WorldWideScience

Sample records for clean technology incentive

  1. The Victorian government`s clean technology incentive scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connor, M.A. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Reeve, D. [Environment Protection Authority, Melbourne, VIC (Australia)

    1993-12-31

    Over the past decade environment policies have placed increasing emphasis on waste minimization and cleaner production techniques. The Environment Protection Authority in Victoria, Australia, has sought to encourage waste minimization by establishing a Clean Technology Incentive Scheme. The Scheme was established in 1988 and since then 35 offers of loans have been made. Results to date are encouraging. In this work, case studies of three especially successful projects are presented. 2 refs.

  2. Clean coal technology and acid rain compliance: An examination of alternative incentive proposals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDermott, K.A. [Center for Regulatory Studies, Normal, IL (United States); South, D.W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1991-12-31

    The Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 rely primarily on the use of market incentives to stimulate least-cost compliance choices by electric utilities. Because of the potential risks associated with selecting Clean Coal Technologies (CCTs) and the public-good nature of technology commercialization, electric utilities may be reluctant to adopt CCTs as part of their compliance strategies. This paper examines the nature of the risks and perceived impediments to adopting CCTs as a compliance option. It also discusses the incentives that regulatory policy makers could adopt to mitigate these barriers to CCT adoption. (VC)

  3. Clean coal technology and acid rain compliance: An examination of alternative incentive proposals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDermott, K.A. (Center for Regulatory Studies, Normal, IL (United States)); South, D.W. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States))

    1991-01-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 rely primarily on the use of market incentives to stimulate least-cost compliance choices by electric utilities. Because of the potential risks associated with selecting Clean Coal Technologies (CCTs) and the public-good nature of technology commercialization, electric utilities may be reluctant to adopt CCTs as part of their compliance strategies. This paper examines the nature of the risks and perceived impediments to adopting CCTs as a compliance option. It also discusses the incentives that regulatory policy makers could adopt to mitigate these barriers to CCT adoption. (VC)

  4. An analysis of cost effective incentives for initial commercial deployment of advanced clean coal technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, D.F. [SIMTECHE, Half Moon Bay, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This analysis evaluates the incentives necessary to introduce commercial scale Advanced Clean Coal Technologies, specifically Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (ICGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) powerplants. The incentives required to support the initial introduction of these systems are based on competitive busbar electricity costs with natural gas fired combined cycle powerplants, in baseload service. A federal government price guarantee program for up to 10 Advanced Clean Coal Technology powerplants, 5 each ICGCC and PFBC systems is recommended in order to establish the commercial viability of these systems by 2010. By utilizing a decreasing incentives approach as the technologies mature (plants 1--5 of each type), and considering the additional federal government benefits of these plants versus natural gas fired combined cycle powerplants, federal government net financial exposure is minimized. Annual net incentive outlays of approximately 150 million annually over a 20 year period could be necessary. Based on increased demand for Advanced Clean Coal Technologies beyond 2010, the federal government would be revenue neutral within 10 years of the incentives program completion.

  5. Financial Incentives to Enable Clean Energy Deployment: Policy Overview and Good Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, Sadie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-02-24

    Financial incentives have been widely implemented by governments around the world to support scaled up deployment of renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies and practices. As of 2015, at least 48 countries have adopted financial incentives to support renewable energy and energy efficiency deployment. Broader clean energy strategies and plans provide a crucial foundation for financial incentives that often complement regulatory policies such as renewable energy targets, standards, and other mandates. This policy brief provides a primer on key financial incentive design elements, lessons from different country experiences, and curated support resources for more detailed and country-specific financial incentive design information.

  6. Market structure and technology diffusion incentives under emission taxes and emission reduction subsidies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, F.P.

    2007-01-01

    This paper compares emission taxes with emission reduction subsidies regarding the incentives they create to enhance technology diffusion under imperfect competition. Finns can adopt a "dirty" technology or a "clean" abatement technology. If the clean and dirty products are perfect substitutes, and

  7. Output-based allocation and investment in clean technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosendahl, Knut Einar; Storroesten, Halvor Briseid

    2011-07-01

    Allocation of emission allowances may affect firms' incentives to invest in clean technologies. In this paper we show that so-called output-based allocation tends to stimulate such investments as long as individual firms do not assume the regulator to tighten the allocation rule as a consequence of their investments. The explanation is that output-based allocation creates an implicit subsidy to the firms' output, which increases production, leads to a higher price of allowances, and thus increases the incentives to invest in clean technologies. On the other hand, if the firms expect the regulator to tighten the allocation rule after observing their clean technology investment, the firms' incentives to invest are moderated. If strong, this last effect may outweigh the enhanced investment incentives induced by increased output and higher allowance price. (Author)

  8. Air Cleaning Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective This health technology policy assessment will answer the following questions: When should in-room air cleaners be used? How effective are in-room air cleaners? Are in-room air cleaners that use combined HEPA and UVGI air cleaning technology more effective than those that use HEPA filtration alone? What is the Plasmacluster ion air purifier in the pandemic influenza preparation plan? The experience of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) locally, nationally, and internationally underscored the importance of administrative, environmental, and personal protective infection control measures in health care facilities. In the aftermath of the SARS crisis, there was a need for a clearer understanding of Ontario’s capacity to manage suspected or confirmed cases of airborne infectious diseases. In so doing, the Walker Commission thought that more attention should be paid to the potential use of new technologies such as in-room air cleaning units. It recommended that the Medical Advisory Secretariat of the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care evaluate the appropriate use and effectiveness of such new technologies. Accordingly, the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee asked the Medical Advisory Secretariat to review the literature on the effectiveness and utility of in-room air cleaners that use high-efficiency particle air (HEPA) filters and ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) air cleaning technology. Additionally, the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee prioritized a request from the ministry’s Emergency Management Unit to investigate the possible role of the Plasmacluster ion air purifier manufactured by Sharp Electronics Corporation, in the pandemic influenza preparation plan. Clinical Need Airborne transmission of infectious diseases depends in part on the concentration of breathable infectious pathogens (germs) in room air. Infection control is achieved by a combination of administrative, engineering

  9. Clean coal technologies market potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drazga, B. (ed.)

    2007-01-30

    Looking at the growing popularity of these technologies and of this industry, the report presents an in-depth analysis of all the various technologies involved in cleaning coal and protecting the environment. It analyzes upcoming and present day technologies such as gasification, combustion, and others. It looks at the various technological aspects, economic aspects, and the various programs involved in promoting these emerging green technologies. Contents: Industry background; What is coal?; Historical background of coal; Composition of coal; Types of coal; Environmental effects of coal; Managing wastes from coal; Introduction to clean coal; What is clean coal?; Byproducts of clean coal; Uses of clean coal; Support and opposition; Price of clean coal; Examining clean coal technologies; Coal washing; Advanced pollution control systems; Advanced power generating systems; Pulverized coal combustion (PCC); Carbon capture and storage; Capture and separation of carbon dioxide; Storage and sequestration of carbon dioxide; Economics and research and development; Industry initiatives; Clean Coal Power Initiative; Clean Coal Technology Program; Coal21; Outlook; Case Studies.

  10. Regional Effort to Deploy Clean Coal Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald Hill; Kenneth Nemeth; Gary Garrett; Kimberly Sams

    2009-01-31

    The Southern States Energy Board's (SSEB) 'Regional Effort to Deploy Clean Coal Technologies' program began on June 1, 2003, and was completed on January 31, 2009. The project proved beneficial in providing state decision-makers with information that assisted them in removing barriers or implementing incentives to deploy clean coal technologies. This was accomplished through two specific tasks: (1) domestic energy security and diversity; and (2) the energy-water interface. Milestones accomplished during the project period are: (1) Presentations to Annual Meetings of SSEB Members, Associate Member Meetings, and the Gasification Technologies Council. (2) Energy: Water reports - (A) Regional Efforts to Deploy Clean Coal Technologies: Impacts and Implications for Water Supply and Quality. June 2004. (B) Energy-Water Interface Challenges: Coal Bed Methane and Mine Pool Water Characterization in the Southern States Region. 2004. (C) Freshwater Availability and Constraints on Thermoelectric Power Generation in the Southeast U.S. June 2008. (3) Blackwater Interactive Tabletop Exercise - Decatur, Georgia April 2007. (4) Blackwater Report: Blackwater: Energy and Water Interdependency Issues: Best Practices and Lessons Learned. August 2007. (5) Blackwater Report: BLACKWATER: Energy Water Interdependency Issues REPORT SUMMARY. April 2008.

  11. Wanted: Clean Coal Burning Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    China is intent on developing clean coal burning technology, an objective it can achieve through installing desulfurization facilities at coal-burning power plants that will control SO2 emissions and environmental pollution. According to kuo Yi, deputy director general of the Department of Science and Technology of the State Environmental Protection Agency, China is a major coal-buming country:

  12. Appalachian clean coal technology consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutz, K.; Yoon, Roe-Hoan [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The Appalachian Clean Coal Technology Consortium (ACCTC) has been established to help U.S. coal producers, particularly those in the Appalachian region, increase the production of lower-sulfur coal. The cooperative research conducted as part of the consortium activities will help utilities meet the emissions standards established by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, enhance the competitiveness of U.S. coals in the world market, create jobs in economically-depressed coal producing regions, and reduce U.S. dependence on foreign energy supplies. The research activities will be conducted in cooperation with coal companies, equipment manufacturers, and A&E firms working in the Appalachian coal fields. This approach is consistent with President Clinton`s initiative in establishing Regional Technology Alliances to meet regional needs through technology development in cooperation with industry. The consortium activities are complementary to the High-Efficiency Preparation program of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, but are broader in scope as they are inclusive of technology developments for both near-term and long-term applications, technology transfer, and training a highly-skilled work force.

  13. Examination of incentive mechanisms for innovative technologies applicable to utility and nonutility power generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDermott, K.A. [Illinois Commerce Commission, Springfield, IL (United States); Bailey, K.A.; South, D.W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment and Information Sciences Div.

    1993-08-01

    Innovative technologies, built by either utility or nonutility power generators, have the potential to lower costs with less environmental emissions than conventional technologies. However, the public-good nature of information, along with uncertain costs, performance, and reliability, discourages rapid adoption of these technologies. The effect of regulation of electricity production may also have an adverse impact on motivation to innovate. Slower penetration of cleaner, more efficient technologies could result in greater levels of pollution, higher electricity prices, and a reduction in international competitiveness. Regulatory incentives could encourage adoption and deployment of innovative technologies of all kinds, inducting clean coal technologies. Such incentives must be designed to offset risks inherent in innovative technology and encourage cost-effective behavior. To evaluate innovative and conventional technologies equally, the incremental cost of risk (ICR) of adopting the innovative technology must be determined. Through the ICR, the magnitude of incentive required to make a utility (or nonutility) power generator equally motivated to use either conventional or innovative technologies can be derived. Two technology risks are examined: A construction risk, represented by a 15% cost overrun, and an operating risk, represented by a increased forced outage rate (decreased capacity factor). Different incentive mechanisms and measurement criteria are used to assess the effects of these risks on ratepayers and shareholders. In most cases, a regulatory incentive could offset the perceived risks while encouraging cost-effective behavior by both utility and nonutility power generators. Not only would the required incentive be recouped, but the revenue requirements would be less for the innovative technology; also, less environmental pollution would be generated. In the long term, ratepayers and society would benefit from innovative technologies.

  14. Clean Technology Evaluation & Workforce Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patricia Glaza

    2012-12-01

    The overall objective of the Clean Technology Evaluation portion of the award was to design a process to speed up the identification of new clean energy technologies and match organizations to testing and early adoption partners. The project was successful in identifying new technologies targeted to utilities and utility technology integrators, in developing a process to review and rank the new technologies, and in facilitating new partnerships for technology testing and adoption. The purpose of the Workforce Development portion of the award was to create an education outreach program for middle & high-school students focused on clean technology science and engineering. While originally targeting San Diego, California and Cambridge, Massachusetts, the scope of the program was expanded to include a major clean technology speaking series and expo as part of the USA Science & Engineering Festival on the National Mall in Washington, D.C.

  15. Clean Coal Technology Programs: Program Update 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of the Clean Coal Technology Programs: Program Update 2009 is to provide an updated status of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) commercial-scale demonstrations of clean coal technologies (CCT). These demonstrations have been performed under the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP), the Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPII), and the Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI). Program Update 2009 provides: (1) a discussion of the role of clean coal technology demonstrations in improving the nation’s energy security and reliability, while protecting the environment using the nation’s most abundant energy resource—coal; (2) a summary of the funding and costs of the demonstrations; and (3) an overview of the technologies being demonstrated, along with fact sheets for projects that are active, recently completed, or recently discontinued.

  16. State perspectives on clean coal technology deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreland, T. [State of Illinois Washington Office, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    State governments have been funding partners in the Clean Coal Technology program since its beginnings. Today, regulatory and market uncertainties and tight budgets have reduced state investment in energy R and D, but states have developed program initiatives in support of deployment. State officials think that the federal government must continue to support these technologies in the deployment phase. Discussions of national energy policy must include attention to the Clean Coal Technology program and its accomplishments.

  17. MEMS and Nano-Technology Clean Room

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The MEMS and Nano-Technology Clean Room is a state-of-the-art, 800 square foot, Class 1000-capable facility used for development of micro and sub-micro scale sensors...

  18. Battery Technology Stores Clean Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Headquartered in Fremont, California, Deeya Energy Inc. is now bringing its flow batteries to commercial customers around the world after working with former Marshall Space Flight Center scientist, Lawrence Thaller. Deeya's liquid-cell batteries have higher power capability than Thaller's original design, are less expensive than lead-acid batteries, are a clean energy alternative, and are 10 to 20 times less expensive than nickel-metal hydride batteries, lithium-ion batteries, and fuel cell options.

  19. Clean Coal Technologies - Accelerating Commerical and Policy Drivers for Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Coal is and will remain the world's most abundant and widely distributed fossil fuel. Burning coal, however, can pollute and it produces carbon dioxide. Clean coal technologies address this problem. The widespread deployment of pollution-control equipment to reduce sulphur dioxide, Nox and dust emissions from industry is just one example which has brought cleaner air to many countries. Since the 1970s, various policy and regulatory measures have created a growing commercial market for these clean coal technologies, with the result that costs have fallen and performance has improved. More recently, the need to tackle rising CO2 emissions to address climate change means that clean coal technologies now extend to include those for CO2 capture and storage (CCS). This short report from the IEA Coal Industry Advisory Board (CIAB) presents industry's considered recommendations on how to accelerate the development and deployment of this important group of new technologies and to grasp their very signifi cant potential to reduce emissions from coal use. It identifies an urgent need to make progress with demonstration projects and prove the potential of CCS through government-industry partnerships. Its commercialisation depends upon a clear legal and regulatory framework,public acceptance and market-based financial incentives. For the latter, the CIAB favours cap-and-trade systems, price supports and mandatory feed-in tariffs, as well as inclusion of CCS in the Kyoto Protocol's Clean Development Mechanism to create demand in developing economies where coal use is growing most rapidly. This report offers a unique insight into the thinking of an industry that recognises both the threats and growing opportunities for coal in a carbon constrained world.

  20. The influence and ethics of interest groups on policy incentives for clean energy development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Mariana C.

    The clean energy revolution in the United States is not going to happen until diverse stakeholders in the coalition of clean energy proponents strengthen their cohesion and influence—two critical tools for interest group's to be successful in driving the formulation of public policy. Currently, clean energy technology and resource development is supported by a highly diverse coalition of interest groups such as environmental groups, health organizations, industry, and the Defense Department, whose primary goals are often unrelated. Yet their objectives are increasingly well served by pursuing clean energy development by pushing lawmakers for supportive policies. However, characteristics of this ad hoc coalition can hinder its influence and cohesion. Whereas, fossil fuel interests—exemplified by the coalition of oil proponents—are highly cohesive and influential. This thesis will analyze whether there is a correlation between public policies on clean energy, and the strength of interest group influence over those policy decisions. It will begin with an analysis of interest group theories. Next it will analyze the histories of the oil industry as the model opponent of clean energy policies, and the biofuels, wind energy, and solar energy industries as the model proponents of clean energy policies. The composition of the respective coalitions will reveal if they are diverse or similar, with broad or narrow goals, and other important characteristics. Their respective policy positions and messages will show what values are important to them, and the presidential support each coalition has been achieved, or failed to achieve, will provide further insight into their effectiveness. This thesis will then apply interest group theories to the supporter and opponent coalitions. Results obtained indicate that the coalition of oil interests is large, yet very cohesive and influential, while the coalition for clean energy is large, generally diffuse but with some important

  1. Advanced clean coal utilization technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moritomi, Hiroshi [National Inst. for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    The most important greenhouse gas is CO{sub 2} from coal utilization. Ways of mitigating CO{sub 2} emissions include the use of alternative fuels, using renewable resources and increasing the efficiency of power generation and end use. Adding to such greenhouse gas mitigation technologies, post combustion control by removing CO{sub 2} from power station flue gases and then storing or disposing it will be available. Although the post combustion control have to be evaluated in a systematic manner relating them to whether they are presently available technology, to be available in the near future or long term prospects requiring considerable development, it is considered to be a less promising option owing to the high cost and energy penalty. By contrast, abatement technologies aimed at improving conversion efficiency or reducing energy consumption will reduce emissions while having their own commercial justification.

  2. Clean coal technology: Export finance programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-30

    Participation by US firms in the development of Clean Coal. Technology (CCT) projects in foreign countries will help the United States achieve multiple national objectives simultaneously--addressing critical goals related to energy, environmental technology, industrial competitiveness and international trade. US participation in these projects will result in an improved global environment, an improvement in the balance of payments and an increase in US jobs. Meanwhile, host countries will benefit from the development of economically- and environmentally-sound power facilities. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (Public Law 101-549, Section 409) as supplemented by a requirement in the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (Public Law 102-486, Section 1331(f)) requires that the Secretary of Energy, acting through the Trade Promotion Coordinating Committee Subgroup on Clean Coal Technologies, submit a report to Congress with information on the status of recommendations made in the US Department of Energy, Clean Coal Technology Export Programs, Report to the United States Congress, February 1992. Specific emphasis is placed on the adequacy of financial assistance for export of CCTS. This report fulfills the requirements of the Act. In addition, although this report focuses on CCT power projects, the issues it raises about the financing of these projects are also relevant to other CCT projects such as industrial applications or coal preparation, as well as to a much broader range of energy and environmental technology projects worldwide.

  3. Environmental issues affecting clean coal technology deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, M.J. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The author outlines what he considers to be the key environmental issues affecting Clean Coal Technology (CCT) deployment both in the US and internationally. Since the international issues are difficult to characterize given different environmental drivers in various countries and regions, the primary focus of his remarks is on US deployment. However, he makes some general remarks, particularly regarding the environmental issues in developing vs. developed countries and how these issues may affect CCT deployment. Further, how environment affects deployment depends on which particular type of clean coal technology one is addressing. It is not the author`s intention to mention many specific technologies other than to use them for the purposes of example. He generally categorizes CCTs into four groups since environment is likely to affect deployment for each category somewhat differently. These four categories are: Precombustion technologies such as coal cleaning; Combustion technologies such as low NOx burners; Postcombustion technologies such as FGD systems and postcombustion NOx control; and New generation technologies such as gasification and fluidized bed combustion.

  4. ANALYSIS ON TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESSES CLEANING OIL PIPELINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana PǍTRAŞCU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the researches are presented concerning the technological processes of oil pipelines.We know several technologies and materials used for cleaning the sludge deposits, iron and manganese oxides, dross, stone, etc.de on the inner walls of drinking water pipes or industries.For the oil industry, methods of removal of waste materials and waste pipes and liquid and gas transport networks are operations known long, tedious and expensive. The main methods and associated problems can be summarized as follows: 1 Blowing with compressed air.2 manual or mechanical brushing, sanding with water or dry.3 Wash with water jet of high pressure, solvent or chemical solution to remove the stone and hard deposits.4 The combined methods of cleaning machines that use water jets, cutters, chains, rotary heads cutters, etc.

  5. Alternative Solvents and Technologies for Precision Cleaning of Aerospace Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandelli, Heather; Maloney, Phillip; DeVor, Robert; Hintze, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Precision cleaning solvents for aerospace components and oxygen fuel systems, including currently used Vertrel-MCA, have a negative environmental legacy, high global warming potential, and have polluted cleaning sites. Thus, alternative solvents and technologies are being investigated with the aim of achieving precision contamination levels of less than 1 mg/sq ft. The technologies being evaluated are ultrasonic bath cleaning, plasma cleaning and supercritical carbon dioxide cleaning.

  6. Clean Cast Steel Technology - Machinability and Technology Transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. E. Bates; J. A. Griffin

    2000-05-01

    There were two main tasks in the Clean Cast Steel Technology - Machinability and Technology Transfer Project. These were (1) determine the processing facts that control the machinability of cast steel and (2) determine the ability of ladle stirring to homogenize ladle temperature, reduce the tap and pouring temperatures, and reduce casting scrap.

  7. Clean fuel technology for world energy security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunjay, Sunjay

    2010-09-15

    Clean fuel technology is the integral part of geoengineering and green engineering with a view to global warming mitigation. Optimal utilization of natural resources coal and integration of coal & associated fuels with hydrocarbon exploration and development activities is pertinent task before geoscientist with evergreen energy vision with a view to energy security & sustainable development. Value added technologies Coal gasification,underground coal gasification & surface coal gasification converts solid coal into a gas that can be used for power generation, chemical production, as well as the option of being converted into liquid fuels.

  8. Clean coal technology: The new coal era

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    The Clean Coal Technology Program is a government and industry cofunded effort to demonstrate a new generation of innovative coal processes in a series of full-scale showcase`` facilities built across the country. Begun in 1986 and expanded in 1987, the program is expected to finance more than $6.8 billion of projects. Nearly two-thirds of the funding will come from the private sector, well above the 50 percent industry co-funding expected when the program began. The original recommendation for a multi-billion dollar clean coal demonstration program came from the US and Canadian Special Envoys on Acid Rain. In January 1986, Special Envoys Lewis and Davis presented their recommendations. Included was the call for a 5-year, $5-billion program in the US to demonstrate, at commercial scale, innovative clean coal technologies that were beginning to emerge from research programs both in the US and elsewhere in the world. As the Envoys said: if the menu of control options was expanded, and if the new options were significantly cheaper, yet highly efficient, it would be easier to formulate an acid rain control plan that would have broader public appeal.

  9. Framework for Evaluating the Total Value Proposition of Clean Energy Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pater, J. E.

    2006-02-01

    Conventional valuation techniques fail to include many of the financial advantages of clean energy technologies. By omitting benefits associated with risk management, emissions reductions, policy incentives, resource use, corporate social responsibility, and societal economic benefits, investors and firms sacrifice opportunities for new revenue streams and avoided costs. In an effort to identify some of these externalities, this analysis develops a total value proposition for clean energy technologies. It incorporates a series of values under each of the above categories, describing the opportunities for recapturing investments throughout the value chain. The framework may be used to create comparable value propositions for clean energy technologies supporting investment decisions, project siting, and marketing strategies. It can also be useful in policy-making decisions.

  10. Going clean : new technology makes coal greener

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, H.

    2007-09-15

    As a widely distributed and reliable resource, coal has played an important role in industrial development. At a cost of less than US $2.00 per GJ, coal will remain a valuable resource as the demand for energy increases. The science of clean coal technology is proven and applications are being formed, particularly in carbon dioxide sequestration. Examples of clean coal technology include oxy-fuel combustion, amine scrubbing and coal gasification. All these approaches produce energy while emitting CO{sub 2} gas that is relatively pure and can be easily captured for storage, thereby preventing emissions to the atmosphere. The Canadian Clean Power Coalition has determined that coal gasification has considerable potential in Canada, particularly since Alberta sits above some of the largest coal and oil reserves in the world. Gasification involves heating up a coal feedstock at high temperatures and pressure, in the presence of water in the form of steam. Synthesis gas and hydrogen are produced in the process. The produced CO{sub 2} is concentrated in a way that makes it relatively easy to capture and sequester in the earth or used to enhance the recovery of oil from depleted oil wells. In addition to coal, there are numerous other carbon-based materials that can be gasified, including bitumens, bitumen residuals or petroleum coke. Studies have shown that Alberta's sub-bituminous coal is an ideal candidate for gasification. There are industries in Alberta that need hydrogen for feedstock, and the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin provides a vast storage for pure CO{sub 2}. It was concluded that gasification is the only current technology that will have the ability to significantly reduce the amount of greenhouse gases released into the atmosphere from fossil fuels. The greatest challenge is the capital cost of building the coal gasification facilities. 4 figs.

  11. Research of laser cleaning technology for steam generator tubing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Suixa; Luo, Jijun; Xu, Jun; Yuan, Bo

    2010-10-01

    Surface cleaning based on the laser-induced breakdown of gas and subsequent shock wave generation can remove small particles from solid surfaces. Accordingly, several studies in steam generator tubes of nuclear power plants were performed to expand the cleaning capability of the process. In this work, experimental apparatus of laser cleaning was designed in order to clean heat tubes in steam generator. The laser cleaning process is monitored by analyzing acoustic emission signal experimentally. Experiments demonstrate that laser cleaning can remove smaller particles from the surface of steam generator tubes better than other cleaning process. It has advantages in saving on much manpower and material resource, and it is a good cleaning method for heat tubes, which can be real-time monitoring in laser cleaning process of heat tubes by AE signal. As a green cleaning process, laser cleaning technology in equipment maintenance will be a good prospect.

  12. Separations Technology for Clean Water and Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvinen, Gordon D [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-22

    Providing clean water and energy for about nine billion people on the earth by midcentury is a daunting challenge. Major investments in efficiency of energy and water use and deployment of all economical energy sources will be needed. Separations technology has an important role to play in producing both clean energy and water. Some examples are carbon dioxide capture and sequestration from fossil energy power plants and advanced nuclear fuel cycle scemes. Membrane separations systems are under development to improve the economics of carbon capture that would be required at a huge scale. For nuclear fuel cycles, only the PUREX liquid-liquid extraction process has been deployed on a large scale to recover uranium and plutonium from used fuel. Most current R and D on separations technology for used nuclear fuel focuses on ehhancements to a PUREX-type plant to recover the minor actinides (neptunium, americiu, and curium) and more efficiently disposition the fission products. Are there more efficient routes to recycle the actinides on the horizon? Some new approaches and barriers to development will be briefly reviewed.

  13. Clean cast steel technology. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, C.E.; Griffin, J.A.

    1998-06-01

    This report documents the results obtained from the Clean Cast Steel Technology Program financially supported by the DOE Metal Casting Competitiveness Research Program and industry. The primary objective of this program is to develop technology for delivering steel free of oxide macroinclusions to mold cavities. The overall objective is to improve the quality of cast steel by developing and demonstrating the technology for substantially reducing surface and sub-surface oxide inclusions. Two approaches are discussed here. A total of 23 castings were produced by submerge pouring along with sixty conventionally poured castings. The submerged poured castings contained, on average, 96% fewer observable surface inclusions (11.9 vs 0.4) compared to the conventionally poured cast parts. The variation in the population of surface inclusions also decreased by 88% from 5.5 to 0.7. The machinability of the casting was also improved by submerged pouring. The submerge poured castings required fewer cutting tool changes and less operator intervention during machining. Subsequent to these trials, the foundry has decided to purchase more shrouds for continued experimentation on other problem castings where submerge pouring is possible. An examination of melting and pouring practices in four foundries has been carried out. Three of the four foundries showed significant improvement in casting quality by manipulating the melting practice. These melting practice variables can be grouped into two separate categories. The first category is the pouring and filling practice. The second category concerns the concentration of oxidizable elements contained in the steel. Silicon, manganese, and aluminum concentrations were important factors in all four foundries. Clean heats can consistently be produced through improved melting practice and reducing exposure of the steel to atmospheric oxygen during pouring and filling.

  14. Mesoporous materials for clean energy technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Noemi; Silvestre-Albero, Ana M; Serrano, Elena; Silvestre-Albero, Joaquín; García-Martínez, Javier

    2014-11-21

    Alternative energy technologies are greatly hindered by significant limitations in materials science. From low activity to poor stability, and from mineral scarcity to high cost, the current materials are not able to cope with the significant challenges of clean energy technologies. However, recent advances in the preparation of nanomaterials, porous solids, and nanostructured solids are providing hope in the race for a better, cleaner energy production. The present contribution critically reviews the development and role of mesoporosity in a wide range of technologies, as this provides for critical improvements in accessibility, the dispersion of the active phase and a higher surface area. Relevant examples of the development of mesoporosity by a wide range of techniques are provided, including the preparation of hierarchical structures with pore systems in different scale ranges. Mesoporosity plays a significant role in catalysis, especially in the most challenging processes where bulky molecules, like those obtained from biomass or highly unreactive species, such as CO2 should be transformed into most valuable products. Furthermore, mesoporous materials also play a significant role as electrodes in fuel and solar cells and in thermoelectric devices, technologies which are benefiting from improved accessibility and a better dispersion of materials with controlled porosity.

  15. METC Clean Coal Technology status -- 1995 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, L.K.

    1995-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program is assisting the private sector by funding demonstration programs to validate that CCT technologies are a low-risk, environmentally attractive, cost-competitive option for utility and industrial users. Since 1987, DOE has awarded 45 CCT projects worth a total value of $7 billion (including more than $2.3 billion of DOE funding). Within the CCT Program, the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) is responsible for 17 advanced power generation systems and major industrial applications. METC is an active partner in advancement of these technologies via direct CCT funding and via close cooperation and coordination of internal and external research and development activities. By their nature, METC projects are typically 6-10 years in duration and, in some cases, very complex in nature. However, as a result of strong commercial partnerships, progress in the development and commercialization of major utility and industrial projects has, and will continue to occur. It is believed that advanced power generation systems and industrial applications are on the brink of commercial deployment. A status of METC CCT activities will be presented. Two projects have completed their operational phase, operations are underway at one project (two others are in the latter stages of construction/shakedown), four projects are in construction, six restructured. Also, present a snapshot of development activities that are an integral part of the advancement of these CCT initiatives will be presented.

  16. Legal and institutional implications of providing financial incentives to encourage the development of solar technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyatt, R. J.

    1979-07-01

    The legal basis to provide financial incentives is found in the enumerated powers of the Constitution for the exercise of federal authority, the police and tax powers for the exercise of state authority, and state delegated powers for the exercise of local authority. These powers are limited by the federal and state constitutions, and the scope of delegated authority. The major types of financial incentives are tax incentives, including income tax deductions and credits, accelerated depreciation allowances, tax-exempt bonds, and reduction in property and sales taxes; loan incentives, including low interest loans, government guaranteed and insured loans, and elimination of statutory and secondary market constraints; and government transfer incentives, including grants in aid from all levels of government. Other incentives that will indirectly affect the financing and availability of solar energy technologies include eliminating or reducing financial incentives benefiting competitive energy sources, government action to insure the operation of solar energy equipment, government-sponsored education, research, and development programs, government demonstration and procurement programs, and placing priority on rapid passage of solar energy legislation dealing with financial incentives. In most cases, a financial incentives program constituting one or more of these incentives will probably not confront any major, unique, legal or institutional impediments. The minor impediments that do exist can usually be eliminated by preventive legislation.

  17. Clean Cast Steel Technology, Phase IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles E. Bates

    2003-02-24

    The objective of the Clean Cast Steel Technology Program was to improve casting product quality by removing or minimizing oxide defects and to allow the production of higher integrity castings for high speed machining lines. Previous research has concentrated on macro-inclusions that break, chip, or crack machine tool cutters and drills and cause immediate shutdown of the machining lines. The overall goal of the project is to reduce the amount of surface macro-inclusions and improve the machinability of steel castings. Macro-inclusions and improve the machinability of steel castings. Macro-inclusions have been identified by industrial sponsors as a major barrier to improving the quality and marketability of steel castings.

  18. Clean Coal Technology Programs: Completed Projects (Volume 2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy

    2003-12-01

    Annual report on the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP), Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPII), and Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI). The report addresses the roles of the programs, implementation, funding and costs, project descriptions, legislative history, program history, environmental aspects, and project contacts. The project descriptions describe the technology and provides a brief summary of the demonstration results.

  19. Clean Coal Technology Programs: Program Update 2003 (Volume 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy

    2003-12-01

    Annual report on the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP), Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPII), and Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI). The report addresses the roles of the programs, implementation, funding and costs, project descriptions, legislative history, program history, environmental aspects, and project contacts. The project descriptions describe the technology and provides a brief summary of the demonstration results.

  20. Emerging forward osmosis (FO) technologies and challenges ahead for clean water and clean energy applications

    KAUST Repository

    Chung, Tai-Shung

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this short review is to share our understanding and perspectives with the chemical, environmental, water and osmotic power communities on FO processes in order to conduct meaningful R & D and develop effective and sustainable FO technologies for clean water and clean energy. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Milliken Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Project. Project performance summary, Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2002-11-30

    The New York State Electric & Gas Corporation (NYSEG) demonstrated a combination of technologies at its Milliken Station in Lansing, New York, designed to: (1) achieve high sulfur dioxide (SO2) capture efficiency, (2) bring nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions into compliance with Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA), (3) maintain high station efficiency, and (4) eliminate waste water discharge. This project is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP) established to address energy and environmental concerns related to coal use. DOE sought cost-shared partnerships with industry through five nationally competed solicitations to accelerate commercialization of the most promising advance coal-based power generation and pollution control technologies. The CCTDP, valued at over five billion dollars, has significantly leveraged federal funding by forging effective partnerships founded on sound principles. For every federal dollar invested, CCTDP participants have invested two dollars. These participants include utilities, technology developers, state governments, and research organizations. The project presented here was one of nine selected in January 1991 from 33 proposals submitted in response to the program's fourth solicitation.

  2. Incentives and technologies for improving irrigation water use efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruggeman, Adriana; Djuma, Hakan; Giannakis, Elias; Eliades, Marinos

    2014-05-01

    The European Water Framework Directive requires Member States to set water prices that provide adequate incentives for users to use water resources efficiently. These new water pricing policies need to consider cost recovery of water services, including financial, environmental and resource cost. Prices were supposed to have been set by 2010. So far the record has been mixed. The European Commission has sent reasoned opinions to a number of countries (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Netherlands, Sweden) requesting them to adjust their national legislation to include all water services. Unbalanced water pricing may negatively affect the agricultural sector, especially in the southern EU countries, which are more dependent on irrigation water for production. The European Commission is funding several projects that aim to reduce the burden of increasing water prices on farmers by developing innovative technologies and decision support systems that will save water and increase productivity. The FP7 ENORASIS project (grant 282949) has developed a new integrated irrigation management decision support platform, which include high-resolution, ensemble weather forecasting, a GIS widget for the location of fields and sensors and a comprehensive decision support and database management software package to optimize irrigation water management. The field component includes wireless, solar-powered soil moisture sensors, small weather stations, and remotely controlled irrigation valves. A mobile App and a web-package are providing user-friendly interfaces for farmers, water companies and environmental consultants. In Cyprus, agricultural water prices have been set to achieve a cost recovery rate of 54% (2010). The pricing policy takes in consideration the social importance and financial viability of the agricultural sector, an important flexibility provided by the Water Framework Directive. The new price was set at 0.24 euro per m3 for water supply

  3. New stage of clean coal technology in Japan; Clean coal technology no aratana tenkai ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawaguchi, Y. [Agency of Natural Resources and Energy, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-09-01

    The paper described the positioning and new development of clean coal technology. Coal is an important resource which supplies approximately 30% of the energy consumed in all the world. In the Asian/Pacific region, especially, a share of coal in energy is high, around 60% of the world, and it is indispensable to continue using coal which is abundantly reserved. Japan continues using coal as an important energy among petroleum substituting energies taking consideration of the global environment, and is making efforts for development and promotion of clean coal technology aiming at further reduction of environmental loads. Moreover, in the Asian region where petroleum depends greatly upon outside the region, it is extremely important for stabilization of Japan`s energy supply that coal producing countries in the region promote development/utilization of their coal resources. For this, it is a requirement for Japan to further a coal policy having an outlook of securing stable coal supply/demand in the Asian region. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Technology: New Ways for Clean Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Amanda S.

    2012-01-01

    Water purification promotes healthy living. While the developing world is working to provide its citizens with future access to clean water sources, the demand for that water is a pressing need today. It should be understood that drinking water, sanitation, and hygiene are interwoven and are all necessary for the overall improved standard of…

  5. Revolution Now: The Future Arrives for Four Clean Energy Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillemann, Levi; Beck, Fredric; Brodrick, James; Brown, Austin; Feldman, David; Nguyen, Tien; Ward, Jacob

    2013-09-17

    For decades, America has anticipated the transformational impact of clean energy technologies. But even as costs fell and technology matured, a clean energy revolution always seemed just out of reach. Critics often said a clean energy future would "always be five years away." This report focuses on four technology revolutions that are here today. In the last five years they have achieved dramatic reductions in cost and this has been accompanied by a surge in consumer, industrial and commercial deployment. Although these four technologies still represent a small percentage of their total market, they are growing rapidly. The four key technologies this report focuses on are: onshore wind power, polysilicon photovoltaic modules, LED lighting, and electric vehicles.

  6. TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT OF TIRE MOULD CLEANING SYSTEMS AND QUALITY FINISHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Fragassa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A modern tire merges up to 300 different chemical elements, both organic and inorganic, natural and synthetic. During manufacturing, various processes are present such as mixing, calendering and extrusion, forming dozens of individual parts. Then, moulding and vulcanization inside special moulds provides the tire its final shape. Since the surface quality of moulds strongly affects the quality of tire, mould cleaning is a fundamental aspect of the whole tire production and cleaning techniques are in continuous development. This investigation proposes a global technology assessment of tire mould cleaning systems including uncommon solutions as multi-axis robots for cleaning on board by laser or dry ice, or ultrasonic cleaning which use cavitation. A specific attention is also focused on the industry adoption of spring-vents in moulds and how they are influencing the development the quality of final products.

  7. Sustainable development, clean technology and knowledge from industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokolović Slobodan M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Clean technology or clean production is the most important factor for the economic growth of a society and it will play the main role not only in the area of cleaner production, but also in sustainable development. The development of clean technology will be the main factor of the company’s strategy in the future. Each company, which wants to reach the competitive position at the market and wants to be environmentally friendly, has to accept the new approach in corporate management and the strategy of new clean technology. The main principles of clean technology are based on the concept of maximum resource and energy productivity and virtually no waste. This approach may be limited by human resources and the level of their environmental knowledge. Companies are committed to the development of the workers’ skills, and thus to the improvement of the company for the full implementation of the environmental legislation and clean production concept. Based on this commitment, one of Tempus projects is designed to improve the university-enterprise cooperation in the process of creating sustainable industry in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. To achieve this goal, partner universities will create special courses on sustainable industry and thus enhance the lifelong learning process and cooperation between industry and universities in the Western Balkan countries.

  8. Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program: Program Update 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy

    1999-03-01

    Annual report on the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCT Program). The report address the role of the CCT Program, implementation, funding and costs, accomplishments, project descriptions, legislative history, program history, environmental aspects, and project contacts. The project descriptions describe the technology and provides a brief summary of the demonstration results.

  9. Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program: Program Update 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy

    2001-04-01

    Annual report on the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCT Program). The report address the role of the CCT Program, implementation, funding and costs, accomplishments, project descriptions, legislative history, program history, environmental aspects, and project contacts. The project descriptions describe the technology and provides a brief summary of the demonstration results.

  10. Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program: Program Update 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy

    2002-07-30

    Annual report on the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCT Program). The report address the role of the CCT Program, implementation, funding and costs, accomplishments, project descriptions, legislative history, program history, environmental aspects, and project contacts. The project descriptions describe the technology and provides a brief summary of the demonstration results. Also includes Power Plant Improvement Initiative Projects.

  11. Clean Economy, Living Planet. The Race to the Top of Global Clean Energy Technology Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Slot, A.; Van den Berg, W. [Roland Berger Strategy Consultants RBSC, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-05-15

    For four years, WWF and Roland Berger have tracked developments in the global clean energy technology (cleantech) sector and ranked countries according to their cleantech sales. The 3rd annual 'Clean Economy, Living Planet' report ranks 40 countries based on the 2011 sales value of the clean energy technology products they manufacture. The report shows that the EU has lost its position to China as the leader in the fast growing global cleantech energy manufacturing sector. However, when cleantech sales are weighted as a percentage of GDP, Denmark and Germany occupied the first and third position globally. Last year the sector's global sales value rose by 10% to almost 200 billion euros, close to the scale of consumer electronics manufacturing. It is projected to overtake oil and gas equipment in the next three years.

  12. Hydrogenation Technology for Producing Clean Diesel Fuel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Shuiyin; Xiong Zhenlin; Gao Xiaodong; Nie Hong

    2004-01-01

    With the standard of environmental protection becoming increasingly strict, it is required to remove sulfur and aromatics in diesel deeply. RIPP has developed several new hydrogenation catalysts and flexible processes, by means of which clean diesel fuel with low sulfur and low aromatic contents can be produced. From SRGO (Straight Run Gas Oil), which has an aromatic content of less than 30m%, a low sulfur and low aromatic diesel fuel or ultra-low sulfur diesel can be obtained by adopting a new process operating on highly active RN-series catalysts. From a feed with higher aromatic content (A=30~80m%),such as FCC-LCO, a low sulfur and low aromatic diesel fuel can be obtained by the SSHT, MHUG and DDA processes.

  13. Fundamentals of air cleaning technology and its application in cleanrooms

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Zhonglin

    2014-01-01

    Fundamentals of Air Cleaning Technology and Its Application in Cleanrooms sets up the theoretical framework for cleanrooms. New ideas and methods are presented, which include the characteristic index of cleanrooms, uniform and non-uniform distribution characteristics, the minimum sampling volume, a new concept of outdoor air conditioning and the fundamentals of leakage-preventing layers. Written by an author who can look back on major scientific achievements and 50 years of experience in this field, this book offers a concise and accessible introduction to the fundamentals of air cleaning technology and its application. The work is intended for researchers, college teachers, graduates, designers, technicians and corporate R&D personnel in the field of HVAC and air cleaning technology. Zhonglin Xu is a senior research fellow at China Academy of Building Research.

  14. Second annual clean coal technology conference: Proceedings. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-09

    The Second Annual Clean Coal Technology Conference was held at Atlanta, Georgia, September 7--9, 1993. The Conference, cosponsored by the US Department of Energy (USDOE) and the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB), seeks to examine the status and role of the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP) and its projects. The Program is reviewed within the larger context of environmental needs, sustained economic growth, world markets, user performance requirements and supplier commercialization activities. This will be accomplished through in-depth review and discussion of factors affecting domestic and international markets for clean coal technology, the environmental considerations in commercial deployment, the current status of projects, and the timing and effectiveness of transfer of data from these projects to potential users, suppliers, financing entities, regulators, the interested environmental community and the public. Individual papers have been entered separately.

  15. Critical resources in clean energy technologies and waste flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habib, Komal

    A broader implementation of clean energy technologies in future is a widely motivated scenario for meeting the climate change goals as well as to reduce our dependency on the non‐renewable fossil fuels. However, the transition from the current fossil‐based society to a future low‐carbon society...... constraints for the emerging clean energy technologies in future, along with an insight into the resource criticality assessment methodologies, detailed material flow analysis (MFA) of critical resources, and recovery of critical resources from the waste streams. The key findings of this PhD study were......:  The demand of neodymium and dysprosium, driven by the clean energy technologies is estimated to be 10 times higher by 2050 compared to the present primary supply (mining). This implies that either a highly accelerated rate of mining is required to meet the future demand or a radical change in current...

  16. Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program. Program update 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    The Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCT Program) is a $7.14 billion cost-shared industry/government technology development effort. The program is to demonstrate a new generation of advanced coal-based technologies, with the most promising technologies being moved into the domestic and international marketplace. Clean coal technologies being demonstrated under the CCT program are creating the technology base that allows the nation to meet its energy and environmental goals efficiently and reliably. The fact that most of the demonstrations are being conducted at commercial scale, in actual user environments, and under conditions typical of commercial operations allows the potential of the technologies to be evaluated in their intended commercial applications. The technologies are categorized into four market sectors: advanced electric power generation systems; environmental control devices; coal processing equipment for clean fuels; and industrial technologies. Sections of this report describe the following: Role of the Program; Program implementation; Funding and costs; The road to commercial realization; Results from completed projects; Results and accomplishments from ongoing projects; and Project fact sheets. Projects include fluidized-bed combustion, integrated gasification combined-cycle power plants, advanced combustion and heat engines, nitrogen oxide control technologies, sulfur dioxide control technologies, combined SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} technologies, coal preparation techniques, mild gasification, and indirect liquefaction. Industrial applications include injection systems for blast furnaces, coke oven gas cleaning systems, power generation from coal/ore reduction, a cyclone combustor with S, N, and ash control, cement kiln flue gas scrubber, and pulse combustion for steam coal gasification.

  17. Hybrid Cleaning Technology for Enhanced Post-Cu/Low-Dielectric Constant Chemical Mechanical Planarization Cleaning Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Manivannan; Cho, Byoung-Jun; Kwon, Tae-Young; Park, Jin-Goo

    2013-05-01

    During chemical mechanical planarization (CMP), a copper/low-k surface is often contaminated by abrasive particles, organic materials and other additives. These contaminants need to be removed in the subsequent cleaning process with minimum material loss. In this study, a dilute amine-based alkaline cleaning solution is used along with physical force in the form of megasonic energy to remove particles and organic contaminants. Tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) and monoethanolamine (MEA) are used as an organic base and complexing agent, respectively, in the proposed solution. Ethanolamine acts as a corrosion inhibitor in the solution. Organic residue removal was confirmed through contact angle measurements and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. Electrochemical studies showed that the proposed solution increases protection against corrosion, and that the hybrid cleaning technology resulted in higher particle removal efficiency from both the copper and low-k surfaces.

  18. Report to Congress: Expressions of interest in commercial clean coal technology projects in foreign countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    This report was prepared in response to the guidance provided by the Congress in the course of the Fiscal Year 1995 appropriations process for the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE). As described in detail below, DOE was directed to make the international dissemination of Clean Coal Technologies (CCTs) an integral part of its policy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in developing countries. Congress directed DOE to solicit ``Statements of Interest`` in commercial projects employing CCTs in countries projected to have significant growth in greenhouse gas emissions. Additionally, DOE was asked to submit to the Congress a report that analyzes the information contained in the Statements of Interest, and that identifies the extent to which various types of Federal incentives would accelerate the commercial availability of these technologies in an international context. In response to DOE`s solicitation of 18 November 1994, 77 Statements of Interest were received from 33 companies, as well as five additional materials. The contents of these submittals, including the requested Federal incentives, the CCTs proposed, the possible host countries, and the environmental aspects of the Statements of Interest, are described and analyzed in the chapters that follow.

  19. The Economics of New Health Technologies Incentives, Organization, and Financing

    CERN Document Server

    Costa-Font, Joan; McGuire, Alistair

    2009-01-01

    Technological change in healthcare has led to huge improvements in health services and the health status of populations. It is also pinpointed as the main driver of healthcare expenditure. Although offering remarkable benefits, changes in technology are not free and often entail significant financial, as well as physical or social risks. These need to be balanced out in the setting of government regulations, insurance contracts, and individuals' decisions to use and consume certaintechnologies. With this in mind, this book addresses the following important objectives: to provide a detailed ana

  20. Technology and Politics: Incentives for Youth Participation. Working Paper 24.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyengar, Shanto; Jackman, Simon

    2004-01-01

    No other group is as disengaged from elections as youth. Voter turnout in the United States trails that of other industrialized societies, and is particularly anemic among youth between the ages of 18 and 24. The purpose of this study was to assess whether young people's expertise with information technology could be harnessed to stimulate a…

  1. Clean technology for the crude palm oil industry in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chavalparit, O.

    2006-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the potential contribution of clean(er) technology to improve the environmental performance of the crude palm oil industry inThailand, to analyse implementation barriers for clea

  2. 76 FR 34041 - Clean Technologies Mission to India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ... technologies including wind, hydro, waste-to-energy, solar power generation and clean coal; energy efficiency... of 15%. Wind, hydro, solar, biomass, and waste-to-energy all have huge potential. Only 19,973 MW of... concern for the Indian energy sector, threatening to slow the growth of the Indian economy. To keep...

  3. Evaluation of air cleaning technologies existing in the Danish market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ardkapan, Siamak Rahimi; Afshari, Alireza; Bergsøe, Niels Christian

    2014-01-01

    the ozone level significantly in the room. Moreover, they can cause generation of ultrafine particles and consequently increase ultrafine particle concentration in the room. The study suggests using a mechanical filter with low pressure drop as a recommended air cleaning technology in order to remove...

  4. Clean separation technologies of rare earth resources in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Chunsheng; WU Sheng; CHENG Fuxiang; WANG Songling; LIU Yan; ZHANG Bo; YAN Chunhua

    2013-01-01

    After a review on the conventional separation process of rare earths (RE),hyperlink extraction technology was introduced and a potential process was proposed for clean separation of RE.A great amount of acid,base and water was consumed in the conventional RE separation process which included the procedures of raw material dissolving,extraction separation and precipitation.Therefore hyperlink extraction technology had been developed,by which the repeated consumption of acid and base could be avoided during the extraction process.And based on the theory and successful applications of the hyperlink extraction technology,we proposed the integral hyperlink process in which the intermediate acid resulted in individual procedures would be recycled and reused after being treated.The proposed process would make it feasible to consume no chemicals except for oxalic acid,and so could be a promising clean separation technology with a significant reduction on consumption and emission.

  5. Energy, sustainability and the environment technology, incentives, behavior

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    The complexity of carbon reduction and economic sustainability is significantly complicated by competing aspects of socioeconomic practices as well as legislative, regulatory, and scientific requirements and protocols. An easy to read and understand guide, Sioshansi, along with an international group of contributors, moves through the maze of carbon reduction methods and technologies, providing steps and insights to meet carbon reduction requirements and maintaining the health and welfare of the firm. The book's three part treatment is based on a clear and rigorous exposition of a wide range of options to reduce the carbon footprint Part 1 of the book, Challenge of Sustainability, examines the fundamental drivers of energy demand - economic growth, the need for basic energy services, and the interdependence of economic, political, environmental, social, equity, legacy and policy issues. Part 2 of the book, Technological Solutions, examines how energy can be used to support basic energy service needs of homes...

  6. Field Validation of Visual Cleaning Performance Indicator (VCPI) Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-31

    test panels. Panels sets included 2024-T3 aluminum alloy sheet (Air Force platform), and primer coated HY80 steel alloy (Navy platform). 1. Weight...Cleaning Petfmmance Indicator (VCPI) tedmology as a means to verify surface cleanliness on aluminum and painted steel alloys. The VCPI technology...the surface cleanliness of unpainted structures fabricated from aluminum and steel alloys. In concept, the VCPI technology represents an innovative

  7. Research on Comparisons of New Clean Power Generation Technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    On the basis of introducing clean power generation technologies, the author calculated and analyzed the investment, economy and environmental protection of these technologies, posed his views of giving the priorities to the development of supercritical and ultra-supercritical pressure coal-fired power generation technologies and taking vigorous action to nuclear power generation technology within the following 5-10 years, exploiting wind power within the following 10-15 years, and suggested that the installed capacity of nuclear power reach 80-100 GW and that of wind power reach 50-80 GW by 2020.

  8. Engineering analysis of biomass gasifier product gas cleaning technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, E.G.; Brown, M.D.; Moore, R.H.; Mudge, L.K.; Elliott, D.C.

    1986-08-01

    For biomass gasification to make a significant contribution to the energy picture in the next decade, emphasis must be placed on the generation of clean, pollutant-free gas products. This reports attempts to quantify levels of particulated, tars, oils, and various other pollutants generated by biomass gasifiers of all types. End uses for biomass gases and appropriate gas cleaning technologies are examined. Complete systems analysis is used to predit the performance of various gasifier/gas cleanup/end use combinations. Further research needs are identified. 128 refs., 20 figs., 19 tabs.

  9. Supercritical fluids technology for clean biofuel production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongsheng Wen; H.Jiang; Kai Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Biofuels are liquid or gaseous fuels that are predominantly produced from biomass for transport sector applications.As biofuels are renewable,sustainable,carbon neutral and environmentally benign,they have been proposed as promising alternative fuels for gasoline and diesel engines.This paper reviews state-of-the-art application of the supercritical fluid(SCF)technique in biofuels production that includes biodiesel from vegetable oils via the transesterification process,bio-hydrogen from the gasification and bio-oil from the lique-faction of biomass,with biodiesel production as the main focus. The global biofuel situation and biofuel economics are also reviewed.The SCF has been shown to be a promising technique for future large-scale biofuel production,especially for biodiesel production from waster oil and fat.Compared with conventional biofuel production methods,the SCF technology possesses a number of advantages that includes fast inetics,high fuel production rate,ease of continuous operation and elimination of the necessity of catalysts.The harsh operation environment,i.e. the high temperature and high pressure,and its request on the materials and associated cost are the main concerns for its wide application.

  10. Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program: Program update 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    The Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (also referred to as the CCT Program) is a $6.9 billion cost-shared industry/government technology development effort. The program is to demonstrate a new generation of advanced coal-based technologies, with the most promising technologies being moved into the domestic and international marketplace. Technology has a vital role in ensuring that coal can continue to serve U.S. energy interests and enhance opportunities for economic growth and employment while meeting the national committment to a clean and healthy global environment. These technologies are being advanced through the CCT Program. The CCT Program supports three substantive national objectives: ensuring a sustainable environment through technology; enhancing energy efficiency and reliability; providing opportunities for economic growth and employment. The technologies being demonstrated under the CCT Program reduce the emissions of sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, greenhouse gases, hazardous air pollutants, solid and liquid wastes, and other emissions resulting from coal use or conversion to other fuel forms. These emissions reductions are achieved with efficiencies greater than or equal to currently available technologies.

  11. Elements of Clean-room Technology and Contamination Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. Kapoor

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The heart of the clean room is the high efticiency particualte air (HEPA/ultra-low penetration air (ULPA filter, which provides the highest level of air cleaning ever achieved by a singleprocess step. Filter technology has seen tremendous growth in terms of ultimate performance and air handling capacity. Mere installation of ULPA filters of 99.99995 per cent efficiency for 0.2 um aerosol is not sufficient for achieving the desired performance of a clean room. Other design aspects like flow fields, face velocity, number of air changes, make-up air fractions and precise control of other environmental parameters (temperature, humidity, airflow, noise, vibrations, electrostatic discharge, etc. are equally important.

  12. Self-Cleaning Technology in Fabric: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohani Saad, Siti; Mahmed, Norsuria; Bakri Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al; Sandu, Andrei Victor

    2016-06-01

    This article gives an overview on photocatalytic self-cleaning technology on fabric resulting from titanium dioxide (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) as photocatalyst which decompose the organic stain into water and carbon dioxide (CO2) in presence of UV light source. The self-cleaning concept is useful in various application including the textiles materials which are normally used in daily life. This technology also can be developed in other application for instance medical textiles, athletic wear, and military uniform and also outdoor fabrics. Additionally, it is beneficial as it effectively conserves water and improves the appearance of the environment and in long term it will reduce energy, laundry cost and time as well.

  13. Incentive Mechanism of Green Supply Chain to Promote Supplier’s Technology R&D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Cao

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on the actual situation that the green market started to develop in China today, how to enhance the activity of supplier’s technology R&D is discussed in the study. According to a two-echelon supply chain system consists of a manufacturer and a supplier, under the asymmetric information of supplier’s R&D efforts level, the incentive mechanism for supplier to improve the green degree of intermediate goods is designed. The proposed incentive mechanism can stimulate the supplier’s R&D effort level at its maximum and achieve the system revenue as much as possible. The conclusion has a good practical guidance to operational decision-making of the members of green supply chain in the early green market.

  14. The element technology of clean fuel alcohol plant construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D.S; Lee, D.S. [Sam-Sung Engineering Technical Institute (Korea, Republic of); Choi, C.Y [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [and others

    1996-02-01

    The fuel alcohol has been highlighted as a clean energy among new renewable energy sources. However, the production of the fuel alcohol has following problems; (i)bulk distillate remains is generated and (ii) benzene to be used as a entertainer in the azeotropic distillation causes the environmental problem. Thus, we started this research on the ground of preserving the cleanness in the production of fuel alcohol, a clean energy. We examined the schemes of replacing the azotropic distillation column which causes the problems with MSDP(Molecular Sieve Dehydration Process) system using adsorption technology and of treating the bulk distillate remains to be generated as by-products. In addition, we need to develop the continuous yea station technology for the continuous operation of fuel alcohol plant as a side goal. Thus, we try to develop a continuous ethanol fermentation process by high-density cell culture from tapioca, a industrial substrate, using cohesive yeast. For this purpose, we intend to examine the problem of tapioca, a industrial substrate, where a solid is existed and develop a new process which can solve the problem. Ultimately, the object of this project is to develop each element technology for the construction of fuel alcohol plant and obtain the ability to design the whole plant. (author) 54 refs., 143 figs., 34 tabs.

  15. Evaluation of technology modifications required to apply clean coal technologies in Russian utilities. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The report describes the following: overview of the Russian power industry; electric power equipment of Russia; power industry development forecast for Russia; clean coal technology demonstration program of the US Department of Energy; reduction of coal TPS (thermal power station) environmental impacts in Russia; and base options of advanced coal thermal power plants. Terms of the application of clean coal technology at Russian TPS are discussed in the Conclusions.

  16. A systematic review on incentive-driven mobile health technology: As used in diabetes management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ridder, Michael; Kim, Jinman; Jing, Yan; Khadra, Mohamed; Nanan, Ralph

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Mobile health (mHealth) technologies have been shown to improve self-management of chronic diseases, such as diabetes. However, mHealth tools, e.g. apps, often have low rates of retention, eroding their potential benefits. Using incentives is a common mechanism for engaging, empowering and retaining patients that is applied by mHealth tools. We conducted a systematic review aiming to categorize the different types of incentive mechanisms employed in mHealth tools for diabetes management, which we defined as incentive-driven technologies (IDTs). As an auxiliary aim, we also analyzed barriers to adoption of IDTs. Methods Literature published in English between January 2008-August 2014 was identified through searching leading publishers and indexing databases: IEEE, Springer, Science Direct, NCBI, ACM, Wiley and Google Scholar. Results A total of 42 articles were selected. Of these, 34 presented mHealth tools with IDT mechanisms; Education was the most common mechanism ( n = 21), followed by Reminder ( n = 11), Feedback ( n = 10), Social ( n = 8), Alert ( n = 5), Gamification ( n = 3), and Financial ( n = 2). Many of these contained more than one IDT ( n = 19). The remaining eight articles, from which we defined barriers for adoption, were review papers and a qualitative study of focus groups and interviews. Discussion While mHealth technologies have advanced over the last five years, the core IDT mechanisms have remained consistent. Instead, IDT mechanisms have evolved with the advances in technology, such as moving from manual to automatic content delivery and personalization of content. Conclusion We defined the concept of IDT to be core features designed to act as motivating mechanisms for retaining and empowering users. We then identified seven core IDT mechanisms that are used by mHealth tools for diabetes management and classified 34 articles into these categories.

  17. Economic Incentives for Cybersecurity: Using Economics to Design Technologies Ready for Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vishik, Claire [Intel Corporation; Sheldon, Frederick T [ORNL; Ott, David [Intel Corporation

    2013-01-01

    Cybersecurity practice lags behind cyber technology achievements. Solutions designed to address many problems may and do exist but frequently cannot be broadly deployed due to economic constraints. Whereas security economics focuses on the cost/benefit analysis and supply/demand, we believe that more sophisticated theoretical approaches, such as economic modeling, rarely utilized, would derive greater societal benefits. Unfortunately, today technologists pursuing interesting and elegant solutions have little knowledge of the feasibility for broad deployment of their results and cannot anticipate the influences of other technologies, existing infrastructure, and technology evolution, nor bring the solutions lifecycle into the equation. Additionally, potentially viable solutions are not adopted because the risk perceptions by potential providers and users far outweighs the economic incentives to support introduction/adoption of new best practices and technologies that are not well enough defined. In some cases, there is no alignment with redominant and future business models as well as regulatory and policy requirements. This paper provides an overview of the economics of security, reviewing work that helped to define economic models for the Internet economy from the 1990s. We bring forward examples of potential use of theoretical economics in defining metrics for emerging technology areas, positioning infrastructure investment, and building real-time response capability as part of software development. These diverse examples help us understand the gaps in current research. Filling these gaps will be instrumental for defining viable economic incentives, economic policies, regulations as well as early-stage technology development approaches, that can speed up commercialization and deployment of new technologies in cybersecurity.

  18. Commercial Demonstration of Oxy-Coal Combustion Clean Power Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.J. McCauley; K.C. Alexander; D.K. McDonald; N. Perrin; J.-P. Tranier [Babcock & Wilcox Power Generation Group (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01

    Oxy-Coal Combustion is an advanced clean coal-based power generation technology with carbon capture and storage that will be Near Zero Emissions (NZEP), will capture and safely store CO{sub 2} in a geologic formation, and generate clean power for sale. This sustainable technology will utilize natural resources and support energy security goals. The unique benefits of oxy-coal combustion allow for near zero emissions of coal combustion products. The emissions of particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and mercury will not only be below regulated levels, but all will be within the uncertainty of current industry measurement methods, essentially zero. This advanced technology will demonstrate all these reduced levels and will lead to commercially available NZEP plants for power generation. Since 1991, with the support of the US-DOE, Babcock & Wilcox Power Generation Group, Inc. (B&W PGG) and Air Liquide (AL) have worked to bring an advanced technology to the market for Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) for coal-fired electric power generation plants. Oxy-coal combustion is now ready for at-scale demonstration leading directly to full scale commercialization and availability in the power generation marketplace. This paper will discuss the follow up of the results of the 30 MWth large pilot test program completed in December, 2008. This oxy-coal combustion technology has been through small lab pilot testing, large pilot testing, and a rigorous bottom-up integration and optimization analysis. Our paper will describe incorporating the best technological thinking for the integration of a modern PC-fired boiler, environmental control equipment, air separation unit (ASU) and compression purification unit (CPU). 5 refs., 3 figs.

  19. Coal surface control for advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morsi, B.I.; Chiang, S.H.; Sharkey, A.; Blachere, J.; Klinzing, G.; Araujo, G.; Cheng, Y.S.; Gray, R.; Streeter, R.; Bi, H.; Campbell, P.; Chiarlli, P.; Ciocco, M.; Hittle, L.; Kim, S.; Kim, Y.; Perez, L.; Venkatadri, R.

    1992-01-01

    This final report presents the research work carried out on the Coal Surface Control for Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning Technologies project, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE/PETC). The project was to support the engineering development of the selective agglomeration technology in order to reduce the sulfur content of US coals for controlling SO[sub 2] emissions (i.e., acid rain precursors). The overall effort was a part of the DOE/PETCs Acid Rain Control Initiative (ARCI). The overall objective of the project is to develop techniques for coal surface control prior to the advanced physical fine coal cleaning process of selective agglomeration in order to achieve 85% pyrite sulfur rejection at an energy recovery greater than 85% based on run-of-mine coal. The surface control is meant to encompass surface modification during grinding and laboratory beneficiation testing. The project includes the following tasks: Project planning; methods for analysis of samples; development of standard beneficiation test; grinding studies; modification of particle surface; and exploratory R D and support. The coal samples used in this project include three base coals, Upper Freeport - Indiana County, PA, Pittsburgh NO. 8 - Belmont County, OH, and Illinois No. 6 - Randolph County, IL, and three additional coals, Upper Freeport - Grant County- WV, Kentucky No. 9 Hopkins County, KY, and Wyodak - Campbell County, WY. A total of 149 drums of coal were received.

  20. Prospects for coal and clean coal technology in the Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-03-15

    This report examines the current energy outlook for the Philippines in regard not only to coal but also other energy resources. The history of the power sector, current state of play and future plans to meet the increasing energy demand from a growing population are discussed. There is also analysis of the trends for coal demand and production, imports and exports of coal and the types of coal-fired power stations that have been built. This includes examination of the legislation involving coal and the promotion of clean coal technologies.

  1. Clean coal combustion: development of clean combustion technologies for residual fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montiel, M.F. [Electric Research Institute, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    Most of the large quantities of heavy fuel oil (about 4% sulphur-content) produced in Mexican refineries are burned in power plants. More natural gas is being used, and it is estimated that by 2010, about one-third of Mexico's electricity will be produced from natural gas. As petroleum and gas reserves are depleted, power plants will consume more imported coal. To continue combustion of dirty fuels, advanced clean combustion technologies must be developed. Two feasibility projects were conducted over the period 1989-1995 on combustion of Mexican fuels in a bubbling fluidized combustor and in IGCC power plants. More recent feasibility studies for cogeneration plants in refineries are outlined. Solid fuels for IGCC and CFB are among the most important developments. Over the period 2004-2008, projects to study clean combustion of Mexican fuels will be conducted in the following areas: operational problems in IGCC plants, construction of an entrained flow gasifier for synthesis gas production and for feeding of heavy fuels and coal emulsions, and development of CFD (computational fluid dynamics) models.

  2. Studies on Barriers for Promotion of Clean Technology in SMEs of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Sizhen; Liu Yan; Shi Han; Zhong Ping

    2005-01-01

    After more than 10 years efforts on awareness raising and promotion, the concept of cleaner production (CP) has been adopting as a strategic approach m balance economic benefits and environmental protection for China's industries.However, it is also found that dean technology is difficult to be adopted and implemented in Chinese Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) because of certain barriers. This paper investigates these barriers among three stakeholders-governments,enterprises and experts. The Analytic Hierarch Process (AHP) was employed to prioritize the relative importance of the twenty fine-selected barriers, which were classified into four barrier categories. The findings reveal that the exterior barriers of policy and financial barriers should be stressed rather than the inner barriers of technical and managerial barriers,although they are also very important. Absence of incentives on economic policies, lax enforcement of enwronmental regulations and high initial capital cost were the most important barriers to adoption of Clean Technologies (CT)in China.

  3. Clean coal technology deployment: From today into the next millennium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papay, L.T.; Trocki, L.K.; McKinsey, R.R. [Bechtel Technology and Consulting, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Department of Energy`s clean coal technology (CCT) program succeeded in developing more efficient, cleaner, coal-fired electricity options. The Department and its private partners succeeded in the demonstration of CCT -- a major feat that required more than a decade of commitment between them. As with many large-scale capital developments and changes, the market can shift dramatically over the course of the development process. The CCT program was undertaken in an era of unstable oil and gas prices, concern over acid rain, and guaranteed markets for power suppliers. Regulations, fuel prices, emergency of competing technologies, and institutional factors are all affecting the outlook for CCT deployment. The authors identify the major barriers to CCT deployment and then introduce some possible means to surmount the barriers.

  4. Clean Coal Technologies in China: Current Status and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiyan Chang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Coal is the dominant primary energy source in China and the major source of greenhouse gases and air pollutants. To facilitate the use of coal in an environmentally satisfactory and economically viable way, clean coal technologies (CCTs are necessary. This paper presents a review of recent research and development of four kinds of CCTs: coal power generation; coal conversion; pollution control; and carbon capture, utilization, and storage. It also outlines future perspectives on directions for technology research and development (R&D. This review shows that China has made remarkable progress in the R&D of CCTs, and that a number of CCTs have now entered into the commercialization stage.

  5. Towards a framework of clean energy technology receptivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorne, Steve [SouthSouthNorth Projects (Africa), 138, Waterkant Street, Green Point, Cape Town 8003 (South Africa)

    2008-08-15

    Technology invention, innovation and transfer have been a constant of human evolution. Facing humanity is the threat of anthropogenic climate change, the solution to which is to reduce the rate at which greenhouse gasses (GHGs) are building up in the atmosphere and to deal with the impacts of climate variability and change. To deal with the global crisis requires technology invention, innovation and transfer and changes in behaviour that reduce the GHGs intensity of energy services. Meanwhile, the poverty reduction and development agenda are being shaped by the Millennium Development Goals, which slowly appears to be gaining buy-in. The question is how will the accelerated receipt of cleaner energy technologies can be successfully achieved in marginalised communities in developing countries? The paper considers a range of drivers, case studies and projects that are being undertaken as early Clean Development Mechanism experiments under the banner of the International SouthSouthNorth Group. It discusses the drivers of technology transfer and starts to unpack the elements of successful receptivity through selection and ownership of the newly introduced environmentally safe technologies (ESTs) for the provision of energy services. (author)

  6. DuPont IsoTherming clean fuel technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levinski, E. [E.I. DuPont Co., Wilmington, DE (United States)

    2009-07-01

    This poster described a hydroprocessing technology that DuPont has acquired from Process Dynamics, Inc. The IsoTherming clean fuel technology significantly reduces sulphur in motor fuels. The technology provides petroleum refiners the solution for meeting ultra low sulphur diesel requirements, at much lower costs than conventional technologies. IsoTherming hydroprocessing operates in a kinetically limited mode, with no mass transfer limitation. Hydrogen is delivered to the reactor in the liquid phase as soluble hydrogen, allowing for much higher space velocities than conventional hydrotreating reactors. Treated diesel is recycled back to the inlet of the reactor, generating less heat and more hydrogen into the reactor. The process results in a more isothermal reactor operation that allows for better yields, fewer light ends and greater catalyst life. The technology reduces coking, because the process provides enough hydrogen in the solution when cracking reactions take place. As a result, the process yields longer catalyst life. Other advantages for refiners include lower total investment; reduced equipment delivery lead times; reduced maintenance and operating costs; and configuration flexibility. tabs., figs.

  7. Clean coal technology demonstration program: Program update 1996-97

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    The Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (known as the CCT Program) reached a significant milestone in 1996 with the completion of 20 of the 39 active projects. The CCT Program is responding to a need to demonstrate and deploy a portfolio of technologies that will assure the U.S. recoverable coal reserves of 297 billion tons could continue to supply the nation`s energy needs economically and in a manner that meets the nation`s environmental objectives. This portfolio of technologies includes environmental control devices that contributed to meeting the accords on transboundary air pollution recommended by the Special Envoys on Acid Rain in 1986. Operational, technical, environmental, and economic performance information and data are now flowing from highly efficient, low-emission, advanced power generation technologies that will enable coal to retain its prominent role into the next millennium. Further, advanced technologies are emerging that will enhance the competitive use of coal in the industrial sector, such as in steelmaking. Coal processing technologies will enable the entire coal resource base to be used while complying with environmental requirements. These technologies are producing products used by utilities and industrial processes. The capability to coproduce products, such as liquid and solid fuels, electricity, and chemicals, is being demonstrated at a commercial scale by projects in the CCT Program. In summary, this portfolio of technologies is satisfying the national need to maintain a multifuel energy mix in which coal is a key component because of its low-cost, availability, and abundant supply within the nation`s borders.

  8. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990: Hazardous Air Pollutant Requirements and the DOE Clean Coal Technology Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moskowitz, P.D.; DePhillips, M.; Fthenakis, V.M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Hemenway, A. [USDOE Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1991-12-31

    The purpose of the US Department of Energy -- Office of Fossil Energy (DOE FE) Clean Coal Technology Program (CCTP) is to provide the US energy marketplace with advanced, efficient, and environmentally sound coal-based technologies. The design, construction, and operation of Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Projects (CCTDP) will generate data needed to make informed, confident decisions on the commercial readiness of these technologies. These data also will provide information needed to ensure a proactive response by DOE and its industrial partners to the establishment of new regulations or a reactive response to existing regulations promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The objectives of this paper are to: (1) Present a preliminary examination of the potential implications of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) -- Title 3 Hazardous Air Pollutant requirements to the commercialization of CCTDP; and (2) help define options available to DOE and its industrial partners to respond to this newly enacted Legislation.

  9. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990: Hazardous Air Pollutant Requirements and the DOE Clean Coal Technology Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moskowitz, P.D.; DePhillips, M.; Fthenakis, V.M. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Hemenway, A. (USDOE Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy, Washington, DC (United States))

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the US Department of Energy -- Office of Fossil Energy (DOE FE) Clean Coal Technology Program (CCTP) is to provide the US energy marketplace with advanced, efficient, and environmentally sound coal-based technologies. The design, construction, and operation of Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Projects (CCTDP) will generate data needed to make informed, confident decisions on the commercial readiness of these technologies. These data also will provide information needed to ensure a proactive response by DOE and its industrial partners to the establishment of new regulations or a reactive response to existing regulations promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The objectives of this paper are to: (1) Present a preliminary examination of the potential implications of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) -- Title 3 Hazardous Air Pollutant requirements to the commercialization of CCTDP; and (2) help define options available to DOE and its industrial partners to respond to this newly enacted Legislation.

  10. Prospects for coal and clean coal technologies in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Baruya [IEA Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-15

    Malaysia is a regular participant in world coal trade. Coal production is a modest 1 Mt/y but, as an importer, the country trades some 30 Mt/y. As one of ASEAN's most prosperous economies, the expected growth in electricity demand is inevitable. For many years the country has been dependent on gas-fired power, much of which is in the form of expensive single cycle gas turbines. However, coal-fired power has emerged as an important provider of power in a country desperate to improve its energy security. This report looks at how coal-fired power has developed, and examines the current technologies deployed in the country. It is the fourth in a series of reports by the lEA Clean Coal Centre on ASEAN countries, following Indonesia, Thailand and Vietnam. 35 refs., 14 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Probe technologies for clean sampling and measurement of subglacial lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowlem, Matt; Saw, Kevin; Brown, Robin; Waugh, Edward; Cardwell, Christopher L; Wyatt, James; Magiopoulos, Iordanis; Keen, Peter; Campbell, Jon; Rundle, Nicholas; Gkritzalis-Papadopoulos, Athanasios

    2016-01-28

    It is 4 years since the subglacial lake community published its plans for accessing, sampling, measuring and studying the pristine, and hitherto enigmatic and very different, Antarctic subglacial lakes, Vostok, Whillans and Ellsworth. This paper summarizes the contrasting probe technologies designed for each of these subglacial environments and briefly updates how these designs changed or were used differently when compared to previously published plans. A detailed update on the final engineering design and technical aspects of the probe for Subglacial Lake Ellsworth is presented. This probe is designed for clean access, is negatively buoyant (350 kg), 5.2 m long, 200 mm in diameter, approximately cylindrical and consists of five major units: (i) an upper power and communications unit attached to an optical and electrical conducting tether, (ii)-(iv) three water and particle samplers, and (v) a sensors, imaging and instrumentation pack tipped with a miniature sediment corer. To date, only in Subglacial Lake Whillans have instruments been successfully deployed. Probe technologies for Subglacial Lake Vostok (2014/15) and Lake Ellsworth (2012/13) were not deployed for technical reasons, in the case of Lake Ellsworth because hot-water drilling was unable to access the lake during the field season window. Lessons learned and opportunities for probe technologies in future subglacial access missions are discussed.

  12. A Study of Incentive Policies for Building-Integrated Photovoltaic Technology in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aotian Song

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Installing sustainable and renewable energy systems is a promising way of relieving Hong Kong’s dependence on imported fossil fuels. Solar photovoltaic (PV technology is a perfect solution for Hong Kong as it fits the economic and geographic situation. Through a review of the PV development history of five leading PV countries, Germany, Japan, Italy, Mainland China, and the USA, this paper serves as a useful policy toolbox to aid PV development. Based on the forerunners’ successful PV industry experiences and Hong Kong’s unique local situations, a series of incentive strategies were proposed for Hong Kong to help promote the utilization of solar PV systems by reducing the initial investment and providing reasonable subsidies at the initial stages and during the operation period of the PV systems. These results could be a practical reference for promoting renewable energy applications for local policy-makers.

  13. Self-scrubbing coal{sup TM}: An integrated approach to clean air. A proposed Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    This environmental assessment (EA) was prepared by the U.S.Department of Energy (DOE), with compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, Council on Environmental Quality (CE) regulations for implementating NEPA (40 CFR 1500-1508) and DOE regulations for compliance with NEPA (10 CFR 1021), to evaluate the potential environmental impacts associated with a proposed demonstration project to be cost-shared by DOE and Custom Coals International (CCI) under the Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Demonstration Program of DOE`s Office of Fossil Energy. CCI is a Pennsylvania general partnership located in Pittsburgh, PA engaged in the commercialization of advanced coal cleaning technologies. The proposed federal action is for DOE to provide, through a cooperative agreement with CCI, cost-shared funding support for the land acquisition, design, construction and demonstration of an advanced coal cleaning technology project, {open_quotes}Self-Scrubbing Coal: An Integrated Approach to Clean Air.{close_quotes} The proposed demonstration project would take place on the site of the presently inactive Laurel Coal Preparation Plant in Shade Township, Somerset County, PA. A newly constructed, advanced design, coal preparation plant would replace the existing facility. The cleaned coal produced from this new facility would be fired in full-scale test burns at coal-fired electric utilities in Indiana, Ohio and PA as part of this project.

  14. CLEAN HYDROGEN TECHNOLOGY FOR 3-WHEEL TRANSPORTATION IN INDIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishna Sapru

    2005-11-15

    Hydrogen is a clean burning, non-polluting transportation fuel. It is also a renewable energy carrier that can be produced from non-fossil fuel resources such as solar, wind and biomass. Utilizing hydrogen as an alternative fuel for vehicles will diversify the resources of energy, and reduce dependence on oil in the transportation sector. Additionally, clean burning hydrogen fuel will also alleviate air pollution that is a very severe problem in many parts of world, especially major metropolitan areas in developing countries, such as India and China. In our efforts to foster international collaborations in the research, development, and demonstration of hydrogen technologies, through a USAID/DOE cost-shared project, Energy Conversion Devices, Inc.,(www.ovonic.com) a leading materials and alternative energy company, in collaboration with Bajaj Auto Limited, India's largest three-wheeler taxi manufacturer, has successfully developed and demonstrated prototype hydrogen ICE three-wheelers in the United States and India. ECD's proprietary Ovonic solid-state hydrogen storage technology is utilized on-board to provide a means of compact, low pressure, and safe hydrogen fuel. These prototype hydrogen three-wheelers have demonstrated comparable performance to the original CNG version of the vehicle, achieving a driving range of 130 km. The hydrogen storage system capable of storing 1 kg hydrogen can be refilled to 80% of its capacity in about 15 minutes at a pressure of 300 psi. The prototype vehicles developed under this project have been showcased and made available for test rides to the public at exhibits such as the 16th NHA annual meeting in April 2005, Washington, DC, and the SIAM (Society of Indian Automotive Manufacturers) annual conference in August 2005, New Delhi, India. Passengers have included members of the automotive industry, founders of both ECD and Bajaj, members of the World Bank, the Indian Union Minister for Finance, the President of the Asia

  15. Laser cleaning of steam generator tubing based on acoustic emission technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Su-xia; Luo, Ji-jun; Shen, Tao; Li, Ru-song [Xi' an Hi-Tech Institute, Xi' an (China)

    2015-12-15

    As a physical method, laser cleaning technology in equipment maintenance will be a good prospect. The experimental apparatus for laser cleaning of heat tubes in the steam generator was designed according to the results of theoretical analysis. There are two conclusions; one is that laser cleaning technology is attached importance to traditional methods. Which has advantages in saving on much manpower and material resource and it is a good cleaning method for heat tubes. The other is that the acoustic emission signal includes lots of information on the laser cleaning process, which can be used as real-time monitoring in laser cleaning processes. When the laser acts for 350 s, 100 % contaminants of heat tubes is cleaned off, and the sensor only receives weak AE signal at that time.

  16. Financing Projects That Use Clean-Energy Technologies. An Overview of Barriers and Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, D. P. [New Energy Capital, LLC, Hanover, NH (United States); McKenna, J. J. [Hamilton Clark & Co., Washington, DC (United States); Murphy, L. M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2005-10-01

    This technical paper describes the importance of project financing for clean-energy technology deployment. It describes the key challenges in financing clean-energy technology projects, including technical risks, credit worthiness risk, revenue security risk, market competition, scale and related cost, as well as first-steps to overcome those barriers.

  17. Computer simulation of an advanced combustor for clean coal technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, S.L.; Lottes, S.A.

    1992-01-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generation is a clean coal technology because of its higher thermal efficiency and lower pollutant emission. Argonne National Laboratory used a comprehensive integral combustion computer code to aid the development of a TRW's second stage combustor for MHD power generation. The integral combustion code is a computer code for two-phase, two-dimensional, steady state, turbulent, and reacting flows, based on mass, momentum, and energy conservation laws for multiple gas species and solid particles of variable sizes. In the MHD second stage combustor, opposed jets of oxidizer are injected into a confined cross-stream coal gas flow laden with seed particles. The performance of the downstream MHD power generation channel depends mainly on the degree and the uniformity of gas ionization, which, in turn, depends on the uniformity of temperature and seed vapor distributions leaving the combustor. The simulation provides in-depth information of flow, combustion, and heat transfer patterns in the combustor, which is used to predict ranges of combustor operating conditions for optimum performance of the MHD system.

  18. Computer simulation of an advanced combustor for clean coal technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, S.L.; Lottes, S.A.

    1992-09-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generation is a clean coal technology because of its higher thermal efficiency and lower pollutant emission. Argonne National Laboratory used a comprehensive integral combustion computer code to aid the development of a TRW`s second stage combustor for MHD power generation. The integral combustion code is a computer code for two-phase, two-dimensional, steady state, turbulent, and reacting flows, based on mass, momentum, and energy conservation laws for multiple gas species and solid particles of variable sizes. In the MHD second stage combustor, opposed jets of oxidizer are injected into a confined cross-stream coal gas flow laden with seed particles. The performance of the downstream MHD power generation channel depends mainly on the degree and the uniformity of gas ionization, which, in turn, depends on the uniformity of temperature and seed vapor distributions leaving the combustor. The simulation provides in-depth information of flow, combustion, and heat transfer patterns in the combustor, which is used to predict ranges of combustor operating conditions for optimum performance of the MHD system.

  19. Designing Catalysts for Clean Technology, Green Chemistry, and Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meurig Thomas, John; Raja, Robert

    2005-08-01

    There is a pressing need for cleaner fuels (free or aromatics and of minimal sulfur content) or ones that convert chemical energy directly to electricity, silently and without production of noxious oxides and particulates; chemical, petrochemical and pharmaceutical processes that may be conducted in a one-step, solvent-free manner and that use air as the preferred oxidant; and industrial processes that minimize consumption of energy, production of waste, or the use of corrosive, explosive, volatile, and nonbiodegradable materials. All these needs and other desiderata, such as the in situ production and containment of aggressive and hazardous reagents, and the avoidance of use of ecologically harmful elements, may be achieved by designing the appropriate heterogeneous inorganic catalyst, which ideally should be cheap, readily preparable and fully characterizable, preferably under in situ reaction conditions. A range of nanoporous and nanoparticle catalysts that meet most of the stringent demands of sustainable development and responsible (clean) technology is described. Specific examples that are highlighted include the production of adipic acid (precursor of polyamides and urethanes) without the use of concentrated nitric acid nor the production of greenhouse gases such as nitrous oxide; the production of caprolactam (precursor of nylon) without the use of oleum and hydroxylamine sulfate; and the terminal oxyfunctionalization of linear alkanes in air. The topic of biocatalysis and sustainable development is also briefly discussed for the epoxidation of terpenes and fatty acid methyl esters; for the generation of polymers, polylactides, and polyesters; and for the production of 1,3-propanediol from corn.

  20. Clean Energy: No Longer a Luxury! Resources in Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technology Teacher, 1991

    1991-01-01

    This learning activity provides an overview of the problem of clean energy sources and examination of alternatives. Student activity, quiz with answers, related activities, and nine references are provided. (SK)

  1. Innovation in clean coal technologies: Empirical evidence from firm-level patent data

    OpenAIRE

    Kruse, Jürgen; Wetzel, Heike

    2016-01-01

    This article empirically analyzes supply-side and demand-side factors expected to affect innovation in clean coal technologies. Patent data from 93 national and international patent offices is used to construct new firm-level panel data on 3,648 clean coal innovators over the time period 1978 to 2009. The results indicate that on the supply-side a firm's history in clean coal patenting and overall propensity to patent positively affects clean coal innovation. On the demand-side we find strong...

  2. Tundish Technology for Casting Clean Steel: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, Yogeshwar

    2016-08-01

    With increasing demand of high-quality clean steel, cleanliness is of paramount importance in steel production and casting. Tundish plays an important role in controlling the continuously cast steel quality as it links a batch vessel, ladle, to a continuous casting mold. Tundish is also the last vessel in which metal flows before solidifying in mold. For controlling the quality of steel, flow and temperature control of the melt are critical, and these are presented in this paper. Use of proper flux, design of flow control devices, and gas injection in tundish become important factors in casting clean steel. Recycling of hot tundish, centrifugal flow tundish, H-shaped tundish, etc. are some of the developments which were implemented to cast clean steel and these are discussed.

  3. Strengthening Clean Energy Technology Cooperation under the UNFCCC: Steps toward Implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benioff, R.; de Coninck, H.; Dhar, S.; Hansen, U.; McLaren, J.; Painuly, J.

    2010-08-01

    Development of a comprehensive and effective global clean technology cooperation framework will require years of experimenting and evaluation with new instruments and institutional arrangements before it is clear what works on which scale and in which region or country. In presenting concrete examples, this paper aims to set the first step in that process by highlighting successful models and innovative approaches that can inform efforts to ramp up clean energy technology cooperation. This paper reviews current mechanisms and international frameworks for global cooperation on clean energy technologies, both within and outside of the UNFCCC, and provides selected concrete options for scaling up global cooperation on clean energy technology RD&D, enabling environment, and financing.

  4. 77 FR 74520 - Encore Clean Energy, Inc., Energy & Engine Technology Corp., Equity Media Holdings Corporation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Encore Clean Energy, Inc., Energy & Engine Technology Corp., Equity Media Holdings Corporation, eTotalSource, Inc., Extensions, Inc., Firepond, Inc., and GNC Energy Corporation; Order...

  5. Development of clean coal and clean soil technologies using advanced agglomeration techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ignasiak, B.; Ignasiak, T.; Szymocha, K.

    1990-01-01

    Three major topics are discussed in this report: (1) Upgrading of Low Rank Coals by the Agflotherm Process. Test data, procedures, equipment, etc., are described for co-upgrading of subbituminous coals and heavy oil; (2) Upgrading of Bituminous Coals by the Agflotherm Process. Experimental procedures and data, bench and pilot scale equipments, etc., for beneficiating bituminous coals are described; (3) Soil Clean-up and Hydrocarbon Waste Treatment Process. Batch and pilot plant tests are described for soil contaminated by tar refuse from manufactured gas plant sites. (VC)

  6. Microbiological aspects of clean room technology as applied to surgery, with special reference to unidirectional airflow systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardle, M. D.

    1974-01-01

    The microbiological aspects of clean room technology as applied to surgery were reviewed. The following pertinent subject areas were examined: (1) clean room technology per se and its utilization for surgery, (2) microbiological monitoring of the clean room surgical environment, (3) clean rooms and their impact on operating room environmental microbiology, and (4) the effect of the technology on surgical wound infection rates. Conclusions were drawn for each topic investigated.

  7. Regional trends in the take-up of clean coal technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wootten, J.M. [Peabody Holding Co., Inc., St. Louis, MO (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Using surveys of the electricity industry taken in major OECD coal producing/coal consuming regions of North America, Europe, Southern Africa, and Asia/Pacific, this paper reports on the attitudes of power plant operators and developers toward clean coal technologies, the barriers to their use and the policies and measures that might be implemented, if a country or region desired to encourage greater use of clean coal technologies.

  8. 5. annual clean coal technology conference: powering the next millennium. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The Fifth Annual Clean Coal Technology Conference focuses on presenting strategies and approaches that will enable clean coal technologies to resolve the competing, interrelated demands for power, economic viability, and environmental constraints associated with the use of coal in the post-2000 era. The program addresses the dynamic changes that will result from utility competition and industry restructuring, and to the evolution of markets abroad. Current projections for electricity highlight the preferential role that electric power will have in accomplishing the long-range goals of most nations. Increase demands can be met by utilizing coal in technologies that achieve environmental goals while keeping the cost- per-unit of energy competitive. Results from projects in the DOE Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program confirm that technology is the pathway to achieving these goals. The industry/government partnership, cemented over the past 10 years, is focused on moving the clean coal technologies into the domestic and international marketplaces. The Fifth Annual Clean Coal Technology Conference provides a forum to discuss these benchmark issues and the essential role and need for these technologies in the post-2000 era. This volume contains technical papers on: advanced coal process systems; advanced industrial systems; advanced cleanup systems; and advanced power generation systems. In addition, there are poster session abstracts. Selected papers from this proceedings have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology database.

  9. Microstructure evolution and surface cleaning of Cu nanoparticles during micro-forming fields activated sintering technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Mingxia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For the purpose of extensive utilization of powder metallurgy to micro/nano- fabrication of materials, the micro gear was prepared by a novel method, named as micro- forming fields activated sintering technology (Micro-FAST. Surface-cleaning of particles, especially during the initial stage of sintering, is a crucial issue for the densification mechanism. However, up to date, the mechanism of surface-cleaning is too complicated to be known. In this paper, the process of surface-cleaning of Micro-FAST was studied, employing the high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM for observation of microstructure of micro-particles. According to the evolution of the microstructure, surface-cleaning is mainly ascribed to the effect of electro-thermal focusing. The process of surface-cleaning is achieved through rearrangement of grains, formation of vacancy, migration of vacancy and enhancement of electro-thermal focusing.

  10. International prospects for clean coal technologies (Focus on Asia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallaspy, D.T. [Southern Energy, Inc., Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of this paper is to propose Asia as a focus market for commercialization of CCT`s; describe the principles for successful penetration of CCT`s in the international market; and summarize prospects for CCT`s in Asia and other international markets. The paper outlines the following: Southern Company`s clean coal commitment; acquisition of Consolidated Electric Power Asia (CEPA); the prospects for CCT`s internationally; requirements for CCT`s widespread commercialization; CEPA`s application of CCT`s; and gas turbine power plants as a perfect example of a commercialization driver.

  11. 77 FR 41930 - Bleed Air Cleaning and Monitoring Equipment and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-17

    ... an opportunity to participate in #0;the rule making prior to the adoption of the final rules. #0; #0... Equipment and Technology ACTION: Notice; request for information. SUMMARY: The FAA seeks information from industry developers, manufacturers, and the public related to effective air cleaning technology and...

  12. Public policy and clean technology promotion. The synergy between environmental economics and evolutionary economics of technological change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rio Gonzalez, Pablo del [Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Toledo (Spain). Facultad de Ciencias Juridicas y Sociales de Toledo

    2004-07-01

    Obstacles to clean technology development, innovation and diffusion are not only related to the lack of internalisation of environmental externalities in production costs, as defended by traditional environmental economics. Empirical studies show that many other obstacles prevent these technologies from penetrating the market. The relevance of these obstacles differs between sectors, firms and technologies. Consequently, a more focused approach is proposed. By taking a look at the specific, real-world barriers to clean technologies, a policy framework as well as some specific measures that target those barriers are suggested. These instruments are useful and complementary in a policy framework that, in addition to specific instruments, takes into account the influence of the style of regulation and the configuration of actors in the environmental technological change process. This paper proposes a coherent framework integrating environmental policy and technology policy instruments. This is deemed necessary in the technological transition to sustainable development. (author)

  13. An economic analysis of private incentives to adopt DNA barcoding technology for fish species authentication in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugochukwu, Albert I; Hobbs, Jill E; Phillips, Peter W B; Gray, Richard

    2015-12-01

    The increasing spate of species substitution and mislabelling in fish markets has become a concern to the public and a challenge to both the food industry and regulators. Species substitution and mislabelling within fish supply chains occurs because of price incentives to misrepresent products for economic gain. Emerging authenticity technologies, such as the DNA barcoding technology that has been used to identify plants and animal (particularly fish) species through DNA sequencing, offer a potential technological solution to this information problem. However, the adoption of these authenticity technologies depends also on economic factors. The present study uses economic welfare analysis to examine the effects of species substitution and mislabelling in fish markets, and examines the feasibility of the technology for a typical retail store in Canada. It is assumed that increased accuracy of the technology in detecting fraud and enforcement of legal penalties and other associated costs would be likely to discourage cheating. Empirical results suggest that DNA barcoding technology would be feasible presently for a typical retail store only if authentication is done in a third party laboratory, as it may not be feasible on an individual retail store level once fixed and other associated costs of the technology are considered.

  14. Can economic incentives enhance adoption and use of a household energy technology? Evidence from a pilot study in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usmani, Faraz; Steele, Jason; Jeuland, Marc

    2017-03-01

    While much work has examined approaches to increase uptake of a variety of household environmental, health and energy technologies, researchers and policymakers alike have struggled to ensure long-term use. Drawing on a pilot-scale experiment conducted in rural Cambodia, this study evaluates whether economic incentives enhance continued use of—and fuel savings from—improved cookstoves (ICS). Capital-cost subsidies that have been traditionally employed to enhance ICS adoption were augmented with rebates linked to stated and objectively measured use in order to investigate impacts on both initial and sustained adoption in the treatment group. Results show that households do respond to these rebates by adopting the intervention ICS at significantly higher rates, and by using it more frequently and for longer periods. Consistent with these stove-use patterns, solid-fuel use and time spent collecting or preparing fuels also decline. However, this effect appears to diminish over time. Thus, while economic inducements may significantly increase adoption and use of new environmental health technologies, corresponding reductions in environmental or livelihood burdens are not guaranteed. Additional research on the design and implementation of incentive-based interventions targeting households directly—such as carbon financing or other forms of results-based financing (RBF) for improved cookstoves—therefore seems warranted prior to wider implementation of such solutions.

  15. Progress of Production Technology of Clean Steel in Baosteel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CuiJian

    2005-01-01

    The progress in control technology of carbon, nitrogen, total oxygen, phosphorus, and stdphur as well as inclusions in steel is discussed at Baosteel. The purity obtained in IF steel and pipeline steel is introduced.

  16. European Framework for the Diffusion of Biogas Uses: Emerging Technologies, Acceptance, Incentive Strategies, and Institutional-Regulatory Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea G. Capodaglio

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Biogas will constitute a significant fraction of future power supply, since it is expected to contribute a large share of the EU renewable energy targets. Biogas, once produced, can be combusted in traditional boilers to provide heat, or to generate electricity. It can be used for the production of chemical compounds, or fed into a pipeline. This review paper will briefly analyze the current most promising emerging biogas technologies in the perspective of their potential uses, environmental benefits, and public acceptance; draw a picture of current conditions on the adoption of a biogas road map in the several EU Member States; analyze incentive and support policy implementation status and gaps; discuss non-technological barriers; and summarize proposed solutions to widen this energy’s use.

  17. Nuclear and clean coal technology options for sustainable development in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallah, Subhash; Bansal, N.K. [Shri Mata Vaishno Devi University, Katra -182320, Jammu and Kashmir (India)

    2010-07-15

    Due to the growing energy needs along with increasing concerns towards control of greenhouse gas emissions, most developing countries are under pressure to find alternative methods for energy conversion and policies to make these technologies economically viable. Most of the energy is produced from fossil fuel in India which is not a sustainable source of energy. In this paper Indian power sector has been examined by using MARKAL model for introduction of clean coal and advanced nuclear technologies with implementation of energy conservation potential. The result shows that application of clean technologies gives energy security but not significant reduction in carbon dioxide emissions. When clean technologies apply with energy conservation a huge amount of CO{sub 2} can be reduced and also economically viable. Three scenarios including base case scenario have been developed to estimate the resource allocations and CO{sub 2} mitigation. The clean technologies with maximum savings potential shows 70% CO{sub 2} reduction in the year 2045. (author)

  18. Environmental support to the clean coal technology program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.L.

    1996-06-01

    Work during this period focused on the preparation for DOE`s Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of a final Environmental Assessment (EA) for the Externally Fired Combined Cycle (EFCC) Project in Warren, Pennsylvania. Proposed by the Pennsylvania Electric Company (Penelec) and selected by DOE in the fifth solicitation of the CCT Program, the project would be sited at one of the two units at Penelec`s Warren Station. The EFCC Project proposes to replace two existing boilers with a new {open_quotes}power island{close_quotes} consisting of a staged coal combustor, slag screen, heat exchanger, an indirectly fired gas turbine, and a heat recovery steam generator. Subsequently, Unit 2 would operate in combined-cycle mode using the new gas turbine and the existing steam turbine simultaneously. The gas turbine would generate 25 megawatts of electricity so that Unit 2 output would increase from the existing 48 megawatts generated by the steam turbine to a total of 73 megawatts. Operation of a conventional flue gas desulfurization dry scrubber as part of the EFCC technology is expected to decrease SO{sub 2} emissions by 90% per kilowatt-hour of electricity generated, and NO{sub x} emissions are anticipated to be 60% less per kilowatt-hour of electricity generated because of the staged combustor. Because the EFCC technology would be more efficient, less carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) would be emitted to the atmosphere per kilowatt-hour of electricity produced.

  19. Replacement Technologies for Precision Cleaning of Aerospace Hardware for Propellant Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeson, Harold; Kirsch, Mike; Hornung, Steven; Biesinger, Paul

    1997-01-01

    The NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) is developing cleaning and verification processes to replace currently used chlorofluorocarbon-l13- (CFC-113-) based processes. The processes being evaluated include both aqueous- and solvent-based techniques. Replacement technologies are being investigated for aerospace hardware and for gauges and instrumentation. This paper includes the findings of investigations of aqueous cleaning and verification of aerospace hardware using known contaminants, such as hydraulic fluid and commonly used oils. The results correlate nonvolatile residue with CFC 113. The studies also include enhancements to aqueous sampling for organic and particulate contamination. Although aqueous alternatives have been identified for several processes, a need still exists for nonaqueous solvent cleaning, such as the cleaning and cleanliness verification of gauges used for oxygen service. The cleaning effectiveness of tetrachloroethylene (PCE), trichloroethylene (TCE), ethanol, hydrochlorofluorocarbon 225 (HCFC 225), HCFC 141b, HFE 7100(R), and Vertrel MCA(R) was evaluated using aerospace gauges and precision instruments and then compared to the cleaning effectiveness of CFC 113. Solvents considered for use in oxygen systems were also tested for oxygen compatibility using high-pressure oxygen autogenous ignition and liquid oxygen mechanical impact testing.

  20. Clean Technology Fund Investment Plan Approved for Concentrated Solar Power in the MENA Region

    OpenAIRE

    Coma-Cunill, Roger; Govindarajalu, Chandra; Pariente-David, Silvia; Walters, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) clean technology fund investment plan proposes co-financing of $750 million and mobilizes an additional $4.85 billion from other sources to accelerate deployment of Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) by investing in the CSP expansion programs of Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Morocco and Tunisia. Specifically, the Investment Plan will support MENA countries to ...

  1. Overcoming barriers to sustainability: an explanation of residential builders' reluctance to adopt clean technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Pinkse; M. Dommisse

    2009-01-01

    The construction industry has great opportunities to significantly reduce CO2 emissions by improving the energy efficiency of residential buildings. However, in this industry, diffusion of cost-effective clean technologies has been notoriously slow and below potential. This paper sheds light on fact

  2. Low carbon Finland 2050. VTT clean energy technology strategies for society

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koljonen, T.; Simila, L.; Sipila, K. [and others

    2012-11-15

    The Low Carbon Finland 2050 project by VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland aims to assess the technological opportunities and challenges involved in reducing Finland's greenhouse gas emissions. A target for reduction is set as at least 80% from the 1990 level by 2050 as part of an international effort, which requires strong RD and D in clean energy technologies. Key findings of the project are presented in this publication, which aims to stimulate enlightening and multidisciplinary discussions on low-carbon futures for Finland. The project gathered together VTT's technology experts in clean energy production, smart energy infrastructures, transport, buildings, and industrial systems as well as experts in energy system modelling and foresight. VTT's leading edge 'Low Carbon and Smart Energy' enables new solutions with a demonstration that is the first of its kind in Finland, and the introduction of new energy technology onto national and global markets. (orig.)

  3. Assessment of CO2 reduction potentials through clean coal technologies for future power plants in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monna Rozana

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents CO2 reduction potentials employing clean coal technologies for power plants in Indonesia. Whenlow ranked coal from huge reserves cannot be excluded from coal-fired power plants to meet electricity demand, it is criticalfor Indonesia to adopt the best available clean coal technologies for its future coal-fired power plants in order to minimizeCO2 emissions in a long term. Several types of coal-fired technologies are considered to be the best match with Indonesia’ssituation by assessing CO2 emissions from coal-fired power plants, levelized costs of electricity generation, and the cost ofCO2 avoidance. As a result, supercritical PC, IGCC, CFB, and PFBC technologies are presented as a consideration for policymaker in Indonesia.

  4. Needs, resources and climate change: Clean and efficient conversion technologies

    KAUST Repository

    Ghoniem, Ahmed F.

    2011-02-01

    Energy "powers" our life, and energy consumption correlates strongly with our standards of living. The developed world has become accustomed to cheap and plentiful supplies. Recently, more of the developing world populations are striving for the same, and taking steps towards securing their future energy needs. Competition over limited supplies of conventional fossil fuel resources is intensifying, and more challenging environmental problems are springing up, especially related to carbon dioxide (CO 2) emissions. There is strong evidence that atmospheric CO 2 concentration is well correlated with the average global temperature. Moreover, model predictions indicate that the century-old observed trend of rising temperatures could accelerate as carbon dioxide concentration continues to rise. Given the potential danger of such a scenario, it is suggested that steps be taken to curb energy-related CO 2 emissions through a number of technological solutions, which are to be implemented in a timely fashion. These solutions include a substantial improvement in energy conversion and utilization efficiencies, carbon capture and sequestration, and expanding the use of nuclear energy and renewable sources. Some of these technologies already exist, but are not deployed at sufficiently large scale. Others are under development, and some are at or near the conceptual state. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The role of networks in the dissemination of clean technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssen, M. [KEMA, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    2003-07-01

    Information from scientific research projects is generally disseminated to potential users (Small Medium Enterprises (SME) and industries) through scientific papers and conferences. The author presents a more effective way to disseminate this valuable information to SMEs. The proposed approach was introduced by Thematic Networks within the Fifth Frame Programme of the European Commission (EC). The Network was created to provide a smooth transmission of knowledge from those who generate the information to those who use it. The author discussed the role of Thematic Network in relation to the Consortium entitled Production of Novel Products from Glassy Combustion Residues (PROGRES). The Network resulted in a pan-European discussion platform to study issues associated with advanced uses for combustion residues as secondary raw materials. Emphasis was placed on new advanced technologies for fly ash based products under practical conditions. This topic will be discussed in a book being completed by an International PROGRES Consortium. It will describe new technologies for coal fly ash based products. When launching new products, consideration will be given to all stakeholders, from producers of residues to potential users. 2 figs.

  6. Revolution...Now The Future Arrives for Five Clean Energy Technologies – 2016 Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Donohoo-Vallett

    2016-09-30

    Decades of investments by the federal government and industry in five key clean energy technologies are making an impact today. The cost of land-based wind power, utility and distributed photovoltaic (PV) solar power, light emitting diodes (LEDs), and electric vehicles (EVs) has fallen by 41% to as high as 94% since 2008. These cost reductions have enabled widespread adoption of these technologies with deployment increasing across the board.

  7. Joint venture capital investment for clean technologies and their problems in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doelle, H W

    1996-09-01

    All technological developments are aimed at improving the quality of life of a community of people. Biotechnology is a technology which allows the exploitation of microorganisms, plants and animal cells to take place within an economic framework. Developing countries are looking for programmes achieving sustainable, economical growth conducive to a higher per capita income of the community. Any joint venture which promises social advances and economic benefits will have to be rural-based. This presentation discusses the need for a change in fermentation industry attitudes to allow joint venture capital investment in clean technologies together with the problems developing countries face for the implementation of such technologies.

  8. The Analysis of the Relationship between Clean Technology Transfer and Chinese Intellectual Property Countering the Climate Changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Min, Hao

    This report discusses the relationship between the Chinese intellectual property systems which counter with the climate change and the transfer of clean technology, and states how to encourage the developed countries transfer the clean technology to the developing countries according...... to the relative international climate convention program. The report also proposes the current hindrances and developing strategies according to Chinese current situation at this field. The report is mainly divided into three subjects: the relationship between clean technology transfer and the intellectual...... property countering the climate changes; the analysis of current technology transfer modes relating to the climate; the difficulties of Chinese countering climate changes technology transfer and strategic thinking....

  9. Agenda and briefing book: Clean Coal Technology Coordinating Committee, September 16, 1991, Louisville, Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drake, Dr., Carolyn C.; Teague, Mike; Evans, George E.; Oldoerp, Steve; Lerch, Jean

    1991-09-16

    A considerable amount of time was spent discussing the Clean Air Act Amendments pending before Congress. Several members pointed out provisions of the legislation that would have serious impacts on the coal industry and the electric utility industry. The need for increased electricity in Florida raised the question about coal fired Power Plants. It is generally believed that most people in Florida do not know that over 55 percent of the electricity now comes from coal-fired generators. However, publicly, people will say they do not want coal-fired facilities built in Florida. People in Florida are concerned with the EMF Issue just as much as the source of power. It was stated that the coal industry has a very poor image and DOE should assume responsibility for improving the image of coal. it was agreed that it would take a considerable financial commitment to do this and that in addition to government the industry would have to be willing to contribute financially. The Partial results of a survey to utilities concerning the future use of clean coal technologies was reported. Utilities are not ignoring coal technologies but acknowledged that the amendments to the Clean Air Act would be the driving force in future decisions. It was learned through the survey that the DOE negotiation process in the Clean Coal Technology Program was in need of improvement. DOE had recently changed the procedure internally and it was anticipated that the procedure would be smoother in the future.

  10. Profile of Clean Technology Commercialization in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Manish

    2010-04-01

    In 2009, the National Center for Manufacturing Sciences (NCMS) performed it third successive study of the growth and transition of nanotechnology into commercial products, under award from the National Science Foundation (NSF). Nanotechnology is a recently recognized cross-disciplinary field of a variety of potentially disruptive technologies that involves the creation and operation of objects at the nanoscale, up to 100 nanometers in size. Nanomanufacturing is the large-scale manipulation of matter at the nanoscale, to produce value-added components. Because of the economically significant new markets and breadth of applications that can benefit from the exploitation of these size-driven aspects, much international research and commercial effort is being expended to create revolutionary value-added products using the many capabilities and tools enabled by nanotechnology. In the context of Michigan and many other US states, startup and commercialization activity is especially important in market diversification and job growth initiatives. This trend has accelerated new applications of nanotechnology in industrial and consumer markets related to energy efficiency and environmentally conscious manufacturing, known as ``cleantech." Dr. Mehta’s presentation will illustrate the industry’s major trends, concerns and barriers across key strategic indicators, as well as highlight the characteristics of startup businesses and established players in this important field.

  11. Potential effects of clean coal technologies on acid precipitation, greenhouse gases, and solid waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasing, T.J.; Miller, R.L.; McCold, L.N.

    1993-11-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP) was initially funded by Congress to demonstrate more efficient, economically feasible, and environmentally acceptable coal technologies. Although the environmental focus at first was on sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) because their relationship to acid precipitation, the CCTDP may also lead to reductions in carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions and in the volume of solid waste produced, compared with conventional technologies. The environmental effects of clean coal technologies (CCTs) depend upon which (if any) specific technologies eventually achieve high acceptance in the marketplace. In general, the repowering technologies and a small group of retrofit technologies show the most promise for reducing C0{sub 2} emissions and solid waste. These technologies also compare favorably with other CCTs in terms of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} reductions. The upper bound for CO{sup 2} reductions in the year 2010 is only enough to reduce global ``greenhouse`` warming potential by about 1%. However, CO{sub 2} emissions come from such variety of sources around the globe that no single technological innovation or national policy change could realistically be expected to reduce these emissions by more than a few percent. Particular CCTs can lead to either increases or decreases in the amount of solid waste produced. However, even if decreases are not achieved, much of the solid waste from clean coal technologies would be dry and therefore easier to dispose of than scrubber sludge.

  12. An international partnership approach to clean energy technology innovation: Carbon capture and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoliang

    Is a global research partnership effective in developing, deploying, and diffusing clean energy technologies? Drawing on and extending innovation system studies, this doctoral dissertation elaborates an analytical model for a global technology learning system; examines the rationales, mechanisms, and effectiveness of the United States-- China Clean Energy Research Center Advanced Coal Technology Consortium (CERC-ACTC); and analyzes government's role in developing and implementing carbon capture and storage technologies in the United States (U.S.) and China. Studies have shown that successful technology innovation leads to economic prosperity and national competence, and prove that technology innovation does not happen in isolation but rather within interactive systems among stakeholders. However, the innovation process itself remains unclear, particularly with regard to interactive learning among and between major institutional actors, including technology developers, regulators, and financial organizations. This study seeks to advance scholarship on the interactive learning from the angle of global interactive learning. This dissertation research project seeks, as well, to inform policy-makers of how to strengthen international collaboration in clean energy technology development. The U.S.--China CERC-ACTC announced by Presidents Obama and Hu in 2009, provided a unique opportunity to close this scholarly gap. ACTC aimed to "advance the coal technology needed to safely, effectively, and efficiently utilize coal resources including the ability to capture, store, and utilize the emissions from coal use in both nations " through the joint research and development by U.S. and Chinese scientists and engineers. This dissertation project included one-year field research in the two countries, with in-depth interviews of key stakeholders, a survey of Consortium participants, analysis of available data, and site visits to collaborative research projects from 2013-2014. This

  13. ANNULUS CLOSURE TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT INSPECTION/SALT DEPOSIT CLEANING MAGNETIC WALL CRAWLER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minichan, R; Russell Eibling, R; James Elder, J; Kevin Kane, K; Daniel Krementz, D; Rodney Vandekamp, R; Nicholas Vrettos, N

    2008-06-01

    The Liquid Waste Technology Development organization is investigating technologies to support closure of radioactive waste tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Tank closure includes removal of the wastes that have propagated to the tank annulus. Although amounts and types of residual waste materials in the annuli of SRS tanks vary, simple salt deposits are predominant on tanks with known leak sites. This task focused on developing and demonstrating a technology to inspect and spot clean salt deposits from the outer primary tank wall located in the annulus of an SRS Type I tank. The Robotics, Remote and Specialty Equipment (RRSE) and Materials Science and Technology (MS&T) Sections of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) collaborated to modify and equip a Force Institute magnetic wall crawler with the tools necessary to demonstrate the inspection and spot cleaning in a mock-up of a Type I tank annulus. A remote control camera arm and cleaning head were developed, fabricated and mounted on the crawler. The crawler was then tested and demonstrated on a salt simulant also developed in this task. The demonstration showed that the camera is capable of being deployed in all specified locations and provided the views needed for the planned inspection. It also showed that the salt simulant readily dissolves with water. The crawler features two different techniques for delivering water to dissolve the salt deposits. Both water spay nozzles were able to dissolve the simulated salt, one is more controllable and the other delivers a larger water volume. The cleaning head also includes a rotary brush to mechanically remove the simulated salt nodules in the event insoluble material is encountered. The rotary brush proved to be effective in removing the salt nodules, although some fine tuning may be required to achieve the best results. This report describes the design process for developing technology to add features to a commercial wall crawler and the results of the

  14. Key Technology and Experimental Results of the Clean Air Heated Facility for Supersonic Combustion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Zipeng; SONG Wenyan; LE Jialing

    2009-01-01

    The scramjet, which is the propulsion of hypersonic vehicle, has become the focus in many military developed countries. The ground tests play an important role in the research of scramjet. There is defect of test medium contamination (the thermochemical characteristic of the ground test medium is different from that of the flight medium) in existing ground test facilities for scramjet combustor experiment. To solve the problem of test medium contamination, the first clean air heated facility of China for scramjet combustor experiment is designed. The key technology of designing the clean air heated facility is summarized. By using bypass duct, combustor model is protected from high temperature. To reduce the switching time between main duct and bypass duct, solenoid valve and water-cooled system were used. Having centrosymmetric structure, the heat radiating area of the facility and heat loss of the facility are much lower than others. Clean air heated facility is adopted to conduct experiment, which is the first experiment of China in clean air inflow, research on hydrogen-fueled and ethylene-fueled ignition and combustion for scramjet combustor at different equivalence ratio. Successful ignition and sustained combustion of hydrogen has been achieved. Successful ethylene ignition and sustained main stream combustion is achieved with normal fuel injection and taking hydrogen as pilot flame. Experiment result shows that the wall pressure of combustor model rises when the equivalence ratio of hydrogen rises. As the wall pressure of combustor model rises, the pressure disturbance influences the shock train in the upstream.

  15. TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini

    1999-06-01

    This sixteenth quarterly report describes work done during the sixteenth three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ''Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, giving a presentation, and making and responding to several outside contacts.

  16. TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini

    1999-05-10

    This fourteenth quarterly report describes work done during the fourteenth three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ''Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, preparing presentations, and making and responding to two outside contacts.

  17. Clean electricity through advanced coal technologies handbook of pollution prevention and cleaner production

    CERN Document Server

    Cheremisinoff, Nicholas P

    2012-01-01

    Coal power is a major cause of air pollution and global warming and has resulted in the release of toxic heavy metals and radionuclides, which place communities at risk for long-term health problems. However, coal-fired power plants also currently fuel 41% of global electricity. Clean Electricity Through Advanced Coal Technologies discusses the environmental issues caused by coal power, such as air pollution, greenhouse gas emissions and toxic solid wastes. This volume focuses on increasingly prevalent newer generation technologies with smaller environmental footprints than the existing c

  18. TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini

    1999-05-11

    This fifteenth quarterly report describes work done during the fifteenth three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ''Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, preparing and giving presentations, and making and responding to several outside contacts.

  19. Treatment of metal-laden hazardous wastes with advanced Clean Coal Technology by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini; Wiles Elder

    1999-04-05

    This eleventh quarterly report describes work done during the eleventh three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ``Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, preparing and giving presentations, and making and responding to two outside contacts.

  20. Report to the United States Congress clean coal technology export markets and financing mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    This report responds to a Congressional Conference Report that requests that $625,000 in funding provided will be used by the Department to identify potential markets for clean coal technologies in developing countries and countries with economies in transition from nonmarket economies and to identify existing, or new, financial mechanisms or financial support to be provided by the Federal government that will enhance the ability of US industry to participate in these markets. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) expects world coal consumption to increase by 30 percent between 1990 and 2010, from 5.1 to 6.5 billion short tons. Five regions stand out as major foreign markets for the export of US clean coal technologies: China; The Pacific Rim (other than China); South Asia (primarily India); Transitional Economies (Central Europe and the Newly Independent States); and Other Markets (the Americas and Southern Africa). Nearly two-thirds of the expected worldwide growth in coal utilization will occur in China, one quarter in the United States. EIA forecasts nearly a billion tons per year of additional coal consumption in China between 1990 and 2010, a virtual doubling of that country`s coal consumption. A 30-percent increase in coal consumption is projected in other developing countries over that same period. This increase in coal consumption will be accompanied by an increase in demand for technologies for burning coal cost-effectively, efficiently and cleanly. In the Pacific Rim and South Asia, rapid economic growth coupled with substantial indigenous coal supplies combine to create a large potential market for CCTS. In Central Europe and the Newly Independent States, the challenge will be to correct the damage of decades of environmental neglect without adding to already-considerable economic disruption. Though the situation varies, all these countries share the basic need to use indigenous low-quality coal cleanly and efficiently.

  1. Clean coal technologies---An international seminar: Seminar evaluation and identification of potential CCT markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guziel, K.A.; Poch, L.A.; Gillette, J.L.; Buehring, W.A.

    1991-07-01

    The need for environmentally responsible electricity generation is a worldwide concern. Because coal is available throughout the world at a reasonable cost, current research is focusing on technologies that use coal with minimal environmental effects. The United States government is supporting research on clean coal technologies (CCTs) to be used for new capacity additions and for retrofits to existing capacity. To promote the worldwide adoption of US CCTs, the US Department of Energy, the US Agency for International Development, and the US Trade and Development Program sponsored a two-week seminar titled Clean Coal Technologies -- An International Seminar. Nineteen participants from seven countries were invited to this seminar, which was held at Argonne National Laboratory in June 1991. During the seminar, 11 US CCT vendors made presentations on their state-of-the-art and commercially available technologies. The presentations included technical, environmental, operational, and economic characteristics of CCTs. Information on financing and evaluating CCTs also was presented, and participants visited two CCT operating sites. The closing evaluation indicated that the seminar was a worthwhile experience for all participants and that it should be repeated. The participants said CCT could play a role in their existing and future electric capacity, but they agreed that more CCT demonstration projects were needed to confirm the reliability and performance of the technologies.

  2. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies - froth flotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferris, D.D.; Bencho, J.R. [ICF Kaiser Engineers, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    In 1988, ICF Kaiser Engineers was awarded DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-88PC88881 to research, develop, engineer and design a commercially acceptable advanced froth flotation coal cleaning technology. The DOE initiative is in support of the continued utilization of our most abundant energy resource. Besides the goal of commercialability, coal cleaning performance and product quality goals were established by the DOE for this and similar projects. primary among these were the goals of 85 percent energy recovery and 85 percent pyrite rejection. Three nationally important coal resources were used for this project: the Pittsburgh No. 8 coal, the Upper Freeport coal, and the Illinois No. 6 coal. Following is a summary of the key findings of this project.

  3. Cost incentives for doctors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schottmüller, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    If doctors take the costs of treatment into account when prescribing medication, their objectives differ from their patients' objectives because the patients are insured. This misalignment of interests hampers communication between patient and doctor. Giving cost incentives to doctors increases...... welfare if (i) the doctor's examination technology is sufficiently good or (ii) (marginal) costs of treatment are high enough. If the planner can costlessly choose the extent to which doctors take costs into account, he will opt for less than 100%. Optimal health care systems should implement different...... degrees of cost incentives depending on type of disease and/or doctor....

  4. Tooth brushing, tongue cleaning and snacking behaviour of dental technology and therapist students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clement C. Azodo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the tooth brushing, tongue cleaning and snacking behaviour of dental technology and therapist students. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study of students of Federal School of Dental Therapy and Technology Enugu, Nigeria. Self-administered questionnaire was used to obtain information on demography, frequency, duration and technique of tooth brushing and tongue cleaning as well as information on consumption of snacks. Results: A total of 242 students responded. Dental technology students made up 52.5% of the respondents and dental therapist in training made up 47.5%. Majority (63.2% of the respondents considered the strength of tooth brush when purchasing a tooth brush and 78.9% use tooth brushes with medium strength. Seven-tenth (71.9% of the respondents brush their teeth twice daily and 52.1% brush for 3–5 minutes. About one-third (30.2% brush their teeth in front of a mirror. Chewing stick was used by 51.7% of respondents in addition to the use of tooth brush. Tongue cleaning was done by 94.2% with only 9.5% using a tongue cleaner. Only 20.2% reported regular snacks consumption. Nine-tenth (90.4% of respondents were previously involved in educating others, apart from their colleagues, on tooth brushing. Conclusion: This survey revealed that most of the dental therapy and technology students had satisfactory tooth-brushing behaviour. The zeal to educate others about proper tooth brushing revealed in this study suggests that the students may be helpful in oral health promotion.

  5. Gender perceptions of smoking and cessation via technology, incentives and virtual communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alan D; Smith, Amber A

    2011-01-01

    There are many studies that have tried to evaluate some of the determining factors in smoking cessation, but with limited success. In particular, the present study deals with these concerns within the context of the current global recession and the roles of technology and social networking as moderating variables in the examination of smoking working professionals' relationships between people's background experiences with smoking, their self-reported perceptions about health, economic, and social aspects of smoking, and their perspectives on quitting. The empirical section examines current opinions of smoking analogues as alternatives to cessation and identify whether these opinions were influenced by negative perspectives of smoking in general. Several hypotheses and factor analyses related to smoking cessation statistically evaluated assumptions that economic and social considerations had more effects on quitting than health concerns; personal experience with smoking leads to less confidence in cold turkey quitting; and that technology-based solutions and virtual communities can gain wide acceptance despite the chemical addictiveness of tobacco-related products.

  6. Microalgal hydrogen production: prospects of an essential technology for a clean and sustainable energy economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayro-Kaiser, Vinzenz; Nelson, Nathan

    2017-02-26

    Modern energy production is required to undergo a dramatic transformation. It will have to replace fossil fuel use by a sustainable and clean energy economy while meeting the growing world energy needs. This review analyzes the current energy sector, available energy sources, and energy conversion technologies. Solar energy is the only energy source with the potential to fully replace fossil fuels, and hydrogen is a crucial energy carrier for ensuring energy availability across the globe. The importance of photosynthetic hydrogen production for a solar-powered hydrogen economy is highlighted and the development and potential of this technology are discussed. Much successful research for improved photosynthetic hydrogen production under laboratory conditions has been reported, and attempts are underway to develop upscale systems. We suggest that a process of integrating these achievements into one system to strive for efficient sustainable energy conversion is already justified. Pursuing this goal may lead to a mature technology for industrial deployment.

  7. Incentive Driven Distributed Generation Planning with Renewable Energy Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KAUR, S.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Renewable DGs may not be economically viable due to the stochastic generation and huge capital investment, but are an inevitable choice for sustainable energy development and future planning. An appropriate incentive scheme for clean Distributed Generation (DG technologies is able to address this issue in an economical manner and is considered in proposed distributed generation planning model. The proposed model minimizes the annualized cost with Emission Offset Incentive (EOI and the penalty for Green-house Gas (GHG emissions. A meta-heuristic approach with dynamic tuning of control parameters is adopted to improve the success and the convergence rate of optimal solutions. The algorithm provides the optimal solution in terms of type, size, and location of DG. The proposed technique is implemented on IEEE 33-bus system. Proposed model helps the Distribution Network Operators (DNOs to decide the proper DG technology from an economic prospective for eco-friendly energy planning.

  8. Research on Clean Coal Clean Coal Technology of Computer Automatic Control%计算机自动控制洁煤净煤技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨荣光

    2013-01-01

      在煤利用的过程中,会产生大量有害气体、粉尘等污染物,尤其是在发展中国家,这种污染十分严重。而在当今社会,人们的环保意识逐渐增强,国际上对于煤炭利用带来的环境问题给予了越来越多的关注。广大科技工作者针对洁煤净煤,降低污染方面技术的研究愈加深入,大量新型净化方法和应用技术应运而生。利用计算机自动控制技术,发展煤化工新技术,一方面能更有效地提高经济效益,另一方面能有效地达到洁煤、净煤的效果,保护环境。%  The coal in the use process, will produce a large number of harmful gas, dust and other pollutants, especially in developing countries, this kind of pollution is very serious. In today's society, the people environmental protection consciousness strengthens gradually, the international environment problems caused by coal use to pay more and more attention. Broad Scientists and technologists for clean coal clean coal, reducing pollution technology research more deeply, a new purification method and application technology of emerge as the times require. Use of computer automatic control technology, the development of coal chemical industry new technology, one can more effectively improve the economic benefit, on the other hand, can effectively achieve the clean coal, clean coal, protect environment

  9. Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program: Project fact sheets 2000, status as of June 30, 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-09-01

    The Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCT Program), a model of government and industry cooperation, responds to the Department of Energy's (DOE) mission to foster a secure and reliable energy system that is environmentally and economically sustainable. The CCT Program represents an investment of over $5.2 billion in advanced coal-based technology, with industry and state governments providing an unprecedented 66 percent of the funding. With 26 of the 38 active projects having completed operations, the CCT Program has yielded clean coal technologies (CCTs) that are capable of meeting existing and emerging environmental regulations and competing in a deregulated electric power marketplace. The CCT Program is providing a portfolio of technologies that will assure that U.S. recoverable coal reserves of 274 billion tons can continue to supply the nation's energy needs economically and in an environmentally sound manner. As the nation embarks on a new millennium, many of the clean coal technologies have realized commercial application. Industry stands ready to respond to the energy and environmental demands of the 21st century, both domestically and internationally, For existing power plants, there are cost-effective environmental control devices to control sulfur dioxide (S02), nitrogen oxides (NO,), and particulate matter (PM). Also ready is a new generation of technologies that can produce electricity and other commodities, such as steam and synthetic gas, and provide efficiencies and environmental performance responsive to global climate change concerns. The CCT Program took a pollution prevention approach as well, demonstrating technologies that remove pollutants or their precursors from coal-based fuels before combustion. Finally, new technologies were introduced into the major coal-based industries, such as steel production, to enhance environmental performance. Thanks in part to the CCT Program, coal--abundant, secure, and economical

  10. Clean Energy Technologies: A Preliminary Inventory of the Potential for Electricity Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, Owen; Worrell, Ernst

    2005-08-03

    be unused and convert it to electricity or useful thermal energy. Recycled energy produces no or little increase in fossil fuel consumption and pollutant emissions. Examples of energy recycling methods include industrial gasification technologies to increase energy recovery, as well as less traditional CHP technologies, and the use of energy that is typically discarded from pressure release vents or from the burning and flaring of waste streams. These energy recovery technologies have the ability to reduce costs for power generation. This report is a preliminary study of the potential contribution of this ''new'' generation of clean recycled energy supply technologies to the power supply of the United States. For each of the technologies this report provides a short technical description, as well as an estimate of the potential for application in the U.S., estimated investment and operation costs, as well as impact on air pollutant emission reductions. The report summarizes the potential magnitude of the benefits of these new technologies. The report does not yet provide a robust cost-benefit analysis. It is stressed that the report provides a preliminary assessment to help focus future efforts by the federal government to further investigate the opportunities offered by new clean power generation technologies, as well as initiate policies to support further development and uptake of clean power generation technologies.

  11. Comparative analyses for selected clean coal technologies in the international marketplace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szpunar, C.B.; Gillette, J.L.

    1990-07-01

    Clean coal technologies (CCTs) are being demonstrated in research and development programs under public and private sponsorship. Many of these technologies could be marketed internationally. To explore the scope of these international opportunities and to match particular technologies with markets appearing to have high potential, a study was undertaken that focused on seven representative countries: Italy, Japan, Morocco, Turkey, Pakistan, the Peoples' Republic of China, and Poland. The results suggest that there are international markets for CCTs and that these technologies can be cost competitive with more conventional alternatives. The identified markets include construction of new plants and refurbishment of existing ones, especially when decision makers want to decrease dependence on imported oil. This report describes potential international market niches for U.S. CCTs and discusses the status and implications of ongoing CCT demonstration activities. Twelve technologies were selected as representative of technologies under development for use in new or refurbished industrial or electric utility applications. Included are the following: Two generic precombustion technologies: two-stage froth-flotation coal beneficiation and coal-water mixtures (CWMs); Four combustion technologies: slagging combustors, integrated-gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) systems, atmospheric fluidized-bed combustors (AFBCs), and pressurized fluidized-bed combustors (PFBCs); and Six postcombustion technologies: limestone-injection multistage burner (LIMB) systems, gas-reburning sorbent-injection (GRSI) systems, dual-alkali flue-gas desulfurization (FGD), spray-dryer FGD, the NOXSO process, and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems. Major chapters of this report have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  12. Revolution…Now The Future Arrives for Five Clean Energy Technologies – 2015 Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-11-01

    In 2013, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) released the Revolution Now report, highlighting four transformational technologies: land-based wind power, silicon photovoltaic (PV) solar modules, light-emitting diodes (LEDs), and electric vehicles (EVs). That study and its 2014 update showed how dramatic reductions in cost are driving a surge in consumer, industrial, and commercial adoption for these clean energy technologies—as well as yearly progress. In addition to presenting the continued progress made over the last year in these areas, this year’s update goes further. Two separate sections now cover large, central, utility-scale PV plants and smaller, rooftop, distributed PV systems to highlight how both have achieved significant deployment nationwide, and have done so through different innovations, such as easier access to capital for utility-scale PV and reductions of non-hardware costs and third-party ownership for distributed PV. Along with these core technologies

  13. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies: Froth flotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    A study conducted by Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of sulfur emissions from about 1,300 United States coal-fired utility boilers indicated that half of the emissions were the result of burning coals having greater than 1.2 pounds of SO[sub 2] per million BTU. This was mainly attributed to the high pyritic sulfur content of the boiler fuel. A significant reduction in SO[sub 2] emissions could be accomplished by removing the pyrite from the coals by advanced physical fine coal cleaning. An engineering development project was prepared to build upon the basic research effort conducted under a solicitation for research into Fine Coal Surface Control. The engineering development project is intended to use general plant design knowledge and conceptualize a plant to utilize advanced froth flotation technology to process coal and produce a product having maximum practical pyritic sulfur reduction consistent with maximum practical BTU recovery.

  14. Advanced Materials in Support of EERE Needs to Advance Clean Energy Technologies Program Implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liby, Alan L [ORNL; Rogers, Hiram [ORNL

    2013-10-01

    The goal of this activity was to carry out program implementation and technical projects in support of the ARRA-funded Advanced Materials in Support of EERE Needs to Advance Clean Energy Technologies Program of the DOE Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO) (formerly the Industrial Technologies Program (ITP)). The work was organized into eight projects in four materials areas: strategic materials, structural materials, energy storage and production materials, and advanced/field/transient processing. Strategic materials included work on titanium, magnesium and carbon fiber. Structural materials included work on alumina forming austentic (AFA) and CF8C-Plus steels. The advanced batteries and production materials projects included work on advanced batteries and photovoltaic devices. Advanced/field/transient processing included work on magnetic field processing. Details of the work in the eight projects are available in the project final reports which have been previously submitted.

  15. Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freihaut, Jim

    2013-09-30

    The Mid Atlantic Clean Energy Application Center (MACEAC), managed by The Penn State College of Engineering, serves the six states in the Mid-Atlantic region (Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia and West Virginia) plus the District of Columbia. The goals of the Mid-Atlantic CEAC are to promote the adoption of Combined Heat and Power (CHP), Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) and District Energy Systems (DES) in the Mid Atlantic area through education and technical support to more than 1,200 regional industry and government representatives in the region. The successful promotion of these technologies by the MACEAC was accomplished through the following efforts; (1)The MACEAC developed a series of technology transfer networks with State energy and environmental offices, Association of Energy Engineers local chapters, local community development organizations, utilities and, Penn State Department of Architectural Engineering alumni and their firms to effectively educate local practitioners about the energy utilization, environmental and economic advantages of CHP, WHR and DES; (2) Completed assessments of the regional technical and market potential for CHP, WHR and DE technologies application in the context of state specific energy prices, state energy and efficiency portfolio development. The studies were completed for Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Maryland and included a set of incentive adoption probability models used as a to guide during implementation discussions with State energy policy makers; (3) Using the technical and market assessments and adoption incentive models, the Mid Atlantic CEAC developed regional strategic action plans for the promotion of CHP Application technology for Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Maryland; (4) The CHP market assessment and incentive adoption model information was discussed, on a continuing basis, with relevant state agencies, policy makers and Public Utility Commission organizations resulting in CHP favorable incentive

  16. 油罐清洗技术的发展现状%Development Status of Oil Tank Cleaning Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵琳; 刘国荣; 姚凤灵; 王海涛

    2015-01-01

    原油是一种由多种烃类组成的复杂混合物,在油罐中进行长时间的储存后,由于重力、压力、温度的综合影响,原油中的杂质和重油性组分会慢慢沉积,最后积累在罐底,变成黑色、黏稠的胶状沉积物,即油罐底泥。底泥的不断增多会对原油的油品质量及储罐的有效容积产生很大影响,因此,必须对油罐进行定期检修和清洗除垢。目前,原油储罐的清洗技术主要包括人工清洗技术、化学清洗技术和机械清洗技术,还可以使用油罐清洗机器人对油罐进行清洗。我国原油储罐清洗技术正从原来的人工清洗技术向机械自动化清洗方向发展。介绍了几种油罐清洗方法,以及油罐清洗后残余油泥的处理方法。%The crude oil is a complex mixture composed of a variety of hydrocarbons. After prolonged storage in the tank, ow⁃ing to the comprehensive influence of gravity, pressure, temperature, impurities in crude oil and heavy oil group branch deposit slowly and finally accumulated at the bottom of the tank, into the black, sticky, colloidal sediments, namely oil tank sludge. The increasing sediment will have a great influence on the quality of crude oil and the effective volume of the storage tank, Therefore, it is necessary to regular maintenance and cleaning the tank. At present, the oil tank cleaning technology mainly includes the man⁃ual cleaning techniques, chemical cleaning technology and mechanical cleaning technology, and tank cleaning robot can also be used to clean the tank. Cleaning technology of oil storage tanks in China is from the original manual cleaning technology to the de⁃velopment of mechanical automation. This paper introduces several methods of tank cleaning, and processing method of residual sludge after tank cleaning.

  17. WABASH RIVER INTEGRATED METHANOL AND POWER PRODUCTION FROM CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES (IMPPCCT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert Tsang

    2003-03-14

    The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project is evaluating integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project is conducted by a multi-industry team lead by Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC), and supported by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation. Three project phases are planned for execution, including: (1) Feasibility study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility, and for fence-line commercial embodiment plants (CEP) operated at Dow Chemical or Dow Corning chemical plant locations (2) Research, development, and testing (RD&T) to define any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues (3) Engineering design and financing plan to install an integrated commercial demonstration facility at the existing Wabash River Energy Limited (WREL) plant in West Terre Haute, Indiana. The WREL facility is a project selected and co-funded under the Round IV of the United States Department of Energy's (DOE's) Clean Coal Technology Program. In this project, coal and/or other solid fuel feedstocks are gasified in an oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier with continuous slag removal and a dry particulate removal system. The resulting product synthesis gas is used to fuel a combustion turbine generator whose exhaust is integrated with a heat recovery steam generator to drive a refurbished steam turbine generator. The gasifier uses technology initially developed by The Dow Chemical Company (the Destec Gasification Process), and now offered commercially by Global Energy, Inc., parent company of GEC and WREL, as the E-GAS{trademark} technology. In a joint effort with the DOE, a Cooperative Agreement was awarded under the Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) solicitation. GEC and an Industrial Consortium are

  18. HYDROGENATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR PROD—UCTION OF CLEAN GASOLINE AND DIESEL FUEL IN RIPP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIEHong; SHIYa-hua; SHIYu-lin; KANGXiao-hong; LIDa-dong

    2003-01-01

    It is necessary to produce low sulfur /low olefin gasoline and low sulfur /low aromatics diesel fuel for reducing the air pollution from automobile exhausted gas.Major component in gasoline pool in China is from FCCU,resulting in higher olefin content in product gasoline.The difficult point in producing clean gasoline is to lower down the olefin content while retaining RON of gasoline as much as possible.Based on the properties of gasoline,RIPP has developed technology(RIDOS) for reducing both sulfur and olefin contents by the same process.The technology shows that its hy-dro-iso-cracking performance to some extent can reduce the olefin content from 50%-60% to less than 20%,and road octane loss is less than 2.In deep hydro-desulfurization of diesel fuel,the key than 20%,and road octane loss is less than 2.In deep hydro-desulfurization of diesel fuel,the key point is to remove dibenzhothiophen(DBT)with methyl substitute in 4 and 6 positions.To solve this problem,RN-10 catalyst with high hydrogenation activity was developed by reinforcing the hydrogenation function.The catalyst featured with less spatial hindrance effect after the DMDBT was hydrogenated,meanwhile ,it has high activity in aromatics saturation.Diesel fuel with low sulfur and low aromatics content can be manufactured from SRGO or FCC diesel fraction.RIPP has developed more technologies such as MHUG,RMC and RICH for production of clean diesel fuel with low sulfur/aromatics and low density with increased cetane number.

  19. Enhancing Incentive Programs with Proximal Goals and Immediate Feedback: Engineered Labor Standards and Technology Enhancements in Stocker Replenishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goomas, David T.; Ludwig, Timothy D.

    2007-01-01

    Under baseline conditions warehouse stockers (n = 23) could earn incentives if their team performed above the team quota of 18 cases stocked per hour. They were also subject to disciplinary action if they failed to regularly meet individual stocking quotas. In spite of these contingencies the stockers failed to receive bonus payments most of the…

  20. Benefits to the United States of Increasing Global Uptake of Clean Energy Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, D.

    2010-07-01

    A previous report describes an opportunity for the United States to take leadership in efforts to transform the global energy system toward clean energy technologies (CET). An accompanying analysis to that report provides estimates of the economic benefits to the United States of such a global transformation on the order of several hundred billion dollars per year by 2050. This report describes the methods and assumptions used in developing those benefit estimates. It begins with a summary of the results of the analysis based on an updated and refined model completed since the publication of the previous report. The framework described can be used to estimate the economic benefits to the U.S. of coordinated global action to increase the uptake of CETs worldwide. Together with a Monte Carlo simulation engine, the framework can be used to develop plausible ranges for benefits, taking into account the large uncertainty in the driving variables and economic parameters. The resulting estimates illustrate that larger global clean energy markets offer significant opportunities to the United States economy.

  1. High quality coal extraction and environmental remediation of fine coal refuse ponds using advanced cleaning technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honaker, R.Q.; Mohanty, M.K.; Patwardhan, A. [Department of Mining Engineering, Southern Illinois University-Carbondale, Carbondale, Illinois (United States)

    1998-07-01

    A vast number of coal refuse ponds represent a significant economical resource base that are also considered to be environmentally harmful. Significant amounts of cleanable fine coal generally exist in the refuse ponds due to the inability of conventional technologies to effectively separate the fine coal from the associated gangue particles. In addition, acid generation, generally a result of pyrite oxidation, has potential to adversely affect the surrounding environment. An integrated processing strategy of simultaneously recovering high quality coal and pyrite-rich products from the treatment of a coal refuse pond slurry has been successfully evaluated using an advanced physical cleaning circuit. A clean coal product having ash and pyritic sulfur contents of 10.1% and 0.41% was recovered with a mass yield of nearly 49%. In addition, a pyrite-rich product containing nearly 83% of the coal pyrite particles present in the refuse pond material was generated for neutralization purposes for the environmental remediation of the slurry pond. 4 refs.

  2. Can commonly-used fan-driven air cleaning technologies improve indoor air quality? A literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yinping; Mo, Jinhan; Li, Yuguo

    2011-01-01

    Air cleaning techniques have been applied worldwide with the goal of improving indoor air quality. The effectiveness of applying these techniques varies widely, and pollutant removal efficiency is usually determined in controlled laboratory environments which may not be realized in practice. Some...... air cleaners are largely ineffective, and some produce harmful by-products. To summarize what is known regarding the effectiveness of fan-driven air cleaning technologies, a state-of-the-art review of the scientific literature was undertaken by a multidisciplinary panel of experts from Europe, North...... technologies was able to effectively remove all indoor pollutants and many were found to generate undesirable by-products during operation. (2) Particle filtration and sorption of gaseous pollutants were among the most effective air cleaning technologies, but there is insufficient information regarding long...

  3. The Clean Coal Technology Program 100 MWe demonstration of gas suspension absorption for flue gas desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, F.E.; Hedenhag, J.G. [AirPol Inc., Teterboro, NJ (United States); Marchant, S.K.; Pukanic, G.W. [Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center; Norwood, V.M.; Burnett, T.A. [Tennessee Valley Authority, Chattanooga, TN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    AirPol Inc., with the cooperation of the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) under a Cooperative Agreement with the United States Department of Energy, installed and tested a 10 MWe Gas Suspension Absorption (GSA) Demonstration system at TVA`s Shawnee Fossil Plant near Paducah, Kentucky. This low-cost retrofit project demonstrated that the GSA system can remove more than 90% of the sulfur dioxide from high-sulfur coal-fired flue gas, while achieving a relatively high utilization of reagent lime. This paper presents a detailed technical description of the Clean Coal Technology demonstration project. Test results and data analysis from the preliminary testing, factorial tests, air toxics texts, 28-day continuous demonstration run of GSA/electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and 14-day continuous demonstration run of GSA/pulse jet baghouse (PJBH) are also discussed within this paper.

  4. International School of Innovative Technology for Cleaning the Environment, Ettore Majorana Centre for Scientific Culture: Erice, Sicily, Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragaini, R.C.

    1994-06-01

    The International School of Innovative Technology for Cleaning the Environment was founded at the Ettore Majorana Centre for Scientific Culture (EMCSC), the seat of the World Laboratory Mediterranean Branch, in 1989. The School primarily organizes and hosts training courses and advanced study courses addressing state-of-the-art technologies to clean the environment, minimize waste generation, prevent pollution, and identify strategies to choose environmentally resilient sites and processes for new industrial installations. The School also participates in facilitating multi-national research projects for developing countries under the auspices of the World Laboratory and other sponsoring agencies.

  5. Bottom-up Initiatives for Photovoltaic: Incentives and Barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Reinsberger

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available When facing the challenge of restructuring the energy system, bottom-up initiatives can aid the diffusion of decentralized and clean energy technologies. We focused here on a bottom-up initiative of citizen-funded and citizen-operated photovoltaic power plants. The project follows a case study-based approach and examines two different community initiatives. The aim is to investigate the potential incentives and barriers relating to participation or non-participation in predefined community PV projects. Qualitative, as well as quantitative empirical research was used to examine the key factors in the further development of bottom-up initiatives as contributors to a general energy transition.

  6. Milliken Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Project. Environmental monitoring report, July--September 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    New York State Electric and Gas Corporation (NYSEG) has installed and is presently operating a high-efficiency flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system to demonstrate innovative emissions control technology and comply with the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. The host facility for this demonstration project is NYSEG`s Milliken Station, in the Town of Lansing, New York. The primary objective of this project is to demonstrate a retrofit of energy-efficient SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control systems with minimal impact on overall plant efficiency. The demonstration project has added a forced oxidation, formic acid-enhanced wet limestone FGD system, which is expected to reduce SO{sub 2} emissions by at least 90 percent. NYSEG also made combustion modifications to each boiler and plans to demonstrate selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) technology on unit 1, which will reduce NO{sub x} emissions. Goals of the proposed demonstration include up to 98 percent SO{sub 2} removal efficiency while burning high-sulfur coal, 30 percent NO{sub x} reductions through combustion modifications, additional NO{sub x} reductions using SNCR technology, production of marketable commercial-grade gypsum and calcium chloride by-products to minimize solid waste disposal, and zero wastewater discharge.

  7. SEMICONDUCTOR TECHNOLOGY: GaAs surface wet cleaning by a novel treatment in revolving ultrasonic atomization solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaijin, Li; Liming, Hu; Ye, Wang; Ye, Yang; Hangyu, Peng; Jinlong, Zhang; Li, Qin; Yun, Liu; Lijun, Wang

    2010-03-01

    A novel process for the wet cleaning of GaAs surface is presented. It is designed for technological simplicity and minimum damage generated within the GaAs surface. It combines GaAs cleaning with three conditions consisting of (1) removal of thermodynamically unstable species and (2) surface oxide layers must be completely removed after thermal cleaning, and (3) a smooth surface must be provided. Revolving ultrasonic atomization technology is adopted in the cleaning process. At first impurity removal is achieved by organic solvents; second NH4OH:H2O2:H2O = 1:1:10 solution and HCl: H2O2:H2O = 1:1:20 solution in succession to etch a very thin GaAs layer, the goal of the step is removing metallic contaminants and forming a very thin oxidation layer on the GaAs wafer surface; NH4OH:H2O = 1:5 solution is used as the removed oxide layers in the end. The effectiveness of the process is demonstrated by the operation of the GaAs wafer. Characterization of the oxide composition was carried out by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Metal-contamination and surface morphology was observed by a total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and atomic force microscope. The research results show that the cleaned surface is without contamination or metal contamination. Also, the GaAs substrates surface is very smooth for epitaxial growth using the rotary ultrasonic atomization technology.

  8. Adoption and diffusion of clean technologies. Application to paper industry in Spain; La adopcion y difusion de tecnologias limpias. Aplicacion a la Industria del papel en Espana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rio Gonzalez, P. del

    2003-07-01

    The barriers preventing and the factors leading to clean technology adoption are worth being analysed. This paper shows that three sets of interrelated factors (and driving forces) prevent the widespread adoption and diffusion of clean technology: factors external to the firm, internal characteristics and conditions of the potential adopters and characteristics of the environmental technology. This factors are analysed and included in the so-called triangular model, which is further applied to the study of clean technology adoption in the pulp and paper sector in Spain. The empirical study shows that, although former empirical analysis have focused on the role of regulation as the main driving force (and obstacle) in environmental technological change, clean technology adoption decisions are the results of a interaction between the above mentioned factors. finally, some public policy recommendations for the effective and efficient promotion of clean technology diffusion are suggested. (Author)

  9. The push to increase the use of EHR technology by hospitals and physicians in the United States through the HITECH Act and the Medicare incentive program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipersburgh, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews key health care spending and electronic health records (EHR) statistics in the United States (Section II); highlights positive and negative aspects of EHR technology (Sections III and IV); briefly reviews the passage of the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act (HITECH) (Section V); discusses the rule passed by the Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology (ONCHIT) and to implement the goals of HITECH (Section VI); discusses the rule passed by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) to implement the goals of HITECH and focuses on significant requirements of the Medicare incentive program rule as it applies to hospitals and physicians (Section VII); and finally, concludes by highlighting certain issues that have been raised regarding the goals of HITECH (Section VIII).

  10. Sustainable energy for cashew production chain using innovative clean technology project developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pannir Selvam, P.V.; Nandenha, Julio; Santiago, Brunno Henrique de Souza; Silva, Rosalia Tatiane da [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (GPEC/DEQ/UFRN), Lagoa Nova, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica. Grupo de Pesquisa em Engenharia de Custos e Processos], e-mail: pannirbr@gmail.com

    2006-07-01

    The main objective is to develop a new process synthesis based on the residual biomass waste for the energy production applied to the fruit processing plant with co-production of hot, cold thermal energy using biogas from the wood biomass and animal wastes. After carried out the bibliographical research about the current state of art technology, an engineering project had been developed with the use of the software Super Pro Designer V 4.9. Some simulations of processes of the fast pyrolysis, gasification, bio digestion, generation of energy have been realized including the system integration of energy production as innovation of the present work. Three cases study have been developed: first, the current process of conventional energy using combustion, another one using combined pyrolysis and gasification, and the last one with bio digestion for combined power, heat and chilling. The results about the project investment and the cost analysis, economic viability and cash balance were obtained using software Orc 2004. Several techno-economic parameters of the selected cases study involving process innovation were obtained and compared, where a better energy and materials utilization were observed in relation to conventional process. This project which is still in development phase, involves small scale energy integrated system design. The energy and the process integration cashew fruit production chain, based on the clean technology process design, has enable significant improvement in terms of economic and environmental using optimal system configurations with viability and sustainability. (author)

  11. Zebrafish and clean water technology: assessing soil bioretention as a protective treatment for toxic urban runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, J K; Davis, J W; Incardona, J P; Stark, J D; Anulacion, B F; Scholz, N L

    2014-12-01

    Urban stormwater contains a complex mixture of contaminants that can be acutely toxic to aquatic biota. Green stormwater infrastructure (GSI) is a set of evolving technologies intended to reduce impacts on natural systems by slowing and filtering runoff. The extent to which GSI methods work as intended is usually assessed in terms of water quantity (hydrology) and quality (chemistry). Biological indicators of GSI effectiveness have received less attention, despite an overarching goal of protecting the health of aquatic species. Here we use the zebrafish (Danio rerio) experimental model to evaluate bioinfiltration as a relatively inexpensive technology for treating runoff from an urban highway with dense motor vehicle traffic. Zebrafish embryos exposed to untreated runoff (48-96h; six storm events) displayed an array of developmental abnormalities, including delayed hatching, reduced growth, pericardial edema, microphthalmia (small eyes), and reduced swim bladder inflation. Three of the six storms were acutely lethal, and sublethal toxicity was evident across all storms, even when stormwater was diluted by as much as 95% in clean water. As anticipated from exposure to cardiotoxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), untreated runoff also caused heart failure, as indicated by circulatory stasis, pericardial edema, and looping defects. Bioretention treatment dramatically improved stormwater quality and reversed nearly all forms of developmental toxicity. The zebrafish model therefore provides a versatile experimental platform for rapidly assessing GSI effectiveness.

  12. 77 FR 71846 - In the Matter of Encore Clean Energy, Inc., Energy & Engine Technology Corp., Equity Media...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-04

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Encore Clean Energy, Inc., Energy & Engine Technology Corp., Equity Media Holdings Corporation, eTotalSource, Inc., Extensions, Inc., Firepond, Inc., and GNC Energy Corporation... that there is a lack of current and accurate information concerning the securities of Encore...

  13. Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conocophillips

    2007-09-30

    The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project was established to evaluate integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project was under the leadership of ConocoPhillips Company (COP), after it acquired Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC) and the E-Gas gasification technology from Global Energy Inc. in July 2003. The project has completed both Phase 1 and Phase 2 of development. The two project phases include the following: (1) Feasibility study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility at SG Solutions LLC (SGS), previously the Wabash River Energy Limited, Gasification Facility located in West Terre Haute, Indiana, and for a fence-line commercial embodiment plant (CEP) operated at the Dow Chemical Company or Dow Corning Corporation chemical plant locations. (2) Research, development, and testing (RD&T) to define any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues. Phase 1 of this project was supported by a multi-industry team consisting of Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., The Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation, while Phase 2 was supported by Gas Technology Institute, TDA Research Inc., and Nucon International, Inc. The SGS integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) facility was designed, constructed, and operated under a project selected and co-funded under the Round IV of the United States Department of Energy's (DOE's) Clean Coal Technology Program. In this project, coal and/or other carbonaceous fuel feedstocks are gasified in an oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier with continuous slag removal and a dry particulate removal system. The resulting product synthesis gas (syngas) is used to fuel a combustion turbine generator whose exhaust is integrated with a heat recovery steam generator to drive a refurbished steam turbine

  14. Critical Resources for Emerging Clean Technologies: Case study of Wind Turbines. World Resource Forum 2012; 21-23 October, 2012; Beijing, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habib, Komal; Wenzel, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    The dilemma of resource scarcity is not new but its focus has changed from fossil fuels depletion to the mineral resource constraints of clean energy technologies. In order to be independent of fossil fuels we need broad implementation of clean technologies such as wind turbines, photovoltaic...

  15. Institute a modest carbon tax to reduce carbon emissions, finance clean energy technology development, cut taxes, and reduce the deficit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muro, Mark; Rothwell, Jonathan

    2012-11-15

    The nation should institute a modest carbon tax in order to help clean up the economy and stabilize the nation’s finances. Specifically, Congress and the president should implement a $20 per ton, steadily increasing carbon excise fee that would discourage carbon dioxide emissions while shifting taxation onto pollution, financing energy efficiency (EE) and clean technology development, and providing opportunities to cut taxes or reduce the deficit. The net effect of these policies would be to curb harmful carbon emissions, improve the nation’s balance sheet, and stimulate job-creation and economic renewal.

  16. The Making of the Indian National Innovation Systems: Lessons on the specific characteristics of the domestic and the external co-evolutions of technologies, institutions and incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muchie, Mammo; Baskaran, Angathevar

    for its low quality manufactured good, and inability to eradicate poverty. Key issues taken up for this paper are: § What is the effort of India to create an efficient national system of innovation? § Can India's system of innovation catapult it to a developed nation status in the next fifteen to twenty...... is growing at a nearly 8 % of GDP and is seen as an emerging economy on a par with China. The policy makers in India have asked: can India become a developed country by 2020? (see Kalam, 1998).  India has tried to apply science and technology to industrialise agriculture and build a modern economy......, diffusion and incentives. Despite its significant achievements in areas such as building strong industrial and R & D base, establishing a large number of science and technology institutions, and creating large pool of scientists and engineers, the Indian national innovation system has been criticised...

  17. The Development History of the Post CMP Cleaning Technology%CMP后清洗技术发展历程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周国安; 徐存良

    2013-01-01

    T he paper analyses the post C M P technology com bing w ith the typical C M P equipm ent from 1980s. Such as: M ultiple tanks im m erse w et chem ical cleaning、in-line cleaning、200m m integrated cleaning、300m m integrated cleaning and the cleaning trend sub the 20nm technology node. E ach post C M P cleaning technology com bing w ith the C M P equipm ent, analyzing its special、advantage and shortage.The paperanalysesthe industry postCM P cleaning from allaspect.%从80年代开始,结合当时最具代表性的CMP设备,分析当时的后清洗技术,如:多槽浸泡式化学湿法清洗、在线清洗、200mm集成清洗、300mm集成清洗及20nm以下的CMP后清洗趋势,每种后清洗技术都结合CMP设备明确分析其技术特色,优点和缺陷。全面阐述CMP工业界的后清洗发展历程。

  18. Aligning ambition and incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander; Peyrache, Eloïc

    2011-01-01

    Labor turnover creates longer term career concerns incentives that motivate employees in addition to the short term monetary incentives provided by the current employer. We analyze how these incentives interact, and derive implications for the design of incentive contracts and organizational choi...

  19. Aligning Ambition and Incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander; Peyrache, Eloïc

    Labor turnover creates longer term career concerns incentives that motivate employees in addition to the short term monetary incentives provided by the current employer. We analyze how these incentives interact and derive implications for the design of incentive contracts and organizational choic...

  20. Carbon Dioxide Snow Jet Cleaning Technology%干冰微粒喷射清洗技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭新贺; 王磊; 景玉鹏

    2012-01-01

    简要介绍了随着工艺节点的缩小,传统RCA清洗方法在硅片清洗工艺中的局限性和弊端,进而提出了以CO2为介质的新型干冰微粒喷射清洗方法.从CO2的物理特性出发,论述了CO2流经喷枪后形成干冰微粒的机理,并简要分析了干冰微粒喷射技术对颗粒污染物和有机污染物的清洗机理.在此基础上,介绍了自主研发的一台基于干冰微粒喷射技术的半导体清洗设备,对该设备的结构和各部分的作用作了简要介绍,论述了使用该设备对硅片进行清洗的工艺流程.通过对比实验发现,采用压强为8 MPa、纯度为5N的CO2作为气源,喷嘴前压强设置为11 MPa,使用该设备可以达到很好的清洗效果.%With the drastic shrink of the semiconductor technology node, the limitations and shortcomings of traditional RCA cleaning methods are introduced briefly, and then the carbon dioxide snow jet cleaning as a novel cleaning technology for cleaning process is discussed. Based on the special physical properties of carbon dioxide, the mechanisms of dry ice micro-particle formation as the carbon dioxide passes through an orifice are discussed, and the carbon dioxide snow jet cleaning mechanisms for the particle and organic pollutants are analyzed briefly. Then the self-made semiconductor cleaning equipment based on the carbon dioxide snow jet cleaning was introduced, and the structure of the equipment and the function of each part were discussed. Besides that, the process flow of cleaning the silicon wafer with the equipment was presented. The contrast experiment shows that the equipment has a very good effect of silicon wafer cleaning when the gas pressure of the carbon dioxide source is 8 Mpa, carbon dioxide with the purity of 5N is used as the gas source, and the pressure parameter before the orifice is set to 11 Mpa.

  1. Potential for thermal coal and Clean Coal Technology (CCT) in the Asia-Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.J.; Long, S.

    1991-11-22

    The Coal Project was able to make considerable progress in understanding the evolving energy situation in Asia and the future role of coal and Clean Coal Technologies. It is clear that there will be major growth in consumption of coal in Asia over the next two decades -- we estimate an increase of 1.2 billion metric tons. Second, all governments are concerned about the environmental impacts of increased coal use, however enforcement of regulations appears to be quite variable among Asian countries. There is general caution of the part of Asian utilities with respect to the introduction of CCT's. However, there appears to be potential for introduction of CCT's in a few countries by the turn of the century. It is important to emphasize that it will be a long term effort to succeed in getting CCT's introduced to Asia. The Coal Project recommends that the US CCT program be expanded to allow the early introduction of CCT's in a number of countries.

  2. Management of solid wastes from the Limestone Injection Dry Scrubbing (LIDS) clean coal technology. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musiol, W.F. Jr.; Czuczwa, J.M.

    1993-03-01

    The objectives of this project were to characterize by-products from a pilot Limestone Injection Dry Scrubbing (LIDS) process and to develop processes directed toward the safe and economic use or disposal of these wastes. Because LIDS is a developing Clean Coal technology, a database of chemical and physical characteristics of the by-product was first developed. During the course of this project, it was found that the waste alone did not form high-strength products sufficient for use in construction and engineering applications. Therefore, the project was redirected to evaluate the by-product as a soil-cement and Portland cement raw material, agricultural liming agent, backfill/landfill material component, and mine reclamation/neutralizing agent. Based on these evaluations, the most viable uses for the LIDS byproduct include use in mine reclamation or as a neutralization agent. If soluble sulfites can be minimized by avoiding a dolomitic LIDS reagent, use as an agricultural liming agent has promise. Interest from an Ohio utility in the LIDS process suggests possible application of results at the demonstration or commercial stages.

  3. Appalachian Clean Coal Technology Consortium. Final report, October 10, 1994--March 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, R.H.; Parekh, B.K.; Meloy, T.

    1997-12-31

    The Appalachian Clean Coal Technology Consortium is a group comprised of representatives from the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, West Virginia University, and the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, that was formed to pursue research in areas related to the treatment and processing of fine coal. Each member performed research in their respective areas of expertise and the report contained herein encompasses the results that were obtained for the three major tasks that the Consortium undertook from October, 1994 through March, 1997. In the first task, conducted by Virginia Polytechnic Institute, novel methods (both mechanical and chemical) for dewatering fine coal were examined. In the second task, the Center for Applied Energy Research examined novel approaches for destabilization of [highly stable] flotation froths. And in the third task, West Virginia University developed physical and mathematical models for fine coal spirals. The Final Report is written in three distinctive chapters, each reflecting the individual member`s task report. Recommendations for further research in those areas investigated, as well as new lines of pursuit, are suggested.

  4. TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James T. Cobb, Jr.

    2003-09-12

    Metal-laden wastes can be stabilized and solidified using advanced clean coal technology by-products (CCTBs)--fluid bed combustor ash and spray drier solids. These utility-generated treatment chemicals are available for purchase through brokers, and commercial applications of this process are being practiced by treaters of metal-laden hazardous waste. A complex of regulations governs this industry, and sensitivities to this complex has discouraged public documentation of treatment of metal-laden hazardous wastes with CCTBs. This report provides a comprehensive public documentation of laboratory studies that show the efficacy of the stabilization and solidification of metal-laden hazardous wastes--such as lead-contaminated soils and sandblast residues--through treatment with CCTBs. It then describes the extensive efforts that were made to obtain the permits allowing a commercial hazardous waste treater to utilize CCTBs as treatment chemicals and to install the equipment required to do so. It concludes with the effect of this lengthy process on the ability of the treatment company to realize the practical, physical outcome of this effort, leading to premature termination of the project.

  5. New progresses in safe, clean and efficient development technologies for high-sulfur gas reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liming Huang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In China, there are a lot of high-sulfur gas reservoirs with total proved reserves of over 1 trillion m3, most of which were discovered in the Sichuan Basin. Most high-sulfur gas reservoirs in China, distributed in marine carbonate zones, are characterized by great buried depths, complex geologic conditions, high temperatures, high pressures, high H2S and CO2 content, presenting various challenges in gas field development engineering and production safety. Since the development of Sinian high-sulfur gas reservoirs in the Weiyuan area of the Sichuan Basin started in the 1960s, Wolonghe, Zhongba and other medium to small-scale gas reservoirs with medium to low sulfur content have been developed. Ever since 2009, successful production of Longgang and Puguang in the Sichuan Basin, together with some other high-sulfur gas reservoirs highlighted the breakthroughs in development technologies for high-sulfur gas reservoirs in China. This paper reviews the progress made in gas reservoir engineering, drilling and completion engineering, gas production, pipeline transportation, corrosion control, natural gas purification, HSE and other aspects with consideration of specific requirements related to safe, clean and high-efficient development of high-sulfur gas reservoirs since the “12th Five-Year Plan” period. Finally, considering the challenges in the development of high-sulfur gas reservoirs in China, we summarized the trend in future technological development with the following goals of reducing risks, minimizing environmental damages, and enhancing the efficiency of high-sulfur gas reservoir development.

  6. Clean ferrous casting technology research. Final technical report, September 29, 1993--December 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piwonka, T.S. [ed.

    1996-01-01

    This report details results of a 30-month program to develop methods of making clean ferrous castings, i.e., castings free of inclusions and surface defects. The program was divided into 3 tasks: techniques for producing clean steel castings, electromagnetic removal of inclusions from ferrous melts, and study of causes of metal penetration in sand molds in cast iron.

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT; ULTRASONIC AQUEOUS CLEANING SYSTEMS, SMART SONIC CORPORATION, SMART SONIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report is a product of the U.S. EPA's Environmental Technoloy Verification (ETV) Program and is focused on the Smart Sonics Ultrasonic Aqueous Cleaning Systems. The verification is based on three main objectives. (1) The Smart Sonic Aqueous Cleaning Systems, Model 2000 and...

  8. Application of Derrick Corporation's stack sizer technology for slimes reduction in 6 inch clean coal hydrocyclone circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodzik, P.

    2009-04-15

    The article discusses the successful introduction of Derrick Corporation's Stack Sizer technology for removing minus 200 mesh slimes from 6-inch coal hydrocyclone underflow prior to froth flotation or dewatering by screen bowl centrifuges. In 2006, the James River Coal Company selected the Stack Sizer fitted with Derrick 150 micron and 100 micron urethane screen panels for removal of the minus 100 mesh high ash clay fraction from the clean coal spiral product circuits. After this application proved successful, Derrick Corporation introduced new 75 micron urethane screen panels for use on the Stack Sizer. Evaluation of feed slurry to flotation cells and screen bowl centrifuges showed significant amounts of minus 75 micron that could potentially be removed by efficient screening technology. Removal of the minus 75 micron fraction was sought to reduce ash and moisture content of the final clean coal product. Full-scale lab tests confirmed that the Stack Sizer fitted with Derrick 75 micron urethane screen panels consistently reduced the minus 75 micron percentage in coal slurry from 6-inch clean coal hydrocyclone underflow that is approximately 15 to 20% solid by-weight and 30 to 60% minus 75 micron to a clean coal fraction that is approximately 13 to 16% minus 75 micron. As a result total ash is reduced from approximately 36 to 38% in the hydrocyclone underflow to 14 to 16% in the oversize product fraction form the Stack Sizers. 1 fig., 2 tabs., 5 photos.

  9. Incentives to reduce groundwater consumption in Yemen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellegers, P.J.G.J.; Perry, C.J.; Al-Aulaqi, N.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper options for changing the incentive structure to reduce unsustainable groundwater consumption in Yemen are evaluated. Special attention is paid to incentives that decrease the profitability of irrigation water use and subsidies on improved irrigation technology. Although the literature

  10. Photo-Enhanced Hydrogen Transport Technology for Clean Renewable Electrochemical Energy Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Solid oxide fuel cells and electrolyzers are promising electrochemical devices for space and terrestrial applications due to their high power densities and clean...

  11. 汽车零部件的清洗技术%Vehicle Parts Cleaning Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽

    2013-01-01

      汽车零部件的清洗是汽车零部件的生产工艺过程的一个重要组成部份,主要介绍了清洗的目的不仅是外观装饰的需要,更重要的是确保和提高产品质量的需要。化学清洗是汽车零部件的清洗中应用最广泛、使用最方便、效果最理想、成本低廉的一种方法。%Vehicle parts cleaning were introduced in this paper is the production of vehicle parts is one of the most important link, is the pro⁃duction process is an important part of. The purpose of cleaning is not only the need of decorated appearance, more important is to ensure and improve product quality. In the industrial developed countries, the cleanliness and precision and smooth finish in same position. Chemical cleaning is the most widely used in vehicle parts cleaning, use the most convenient, effect ideal, a method of low cost. Cleaning mechaniza⁃tion, automation, to improve the cleaning effect and save energy, reduce costs, shorten time has obvious practical significance.

  12. Clean Cities Now, Vol. 20, No. 2, Winter 2017 - Capitalizing on Core Strengths & New Technologies for Today's Mobility Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-01-01

    Clean Cities Now is the official semi-annual newsletter of Clean Cities, an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

  13. Japanese challenge to create a low carbon society - 'Clean coal technologies, now and future'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagaki, Yoshihiko; Yoshida, Minoru; Noguchi, Yoshikazu

    2010-09-15

    Under the increase of world energy demand, especially in major developing countries, energy demand will not be satisfied without coal. It is true that 30% of carbon dioxide emission is from coal-fired power stations, and there is no other effective solution than abating these emissions. The key is Clean Coal Technologies (CCT), to make power stations to low carbon. It is necessary to develop and transfer these CCTs together with developed and developing countries. Japan, who has excellent CCTs, should play an important role to develop higher innovative technologies and is challenging to make a low carbon society in the world.

  14. State Support for Clean Energy Deployment: Lessons Learned for Potential Future Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubert, C.; Sinclair, M.

    2011-04-01

    Proposed federal clean energy initiatives and climate legislation have suggested significant increases to federal funding for clean energy deployment and investment. Many states and utilities have over a decade of experience and spend billions of public dollars every year to support EE/RE deployment through programs that reduce the cost of technologies, provide financing for EE/RE projects, offer technical assistance, and educate market participants. Meanwhile, constraints on public expenditures at all levels of government continue to call upon such programs to demonstrate their value. This report reviews the results of these programs and the specific financial incentives and financing tools used to encourage clean energy investment. Lessons from such programs could be used to inform the future application of EE/RE incentives and financing tools. These lessons learned apply to use of distributed resources and the historical focus of these EE/RE programs.

  15. State Support for Clean Energy Deployment. Lessons Learned for Potential Future Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubert, Charles [Clean Energy States Alliance, Montpelier, VT (United States); Sinclair, Mark [Clean Energy States Alliance, Montpelier, VT (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Proposed federal clean energy initiatives and climate legislation have suggested significant increases to federal funding for clean energy deployment and investment. Many states and utilities have over a decade of experience and spend billions of public dollars every year to support EE/RE deployment through programs that reduce the cost of technologies, provide financing for EE/RE projects, offer technical assistance, and educate market participants. Meanwhile, constraints on public expenditures at all levels of government continue to call upon such programs to demonstrate their value. This report reviews the results of these programs and the specific financial incentives and financing tools used to encourage clean energy investment. Lessons from such programs could be used to inform the future application of EE/RE incentives and financing tools. These lessons learned apply to use of distributed resources and the historical focus of these EE/RE programs.

  16. Hot Gas Particulate Cleaning Technology Applied for PFBC/IGFC -The Ceramic Tube Filter (CTF) and Metal Filter-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasatsu, H; Misawa, N; Kobori, K; Iritani, J

    2002-09-18

    Coal is a fossil fuel abundant and widespread all over world. It is a vital resource for energy security, because the supply is stable. However, its CO2 emission per unit calorific value is greater than that of other fossil fuels. It is necessary to develop more efficient coal utilization technologies to expand the coal utilization that meets the social demand for better environment. The Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) combined cycle has become a subject of world attention in terms of better plant operation, improved plant efficiency, lower flue gas emission and fuel flexibility. The gas turbine, one of the most important components in the PFBC, is eager for a hot gas (approximately 650-850C) cleaning system in order to eliminate the severe erosion problem with the less thermal loss. The cyclone is most popular system for a hot gas cleaning, however, the severe damage for gas turbine blades by highly concentrated fine fly ash from PFBC boiler is reported.

  17. Clean Energy Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    For the past several years, the IEA and others have been calling for a clean energy revolution to achieve global energy security, economic growth and climate change goals. This report analyses for the first time progress in global clean energy technology deployment against the pathways that are needed to achieve these goals. It provides an overview of technology deployment status, key policy developments and public spending on RDD&D of clean energy technologies.

  18. Nuclear Technology. Course 30: Mechanical Inspection. Module 30-5, Surface Cleaning Inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasel, Ed; Espy, John

    This fifth in a series of eight modules for a course titled Mechanical Inspection describes cleaning activities which typically apply to construction, maintenance, and modification activities at the nuclear power plant site. The module follows a typical format that includes the following sections: (1) introduction, (2) module prerequisites, (3)…

  19. Coal surface control for advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies. Final report, September 19, 1988--August 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morsi, B.I.; Chiang, S.H.; Sharkey, A.; Blachere, J.; Klinzing, G.; Araujo, G.; Cheng, Y.S.; Gray, R.; Streeter, R.; Bi, H.; Campbell, P.; Chiarlli, P.; Ciocco, M.; Hittle, L.; Kim, S.; Kim, Y.; Perez, L.; Venkatadri, R.

    1992-12-31

    This final report presents the research work carried out on the Coal Surface Control for Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning Technologies project, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE/PETC). The project was to support the engineering development of the selective agglomeration technology in order to reduce the sulfur content of US coals for controlling SO{sub 2} emissions (i.e., acid rain precursors). The overall effort was a part of the DOE/PETCs Acid Rain Control Initiative (ARCI). The overall objective of the project is to develop techniques for coal surface control prior to the advanced physical fine coal cleaning process of selective agglomeration in order to achieve 85% pyrite sulfur rejection at an energy recovery greater than 85% based on run-of-mine coal. The surface control is meant to encompass surface modification during grinding and laboratory beneficiation testing. The project includes the following tasks: Project planning; methods for analysis of samples; development of standard beneficiation test; grinding studies; modification of particle surface; and exploratory R&D and support. The coal samples used in this project include three base coals, Upper Freeport - Indiana County, PA, Pittsburgh NO. 8 - Belmont County, OH, and Illinois No. 6 - Randolph County, IL, and three additional coals, Upper Freeport - Grant County- WV, Kentucky No. 9 Hopkins County, KY, and Wyodak - Campbell County, WY. A total of 149 drums of coal were received.

  20. 国外科技人才创新激励机制的相关理论启示和经验借鉴%The Theoretical Enlightenment and Experience of Foreign Scientific and Technology Talent Innovation Incentives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓刚

    2013-01-01

      科技人才对我国创新型国家的建设具有重要的作用。为吸收国外发达创新型国家的经验,以完善我国的科技人才创新激励机制和提升国家的技术创新水平,本研究首先回顾了管理学与心理学中激励理论对激发科技人才创新活力的启示;然后,总结与梳理了国外科技人才创新激励机制对我国的经验借鉴;最后,提出了完善我国科技人才创新激励机制的对策和建议。%Science and technology talent have an important role in the construction of the innovative country. In order to absorb the experience of foreign developed innovative country, improve China's science and technology talent innovation incentives and enhance the country's technological innovation level, this study first reviews the motivation theory in management and psychology field, which have revelation for stimulating innovation vitality of the scientific and technological talents. Then, this paper summarizes and combines the innovation incentives of foreign technology professional’s innovation incentives and what can China learn from them. Finally, the countermeasures and suggestions to improve China's scientific and technological talent innovation incentives are put forward.

  1. Broadening the Appeal of Marginal Abatement Cost Curves: Capturing Both Carbon Mitigation and Development Benefits of Clean Energy Technologies; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowlin, S.; Cochran, J.; Cox, S.; Davison, C.; van der Gaast, Y.

    2012-08-01

    Low emission development strategies (LEDS) articulate policies and implementation plans that enable countries to advance sustainable, climate-resilient development and private sector growth while significantly reducing the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions traditionally associated with economic growth. In creating a LEDS, policy makers often have access to information on abatement potential and costs for clean energy technologies, but there is a scarcity of economy-wide approaches for evaluating and presenting information on other dimensions of importance to development, such as human welfare, poverty alleviation, and energy security. To address this shortcoming, this paper proposes a new tool for communicating development benefits to policy makers as part of a LEDS process. The purpose of this tool is two-fold: 1. Communicate development benefits associated with each clean energy-related intervention; 2. Facilitate decision-making on which combination of interventions best contributes to development goals. To pilot this tool, the authors created a visual using data on developmental impacts identified through the Technology Needs Assessment (TNA) project in Montenegro. The visual will then be revised to reflect new data established through the TNA that provides information on cost, GHG mitigation, as well as the range and magnitude of developmental impacts.

  2. In-plant testing of a novel coal cleaning circuit using advanced technologies, Quarterly report, March 1 - May 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honaker, R.Q. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States); Reed, S.; Mohanty, M.K. [Kerr-McGee Coal Corp., Oklahoma City, OK (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Research conducted at Southern Illinois University at Carbondale over the past two years has identified highly efficient methods for treating fine coal (i.e., -28 mesh). In this study, a circuit comprised of the three advanced fine coal cleaning technologies is being tested in an operating preparation plant to evaluate circuit performance and to compare the performance with the current technologies used to treat -16 mesh fine coal. The circuit integrated a Floatex hydrosizer, a Falcon concentrator and a Jameson froth flotation cell. The Floatex hydrosizer is being used as a primary cleaner for the nominally -16 mesh Illinois No. 5 fine coal circuit feed. The overflow of the Floatex is screened at 48 mesh using a Sizetec vibratory screen to produce a clean coal product from the screen overflow. The screen overflow is further treated by the Falcon and Jameson Cell. During this reporting period, tests were initiated on the fine coal circuit installed at the Kerr-McGee Galatia preparation plant. The circuit was found to reduce both the ash content and the pyritic sulfur content. Additional in-plant circuitry tests are ongoing.

  3. Where Diffusion of Clean Technologies and Barriers to Innovation Clash: Application to the Global Diffusion of the Electrical Arc Furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Moya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the role of barriers preventing the worldwide take-up of a clean technology: the electrical arc furnace. It also identifies which barriers affect a parameter that summarises the combined effect of all of them. The first step, determination of the combined effect of the barriers, is carried out using a novel approach to model the diffusion of innovations. This new approach is composed only by terms that account for the driver of innovations and the parameter that summarises the effect of barriers. The objective quantification of the effect of barriers in the diffusion of innovations opens up new opportunities for designing policies to overcome the barriers identified as the most relevant, for identifying the effect of existing policies, for relating innovation indicators with those barriers or for better incorporating the effect of barriers in bottom-up models that forecast the technological evolution of the economy.

  4. Clean ferrous casting technology research. Final technical report, September 29, 1993--December 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, C.E.; Griffin, J.; Giese, S.R.; Lane, A.M. [and others

    1996-01-31

    This is the final report covering work performed on research into methods of attaining clean ferrous castings. In this program methods were developed to minimize the formation of inclusions in steel castings by using a variety of techniques which decreased the tendency for inclusions to form during melting, casting and solidification. In a second project, a reaction chamber was built to remove inclusions from molten steel using electromagnetic force. Finally, a thorough investigation of the causes of sand penetration defects in iron castings was completed, and a program developed which predicts the probability of penetration formation and indicates methods for avoiding it.

  5. HYDRO-ABRASIVE JET CLEANING TECHNOLOGY OF STEEL SHEETS DESIGNED FOR LASER CUTTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Kachanov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigations executed by the BNTU “Shipbuilding and hydraulics” department have shown that rather efficient implementation of the requirements to the metal sheet surface designed for laser cutting can be achieved by using hydro-abrasive jet cleaning while applying water pump equipment with the range of pressure – 20–40 MPa. Type of working fluid plays a significant role for obtaining surface of the required quality. The conducted experiments have demonstrated that the efficient solution of the assigned problems can be ensured by using a working fluid containing bentonite clay, surface-active agent polyacrylamide, soda ash and the rest water.

  6. 韩国屋顶绿化的激励制度和技术%Incentive System and Technology of Roof Greening in South Korea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵红露; 姜太昊

    2013-01-01

    In the city the shortage of using land and the rapid increase of population bring many negative effects, while the rise of roof greening provides a new green compensation method. The roof greening is a green corridor to connect to the city, and it has an extremely important role in the theme of the low carbon green growth. The relevant laws and regulations, incentive system, roof greening technology, and the level of South Korea roof greening development are introduced. On the basis of foreign modern experience, it can combine the fact of China and provide a reference for the formulation of roof greening policies, roof greening technology, to accelerate the development of urban roof greening cause.%城市用地紧张,人口剧增,带来众多的负面影响.屋顶绿化是城市绿化用地在极端紧缺的条件下出现的新的绿化补偿手段.是连接城市的绿色廊道,在低碳绿色生长的主题下有着极其重要的作用.介绍了韩国屋顶绿化相关的法规、激励制度、绿化技术,说明了韩国屋顶绿化的发展水平.在借鉴国外先进经验的基础上,结合我国的实际情况,旨在为我国屋顶绿化政策的制定,绿化技术的研究提供参考,促进我国城市屋顶绿化事业的发展.

  7. Advanced Acid Gas Separation Technology for Clean Power and Syngas Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amy, Fabrice [Air Products and Chemicals Inc., Allentown, PA (United States); Hufton, Jeffrey [Air Products and Chemicals Inc., Allentown, PA (United States); Bhadra, Shubhra [Air Products and Chemicals Inc., Allentown, PA (United States); Weist, Edward [Air Products and Chemicals Inc., Allentown, PA (United States); Lau, Garret [Air Products and Chemicals Inc., Allentown, PA (United States); Jonas, Gordon [Air Products and Chemicals Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)

    2015-06-30

    Air Products has developed an acid gas removal technology based on adsorption (Sour PSA) that favorably compares with incumbent AGR technologies. During this DOE-sponsored study, Air Products has been able to increase the Sour PSA technology readiness level by successfully operating a two-bed test system on coal-derived sour syngas at the NCCC, validating the lifetime and performance of the adsorbent material. Both proprietary simulation and data obtained during the testing at NCCC were used to further refine the estimate of the performance of the Sour PSA technology when expanded to a commercial scale. In-house experiments on sweet syngas combined with simulation work allowed Air Products to develop new PSA cycles that allowed for further reduction in capital expenditure. Finally our techno economic analysis of the use the Sour PSA technology for both IGCC and coal-to-methanol applications suggests significant improvement of the unit cost of electricity and methanol compared to incumbent AGR technologies.

  8. Sustainable development with clean coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    This paper discusses the opportunities available with clean coal technologies. Applications include new power plants, retrofitting and repowering of existing power plants, steelmaking, cement making, paper manufacturing, cogeneration facilities, and district heating plants. An appendix describes the clean coal technologies. These include coal preparation (physical cleaning, low-rank upgrading, bituminous coal preparation); combustion technologies (fluidized-bed combustion and NOx control); post-combustion cleaning (particulate control, sulfur dioxide control, nitrogen oxide control); and conversion with the integrated gasification combined cycle.

  9. Photovoltaic Incentive Design Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoff, T. E.

    2006-12-01

    Investments in customer-owned grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) energy systems are growing at a steady pace. This is due, in part, to the availability of attractive economic incentives offered by public state agencies and utilities. In the United States, these incentives have largely been upfront lump payments tied to the system capacity rating. While capacity-based ''buydowns'' have stimulated the domestic PV market, they have been criticized for subsidizing systems with potentially poor energy performance. As a result, the industry has been forced to consider alternative incentive structures, particularly ones that pay based on long-term measured performance. The industry, however, lacks consensus in the debate over the tradeoffs between upfront incentive payments versus longer-term payments for energy delivery. This handbook is designed for agencies and utilities that offer or intend to offer incentive programs for customer-owned PV systems. Its purpose is to help select, design, and implement incentive programs that best meet programmatic goals. The handbook begins with a discussion of the various available incentive structures and then provides qualitative and quantitative tools necessary to design the most appropriate incentive structure. It concludes with program administration considerations.

  10. The role of clean coal technologies in a deregulated rural utility market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neal, J.W. [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Arlington, VA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The nation`s rural electric cooperatives own a high proportion of coal-fired generation, in excess of 80 percent of their generating capacity. As the electric utility industry moves toward a competitive electricity market, the generation mix for electric cooperatives is expected to change. Distributed generation will likely serve more customer loads than is now the case, and that will lead to an increase in gas-fired generation capacity. But, clean low-cost central station coal-fired capacity is expected to continue to be the primary source of power for growing rural electric cooperatives. Gasification combined cycle could be the lowest cost coal based generation option in this new competitive market if both capital cost and electricity production costs can be further reduced. This paper presents anticipated utility business scenarios for the deregulated future and identifies combined cycle power plant configurations that might prove most competitive.

  11. Treatment analysis of incentive politics for renewable energy projects in the clean development mechanism (CDM): the Brazilian case; Analise do tratamento das politicas de incentivos a projetos de energias renovaveis no mecanismo de desenvolvimento limpo (MDL): o caso brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medeiros, Anamelia; Hauser, Philipp, Emails: anameliam@yahoo.com.br, philipphauser@web.de

    2010-07-01

    This paper analyses the politics for mitigation recently adopted by the Brazil, and discuss his treatment under the rules of CDM, viewing to contribute for a transparent solution which to allow the conciliation global and national politics for the clean expansion of the energy sector in Brazil.

  12. Status of clean vehicle technologies and impact of the accompanying public policies; Etat des filieres de vehicules propres et impact des politiques publiques d'accompagnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-06-01

    The French inter-ministry committee for clean vehicles (CIVP) published in 1999 a report about the status of development of the different clean vehicle technologies (electric-powered, LPG-fueled, natural gas fueled, hybrid, fuel cells) and accompanied by recommendations for public policies. A re-evaluation of these technologies was planned by the end of 2002 and is the purpose of this document. The first part makes a status of the actions carried out by the public authorities since the previous CIVP report. The second part presents the present day situation of the LPG, natural gas and electric technologies. It describes also the recent advances in the classical technologies (gasoline and diesel engines) and includes a part about battery technologies and about the use of bio-fuels. The status of each technology is presented both for France and for foreign countries and with its perspectives of evolution. (J.S.)

  13. Exploring Rare Earths supply constraints for the emerging clean energy technologies and the role of recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habib, Komal; Wenzel, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    The dependency on critical resources like Rare Earth Elements (REEs) has been pronounced as a potential barrier to a wider implementation of emerging renewable energy technologies. This study explores the dependency of such technologies especially wind turbines and electric vehicles along...... accelerated rate of Nd and Dy mining is unavoidable in order to keep up with the pace of increasing demand from new technologies required in a renewable energy trategy for meeting the climate change challenge. Recycling does not seem to be in a position to close the wide gap between future demand and supply...

  14. Exploring Rare Earths supply constraints for the emerging clean energy technologies and the role of recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habib, Komal; Wenzel, Henrik

    The dependency on critical resources like Rare Earth Elements (REEs) has been pronounced as a potential barrier to a broader implementation of emerging renewable energy technologies. This study explores the dependency of such technologies especially wind turbines and electric vehicles along...... with other background end-uses on two key REEs, i.e. neodymium (Nd) and dysprosium (Dy). Our study reveals that a highly accelerated rate of REEs mining is unavoidable in order to keep up with the pace of increasing demand from new technologies required in a renewable energy strategy for meeting the climate...

  15. Environmental control implications of generating electric power from coal. 1977 technology status report. Appendix A, Part 1. Coal preparation and cleaning assessment study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-12-01

    This report evaluates the state of the art and effectiveness of physical coal cleaning as a potential strategy for controlling SO/sub x/ emissions in coal fired power generation. Coal properties which are significantly altered by physical coal cleaning were determined. The effects of the changes in properties as they relate to pulverized coal firing, fluidized bed combustion and low Btu gasification for combined cycle powered generation were studied. Available coal washability data were integrated by computer with U.S. coal reserve data. Approximately 18% of the demonstrated coal reserve were matched with washability data. Integrated data appear in the Appendix. Current coal preparation practices were reviewed. Future trends were determined. Five process flow sheets representing increasing levels of cleaning sophistication were prepared. The clean product from each flow sheet will meet U.S. EPA New Source Performance Standards. Capital and operating costs for each case were estimated. Environmental control technology and environmental impact associated with current coal preparation and cleaning operations were assessed. Physical coal cleaning is widely practiced today. Where applicable it represents the least expensive method of coal sulfur reduction. Developmental physical and chemical coal cleaning processes were studied. The chemical methods have the advantage of being able to remove both pyritic sulfur and organic sulfur present in the coal matrix. Further R and D efforts will be required before commercialization of these processes.

  16. Groundwater Contamination: DOD Uses and Develops a Range of Remediation Technologies to Clean Up Military Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-01

    DNAPL dense nonaqueous phase liquids DOD Department of Defense EPA Environmental Protection Agency ESTCP Environmental Security Technology Certification...copper, lead, mercury , selenium, silver, and zinc. eIncludes, but is not limited to, oxygen-bearing chemicals that can be added to fuel to bring...technology is applicable to both dense and light nonaqueous phase liquids ( DNAPL and LNAPL).3 Benefits of enhanced recovery approaches include the

  17. Plasma Cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintze, Paul E.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Kennedy Space Center has developed two solvent-free precision cleaning techniques: plasma cleaning and supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2), that has equal performance, cost parity, and no environmental liability, as compared to existing solvent cleaning methods.

  18. Studying the effectiveness of using pneumoimpulsive technology for cleaning the platen surfaces of the PK-38 boiler at the Nazarovo district power station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agliulin, S. G.; Nikolaev, S. F.; Zvegintsev, V. I.; Yurkin, I. A.; Shabanov, I. I.; Palkin, V. F.; Sergienko, S. P.; Vlasov, S. M.

    2014-09-01

    A new pneumoimpulsive technology, central to which is an impact effect of air jet on ash deposits, was proposed for carrying out continuous preventive cleaning of the platens installed in the steam superheater primary and secondary paths of the PK-38 boiler at the Nazarovo district power station. The pneumoimpulsive cleaning system was mounted in the PK-38 boiler unit no. 6A, and the cleaning system tests were carried out during field operation of the boiler. Owing to the use of the proposed cleaning system, long-term (for no less than 3 months of observations) slag-free operation of the platen surfaces was achieved in the range of steam loads from 215 to 235 t/h with the average load equal to 225 t/h at furnace gas temperatures upstream of the platens equal to 1220-1250°C.

  19. Commercialization of innovative clean technologies : manufacturing know-how in Italian industry; Generazione e diffusione di tecnologie pulite: le esperienze delle imprese italiane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malaman, S. [Istituto per la Ricerca, Milan (Italy)]|[Fondazione ENI, Enrico Mattei, Milan (Italy); Cima, S. [Istituto per la Ricerca Sociale, Milan (Italy)

    1995-06-01

    Last years show an increasing effort of the Italian industry toward the reduction of the environmental impact of both production processes, products utilization and their final disposal. On account of this trend, the target of our research is to understand its general characters. For this reason a database has been implemented on innovative grounds. It provides data on the main innovative clean technologies developed by the Italian industry to cut down external effects (192 clean technologies within 168 companies) and offers a new approach to the issue by turning attention from the company case studies to the technological ones. Thanks to this methodology it is possible to study the companies` strategy according to the legal and industrial environment. Actually this work tries to explain the behaviour of Italian companies related to their perception of the environmental policy, competitors strategy and consumers choice focusing on sectorial, dimensional and geographical distribution of clean technologies. It is also concerned with the analysis of company costs and benefits resulting from the introduction of clean technologies, processes and products together with the capacity of combining environmental with economic targets.

  20. Development of membrane technology for production of concentrated fertilizer and clean water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Camilleri Rumbau, Maria Salud

    The global increasing livestock production is reflected in a high rate of animal waste production, commonly known as manure or animal slurry. These effluents are rich in nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. Solid-liquid separation of farm effluents is a common practice for obtain......The global increasing livestock production is reflected in a high rate of animal waste production, commonly known as manure or animal slurry. These effluents are rich in nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. Solid-liquid separation of farm effluents is a common practice...... for obtaining a phosphorus-rich fraction and a liquid fraction rich in nitrogen and potassium. However, the nutrient concentration in the obtained liquid fractions remains unbalanced due to the high water content. Membrane technologies have previously proved to be a suitable technology for separation...... and concentration of liquid fractions from farm effluents. Based on literature data, by coupling membrane technologies with a solid-liquid mechanical separation technique with low energy consumption, such as screw presses, membrane systems proved to present the best economic potential compared to technologies...

  1. Proceedings of the CANMET-CARI-European Commission : Environmentally clean technologies for sustainable production and consumption workshop 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutrizac, J.E.; Negre, P.; Paquette, L.A.; Solozabal, R. (eds.)

    2003-07-01

    This workshop was organized to provide a forum for major stakeholders of the European Commission and Canada to discuss several European Commission funded projects dealing with the following 4 issues: (1) clean and sustainable processing, (2) clean industrial liquid effluents, (3) clean material recovery from waste, and (4) clean mining. There was also a plenary session entitled: clean production strategies. A chapter was devoted to the plenary session, as well as to each of the four project themes. Seven papers presented at this workshop were indexed separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

  2. Microorganism as a tool of bioremediation technology for cleaning environment: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravindra Singh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The term bioremediation has been introduced to describe the process of using biological agents to remove toxic waste from environment. Bioremediation is the most effective management tool to manage the polluted environment and recover contaminated soil. The hazardous wastes generated from the chemical processes/operations are being treated using physico-chemical and biological methods by the respective industries to meet the prescribed standard as per the Environmental Protection Act, 1986. The wastes treated by the respective industries are collected at Common Effluent Treatment Plant, before discharge into the environment. After the treatment of collected waste at Common Effluent Treatment Plant, the solid and treated effluents are segregated and disposed of into the soil- water environment. In spite of the present treatment technology, the organic pollutants are found persisting in the soil-water environment above their acceptable level. Hence, bioremediation is an innovative technology that has the potential to alleviate the toxic contamination.

  3. Innovation in Workforce Incentives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-13

    5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Defense Acquisition University ,9820 Belvoir Road ,Fort Belvoir,VA,22060 8... Performance • Superior weapon systems • Cost, Schedule, Performance challenges • Acquisition Improvement & Workforce Incentives • Academic ...Richard Clark & Harold Stolovitch in The Effects of Incentives on Workplace Performance : A Meta-analytic Review of Research Studies – Meta-analytic

  4. Fertility incentives and disincentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Financioglu, N

    1984-06-01

    Some 40 countries use some form of incentives and disincentives in support of population policies, about half with the aim of reducing fertility and half with the aim of increasing it. These schemes range from limitations on tax and family allowances or maternity benefits after a given family size has been reached to payments to acceptors of fertility control methods. Some schemes aim to eliminate or reduce the cost and inconvenience people may face in achieving their fertility preferences, whereas others contain an element of deterrence. It is difficult to isolate and measure the impact of incentives on fertility from the effects of other factors such as family planning service availability or modernization. Studies in pronatalist countries suggest that incentive schemes produce short-term fertility increases without a change in average family size. Monetary incentives must be constantly increased to keep pace with inflation, placing a heavy burden on government budgets. Administrative capacity to operate the scheme is critical in terms of both manpower and efficient systems for record keeping, monitoring, and close supervision to prevent abuse. There is also considerable debate on the moral and ethical implications of incentives and disincentives as policy tools. Incentives offered for the acceptance of a particular fertility control method potentially contravene the principle of voluntary and informed consent. In addition, the relative value of the reward is greater for those in the lower income groups. The discriminatory nature of certain types of incentives and disincentives is illustrated by measures introduced in Singapore that give highest priority in school enrollment to the children of highly educated mothers with 2-3 children. This ruling is expected to further intensify the controversy surrounding incentive and disincentive schemes.

  5. Use of modern and clean coal technologies for reduction of greenhouse gas emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popescu, A.; Lavrov, G.; Costea, D. [Institutul de Stuidii Si Proiectari Energetice S.A. (ISPE), Bucharest (Hungary)

    2002-07-01

    Cleaner coal technologies are available now to reduce emissions. After an introductory paragraph, the paper presents a summary of the 'green taxes' on CO{sub 2} emissions and energy use in Europe and the OECD. It then explores the influence of CO{sub 2} taxes on the expansion plan of capacities for power generation in Romania. 1 ref., 1 tab.

  6. Evaluating rare earth element availability: a case with revolutionary demand from clean technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Elisa; Sherman, Andrew M; Wallington, Timothy J; Everson, Mark P; Field, Frank R; Roth, Richard; Kirchain, Randolph E

    2012-03-20

    The future availability of rare earth elements (REEs) is of concern due to monopolistic supply conditions, environmentally unsustainable mining practices, and rapid demand growth. We present an evaluation of potential future demand scenarios for REEs with a focus on the issue of comining. Many assumptions were made to simplify the analysis, but the scenarios identify some key variables that could affect future rare earth markets and market behavior. Increased use of wind energy and electric vehicles are key elements of a more sustainable future. However, since present technologies for electric vehicles and wind turbines rely heavily on dysprosium (Dy) and neodymium (Nd), in rare-earth magnets, future adoption of these technologies may result in large and disproportionate increases in the demand for these two elements. For this study, upper and lower bound usage projections for REE in these applications were developed to evaluate the state of future REE supply availability. In the absence of efficient reuse and recycling or the development of technologies which use lower amounts of Dy and Nd, following a path consistent with stabilization of atmospheric CO(2) at 450 ppm may lead to an increase of more than 700% and 2600% for Nd and Dy, respectively, over the next 25 years if the present REE needs in automotive and wind applications are representative of future needs.

  7. Treatment of metal-laden hazardous wastes with advanced clean coal technology by-products. Quarterly report, March 30, 1996--June 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobb, J.T. Jr.; Neufeld, R.D.; Blachere, J.R. [and others

    1998-04-01

    Progress is described on the use of by-products form clean coal technologies for the treatment of hazardous wastes. During the third quarter of Phase 2, work continued on evaluating Phase 1 samples (including evaluation of a seventh waste), conducting scholarly work, preparing for field work, preparing and delivering presentations, and making additional outside contacts.

  8. Massachusetts Institute of Technology Clean Energy Entrepreneurship Prize 2008 Final Report DOE Award # DE-FG36-07GO17110

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-08-09

    The MIT Clean Energy Prize was established to accelerate the pace of innovation in the energy space, specifically with regard to clean energy and to reduce our dependence on foreign oil. Through a prize structure designed to incent new ideas to be brought forward coupled with a supporting infrastructure to educate, mentor, network and provide a platform for visibility, it was believed we could achieve this goal in a very efficient and effective manner. The grand prize of $200K was meant to be the highly visible and attractive carrot to achieve this and through a public-private partnership of sponsors who held a long term view (i.e., they were not Venture Capitalists or law firms looking for short term business through advantaged deal flow). It was also designed to achieve this in a highly inclusive manner. Towards this end, while MIT was the platform on which the competition was run, and this brought some instant cache and differentiation, the competition was open to all teams which had at least one US citizen. Both professional teams and student teams were eligible.

  9. Partnerships for Clean Development and Climate: Business andTechnology Cooperation Benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathaye, Jayant A.; Price, Lynn; Kumar, Satish; de la Rue du Can,Stephane; Warfield, Corina; Padmanabhan, S.

    2006-08-22

    Development and poverty eradication are urgent andoverriding goals internationally. The World Summit on SustainableDevelopment made clear the need for increased access to affordable,reliable and cleaner energy and the international community agreed in theDelhi Declaration on Climate Change and Sustainable Development on theimportance of the development agenda in considering any climate changeapproach. To this end, six countries (Australia, China, India, Japan,Republic of Korea and the United States) have come together to form theAsia Pacific Partnership in accordance with their respective nationalcircumstances, to develop, deploy and transfer cleaner, more efficienttechnologies and to meet national pollution reduction, energy securityand climate change concerns consistent with the principles of the U.N.Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The APP builds on thefoundation of existing bilateral and multilateral initiativescomplements.APP has established eight public-private sector Task Forcescovering: (1) cleaner fossil energy; (2) renewable energy and distributedgeneration; (3) power generation and transmission; (4) steel; (5)aluminium; (6) cement; (7) coal mining; and (8) buildings and appliances.As a priority, each Task Force will formulate detailed action plansoutlining both immediate and medium-term specific actions, includingpossible "flagship" projects and relevant indicators of progress by 31August 2006. The partnership will help the partners build human andinstitutional capacity to strengthen cooperative efforts, and will seekopportunities to engage the private sector. The APP organized An OutreachWorkshop: Business&Technology Cooperation Opportunities forIndustry on August 26, 2006, New Delhi. This paper was prepared toprovide background information for participants of the Conference. Ithighlights energy efficiency, renewable energy, and climate technologies,barriers, and partnerships that are being implemented in the US, Indiaand other selected

  10. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT). Technical progress report, first quarter, 1993, January 1993--March 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from U.S., Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur U.S. coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NOx) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NOx to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe on gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur coal-fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to U.S. coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in U.S. coals that are not present in other fuels; (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}; and (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties will be explored by constructing a series of small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur U.S. coal. The demonstration will be performed at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Crist Unit No. 5 (75 NM capacity) near Pensacola, Florida. The project will be funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Southern Company Services, Inc. (SCS on behalf of the entire Southern electric system), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and Ontario Hydro. SCS is the participant responsible for managing all aspects of this project.

  11. Wabash River Coal Gasification Combined Cycle Repowering Project: Clean Coal Technology Program. Environmental Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    The proposed project would result in a combined-cycle power plant with lower emissions and higher efficiency than most existing coal-fired power plants of comparable size. The net plant heat rate (energy content of the fuel input per useable electrical generation output; i.e., Btu/kilowatt hour) for the new repowered unit would be a 21% improvement over the existing unit, while reducing SO{sub 2} emissions by greater than 90% and limiting NO{sub x} emissions by greater than 85% over that produced by conventional coal-fired boilers. The technology, which relies on gasified coal, is capable of producing as much as 25% more electricity from a given amount of coal than today`s conventional coal-burning methods. Besides having the positive environmental benefit of producing less pollutants per unit of power generated, the higher overall efficiency of the proposed CGCC project encourages greater utilization to meet base load requirements in order to realize the associated economic benefits. This greater utilization (i.e., increased capacity factor) of a cleaner operating plant has global environmental benefits in that it is likely that such power would replace power currently being produced by less efficient plants emitting a greater volume of pollutants per unit of power generated.

  12. Review of the AD700 technology: a European route to clean combustion of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Bugge; S. Kjaer; R. Vanstone; F. Klauke; C. Stolzemberger; F. Bregani; S. Concari [Elsam Engineering (Denmark)

    2005-07-01

    Following the paper presented at CCT2002 Conference dealing with 'Advanced 700{sup o}C PF Power Plant: Start of Phase 2 of the European Project', this paper updates and reviews the status of the AD700 technology being developed in Europe by a group of major manufacturers and utilities, with the contribution of material suppliers, testing labs and research centres. Final results from Phase 1 (1998-2004), supported by European Commission in the frame of 5th Framework Programme, are presented. They can be summarised as following: materials have been identified; thermodynamic cycles have been agreed upon; feasibility studies showed competitiveness; new boiler concepts with reduced amount of super-alloys have been assessed. Progress results from Phase 2 (2002-2005, with expected prolongation until 2007), supported by European Commission in the frame of 6th Framework Programme, will be also presented. They deal with: design and testing of critical components; further studies on innovative design; design of a CTF (Components Test Facility); assessment of a demo plant. The COMTES700 project, supported by both European Commission in the frame of ECSC Programme and utilities belonging to the Emax group, is outlined. It deals with the realisation and testing of the CTF at the Scholven F power station in Germany. 4 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Use of modern and clean coal technologies for reduction of greenhouse gas emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anca Popescu; George Lavrov; Diana Costea [Institute of Power Studies, Bucharest (Romania)

    2003-07-01

    The article reviews the status of CO{sub 2} taxes and other environmental taxes in the European Union. It concludes that the economic impacts of the CO{sub 2} tax are likely to be small but positive and if tax revenues were utilized for implementing measures to reduce energy use and introduce renewables and cogeneration, CO{sub 2} emission could be reduced much further. Reasons are given for a CO{sub 2}/energy tax in Central and Eastern Europe. The effect of a CO{sub 2} tax on the expansion plan of capacities for electricity generation in Romania is explored under different scenarios. It is concluded that in the period 2002 to 2020 combined cycle gas turbines and nuclear power are the preferred means of power generation but after 2010 coal would be favoured (because of the escalation of natural gas prices and the taxes). In these conditions more efficient technologies should be employed, using domestic lignite resources. A series of 12 PowerPoint slides are included. 9 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies: Froth flotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    An engineering development project was prepared to build upon the basic research effort conducted under a solicitation for research into Fine Coal Surface Control. The engineering development project is intended to use general plant design knowledge and conceptualize a plant to utilize advanced froth flotation technology to process coal and produce a product having maximum practical pyritic sulfur reduction consistent with maximum practical BTU recovery. This is being accomplished by utilization the basic research data on the surface properties of coal, mineral matter and pyrite obtained from the Coal Surface Control for Advanced Fine Coal Flotation Project, to develop this conceptual flowsheet. The conceptual flowsheet must be examined to identify critical areas that need additional design data. This data will then be developed using batch and semi-continuous bench scale testing. In addition to actual bench scale testing other unit operations from other industries processing fine material will be reviewed for potential application and incorporated into the design if appropriate. 31 figs., 22 tabs.

  15. Maximizing Energy Savings Reliability in BC Hydro Industrial Demand-side Management Programs: An Assessment of Performance Incentive Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosman, Nathaniel

    For energy utilities faced with expanded jurisdictional energy efficiency requirements and pursuing demand-side management (DSM) incentive programs in the large industrial sector, performance incentive programs can be an effective means to maximize the reliability of planned energy savings. Performance incentive programs balance the objectives of high participation rates with persistent energy savings by: (1) providing financial incentives and resources to minimize constraints to investment in energy efficiency, and (2) requiring that incentive payments be dependent on measured energy savings over time. As BC Hydro increases its DSM initiatives to meet the Clean Energy Act objective to reduce at least 66 per cent of new electricity demand with DSM by 2020, the utility is faced with a higher level of DSM risk, or uncertainties that impact the costeffective acquisition of planned energy savings. For industrial DSM incentive programs, DSM risk can be broken down into project development and project performance risks. Development risk represents the project ramp-up phase and is the risk that planned energy savings do not materialize due to low customer response to program incentives. Performance risk represents the operational phase and is the risk that planned energy savings do not persist over the effective measure life. DSM project development and performance risks are, in turn, a result of industrial economic, technological and organizational conditions, or DSM risk factors. In the BC large industrial sector, and characteristic of large industrial sectors in general, these DSM risk factors include: (1) capital constraints to investment in energy efficiency, (2) commodity price volatility, (3) limited internal staffing resources to deploy towards energy efficiency, (4) variable load, process-based energy saving potential, and (5) a lack of organizational awareness of an operation's energy efficiency over time (energy performance). This research assessed the capacity

  16. Research on Green Building Technological Innovation and Tax Incentive Policy%绿色建筑技术创新与税收政策激励研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董坤; 李洁

    2015-01-01

    This paper deeply analyzes the existing difficulties and deficiencies in the exploration of green building , and introduces some main systematic constructions in promoting green building. This paper introduces from two aspects,namely policy incentives and economic incentives,and emphatically analyzes the effect of tax policies in promoting green building.%文章深入剖析了绿色建筑在探索方面存在的困难和不足,详细介绍了在推广绿色建筑过程中主要进行的一些制度体系建设,并介绍了政策激励和经济激励2个方面,重点分析了税收政策在推广绿色建筑中的作用。

  17. Application of Dry Ice Cleaning Technology in Oil Tank Cleaning%干冰清洗技术在清洗旧储油罐中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊一蒙; 刘玉玲; 樊三新

    2011-01-01

    In the revamping of old oil fields, it is very difficult to clean the old oil tanks in the overhaul. The conventional sand blasting or HP water jet for oil tank cleaning will produce a large amount of waste water which will pollute the environment when di%在油田老区改造工程中,旧储油罐大修的难题在于清理,以往对旧储油罐清洗采用的是喷砂或高温高压水射流的方法。这些方法产生大量废水,排放时给周围环境造成污染,也给二次处理造成了很大困难。用这些方法工作时,水汽弥漫,尘土飞扬,劳动环境很差,容易对工作人员身体健康造成伤害。用干冰清洗技术清洗旧储油罐能有效解决这些问题,清洗出来的原油等污染物,可直接清除并及时拉运指定地点,形成落地原油再利用,没有任何有害物质产生,效果良好。

  18. The impact of flue gas cleaning technologies in coal-fired power plants on the CCN distribution and cloud properties in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangert, M.; Vogel, B.; Junkermann, W.; Brachert, L.; Schaber, K.

    2013-05-01

    Gas-cleaning technologies used in modern coal-fired power plants cause an unintended nucleation of H2SO4 aerosol droplets during the cleaning process. As a result, high concentrations of ultra-fine aerosol droplets are emitted into the atmosphere. In this study, the impact of these emissions on the atmospheric aerosol distribution, on the cloud condensation nuclei number concentration, and consequently on cloud properties is investigated. Therefore, a sophisticated modeling framework is used combining regional simulations of the atmospheric aerosol distribution and its impact on cloud properties with detailed process simulations of the nucleation during the cleaning process inside the power plant. Furthermore, the simulated aerosol size distributions downwind of the coal-fired power plants are compared with airborne aerosol measurements performed inside the plumes.

  19. Potential for thermal coal and Clean Coal Technology (CCT) in the Asia-Pacific. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.J.; Long, S.

    1991-11-22

    The Coal Project was able to make considerable progress in understanding the evolving energy situation in Asia and the future role of coal and Clean Coal Technologies. It is clear that there will be major growth in consumption of coal in Asia over the next two decades -- we estimate an increase of 1.2 billion metric tons. Second, all governments are concerned about the environmental impacts of increased coal use, however enforcement of regulations appears to be quite variable among Asian countries. There is general caution of the part of Asian utilities with respect to the introduction of CCT`s. However, there appears to be potential for introduction of CCT`s in a few countries by the turn of the century. It is important to emphasize that it will be a long term effort to succeed in getting CCT`s introduced to Asia. The Coal Project recommends that the US CCT program be expanded to allow the early introduction of CCT`s in a number of countries.

  20. Renewables Deals. Mergers and acquisitions activity in renewable power and related clean technology. 2012 outlook and 2011 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-01-15

    Renewables Deals is our annual analysis of deal activity in the renewable power and related clean technology sectors. We publish our outlook on the prospects for dealmaking in the year ahead. We also take a look at what's been happening in the last 12 months and in the different main markets around the world. This year for the first time, we open our report with our discussion of the outlook for the year ahead and identify some of the main themes we expect to be at work. Looking ahead, the sector is undergoing a growing maturity and consolidation phase. This evolution inclines us to believe that deal flow will remain significant in 2012. In part, though, this will depend on how the Eurozone crisis unfolds. We assume a continuation of a 'rolling uncertainty' scenario affecting the Eurozone and wider world sentiment. But, if there are significant adverse events that turn Eurozone 'rolling uncertainty' into deeper crisis, deal flow is likely to be dampened.

  1. THE ROLE OF LIQUID WASTE PRETREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES IN SOLVING THE DOE CLEAN-UP MISSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilmarth, B; Sheryl Bush, S

    2008-10-31

    The objective of this report is to describe the pretreatment solutions that allow treatment to be tailored to specific wastes, processing ahead of the completion schedules for the main treatment facilities, and reduction of technical risks associated with future processing schedules. Wastes stored at Hanford and Savannah River offer challenging scientific and engineering tasks. At both sites, space limitations confound the ability to effectively retrieve and treat the wastes. Additionally, the radiation dose to the worker operating and maintaining the radiochemical plants has a large role in establishing the desired radioactivity removal. However, the regulatory requirements to treat supernatant and saltcake tank wastes differ at the two sites. Hanford must treat and remove radioactivity from the tanks based on the TriParty Agreement and Waste Incidental to Reprocessing (WIR) documentation. These authorizing documents do not specify treatment technologies; rather, they specify endstate conditions. Dissimilarly, Waste Determinations prepared at SRS in accordance with Section 3116 of the 2005 National Defense Authorization Act along with state operating permits establish the methodology and amounts of radioactivity that must be removed and may be disposed of in South Carolina. After removal of entrained solids and site-specific radionuclides, supernatant and saltcake wastes are considered to be low activity waste (LAW) and are immobilized in glass and disposed of at the Hanford Site Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) or formulated into a grout for disposal at the Savannah River Site Saltstone Disposal Facility. Wastes stored at the Hanford Site or SRS comprise saltcake, supernate, and sludges. The supernatant and saltcake waste fractions contain primarily sodium salts, metals (e.g., Al, Cr), cesium-137 (Cs-137), technetium-99 (Tc-99) and entrained solids containing radionuclides such as strontium-90 (Sr-90) and transuranic elements. The sludges contain many of the

  2. Innumeracy and incentives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Dale

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The Ratio-Bias phenomenon, observed by psychologist Seymour Epstein and colleagues, is a systematic manifestation of irrationality. When offered a choice between two lotteries, individuals consistently choose the lottery with the greater number of potential successes, even when it offers a smaller probability of success. In the current study, we conduct experiments to confirm this phenomenon and test for the existence of Bias as distinct from general irrationality. Moreover, we examine the effect of introducing a monetary incentive of varying size (depending on the treatment on the extent of irrational choices within this framework. We confirm the existence of the Bias. Moreover, the existence of an incentive significantly reduces the extent of irrationality exhibited, and that this effect is roughly linear in response to changes in the size of the incentive within the magnitudes investigated.

  3. A comparison study of column flotation technologies for cleaning Illinois coal. Final technical report, September 1, 1993--November 30, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honaker, R.Q.; Paul, B.C.

    1994-12-31

    Six commercially-available column technologies were compared on the basis of their separation performance, throughput capacity and operational characteristics for treating Illinois Basin coal fines. The flotation column technologies included in this study were the Jameson Cell, Flotaire, Turboair, Packed-Column, Microcel and the Canadian Column. The coal samples treated in this study were a {minus}100 mesh flotation feed slurry, a {minus}40 mesh coal, and a refuse pond coal sample. This investigation found that the Packed Column, Jameson Cell, and Microcel are the best flotation columns for cleaning the Illinois Basin coals treated in this study. The Packed-Column was found to provide superior selectivity, although requiring the highest amount of air and frother concentration. The superior performance is believed to be related to the extensive reflux action and selective detachment mechanism that are more prevalent in the Packed-Column due to its unique ability to support a full froth column. Among the conventional open columns, the Microcel provided the best selectivity, most likely due to its lower aeration requirement which results in a more plug-flow environment within the cell. Both the Packed-Column and the Microcel appeared to have nearly equal throughput capacities. The Jameson Cell, which also has a relatively high throughput capacity, was found to require the least amount of frother while supplying a self-inducing air system. Another important finding of this investigation is that the traditional release analysis procedure is inadequate for predicting the optimum performance of advanced froth flotation processes and, thus, requires further investigation.

  4. In-plant testing of a novel coal cleaning circuit using advanced technologies. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honaker, R.Q. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Mining Engineering; Reed, S. [Kerr-McGee Coal Corp., Oklahoma City, OK (United States)

    1995-12-31

    A circuit utilizing hindered-bed classifiers, enhanced gravity concentrators and column flotation has been found to provide a highly efficient cleaning of fine coal in which both ash and total sulfur contents are significantly reduced while maximizing the recovery of coal. In this study, a circuit comprised of the three technologies will be tested in an operating preparation plant to evaluate circuit performance and to compare the performance with the current technologies used to treat fine coal. Prior to the in-plant testing, the effect of changing feed characteristics on the performance of the enhanced gravity concentrator was evaluated for process control purposes. During this reporting period, a {minus}16 mesh Illinois No. 6 coal sample containing about 30% ash and 8.0% total sulfur was collected from a refuse pond. The ash and total sulfur contents of the sample were depleted by withdrawing a controlled amount of tailings produced by the unit to determine the effect of changing feed compositions. It was found that higher combustible recovery values are achieved when the feed ash content is decreased and slightly lower product sulfur content values are obtained when the pyritic sulfur content in the feed is decreased. The lower total sulfur contents are most likely due to the natural by-pass to the product stream of 5--10% of the heavy particles. In other words, an increase in the feed sulfur content results in an incremental increase in the sulfur content of the product. The higher combustible recovery values obtained with decreasing feed ash contents are likely due to a reduction in the amount of entrapped coal particles within the bed of heavy-particles formed contiguous to the bowl wall in the Falcon unit. Higher bowl speeds and adjustment of the tailings rate have been found to counter the negative effects caused by the increase in feed ash and total sulfur contents.

  5. Incentives and Earnings Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders

    2013-01-01

    by investigating the effects that explicit short-run incentives and implicit incentives have on earnings growth. The model’s predictions are tested using personnel records from a large bank and are found to be consistent with the observed earnings growth during the first half of the employees’ careers.......The career prospects of newly recruited employees differ substantially within an organization. The stars experience considerable growth in earnings; others can hardly maintain their entry salaries. This article sheds light on the mechanisms generating the observed heterogeneity in earnings growth...

  6. Discussion on information & communicationequipment electrification cleaning technology and selection direction of cleaning agents%浅谈信息通信设备带电清洗中清洗剂的选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李柯; 张会月

    2016-01-01

    概述了信息通信机房内长期在运行设备形成污垢的各种因素及影响;介绍了信息通信维护工作选择带电清洗技术的目的性;通过分析带电清洗剂多项指标,提出适用于信息通信类设备带电清洗剂的选择技术指标;提出了信息通信设备带电清洗剂选择的方向和未来研究课题。%An overview of the various factors and the impact ofinformation&communication equipmentwithin the long-term operation and the equipment forming dirt of various factors and its influence;maintenance objective choice of electrification cle-aning technology of the information&communication was introduced. Through analysis of electrified cleaning agent a number of indicators is presented, which can be used in information&communication equipment charged cleansing agent selection tech-nique index, and puts forward the information&communication equipment charged cleaning agent chooses the direction and future research topic.

  7. 新时期中国农业科技人才激励机制探析%Incentive Mechanism of China's Agricultural Science and Technology Talents in the New Era

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫晓丽

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, Chinese agriculture has maintained a good momentum of development, and is in the golden period of economic transformation, at the same time, new formats, new mode, new technology and new field of agriculture emerge in an endless stream, which need to encourage new agricultural science and technology talents to develop more high-tech modern agriculture. The talent incentive mechanism is a key factor influencing agricultural science and technology talents to effectively play a role and the construction and development of agricultural science and technology innovation team. Through analyzing the status quo, influence factors and problems of current China's agricultural science and technology talents, the author put forward some main countermeasures for innovating the incentive mechanism of China's agricultural science and technology talents in the new era.%近年来,中国农业保持良好发展势头,目前正处于经济转型的黄金时期,农业新业态、新模式、新技术、新领域层出不穷,亟需激励新型农业科技人才发展更高科技型的现代农业。人才激励机制是影响农业科技人才有效发挥作用及农业科技创新团队建设发展的关键因素,通过分析当前中国农业科技人才现状、影响因素及存在问题,提出了新时期创新农业科技人才激励机制的主要对策。

  8. Clean data

    CERN Document Server

    Squire, Megan

    2015-01-01

    If you are a data scientist of any level, beginners included, and interested in cleaning up your data, this is the book for you! Experience with Python or PHP is assumed, but no previous knowledge of data cleaning is needed.

  9. Optical fiber chemical sensors with sol-gel derived nanomaterials for monitoring high temperature/high pressure reactions in clean energy technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Shiquan

    2010-04-01

    The development of sensor technologies for in situ, real time monitoring the high temperature/high pressure (HTP) chemical processes used in clean energy technologies is a tough challenge, due to the HTP, high dust and corrosive chemical environment of the reaction systems. A silica optical fiber is corrosive resistance, and can work in HTP conditions. This paper presents our effort in developing fiber optic sensors for in situ, real time monitoring the concentration of trace ammonia and hydrogen in high temperature gas samples. Preliminary test results illustrate the feasibility of using fiber optic sensor technologies for monitoring HTP processes for next generation energy industry.

  10. SEMICONDUCTOR TECHNOLOGY A new cleaning process for the metallic contaminants on a post-CMP wafer's surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baohong, Gao; Yuling, Liu; Chenwei, Wang; Yadong, Zhu; Shengli, Wang; Qiang, Zhou; Baimei, Tan

    2010-10-01

    This paper presents a new cleaning process using boron-doped diamond (BDD) film anode electrochemical oxidation for metallic contaminants on polished silicon wafer surfaces. The BDD film anode electrochemical oxidation can efficiently prepare pyrophosphate peroxide, pyrophosphate peroxide can oxidize organic contaminants, and pyrophosphate peroxide is deoxidized into pyrophosphate. Pyrophosphate, a good complexing agent, can form a metal complex, which is a structure consisting of a copper ion, bonded to a surrounding array of two pyrophosphate anions. Three polished wafers were immersed in the 0.01 mol/L CuSO4 solution for 2 h in order to make comparative experiments. The first one was cleaned by pyrophosphate peroxide, the second by RCA (Radio Corporation of America) cleaning, and the third by deionized (DI) water. The XPS measurement result shows that the metallic contaminants on wafers cleaned by the RCA method and by pyrophosphate peroxide is less than the XPS detection limits of 1 ppm. And the wafer's surface cleaned by pyrophosphate peroxide is more efficient in removing organic carbon residues than RCA cleaning. Therefore, BDD film anode electrochemical oxidation can be used for microelectronics cleaning, and it can effectively remove organic contaminants and metallic contaminants in one step. It also achieves energy saving and environmental protection.

  11. Incentives for Recruiters

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-01

    promotions, with prizes for the kids: anything from football ti’kets to trips to Disneyland ." [Ref. 10:p. 68] Any publisher who wants a successful...such as a trip to Disneyland . The latter focuses more on providing an 29 incentive to the carrier to get a certain number of new customers in a short

  12. Research status and prospect to the sludge cleaning technology of oil tank%油罐底泥清洗技术研究现状与展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周利坤

    2013-01-01

    Tank sludge is a dark and dense gelatinous material layer formed on the tank bottom during oil storage. Due to containing BTEX, phenols and other toxic substances, it cannot be directly discharged. However, it will accelerate corrosion to the tank bottom plate so as to reduce service life of the oil tank and have some negative impacts on the tank oil quality and effective volume. Characteristics, hazards, cleaning cycles and costs of the tank sludge are analyzed simply. Inductive analysis on the status and development trend for tank sludge treatments worldwide is conducted on cleaning technologies, cleaning processes, recycling treatment technologies and other aspects. The application and research status worldwide on manual cleaning, mechanical cleaning, robot cleaning and other aspects are introduced. Through comprehensive analysis, it is proposed that the tank sludge cleaning technology will develop towards closing, integration, systematization and intelligence and sludge treatment will develop towards facilitation, reduction, harmlessness and recycling.%油罐底泥是在油品储存过程中,在罐底形成的一种又黑又稠的胶状物质层,因其含有苯系物、酚类等有毒物质,不能直接排放.若不及时清除,将加速油罐底板的腐蚀,降低油罐的使用寿命,并对罐内油品质量、有效容积等产生一定的负面影响.简要分析了油罐底泥的特性、危害、清洗年限及费用;从清洗技术、清洗工艺及资源化处理技术等方面,归纳分析了国内外罐底油泥处理现状和发展趋势;阐述了国内外在人工清洗、机械清洗及机器人清洗等方面的应用与研究现状;通过综合分析,指出油罐底泥清洗技术将向密闭化、综合化、系统化、智能化的方向发展,油泥处理将向便捷化、减量化、无害化、资源化方向发展.

  13. Study status and development tendency of tramcar cleaning technology%矿用清车技术的研究现状及发展趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廉凯

    2012-01-01

    矿车在装运煤炭、矸石等物料的过程中,车底会逐渐沉积一些杂物,大大降低了运输效率,影响矿车的使用寿命。在国内外清车技术研究现状的基础上,主要对国内外矿车结底清理的传统方法及先进技术的基本原理以及各自优缺点做了介绍,并分析了未来矿车清理技术的发展趋势。%Due to lots of sundries deposited at the bottom of the tramcar during transportation of coal and gangue,the transportation efficiency and lifespan of the tramcar greatly reduce.After studying the current situation of the tramcar cleaning technology at home and abroad,the paper introduced the traditional methods of cleaning agglomerate at tramcar bottom and basic principle of advanced technology and their advantages and disadvantages.In addition,it analyzed the development tendency of tramcar cleaning technology in future.

  14. Incentive Policy to Promote Transformation of Scientific and Technological Achievements of Aviation in Shaanxi%促进陕西航空科技成果转化之激励政策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许光县; 张莉华

    2013-01-01

    作为中国航空工业大省的陕西,积极参与国家大飞机专项,不仅是促进陕西经济高新化、集约化发展的重要途径,也是陕西航空工业实现质的飞跃的重要机遇.积极利用国家层面的航空科技激励政策,制定适合本省实际的航空科技激励政策,是解决陕西航空工业科技成果转化难的关键性推动力.只有在实现陕西航空科技成果转化渠道畅通的前提下,陕西庞大的航空产业才能发挥其助力国家大飞战略、助力陕西经济发展的内在价值.%Shaanxi is a large province of aviation industry in China. It actively involved in a national large aircraft specialty. It is not only the important way to promote high—tech, and intensive development of Shaanxi, but also is the important chance to realize the qualitative leap in Shaanxi aviation industry. It actively uses the country aviation science and technology incentive policy, formulate aviation science and technology incentive policy, and is the key driver of promote transformation of scientific and technological achievements of aviation in Shaanxi. Only under the premise of realizing transformation of scientific and technological achievements of aviation in Shaanxi, Shaanxi aviation industry can play its role in promoting power fly strategy and advancing economy development in Shaanxi province.

  15. Benchmarks of Global Clean Energy Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandor, Debra [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chung, Donald [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Keyser, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mann, Margaret [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Engel-Cox, Jill [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center (CEMAC), sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), provides objective analysis and up-to-date data on global supply chains and manufacturing of clean energy technologies. Benchmarks of Global Clean Energy Manufacturing sheds light on several fundamental questions about the global clean technology manufacturing enterprise: How does clean energy technology manufacturing impact national economies? What are the economic opportunities across the manufacturing supply chain? What are the global dynamics of clean energy technology manufacturing?

  16. Airing 'clean air' in Clean India Mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, T; Kumar, M; Mall, R K; Singh, R S

    2016-12-30

    The submission explores the possibility of a policy revision for considering clean air quality in recently launched nationwide campaign, Clean India Mission (CIM). Despite of several efforts for improving availability of clean household energy and sanitation facilities, situation remain still depressing as almost half of global population lacks access to clean energy and proper sanitation. Globally, at least 2.5 billion people do not have access to basic sanitation facilities. There are also evidences of 7 million premature deaths by air pollution in year 2012. The situation is even more disastrous for India especially in rural areas. Although, India has reasonably progressed in developing sanitary facilities and disseminating clean fuel to its urban households, the situation in rural areas is still miserable and needs to be reviewed. Several policy interventions and campaigns were made to improve the scenario but outcomes were remarkably poor. Indian census revealed a mere 31% sanitation coverage (in 2011) compared to 22% in 2001 while 60% of population (700 million) still use solid biofuels and traditional cook stoves for household cooking. Further, last decade (2001-2011) witnessed the progress decelerating down with rural households without sanitation facilities increased by 8.3 million while minimum progress has been made in conversion of conventional to modern fuels. To revamp the sanitation coverage, an overambitious nationwide campaign CIM was initiated in 2014 and present submission explores the possibility of including 'clean air' considerations within it. The article draws evidence from literatures on scenarios of rural sanitation, energy practises, pollution induced mortality and climatic impacts of air pollution. This subsequently hypothesised with possible modification in available technologies, dissemination modes, financing and implementation for integration of CIM with 'clean air' so that access to both sanitation and clean household energy may be

  17. 制革工业关键清洁技术的研究进展%Progress of key clean technologies in leather industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亚楠; 石碧

    2016-01-01

    The pollution in leather industry can be reduced or even eliminated at the origin by applying clean technologies of leather manufacture. CODCr,ammonia nitrogen and total chromium are regarded as typical contaminants in leather industry. The development of key clean technologies aiming at reducing these pollutants at the origin is most concerned nowadays. This paper reviews the progress and application situations of some clean technologies,such as hair-saving unhairing technology, beamhouse wastewater recycling technology,non-ammonia deliming technology,non-ammonia bating technology,high-exhaustion chrome tanning technology,chrome tanning wastewater recycling technology,inverse chrome tanning technology and chrome-free tanning technology. The application methods and important process control parameters of these technologies are introduced,and efficiencies of these technologies in reducing discharge of typical contaminants are indicated. Meanwhile,the advantages and shortcomings of these technologies are evaluated. In order to improve the effectiveness of these technologies in practical application,it is suggested that the maturity of these technologies should be further enhanced. At the same time,thefuture work should focus on the integrated application of these unit technologies through fully investigating process balance between unit technologies,as well as the verification of the integrated system of clean technologies.%应用制革清洁技术能够从制革生产的源头削减/消除污染。CODCr、氨氮和总铬是制革工业的典型污染物,研发和推广应用其源头减排技术对制革工业实现清洁生产具有重要意义。本文较系统地综述了保毛脱毛技术、鞣前过程废液循环利用技术、无氨脱灰技术、无氨软化技术、高吸收铬鞣技术、铬鞣废液循环利用技术、逆转铬鞣技术和无铬鞣制技术等清洁技术的研究进展及实际应用情况。介绍了这些技术的应用方法和重

  18. Incentives and Prosocial Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Bénabou, Roland; Tirole, Jean

    2004-01-01

    We build a theory of prosocial behaviour that combines heterogeneity in individual altruism and greed with concerns for social reputation or self-respect. The presence of rewards or punishments creates doubt as to the true motive for which good deeds are performed, and this ‘overjustification effect’ can result in a net crowding out of prosocial behaviour by extrinsic incentives. The model also allows us to identify settings that are conducive to multiple social norms of behaviour, and those ...

  19. 我国煤炭高效洁净利用新技术%New Technology of Coal High Efficient and Cleaning Utilization in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金华

    2012-01-01

    The high efficient and clean utilization of coal is the effective access to realize the energy saving and emission reduction.Based on the circumstances,the paper introduced the technical principle,innovations,technical advantage and promotion conditions of the three new technologies of the coal high efficient and clean utilization,including the high efficient pulverized coal industrial boiler technology,the coal water mixture preparation and new technology application and the dry flue gas cleaning technology of the active coke.In combination with the present actual conditions,the development orientation of the high efficient pulverized coal industrial boiler technology as pointed would be finally to set up the high efficient pulverized coal industrial boiler technology system with the deep systematic study on the clean pulverized coal preparation technology,the pulverized coal logistic and distribution technology,the pulverized coal boiler combustion and cleaning technology as well as the commercialized operation mode.The gasification coal water mixture prepared with the mine water and the long distance pipeline transportation would be the development orientation of the gasification coal water mixture.The dry flue gas cleaning technology of active coke would be suitable applied to the zone lacking of water resources and the development direction in the near future would be to improve the performances of the active coke,to reduce the technique cost,to improve the de-nitre capacity,to simplify the technique procedure and to have the removing and regeneration completed in a device.%煤炭的高效洁净利用是实现节能减排的有效途径,基于此,对我国目前煤炭高效洁净利用3项新技术(高效煤粉工业锅炉技术、水煤浆制备和应用新技术、活性焦干法烟气净化技术)的技术原理、创新点、技术优点及推广情况进行了介绍。结合当前实际,指出高效煤粉工业锅炉技术的发展方向是通过对

  20. 清洁煤技术与CO2地质封存%Clean coal technology and CO2 geological storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳迎红; 马丽

    2014-01-01

    To improve the utilization rate of coal and speed up clean,efficiency and low carbonization of coal industry,provide that the tra-ditional coal conversion technologies should be replaced by efficient and clean technologies.Investigate the clean coal technologies and CO2 geological storage technologies,especially the technologies of CO2 storage in saline formation.The way stores large quantities of CO2 safely and stably.The method also solves the problems of CO2 emissions due to China̓s energy structure.%中国能源资源特点决定现在以煤为主的消费结构,但煤炭在消费过程中存在高污染和低效率的问题,因此为提高资源利用率,煤炭行业面临结构调整。煤炭行业的清洁化、高效化、低碳化将是产业发展方向,煤炭高效洁净转化将取代传统的转化技术,如何解决煤炭利用过程中产生的CO2是清洁煤技术面临的新问题。通过研究清洁煤技术与CO2地质封存技术,特别是深部盐水层封存技术,为煤炭利用中产生的CO2排放提供了一种大规模、安全、稳定的存储方式,从而解决目前中国能源结构造成的CO2排放问题。

  1. 日美清洁能源协议及影响分析%Analysis of Japan - U.S.Clean Energy Technologies Action Plan and its Impacts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔成; 牛建国

    2011-01-01

    After the global financial crisis, Japan and U.S initiated the closer cooperation to reduce the cost of clean energy development and enhance the international competitiveness.METI of Japan and U.S DOE signed the cooperation agreement in the Nov.18 2010, and issued a joint statement.Japan and U.S will be promote a broad and deep cooperation on the energy smart communities initiative (ESCI), clean energy policy dialogue, as well as clean technology innovation and job creation.These kinds of cooperation will make the significant impact on the technology development and framework of the global clean energy, and we have to pay more attention to the process and take some response.%全球金融危机后,美日两国为降低清洁能源开发成本、进一步提高国际竞争力,着手开展更为密切的合作.日本经产省与美国能源部于2010年11月18日签署了相关协议,并发表了联合声明.日美两国将在能源和智能电网开启(ESCI)、日美清洁能源政策对话、以及日美清洁能源技术创新和就业创造促进政策对话等领域开展广泛而深入的合作.日美两国在清洁能源领域的合作将给全球清洁能源产业和技术格局,以及技术进步产生重大影响,值得我们予以密切关注和积极应对.

  2. Clean Energy-Related Economic Development Policy across the States: Establishing a 2016 Baseline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Jeffrey J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-01-01

    States implement clean energy-related economic development policy to spur innovation, manufacturing, and to address other priorities. This report focuses on those policies most directly related to expanding new and existing manufacturing. The extent to which states invest in this policymaking depends on political drivers and jurisdictional economic development priorities. To date, no one source has collected all of the clean energy-related economic development policies available across the 50 states. Thus, it is unclear how many policies exist within each state and how these policies, when implemented, can drive economic development. Establishing the baseline of existing policy is a critical first step in determining the potential holistic impact of these policies on driving economic growth in a state. The goal of this report is to document the clean energy-related economic development policy landscape across the 50 states with a focus on policy that seeks to expand new or existing manufacturing within a state. States interested in promoting clean energy manufacturing in their jurisdictions may be interested in reviewing this landscape to determine how they compare to peers and to adjust their policies as necessary. This report documents over 900 existing clean energy-related economic development laws, financial incentives (technology-agnostic and clean energy focused), and other policies such as agency-directed programs and initiatives across the states.

  3. APU在翼水洗工艺初探%Study of Cleaning Technology of APU on Wings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    索海波; 敖良忠

    2011-01-01

    航线上APU经常由于其压气机积污而导致APU引气压力和EGT裕度降低,为解决这一现实问题,维修部门除了按照排故手册进行工作之外,水洗APU往往是维修部门特别推荐的方案之一,本文通过对APU水洗必要性的分析,基于目前国内外航空公司和大修厂的水洗APU情况,并结合航空发动机的水洗经验,探讨了APU在翼水洗的方法和程序,在此基础上,结合APU自身结构特点及人为条件,分析APU水洗效果不佳的原因,这对于改善维修部门的维修情况是非常必要和有益的。%APU contamination on compressor may leads to decrease of the APU bleeding air pressure and EGT margin.The maintenance department should solve these problems with guidance of the troubleshooting manual,in addition,the cleaning of APU is also especially recommended.With necessary analysis to APU cleaning procedures performed by domestic airlines and experiences of aero-engine cleaning in overhaul shop,the paper discusses procedures of cleaning of APU on wings and analyzes its reasons why cleaning is not so effective in consideration of APU and local conditions,which are necessary and beneficial to improve the current status of maintenance.

  4. Incentive Design for Introducing Genetically Modified Crops

    OpenAIRE

    Kingwell, Ross S.

    2000-01-01

    The introduction of genetically modified (GM) crops raises several issues. This paper looks at incentives required to reduce problems of illegal and improper use of GM proprietary technology used in growing GM crops. A simple model of producer behaviour describes some key influences of a farmer’s response to GM crops. The model is illustrated using the example of INGARD cotton grown in Australia. The key findings are that legitimate adoption of a GM crop by a farmer depends on their attitude ...

  5. Energy technology for transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloth, M. [H2 Logic (Denmark); Schroeder Pedersen, A. [Risoe National Lab. - DTU (Denmark)

    2007-11-15

    World energy demand for transport has increased significantly for many years. This trend is projected to continue in the years to come, one reason being that large and rapidly developing economies bring increasing demand for the transport of goods and people, including rising transport demand due to greater integration of developing countries in the international trade. Transport not only account for approximately 20 % of the total world energy consumption, but is almost entirely based on limited and expensive fossil energy resources. Technology development and economic incentives are key areas in bringing clean energy to the transportation sector. This chapter recommends that technology development must aim to make each link of the energy conversion chain cheaper, cleaner and more efficient. It should be driven by public-private partnerships, with a funding basis balance that reflects the nearness of each technology to commercial application. Onboard storage, for instance, still needs basic research, whereas fuel cells are already competitive in certain markets. For consumers, fossil fuels are certain to remain the cheapest option for transport as long as energy prices do not reflect the cost of environmental damage. To reduce CO{sub 2} emissions from transport, governments are recommended to set up strong economic or other incentives to encourage consumers to opt for low-carbon vehicles or public transport. As well as reducing environmental damage, such measures could generate money to support research and development in clean energy technologies. (BA)

  6. Air cleaning using regenerative silica gel wheel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Lei

    2011-01-01

    This paper discussed the necessity of indoor air cleaning and the state of the art information on gas-phase air cleaning technology. The performance and problems of oxidation and sorption air cleaning technology were summarized and analysed based on the literature studies. Eventually, based on an...

  7. HYDROGENATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR PRODUCTION OF CLEAN GASOLINE AND DIESEL FUEL IN RIPP%生产清洁汽柴油的加氢技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂红; 石亚华; 石玉林; 康小洪; 李大东

    2003-01-01

    It is necessary to produce low sulfur /low olefin gasoline and low sulfur /low aromatics diesel fuel for reducing the air pollution from automobile exhausted gas. Major component in gasoline pool in China is from FCCU, resulting in higher olefin content in product gasoline. The difficult point in producing clean gasoline is to lower down the olefin content while retaining RON of gasoline as much as possible. Based on the properties of gasoline, RIPP has developed technology (RIDOS) for reducing both sulfur and olefin contents by the same process. The technology shows that its hydro-iso-cracking performance to some extent can reduce the olefin content from 50%~60% to less than 20%, and road octane loss is less than 2. In deep hydro-desulfurization of diesel fuel, the key point is to remove dibenzhothiophen (DBT) with methyl substitute in 4 and 6 positions. To solve this problem, RN-10 catalyst with high hydrogenation activity was developed by reinforcing the hydrogenation function. The catalyst featured with less spatial hindrance effect after the DMDBT was hydrogenated, meanwhile, it has high activity in aromatics saturation. Diesel fuel with low sulfur and low aromatics content can be manufactured from SRGO or FCC diesel fraction. RIPP has deve-loped more technologies such as MHUG, RMC and RICH for production of clean diesel fuel with low sulfur/aromatics and low density with increased cetane number.

  8. Parametric Evaluation of an Innovative Ultra-Violet PhotocatalyticOxidation (UVPCO) Air Cleaning Technology for Indoor Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodgson, Alfred T.; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Fisk, William J.

    2005-10-31

    An innovative Ultra-Violet Photocatalytic Oxidation (UVPCO) air cleaning technology employing a semitransparent catalyst coated on a semitransparent polymer substrate was evaluated to determine its effectiveness for treating mixtures of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) representative of indoor environments at low, indoor-relevant concentration levels. The experimental UVPCO contained four 30 by 30-cm honeycomb monoliths irradiated with nine UVA lamps arranged in three banks. A parametric evaluation of the effects of monolith thickness, air flow rate through the device, UV power, and reactant concentrations in inlet air was conducted for the purpose of suggesting design improvements. The UVPCO was challenged with three mixtures of VOCs. A synthetic office mixture contained 27 VOCs commonly measured in office buildings. A building product mixture was created by combining sources including painted wallboard, composite wood products, carpet systems, and vinyl flooring. The third mixture contained formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. Steady state concentrations were produced in a classroom laboratory or a 20-m{sup 3} chamber. Air was drawn through the UVPCO, and single-pass conversion efficiencies were measured from replicate samples collected upstream and downstream of the reactor. Thirteen experiments were conducted in total. In this UVPCO employing a semitransparent monolith design, an increase in monolith thickness is expected to result in general increases in both reaction efficiencies and absolute reaction rates for VOCs oxidized by photocatalysis. The thickness of individual monolith panels was varied between 1.2 and 5 cm (5 to 20 cm total thickness) in experiments with the office mixture. VOC reaction efficiencies and rates increased with monolith thickness. However, the analysis of the relationship was confounded by high reaction efficiencies in all configurations for a number of compounds. These reaction efficiencies approached or exceeded 90% for alcohols, glycol

  9. IMPLEMENTATION OF GREEN BUILDING INCENTIVES FOR CONSTRUCTION KEY PLAYERS IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SITI ZUBAIDAH HASHIM

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A Green Building Index (GBI is a pioneer in a building grading system to promote sustainability and increase awareness upon environmental issue in Malaysia. The GBI was first established by Malaysia Architect Association (PAM and Association of Consulting Engineers Malaysia (ACEM in February 2009. As a green building contribution on sustainable development and energy efficiency, government has introduced incentives to parties who involve in obtaining Green Building Index Certificate to inculcate vgreen technology. The present paper articulates various categories of incentives introduced by government for construction key players in Malaysia and compare those incentives implies worldwide including countries such as United States, United Kingdom, Australia and Singapore. The incentives are categories into three; financial incentives, fiscal incentives and structure incentives. In a case of financial incentives the financial grants, loans, fund, vouchers, rebates and etc. attract building developers to adopt green elements and apply for certification in their new building project. Obviously, most developers more engrossed to the incentives which has a direct impact on the project financial cash flow. Fiscal incentive however is a privilege by the government, in term of tax exemption granted to respective green building project. Structural incentives are much common incentives offered by government because it would not require expenditure of fund and not reduce the income of city and county. By comparing few successful model of incentives by several countries, the present research reveals that the structure of incentives for green building in Malaysia should have more focused on structural incentive especially those involves technical support, expedited building permit and Gross Floor Area (GFA equivalent incentive scheme.

  10. Novel fracture technology proves marginal Viking prospect economic, part II: Well clean-up, flowback and testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haidar, S.; Rylance, M.; Tybero, G. [and others

    1996-12-31

    Having completed both fracture treatments as discussed in a companion paper, this paper continues on to describe the post fracture shut-in, clean-up and well testing operations that took place on the Viking Wx exploration well 49/17-12. These operations involved the removal of Resin Coated Proppant (RCP) from the wellbore, via Coiled Tubing (CT), through the use of a specially designed jetting nozzle. The RCP pack stability at a concentration of 3.0 lb/ft{sup 2} (as per planned design) had already been tested in a flowback cell. The use of a Surface Read-Out (SRO) gauge, combined with gas, water and proppant flow rates as well as the viscosity of fracturing fluids returns, enabled real time calculation of the drag forces, on the proppant pack, during clean-up. The flow rate, in the field, was controlled such that the calculated drag forces remained below those observed in the laboratory. Following the clean-up a flow and build-up test was conducted, to evaluate the fracture half length and fracture conductivity, from which a Pseudo-radial skin was calculated. The Non-Darcy effects in the fracture were also evaluated, and finally the short term and long term well deliverabilities were assessed.

  11. Evaluating the feasibility and impact of interactive telephone technology and incentives when combined with a behavioral intervention for weight loss: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ard JD

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Mary Annette Hess,1 David E Vance,1,2 Peggy R McKie,1 Laura S Burton,3 Jamy D Ard,4 Josh Klapow5,61School of Nursing, 2Edward R Roybal Center for Translational Research in Aging and Mobility, 3Department of Nutrition Sciences, 4UAB EatRight Weight Management Services, Department of Nutrition Sciences, 5School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham, AL, USA; 6ChipRewards, Inc, Birmingham, AL, USAAbstract: The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of delivering the ‘EatRight Lifestyle’ program as an educational weight loss program when combined with a system for behavior-based incentives (ie, ChipRewards. Participants (N = 70 were randomly assigned to one of two interventions over a 12-week period: (1 ‘EatRight Lifestyle’ only (control, and (2 ‘EatRight Lifestyle plus ChipRewards’. From baseline to the 12-week visit, the overall attrition rate was 27.14% (n = 19. A completers only and an intent-to-treat repeated measures analysis of covariance was conducted on the outcome measures (ie, weight loss, change in blood glucose for the baseline and 12-week visit. It was found that waist circumference decreased slightly for those in the ‘EatRight Lifestyle plus ChipRewards’ program; however, BMI and weight was slightly more reduced for those who were more compliant to the study protocol in general, regardless of group assignment. No other time or group differences were detected. This study showed that these two weight loss programs did not produce drastically differential effects on these outcome measures.Keywords: behavior, obesity, diet, physical activity, education, token economy, online intervention, phone counseling

  12. Financial incentives and weight control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Robert W

    2012-11-01

    This paper reviews research studies evaluating the use of financial incentives to promote weight control conducted between 1972 and 2010. It provides an overview of behavioral theories pertaining to incentives and describes empirical studies evaluating specific aspects of incentives. Research on financial incentives and weight control has a history spanning more than 30 years. Early studies were guided by operant learning concepts from Psychology, while more recent studies have relied on economic theory. Both theoretical orientations argue that providing financial rewards for losing weight should motivate people to engage in behaviors that produce weight loss. Empirical research has strongly supported this idea. However, results vary widely due to differences in incentive size and schedule, as well as contextual factors. Thus, many important questions about the use of incentives have not yet been clearly answered. Weight-maintenance studies using financial incentives are particularly sparse, so that their long-term efficacy and thus, value in addressing the public health problem of obesity is unclear. Major obstacles to sustained applications of incentive in weight control are funding sources and acceptance by those who might benefit.

  13. External economic incentives for prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Treutlein, D.

    2014-01-01

    Economic incentives in occupational safety and health (OSH) describe processes that reward organisations for safe and healthy workplaces. From a European perspective, incentives are seen as an effective tool complementary to OSH regulation aimed at encouraging businesses at the management level to p

  14. Insurance Incentives for Health Promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, Michael C.

    1984-01-01

    To reduce the cost of reimbursements, many insurance companies have begun to use insurance incentives as a way to motivate individuals to participate in health promotion activities. Traditional health education, research and demonstration, and policy-premium incentives are methods of health promotion used by life and health insurance companies.…

  15. A systematic assessment of the state of hazardous waste clean-up technologies. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1--June 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, M.T.; Reed, B.E.; Gabr, M.

    1993-07-01

    West Virginia University (WVU) and the US DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) entered into a Cooperative Agreement on August 29, 1992 entitled ``Decontamination Systems Information and Research Programs.`` Stipulated within the Agreement is the requirement that WVU submit to METC a series of Technical Progress Report for Year 1 of the Agreement. This report reflects the progress and/or efforts performed on the following nine technical projects encompassed by the Year 1 Agreement for the period of April 1 through June 30, 1993: Systematic assessment of the state of hazardous waste clean-up technologies; site remediation technologies -- drain-enhanced soil flushing (DESF) for organic contaminants removal; site remediation technologies -- in situ bioremediation of organic contaminants; excavation systems for hazardous waste sites; chemical destruction of polychlorinated biphenyls; development of organic sensors -- monolayer and multilayer self-assembled films for chemical sensors; Winfield lock and dam remediation; Assessments of Technologies for hazardous waste site remediation -- non-treatment technologies and pilot scale test facility implementation; and remediation of hazardous sites with stream reforming.

  16. An Argument for Early Retirement Incentive Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baenen, Leonard B.; Ernest, Robert C.

    1982-01-01

    Early retirement incentive programs are discussed as a humanitarian way of reducing payroll costs and rewarding long-tenured employees. The incentives to be considered, program communication, and problems found in incentive programs are addressed. (Author/MLF)

  17. Network versus Economic Incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian Albrekt

    The article supplements the traditional economic line of reasoning with an economic sociological account of the transition from unemployment to employment. The lack of full information is recognised by economic theory while the focus on network within the tradition of economic sociology has...... not been adopted. The article argues that the importance of network actually might be very well understood within recent economic theories that emphasise the lack of full information. The empirical evidence for the importance of network both for employed and unemployed is provided by analysing a best case...... might be an important part of the vicious circles of unemployment. Finally, the article analyse the importance of network versus the importance of economic incentives. The result supports the thesis that economic sociology provides a better account of the transition from unemployment to employment than...

  18. Northeast Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgeois, Tom

    2013-09-30

    From October 1, 2009 through September 30, 2013 (“contract period”), the Northeast Clean Energy Application Center (“NE-CEAC”) worked in New York and New England (Connecticut, Rhode Island, Vermont, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Maine) to create a more robust market for the deployment of clean energy technologies (CETs) including combined heat and power (CHP), district energy systems (DES), and waste heat recovery (WHR) systems through the provision of technical assistance, education and outreach, and strategic market analysis and support for decision-makers. CHP, DES, and WHR can help reduce greenhouse gas emissions, reduce electrical and thermal energy costs, and provide more reliable energy for users throughout the United States. The NE-CEAC’s efforts in the provision of technical assistance, education and outreach, and strategic market analysis and support for decision-makers helped advance the market for CETs in the Northeast thereby helping the region move towards the following outcomes: • Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and criteria pollutants • Improvements in energy efficiency resulting in lower costs of doing business • Productivity gains in industry and efficiency gains in buildings • Lower regional energy costs • Strengthened energy security • Enhanced consumer choice • Reduced price risks for end-users • Economic development effects keeping more jobs and more income in our regional economy Over the contract period, NE-CEAC provided technical assistance to approximately 56 different potential end-users that were interested in CHP and other CETs for their facility or facilities. Of these 56 potential end-users, five new CHP projects totaling over 60 MW of install capacity became operational during the contract period. The NE-CEAC helped host numerous target market workshops, trainings, and webinars; and NE-CEAC staff delivered presentations at many other workshops and conferences. In total, over 60 different workshops

  19. Combined-cycle power stations using ``clean-coal-technologies``: Thermodynamic analysis of full gasification vs. fluidized bed combustion with partial gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lozza, G.; Chiesa, P. [Politecnico di Milano, Milan (Italy). Dept. of Energetics; DeVita, L. [Eniricerche, Milan (Italy)

    1994-12-31

    A novel class of power plants for clean conversion of coal into power has been recently proposed, based on the concept of partial coal gasification and fluidized-bed combustion of unconverted char from gasification. This paper focuses on the thermodynamic aspects of these plants, in comparison with full gasification cycles, assessing their performance on the basis of a common advanced power plant technology level. Several plant configurations are considered, including pressurized or atmospheric fluidized-bed, air- or steam-cooled, with different carbon conversion in the gasifier. The calculation method, used for reproducing plant energy balances and for performance prediction, is described in the paper. A complete second-law analysis is carried out, pointing out the efficiency loss breakdown for both technologies. Results show that partial gasification plants can achieve efficiencies consistently higher than IGCC, depending on plant configuration and carbon conversion, making this solution a viable and attractive option for efficient coal utilization.

  20. Combined-cycle power stations using clean-coal technologies: Thermodynamic analysis of full gasification versus fluidized bed combustion with partial gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lozza, G.; Chiesa, P. [Politecnico di Milano, Milan (Italy). Dept. of Energetics; DeVita, L. [Eniricerche, Milan (Italy)

    1996-10-01

    A novel class of power plants for clean conversion of coal into power has been recently proposed, based on the concept of partial coal gasification and fluidized-bed combustion of unconverted char from gasification. This paper focuses on the thermodynamic aspects of these plants, in comparison with full gasification cycles, assessing their performance on the basis of a common advanced power plant technology level. Several plant configurations are considered, including pressurized or atmospheric fluidized-bed, air- or steam-cooled, with different carbon conversion in the gasifier. The calculation method, used for reproducing plant energy balances and for performance prediction, is described in the paper. A complete second-law analysis is carried out, pointing out the efficiency loss breakdown for both technologies. Results show that partial gasification plants can achieve efficiencies consistently higher than IGCC, depending on plant configuration and carbon conversion, making this solution a viable and attractive option for efficient coal utilization.

  1. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies: Froth flotation. Quarterly technical progress report No. 16, July 1, 1992--September 30, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    A study conducted by Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of sulfur emissions from about 1,300 United States coal-fired utility boilers indicated that half of the emissions were the result of burning coals having greater than 1.2 pounds of SO{sub 2} per million BTU. This was mainly attributed to the high pyritic sulfur content of the boiler fuel. A significant reduction in SO{sub 2} emissions could be accomplished by removing the pyrite from the coals by advanced physical fine coal cleaning. An engineering development project was prepared to build upon the basic research effort conducted under a solicitation for research into Fine Coal Surface Control. The engineering development project is intended to use general plant design knowledge and conceptualize a plant to utilize advanced froth flotation technology to process coal and produce a product having maximum practical pyritic sulfur reduction consistent with maximum practical BTU recovery.

  2. The regulatory environment past and future--incentive or impediment to developments in food science and technology: a perspective from FDA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shank, F R; Carson, K

    1994-01-01

    The best system for protecting public health is one that involves two layers of control before food reaches the consumer. The first layer of control is the industry's clear responsibility to prepare food that is safe. The second layer of control is the monitoring that is provided by government to ensure that the industry is doing its job and is in fact producing safe food. While some may view this "second layer" as an impediment in the development and marketing of new technologies, there is another way to look at the "regulatory environment". The regulatory environment itself, is not an impediment to the development of food science and technology. The regulatory environment, with all its components--scientists, consumers, industry, and Congress--defines "safety" within the context of today's technology, scientific capability, and tolerance level of the lay public. The entire regulatory environment serves to guide the development of food science and technology by providing signposts, in the form of scientifically sound regulatory decisions. The scientific basis of these decisions becomes building blocks on which to rest further refinement of the technology, product, ingredient, or packaging material or on which research in related technologies or research in innovative directions can build. This scientific groundwork becomes very important as more and more companies move away from having self-contained research laboratories toward using commercial laboratories and academic institutions, as well as participating in cooperative research endeavors to meet food safety and product development research needs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Gas-Liquid Supersonic Cleaning and Cleaning Verification Spray System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Lewis M.

    2009-01-01

    NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) recently entered into a nonexclusive license agreement with Applied Cryogenic Solutions (ACS), Inc. (Galveston, TX) to commercialize its Gas-Liquid Supersonic Cleaning and Cleaning Verification Spray System technology. This technology, developed by KSC, is a critical component of processes being developed and commercialized by ACS to replace current mechanical and chemical cleaning and descaling methods used by numerous industries. Pilot trials on heat exchanger tubing components have shown that the ACS technology provides for: Superior cleaning in a much shorter period of time. Lower energy and labor requirements for cleaning and de-scaling uper.ninih. Significant reductions in waste volumes by not using water, acidic or basic solutions, organic solvents, or nonvolatile solid abrasives as components in the cleaning process. Improved energy efficiency in post-cleaning heat exchanger operations. The ACS process consists of a spray head containing supersonic converging/diverging nozzles, a source of liquid gas; a novel, proprietary pumping system that permits pumping liquid nitrogen, liquid air, or supercritical carbon dioxide to pressures in the range of 20,000 to 60,000 psi; and various hoses, fittings, valves, and gauges. The size and number of nozzles can be varied so the system can be built in configurations ranging from small hand-held spray heads to large multinozzle cleaners. The system also can be used to verify if a part has been adequately cleaned.

  4. Tracking Clean Energy Progress 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    Tracking Clean Energy Progress 2013 (TCEP 2013) examines progress in the development and deployment of key clean energy technologies. Each technology and sector is tracked against interim 2020 targets in the IEA Energy Technology Perspectives 2012 2°C scenario, which lays out pathways to a sustainable energy system in 2050. Stark message emerge: progress has not been fast enough; large market failures are preventing clean energy solutions from being taken up; considerable energy efficiency remains untapped; policies need to better address the energy system as a whole; and energy-related research, development and demonstration need to accelerate. Alongside these grim conclusions there is positive news. In 2012, hybrid-electric vehicle sales passed the 1 million mark. Solar photovoltaic systems were being installed at a record pace. The costs of most clean energy technologies fell more rapidly than anticipated.

  5. Worldwide clean energy system technology using hydrogen (WE-NET). subtask 9. Investigation of innovative and leading technologies; Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET). subtask 9. Kakushinteki sendoteki gijutsu ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The WE-NET Project is a long-term project designed to ensure that an energy network technology using hydrogen becomes a reality not later than 2020. So the project cannot remain effective unless constant efforts are made to foresee future trends of technology and optimize it as the making of entire system for the project. In this project, new technologies which are not up for development are also investigated. Their feasibility should be studied, if necessary. From the foregoing point of view, new technologies are studied, collected and evaluated. Thus, useful suggestions and proposals may be made as to the course for the project to follow, as well as its research and development. Proposals highly evaluated up to FY 1995 are the hydrogen-oxygen internal-combustion Stirling`s engine, hydrogen production by solid oxide electrolysis, magnetic refrigeration technology for liquefaction of hydrogen, solar thermal hydrogen production with iron sponge technology, and hydrogen producing technology with photocatalyst. Conceptual investigation themes in FY 1996 are the hydrogen internal-combustion Stirling engine, solar thermal hydrogen production, phototransformation process, and high-temperature steam electrolysis. 9 figs., 54 tabs.

  6. An Energy-efficient and Clean Spray Drying Technology%节能型清洁喷雾干燥技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志远; 贾敏

    2016-01-01

    The traditional catalyst spray drying system usually uses direct drying process, the carrier gas contacts with materials directly, this method can pollute some special catalysts to influence the quality of the final product, and direct discharge of the high temperature exhaust gas into the atmosphere can cause heat loss. So an energy-efficient and clean spray drying technology for catalyst preparation has been developed. The spray drying technology uses the indirect stove with new structure to supply clean and dry hot air, and uses the half-cycle technology to reuse part of the high temperature exhaust gas.%传统的催化剂喷雾干燥系统多采用直接干燥工艺,载气与待干燥物料直接接触换热,这样会对某些特性的催化剂造成污染,影响产品的最终品质,且高温尾气不经回收直接排入大气,造成热量损失。基于此,开发了一种节能型催化剂清洁喷雾干燥技术,即:利用新型结构的间接式热风炉提供清洁的干燥热风,利用尾气半循环使部分高温清洁尾气回用,实现了节能型、清洁型喷雾干燥工艺。

  7. Incentives of Health Care Expenditure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eero Siljander

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The incentives of health care expenditure (HCE have been a topic of discussion in the USA (Obama reforms and in Europe (adjustment to debt crisis. There are competing views of institutional versus GDP (unit income elasticity and productivity related factors of growth of expenditure. However ageing of populations, technology change and economic incentives related to institutions are also key drivers of growth according to the OECD and EU’s AWG committee. Simulation models have been developed to forecast the growth of social expenditure (including HCEs to 2050. In this article we take a historical perspective to look at the institutional structures and their relationship to HCE growth. When controlling for age structure, price developments, doctor density and in-patient and public shares of expenditures, we find that fee-for-service in primary care, is according to the results, in at least 20 percent more costly than capitation or salary remuneration. Capitation and salary (or wage remuneration are at same cost levels in primary care. However we did not find the cost lowering effect for gatekeeping which could have been expected based on previous literature. Global budgeting 30 (partly DRG based percent less costly in specialized care than other reimbursement schemes like open contracting or volume based reimbursement. However the public integration of purchaser and provider cost seems to result to about 20 higher than public reimbursement or public contracting. Increasing the number of doctors or public financing share results in increased HCEs. Therefore expanding public reimbursement share of health services seems to lead to higher HCE. On the contrary, the in-patient share reduced expenditures. Compared to the previous literature, the finding on institutional dummies is in line with similar modeling papers. However the results for public expansion of services is a contrary one to previous works on the subject. The median lag length of

  8. The application of mature dry storage technology and remote handling robotics to nuclear plant extension, clean-up and decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackwell, W.C. [GEC ALSTHOM Engineering Systems Ltd., Leicester (United Kingdom)

    1997-08-01

    This paper reviews a mature dry storage technology developed by GEC ALSTHOM Engineering Systems Limited (GAES) which offers a passive, economical and licensable method of providing irradiated fuel storage capacity at operational nuclear power stations. The evolution of the modular vault dry store (MVDS) technology has taken place over 25 years of operational experience, culminating in a product which meets all of the concerns of licensing authorities regarding safety and fuel integrity. The application of remote handling robotics to nuclear fuel and active component handling as a routine process rather than as an intervention technique is also reviewed. The growth of the application of this technology is governed by several factors which include: statutory requirements, safety assurance, risk reduction and economic pressures. The availability of a mature MVDS technology with an evolving process-capable robotics technology opens up opportunities for exploring proven UK products. (Author).

  9. Progress of Hydrogenation Desulfurization Technologies for Clean Diesel%清洁柴油加氢脱硫技术进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨英; 肖立桢

    2015-01-01

    综述了国内外各大公司生产清洁柴油的加氢脱硫(HDS)催化剂及工艺技术进展,指出了我国HDS 技术的发展方向:开发高效稳定的 HDS 催化剂和对现有加氢工艺的改造升级,从载体、助剂以及活性金属组分等方面入手,进一步提高 HDS 催化剂的各种性能,开发基于 HDS 技术与其他分离技术的组合脱硫技术。%The technique progress of hydrogenation desulfurization(HDS)catalysts and processes for producing clean diesel of companies both at home and abroad were reviewed,and the development direction of HDS technologies in China were prospected.The main research direction were developing highly efficient and stable catalysts and upgrading existing hydrogenation process.The properties of HDS catalysts should further improved from carrier,additives and active metal components,etal.Desulfurization technology based on HDS technology combined with other separation technology has good prospects for development.

  10. Bandwidth Trading as Incentive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eger, Kolja; Killat, Ulrich

    In P2P networks with multi-source download the file of interest is fragmented into pieces and peers exchange pieces with each other although they did not finish the download of the complete file. Peers can adopt different strategies to trade upload for download bandwidth. These trading schemes should give peers an incentive to contribute bandwidth to the P2P network. This chapter studies different trading schemes analytically and by simulations. A mathematical framework for bandwidth trading is introduced and two distributed algorithms, which are denoted as Resource Pricing and Reciprocal Rate Control, are derived. The algorithms are compared to the tit-for-tat principle in BitTorrent. Nash Equilibria and results from simulations of static and dynamic networks are presented. Additionally, we discuss how trading schemes can be combined with a piece selection algorithm to increase the availability of a full copy of the file. The chapter closes with an extension of the mathematical model which takes also the underlying IP network into account. This results in a TCP variant optimised for P2P content distribution.

  11. Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center (CEMAC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center (CEMAC) provides objective analysis and up-to-date data on global supply chains and manufacturing of clean energy technologies. Policymakers and industry leaders seek CEMAC insights to inform choices to promote economic growth and the transition to a clean energy economy.

  12. Clean Cities Now, Vol. 18, No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-01-19

    This is version 18.2 of Clean Cities Now, the official biannual newsletter of the Clean Cities program. Clean Cities is an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

  13. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-04-01

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center (Solutions Center) helps governments, advisors and analysts create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. The Solutions Center partners with international organizations to provide online training, expert assistance, and technical resources on clean energy policy.

  14. Stock Repurchases and Incentive Compensation

    OpenAIRE

    Christine Jolls

    1998-01-01

    A longstanding puzzle in corporate finance is the rise of stock repurchases as a means of distributing earnings to shareholders. While most attempts to explain repurchase behavior focus on the incentives of firms, this paper focuses on the incentives of the agents who run firms, as determined by those agents' compensation packages. The increased use of repurchases coincided with an increasing reliance on stock options to compensate top managers, and stock options encourage managers to choose ...

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT: MOBILE SOURCE RETROFIT AIR POLLUTION CONTROL DEVICES: CLEAN CLEAR FUEL TECHNOLOGIES, INC.’S, UNIVERSAL FUEL CELL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA's Office of Research and Development operates the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) program to facilitate the deployment of innovative technologies through performance verification and information dissemination. Congress funds ETV in response to the belief ...

  16. Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Commercial Lawn Equipment (Spanish version); Clean Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Erik

    2015-06-01

    Powering commercial lawn equipment with alternative fuels or advanced engine technology is an effective way to reduce U.S. dependence on petroleum, reduce harmful emissions, and lessen the environmental impacts of commercial lawn mowing. Numerous alternative fuel and fuel-efficient advanced technology mowers are available. Owners turn to these mowers because they may save on fuel and maintenance costs, extend mower life, reduce fuel spillage and fuel theft, and demonstrate their commitment to sustainability.

  17. BASF and acetylene. 70 years of reppe chemistry - long-standing reliability and promising future - and now, the only natural gas based clean technology for acetylene production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicari, M. [BASF SE, Ludwigshafen (Germany)

    2013-11-01

    Acetylene is still an attractive intermediate synthesis component because carbon in methane from natural gas comes at a lower price than carbon in naphtha from crude oil or coal. Acetylene can be understood as a product of C-C coupling and functionalization. Beginning in the 1950s, BASF developed the partial oxidation (Pox) process, in addition to the electric arc process dating from the 1930s and the submerged flame process. The originally developed Pox process came along with severe emissions of hydrocarbons to the environment. Nowadays it is extremely important to have a clean, environmentally friendly technology. So in the 1990s a closed water-quench process was developed and built in the United States. The presentation focuses on the ways of making acetylene, the use of acetylene and BASF's closed water-quench process based on natural gas. This process will be presented including some important safety aspects. The process is available for licensing. (orig.)

  18. 高电流密度电解清洗带钢技术的分析研究%Discussion on the high current density electrolysis clean technology for strip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴建生

    2001-01-01

    为了建设国内第1条高速高效的带钢电解清洗机组,对电解清洗机理、高电流密度电解清洗技术进行了研究探讨;分析了各种类型高密度电解清洗装置的优缺点及实例,为国内新建或同类机组改造选型提供了参考。%In order to construction the first domestic high speed and efficiency strip electrolysis clean unit, the paper researched the mechanism of electrolysis clean and high current density electrolysis clean technology, and analyzed the merits and shortcomings of all kinds of high current density electrolysis clean units and their practice effects.

  19. In-plant testing of a novel coal cleaning circuit using advanced technologies. Final technical report, September 1, 1995--August 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honaker, R.Q. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Mining Engineering; Reed, S.; Mohanty, M.K.

    1997-05-01

    A circuit comprised of advanced fine coal cleaning technologies was evaluated in an operating preparation plant to determine circuit performance and to compare the performance with current technologies used to treat -16 mesh fine coal. The circuit integrated a Floatex hydrosizer, a Falcon enhanced gravity concentrator and a Jameson flotation cell. A Packed-Column was used to provide additional reductions in the pyritic sulfur and ash contents by treatment of the Floatex-Falcon-Jameson circuit product. For a low sulfur Illinois No. 5 coal, the pyritic sulfur content was reduced from 0.67% to 0.34% at a combustible recovery of 93.2%. The ash content was decreased from 27.6% to 5.84%, which equates to an organic efficiency of 95% according to gravity-based washability data. The separation performance achieved on a high sulfur Illinois No. 5 coal resulted in the rejection of 72.7% of the pyritic sulfur and 82.3% of the ash-forming material at a recovery of 8 1 %. Subsequent pulverization of the cleaned product and retreatment in a Falcon concentrator and Packed-Column resulted in overall circuit ash and pyritic sulfur rejections of 89% and 93%, respectively, which yielded a pyritic sulfur content reduction from 2.43% to 0.30%. This separation reduced the sulfur dioxide emission rating of an Illinois No. 5 coal from 6.21 to 1.75 lbs SO{sub 2}/MBTU, which is Phase I compliance coal. A comparison of the results obtained from the Floatex-Falcon-Jameson circuit with those of the existing circuit revealed that the novel fine coal circuit provides 10% to 20% improvement in mass yield to the concentrate while rejecting greater amounts of ash and pyritic sulfur.

  20. Postoperative incentive spirometry use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanzadeh, Hamid; Jain, Amit; Tan, Eric W; Stein, Benjamin E; Van Hoy, Megan L; Stewart, Nadine N; Lemma, Mesfin A

    2012-06-01

    The authors hypothesized that the use of incentive spirometry by orthopedic patients is less than the recommended level and is affected by patient-related factors and type of surgery. To determine its postoperative use, the authors prospectively surveyed all patients in their institution's general orthopedic ward who had undergone elective spine surgery or total knee or hip arthroplasty during a consecutive 3-month period in 2010, excluding patients with postoperative delirium or requiring a monitored bed. All 182 patients (74 men, 108 women; average age, 64.5 years; range, 32-88 years; spine group, n=55; arthroplasty group, n=127), per protocol, received preoperative spirometry education by a licensed respiratory therapist (recommended use, 10 times hourly) and reinforcement education by nurses. Patients were asked twice daily (morning and evening) regarding their spirometry use during the previous 1-hour period by a registered nurse on postoperative days 1 through 3. All data were collected by the same 2 nurses using the same standardized questionnaire. Spirometry use was correlated with surgery type, postoperative day/time, and patient's age and sex. Student's t test, Spearman test, and one-way analysis of variance were used to compare differences (PSpirometry use averaged 4.1 times per hour (range, 0-10 times). No statistical correlations were found between spirometry use and age. Sex did not influence spirometry use. The arthroplasty group reported significantly higher use than did the spine group: 4.3 and 3.5 times per hour, respectively. Mean use increased significantly between postoperative days 1, 2, and 3.

  1. Clean, Efficient, and Reliable Heat and Power for the 21st Century, Fuel Cell Technologies Program (FCTP) (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-05-01

    This overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cell Technologies Program describes the program's focus and goals, along with current fuel cell applications and future potential. The program focuses on research and development of fuel cell systems for diverse applications in the stationary power, portable power, and transportation sectors. It works to reduce costs and improve technologies to advance fuel cell uses in areas such as combined heat and power, auxiliary power units, portable power systems, and stationary and backup power. To help ensure that fuel cell advances are realized, the program rigorously analyzes energy efficiency, economic, and environmental benefits of fuel cells and seeks to optimize synergies among fuel cell applications and other renewable technologies.

  2. Sustainable business and clean technology markets in megacities : an explorative research of their dynamics in Cairo and Mexico City

    OpenAIRE

    Mejía-Dugand, Santiago; Hjelm, Olof; Baas, Leenard

    2013-01-01

    This report presents the results of a research project on environmental technology diffusion and the dynamics of business arenas within the sector, with two megacities as case studies: Mexico City and Cairo. The term “environmental technologies” is used in a broad sense, referring to technological solutions that contribute to the improvement of the environmental performance of cities. With this in mind, a focus on the demand side (i.e. the cities) is the point of departure, and a bottom-up ap...

  3. Application of On-line Cleaning and Prefilming Technology in Refinery Circulating Cooling Water System%不停车清洗预膜技术在炼油循环冷却水系统的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Plants in refinery are various, due to the needs of production and operation, circulating cooling water system cannot be shut down for cleaning and prefilming, resulting in corrosion and fouling problems of the water cooler. The on-line cleaning and prefilming technology can realize the cleaning and prefilming of the circulating cooling water system without stopping, so that the scaling and corrosion of the circulating cooling water system can be controlled. The feasibility of the on-line cleaning and prefilming technology was investigated through using the on-line cleaning and prefilming technology in the circulating cooling water system of a refinery, and some suggestions were put forward.%炼化企业装置较多,由于生产经营的需要,循环冷却水系统可能不能停工进行清洗预膜,导致水冷器的腐蚀、结垢问题。不停车清洗预膜可以实现在不停车的情况下在线进行清洗预膜,这样就可以控制系统的结垢和腐蚀问题。某炼油厂通过不停车清洗预膜的实施效果,考察了其可行性,并提出了一些建议。

  4. A Clean Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAGGIECHEN

    2004-01-01

    If you have US$1 million, do you invest in car production or cleaning car emissions? More cars than ever are hitting the roads and demand is rising.Cleaner cars are being called for, as the government strives to reduce car emission. So there is an obvious market both for cars and for new emission control technologies.Theoretically, you should make money by investing in either of them in China today.

  5. Clean Power on Tap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China adopts the most advanced nuclear power technologies to meet long-term energy needs Nuclear power has taken center stage in China’s nationwide cam-paign to develop new and clean energy sources. In the latest effort, Chinese state-owned nuclear power giants invested over 40 billion yuan ($5.86 billion) as an initial funding injection to build a new plant under the

  6. Clean catch urine sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... specimen; Urine collection - clean catch; UTI - clean catch; Urinary tract infection - clean catch; Cystitis - clean catch ... LE, Norrby SR. Approach to the patient with urinary tract infection. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil ...

  7. 42 CFR 495.316 - State monitoring and reporting regarding activities required to receive an incentive payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Provider adoption, implementation, or upgrade of certified EHR technology activities and payments; and (2... upgraded certified EHR technology. (ii) Aggregated data tables representing the provider adoption... STANDARDS FOR THE ELECTRONIC HEALTH RECORD TECHNOLOGY INCENTIVE PROGRAM Requirements Specific to...

  8. Incentives for subcontractors to adopt CO2 emission reporting and reduction techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Bert; Kleinsmann, Renske

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the incentives for subcontractors (couriers) of a transport and logistics company to report about their CO2 emissions and to implement CO2 reducing technologies. Furthermore, we try to find out whether these incentives differ between British and Dutch couriers. We find that several in

  9. Localized application of converter dry gas cleaning technology%大型转炉干法除尘技术国产化应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金龙

    2015-01-01

    The localized application of dry gas cleaning technology which are applied in Xuangang 150 t converter were discussed.Effective innovation process and method were developed to solve three key problems,namely explosion venting,soot formation in evaporative cooler,corrosions of polar and plate in electrostatic precipitator. The effect was remarkable. Explosion venting mechanism was discussed in detail according to different smelting stage. Zero-explosion-venting operation was proposed specifically. Computer simulation technology was used to optimize evaporative cooler and electrostatic precipitator.Goals such as no soot formation in evaporative cooler,no corrosion and deformation on polar and plate in electrostatic precipitator,zero explosion venting were achieved.The localized application of dry gas cleaning technology which was successfully applied in Xuangang Steel provides a powerful reference to domestic steel plants of the populization and promotion of this tech-nology.%论述了宣钢150 t 转炉干法除尘技术国产化应用情况,针对除尘器泄爆、蒸发冷却器板结、静电除尘器极线极板的腐蚀等关键技术难题,开发出了有效的创新工艺及方法,取得了显著效果。其中分冶炼阶段详细讨论了除尘器泄爆机理,并有针对性地提出了零泄爆操作法,采用计算机仿真技术对蒸发冷却器及静电除尘器本体设计进行了优化,实现了蒸发冷却器无结垢、静电除尘器极线极板无腐蚀和变形、电场零泄爆的目标。宣钢国产化干法除尘技术的成功应用为该技术在国内大型钢厂普及和推广提供了有力借鉴。

  10. Analysis of Wax Cleaning and Prevention Technology for Ningdong Oil Field%宁东油田清蜡、防蜡技术分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫金鹏; 吕玉杰; 朱江勇

    2012-01-01

    在原油开采过程中,随着温度、压力的降低和气体的析出,溶解的石蜡便以结晶体析出、逐渐长大聚集最终沉积在管壁等固相表面上,即出现所谓的结蜡现象。结蜡会堵塞产油层,降低油井产量,同时也会增大油井负荷,造成生产事故。油井结蜡是影响油井高产、稳产的主要因素之一,清蜡和防蜡是高含蜡油井常规管理的重要内容。通过收集整理现场资料、分析原油性质和综合评价不同清防蜡技术的经济效果,确定宁东油田采用热力清蜡和化学防蜡技术较为合适。%With reduction of temperature and pressure and release of gas in the production of crude oil, the dissolved paraffin will separate out in crystal form, grows up gradually and finally deposit on the surface of tube shell, which is called deposition. The wax deposition will block the oil layer, reduce the crude oil production, increase the oil well's operating load and lead to operation accident. The wax deposition in oil well is also one of main factors affecting the high and stable oil production. Therefore, wax cleaning and waxing prevention are an important items in the management of oil well with waxy crude oil. The collection of field information, analysis of crude oil properties and comprehensive evaluation of different wax cleaning and waxing prevention technologies and associated economics have concluded that the application of combination process of thermal wax cleaning and chemical waxing prevention is an effective way to control wax deposition in Ningdong Oil Field.

  11. Qualitative and chemical characteristics of mineral matter in the selected lignite deposits in light of their suitability for clean coal technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bielowicz Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the variability of ash content and chemical composition of coal ash is crucial when assessing the possibility of using this raw material in clean coal technologies (CCS. The paper focuses on chemical, technological and quality characteristics of ash from the combustion of lignite from Polish deposits. Ash content on a dry ash-free basis for the samples from 9 deposits varies from 1 to 50%. The most commonly observed ash content in the studied samples of lignite is in the range between 10–20%. The measured ash melting temperatures from the collected lignite samples have shown that the sintering, softening, melting and flow temperatures, determined in an oxidizing atmosphere (air, are higher than those determined in a reducing atmosphere. In the majority of Polish lignite deposits, the dominant component of ash was SiO2, followed by CaO. When evaluating the suitability of coal in energy production, with particular emphasis on the combustion and gasification processes, it is also necessary to study the behavior of ash at high temperatures and the impact of ash on the gasification and combustion facilities. Ash fouling and slagging processes, which are heavily dependent on the ash content, composition, melting point and the content of chlorine, phosphorus and sulfur in coal, have a negative effect on the combustion process.

  12. Clean coal - a national urgency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, S.M.; Sahai, R. [Indian Bureau of Mines, Nagpur (India). Technical Consultancy Division

    2000-07-01

    India is the third largest producer and consumer of coal in the world. Coal generally has a high ash content, thereby requiring that it be cleaned for proper use. Technological advances now make it possible to reduce pollution considerably, even as energy use increases. However, to reduce environmental impacts, technologies for cleaning coal before combustion need to be developed. The paper focuses on the need for clean coal production and the benefits associated with it. Although the country is rich in coal reserves, the generally inferior quality of coal will lead to its depletion if it is not used cleanly. Increasing the proportion of prepared coal from the current level of less than 5% (i.e. 10-11 million tonnes per annum) of all coal consumed will lead to a massive saving. This can be achieved if new washeries are set up, preferably near the coalfields. 2 figs.

  13. Demonstration of Air-Power-Assist Engine Technology for Clean Combustion and Direct Energy Recovery in Heavy Duty Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyungsuk Kang; Chun Tai

    2010-05-01

    The first phase of the project consists of four months of applied research, starting from September 1, 2005 and was completed by December 31, 2005. During this time, the project team heavily relied on highly detailed numerical modeling techniques to evaluate the feasibility of the APA technology. Specifically, (i) A GT-Power{sup TM}engine simulation model was constructed to predict engine efficiency at various operating conditions. Efficiency was defined based on the second-law thermodynamic availability. (ii) The engine efficiency map generated by the engine simulation was then fed into a simplified vehicle model, which was constructed in the Matlab/Simulink environment, to predict fuel consumption of a refuse truck on a simple collection cycle. (iii) Design and analysis work supporting the concept of retrofitting an existing Sturman Industries Hydraulic Valve Actuation (HVA) system with the modifications that are required to run the HVA system with Air Power Assist functionality. A Matlab/Simulink model was used to calculate the dynamic response of the HVA system. Computer aided design (CAD) was done in Solidworks for mechanical design and hydraulic layout. At the end of Phase I, 11% fuel economy improvement was predicted. During Phase II, the engine simulation group completed the engine mapping work. The air handling group made substantial progress in identifying suppliers and conducting 3D modelling design. Sturman Industries completed design modification of the HVA system, which was reviewed and accepted by Volvo Powertrain. In Phase II, the possibility of 15% fuel economy improvement was shown with new EGR cooler design by reducing EGR cooler outlet temperature with APA engine technology from Air Handling Group. In addition, Vehicle Simulation with APA technology estimated 4 -21% fuel economy improvement over a wide range of driving cycles. During Phase III, the engine experimental setup was initiated at VPTNA, Hagerstown, MD. Air Handling system and HVA

  14. Cleaning the Diesel Engine Emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Budde

    This paper examines how technologies for cleaning of diesel emission from road vehicles can be supported by facilitating a technology push in the Danish automotive emission control industry. The European commission is at present preparing legislation for the euro 5 emission standard (to be enforc...

  15. Analysis of federal incentives used to stimulate energy consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, R.J.; Cone, B.W.; Emery, J.C.; Huelshoff, M.; Lenerz, D.E.; Marcus, A.; Morris, F.A.; Sheppard, W.J.; Sommers, P.

    1981-08-01

    The purpose of the analysis is to identify and quantify Federal incentives that have increased the consumption of coal, oil, natural gas, and electricity. The introductory chapter is intended as a device for presenting the policy questions about the incentives that can be used to stimulate desired levels of energy development. In the theoretical chapter federal incentives were identified for the consumption of energy as Federal government actions whose major intent or result is to stimulate energy consumption. The stimulus comes through changing values of variables included in energy demand functions, thereby inducing energy consumers to move along the function in the direction of greater quantity of energy demanded, or through inducing a shift of the function to a position where more energy will be demanded at a given price. The demand variables fall into one of six categories: price of the energy form, price of complements, price of substitutes, preferences, income, and technology. The government can provide such incentives using six different policy instruments: taxation, disbursements, requirements, nontraditional services, traditional services, and market activity. The four major energy forms were examined. Six energy-consuming sectors were examined: residential, commercial, industrial, agricultural, transportation, and public. Two types of analyses of incentive actions are presented in this volume. The generic chapter focused on actions taken in 1978 across all energy forms. The subsequent chapters traced the patterns of incentive actions, energy form by energy form, from the beginning of the 20th century, to the present. The summary chapter includes the results of the previous chapters presented by energy form, incentive type, and user group. Finally, the implications of these results for solar policy are presented in the last chapter. (MCW)

  16. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT). Technical progress report, second & third quarters, 1993, April 1993--June 1993, July 1993--September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from U.S., Japanese, and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur U.S. coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NOx) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NOx to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe on gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur coal-fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to U.S. coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in U.S. coals that are not present in other fuels; (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}; and (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties are being explored by constructing and operating a series of small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur U.S. coal. The demonstration is being performed at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Crist Unit No. 5 (75 MW capacity) near Pensacola, Florida. The project is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Southern Company Services, Inc. (SCS on behalf of the entire Southern electric system), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and Ontario Hydro. SCS is the participant responsible for managing all aspects of this project.

  17. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Arabic Translation) (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-06-01

    This is the Arabic translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center Services fact sheet. The Clean Energy Solutions Center (Solutions Center) helps governments, advisors and analysts create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. The Solutions Center partners with international organizations to provide online training, expert assistance, and technical resources on clean energy policy.

  18. Technical support for the Ohio Clean Coal Technology Program. Volume 2, Baseline of knowledge concerning process modification opportunities, research needs, by-product market potential, and regulatory requirements: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olfenbuttel, R.; Clark, S.; Helper, E.; Hinchee, R.; Kuntz, C.; Means, J.; Oxley, J.; Paisley, M.; Rogers, C.; Sheppard, W.; Smolak, L. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1989-08-28

    This report was prepared for the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) under Grant Agreement No. CDO/R-88-LR1 and comprises two volumes. Volume 1 presents data on the chemical, physical, and leaching characteristics of by-products from a wide variety of clean coal combustion processes. Volume 2 consists of a discussion of (a) process modification waste minimization opportunities and stabilization considerations; (b) research and development needs and issues relating to clean coal combustion technologies and by-products; (c) the market potential for reusing or recycling by-product materials; and (d) regulatory considerations relating to by-product disposal or reuse.

  19. Anti-double dipping rules for federal tax incentives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ing, E.T.C. [Law Office of Edwin T.C. Ing, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Political as well as technological changes are now reshaping the electric utility industry. While accommodating these changes, state legislative and regulatory agencies have the opportunity to promote public policies. In this regard, various state entities are evaluating appropriate incentives for renewable energy development so as to introduce greater competition in electric generation. For example, the California legislature is considering a supplemental production payment and the State of Iowa has instituted a low-interest loan program for wind and other alternative energy generation. By complementing the existing federal tax incentives, state incentives can spur the wind industry`s growth. If structured in the wrong way, however, state assistance programs will undercut the value of the federal tax incentives. The federal anti-double dipping rules apply to certain state programs. If a developer utilizes the wrong type of state assistance for a wind project, the anti-double dipping rules will reduce the federal tax incentives and this in turn will decrease the project`s profitability. Rather than suffer these results, very few if any developer will use the state program. Despite the time and effort a state may expend to enact a program for alternative energy development, the state assistance will be ineffectual. This paper reviews the counterproductive results which state assistance can have on a wind project because of the federal anti-double dipping rules.

  20. Incentives and regulation in banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martynova, N.

    2015-01-01

    The financial crisis of 2007-2008 has unveiled the hidden flaws in the regulatory framework of the financial sector. The rules of the game established by regulators were not stringent enough and provided bankers with wrong incentives to gamble with depositors’ money. There are two major challenges i

  1. Incentives in Supply Function Equilibrium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vetter, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    The author analyses delegation in homogenous duopoly under the assumption that firm-managers compete in supply functions. He reverses earlier findings in that owners give managers incentives to act in an accommodating way. That is, optimal delegation reduces per-firm output and increases profits ...

  2. Social Relations and Relational Incentives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Dur (Robert); J. Tichem (Jan)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis paper studies how social relationships between managers and employees affect relational incentive contracts. To this end we develop a simple dynamic principal-agent model where both players may have feelings of altruism or spite toward each other. The contract may contain two types

  3. 28 CFR 544.43 - Incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Mandatory English-as-a-Second Language Program (ESL) § 544.43 Incentives. The Warden or designee shall establish a system of incentives to encourage an inmate to meet the mandatory ESL program requirements....

  4. Internal Financial Incentives in Systems Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    34On the Design of Managerial Incentive Structures in a Decentralized Planning Environment," The American Economic Review , September, 1976. (3] Canes...Michael E., "The Simple Economics of Incentive Contracting: Note" The American Economic Review , June, 1975. [4] Cummins, Michael T., "Incentive...Harris, Milton; Raiv, Artur, "Optimal Incentive Contracts with Imperfect Information," The American Economic Review , March, 1978. (9] Jennergren

  5. The Effect of Incentives and Meta-incentives on the Evolution of Cooperation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isamu Okada

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Although positive incentives for cooperators and/or negative incentives for free-riders in social dilemmas play an important role in maintaining cooperation, there is still the outstanding issue of who should pay the cost of incentives. The second-order free-rider problem, in which players who do not provide the incentives dominate in a game, is a well-known academic challenge. In order to meet this challenge, we devise and analyze a meta-incentive game that integrates positive incentives (rewards and negative incentives (punishments with second-order incentives, which are incentives for other players' incentives. The critical assumption of our model is that players who tend to provide incentives to other players for their cooperative or non-cooperative behavior also tend to provide incentives to their incentive behaviors. In this paper, we solve the replicator dynamics for a simple version of the game and analytically categorize the game types into four groups. We find that the second-order free-rider problem is completely resolved without any third-order or higher (meta incentive under the assumption. To do so, a second-order costly incentive, which is given individually (peer-to-peer after playing donation games, is needed. The paper concludes that (1 second-order incentives for first-order reward are necessary for cooperative regimes, (2 a system without first-order rewards cannot maintain a cooperative regime, (3 a system with first-order rewards and no incentives for rewards is the worst because it never reaches cooperation, and (4 a system with rewards for incentives is more likely to be a cooperative regime than a system with punishments for incentives when the cost-effect ratio of incentives is sufficiently large. This solution is general and strong in the sense that the game does not need any centralized institution or proactive system for incentives.

  6. Treatment of metal-laden hazardous wastes with advanced clean coal technology by-products. Quarterly report, November 1994--February 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    This second quarterly report describes work during the second three months of the University of Pittsburgh`s (Pitt`s) project on the {open_quotes}Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.{close_quotes} Participating with Pitt on this project are Dravo Lime Company (DLC), Mill Service, Inc. (MSI) and the Center for Hazardous Materials Research (CHMR). The report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focussed upon the acquisition of by-product samples and their initial analysis. Other efforts during the second quarter have been directed toward identifying the first hazardous waste samples and preparing for their treatment and analysis. Relatively little data has yet been collected. Major presentation of technical details and data will appear for the first time in the third quarterly report. The activity on the project during the second quarter of Phase One, as presented in the following sections, has fallen into seven areas: (1) Acquiring by-products, (2) Analyzing by-products, (3) Identifying, analyzing and treating suitable hazardous wastes, (4) Carrying out the quality assurance/quality control program, (5) Developing background, and (6) Initiating public relations

  7. Effects of indoor air purification by an air cleaning system (Koala technology) on semen parameters in male factor infertility: results of a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradisi, R; Vanella, S; Barzanti, R; Cani, C; Battaglia, C; Seracchioli, R; Venturoli, S

    2009-06-01

    A number of studies indicated a clear decline in semen quality in the past 30-50 years and there is accumulating evidence that this decline might result from exposure to high levels of air pollution. To examine the impact of environment on male reproductive ability, we undertook for the first time a pilot study on semen quality of infertile men exposed to purification of indoor air. Ten subjects with a history of unexplained male infertility and poor semen quality were exposed for at least 1 year to a cleaning indoor air system (Koala technology). The key feature of this air purifier is the unique innovative multiple filtering system. The treatment of total purification of indoor air showed neither improvements in semen parameters nor variation in reproductive hormones (P = N.S.), but induced an evident increase (P indoor air does not seem enough to improve semen quality, although the increase in leucocytic concentrations could indicate an activation of the role of immunosurveillance in a purified indoor air environment.

  8. Treatment of metal-laden hazardous wastes with advanced clean coal technology by-products. Quarterly report, May 1995--August 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    This fourth quarterly report describes work done during the fourth three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh`s project on the {open_quotes}Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.{close_quote} Participating with the university on this project are Dravo Lime Company, Mill Service, Inc., and the Center for Hazardous Materials Research. This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focussed upon the production of six sets of samples with high water content for solidification testing and the mixing of five dry samples for solidification testing by the Proctor method. Twenty-eight day compressive strengths are reported for five of the six sets of samples with high water content. The report also discusses completion of the format of the database and the inclusion in it of all data collected to date. Special reports presented during the quarter include the Continuation Application, a News Release, and modification to the Test Plan. Work is progressing on the NEPA report and the Topical Report. The activity on the project during the fourth quarter of Phase one, as presented in the following sections, has fallen into six major areas: (1) Completion of by-product evaluations, (2) Completion of analyses of six wastes, (3) Initiation of eleven solidification tests, (4) Continued extraction and extract analysis of solidified samples, (5) Development of the database, and (6) Production of reports.

  9. Merger incentives and the failing firm defense

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouckaert, J.M.C.; Kort, P.M.

    2014-01-01

    The merger incentives between profitable firms differ fundamentally from the incentives of a profitable firm to merge with a failing firm. We investigate these incentives under different modes of price competition and Cournot behavior. Our main finding is that firms strictly prefer exit of the faili

  10. 20 CFR 638.519 - Incentives system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Incentives system. 638.519 Section 638.519... TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.519 Incentives system. The center operator shall establish and maintain its own incentives system for students in accordance with...

  11. Earnings progression, human capital and incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders

    progression by investigating the effects of on-the-job human capital acquisition, explicit short-run incentives and career concern incentives on earnings progression. The model leads to predictions about the incentive structure and the progression in both cross-sectional and individual earnings which...

  12. Precision Cleaning - Path to Premier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackler, Scott E.

    2008-01-01

    ITT Space Systems Division s new Precision Cleaning facility provides critical cleaning and packaging of aerospace flight hardware and optical payloads to meet customer performance requirements. The Precision Cleaning Path to Premier Project was a 2007 capital project and is a key element in the approved Premier Resource Management - Integrated Supply Chain Footprint Optimization Project. Formerly precision cleaning was located offsite in a leased building. A new facility equipped with modern precision cleaning equipment including advanced process analytical technology and improved capabilities was designed and built after outsourcing solutions were investigated and found lacking in ability to meet quality specifications and schedule needs. SSD cleans parts that can range in size from a single threaded fastener all the way up to large composite structures. Materials that can be processed include optics, composites, metals and various high performance coatings. We are required to provide verification to our customers that we have met their particulate and molecular cleanliness requirements and we have that analytical capability in this new facility. The new facility footprint is approximately half the size of the former leased operation and provides double the amount of throughput. Process improvements and new cleaning equipment are projected to increase 1st pass yield from 78% to 98% avoiding $300K+/yr in rework costs. Cost avoidance of $350K/yr will result from elimination of rent, IT services, transportation, and decreased utility costs. Savings due to reduced staff expected to net $4-500K/yr.

  13. Solar workshops financial incentives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    Ten one-day workshops were held across the United States. Information in this workbook is compiled in conjunction with those workshops. The following discussions are included: solar as a fuel (history); why alternative fuels are being sought today; the need for conservation; advantages of solar energy; the potential of solar energy; why solar energy is not more widely used; a definition of solar; how solar can help meet energy demands; Federal policies and programs; what solar technologies exist today that can be effectively utilized (thermal applications, fuels from biomass, solar electric). Additional information is presented in three attachments: Energy-Conserving Methods; Domestic Policy Review of Solar Energy; and DOE Secretary's Annual Report to Congress-Solar Section. (MCW)

  14. Environmental controls: Market incentives v. direct regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosobud, R.F.; Atallah, D.S. [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Cap-and-trade environmental markets, where the commodities are tradable pollution rights, are being introduced in several closely watched applications as a potentially more cost-effective way of cleaning up the environment than direct or command-and-control (CAC) regulation. In this study, we examine the evidence on control cost savings provided by price and transactions data from the first few years of activity in two markets designed to reduce atmospheric pollution. Some observers of both markets have argued that prices for tradable permits lower than expected, and transactions fewer than expected, are evidence that the markets are not achieving the hoped for savings. It was found, on the contrary, that observed prices point toward more flexible and improved pollution control choices and that the number of transactions has been steadily increasing as market incentives are incorporated into enterprise decisions. These new markets during their first few years are generating, according to our estimates, control cost savings in the neighborhood of one to two billion dollars annually. However, there is evidence that the markets have not yet reached their full potential. In the course of this study, several obstacles to market performance were found that are worthy of attention by policy makers. 13 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Employee incentives in the healthcare industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnies, Richard C; Collins, Sandra K; Collins, Kevin S

    2008-01-01

    *Employee incentives are an important part of a radiology department's ability to attract and maintain employees. For incentive programs to be successful, radiology managers must diligently look for the incentives that motivate each particular employee. *The types of incentives being used frequently in the field of healthcare vary between technical, managerial, and executive positions. The process of identifying the right employee incentive for each group of individuals may be challenging, but if the result is a more productive and satisfied group of employees, the process is worth the effort.

  16. Chemical-mechanical cleaning technology of ferrous sulfide in oil field equipment%油田设备中硫化亚铁的化学-机械清洗技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘新强

    2012-01-01

    A cleaning technology combined by JY -01 ferrous sulfide elimination agent and mechanical three-dimensional rotated cleaning is discussed. It can be used to solve the problem about elimination of ferrous sulfide in some equipments, such as oil storage tanks. This technology is characterized by high cleaning speed and no corrosion on equipments. The hidden trouble in safety generated by self-ignition of ferrous sulfide in the process of oil field equipment maintenance, overhaul and tank cleaning can be solved effectively by that.%介绍了一种将JY—01除硫化亚铁药剂与机械三维旋转清洗相结合的清洗技术,来解决油田储罐等设备中硫化亚铁清除的问题。该技术清洗速度快,对设备不产生腐蚀,能够有效解决油田设备维修、检修及清罐过程中硫化亚铁自燃带来的重大安全隐患。

  17. Clean electricity from photovoltaics

    CERN Document Server

    Green, Martin A

    2015-01-01

    The second edition of Clean Electricity from Photovoltaics , first published in 2001, provides an updated account of the underlying science, technology and market prospects for photovoltaics. All areas have advanced considerably in the decade since the first edition was published, which include: multi-crystalline silicon cell efficiencies having made impressive advances, thin-film CdTe cells having established a decisive market presence, and organic photovoltaics holding out the prospect of economical large-scale power production. Contents: The Past and Present (M D Archer); Limits to Photovol

  18. Contractual incentives in EPC contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Salvesen, Terje

    2011-01-01

    The Norwegian Oil Industry has through the years utilized several different Contract models for offshore projects. In the recent years, the big oil companies are using EPC Contracts to regulate deliveries in the industry. The main focus in the master thesis was the EPC Contract for offshore deliveries and the contractual incentives built into these Contract models. The first section presents the basics to the EPC contract format. Subjects are why the EPC Contract format is used...

  19. Extrinsic incentives and tax compliance

    OpenAIRE

    Sour, Laura; Gutiérrez Andrade, Miguel Ángel

    2011-01-01

    This paper models the impact of extrinsic incentives in a tax compliance model. It also provides experimental evidence that confirms the existence of a positive relationship between rewards and tax compliance. If individuals are audited, rewards for honest taxpayers are effective in increasing the level of tax compliance. These results are particularly relevant in countries where there is little respect for tax law since rewards can contribute to crowding in the intrinsic motivation to comply.

  20. Efficient methods of piping cleaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Vladimir Aleksandrovich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article contains the analysis of the efficient methods of piping cleaning of water supply and sanitation systems. Special attention is paid to the ice cleaning method, in course of which biological foil and various mineral and organic deposits are removed due to the ice crust buildup on the inner surface of water supply and drainage pipes. These impurities are responsible for the deterioration of the organoleptic properties of the transported drinking water or narrowing cross-section of drainage pipes. The co-authors emphasize that the use of ice compared to other methods of pipe cleaning has a number of advantages due to the relative simplicity and cheapness of the process, economical efficiency and lack of environmental risk. The equipment for performing ice cleaning is presented, its technological options, terms of cleansing operations, as well as the volumes of disposed pollution per unit length of the water supply and drainage pipelines. It is noted that ice cleaning requires careful planning in the process of cooking ice and in the process of its supply in the pipe. There are specific requirements to its quality. In particular, when you clean drinking water system the ice applied should be hygienically clean and meet sanitary requirements.In pilot projects, in particular, quantitative and qualitative analysis of sediments adsorbed by ice is conducted, as well as temperature and the duration of the process. The degree of pollution of the pipeline was estimated by the volume of the remote sediment on 1 km of pipeline. Cleaning pipelines using ice can be considered one of the methods of trenchless technologies, being a significant alternative to traditional methods of cleaning the pipes. The method can be applied in urban pipeline systems of drinking water supply for the diameters of 100—600 mm, and also to diversion collectors. In the world today 450 km of pipelines are subject to ice cleaning method.Ice cleaning method is simple

  1. The design of environmental policy instrument based on the incentives to environmental technology innovation of small and medium sized enterprises%基于中小企业技术创新激励的环境工具设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周华; 郑雪姣; 崔秋勇

    2012-01-01

    One of the important standards to assess the environment policy instruments is how much the environment policy instruments are able to set spurs to the technology innovate of firms. However, the previous literature on environment policy instruments has not differentiated the clean technology from end - of - pipe technology, which has different impacts on the firm technology innovations. Meanwhile, the previous literature put more emphasis on the oligopoly game among the firms, however ignored the status quo that those Small and Medium -sized Enterprises (SMEs) in China play a key role in both of economy and employment. The perfectly competitive market which constitutes tens of thousands SMEs in China is an essential part of Chinese economy. In the view of these reasons, the research is started under the condition of perfect competition, and a strict distinction between clean technology and end - of - pipe technology is made, as well as the profits model of enterprises and social welfare function are constructed. As a result, the critical value of emission quota, emission fee (tax), subsidy and tradable permit as well as the optimal level of social welfare maximization are concluded. Meanwhile, the enterprises' ways of environmental technology innovation and enterprises' choice on whether they choose to innovate are examined and differentiated. At the end of the paper, the effect orders of environment policy instruments on environmental technology innovation are obtained. The result of this paper could provide a policy reference to government on how to spur the innovation.%环境政策工具对企业环境技术创新的激励程度,是评估环境政策工具的重要标准。但是以往文献主要针对不完全竞争市场条件下大企业的技术创新激励效果进行研究,忽略了中小企业,而中小企业占我国企业总数的绝大部分,因此对中小企业进行相关研究非常必要;同时以往文献也没有对企业的清洁

  2. Clean Coal Diesel Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Wilson

    2006-10-31

    A Clean Coal Diesel project was undertaken to demonstrate a new Clean Coal Technology that offers technical, economic and environmental advantages over conventional power generating methods. This innovative technology (developed to the prototype stage in an earlier DOE project completed in 1992) enables utilization of pre-processed clean coal fuel in large-bore, medium-speed, diesel engines. The diesel engines are conventional modern engines in many respects, except they are specially fitted with hardened parts to be compatible with the traces of abrasive ash in the coal-slurry fuel. Industrial and Municipal power generating applications in the 10 to 100 megawatt size range are the target applications. There are hundreds of such reciprocating engine power-plants operating throughout the world today on natural gas and/or heavy fuel oil.

  3. Clean Fracturing Fluid Technology in Oil Field Application of Reservoir Reconstruction%浅谈清洁压裂液技术在油田储层改造中的运用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小刚; 刘荣恒

    2015-01-01

    压裂液是压裂技术的必备条件,其中,清洁的压裂液能够让油田产出更加清洁的石油,提高了产油的效率,所以,为了提高单井产量,利用压裂技术对油田储层进行改造就是油田企业的重要任务。%Fracturing fluid is the essential condition of fracturing technology,among them,the more clean fracturing fluid can let oilfields clean oil,improve the efficiency of oil production,so,in order to improve the single well production,using the fracturing technology to modify oil reservoir is an important task of oilfield enterprises.

  4. Appalachian clean coal technology consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, R.-H.; Basim, B.; Luttrell, G.H.; Phillips, D.I. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst., Blacksburg, VA (United States); Jiang, D.; Tao, D.; Parekh, B.K. [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States); Meloy, T. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    1997-01-28

    Novel chemicals that can be used for increasing the efficiency of fine coal dewatering was developed at Virginia Tech. During the past quarter, Reagent A was tested on three different coal samples in laboratory vacuum filtration tests. these included flotation products from Middle Fork plant, Elkview Mining Company, and CONSOL, Inc. the tests conducted with the Middle Fork coal sample (100 mesh x 0) showed that cake moisture can be reduced by more than 10% beyond what can be achieved without using dewatering aid. This improvement was achieved at 1 lb/ton of Reagent A and 0.1 inch cake thickness. At 0. 5 inches of cake thickness, this improvement was limited to 8% at the same reagent dosage. the results obtained with the Elkview coal (28 mesh x 0) showed similar advantages in using the novel dewatering aid. Depending on the reagent dosage, cake thickness, drying cycle time and temperature, it was possible to reduce the cake moisture to 12 to 14% rage. In addition to achieving lower cake moisture, the use of Reagent A substantially decreased the cake formation time, indicating that the reagent improves the kinetics of dewatering, The test results obtained with CONSOL coal were not as good as with the other coals tested in the present work, which may be attributed to possible oxidation and/or contamination.

  5. 蜡油加氢处理技术在清洁汽油生产中的应用%APPLICATION OF RVHT TECHNOLOGY FOR CLEAN GASOLINE PRODUCTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关志鹏

    2012-01-01

    中国石化茂名分公司1.8 Mt/a蜡油加氢处理装置采用中国石化石油化工科学研究院开发的劣质蜡油加氢处理RVHT技术及配套催化剂,以劣质蜡油为原料,在适宜的操作条件下可生产硫质量分数小于0.1%的精制蜡油作为后续催化裂化装置的优质原料.实践证明,采用蜡油加氢处理-催化裂化组合技术可生产满足粤Ⅳ排放标准的清洁汽油调合组分,带来良好的经济和社会效益.%Vacuum gas oil (VGO) hydrotreating technology (RVHT) and relative catalyst series developed by Research Institute of Petroleum Processing was applied in the 1. 8 Mt/a VGO hydrotreating unit of Maoming Company, SINOPEC, by which using inferior feedstocks under mild reaction conditions, hydrotreated VGO with sulfur content less than 0. 1% could be obtained for FCC units. Operation results showed that with the integrated process of VGO hydrotreating and FCC using the hydrotreated VGO as feed, clean gasoline blending components meeting the requirements of Guangdong exhaust emission standard IV could be produced, and good social and economic benefits were achieved.

  6. PIPEGUARD - A novel technology for sewerage mapping, inspection and cleaning with integrated real-time self-audit capability: Final Report Summary

    OpenAIRE

    Eicher, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Sewage systems are crucial to reduce the risks of water borne diseases and avoid flooding of cities. Cleaning processes are thus highly important to avoid health risks and environmental, economic and societal impacts which can be caused by damaged or blocked sewerage. Sewer networks must therefore not only be kept clean, they also have to be continuously inspected in order to detect structural damages, pipe deterioration and construction failures in order to avoid local city floods, backflow ...

  7. International Clean Energy Coalition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erin Skootsky; Matt Gardner; Bevan Flansburgh

    2010-09-28

    In 2003, the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) and National Energy Technology Laboratories (NETL) collaboratively established the International Clean Energy Coalition (ICEC). The coalition consisting of energy policy-makers, technologists, and financial institutions was designed to assist developing countries in forming and supporting local approaches to greenhouse gas mitigation within the energy sector. ICEC's work focused on capacity building and clean energy deployment in countries that rely heavily on fossil-based electric generation. Under ICEC, the coalition formed a steering committee consisting of NARUC members and held a series of meetings to develop and manage the workplan and define successful outcomes for the projects. ICEC identified India as a target country for their work and completed a country assessment that helped ICEC build a framework for discussion with Indian energy decisionmakers including two follow-on in-country workshops. As of the conclusion of the project in 2010, ICEC had also conducted outreach activities conducted during United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Ninth Conference of Parties (COP 9) and COP 10. The broad goal of this project was to develop a coalition of decision-makers, technologists, and financial institutions to assist developing countries in implementing affordable, effective and resource appropriate technology and policy strategies to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. Project goals were met through international forums, a country assessment, and in-country workshops. This project focused on countries that rely heavily on fossil-based electric generation.

  8. 汽车零部件再制造坯料清洁工艺研究%Study on cleaning technology for automobile parts remanufacturing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱明宇; 刘诗巍; 陈铭

    2011-01-01

    在废旧汽车零部件再制造过程中,清洁是极其重要的一道工序.传统的清洁方法成本高、效率低、劳动强度大,容易造成环境污染,不适应再制造的需要.针对再制造过程中新研发的5种机械式环保清洁设备从清洁效果、清洁效率与能耗、清洁成本三个方面进行了试验分析,形成了一套优化的清洁工艺流程,对汽车零部件再制造清洁实践具有重要的指导意义.%Cleaning is a very important process in remanufacturing of waste automobile parts. Traditional cleaning methods are not available for remanufacturing because of high cost ,low efficiency, heavy labor intensity and pollution of environment. Five new environmental and mechanical cleaning equipment which suit for remanufacturing are analyzed from cleaning effect, efficiency and energy consumption, cost through experiment in it, and a set of optimal process flow for cleaning is formed, which has important directive significance to the cleaning of waste automobile parts for remanufacturing.

  9. Mechanical Cleaning Technology Application in Inner Floating Roof Tank%机械清洗在内浮顶油罐中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯杰; 王延昌; 李志国; 程曦; 邱冬

    2013-01-01

    Mechanical cleaning technique of storage tank is relatively advanced one in recent years .It is suitable for floating roof ,vault ,horizontal ,spherical tank cleaning ,with advantages of safety ,environmental protection ,and high efficiency . The mechanical cleaning of the con-struction process and key parameters control are introduced , the risk and control measures in cleaning process are listed .Combined with the cleaning of the floating roof tank of a loading sta-tion south 1# ,the inner floating roof tank mechanical cleaning of the deficiencies and improve-ment measures are analyzed .%  储油罐的机械清洗技术是目前比较先进的储罐清洗技术,适用于浮顶、拱顶、卧式、球形罐的清洗,具有安全、环保、高效等优点。介绍了机械清洗的施工过程及关键参数控制,列举出清洗过程中存在的风险及控制措施,结合某装车站南区1#内浮顶罐的清洗情况,分析了内浮顶罐机械清洗存在的不足及改进措施。

  10. Clean Cities Now Vol. 19, No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-12-18

    Clean Cities Now is the official bi-annual newsletter of Clean Cities, an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

  11. Clean Cities Now Vol. 20, No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-13

    Clean Cities Now is the official semi-annual newsletter of Clean Cities, an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

  12. Clean Cities Now Vol. 20, No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-01-13

    Clean Cities Now is the official semi-annual newsletter of Clean Cities, an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

  13. Clean Metal Casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makhlouf M. Makhlouf; Diran Apelian

    2002-02-05

    The objective of this project is to develop a technology for clean metal processing that is capable of consistently providing a metal cleanliness level that is fit for a given application. The program has five tasks: Development of melt cleanliness assessment technology, development of melt contamination avoidance technology, development of high temperature phase separation technology, establishment of a correlation between the level of melt cleanliness and as cast mechanical properties, and transfer of technology to the industrial sector. Within the context of the first task, WPI has developed a standardized Reduced Pressure Test that has been endorsed by AFS as a recommended practice. In addition, within the context of task1, WPI has developed a melt cleanliness sensor based on the principles of electromagnetic separation. An industrial partner is commercializing the sensor. Within the context of the second task, WPI has developed environmentally friendly fluxes that do not contain fluorine. Within the context of the third task, WPI modeled the process of rotary degassing and verified the model predictions with experimental data. This model may be used to optimize the performance of industrial rotary degassers. Within the context of the fourth task, WPI has correlated the level of melt cleanliness at various foundries, including a sand casting foundry, a permanent mold casting foundry, and a die casting foundry, to the casting process and the resultant mechanical properties. This is useful in tailoring the melt cleansing operations at foundries to the particular casting process and the desired properties of cast components.

  14. Designing Clean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian; Haubjerg, Esben Lundsgaard

    2011-01-01

    perception of main actors, the role of information technology, the relation to lean, and forms of collaboration. Furthermore the focus of the variants differ (industry, organizational or project level).The paper discusses case studies of four teams of engineers and architects. It is argued that there exists...... (only) several ambiguous concepts of IDP, none well defined, and the architects and engineer struggle with the concepts even when directly involved. Precarious and negotiated consensus has to be created. The various players agree that an increased interdisciplinary interaction in the design team...... is necessary in order to comply with the increased complexity of sustainable building design. This tendency changes the traditional roles and responsibilities in the design process....

  15. Cleaning up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Michael Kirkedal; Axelsen, Holger Bock; Glück, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Reversible logic is a computational model that ensure that no values are discarded or duplicated. This gives the connection to Landauer’s principle if and only if the underlying circuits are garbage-free. This paper shows how to describe and implement garbage-free reversible logic circuits...... in an easy and concise way. We use two domain-specific languages that are designed to describe reversible logic at different levels and garbage-free methods to translate between these. This approach relies heavily on programming language technology that is known and used for conventional functional languages....... Though the languages ensure reversibility of the logic descriptions, they are not guaranteed to be garbage- free. It is still an important task for the designer to find the correct embeddings....

  16. Incentives in Supply Function Equilibrium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vetter, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    The author analyses delegation in homogenous duopoly under the assumption that the firm-managers compete in supply functions. In supply function equilibrium, managers’ decisions are strategic complements. This reverses earlier findings in that the author finds that owners give managers incentives...... to act in an accommodating way. As a result, optimal delegation reduces per-firm output and increases profits to above-Cournot profits. Moreover, in supply function equilibrium the mode of competition is endogenous. This means that the author avoids results that are sensitive with respect to assuming...

  17. Incentive Ratios of Fisher Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ning; Deng, Xuaitue; Zhang, Hongyang

    2012-01-01

    In a Fisher market, a market maker sells m items to n potential buyers. The buyers submit their utility functions and money endowments to the market maker, who, upon receiving submitted information, derives market equilibrium prices and allocations of its items. While agents may benefit...... by misreporting their private information, we show that the percentage of improvement by a unilateral strategic play, called incentive ratio, is rather limited—it is less than 2 for linear markets and at most $e^{1/e}\\thickapprox 1.445$ for Cobb-Douglas markets. We further prove that both ratios are tight....

  18. Essays on Policy Incentives and Labor Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Katherine Ellyn

    2016-01-01

    My dissertation broadly examines how individuals respond to incentives imbedded in various policy designs. I study a variety of policies, including teacher retirement incentives, child care subsidies, and the Earned Income Tax Credit. The evidence presented here is of importance to policy analysis and design.In the first chapter, I examine what types of teachers respond to early retirement incentives (ERIs). In recent years, many education programs have been faced with steep budget cuts. ...

  19. Incentive Stackelberg Mean-payoff Games

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Anshul; Deepak, M. S. Krishna; Padarthi, Bharath Kumar; Schewe, Sven; Trivedi, Ashutosh

    2015-01-01

    We introduce and study incentive equilibria for multi-player meanpayoff games. Incentive equilibria generalise well-studied solution concepts such as Nash equilibria and leader equilibria (also known as Stackelberg equilibria). Recall that a strategy profile is a Nash equilibrium if no player can improve his payoff by changing his strategy unilaterally. In the setting of incentive and leader equilibria, there is a distinguished player called the leader who can assign strategies to all other p...

  20. On the Effectiveness of Incentive Pay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ivar; Hansen, Allan; Vámosi, Tamás S.

    2015-01-01

    Extant research already emphasises that complementarities and substitution involving incentive pay and other elements of an organisation's management control system play an important role in terms of explaining the effectiveness of incentive systems. Despite this awareness calls continue for more...... and insight into how incentive pay features in complementary and substitutional relationships in an individual organisational setting. Greater insight can help illustrate how complementary and substitutional relationships unfold in even more complex ways than current research indicates, as well as how...

  1. Incentives and intrinsic motivation in healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikel Berdud

    2016-11-01

    Conclusions: The conclusions could act as a guide to support the optimal design of incentive policies and schemes within health organisations when healthcare professionals are intrinsically motivated.

  2. Clean and Highly Efficient Utilization of Coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jianguo; YANG Li

    2011-01-01

    @@ Clean and highly efficient utilization of coal is an important scientific and technological issue.As the petroleum resource decreases but its consumption increases, all of the countries in the world have to face the big issue of sustainable development of energy and economy and protection of environment.Therefore, study on clean coal technology (CCT) has attracted much attention and become one of important themes of energy research.

  3. Clean Production Technology in Electrolysis Process in a Rare Earth Plant%清洁生产技术在稀土金属冶炼行业中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程妍东; 梁英; 陶德

    2011-01-01

    以某稀土企业的电解稀土生产工艺为例,介绍了较为先进的稀土电解行业的清洁生产方案,为今后稀土行业清洁生产技术的发展提供了现实依据,对稀土行业清洁生产和循环经济的推广具有重要的现实意义.%This paper presents an advanced clean production technology for rare earth metal production by eletrolysis processes with a rare earth plant as an example. It is of great importance for the development of clean production and recycling economy in rare earth industries.

  4. 废旧混合塑料识别分离与清洗技术研究进展%Development of identification separation and cleaning technologies for mixed waste plastics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张毅民; 刘红莎; 朱艳芳; 胡彪; 汤桂兰

    2013-01-01

      针对废旧混合塑料工业化回收循环利用过程中分类识别和高效清洗两大关键技术难题,本文主要综述了系列可工业用废旧混合塑料分类识别方法;讨论了浮沉分离、浮选分离、电选分离、近红外光谱精准识别技术在废旧塑料识别中的应用;介绍了清洗工艺除污提高分离效果的重要性和清洗剂主要成分——碱性物质、助剂和表面活性剂以及其作用;并提出了将超声波清洗以及浮沉分离、浮选分离、近红外光谱识别分离用于废旧塑料精准识别与分离的集成技术工艺路线。由于国内近红外光谱识别技术与超声波清洗技术相对落后,指出研究此两项技术、设备并将两者结合应用于废旧塑料回收是今后的发展方向。%This review summarized a series of methods of two key technologies of separation identification and efficient cleaning of mixed waste plastics for industrialized recycling and utilization. Applications of sink-float separation,flotation separation,electrostatic separation and near infrared spectra accurate identification technology in waste plastics identification were discussed. This paper also introduced the importance of cleaning process and the main ingredients of plastic cleaner including alkaline compounds,additive agent,surfactant and their effects. The technological process which integrates ultrasonic cleaning technology and sink-float separation , flotation separation , and near-infrared spectra accurate identification technology has advantages to identify and sort waste plastics and has the potentials to solve the problems in ultrasonic cleaning and near-infrared spectra identification. Therefore, the integrated technology could be the prospective focus of future research.

  5. ATP生物荧光技术对复用医疗器械清洗效果评价研究%STUDY ON THE CLEANING EFFECT EVALUATION OF ATP BIOLUMINESCENCE TECHNOLOGY FOR THE COMPLEX MEDICAL INSTRUMENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹世辉; 张馨心; 李俐; 孟琳; 王立平; 林玲; 班海群

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究生物荧光技术用于医疗器械清洗效果评价.方法 利用ATP生物荧光技术对全省67家医院的部分复用医疗器械清洗效果进行检测和评价.结果 从67家医疗机构共抽样121件清洗后医疗器械,检出带齿类器械ATP光单位中位值为545 RUL,清洗质量合格率为74.42%;检出不带齿类器械ATP光单位中位值为457 RUL,合格率为64.29%;检出管腔类器械ATP光单位中位值为12 523 RUL,合格率为42.86%.结论 ATP生物荧光技术用于医疗器械清洗质量评价具有快速、科学和实用性,检测结果能部分反应实际清洗质量.%Objective To study the cleaning effect of biological fluorescence technique for the medical instrument. Methods The ATP bioluminescence technology was used to detect and to evaluate the cleaning effect of complex medical instruments from 67 hospitals of this province. Results 121 medical instruments were sampled after being cleaned from 67 medical institutions, the ATP median light unit of equipment with tooth was 545 RUL and the pass rate of cleaning quality was 74. 42% ; The ATP median light unit of equipment without tooth was 457 RUL and the pass rate was 64. 29% ; The ATP median light unit of equipment with lumens was 12 523 RUL and the pass rate was 42. 86%. Conclusion The ATP bioluminescence technology used for cleaning quality evaluation of medical instruments is fast, scientific and practical, and the test results can reflect the actual cleaning quality.

  6. Perceptions of Improved Biomass and Liquefied Petroleum Gas Stoves in Puno, Peru: Implications for Promoting Sustained and Exclusive Adoption of Clean Cooking Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollada, Jacqueline; Williams, Kendra N.; Miele, Catherine H.; Danz, David; Harvey, Steven A.; Checkley, William

    2017-01-01

    Many households in low- and middle-income countries cook with inefficient biomass-burning stoves, which cause high levels of household air pollution and threaten long-term health. Although clean stoves and fuels are available, uptake and consistent use has been low. Using observations and in-depth interviews, we assessed the attitudes, preferences, and beliefs about traditional versus liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) stoves in rural Puno, Peru. A total of 31 in-depth interviews were conducted with primary cooks and their families, health workers, community leaders, and improved stove contractors. Six in-home observations of meal preparation were also conducted. Six major barriers to consistent use of clean stoves were identified: (1) perceived differences in food taste and nutrition by stove type; (2) cooking niches filled by different stoves; (3) social norms related to cooking practices; (4) safety concerns; (5) comparative costs of using different stoves; and (6) lack of awareness and concern about long-term health risks. These findings suggest that to successfully reduce household air pollution, clean cooking programs and policies must consider the many factors influencing adoption beyond health, such as cost, taste, fears, and cultural traditions. These factors could be incorporated into community-based and national efforts to scale-up sustained and exclusive adoption of clean cooking. PMID:28208813

  7. Flue gas cleaning chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutberlet, H. [VEBA Kraftwerke Ruhr AG, Gelsenkirchen (Germany)

    1996-12-01

    The introduction of modern flue gas cleaning technology into fossil-fueled power stations has repeatedly confronted the power station chemists with new and interesting problems over the last 15 - 20 years. Both flue gas desulphurization by lime washing and catalytic removal of nitrogen oxides are based on simple basic chemical reactions. Owing to the use of readily available starting materials, the production of safe, useful end products and, last but not least, the possibility of implementing all this on an industrial scale by means of efficient process engineering, limestone desulphurization and catalytic removal of nitrogen oxides dominate the world market and, little by little, are becoming still more widespread. The origin and thus the quality of fuels and starting materials, the firing method, the mode of operation and engineering peculiarities in each plant interact in a complex manner. Simple cause/effect relationships are frequently incapable of explaining phenomena; thinking in complex interrelationships is needed. (EG)

  8. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Vietnamese Translation) (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-11-01

    This is the Vietnamese language translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center (Solutions Center) fact sheet. The Solutions Center helps governments, advisors and analysts create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. The Solutions Center partners with international organizations to provide online training, expert assistance, and technical resources on clean energy policy.

  9. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Chinese Translation) (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-04-01

    This is the Chinese language translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center (Solutions Center) fact sheet. The Solutions Center helps governments, advisors and analysts create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. The Solutions Center partners with international organizations to provide online training, expert assistance, and technical resources on clean energy policy.

  10. Understanding the Complexities of Subnational Incentives in Supporting a National Market for Distributed Photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, B.; Doris, E.; Getman, D.

    2014-09-01

    Subnational policies pertaining to photovoltaic (PV) systems have increased in volume in recent years and federal incentives are set to be phased out over the next few. Understanding how subnational policies function within and across jurisdictions, thereby impacting PV market development, informs policy decision making. This report was developed for subnational policy-makers and researchers in order to aid the analysis on the function of PV system incentives within the emerging PV deployment market. The analysis presented is based on a 'logic engine,' a database tool using existing state, utility, and local incentives allowing users to see the interrelationships between PV system incentives and parameters, such as geographic location, technology specifications, and financial factors. Depending on how it is queried, the database can yield insights into which combinations of incentives are available and most advantageous to the PV system owner or developer under particular circumstances. This is useful both for individual system developers to identify the most advantageous incentive packages that they qualify for as well as for researchers and policymakers to better understand the patch work of incentives nationwide as well as how they drive the market.

  11. Tax incentives to promote green electricity. An overview of EU-27 countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cansino, Jose M.; Pablo-Romero, Maria del P.; Roman, Rocio; Yniguez, Rocio [Department of Economic Analysis and Political Economy, Seville University, Avda. Ramon y Cajal, no 1, 41018 Seville (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    This paper provides a comprehensive overview of the main tax incentives used in the EU-27 member states (MSs) to promote green electricity. Sixteen MSs use tax incentives to promote green electricity simultaneously with other promotion measures, especially quota obligations and price regulation. However, not all available technologies are promoted. For example, six MSs (Germany, Romania, Slovak Republic, Denmark, Sweden and Poland) have included an exemption on the payments of excise duties for electricity when the electricity is generated from renewable energy sources (RES). This tax incentive is the most widely used. Limited tax incentives in personal income tax are available in Belgium, France, Czech Republic and Luxembourg. In corporate tax, tax incentives consist mainly of a deduction in the taxable profit (Belgium, Greece, Czech Republic and Spain). Lower tax rates in VAT are applied in three MSs, France, Italy and Portugal. Only Spain and Italy use effective tax incentives in property tax. As a great diversity of tax incentives has been used to promote green electricity, this adds another difficulty to the EU objective of providing a renewable energy policy framework, but also it offers a useful set of case studies which can be used to inform EU policy development. (author)

  12. Tax incentives to promote green electricity: An overview of EU-27 countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cansino, Jose M., E-mail: jmcansino@us.e [Department of Economic Analysis and Political Economy, Seville University, Avda. Ramon y Cajal, no 1, 41018 Seville (Spain); Pablo-Romero, Maria del P.; Roman, Rocio; Yniguez, Rocio [Department of Economic Analysis and Political Economy, Seville University, Avda. Ramon y Cajal, no 1, 41018 Seville (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    This paper provides a comprehensive overview of the main tax incentives used in the EU-27 member states (MSs) to promote green electricity. Sixteen MSs use tax incentives to promote green electricity simultaneously with other promotion measures, especially quota obligations and price regulation. However, not all available technologies are promoted. For example, six MSs (Germany, Romania, Slovak Republic, Denmark, Sweden and Poland) have included an exemption on the payments of excise duties for electricity when the electricity is generated from renewable energy sources (RES). This tax incentive is the most widely used. Limited tax incentives in personal income tax are available in Belgium, France, Czech Republic and Luxembourg. In corporate tax, tax incentives consist mainly of a deduction in the taxable profit (Belgium, Greece, Czech Republic and Spain). Lower tax rates in VAT are applied in three MSs, France, Italy and Portugal. Only Spain and Italy use effective tax incentives in property tax. As a great diversity of tax incentives has been used to promote green electricity, this adds another difficulty to the EU objective of providing a renewable energy policy framework, but also it offers a useful set of case studies which can be used to inform EU policy development.

  13. 75 FR 76079 - Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision... collection. Title of Proposal: Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance. OMB Number: 1550-0129. Form Number: N/A... compensation arrangements at a financial institution do not encourage employees to take excessive risks....

  14. 75 FR 22679 - Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision... collection. Title of Proposal: Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance. OMB Number: 1550-0NEW. Form Number: N/A... compensation arrangements at a financial institution do not encourage employees to take excessive risks....

  15. 78 FR 21116 - Superior Supplier Incentive Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-09

    ... Department of the Navy Superior Supplier Incentive Program AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DoD. ACTION... policy that will establish a Superior Supplier Incentive Program (SSIP). Under the SSIP, contractors that..., performance, quality, and business relations would be granted Superior Supplier Status (SSS). Contractors...

  16. The Incentive System in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landfried, Klaus

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the incentive system in German higher education. He states that the underdeveloped incentive and management mechanisms in German higher education result in mistaken allocations in the higher education system in general and in some individual institutions in particular. He believes that the only way to optimize…

  17. Are Delegation and Incentives Complementary Instruments ?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    It is natural to suppose that delegation and incentives are complementaryboth in the sense that when more decisions are delegated toa lower level of an organizational hierarchy, more use should be madeof incentives at that level, and in the sense that more use of incentivesshould be accompanied...

  18. 75 FR 57907 - Teacher Incentive Fund

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... 1810-AB08 Teacher Incentive Fund ACTION: Interim final requirements; request for comments. SUMMARY: The Secretary of Education (Secretary) amends the final requirements for the Teacher Incentive Fund program to...) for participation in the Congressionally mandated TIF national evaluation. DATES: These interim...

  19. An Effective Redundancy Data Cleaning Technology in Multi-Data Sources Based on RFID Network%一种有效的多数据源RFID冗余数据清洗技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘巍; 李战怀; 聂艳明; 陈群

    2011-01-01

    Aim. The introduction of the full paper does two things: (1) it reviews Refs. 1 through 6 and then points out that popularizing RFID ( Radio Frequency Identification) technology to a large scale is difficult, owing to low quality of raw RFID readings, especially redundant readings; (2) it proposes what we believe to be a relatively more effective redundancy data cleaning technology. Sections 1 and 2 explain what we propose. Section 1 is entitled "abstraction of scenarios producing RFID redundant readings"; its core consists of: (1) Fig. 1 shows the abstraction of the scenarios producing RFID redundant readings; (2) it gives six definitions. Section 2 is entitled "algorithms for detecting and eliminating redundant data"; its core consists of: (1) Fig. 2 shows the schematic of merge -redundant cleaning technology; (2) Fig. 3 shows the schematic of cross -redundant cleaning technology, whose algorithm is based on reference tag strategy and RSSI (Received Signal Strength Indicator). The experimental results, presented in Figs. 4a) through 4f), and their analysis show preliminarily that our proposed technology can clean redundant RFID data effectively and, more importantly, will not destroy the integrity of RFID data.%相关文献指出低质量的RFID原始数据,特别是大量的冗余数据制约了RFID技术的大规模应用,因此需要一种更有效的冗余数据清洗技术.文章根据RFID数据以及典型应用场景的特点,提出了一种多数据源冗余数据清洗技术,其中包括融合冗余数据清洗方法和交叉冗余数据清洗方法.融合冗余数据清洗方法基于滑动窗口与集合论,交叉冗余数据清洗方法借鉴了参考标签思想并且结合信号强度特征.实验证明,提出的数据清洗技术不但可以有效地完成RFID冗余数据清洗,同时能够为清洗后的数据保留准确的数据来源信息.

  20. Clean coal initiatives in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, B.H.; Irwin, M.W.; Sparrow, F.T.; Mastalerz, Maria; Yu, Z.; Kramer, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - Indiana is listed among the top ten coal states in the USA and annually mines about 35 million short tons (million tons) of coal from the vast reserves of the US Midwest Illinois Coal Basin. The implementation and commercialization of clean coal technologies is important to the economy of the state and has a significant role in the state's energy plan for increasing the use of the state's natural resources. Coal is a substantial Indiana energy resource and also has stable and relatively low costs, compared with the increasing costs of other major fuels. This indigenous energy source enables the promotion of energy independence. The purpose of this paper is to outline the significance of clean coal projects for achieving this objective. Design/methodology/approach - The paper outlines the clean coal initiatives being taken in Indiana and the research carried out at the Indiana Center for Coal Technology Research. Findings - Clean coal power generation and coal for transportation fuels (coal-to-liquids - CTL) are two major topics being investigated in Indiana. Coking coal, data compilation of the bituminous coal qualities within the Indiana coal beds, reducing dependence on coal imports, and provision of an emissions free environment are important topics to state legislators. Originality/value - Lessons learnt from these projects will be of value to other states and countries.

  1. Survey of state approaches to solar energy incentives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, S. B.

    1979-07-01

    A comprehensive survey is presented of state statutes designed to encourage the application of solar technology. A large majority of the states have enacted financial incentives designed to stimulate solar energy use. Commonly, these incentives include preferential property tax treatment of solar systems, and income tax benefits to solar users. There are a wide variety of other tax breaks as well, including excise and franchise tax incentives. Some states have recently developed loan or grant programs for solar installations. Other states have addressed aspects of real property and land-use planning law, which have served as barriers to either the installation of solar technology or access to sunlight. In addition to removing such obstacles as restrictive convenants and zoning limitations, the legislation of several states provides affirmative recognition of the potential of real property law to serve as a spur to solar development, through solar easements, planning and zoning, and public nuisance. A small number of states have legislated in the field of utility regulation, addressing important questions of (1) nondiscriminatory rates for utility backup to solar systems and public utility commissions, and (2) utility involvement in solar energy applicatons.

  2. Comparative Study of Chinese and foreign Youth Science and Technology Competition Incentive Mechanism --Based on the Perspective of Promotion on Selection and Culture of Technological Innovation Reserve Personnel%中外青少年科技竞赛激励机制的比较研究——基于促进科技创新后备人才选拔和培养的视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡咏梅; 李冬晖

    2012-01-01

    How to improve and perfect the youth science and technology competition incentive mechanism, attract large numbers of young active participation, for young people to carry out innovation activities of science and technology to build a platform so as to promote science and technology competition truly to become an important way of the selection and training of innovation talents of science and technology, is worth of being explored and researched. Based on the relative theories of competition incentive mechanism, we build the comparative framework of domestic competition and international competition of the youth science and technology project, and then provide several suggestions to improve the incentive mechanism of our youth science and technology competition project.%如何改进和完善青少年科技竞赛激励机制,促使科技竞赛真正成为选拔和培养科技创新后备人才的重要途径,值得社会各界和教育研究者不断探索和研究。本文基于竞赛激励机制方面的相关理论,建构国内青少年科技竞赛项目与国外竞赛项目的比较框架,提出改进我国青少年科技竞赛激励机制的建议:(1)减少国内青少年科技竞赛项目的最高等级奖项配置比例;(2)对各省参加全国青少年科技创新大赛决赛名额的分配采取“基数”加“增长”的方式;(3)对获奖学生的指导教师和积极组织参与科技竞赛活动的学校给予表彰和奖励,创设激励多方(学校、教师、学生及家长)共同参与青少年科技竞赛的机制,是促使青少年科技竞赛持续稳定发展的重要举措。

  3. Clean and green in the Dutch economy. Economic scope and growth potential; Clean en green in de Nederlandse economie. Economische omvang en groeikansen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blom, M.J.; Koopman, M.J.; Nelissen, D.; Korteland, M.H.

    2013-07-15

    In the Netherlands the clean tech-sector creates around 5 billion euro added value, almost 1% of Dutch GNP, and provides some 61,000 jobs (full-time equivalents). This is one of the main results of the present study, conducted by CE Delft for the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (PBL) for use in the latter's 'signal report' on clean tech and competitiveness scheduled for publication in October 2013. The study shows that while clean tech is a rapidly growing sector of the Dutch economy, we are not yet among the leading players internationally. Over the period 1996-2010 aggregate production value grew by 6% a year on average. Since 2009 the crisis has led to a slump that can be observed globally. If the Netherlands is to become a top player, there needs to be significant improvement in the sector's innovation. This can be achieved through innovation incentives and a consistent market incentive policy. Water treatment technology and waste processing are examples of successful Dutch technologies that can inspire future choices [Dutch] De cleantech-sector in Nederland levert zo'n 5 miljard euro aan toegevoegde waarde, bijna 1% van Nederlandse economie en genereert 61.000 arbeidsplaatsen (voltijdsequivalenten). Dat blijkt uit het titel onderzoek. De studie is verricht voor het Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving (PBL) ten behoeve van het signalenrapport over vergroening en concurrentiekracht, dat in oktober 2013 uitkomt. Het onderzoek laat zien dat cleantech in Nederland een snelgroeiende sector is, maar dat we internationaal niet tot de top behoren. De groei van de productiewaarde in de periode 1996-2010 is gemiddeld 6% per jaar. De crisis heeft vanaf 2009 tot een terugval geleid, die ook wereldwijd zichtbaar is. Om aansluiting bij de wereldtop te krijgen moet de innovatieprestatie van de sector aanzienlijk verbeteren. Dat kan door innovatie-ondersteuning en een consistent markt-stimuleringsbeleid. Het succes van de

  4. The Current Situation and Development Trend of Clean Coal Gasification Technology in China (Ⅰ)%我国洁净煤气化技术现状与存在的问题及发展趋势(上)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁永煌; 游伟; 章卫星

    2013-01-01

    The paper first introduces application of a large variety of advanced clean coal gasification technology and related projects under construction which are imported or independently developed and its current development in China .Besides , the paper details production capacity and projects under construction concerning traditional chemical industry such as production of methanol , synthetic ammonia , urea and modern coal chemical industry such as coal-based olefin , ethylene glycol and coal-based chemical industry such as substitute natural gas , oil and coal polygeneration .By analyzing major issues in the development process of clean coal gasification technology , the writing focuses on development trend of clean coal gasification technology in China .%介绍了我国现有(含在建)引进和自主开发的各种先进洁净煤气化技术的应用及发展情况,详细列举煤制甲醇、合成氨、尿素等传统煤化工领域和煤制烯烃、乙二醇等现代煤化工领域以及在煤制天然气、油和煤气化多联产等煤气化相关产业中的产能及在建情况。分析了当前我国洁净煤气化技术发展过程中存在的主要问题,并展望了我国洁净煤气化技术的主要发展趋势。

  5. About safety technology of cleaning tank storing fuming sulphuric acid%发烟硫酸贮罐清洗安全技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭友德

    2001-01-01

    To take the safety measures according to conclusion of analysis accident hidden danger, to clean successfully the tank storing fuming sulphuric acid on neutralization, then to put forward the improving measures.%根据事故隐患分析,采取安全措施,成功地用中和法清洗发烟硫酸贮罐,并提出了贮罐的改进措施。

  6. International Clean Energy System Using Hydrogen Conversion (WE-NET). subtask 4. Development of hydrogen production technology; Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET). subtask 4. Suiso seizo gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This paper describes development of hydrogen production technology as a part of the WE-NET project. For the solid polymer water electrolysis method higher in efficiency and lower in cost than the previous methods, 5 companies have developed element technologies for improving electrolysis cells and synthesis technologies of hot solid polymer electrolyte based on each proper catalyst electrode production method. In fiscal 1996, the initial study on large-scale systems by middle laboratory cells was made as well as improvement of electrolysis performance by small laboratory cells and endurance tests. Among the previous methods such as a hot press method (bonding of an ion exchange membrane to an electrode), an electroless plating method (preparation of porous surface onto a membrane electrode assembly), a zero gap method (preparation of high-efficiency high-current density cells), and a sintered porous electrode method (carrying of the mixture of catalytic powder and ion exchange resin-dissipated solution onto sintered metallic porous electrode surface), the former two methods were adopted for development of bench-scale cells as effective promising methods. 192 refs., 183 figs., 108 tabs.

  7. A neural computational model of incentive salience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Berridge, Kent C; Tindell, Amy J; Smith, Kyle S; Aldridge, J Wayne

    2009-07-01

    Incentive salience is a motivational property with 'magnet-like' qualities. When attributed to reward-predicting stimuli (cues), incentive salience triggers a pulse of 'wanting' and an individual is pulled toward the cues and reward. A key computational question is how incentive salience is generated during a cue re-encounter, which combines both learning and the state of limbic brain mechanisms. Learning processes, such as temporal-difference models, provide one way for stimuli to acquire cached predictive values of rewards. However, empirical data show that subsequent incentive values are also modulated on the fly by dynamic fluctuation in physiological states, altering cached values in ways requiring additional motivation mechanisms. Dynamic modulation of incentive salience for a Pavlovian conditioned stimulus (CS or cue) occurs during certain states, without necessarily requiring (re)learning about the cue. In some cases, dynamic modulation of cue value occurs during states that are quite novel, never having been experienced before, and even prior to experience of the associated unconditioned reward in the new state. Such cases can include novel drug-induced mesolimbic activation and addictive incentive-sensitization, as well as natural appetite states such as salt appetite. Dynamic enhancement specifically raises the incentive salience of an appropriate CS, without necessarily changing that of other CSs. Here we suggest a new computational model that modulates incentive salience by integrating changing physiological states with prior learning. We support the model with behavioral and neurobiological data from empirical tests that demonstrate dynamic elevations in cue-triggered motivation (involving natural salt appetite, and drug-induced intoxication and sensitization). Our data call for a dynamic model of incentive salience, such as presented here. Computational models can adequately capture fluctuations in cue-triggered 'wanting' only by incorporating

  8. A neural computational model of incentive salience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhang

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Incentive salience is a motivational property with 'magnet-like' qualities. When attributed to reward-predicting stimuli (cues, incentive salience triggers a pulse of 'wanting' and an individual is pulled toward the cues and reward. A key computational question is how incentive salience is generated during a cue re-encounter, which combines both learning and the state of limbic brain mechanisms. Learning processes, such as temporal-difference models, provide one way for stimuli to acquire cached predictive values of rewards. However, empirical data show that subsequent incentive values are also modulated on the fly by dynamic fluctuation in physiological states, altering cached values in ways requiring additional motivation mechanisms. Dynamic modulation of incentive salience for a Pavlovian conditioned stimulus (CS or cue occurs during certain states, without necessarily requiring (relearning about the cue. In some cases, dynamic modulation of cue value occurs during states that are quite novel, never having been experienced before, and even prior to experience of the associated unconditioned reward in the new state. Such cases can include novel drug-induced mesolimbic activation and addictive incentive-sensitization, as well as natural appetite states such as salt appetite. Dynamic enhancement specifically raises the incentive salience of an appropriate CS, without necessarily changing that of other CSs. Here we suggest a new computational model that modulates incentive salience by integrating changing physiological states with prior learning. We support the model with behavioral and neurobiological data from empirical tests that demonstrate dynamic elevations in cue-triggered motivation (involving natural salt appetite, and drug-induced intoxication and sensitization. Our data call for a dynamic model of incentive salience, such as presented here. Computational models can adequately capture fluctuations in cue-triggered 'wanting' only by

  9. Preperation for a Clean Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurimas Ralys

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews techniques for preparing clean surfaces used in the manufacturing process, considers the types of clean surfaces and their role in modern production and provides the classification methods of arranging such surfaces. The paper also discusses the principles of methods for solvent cleaning, aqueous cleaning, ultrasonic cleaning, precision cleaning and mechanical cleaning. The study focuses on the possibility of adjusting a clean surface using a water flow, including cavitation.Article in Lithuanian

  10. Preperation for a Clean Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurimas Ralys

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews techniques for preparing clean surfaces used in the manufacturing process, considers the types of clean surfaces and their role in modern production and provides the classification methods of arranging such surfaces. The paper also discusses the principles of methods for solvent cleaning, aqueous cleaning, ultrasonic cleaning, precision cleaning and mechanical cleaning. The study focuses on the possibility of adjusting a clean surface using a water flow, including cavitation.Article in Lithuanian

  11. INEQUALITY, INCENTIVES AND THE INTERPERSONAL TEST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert-Rasmussen, Kasper

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT This article defends three claims: (1) even if Rawls' difference principle permits incentives to induce talented people to be more productive, it does not follow that it permits inequalities; (2) the difference principle, when adequately specified, may in some circumstances permit...... incentives and allow that the worst off are not made as well off as they could be; and (3) an argument for incentives might pass Cohen's interpersonal test even if it is unsound and might not pass it even if it is sound. 1...

  12. 环境管制条件下提高产品质量的清洁技术授权%Quality-Enhancement Clean Technology Licensing under the Environmental Regulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟伟峰; 张广兴

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies the optimal clean technology licensing of a nonproductive enterprise and its welfare implicationunder the environmental regulation,through establishing an economic model. The result shows that franchise charging contract is preferred under the environmental regulation. Then the permits price is the lowest and the profit of producing enterprises are the highest under thefranchise charging contract,which promotes the dispersing of the clean technology,and increases the consumer surplus and social welfare,realizing the conformity of environmental protection and economic benefit.%通过建立一个经济学模型,探讨在环境管制条件下一个非生产性企业最佳的清洁生产技术授权策略和社会福利效应,研究表明,在环境管制条件下,特许权收费合同是技术拥有企业的最佳选择。排污许可证价格在特许权合同形式下最低,而生产企业的利润最高,因此能够促进清洁生产技术的应用,并提高消费者剩余和社会福利,从而实现环境保护与经济利益的双赢。

  13. Research on Scientific and Technological Talents Incentive Mechanism Adapted to Innovation -driven During “the Thirteenth Five -year Guideline”in China%我国“十三五”期间适应创新驱动的科技人才激励机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔德议; 张向前

    2015-01-01

    Under the background of economic globalization,the implementation of “the Thirteenth Five -Year Guideline”relies on the implementation of innovation -driven strategy.The core of innovation -driven strategy is to emphasize that scientific and technological innovation is the driving force to promote China's economic development and enhance the com-prehensive national strength of strategy.The research on scientific and technological talents incentive mechanism is adapted to innovation -driven strategy during “the Thirteenth Five -Year Guideline”from two aspects of intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation,which contains six kinds of incentive mechanism such as career development motivation,work motiva-tion,honor motivation,work atmosphere design motivation,remuneration and reward policy incentives and so on.The pa-per develops five kinds of safeguard mechanism containing the fair competition mechanism,sharing and cooperation mecha-nism,reasonable assessment mechanism,diversified development mechanism and the free flow mechanism.%在经济全球化的背景下,我国“十三五”规划的推行借助于创新战略驱动的落地实施,其核心是突出科技创新是推动我国经济发展和增强综合国力的战略性驱动力量。我国“十三五”期间适应创新驱动的科技人才激励主要从内在动机和外在动机两个方面构建职业发展激励、工作氛围激励、荣誉激励、工作设计激励、薪酬激励和奖励政策激励等六种激励机制,并发展公平竞争、共享合作、合理评估、多元发展和自由流动五种保障机制。

  14. Cathodic ARC surface cleaning prior to brazing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dave, V. R. (Vivek R.); Hollis, K. J. (Kendall J.); Castro, R. G. (Richard G.); Smith, F. M. (Frank M.); Javernick, D. A. (Daniel A.)

    2002-01-01

    Surface cleanliness is one the critical process variables in vacuum furnace brazing operations. For a large number of metallic components, cleaning is usually accomplished either by water-based alkali cleaning, but may also involve acid etching or solvent cleaning / rinsing. Nickel plating may also be necessary to ensure proper wetting. All of these cleaning or plating technologies have associated waste disposal issues, and this article explores an alternative cleaning process that generates minimal waste. Cathodic arc, or reserve polarity, is well known for welding of materials with tenacious oxide layers such as aluminum alloys. In this work the reverse polarity effect is used to clean austenitic stainless steel substrates prior to brazing with Ag-28%Cu. This cleaning process is compared to acid pickling and is shown to produce similar wetting behavior as measured by dynamic contact angle experiments. Additionally, dynamic contact angle measurements with water drops are conducted to show that cathodic arc cleaning can remove organic contaminants as well. The process does have its limitations however, and alloys with high titanium and aluminum content such as nickel-based superalloys may still require plating to ensure adequate wetting.

  15. Evaluation of AK-225(R), Vertrel(R) MCA and HFE A 7100 as Alternative Solvents for Precision Cleaning and Verification Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melendez, Orlando; Trizzino, Mary; Fedderson, Bryan

    1997-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Materials Science Division conducted a study to evaluate alternative solvents for CFC-113 in precision cleaning and verification on typical samples that are used in the KSC environment. The effects of AK-225(R), Vertrel(R), MCA, and HFE A 7100 on selected metal and polymer materials were studied over 1, 7 and 30 day test times. This report addresses a study on the compatibility aspects of replacement solvents for materials in aerospace applications.

  16. 75 FR 71325 - Wildlife Habitat Incentive Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-23

    ...: ``Wildlife means non-domesticated birds, fishes, reptiles, amphibians, invertebrates, and mammals.'' Section... conservation programs like the Environmental Quality Incentives Program (EQIP). Response: Section 1244(h) of... documentation, payment scheduling, and documentation. Technical standards for certifying other services...

  17. When and how to use monetary incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Laura Sachs

    2005-01-01

    Will money motivate your staff to perform better? While some practice managers prefer not to use bonus incentive programs, others use them fequently and report excellent results. This article explores the benefits and pitfalls of using monetary incentives with your staff. It explores the effectiveness of bonuses compared with raises. It also considers the four qualities of effective incentive bonus programs and gives examples of both percentage bonus programs and flat-dollar bonus programs. In particular, this article includes how-to advice for structuring a new patient incentive bonus program along with the potential problems of such programs as reported by two doctors who tried them. Finally, the article explores the benefits of using merchandise rewards rather than cash and includes innovative ideas for maximizing bonuses by implementing a "cookie jar" system and dividing annual bonuses into two installments.

  18. Recent Advances in Precombustion Coal Cleaning Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiao-HungChiang; DaxinHe

    1994-01-01

    The mineral matter in coal constitutes a major impediment to the direct use of coal in power plants.A concerted effort has been mounted to reduce the ash/sulfur contents in product coal to meet the ever more stringent environmental regulations.In recent years,significant advances have taken place in fine coal cleaning technologies.A review of recent developments in aveanced physical,chemical and biological processes for deep-cleaning of fine coal is presented.

  19. Public Incentives for Conservation on Private Land

    OpenAIRE

    Suter, Jordan; Sahan, Dissanayake; Lynne, Lewis

    2014-01-01

    Habitat destruction and fragmentation resulting from land development has motivated considerable public and private expenditures on land conservation initiatives. In addition to direct expenditures related to the procurement of conservation land, legislators have also put in place incentives aimed at encouraging private landowners to voluntarily donate conservation easements. Many landowners have taken advantage of these incentives, as private land held under conservation easement increased n...

  20. Improving Acquisition Through Innovation in Workforce Incentives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-30

    analytic review of 45 studies on the effects of incentives on workplace performance and documented the impact of several factors that influenced...as a driver of individual performance. Kohn suggests that rewards and punishments are two sides of the same coin attempting to manipulate behavior...H. D. (2003). The effects of incentives on workplace performance: A meta-analytic review of research studies. Performance Improvement Quarterly, 16

  1. Strategies for development of clean energy in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Zhen; Zhang Hongliang

    2008-01-01

    A development framework of clean energy in China is put forward based on core development strategy,technology support,and policy and laws support.In this framework,the priority development and strategic backup of clean energy are defined,and the technology support and policy and laws support are also presented.

  2. Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center. 2015 Research Highlights -- Carbon Fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Sujit [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-03-01

    CEMAC has conducted four major studies on the manufacturing of clean energy technologies. Three of these focused on the end product: solar photovoltaic modules, wind turbines, and automotive lithium-ion batteries. The fourth area focused on a key material for manufacturing clean energy technologies, carbon fiber.

  3. Cleaning and surface properties

    CERN Document Server

    Taborelli, M

    2007-01-01

    Principles of precision cleaning for ultra high vacuum applications are reviewed together with the techniques for the evaluation of surface cleanliness. Methods to verify the effectiveness of cleaning procedures are discussed. Examples are presented to illustrate the influence of packaging and storage on the recontamination of the surface after cleaning. Finally, the effect of contamination on some relevant surface properties, like secondary electron emission and wettability is presented.

  4. The Illusory Effects of Saving Incentives on Saving

    OpenAIRE

    Engen, Eric M.; William G. Gale; John Karl Scholz

    1996-01-01

    The authors evaluate research on how tax-based saving incentives (IRAs and 401(k)s) affect saving. Previous research overstates the impact of the incentives on saving by failing to account for several issues: households with saving incentives have stronger tastes for saving than others; saving incentives have interacted with debt, nonfinancial assets, financial markets, and pensions; and saving incentives represent pretax balances, whereas taxable accounts represent posttax balances. Accounti...

  5. Transition through co-optation: Harnessing carbon democracy for clean energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Kathryn-Louise

    This dissertation explores barriers to a clean energy transition in the United States. Clean energy is demonstrably viable, yet the pace of clean energy adoption in the U.S. is slow, particularly given the immediate threat of global climate change. The purpose of this dissertation is to examine the factors inhibiting a domestic energy transition and to propose pragmatic approaches to catalyzing a transition. The first article examines the current political-economic and socio-technical energy landscape in the U.S. Fossil fuels are central to the functioning of the American economy. Given this centrality, constellations of power have been constructed around the reliable and affordable access of fossil fuels. The fossil fuel energy regime is comprised of: political-economic networks with vested interests in continued fossil fuel reliance, and fixed infrastructure that is minimally compatible with distributed generation. A transition to clean energy threatens the profitability of fossil fuel regime actors. Harnessing structural critiques from political ecology and process and function-oriented socio-technical systems frameworks, I present a multi-level approach to identifying pragmatic means to catalyzing an energy transition. High-level solutions confront the existing structure, mid-level solutions harness synergy with the existing structure, and low-level solutions lie outside of the energy system or foster the TIS. This is exemplified using a case study of solar development in Massachusetts. Article two presents a case study of the clean energy technological innovation system (TIS) in Massachusetts. I examine the actors and institutions that support cleantech development. Further, I scrutinize the actors and institutions that help sustain the TIS support system. The concept of a catalyst is presented; a catalyst is an actor that serves to propel TIS functions. Catalysts are critical to facilitating anchoring. Strategic corporate partners are identified as powerful

  6. Clean technologies: methods for minimizing the releases and choice of the effluents valorization processes. Application to metal workshops; Technologies propres: methodes de minimisation des rejets et de choix des procedes de valorisation des effluents. Application aux ateliers de traitement de surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laforest, V.

    1999-12-10

    Currently, the essential part of the money invested by the industrialist is for the water treatment. In France, most of the 20 billions francs per year devoted to the water treatment is used for the industrial activity. The global management of effluents favour the integration of clean technologies (optimization, change and modification of the production process) in order to reduce the pollution problem at its source. Our study aims at the introduction of clean technologies in the metal workshops (consumer and generator of water and chemicals) by the development of two data management methods, which lead to two decision support systems. The aim of the first one is to minimize both the water consumption and the wastewater disposal by optimizing the production process (optimum yield and efficiency of the rinsing baths). The second one concerns the choice of valorization techniques considering the valorization objectives, the effluents characteristics and the parameters limiting the use of the techniques. Our approach fits into a global management method for the metal finishing industry wastewater. Its aim is to limit the quantity of wastewater generated, to valorize effluents and by this way to develop the clean technologies.

  7. Developing an Online Database of National and Sub-National Clean Energy Policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haynes, R.; Cross, S.; Heinemann, A.; Booth, S.

    2014-06-01

    The Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency (DSIRE) was established in 1995 to provide summaries of energy efficiency and renewable energy policies offered by the federal and state governments. This primer provides an overview of the major policy, research, and technical topics to be considered when creating a similar clean energy policy database and website.

  8. U.S. DOE Intermountain Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Case, Patti

    2013-09-30

    The Intermountain Clean Energy Application Center helped promote, assist, and transform the market for combined heat and power (CHP), including waste heat to power and district energy with CHP, in the intermountain states of Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming. We accomplished these objectives through a combination of the following methods, which proved in concert to be a technically and economically effective strategy: o Identifying and facilitating high-impact CHP projects o Helping industrial, commercial, institutional, federal, and other large energy users in evaluating the economic and technical viability of potential CHP systems o Disseminating essential information about CHP including benefits, technologies, applications, project development, project financing, electric and gas utility incentives, and state policies o Coordinating and collaborating on CHP advancement with regional stakeholders including electric utilities, gas utilities, state energy offices, municipal development and planning personnel, trade associations, industry groups, non-profits, energy users, and others Outcomes of the project included increased understanding of and deployment of efficient and well-designed CHP systems in the states of Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming. Increased CHP deployment helps the United States to enhance energy efficiency, strengthen the competitiveness of American industries, promote economic growth, foster a robust and resilient energy infrastructure, reduce emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases, and increase the use of market-ready advanced technologies. Specific outcomes included direct assistance to energy-intensive industrial facilities and other businesses, workshops and CHP tours, communication materials, and state policy education, all contributing to implementation of CHP systems in the intermountain region.

  9. Clean Coal Program Research Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry Baxter; Eric Eddings; Thomas Fletcher; Kerry Kelly; JoAnn Lighty; Ronald Pugmire; Adel Sarofim; Geoffrey Silcox; Phillip Smith; Jeremy Thornock; Jost Wendt; Kevin Whitty

    2009-03-31

    Although remarkable progress has been made in developing technologies for the clean and efficient utilization of coal, the biggest challenge in the utilization of coal is still the protection of the environment. Specifically, electric utilities face increasingly stringent restriction on the emissions of NO{sub x} and SO{sub x}, new mercury emission standards, and mounting pressure for the mitigation of CO{sub 2} emissions, an environmental challenge that is greater than any they have previously faced. The Utah Clean Coal Program addressed issues related to innovations for existing power plants including retrofit technologies for carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) or green field plants with CCS. The Program focused on the following areas: simulation, mercury control, oxycoal combustion, gasification, sequestration, chemical looping combustion, materials investigations and student research experiences. The goal of this program was to begin to integrate the experimental and simulation activities and to partner with NETL researchers to integrate the Program's results with those at NETL, using simulation as the vehicle for integration and innovation. The investigators also committed to training students in coal utilization technology tuned to the environmental constraints that we face in the future; to this end the Program supported approximately 12 graduate students toward the completion of their graduate degree in addition to numerous undergraduate students. With the increased importance of coal for energy independence, training of graduate and undergraduate students in the development of new technologies is critical.

  10. Survey for making a data book on the new energy technological development. Waste-fueled power generation, solar heat utilization, geothermal power generation, clean energy vehicles, coal liquefaction/gasification, and traversal themes; Shin energy gijutsu kaihatsu kankei data shu sakusei chosa. Haikibutsu hatsuden, taiyonetsu riyo, chinetsu hatsuden, clean energy jidosha, sekitan ekika, gas ka oyobi odanteki tema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The paper concerns the following six fields among the fields of new energy technology: the waste-fueled power generation, solar heat utilization, geothermal power generation, clean energy vehicles, coal liquefaction and coal gasification. The up-to-date data made public were collected and classified into the following items: outline of systems, specific examples of the introduction in Japan and other countries, policies/laws and rules/subsidy systems, production quantity/actual amount of introduction/projected amount of introduction (target), cost, terminology, listing of main related companies and groups, etc. Further, arrangement was traversally conducted on the outlook of the energy introduction by the Japanese government and measures taken for development of new energy by Japan and other countries. Namely, the items of the book are as follows: classification of new energy, outlook for energy supply/demand, cost of new energy technology (power generation) and outlook for the introduction, menus of buying surplus electricity of electric companies, policies/laws and rules/subsidy systems concerning the new energy introduction in Japan and overseas, and a list of organizations engaged in the new energy technological development.

  11. NOVEL GAS CLEANING/CONDITIONING FOR INTEGRATED GASIFICATION COMBINED CYCLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis A. Horazak; Richard A. Newby; Eugene E. Smeltzer; Rachid B. Slimane; P. Vann Bush; James L. Aderhold Jr; Bruce G. Bryan

    2005-12-01

    Development efforts have been underway for decades to replace dry-gas cleaning technology with humid-gas cleaning technology that would maintain the water vapor content in the raw gas by conducting cleaning at sufficiently high temperature to avoid water vapor condensation and would thus significantly simplify the plant and improve its thermal efficiency. Siemens Power Generation, Inc. conducted a program with the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) to develop a Novel Gas Cleaning process that uses a new type of gas-sorbent contactor, the ''filter-reactor''. The Filter-Reactor Novel Gas Cleaning process described and evaluated here is in its early stages of development and this evaluation is classified as conceptual. The commercial evaluations have been coupled with integrated Process Development Unit testing performed at a GTI coal gasifier test facility to demonstrate, at sub-scale the process performance capabilities. The commercial evaluations and Process Development Unit test results are presented in Volumes 1 and 2 of this report, respectively. Two gas cleaning applications with significantly differing gas cleaning requirements were considered in the evaluation: IGCC power generation, and Methanol Synthesis with electric power co-production. For the IGCC power generation application, two sets of gas cleaning requirements were applied, one representing the most stringent ''current'' gas cleaning requirements, and a second set representing possible, very stringent ''future'' gas cleaning requirements. Current gas cleaning requirements were used for Methanol Synthesis in the evaluation because these cleaning requirements represent the most stringent of cleaning requirements and the most challenging for the Filter-Reactor Novel Gas Cleaning process. The scope of the evaluation for each application was: (1) Select the configuration for the Filter-Reactor Novel Gas Cleaning Process, the arrangement of the

  12. Mechanical cleaning of graphene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, A.M.; Calado, V.E.; Barreiro, A.; Watanabe, K.; Taniguchi, T.; Vandersypen, L.M.K.

    2012-01-01

    Contamination of graphene due to residues from nanofabrication often introduces background doping and reduces electron mobility. For samples of high electronic quality, post-lithography cleaning treatments are therefore needed. We report that mechanical cleaning based on contact mode atomic force mi

  13. Clean Energy Infrastructure Educational Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallinan, Kevin; Menart, James; Gilbert, Robert

    2012-08-31

    new research in the renewable and clean energy area. The educational outreach provided as a result of the grant included activities to introduce renewable and clean energy design projects into the Mechanical and Materials Engineering senior design class, the development of a geothermal energy demonstration unit, and the development of renewable energy learning modules for high school students. Finally, this grant supported curriculum development by Sinclair Community College for seven new courses and acquisition of necessary related instrumentation and laboratory equipment. These new courses, EGV 1201 Weatherization Training, EGV 1251 Introduction to Energy Management Principles, EGV 2301 Commercial and Industrial Assessment, EGV 2351 LEED Green Associate Exam Preparation, EGV 2251 Energy Control Strategies, EGV Solar Photovoltaic Design and Installation, and EGV Solar Thermal Systems, enable Sinclair to offer complete Energy Technology Certificate and an Energy Management Degree programs. To date, 151 students have completed or are currently registered in one of the seven courses developed through this grant. With the increasing interest in the Energy Management Degree program, Sinclair has begun the procedure to have the program approved by the Ohio Board of Regents.

  14. 磷酸储罐沉渣的清理新方法及利用%New cleaning technology for sediment in phosphoric acid storage tank and utilization of sediment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨振军; 刘翠丽

    2012-01-01

    The cause of sediment in phosphoric acid storage tank and the existing problems in sediment cleaning such as sediment emission, collapse and pollution etc. are analyzed. The new cleaning technology for sediment in phosphoric acid storage tank and the comprehensive utilization of sediment are introduced, which can liquidize the production raw material with value of more than 6 million RMB Yuan, and save the labor and transportation cost of more than 0.3 million 1RMB Yuan.%分析磷酸储罐沉渣的成因及储罐清理过程中面临的沉渣涌出、塌方、过程污染等问题。介绍清理磷酸沉渣的新方法及利用。利用新方法清理沉渣盘活了价值600多万元的生产原料,节省人工费、运输费用共计30多万元。

  15. What is Clean Cities? October 2011 (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-10-01

    Brochure describes the Clean Cities program and includes the contact information for its 85 coalitions. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Vehicle Technologies Program (VTP), Clean Cities is a government-industry partnership that reduces petroleum consumption in the transportation sector. Clean Cities contributes to the energy, environmental, and economic security of the United States by supporting local decisions to reduce our dependence on imported petroleum. Established in 1993 in response to the Energy Policy Act (EPAct) of 1992, the partnership provides tools and resources for voluntary, community-centered programs to reduce consumption of petroleum-based fuels. In nearly 100 coalitions, government agencies and private companies voluntarily come together under the umbrella of Clean Cities. The partnership helps all parties identify mutual interests and meet the objectives of reducing the use of petroleum, developing regional economic opportunities, and improving air quality. Clean Cities deploys technologies and practices developed by VTP. These include idle-reduction equipment, electric-drive vehicles, fuel economy measures, and renewable and alternative fuels, such as natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas (propane), electricity, hydrogen, biofuels, and biogas. Idle-reduction equipment is targeted primarily to buses and heavy-duty trucks, which use more than 2 billion gallons of fuel every year in the United States while idling. Clean Cities fuel economy measures include public education on vehicle choice and fuel-efficient driving practices.

  16. CROSS-CULTURAL INCENTIVES FOR THE FDI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru ZAIȚ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to invest there are some incentives needed, including among them, certainly, the ones discussed and analysed in the scientific literature such as: specific earning chances (expectations of each participant (wage, profit, dividend, budget revenue, etc., potential investor’s general or current state, etc.. Less visible incentives from complex areas not obviously related to the investment are, however, less considered. Among these could be incentives arising from inherited or education and culture transmitted philosophy, generally regarding earnings, business and investment. We notice these incentives in case of FDI in different shades and intensities.Investor’s decision to acquire, sell or to carry out projects in a particular area, region or country is not only due to purely economic, commercial or financial reasoning. In such operations, meeting among businessmen, managers and other professionals in the field is, first of all, meeting in specific circumstances, among more or less different cultures.Both theory and practice must be concerned in what way and to what extent these factors influence the investment intention, outcome and yield. Our study proposes a list of the most important cultural type incentives for investment (mainly FDI, based on a set of cases, through a logical and empirical research, using some of the most relevant and recent studies and several real situations to which we got access. These are early data and analysis that will allow us to draw attention to the problem and to develop further research to reach generalizable results

  17. Task 1.13 -- Data collection and database development for clean coal technology by-product characteristics and management practices. Semi-annual report, July 1--December 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pflughoeft-Hassett, D.F.

    1997-08-01

    Information from DOE projects and commercial endeavors in fluidized-bed combustion and coal gasification is the focus of this task by the Energy and Environmental Research Center. The primary goal of this task is to provide an easily accessible compilation of characterization information on CCT (Clean Coal Technology) by-products to government agencies and industry to facilitate sound regulatory and management decisions. Supporting objectives are (1) to fully utilize information from previous DOE projects, (2) to coordinate with industry and other research groups, (3) to focus on by-products from pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) and gasification, and (4) to provide information relevant to the EPA evaluation criteria for the Phase 2 decision.

  18. Analysis and Prospects of Clean Production Technology and Equipment of Furfural Industry%糠醛制造业清洁生产工艺与装备的现状分析和展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉

    2011-01-01

    Furfural industry is among the heavily polluting industries. Along with the development of economy and society, the furfural industry is facing increasing pressures in terms of resources and environment. It is imperative to put forward Clean Production standards for furfural industry as soon as possible. This paper makes specific analysis on the current status of technologies and equipments of the furfural industry and forwards reasonable suggestions on clean production standards for furfural industry in technologies and equipments with a view to promote sustainable, stable and healthy development of furfural industry as well as to promote pollution prevention and control levels.%糠醛制造业属重污染行业,随着国民经济和社会的发展,糠醛制造行业面临的资源和环境压力也越来越大。尽快出台糠醛制造业清洁生产标准,势在必行。本文重点阐述了目前中国糠醛制造业生产工艺与装备的现状,并加以具体地分析。同时,从清洁生产的角度针对糠醛制造业清洁生产标准中生产工艺与装备要求方面的制订提出合理化建议。从而,促进糠醛制造行业持续、稳定、健康的发展,推进糠醛生产行业的环境污染防治工作。

  19. Southeast Regional Clean Energy Policy Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaren, Joyce [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2011-04-01

    More than half of the electricity produced in the southeastern states is fuelled by coal. Although the region produces some coal, most of the states depend heavily on coal imports. Many of the region's aging coal power facilities are planned for retirement within the next 20 years. However, estimates indicate that a 20% increase in capacity is needed over that time to meet the rapidly growing demand. The most common incentives for energy efficiency in the Southeast are loans and rebates; however, total public spending on energy efficiency is limited. The most common state-level policies to support renewable energy development are personal and corporate tax incentives and loans. The region produced 1.8% of the electricity from renewable resources other than conventional hydroelectricity in 2009, half of the national average. There is significant potential for development of a biomass market in the region, as well as use of local wind, solar, methane-to-energy, small hydro, and combined heat and power resources. Options are offered for expanding and strengthening state-level policies such as decoupling, integrated resource planning, building codes, net metering, and interconnection standards to support further clean energy development. Benefits would include energy security, job creation, insurance against price fluctuations, increased value of marginal lands, and local and global environmental paybacks.

  20. Southeast Regional Clean Energy Policy Analysis (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaren, J.

    2011-04-01

    More than half of the electricity produced in the southeastern states is fuelled by coal. Although the region produces some coal, most of the states depend heavily on coal imports. Many of the region's aging coal power facilities are planned for retirement within the next 20 years. However, estimates indicate that a 20% increase in capacity is needed over that time to meet the rapidly growing demand. The most common incentives for energy efficiency in the Southeast are loans and rebates; however, total public spending on energy efficiency is limited. The most common state-level policies to support renewable energy development are personal and corporate tax incentives and loans. The region produced 1.8% of the electricity from renewable resources other than conventional hydroelectricity in 2009, half of the national average. There is significant potential for development of a biomass market in the region, as well as use of local wind, solar, methane-to-energy, small hydro, and combined heat and power resources. Options are offered for expanding and strengthening state-level policies such as decoupling, integrated resource planning, building codes, net metering, and interconnection standards to support further clean energy development. Benefits would include energy security, job creation, insurance against price fluctuations, increased value of marginal lands, and local and global environmental paybacks.

  1. Incentive relativity in middle aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justel, N; Mustaca, A; Boccia, M; Ruetti, E

    2014-01-24

    Response to a reinforcer is affected by prior experience with different reward values of that reward, a phenomenon known as incentive relativity. Two different procedures to study this phenomenon are the incentive downshift (ID) and the consummatory anticipatory negative contrast (cANC), the former is an emotional-cognitive protocol and the latter cognitive one. Aged rodents, as also well described in aged humans, exhibit alterations in cognitive functions. The main goal of this work was to evaluate the effect of age in the incentive' assessment using these two procedures. The results indicated that aged rats had an adequate assessment of the rewards but their performance is not completely comparable to that of young subjects. They recover faster from the ID and they had a cognitive impairment in the cANC. The results are discussed in relation to age-related changes in memory and emotion.

  2. 2nd clean coal & carbon capture - securing the future. Conference documentation and delegate information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The presentations covered: policies and the regulatory environment - creating opportunities for clean coal technologies; mastering the economics of clean coal - gaining finance and investment for key projects; international initiatives in clean coal technologies; power plant developments; broader uses for coal; and carbon capture and storage.

  3. Powerplant productivity improvements and regulatory incentives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, D; Brown, D

    1980-10-27

    The purpose of this study was to examine the benefits to be gained from increased powerplant productivity and to validate and demonstrate the use of incentives within the regulatory process to promote the improvement of powerplant productivity. The system-wide costs savings to be gained from given productivity improvement scenarios are estimated in both the short and long term. Numerous reports and studies exist which indicate that productivity improvements at the powerplant level are feasible and cost effective. The efforts of this study widen this focus and relate system-wide productivity improvements with system-wide cost savings. The initial thrust of the regulatory section of this study is to validate the existence of reasonable incentive procedures which would enable regulatory agencies to better motivate electric utilities to improve productivity on both the powerplant and system levels. The voluntary incentive format developed in this study was designed to facilitate the link between profit and efficiency which is typically not clear in most regulated market environments. It is concluded that at the present time, many electric utilities in this country could significantly increase the productivity of their base load units, and the adoption of an incentive program of the general type recommended in this study would add to rate of return regulation the needed financial incentives to enable utilities to make such improvements without losing long-run profit. In light of the upcoming oil import target levels and mandatory cutbacks of oil and gas as boiler fuels for electric utilities, the use of incentive programs to encourage more efficient utilization of coal and nuclear base load capacity will become far more inviting over the next two decades.

  4. Comprehensive report to Congress: Clean Coal Technology program: Evaluation of gas reburning and low-NO sub x burners on a wall-fired boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    This report briefly describes the Gas Reburning and Low-NO{sub x} Burners technology which is a low-cost technology that can be applied in both retrofit and new applications. This demonstration will be conducted on a utility boiler in Colorado at Cherokee Station {number sign}3; however, the technology is applicable to industrial boilers and other combustion systems. Although this technology is primarily a NO{sub x} reduction technology, some reductions in other emissions will take place. Since 15--20% of the coal is replaced with natural gas, SO{sub 2} and particulate emissions are reduced commensurately. Also the lower carbon-to-hydrogen ratio of natural gas compared to coal reduces CO{sub 2} emissions. The formation of NO{sub x} is controlled by several factors: (1) the amount of nitrogen that is chemically bound in the fuel; (2) the flame temperature; (3) the residence time that combustion products remain at very high temperatures; and (4) the amount of excess oxygen available, especially at the hottest parts of the flame. Decreasing any of these parameters, tends to reduce NO{sub x} formation. 6 figs., 1 tab.

  5. A Commercial IOTV Cleaning Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-12

    quite clean and had a refreshing scent . The medium soiled garments (30%) also looked reasonably clean after one wash. The heavily soiled garments...and Solvair® Cleaning in cleaning soiled Improved Outer Tactical Vests (IOTV). Computer-controlled Wet Cleaning coupled with the use of LANADOL...to clean soiled IOTVs. Soldier Product Support Integration Directorate, ILSC U.S. Army Soldier Systems Center 15 Kansas Street, Natick, MA 01760

  6. National Alliance for Clean Energy Incubators New Mexico Clean Energy Incubator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Suzanne S.

    2004-12-15

    The National Alliance for Clean Energy Incubators was established by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop an emerging network of business incubators for entrepreneurs specializing in clean energy enterprises. The Alliance provides a broad range of business services to entrepreneurs in specific geographic locales across the U.S. and in diverse clean energy technology areas such as fuel cells, alternative fuels, power generation, and renewables, to name a few. Technology Ventures Corporation (TVC) participates in the Alliance from its corporate offices in Albuquerque, NM, and from its sites in Northern and Southern New Mexico, California, and Nevada. TVC reports on the results of its attempts to accelerate the growth and success of clean energy and energy efficiency companies through its array of business support services. During the period from September 2002 through September 2004, TVC describes contributions to the Alliance including the development of 28 clients and facilitating capital raises exceeding $35M.

  7. Incentive Contracts for Venture Capital Syndication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xin-li; YANG De-li

    2007-01-01

    Aiming at the incentive problems of venture capital syndication at the second and later stages, an game model is set up by principal agent and incentive theory, given that the lead venture capitalist has already some knowledge of the project quality from his initial funding of the project. Under symmetric and asymmetric information, the model analyzes how the optimal syndication contracts induce venture capitalists to truthfully reveal their information to each other, and vary with the level of venture capitalists' expertise and information in evaluating projects.

  8. Incentives and performance governance of research organizations

    CERN Document Server

    Wollersheim, Jutta; Ringelhan, Stefanie; Osterloh, Margit

    2015-01-01

    ​This book contributes to the current discussion in society, politics and higher education on innovation capacity and the financial and non-financial incentives for researchers. The expert contributions in the book deal with implementation of incentive systems at higher education institutions in order to foster innovation. On the other hand, the book also discusses the extent to which governance structures from economy can be transferred to universities and how scientific performance can be measured and evaluated. This book is essential for decision-makers in knowledge-intensive organizations and higher-educational institutions dealing with the topic of performance management.

  9. Incentive and insurance effects of income taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.

    2015-01-01

    Tax distortions cause a trade-off between efficiency and equity. However, taxes not only affect incentives; they also provide implicit insurance, and this may critically affect the efficiency–equity relationship. For a standard labour supply problem it is shown that the insurance effect mutes...... the sensitivity of labour supply to taxes, which tends to reduce tax distortions and lower the marginal costs of public funds. The relation between incentives and insurance and thus efficiency and equity is flattened by the insurance effect and it may even be non-monotone. However, the optimal utilitarian policy...

  10. Differential dependence of Pavlovian incentive motivation and instrumental incentive learning processes on dopamine signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassum, Kate M; Ostlund, Sean B; Balleine, Bernard W; Maidment, Nigel T

    2011-01-01

    Here we attempted to clarify the role of dopamine signaling in reward seeking. In Experiment 1, we assessed the effects of the dopamine D(1)/D(2) receptor antagonist flupenthixol (0.5 mg/kg i.p.) on Pavlovian incentive motivation and found that flupenthixol blocked the ability of a conditioned stimulus to enhance both goal approach and instrumental performance (Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer). In Experiment 2 we assessed the effects of flupenthixol on reward palatability during post-training noncontingent re-exposure to the sucrose reward in either a control 3-h or novel 23-h food-deprived state. Flupenthixol, although effective in blocking the Pavlovian goal approach, was without effect on palatability or the increase in reward palatability induced by the upshift in motivational state. This noncontingent re-exposure provided an opportunity for instrumental incentive learning, the process by which rats encode the value of a reward for use in updating reward-seeking actions. Flupenthixol administered prior to the instrumental incentive learning opportunity did not affect the increase in subsequent off-drug reward-seeking actions induced by that experience. These data suggest that although dopamine signaling is necessary for Pavlovian incentive motivation, it is not necessary for changes in reward experience, or for the instrumental incentive learning process that translates this experience into the incentive value used to drive reward-seeking actions, and provide further evidence that Pavlovian and instrumental incentive learning processes are dissociable.

  11. Results concerning a clean co-combustion technology of waste biomass with fossil fuel, in a pilot fluidised bed combustion facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ionel, Ioana; Trif-Tordai, Gavril; Ungureanu, Corneliu; Popescu, Francisc; Lontis, Nicolae [Politehnica Univ. Timisoara (Romania). Faculty for Mechanical Engineering

    2008-07-01

    The research focuses on a facility, the experimental results, interpretation and future plans concerning a new developed technology of using waste renewable energy by applying the cocombustion of waste biomass with coal, in a fluidised bed system. The experimental facility is working entirely in accordance to the allowed limits for the exhaust flue gas concentration, with special concern for typical pollutants. The experiments conclude that the technology is cleaner, has as main advantage the possibility to reduce both the SO{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} exhaust in comparison to standard fossil fuel combustion, under comparable circumstances. The combustion is occurring in a stable fluidised bed. (orig.)

  12. An empirical case study of the transfer of GHG mitigation technologies from Annex 1 countries to Malaysia under the Kyoto Protocol’s Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ulrich Elmer

    2011-01-01

    . It focuses on the companies involved in the implementation of specific technologies in these projects and the channels that can facilitate the transfer process. In addition, the institutional CDM project approval process in Malaysia is taken into account. An analytical framework is put forward based on which...... it can be concluded that the CDM only plays a role in one out of the 13 projects examined. The study may contribute to provide a background for adopting future provisions concerning technology transfer in the CDM or other initiatives involving GHG mitigation activities in non-Annex 1 countries....

  13. Power generation from chemically cleaned coals: do environmental benefits of firing cleaner coal outweigh environmental burden of cleaning?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Morten W.; Owsianiak, Mikolaj; Laurent, Alexis;

    2015-01-01

    Power generation from high-ash coals is a niche technology for power generation, but coal cleaning is deemed necessary to avoid problems associated with low combustion efficiencies and to minimize environmental burdens associated with emissions of pollutants originating from ash. Here, chemical...... itself, it is demonstrated that for a wide range of cleaning procedures and types of coal, chemical cleaning generally performs worse than combustion of the raw coals and physical cleaning using dense medium separation. These findings apply for many relevant impact categories, including climate change....... Chemical cleaning can be optimized with regard to electricity, heat and methanol use for the hydrothermal washing step, and could have environmental impact comparable to that of physical cleaning if the overall resource intensiveness of chemical cleaning is reduced by a factor 5 to 10, depending...

  14. Comparative Study on Innovation Incentives for Commercial Open Source Software under Different Licenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingqing Xing

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study compares technological innovation incentives for commercial open source software under two typical licenses (the GNU General Public License and the Berkeley Software Distribution License, i.e., GPL and BSD. In the case of private optimum, the incentive towards software features (resp. usability innovation is always higher (resp. lower under BSD than under GPL. Contrast to the private optimum, the social planner expects more investment in software feature under both BSD and GPL, but less (resp. equivalent investment in software usability under BSD (resp. GPL.

  15. The Research on Incentive Mechanism of Knowledge Creation in IT Enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Si-Hua

    In the era of knowledge economy, in order to maintain sustainable development, the key is by management to find the best way to continuously discover new knowledge and make it form core competency. IT industry especially which favors new technology and new products, knowledge creation competition is a strategic issue concerning the survival of enterprises. Therefore, on the basis of analyzing the characteristics of knowledge workers of IT enterprises, this paper proposes contract incentive mechanism. we found through designing a reasonable incentive mechanism the Pareto dominance risk-sharing and Pareto dominance effort level can be achieved simultaneously.

  16. Clean Water Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Clean Water Act (CWA) establishes the basic structure for regulating discharges of pollutants into U.S. waters and regulating quality standards for surface...

  17. Effective Cleaning Radius Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Churnetski, B.V.

    2001-10-15

    This report discusses results of testing done in the Savannah River Laboratory half tank and full tank mockup facilities using kaolin clay slurries and the relationship between cleaning radius and pump and slurry characteristics.

  18. Clean Power Plan Toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    These are resources to help states as they develop state implementation plans under section 111(d) of the Clean Air Act to meet EPA's carbon pollution standards for existing power plants. Supplements www2.epa.gov/carbon-pollution-standards.

  19. Power generation from chemically cleaned coals: do environmental benefits of firing cleaner coal outweigh environmental burden of cleaning?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Morten W.; Owsianiak, Mikolaj; Laurent, Alexis;

    2015-01-01

    Power generation from high-ash coals is a niche technology for power generation, but coal cleaning is deemed necessary to avoid problems associated with low combustion efficiencies and to minimize environmental burdens associated with emissions of pollutants originating from ash. Here, chemical...... beneficiation of coals using acid and alkali–acid leaching procedures is evaluated as a potential coal cleaning technology employing life cycle assessment (LCA). Taking into account the environmental benefits from firing cleaner coal in pulverized coal power plants and the environmental burden of the cleaning....... Chemical cleaning can be optimized with regard to electricity, heat and methanol use for the hydrothermal washing step, and could have environmental impact comparable to that of physical cleaning if the overall resource intensiveness of chemical cleaning is reduced by a factor 5 to 10, depending...

  20. INCENTIVES FOR FINANCING SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOLDOVAN (GAVRIL IOANA ANDRADA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Green investments that comply with the principles of sustainable development represent a challenge for investors and funders, given the fact that their costs are higher than those of investments in polluting traditional technologies. However, there are several incetives for the shift from traditional investments to green investments. This transition is urgently needed because otherwise the negative effects of pollution will endanger food security and welfare of a number of increasingly large communities, particularly in emerging countries and the Third World. Governments play an important role in stimulating green investment and they can promote them by tax measures, public-private partnerships or stimulating technological innovation. Beyond government interventions that can make them attractive for private investors and financial companies, green investments have the advantage of lower full costs on the long run, compared to traditional investment in intensive fossil fuels technologies. Although on the short run these investments may have high costs, over the long run, they favor all types of economic agents, including financial companies that could better assess and manage their risks, given the fact that development trends would fulfill the principles of sustainability on the long run.

  1. Study and Evaluation of Liquid Air Energy Storage Technology For a Clean and Secure Energy Future Challenges and opportunities for Alberta wind energy industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi H. Alyami

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Global energy demand is steadily increasing each year. Many jurisdictions are seeking to incorporate sustainable and renewable energy sources to help meeting the demand and doing so in a responsible method to the environment and the next generation. In a wide-context, renewable energy sources are promising, yet cannot be controlled in such a way that is responsive to energy demand fluctuation. Liquid Air Energy Storage (LAES technology seeks to bridge the gap that exists between energy supply and demand in an effort to mitigate the current demand deficiency. The volume ratio of air to liquid air is nearly 700:1. Liquid air is a dense energy carrier that is by converting renewable energy at off-peak periods into liquid air the energy can be stored until a peak-demand period when energy producers are maximising output to meet the demand. The energy is then retrieved from the liquid air through rapid expansion as it re-gasifies through a gas turbine and converted into electricity. A commercial scale pilot plant in Slough, UK illustrates the application of this technology empirically. The application of this technology in Canada might have challenges as public policy respective jurisdictions play a role. A case of point of applications where LAES can be integrated is the renewable energy market; particularly the wind power in Alberta. This paper’s analysis embraces wind power industry in Alberta from the perspective of both the electric system operator and the power generation plant. As such, it serves as an alleviating proposal of the current wind energy issues in Alberta – including the uncertainty of forecasting system. The analysis assumed energy storage technologies as a viable stand-alone mitigation with no consideration of the current technological and operational advancements in power systems such HVDC grids, distributed generation concepts and among others.

  2. Cleaning without chlorinated solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, L.M.; Simandl, R.F.

    1994-12-31

    Because of health and environmental concerns, many regulations have been passed in recent years regarding the use of chlorinated solvents. The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant has had an active program to find alternatives for these solvents used in cleaning applications for the past 7 years. During this time frame, the quantity of solvents purchased has been reduced by 92%. The program has been a twofold effort. Vapor degreasers used in batch cleaning-operations have been replaced by ultrasonic cleaning with aqueous detergent, and other organic solvents have been identified for use in hand-wiping or specialty operations. In order to qualify these alternatives for use, experimentation was conducted on cleaning ability as well as effects on subsequent operations such as welding, painting and bonding. Cleaning ability was determined using techniques such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) which are capable of examining monolayer levels of contamination on a surface. Solvents have been identified for removal of rust preventative oils, lapping oils, machining coolants, lubricants, greases, and mold releases. Solvents have also been evaluated for cleaning urethane foam spray guns, swelling of urethanes and swelling of epoxies.

  3. Worldwide clean energy system technology using hydrogen (WE-NET). subtask 5. Development of hydrogen transfer and storage technology (research and development of technologies for hydrogen transport and storage by hydrogen absorbing alloys); Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET). subtask 5. Suiso yuso chozo gijutsu no kaihatsu (bunsan yuso chozoyo suiso kyuzo gokin no kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This report describes a guiding principle of new hydrogen absorbing alloy design, case studies on the stationary hydrogen storage systems for multiple dwelling houses using hydrogen absorbing alloys and on the hydrogen fuel tank systems for a motor vehicle, and survey on development status in the world. As a result of the investigation of alloys, it was concluded that realization of hydrogen absorbing alloys with new target properties of the WE-NET Project is not easy through the current technology. It was found that two kinds of Mg-based and V-based high capacity materials must be selected as target alloys among current alloys, and that three techniques, i.e., ultra-fine microstructure, composite, and amorphousness, are effective for improving the hydrogen discharge property which has been a problem of these alloys. It was desired that the latest techniques are established by integrating these materials and techniques. It is necessary to promote the development of brake-through new materials by new concepts and technologies through the cooperation of national institutes, universities, and companies. 124 refs., 56 figs., 11 tabs.

  4. Economic incentives and alternative nitrogen regulation schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Ørum, Jens Erik

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this chapter is to investigate economic incentives associated with changes in nitrogen regulation, including the distribution between farm types and geographically. The analysis is carried out on a partial equilibrium simulation model of the Danish agricultural sector—ESMERALDA...

  5. Health, Financial Incentives and Retirement in Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Erdogan-Ciftci (Esen); E.K.A. van Doorslaer (Eddy); A. Lopez-Nicolas (Angel)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractWe estimate the impact of health and financial incentives on the retirement transitions of older workers in Spain. Individual measures of pension wealth, peak and accrual values are constructed using labor market histories and health shocks are derived as changes in a composite health st

  6. Early Retirement Incentive Programs for Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarter, Scott E.; McCarthy, Martha M.

    1989-01-01

    Despite their popularity, early retirement incentive programs (ERIPs) remain controversial. Although early retirement may be appealing to some teachers, others bristle at being shoved into retirement. Following a historical overview, this article summarizes recent state legislation and addresses ERIP legal status under the Age Discrimination in…

  7. Biased managers, organizational design, and incentive provision

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira, Humberto Ataíde; Costa, Cristiano Machado; Ferreira, Daniel Bernardo Soares

    2004-01-01

    We model the tradeoff between the balance and the strength of incentives implicit in the choice between hierarchical and matrix organizational structures. We show that managerial biases determine which structure is optimal: hierarchical forms are preferred when biases are low, while matrix structures are preferred when biases are high.

  8. Incentive Issues in Information Security Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chul Ho

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation studies three incentive issues in information security management. The first essay studies contract issues between a firm that outsources security functions and a managed security service provider (MSSP) that provides security functions to the firm. Since MSSP and firms cannot observe each other's actions, both can suffer…

  9. Federal Tax Incentives for Battery Storage Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-01-01

    Investments in renewable energy can be more attractive with the contribution of two key federal tax incentives. NREL provides basic information about the investment tax credit (ITC) and the Modified Accelerated Cost Recovery System (MACRS) depreciation deduction, which may apply to battery storage systems owned by a private party (i.e., a tax-paying business).

  10. Examining the Incentives in Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Dominic J.; Goldhaber, Dan D.

    2008-01-01

    In their best seller, "Freakonomics", University of Chicago economist Steven Levitt and "New York Times" writer Stephen Dubner show in an amusing and often provocative manner how an economic way of thinking can be useful in explaining all sorts of real-world phenomena. Their central insight is very simple: incentives are the cornerstone of modern…

  11. Applying incentive sensitization models to behavioral addiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rømer Thomsen, Kristine; Fjorback, Lone; Møller, Arne;

    2014-01-01

    The incentive sensitization theory is a promising model for understanding the mechanisms underlying drug addiction, and has received support in animal and human studies. So far the theory has not been applied to the case of behavioral addictions like Gambling Disorder, despite sharing clinical...

  12. 24 CFR 901.130 - Incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HOUSING MANAGEMENT ASSESSMENT PROGRAM § 901.130 Incentives. (a) A PHA that is designated high performer or... the right decision that impacts long-term overall management or the quality of a PHA's housing stock... independent auditor (IA) audits. (2) Office of Inspector General (OIG) audits or investigations will...

  13. Incentives and Social Relations in the Workplace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Sol (Joeri)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractIn this thesis, I study how organizations can incentivize a group of individuals, both in theory and by conducting …eld experiments. The …eld experiments introduce short-term team incentives in a randomly selected sample of stores that belong to a single Dutch retail chain of 128 stores.

  14. The Cornell Staff Retirement Incentive Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Kenneth T.; Ehrenberg, Ronald G.; Hallock, Kevin F.; Seeber, Ronald L.

    2011-01-01

    We evaluate potential determinants of enrollment in an early retirement incentive program for non-tenure-track employees at a large university. Using administrative records on the eligible, population of employees not covered by collective bargaining agreements, historical employee count and layoff data by budget units, and public information on…

  15. Professional norms, public service motivation and economic incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lotte Bøgh

    2007-01-01

    The theories of professions, public service motivation, and economic incentives explain the behaviour of the producers of publicly financed services differently. They emphasize professional norms, sector, and economic incentives, respectively. The few existing attempts to integrate these theories...

  16. 48 CFR 16.402-2 - Performance incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... incentives are likely to motivate the contractor. (c) Technical performance incentives may be particularly... performance criteria, to recognize that the contractor should not be rewarded or penalized for attainments...

  17. Country Review of Energy-Efficiency Financial Incentives in the Residential Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Can, Stephane de la Rue du; Shah, Nihar; Phadke, Amol

    2011-07-13

    A large variety of energy-efficiency policy measures exist. Some are mandatory, some are informative, and some use financial incentives to promote diffusion of efficient equipment. From country to country, financial incentives vary considerably in scope and form, the type of framework used to implement them, and the actors that administer them. They range from rebate programs administered by utilities under an Energy-Efficiency Resource Standards (EERS) regulatory framework (California, USA) to the distribution of Eco-points rewarding customers for buying highly efficient appliances (Japan). All have the primary objective of transforming the current market to accelerate the diffusion of efficient technologies by addressing up-front cost barriers faced by consumers; in most instances, efficient technologies require a greater initial investment than conventional technologies. In this paper, we review the different market transformation measures involving the use of financial incentives in the countries belonging to the Major Economies Forum. We characterize the main types of measures, discuss their mechanisms, and provide information on program impacts to the extent that ex-ante or ex-post evaluations have been conducted. Finally, we identify best practices in financial incentive programs and opportunities for coordination between Major Economies Forum countries as envisioned under the Super Efficient Appliance Deployment (SEAD) initiative.

  18. Chemical-free cleaning using excimer lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizotte, Todd E.; O'Keeffe, Terence R.

    1996-04-01

    A critical requirement in many industrial processes is the cleaning of oils and grease, oxides, solvent residues, particles, thin films and other contaminants from surfaces. There is a particularly acute need in the electronics industry for cleaning semiconductor wafers and computer chips and in the metals industry for removing oxides and other contaminants. Cleaning traditionally is done by various wet chemical processes, almost all consuming large amounts of water and producing large amounts of hazardous wastes. To further complicate this, some of these cleaning agents and vast water consumption are undergoing stringent restrictions. The Radiance ProcessSM is a novel, patented Excimer Laser approach to dry surface cleaning. The process has removed particles from 80 microns to submicron sizes, paints, inks, oxides, fingerprints, hazes, parts of molecules and metallic ions in fingerprints. The process does not ablate, melt or damage the underlying surface. Micro-roughening on some Silicon and Gallium Arsenide is on the order of 1A or less. This paper will discuss the various applications with this process and the latest results from a beta wafer cleaning prototype test bed system that is being built under an EPA grant and joint partnership between Radiance Services Company, Neuman Micro Technologies, Inc. and the Microelectronics Research Laboratory.

  19. Clean Water for Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Aniruddha B; Kumar, Jyoti Kishen

    2015-01-01

    Availability of safe drinking water, a vital natural resource, is still a distant dream to many around the world, especially in developing countries. Increasing human activity and industrialization have led to a wide range of physical, chemical, and biological pollutants entering water bodies and affecting human lives. Efforts to develop efficient, economical, and technologically sound methods to produce clean water for developing countries have increased worldwide. We focus on solar disinfection, filtration, hybrid filtration methods, treatment of harvested rainwater, herbal water disinfection, and arsenic removal technologies. Simple, yet innovative water treatment devices ranging from use of plant xylem as filters, terafilters, and hand pumps to tippy taps designed indigenously are methods mentioned here. By describing the technical aspects of major water disinfection methods relevant for developing countries on medium to small scales and emphasizing their merits, demerits, economics, and scalability, we highlight the current scenario and pave the way for further research and development and scaling up of these processes. This review focuses on clean drinking water, especially for rural populations in developing countries. It describes various water disinfection techniques that are not only economically viable and energy efficient but also employ simple methodologies that are effective in reducing the physical, chemical, and biological pollutants found in drinking water to acceptable limits.

  20. Scaleable Clean Aluminum Melting Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Q.; Das, S.K. (Secat, Inc.)

    2008-02-15

    The project entitled 'Scaleable Clean Aluminum Melting Systems' was a Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADAs) between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Secat Inc. The three-year project was initially funded for the first year and was then canceled due to funding cuts at the DOE headquarters. The limited funds allowed the research team to visit industrial sites and investigate the status of using immersion heaters for aluminum melting applications. Primary concepts were proposed on the design of furnaces using immersion heaters for melting. The proposed project can continue if the funding agency resumes the funds to this research. The objective of this project was to develop and demonstrate integrated, retrofitable technologies for clean melting systems for aluminum in both the Metal Casting and integrated aluminum processing industries. The scope focused on immersion heating coupled with metal circulation systems that provide significant opportunity for energy savings as well as reduction of melt loss in the form of dross. The project aimed at the development and integration of technologies that would enable significant reduction in the energy consumption and environmental impacts of melting aluminum through substitution of immersion heating for the conventional radiant burner methods used in reverberatory furnaces. Specifically, the program would couple heater improvements with furnace modeling that would enable cost-effective retrofits to a range of existing furnace sizes, reducing the economic barrier to application.

  1. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]) emissions from coal-fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-11-25

    This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of a US Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Project demonstrating advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]) emissions from a coal-fired boiler. The project is being conducted at Gulf Power Company's Plant Lansing Smith Unit 2 located near Panama City, Florida. The primary objective of this demonstration is to determine the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NO[sub x] combustion technologies on NO[sub x] emissions and boiler performance. A target of achieving fifty percent NO[sub x] reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The stepwise approach that is being used to evaluate the NO[sub x] control technologies requires three plant outages to successively install the test instrumentation and the different levels of the low NO[sub x] concentric firing system (LNCFS). Following each outage, a series of four groups of tests are performed. These are (1) diagnostic, (2) performance, (3) long-term, and (4) verification. These tests are used to quantify the NO[sub x] reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency. This technical progress report presents the LNCFS Level I short-term data collected during this quarter. In addition, a comparison of all the long-term emissions data that have been collected to date is included.

  2. Innovative clean coal technology: 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Final report, Phases 1 - 3B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This report presents the results of a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) project demonstrating advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The project was conducted at Georgia Power Company`s Plant Hammond Unit 4 located near Rome, Georgia. The technologies demonstrated at this site include Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation`s advanced overfire air system and Controlled Flow/Split Flame low NOx burner. The primary objective of the demonstration at Hammond Unit 4 was to determine the long-term effects of commercially available wall-fired low NOx combustion technologies on NOx emissions and boiler performance. Short-term tests of each technology were also performed to provide engineering information about emissions and performance trends. A target of achieving fifty percent NOx reduction using combustion modifications was established for the project. Short-term and long-term baseline testing was conducted in an {open_quotes}as-found{close_quotes} condition from November 1989 through March 1990. Following retrofit of the AOFA system during a four-week outage in spring 1990, the AOFA configuration was tested from August 1990 through March 1991. The FWEC CF/SF low NOx burners were then installed during a seven-week outage starting on March 8, 1991 and continuing to May 5, 1991. Following optimization of the LNBs and ancillary combustion equipment by FWEC personnel, LNB testing commenced during July 1991 and continued until January 1992. Testing in the LNB+AOFA configuration was completed during August 1993. This report provides documentation on the design criteria used in the performance of this project as it pertains to the scope involved with the low NOx burners and advanced overfire systems.

  3. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, second quarter 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-11-25

    This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of a US Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Project demonstrating advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from a coal-fired boiler. The project is being conducted at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Lansing Smith Unit 2 located near Panama City, Florida. The primary objective of this demonstration is to determine the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NO{sub x} combustion technologies on NO{sub x} emissions and boiler performance. A target of achieving fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The stepwise approach that is being used to evaluate the NO{sub x} control technologies requires three plant outages to successively install the test instrumentation and the different levels of the low NO{sub x} concentric firing system (LNCFS). Following each outage, a series of four groups of tests are performed. These are (1) diagnostic, (2) performance, (3) long-term, and (4) verification. These tests are used to quantify the NO{sub x} reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency. This technical progress report presents the LNCFS Level I short-term data collected during this quarter. In addition, a comparison of all the long-term emissions data that have been collected to date is included.

  4. Photocatalytic Solutions Create Self-Cleaning Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    A Stennis Space Center researcher investigating the effectiveness of photocatalytic materials for keeping the Center's buildings free of grime turned to a solution created by PURETi Inc. of New York City. Testing proved successful, and NASA and the company now share a Dual Use Technology partnership. PURETi's coatings keep surfaces clean and purify surrounding air, eliminating pollution, odors, and microbes.

  5. Clean Cities Now Vol. 19, No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-07-24

    Now is the official bi-annual newsletter of Clean Cities, an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

  6. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired power plant utilizing the SNOX innovative clean coal technology demonstration. Volume 1, Sampling/results/special topics: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    This study was one of a group of assessments of toxic emissions from coal-fired power plants, conducted for DOE during 1993. The motivation for those assessments was the mandate in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments that a study be made of emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from electric utilities. The report is organized in two volumes. Volume 1: Sampling describes the sampling effort conducted as the basis for this study; Results presents the concentration data on HAPs in the several power plant streams, and reports the results of evaluations and calculations conducted with those data; and Special Topics report on issues such as comparison of sampling methods and vapor/solid distributions of HAPs. Volume 2: Appendices include quality assurance/quality control results, uncertainty analysis for emission factors, and data sheets. This study involved measurements of a variety of substances in solid, liquid, and gaseous samples from input, output, and process streams at the Innovative Clean Coal Technology Demonstration (ICCT) of the Wet Sulfuric Acid-Selective Catalytic Reduction (SNOX) process. The SNOX demonstration is being conducted at Ohio Edison`s Niles Boiler No. 2 which uses cyclone burners to burn bituminous coal. A 35 megawatt slipstream of flue gas from the boiler is used to demonstrate SNOX. The substances measured at the SNOX process were the following: 1. Five major and 16 trace elements, including mercury, chromium, cadmium, lead, selenium, arsenic, beryllium, and nickel; 2. Acids and corresponding anions (HCl, HF, chloride, fluoride, phosphate, sulfate); 3. Ammonia and cyanide; 4. Elemental carbon; 5. Radionuclides; 6. Volatile organic compounds (VOC); 7. Semi-volatile compounds (SVOC) including polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH); and 8. Aldehydes.

  7. Optimal Transmission Capacity under Nodal Pricing and Incentive Regulation for Transco

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, Makoto

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines regulatory incentive mechanisms for efficient investment in the transmission network, taking into account both technological externalities among transmission lines and information asymmetry between the regulator and the transmission company (Transco). First, by adding extra constraints associated with the power flow, we develop an extended price cap mechanism that can internalize technological externalities among transmission lines. We show that this new mechanism induces ...

  8. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, First quarter 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The project is being conducted at Georgia Power Company`s Plant Hammond Unit 4 located near Rome, Georgia. The primary goal of this project is the characterization of the low NO{sub x} combustion equipment through the collection and analysis of long-term emissions data. A target of achieving fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The project provides a stepwise retrofit of an advanced overfire air (AOFA) system followed by low NO{sub x} burners (LNB). During each test phase of the project, diagnostic, performance, long-term, and verification testing will be performed. These tests are used to quantify the NO{sub x} reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency.

  9. Alternative Processing Technology for Converting Vegetable Oils and Animal Fats to Clean Fuels and Light Olefins%动植物油生产清洁燃料和低碳烯烃的替代加工工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田华; 李春义; 杨朝合; 山红红

    2008-01-01

    Since the production cost of biodiesel is now the main hurdle limiting their applicability in some areas, catalytic cracking reactions represent an alternative route to utilization of vegetable oils and animal fats. Hence, catalytic transformation of oils and fats was carried out in a laboratory-scale two-stage riser fluid catalytic cracking (TSRFCC) unit in this work. The results show that oils and fats can be used as FCC feed singly or co-feeding with vacuum gas oil (VGO), which can give high yield (by mass) of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), C2-C4 olefins, for example 45% LPG, 47% C2-C4 olefins, and 77.6% total liquid yield produced with palm oil cracking. Co-feeding with VGO gives a high yield of LPG (39.1%) and propylene (18.1%). And oxygen element content is very low (about 0.5%) in liquid products, hence, oxygen is removed in the form of H2O, CO and CO2. At the same time, high concentration of aromatics (C7-C9 aromatics predominantly) in the gasoline fraction is obtained after TSRFCC reaction of palm oil, as a result of large amount of hydrogen-transfer, cyclization and aromatization reactions. Additionally, most of properties of produced gasoline and diesel oil fuel meet the requirements of national standards, containing little sulfur. So TSRFCC technology is thought to be an alternative processing technology leading to production of clean fuels and light olefins.

  10. Evaluation of Teaching on Clean Energy with Wind Power Generation

    OpenAIRE

    塩沢, 臣城; 石田, 聡一; 干川, 圭吾

    2000-01-01

    Evaluation of teaching material on clean energy with wind power generation is reported in this paper. A wind power generation system was developed as a teaching material in electric and electronics field in technology education of junior high school. It is shown that the teaching material was effective for students to understand the wind power generation and the clean energy.

  11. Northwest Region Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoding, David

    2013-09-30

    The main objective of the Northwest Clean Energy Application Center (NW CEAC) is to promote and support implementation of clean energy technologies. These technologies include combined heat and power (CHP), district energy, waste heat recovery with a primary focus on waste heat to power, and other related clean energy systems such as stationary fuel cell CHP systems. The northwest states include AK, ID, MT, OR, and WA. The key aim/outcome of the Center is to promote and support implementation of clean energy projects. Implemented projects result in a number of benefits including increased energy efficiency, renewable energy development (when using opportunity fuels), reduced carbon emissions, improved facility economics helping to preserve jobs, and reduced criteria pollutants calculated on an output-based emissions basis. Specific objectives performed by the NW CEAC fall within the following five broad promotion and support categories: 1) Center management and planning including database support; 2) Education and Outreach including plan development, website, target market workshops, and education/outreach materials development 3) Identification and provision of screening assessments & feasibility studies as funded by the facility or occasionally further support of Potential High Impact Projects; 4) Project implementation assistance/trouble shooting; and 5) Development of a supportive clean energy policy and initiative/financing framework.

  12. The NOXSO clean coal project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, J.B.; Woods, M.C.; Friedrich, J.J.; Browning, J.P. [NOXSO Corp., Bethel Park, PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The NOXSO Clean Coal Project will consist of designing, constructing, and operating a commercial-scale flue-gas cleanup system utilizing the NOXSO Process. The process is a waste-free, dry, post-combustion flue-gas treatment technology which uses a regenerable sorbent to simultaneously adsorb sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) from flue gas from coal-fired boilers. The NOXSO plant will be constructed at Alcoa Generating Corporation`s (AGC) Warrick Power Plant near Evansville, Indiana and will treat all the flue gas from the 150-MW Unit 2 boiler. The NOXSO plant is being designed to remove 98% of the SO{sub 2} and 75% of the NO{sub x} when the boiler is fired with 3.4 weight percent sulfur, southern-Indiana coal. The NOXSO plant by-product will be elemental sulfur. The elemental sulfur will be shipped to Olin Corporation`s Charleston, Tennessee facility for additional processing. As part of the project, a liquid SO{sub 2} plant has been constructed at this facility to convert the sulfur into liquid SO{sub 2}. The project utilizes a unique burn-in-oxygen process in which the elemental sulfur is oxidized to SO{sub 2} in a stream of compressed oxygen. The SO{sub 2} vapor will then be cooled and condensed. The burn-in-oxygen process is simpler and more environmentally friendly than conventional technologies. The liquid SO{sub 2} plant produces 99.99% pure SO{sub 2} for use at Olin`s facilities. The $82.8 million project is co-funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under Round III of the Clean Coal Technology program. The DOE manages the project through the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC).

  13. Clean Elements in Abelian Rings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Angelina Y M Chin

    2009-04-01

    Let be a ring with identity. An element in is said to be clean if it is the sum of a unit and an idempotent. is said to be clean if all of its elements are clean. If every idempotent in is central, then is said to be abelian. In this paper we obtain some conditions equivalent to being clean in an abelian ring.

  14. Economic incentives to wind systems commercialization. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lotker, M.; Shaw, Jr, R. W.; Adolfson, W. F.; Bernardi, R. P.; Davidoff, P. H.; Eckhart, M. T.; Gunwaldsen, D. S.; Mettam, P. J.; Narayanan, P.; Sillin, J. O.

    1978-08-01

    This assessment of Economic Incentives to Wind Systems Commercialization is an analysis of the quantitative and qualitative impacts of a variety of Government funded economic incentives on Wind Energy Conversion Systems (WECS). The purpose of this study is to achieve better understanding of the relationship between implementation of specific economic incentives for WECS, and the factors surrounding WECS commercial introduction.

  15. 46 CFR 393.5 - Incentives, Impediments and Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incentives, Impediments and Solutions. 393.5 Section 393... AMERICA'S MARINE HIGHWAY PROGRAM § 393.5 Incentives, Impediments and Solutions. (a) Summary. The purpose of this section is to identify short term incentives and solutions to impediments in order...

  16. 26 CFR 1.422-2 - Incentive stock options defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... option defined—(1) In general. The term incentive stock option means an option that meets the requirements of paragraph (a)(2) of this section on the date of grant. An incentive stock option is also subject to the $100,000 limitation described in § 1.422-4. An incentive stock option may contain a...

  17. 12 CFR 2.4 - Bonus and incentive plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bonus and incentive plans. 2.4 Section 2.4... § 2.4 Bonus and incentive plans. A bank employee or officer may participate in a bonus or incentive... do not exceed the greater of: (a) Five percent of the recipient's annual salary; or (b) Five...

  18. Coupons for Success: A Marketing Incentive in Academic Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potacco, Donna R.; Chen, Peter; Desroches, Danielle; Chisholm, Daniel R.; De Young, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    How does a Coupon Incentive Program motivate students to seek academic support in high-risk courses? Results from this study demonstrated that the Coupon Incentive Program was effective in motivating voluntary student attendance and improving student outcomes. Recommendations related to implementation of the Coupon Incentive Program are discussed.…

  19. The Impact of Incentives and Requirements on Group Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    INCENTIVES AND REQUIREMENTS ON GROUP COLLABORATION by Sheryl Jardine September 2010 Thesis Co-Advisors: Susan Hocevar Gail Thomas THIS PAGE...Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Impact of Incentives and Requirements on Group Collaboration 6. AUTHOR(S) Sheryl Jardine 5. FUNDING NUMBERS...OF INCENTIVES AND REQUIREMENTS ON GROUP COLLABORATION Sheryl Jardine Mitigation & Recovery Section Manager, Washington State Emergency

  20. 28 CFR 91.4 - Truth in Sentencing Incentive Grants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Truth in Sentencing Incentive Grants. 91... FACILITIES General § 91.4 Truth in Sentencing Incentive Grants. (a) Half of the total amount of funds... available for Truth in Sentencing Incentive Grants. (b) Eligibility. To be eligible to receive such a...

  1. Pressurised fluidised bed combustion: an alternative clean coal technology. La combustion en lecho fluido a presion, una alternativa de uso limpio del carbon en desarollo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bencomo Perez-Zamora, V.; Menendez Perez, J.A.E. (ENDESA, Madrid (Spain))

    1988-11-01

    The primary aim of thistechnology is to reduce emissions of sulphur and nitrous oxides. Pilot plant tests have achieved a sulphur fixing rate of over 95%. Pressurised fluidised bed combustion also has advantages with regard to the emission of contaminants. Halogens, fluorine and chlorine, which in conventional combustion methods are released in the gases, to a large degree remain in the ash as do trace elements, such as arsenic, which usually vapourise at high temperatures in pulverised coal combustors. This technology also has a high output of between 38 and 40% net according to the type of coal used. 10 figs., 10 tabs.

  2. Financial incentives: Possible options for sustainable rangeland management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louhaichi, Mounir; Yigezu, Yigezu A; Werner, Jutta; Dashtseren, Lojoo; El-Shater, Tamer; Ahmed, Mohamed

    2016-09-15

    Large-scale mismanagement of natural resources emanating from lack of appropriate policies and regulatory framework is arguably one of the reasons that led to resource degradation and poor livelihoods in many countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. Sustainable rangeland management practices (SRMPs) are considered to be a solution to feed shortages and rangeland degradation. However, the scope for SRMP adoption, has been a subject of debate. Using a case study from Syria and the application of the Minimum Data Analysis method (TOA-MD), this paper provides empirical evidence for ensuring wider adoption of SRMP. The paper argues that the introduction of financial incentives in the form of payments for agricultural-environmental services can increase the economic viability and enhance the adoption of SRMPs and is a better alternative to the unsustainable state subsidies for fodder purchases and barley cultivation on rangelands. Model results indicate that further investment in reasearch toward generating low cost technologies and tailored governance strategies including a financial incentive system would lead to better management of rangelands and improve livelihoods in the Syrian Badia. These findings are valuable for policy makers, donors as well as development and extension practitioners in the MENA region as they can better inform future courses of actions.

  3. Hydrogen utilization international clean energy system (WE-NET). Subtask 8. Development of hydrogen combustion turbines (development of combustion control technology); Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system (WE-NET). Subtask 8. Suiso nensho turbine no kaihatsu nensho seigyo gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The paper described the fiscal 1996 developmental results of hydrogen burning turbine combustion technology in the hydrogen utilization international clean energy system (WE-NET) project. A test was conducted on an annular type combustor where oxygen is mixed with steam (inert gas) at burner and fired with hydrogen. Appropriate flame shape and cooling/dilution vapor distribution were attempted, and various data on combustion were measured for improvement. Mixture and flame holding were improved by developing a can type combustor (1) where oxygen is diluted with steam after firing oxygen and hydrogen around burner and by strengthening circulation in the combustor. Improvement such as appropriate steam distribution, etc. is needed. A can type combustor (2) was tested in which the premixed oxygen and hydrogen is supplied from scoop and fired with hydrogen. By supplying part of oxygen from the primary scoop, the residual hydrogen and oxygen concentration around the stoichiometric ratio can be reduced. Concentration of the residual oxygen can be measured by the absorption light method, but it is difficult to adopt the non-contact measuring method to hydrogen. An outlook for the gas temperature measuring method was obtained. 12 refs., 121 figs., 27 tabs.

  4. Application of social reputation-based incentive mechanisms in P2P technology-based personal digital library%P2P技术下的基于社会信誉度的个人数字图书馆激励机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红伟; 陈玲; 田原

    2014-01-01

    The social reputation-based incentive mechanisms in preventing the free riding behaviors were put for-ward according to the analysis of personal digital library and P2P technology. Since the reputation value of personal digital library was calculated according to the maximum flow algorithm, personal digital library must increase its reputation value by sharing the resources when it is going to obtain the necessary resources it wants.%在分析P2 P技术个人数字图书馆及的基础上,提出了可以抑制“搭便车”行为的基于社会信誉度的激励机制。由于该机制是利用最大流方法计算个人数字图书馆的信誉值,因此个人数字图书馆要想获得自己所需的资源就必须通过共享资源来提高自己的信誉值。

  5. Your First Stop for Clean Energy Policy Support (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-06-01

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center, an initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial and UN-Energy, helps governments design and adopt policies and programs that support the deployment of transformational low-carbon technologies. The Solutions Center serves as a first-stop clearinghouse of clean energy policy reports, data, and tools and provides expert assistance and peer-to-peer learning forums. This factsheet highlights key Solutions Center offerings, including 'ask an expert' assistance on clean energy policy matters, training and peer learning, and technical resources for policy makers worldwide.

  6. Megasonic cleaning strategy for sub-10nm photomasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Jyh-Wei; Samayoa, Martin; Dress, Peter; Dietze, Uwe; Ma, Ai-Jay; Lin, Chia-Shih; Lai, Rick; Chang, Peter; Tuo, Laurent

    2016-10-01

    One of the main challenges in photomask cleaning is balancing particle removal efficiency (PRE) with pattern damage control. To overcome this challenge, a high frequency megasonic cleaning strategy is implemented. Apart from megasonic frequency and power, photomask surface conditioning also influences cleaning performance. With improved wettability, cleanliness is enhanced while pattern damage risk is simultaneously reduced. Therefore, a particle removal process based on higher megasonic frequencies, combined with proper surface pre-treatment, provides improved cleanliness without the unintended side effects of pattern damage, thus supporting the extension of megasonic cleaning technology into 10nm half pitch (hp) device node and beyond.

  7. Minimization of the negative influence on the biosphere in heavy oil extraction and ecologically clean technology for the injection of the steam with supercritical parameters in oil strata on the basis of new ecologically clean tubing pipes with heat-resistant coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komkov, M. A.; Moiseev, V. A.; Tarasov, V. A.; Timofeev, M. P.

    2015-12-01

    Some ecological problems related to heavy-oil extraction and ways for minimizing the negative impacts of this process on the biosphere are discussed. The ecological hazard of, for example, frequently used multistage hydraulic fracturing of formation is noted and the advantages and perspectives of superheated steam injection are considered. Steam generators of a new type and ecologically clean and costeffective insulating for tubing pipes (TPs) are necessary to develop the superheated steam injection method. The article is devoted to solving one of the most important and urgent tasks, i.e., the development and usage of lightweight, nonflammable, environmentally safe, and cost-effective insulating materials. It is shown that, for tubing shielding operating at temperatures up to 420°C, the most effective thermal insulation is a highly porous material based on basalt fiber. The process of filtration deposition of short basalt fibers with a bunch of alumina thermal insulation tubing pipe coatings in the form of cylinders and cylindrical shells from liquid pulp is substantiated. Based on the thermophysical characteristics of basalt fibers and on the technological features of manufacturing highly porous coating insulation, the thickness of a tubing pipe is determined. During the prolonged pumping of the air at an operating temperature of 400°C in the model sample of tubing pipes with insulation and a protective layer, we find that the surface temperature of the thermal barrier coating does not exceed 60°C. Introducing the described technology will considerably reduce the negative impact of heavy-oil extraction on the biosphere.

  8. ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING: A NEW PROCESS FOR CHEMICALLY CLEANING SAVANNAH RIVER WASTE TANKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketusky, E; Neil Davis, N; Renee Spires, R

    2008-01-17

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has 49 high level waste (HLW) tanks that must be emptied, cleaned, and closed as required by the Federal Facilities Agreement. The current method of chemical cleaning uses several hundred thousand gallons per tank of 8 weight percent (wt%) oxalic acid to partially dissolve and suspend residual waste and corrosion products such that the waste can be pumped out of the tank. This adds a significant quantity of sodium oxalate to the tanks and, if multiple tanks are cleaned, renders the waste incompatible with the downstream processing. Tank space is also insufficient to store this stream given the large number of tanks to be cleaned. Therefore, a search for a new cleaning process was initiated utilizing the TRIZ literature search approach, and Chemical Oxidation Reduction Decontamination--Ultraviolet (CORD-UV), a mature technology currently used for decontamination and cleaning of commercial nuclear reactor primary cooling water loops, was identified. CORD-UV utilizes oxalic acid for sludge dissolution, but then decomposes the oxalic acid to carbon dioxide and water by UV treatment outside the system being treated. This allows reprecipitation and subsequent deposition of the sludge into a selected container without adding significant volume to that container, and without adding any new chemicals that would impact downstream treatment processes. Bench top and demonstration loop measurements on SRS tank sludge stimulant demonstrated the feasibility of applying CORD-UV for enhanced chemical cleaning of SRS HLW tanks.

  9. Nonprice incentives and energy conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensio, Omar I; Delmas, Magali A

    2015-02-10

    In the electricity sector, energy conservation through technological and behavioral change is estimated to have a savings potential of 123 million metric tons of carbon per year, which represents 20% of US household direct emissions in the United States. In this article, we investigate the effectiveness of nonprice information strategies to motivate conservation behavior. We introduce environment and health-based messaging as a behavioral strategy to reduce energy use in the home and promote energy conservation. In a randomized controlled trial with real-time appliance-level energy metering, we find that environment and health-based information strategies, which communicate the environmental and public health externalities of electricity production, such as pounds of pollutants, childhood asthma, and cancer, outperform monetary savings information to drive behavioral change in the home. Environment and health-based information treatments motivated 8% energy savings versus control and were particularly effective on families with children, who achieved up to 19% energy savings. Our results are based on a panel of 3.4 million hourly appliance-level kilowatt-hour observations for 118 residences over 8 mo. We discuss the relative impacts of both cost-savings information and environmental health messaging strategies with residential consumers.

  10. Layoffs as part of an optimal incentive mix:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders; Takáts, Elöd

    Firms offer highly complex contracts to their employees. These contracts contain a mix of incentives, such as fixed wages, bonus payments, promotion options, and layoff threats. In general, economists understand how incentives motivate employees but not why a particular mix should be used....... In this paper we present a model in which the observed incentive mix is an optimal contract. In particular, we show that it can be optimal for firms to combine cost-efficient incentives such as promotions and bonuses with layoffs. The intuition is that layoffs play a dual role. First, they create incentives...

  11. Get Current: Switch on Clean Energy Activity Book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-06-01

    Switching on clean energy technologies means strengthening the economy while protecting the environment. This activity book for all ages promotes energy awareness, with facts on different types of energy and a variety of puzzles in an energy theme.

  12. Proceedings of the fifteenth DOE nuclear air cleaning conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    First, M.W. (ed.)

    1979-02-01

    Papers presented are grouped under the following topics: noble gas separation, damage control, aerosols, test methods, new air cleaning technology from Europe, open-end, and filtration. A separate abstract was prepared for each paper.

  13. A computational substrate for incentive salience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Samuel M; Daw, Nathaniel D; Montague, P Read

    2003-08-01

    Theories of dopamine function are at a crossroads. Computational models derived from single-unit recordings capture changes in dopaminergic neuron firing rate as a prediction error signal. These models employ the prediction error signal in two roles: learning to predict future rewarding events and biasing action choice. Conversely, pharmacological inhibition or lesion of dopaminergic neuron function diminishes the ability of an animal to motivate behaviors directed at acquiring rewards. These lesion experiments have raised the possibility that dopamine release encodes a measure of the incentive value of a contemplated behavioral act. The most complete psychological idea that captures this notion frames the dopamine signal as carrying 'incentive salience'. On the surface, these two competing accounts of dopamine function seem incommensurate. To the contrary, we demonstrate that both of these functions can be captured in a single computational model of the involvement of dopamine in reward prediction for the purpose of reward seeking.

  14. Incentives for better performance in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abduljawad, Asaad; Al-Assaf, Assaf F

    2011-05-01

    Incentives for better performance in health care have several modes and methods. They are designed to motivate and encourage people to perform well and improve their outcomes. They may include monetary or non-monetary incentives and may be applied to consumers, individual providers or institutions. One such model is the Pay-for-Performance system. In this system, beneficiaries are compared with one another based on a set of performance indicators and those that achieve a high level of performance are rewarded financially. This system is meant to recognise and primarily to reward high performers. Its goal is to encourage beneficiaries to strive for better performance. This system has been applied in several countries and for several recipients and settings. Early indications show that this system has had mixed effects on performance.

  15. Job assignments, intrinsic motivation and explicit incentives

    OpenAIRE

    Nafziger, Julia

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers the interplay of job assignments with the intrinsic and extrinsic motivation of an agent. Job assignments influence the self confidence of the agent, and thereby his intrinsic motivation. Monetary reward allow the principal to complement intrinsic motivation with extrinsic incentives. The main result is that the principal chooses an inefficient job assignment rule to enhance the agent's intrinsic motivation even though she can motivate him with monetary rewards. This show...

  16. Evaluating incentive mechanisms for conserving habitat

    OpenAIRE

    Parkhurst, Gregory M.; Jason F. Shogren

    2005-01-01

    Private lands have an important role in the success of the Endangered Species Act (ESA). The current command-andcontrol approach to protecting species on private land has resulted in disincentives to the landowner, which have decreased the ability of the ESA to protect many of our endangered and threatened species. Herein we define and evaluate, from an economic perspective, eight incentive mechanisms, including the status quo, for protecting species on private land. We highlight the strength...

  17. Regulatory Risk under Optimal Incentive Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Strausz, Roland

    2009-01-01

    The paper provides a tractable, analytical framework to study regulatory risk under optimal incentive regulation. Regulatory risk is captured by uncertainty about the policy variables in the regulator’s objective function: weights attached to profits and costs of public funds. Results are as follows: 1) The regulator’s reaction to regulatory risk depends on the curvature of the aggregate demand function. 2) It yields a positive information rent effect exactly when demand is convex. 3) Firms b...

  18. WORK INCENTIVES IN AN AGE OF AUTOMATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LEVENSTEIN, AARON

    HISTORICAL AND PHILOSOPHICAL PREMISES ABOUT THE MEANING OF WORK AND THE ROLE OF WORK IN MAN'S LIFE ARE EXPLORED. ATTITUDES TOWARD WORK CHANGE AS INCENTIVES CHANGED. WORK HAD MEANING WHEN IT MEANT SURVIVAL OR WAS CONNECTED TO A FEAR OF GOD. FREUD SAW WORK AS A FORCE WHICH BINDS MAN TO REALITY. OTHERS SEE IT AS A MEANS TO SELF-FULLFILLMENT, OR AS A…

  19. Economic Incentives and Global Fisheries Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Costello; John Lynham; Sarah E. Lester; Gaines, Steven D.

    2010-01-01

    Widespread global collapses of fisheries corroborate decades-old predictions by economists, made long before large-scale industrialization of the world's fisheries, that open access would have deleterious ecological and economic effects on fishery resources. Incentive-based alternatives (collectively called catch shares) have been shown to generate pecuniary benefits, but little empirical evidence exists for, or against, a link to global fisheries sustainability. We report and expand on an an...

  20. Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center (CEMAC) 2015 Research Highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodhouse, Michael; Mone, Christopher; Chung, Donald; Elgqvist, Emma; Das, Sujit; Mann, Margaret; Gossett, Scott

    2016-03-01

    CEMAC has conducted four major studies on the manufacturing of clean energy technologies. Three of these focused on the end product: solar photovoltaic modules, wind turbines, and automotive lithium-ion batteries. The fourth area focused on a key material for manufacturing clean energy technologies, carbon fiber. This booklet summarizes key findings of CEMAC work to date, describes CEMAC's research methodology, and describes work to come.