilling (WISSARD) project by the Science Management Office at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln (UNL-SMO), USA, was specifically designed for use in West Antarctica, where the US Antarctic Program's South Pole Traverse could assist with logistical support. The initial goal was to provide clean access holes through ice up to 1000 m thick following environmental stewardship guidelines; however, the existing design allows this CHWDS to be used for ice thicknesses up to 2000 m following modifications to accommodate longer hose lengths. In January 2013, the WISSARD CHWDS successfully provided for the first time a clean access borehole through 800 m of ice into Subglacial Lake Whillans beneath the West Antarctic Ice Sheet for the deployment of scientific instruments and sampling tools. The development and initial use of the WISSARD CHWDS required the project team to address a number of constraints while providing contingencies to meet the defined project scope, schedule and budget. PMID:26667915

  19. Hybrid Pressure Retarded Osmosis−Membrane Distillation (PRO−MD) Process for Osmotic Power and Clean Water Generation

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Gang

    2015-05-20

    A novel pressure retarded osmosis−membrane distillation (PRO−MD) hybrid process has been experimentally conceived for sustainable production of renewable osmotic power and clean water from various waters. The proposed PRO−MD system may possess unique advantages of high water recovery rate, huge osmotic power generation, well controlled membrane fouling, and minimal environmental impacts. Experimental results show that the PRO−MD hybrid process is promising that not only can harvest osmotic energy from freshwater but also from wastewater. When employing a 2 M NaCl MD concentrate as the draw solution, ultrahigh power densities of 31.0 W/m2 and 9.3 W/m2 have been demonstrated by the PRO subsystem using deionized water and real wastewater brine as the feeds, respectively. Simultaneously, high purity potable water with a flux of 32.5−63.1 L/(m2.h) can be produced by the MD subsystem at 40−60 °C without any detrimental effects of fouling. The energy consumption in the MD subsystem might be further reduced by applying a heat exchanger in the hybrid system and using low-grade heat or solar energy to heat up the feed solution. The newly developed PRO−MD hybrid process would provide insightful guidelines for the exploration of alternative green technologies for renewable osmotic energy and clean water production.

  20. A Study on the preparation of environmental act system in Korea II - concentrated on the preparation of environmental policy fundamental act, protection of water supply source, and greenbelt area act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Sang Hwan [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    This study is to propose to reform environmental policy fundamental act and land related act into future-oriented direction. First of all, the environmental policy fundamental act presented the direction of reforming water supply, national parks, and greenbelt related acts in environmental preservation perspective. 54 refs., 17 tabs.

  1. Radioactivity standards for the safe drinking water act of 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some topics discussed are: maximum contaminant levels and monitoring requirements of the EPA; technical considerations on which proposed regulations are based; detection limits for 3H, 89Sr, 90Sr, 131I, 134Cs, and gross beta; limitations of monitoring to systems distributing surface water to more than 100,000 persons and systems downstream from nuclear facilities; ratio of allowed limits for 226Ra and 228Ra in drinking water; Ra dose to bone surfaces based on chronic ingestion of 226Ra and 228Ra; application of radiation risk estimates to the case of radium ingestion; and comparison of task force report and EPA estimates of estimated total risk from radium

  2. 76 FR 24479 - EPA and Army Corps of Engineers Guidance Regarding Identification of Waters Protected by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ... clarifying guidance on SWANCC, dated Jan. 15, 2003 (68 FR 1991, 1995), and ``Clean Water Act Jurisdiction... guidance that describes how the agencies will identify waters protected by the Federal Water Pollution... Guidance Regarding Identification of Waters Protected by the Clean Water Act AGENCY:...

  3. Cleaning of aviation hydraulic and motor oils from emulsion water and mechanical con-taminants in quazi-permanent electric field

    OpenAIRE

    B. B. Гаража; С. А. Халиль

    1999-01-01

    Presented are the results of experimental research of cleaning efficiency of aviation hydraulic and motor oils by means of full-scale polarization electrodehydrator from emulsion water and me­chanical contaminants under laboratory and industrial conditions

  4. Water cleaning of the fire box screens of the PK-14-2 boiler with combustion of shredded peat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzenko, S.I.; Vasil' ev, V.V.; Tyurin, E.A.; Novikov, B.P.; Timofeyev, A.P.; Perevezentsev, V.P.

    1981-04-01

    Combustion of shredded peat in the PK-14-2 boiler of the Yaroslav HPP-1 is accompanied by intensive slagging of the furnace screens, with the formation of connected tough deposits, which leads to slagging of the panel steam superheater and the convective steam superheater, limitations on the boiler load and to a decrease in its technico-economic indicators. The AVOD-1BL system for cleaning the fire box using long-range water spraying equipment is an effective means of removing connected and friable deposits forming with combustion of shredded peat. Considering the high concentration of calcium oxide in the ash of shredded peat, the results of studies of slagging and cleaning of fire box screens of the PK-14-2 boiler of the Yaroslav HPP-1 might be of interest in planning boiler units for Berezov coal, and also in operation of boilers operating on Kansko-Achin basin coals.

  5. Forward Osmosis/Low Pressure Reverse Osmosis for Water Reuse: Removal of Organic Micropollutants, Fouling and Cleaning

    KAUST Repository

    Linares, Rodrigo

    2011-07-01

    Forward osmosis (FO) is a natural process in which a solution with high concentration of solutes is diluted when being in contact, through a semipermeable membrane, with a low concentration solution. This osmotic process has been demonstrated to be efficient to recover wastewater effluents while diluting a saline draw solution. Nevertheless, the study of the removal of micropollutants by FO is barely described in the literature. This research focuses on the removal of these substances spiked in a secondary wastewater effluent, while diluting water from the Red Sea, generating feed water that can be desalinated with a low pressure reverse osmosis (LPRO) system. Another goal of this work is to characterize the fouling of the FO membrane, and its effect on micropollutants rejection, as well as the membrane cleaning efficiency of different methods. When considering only FO with a clean membrane, the rejection of the hydrophilic neutral compounds was between 48.6% and 84.7%, for the hydrophobic neutrals the rejection ranged from 40.0% to 87.5%, and for the ionic compounds the rejections were between 92.9% and 96.5%. With a fouled membrane, the rejections were between 44.6% to 95.2%, 48.7% to 91.5% and 96.9% to 98.6%, respectively. These results suggest that, except for the hydrophilic neutral compounds, the rejection of the micropollutants is increased by the fouling layer, possibly due to the higher hydrophilicity of the FO fouled membrane compared to the clean one, the increased adsorption capacity and reduced mass transport capacity, membrane swelling, and the higher negative charge of the surface, related to the foulants. However, when coupled with low pressure reverse osmosis, the rejections for both, the clean and fouled membrane, increased above 98%. The fouling layer, after characterizing the wastewater effluent and the concentrated wastewater after the FO process, proved to be composed of biopolymers, which can be removed with air scouring during short periods

  6. Penetration of tritium (as tritiated water vapour) into low carbon steel and remediation using abrasive cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The UKAEA Winfrith site is in a phase of accelerated decommissioning and de-licensing which will generate significant volumes of metal wastes some of which may be suitable for disposal as exempt wastes. If contamination is present, it is often confined within the surface layers of the metal. The UKAEA Winfrith site operates a shot-blast facility (WACM) that removes paint and surface contamination from low carbon steel enabling surface contaminated painted metal to be processed and therefore certified as exempt. A study was conducted to determine whether tritium (as tritiated water vapour) has penetrated into the metal to levels exceeding the Radioactive Substances Act (1993), Substances of Low Activity (SoLA) Exemption Order criteria, and whether processing via the WACM removes sufficient tritium contamination that the SoLA Exemption Order criteria can be met. The results of sampling and analysis show that the tritium is mainly held in the paint or outer 40 μm layer of the metal and that processing through the WACM removes these layers along with sufficient tritium to meet the SoLA Exemption Order criteria

  7. Compressed air of water-injected screw compressors is clean; Druckluft von wassereingespritzten Schraubenkompressoren ist sauber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomassen, Volker

    2010-08-09

    The oil content of compressed air has become an issue in industrial compressed air supply, especially from the view of environmental protection and waste management. The article specifies requirements on compressed air systems that are to ensure clean compressed air supply. (orig.)

  8. 40 CFR 35.1605-1 - The Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The Act. 35.1605-1 Section 35.1605-1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL... The Act. The Clean Water Act, as amended (33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq.)....

  9. Infrared steam laser cleaning

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Pascal; Lang, Florian; Mosbacher, Mario; Boneberg, Johannes; Leiderer, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Steam Laser Cleaning with a pulsed infrared laser source is investigated. The infrared light is tuned to the absorption maximum of water (λ = 2.94 µm, 10 ns), whereas the substrates used are transparent (glass, silicon). Thus a thin liquid water layer condensed on top of the contaminated substrate is rapidly heated. The pressure generated during the subsequent phase explosion generates a cleaning force which exceeds the adhesion of the particles. We examine the cleaning threshold in single sh...

  10. EPA Office of Water (OW): Waters with Nitrogen and Phosphorus (N/P) TMDLs

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Under Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act (CWA), states, territories, and authorized tribes, collectively referred to in the Act and here as “states,â€� are...

  11. Advanced waste water cleaning with the aid of an algae biofilm; Weitergehende Abwasserreinigung mit Hilfe eines Algenbiofilms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, G.; Patzold, V.; Ike, A.; Sekoulov, I. [Technische Univ. Hamburg-Harburg, Hamburg (Germany). Arbeitsbereich Abwasserwirtschaft

    1999-07-01

    These first investigations have led to results indicating that advanced waste water cleaning with the aid of algae biofilm as a downstream process stage is feasible. The concentration of phosphorus in waste water could be reduced to less than 1 mg per litre. Ammonium, which is toxic to fish, was nitrified, and the overall nitrogen concentration could be cut down. The concentration of bacteria was reduced by means of a close-to-nature process to less than the limiting values set by the European Union directive governing the quality of bathing waters. (orig.) [German] Die Ergebnisse dieser ersten Untersuchungen zeigen, dass eine weitergehende Abwasserreinigung mit Hilfe eines Algenbiofilms als nachgeschaltete Verfahrensstufe moeglich ist. Die Phosphorkonzentration im Abwasser konnte auf unter 1 mg/l reduziert werden. Fischgiftiges Ammonium wurde nitrifiziert und die Gesamtstickstoffkonzentration konnte gesenkt werden. Die Bakterienkonzentration konnte mit Hilfe eines naturnahen Verfahrens bis unter die Grenzwerte der EU-Richtlinie ueber die Qualitaet der Badegewaesser reduziert werden. (orig.)

  12. A novel process for preparation of ultra-clean micronized coal by high pressure water jet comminution technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longlian Cui; Liqian An; Weili Gong; Hejin Jiang [China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China). School of Mechanics, Architecture and Civil Engineering

    2007-03-15

    A novel process for the preparation of ultra-clean micronized coal is presented in this paper. High pressure water jet mill replacing the ball mill is employed for coal comminution in the new preparation process, which is the essential difference from the traditional one. To compare the new preparation process with the traditional one, the comparison experiments were performed, with froth flotation tests of the fine particles ground by both mills using diesel oil and n-dodecane as collector, 2-octanol as frother, and sink-float separation tests using mixtures of carbon tetrachloride-benzene and carbon tetrachloride-bromoform as dense liquid. Different parameters including combustible recovery, ash content of the clean coal, separation efficiency, and energy consumption were investigated based on the two different preparation processes. The results show that the new preparation process has high combustible recovery, low ash content of the product, high separation efficiency, and low energy consumption compared with the traditional one. The comminution mechanism of high pressure water jet mill is introduced in this paper. The high pressure water jet comminution technique has great potential in coal pulverization, having the advantages of low energy consumption, low iron content, and low equipment wear. 35 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  13. Impacts of Motor Vehicle Operation on Water Quality in the United States - Clean-up Costs and Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Nixon, Hilary; Saphores, Jean-Daniel

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the costs of controlling some of the environmental impacts of motor vehicle transportation on groundwater and on surface waters. We estimate that annualized costs of cleaning-up leaking underground storage tanks range from $0.8 billion to $2.1 billion per year over ten years. Annualized costs of controlling highway runoff from principal arterials in the US are much larger: they range from $2.9 billion to $15.6 billion per year over 20 years (1.6% to 8.3% of annualized ...

  14. Waste water cleaning in high-performance bioreactors; Abwasserreinigung in Hochleistungsbioreaktoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holler, S.; Sternad, W.; Troesch, W. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Grenzflaechen- und Bioverfahrenstechnik (IGB), Stuttgart (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    Cleaning of municipal sewage in bioreactors with biomass retention constitutes a modern and sustainable way of cleaning sewage. Contrary to conventional aerated sludge techniques, such systems achieve high productivity at high biomass concentrations. Reactor volume can be kept low, and short retention times are realized. It is shown that a loop reactor in combination with a crossflow microfiltration unit constitutes an appropriate system to meet future demands on sewage cleaning. Such a system can realize a COD turnover of 95 % at retention times of 0.5 hours. Crossflow microfiltration can set the concentration of biomass in the bioreactor to up to 30 grammes of dry substance per litre. (orig.) [German] Die Reinigung kommunaler Abwaesser in Bioreaktoren mit Biomasserueckhaltung stellt ein modernes und nachhaltiges Verfahren zur Abwasserreinigung dar. Im Gegensatz zu konventionellen Belebungsverfahren laesst sich in einem solchen System bei hohen Biomassekonzentrationen eine hohe Produktivitaet erreichen. Das Reaktorvolumen kann gering gehalten werden, und kurze Verweilzeiten koennen realisiert werden. Es wird gezeigt, dass ein Strahlschlaufenreaktor in Kombination mit einer Crossflow-Mikrofiltration ein geeignetes System dargestellt, um die Anforderungen an eine zukuenftige Abwasserreinigung zu gewaehrleisten. In einem solchen System kann ein CSB-Umsatz von 95% bei Verweilzeiten von 0,5 Stunden realisiert werden. Durch Crossflow-Mikrofiltration wird eine Biomassekonzentration bis 30 g TS/l im Bioreaktor eingestellt. (orig.)

  15. Continuous circulation water wash apparatus and method for cleaning radioactively contaminated garments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This patent describes an apparatus for water washing fabrics and removing particulate radioactive contaminants. It comprises: a washing machine means for washing and rinsing the fabrics having a wash-water inlet, rinse water inlet, a circulation inlet, and a water outlet; a particulate removal system connected between the circulation inlet and the water outlet for continuously circulating water introduced into the washing machine means through a particulate removal means while the machine means washes and rinses the fabric, and a hydraulically closed wash-water system and rinse water inlet and the rinse water inlet, respectively, for supplying polished wash-water and polished rinse water to the washing machine means, wherein each system includes it won separate water polisher

  16. Examination of utility Phase 1 compliance choices and state reactions to Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Title IV (acid rain) of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 is imposing new limitations on the emission of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (Nx) from electric power plants. The act requires utilities to develop compliance plans to reduce these emissions, and indications are that these plans will dramatically alter traditional operating procedures. A key provision of the SO2 control program deaned in Title IV is the creation of a system of emission allowances, with utilities having the option of complying by adjusting system emissions and allowance holdings. A compilation of SO2 compliance activities by the 110 utility plants affected by Phase I is summarized in this report. These compliance plans are presented in a tabular form, correlated with age, capacity, and power pool data. A large number of the Phase I units (46%) have chosen to blend or switch to lower sulfur coals. This choice primarily is in response to (1) prices of low-sulfur coal and (2) the need to maintain SO2 control flexibility because of uncertain future environmental regulations (e.g., air toxics, carbon dioxide) and compliance prices. The report also discusses the responses of state legislatures and public utility commissions to the compliance requirements in Title IV. Most states have taken negligible action regarding the regulatory treatment of allowances and compliance activities. To protect mine employment, states producing high-sulfur coal have enacted regulations encouraging continued use of that coal, but for the most part, this response has had little effect on utility compliance choices

  17. Examination of utility Phase 1 compliance choices and state reactions to Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, K.A.; Elliott, T.J.; Carlson, L.J.; South, D.W.

    1993-11-01

    Title IV (acid rain) of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 is imposing new limitations on the emission of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (N{sub x}) from electric power plants. The act requires utilities to develop compliance plans to reduce these emissions, and indications are that these plans will dramatically alter traditional operating procedures. A key provision of the SO{sub 2} control program deaned in Title IV is the creation of a system of emission allowances, with utilities having the option of complying by adjusting system emissions and allowance holdings. A compilation of SO{sub 2} compliance activities by the 110 utility plants affected by Phase I is summarized in this report. These compliance plans are presented in a tabular form, correlated with age, capacity, and power pool data. A large number of the Phase I units (46%) have chosen to blend or switch to lower sulfur coals. This choice primarily is in response to (1) prices of low-sulfur coal and (2) the need to maintain SO{sub 2} control flexibility because of uncertain future environmental regulations (e.g., air toxics, carbon dioxide) and compliance prices. The report also discusses the responses of state legislatures and public utility commissions to the compliance requirements in Title IV. Most states have taken negligible action regarding the regulatory treatment of allowances and compliance activities. To protect mine employment, states producing high-sulfur coal have enacted regulations encouraging continued use of that coal, but for the most part, this response has had little effect on utility compliance choices.

  18. U.S. Equity Markets and Environmental Policy. The Case of Electric Utility Investor Behavior During the Passage of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examine electric utility investor reaction surrounding twenty-two milestones associated with the passage of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Results suggest that investors did not react sharply to the passage of the Amendments. To the extent that statistically significant effects were observed, we interpret the results as more indicative of investor concern over resolution of uncertainty surrounding the political process and resulting provisions than of concern over the expected costs of compliance following passage of the Amendments. We observed little, if any, difference between utilities subject to Phase I restrictions and those not subject to Phase I. Finally, changes in monthly excess returns appear to have resulted from changes in U.S. interest rates and investor concern over power industry deregulation. We view our results as important because any wealth effects due to environmental regulations represent a real economic cost associated with their implementation. In this sense, we view the results as 'good news' for U.S. environmental policy makers

  19. Gas bubbling cleaning method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present invention concerns a gas bubbling cleaning method for objects to be cleaned having complicate shapes such as reactor equipments. For instance, air is used as the gas, while water is used as the cleaning fluid. A jetting air is jetted out to an object to be cleaned from an air bubbling nozzle disposed below the object. This constitutes air/water two phase flow near the object to be cleaned, to generate a three dimensional circulating flow. The distance between the inner wall surface of a cleaning vessel and the object to be cleaned is set to greater than 5 mm, and the ratio between the air flow rate and the horizontal cross section of the cleaning vessel is set to 0.1 to 0.4m/sec. This enables to enter an appropriate amount of bubbles to the air at the inside of the object to be cleaned having a complicate shape. Accordingly, deposits adhered to the inside of the object to be cleaned can be eliminated and cleaned effectively. (I.N.)

  20. Plasma Cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintze, Paul E.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Kennedy Space Center has developed two solvent-free precision cleaning techniques: plasma cleaning and supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2), that has equal performance, cost parity, and no environmental liability, as compared to existing solvent cleaning methods.

  1. Environmental health and safety issues related to the use of low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) at hospitals and medical research institutions and compliance determination with the Clean Air Act standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently, the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has standards for procedures, performance activities and technical specifications on storage of Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLRW) under 10 CFR Part 20. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is proposing environmental standards for the management, storage and disposal of LLRW. The proposed standards, which will become 40 CFR part 193 when finalized, limits the committed effective dose to members of the public from the management and storage of LLRW, committed effective doses resulting from LLRW disposal and levels of radiological contamination of underground sources of drinking water as a result of the activities subject to management, storage and disposal of LLRW. Further, under Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments, radionuclides are required to be inventoried for all generators. For hospitals and medical research institutions, quantities of LLRW are often below the concentrations required under reporting and record keeping requirements of 10 CFR 20. However, in many instances, the facility may require NRC permits and compliance with air quality dispersion modeling requirements. This paper presents the typical radionuclides used in hospitals and medical research institutions, and strategies to evaluate their usage and steps to achieve compliance. Air quality dispersion modeling by use of the COMPLY model is demonstrated to evaluate the fate of radionuclides released from on-site incineration of LLRW. The paper concludes that no significant threat is posed from the incineration of LLRW

  2. Effects of Varied Cleaning Methods on Ni-5% W Substrate for Dip-Coating of Water-based Buffer Layers: An X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy Study

    OpenAIRE

    Isabel Van Driessche; Ruben Hühne; Els Bruneel; Vyshnavi Narayanan

    2012-01-01

    This work describes various combinations of cleaning methods involved in the preparation of Ni-5% W substrates for the deposition of buffer layers using water-based solvents. The substrate has been studied for its surface properties using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The contaminants in the substrates have been quantified and the appropriate cleaning method was chosen in terms of contaminants level and showing good surface crystallinity to further consider them for depositing chemi...

  3. What's in Your Water? An Educator's Guide to Water Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constabile, Kerry, Comp.; Craig, Heidi, Comp.; O'Laughlin, Laura, Comp.; Reiss, Anne Bei, Comp.; Spencer, Liz, Comp.

    This guide provides basic information on the Clean Water Act, watersheds, and testing for water quality, and presents four science lesson plans on water quality. Activities include: (1) "Introduction to Water Quality"; (2) "Chemical Water Quality Testing"; (3) "Biological Water Quality Testing"; and (4) "What Can We Do?" (YDS)

  4. Process and device for cleaning of water-containing machine oil from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioactive contaminants produced in water-containing machine oil in plants operated with nuclear power are removed from the contaminated machine oil by adsorption on water-adsorbing material. This document discusses this process. 3 figs., 1 tab

  5. Autonomous water-cleaning machine using solar energy in shrimp ponds

    OpenAIRE

    Dang, Thien Ngon

    2012-01-01

    Limited water exchange shrimp culture technology is commonly used today in many shrimp farms in Vietnam to reduce water usage, input of diseases and discharge of nutrient-rich effluents into environment as well as to increase the production per unit area. However, a remaining problem in this technology is that the water quality in shrimp ponds will be reduced due to limitation of water exchange for a long period. The accumulation of inorganic components such as waste feed, bacterial deposits ...

  6. Acceptance Test Report for the high pressure water jet system canister cleaning fixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Acceptance Test confirmed the test results and recommendations, documented in WHC-SD-SNF-DTR-001, Rev. 0 Development Test Report for the High Pressure Water Jet System Nozzles, for decontaminating empty fuel canisters in KE-Basin. Optimum water pressure, water flow rate, nozzle size and overall configuration were tested

  7. 78 FR 65385 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Safe Drinking Water Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... Production Company, Civil Action No. 2:13-cv-00968- DN. To settle the claims against it under the Safe Drinking Water Act (``SDWA''), Newfield Production Company (``Newfield'') will pay a civil penalty of $600..., Environment and Natural Resources Division, and should refer to United States v. Newfield Production...

  8. EPA Office of Water (OW): Impaired Waters with TMDLs by Causes of Impairment and Probable Sources and TMDL Pollutant

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Under Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act (CWA), states, territories, and authorized tribes, collectively referred to in the Act and here as "states," are...

  9. The role of integrated resource planning, environmental externalities, and anticipation of future regulation in compliance planning under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernow, S.; Biewald, B.; Wulfsberg, K. [Tellus Institute, Boston, MA (United States)

    1993-07-01

    Utilities are developing sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emission compliance plans to meet limitations of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA). Compliance plans will have long-term effects on resource selection, fuel choice, and system dispatch. Use of integrated resource planning (IRP) is necessary to ensure compliance plans are consistent with the overall societal goals. In particular, environmental externalities must be integrated with the compliance planning process. The focus of the CAAA is on air pollution reduction, specifically acid gases and toxics, and attainment of National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for criteria pollutants. Title IV specifically focuses on sulfur dioxide with a national allowance trading system, while further regulation of toxics and nitrogen oxides is slated for additional study. Yet, compliance planning based narrowly upon today`s environmental regulations could fail to meet the broad goals of IRP if a larger array of environmental externalities is excluded from the analysis. Compliance planning must consider a broad range of environmental effects from energy production and use to (1) protect society`s long-term stake in environmental quality, and (2) ensure that today`s plans are rich enough to accommodate potential changes in regulation and national environmental goals. The explicit recognition of environmental effects, such as those associated with CO{sub 2} release, will result in prudent compliance plans that take advantage of current opportunities for pollution avoidance and have long-term viability in the face of regulatory change. By including such considerations, the mix of resources acquired and operated (supply and demand, existing and new, conventional and renewable, fuel type and fuel quality, pollution control, and dispatch protocols) will be robust and truly least-cost.

  10. Regional-scale impacts of Phase 1 of the Clean Air Act Amendments in the USA: the relation between emissions and concentrations, both wet and dry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparison of data records in the 1990s, both before (1991-1994) and after (1995-1997) implementation of Phase I of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 for the eastern US, shows a significant reduction in SO2 emissions for most states, except for Texas, North Carolina, Illinois, Florida, and Alabama. However, of the major NOx emitting states, only two eastern states (New York and Pennsylvania) show significant declines in NOx. A pattern of large declines in SO2 emissions (>20%) after CAAA implementation, and large declines in precipitation SO42- and H+, as well as air concentrations of SO2 and SO42- (components of dry deposition), exists for most regions of the eastern US. In most cases, the emission/concentration relations are close to 1:1 when the source region based on 15-h back trajectories is used for the New England region, and source regions based on 9-h back trajectories are used for the six other eastern US regions that were studied. The southern Appalachian Mountain region, an acid-sensitive area receiving high levels of acidic deposition, has not seen an appreciable improvement in precipitation acidity. This area has also shown the least improvement in wet and dry sulfur concentrations, of the areas examined. Precipitation base cations (Ca2+ and Mg2+) show a pattern of either increasing or level concentrations when comparing 1990-1994 to 1995-1998 data, for six of the seven regions examined. Ammonium concentrations have generally changed 15%. (Author)

  11. Compliance with the Clean Air Act Title VI Stratospheric Ozone Protection Program requirements at U.S. DOE Oak Ridge Reservation Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Title VI Stratospheric Ozone Protection Program of the Clean Air Act (CAA) requires promulgation of regulations to reduce and prevent damage to the earth's protective ozone layer. Regulations pursuant to Title VI of the CAA are promulgated in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) at Title 40 CFR, Part 822. The regulations include ambitious production phaseout schedules for ozone depleting substances (ODS) including chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), halons, carbon tetrachloride, and methyl chloroform under 40 CFR 82, Subpart A. The regulations also include requirements for recycling and emissions reduction during the servicing of refrigeration equipment and technician certification requirements under Subpart F; provisions for servicing of motor vehicle air conditioners under Subpart B; a ban on nonessential products containing Class 1 ODS under Subpart C; restrictions on Federal procurement of ODS under Subpart D; labeling of products using ODS under Subpart E; and the Significant New Alternatives Policy Program under Subpart G. This paper will provide details of initiatives undertaken at US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) Facilities for implementation of requirements under the Title VI Stratospheric Ozone Protection Program. The Stratospheric Ozone Protection Plans include internal DOE requirements for: (1) maintenance of ODS inventories; (2) ODS procurement practices; (3) servicing of refrigeration and air conditioning equipment; (4) required equipment modifications or replacement; (5) technician certification training; (6) labeling of products containing ODS; (7) substitution of chlorinated solvents; and (8) replacement of halon fire protection systems. The plans also require establishment of administrative control systems which assure that compliance is achieved and maintained as the regulations continue to develop and become effective

  12. Handwashing: Clean Hands Save Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Handwashing: Clean Hands Save Lives Note: Javascript is disabled or ... and what you can do if soap and clean, running water are not available. Whether you are ...

  13. SCIENTIFIC CHALLENGES FOR ENSURING CLEAN AND RELIABLE WATER FOR THE 21ST CENTURY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tompson, A B

    2004-08-17

    Many areas in the world are experiencing significant fresh water shortages due to drought, growing populations, increased agricultural and industrial demands, and extensive forms of pollution or water quality degradation. Many more are expected to face similar predicaments in the next 20 years. Water shortages will significantly limit economic growth, decrease the quality of life and human health for billions of people, degrade the ecologic health of natural environments, and could potentially lead to violence and conflict over securing scarce supplies of water. These concerns are not limited to the economically poor countries, of course, as many parts of the United States face similar dilemmas. These problems can be exacerbated by fluctuating imbalances between need and supply, poor water management or land use practices, social, economic, political, and trans-boundary disputes, as well as factors related to climate change. The future is one that will require significant technological advances to support the conservation, preservation, and movement of fresh water, as well as in the development of new or alternative supplies. It is also one that will also require concomitant improvements in the use of practical solutions and the ways in which the broader scientific and technical community interacts with policy-makers, water-related agencies, the educational community, as well the public in the solution process. This presentation will review several aspects of these issues and proposed or implemented solutions for new and reliable water in the context of an example water situation in the US.

  14. Cleaning Water Contaminated with Heavy Metal Ions Using Pyrolyzed Biochar Adsorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    The extraction of pollutants from water using activated biochar materials is a low cost, sustainable approach for providing safe water in developing countries. The adsorption of copper ions, Cu (II), onto banana peels that were dried, pyrolyzed and activated was studied and compa...

  15. Application of clay-based sorbents for cleaning radioactively contaminated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under a special program of ecological rehabilitation of surface water bodies radioactively contaminated due to nuclear tests a study is in progress to investigate properties of various sorbents to remove radionuclides from water running out of tunnels. Search for and application of natural sorbents locally available are preferable. (author)

  16. Impact of Preservation of Subsoil Water Act on Groundwater Depletion: The Case of Punjab, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Amarnath; Mishra, Ashok K.; Verma, Geetanjali

    2016-07-01

    Indian states like Punjab and Haryana, epicenters of the Green Revolution, are facing severe groundwater shortages and falling water tables. Recognizing it as a serious concern, the Government of Punjab enacted the Punjab Preservation of Subsoil Water Act in 2009 (or the 2009 act) to slow groundwater depletion. The objective of this study is to assess the impact of this policy on groundwater depletion, using panel data from 1985 to 2011. Results from this study find a robust effect of the 2009 act on reducing groundwater depletion. Our models for pre-monsoon, post-monsoon, and overall periods of analysis find that since implementation of the 2009 act, groundwater tables have improved significantly. Second, our study reveals that higher shares of tube wells per total cropped area and increased population density have led to a significant decline in the groundwater tables. On the other hand, rainfall and the share of area irrigated by surface water have had an augmenting effect on groundwater resources. In the two models, pre-monsoon and post-monsoon, this study shows that seasonality plays a key role in determining the groundwater table in Punjab. Specifically, monsoon rainfall has a very prominent impact on groundwater.

  17. Exchange of pipes of the reactor water clean up system in nuclear power plant KRB II B and C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The original pipes of the reactor water clean up system in KRB II were made of the Ti-stabilised austenitic steel 1.4541 (X6CrNiTi1810). After 10 years of operation, non-destructive examinations detected cracks in the welds. The metallograohic investigations revealed the well-known intergranular crack paths. The flawed welded sections therefore were replaced, and it was decided to completely replace the outlet pipes of the two units, between RPV nozzle (safe end) and the regenerative heat exchangers. This was done in unit B in the inspection period of 1996, and in unit C in 1997. The objective of the complete replacements was to basically enhance system safety in regard to cracking susceptibility of the material, loads, fatigue effects, and in-service inspection. The main aspects and effects of the replacements are discussed and explained. (orig./CB)

  18. Quantifying green water flows for improved Integrated Land and Water Resource Management under the National Water Act of South Africa: A review on hydrological research in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarmain, C.; Everson, C. S.; Gush, M. B.; Clulow, A. D.

    2009-09-01

    The contribution of hydrological research in South Africa in quantifying green water flows for improved Integrated Land and Water Resources Management is reviewed. Green water refers to water losses from land surfaces through transpiration (seen as a productive use) and evaporation from bare soil (seen as a non-productive use). In contrast, blue water flows refer to streamflow (surface water) and groundwater / aquifer recharge. Over the past 20 years, a number of methods have been used to quantify the green water and blue water flows. These include micrometeorological techniques (e.g. Bowen ratio energy balance, eddy covariance, surface renewal, scintillometry, lysimetry), field scale models (e.g. SWB, SWAP), catchment scale hydrological models (e.g. ACRU, SWAT) and more recently remote sensing based models (e.g. SEBAL, SEBS). The National Water Act of South Africa of 1998 requires that water resources are managed, protected and used (developed, conserved and controlled) in an equitable way which is beneficial to the public. The quantification of green water flows in catchments under different land uses has been pivotal in (a) regulating streamflow reduction activities (e.g. forestry) and the management of alien invasive plants, (b) protecting riparian and wetland areas through the provision of an ecological reserve, (c) assessing and improving the water use efficiency of irrigated pastures, fruit tree orchards and vineyards, (d) quantifying the potential impact of future land uses like bio-fuels (e.g. Jatropha) on water resources, (e) quantifying water losses from open water bodies, and (f) investigating "biological” mitigation measures to reduce the impact of polluted water resources as a result of various industries (e.g. mining). This paper therefore captures the evolution of measurement techniques applied across South Africa, the impact these results have had on water use and water use efficiency and the extent to which it supported the National Water Act of

  19. Environmental health in China: challenges to achieving clean air and safe water

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Junfeng; Mauzerall, Denise L.; Zhu, Tong; Liang, Song; Ezzati, Majid; Remais, Justin

    2010-01-01

    The health effects of environmental risks, especially those of air and water pollution, remain a major source of morbidity and mortality in China. Biomass fuel and coal are routinely burned for cooking and heating in almost all rural and many urban households resulting in severe indoor air pollution that contributes greatly to the burden of disease. Many communities lack access to safe drinking water and santiation, and thus the risk of waterborne disease in many regions remains high. At the ...

  20. Post-severe nuclear accident chemical water and surface clean-up methods for LWRs to reduce the amounts of highly contaminated waste water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the event of a nuclear accident which occasions severe damages to the fuel, in many reactor designs the water will become highly contaminated with a wide range of both short and long lived radioisotopes. Organic contaminants formed by the pyrolysis and radiolysis of organic materials (cables, paint films) will complicate the water chemistry further. In addition the radiolysis of the air, release of metal chlorides from cables and the use of sea water for cooling as a final resort will increase the ionic strength of the water and complicate the management of the water both during and after an accident. The high ionic strength may prevent the usability of conventional ion exchange resins such as sulfonated polystyrenes. A series of methods designed to be useable in extremis to reduce the release of radioactivity to groundwater, rivers or the sea are presented and discussed. Also a method for the decontamination of painted surfaces to reduce the radiation exposure of decontamination workers, within the plant is presented. Some of the proposed methods are also applicable for environmental clean-up, waste water storage and fuel handling facilities. (author)

  1. An Evaluation of Common Cleaning Methods for the Removal of a Clinical Isolate of Escherichia coli in Personal Hydration System Water Reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmus, Stephanie; Blythe, Jauchia; Guevara, Peter; Washington, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    Waterborne infection is an important cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Personal hydration packs have been used by military personnel since the Gulf War and are now a common issue item. Since military personnel tend to operate under austere conditions and may use a variety of water sources, preventing the acquisition of waterborne infections is extremely important. Further, since hydration pack water reservoir replacements may not be available during combat operations, the development of a reliable cleaning protocol for use in the field is essential. Several methods for cleaning have been described. In the current study, three common cleaning methodologies-bleach treatment, baking soda treatment, and proprietary CAMELBAK Cleaning Tabs™-were evaluated for the ability to remove Escherichia coli contamination from hydration pack water reservoirs. The study results suggest that the use of bleach and proprietary CAMELBAK tablets should be encouraged since they both operate by releasing bactericidal chlorine compounds into solution, which is more effective at reducing post-treatment bacterial burden. It should be noted that no method was 100% effective at completely eliminating bacteria from the reservoirs and that mechanical cleaning was not attempted. PMID:27450612

  2. 凝汽器水侧清洁系数的在线计算%Online Calculation of the Coefficient of the Condenser Water Side Cleaning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建国; 汪勇华

    2012-01-01

    分析了别尔曼公式和美国传热学会(HEI)公式进行凝汽器清洁系数的在线计算的可行性,对HEI公式进行数学分析并对各分量求导,可得变工况下凝汽器管束的传热系数与冷却管内水流速度、冷却水进口温度、管径及壁厚、管束的清洁系数之间的定量关系,并由此得出清洁系数,可为凝汽器清洗提供依据.%The empirical formula of Berman and HEI are often used to calculate total heat-transfer coefficient of the condenser in power plant. To compare these two methods,the latter is appropriate for online calculation of the coefficient of the condenser water side cleaning. According to analyze the HEI formula by mathematical method and derivate of each component, we can get the quantitative relationship between heat-transfer coefficient of condenser tube bundle and flow rate of cooling water, initial temperature of cooling water, pipe diameter and thickness, the coefficient of the condenser water side cleaning. Finally, the result of the coefficient of the condenser water side cleaning can provide basis for cleaning the condenser.

  3. Review On Automatic-Cleaning Basket Strainer

    OpenAIRE

    Deepak Gothwal; Abhijit Dhumal; Anand Gang; Siddharth Gavali; Sandip Shinde

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Clean water is a basic need of every individual. Today in numerous cities of India large number of waste water is produced. Such waste water is polluting natural water bodies like rivers lakes etc. Hence waste water filtration amp waters final purification is need of hour. In conventional type of filters when strainer gets clogged we have to manually clean it which takes time amp filtration processes stops during cleaning process. While in Self-Cleaning Basket Strainer when strainer ...

  4. Cleaning of the water in the reactor pit during outages at Beznau NPP; Sicherstellung einer guten optischen Wasserqualitaet im Reaktorbecken waehrend Revisionsabstellungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franz, Patrick; Meier, Hans-Peter; Mailand, Irene; Wallimann, Franz [Axpo AG, Doettingen (Switzerland). Kernkraftwerk Beznau

    2010-07-01

    The nuclear power plant Beznau (KKB) consists of two identical 380 MW{sub e} PWR units (KKB-1 and KKB-2) which are retrofitted continually. During the retrofitting, the blocks are shut down. In this connection, the view into the pool water of the reactor is crucial. The visibility into the pool water of the reactor was very limited at the end of the retrofitting of KKB-1. This disabled the loading of the reactor. To avoid these situations, an intensive monitoring program was performed in order to determine the location and the reason of turbidity. The results of the measurement program are described in the contribution under consideration. The cleaning installations are not efficient enough or were not in operation during the retrofitting of KKB-2. In addition, the cleaning hinders the exchange of the screws for the baffle assemby of the nuclear reactor. Thus a new cleaning system had to be installed at KKB-2.

  5. Recycling of water of high pressure cleaning of pipes. Phase 1. Quality demands and economical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the regulation 6.1 in the current licence Surface Water Pollution Law (WVO, abbreviated in Dutch) of October 10, 1997, ECN carried out the first phase of a study on the title subject with respect to pipes applied in oil and gas exploration. In the present situation water of the so-called pipe-cleaner is transported via a seapipe after precipitation and membrane filtration. Next to the quality demands and economical aspects attention is paid to a number of environmental aspects

  6. On the cleaning of waste water from textile factories using Pistia Stratiotes L.

    OpenAIRE

    Khayitoy Yozil Kkasimovich

    2015-01-01

    In this article the study of the ecological and biotechnical features of cultivation of the aquatic plant — Pistia Stratiotes L. on the waste water from the weaving factories in the Buchara province. In the composition of the waste water there were not detected the dissolved oxygen; the average values of BOD 5 and oxidability were 155.4 and 115.1 mg 02/l, respectively, the smell was 5 points, the colour — from yellow to brown. In the result of cultivation of Pistia Stratiotes L. i...

  7. Cleaning of the equipment of residual sodium by means of water-vacuum technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of investigation into a problem of equipment decontamination from sodium, that have been conducted in OKBM since 1960 are given. The investigations performed have shown that a water-vacuum washing process is the most optimal method for equipment decontamination from sodium residues. The essence of the method is in conduction of sodium-water reaction under reduced pressure in a leak-tight tank. Boundary conditions are selected experimentally which not allow sodium to be melted during the process, that gives possibility to control the sodium-water reaction. Continuous removal of H2 and reaction products creates safe conditions for the process conduction. More that 20-year period of operation of a stationary water-vacuum facility and washing the electromagnetic pump for BN-350 fast nuclear reactor directly at is test rig are the best proofs of the proposed method. This method is well suitable for washing the equipment contaminated by radioactive sodium, because by-products of the process are simply utilized. The method is used in a number of Russian enterprises, and recommended for implementation at BN-350 and BN-600 reactor plants. (author)

  8. Cleaning up Water? Or Building Rural Community? Community Watershed Organizations in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stedman, Richard; Lee, Brian; Brasier, Kathryn; Weigle, Jason L.; Higdon, Francis

    2009-01-01

    Recent initiatives from state and federal government agencies have helped foster the formation of community-based watershed organizations. Although there is a great deal of enthusiasm about the potential of these organizations to enhance water quality, relatively little attention has been paid to the impacts these organizations may have on the…

  9. Groundwater Contamination. Instructor Guide. Working for Clean Water: An Information Program for Advisory Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Charles A.

    Described is a presentation and learning session on groundwater, which is intended to educate advisory groups interested in improving water quality decision making. Among the areas addressed are the importance of groundwater, sources of contamination, and groundwater pollution control programs. These materials are part of the Working for Clean…

  10. Algal turf scrubbing: cleaning surface waters with solar energy while producing a biofuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throughout the long period of human expansion across the earth, the atmosphere and the earth’s natural waters have been used as low cost sinks or dumps for our human, agricultural and industrial wastes. Despite significant investment, the methods employed for the last half century have largely fail...

  11. Urban Stormwater Runoff. Instructor Guide. Working for Clean Water: An Information Program for Advisory Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simko, Robert A.

    Urban stormwater runoff collects pollutants from many parts of a city and is an important consideration in water quality planning. Presented is an instructor's guide for a learning session covering various aspects of urban runoff including pollutant sources, management practices, and regulatory programs. Intended for citizen advisory groups, this…

  12. Soils and ground waters cleaning; Depollution des sols et des eaux souterraines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberentz, P. [ANTEA, 45 - Orleans (France); Cazenove, A. de [Ecole Superieure de l' Energie et des Materiaux ESEM, 45 - Orleans (France); Darmendrail, D. [Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres, BRGM, 45 - Orleans (France)] [and others

    2000-07-01

    By seven presentations of case studies and researches, this colloquium takes stock on the natural pollution control mechanisms and technic and also on the economic and juridical stakes. Many french sites, concerning the soils and the ground waters are discussed. (A.L.B.)

  13. Effects of Water Hardness on Textile Detergency Performance in Aqueous Cleaning Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotoh, Keiko; Horibe, Kaori; Mei, Yang; Tsujisaka, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    The effects of water hardness on textile detergency in aqueous solutions were systematically investigated using four surfactants: sodium oleate (OLNa), linear dodecylbenzene sulfonate (LAS), sodium dodecyl sulfate (AS), and polyoxyethylene (10) dodecyl ether (AE). Water hardness was adjusted according to the standard procedure described in IEC 60734:2012. As expected, by adding hardness salts the surface tension of the OLNa solution increased. Surprisingly, the addition of hardness salts lowers the surface tension for the LAS and AS solutions. In the case of the AE solution, hardness salt did not affect the surface tension. A decrease in transmittance and foamability after adding hardness salts was observed for every anionic surfactant solution, indicating that anionic surfactants can combine with divalent ions to form insoluble precipitates. Detergency experiments were performed using cotton plain-woven and towel fabrics soiled with a carbon black and oleic acid mixture. One piece each of untreated and soiled fabric were stacked and placed horizontally in detergent solution with or without hardness salts. As a mechanical action of soil removal, the shaking of 190 spm was applied. Soil removal and redeposition due to washing were evaluated from changes in values of the Kubelka-Munk function for both fabrics. With increasing water hardness, soil removal decreased and redeposition increased. In order of decreasing detergency, the surfactants were as follows: LAS > OLNa ≈ AS > AE. The results indicate that precipitates, formed by reaction of LAS or AS with hardness salts, are strongly adsorbed on the water surface because of their hydrophobicity, but they have no detergency power. The field emission scanning electron microscopic observation and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis showed that Ca(LAS)2 precipitation clung to fiber surfaces, and remained on the surfaces after washing. Significant changes in the cotton fabric due to washing were observed in

  14. Self-Cleaning Coatings and Materials for Decontaminating Field-Deployable Land and Water-Based Optical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Robert; Underwood, Lauren; Holekamp, Kara; May, George; Spiering, Bruce; Davis, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    This technology exploits the organic decomposition capability and hydrophilic properties of the photocatalytic material titanium dioxide (TiO2), a nontoxic and non-hazardous substance, to address contamination and biofouling issues in field-deployed optical sensor systems. Specifically, this technology incorporates TiO2 coatings and materials applied to, or integrated as a part of, the optical surfaces of sensors and calibration sources, including lenses, windows, and mirrors that are used in remote, unattended, ground-based (land or maritime) optical sensor systems. Current methods used to address contamination or biofouling of these optical surfaces in deployed systems are costly, toxic, labor intensive, and non-preventative. By implementing this novel technology, many of these negative aspects can be reduced. The functionality of this innovative self-cleaning solution to address the problem of contamination or biofouling depends on the availability of a sufficient light source with the appropriate spectral properties, which can be attained naturally via sunlight or supplemented using artificial illumination such as UV LEDs (light emitting diodes). In land-based or above-water systems, the TiO2 optical surface is exposed to sunlight, which catalyzes the photocatalytic reaction, facilitating both the decomposition of inorganic and organic compounds, and the activation of superhydrophilic properties. Since underwater optical surfaces are submerged and have limited sunlight exposure, supplementary UV light sources would be required to activate the TiO2 on these optical surfaces. Nighttime operation of land-based or above-water systems would require this addition as well. For most superhydrophilic self-cleaning purposes, a rainwater wash will suffice; however, for some applications an attached rainwater collector/ dispenser or other fresh water dispensing system may be required to wash the optical surface and initiate the removal of contaminates. Deployment of this

  15. Utilization of plants for stabilization and cleaning up of metal contaminated soil and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phytoremediation has been defined as the use of green plants and their associated rhizospheric microorganisms to remove, degrade, or contain contaminants located in soils, sediments, groundwater, surface water, and even the atmosphere. Categories of phytoremediation include - phytoextraction or phytoaccumulation, phytotransformation, phytostimulation or plant-assisted bioremediation, phytovolatilization, rhizofiltration, pump and tree, phytostabilization, and hydraulic control. Phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soils basically includes phytostabilization, phytoextraction, rhizofiltration and phytovolatilization. Selection of plants for phytoremediation of metals depends on a particular application. (authors)

  16. Clean data

    CERN Document Server

    Squire, Megan

    2015-01-01

    If you are a data scientist of any level, beginners included, and interested in cleaning up your data, this is the book for you! Experience with Python or PHP is assumed, but no previous knowledge of data cleaning is needed.

  17. Physicochemical regeneration of high silica zeolite Y used to clean-up water polluted with sulfonamide antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braschi, I; Blasioli, S; Buscaroli, E; Montecchio, D; Martucci, A

    2016-05-01

    High silica zeolite Y has been positively evaluated to clean-up water polluted with sulfonamides, an antibiotic family which is known to be involved in the antibiotic resistance evolution. To define possible strategies for the exhausted zeolite regeneration, the efficacy of some chemico-physical treatments on the zeolite loaded with four different sulfonamides was evaluated. The evolution of photolysis, Fenton-like reaction, thermal treatments, and solvent extractions and the occurrence in the zeolite pores of organic residues eventually entrapped was elucidated by a combined thermogravimetric (TGA-DTA), diffractometric (XRPD), and spectroscopic (FT-IR) approach. The chemical processes were not able to remove the organic guest from zeolite pores and a limited transformation on embedded molecules was observed. On the contrary, both thermal treatment and solvent extraction succeeded in the regeneration of the zeolite loaded from deionized and natural fresh water. The recyclability of regenerated zeolite was evaluated over several adsorption/regeneration cycles, due to the treatment efficacy and its stability as well as the ability to regain the structural features of the unloaded material. PMID:27155437

  18. INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS IN LOCAL PUBLIC ENTERPRIZE FOR PRODUCTION, DISTRIBUTION AND CLEANING OF WASTED WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Arsovski

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Appearance of large number of management systems, with different and sometimes divergent demands, needs reconsideration of their implementation strategies and their integration in one integrated management system (IMS. So defined IMS would be designed and implemented in different areas. In this paper is presented basic concept of integration of partical management systems in areas of quality (ISO 9001, environmental protection (ISO 14001, occupational health (ISO 18001, food safety (ISO 22000 and accreditation of laboratories (ISO17025/ISO17020. As a pilot organization is choosed local public enterprise for production, supply and drain of water.

  19. Water compatible stir-bar devices imprinted with underivatised glyphosate for selective sample clean-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Caballero, Alberto; Diaz-Diaz, Goretti; Bengoetxea, Olatz; Quintela, Amaia; Unceta, Nora; Goicolea, M Aranzazu; Barrio, Ramón J

    2016-06-17

    This paper reports the development of stir bars with a new MIP based coating, for the selective sorptive extraction of the herbicide glyphosate (GLYP). Molecular imprinting of the polymer has directly been carried out employing underivatised GLYP as the template molecule. Due to the poor solubility of the target compound in organic solvents, the MIP methodology has been optimised for rebinding in aqueous media, being the synthesis and the rebinding steps carried out in water:methanol mixtures and pure aqueous media. The coating has been developed by radical polymerisation initiated by UV energy, using N-allylthiourea and 2-dimethyl aminoethyl methacrylate as functional monomers and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the cross-linker. Mechanical stability of the coating has been improved using 1,3-divinyltetramethyldisiloxane in the polymerisation mixture. Under the optimised conditions, the MIP has demonstrated excellent selectivity for the target compound in the presence of structural analogues, including its major metabolites. The applicability of the proposed method to real matrices has also been assessed using river water and soil samples. Registered mean recoveries ranged from 90.6 to 97.3% and RSD values were below 5% in all cases, what confirmed the suitability of the described methodology for the selective extraction and quantification of GLYP. PMID:27207580

  20. Nanotechnology: a clean and sustainable technology for the degradation of pharmaceuticals present in water and wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaraj, Rengaraj; Al Fahdi, Tharaya; Al-Wahaibi, Bushra; Al-Kindy, Salma M Z; Al-Nofli, Kholood; Al-Lawati, Haider

    2016-03-01

    Pharmaceuticals, newly recognized classes of environmental pollutants, are becoming increasingly problematic contaminants of either surface water or ground water around industrial and residential communities. Pharmaceuticals are constantly released into aquatic environments, mainly due to their widespread consumption and complicated removal in wastewater treatment plants. Heterogeneous photocatalysis appear to be one of the most destructive advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) for organic contaminants and are possible to obtain complete mineralization of organic pollutants into eco-friendly end products under visible and solar light irradiation. In this study, flower-like In2S3 hierarchical nanostructures were successfully prepared via a facile solution-phase route, using thioacetamide as both sulfur source and capping agent. X-ray diffractometry (XRD) of the flowers revealed that the cubic structure of In2S3; morphological studies examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed the synthesized In2S3 nanostructure was flower-like hierarchitecture assembled from nanoscale flakes. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis confirmed the stoichiometry of In2S3 nanoflowers. Furthermore, the photocatalytic activity studies revealed that the prepared indium(III) sulfide(In2S3) nanoflowers exhibit an excellent photocatalytic performance, degrading rapidly the aqueous pharmaceutical solution of Lisinopril under visible light irradiation. These results suggest that In2S3 nanoflowers will be a promising candidate of photocatalyst working in thevisible light range. PMID:26812846

  1. 给水管道清洗技术在管网运营维护中的应用分析%Application of Pipeline Cleaning Technologies in Operation and Maintenance of Water Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宝东; 何刚

    2012-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of conventional cleaning, unidirectional cleaning, manual cleaning, high-pressure water gun cleaning and air-water pulse cleaning were introduced based on practice experience. The practical prospects of different cleaning technologies in water network operation and maintenance were discussed, and the technical requirements and application range of these technologies were proposed.%基于工程实践经验,详细介绍了传统清洗技术、单向冲洗技术、人工清洗技术、高压水射流清洗技术和气水脉冲清洗技术的优缺点,探讨了不同管道清洗技术在管网运营维护中的应用范围,提出了各种管道清洗方法在应用中的技术要求和使用范围.

  2. Robust and Superhydrophobic Surface Modification by a "Paint + Adhesive" Method: Applications in Self-Cleaning after Oil Contamination and Oil-Water Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Baiyi; Qiu, Jianhui; Sakai, Eiichi; Kanazawa, Nobuhiro; Liang, Ruilu; Feng, Huixia

    2016-07-13

    Conventional superhydrophobic surfaces have always depended on expensive, sophisticated, and fragile roughness structures. Therefore, poor robustness has turned into the bottleneck for large-scale industrial applications of the superhydrophobic surfaces. To handle this problem, a superhydrophobic surface with firm robustness urgently needs to be developed. In this work, we created a versatile strategy to fabricate robust, self-cleaning, and superhydrophobic surfaces for both soft and hard substrates. We created an ethanol based suspension of perfluorooctyltriethoxysilane-mdodified calcium carbonate nanoparticles which can be sprayed onto both hard and soft substrates to form superhydrophobic surfaces. For all kinds of substrates, spray adhesive was directly coated onto abluent substrate surfaces to promote the robustness. These superhydrophobic surfaces showed remarkable robustness against knife scratch and sandpaper abrasion, while retaining its superhydrophobicity even after 30 abrasion cycles with sandpaper. What is more, the superhydrophobic surfaces have shown promising potential applications in self-cleaning and oil-water separation. The surfaces retained their self-cleaning property even immersed in oil. In addition to oil-water separation, the water contents in oil after separation of various mixtures were all below 150 ppm, and for toluene even as low as 55 ppm. Furthermore, the as-prepared device for oil-water separation could be cycled 6 times and still retained excellent oil-water separation efficiency. PMID:27286474

  3. 40 CFR 35.910-7 - Fiscal Year 1977 Supplemental Appropriations Act allotments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., and pumping stations, and treatment of combined sewer overflows), as shown in table V of the EPA... Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.910-7 Fiscal Year 1977 Supplemental Appropriations Act allotments. (a... (secondary treatment, more stringent treatment required to meet water quality standards, and...

  4. 75 FR 69704 - Notice of Lodging of Second Proposed Amendment to Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ... authorized the City to replace the shallow interceptor with a 54-million gallon capacity Deep Rock Tunnel... addressed to the Assistant Attorney General, Environment and Natural Resources Division, and either e..., Environment and Natural Resources Division. BILLING CODE 4410-15-P...

  5. 77 FR 29757 - Guidelines Establishing Test Procedures for the Analysis of Pollutants Under the Clean Water Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ... Determination of NP, OP, NP1EO, and NP2EO.'' These two methods involve liquid chromatography and tandem mass.... Revisions to 40 CFR Part 435 (Oil and Gas Extraction Point Source Category) IV. Response to Comments A. How... methods added today to Part 136. 1. Oil and grease. Today's rule adds a new version of EPA Method...

  6. 78 FR 11222 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act and the Comprehensive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    ...- establishing historic tidal flows, and creating an oyster habitat, in addition to executing conservation... of the consent decree upon written request and payment of reproduction costs. Please mail your.... Please enclose a check or money order for $41.50 (25 cents per page reproduction cost) payable to...

  7. 75 FR 39683 - Clean Water Act Section 312(b): Notice Seeking Stakeholder Input on Petition and Other Request To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-12

    ... laboratories, and owners or operators of commercial and recreational vessels with toilets installed onboard... into the United States for sale or resale, and to vessels that have toilets and MSDs installed onboard... sewage samples taken at the point of discharge from treatment devices installed onboard vessels....

  8. 77 FR 33769 - Notice of Lodging of Second Amendment to First Amended Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    ... Defendant's wastewater treatment facilities and the Defendant's wastewater collection and transmission... regarding the Defendant's wastewater treatment facilities and Defendant's collection and transmission...

  9. 76 FR 549 - Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Notice for the Establishment of the Total Maximum Daily Load...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-05

    ... point and nonpoint sources. The Bay TMDL contains segment specific point (wasteload) and non-point (load..., transparent and accountable set of commitments and actions that together ensure that pollution controls needed... boundaries for which existing technology-based and other pollution controls required by the CWA are...

  10. 78 FR 14457 - Guidelines Establishing Test Procedures for the Analysis of Pollutants Under the Clean Water Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-06

    ... Method 413.1 (64 FR 26315), a similar procedure that used Freon (1,1,2- trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane..., EPA proposed to add new and revised EPA methods to its Part 136 test procedures (75 FR 58024). Among... December 14, 2011 (76 FR 77742). The notice provided the additional data and EPA's analysis of that...

  11. Environmental Monitoring, Water Quality - TMDL Lakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — The Clean Water Act Section 303(d) establishes the Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) program. The purpose of the TMDL program is to identify sources of pollution and...

  12. Act on Gender: A Peep into Intra-Household Water Use in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiri-Dutt, Kuntala; Harriden, Kate

    2008-01-01

    Intra-household water use and management from a gender perspective has remained a relatively under-researched theme in developed countries. Australia is no exception, with the lack of research particularly evident in the many rural and peri-urban communities. These communities have experienced significant water scarcity in recent years. In this…

  13. Development of Natural Gas Fired Combined Cycle Plant for Tri-Generation of Power, Cooling and Clean Water Using Waste Heat Recovery: Techno-Economic Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Gowtham Mohan; Sujata Dahal; Uday Kumar; Andrew Martin; Hamid Kayal

    2014-01-01

    Tri-generation is one of the most efficient ways for maximizing the utilization of available energy. Utilization of waste heat (flue gases) liberated by the Al-Hamra gas turbine power plant is analyzed in this research work for simultaneous production of: (a) electricity by combining steam rankine cycle using heat recovery steam generator (HRSG); (b) clean water by air gap membrane distillation (AGMD) plant; and (c) cooling by single stage vapor absorption chiller (VAC). The flue gases liber...

  14. Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990: Impacts on natural gas markets. Summary of the annual GRI Energy Seminar (12th) for the GRI Board of Directors and Advisory Council. Held in Asheville, North Carolina on August 12-14, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Each year, Gas Research Institute (GRI) conducts an energy seminar for its Board of Directors and Advisory Council on an issue of timely importance to the gas industry. The topic selected for the Twelfth Annual GRI Energy Seminar was 'Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990: Impacts on Natural Gas Markets.' The two sessions of the seminar focused upon the sectors of the energy market most significantly affected by the legislation. Session I: Fuel Choices for Stationary Applications explored the impact of the Clean Air Act Amendments upon stationary, fuel-burning applications, particularly power plants. The current outlook for bringing existing coal-fired power plants into conformance with the law and the significance of the provisions for the choice of fuels for major future fuel-burning facilities were discussed, along with the impact of the provisions upon GRI's strategies and the technical and economic targets for ongoing R and D. Session II: The Emerging Alternative-Fuel Vehicle Market addressed the significance of the new requirements to the outlook for compressed natural gas vehicles and the suitability of GRI's methane vehicle R and D strategy to the revised outlook. The report summarizes the presentations and discussions at the seminar

  15. Book review: Implementing the Endangered Species Act on the Platte Basin water commons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherfy, Mark H.

    2014-01-01

    The Platte River is a unique midcontinent ecosystem that is world-renowned for its natural resources, particularly the spectacular spring concentrations of migratory birds, such as sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis), ducks, and geese. The Platte River basin also provides habitat for four federally listed endangered or threatened species—interior least tern (Sternula antillarum athalassos), piping plover (Charadrius melodus), whooping crane (G. americana), and pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus)—that require specific hydrological conditions in order for habitat to be suitable. Flows on the Platte River are subject to regulation by a number of dams, and it is heavily relied upon for irrigation in Colorado, Wyoming, and Nebraska. Accordingly, it also has become a political battleground for the simple reason that the demand for water exceeds supply. David Freeman’s book takes a detailed look at water-use issues on the Platte River, focusing on how implementation of the Endangered Species Act influences decision-making about water allocations. 

  16. Added Resistance Acting on Hull of a Non Ballast Water Ship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ngo Van He; Yoshiho Ikeda

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, added resistances acting on a hull of non ballast water ship (NBS) in high waves is discussed. The non ballast water ships were developed at the laboratory of the authors at Osaka Prefecture University, Japan. In the present paper, the performances of three kinds of bow shapes developed for the NBS were theoretically and experimentally investigated to find the best one in high waves. In previous papers, an optimum bow shape for the NBS was developed in calm water and in moderated waves. For a 2 m model for experiments and computations, the wave height is 0.02 m. This means that the wave height is 15%of the draft of the ship in full load conditions. In this paper, added resistances in high waves up to 0.07 m for a 2 m model or 53%of the full load draft are investigated. In such high waves linear wave theories which have been used in the design stage of a ship for a long time may not work well anymore, and experiments are the only effective tool to predict the added resistance in high waves. With the computations for waves, the ship is in a fully captured condition because shorter waves,λ/Lpp<0.6, are assumed.

  17. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart C of... - Alternative Testing Methods Approved for Analyses Under the Safe Drinking Water Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Selective Electrode 4500-CN− F Gas Chromatography/MassSpectrometry Headspace ME355.01 7 Fluoride Ion... in Drinking Water by Ion Chromatography Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry (IC-ESI-MS... for Analyses Under the Safe Drinking Water Act A Appendix A to Subpart C of Part 141 Protection...

  18. Damage by radicals and photons during plasma cleaning of porous low-k SiOCH. II. Water uptake and change in dielectric constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porous dielectric materials provide lower capacitances that reduce RC time delays in integrated circuits. Typical low-k materials include porous SiOCH—silicon dioxide with carbon groups, principally CH3, lining the pores. With a high porosity, internally connected pores provide pathways for reactive species to enter into the material. Fluorocarbon plasmas are often used to etch SiOCH, a process that leaves a fluorocarbon polymer on the surface that must later be removed. During cleaning using Ar/O2 or He/H2 plasmas, reactions of radicals that diffuse into the SiOCH and photons that penetrate into the SiOCH can remove –CH3 groups. Due to its higher reactivity, cleaning with Ar/O2 plasmas removes more –CH3 groups than He/H2 plasmas, and so produce more free radical sites, such as –SiO2• (a –SiO2–CH3 site with the –CH3 group removed).Upon exposure to humid air, these free radical sites can chemisorb H2O to form hydrophilic Si–OH which can further physisorb H2O through hydrogen bonding to form Si–OH(H2O). With the high dielectric constant of water, even a small percentage of water uptake can significantly increase the effective dielectric constant of SiOCH. In this paper, we report on results from a computational investigation of the cleaning of SiOCH using Ar/O2 or He/H2 plasmas and subsequent exposure to humid air. The authors found that plasma cleaning with He/H2 mixtures produce less demethylation than cleaning with Ar/O2 plasmas, as so results in less water uptake, and a smaller increase in dielectric constant. The water that produces the increase in dielectric constant is roughly half chemisorbed and half physisorbed, the latter of which can be removed with mild heating. Sealing the pores with NH3 plasma treatment reduces water uptake and helps prevent the increase in dielectric constant.

  19. Contact cleaning of polymer film solar reflectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansom, Christopher; Fernández-García, Aránzazu; Sutter, Florian; Almond, Heather; King, Peter

    2016-05-01

    This paper describes the accelerated ageing of polymer film reflecting surfaces under the conditions to be found during contact cleaning of Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) collectors in the presence of dust and sand particles. In these situations, contact cleaning using brushes and water is required to clean the reflecting surfaces. Whilst suitable for glass reflectors, this paper discusses the effects of existing cleaning processes on the optical and visual properties of polymer film surfaces, and then describes the development of a more benign but effective contact cleaning process for cleaning polymer reflectors. The effects of a range of cleaning brushes are discussed, with and without the presence of water, in the presence of sand and dust particles from selected representative locations. Reflectance measurements and visual inspection shows that a soft cleaning brush with a small amount of water can clean polymer film reflecting surfaces without inflicting surface damage or reducing specular reflectance.

  20. 40 CFR 49.5 - Tribal requests for additional Clean Air Act provisions for which it is not appropriate to treat...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Air Act provisions for which it is not appropriate to treat tribes in the same manner as States. 49.5... provisions for which it is not appropriate to treat tribes in the same manner as States. Any tribe may... inappropriate to treat tribes in general in the same manner as States. Such request should clearly identify...

  1. 76 FR 39101 - EPA and Army Corps of Engineers Guidance Regarding Identification of Waters Protected by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-05

    ...) announced availability of draft guidance (76 FR 24479) that describes how the agencies will identify waters protected by the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 (Clean Water Act or CWA or Act) and....mil . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In the May 2, 2011, issue of the Federal Register (76 FR 24479),...

  2. A review of polymer nanofibres by electrospinning and their application in oil-water separation for cleaning up marine oil spills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarbatly, Rosalam; Krishnaiah, Duduku; Kamin, Zykamilia

    2016-05-15

    The growths of oil and gas exploration and production activities have increased environmental problems, such as oil spillage and the resulting pollution. The study of the methods for cleaning up oil spills is a critical issue to protect the environment. Various techniques are available to contain oil spills, but they are typically time consuming, energy inefficient and create secondary pollution. The use of a sorbent, such as a nanofibre sorbent, is a technique for controlling oil spills because of its good physical and oil sorption properties. This review discusses about the application of nanofibre sorbent for oil removal from water and its current developments. With their unique physical and mechanical properties coupled with their very high surface area and small pore sizes, nanofibre sorbents are alternative materials for cleaning up oil spills. PMID:27016959

  3. Inhibition of the Nitrification Process of Activated Sludge Micro-Organism by Scrubber Water from an Industrial Flue Gas Cleaning Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jens Peter

    2007-01-01

    The microbial transformation of ammonia to nitrate, the nitrification, is a central process in the nitrogen biogeochemical cycle. In a modern wastewater treatment plant, the nitrification process is a key process in the removal of nitrogen and inhibitory compounds in sewage can seriously affect the...... nitrogen removal. A major sewage cleaning plant in the southern part of Denmark is a recipient of industrial sewage from a major fish meal industry. Severe nitrification inhibition was observed in scrubber water from an incineration of process air, and the processes that lead to the production were stopped...... using active sludge from the municipal wastewater cleaning plant. The investigation showed that it is possible to reduce the nitrification inhibition effect considerably by raising the incineration temperature from 800°C to 850°C and in some cases to 900°C. The investigation also showed that a further...

  4. Clean Hands Save Lives: Emergency Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis Volcanoes Wildfires Winter Weather Clean Hands Save Lives: Emergency Situations DISASTER RECOVERY FACT ... water can be difficult. However, keeping your hands clean helps you avoid getting sick. It is best ...

  5. Review On Automatic-Cleaning Basket Strainer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Gothwal

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Clean water is a basic need of every individual. Today in numerous cities of India large number of waste water is produced. Such waste water is polluting natural water bodies like rivers lakes etc. Hence waste water filtration amp waters final purification is need of hour. In conventional type of filters when strainer gets clogged we have to manually clean it which takes time amp filtration processes stops during cleaning process. While in Self-Cleaning Basket Strainer when strainer gets clogged a pressure difference is created between inlet amp outlet nozzle which is sensed by the differential pressure gauges. A differential pressure gauge activates backwash assembly which automatically cleans the strainer. Hence Self-Cleaning Basket Strainer is used to save cleaning time amp it automates the filtering process.

  6. Efficient methods of piping cleaning

    OpenAIRE

    Orlov Vladimir Aleksandrovich; Nechitaeva Valentina Anatol'evna; Bogomolova Irina Olegovna; Shaykhetdinova Yuliya Aleksandrovna; Daminova Yuliya Farikhovna

    2014-01-01

    The article contains the analysis of the efficient methods of piping cleaning of water supply and sanitation systems. Special attention is paid to the ice cleaning method, in course of which biological foil and various mineral and organic deposits are removed due to the ice crust buildup on the inner surface of water supply and drainage pipes. These impurities are responsible for the deterioration of the organoleptic properties of the transported drinking water or narrowing cross-section of d...

  7. Clean catch urine sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urine culture - clean catch; Urinalysis - clean catch; Clean catch urine specimen; Urine collection - clean catch ... lips" (labia). You may be given a special clean-catch kit that contains sterile wipes. Sit on ...

  8. Environmental Monitoring, Water Quality - Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — The Clean Water Act Section 303(d) establishes the Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) program. The purpose of the TMDL program is to identify sources of pollution and...

  9. EPA Enforcement and Compliance History Online: Water Effluent Charts Summaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Summary of compliance status each outfall and parameter for one Clean Water Act discharge permit. Provides the current compliance status and overall compliance...

  10. Reactor vessel stud cleaning machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A device is described for cleaning and decontaminating an elongate member having a three dimensional surface topography comprising: an enclosure; means for rotatingly supporting the elongate member proximate the ends thereof within the enclosure; means for driving the elongate member supporting means, to rotate the elongate member; a supply tank for holding water; a spray nozzle connected to the supply tank and disposed within the enclosure operable to move transversely with respect to the elongate member for spraying a cleaning agent comprising high pressure water and abrasive grit against the rotating elongate member; a self-contained means for supplying the cleaning agent to the spray nozzle and removing spent cleaning agent from the enclosure, the self-contained means including the supply tank and means for disposing of any contaminated solids in the spent cleaning agent. The means for disposing further comprises means for removing spent cleaning agent from the enclosure, means for removing solid particles from the spent cleaning agent and means for recycling water from the spent cleaning agent back to the spray nozzle; and a control system for selectively controlling at least one of the rate of rotation of the elongate member and rate of trasversal of the elongate member and by the spray nozzle in accordance with the topography of the elongate member

  11. NON-SPECIFIC METHODS FOR DETECTING RESIDUES OF CLEANING AGENTS DURING CLEANING VALIDATION

    OpenAIRE

    DRAGAN M. MILENOVIĆ; DRAGAN S. PEŠIĆ; SNEŽANA S. MITIĆ

    2011-01-01

    Cleaning validation procedures are carried out in order to assure that residues of cleaning agents are within acceptable limits after the cleaning process. Cleaning agents often consist of a mixture of various surfactants which are in a highly diluted state after the water rinsing procedure has been completed. This makes it difficult to find appropriate analytical methods that are sensitive enough to detect the cleaning agents. In addition, it is advantageous for the analytical methods to be ...

  12. Saltstone Clean Cap Formulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C

    2005-04-22

    The current operation strategy for using Saltstone Vault 4 to receive 0.2 Ci/gallon salt solution waste involves pouring a clean grout layer over the radioactive grout prior to initiating pour into another cell. This will minimize the radiating surface area and reduce the dose rate at the vault and surrounding area. The Clean Cap will be used to shield about four feet of Saltstone poured into a Z-Area vault cell prior to moving to another cell. The minimum thickness of the Clean Cap layer will be determined by the cesium concentration and resulting dose levels and it is expected to be about one foot thick based on current calculations for 0.1 Ci Saltstone that is produced in the Saltstone process by stabilization of 0.2 Ci salt solution. This report documents experiments performed to identify a formulation for the Clean Cap. Thermal transient calculations, adiabatic temperature rise measurements, pour height, time between pour calculations and shielding calculations were beyond the scope and time limitations of this study. However, data required for shielding calculations (composition and specific gravity) are provided for shielding calculations. The approach used to design a Clean Cap formulation was to produce a slurry from the reference premix (10/45/45 weight percent cement/slag/fly ash) and domestic water that resembled as closely as possible the properties of the Saltstone slurry. In addition, options were investigated that may offer advantages such as less bleed water and less heat generation. The options with less bleed water required addition of dispersants. The options with lower heat contained more fly ash and less slag. A mix containing 10/45/45 weight percent cement/slag/fly ash with a water to premix ratio of 0.60 is recommended for the Clean Cap. Although this mix may generate more than 3 volume percent standing water (bleed water), it has rheological, mixing and flow properties that are similar to previously processed Saltstone. The recommended

  13. Saltstone Clean Cap Formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current operation strategy for using Saltstone Vault 4 to receive 0.2 Ci/gallon salt solution waste involves pouring a clean grout layer over the radioactive grout prior to initiating pour into another cell. This will minimize the radiating surface area and reduce the dose rate at the vault and surrounding area. The Clean Cap will be used to shield about four feet of Saltstone poured into a Z-Area vault cell prior to moving to another cell. The minimum thickness of the Clean Cap layer will be determined by the cesium concentration and resulting dose levels and it is expected to be about one foot thick based on current calculations for 0.1 Ci Saltstone that is produced in the Saltstone process by stabilization of 0.2 Ci salt solution. This report documents experiments performed to identify a formulation for the Clean Cap. Thermal transient calculations, adiabatic temperature rise measurements, pour height, time between pour calculations and shielding calculations were beyond the scope and time limitations of this study. However, data required for shielding calculations (composition and specific gravity) are provided for shielding calculations. The approach used to design a Clean Cap formulation was to produce a slurry from the reference premix (10/45/45 weight percent cement/slag/fly ash) and domestic water that resembled as closely as possible the properties of the Saltstone slurry. In addition, options were investigated that may offer advantages such as less bleed water and less heat generation. The options with less bleed water required addition of dispersants. The options with lower heat contained more fly ash and less slag. A mix containing 10/45/45 weight percent cement/slag/fly ash with a water to premix ratio of 0.60 is recommended for the Clean Cap. Although this mix may generate more than 3 volume percent standing water (bleed water), it has rheological, mixing and flow properties that are similar to previously processed Saltstone. The recommended

  14. Modeling the Gila-San Francisco Basin using system dynamics in support of the 2004 Arizona Water Settlement Act.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Sun, Amy Cha-Tien; Peplinski, William J.; Klise, Geoffrey Taylor

    2012-04-01

    Water resource management requires collaborative solutions that cross institutional and political boundaries. This work describes the development and use of a computer-based tool for assessing the impact of additional water allocation from the Gila River and the San Francisco River prescribed in the 2004 Arizona Water Settlements Act. Between 2005 and 2010, Sandia National Laboratories engaged concerned citizens, local water stakeholders, and key federal and state agencies to collaboratively create the Gila-San Francisco Decision Support Tool. Based on principles of system dynamics, the tool is founded on a hydrologic balance of surface water, groundwater, and their associated coupling between water resources and demands. The tool is fitted with a user interface to facilitate sensitivity studies of various water supply and demand scenarios. The model also projects the consumptive use of water in the region as well as the potential CUFA (Consumptive Use and Forbearance Agreement which stipulates when and where Arizona Water Settlements Act diversions can be made) diversion over a 26-year horizon. Scenarios are selected to enhance our understanding of the potential human impacts on the rivers ecological health in New Mexico; in particular, different case studies thematic to water conservation, water rights, and minimum flow are tested using the model. The impact on potential CUFA diversions, agricultural consumptive use, and surface water availability are assessed relative to the changes imposed in the scenarios. While it has been difficult to gage the acceptance level from the stakeholders, the technical information that the model provides are valuable for facilitating dialogues in the context of the new settlement.

  15. Clean coal technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent developments and implementations in clean coal technologies foe power generation and industry are reviewed in the present work. The requirements of the Clean Air Act in the United States, and the Directives of the European communities, on the limitations of emissions of pollutants from coal uses are firstly briefly reviewed, and later technological means that are available to coal producers and utilizers to comply with them. Coal cleaning, before combustion may be achieved by physical, chemical and biotechnological methods, these technologies are then examined as well as coal refining. The developments in clean coal combustion are extremely rapid, particularly in regard to poor coals, they are reviewed and in particular fluidized bed combustion, in its varieties, as well as coal gasification and combined cycle and the utilization of the gas in fuel cells. A further chapter is devoted to the control of emissions of gases from coal combustion, to reduce SO2 and NOx emitted in the atmosphere. The economic implications of the technologies are evaluated according to the most recent information available from published literature and from industry publications, and the results compared. The implications of meand to reduced the emission of CO2 to the atmosphere are also evaluated. (authors)

  16. Impact of the 1986 amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act on the State of Mississippi. Technical completion report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of the U.S. Congress passing the 1986 Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act, the number of regulated contaminants that must be monitored in public water systems has increased from 24 to 85. The economic impact of the new legislation is greater on small systems than large systems because of economies of scale. In addition, more highly trained water treatment plant operators will be needed to deal with the complex legislation and to ensure the continuous supply of safe drinking water to their communities. Because of the complexity and increased scope of the 1986 Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act, a detailed discussion of the requirements that must be met by each public water supply is presented as background information. The objectives of the research were to: (1) determine the economic impacts of the 1986 Amendments on water systems throughout the State of Mississippi, (2) determine the number of systems that will need new and/or upgraded treatments technology to comply with the regulations, and (3) provide an assessment of the needs of the State DWS

  17. 75 FR 38538 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... available for review: The Westside Irrigation District Maine Prairie Water District Solano Irrigation District Corning Water District Proberta Water District Lindsay-Strathmore Irrigation District To meet the... best management practices.'' These criteria state that all parties (Contractors) that contract...

  18. 76 FR 54251 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ... available for review: Del Puerto Water District. Chowchilla Water District. Orange Cove Irrigation District. James Irrigation District. Tranquility Irrigation District. Kaweah Delta Water Conservation District. To... best management practices.'' These criteria state that all parties (Contractors) that contract...

  19. Optimization of waste water discharge and waste water cleaning on the basis of measurements of the organic pollutant load; Optimierung von Abwasserableitung und Abwasserreinigung durch Messung der organischen Abwasserbelastung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haeck, M. [Dr. Bruno Lange GmbH Berlin, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    The spectral absorption coefficient (SAC) is a sum parameter for describing the organic pollutant load of waste water. It is based on a purely physical measuring technique and can be monitored continuously and directly in the medium by means of the described UV process probe. From this arise numerous opportunities for optimizing waste water discharge and cleaning. (orig.) [German] Der spektrale Absorptionskoeffizient (SAK) ist ein Summenparameter zur Beschreibung der organischen Abwasserbelastung. Er basiert auf einem rein physikalischen Messverfahren und kann mit der hier vorgestellten UV-Prozess-Sonde kontinuierlich und direkt im Medium erfasst werden. Daraus ergeben sich zahlreiche Moeglichkeiten zur Optimierung von Abwasserableitung und -reinigung. (orig.)

  20. Application of On-line Cleaning and Prefilming Technology in Refinery Circulating Cooling Water System%不停车清洗预膜技术在炼油循环冷却水系统的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Plants in refinery are various, due to the needs of production and operation, circulating cooling water system cannot be shut down for cleaning and prefilming, resulting in corrosion and fouling problems of the water cooler. The on-line cleaning and prefilming technology can realize the cleaning and prefilming of the circulating cooling water system without stopping, so that the scaling and corrosion of the circulating cooling water system can be controlled. The feasibility of the on-line cleaning and prefilming technology was investigated through using the on-line cleaning and prefilming technology in the circulating cooling water system of a refinery, and some suggestions were put forward.%炼化企业装置较多,由于生产经营的需要,循环冷却水系统可能不能停工进行清洗预膜,导致水冷器的腐蚀、结垢问题。不停车清洗预膜可以实现在不停车的情况下在线进行清洗预膜,这样就可以控制系统的结垢和腐蚀问题。某炼油厂通过不停车清洗预膜的实施效果,考察了其可行性,并提出了一些建议。

  1. Cleaning Genesis Mission Payload for Flight with Ultra-Pure Water and Assembly in ISO Class 4 Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allton, Judith H.

    2012-01-01

    Genesis mission to capture and return to Earth solar wind samples had very stringent contamination control requirements in order to distinguish the solar atoms from terrestrial ones. Genesis mission goals were to measure solar composition for most of the periodic table, so great care was taken to avoid particulate contamination. Since the number 1 and 2 science goals were to determine the oxygen and nitrogen isotopic composition, organic contamination was minimized by tightly controlling offgassing. The total amount of solar material captured in two years is about 400 micrograms spread across one sq m. The contamination limit requirement for each of C, N, and O was cleaning hardware for flight. Surface contamination on polished silicon wafers, measured in Genesis laboratory is approximately 10 ng/sq cm.

  2. Analyzing Cost Implications of Water Quality Trading Provisions: Lessons from the Virginia Nutrient Credit Exchange Act

    OpenAIRE

    Aultman, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the cost implications of various provisions of the Virginia Nutrient Credit Exchange Act. The first objective was to estimate the cost implications of point source trading provisions of the Act. An integer programming cost minimization model was constructed to estimate the cost of achieving four point source trading policy scenarios. The model estimated the annual cost of meeting two different nutrient cap levels, each with and without a limits-of-te...

  3. Towards a Sustainable Urban Metabolism: Algae-to-Energy Systems as Clean Cycles in the Urban Water Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Menger-Krug, Eve

    2013-01-01

    This study includes an analysis of the urban water chain in Germany (water supply, wastewater and sludge management); followed by an analysis of the integration of algae systems on the level of wastewater treatment plants. Then, the scope of the study is extended to put the results in context of the urban metabolism. The relevance of the urban water chain - with and without algae - for the urban energy balance and the urban flows of nutrients and anthropogenic micropollutants is assessed.

  4. 40 CFR 130.6 - Water quality management plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water quality management plans. 130.6... QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.6 Water quality management plans. (a) Water quality management (WQM... purposes of this rule and the Clean Water Act assistance programs under 40 CFR part 35, subparts A and H...

  5. Method of cleaning solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a solvent cleanup step for regenerating solvents released from the solvent extraction process in a reprocessing plan, fuel production plant, etc., extracted solvents are separated by means of freeze vacuum drying method into liquid concentrate comprising water, nitric acid, sublimaitng nuclides, n-dodecane, etc. and TPB residues, etcc. comprising tri-n-butylphosphate (TBP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), butyl phosphate (MBP) and not-sublimating nuclear fuel materials and nuclear fission products. Then, the liquid concentrates are separated into an aqueous phase comprising water, nitric acid, etc. and an organic phase comprising n-dodecane, etc. The TBP residues, etc. are cleaned with a nitric acid solution to separate entraining nuclear fuel materials and nuclear fission products to re-utilize TBP. This can avoid the use of cleaning liquid and decrease the amount of liquid wastes generated to moderate burdens in the liquid wastes processing. Further, apparatus safety for corrosion, fire or explosion can be improved. (T.M.)

  6. Novel-structured electrospun TiO2/CuO composite nanofibers for high efficient photocatalytic cogeneration of clean water and energy from dye wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Siew Siang; Bai, Hongwei; Liu, Zhaoyang; Sun, Darren Delai

    2013-08-01

    It is still a challenge to photocatalytically cogenerate clean water and energy from dye wastewater owing to the relatively low photocatalytic efficiency of photocatalysts. In this study, novel-structured TiO2/CuO composite nanofibers were successfully fabricated via facile electrospinning. For the first time, the TiO2/CuO composite nanofibers demonstrated multifunctional ability for concurrent photocatalytic organic degradation and H2 generation from dye wastewater. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of TiO2/CuO composite nanofibers was ascribed to its excellent synergy of physicochemical properties: 1) mesoporosity and large specific surface area for efficient substrate adsorption, mass transfer and light harvesting; 2) red-shift of the absorbance spectra for enhanced light utilization; 3) long nanofibrous structure for efficient charge transfer and ease of recovery, 4) TiO2/CuO heterojunctions which enhance the separation of electrons and holes and 5) presence of CuO which serve as co-catalyst for the H2 production. The TiO2/CuO composite nanofibers also exhibited rapid settleability by gravity and uncompromised reusability. Thus, the as-synthesized TiO2/CuO composite nanofibers represent a promising candidate for highly efficient concurrent photocatalytic organic degradation and clean energy production from dye wastewater. PMID:23541306

  7. Determination of the oxygen transfer under clean water conditions and under operation conditions in membrane activated sludge systems; Messung und Auswertung des Sauerstoffeintrags in Reinwasser und unter Betriebsbedingungen in Membranbelebungsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, M.; Cornel, P.; Krause, S. [Technische Hochschule Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Wasserversorgung, Abwasserbeseitigung und Raumplanung

    2001-04-01

    Because of the high quality of the effluent membranebioreactors are considered as alternative of conventional activated sludge treatment plants. In context concerning the {alpha}-value in membranebioreactors the article describes methods of measurement to determinate the oxygen transfer in clean and dirty water. There are no differences between membranebioreactors and activated sludge treatment plants in clean water tests. Because of the high biomass concentration and the difficulties in determination of the respiration rate differences to determine the oxygen transfer in activated sludge test are given compared to clean water conditions. In order to take influences of the oxygen saturation concentration into acount the proportion of oxygen transfer rate OTE{sub 20} should be taken for {alpha}-value determinations instead of the aeration coefficient k{sub L}a{sub 20}. (orig.)

  8. On clean ideals

    OpenAIRE

    Miaosen Chen; Huanyin Chen

    2003-01-01

    We introduce the notion of clean ideal, which is a natural generalization of clean rings. It is shown that every matrix ideal over a clean ideal of a ring is clean. Also we prove that every ideal having stable range one of a regular ring is clean. These generalize the corresponding results for clean rings.

  9. RCRA [Resource Conservation and Recovery Act] ground-water monitoring projects for Hanford facilities: Annual progress report for 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the progress during 1988 of 14 Hanford Site ground-water monitoring projects covering 16 hazardous waste facilities and 1 nonhazardous waste facility (the Solid Waste Landfill). Each of the projects is being conducted according to federal regulations based on the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1976 and the State of Washington Administrative Code. 21 refs., 23 figs., 8 tabs

  10. 77 FR 33240 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-05

    ... available for review: Contra Costa Water District. City of Santa Barbara. Tulare Irrigation District. Pacheco Irrigation District. City of Tracy. Citrus Heights. Water District. To meet the requirements of... criteria state that all parties (Contractors) that contract with Reclamation for water supplies...

  11. 75 FR 69698 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Criteria for Developing Refuge Water Management Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ... ``Criteria for Developing Refuge Water Management Plans'' (Refuge Criteria) are now available for public... and format by which Refuge Water Management Plans (Plans) should be prepared and submitted to... for any subsequent information or to obtain a copy of any water management plans, please contact...

  12. Drink lots of clean, safe water:  a food–based dietary guideline for South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Bourne, L.; Phooko, D.; Van Graan, A.E.; Wright, H. H.; Bopape, M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to summarise the literature that supports the importance of the food-based dietary guideline on water consumption. General recommendations for total daily water intake are between 2 and 3.7 l for women and men, 0.7 l for infants aged 0-6 months, 0.8 l for infants aged 7-12 months, 1.3 l for children aged 1-3 years, and 1.7 l for children aged 4-8 years. Water recommendations for the elderly and people who are involved in exercise or hard physical labo...

  13. Efficient methods of piping cleaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Vladimir Aleksandrovich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article contains the analysis of the efficient methods of piping cleaning of water supply and sanitation systems. Special attention is paid to the ice cleaning method, in course of which biological foil and various mineral and organic deposits are removed due to the ice crust buildup on the inner surface of water supply and drainage pipes. These impurities are responsible for the deterioration of the organoleptic properties of the transported drinking water or narrowing cross-section of drainage pipes. The co-authors emphasize that the use of ice compared to other methods of pipe cleaning has a number of advantages due to the relative simplicity and cheapness of the process, economical efficiency and lack of environmental risk. The equipment for performing ice cleaning is presented, its technological options, terms of cleansing operations, as well as the volumes of disposed pollution per unit length of the water supply and drainage pipelines. It is noted that ice cleaning requires careful planning in the process of cooking ice and in the process of its supply in the pipe. There are specific requirements to its quality. In particular, when you clean drinking water system the ice applied should be hygienically clean and meet sanitary requirements.In pilot projects, in particular, quantitative and qualitative analysis of sediments adsorbed by ice is conducted, as well as temperature and the duration of the process. The degree of pollution of the pipeline was estimated by the volume of the remote sediment on 1 km of pipeline. Cleaning pipelines using ice can be considered one of the methods of trenchless technologies, being a significant alternative to traditional methods of cleaning the pipes. The method can be applied in urban pipeline systems of drinking water supply for the diameters of 100—600 mm, and also to diversion collectors. In the world today 450 km of pipelines are subject to ice cleaning method.Ice cleaning method is simple

  14. Ultra-fast oleophobic-hydrophilic switching surfaces for anti-fogging, self-cleaning, and oil-water separation.

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, P S; Atkinson, O.; Badyal, J. P. S.

    2014-01-01

    Smooth copolymer–fluorosurfactant complex film surfaces are found to exhibit fast oleophobic–hydrophilic switching behavior. Equilibration of the high oil contact angle (hexadecane = 80°) and low water contact angle (

  15. Prague’s Water Supply Station in Podolí — a Solution for the Problems of Clean Water in the 1930s

    OpenAIRE

    K. Drnek

    2011-01-01

    In the 1920s Prague was seeking a solution to the problem of supplying its inhabitants with drinkable water. The water plant in Káraný was not able to provide enough water, and the bold plan to bring water from a reservoir and to provide a dual system of potable and non-potable water faced an uncertain future. In order to stave off the crisis and make time to complete its plans, the city council decided to construct a new water supply plant inside the city next to the Vltava river in the city...

  16. 78 FR 56153 - National Environmental Policy Act: Categorical Exclusions for Soil and Water Restoration Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    ... access to recreate on NFS lands. Response: Under section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, no person... hundreds of pages long, cost savings are significant. By using CEs, the Forest Service gains efficiencies... was published in the Federal Register on June 13, 2012 (77 FR 35323), for a 60-day comment period....

  17. Energy-water nexus of wind power in China: The balancing act between CO2 emissions and water consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the end of 2010, China's contribution to global CO2 emissions reached 25.1%. Estimates show that power generation accounts for 37.2% of the Chinese CO2 emissions. Even though there is an increasing number of studies using life cycle analysis (LCA) to examine energy consumption and CO2 emissions required by different types of power generation technologies, there are very few studies focusing on China. Furthermore, the nexus between water consumption and energy production has largely been ignored. In this paper, we adopt input–output based hybrid life cycle analysis to evaluate water consumption and CO2 emissions of wind power in China. Our results show that China's wind energy consumes 0.64 l/kWh of water and produces 69.9 g/kWh of CO2 emission. Given that the Chinese government aims to increase the wind power generation capacity to 200 GW by 2020, wind power could contribute a 23% reduction in carbon intensity and could save 800 million m3 of water which could be sufficient enough for use by 11.2 million households. Thus, given the often postulated water crisis, China's energy policy would reap double benefits through progressive energy policies when increasing the share of wind power as part of overall efforts to diversify its electricity generation technologies. - Highlights: ► The nexus of water consumption and CO2 emission of China's wind power is examined. ► Wind power consumes 0.64 l/kWh of water and produces 69.9 g/kWh of CO2. ► Wind power could save 800 million m3 of water for use by 11.2 million households. ► Wind power could contribute 23% of China's carbon intensity target by 2020. ► Wind power deemed to be a viable means of achieving carbon and water savings.

  18. 76 FR 12756 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    ... available for review: Truckee-Carson Irrigation District. Goleta Water District. Delano-Earlimart Irrigation District. Feather Irrigation District. To meet the requirements of the Central Valley Project Improvement... criteria state that all parties (Contractors) that contract with Reclamation for water supplies...

  19. Clean Break

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Erin

    2011-01-01

    An interim president has to perform a particularly difficult balancing act. He or she shoulders the burdens from--or legacy of--the previous president and must also provide a foundation of stability for the new president. Throughout the process, effective communication--both internally and externally--is critical to ensuring a smooth transition.…

  20. Broadband anti-reflective and water-repellent coatings on glass substrates for self-cleaning photovoltaic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiaoyu [Functional Nanomaterials Laboratory and Key Laboratory of Photochemical Conversion and Optoelectronic Materials, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry (TIPC), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Zhongguancun Donglu 29, Haidianqu, Beijing 100190 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); He, Junhui, E-mail: jhhe@mail.ipc.ac.cn [Functional Nanomaterials Laboratory and Key Laboratory of Photochemical Conversion and Optoelectronic Materials, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry (TIPC), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Zhongguancun Donglu 29, Haidianqu, Beijing 100190 (China); Liu, Weiyi [Institute of Optoelectronics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2013-07-15

    Graphical abstract: High performance broadband antireflective and water-repellent coatings were fabricated on glass substrates, which can improve the short-circuit current of solar cells as much as 6.6% in comparison with glass substrates without the coatings. - Highlights: • Broadband anti-reflective and water-repellent coatings were fabricated. • Transmittance increased to 99.0%, significantly higher than that of commercial solar glasses. • The performance of standard solar cells with the AR coating was enhanced as much as 6.6%. - Abstract: High performance broadband antireflective (AR) and water-repellent coatings were fabricated on glass substrates by assembly of silica nanoparticles and polyelectrolytes via the layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly technique, followed by calcination and hydrophobic modification. A porous poly(diallyladimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA)/20 nm SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (S-20) multilayer coating with AR property was prepared first. The maximum transmittance is as high as 99.0%, while that of the glass substrate is only 91.3%. After calcination and hydrophobic modification, the coating became water-repellent while maintaining the good AR property. Such water-repellent AR coatings can improve the short-circuit current of solar cells as much as 6.6% in comparison with glass substrates without the coatings. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the morphology and thickness of coatings. Transmission spectra and reflection spectra were characterized by UV–vis spectrophotometer. The surface wettability was studied by a contact angle/interface system.